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Full text of "Bulletin - United States National Museum"

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 1 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bulletin 173 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 
OF THE DIVISION OF ENGINEERING 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BY 



FRANK A. TAYLOR 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1939 



For lale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price 50 cents 



ADVERTISEMENT 

Tlie scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings series, begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a 
medium for the publication of original papers, based on the collec- 
tions of the National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts 
in biology, anthropology, and geology, with descriptions of new forms 
and revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in pamphlet 
form, are distributed as published to libraries and scientific organi- 
zations and to specialists and others interested in the different sub- 
jects. The dates at which these separate papers are published are 
recorded in the table of contents of each of the volumes. 

Tlie series of Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 1875, 
contains separate publications comprising monographs of large 
zoological groups and other general systematic treatises (occasionally 
in several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, catalogs 
of type specimens and special collections, and other material of simi- 
lar nature. The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, but a 
quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which large plates 
were regarded as indispensable. In the Bulletin series appear vol- 
umes under the heading C ontrihutions from the United States Na- 
tional Eerharium, in octavo form, published by the National Museum 
since 1902, which contain papers relating to the botanical collections of 
the Museum. 

The present work forms No. 173 of the Bulletin series. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C December 12, 1938. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface vii 

Introduction 1 

Mechanical elements 2 

Animal power 4 

Power from the wind 7 

Water power 14 

The steam engine 24 

Rotary steam engines 55 

Steam-engine valves and valve gears 60 

Inventions of George H. Corliss 71 

Engine governors 80 

Condensers 86 

Engine indicators 89 

Miscellaneous steam-engine accessories 95 

Air and hydraulic engines 100 

Mechanical transmission of power 102 

Steam boilers 103 

Steam-boiler accessories and burners 119 

Boiler feed-water pumps and injectors 125 

Steam pumps 133 

Fire engines 139 

Miscellaneous pumps 142 

Internal-combustion engines 143 

Carburetors 165 

Internal-combustion engine accessories 173 

Caloric, or hot-air, engines 175 

Air-and-steam ("aerator") engines — 182 

Refrigerating machines 183 

Selected bibliography 186 

Index 191 

ni 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plates 



1. Scope of the collections of the Division of Engineering Frontispiece 

Facing page 

2. Mechanical elements 4 

(1) Roller, lever, and inclined plane. 

(2) Chinese windlass. 

(3) Differential chain hoist. 

3. Treadmills 5 

(1) Human treadmill, c. 1588. 

(2) Dog-powered treadmill, 1878. 

4. Windmills 8 

(1) Smock windmill, e, 1826. 

(2) Post windmill, c. 1826. 

(3) Grist windmills on Long Island, c. 1874. 

6. Windmills 9 

(1) Monitor windmill, 1881. 

(2) Moses G. Farmer wind-electric generator, 1880. 

6. Water wheels 16 

(1) Vertical water mill, c. 1588. 

(2) Burden Iron Co.'s water wheel, 1851. 

7. Wooden water-mill gearing, c. 1870 17 

(1) Spur gears. 

(2) Pinwheels. 

8. Pelton water-wheel buckets, 1901-1912 22 

9. Conowingo hydroelectric generating station, 1928 23 

10. Early steam engines 28 

(1) Heron's turbine, c. 150 A. D. 

(2) Watt pumping engine, "Old Bess," 1777. 

11. Newcomen pumping engine, c. 1717 29 

12. Early steam engines in America 40 

(1) Half cylinder of the first steam engine in America, 1755. 

(2) John Stevens steamboat engine, 1804. 

13. Steam engines, 1864-1875 41 

(1) Horizontal steam engine, 1864. 

(2) Thompson and Hunt steam engine, c. 1875. 

14. Small multicylindcr steam engines 54 

(1) First Stanley steam automobile engine, 1897. 

(2) Westinghouse Junior automatic engine, c. 1900. 

15. Three-stage steam turbine, 1926-1930 55 

16. Adjustable cut-off valve gears 66 

(1) Sickels drop cut-off valve gear, 1841. 

(2) Mien adjustable cut-off valve gear, 1841. 

17. Adjustable cut-off valve gears 67 

(1) Francis B. Stevens cut-ofT, 1861. 

(2) Corliss drop cut-off valve gear, 1849. 

IV 



ILLUSTRATIONS V 

Facing page 

18. Corliss beam engines 78 

(1) Corliss compound beam pumping engine, 1870. 

(2) Corliss Centennial steam engine, 1876. 

19. Steam-engine governors 79 

(1) Porter weighted engine governor, 1858. 

(2) Thompson and Hunt shaft governor, 1878. 

20. Engine indicators 94 

(1) McNaught, c. 1835-1842. 

(2) Richards, c. 1867. 

(3) Crosby, 1879. 

(4) Indicator with continuous card attachment, 1930. 

21. Engine accessories 95 

(1) Multiple hydrostatic lubricator. 

(2) Hewitt piston-rod packing. 

22. Early steam boilers 110 

(1) Wooden steam boiler, 1801-1815. 

(2) Stevens water-tube boiler, 1803-1825. 

23. National water-tube boiler, 1885 111 

24. Sectional boilers 116 

(1) Babcock and Wilcox steam generator, 1867. 

(2) Sinuous boiler headers, 1867-1926. 

25. Double-deck inclined-tube boiler, 1929 117 

26. Boiler accessories 124 

(1) Stevens safety valve, 1825. 

(2) Mechanical oil burner, 1929. 

27. Feed-water injectors 125 

(1) Giffard injector, 1860. 

(2) Exhaust feed- water heater injector, 1925. 

28. Steam pumps 134 

(1) Worthington direct-acting steam pump, 1855. 

(2) Cameron pump valves, 1874. 

29. Steam pumps 135 

(1) Knowles steam pum.p, 1879. 

(2) Frost steam-pump valve, 1890. 

30. Internal-combustion engines 148 

(1) Perry gas or vapor engine, 1844. 

(2) Drake gas engine, 1855. 

31. Internal-combustion engines 149 

(1) Otto and Langen gas engine, 1867. 

(2) Bray ton oil engine, 1874. 

32. Internal-combustion engines 154 

(1) Otto 4-stroke cycle engine, 1877. 

(2) Otto gas engine, 1882. 

33. Internal-combustion engines 155 

(1) Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine, 1893-1895. 

(2) Manly radial engine, 1901. 

34. Carburetors 174 

(1) Duryea carburetor, 1893. 

(2) Dyke float-feed carburetor, 1900. 

(3) Carburetor of the Manly engine, 1901. 



YI BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUIVI 

Facing page 

35. Hot-air engines 175 

(1) Ericsson hot-air engine, 1855. 

(2) Rider hot-air engine, 1871. 

36. Ericsson hot-air pumping engine, 1906 182 

37. Refrigerating machines 183 

(1) Audiffren refrigerating machine,1913. 

(2) Frost-Maker domestic refrigerating unit, c. 1914. 



PREFACE 

Objects illustrating the development of the mechanical arts and 
sciences have been collected and preserved by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution from the earliest period of its existence. For years this activ- 
ity was continued incidentally to the work of the ethnological sec- 
tions of the Institution in the United States National Museum. In 
1884, however, acquisitions from the Centennial Exposition of 1876 
had increased the collections so greatly, particularly in the field 
of transportation, that a section of transportation was created in 
the Museum. This section has in time grown in scope and size into 
the present Department of Engineering and Industries and includes 
collections and exhibits in nearly every branch of engineering and 
industry. 

The Department of Engineering and Industries is now, in effect, the 
national museum of engineering and industry of the United States, 
and in size, scope, and merit of collections and in numbers of visitors 
to its exhibits it compares favorably with the national museums of 
science and industry abroad. This comparison could readily be made 
more favorable were it not for the fact that the collections at present 
are crowded in antiquated and inadequate buildings that prevent 
exhibition of the material in the most appealing and instructive 
manner. It is anticipated that in due time modern housing for these 
important collections will be provided. 

The division of engineering, one of the four divisions of the De- 
partment, collects, preserves, and exhibits material illustrative of the 
progress in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, includ- 
ing such diversified subjects as transportation, aeronautics, mining, 
communications, tools and crafts, timekeeping, office machines, and 
many others. The collections described in this catalog, compiled by 
Frank A. Taylor, curator of engineering in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, are in the group roughly designated as prime movers 
or power-producing devices and their accessories and auxiliaries. 
It includes such macliines as windmills, water wheels, steam, oil, and 
gas engines, and steam boilers, and it will serve as a typical example 
of what has been done in recording, by relics, the progress made in a 
fundamentally important engineering field in America. 

It is intended that this catalog will prove a useful guide to the 
collections, particularly for those who cannot visit the Museum. 
At the same time, it will illustrate the deficiencies of the collections 
and, it is hoped, enlist the aid of all who can offer information, sug- 

vn 



yill PREFACE 

gestions, or material for expansion and improvement. It is also 
anticipated that individuals, trade associations, and professional 
groujjs who are in a position to assist will be encouraged to con- 
sider seriously what aid or influence they might lend to the further 
development of an adequate national museum of engineering and 
industry for the United States, under the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

C. W. MriMAN, Head Curator^ 
Department of Engineering and Industries. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 
OF THE DIVISION OF ENGINEERING, UNITED 
STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



By Frank A. Taylor 



INTRODUCTION 

Throughout history the changing pattern of society has been 
determined to a large degree by the progress made in exploiting the 
natural energy resources of the world and the manner in which the 
fruits of this energy have been distributed. When the only harness- 
able energy source was the muscular effort of men, the sole pools of 
power were in groups of men, and the leaders who sought to build 
wealth, culture, and government beyond the immediate primitive 
needs of the individual had to command the obedience of slaves. 
Wlien engines and machines were developed to convert the potential 
energy of beasts, wind, water, and fuels into useful work, the individ- 
ual was able to produce more with their help than his immediate 
needs required ; to pay his part of the costs of government, research, 
and art; and with his surplus to purchase freedom from incessant 
work or struggle. More recently the effort of the individual has 
become such a small part of the total energy applied to production 
that the questions of how little effort a man should expend and how 
much he should receive in return for his work have produced an 
unrest that today is changing nations and threatening the very 
society that power has so largely built. 

A few bare relics of the progress of power devices in a museum 
cannot display their effects upon people or answer the sociological 
questions their use has produced. They do, however, indicate the 
slow and systematic work of scientists, engineers, and mechanics to 
produce the most for the least expenditure of human effort and also 
suggest that solutions for the question of the proper distribution of 
returns have been found in the past, often by virtue of further de- 
velopments within the very field. They should suggest, too, that 
improvement and advance in engineering methods and devices are 
the natural and inevitable course and that an increasingly higher 
standard of living is both the permanent result and the solution of 
increasing producing power, in spite of temporary difficulties of 
adjustment. 



2 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The material in the National Museum that illustrates the develop- 
ment of mechanical power-producing devices is described in the 
catalog that follows. The arrangement of the description is roughly 
chronological by groups as indicated in the table of contents. The 
brief and general summary of the development preceding each group 
of descriptions is condensed and fabricated principally from the 
published works listed in the bibliography. 

MECHANICAL ELEMENTS 

Engineering methods and equipment began with the first uses of 
the so-called mechanical powers. These are the devices that, through 
the interrelation of force, distance, and time, accomplish the more 
convenient or the more effective application of effort. Usually in- 
cluded in the term are the lever, the inclined plane, the roller, the 
pulley, the wheel and axle, and the screw. Originally employed to 
apply the muscular effort of animals and men, these simple devices 
are today the elements of the complex combinations or machines that 
harness resources of natural energy vastly greater than the combined 
muscular energy of all the men and animals that have lived. 

It would be of interest to point to the invention of each of these 
and trace its development to the present, but this is not possible. It 
has been observed that a young wild orang will use a stick as a lever 
to move stones, and that all these devices, including a semblance 
of the screw, were known independently to one or another of the 
primitive races around the world. It is supposed therefore that the 
mechanical powers were used by man earlier than the li^nits of our 
historical or archeological knowledge. 

The lever, the roller, and the inclined plane occur in nature and 
were probably the first mechanical powers used by man. The rowing 
oar, which is a simple application of the lever, is shown in Egyptian 
drawings of 3000 B. C; Aristotle (B. C. 384-322) discussed the laws 
of levers; Archytas (fl. 400 B. C.) wrote of the screw and pulley; 
and Archimedes (B. C. 287?-212) is said to have used a screw as a 
jack or as a pulling device to launch a ship for Herot. 

Practically all manual labor is still applied through the medium 
of simple mechanical powers, and the total manual or muscular 
energy expended through them is greater today than ever before. 
Spoons, faucet levers, tool handles, gear shift levers, steering wheels, 
typewriter keys, golf clubs, doors, and controller handles are aU 
common examples of simple mechanical powers. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 3 

MODELS OF MECHANICAL POWERS 

U.S.N.M. nos. 307593-307599; 307913-307919; 307942-307946; 308030-308043; 
30S121-308122 ; 308227-308232; 308324-308327, all inclusive; 45 models; 
made in the Museum ; not illustrated. 

These models are exhibited to illustrate the mechanical powers and 
their simpler combinations in man-powered machines. 

There are about 45 models illustrating the various orders of levers, 
including straight, bent, and rotary levers, and their applications 
to such simple machines as cranks and windlasses ; the inclined plane 
and its application to ramps, wedges, screws, and jacks; and rollers 
in the forms of axles, load rollers, pulley blocks, and wheels. 

ROLLER, LEVER, AND INCLINED PLANE 
Plate 2, Figueb 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 181251; model; made in the Museum; photograph no. 39008. 

This model shows a group of men moving a block of stone along 
a ramp with the aid of rollers and a crowbar. It illustrates a present 
every-day use of three mechanical powers in their simplest forms. 

CHINESE WINDLASS 
Plate 2, Figube 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 307599 ; model ; made in the Museum ; photograph no. 24926C. 

This elementary form of the differential hoist (see below) is said 
to have been in use in China for many centuries. 

The windlass drum is made of two sections of different diameters, 
which turn together as one piece. The rope is so attached that it 
winds upon one section of the drum as it unwinds from the other, the 
net lifting or lowering effect being the difference between the length 
of rope wound upon the drum and that unwound. By making the 
sections nearly alike in diameter a large mechanical advantage is 
secured without making the drum too slender for strength or the 
crank too long for convenience. 

HAND HOISTS, 1928 

Plate 2, Fiqtjbe 3 

U.S.N.M. nos. 309507-309510 ; originals ; gift of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing 
Co. ; photograph no. 6232A. 

Three complete hoists and a sectioned operating one are exhibited 
in the Museum to illustrate the principles of the modem differential 
pulley block, the screw-geared block, and the planetary spur-gear 
hoist. 



4 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The diflferential hoist is a modern form of the old Chinese windlass 
(see above). It was first suggested in this form by Thomas A. 
Weston about 1858. It is the least efficient of the three hand hoists 
exhibited, but with it one man pulling 77 pounds can lift 810 pounds 
through 19 inches in one-half minute. 

With the screw-geared block, which has a mechanical efficiency of 
about 40 percent, one man pulling 77 pounds lifts 1,600 pounds 12.8 
inches in one-half minute. 

The ball-bearing spur-gear block is the most efficient of the three 
(80-85 percent). With it one man pulling 77 pounds lifts 1 ton 26 
inches in one-half minute. 

ADDITIONAL MODELS IN THE COLLECTION, NOT DESCRIBED 

Apparatus for raising aud lowering weights (chain hoist), Patent Office model, 
Patent no. 99?31, January 25, 1870, issued to J. Piclvering. U.S.N.M. no. 308807. 

Apparatus for raising and lowering weights (chain hoist). Patent Office model, 
Patent no. 119527, October 3, 1871, issued to Thomas Moore. U.S.N.M. no. 308801. 

Chain hoist. Patent Office model, not identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308800. 

Speed governor and friction brake (chain windlass), Patent Office model, 
Patent no. 212339, February 18, 1879, issued to T. A. Weston. U.S.N.M. no. 
308830. 

Friction bralce and clutch for hoisting drum, Patent Office model, Patent no. 
212338, February 18, 1879, T. A. Weston. U.S.N.M. no. 308829. 

Chain hoist, Patent Office model, not identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308851. 

Ship steam windlass, models presented by the American Ship Windlass Co. 
U.S.N.M. no. 160186. 

Hand windlass, 1876, invented and presented by T. S. Allen. U.S.N.M. no. 
160185. 

Hand windlass, 1880, invented and presented by T. S. Allen. U.S.N.M. no. 
160324. 

Capstan, Patent Office model, not identified, U.S.N.M. no. 308539. 

"Providence" steam windlass and capstan, 1886, gift of American Ship Wind- 
lass Co. U.S.N.M. no. 57053. 

Hoisting pulley and worm gear apparatus (chain hoist), Patent Office model, 
Patent no. 218223, issued to A. Box, August 5, 1879. Transfer from the United 
States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 311179. 

Converting reciprocating motion to rotary motion, Patent Office model, not 
identified. Transfer from the United States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 311180. 

Pawl and ratchet, Patent Office model. Patent no. 464838, issued to Thomas 
Johnson, December 8, 1891. Transfer from the United States Patent Office. 
U.S.N.M. no. 308844. 

ANIMAL POWER 

Dogs and horses were domesticated and used for transport and 
burden as long ago as the New Stone Age, 12,500 to 6,000 years before 
Christ, and other animals as they came under man's dominion were 
trained to pull and carry. It is not until about 200 B. C, however, 
that any mention is made of animals used for power jourposes. 
Though the ancients knew all the elements of later-day machines 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 2 





MECHANICAL ELEMENTS. 



1. Roller, lever, and inclined plane (model; U.S.N.AI. no. 1812:>1). Sec p. 
2. Chinese windlass (model; U.S.N.M. no. 307599). See p. 3. 
3. Differential chain hoist (U.S.N.M. no. 309509). See p. 4. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 3 




CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 5 

and had many simple machine combinations, these were all designed 
to be operated by human muscular power, applied in most instances 
with a reciprocating motion. Before it was possible to apply the 
pulling effort of a beast to a machine it was necessary to develop 
a continuous motion as an essential feature of the machine. Water- 
raising wheels and rotary grain mills were the first devices to have 
this essential feature, and a rotary mill turned by asses, mentioned 
by Cato the Elder (232-149 B. C), is the earliest known application 
of animal power to a machine. It was not until the abolishment of 
slavery in the fourth century in Rome that cattle mills, which were 
not unlike the slave mills, were generally used, and the use of the 
geared animal mill, as it is known today, came after the development 
of the geared water mills and windmills some time between the iso- 
lated mention of one in 16 B. C. and their general use after 1200 A. D. 
"Throughout medieval times a horse mill was practically identical 
in construction Avith wind or water mills. The simple driving gear 
placed in the lower story of the building comprised an upward shaft 
revolved by the traction of one or more asses or horses harnessed 
to shafts: attached to the shaft and near the ceiling, a large hori- 
zontal toothed wheel actuated one or more spindle wheels connected 
with the stones, which were placed above" (Bennett and Elton, 
History of Coim Milling). 

A horse, walking around and turning a vertical shaft geared to a 
chain drum, was used as late as 1928 to raise boats on a fairly large 
marine railway at St. Michaels, Md., and the clay for the hand-made 
brick used in the restoration of the Washington Birthplace at Wake- 
field, Va., was tempered in a horse-powered pugmill erected there 
for the purpose in 1931, 

Treadmills operated by the feet of men date back to water-raising 
tread wheels of about the time of Christ, and they continue to be used 
as penal devices today. No mention is found of the use of animals 
on treadmills until a much later date. A donkey walking on the 
inside of a large wooden wheel, first built in 1588, was used to raise 
water from a well at Carlsbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight as 
late as 1919. Turnspit dogs running in wheels were early used to 
revolve roasting spits, while dog-driven butter churns are still used 
to some slight extent in this country. 

The unit of power that is most widely used to rate every source 
of power (waterfalls, windmills, and all engines included) is based 
on the effort of an animal. This unit, the horsepoioer, was de- 
termined by James Watt to be the equivalent of 33,000 foot-pounds 
of work performed per minute. One foot-pound is the work required 
to raise a weight of 1 pound through a vertical distance of 1 foot, or 
the work required to raise one-half pound 2 feet. Similarly 1 horse- 
power is the equivalent of 33,000 pounds raised a foot every minute, 



g BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

or 1 pound raised 33,000 feet every minute. The work of later in- 
vestigators (Poncelet, Morin, Rankine, and others) demonstrated 
tJiat the rate of 33,000 foot-pounds a minute can be maintained by a 
horse only under the most favorable conditions. The power of a 
horse operating a horse gin varies from 17,700 foot-pounds to 26,000 
foot-pounds a minute. 

JOHN STEVENS HORSE-POWERED FERRYBOAT, 1813 
U.S.N.M. no, 160402; model; made in the Museum; not illustrated. 

Col. John Stevens, of Hoboken, built a horse-powered ferryboat 
to establish a ferry service between Hoboken and New York, in the 
face of the monopoly on steam navigation that had been granted to 
Fulton and Livingston. Six horses, harnessed singly to six sweeps, 
walked in a circle, revolving a vertical shaft to which the sweeps 
were attached. Bevel gearing transmitted the motion of this shaft 
to a horizontal shaft upon which a single paddle wheel was mounted. 
The engine was "reversible" as the horses were turned around and 
made to walk in the opposite direction when the boat was backed 
away from its slip. 

Boats powered by horses were used until the Fulton-Livingston 
privilege was declared unconstitutional in February 1824. 

HUMAN TREADMILL 

U.S.N.M. no. 808352; model; made in the Museum; not illustrated. 

This model (1/40 size) illustrates the use of the horizontal circular 
platform treadmill. Men standing on the platform gripping handle 
bars, and moving their feet as if walking forward, would cause the 
platform to move back under them. The vertical post, turning 
with the platform, carries a horizontal cogwheel that meshes with a 
rundle wheel on the windlass shaft and causes the windlass drum to 
turn. Two human figures are shown on the treadmill platform. 
The windlass is erected over a mine shaft and is employed in raising 
buckets of ore. The model was suggested by an illustration in 
Agricola's De Re Metallica^ c. 1550. 

HORSEPOWER LOCOMOTIVE, THE "FLYING DUTCHMAN", 1830 
U.S.N.M. no. 181086; model; made in the Museum; not illustrated. 

In 1829 the South Carolina Kailroad Co. offered a premium of $500 
for tlie best locomotive operated by horsepower. This premium was 
awarded to C. E. Detmold, who invented one that worked by an 
endless-chain platform, or treadmill. 

When this horsepower locomotive was completed and tested upon 
the road in 1830 it carried 12 passengers at the rate of 12 miles an 
hour. It was propelled by one horse walking on the treadmill, which 
was connected by gearing to the car- wheel axles. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 7 

DOG-POWERED TREADMILL, 1878 

Plate 3, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309199 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; pliotograph no. 19978A. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to F. K. Traxler, April 23, 1878, no. 202679. 

The treadmill represented consists of an endless track of wooden 
cleats on a flexible belt, carried over two rollers held in a rigid frame. 
The frame pivots about the shaft of the upper roller so that the lower 
end of the frame may be raised or lowered to give any desired angle of 
inclination to the track. A power take-off shaft is geared to the 
shaft of the upper track roller. 

WARREN SPRING MOTOR, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308835; original patent model, transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to John Warren, of Detroit, Mich., April 20, 1880, no. 226813. 

The motor represented is of the class intended to operate light 
machinery such as a phonograph but differs from most of the class 
in that it employs a spiral spring instead of the usual coil spring. It 
converts the rectilinear motion of the spring into rotary motion and 
equalizes the varying tension of the spring. 

The free end of the spring carries a nut that engages in a spiral- 
grooved motor shaft, which revolves at the axis of the spring. A 
hand crank, worm, and worm wheel are used to compress the spring 
by turning the shaft in the reverse direction. The power is taken 
from a bevel gear on the shaft. A ball nut, which employs a ball to 
follow in the groove of the shaft, is used because an ordinary nut 
would not work in the groove of varying pitch. The varying pitch 
is used to compensate for the varying tension of the spring. 

ADDITIONAL MODELS IN THE COLLECTION, NOT DESCRIBED 

Motor by foot power (treadle), Patent Office model. Patent no. 197759, Decem- 
ber 4, 1877, issued to E. E. G. Bozerian. U.S.N.M. no. 308821. 

Hand and foot motor (treadle and levers). Patent Office model, Patent no. 
229739, July 6, 1880, issued to D. W. Mott. U.S.N.M. no. 309200. 

Animal power (treadmill), Patent Office model. Patent no. 266844, October 31, 
1882, issued to W. C. Knox. U.S.N.M. no. 309691. 

POWER FROM THE WIND 

It is now generally believed that boats wfre propelled by sails 
on the Nile as early as 6000 B. C, but the first use of the wind to drive 
machines and to do mechanical work came much later. Wind wheels^ 
such as prayer wheels upon which were inscribed prayers, deemed 



o BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

efficacious when the wheels were turned by the wind, were in use in 
Tibet and Mongolia in very early times, and Heron of Alexandria 
{Treatise on Pneumatics, c. 150 A. D.) described a light, wind-driven 
organ pump. That the wind mill originated in the East and was 
introduced into Europe by the Crusaders returning from the East 
is now generally accepted. This theory is supported to some extent 
by the fact that windmills were known in Persia in the tenth century 
and in England and France in the twelfth century. The earliest 
authenticated record of a windmill in the West is of one at Haberdon 
in England in 1191. Records following this show that within the 
next 50 years windmills were erected very generally in Europe. 

The details of construction of the first windmills are purely con- 
jectural. The first records are of mills that were complete in the 
essential elements of a horizontal shaft carrj-ing sails at the outer 
end, a downward or vertical shaft that carried the millstone at its 
lower end, and some crude gearing (at the upper end of the vertical 
shaft and the inner end of the horizontal shaft) to transmit the 
motion of the sail shaft to the vertical shaft. Though not 
shown in the earliest drawings, it is assumed that the first 
mills also had a means of raising or lowering the millstone 
to vary the grain size of the meal being ground. To these elements 
no improvements are known to have been added until the fifteenth 
century. A heavy beam pressed against the sail shaft was used as 
a brake in the first part of the sixteenth century, and by the end of 
the century the curved brake band of pliable wood applied to the 
rim of the driving wheel (suggested by da Vinci about 1500) was 
used. The improvement of setting the sail shaft at a slight angle 
to the horizontal was suggested about 1557 by Dardan, and the 
internal features of the mill were practically complete by the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

Externally the construction of the windmill has been determined 
by the necessity of housing the mill material equipment and operators 
and at the same time permitting the mill to be faced in the direction 
of the wind from any quarter. Some presume that the original wind- 
mill was built upon a boat in order that it might be turned about 
easily to meet the wind, but the earliest windmills alluded to were 
on land, and it is believed that the problem of facing the mill about 
was solved before the first was built. The most primitive mill con- 
sisted of a light boxlike house built upon a central post, which was 
supported by a timber tripod base that rested upon the ground and 
could be turned round, base and all, to face the wind. Later, in the 
fourteenth century, the central post was let into the ground and fixed, 
and the mill turned upon the post. Following this the turret-post 
mill was constructed in which the boxlike structure was erected upon 
a masonry tower, in which larger milling facilities could be housed 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 4 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 5 





Windmills. 



1. Monitor windmill, 1881 (model; U.S.X.M. no. 309687). See p. 11. 
2. Moses G. Farmer wind-electric generator, 1880 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 1819S5). 

See p. 1 V 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 9 

without adding to the bulk or weight of the portion that had to be 
faced about. The final development in this direction was the tower, 
or "smock", mill familiarly known as the Holland windmill, which 
was a Flemish invention of the early sixteenth century. In this the 
roof portion or cap carrying the sails and main shaft is the only part 
turned (see below). 

The earliest post mills were provided with a long sweep or beam 
by which the miller walking on the ground and pushing upon the 
beam could turn the mill about. This method was employed in turn- 
ing the movable parts of the turret and tower mills and was for 
many years the feature that limited the height to which mills 
could be built. In the tower mills balconies were provided around 
the tower so that it was not necessary to extend the beam to the 
ground, but the first real improvement was the "pulley-winder", con- 
sisting of a cogwheel fastened to the cap and meshed with a ring 
gear that ran around the upper rim of the tower. The cogwheel 
was turned by a pulley and endless rope that hung around the 
pulley and down outside the tower so that the miller pulling on the 
rope turned the cogwheel, causing it to travel in the gear around the 
tower, pulling the cap with it. The final improvement in this direc- 
tion was the automatic winder, which consists of a small set of sails 
placed at right angles to the main sails of the mill so that when the 
wind was directly into the main sails the small set was edgewise 
to the wind and at rest, but should the direction of the wind change 
it would cause the small set to revolve and turn a cogwheel that acted 
as in the pulley winder to bring the main sails into the wind. Auto- 
matic winders came into use early in the eighteenth century. 

None of the early windmills had means of governing the speed 
other than by turning the sails away from the wind or by applying 
the brake. Later the large sails Avere made up of swiveled slats 
connected to a bar as in Venetian blinds, so that the angle of the 
slats could be varied, opening or closing the surface of the sail to 
present more or less surface to the wind. They were also made up 
of small fabric elements wound on separate rollers so that the fabric 
might be rolled up to present less surface. These operated against 
the pull of springs that served to unroll the elements. These arrange- 
ments permitted the governing of the speed of the mill without turn- 
ing the heavy cap, and before the end of the eighteenth century they 
were being used in connection with centrifugal ball governors to 
efi'ect full automatic regulation of the mill. 

American types of whidmiU. — Many windmills of the Dutch, or 
tower, type have been erected in the United States, some at very early 
dates. The stone tower at Newport, R. I. (the Viking tower of tradi- 
tion), is believed to be the ruin of a "stone-built windmill" mentioned 

49970—39 2 



2Q BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the will of Governor Benedict Arnold (1677) and is said to have 
been preceded by a wooden one, of still earlier date, blown down in 
1675. Another of popular interest is the windmill erected at Orient, 
L. I., in 1760 by Amos Tabor for Noah Tuthill (restored 1810), which 
was removed to an amusement park on Glen Island about 1900. 
Others that were standing within the past few years were erected at 
Detroit, Mich., Lawrence, Kans., and East Hampton, L. I., N. Y. 

The type of windmill that has come into general use in the United 
States, however, has little resemblance to the European tower mill. 
In place of the few large sails of the Dutch mill, the American mill 
has a small compact wind wheel made up of many small slats or 
blades, and instead of the stone or shingled building that supported 
the machinery of the mill and sometimes housed the miller and his 
family, the American type of mill is supported on a skeleton tower 
of wood or steel framework, and the machinery driven by it, if 
housed at all, is usually protected by a small shed at the base of the 
tower. The wind wheel is mounted upon a pivot at the top of the 
tower and is faced into the wind by a simple rudderlike vane or 
sometimes merely by the pressure of the wind upon the back of the 
wheel itself. Governing devices maintain uniform speeds of the 
wheels and prevent injury from runaways by automatically turning 
the wheels away from the wind or in others by changing the pitch 
of the blades in the wheels. 

The earliest mills of this type had wheels with rigid wooden vanes 
and were without governing or safety devices. L. H. Wheeler, an 
Indian missionary, in Wisconsin, used solid wheel windmills to pump 
water and grind corn as early as 1841, and some time thereafter he 
perfected a means of automatically controlling their speed. His 
patent of 1867 (no. 68674) was the first of the solid wheel mills 
mounted upon a pivot and equipped with hinged tail vane and 
"weights that operated to change the position of the wheel in relation 
to the direction of the wind so that a constant speed was held in 
spite of varying winds or load, and the mill was automatically turned 
edgewise to the wind in dangerous squalls and gales. This type of 
governing and safety device has been used with modifications in the 
greatest number of windmills built in the United States (Eclipse, 
Monitor, and others) and is employed in connection with the steel- 
vane mills made today. 

In 1854 Daniel Halladay and John P. Burnham perfected the first 
form of a wind wheel in which control of the speed was obtained by 
varying the pitch of the vanes in the wheel (Halladay's patent, no. 
11629). Burnham (who is sometimes called "the father of the Amer- 
ican type of windmill") and Halladay manufactured and improved 
the windmill thereafter for many years. In 1883 at the laboratory 
of the Halladay Co., then located at Batavia, 111., Thomas O. Perry 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS H 

carried forward a series of experiments that led to the perfection of 
the solid wheel mill wdth curved steel blades. This type of wind 
wheel was not Perry's invention, but his design (the aerometer) was 
far in advance of all others, with an efficiency of 25 percent, about 
80 percent better than any prior windmill. Perry is said to have 
•done for the windmill what Poncelet did for the water wheel. 

Recent developments in windmill design have had to do principally 
with the application of aerodynamic principles to the design of wind- 
wheel vanes. The airplane-propeller type wind wheel is used in some 
of the direct-connected wind-electric sets, while the Kumme system 
employs a wind wheel of a few very large vanes or sails similar in 
design and construction to an airplane wing. In these latter ones 
the blade is free to move about the arm that carries it, and its pitch 
is regulated by the wind itself. The most radical in appearance of 
all the modern windmills are those that employ the rotor principle 
or "Magnus effect" for their operation. These may have a wind 
wheel made up of a few arms supporting small light rotor cylinders 
or may consist only of one large vertical cylinder rising directly from 
the ground and designed to be used upon the top of some wind-swept 
hill. 

By far the greatest number of windmills in the United States have 
been used for pumping water, a service to which the windmill is well 
suited because large quantities of water may be pumped and stored 
during periods of steady winds, to be drawn upon and used at any 
time regardless of the wind. An analogous service in which the 
windmill is now successfully applied is that of generating electric 
power, which, like water, may be stored (in batteries) during steady 
winds to be used when needed. Wind-electric generator sets are now 
used extensively in the lighting of isolated airway beacons and farms. 
A very early suggestion of this use of wind power is shown (below) 
in the model of a wind-electric system made by Moses G. Farmer 
as early as 1880. 

MONITOR WINDMILL, 1881 
Plate 5, Figxire 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 300687 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Ottice ; photograph no. 18219A. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to L. H. Sparks, August 30, 1881, no. 246247. 

This is one of several similar designs that constitute the bulk of the 
windmills in use in this country. The mill has the solid type of wind 
wheel (in which the slats are rigidly fixed), a rudder vane for holding 
the wind wheel in the direction of the wind, and a governor for main- 
taining a uniform speed of the mill in varying winds. The governor 
consists of a safety vane normal to the direction of the wind and 



J2 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

located just behind the wind wheel, which tends to throw the wheel 
out of the wind as the wind pressure increases, and a weighted lever 
so connected to the hinged rudder vane and the wheel bracket that it 
opposes the action of the safety vane. The resulting action of the 
governor is to turn the wheel away from the direct force of the wind 
as the wind velocity increases and to turn it back as the wind 
decreases. 

PRAIRIE WINDMILL 

U.S.N.M. no, 309688; model; made in the Museum; not illustrated. 

The model represents a horizontal paddle-wheel windmill of the 
type used to some extent on the prairies of the United States. The 
model shows the windmill set up to pump water to an irrigation flume. 
The axle of the wind wheel is mounted on bearings supported on the 
top of a board fence that encloses the lower part of the paddle wheel. 

Paddle-wheel windmills differ from the sail-wheel mills in that the 
paddles move in the direction of the wdnd rather than across the 
wind, and it is necessary to make the paddle-wheel feathering or 
shield part of it so as to prevent the wind from striking the paddles 
that are moving in the direction opposite to that of the wind. The 
axis of the paddle-wheel type may be either horizontal or vertical. 
The use of the horizontal type is limited by the fact that it operates 
only when the wind is in the direction nearly perpendicular to the 
axis of the wheel. 

VERTICAL WINDMILL, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309690 ; original patent model ; transferred Irom the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to W. A. Wheeler, July 1, 1879, no. 217053. 

A vertical-axis paddle-wheel windmill in which the wheel consists 
of an upper and a lower horizontal rim between which are many 
vertical, narrow, wooden-slat sails. The slats are pivoted in the rims 
and are connected to a centrifugal ball governor, which regulates 
the speed of the mill by changing the angle of the slats. A hand lever 
connected to the collar of the governor permits the operator to stop 
the wheel by turning the slats so far that they present a continuous 
closed cylindrical surface to the wind. Stationary guide vanes direct 
the wind to the sails of the wheel. 

Vertical paddle-wheel windmills have a slightly wider application 
than the horizontal ones. They can be built to receive the wind from 
all directions and are comparatively easy to regulate and govern. 
They have been built in sizes from 4 to 24 feet in diameter and are 
usually placed on low buildings. Many have been used successfully 
for grinding wheat. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I3 

WINDMILL, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309131 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to J. and F. M. Cottle, October 21, 1879, no. 220751. 

This mill has a double-rimmed steel wind wheel made up of small 
wedge-shaped vanes, which are removable to permit regulation of 
the power of the mill. Tlie wind wheel cannot be swung out of its 
position, but the shaft is carried in sliding bearings so that the gear 
on the shaft can be disengaged to let the wheel run free. It is 
equipped with a selective gear transmission. The model shows the 
mill attached to the bucket chain of a well. 

WINDMILL, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 309201 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to H. H. Bevil, April 6, 1880, no. 226625. 

This specimen illustrates all the parts of the present-day "Ameri- 
can" type of windmill. It has the multivaned wind wheel, the pivot, 
the brake, the rudder vane, the governor, the pull-out, and the pump 
pole. 

FARMER WIND-ELECTRIC GENERATOR, 1880 

PUITB! 5, FiGUEE 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 181985; original model; gift of Sarah J. Farmer; photograph no. 
18234. 

Three solid wdnd wheels drive the armatures of three dynamos, 
which are in circuit with a small storage battery, an incandescent 
electric lamp, and switches. This model, constructed by Moses G. 
Farmer, electrical pioneer, about 1880, is probably the earliest sug- 
gestion of the use of wind power through the medium of the electric 
generator and storage battery. 

Much of the objection to the use of the windmill as a source of 
power is due to the intermittent nature of its operation. It was 
thought that it was suited only for pumping water or similar opera- 
tions where the energy or work produced by the windmill could be 
stored during periods of useful wind velocities to be used as needed. 
Now considerable work has been done on the use of the wind-driven 
electric generator to charge storage batteries from which electrical 
energy can be drawn as needed. At present the use of the windmill 
as the prime mover for small domestic or farm electric sets offers 
interesting possibilities. 



■^^ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ADDITIONAL WINDMILLS IN THE COLLECTION, NOT DESCRIBED 

Windmill, Patent Office model, Patent no. 208208, issued to Elijah H. Smith, 
September 17, 1S78. U.S.N.M. no. 309137. 

Windniil], Patent Office model. Patent no. 209583, issued to Jesse Benson, 
November 12, 1878. U.S.N.M. no. 309133. 

Wind engine, Patent Office model, Patent no. 209862, issued to John Cook, 
November 12, 1878. U.S.N.M. no. 309135. 

Windmill, Patent Office model. Patent no. 222340, issued to H. M. Wood. 
December 2, 1879. U.S.N.M. no. 309136. 

WATER POWER 

Water wheels. — Flowing and falling water was utilized to drive 
simple machines many centuries ago. The noria, a wheel turned by 
the current of a stream and employed to raise water from the stream 
by means of jars attached to the rim of the wheel, was the earliest 
water-powered machine and probably the first machine to be driven 
by any power other than the muscular power of men and beasts. 
The first water wheel in history is one discussed by Philo of Byzan- 
tium, a Greek writer of the second or third century B. C. He ap- 
parently described a then existing water wheel driving a chain of 
buckets for raising water. The first mention of a particular water 
wheel was given by Strabo (63 B. C.-21 A. D.) of a water mill set 
up in Asia Minor in 88 B. C. for Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. 
This is also the first mention of a water mill. It is assumed that 
this first mill was of the simplest type, consisting of a vertical shaft 
of wood with a horizontal wheel formed of a series of warped wooden 
blades at its lower end with a horizontal rotary millstone attached 
to the upper end. Falling water was directed onto the blades of the 
wheel in a direction parallel to the vertical shaft. This type of mill 
has been definitely identified in the fifth century and was in general 
use throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. It has become known 
as the Greek or Norse mill in distinction from the Roman mill, which 
was first suggested by Vitruvius (first century B. C.) about 16 B. C. 
In the Roman mill the vertical shaft of the millstone was connected 
by gearing to the horizontal shaft of a vertical current wheel, essen- 
tially as in the mills with undershot wheels of recent date. There is 
no evidence of the use of this type of mill before the fourth century, 
and it was not in general use much before the twelfth century. As 
indicated before, the first vertical water wheel was the current wheel, 
a large wooden wheel with boardlike vanes or paddles attached 
radially to the wheel with the surface of each paddle in a plane 
through the axle of the wheel. The wheel was so mounted that the 
paddles dipped into the stream and presented their broad surfaces 
to the flow of the current, which forced the wheel around. The un- 
confined current headed up against the paddles and escaped past 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 15 

the edges, with the result that only a small portion of the energy 
of the stream was used. The improvement of confining the channel 
of the stream so that all the flow was caused to pass within the vanes 
of the wheel was probably first made about the fourth century. 
After this, little change was made in the form of the undersnot wheel 
until 1824, when M. Poncelet of France introduced the wheel now 
known by his name. The Poncelet wheel had backwardly curved 
vanes designed to receive the water without shock or disturbance and 
to discharge it promptly with little final velocity or residual energy 
in the water. The best of these wheels had an efficiency of about 75 
percent, as compared to the 30 percent efficiency of the simple 
undershot wheel. 

When the overshot wheel, which takes the water at the top rather 
than at the bottom and can utilize the weight of the water as well as 
the energy of the current, was first used is not known. It is possible 
that the Romans who brought water to their mills through aqueducts 
may have used the overshot wheel, but it has not been identified before 
the fourteenth century, and the undershot wheel continued in most 
general use to the sixteenth century. The overshot wheel has since 
been the most widely used water wheel. Its efficiency, when well con- 
structed and properly used, is equal to that of the best turbine, and 
it has the added advantage that it maintains its efficiency when the 
water supply is less than the normal designed rate. It is capable of 
an efficiency of about 90 percent. 

Between the undershot and overshot wheel in principle and effi- 
ciency is the breast wheel, which turns inward to the fall and onto 
the periphery of which water is laid at any height up to the height 
of the axle of the wheel. The breast wheel uses the current of the 
stream as in the undershot wheel and the weight of the water to a 
lesser extent than the overshot wheel. It is able to employ the weight 
of the water where the vertical fall is less than the diameter of the 
wheel, as is necessary for the overshot wheel. 

Turhiries. — The hydraulic turbine differs from water wheels in that 
guide vanes or nozzles direct the water into the rotating wheel, the 
vanes of which change the magnitude and direction of the velocity of 
the water, the force exerted to turn the rotor being equal to the force 
required to change the velocity of the water. Most turbines are now 
built with horizontal rotors upon vertical shafts, and because of this 
the early Greek or Norse mills (mentioned above) are often called 
the first hydraulic turbines. This early form of water wheel, how- 
ever, was generally abandoned with the perfection of the water wheel, 
and the development of the turbine is directly traced to the simple re- 
action turbine proposed by Dr. Barker about 1743. This consisted 
essentially of a wide vertical tube closed at the bottom and free to 
turn on a bearing at its base with two straight horizontal tubes closed 



IQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIOxN'AL MUSEUM 

at the ends (but provided with orifices) extending from the vertical 
tube. When the vertical tube was filled with water, the water escaped 
through orifices in the arms in tangential jets, which by their reaction 
caused the tube to rotate. This simple turbine had a maximum 
efficiency of about 66 percent. Its principal defect was the require- 
ment of a vertical tube of a height equal to the head of water, con- 
taining a mass of water that was rotated as so much useless weight. 
This design was improved by curving the horizontal arms, and many 
such turbines, known as Scotch mills, were put in use. The number 
of arms was gradually increased until the turbine took the form of a 
complete wheel. In 1826-27 Benoit Fourneyron constructed a tur- 
bine in which stationary guide vanes at the center of the wheel 
directed water into vanes in the rim of the wheel. This was the first 
radial outward-flow turbine. The next turbine (1841) was that of 
Nicolas Jonval. This was an axial-flow turbine in which the water 
moved parallel to the shaft. It consisted of a horizontal wheel with 
vanes set radially in the rim. A ring of stationary guide vanes above 
the rotor directed the water against the moving vanes. In 1826 
Poncelet proposed an inward-flow turbine the opposite of the 
Fourneyron. 

American developments in icater wheels. — Water mills were among 
the first permanent structures built by the early settlers in the Amer- 
ican colonies. As early as 1646 Massachusetts granted a patent to 
Joseph Jenks, an iron worker, "for making the engines for mills to 
go by water," an indication that water mills were in use some time 
before this. By 1700 every settlement had its mills employed in a 
great variety of work, grinding grain, rags, plaster, malt, chocolate, 
and tobacco; breaking leather; fulling cloth; boring gun barrels; slit- 
ting iron; and sawing wood. Many relics of these old mills remain 
in every part of the original colonies, some in a state of more or less 
complete preservation. 

Though the mills on the Delaware and the Chesapeake prior to the 
Revolution were considered the equal of any in the world, their ex- 
cellence was due to the flexibility and completeness of their gearing 
rather than to the efficiency of their water wheels. Practically all 
the American mills used the undershot wheels, which were capable 
of converting only a small fraction of the power of the streams. 
After the Revolution the great water powers of the New England 
and Middle Atlantic States were extensively developed, and very com- 
plete systems of dams, reservoirs, and canals were constructed to per- 
mit the recovery of every possible bit of energy from the streams. 
In most of these mills the wooden pitchback wheel, which turned 
inward to the fall, was used. The water struck just short of its 
highest point, the power being produced by the weight of the water, 
which was retained in the buckets until it reached the bottom by a 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 6 










^ r= 




oo 



£ I 



V c 

> e 



ea 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 7 





Wooden Water-mill Gearing c. 1870 

1. Spur gears (U.S.N.AI. no. 310538). See p. 20. 

2. Pinwheels (U.S.N.M. no. 310539). See p. 20. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 17 

stationary apron fitting as closely as practicable to the circumference. 
The best of these wheels was about 75 percent efficient. One installa- 
tion, that of the Merrimac Co., consisted of eight wheels, each 30 
feet in diameter and 12 feet wide. Until 1840 this type of wheel was 
j)ractically the only one used and may be said to have reached the 
period of its greatest application then. Subsequent to 1840 the 
hydraulic turbine began to replace the water w^heel in the American 
mills. 

Hydraulic turbines in the United States. — Accounts tell of the use 
of a hydraulic turbine in Massachusetts as early as 1790, though with 
no practical or permanent success. The continuous development of 
the turbine in the United States begins about 1843, when the work 
of Fourneyron in France was made known to engineers by a series 
of tests of turbines of the Fourneyron type conducted by Ellwood 
Morris, engineer, at Philadelphia. His results indicated that a maxi- 
mum efficiency of 75 percent, equal to that of the best water wheels 
in use, was possible with the turbine. The natural advantages of the 
turbine over the water wheel then caused mill owners to consider its 
use. In the same year George Kilburn, of New Hampshire, built and 
installed the first turbine to be used practically in New England at 
the print works of Robeson & Sons, Fall River, Mass. In 1844 Uriah 
Boyden designed a turbine of 75 horsepower for the Appleton Co. 
at Lowell, and two years later three more of 190 horsepower each for 
the same company. "These wheels were of the Fourneyron type with 
certain improvements effected by Boyden, including diff users (Pat- 
ent no. 5090) and other peculiar devices." An efficiency of 88 per- 
cent was claimed for the early Boyden-Fourneyron turbines, which 
led to the installation of turbines in every new mill in New England 
and in the old mills as rapidly as the water wheels wore out. In the 
meantime a purely American development in turbines was taking 
place in the perfection of the inward-flow and mixed-flow turbines. 
Jonval of France suggested the inward-flow turbine in 1829, but the 
first of the type was built by Samuel B. Howd, of Geneva, N. Y., who 
obtained a patent in 1838 (Patent no. 861). The runner of the Howd 
turbine was made of a ring of shallow curved buckets around the 
periphery of a light wheel. The sides of the buckets were vertical, 
and the water flowing through the buckets radially toward the 
center was confined to a horizontal path until it left the inner rim of 
the wheel, when it began to fall, running off parallel to the vertical 
shaft. The water was directed into the runner by straight stationary 
guide vanes. The Howd turbine was simple and cheap, and many 
were installed in small mills where they gave the advantages of the 
turbine at small initial cost. About 1849 James B. Francis designed 
an inward-flow turbine under the Howd patent in which the vanes 
were shaped to deflect the water downward before it left the vanes 



•j^g BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SO that the path of the water in the buckets was a combination of 
radial and axial flow. Francis conducted accurate tests of his tur- 
bine, analyzed and published the results, and formulated rules for 
turbine runner design, with the result that his name is now used to 
identify the whole class of inward-flow, mixed-flow turbines of which 
his was the first. The first installation of the Francis turbine was of 
two at the Booth Cotton Mills at Lowell. The rapid and general 
adoption of the Francis turbine led to a great many similar designs. 
A. M. Swain (Patent no. 28314, 1860) designed the turbine known 
by his name in 1859. About 1860 James Leffel made the greatest 
departure from the Francis type with his double-runner turbine 
(see below). In this the upper half of the runner is designed for 
radial flow and the lower half for radial admission and axial dis- 
charge. The subsequent development of large inward-flow reaction 
turbines has been made possible by the inventions among others of 
the conical draft tube, the spiral casing, the spreading draft tube 
(L. F. Moody), the hydraucone (W. M. White), movable guide vanes, 
the Kingsbury thrust bearing, and the use of rubber seal rings (for 
high heads). The 54,000 horsepower I. P. Morris turbine of the 
Conowingo (Md.) Station of the Philadelphia Electric Co., 89-foot 
head (see below), and the San Franscisquito No. 2 plant of the City 
of Los Angeles, 20,500 horsepower at 515-foot head are indications 
of the advance. The Oak Grove plant of the Portland Railway 
Light & Power Co., 35,000 horsepower at 850-foot head holds the 
record (1930) for high head application of a turbine of the Francis 
type. 

Impulse turbines and tangential water wheels. — Parallel with the 
improvement of the reaction or pressure turbine was the development 
of the impulse or velocity turbine, also called the tangential water 
wheel. An impulse turbine is one driven entirely by the force of 
the weight of the water acting through its velocity. The wheel 
buckets are open to the atmosphere, and the discharge is unrestricted 
so that none of the energy of the flow of water is utilized as pressure 
energy. The first current wheel was an impulse turbine of the 
simplest form. The Poncelet water wheel, with the stream confined 
and directed fully upon curved buckets and with the discharge above 
the tail water, was the beginning of the modern development. In 
the present-day wheels of the most common type the flow of water 
is wholly confined and is directed upon the wheel from one or two 
adjustable nozzles. The buckets are highly developed combinations 
of curved surfaces. 

The first departure from the undershot wheel, in impulse turbines, 
was that of Jearum Atkins, of Vermont and Illinois, well-known 
inventor of agricultural machinery. Atkins' turbine consisted of a 
horizontal rotor having buckets curved as semicircles in the radial 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 19 

direction, straight sided in the axial direction, and open to the 
atmosphere above and below. The water entered the wheel from a 
scroll casing surrounding it. Flat guide vanes within the casing 
■directed the water into the buckets in smooth continuous streams at 
several points around the periphery. The speed of the rotor was 
such that the water reached the inner edge of the bucket with little 
velocity in the radial direction, and discharged by falling through 
the lower side of the bucket space. Atkins applied for a patent in 
1853, about the time that Girard in England was perfecting his turbine 
of similar design. This type of turbine has been popular abroad, but 
it has never been widely used in the United States, where the impulse 
turbine most generally used is the tangential water wheel. 

The simplest form of the tangential water wheel was the "hurdy- 
gurdy," a large wooden wheel carrying buckets of angular boxlike 
construction into which water was directed from one or two fixed 
nozzles located near the bottom of the wheel. These wheels were 
widely used in the mountain settlements of the Pacific coast where 
high-head water powers were developed for mining operations. The 
wheels were developed there experimentally, and various stories are 
told of this development. The first wheels are said to have been 
wagon wheels with flat floats or box buckets bolted to the rims of the 
wheels. The wagon wheels gave way to wooden centers, wide-rimmed 
wooden wheels, and, later, iron wheels. The buckets then were made 
as curved bowls with cut-out lips to aid discharge (Knight, 1870), 
and the split bucket is said to have been the result of an accident 
in which a wheel slipped sideways on its shaft so that the jet struck 
the edge of the bowl instead of the center, with the result that the 
speed of the wheel increased. J. Moore, 1874, and L. A. Pelton, about 
1877, designed split buckets, and Pelton after some success in selling 
and installing wheels of his design, including the installation of the 
first impulse turbine-electric generating unit at Aspen, Colo., in 1885, 
sold his business to the founders of the Pelton Water Wheel Co. m 
1887. Experiments conducted by Kalph T. Brown and Professor 
Hesse at the University of California resulted in the design from 
theoretical analysis of a bucket similar to Pelton's, and the report of 
these experiments, published in 1883, was the first literature on the 
subject of the design of impulse water wheels. The buckets subse- 
quently developed in form through the work of Hesse, Abner Doble 
(1889), Dodd (1889), and Hug (1897). The present type has ellip- 
soidal back and face surfaces, central spitter edge, and notched lip, 
substantially as developed by Doble by 1899 (see below) and has the 
chain type of attaching-lug developed about 1907 by the Pelton Water 
Wheel Co. The method of controlling the jets, at first merely by 
gate valves, was developed through butterfly valves, tongue nozzles 
in which one side of rectangular nozzles was hinged like a tongue, 



20 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

needle nozzles that varied the size of the jets (1899-1903), deflecting 
nozzles (1899), and, finally (1903), the stream deflectors, which deflect 
the jets independently of the nozzles. Later developments have been 
in methods of securing automatic control of the wheels and in im- 
proving designs to facilitate replacements and repairs. 

WATER-MILL GEARING 

Plate 7 

U.S.N.M. nos. 310538 and 310539; originals; gift of Charles H. Estes, photo- 
graph nos. 31705A and B. 

Two pairs of wooden spur gears and cogwheels from the Estes 
Mill at Sperryville, Va. Estimated to have been made about 1870; 
collected in 1932. 

Tlie spur gears (U.S.N.M no. 310538, photograph no. 31705A) are 
each 24-inch, 38-tooth gears, made up of two solid oak disks held 
together with iron rods riveted over hand-cut square washers. The 
teeth are of black locust held between the disks and secured with 
wooden pegs. (PI. 7, fig. 1.) 

The cogwheels (U.S.N.M. no. 310539, photograph no. 31705B) are 
a pair of one 18-inch, 20-tooth wheel and one 10-inch, 11-tooth wheel. 
The disks are red oak, held together with black-locust dowels spread 
with yellow-pine wedges. The teeth are dogwood, secured by black- 
locust pegs, which bear on hickory plugs. (PI. 7, fig. 2.) 

DOMESTIC WATER MOTOR, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 309203 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United 
States Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Jolin Haworth, of Philadelphia, Pa., April 30, 1878, no. 
203035. 

The model represents a water motor having a vertical cylindrical 
water chute, within the lower end of which a small parallel-flow 
reaction turbine wheel is located. The wheel is carried on a shaft 
that passes through the water chute and a stuffing box at its opposite 
end to carry a worm gear from which the power of the motor is 
supplied. The motor is designed to operate a sewing machine, and 
the drive shaft carries a 2-bladed propeller fan for fanning the 
machine operator. 

Motors of this type operating from the faucet pressure of city 
water systems were in use up to a few years ago to drive sewing 
machines, fans, and washing machines. Their use was discontinued 
with the development of the small electric motor, cheap electric cur- 
rent, and the practice of installing individual meters in municipal 
water systems. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 21 

WATER MOTOR, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309204; original patent model; transferred from the United 
States Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to W. F. Eyster, of Chambersburg, Pa., November 4, 1879, 
no. 221225. 

The model represents a vertical cylindrical water tube having a 
vertical slot in one side through which the rim of a vertical water 
wheel extends into the tube. The water wheel is supported and 
inclosed in a flat circular chamber, which bolts to the side of the 
water tube. A nozzle within the tube at the top directs the water 
downward against the buckets of the wheel at about the height of 
the center of the wheel. A plug cock at the top of the tube controls 
the flow of water, and a funnel-shaped flange below the cock drains 
any leakage into the water tube. One feature of the motor is that 
the part of the water tube that carries the water wheel is free to revolve 
about its vertical axis, so that the bulky part of the motor can be put 
in the position most convenient to the machine operator. 

BROOKS WATER WHEEL, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 309689; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Edgar B. Brooks, of La Porte, Ind., February 10, 1880; no. 224270. 

This is a nicely made brass model of an inward-flow reaction tur- 
bine having the register type of adjustable feed chutes or guide vanes 
and a cylinder water gate. The combination relieves the guide vanes 
of the function of cutting off the water when the wheel is to be 
stopped and makes it unnecessary that the guide vanes close perfectly, 
so that any looseness developed in them by wear is immaterial. 

LEUCHSENRING ROTARY WATER ENGINE, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308709 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Robert Leuchsenring, of New Bedford, Mass., March 9, 1880, no. 
225226. 

This is a form of engine in which a drum-shaped rotor turns in a 
casing, which is eccentric to the center of the drum, so that the drum 
runs against one part of the casing and a crescent-shaped annular 
space is formed between the casing and the drum. Water is admitted 
tangential ly to the drum to one side of and away from the point at 
which the drum and casing meet. The water impinges upon abut- 
ments on the drum, turns the drum, and discharges from the engine 



22 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

about two-thirds of the way around the casing. The abutments on 
the drum slide into the drum to pass the casing and are held against 
the casing by springs. 

LEFFEL HYDRAULIC TURBINE, c. 1883 
U.S.N.M. no, 180193 ; model ; gift of James LefEel & Co., not illustrated. 

The model represents a mixed-flow turbine, the rotor of which is in 
two sections. The upper section is so constructed that it is in effect a 
simple inward-flow turbine from which the water discharges radially 
to the center. The lower section is a mixed-floAv rotor from which the 
water discharges downward parallel to the axis of the rotor. Both 
sections are cast together to form one rotor, and both parts receive 
water from the same guide vanes, which are of the adjustable register 
type. 

DOBLE WATER WHEEL, 1899 

U.S.N.M. no. 309207 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to William A. Doble, of San Francisco, Calif., February 7, 1899, no» 
619149. 

The model represents a small sector of the rotor of a water wheel ta 
which are attached three buckets, which illustrate, generally, the char- 
acteristics of the modern tangential water-wheel bucket, i. e., the 
notched lip, the splitter wedge, the curved face and back, and the 
method of attaching the buckets to the rotor. (See also U.S.N.M. no. 
310390.) 

The feature of this particular bucket is the form of the curved faces, 
which are designed to disturb the jets of water as little as possible in 
any way except in the plane of the wheel's rotation. The curves are 
developed upon the theory that the water moving at high velocity has 
a tendency to remain in one plane, called "kinetic stability", so that 
the resultant angles of reaction caused by the reversing curves of 
the bucket faces are not a normal result of these curves but are 
divergent therefrom. 

PELTON WATER-WHEEL BUCKETS, 1901-1912 
Plate 8 

U.S.N.M. nos. 310386-310390; originals; gift of the Pelton Water Wheel Co.; 
photograph no. 4814 (group). 

U.S.N.M. no. 310386 is a rectangular bucket divided by a central 
splitter edge into two hollow semicylindrical compartments. The 
bucket is designed to receive and divide the jet upon the splitter edge 
and direct the water to either side, discharging at the sides. No 
provision is made for the flow of water in a radial direction along the 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 




U. S. NATIONAU MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 9 




CONOwiNGO Hydroelectric Generating Station, 1928. 
Model (U.S.N.M. no. 310254). See p. 23. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 23 

bucket, and the outer end of the bucket makes sharp angles with the 
sides and bottom. The extreme lip of the bucket is very slightly 
depressed, suggesting the notched lip developed later. The back of 
the bucket is provided with lugs, which slip over the rim of the wheel 
center to which it is attached by bolts passing through the lugs and 
rim parallel to the shaft. The bucket is made of cast iron, measures 
about 111/2 inches wide, and weighs 30 pounds. This bucket was made 
about 1901. (PI. 8, fig. 1.) 

U.S.N.M. no. 310387 is a rectangular bucket similar in most respects 
to the above. The lip is curved out rather than in, and the back is a 
flat flange through which the bolts that hold the bucket to the wheel 
pass in the radial direction. The outside end of the bucket, which 
is flat, slopes down toward the back so that the back or bottom of the 
bucket is shorter than the face. This is a large bucket, 17 inches 
wide, and weighs about 50 pounds. It was made about 1903. (PL 
8, fig. 2.) 

U.S.N.M. no. 310388 is practically the same as the first (no. 310386), 
though it is slightly smaller and very much lighter. It has a flange 
back, is 10^^ inches wide, and weighs about 16 pounds. This bucket 
was made about 1905. (PI. 8, fig. 3.) 

U.S.N.M. no. 310389 is a very small rectangular bucket similar to 
the above. It has a flange back, is about 4 inches wide, and weighs 
2 pounds. This bucket was made about 1911. (PI. 8, fig. 5.) 

U.S.N.M. no. 310390 is a bronze bucket of a recent type. It has 
the notched lip and ellipsoidal faces of the modern buckets. The 
bucket bowls are ground but not polished. Cast in the metal is "W. 
A. Doble— Pat. Sept. 19, 1899." The bucket is 71/2 inches wide, 
weighs about 9y2 pounds, and has the lug type of back. It was made 
about 1912. (PI. 8, fig. 4.) 

CONOWINGO HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING STATION, 1928 

Plate 9 

U.S.N.M. no. 310254 ; model ; gift of the Philadelphia Electric Co. ; photograph 
no. 31017D. 

This model represents a section of the hydroelectric generating sta- 
tion on the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Md., a unit of the 
Philadelphia Electric Co. System. The model is a cross section 
through the dam and power-house and shows practically every fea- 
ture of the installation, including the water intakes, butterfly valve, 
scroll case, water wheel, draft tube and generator of one generating 
unit, the control room, electrical equipment sections, pipe room, 
transformers, oil circuit breakers, and the outdoor switching struc- 
ture on the roof of the power-house. 



24 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The turbine shown in the model is one of the seven of the present 
installation. The wheel of the original is IT feet 9 inches in diameter, 
weighs about 240,000 pounds, and develops 54,000 horsepower. It 
turns 81 revolutions per minute and requires 6,000 cubic feet of water 
a second at full operation. The model shows the scroll case that 
conducts the water to the runner and the butterfly valve at the en- 
trance to the scroll. This valve is actually 27 feet in diameter and was 
the largest ever built. The valve is sealed after closing by admitting 
water pressure to a rubber tube 3 inches in diameter set in the inside 
face of the valve housing. The valves are used also as head gates. 
The draft tube is the Moody type, with a concrete cone extending 
from the bottom to the hub of the runner. A water-wheel governor 
of the actuator type of oil-pressure, relay governor, having fiyballs 
mechanically driven from the main shaft of the water wheel, is 
shown. A curtain wall protects the water entrances from ice, and 
trash racks are located in each intake opening. Gantry cranes for 
handling the trash racks and emergency sectional head gates are 
shown in the model. 

The Conowingo station is (1934) the second largest hydroelectric 
generating plant in the United States, being surpassed only by in- 
stallations at Niagara Falls. It has a present capacity of 378,000 
horsepower, with an ultimate development of 11 54,000-horsepower 
units, or 594,000 horsepower. The dam provides a head of 89 feet 
and is seven-eighths of a mile in length. The station was first 
operated in March 1928. 

ADDITIONAL WATER MOTORS IN THE COLLECTION, NOT 

DESCRIBED 

Rotary engine (water-wheel), Patent Office model, Patent no. 51389, Decem- 
ber 5, 1865, issued to G. A. Lamb. U.S.N.M. no. 309202. 

Water motor. Patent Office model. Patent no. 185946, January 2, 1887, issued 
to Kelsey L. Mills. U.S.N.M. no. 309205. 

Water motor, Patent Office model, Patent no. 236554, January 11, 1881, issued 
to H. M. Col ton. U.S.N.M. no. 309206. 

THE STEAM ENGINE 

The early history of the steam engine has been written so often 
that little more than the briefest outline is necessary here. 

In a review of the technical knowledge of his time. Heron of 
Alexandria (about 150 A. D.) suggested some elementary mechanical 
devices to use the pressure of steam and described the earliest form 
of steam engine, a simple reaction turbine, or "aeolipile." No prac- 
tical use of these devices was ever made, and steam itself remained 
a mysterious gas until comparatively recent times. The work of 
Cardan (1501-1576), and Porta (1543-1615), and de Cans (1576- 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 25 

1630), Italian physicists and mathematicians, established some of the 
"capabilities" of steam, namely, that steam is evaporated water ; that 
it returns to water when cooled; and that a vacuum is formed by 
condensing steam in a closed vessel. De Caus built a fountain from 
which water was forced by the pressure of steam. This knowledge 
plus that derived from the work of Galileo (1564-1642) and Torri- 
celli (1608-1647) in Italy; Pascal (1623-1662) in France; and von 
Guericke (1602-1686) in Germany, whereby the true nature of the 
vacuum was demonstrated, formed the background for the modern 
development of the steam engine. Edward Somerset (1601-1667), 
second Marquis of Worcester, is thought to have built at Vauxhill, 
England, about 1663-1669, the first useful and practical steam engine. 
This engine consisted of a high-pressure boiler into which water was 
forced by atmospheric pressure, after the contained steam had con- 
densed, and from which the water was then discharged by steam 
pressure, raising the water, in all, about 40 feet. This method was 
extensively applied by Thomas Savery (1650-1715), who patented 
a similar apparatus in 1698 and built several such steam engines to 
pump water from mines. 

In the meantime Huygens (1629-1695) had, about 1680, attempted 
an atmospheric (explosive) engine, and Papin (1647-1712) in 1690 
demonstrated the suitability of using steam to produce a vacuum in 
a piston engine. It remained for Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729), 
however, to perfect about 1712 an atmospheric steam engine in which 
a vacuum could be formed repeatedly and regularly in a cylinder 
beneath a reciprocating piston. Newcomen later (1713 or 1718) pro- 
vided a valve gear to make the engine completely automatic in its 
operation. This engine supplied, for the first time in history, large 
units of cheap and reliable power, and is the form from which the 
growth of the modern steam engine is continuously traced. The im- 
portance of the Newcomen engine cannot be overestimated. 

James Watt (1736-1819) became interested in the steam engine 
when he was employed, about 1763, to repair a working model of a 
Newcomen engine. His great work consisted in devising all the 
numerous changes in the Newcomen engine that were necessary to 
convert it, in principle at least, to the steam engine of the present 
day. Watt invented the separate condenser, the condenser air pump, 
the steam- jacketed cylinder, mechanisms for converting reciprocating 
motion to rotary motion, and the double-acting cylinder. He was the 
first to use "high" pressure steam and steam expansively. The results 
of Watt's work are best shown by a comparison of the efiiciency of a 
Newcomen engine of 1767 (three years after Watt began his work) 
with that of a Watt engine of 1800. The Newcomen engine produced 
4.3 million foot-pounds of work (water pumped) for every 112 

49970—39— — 3 



2Q BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

pounds of coal burned, while the Watt engine, with separate con- 
denser and operating expanding, performed 66.0 million foot-pomids 
of work from the same weight of fuel. 

This much of the story of the steam engine is illustrated in the 
Museum by a series of models, with relevant photographs and 
drawings, under the caption : 

THE STORY OF THE STEAM ENGINE 
150 A. D. TO 1777 



HERON'S TURBINE, c. 150 A. D. 
Plate 10, Fioubb 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 308462 ; model ; made in the Museum ; photograph no. 17133. 

This model is a pictorial adaptation of the aeolipile described (in 
Pneumatica) by Heron of Alexandria who lived in the first century. 

The model consists of a light hollow ball supported on its axis 
between two trunnions, one of which is hollow. The ball carries four 
bent nozzles in a plane perpendicular to the line of its axis. Steam, 
generated in a boiler below, is carried to the ball through the hollow 
trunnion and escapes through the nozzles. The reaction on the 
nozzles, due to the steam issuing from them, turns the ball. 

Heron of Alexandria (Egypt), a Greek philospher, who lived some 
time between 50 B. C. and 150 A. D., left a number of treatises 
(Pneumatica, Aittomatopoiika, Belopoiika, Cheirohalistra, Metrica, 
Dioptia, and Katoptrica) in which are collected most of the knowl- 
edge of his time in the fields of theoretical and applied mechanics. 

BRANCA TURBINE, c. 1629 

U.S.N.M. no. 308464 ; model ; made in the Museum ; not illustrated. 

Giovanni Branca, a chemist of Loretto, Italy, suggested a steam 
engine in which a jet of steam issuing from a nozzle was directed 
against the blades of a paddle wheel. This is the earliest suggestion 
of an impulse turbine. 

The model shows such a wheel connected to the pestles of a chem- 
ist's stamp mill. The nozzle is attached directly to a spherical copper 
boiler. 

Eeference, Le Machine, Kome, 1668. 

DEMONSTRATION OF THE "WEIGHT OF THE ATMOSPHERE", 1654 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S645 ; model ; made in the Museum ; not illustrated. 

This is a simplified pictorial model of Otto von Guericke's spec- 
tacular demonstration before the burghers of Magdeburg, in which he 
showed the great force required to separate two large hollow hemi- 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 27 

spheres that were held together only by the pressure of the atmosphere 
upon them when they had been put lightly together and the air 
pumped from between them. The model shows two teams of eight 
horses, each straining against the other to pull the hemispherical cups 
apart. 

The model is exhibited in this series to indicate that the develop- 
ment of the atmospheric steam engines following this date depended 
upon the knowledge that the atmosphere exerts a fluid pressure upon 
every surface within it. 

Reference. Gaspare Schotts : Experimenta Nova, 1672. 

PAPIN PISTON ENGINE, c. 1690 

U.S.N.M. no. 308466 ; model ; made in the Museum ; not illustrated. 

Denis Papin, a French physician, was the first to demonstrate the 
suitability of using steam to produce a vacuum in a cylinder under 
a piston in a manner that the pressure of the atmosphere would force 
down the piston and thus do work that could be applied usefully. 
The elements of the later successful atmospheric steam engines were 
present in the Papin engine, but he never solved the problem of 
regularly repeating the cycle of the engine. 

The model shows a machine (rather than an engine) in which a 
number of weights on a platform are raised by a rope running 
through overhead pulleys to a piston in a vertical cylinder. A quan- 
tity of water heated in the cylinder filled the space below the piston 
with steam, which, when allowed to condense, formed a vacuum under 
the piston and permitted the pressure of the atmosphere to force 
down the piston and raise the platform. 

Shown in the model is a "digester", or pressure cooker, equipped 
with a weighted-lever plug safety valve, an important device in- 
vented by Papin. 

References, The New Digester, London, 1681 ; La Maniere D^AmoUr 
les Os, etc., 1682. 

SAVERY STEAM ENGINE, 1698 

U.S.N.M. no. 307238; photograph of drawing; gift of the Science Museum, 
London ; not illustrated. 

The following is from the Catalogue of the Mechanical Engineering 
Collection in the Science Museum, London, 1919: "In 1698 Thomas 
Savery patented an apparatus 'for raising of water and occasioning 
motion to all sort of mill works, by the impellant force of fire.' No 
drawing of the arrangement was deposited, but the following year 
a model of the machine was shown at the Royal Society, and is 
illustrated in the Philosophical Transactions. 

"The apparatus in its simplest form consisted of a high pressure 
boiler supplying steam to a receiver, which was provided with suc- 
tion and delivery pipes and the corresponding valves. By means of 



23 BUI,LETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a regulator valve worked by hand, steam from the boiler was ad- 
mitted into a receiver and allowed to blow through it till the air had 
been expelled; then the supply of steam was cut off and cold water 
from a cistern above was turned on to the receiver which acting as 
a surface condenser, condensed the steam, so forming a partial vacuum 
into which the water rose from the suction pipe, the delivery orifice 
being at the same time sealed by its valve; the entering water fur- 
ther assisted in this condensation. Steam was again admitted, and 
by its pressure forced the water in the receiver out through the 
delivery valve and pipe, the suction pipe in the meantime being closed 
by its non-return valve." 

References, The Miner's Friend^ 1702 ; Philoso'phical Transactions^ 
vol. 21, 1699. 

NEWCOMEN ENGINE, 1712 

Plate 11 

U.S.N.M. no. 308451 ; print from an engraving of 1717 ; gift of the Newcomen 
Society ; photograph no. 1 7872. 

This engraving is made from a drawing of 1717 by Henry Beighton, 
presumably from his own measurements of the engine erected by 
Thomas Newcomen near Dudley, England, in 1712. It is the oldest 
present record of a Newcomen engine, and the original engine is 
believed to have been the first one actually built by Newcomen. 

The engine shown has a vertical cylinder directly over the center of 
a bricked-over hemispherical boiler. The cylinder is hung between 
two heavy wooden beams, which, in turn, are supported about midway 
of the height of two thin, wide, brick columns, one on each side of 
the boiler. One column is hollow and serves as a chimney for the 
boiler furnace; the other column supports the bearings upon which 
the beam or great lever of the engine rocks. 

The cylinder is open at the top, and the piston rod extends upward, 
terminating in a hook. A flexible chain from the hook connects it 
to the end of the engine beam, which is arched so that the point of 
contact of the chain is always directly over the center of the piston. 
The pump cylinder is located under the opposite end of the beam, and 
the pump rod is similarly connected to the beam by chain. The pump 
rod is shown extending down into the open mouth of a mine pit, over 
wliich is erected a windlass for raising and lowering men and ore. A 
smaller arched head or sector on either side of the center of the beam 
between tlie center and the end of the beam operates an auxiliary pump 
and the plug rod that actuates the valves. 

To one side and above the cylinder is a cistern that holds the water 
for injection into the cylinder for condensing purposes. (See the 
Newcomen engine, p. 30, for general explanation of the operation.) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 10 




d 


^I^^^Kv 


4 






^m ■■ ^H^H ''If' 1 




2 



Early steam Engines. 



^ 1. Heron's turbine, c. 150 A. D. (model; U.S.X.M. no. 308462). See p. 26. 
2. Watt pumping engine, "Old Bess," 1777 (model; I'.S.X.M. no. .i08469). See p. 31. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE II 




Newcomen Pumping Engine. 
Engraving, 1717 (U.S.N.M. no. 308451). See p. 2S. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 29 

The cylinder is connected to the boiler by a short pipe at the boiler 
end of which is the sector-plate steam valve called the regulator. The 
lever of the regulator is attached to a Y-shaped stirrup that leads to 
levers on a short shaft, which is hung so that two tappets on the same 
shaft are struck by pins in the plug rod. The plug rod is a beam 
moving up and down with the beam of the engine. The pins on the 
plug rod are so placed that the regulator will be jerked open at the 
end of each down stroke and closed at the end of the upstroke. The 
injection cock, in the lower bend of the pipe connecting the cistern 
with the cylinder, has a long sweeping handle, one end of which is 
weighted so that the valve falls open when the handle is released from 
its held position. In the closed position the weighted end of the 
injection cock is held by a catch and released by a rod that projects 
from a buoy and rises with it. The buoy floats on the surface of 
water within a pipe connected to the pressure in the boiler. The 
pressure within the boiler drops sharply with the upstroke of the 
piston and then increases after the piston comes to rest at the top of 
the stroke. The water level in the buoy pipe reacts with this change 
in pressure, and the buoy rod at its highest point releases the injec- 
tion cock handle. This arrangement necessitates a short pause at the 
end of each stroke. A pin on the plug rod engages the opposite end 
of the injection cock handle and replaces the weighted end in the catch. 

The engraving was first published in "Savery, Newcomen and the 
Early History of the Steam Engine," by Rhys Jenkins, TransactioTis 
of the Newcomen Society^ vol. 4, 1923-24. A supplementary note to 
the article remarks on the similarity between this and the illustration 
in Desaguliers' Course of Experimental Philosophy, 17 3 J^, and pre- 
sents the following legend for this drawing as prepared with the aid 
of the Desaguliers illustration : 

Legend of Beighton's Drawing 

A. Fireplace. 

B. Boiler and seating. 

C. Cylinder with piston. 

D. Steam pipe from boiler to cylinder. 

E. Steam cock or regulator. 

F. Puppet clack or safety valve. 

G. Gauge pipes to show when the level of the water in the boiler is too high 

or too low. 
H. Buoy pipe; the shank of the buoy when the steam becomes strong forces 

up the lever R and interceptor 7 thereby lifting the notch from the lever 

of the injection cock which is opened by the fall of the weight 3. The tail 

1 of the lever is restored by a pin in the plug rod. 
I. Standpipe for shank K, to indicate height of water in boiler. 
K. Float in boiler. 
L. Shank of the piston. 
M. Injecting pipe bringing cold water from cistern g. 



QQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

N. Injecting cock. 

0. Lever or spanner of injecting cock. 

P. Two standards supporting the Y to work the regulator; 4 and 5 are arms 
to work the Y by pins in the plug rod ; 6 is a strap to restrain the Y. 

Q. Working beam or plug rod. 

B. Lever, one end of which turns on a pin and the other is attached to the inter- 
ceptor 7; the lower end of this is attached to the notched lever 2 that 
releases the injection cock. 

S. Counterweight to lever R. 

T. Eduction pipe. 

V. Overflow pipe from top of cylinder and from shifting valve. 

W. Pipe supplying boiler with water from top of piston. 

X. Snifting valve. 

Y. Waste well. 

Z. Pipe supplying water from cistern g to top of piston. 

aaaa. Four great beams supporting the engine and the floor of the house. 

bcde. Ground floor of the house. 

f. Chimney. 

g. Cistern of cold water to supply injection, 
h. h2. Great lever or beam. 

i. Rod and chain fixed to the outer end of the beam working pumps from the 

bottom of the mine, 
k. Small force pump supplying cistern g. 

1. Windlass and rope, whereby men and materials are conveyed up and down 

the pit. 
m. Pipe by which pump K supplies cistern g. 
0000. Outline of boiler. 

[Note: Interceptor should read inceptor.] 

NEWCOMEN PUMPING ENGINE, c. 1712 

U. S. N. M. no. 308468 ; model ; made in the Museum ; not illustrated. 

This model illustrates the general arrangement of a Newcomen 
atmospheric engine with its boiler and engine house. 

The Newcomen engine consisted of an open-top vertical cylinder 
mounted above and connected through a valve to a steam boiler. A 
piston within the cylinder was connected by chain to one end of an 
oscillating overhead beam. To the other end of the beam was con- 
nected the pump rods and plungers extending into the mine shaft. 
The weight of the pump rods, etc., was sufficient to overbalance the 
weight of the piston and at rest would maintain the piston at the top 
of the cylinder. In operation, steam was admitted to the cylinder 
to fill the space below the piston; then with all valves closed, cold 
water was injected into the cylinder from an overhead cistern, con- 
densing the steam to form a partial vacuum in the cylinder, with the 
result that atmospheric pressure would force down the piston and 
raise the pump rod. At the end of the down stroke, steam was 
admitted, the condensed water and air were ejected, and the piston 
was returned to the top of the cylinder. The steam and water- 
injection valves were operated by a mechanism attached to the beam. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 31 

Thomas Newcomen, of Dartmouth, England, with John Cawley 
(or Galley) made the first successful atmospheric engines about 1712. 
Though these engines incorporated most of the features of a successful 
reciprocating steam engine and were a great advance over the Savery 
engine (above), they infringed the broad patent granted to Savery 
and were therefore made for several years under his patents. 

WATT PUMPING ENGINE, c. 1776 

U. S. N. M. no. 308130; colored drawing made from the engine; gift of A. W. 
Willet ; not illustrated. 

The engine shown in the drawing is one of two engines designed 
and built by Boulton and Watt for the Birmingham (England) Canal 
Co. about 1776-78. The engines were erect3d at Smethwick and 
employed to pump lockage water from the lower levels of the canal 
to a summit at that point. One engine remained in use until 1892, 
when it was replaced by a modern pumping plant. The company's 
engineer, G. R. Gebb, caused the engine to be preserved and had it 
reerected at the Canal Co.'s Ocker Hill Works, where it still remains 
in working order. The donor, who succeeded Mr. Gebb, had the 
drawings made from the engine for the James Watt Centenary Cele- 
bration in 1919. 

The engine is a typical Watt beam engine with vertical, double- 
acting cylinder, 32 inches in diameter and 8- foot stroke. The pump 
cylinder is 29 inches in diameter. The speed was 13 strokes a minute 
and the steam pressure 10 pounds per square inch. The engine is 
equipped with a separate jet condenser and a 14-inch condenser air 
pump operating from the beam. The drawing includes a section 
through the lower valve chest showing the exhaust, intake, and equi- 
librium valves. The valves are operated by a rod from the beam. 

The drawing is about 27 by 40 inches and is made to the scale of 
% inch equals 1 foot. 

WATT PUMPING ENGINE, "OLD BESS", 1777 
Plate 10, Figube 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308469 ; model ; made in the Museum ; photograph no. 17143A. 

This model was made from a photograph and description of the 
working model in the Science Museum, London. 

The engine "Old Bess" was built by Watt for the hardware factory 
of Matthew Boulton at Soho, England. The factory was operated 
by an overshot water wheel, 24 feet in diameter, 6-foot breast, and 
the engine was used to pump water from the lower wheel race to the 
flume above, to turn the wheel during dry seasons when the natural 
flow of water was not sufficient. 



22 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The engine resembled the Newcomen beam engines in appearance, 
with the piston rod and pump rod connected to the opposite ends of a 
heavy walking beam. The huge double-acting cylinder was 33 inches 
in diameter and permitted a 7-foot stroke. The valves were operated 
by a "plug- frame", which was raised and lowered by the beam. The 
engine was equipped with a separate condenser and condenser air 
pump. 

THE EARLY STEAM ENGINE IN AMERICA 

The first steam engine in America was erected at the copper mine 
of Col. John Schuyler, on Barbadoes Neck, N. J., in 1755. This was 
an atmospheric engine of the Newcomen type and was built in Corn- 
wall, England, by Joseph Hornblower and his sons, engineers and 
engine builders. The engine was brought to America by Josiah 
Hornblower, who erected it and operated it for many years. It was 
disabled by fire in 1768, and in 1793 was broken up and disposed of. 
A portion of the cylinder of the engine is exhibited in the National 
Museum, (References: Nelson, William, Josiah Homhlower^ 1883; 
Loree, L. F., "The First Steam Engine in America", in the Delaware 
<& Hudson Co. Bulletin, July 15, Aug. 15, 1929.) 

The next engine of record is the one constructed at Philadelphia 
in 1773 by Christopher Colles to pump water for a distillery there. 
CoUes, a well-educated and ingenious Irishman and the pupil and 
protege of Dr. Pococke, the Bishop of Ossory, came to America in 
1765 after the bishop's death. In 1772 he delivered a series of lectures 
at the hall of the American Philosophical Society on pneumatics, 
hydrostatics, and hydraulics, illustrated by demonstrations of models 
he had constructed, including models of steam engines. That the 
pumping engine that Colles built in 1773 was cheaply made and did 
not perform satisfactorily, though it demonstrated that he understood 
the construction of engines, was reported by a committee of the 
Philosophical Society. (Reference : Bishop, J. L., Histori/ of ATner- 
ican Manufactures, vol. 1, pp. 576-577, 1866.) 

The next year, 1774, Colles contracted to build a reservoir for the 
council of the City of New York. This work, the completion of 
which was prevented by the war, was renewed in 1785 when surveys 
were made by Colles and others. (Reference: Booth, Mary L., 
History of the City of New Yorh, 1859.) 

A newspaper of Febiiiary 1775, however, announced that a large 
cylinder for the steam engine of the waterworks was cast at the 
foundry of Sharp and (Peter T.) Curtenius, the first performance 
of the kind attempted in America (Bishop, vol. 1, pp. 534, 537). That 
this engine was completed and operated can be inferred from an entry 
in the journal of Isaac Bangs {Neio Jersey Historical Society Pro- 
ceedings, vol. 8, p. 121, May 20, 1858), who visited the Schuyler mine 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 33 

in 1776 and compared the engine there with the New York engine. 
He wrote: ". . . it [the Hornblower engine] was constructed upon 
the same principles and much in the same form as that of New 
York . . ." (Nelson, Josiah Hornhloioer^ p. 22) . 

Shortly after the war and before 1790 a single-acting atmospheric 
engine was built by Joseph Brown at the Hope Furnace in Scituate, 
R. I., to drain the ore pits at Cranston, R. I. David Wilkmson saw 
Elijah Ormsbee working on (repairing) the engine at Cranston about 
1790. "This engine was made with the main cylinder open at the 
top as the news of the cap on the cylinder by Boulton and Watt had 
not yet come to this country when the engine was built" (letter from 
David Wilkinson, Transactions Rhode Island Society for the En- 
couragement of Domestic Industry, 1861, p. 104). 

In 1785 Gen. Thomas Johnson and his brother at their Catoctin 
Iron Furnace in Frederick County, Md., made parts of the engine 
that James Rumsey used in his steamboat trials on the Potomac 
River. 

It is probable that John Nancarrow had constructed steam engines 
at Philadelphia before 1786. At that time he was the proprietor of 
an iron furnace there, and was one of the two men to whom John 
Fitch, the steamship inventor, was referred for advice. In 1770 
Nancarrow was one of the two principal builders of atmospheric 
steam engines in England (Smeaton) and in 1799 was the author of a 
memoir on his improvements to the Savery type of engine in Trans- 
actions American Philosophical Society, vol. 4, 1799 (Bishop, vol. 1, 
p. 577). 

In 1786-87 John Fitch, with Henry Voight, a Dutch watclimaker 
of Philadelphia, constructed two models of steam engines and a 
full-size engine of the Boulton and Watt type with a 12-inch cylin- 
der. Later, in 1790, Fitch, William Thornton, and John Hall to- 
gether constructed an efficient engine that was used to propel a 
packet boat (Bishop, vol. 1, p. 577). 

As early as 1788 Nathan Read, graduate of Harvard College and 
resident of Salem, Mass., became interested in the propulsion of 
boats by steam and directed his attention to the design of lighter and 
more efficient machinery. On August 26, 1791, he received a United 
States patent for a vertical multitubular boiler, one of the first four 
United States patents, all of which were issued on the same day. 
Read's boiler is the earliest multitubular boiler of record (Read, 
David, Nathan Read and the Steam Engine, 1870) . 

In 1794, Jacob Mark, Philip Schuyler, and Nicholas J. Roosevelt 
purchased six acres of land from Josiah Hornblower, then a sub- 
stantial citizen of New Jersey, and put up a foundry, machine shop, 
and smelter for the use of the New Jersey Copper Mine Associa- 
tion, which they as directors had organized to resume mining at the 



34 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Schuyler mine. This establishment was located on Second River near 
Belleville, N. J., and was called "Soho" after the Boulton and Watt 
works of the same name. In 1798, under the direction of Roosevelt, 
who was then probably the sole owner, a steam engine was made for 
the boat Polacca. This engine had a 20-inch diameter cylinder and 
a 24-inch stroke (Nelson, Josiah HornhloiDer). The boat was the 
result of the combined efforts of Col. John Stevens, of Hoboken, 
Robert R. Livingston, of New York, and Roosevelt. 

On March 21, 1799, Roosevelt contracted to build the engines for 
the Center Square and the Schuylkill (at Chestnut Street) stations 
of the Philadelphia waterworks. These were large engines of the 
Boulton and Watt type and were put in operation in December 1800 
and January 1801. The contract price was $30,000 for the two, but 
Roosevelt claimed that they cost him $77,192 to build. Complete 
descriptions of these are given in an illustrated paper by Fred. 
Graff, C. E., quoted in the article "The History of the Steam Engine 
in America" in the Journal of the Franklin Institute^ October 1876, 
and also in United States Centennial Com/mission: Reports and 
Awards^ International Exhibition^ vol. 6, p. 197, 1876. The same 
references show that in July 1800 a small cylinder for a steamboat 
engine (for Roosevelt, Livingston, and others) was being bored at 
the "Soho" works. 

Col. John Stevens in 1799 became the engineer of the Manhattan 
Company, which was organized that year to supply water to the City 
of New York. He convinced the directors that a steam pump should 
be substituted for the horsepower pumps with which the company 
started, and in 1800 constructed (probably at his own shop in 
Hoboken) an engine of the Savery type embodying several of his 
own improvements. This was not satisfactory, and Stevens then 
attempted to construct an engine with "Doc" Appollos Kinsley, 
owner of a small machine shop in Greenwich Street, New York. 
Kinsley wrote in August 1801 that he had the engine in operation, 
ready to deliver, but he became ill before its completion and Stevens 
procured an engine of the Boulton and Watt type, constructed by 
Robert McQueen, of New York. This engine continued in operation 
to about 1844 (Turnbull, A. D., John Stevens^ An American Record,, 
pp. 151-152, 1928). 

Oliver Evans, millwright and engineer, speculated on the use of 
the steam engine to propel land carriages as early as 1773-74. He 
filed an application for a patent with the United States Patent Office 
in 1792 containing specifications for horizontal and vertical recipro- 
cating engines and a rotary engine. In 1801 he completed a prac- 
tical steam engine, which, if it did grind plaster and saw marble, 
was the first steam engine to be used in a manufacturing process in 
this country, all earlier engines having been used to pump water or 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 35 

propel boats. Shortly thereafter Evans established the Mars Iron 
Works in Philadelphia and began the manufacture of steam engines. 
Evans built small, high-pressure, beam engines that found a ready 
sale and were sent to many parts of the country. At Evans' death 
in 1819 more than 50 of his engines are said to have been in use 
in a great variety of work. The business was continued by David 
Muhlenburg and James Rush at Philadelphia and by Stackliouse & 
Kogers, licensees, at Pittsburgh. 

A description of the engine built by Oliver Evans for the steamboat 
Aetna ajDpears in L.-B. Marestier : Memoir sur le Bateaux a Vapor^ 
Paris, 1824. Oliver Evans: A Chronicle of Early American En- 
gineering, by Greville and Dorothy Bathe, Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1935, is an excellent record of Evans' 
life and work. 

Robert Fulton imported a Boulton and Watt steam engine in 1805-6 
for his steamboat experiments on the Hudson River. This engine, a 
double-acting, separate-condenser type, was used in the successful 
Clermont. This was the first Boulton and Watt engine now definitely 
known to have been brought to this country and was probably the 
second engine imported from England. 

Early steam-engine manufactures. — ^With the success of Evans and 
Fulton the general interest in steam engines for both manufactory 
and boat power increased tremendously, and steam engines were 
built in all parts of the country. Prior to this, steam engines had been 
built at iron furnaces and in the establishments making mill macliin- 
ery, stoves and kettles, and plates and rods, all of which had grown 
out of iron furnaces and foundries. The Soho works of Roosevelt 
was originally the smelter and shops of the New Jersey Mine Asso- 
ciation; John Nancarrow at Philadelphia was the proprietor of an 
iron furnace (Nancarrow and Matach), which, according to George 
Washington (1787), was the largest and best equipped in the country; 
John Hall, steam-engine mechanic, with Fitch and Stevens owned 
a plating forge and tilt hammer at Philadelphia in 1750 ; and Robert 
McQueen (with Sturtevant) and James F. Allaire, at New York, 
were the proprietors of an iron furnace and foundry, respectively. 
Evans' Mars Iron Works was probably the first to specialize in steam 
engines, though James Smallman was listed in the Philadelphia di- 
rectory of 1802 as maintaining an establishment for making steam 
engines of all sizes and varieties (Westcott and Scharf, History of 
Philadelphia) . Smallman seems to have been the first to export a 
steam engine from the country, as he built a steam flour mill for 
Cadiz, Spain, in 1806. 

Immediately after the successful trip of the Clermont, Fulton began 
to build engines and steamboat machinery at his shops in what is 
now Jersey City. 



Qg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Staudinger, who had worked with Roosevelt at Soho and Stevens 
at Hoboken, was Fulton's chief engineer. Iron castmgs were obtained 
from McQueen and John Youle and brass castings from Allaire, all 
of New York. Many successful engines were built before Fulton's 
death in 1815, after which Staudinger and Allaire took over the works 
and continued there until Staudinger's death the next year. Allaire, 
then, as sole owner, removed the works to the location of his original 
brass and bell foundry in Cherry Street, New York City, where he 
continued the manufacture of large marine and stationary engines 
until he retired from the business in 1842. The Allaire Works was 
incorporated in 1850, with T. F. Secor president, and continued to 
1868, when it was purchased along with most of the other engine 
works in New York City by Jolin V. Roach to form John V. Roach 
& Sons. 

HALF CYLINDER OF THE FIRST STEAM ENGINE IN AMERICA, 1755 

Plate 12, Fiq-uke 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 180143; original; deposited by the New Jersey Historical Society; 
photograpli no. 32578. 

The engine of which this relic was a part was constructed in Corn- 
wall, England, by Joseph Hornblower and his sons, engine builders 
and engmeers, for Col. Jolin Schuyler, of New Jersey. It was 
brought to America in 1753 by Josiah Hornblower and erected by him 
at Colonel Schuyler's copper mine on Barbadoes Neck, N. J. The 
enguie was started in 1755 and used to pump water from the mine 
until 1768, when it was disabled by fire. It was used again from 1793 
until some time early in the nineteenth century, when it was dis- 
mantled and the parts disposed of. This portion of the cylinder is 
the only part known to have been preserved to the present time. 

The engine was an atmospheric steam engine of the Newcomen 
type, in which the piston was connected by a flexible chain to a 
walking beam to the other end of which were connected the heavy 
pump rods and parts. The weight of the pump rods pulled down 
the pump end of the beam, raising the piston end so that the engine 
piston was held at the top of the cylinder. Steam was admitted to 
the cylinder, the valves were closed, cold water injected, and the steam 
condensed, forming a partial vacuum under the piston, with the result 
that atmospheric pressure pushed down the piston and raised the 
pump rod. The cylinder was then opened to the atmosphere and 
the weight of the pump returned the piston to the top of the cylinder 
so that the cycle could be repeated. The reciprocating motion of the 
pump rods pumped the water from the mines. 

This description is general, as no detailed account of the engine 
exists and the only illustration of the engine is that of the engine 
house in the Hornblower family seal. 



■ CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 37 

JAMES RUMSEY'S STEAM ENGINE, 1787 

"A Short Treatise on the Application of Steam , . . Applied to 

Propel Boats or Vessels . . . Grist-mills, Saw-mills, etc." 

By James Rumsey (1787) 

U.S.N.M. no. 160398 ; original ; purchased from Thomas Rumsey ; not illustrated. 

This treatise (26 pp. ) , written by the author to set forth his claims 
as the original inventor of the steamboat, is of interest here because it 
describes one of the earliest steam engines (or steam pumps) built in 
the United States. 

The engine described was a direct-connected atmospheric pumping 
engine. A vertical steam cylinder 2l^ feet in length (diameter not 
stated) was mounted upon and directly bolted to a pump cylinder of 
the same diameter. The pump piston and the steam piston were 
connected together by a "smooth bolt passing through the bottom 
of the upper cylinder." Steam from the boiler was admitted to the 
upper cylinder "under its piston which is then carried to the top of 
the cylinder by the steam (at the same time, the piston of the lower 
cylinder is brought up to its top, from its connection with the upper 
piston, by the aforesaid bolt), they then shut the communication from 
the boiler, and open another to discharge the steam for condensation ; 
by this means the atmosphere acts upon the piston of the upper 
cylinder, and its force is conveyed to the piston in the lower cylinder, 
by the aforesaid connecting bolt, which forces the water, then in the 
lower cylinder, through the trunk, with considerable velocity; the 
reaction of which on the other end of the trunk, is the power that 
propels the boat forward." 

It appears from this that the engine employed the pressure of the 
steam for raising the piston and was equipped with a separate con- 
denser. Affidavits included in the Treatise estimate the weight of 
the machinery as 500 to 800 pounds, occupying a space less than that 
required for "four flour barrels" or about "four feet by three feet", 
that the fuel consumption was not more than 4 bushels of coal in 
12 hours, and that the boat laden with 2 to 3 tons exclusive of the 
machinery was driven at a speed of 3 to 4 miles an hour. 

A new type of boiler, which "Charles (Morrow) conceives to be 
the most capital contrivance to make steam that can be invented, for 
when the machine is not at work, the whistling of the steam may be 
heard at least half a mile", held only 20 pints of water and made 
"more steam than a five hundred gallon boiler in the common way." 
This was probably a boiler of the flash type. 



go BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

JOHN STEVENS STEAMBOAT ENGINE, 1804 
Plate 12, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 181179; original; deposited by Edwin A. Stevens; photograph no. 
21855. 

This is the high-pressure, reversible steam engine built by Col. 
John Stevens, of Hoboken, N. J., and used in his successful steam- 
boat experiments on the Hudson Kiver in 1804. The engine was 
preserved by members of the Stevens family. In 1844 it was par- 
tially restored when a reproduction of the original boat was made 
and run on the Hudson Kiver. The engine is believed to be the 
oldest steam engine built in the United States now in existence, as 
well as the oldest complete engine of any that were used here. 

The engine has a double-acting, vertical cylinder, 4I/2 inches in 
diameter with 9-inch stroke. The piston rod extends upward and ter- 
minates in a cross arm (cross head) or yoke, from either end of which 
a connecting rod extends downward to a crankshaft. Two crank- 
shafts to drive the two propellers of the boat are located one on 
either side of and slightly below the bottom of the cylinder. Two 
large cast-iron gears, one on each of the crankshafts, run in mesh 
and keep the two cranks turning together in the proper relative 
positions so that the resultant horizontal thrust of the two connect- 
ing rods on the cross head will be zero. (This method of dispensing 
with a cross-head guide was used by Dr. Cartwright of England in 
several small engines erected near London about 1800.) The valves 
of the engine are 2-way plug valves, one of which serves each end of 
the cylinder. The valve stem of each valve carries a small spur 
gear, the two being oscillated by one rack, which moves vertically 
up and down. The rack that works the valves is driven by a lever 
and connecting rod from a crank pin on a crank disk, which is car- 
ried loosely on the end of one crankshaft. 

A collar, which is something less than a complete ring, projects 
from the back of the crank disk and partially encircles the shaft. 
A lug projecting from the shaft in the plane of the collar engages 
with either end of the collar depending upon the direction in which 
the engine is started. As the lug on the shaft is directly opposite the 
crank, and the crank pin is located just midway of the ends of the 
collar, the crank pin will be in the same position relative to the crank 
when running in either direction. A handwheel geared to the crank 
disk permits the crank disk to be turned by hand for approximately 
half a turn ahead of its driven position for starting the engine in 
the desired direction. 

The engine is exhibited with the original tubular boiler and a 
reproduction of the boiler feed pump. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 39 

MACHINERY OF THE "CLERMONT" AND THE "CHANCELLOR 

LIVINGSTON" 

U.S.N.M. no. 180137 ; drawings ; deposited by the Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology; not illustrated. 

The information given to the Museum with the drawings is as 
follows : 

"These drawings of the machinery of the first steamboats of Robert 
Fulton, the Clermont^ and the Chancellor Livingston were made by 
Robert Fulton and used by Mr. Allaire, the engine builder, who sub- 
sequently presented them to Charles H. Haswell, Esq. 

"The first named was afterward lost at the West Point Foundry and 
when afterward found was given by the discoverer to Chief Engineer 
Wm. H. Shock, U. S. Navy, by whom it was, eighteen years later, 
in 1871, presented to the Stevens Institute of Technology. 

"The second drawing remained in the possession of Mr. Haswell 
until, in 1872, it was presented to the Institute by its owner, who sur- 
rendered all proprietary claim to the other sketch." 

THE CLERMONT DRAWINGS 

The drawing of the Clermont (really the North River ^ the re- 
modeled Clermont) machinery is a nicely executed wash drawing, 
14 by 22 inches in size, of a longitudinal section in elevation through 
the "engine room" part of the vessel, including a portion from a point 
slightly aft of the boiler grates forward to include the entire machin- 
ery and its framework. The floor timbers and deck beams are shown. 
An inscription, evidently added after the drawing was found at the 
West Point Foundry, reads: "Engine of Steamboat Clermont-North 
River. The Original Drawing Drawn by Robert Fulton, Esqr. New 
York 1808. From the archives of the West Point Foundry Associa- 
tion." 

The drawing unfortunately is stained and worn to the extent that 
many details are obliterated. On the other hand, it is believed to 
be a duplicate of one of several original drawings by Fulton now 
in the possession of the New Jersey Historical Society, and from a 
study of both drawings together with a description of the boat 
deposited in the New York Historical Society by Richard Varick De 
Witt in 1858 (published in Robert Fulton and the Clermont^ by A. C. 
Sutcliff, 1908) the following description of the engine can be given 
with some degree of accuracy : 

The engine was constructed at Birmingham, England, by Boulton 
and Watt and shipped to New York in 1806. It was double acting, 
with a cylinder 2 feet in diameter and a 4-foot stroke. The cylinder 
stood upon a condenser shell of the same diameter and about 2 feet 
in height. The piston rod extended upward and terminated in a 
cross head, which traveled in guides on vertical timbers of a gallows 



40 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

frame erected over the cylinder. A connecting rod extended down- 
ward from each side of the cross head to the aft end of a bell-crank 
lever, one of which was located on each side of the cylinder. The bell 
cranks were triangular trusses constructed with a long horizontal 
lower member pivoted at a point about a foot forward and slightly 
below the bottom of the cylinder. This member extended aft so that 
the end that was connected to the cross head was approximately 
opposite the center of the cylinder and under the cross head. The 
same member extended forward from the pivot about the same dis- 
tance and the forward end was heavily weighted to counterpoise 
the weight of the connecting rod. Integral with the lower horizontal 
member of the lever, perpendicular to it, and rising from it at the 
pivot point was a short arm, which formed, with the lower member, 
a right-angle bell crank. From the top of the short member a long 
connecting rod extended forward to a crankpin in the side of the rim 
of a large gear wheel, which meshed with and turned a larger gear 
on the paddle-wheel shaft. From a point forward of the pivot of 
each lever a connecting rod extended upward to the cross head of an 
air pump and to the end of a vibrating beam from which motion was 
taken to operate two other pumps, which were probably bilge and 
boiler feed pumps. A large flywheel was mounted directly over the 
keel on the paddle-wheel shaft. The valves and valve gearing of the 
engine are not detailed, and all that can be said is that there was a 
valve chest at either end of and on the aft side of the cylinder con- 
nected together by a pipe on the starboard side. De Witt states that 
"the valves of the cylinder were poppet valves operated by the clack 
gearing, then in use." The valves of the engines in the model of the 
Glei'mont in the water craft collections of the Museum are indicated 
as having been operated by hand. Drawing 7 attached to Fulton's 
U. S. Patent Specification of 1809 from a copy in the Boulton and 
Watt manuscript in the possession of George Sangyl, Birmingham, 
England, first published in Robert Fulton^ Engineer and ArtiM^ by 
H. W. Dickinson, London, 1914, indicates a practically identical 
arrangement of machinery. This drawing shows a plug tree, for 
actuating the valves, connected to the vertical arm of the bell crank 
by means of a flexible cord or chain turning over a guide pulley. 
The plug tree was raised by the pull of the cord and returned by its 
own weight. 

The boiler was a return-flue cylindrical shell boiler set in brickwork. 
The brickwork formed the furnace under the forward end of the 
shell and a long narrow flue under it to the back of the boiler. The 
grates were horizontal. The chimney was at the front of the boiler 
(the forward end) and was supported on a brick column, which also 
enclosed the front smoke box. An inclined chute through the brick 
column permitted fuel to be put upon the grates. The shell of the 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 12 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 13 





STEAM Engines. 1864-1875. 

1. Horizontal steam engine, 1864 (U.S.N.M. no. 310241). See p. 48. 
2. Tliompson and Hunt steam engine, c. 1875 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 309645). See p. 50. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 41 

boiler was of copper, weighed 4,399 pounds, and was constructed by 
Cave & Son, of London, England. The boiler was approximately 
40 inches in diameter, the flue about 14 inches. 

THE CHANCELLOR LIVINGSTON DRAWING 

This is a mechanical drawing in pencil on buff drawing paper, 15 
by 22 inches, scale % inch=l foot, somewhat torn and stained. The 
drawing shows a section through the cylinder, condenser, air pump, 
and boiler feed pump, with the valves and valve chests completely 
drawn in section. The lever that drove the air pump and the linkages 
to the feed pump and valve mechanism are shown, but the valve 
mechanism itself is barely indicated in free-hand drawing, and the 
connecting rod from the cross head to the crank at the side of cylinder 
is omitted. The gear train to the flywheel shaft and the rim of the 
flywheel are indicated. 

The engine consisted of a vertical double-acting cylinder, 40 inches 
in diameter with a 5-foot stroke, placed upon a cylindrical condenser 
shell of the same diameter, 3 feet tall. The piston rod extended 
upward to a cross head the guides for which are not shown, though 
an A-frame rising about 18 feet above the bottom of the condenser 
shown in the drawing would have had no other purpose than to carry 
guides for the cross head. A very long connecting rod extended 
downward from the cross head to one end of a straight lever, the 
opposite end of which was similarly connected to the cross head of a 
vertical air pump, 28 inches in diameter, 30-inch stroke. The lever 
was pivoted on a pedestal located forward of the cylinder, between 
the cylinder and the air pump. The base of the condenser, the 
pedestal, and the air pump were apparently bolted to the same base, 
which contained a passage connecting the condenser with the air- 
pump cylinder. The intake valve of the air pump was a very large 
lift valve apparently closed by its own weight, located in the center 
of the lower end of the cylinder. The piston of the air pump had 
an annular port around the piston rod, wliich was closed by a lift 
valve that slid on the piston rod. The discharge was at the side of 
the upper end of the cylinder, through a hinged check valve into a 
discharge chamber, which was connected to the suction of the boiler 
feed pump. The boiler feed pump and probably the valves of the 
engine were operated from a rod worked up and down by a vibrating 
lever, one end of which was attached to the piston rod, the other end 
indicated as being fixed at a point above and several feet aft of the 
cylinder. The valves of the engine were located in a valve chest at 
each end of the cylinder. Each valve chest was divided into three 
parts by two poppet valves and valve seats. The central part in each 
valve chest between the valves was connected to the passage leading 

49970—39 4 



42 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

to the end of the cylinder. The space above the upper valve in each 
chest was connected to the boiler steam pressure, the lower space to 
the condenser. In each case the stem of the valve extended upward, 
the stem of the lower valve passing through the upper valve and valve 
stem. The valve-actuating mechanism was very lightly sketched in 
the drawing, and the exact method of operation is not discernible. 
It is fairly clear that a bracket bolted to each valve chest extended 
upward and carried the pivots for two bell cranks, which were at- 
tached to collars on the valve stems. A third bracket slightly aft of 
the valve chests and just below the upper valve chest carried the 
pivots of twc other bell cranks. These two bell cranks had their 
afterarms drawn out and curved into hooks, which may have been 
handles for manual operation of the valves or which may have en- 
gaged with some valve-actuating mechanism not shown. Each of 
these two bell cranks had two other arms connected by links to the 
bell cranks on the valve chest brackets. The upper one operated the 
steam valve of the upper end of the cylinder, opening it as it opened 
the exhaust valve of the lower end. The lower crank opened the 
exhaust valve of the upper end while it opened the steam valve of the 
lower end, and vice versa. The crankshaft of the engine was directly 
under the cross head and slightly below the top of the cylinder. The 
crank was carried on the side of a 6-foot gear wheel, which meshed 
with a 3-foot gear on the flywheel shaft. The flywheel sketched was 
approximately 13 feet 6 inches in diameter. 

JAMES WATT ENGINE AT SAVANNAH, GA., 1815 

U.S.N.M. no. 309800 ; blueprint of drawing made from the engine ; gift of John 
Rourke, Sr. ; not illustrated. 

This print is a side and end elevation of a 90 horsepower beam 
engine, built by James Watt at Lancashire, England, in 1815. The 
engine was brought to Savannah, Ga., and erected at the rice mills 
of Messrs. McAlpin and Mclnnis, where it worked regularly to about 
1900. In 1891 it was generally overhauled and repaired by Jolui 
Rourke & Son, Novelty Iron Works, Savannah, when this drawing 
was made. When the mill was dismantled about 1900 the engine 
was stored by Mr. Rourke who recognized its historical value. Un- 
fortunately it was destroyed by fire several years later. 

The engine had a 31-inch cylinder, 72-inch stroke, and operated 
at 18 revolutions a minute on 8 pounds per square inch steam pres- 
sure. It was equipped with a common jet condenser and a 24-inch 
air pump. A boiler feed pump worked from the beam. The crank- 
shaft and connecting rod were cast iron. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 43 

STATIONARY ENGINE, 1829 

U.S.N.M. no. 180010; original model; gift of Charles M. Blackford; not illus- 
trated. 

This is an operating model of a simple steam engine made by 
William M. Blackford, a lawyer and editor of the Political Arena 
at Fredericksburg, Va., in 1829. At that time steam engines were 
so rare that Mr. Blackford was induced to deliver public lectures on 
the steam engine, using the model as an illustration. It is believed 
that the model illustrates the general form of the simple steam engine 
as it was being built about 1829. 

The model has a vertical, double-acting cylinder, with the piston 
rod connected by a double pin joint to one end of a walking beam. 
The other end of the beam carries a connecting rod that turns a crank, 
crankshaft, and flywheel. A slide valve moves across the lower end 
of the cylinder and is driven by an eccentric on the shaft through 
a valve rod, bell crank, and eccentric rod. Steam is carried to the 
upper end of the cylinder through a passage extending along the 
whole length of the cylinder. 

"LIGHTHALL'S IMPROVED HORIZONTAL AND BEAM ENGINE", 1838 

U.S.N.M. no. 308639 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
granted to William A. Liglithall, of Albany, N. Y., April 14, 1S38, 
no. 696. 

The engine is designed primarily for boat propulsion and permits 
the use of a horizontal steam cylinder installed low within the boat 
in combination with a beam working vertically as in a beam engine. 

The model is diagrammatic in form, is made of wood, and is not 
complete. The engine represented is essentially a beam engine laid 
upon its side so that the cylinder is horizontal and the beam is sup- 
ported vertically. The patent drawing shows the cylinder placed di- 
rectly upon the keelson of a boat with the beam held so that the lower 
end is at the approximate level of the center of the cylinder. A long 
connecting rod attached to the upper end of the beam reaches back 
over the cylinder to a crank on the engine shaft, which is located 
above the cylinder and back of it. 

MAUDSLAY AND FIELD MARINE ENGINE, 1842 

U.S.N.M. no. 251298; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Joseph Maudslay and Joshua Field, of Lambeth, England, June 
11, 1842, no. 2668. 



44 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The engine represented is one in which the crankshaft is located 
close to the top of the vertical cylinder and is driven by a return con- 
necting rod from the cross head, which is above the shaft. It is 
designed to utilize all the limited height available within a boat below 
the paddle shaft. 

Peculiarities of the engine are the use of two piston rods, one on 
either side of the crank throw, and the location of the cylinder so 
that its axis does not pass through the center of the crankshaft. The 
piston rods terminate in a cross head that works in vertical cylin- 
drical guides from which a connecting rod returns to the crank lo- 
cated just above the cylinder. 

The patent also describes the Maudslay and Field "Siamese" en- 
gine, a double, return-connecting rod engine; and a method of con- 
trolling the expansion valves of the two cylinders simultaneously and 
without stopping the engine. This last was effected by changing the 
position of a pair of spiral cams (snail cams), which operated the 
expansion valves. 

U.S.N.M. no. 309353, original patent model, transferred from the 
United States Patent Office, is a duplicate model of this engine. 

LOPER STEAM ENGINE, 1845 

U.S.N.M. no. 251297; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This operating model was submitted with the application for the 
patent issued to R. F. Loper, of Philadelphia, Pa., November 26, 
1845, Patent no. 4289. 

The engine was designed to drive two parallel crankshafts in op- 
posite directions at the same speed, for the purpose of turning screw 
propellers of the "inventor's and others' design", for the propulsion 
of ships. 

The single horizontal cylinder of the engine is located a short dis- 
tance from one end of a long rectangular bed frame. At each end of 
the frame is a crankshaft connected by its connecting rod to the 
cross head, which moves in guides near the middle of the frame. A 
third vibrating rod pivoted on the cross-head pin at the side of the 
cross head extends the entire length of the engine and connects the two 
crankshafts for the purpose of keeping them in their proper relative 
and opposed positions. 

BENSON STEAM ENGINE, 1847 

U.S.N.M. no. 309197; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was part of the application for the patent issued to 
Benjamin S. Benson, July 10, 1847, no. 5185. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 45 

The machine represented by the model is a very early example of the 
"wobble disk" type of engine or pump. Many engines and pumps 
using this principle of operation have been designed from time to time, 
and experiments are carried on today with internal combustion en- 
gines of this form. Combinations of one unit used as a pump and one 
used as a fluid motor are very successfully used for power trans- 
missions. 

The machine consists of four cylinders placed around the axis of 
a shaft, parallel with and at equal distance from it, with the rods of 
the pistons that work in the cylinders connected to arms projecting 
from a shaft not parallel to the axis about which the cylinders are 
placed. With this arrangement rotary motion of the shaft is accom- 
panied by reciprocating motion of the pistons, and the device may be 
used as a motor or a pump. 

LOPER MARINE STEAM ENGINE, 1849 

U.S.N.M. no, 309198; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This was submitted with the application for the patent issued to 
K. F. Loper, of Philadelphia, August 28, 1849, no. 6673. 

This is a nicely made working model of a 2-cylinder vertical marine 
engine directly connected to a 2-throw propeller shaft, upon which 
is mounted a 4-blade propeller. The model is complete with boiler, 
feed-water pump, condenser, and condenser air pump. The peculiar 
feature of the invention is the manner of connecting the air pump 
to the engine and the method of quickly converting the engine from 
condensing to noncondensing operation. 

The engine represented consists of a heavy bed plate shaped to fit 
the hull of a vessel, upon which are attached the bearing of the pro- 
peller shaft and the frame that supports the cylinders. The cylin- 
ders are double-acting and are "reversed from the ordinary position 
of engines, the piston rod running down through the lower head and 
connecting by the usual connecting rod with the cranks on the shaft 
below." "The valves of the engine take their motion from eccentrics 
on the main shaft coupled with a valve lever by proper eccentric 
rods. The lever is affixed to its axis by its center and is made double, 
so that the eccentric rod can be thrown to either end to reverse the 
motion or may be wholly detached." The cut-off is worked by an- 
other eccentric on the shaft. The feed-water pump is worked di- 
rectly from the cross head. The air pump is driven by a beam and 
connecting rod, which is driven by a crankpin upon a gear wheel 
that engages a pinion on the crankshaft. The ratio of the gears is 
such that the air pump performs only one stroke to two of the 
engine. The air pump communicates with the condenser into which 



46 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the exhaust pipe opens. The escape pipe is also connected with the 
condenser, which, when open, allows the steam to escape without 
condensing. 

LIGHTHALL HALF-BEAM MARINE ENGINE, 1849 

U.S.N.M. no. 308641 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to William A. Lighthall, of Albany, N. Y., October 23,' 1849, 
no. 6811. 

The model shows a combination of a horizontal cylinder with a 
vertical beam to which the engine's force is applied between the ful- 
crum and the connecting rod to the engine crank. It permits locat- 
ing the propelling machinery of a side-wheel steamboat low within 
the hull. 

The model is a panel representing a horizontal cylinder with piston 
rod connecting to a short beam pivoted at a point below the level of 
the cylinder. From a short distance above the point at which the 
piston force is applied to the beam a long connecting rod connects to 
the crank on the engine shaft located above the cylinder and at the 
middle of its length. The location of the condenser below the 
cylinder and the location of the air pump and the manner of operat- 
ing it are shown by the model. 

JOHN ERICSSON STEAM ENGINE, 1849 

U.S.N.M. no. 251299 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model formed part of the application for the patent issued 
November 6, 1849, no. 6844. 

The invention illustrated in this model is an engine in which the 
resistance applied to the piston rod by the load on the engine decreases 
in the exact ratio of the decreasing pressure of the steam as it 
expands in the cylinder of the engine. It is intended to apply the 
irregular pressure on the piston in such a manner that a continuous 
power will be transmitted to the crank. 

The engine consists of one small and one large diameter vertical 
cylinder from each of which a piston rod extends upward to the end 
of a rocking beam. The other end of each beam is connected to a 
throw of a horizontal crankshaft, the two throws of which are 180° 
apart. Steam is admitted to the upper end of the small cylinder, 
when that piston is at the top of its stroke, and acts directly upon 
the piston for part of the downstroke. The steam is then cut off and 
expanded to the end of the stroke, when the expanded steam is passed 
to the upper end of the large cylinder, where it expands further as 
that piston moves down to the end of the stroke. At the same time 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 47 

the lower part of the small cylinder is opened to the same steam, so 
that the pressure on either side of the small piston is balanced during 
its upward stroke. The lower end of the large cylinder is always 
connected to the condenser and during the upstroke of the large piston 
the pressure is balanced by opening the upper end to the condenser 
also. The proportions of the engine are selected so that "the force 
transmitted to the crank during the first and second halves of its 
semirevolution shall be alike although the steam be expanded more 
than twenty times." 

The witnesses to the patent application for the above invention were 
Peter Hogg and James B. Ward of the old Hogg & Delameter Iron 
Works. 

ERICSSON STEAM ENGINE, 1858 

U.S.N.M. no. 251295; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflJce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John Ericsson, July 6, 1858, no. 20782. 

The purpose of this design was to obtain the maximum of compact- 
ness and power in a horizontal engine so that it could be located 
transversely and very low within a boat for driving the screw 
propeller of the boat. 

The engine represented consists of two short-stroke, large-diame- 
ter, horizontal, double-acting cylinders placed with their head ends 
bolted together and located so that the propeller shaft is in the plane 
in which the cylinders are joined together. The piston rods of the 
two cylinders are connected by like combinations of rocker arm and 
connecting rod to a single crank on the propeller shaft. 

SHLARBAUM OSCILLATING ENGINE, 1863 

U.S.N.M. no. 251293 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Herrmann Shlarbaum, New York, N. Y., September 1, 1863, 
Patent no. 39756. 

This engine has a reciprocating piston working in a vertical cylin- 
der oscillating on trunnions near the center of the cylinder. The 
piston rod is directly connected to a crankshaft supported over the 
cylinder in the same columns that carry the cylinder trunnions. The 
feature of this engine is the manner of admitting steam to the cyl- 
inder and controlling the exhaust by means of sliding surfaces lo- 
cated on the sides of the cylinder at the lower end of the cylinder. 
Admitting steam in this manner rather than through the trunnions 
was supposed to reduce the trouble caused by baking the lubricating 
oil on the trunnions. 



48 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ERICSSON STEAM ENGINE, 1864 

U.S.N.M. no. 308672 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was filed with the application for Patent no. 41612, 
issued to John Ericsson, February 16, 1864. 

This model shows a horizontal reciprocating steam engine to the 
piston of which is linked a rolling weight, which has a corresponding 
reciprocating motion but always moves in a direction opposite to that 
of the piston. The intention of the inventor was to diminish the con- 
cussion and shaking of a marine engine bed caused by the starting 
and stopping of the mass of the piston, piston rods, and cross head 
by adding a similar reciprocating mass moving in the opposite direc- 
tion. 

This model was made to demonstrate the principle involved in the 
invention. It is driven by a spring motor and is mounted on rollers 
so that it is free to move if there is any tendency to do so. The 
counterbalancing weight rolls back and forth in the hollow wooden 
base of the model. 

A brass plate on the model is engraved "J. Ericsson, Inventor, 
1863." 

HORIZONTAL STEAM ENGINE, 1864 
Plate 13, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 310241 ; original ; gift of the Southern Railway System ; photograph 
no. 31026. 

This engine was built in 1864 at the Alexandria, Va., shops of the 
United States Military Railroad Department under the direction of 
W. H. McCafferty, master mechanic. It was used to furnish power 
to the machine shops of the then Alexandria & Orange Railroad 
and was continued in the same service to 1921. The engine is 
typical of the best construction of simple stationary steam engines 
as they were built in 1864 and for many years thereafter. 

The engine consists of a 12-inch diameter by 24-inch horizontal 
cylinder bolted to a rectangular box frame of cast iron mounted upon 
a low brick foundation. The crankshaft turns in one pillow block on 
the frame and an outboard bearing block, which is carried on a brick 
and timber base. The shaft carries a slender flywheel, 10 feet in 
diameter, and a wide face belt pulley, 6 feet in diameter. The fly- 
wheel and pully turn in a pit between the frame and the outboard 
bearing. The cross-head guide is of the double-V type and is sup- 
ported upon turned pillars rising from the frame. The valve is a 
long slide valve, H-shape in plan, and in effect a simple B-valve. 
It is driven from an eccentric on the shaft by a hook-and-latch eccen- 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 49 

trie rod, which can be lifted out of engagement with the valve rod to 
permit the valve to be worked by a hand lever provided for that 
purpose. The speed of the engine was governed by a flyball throttling 
governor, driven from a pulley on the shaft through belts to a jack- 
shaft and then to the governor pulley. 

WILLIAM MONT STORM ENGINE, 1865 

U.S.N.M. no. 309195 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Ofl3ce; not illustrated. 

This model formed part of the application for the patent issued 
to William Mont Storm on July 11, 1865, no. 48777. 

This is a 3-cylinder engine of a radial type, designed to produce 
rotary motion with compactness and simplicity. 

The engine consists of two horizontal, opposed, single-acting cylin- 
ders and one vertical double-acting cylinder. The pistons of the hori- 
zontal cylinders are extended and joined to form a slotted crosshead 
in which one crank of the crankshaft moves. The piston in the verti- 
cal cylinder has a much shorter stroke and the piston rod from it 
extends to a second cross head and crank. D -slide valves are operated 
by a very small crank at the end of the crankshaft, in a valve chest 
located at the center of the engine. The engine is reversible. 

WILLIAM SELLERS OSCILLATING ENGINE, 1872 

U.S.N.M. no. 251296 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model formed part of the application for the patent issued to 
William Sellers, of Philadelphia, Pa., June 11, 1872, Patent no. 
127928. 

This engine provides an oscillating engine valve gear capable of 
variable motion and an adjustable guide that relieves the piston-rod 
stuffing box of the wear and strain developed in rotating the crank. 

The engine is operated by a plain D-slide valve that receives a 
constant motion, for giving a uniform lead, from the eccentric and a 
variable and reversible motion, for cutting off the steam at different 
portions of the stroke, and for reversing the movement of the engine, 
from the oscillation of the cylinder. 

This is not the first oscillating engine in which the valve was 
operated by the combined motion of the eccentric and the movement 
of the cylinder. 

The piston rod guide is a sleevelike bearing cast in a piece with the 
cylinder head and surrounding but separate from the stuffing box. It 
is designed to prevent wear and leakage of the packing and permit 
oscillating engines to run at high speeds. 



50 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HIRAM MAXIM PUMPING ENGINE, 1874 

U.S.N.M. no. 308683; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Hiram S. Maxim, of New York, N. Y., December 22, 1874, 
no. 158105. 

This model represents a steam engine, pump, and gas-fired boiler, 
equipped with automatic valves for maintaining the proper level of 
water in the boiler and for holding a steady pressure in the boiler by 
starting or stopping the burner. The combination is a steam-pump- 
ing unit intended to function automatically without the services of an 
attendant. 

The engine is supported upon the boiler and consists of a rectangu- 
lar bed, which serves as the pump suction chamber, upon which is the 
vertical pump cylinder and the pedestal that supports the flywheel and 
crankshaft journals and the oscillating steam cylinder. Within the 
base of the pedestal is a feed-water heater through which the exhaust 
from the engine passes. A float-operated, weighted, pin valve admits 
water to the boiler from the discharge pipe of the pump when the level 
in the boiler falls. The boiler is a cylindrical shell type with com- 
bustion chamber formed by water legs in the shape of a truncated 
cone. A ring burner for gas or kerosene is located in a cylindrical 
firepot within the combustion chamber. The fuel valve to the burner 
is held open by a spring and is closed by the pressure within the 
boiler exerted upon a diaphragm and lever. A hole through the valve 
permits a small pilot flame to burn at all times. 

THOMPSON AND HUNT STEAM ENGINE, c. 1875 
Plate 13, Fiquke 2 
U.S.N.M. no. 309e45; model; gift of N. C. Hunt; photograph no. 19922. 

This is a model of the widely used and very successful "Buckeye" 
engine developed by J. W. Thompson and Nathan Hunt about 1875. 
It was one of the first of the high-speed, variable cut-oJff ("auto- 
matic") engines of the modern type. 

The engine is a horizontal, overhung crank engine with cross-head 
guides cast within a skeleton cylindrical projection of the cylinder. 
The valve is a hollow-piston slide valve, taking steam at the center 
and passing it through the hollow center of the valve to ports through 
the walls of the valve. A sleevelike cut-off valve operates within the 
main valve to close the ports. The main valve is operated by a fixed 
eccentric on the crankshaft and the cut-off valve by a shifting eccen- 
tric, the position of which is varied by a centrifugal governor of the 
Thompson and Hunt type (see below). 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 51 

HIGGINSON STEAM ENGINE, 1877 

U.S.N.M. no. 309194; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was part of the application for the patent issued to 
Andrew Higginson, of Liverpool, England, October 23, 1877, no. 
196451. 

The engine represented in the model is a radial reciprocating engine 
with three single-acting cylinders. The admission of steam and the 
exhaust are controlled by ports in the cylinder walls and in the piston. 

A steam and an exhaust port in each cylinder wall are alternately 
connected to the space above the piston by being uncovered by a single 
port in the skirt of the piston. The piston oscillates in the cylinder to 
uncover either port, the direction of rotation of the crank determining 
which port is opened first. The engine, therefore, will run in either 
direction in which it is started. The "cylinders" and pistons are 
rectangular in section. 

VERTICAL STEAM ENGINE 

U.S.N.M. no. 309685; model; gift of Robert E. M. Bain; not iUustrated. 

This is an operating model of a small, high-speed, vertical steam 
engine, of a type that has been widely used since about 1880 to furnish 
small powers for general use. They have had a wide application in 
driving small shops, electric generators, small mine hoists, and flour 
mills and in larger sizes for rolling mills. They have now been gen- 
erally replaced by more modern engines and electric drives. 

The model has a double-acting vertical cylinder supported on a 
tapering columnar frame with openings in the side to allow free ac- 
cess to all working parts within. The cross-head slide and bearings 
are cast with the column. A slide valve operates in a steam chest on 
the side of the cylinder and is driven by an eccentric on the shaft. 
The crankpin is carried in a counterbalanced crank disk. The engine 
in the model is direct-connected to a hoisting drum. 

BAKER STEAM ENGINE, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 309246; original patent model; transfex-red from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John G. Baker, of Philadelphia, Pa., September 10, 1878, no. 207936. 

The model represents a small vertical single-acting engine in which 
the connecting rod is attached to the piston by a ball-and-socket joint, 
and the space enclosed within the cylinder and the face of the piston 
is alternately opened to the exhaust and to the steam pipes by rotating 
the piston laterally in the cylinder. The piston is rotated by a simple 
bent rod, one end of which turns and slides in an opening in the con- 



52 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

iiecting rod, and the other end slides and turns in a socket in the skirt 
of the piston. Turning the piston causes two longitudinal grooves 
in the piston to register periodically with exhaust and steam ports in 
the cylinder wall. 

MAYHEW DIAPHRAGM STEAM ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308705 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Theophilus Mayhew, of New York, N. Y., July 8, 1879, 
no. 217392. 

The engine consists of a hemispherical cuplike chamber over the 
concave opening of which is stretched a flexible diaphragm. This 
chamber connects to a valve chest in which a flat plate valve works 
over the intake and exhaust ports. A lever extends from the frame 
of the machine over the diaphragm upon which a projection of the 
lever rests. Inflation and deflation of the diaphragm by admitting 
and exhausting steam raise the lever and permit it to fall by its 
own weight. A system of cranks and springs actuated by the lever 
operates the valve. The engine was designed as a simple device for 
operating churns and similar machines. 

GRAHAM STEAM ENGINE, c. 1880 
U.S.N.M. no. 310898 ; model ; presented by C. F. Germeyer ; not illustrated. 

This model is of a type of small oscillating steam engine designed 
and built by William Graham, of Carlisle, Pa., about 1880. Built in 
sizes of 5 to 10 horsepower, these engines were popular in central 
Pennsylvania for small shop power. 

On the oscillating cylinder of the engine is a cylindrical valve 
chest containing a cylindrical rocking valve in the form of a "rolled- 
up" D-valve. The valve is rocked by the motion of the cylinder, 
through the action of an adjustable valve gear, which moves on a 
pivot fixed to the stationary base of the engine. 

SCIPLE PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308710 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Harry M. Sciple, Selinsgrove, Pa., February 10, 1880, no. 
224481. 

The model represents a small vertical steam engine designed to 
have the pedestal, cylinder, and steam chest cast in one piece for 
lightness of construction. The cross head and cross-head guides are 
located above the cylinder so that a connecting rod much longer than 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 53 

is usual in these engines is employed. The valve is an oscillating 
valve operated from an eccentric on the shaft. The cross head does 
not have sliding faces but is guided by rollers attached to the cross 
head by pins. These rollers turn over one complete turn and back 
in each cycle of the piston. 

FISKE OSCILLATING ENGINE, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308712 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to William S. Fiske, of Stamford, Conn., August 24, 1880, no. 231551. 

The model represents a vertical steam engine with an oscillating 
cylinder, circular slide valve, and hollow cylinder trunnions for the 
admission and exhaust of steam. Steam is admitted to the center of 
the annular valve through the adjacent trunnion. The exhaust is 
conveyed from the valve seat around the cylmder in a hollow band 
cast on the cylinder for that purpose and leaves the engine through 
the opposite trunnion. The valve is driven by an eccentric on the 
shaft. The valve rod is provided with a cross head moving in a 
guide on the cylinder and oscillating with it. The eccentric rod 
carries a pin that slides in a curved slot in the cross head and produces 
an even motion of the valve thereby. 

MARINE WALKING BEAM STEAM ENGINE, 1888 

U.S.N.M. no. 310311 ; model ; gift of Andrew L. Weis ; not illustrated. 

The model represents a typical American river paddle-wheel steam- 
boat engine of the late nineteenth century. A piston operating in a 
vertical steam cylinder works upon one end of a walking beam over- 
head, while a long connecting rod works from the other end of the 
beam directly upon the crank in the paddle-wheel shaft. The model 
was made by Frank N. Weis, an assistant engineer on the Maumee 
River steamboat Chief Justice Waite and is presumed to represent the 
engine of that boat. 

The beam of the engine is supported between bearings at the tops 
of two tall cast-iron A-frames, which in the steamboat would rest 
directly upon box-girder keelsons in the hull. The steam cylinder 
stands between the forward legs of the A-frames. Forward of the 
cylinder are two columnar pipes bolted to horizontal valve chests 
above and below, which join the pipes but are not connecting. Each 
valve chest is divided at the center so that one pipe and its side of 
both the upper and lower valve chest form the steam-supply passage, 
while the other pipe and its side of the valve chests form the exhaust 
passage connected to the condenser located below and aft of the 
cvlinder. 



54 BULLETIN 173, U. !:>. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The valves are vertical poppet valves with stems projecting upward 
from the valve chests. The valve stems are fixed to short arms at- 
tached to vertical liftmg rods fitted with "long-toe" followers, or 
cams, which ride upon similar tappet cams operated by eccentric rods 
from eccentrics on the paddle-wheel shaft. There are two eccentric 
rods, one on either side of the cylinder, one of which operates the 
steam valves, the other the exhaust valves. The rods are hook-ended 
and work through stirrups, which when raised disengage the rods 
from the valve camshafts. A lever is provided to work the valves by 
hand in maneuvering. 

FIRST STANLEY STEAM AUTOMOBILE ENGINE, 1897 
Plate 14. Fiqube 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 310524 ; original ; gift of the Mason Regulator Co. ; photograph 
no. 9872A. 

The Mason Eegulator Co. built this engine for the first steam auto- 
mobile constructed by F. E. and F. O. Stanley in 1897. It is a 
2-cylinder engine with cylinders, cross-head guides, and crankshaft 
bearings bolted to a wide flat bedplate. The valves are piston slide 
valves with separate steam chests and are operated by individual 
eccentrics and simple Stephenson valve gears. The bore is 2^^ inches ; 
the stroke is 4 inches. 

The engine has the original bronze cylinders that were used on the 
engine when it was first tested by the maker. These were removed 
and cast-iron cylinders substituted for actual use in the automobile. 

WESTINGHOUSE JUNIOR AUTOMATIC ENGINE, c. 1900 
Plate 14, Fiquee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309924; original; from the Mengel Co.; photograph no. 32583B. 

The original Westinghouse engine of tliis type was one of the 
earliest of the modern small high-speed steam engines designed for 
small powers and auxiliary drives. This particular engine was used 
for about 25 years to drive a lighting generator on an Ohio River 
steamboat. 

Some of the characteristics of this engine have been incorporated 
in the present-day internal combustion engines of the automobile 
type. It is a 6-by-5-inch, 2-cylinder, vertical, single-acting engine, 
with cylinders cast in a block and a bolted-on closed crankcase. 
A piston slide valve operates in a cylindrical steam chest cast across 
the tops of both cylinders. The valve is driven from an eccentric 
through a short, ball-jointed connecting rod and bell crank. The 
eccentric is carried in the weighted lever of a flywheel governor. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 14 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 15 




Three-stage steam Turbine. 1926-1930. 

Cutaway (U.S.N.AI. no. 309881). See p. 57. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 55 

Lubrication is effected by the splash of the cranks in a layer of oil 
that floats on water in the crankcase. The throws of the crank are 
formed by bends in the crankshaft. The engine has the manu- 
facturer's number 2909. 

AUTOMOBILE STEAM ENGINE, 1901 

U.S.N.M. no. 307387 ; original ; gift of Louis S. Clarke ; not illustrated. 

This is a light 2-cylinder, high-pressure, reversible steam engine 
of the type used in the early Locomobile automobile. 

The engine consists of two vertical double-acting cylinders, 2^^ 
inches in diameter by 4 inches stroke, cast with a valve chest joining 
them. An ordinary D -slide valve for each cylinder is operated by 
a separate Stephenson link motion with two eccentrics for each. A 
lever and bell crank shifts the two links together. The two cranks 
are at the extreme ends of the crankshaft and overhang the bearings. 
The crankshaft and crankpin bearings are provided with roller bear- 
ings. The power is taken from the engine by a chain from a 12- 
tooth sprocket at the center of the engine shaft. A boiler feed pump 
bolted to the frame is operated by a rocking lever actuated by a pin 
on one cross head. The engine usually operated on a steam pressure 
of 150 pounds per square inch, though the boiler safety valves were 
frequently set as high as 240 pounds per square inch. 

STANLEY STEAM AUTOMOBILE ENGINE, c. 1923 

U.S.N.M. no. 310537, original, gift of Laurence J. Hathaway, not illustrated. 

This engine is one of the last type built by the Stanley Automobile 
Co. It is a 2-cylinder engine of 4-inch bore and 5-inch stroke, 
nominally rated at 20 horsepower. The engine would actually de- 
velop 155 horsepower at 600 pounds per square inch pressure, 200° 
superheat and 80 percent cutoff at 600 revolutions per minute. 

ROTARY STEAM ENGINES 
BAKER AND BALDWIN ROTARY STEAM ENGINE, 1839 

U.S.N.M. no. 308647 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to William H. Baker and Samuel H. Baldwin, of Cohoes, 
N. Y., August 21, 1839, no. 1295. 

This is an early example of a steam engine in which two cams 
turn together in a closed casing so that steam admitted to the casing 
will force apart abutments on the cams and cause the cams and 
the shafts on which they are mounted to turn. This engine may also 
be used as a pump. 



5g BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MILLER ROTARY STEAM ENGINE, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 251294; original patent model, transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to Charles Miller, of Belleville, 111., May 3, 1859, no. 23852. 

The engine has two oval pistons or cams each running in a sepa- 
rate circular cylinder or casing. Sliding abutments in the casing 
bearing on the edges of the cams direct the steam in the forward 
direction around the casing. Admission of steam is controlled by 
two flat slide valves working in steam chests on top of the casing. 
The valves are operated by two eccentrics on the engine shaft. The 
engine is reversible. 

JAMES PLATT ROTARY STEAM ENGINE, 1862 

U.S.N.M. no. 251292; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to James Piatt, of Utica, N. Y., April 15, 1862, no. 34981. 

The engine consists of a rotating cylinder in the form of a hollow 
ring within which are a stationary abutment face and two pistons. 
The pistons are caused to move by the force of the steam admitted 
between the face of the abutment block and each piston in turn as 
it comes around. The cylinder turns with the pistons, and the power 
shaft is bolted to the cylinder. A stationary cam causes the pistons 
to move in and out in a radial direction so that they will clear th© 
abutment as they approach it from the back during each revolution. 

GABRIEL ROTARY STEAM ENGINE, 1867 

U.S.N.M. no. 309196; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Matthias Gabriel, of Newark, N. J., August 6, 1867, no. 67527. 

The engine represented in the model is one of a great many similar 
designs for rotary steam engines, in which a vane or paddle on a 
rotary drum fits closely in the annular chamber between the drum 
and an outer casing and is driven around the chamber by the pressure 
of steam expanding between the paddle and an abutment that tem- 
porarily closes the chamber back of the paddle. 

This engine has two sliding abutments, which are moved in (to 
close the chamber) and out (to clear the paddle as it passes) by 
means of a cam on the shaft of the engine and a system of followers 
and yokes. A plain D-slide valve is operated by pinions and rack 
from an eccentric on the shaft. Two expansions per revolution are 
obtained. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 57 

REILY AND WALDO ROTARY ENGINE, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 309192 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent, issued 
to Henry Eeily and P. G. Waldo, of Pennsylvania, September 28, 

1875, no. 168184. 

The engine represented by the model is one of the large class of 
rotary steam engines in which a rotating drum forms an annular 
chamber with a larger cylindrical housing, within which a driving- 
head bolted to the drum is forced around the annular space by the 
expansion of steam between the movable driving head and a sta- 
tionary abutment projecting into the annular space. The engine is 
provided with two stationary abutments so that two expansions may 
be obtained in one revolution of the driving head. The method of 
controlling the admission of steam and the device for withdrawing 
the stationary abutments to permit the passage of the driving head 
are the peculiar features of this particular engine. 

SCHOFIELD ROTARY ENGINE, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 309193; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Frederick F. Schofield, of Oscoda, Mich., September 19, 

1876, no. 182291. 

This is a rotary engine in which the outer casing rotates and acts 
as both flywheel and belt pulley. Otherwise it does not differ mate- 
rially from the many other rotary engines in which an annular space 
between a casing and a drum is divided by movable abutments in the 
outer casing, and is traversed by a driving head on the drum. In 
this case the drum is held stationary and the abutments in the casing 
are driven around by the pressure between the abutments and the 
head on the drum. 

THREE-STAGE STEAM TURBINE, 1926-1930 
Plate 15 

U.S.N.M. no. 309881 ; original ; gift of the General Electric Co. ; photograph 
no. 39036A. 

This is a modern steam turbine of the General Electric-Curtis 
type, designed for auxiliary drives and small powers requiring 50 to 
100 horsepower, at 500 to 7,600 revolutions per minute, using steam 
at pressures of 100 to 400 pounds per square inch. The turbine is 
cut away to show the details of construction and operation. 

49970—39 5 



5g BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In this turbine steam expands from boiler pressure to exhaust 
pressure in three steps or stages, in the nozzles of a nozzle plate, the 
first diaphragm and a second diaphragm. Following both the nozzle 
plate and the first diaphragm are three rows of blades or buckets 
consisting of two movable rows attached to the rotor of the turbine 
and one row of intermediate buckets attached to the turbine casing. 
Only one row of movable blades is provided after the second nozzle 
diaphragm. The steam expands in the nozzles in each stage with a 
resulting increase in the velocity of the steam. As the steam issues 
with great velocity from the nozzles it impinges on moving blades, 
which are curved in the direction of the path of the steam flow. 
Through the interaction of the forces necessary to change the direc- 
tion of the path of the steam, energy is imparted to the movable 
blades causing the rotor to turn as well as reducing the velocity of 
the steam. This process is repeated in each stage until the pressure 
of the steam is reduced to the exhaust pressure. 

Steam is admitted to the first nozzle through a set of conical lift 
valves, so arranged that they open in sequence as the load on the 
turbine increases. This method permits the sensitive control of the 
steam flow with a much smaller throttling loss than would occur 
with a single large valve. The valves are operated by oil-driven 
pistons and are controlled by a centrifugal governor, a small syn- 
chronous governor, and a hand speed-control adjustment. The speed 
regulation of the turbine is very close. The turbine is equipped with 
emergency steam valve, oil pump, cooler, and filter. 

VACUUM VAPOR POWER PLANT, 1933 

U.S.N.M. no. 310651 ; original, gift of the Cochrane Corporation ; not illustrated. 

The miniature vapor turbine power plant, designed by G. H. 
Gibson, utilizes the difference in temperature generall}^ existing be- 
tween that indicated by an ordinary (dry bulb) thermometer and 
that by a thermometer the bulb of which is kept wetted by a wick dip- 
ping into water (wet bulb). The "plant" is made of glass and con- 
sists of a boiler, which is a spiral of bare glass tubing in which vapor 
is generated by the heat in the surrounding atmosphere, a nozzle 
through which the vapor jets upon the buckets of a tiny turbine wheel 
mounted on jeweled bearings, and a condenser, which is also a spiral 
of glass tubing covered and cooled by wetted wicking. The conden- 
sate return^- to the boiler by gravity. In an ordinary atmosphere the 
turbine will spin indefinitely as long as the wick is kept moist. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 59 

The leading dimensions and design data are as follows : 

Boiler heating surface 1-88 sq. ft. 

Condenser surface 1-25 sq. ft. 

Temperature difference assumed between wet and 

dry bulbs 10° F. 

Temperature difference between steam in boiler and 

steam in condenser S^F, 

Difference in steam pressures 1 in. water col. 

Spouting velocity 600 ft. per sec. 

Diameter of nozzle 0.102 in. 

Rate of steam flow 0.004 lb. per hr. 

Horsepower of jet 0.000016. 

Rankine cycle efficiency 1 percent. 

The designer points out that a difference of wet bulb and dry bulb 
temperature always exists except in "saturated" atmospheres. In 
homes during winter months and in arid clim.ates the difference may 
be as much a? 20°. This figure is comparable with the temperature 
range between sea water at great depths and at the surface, which 
Claude's deep-sea thermal plant seeks to utilize and upon which vast 
sums of money have been expended. 

ADDmONAL STEAM ENGINE MATERIAL IN THE COLLECTIONS, NOT DESCRIBED 

Heron's rotary steam engine (aeolipile), model deposited by the U. S. 
Department of the Interior, 1906. U.S.N.M. no. 244887. 

Papin's steam engine, model, deposited by the U. S. Department of the 
Interior, 1906. U.S.N.M. no. 244888. 

Solomon de Caus' steam fountain, 1615 ; photographic transparency, made 
in the Museum, 1926. U.S.N.M. no. 308463. 

Thomas Sarery's steam pumping engine, 1698; photographic transparency; 
made in the Museum. 1926. U.S.N.M. no. 308467. 

Steam engine, patent model, transferred from the U. S. Patent Office, 1928. 
Patent issued to G. W. Van Deren, August 14, 1860; Patent no. 29642. 
U.S.N.M. no. 308863. 

Steam engine, patent model, transferred from the U. S. Patent Office, 1926, 
not identified. This is a curious form of engine in which the cylinder revolves 
on the crank and the piston rod is directly connected to the rim of the flywheel. 
U.S.N.M. no. 308727. 

Marine steam engines ; models, made by Frank A. Wardlaw and presented 
by Frank A. Wardlaw, Jr. Three finely made small models of a 1-cylinder, a 
compound, and a triple expansion, vertical reciprocating marine engine. 
U.S.N.M. no. 310587. 

Steam engine and boiler, model, presented by Walter N. Willi-s. The model 
represents an engine with a pear-shaped cam on the shaft in lieu of a crank. 
A patent on this mechanism was issued to the donor, November 20, 18S3> 
Patent no. 2S8684. U.S.N.M. no. 310625. 

Static pressure turbine element, model, presented by Oscar N. Davis. Tliis- 
is an experimental demonstrating model of an element of a turbine, whicii 
was the subject of Patent no. 1952197, issued to the donor. March 27, 193^ 
U.S.N.M. no. 310824. 

Triple expansion steam engine, model (incomplete), presented by Mrs. R. E^ 
M. Bain. U.S.N.M. no. 310837. 



^Q BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Flat panel model of a beam steam engine, made of lead fitted in a wooden 
case. Not identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308730. 

MILLER MERCURY MOTOR, 1877 

U.S.N.M. no. 308696; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Thomas Davidson Miller, of Pittsburgh, Pa., November 6, 
1877, no. 196759. 

The model represents a boiler, a condenser, and an overshot wheel, 
connected with suitable piping so that mercury placed in the boiler 
will be sublimated there and the fumes will rise to the condenser 
where they will be condensed. From the condenser the liquid mer- 
cury runs over the buckets of the wheel where the weight of tho 
mercury is employed in turning the wheel. Suitable sheathing about 
the wheel collects the mercury and returns it to the boiler, which it 
enters by reason of its weight. 

STEAM-ENGINE VALVES AND VALVE GEARS 

In 1769 James Watt discovered that a saving in steam could be 
effected in a steam engine by cutting off the supply of steam early 
in the stroke and permitting the steam to complete the stroke ex« 
panding. This principle was first used practically in 1776 and was 
patented in 1782. After about 1800 many valves and valve gears 
were developed to jDermit the steam to be cut off at any point in 
the stroke. These took the various forms of separate steam valves 
that could be closed at any time relative to the position of the piston 
and the exhaust valves; valve gears to vary the cut-off by varying 
the valve actuating mechanism relative to the position of the engine 
crank; and independent cut-off valves that operated to cut oft' the 
supply of steam to nonvariable valves of simple forms. All these in 
their original form were set by hand for the most economical cut-off 
for the speed and load at which the engine was to operate. In 1834 
Zachariah Allen constructed one of the earliest forms of valve gears 
in which an engine governor was used to determine the point at which 
an independent cut-off valve would cut off the supply of steam. The 
next step was the invention of the drop cut-off, or detachable valve 
gear, in which a poppet steam valve was raised by a catch that 
€ould be thrown out at the proper moment by a wedge or some other 
detaching device with which it came in contact as it rose with the 
opening valve. The wedge was adjustable so that the valve could 
be detached and let fall to its seat at any point in the stroke. The 
invention of this device is generally credited to Frederick E. Sickels, 
^'ho patented it in 1841 (see below), though Peter Hogg, of New 
York, N. Y., also claimed the invention. The drop cut-off provided 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS Ql 

a quick, sharp cut-off that could be varied without interference with 
the other valve events. At first it was designed only for hand ad- 
justment of the detaching device. In 1849 George H. Corliss patented 
the first valve gear in which the drop cut-off was combined with 
and controlled by the engine governor (see below). This inven- 
tion with its subsequent refinements was very widely adopted by 
engine builders throughout the world and has very substantially 
affected the design of steam engines down to the present time. It 
has been said of the Corliss valve gear that "no other device has 
given greater prestige to American engineering." 

The Corliss inventions and engines represented in the Museum 
collection are grouped together at the end of this title. 

SICKELS DROP CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR, 1841 

U.S.N.M. no. 308650 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was part of the application for the patent issued to 
Frederick E. Sickels, of New York, N. Y., May 20, 1842, no. 2631. 

The Sickels valve gear is generally considered to be the first suc- 
cessful and practical drop cut-off. It was widely used on the engines 
of the side- wheel steamboats up to the beginning of the present cen- 
tury and was the forerunner of the many subsequent designs of drop 
cut-off valve gears. This valve gear provides a means of rapidly 
cutting off the admission of steam to the cylinder of the engine at 
any point in the stroke of the piston. It accomplishes this by tripping 
or disengaging the valve from the valve gear and permitting it to 
drop to its seat under the impulse of a spring. A plunger operating 
in a water chamber gradually retards the falling valve and brings 
it to rest without shock. 

The Sickels valve is of the conical or poppet type, working vertically 
with the valve stem directed upward. Motion is transmitted to the 
valve through a lift rod working up and down continuously parallel 
to the valve stem. Spring clips on the lift rod engage with the pro- 
jections on the valve stem and lift and open the valve, until the clips 
come into contact with wedge-shaped blocks, which spread the clips 
and permit the valve to fall back to its closed position. The wedge- 
shaped disengaging block can be placed so as to cause the valve to dis- 
engage and close at any desired instant during the up or down move- 
ment of the lift rod. A spring bearing upon the top of the valve 
stem causes it to close rapidly, while a plunger or piston attached 
to the under side of the valve and working in a chamber of water 
retards the valve gradually and permits it to close without shock. 
The lift rod may be actuated by an eccentric or, as was more usually 
the case, by cam and follower of the "alligator jaw" or steamboat 
type of gear. 



Q2 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SICKELS DROP CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR, 1841 

PlATE 16, FiGXJBE 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 180973 ; model ; deposited by Frederick E. Sickels ; photograph 
no. 32595. 

This is a nicely made brass duplicate of the original Patent Office 
model (see above) of the Sickels valve gear, deposited in the Museum 
by Frederick E. Sickels, the inventor, in 1891. 

The Museum has a certificate (U.S.N.M. no. 180974), dated April 
8, 1891, stating "that the annexed (this model) is a duplicate of the 
model filed in the matter of the Letter Patent granted to Frederick 
E. Sickels, May 20, 1842 for Improvement in Lifting, Tripping and 
Regulating the Closing of Steam Valves." This is signed by C. E. 
Mitchell, Commissioner of Patents, and sealed with the seal of the 
Patent Office. 

ALLEN ADJUSTABLE CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR, 1841 

Plate 16, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308649; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 32595B. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Horatio Allen, of New York, N. Y., August 21, 1841, no. 2227. 

This is a very early example of an adjustable riding cut-off valve 
in which the riding valve is formed in two parts provided with a 
suitable mechanism to vary the distance between the two parts and 
thus vary the cut-off. 

The model represents a double-acting, horizontal, direct-connected 
engine with flat slide valve and riding cut-off valve driven by sepa- 
rate eccentrics on the crankshaft. The model is of a section through 
the cylinder and valve chest of the engine. The model shows a long 
D -slide valve with ports through a projection of the valve instead 
of the usual steam edge. Steam is admitted and cut off through these 
ports, which are opened and closed by the riding valve. The main 
valve operates as a simple slide valve, while the riding valve per- 
forms the function of cutting off the steam. The riding valve is 
in two parts carried on a rod threaded through lugs on the valves 
with one right-hand and one left-hand thread, so that turning the 
rod moves the parts of the valve away from or toward each other. 
The farther apart the two parts are, the earlier the cut-off will oc- 
cur. A bevel gear and spline on the threaded rod permits the adjust- 
ment to be made without stopping the engine. 

The patent refers to other ways of obtaining an adjustable cut-off 
and suggests that the second eccentric be dispensed with and motion 
for the riding valve be taken directly from the engine cross head. 

The inventor refers to his invention as an improvement on the 
Isaac Adams riding cut-off valve patented in May 1838. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS g3 

ALLEN CUT-OFF VALVE, 1842 

U.S.N.M. no. 308640; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Horatio Allen, of New York, N. Y., April 30, 1842, no. 
2597. 

The model represents a valve gear in which separate steam chests 
are employed for the head-end and crank-end main steam valves. 
The supply of steam to each of these steam chests is controlled by 
additional cut-off valves, the movement of which is adjustable. The 
inventor refers to this invention as an improvement in the valve gear 
patented by him August 21, 1841 (see U.S.N.M. no. 308649, p. 62). 

The model shows a portion of the cylinder of a horizontal engine 
with only the piston rod and cross head represented. A steam chest 
in which are located the ports leading to the inner or main steam 
chests is shown in section, revealing the cut-off valves on their seats. 
These cut-off valves are plain flat plates connected to opposite ends 
of a beam, which receives a vibratory motion from the cross head of 
the engine. The beam and its rock shaft are pivoted in a lever by 
which the pivot can be moved and the time of cut-off varied. This 
the inventor calls "cut-off with movable rock shaft." He suggests 
that a similar result can be obtained by constructing the cut-off ports 
in a movable plate which he calls "cut-off with single adjustable 
seat." 

ALLEN CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR, 1848 

U.S.N.M. no. 308643 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office: not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Horatio Allen, of New York, N. Y., August 29, 1848, no. 
5745. 

This is an adjustable drop cut-off valve gear in which a poppet 
valve is raised by a lift rod but is permitted to return to its seat 
■sooner or more rapidly than the lift rod returns. 

The model represents a poppet steam valve raised from its seat 
hj an arm fixed at right angles to a lift rod, which works vertically 
and parallel to the valve stem. Upon the face of the arm is a mov- 
able block a part of the upper surface of which is parallel to the face 
of the arm and a part of which is a steep curve. All the movement 
■of the valve is transmitted to it through a roller on its stem, which 
rolls on the surface of this block. The block is so linked with a 
vibratory rod, which receives its motion from the cross head of tha 
engine, that the block will move along the face of the lift rod arm 
and bring different points of its surface under the roller of the valve 
stem. By proper adjustment the roller will rest upon the flat part 



64 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the block and move with the lift rod as it is rising and the valve 
is opening, then the block moves so that the roller comes to the edge 
of the inclined portion and rolls down the incline permitting the 
valve to drop more quickly than the lift rod. The movement of the 
block on the arm and consequently the point of cut-off are fully 
adjustable. 

SICKELS TRIPPING CUT-OFF VALVE, 1852 

U.S.N.M. no. 308654, original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Ofl5ce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to Frederick E. Sickels, of New York, N. Y., February 24, 1852, 
no. 8760. 

The model represents a valve chest and drop cut-off valve of the 
Sickels type (see above) in which an adjustable cam operates the catch 
during the opening movement of the valve so that the valve may 
be released as near the beginning of the closing movement as is 
desired. In the earlier cut-offs the catch was operated by the closing 
movement alone, and the valve could not be tripped until sufficient 
closing movement had taken place to operate the whole extent of the 
catch. 

UHRY AND LUTTGENS VALVE GEARING, 1855 

U.S.N.M. no. 308656; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to H. IJliry and H. A. Luttgens, of Paterson, N. J., March 20^ 
1855, no. 12-564. 

The model represents a "link motion" applicable to marine, loco- 
motive, or stationary steam engines. It is a combination of three 
eccentrics, the ordinary Stephenson link motion, an additional link 
pivoted to the Stephenson link, a differential rocker, and a main 
rocker. The main rocker and the Stephenson link operate one valve, 
which distributes steam to the cylinder, supplies outside lead, and 
cuts off the steam in proportion to the decrease of travel. The 
valve operated by the differential rocker exhausts the steam and 
opens and cuts off the admission of steam near full stroke of the 
piston. 

ALLEN TWO-MOTION CONE-VALVE, 1855 

U.S.N.M. no. 308655 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Horatio Allen, of New York, N. Y., June 19, 1855, no. 13075. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS g5 

The model represents a conical plug valve, connected to a valve 
gear, which gives it two distinct motions. The first motion is a slight 
one parallel with the axis of the cone and directed toward its larger 
end ; the other is in a direction tending to rotate the valve. Because 
the valve and valve seat are conical, the first motion effects a very 
slight separation of the valve from its seat and permits the rotary 
motion to be given without friction upon those parts. 

WIEGAND VARIABLE ECCENTRIC, 1857 

U.S.N. M. no. 308659; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to S. Lloyd Wiegand, of Philadelphia, Pa., September 29, 
1857, no. 18311. 

The model represents an eccentric for operating the valves of a 
steam engine. It is carried on a section of the engine shaft, which 
is oblique to the axis of the shaft and free to slide along the shaft. 
The eccentric is held so as not to move along the shaft, but the 
oblique slide passes through the eccentric disk. The position of the 
slide on the shaft determines the amount of "throw" that will be 
given to the eccentric and, correspondingly, the length of stroke of 
the valve. 

ALLEN CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR, 1857 

U.S.N.M. no. 308657 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model w^as submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Horatio Allen, of New York, N. Y., December 15, 1857, 
no. 18837. 

The model represents a valve gear in which the steam valve is 
raised by means of a loose toe on a rock shaft and returned to its 
seat by lowering or by tripping the loose toe. This particular inven- 
tion is an improvement on the valve gears of this type patented 
February 6, 1849, by Horatio Allen and December 10, 1850, by 
Samuel H. Gilman. It provides a piston or plunger in a chamber 
containing oil or water connected to the loose toe to control its fall. 

The model shows a vertical valve rod tappet raised and lowered 
by a loose toe on a rock shaft located below the tappet. The toe is 
raised by a latch that engages with an arm fixed to the rock shaft so 
that the motion of the toe is the same as if it were keyed to the shaft. 
An adjustable disengaging lug is provided that may be set to trip the 
latch so that the toe will swing freely on the rock shaft and fall, 
permitting the valve to close. This lug is set by a screw and hand 
wheel to provide cut-off at any point. Attached to the loose toe is a 
plunger that operates to force a fluid through an adjustable orifice in 
a dash pot w^hereby the fall of the loose toe is controlled. 



66 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WOODBURY VALVE GEAR, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 308644 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not Illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to D. A. Woodbury, of Rochester, N. Y., April 19, 1859, no. 23737. 

The model represents two rotary main steam valves permanently 
connected to and operated with a regular movement by an eccentric 
on the crankshaft. Between each steam valve and the steam chest is 
a rotary cut-off valve operated by the same eccentric but fitted with a 
sliding link by which the position of the cut-off valve relative to the 
eccentric position may be varied without disengaging the valve gear 
or stopping the engine. This link and with it the time of cut-off may 
be changed by hand or by the operation of an engine governor. 

FRANCIS B. STEVENS CUT-OFF, 1861 
Plate 17, Figuke 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 308644 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 846A. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Francis B. Stevens, December 3, 1861, no. 33855. 

The valve gear represented is an improvement of the Robert L. 
and Francis B. Stevens valve motion, which was patented January 
25, 1841. It involves the introduction of adjustable hinged pieces on 
the tops of the "long toe" tappets that operate the valves for the 
purpose of rapidly opening the exhaust valves and for varying the 
point at which the steam valves will be closed. 

The valve gear consists of a main rock shaft to which are keyed 
four long, curved tappets each of which engages with a shoe or fol- 
lower on a valve lift rod, which it raises and lowers as the rock shaft 
is worked with a vibratory motion by an eccentric on the engine 
crankshaft. The two tappets that work the lift rods of the exhaust 
valves are the same length and attached to the shaft at the same angle 
as those that operate the steam inlet valves, but the exhaust valves are 
prevented from closing too soon and the steam valves are caused to 
close whenever desired by the combination of hinged faces on the 
tappets and a second hollow rock shaft fitted with lugs or small cams, 
which raise the hinged pieces and change the movement of the fol- 
lowers on the lift rods. The hinged pieces on the tappets are hinged 
at the toes of the tappets and are lifted from the heels of the tappets 
by the lugs on the hollow rock shaft, placed over the main rock shaft 
and worked by another eccentric, which in the earlier Stevens gear 
works the exhaust valves. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 16 





Adjustable Cut-off Valve Gears. 



1, SIckels drop cut-off valve gear, 1841 (model; U.S.N. M. no. 180973). See p. 62. 
2. Allen cut-off valve gear, 1841 (model; U.S.N..M. no. 308649). See p. 62. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 17 



1 


« 


! 






Adjustable cut-off valve Gears. 

1. Francis B. Stevens cut-off, 1861 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 308644). See p. 66. 
2. Corliss drop cut-off valve gear, 1849 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 308646). See p. 71, 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 67 

CARHART BALANCED VALVE, 1866 

U.S.N.M. no. 308671 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to John W. Carhart, of Troy, N. Y., March 27, 1866, no. 
53410. 

Tlie model represents a conical plug valve with an annular ex- 
haust space between the plug and the valve and a steam passage 
through the hollow core of the plug. The peculiar feature of the 
valve is the provision of recessed amiular spaces in the valve, which^ 
with the valve seat, form small pistons and cylinders designed to bal- 
ance the valve longitudinally when connected to the steam passages. 
Screw adjustments on the valve stem and the small end of the valve 
are provided for setting the valve in a position giving proper con- 
tact with the minimum of friction. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX VALVE GEAR, 1866 

O.S.N.M. no. 308673; original patent model; transfer from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to G. H. Babcock and S. Wilcox, Jr., of Providence, R. L, April 
24, 1866, no. 54090. 

The valve gear represented by the model is an early governable 
one of the class of riding cut-off valves in which the riding valve is 
operated by a small independent auxiliary steam cylinder, equipped 
with its own steam valve. The valve controlling the admission of 
steam to the auxiliary steam cylinder is in turn controlled by the 
action of the engine governor. 

The main valve of the engine is a flat lap valve, machined top and 
bottom with mortises through the valve near each end. The valve 
functions as a common D-valve admitting steam through the mor- 
tises instead of at its ends. Solid cut-off valves working on the back 
of the main valve, over the mortises, are joined by a rod, which passes 
through a small auxiliary steam cylinder and at the middle of which 
within the cylinder is the small actuating piston. The valve of the 
auxiliary cylinder is operated transversely across the cylinder by 
an eccentric on the end of a lay shaft. This shaft revolves at the 
same speed as the crankshaft and the main-valve eccentric, but its 
position at any time relative to the main-valve eccentric is determined 
by the governor, as follows : 

The lay shaft is divided into two shafts, one driving, the other 
driven. The connection between the two is maintained by means of 
a driving bevel gear on the driving shaft, an intermediate idling 
bevel gear, and a driven bevel gear on the driven shaft. Though 



^g BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the driving and driven shafts turn in opposite directions, they turn 
with the same relative positions so long as the intermediate gear re- 
anains in one position. However, the axle of the intermediate gear 
is pivoted about the driving shaft and is held in position only by the 
governor rod, and the position of the intermediate gear changes with 
«ach change of position of the governor rod. A change in position 
of the intermediate gear advances or sets back the position of the 
driven shaft relative to the driving shaft and varies the action of 
the auxiliary steam valve relative to the action of the main-valve 

eccentric. 

RICHARDS BALANCED VALVE, 1866 

U.S.N.M, no. 308676 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Thomas Richards, of Lansingburg, N. Y., May 22, 1866, no. 54959. 

This model represents a slightly conical plug valve fitted within a 
conical valve housing, which is provided with eight equally spaced 
steam ports so arranged that diametrically opposite ports are con- 
nected together in pairs. The result is that the pressure on the valve 
due to the steam or exhaust pressure in each pair of ports is perfectly 
balanced. 

Three adjoining ports in the valve housing are continued through 
the housing, which is provided at that point with a flat surface that 
permits the valve to be placed against the ordinary valve seat of a 
D-slide valve engine, the three ports registering with the steam 
passages to the ends of the cylinder and with the exhaust passage at 
the center of the seat. The valve is constructed with four equally 
spaced longitudinal recesses with four alternate bands. The valve 
is operated by rocking it a part of a turn in each direction from the 
center. 

The form of this valve and valve seat was patented by the inventor 
February 23, 1858. 

BARTLETT POPPET VALVE GEAR, 1867 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S674 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Louis D. Bartlett, of Fitchburg, Mass., January 15, 1867, no. 61141. 

The patent refers to an engine with separate valve chests at 
head end and crank end, each enclosing balanced steam and exhaust 
poppet valves, and describes particularly tiie construction of the 
valve boxes. These are designed for simplicity of casting, machining, 
and accessibility but are difficult to describe without reference to the 
drawings in the patent specifications. The valve gear used is said 



fL\TALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS QQ 

to be similar to one described in a patent granted to Charles H. Browm 
and Charles Burleigh, January 15, 1856. The valve stems are oper- 
ated by short levers, which are raised and lowered by cams on a lay 
shaft paralleling the cylinder. The levers that operate the steam 
valves have variable f ulcrums, which are controlled by a governor so 
that the steam can be cut off at any point of the stroke. 

THOMPSON BALANCED AND CUT-OFF VALVE, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no, 3086S8 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patents 
issued to Joseph W. Thompson, of Salem, Ohio, April 27, 1875, nos, 
162714 and 162715. These were assigned to the Buckeye Engine Co., 
of the same place. 

The model represents the first form of J. W. Thompson's balanced 
and cut-off valve gear, which was one of the earliest of the "auto- 
matic" valve gears. It was introduced in the very successful and 
well-known Buckeye engine. 

The model represents a horizontal steam engine with one fixedl 
eccentric and one shifting eccentric driving the main slide valve and 
the riding cut-off valve, respectively. The valve of the engine is ia 
the shape of a hollow rectangular box the top of which works in 
close proximity to the valve chest cover and has a steam-tight, ring- 
packed opening through which steam is admitted to the inside cham- 
ber of the valve. The bottom of the hollow box forms the main valve 
taking steam through the chamber and into the valve chest at the ends 
of the valve. The opening through which steam is admitted is made 
enough larger than the steam pipe opening to cause the steam pres- 
sure within the chamber to exert some force to keep the main valve 
on its seat ; otherwise the valve is perfectly balanced. A riding cut- 
off valve operates on the inside face of the bottom of the hollow 
main valve. 

The main valve is operated from a rock shaft directly connected 
to the rod of the fixed eccentric. The riding cut-off valve is operated 
from a double-arm rock shaft, which is carried in the main valve 
rock shaft, one arm being connected to the valve rod, the other to a 
shifting eccentric on the engine shaft. The position of this eccentric 
will detennine the position of the double-arm rock shaft relative 
to the main valve rock shaft and will in this way control the point 
of cut-off. 

A shaft governor of the Thompson and Hunt design (see below) 
carries the shifting eccentric and varies its position relative to the 
crank with changes in speed of the shaft. The governor is mounted 
in a disk on the shaft and not in the flywheel as has since become the 
practice. 



70 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

OTTO AND BELL BALANCED SLIDE VALVE, 1883 

U.S.N.M. no. 308719 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Henry Otto and Patrick F. Bell, of Bloomington, 111., 
December 18, 1883, no. 290650. 

The model rej^resents a flat D -slide valve of ordinary shape, with 
most of the back cut away and formed in the shape of a short hol- 
low cjdinder. This cylinder is filled with a closed piston suspended 
on rollers on a flat bar, which, in turn, is suspended from the top of 
the valve chest. The bar passes through a tunnel in the piston and 
is of sufficient length to accommodate the valve travel. The effect 
of this construction is that the steam pressure ordinarily exerted on 
the back of a flat valve is in this case exerted on a piston that is 
not a part of the valve but is suspended independently. 

WHEELOCK VALVE AND VALVE SEAT, 1885 
U.S.N.M. no. 310251 ; model ; gift of the Franklin Machine Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is a nicely made model of the valve and valve seat patented 
by Jerome Wlieelock, of Worcester, Mass., September 22, 1885, no 
326820. 

The model represents a wide gridiron slide valve assembled on a 
skeletonized taper plug, which serves as the valve seat and supports 
the rock shaft connected to the slide by links or "toggles." The 
whole assembly is designed to fit into a taper hole bored into the 
cylinder block and connected by suitable ports to the cylinder. The 
advantage of this arrangement over ordinary plug valves is that it 
does not require that a valve seat be formed within the large cylinder 
casting, and it permits the delicate fitting of the valve to the valve 
seat to be performed at a work bench or upon a machine away from 
the engine. 

The complete Wheelock valve gear (Patent no. 326819) consists 
of one steam valve and one exhaust valve at each end of a cylinder 
with the rock arms of the exhaust valves permanently connected to 
the eccentric, so that the valve is at rest during part of the travel 
of the eccentric, while the steam valves are connected through a de- 
tachable latch so that they may be detached and closed quickly at 
any point during the stroke of the piston. 

GREENE-WHEELOCK VALVE AND VALVE SEAT 

U.S.N.M. no. 310250; model; gift of the Franklin Machine Co.; not illustrated. 
This model represents a skeletonized taper plug in which are 
formed two gridiron valve seats and a bonnet that carried a rock- 
arm collar and cams for actuating one steam and one exhaust valve 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 71 

on the valve seats. The valves are long narrow gridiron valves, 
■which reciprocate in the direction parallel to the axis of the plug. 
They are actuated by rods and slides and roller cams, which are 
actuated by curved slots in a collar, which, in turn, is rocked by a 
rock shaft on the collar. The steam valve slide has a disengaging 
pawl to provide an adjustable cut-off. 

ADDITIONAL STEAM-ENGINE VALVE GEARS IN THE COLLECTION, 
NOT OTHERWISE DESCRIBED 

Cut-off, Thomas Rogers, patented in 1845, Patent Otfice model, transferred 
from the United States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 308642. 

Valve action, patented by Sulzer Brothers, Patent Office model, transferred 
from the United States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 308729. 

Adjustable eccentrics on a common shaft, Patent Office model. Patent no. 
46278, issued to J. M. Stone February 7, 1865. Transfer from the United 
States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 309249. 

INVENTIONS OF GEORGE H. CORLISS 

CORLISS DROP CUT-OFF VAL\'E GEAR, 1849 

Plate 17, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308646 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 31694. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to George H. Corliss, of Providence, R.^L, March 10, 1849, no. 6162; 
reissued May 18, 1851, no. 200. 

This is considered the first variable cut-off valve gear in which the 
point of the cut-off is determined by the engine governor. The patent 
was the first issued to George H. Corliss for steam engine improve- 
ments and the model represents the original form of the Corliss steam 
engine. 

The engine represented by the model consists of a heavy horizontal 
bed at one end of which is a large, vertical, double-acting cylinder, 
at the other the bearings in which a crankshaft and large flywheel 
turn. At the center of the bed two columns carry the bearings of a 
horizontal rocking beam. Both columns and the beam are castings 
combined with tension rods in a manner covered by the patent. The 
valves of the engine, the flat slide type, are arranged above and below 
the top and bottom of the cylinder in steam chests. A separate steam 
and exhaust valve is provided at each end of the cylinder. All four 
valves are operated from a wrist plate or disk, which is oscillated by 
one eccentric on the crankshaft. Four rods connect the wrist plate 
with rocking levers or bell cranks, which, in turn, are connected to 
the valve rods. The rods of the exhaust valves are permanently con- 
nected to their individual rock levers, which move the valves as the 
wrist plate is oscillated. The steam valves are connected in a similar 



72 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

manner except that the rock levers, instead of being connected to the 
valve stems, are provided with geared sectors that operate sliding 
racks, and these racks are connected to the valve stems by means of 
catches that permit the steam valves to be engaged or disengaged 
from the rest of the valve gear. When the steam valves are closed 
the racks move sufficiently far to engage the valve rods, and on the 
return motion open the valve until the catch strikes a cam, which 
disengages the valve rod and permits it to be closed quickly under 
the force of a heavy weight provided for that purpose. The cam is 
a helical projection on the sliding shaft of a centrifugal governor. 
Its position determines the point in the stroke of the piston at which 
the disengaging catch releases the steam valve and cuts off the steam. 
When the engine runs faster than the desired speed, the governor 
changes the position of the cam to cut off earlier in the stroke. This 
reduces the steam supplied to the engine and it slows down. If the 
engine runs slower than the desired speed, the cut off occurs later 
and the speed of the engine increases. 

In addition to the automatic drop cut-off this valve gear gives 
but little motion to the valves when they are closed and diminishes 
the power required to operate the valves. 

CORLISS CUT-OFF GEAR, 1851 

U.S.N.M. no. 308G53 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Corliss, July 29, 1851, no. 8253 ; reissued July 26, 
1859, no. 780. 

This valve gear is a more compact combination of the elements 
of the disengaging gear of the first Corliss design (above). It ex- 
hibits for the first time some of the characteristic arrangements that 
have identified Corliss engines to the present time, such as the wrist 
plate located at the side of the cylinder, separate steam and exhaust 
valves at opposite sides and at each end of the cylinder, and valve 
spindles or rock shafts and arms for moving the valves. The com- 
bination of these rock shafts with flat slide valves is a transition in 
the development of the pure rotary valve, which is so well suited 
to the Corliss gear (see below). 

The model represents a vertical cylinder with two steam and two 
exhaust valves, one of each on opposite sides of each end of the 
cylinder. A wrist plate (or rock disk), located at the side and 
center of the cylinder, is connected to an eccentric on a shaft directly 
above the cylinder. From the wrist plate rods extend to arms 
on the short rock shafts, which move the exhaust valves so that the 
connection of the exhaust valves to the wrist plate and thus to the 
eccentric is permanent and the exhaust valves will be alternatelv 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 73; 

opened and closed with a regular movement. Similar rods from the 
wrist plate extend to the arms on the rock shafts of the steam valves, 
but these rods terminate in hooks that engage with toes on the ends 
of the valve rock shafts and are not permanently connected thereto. 
As long as the hooks are engaged the steam valves will be opened 
and closed with a regular movement just as are the exhaust valves,, 
but when disengaged the valves are free to close under the force of 
weights permanently attached to the rock arms. The hooks are 
caused to disengage at any point in the stroke of the engine piston 
or not, as is desired, by means of adjustable stops that force the 
hooks away from the toes of the rock arms. These stops are moved 
by means of inclined blocks, the position of which (in the model) 
is varied by a worm and rack set by hand, though the patent suggests- 
that these blocks could be attached to the slide of the governor for 
automatic regulation of the cut-off. The weights that close the steam 
valves are nicely fitted to recesses in the engine frame so that air 
may be trapped under them to cushion the fall of the weights and 
bring them to rest without jar. The valves are flat slide valves 
operated by the rock shafts through short arms on the shafts, which 
connect to the backs of the valves with cylinder and cylindrical socket 
joints. 

CORLISS STEAM PUMP, 1857 

U.S.N.M. no. 308722; original patent model; transferred from the Unitedi 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Corliss, of Providence, R. I., June 2, 1857, 
no. 17423. 

The invention offers a means of constructing a direct connected 
steam pump in which steam can be worked with expansion without 
employing a flywheel. The pump is an arrangement in one hori- 
zontal plane of 15 radial cylinders (10 single-acting water cylinders 
and 5 steam cylinders) in five groups, with each steam cylinder 
flanked on either side by a water cylinder. Each connecting rod 
from the cross heads of 14 of the cylinders works upon a pin in th& 
enlarged disk-shaped end of the fifteenth connecting rod, which 
works directly upon the crankpin. "In such a combination the vary- 
ing pressure exerted by any one piston by working the steam ex- 
pansively to the farthest practical limit does not affect the uniform 
transmission of force to the pumps and the disc constitutes the 
common recipient to which the collective force of the different steam 
pistons is imparted and from which it is transmitted or distributed 
to the pumps." 

49970 — 39 6 



"74 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The invention of the method of forming the connection between a 
series of radial cylinders and a single crankpin by means of one 
disk-ended connecting rod is claimed. 

CORLISS VALVE GEAR, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 308648; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not Illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Corliss, July 5, 1859, no. 24618. 

The model represents the first valve gear to combine all the ele- 
ments of the typical Corliss engine. It shoAvs the wrist plate, detach- 
able steam link, variable disengaging wedge, a spring for closing the 
steam valve, the air dash pot to prevent jar in closing the valves, and 
rotating valves. 

The valve gear represented includes the features of the two pre- 
vious ones, with the exception that a spring is used to supply the 
force to close the steam valves instead of weights, and rotating valves 
are used instead of sliding valves. The peculiar feature of the spring 
is the mode of attaching it to a curved support, which receives motion 
wnth the valve gear so that the bearing point of the spring is shifted 
and the best tension is obtained for closing the valve at every position 
of the cut-off. 

CORLISS CUT-OFF VALVE GEAR 

U.S.N.M. no. 309817; model; gift of the Franklin Machine Co.; not illnstrated. 

This model represents a detachable valve gear in which an inclined 
block on the slide of a ball governor determines the point of cut-off. 
The valve is closed by the force of a compressed, coiled spring, and 
its closing movement is gently arrested by a dash pot. 

This model shows one flat slide valve from which two parallel 
valve rods extend through a guide block and terminate in a cross 
head running in guides parallel to the rods. The guide block sup- 
ports a stationary piston or plunger, which extends into a cylinder 
bored in a saddle carried between the valve rods close to the cross 
head. These combine to form a dash pot in which the plunger is 
stationary and the cylinder moves with the valve. A finger projects 
from the same saddle and engages a coil spring, which is compressed 
as the valve opens and serves to close the valve when it is disengaged 
from the gear. From the cross head a connecting rod extends to a 
block that is reciprocated by the eccentric on the crankshaft of the 
model. This connecting rod is provided with a hook that engages 
with a plate edge on the reciprocating block. It is held in engage- 
ment by a flat spring pressing it upward. When engaged the valve 
has a regular movement corresponding to the block reciprocated by 
the eccentric, but when disengaged the valve is quickly closed by 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 75 

the action of the coiled spring. A slide on the governor, which is 
operated from the crankshaft, carries an inclined block that registers 
with the hooked connecting rod, depresses it against the action of the 
flat spring, and releases it from the reciprocating block. The time 
at which the valve is released depends upon the position of the in- 
clined block, which, in turn, depends upon the position of the governor 
balls and finally upon the speed of the engine. 

CORLISS PRESSURE REGULATOR, 1869 

U.S.N.M. no. 309236 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OfBce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Corliss, of Providence, R. I., January 5, 1869, no. 
85566. 

The model represents a device for the automatic reduction of the 
pressure of steam when it is to be used for heating or any other pur- 
pose requiring steam at less than boiler pressure. 

The device consists of a flat-sided circular chamber to which the 
steam at high pressure is admitted. At the center of one side of 
the chamber is a connecting space from which the low-pressure steam 
is taken. The passage between the chamber and the space is closed 
by a conical valve, the seat of which is formed in the side of the 
chamber and the valve disk of which is supported on a post fixed 
to the center of the other side of the chamber. The valve closes 
inward, so that spreading the two sides of the chamber will tend 
to close the valve. As the pressure of steam within the chamber tends 
to spread the sides of the chamber, an increase in the higher steam 
pressure will diminish the valve opening and thus diminish the flow 
of steam. By proper adjustment and proportioning of the valve 
area the regulator should maintain a constant pressure in the low- 
pressure space. 

CORLISS COMPOUND BEAM PUMPING ENGINE, 1870 

PLATK 18, FiGUBE 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309820; model; gift of the Franklin Machine Co.; photograph 
no. 18114. 

This is a model (1/10 actual size) of a large, vertical, 2-cylinder, 
compound beam engine operating four pump cylinders of the city- 
waterworks type. The model was made at the original Corliss En- 
gine Works at Providence, R. I., during the lifetime of George H. 
Corliss. 

The engine consists of one high-pressure and one low-pressure ver- 
tical cylinder, each equipped with the simple Corliss valve gear. 
Upon each cylinder is a skeleton cylindrical column in which are cast 
the cross-head guides. From each cross head the connecting rod goes 



Y6 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

to one end of its individual walking beam, from the other end of 
which a connecting rod connects to a crank on a crankshaft carry- 
ing a large flywheel common to the two cylinders. From either side 
of the center of each beam a connecting rod goes to the piston rod of 
one of the four pump cylinders. A condenser pump is also operated 
from one of the two walking beams. The valve gears are operated 
by eccentrics on the shaft, through a series of bell cranks and rods,, 
and ball governors driven by belts from the shaft control the cutting- 
off of steam to the cylinders through rods extending to the tripping 
mechanism on the cylinder steam valves. Each cylinder, valve gear, 
governor, and walking beam is a separate and complete unit. The- 
beam, flywheel, and operating cylinders are located below the level 
of the steam cylinders in a well formed of heavy masonry, which 
also forms the foundation of the engine. The model is operated by 
a hand crank. 

CORLISS VACUUM DASH POT, 1875 

U.S.N. M. no. 308692; original patent model; transferred from the United States- 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

The model was filed October 27, 1875, with the application for the 
patent issued to George H. Corliss, June 6, 1876, no. 178275. 

The model is a brass miniature of a vacuum dash pot designed to 
combine the functions of supplying the force to close the steam valve 
and to arrest the motion without shock after the valve is closed. 
The vacuum dash pot has some advantages over heavy weights and 
springs for closing valves. 

The dash pot consists of a casting in which is bored a cylinder 
having a lower section of small diameter and an upper section of 
larger diameter. A plunger, having corresponding sections of large 
and small diameters, fits the cylinder. When the steam valve to 
which the plunger is attached is opened the plunger rises in the cyl- 
inder forming a vacuum in the part of smaller diameter. At the 
same time small leather valves in the larger part of the plunger open 
and allow air to enter the cylinder under this part of the plunger^ 
When the valve is released the vacuum draws down the plunger and 
closes the valve. The air under the upper part escapes through a 
port in the cylinder until the plunger covers the port.. The air 
trapped in the cylinder at this point acts as a cushion and brings 
the valve quickly but gently to rest. 

CORLISS STEAM PUMP FOR WATER AND AIR, 1876 AND 1877 

U.S.N.M. no. 308694; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model represents two patents issued to George H. Corliss, of 
Providence, R. I., December 19, 1876, and May 22, 1877, nos. 185390 
and 190958. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 77 

The two patents relating to this model refer to Patent no. 17423, 
which is described above under U.S.N.M. no. 308722. 

Tliis model represents a radial arrangement of horizontal water 
<;ylinders (185390) or air cylinders (190958) the pistons of which 
act upon a common crank on a short vertical shaft. A horizontal 
steam engine drives a vertical crankshaft, which is geared at its lower 
end to the crankshaft of the radial cylinders. A horizontal flywheel 
is attached to the engine shaft between the crank and the gear. The 
improvement claimed is that the steam engine may operate rapidly 
^nd economically while the pump pistons are worked slowly. For 
the air pump it is claimed that the arrangement of cylinders will per- 
mit the pump to be located near and below the main engine cylinder 
to take water freely from the condenser without the necessity of 
(extending the engine framing. 

CORLISS VALVE GEAR 
U.S.N.M. no. 309816; model; gift of Franklin Machine Co.; not Ulustrated. 

This is a finely made, crank-operated bronze model of an early 
type of Corliss detachable rotary valve gear. It is accompanied by a 
picture of a large engine installed at the New England Rolling Milld 
in 1860, on which this type of gear was used. 

The valve stem terminates in a short lever by which the valve is 
rotated. This lever is permanently connected to a plunger in a closed 
<?ylinder or dash pot located below the valve. A hook or latch is op- 
erated up and down in a position so that the hook engages with the 
lever on its upstroke and rotates the valve to open it. A stiff flat 
spring holds the hook against the lever, while a bearing pin is so lo- 
cated that it will force the hook out of engagement with the valve 
stem lever after the hook has raised it a determined amount. When 
the lever is freed a spring closes the valve. The dash pot prevents 
the too rapid closing of the valve. 

CORLISS EXHAUST-VALVE GEAR, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 308693 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the two patents 
issued to George H. Corliss, May 9, 1876, nos. 177059 and 177099. 

The model represents the valve gear of a horizontal cylinder with 
a separate rotary steam and exhaust valve at each end of the cyl- 
inder. The valves are driven from one wrist plate, the steam valves 
through disengaging hooks or catches, which are controlled by the 
governor, the exhaust valves by a series of permanently connected 
links designed to effect a quick closing of the exhaust valves. The 
steam valves are closed by vacuum dash pots instead of by weights or 
springs as in the earlier Corliss valve gears. 



78 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CORLISS PUMPING ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 251291 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Oflace; not illustrated. 

Model submitted with the application for patent issued May 27, 
1879, Patent no. 215803. 

The model shows a compound pumping engine with a high-pressure 
and a low-pressure horizontal steam cylinder each in line with a 
pump cylinder. The steam pistons are directly connected to the 
pump pistons, and a tail rod from each pump piston is connected 
by a system of oscillating levers to a crank on a flywheel shaft. 
The flywheel shaft is carried in bearings that are mounted upon the 
pump cylinders. As is usually the case in engines using steam ex- 
pansively, the power developed during the admission of steam is in 
excess of that absorbed by the pumps, and the excess is stored in the 
flywheel from which it is drawn to carry the load during the ex- 
pansion of the steam after the steam supply to the cylinder is cut 
off. The unique feature of the engine is the manner of connecting 
the piston rods to the cranks. The diameter of the circle in which 
the crank travels is made much larger than the stroke of the engine 
with the purpose of making the bearing pressures on the crank and 
connecting-rod pins smaller and the connecting rods lighter in order 
to diminish the friction losses in these parts during the transmission 
of power to and from the flywheel. 

An engine of this design is pictured on page 212 of Thurston's 
Manual of the SteaTn Engkie, under the caption "Corliss's Pawtucket 
Engine." 

CORLISS STEAM-ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1882 

U.S.N.M. no. 308715 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to George H. Corliss, August 8, 1882, no. 262209. 

The model represents a flyball governor in which the motion of 
the slide, owing to a change in the speed of the engine to which the 
governor is attached, not only changes the position of the cut-off 
or throttle devices to regulate the speed of the engine but also 
changes the gear ratio between the engine and the governor to change 
the speed of the governor relative to the speed of the engine. 

When the governor speed is increased by an increase in the speed 
of the engine, the balls rise and communicate motion to a slide^ 
which, in turn, affects the throttle or cut-off to return the engine to 
its lower speed. At the same time the motion of the slide shifts a 
friction roller on its driving disk so that the governor speed is in- 
creased relative to the engine causing an additional motion of the 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 18 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 19 




56^ 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 79 

slide in the same direction. As a result, the governor slide is <?iven 
a greater motion for a given change in speed than would otherwise 
result. 

DROP CUT-OFF VALVE AND MECHANISM 

U.S.N.M, no. 309819 ; model ; gift of the Franklin Machine Co. ; not illustrated. 
This is a wooden model of a very simple variable drop cut-off 
valve gear in which a poppet valve is lifted by a bell crank operated 
by a cam. The cam is a cylinder that may be moved parallel to its 
axis, so as to bring any part of the cam against the follower of the 
bell crank. The cam is so shaped that the valve will open at the 
same time for all positions of the cam, but the valve will close 
progressively earlier or later as the cam is moved along its shaft. 

GOVERNOR AND THROTTLE VALVE 

U.S.N.M. no. 309818; model; gift of the Franklin Machine Co.; not illustrated. 

This is a crank-operated, wooden model of a ball governor con- 
nected to a throttle valve in a short section of pipe. 

The governor consists of balls hung in the usual manner upon arms 
attached by pin joints at their upper ends to the top of the governor 
spindle. Radius rods from the centers of the ball arms connect to a 
collar upon the spindle, so that the collar moves up and down as the 
balls are swung in or out by changes in the speed of the engine. The 
sliding collar is connected to a crank on the axis of the disk of a plain 
butterfly valve. 

CORLISS MARINE-BOILER IMPROVEMENTS, 18G2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308666; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patents 
issued to George H. Corliss, Providence, R. I., August 26, 1862, nos. 
36279 and 36281. 

The model represents a pair of internally fired, fire-tube boilers of 
the "locomotive" type, each equipped with a steam main connected to 
the steam space at six different points for the purpose of diffusing the 
draft of steam from over the whole surface of the water in the boiler 
and thus prevent priming ; and provided with a salt-water evaporator 
located in the breeching, so as to obtain heat from the hot flue gases, 
and connected to the surface condenser to lower the pressure on the 
boiling salt water to facilitate evaporation. 

The purpose of the peculiar arrangement of steam pipes is to pro- 
vide a method of obtaining steam free from water without the neces- 
sity of a high steam chamber, which would be a vulnerable part of a 
naval vessel. The theory is that the filling of any of the many tubes 



.'go BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

with water, due to the pitching of the vessel, would cause the other 
tubes to supply the steam to the engines and the water would not 
travel far in the immersed tubes. 

CORLISS WATER-TUBE BOILER, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309214 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to George H. Corliss, of Providence, R. I., May 27, 1879, no. 215798. 

The model represents a bank of curved water tubes joined in verti- 
cal rows by the separate cases or tube ends, which are the subject 
of the patent. Each end of each tube is threaded into the side of the 
cylindrical casting, which is provided with machined surfaces that 
allow the separate castings to go together tightly to form a continuous 
tube sheet or header for each vertical row of tubes. The castings 
forming each header are held together by a single long bolt, which 
threads into a casting that forms a common connector along the 
lower ends of the vertical headers. 

"EVOLUTION OF THE GEORGE H. CORLISS STEAM ENGINE" 
Plate 18, Figure 2 
U.S.N.M. no. 310252; 21 blueprints; gift of tlie Franklin Machine Co. 

This is a cloth-bound volume of lithographs of many types of 
Corliss steam engines, pumps, and engine details. They consist 
principally of illustrations from sales literature and instruction books 
published at various times during the existence of the George H. 
Corliss Engine Works at Providence, R. I. 

CORLISS CENTENNIAL ENGINE, 1876 

Plate 18, Figuee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 310252 ; 21 blueprints ; gift of the Franklin Machine Co. ; photograph 
no. 32644F. 

The drawings consist of 21 30-by-42 inch blueprints of the working 
drawings from which was constructed the 4,000-horsepower Corliss 
engine that supplied the power to the mechanical exhibits at the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

ENGINE GOVERNORS 

LUTTGENS ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1851 

U.S.N.M. no. 251288; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to H. A. Luttgens, of New York, N. Y., October 21, 1851, no. 

8447. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS g]^ 

In this design a flyball governor operates to increase the throw 
of the engine valve eccentric as the engine speed increases. It is^ 
one of the earliest of the automatically controlled shifting eccentric 
types of governor. 

A slotted eccentric disk is carried in guides on the face of a pulley 
fixed to the engine shaft. A gear-driven setscrew causes the eccentric 
to move in or out relative to the center of the shaft as the screw is 
turned. A bevel gear at the end of the screw meshes with another 
gear on the end of a small spindle, which is carried parallel to the 
crankshaft. On the other end of the spindle a small spur gear 
meshes with an annular ring gear fastened to a friction disk, which 
is free to turn on the shaft. This friction disk is held against the 
face of a pulley that turns on the crankshaft in the same direction 
but slightly faster than the shaft. The tendency of this combination 
is to turn the annular gear faster than the shaft, causing the spur 
gear to turn and move the setscrew in the direction to decrease the 
throw of the eccentric. However, the annular gear is also fastened 
to a brake drum, the band on which is tightened by the governor as 
the engine speed increases. The effect of this is to hold back the 
annular gear and turn the spur gear in the opposite direction, with 
the result that the throw of the eccentric would be increased. By 
adjusting the tension on the brake band so that it would overcome 
the friction on the disk just sufficiently to permit the annular gear 
to turn at the same speed as the shaft, at the desired speed of the 
engine, the action of the governor would maintain this speed. 

STEARNS AND HODGSON ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1852 

U.S.N.M. no. 251287; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to George S. Stearns and William Hodgson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
August 31, 1852, no. 9236. 

The feature of this governor is the use of toothed sectors on the 
weight arms meshed with a cylindrical rack instead of the usual pin 
and link mechanism to actuate the governed gear. Otherwise it is a 
simple flyball governor of the old form. 

PORTER WEIGHTED ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1858 

Plate 19, Figxjee 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 2512S9; original patent model; transferred from tlie United States 
Patent Office; photograph no, 30368. 

The model formed part of the application for the patent issued to 
Charles T. Porter, of New York, N. Y. July 13, 1858, no, 20894; 
reissued June 21, 1859, no. T40. 



g2 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This was one of the earliest of the weighted flyball governors of 
very light construction, designed to rotate at high speeds. It is more 
sensitive to small changes in the engine speed and quicker to respond 
to the changes than was the heavy-ball, unweighted governor. The 
Porter governor was an important feature of the well-known Porter- 
Allen engine that was successfully introduced about 18G7, and the 
weighted principle is used in practically ail ball governors of the 
present time. 

The governor is a very light one of the common form, with the 
usual sliding element connected to the engine regulator. Attached to 
the sliding element is a lever that carries a sliding weight so connected 
that the effective weight of the counterpoise remains the same as the 
sliding element moves through its range. 

KELLY AND LAMB STEAM ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1865 

U.S.N.M. no. 308667 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Oliver A. Kelly and Estus Lamb, of Slatersville, R. I., January 
31, 1865, no. 46111. 

The model represents a ball governor in which part of the regulat- 
ing motion is obtained directly from the change in position of the 
governor balls and partly from the motion of a nut along a screw 
shaft. 

The motion of the nut is determined by the rotation of the screw 
shaft, which, in turn, is derived from a ratchet wheel and two pawls. 
The pawls are given a rocking motion by a crank on the governor 
drive shaft. A cam slot controlled by the movement of the balls per- 
mits one or the other pawl to engage the wheel as the balls move away 
from their normal position and so determine the direction and 
amount of the rotation of the screw shaft. 

PEAVEY FLUID ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1870 

U.S.N.M. no. 308678; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Andrew J. Peavey of Boston, Mass., August 16, 1870, no. 106400. 

The model represents a stationary cylinder filled with oil within 
which turns a paddle wheel driven by the engine at a speed de- 
pendent upon the velocity of the engine. Also within the stationary 
cylinder and surrounding the paddle wheel is a hollow cylinder, 
which is hung loosely upon the shaft of the paddle wheel and is free 
to revolve independently of it. This cylinder has a series of blades 
or abutments projecting from the inner side of its rim, so that as the 
paddle wheel causes the oil to revolve in the cylinder the moving oil 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS gg 

will come into contact with the abutments and tend to turn the loose 
cylinder. Attached to the loose cylinder is a pinion that meshes with 
a toothed sector, which, in turn, is connected with the counterweight 
on a lever arm raised by the turning movement of the loose cylinder 
and so tends to oppose the turning of that cylinder. As the height to 
which the counterweight will be raised is a function of the velocity 
of the engine, this velocity can be governed by properly connecting 
the counterweight to the cut-off or throttle valve. 

WOODBURY SHAFT GOVERNOR, 1870 

U.S.N.M. no. 251290; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OlHce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Daniel A. Woodbury, of Rochester, N. Y., September 27, 1870, no. 
107746. 

This is a very simple form of shaft governor in which the position 
of a shifting eccentric is varied by the combined action of centrifugal 
weights and springs; so that changes in the engine speed change the 
'effective throw of the eccentric and the angle between the eccentric 
and the crank to change the timing of the valve relative to the piston 
and thus regulate the speed of the engine. 

The eccentric disk is held in a short lever that swings about a pin 
attached to a spoke of the flywheel so located that the eccentric is 
•approximately in the same position that would be occupied by an 
ordinary fixed eccentric. In swinging about the pin the throw or 
center of the eccentric changes its position relative to the center of 
the shaft and the engine crank. The lever is connected by curved 
links to two weights, Avhich are held by stiff flat coiled springs, so 
arranged that an increase in speed causes the centrifugal force due 
to the weights to move the lever slightly against the resistance of the 
springs and swing the eccentric so as to advance the eccentric and 
decrease the throw. The effect of this is that cut-off will occur earlier 
and the engine speed tend to decrease and return to the former slower 
speed. The arrangement of the weights is such that they are not 
swung out suddenly by their inertia when the engine is suddenly 
started, a difficulty often resulting in cut-off occurring so soon as to 
stop the engine on dead center. 

JUDSON AND COGSWELL GOVERNOR, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 309244 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for tlie patent issued 
to Junius Judson and William A. Cogswell, of Rochester, N. Y., 
November 9, 1875, no. 169815. 

The model represents a flyball governor in which the driving pulley 
is fitted loosely to the driving shaft and connected to it by a spiral 



g4 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

spring, which allows a free turning of the pulley on the shaft to an 
extent sufficient to counteract the jerks or impulses, which are trans- 
mitted to the governor by the uneven operation of the engine. 

The inventor states that the ordinary crank motion of a steam 
engine results in an unequal operation that is not always equalized by 
the flywheel of the engine. This irregularity, though not always per- 
ceptible, is transmitted to the governor, which, when operated un- 
evenly, would exaggerate the variations. This device is designed tO' 
prevent the jerks being transmitted to the governor. 

BODEMER INDIRECT ACTING GOVERNOR, 1876 

U.S.N.M. uo. 309243; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Johann Georg Bodemer, of Zschopan, Germany, April 25^ 
1876, no. 176591. 

The model represents a ball governor, connected to a belt shifter 
and a tight and loose pulley, through the medium of which the 
regulator valve is opened or closed according to which of two belts is 
transferred from the loose to the tight pulley. 

The belt shifter is actuated by a friction pin and is so arranged that 
it will put the regulator into immediate action in the required di- 
rection as soon as the governor balls deviate from their normal posi- 
tion ; it will keep the regulator in action as long as the balls continue 
to deviate in the same direction; it will put the regulator out of 
action as soon as the balls start to return toward normal ; it keeps the 
regulator out of action as long as the balls are returning to normal ; 
and causes the regulator to renew its action should the balls again 
begin to increase their deviation before having arrived at the normal. 

FOWLE MARINE-ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1877 

U.S.N.M. no. 30SG98 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Joseph W. Fowle, of Boston, Mass., August 14, 1877, no. 194037. 

The model represents a 1-cylinder, vertical marine engine connected 
to a propeller shaft and propeller in the ordinary manner, with a float 
or inertia device for closing the throttle valve of the engine each time 
the vessel in which the engine is installed pitclies sufficiently to raise 
the propeller out of the water. 

The gear consists of a heavy weight suspended in suitable guides 
and stops near the keel of the ship. This weight is not rigidly fixed 
relative to the ship but tends to float in position as the vessel rises and 
falls. The change in relative positions actuates a valve lever on an 
auxiliary steam cylinder and piston, which, in turn, moves the main 
throttle valve of the engine. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS g5 

THOMPSON AND HUNT SHAFT GOVERNOR, 1878 

Plate 19, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308700 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 32799. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to Joseph W. Thompson and Nathan Hunt, of Salem, Ohio, 
June 18, 1878, no 204924. One-half of tlie inventors' right was as- 
signed to the Buckeye Engine Co., of the same place. 

The model represents a centrifugal governor in which weights ro- 
tate with and upon the driving shaft and operate by variation of 
annular velocity to vary the position of an eccentric thereon, relative 
to the crank. The peculiar features of this governor are the use 
of ball-and-socket joints to connect the weighted arms to the eccentric 
and the provision of stop pins moving in cushioned slots to prevent 
shock due to sudden changes in speed while permitting the engine to 
be run in either direction. 

The inventors refer to former shaft governors as having been pat- 
ented by Jacob D. Custer, no 1179, June 21, 1839, and by Joseph W. 
Thompson, no. 162715, April 27, 1875. The invention of the shaft 
governor has heretofore been generally attributed to J. C. Hoadley. 

The Buckeye engine, which has been a representative and success- 
ful type of high-speed, automatic engine, was developed mainly under 
the patents of J. W. Thompson and Nathan Hunt. The peculiar type 
of shaft governor and the balanced flat valve (see above) were the 
characteristics of the engine. 

REID GYROSCOPIC ENGINE GOVERNOR, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309242 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Joseph Keid, Monroe, La., October 21, 1879, no. 220867. 

This model represents a hollow vertical spindle geared to be driven 
by the engine. Pivoted at the top of the spindle is a gyroscopic 
wheel, which ordinarily rests at an inclination to the spindle but when 
rotated is acted upon by gyroscopic and centrifugal forces tending to 
swing the axis of the wheel to the vertical. The changes in position of 
the wheel follow changes in velocity of the wheel, so that by suitable 
connections of the axis of the wheel to a governor valve the device 
will control the speed of the engine to which it is attached. 

PICKERING BALL GOVERNOR, OLD STYLE 
U.S.N.M. no. 310289 ; original ; gift of the Pickering Governor Co. ; not illustrated. 

In this governor each ball is supported at the center of a vertical, 
flat, laminated spring, so arranged that as the balls move away from 
the spindle of the governor, owing to centrifugal force, and cause the 



gg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

springs to bow, the upper support of the springs is drawn down, 
closing the throttle valve to which it is attached. This very simple 
and widely used form of the ball governor was invented by Thomas 
R. Pickering, of New York, N. Y., in 1862. 

The governor employs three balls, each attached to the center of a 
spring. Each spring is attached at its lower end to a collar that is 
driven by the engine and turns freely on a vertical hollow shaft. The 
upper ends of the springs are attached to another collar supported 
on a rod, which is free to revolve and to move up and down. As the 
centrifugal force moves the balls out from the spindle, the upper 
collar and rod are drawn down. The vertical rod is connected to a 
throttle valve within the casting, which forms the support of the 
governor. 

This specimen is a governor made in the form of the early Pickering 
governor. 

PICKERING BALL GOVERNOR, 1931 
U.S.N.M. no. 310290 ; original ; gift of the Pickering Governor Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is the modern form of the Pickering governor, described 
above, and has the same spring mechanism carrying the governor 
balls. It is provided with a speed ranger for obtaining different 
engine speeds up to a 50 percent increase over the minimum speed, 
and includes also an enclosure over the ball and gear mechanism. 

The principle of the Pickering governor has been very widely 
adopted to governing the speed of practically every type of machine 
and mechanism. It does not depend upon gravity for its proper 
operation and can, therefore, be used in any position, while the sim- 
plicity of its construction permits it to be made in every size. The 
principle is employed in the governors of telephone dials, talking 
machines, internal-combustion engines, air compressors, steam en- 
gines, and steam turbines. 

CONDENSERS 

JAMES WATT SURFACE CONDENSER, 1769 

U.S.N.M. no. 180614 ; two photoengravings ; deposited by J. E. Watkins ; not 
illustrated. 

These prints include a photograph of the Watt surface condenser 
in the Science Museum of London, and a line-drawing plan and eleva- 
tion of the condenser. 

The condenser shown is a small, tubular, surface condenser com- 
plete with air and condensate pump. The condenser is a vertical 
cylindrical shell with a circular tube sheet, or diaphragm, within the 
shell near each end. The small spaces at each end of the condenser 
are connected by some 140 tubes, which fill a large proportion of the 
space between the tube sheets. The cold condensing water passes 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 87" 

through these tubes. Tlie steam enters the space between the tube 
sheets at the top at one side, flows around the tubes, and down and out 
(as condensate) the opposite side at the lower end into the air pump. 
The steam and cooling water apparently travel in the same direction,, 
that is, downward. 

The air pump consists of two vertical tubes joined at the bottom 
to form a V-tube. One of the two tubes is bolted to the side of the 
condenser so that the bottom of the tube is some distance below the 
bottom of the condenser ; the condensate outlet of the condenser is at a 
point about two-thirds of the height of the tube and opening into 
it through a hinged valve (the inlet valve of the pump). The outlet 
valve of the pump is in the top of the tube above the inlet valve. A. 
piston is fitted to the other tube of the pump. The movement of 
the piston in the one tube caused a water column to rise and fall in 
the other tube, drawing in air and water from the condenser and 
discharging it (the air first) from the top of the tube. 

The condenser has all the elements of the present-day surface con- 
denser, which is the type in most general use, and the air pump 
incorporates the principle upon which most present successful vac- 
uum pumps operate. Watt did not, however, overcome the difficulties 
of maintaining the tubes tight in the tube sheets, and he supplied the 
jet type of condenser with his engines. (See the Fulton engine draw- 
ings above.) 

STEVENS SURFACE CONDENSER, 1862 

U.S.N.M. no. 308665; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Pateat Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Francis B. Stevens, of New York, N. Y., October 28, 1862, 
no. 36807. 

The model represents a surface condenser formed of coils of pipe 
to be located outside of the hull of a vessel. The peculiar feature is 
that cocks and valves are provided so that the condenser ca-n be dis- 
connected from the engine and used to distil sea water for the boilers 
and also permit steam to be blown through the condenser for clean- 
ing the tubes. 

STEVENS STEAM-ENGINE CONDENSER, 1863 

U.S.N.M. no 30923S ; original patent model ; transferred from the United Statea 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Francis B. Stevens, November 3, 1863, no. 40510. 

The condenser represented in the model consists of a large vertical 
cylinder and pump plunger with various connected chambers designed 



gg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

to function as a condenser, a condenser air pump, and feed-water 
hot well and heater. 

The invention "consists in simplifying the apparatus that con- 
denses the steam discharged by the first eduction from the cylinder 
of a condensing steam-engine by closing the hot well of the engine 
against the atmosphere and by keeping a portion of the space of the 
hot well free from water, and by delivering the steam discharged 
from the cylinder by the first eduction into the hot well, so that it 
may be condensed or partially condensed by the water delivered by 
the air-pump into the hot well." The hot well is thus made "to 
act also as an additional condenser and dispense altogether with an 
additional air pump to draw the water from the additional 
condenser." 

PITTS AND GLUYAS CONDENSER, 1872 

U.S.N.M. no. 309239; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to George K. Gluyas and Washington R. Pitts, of San Francisco, 
Calif., October 1, 1872, no. 131779. 

The model represents a simple arrangement of two rectangular 
chambers joined by rows of tubes and fitted with baffles so that steam 
admitted at one end would traverse the tubes in three directions 
before passing out. The inventor designed the condenser to be 
located in the wheel box of a paddle-wheel steamer where the water 
and spray from the wheel would cool the tubes and condense the 
steam. 

STARBUCK SIPHON CONDENSER, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 309354 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Starbuck, of Troy, N. Y., September 10, 1878, 
no. 207827. 

The model represents a form of barometric condenser in which 
an annular jet of water is brought into contact with an annular jet of 
the steam to be condensed, and the resulting mixture is conducted 
from the condenser by a pipe extending 33 feet or more below it. 
The peculiar feature of this condenser is the bulbous valve, which 
fits within the water pipe and forms a variable annular water pas- 
sage by which the quantity of water flowing can be adjusted while 
the shape of the annular jet of water, which is essential to the best 
-operation of the condenser, is maintained unbroken. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS gg 

ENGINE INDICATORS 

An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the 
pressure within an engine cylinder at every instant during the stroke 
of the piston. The diagram produced by the indicator is used by 
engineers to check many features of both the design and performance 
of the engine. From it may be ascertained the amount of work done 
by the steam or gas upon the piston ; the exact part of the stroke at 
which each valve event occurs; the average pressure in the cylinder 
during the stroke ; and many other facts of interest and value. 

The indicator is one of the many inventions attributed to James 
Watt, who devised it primarily to measure the work done by his steam 
engines. Watt was paid for his engines on the basis of the work that 
they did as compared to the number of horses that they displaced, and 
before the invention of the indicator his customers' low estimates of 
the efforts of his engines caused him to complain that "the power of 
a horse is growing to that of an elephant." 

The first form of the indicator was a modification of the vacuum 
gauge, which was connected to the cylinder of the engine and was 
read by an observer at any required inteiTals during the ponderous 
stroke of the then slow-speed engines. The important addition of a 
pencil attached to the pointer of the instrument, and so arranged that 
it would register its position on a sheet of paper fastened to a flat 
board that moved in synchronism with the engine piston, is believed 
to have been suggested by John Southern, one of Watt's assistants. 

At just what date the first indicator was used is not known. Watt 
found it of so much assistance to him in properly adjusting the valves 
of his engines that he kept it secret as long as he could. The story 
is told that an indicator was accidentally packed with an engine sent 
from the Watt factory to Holland, where it subsequently fell into the 
hands of an agent of a competitor and through him was revealed to 
the world. 

The reciprocating drum to carry the paper, which is a part of every 
present-day indicator, was introduced about 1825 to 1830 by Jolin 
McNaught of Glasgow. McNaught's indicator retained the fixed con- 
nection between the piston rod of the indicator and the pencil, which 
required that the piston move as far as the pencil must travel to pro- 
duce a diagram large enough to be legible. Prof. C. B. Richards, of 
Connecticut, in 1862 designed the first indicator in which a compara- 
tively short movement of the indicator piston was multiplied many 
times by suitable linkage to produce the required movement of the 
pencil. By thus reducing the movement of the piston its linear speed 
was also reduced, and tne errors and distortion of the diagram occa- 
sioned by the inertia of the indicator parts at high speed were partially 
eliminated. The Richards is considered the first of the modern type 

40970 — 39 7 



90 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of indicators. Since 1862 the advance in design has been largely in 
the refinement of various parts, lightening the piston and pencil 
mechanism, steam jacketing the cylinder, and making the parts more 
accessible and the whole instrument more rapid to use. The latest in- 
dicator in the Museum's collection is equipped with an appliance for 
taking an uninterrupted record of diagrams of the successive strokes 
of an engine. 

WATT STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR, c. 1796 
U.S.N.M. no. 309680; copy; made in the Museum; not illustrated. 

This is a copy of an indicator in the Science Museum at London, 
which belonged to one of the Boulton, Watt & Co. agents at Man- 
chester, England. 

The instrument consists of a vertical brass cylinder fitted with a 
piston, 1 square inch in area, provided with a rod attached to the 
piston and projecting from the upper end of the cylinder. Between 
the piston and the cap at the upper end of the cylinder and fastened 
to both is a helical spring that is lengthened and shortened by varia- 
tions in pressure below the piston and causes the height of the piston 
to be a measure of the pressure. Tlie lower end of the cylinder is 
fitted with a tapered plug cock by which it could be attached to the 
tapered sockets provided in the cylinders of the early engines. At- 
tached to the upper end of the piston rod is a pencil that traces a curve 
on paper fastened to a small board, which is moved across the point 
of the pencil by the motion of the engine. The motion of the engine 
was transmitted to the paper by a cord from a point on the bridle of 
the engine, and the return motion of the board was caused by a weiglit 
and cord. 

The first form described by Watt was an adoption of the vacuum 
gauge consisting of a spring-loaded piston nicely fitted to a cylinder. 
A pointer connected to the piston indicated the pressure within the 
cylinder. With the slow-moving engines with which this was used, 
readings of the pressure could be made at known points in the engine's 
stroke, and the data plotted. 

DIAGRAM TAKEN WITH WATT INDICATOR 

U.S.N.M. no. 180629; print; deposited by J. E. Watkins; not illustrated. 

This diagram was taken with a Watt indicator on a low-pressure 
condensing engine by Edward Cooper, August 1840. It represents the 
full-load diagram of the engine. The maximum pressure above the 
atmospheric line is 5 pounds per square inch, and the exhaust pressure 
is 13 pounds per square inch vacuum. The card is practically rectan- 
gular and is computed to have indicated 120 horsepower. Additional 
notes on the card describe the engine as having a 7-foot stroke, a speed 
of 171/2 revolutions per minute, and a rating of 60 horsepower. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS Ql 

McNAUGHT INDICATOR, c. 1835-1842 

PlATB 20, FiGUEE 1 

"U.S.N.M. no. 307516; original; gift of tlie Ball Engine Co.; photograph no. 
15260A (group). 

This is an original indicator made by the old Novelty Iron Works, of 
New York City. Marked "Novelty Iron Works, New York, No. 4." 

This indicator is one of the first type to employ a cylindrical 
drum to carry the paper, in place of the flat board of the Watt in- 
dicator. This feature was the invention of John McNaught, of 
Glasgow, Scotland, who introduced an indicator with this improve- 
ment about 1825-1830. 

The indicator consists of a vertical cylinder and a closely fitted! 
piston with a helical spring between the piston and the cap at the 
upper end of the cylinder. A piston rod projects beyond the top 
of the cylinder, as in the Watt indicator, but in this case the pencil 
is attached to the rod just above the piston. The fitting that car- 
ries the pencil slides in a vertical slot provided for it in the wall of 
the cylinder. A hollow metal drum is supported on a bracket close 
to and parallel with the cylinder. A spring on the pencil fitting 
presses the pencil against the surface of the drum (in some of the 
earlier models the paper was cemented to the drum). The paper 
drum is revolved by a cord wrapped al)out the base of the drum and 
is returned by a light coil spring within the drum. The piston 
rod extends beyond the top of the cylinder and is fitted with a 
small knurled nut so that an additional spring can be added for 
higher pressures. A scale is marked off along the edge of the slot 
in which the pencil fitting moves so that pressures may be read 
directly when the indicator is used with a slow-moving engine. 

KRAUSCH ENGINE INDICATOR, 1862 

U.S.N.M. no. 308664 : original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not Illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to C. W. T. Krausch, of Chicago, 111., September 9, 1862, 
no. 36411. 

The model represents an instrument designed to indicate and 
record speeds, draw-bar loads, boiler water levels, boiler pressures, 
steam-chest pressures, cylinder pressures, and conditions of the track 
connected with the operation of a locomotive engine and to plot 
these on a paper belt driven from a truck axle with a motion cor- 
responding to the progress of the engine. 

A series of levers and markers corresponding to the number of 
the above operations to be recorded works transversely on the paper 
record as the paper is advanced by the progress of the engine. The 



92 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

marker indicating speed is actuated by a spring-balanced bellows, 
the motion of which is determined by the volume of air delivered to 
it by small air-pump cylinders actuated by any convenient part of 
the engine. The other markers are actuated mechanically by a 
series of levers to various indicating instruments on the engine, 
not described. 

RICHARDS INDICATOR, c. 1867 

Pi^\TE 20, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 307515 ; original ; gift of tlie Ball Engine Co. ; photograph no. 
15260A (group). 

This is the type of "high speed" steam-engine indicator patented 
by Prof. C. B. Richards in 1863 (Patent no. 37980) and introduced 
commercially about 1867. 

This is considered the first design of the modern type of indica- 
tor. It was the first to employ a multiplying linkage between the 
piston and the pencil point to reduce the travel of the piston and 
so avoid the distortion of the diagram due to the inertia of the 
moving parts. It has a cylinder liner supported so that it is free 
to expand and contract longitudinally with temperature changes, 
and it provides a means of moving the pencil into and away from 
contact with the paper. 

The pencil mechanism is a Watt parallel motion that moves the 
pencil parallel with the piston, coincident with it and in an exact 
ratio of travel. It multiplies the movement of the piston about 
four times. The parallel motion is supported by two arms that 
are a part of a collar that is fitted so that it may be turned about 
the top of the cylinder to bring the pencil into contact with the 
paper. The indicator spring is a heavy, single-coil, helical spring 
fitted with threaded collars by which it is attached to the piston 
and the cylinder cap. It is easily removable so that lighter or 
heavier springs may be substituted. 

G. H. CROSBY INDICATOR, 1879 

Plate 20, Figurk 3 

U.S.N.M. no. 308701; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 15260A (group). 

This indicator was filed with the application for Patent no. 219149 
issued to G. H. Crosby, September 2, 1879. 

The improvements claimed for this design are a jacket about the 
steam cylinder to prevent radiation or loss of heat from the cylinder ; 
a method of supporting the cylinder and jacket so that each might 
expand freely when heated; the carrying of the rotary drum on 
a lever so that it could be moved up to and away from the marker; 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 93 

and a peculiar parallel motion for effecting the straight line motion 
of the marker in which "the lever is connected with the piston-rod 
by a joint, and not indirectly by a link, as in the Kichards indicator." 

THOMPSON INDICATOR 

U.S.N.M. uo. 309644 ; original ; gift of N. C. Hunt ; not illustrated. 

This indicator was made by the American Steam Gauge Co., of 
Boston. It is marked "J. W. Thompson Pat. August 31, '75 Pat. 
June 26, 1883, No. 4302." 

In this indicator the piston rod is hollow and serves only as a 
guide for the piston. The pencil mechanism is connected to the 
piston by a very light rod that passes through the piston rod and 
is attached to the piston with a swivel joint. This permits the 
connecting rod to swing through a slight arc, which in turn permits 
the use of a very simple and light parallel motion. 

The piston is a light cylindrical shell provided with three grooves 
that collect moisture and steam to lubricate and seal the piston. The 
inner wall of the cylinder is a liner separate from and secure*! to 
the inclosing cylinder only at one end so that it is free to expand 
and contract with temperature changes, thus avoiding distortion. 

INDICATOR WITH REDUCING WHEEL, 1930 

U.S.N.M. no. 309833; original; gift of the Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co.; 
not Illustrated. 

This indicator, designed to meet the requirements of modern high- 
speed engines, employs the lightest construction consistent with 
strength and accuracy. It is equipped with a reducing wheel, which 
is a self-contained device capable of reducing engine strokes of 14 
to 72 inches to the proper stroke of the paper drum. 

Tlie cylinder of this indicator is supported so that its lower end 
is free and its longitudinal expansion or contraction is unimpeded. 
The annular space between the cylinder and the casing is designed to 
serve as a steam jacket. The piston is an extremely thin steel shell 
with shallow channels on its outer surface to provide steam packing 
and moisture lubrication. The piston rod is hollow and is connected 
to the pencil mechanism by means of a swivel head that can bo 
screwed in or out of the rod to adjust the position of the diagram 
on the paper. The pencil mechanism is kinematically a pantograph 
that theoretically gives the pencil point a movement exactly parallel 
to the piston and the amount of the movement of the piston is multi- 
plied six times at the pencil point. The design of the piston spring 
is peculiar to this indicator. It is made of a single piece of spring 
steel wire wound from the middle into a double coil, the ends of 
which are screwed into a metal head drilled helically to receive the 
spring. 



94 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The exact strength of spring is obtained by screwing the spring 
into the head more or less, when they are firmly fixed. The foot 
of the spring is a small steel bead firmly pinned to the straight por- 
tion of wire at the bottom of the spring. This takes the place of 
the heavier brass foot used in earlier indicators. 

INDICATOR WITH CONTINUOUS CARD APPLIANCE, 1930 
Plate 20, Figube 4 

U.S.N.M. no. 309834; original; gift of the Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co.; 
photograph no. 18547A. 

In this indicator the piston spring is located outside of the cylinder 
casing in a position above the moving parts, where it is not affected 
by the heat of the steam ; and the piston is made in the shape of the 
central zone of a sphere to reduce the friction caused by possible 
eccentricity in the action of the spring. The ordinary drum of the 
indicator has been displaced by an appliance for taking a continuous 
series of diagrams of the successive strokes of an engine. 

The piston is attached by a hollow rod directly to the upper end 
of the spring and because of its spherical shape moves freely in spite 
of any eccentric action of the spring. The bearing of the spherical 
piston on the cylinder wall approaches line contact, so that friction 
is greatly reduced. 

The Lanza continuous diagram appliance is assembled on a bracket 
that displaces the usual paper drum and supports the indicator 
proper. It consists of a spindle for receiving the new roll of paper, 
the drum that feeds the paper forward and upon which the pencil 
point bears in making the record, and the spool upon which the 
paper is afterward wound. 

The drum is rotated continuously in one direction by the alternate 
engagement of two clutches controlled by a cord passing over the 
pulley at the extreme end of the bracket arm and actuated by a cross- 
head block positively connected to the crosshead of the engine. There 
is included a device for marking upon the paper at the end of the 
stroke and an atmospheric marker readily adjustable to any required 
position. 

This appliance is the invention of the late Prof. Gaetano Lanza, 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is used to obtain a 
continuous series of cards from locomotives, rolling mills, and other 
engines where the diagrams corresponding to successive revolutions 
of an engine differ. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 20 




Engine indicators. 

1. McXaught, c. 1835-1842 (U.S.N.M. no. 307516). See p. 91. 
2. Richards, c. 1867 (U.S.X.M. no. 307515). See p. 92. 
3. Crosbv, 1879 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 308701). See p. 92. ^ 
4. Indicator with continuous card appliance, 1930 (U.S.X.M. no. 3098.^4). bee p 



94. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 95 

MISCELLANEOUS STEAM-ENGINE ACCESSORIES 
HARRISON LUBRICATOR, 1880 

U. S. N. M. no. 308704 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to A. L. Harrison, of Bristol, Conn., March 2, 1880, no. 225124. 

The model represents a steam-engine lubricator in which the oil is 
contained in a reservoir fitted with a balanced diaphragm upon both 
sides of which the steam pressure in the main acts. The unbalanced 
pressure required to force the oil into the steam is atmospheric pres- 
sure obtained by the use of a vacuum chamber when the engine is 
operating condensing, or the hydrostatic pressure of a water column 
when the engine is operating noncondensing. 

The lubricator consists of an oval chamber divided by a flexible 
diaphragm. The space above the diaphragm contains the oil and 
is connected through a glycerine-filled sight glass to the steam chest 
or cylinder of the engine. The space below the diaphragm is con- 
nected to the steam pipe from the boiler, so that steam pressure acts 
on both sides of the diaphragm. A rod attached to the center of the 
diaphragm passes through suitable stuffing boxes to a piston in a 
cylinder below the diaphragm chamber. The space above the piston 
is connected to the condenser of the engine so that atmospheric pres- 
sure will exert an unbalanced force upon the under side of the piston, 
ajid through it upon the diaphragm, sufficient to force the oil out of 
the lubricator into the engine. When used with a noncondensing en- 
gine a water column in the steam pipe connecting to the under side of 
the diaphragm provides an unbalanced hydrostatic pressure on the 
diaphragm. 

HAY GRAVITY-FEED OILER, 1888 

U.S.N.M. no. 309248 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This oiler was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Peter D. Hay (assignor to the Michigan Lubricator Co.), of Detroit, 
Mich., June 19, 1888, no. 384762. 

The model represents a sight-feed oiler in which the oil is contained 
in a cylindrical glass reservoir and flows by gravity through a needle 
valve to the bearing into which the oiler is screwed. The needle of 
the needle valve when closed is held against its seat by a light spring. 
It is opened by lifting the needle and giving it a short turn so that 
a pin on the shaft rises out of a slot and rests on the top edge of a 
brass thumb nut screwed into the central post of the oiler. This 
nut may be run up or down on its threads and so determine the 
amount by which the needle will be raised and held from its seat and 



95 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SO control the rate at which oil is fed from the reservoir. The nut 
carries a spring-held pin that rests in shallow recesses in the top of 
the oiler and holds the nut in the position in which it is set and will 
not permit the nut to be jarred around by the vibration of the ma- 
chine to which it is attached. 

INTERMITTENT GRAVITY OILER 

U.S.N.M. no. 311184 ; model ; transferred from the United States Patent Office ; 
not illustrated. 

This is a gravity oiler similar to the above in which the lubricating 
oil is contained in a glass reservoir from which it flows by its own 
weight through a valve in the bottom of the reservoir. The valve 
through which the oil flows is a small conical valve held closed by 
tlie weight of the oil above it. A stem projects downward from the 
lubricator, which when pushed upward lifts the valve from its seat 
and allows the oil to flow. It is probable that this lubricator was 
designed to release a drop of oil upon the surfaces of some slow-mov- 
ing machine, such as the guides of a planer when a cam or lug on the 
moving part engaged the valve stem and raised it. 

HAND-PUMP PRESSURE LUBRICATOR 

U.S.N.M. no. 311185; original; transferred from the United States Patent Office; 
not illustrated. 

This is a pressure lubricator designed to force lubricating oil into 
the steam being supplied to a steam engine for the lubrication of the 
piston and valves. It forces the oil into the steam main against the 
pressure of the steam. It consists of a large glass reservoir into which 
is built a small simple hand pump. By working the handle of the 
pump the oil is drawn into the pump cylinder and discharged through 
the screw fitting at the bottom of the lubricator into the steam main 
or valve chest to which the lubricator is attached. The efficiency of 
lubricators of this kind depends entirely upon the judgment of the 
engineer or oiler. They are generally wasteful of oil. 

The lubricator is marked "Buckeye Engine Company." 

MULTIPLE HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATOR 
Plate 21, Figube 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 308685 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 32628B. 

This is an automatic lubricator that delivers lubricating oil into the 
steam being supplied to a steam engine at any desired rate. It employs 
the pressure due to a column of water plus the pressure of the steam 
in the main to force the oil into the main against the steam pressure. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 97 

The lubricator consists principally of a large cylindrical brass res- 
ervoir containing the oil. This reservoir is connected at the top 
through a length of vertical uninsulated pipe to the steam main. The 
pipe extends down within the reservoir to a point near the bottom. 
Steam entering this pipe is condensed to some extent and conveys 
water into the reservoir, where it displaces the oil to the top. A second 
pipe entering the reservoir at the bottom extends nearly to the top. 
The top of this pipe is open, and the oil is forced into it. This pipe 
conveys the oil to a needle valve at the bottom of a sight glass or 
water column through which the oil rises in drops to the pipe that 
conveys it to the steam main. The resistance offered the flow of oil 
by the pressure in the main is overcome by the pressure exerted on 
the oil in the reservoir by the steam pressure in the uninsulated pipe 
plus the pressure due to the height of the column of water standing 
in the pipe. 

The rate of flow of the oil is regulated by the needle valve at the 
bottom of the sight glass, which is set to deliver oil at the rate required, 
usually stated in drops per minute. This is a multiple lubricator 
provided with three delivery valves and sight glasses from which oil 
may be supplied to three different points at three different rates. A 
sight level glass on the side of the reservoir is provided to show the 
quantities of oil and water within the reservoir. Stiff sheet-brass 
guards surround all the glass parts so that the highly strained gauge 
glass will not fly far off if the glass should fail under the pressure 
within the lubricator. 

BRAMWELL VALVE, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 309251; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illusti'ated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to William Bramwell, of New York, N. Y., June 14, 1859, no. 24639. 

The model represents a valve in which a gate swinging upon a hori- 
zontal axis is opened or closed by means of a hand wheel, vertical 
screw, and toggle link. 

The gate of the valve is a conical plug that swings on an arm 
from a pivot above it. When closed the gate fits a conical seat in the 
valve body ; when opened it swings up into the top of the valve body 
practically clear of the passages. The peculiar feature of the valve 
is the arrangement of parts, which permits the closing of a swing- 
gate valve by means of a hand wheel and screw. 



gg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

FITTS GOVERNOR VALVE, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S662; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Benaiah Fitts, of Worcester, Mass., August 9, 1859, no. 
25005. 

The model represents a globular valve in which a conical rotor 
uncovers a port in a conical seat. It operates without a stuffing box 
and is designed so that the pressure of steam on the rotor is balanced, 
reducing friction to a minimum. 

SCHEIDLER AND McNAMAR THROTTLE VALVE, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 3086S7 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Reinhard Scheidler and John H. McNamar, of Newark, 
Ohio, June 8, 1875, no. 164219. 

The model represents a piston shaped regulating valve operated 
by a lever, sector, and rack on the valve stem. It is designed for 
use as an auxiliary valve in connection with a throttle valve of ordi- 
nary form. The inventors describe the valve as being particularly 
well fitted for the control of sawmill engines. 

HEWITT PISTON-ROD PACKING, 1879 
Plate 21, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309247; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; photograph no. 32628A. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to John Hewitt, of St. Louis, Mo., June 3, 1879, no. 216038. 

The model represents a 2-piece, flange-and-gland stuffing box of 
the usual form, packed with malleable metal rings with beveled 
edges. The rings are alternately beveled in opposite directions so 
that adjoining surfaces match. The edges of the flange and gland are 
beveled so that when the parts are brought together and tightened 
the effect is of a number of double wedges sliding together and 
expanding between the stuffing box and the shaft. 

CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR, c. 1879 
U.S.N.M. no. 180924 ; original ; gift of the Deerfoot Farm Co. ; not Illustrated. 
One of the earliest uses of the centrifugal separator for raising 
cream from milk was at the Deerfoot Farm, Southborough, Mass. 
The separator described here was one of the first three employed 
there in 1879. It is included in this catalog because it is exhibited 
in the Museum with the centrifugal oil separator, described below. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 99 

The separator is a cast-iron cylinder, 2 feet in diameter, with a 
depth at the circumference of 14 inches. The top of the cylinder 
is double walled and slightly domed, with an opening at the center 
121^ inches in diameter. It is mounted upon a short vertical shaft 
that carries a horizontal belt pulley. A heavy cast-iron bedplate 
supports the bearing of the shaft and carries two stub shafts for 
idler pulleys to guide the driving belt to the shaft pulley. The scoop 
pipe and filling faucet are missing. 

In use mill?: was run into the cylinder from a faucet through the 
opening of the top, and the cylinder was spun at a rate of 1,600 
revolutions per minute. In about 20 minutes centrifugal force would 
have thrown the heavier milk to the wall of the cylinder and the 
cream would have formed an inner layer inside of the milk. A scoop 
pipe was inserted through the opening into the revolving layer of 
cream, which ran out through the pipe to cans. Fresh milk was 
added to bring the level of cream and then the skim milk up to the 
scoop pipe. The separator had a capacity of about 516 pounds of 
milk an hour. It was driven by belting from the line shaft of the 
dairy, which was powered by a l-horsepower steam engine. 

A discussion of the equipment at the Deerfoot Farm dairy and a 
brief history of centrifugal milk separators are contained in the arti- 
cle "Deerfoot Farm Centrifugal Dairy", by E. Lewis Sturtevant, in 
the Annual Re-port of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 
1880, Washington, 1881. 

THOMSON AND HOUSTON CENTRIFUGAL CREAMER, 1881 

U.S.N.M. no. 309134 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model, which is roughly diagrammatic, was submitted with 
the application (1877) for the patent issued to Elihu Thomson and 
E. J. Houston, of Philadelphia, April 5, 1881, no. 239659. 

The creamer represented by the model is a centrifugal separator 
with a single source of supply and two distinct discharges designed 
to give continuous operation without interference of the supplied 
liquid with the separated products. Stopping the apparatus for the 
insertion and removal of material, "as in ordinary centrifugal ma- 
chines", is unnecessary. 

The separator has a conical-shaped rotating case on a hollow ver- 
tical shaft, which opens into the bottom of it, and a horizontal de- 
flector plate a few inches above the bottom. The liquid is supplied 
from a pipe above the center of the central top opening of the case. 
The deflector plate prevents the passage of the supplied liquid di- 
rectly to the hollow shaft. Under the influence of the rapid rotation 
of the case the denser ingredients of the liquid accumulate toward the 



IQQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

greatest diameter of the rotor case, which is the lowest part, and pass 
out through the hollow shaft. The lighter ingredients are displaced 
toward the axis of rotation and discharge around the opening at the 
center and top of the rotor case. An outside case, which may be 
either rotating or stationary, collects the lighter ingredients as dis- 
charged. 

CENTRIFUGAL OIL CLARIFIER, 1931 

U.S.N.M. no. 310255 ; sectioned original ; gift of tlie De Laval Separator Co. ; not 
illustrated. 

The clarifier is a steam-driven centrifugal separator prepared for 
the clarifying of lubricating oil. Similar machines with steam or 
electric drive modified with the proper bowls and collectors are used 
to clarify and dehydrate transformer oils, to clarify switch oils and 
solvents, and to separate liquids of different specific gravities, as 
cream and milk. 

The separator is a heavy metal bowl mounted upon a vertical bowl 
spindle, which projects upward into the bowl and supports a series 
of conical disks and covers and a tubular filling shaft. The weight 
of the bowl is supported by a steel point at the end of the lower 
spindle resting upon two treadwheels. On the lower spindle is the 
steam wheel or rotor of a small, single-stage, impulse turbine, which 
revolves the bowl. The oil to be clarified is led down through a 
hollow shaft to the bottom of the bowl, where it flows out to the disks 
where the separation takes place. Under the influence of the forces 
set up by the rapid rotation of the bowl the heavier liquid passes up 
along the outside of the disks and out at the lower outlet of the 
bottom cover. The lighter liquid passes up along the inside of the 
disks and out through the upper outlet of the bowl to the middle 
cover. An upper cover is provided to carry off any possible overflow 
of liquid. 

Gustav de Laval, whose name is equally honored in the histories of 
both centrifugal separators and steam turbines, developed the im- 
pulse turbine to produce a motor capable of turning his centrifugal 
separator at the required high speed. Wlien, in 1883, he applied a 
steam turbine to a separator he made the first practical use of the 
modern steam turbine. 

AIR AND HYDRAULIC ENGINES 

CHANDLER AND SILVER HYDRAULIC ENGINE, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 308702; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Ofl3ce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Lucius S. Chandler and Samuel N. Silver, of Auburn, 
Maine, August 27, 1878, no. 207391. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS IQl 

The engine has four single-acting, horizontal cylinders arranged in 
a block like the chambers of a revolver. Connecting rods from the 
four pistons connect to pins on crank disks on a common shaft. The 
head ends of the four cylinders open into a drumlike exhaust cham- 
ber. A rotary valve of peculiar construction revolves in the exhaust 
chamber close to the ends of the cylinders and opens the cylinders 
to the exhaust chamber or to the pressure inlet pipe, which forms 
the hollow stem of the valve, in proper sequence. The hollow stem 
of the valve passes out of the forward side of the exhaust chamber 
through a gland and bearing. It carries a spur gear that meshes with 
a pinion on a lay shaft, which parallels the cylinders and is turned 
by a bevel gear pair at the crankshaft. 

CARPENTER COMPOUND HYDRAULIC ENGINE, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 309252 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

The model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Oramill C. Carpenter, of Brookljai, N. Y., December 17, 1878, 
no. 210915. 

The engine is essentially a hydraulic transmission, wliich takes 
motion from eccentric cams on a central shaft turned by a steam 
or other engine and transmits the motion to shafts on either side of 
and parallel to the central shaft. The inventor designed the engine 
to be applied to a streetcar, and the model is mounted in a miniature 
nickel-plated car truck. 

It is a 4-cylinder engine with opposed cylinders in groups of two. 
Single-acting plungers work in and out of the cylinders as the central 
shaft is turned. The head of each cylinder leads directly to another 
cylinder of reduced diameter in each of which a driven piston works 
through a longer stroke in time with the short stroke of the driving 
piston. Valves for the relief of an excess pressure of liquid and 
spring-cushioned piston heads are described for smoother running. 

COLWELL DISULPHIDE OF CARBON GENERATOR AND ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308T6G; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

The model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to William S. Colwell, of Pittsburgh, Pa., September 16, 1879, no. 
219622. 

The model represents a reciprocating engine of more or less con- 
ventional steam engine design in which the operating fluid is vapor- 
ized carbon disulphide supplied by a boiler or generator and condensed 
in an air-cooled condenser. The transfer of heat from the fire in 
the boiler to the carbon disulphide and from the exhaust vapor to 
the cooling air of the condenser is effected through water. Plumbago, 



102 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

or black lead, is used to protect the walls of the generator and the 
engine from the action of the carbon-disulphide vapor. Steam and 
hot water from the water jacket of the generator are led into passages 
surrounding the engine cylinder and connecting pipes to prevent the 
loss of heat from the vapor. 

KIMMAN COMPRESSED-AIR ENGINE 
U.S.N.M. no. 310189 ; original ; gift of Martin T. Kimman ; not illustrated. 

This small, 3-cylinder, radial, air engine was designed and made 
by Henry James Kimman (1862-1921), a pioneer inventor of small 
portable piston air drills. It is believed that the engine was built 
for a steering engine on a steam roller. The experience gained in 
the construction of the engine directed his interest to the design of 
air drills, in which field he made valuable contributions. 

The engine is exhibited in the Museum with several forms of the 
Kimman air drill not described in this publication. 

MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF POWER 

The mechanical transmission of power, though a large subject and 
an important phase of mechanical engineering, is not largely repre- 
sented in the National Museum collections. A few models of ele- 
mentary belt drives are included in the group described above under 
"Models of Mechanical Powers" (p. 3) and the remaining items in 
the collection are listed here. 

BELT DRIVING ACCESSORIES (chronologically arranged) 

Belt fastener, Patent Office model, Patent no. 25187, issued to Albert Ficket>., 
August 23, 1859. U.S.N.M. no. 309148. 

Splicing belts, Patent Office model, Patent no. 66261, issued to N. E. Smith 
July 2, 1867. U.S.N.M. no. 309154. 

Belt lacing. Patent Office model. Patent no. 70775, issued to H. C. Babcock, 
November 12, 1867. U.S.N.M. no. 309153. 

Belt hook. Patent Office model. Patent no. 84968, issued to Charles Sargeant, 
December 15. 1868. U.S.N.M. no. 309143. 

Splicing or joining belts. Patent Office model, Patent no. 86123, issued to 
John Ashworth, January 26, 1869. U.S.N.M. no. 309155. 

Belt .ioints, Patent Office model. Patent no. 89820, issued to B. P. Walker, 
May 4, 1869. U.S.N.M. no. 309146. 

Method of lacing belts. Patent Office model. Patent no. 153153, issued to George 
:E. Burt, July 21, 1874. U.S.N.M. no. 309150. 

Belt fastener, I'afent Office model. Patent no. 164855, issued to J. B. McBlroy, 
June 22, 1875. U.S.N.M. no. 309156. 

Belt tightener, Paleiit Office model, Patent no. 196222, issued to Gilbert Greene, 
October 16, 1877. U.S.N.M. no. 309139. 

Belt tightener. Patent Office model. Patent no. 201596, issued to David L. Croft. 
March 26, 1878. U.S.N.M. no. 309157. 

Belt tightener. Patent Office model, Patent no. 226311, issued to V. H. Hallock, 
April 6. 1880. U.S.N.M. no. 309147. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS J 03 

Method for lacing belt, Patent Office model, Patent no. 228390, issued to O. C. 
Pomeroy, June 1, 1880. U.S.N.M. no. 309152. 

Belt fastener. Patent Office model, Patent no. 229278, issued to A. Schuhknecht, 
June 2, 1880. U.S.N.M. no. 309149. 

Belt coupling. Patent Office model. Patent no. 238164, issued to E. O. Sawyer, 
February 22, 1881. U.S.N.M. no. 309151. 

ROPE DRIVES 

Rope drive, Patent Office model, Patent no. 359597, issued to W. H. Dodge, 
March 22, 1887. U.S.N.M. no. 308983. 

Rope driving apparatus. Patent Office model. Patent no. 478875, issued to 
Macdonald, Williams, and Hitzeroth, July 12, 1892. U.S.N.M. no. 308849. 

SHAFT BEARINGS 

Antifriction journal bearing. Patent Office model. Patent no, 212744, issued 
to L. Rank, February 25, 1879. U.S.N.M. no. 309143. 

Antifrictional bushings, Patent Office model. Patent no. 224453, issued to 
H. Loud, February 10, 1880. U.S.N.M. no. 309144. 

Antifriction alloy, Patent Office model, Patent no. 429249, issued to Samuel 
Singley, June 3, 1890. U.S.N.M. no. 308842. 

SHAFT COUPLINGS 

Shaft coupling, universal joint, Patent Office model. Patent no. 97575, issued to 
Seth Wheeler, December 7, 1869. U.S.N.M. no. 308848. 

Coupling for tumbling shafts, universal joint, Patent Office model. Patent no. 
105259, issued to S. C. Scofield, July 12, 1870. U.S.N.M. no. 30S847. 

Flexible shaft. Patent Office model, Patent no. 130253, issued to Nelson Stow, 
August 6, 1872. U.S.N.M. no. 311181. 

Knuckle joint, universal joint. Patent Office model, Patent no. 215922, issued 
to C. Q. Hayes, May 7, 1879. U.S.N.M. no. 308824. 

MISCELLANEOUS MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION DEVICES 

Connecting rod. Patent Office model. Patent no. 3981, issued to H. Hinkley, 
April 1, 1845. U.S.N.M. no. 30S9S9. 

Reversible mechanism for countershaft. Patent Office mode). Patent no. 
259572, issued to C. E. L. Moebius, June 13, 1882. U.S.N.M. no. 308S40. 

Motion transmitting device, roller gear. Patent Office model, Patent no. 
705,624, issued to C. F. Stokes and C. B. McGlinchley, July 29, 1902. U.S.N.M. 
no. 308846. 

Clutch pulley, Patent Office model, not identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308984. 

Planetary gear. Patent Office model, not identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308851. 

STEAM BOILERS 

The steam boiler is as old as the boiling and distilling processes 
in cooking and manufacturing and naturally antedates the steam 
engine. The first "power" boilers were described by Heron of Alex- 
andria; they were used to supply steam or vapor to the steam- 
operated devices, which he discussed. These descriptions are vari- 
ously translated in name as vessels, cauldrons, and spheres, and the 
drawings illustrating the several translations show them as hollow 



104 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

spheres or wide shallow vessels of various and often fantastic shapes 
covered with flat metal plates. All of them were heated over open 
fires or simple stone stoves in which the heat of the fire was applied 
to only a small section of the surface of the vessel. They seem to 
have been constructed of copper. 

The recent and continuous development of the steam boiler begins 
with the boilers used to supply steam at low pressure to the at- 
mospheric steam engines of Newcomen. It is true that before New- 
comen Thomas Savery had constructed boilers for the high pressures 
that his mine pumps (pulsometers) required, but the difficulty of 
maintaining them tight and his lack of success with boilers in general 
were largely responsible for the abandonment of the Savery engine. 
Before Savery and Newcomen, soapmakers, brewers, and other trades- 
men using evaporators and cookers had developed boilers and fur- 
naces with considerable skill and thought. Brick and masonry 
settings in which flues and passages in the setting were used to con- 
duct the flame and hot gases over the surface of the boiler shell 
had been evolved. The boilers themselves were simply cylindrical 
straight-sided and flat-bottomed vessels open at the top and usually 
made of copper. To adapt them as steam generators they Vvere 
covered with a sheet of metal, often just a sheet of lead. Tlie boiler 
illustrated in the engraving of the Newcomen engine of 1712 (see 
above) was a boiler of this type with a hemispherical, domed top 
forming a steam chamber above the cylindrical part of the boiler. 
The top was joined to the lower part in a wide flange, which over- 
hung the sides at the top and formed the top of a flue that sur- 
rounded the entire lower part of the boiler. Gradually this type of 
boiler was rendered more suitable for steam power purposes. 
Wrought-iron plates and riveted joints were used (about 1725), the 
sides and bottom were made concave for stiffness, and internal stays 
were employed. In its improved form the boiler resembled a hay- 
stack and was often called the haystack boiler. It was sometimes 
constructed with a central domelike firebox and an internal helical 
flue. 

To increase the heating surfaces of the boiler James Watt, about 
1780-1790, designed the toagon type of boiler, which is practically 
an elongated haystack boiler with flat ends, somewhat resembling 
a deep rectangular wagon body with an arched top. These boilers 
had concave sides, which with the adjacent brickwork of the setting 
formed flues along each side of the boiler. The grates were at the 
forward end and beneath the boiler, and the hot gases passed under 
the concave bottom to the back, returned along one side of the boiler, 
and then passed back again along the opposite side. Later Watt 
added a square flue through the center of the boiler and caused the 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLEtmONS 1Q5 

gases to return through the flue, divide at the front, and pass back 
along each side. 

From the wagon type of boiler the horizontal cylindrical shell 
boiler soon developed, and following it came a great many combina- 
tions of cylinders and drums in large and small sizes. The exter- 
nally fired cylindrical boiler with convex ends and no flues was prob- 
ably the most widely used boiler from 1800 to about 1850. Woolf's 
patent steam-engine boiler, 1803 (see below), is an early and typical 
one of combinations of small cylinders and drums, a modern example 
of which is the "elephant", or French, boiler still used to some extent 
in Europe. It is very probable that such combinations of drums and 
connecting pipes suggested the water-tube boiler. 

The internal flue boiler was employed by Smeaton, the English 
engineer who is often credited with its invention (c. 1740 to 1770), 
as well as by Watt, as mentioned above. The real development 
began, however, with the work of Oliver Evans in the United States 
and Richard Trevithick in England. A model of a locomotive sup- 
posed to have been made by Trevithick before 1800 has a horizontal 
cylindrical shell boiler within which is a large circular flue passing 
through the shell. Within one end of the flue a grate is provided, 
and the other end of the flue is joined to a stack. Trevithick's pat- 
ent of March 24, 1802, and a road locomotive constructed at London 
in 1803 include a boiler of this type in which the flue was bent in 
the form of a large U, and the hot gases were required to pass through 
the entire length of the boiler in each direction. Trevithick con- 
structed several large stationary flue boilers with great success. 

Oliver Evans, pioneer builder of high-pressure steam engines, is 
generally credited with having made the first practical flue boilers 
in the United States. Evans is believed to have completed his first 
steam engine in 1802, but it is not clear what type of boiler he used 
then. The Abortion of the Young Steam Engineers Guide^ by Oliver 
Evans, printed at Philadelphia in 1805, illustrates a steam engine 
(see above) "on the new principle" (high pressure), including a 
section of an internally fired flue boiler. The text indicates that he 
also used externally fired return-flue boilers and mentions his expe- 
rience with boiling linseed oil in wooden boilers to 120 pounds per 
square inch pressure and 600°. Evans also used the brick-set multi- 
ple-drum boiler of several connected small cylinders all externally 
fired, in the steamboat Aetna of 1818. 

Wooden boilers were used by engineers other than Evans, but they 
seem to be a peculiarly American development. Just as the early 
cookers of the various trades were used in England as steam genera- 
tors, in the United States the wooden vats and tanks of the brewers 
and distillers were to some extent adopted. Staudinger and Livings- 

49970—39 8 



IQQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ton who built the engines for the Center Square station of the 
Philadelphia waterworks in 1801, suggested that wooden boilers be 
used. These are described below. 

High-pressure steam did not come into favor for many years after 
Trevithick and Evans, and flue boilers were first developed with the 
object of obtaining the largest heating surface possible with little 
regard to increasing the strength of the boilers. Many of the early 
flue boilers were constructed with single flues of large diameter and 
were not well designed for strength. As pressures were increased it 
became necessary to give more attention to strength and the realiza- 
tion that large heating surface with greater strength could be ob- 
tained with the use of several flues of small diameter was an impor- 
tant step forward in boiler design. The Lancashire boiler with two 
parallel internally fired flues was introduced by Sir William Fair- 
bairn of England in 1844, and following this a number of variations 
were introduced. The use of strengthening devices such as cross 
tubes (first used by Paul Steenstrup in 1828), strengthening rings, 
and corrugated flues have permitted flue boilers to keep pace with the 
pressure requirements, and at the present time they are working at 
the highest pressures employed in ordinary steam-engine practice. 

Fire-tube hoilers. — The fire-tube boiler, with many small tubes 
within which the flame or hot gases from the fire passed through 
the water in the boiler, was first suggested by Nathan Read, of Salem, 
Mass., about 1790. Read, a graduate of Harvard College, began ex- 
periments with steam engines about 1788, with a view to adapting 
them to road vehicles and boats. In 1789, at Danvers, Mass., he 
operated a boat propelled by paddle wheels turned by hand to satisfy 
himself that the steam engine might be applied to propulsion in that 
manner, and in 1790 and 1791 he filed with Congress and the newly 
appointed Commissioners of Patents applications describing steam- 
propelled land vehicles, boats, and improvements in the steam engine 
and boiler. Under date of August 26, 1791, the first United States 
patents were issued, including one to Read for his boiler. The pat- 
ented boiler was a vertical ioate7''-tuhe boiler with an enclosed firebox, 
but letters of Read relating to the boiler and sketches found among 
his papers indicate that he intended the use of the same general 
design of the boiler with either water or fire tubes. With fire tubes 
the boiler would resemble the typical vertical hoisting engine boiler 
of today. It is not probable that Read or James Neville, who pat- 
ented a similar boiler in England in 1826, used a boiler of this type, 
and the credit for its first use is usually given to M. Sequin, French 
engineer, who patented a tubular boiler in February 1828 and applied 
it to two locomotives early in 1829. The type was brought to prac- 
tical perfection by George Stephenson, who applied it as the boiler 
of his locomotive Rocket of 1829. It has been the standard locomo- 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 107 

tive boiler type to the present day. The boiler used with the Lawrence, 
Mass., pumping engine of 1876 (described below) is a typical one of 
the multitubular locomotive type used for stationary plants. The 
externally fired horizontal return tubular boiler is the modern sta- 
tionary boiler of the fire-tube type, and the Scotch marine boiler is an 
example of a combination of the internally fired flue boiler with 
fire tubes. 

Water-tube boilers. — The water-tube boiler, in which the water is 
contained in tubes or small connected chambers in the path of the 
flame or hot gases, is one of the oldest forms of the boiler. The 
Catalogue of the Mechanical Engineering Collections of the Science 
Museum, London, 1907, mentions copper vessels found in the ruins 
of ancient Roman cities, which are apparently boiler elements in- 
corporating the principle of water tubes. The recent development 
is usually traced from the boiler of John Blakey, patented in England 
in 1766. This consisted of several short tubes inclined at alternately 
opposite angles and joined with very short bent tubes of small 
<liameter. These tubes were enclosed in a vertical brick furnace, 
which was merely an enlargement of the base of the chimney. This 
boiler had no water reservoir or steam chamber. Many of the steam- 
engine pioneers experimented with the use of water tube and pipe 
boilers, and very early descriptions of them are not at all uncommon. 
One of the earliest of the actual uses of the water-tube boiler was 
by James Rumsey, who employed a pipe boiler in the steamboat 
he built at Shepherdstown, W. Va., in 1787. This boiler is mentioned 
in his Treatise on the Application of Steam^ etc. (see above), and a 
drawing and description of it (see below) appeared in the Columbian 
Magazine of May 1788. This boiler consisted of a nest of pipes made 
up of alternate horizontal rows of pipe laid at right angles to each 
other so that rectangular vertical passages for the hot gases were 
formed between the tubes. Rumsey described other boilers and pat- 
ented several water-tube boilers in England and the United States. 
Col. John Stevens, of Hoboken, N". J., and his son, John Cox Stevens, 
made successful water-tube boilers for their experimental steamboats 
and locomotives during the period 1804 to 1825. The porcupine, or 
dead-ended, water-tube boiler used in the Stevens steamboat of 1804 
and the tube and header assembly of the vertical water-tube boiler 
of the experimental locomotive of 1825 are described below. The 
second one was patented in the United States in 1803 by John Stevens 
and in England in 1805 by John Cox Stevens. 

In 1821 Julius Griffith built one of the earliest of the sectional 
water-tube boilers, while Joseph Eve's boiler of 1825 was the first 
with a well-defined circulation. The short-lived interest in steam 
road carriages about 1825 was responsible for the introduction of 
many portable water-tube boilers that contributed little to the de- 



IQg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

velopment. Stephen Wilcox, in 1856, introduced the first boiler 
with inclined tubes connecting water spaces at the front and rear 
with steam and water space above. This is a type that has continued 
to influence the design of boilers to the present day. 

WOODEN STEAM BOILER, 1801-1815 
Plate 22, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 310849 ; model ; made in the Museum ; photograph no. 31630. 

The model represents a boiler used at the Center Square pumpmg 
station of the Philadelphia waterworks between 1801 and 1815. It is 
essentially a watertight, planked, wooden steam chest containing a 
cast-iron firebox and flue. Short cast-iron pipes in the nature of water 
tubes cross the wide, flat flue. 

The model was constructed from the information and drawings 
contained in the article "History of the Steam Engine in America" 
in the Journal of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, vol. 102. The 
following, which includes a description of the boiler by Benjamin 
Henry Latrobe in the Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society, vol. 6 (1804), is quoted from the above article: 

Wooden boilers have been applied in America to the purpose of distilling for 
many years. Mr. Anderson, whose improvements in that art are well known 
appears to have first introduced them in America. But it was found that the 
mash had a very injurious effect upon the solidity of the wood : for while the 
outside retained the appearance of soundness, and the inside that of a burnt, 
but hard surface, the body of the plank was entirely decayed. It was however 
still to be tried whether simple water and steam would have the same effect: 
and upon the hint of Chancellor Livingston, our present Ambassador in France, 
Messrs. Roosevelt, Smallman and Staudinger contrived the wooden boiler, which 
has been used for all the engines in New York and Philadelphia ; and not without 
its great, though only temporary advantages. The construction of the wooden 
boiler, will be best understood, by reference to the plan and section of the new 
boiler of the engine in Center Square, Philadelphia, which is by far the best 
of those which have been made. It is in fact only a wooden chest containing 
the water, in which a furnace is contrived, of which the flues wind several 
times through the water before they discharge themselves into the chimney. 

The boilers were rectangular chests, made of white pine planks five inches 
thick ; they were nine feet square inside at the ends, and fourteen feet long in 
the clear ; braced upon the sides, top, and bottom with oak scantling ten inches 
square, the whole securely bolted together by one and a quarter inch rods 
passing through the planks. Inside of this chest was placed an iron fire box 
twelve feet six inches long, six feet wide, and one foot ten inches deep, with 
vertical flues, six of fifteen inches diameter and two of twelve inches diameter ; 
through these the water circulated, the fire acting around them and passing^ 
up into an oval flue situated just above the fire box, carried from the back 
of the boiler to near the front, and returned again to the back, where it entered 
the chimney. This fire box and flues appear to have been at first made entirely 
of cast-iron ; then a wrought-iron fire box was made, the flues still being of cast- 
iron ; this not being satisfactory on account of the unequal contraction and 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 109 

expansion of the two metals causing leakage, eventually wrought-iron flues were 
also put in. 

Great advantage was at the time supposed to be gained by the nonconducting 
powers of the wood, and also by the vertical flues iu the fire box. 

As might be expected, great difficulty was experienced in keeping 
these boilers steam tight; accordingly, on December 1, 1801, a boiler 
with cast-iron shell, as well as flues, was put up, and another one, alsc 
of cast iron, but of different form, was put in use on March 10, 1803, 

JOHN STEVENS PORCUPINE BOILER. 1804 
U.S.N.M. no. 181179; original; deposited by Edwin A. Stevens; not illustrated. 

This is the boiler of the steamboat used by Col. John Stevens on 
the Hudson in 1804. It is a multitubular boiler of the type often 
called "porcupine." 

The boiler consists of a rectangular water reservoir from each 
side of which project 14 closed-end copper tubes about 18 inches long 
by 11/2 inches in diameter. The water reservoir and tubes are in- 
closed in a rectangular sheet-metal shell, which supports the grates 
and forms the furnace of the boiler. The shape of the boiler is such 
that the flame or hot gases from the grate pass down through the 
forward cluster of tubes under the reservoir and up through the back 
tubes to the smokestack. A tall conical-shaped steam dome is bolted to 
the top of the water reservoir above the shell of the furnace. The 
boiler is equipped with a plunger feed-water pump and a ball-and- 
lever safety valve. 

JOHN STEVENS WATER-TUBE BOILER, 1803-1825 

Plate 22, Figure 2 

TJ.S.N.M. no. 180029; original; deposited by the Stevens Institute of Technology; 
photograph no. 25370. 

This specimen consists of the headers and tubes of the boiler used 
b)y Col. John Stevens on his experimental locomotive at Castle Point, 
N. J., in 1825. The design was patented by him April 11, 1803. 

The relic consists of 20 vertical tubes, each about 40 inches long 
"by 114 inches outside diameter, arranged in a 12-inch circle, connect- 
ing an annular header at the top with a similar one at the bottom. 
The headers and tubes are wrought iron. Each header is formed 
of two flat disks with circular grooves cut in them so that when 
faced together an annular space 1 square inch in cross section and 
about 10y2 inches long is formed. The header parts are held to- 
gether by ten %-inch and five %-inch bolts. Steam was taken from 
a 1-inch pipe in the top header, and water was put in through a 
similar pipe in the bottom header. 



110 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

"When used the tubes and header were contained in a sheet-iron 
shell that supported the grates and formed the ashpit, the furnace, 
and the stack. The shell is not with the specimen. 

The safety valve used with the boiler is exhibited separately in 
the Museum and is described below under "Steam-boiler Accessories.'* 
It bears the same U.S.N.M. number. 

CRAWFORD BOILER FURNACE, 1850 

U.S.N.M. no. 309208; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model formed part of the application for the patent issued to 
Benjamin Crawford, of Allegheny, Pa., January 29, 1850, no. 7051 ; 
reissued December 2, 1862, no. 135. 

The model represents a wide, internally fired, return tubular boiler 
(western river type) equipped with an air heater using the hot flue 
gases and exhaust steam from the engine, a forced draft produced by 
steam jets in the ash-pit, rotary steam jets for increasing turbulence 
above the fire, and induced draft produced by rotary steam jets in 
the stacks. 

Air for combustion is drawn through tubes in a cylindrical shell 
into which the exhaust from the engine opens. After passing through 
this heater the air travels through ducts that are let into the breech- 
ing and is further heated by the hot flue gases. Steam jets dis- 
charged through the air pipes toward the ashpit induce the flow of 
air to the ashpit. The steam jets, which produce turbulence over 
the fire and induce draft in the stacks, issue from nozzles formed of 
short pipe one end of which is straight and fits over the end of the 
steam pipe, the other end twisted so that the steam is discharged at an 
angle to the axis of the pipe, the reaction causing the nozzle to 
whirl. 

WIEGAND STEAM BOILER, 1867 

U.S.N.M. no. 309209 : original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with application for the patent issued 
to S. Lloyd Wiegand, of Philadelphia, Pa,, August 6, 1867, no. 
67621. 

This model is of a boiler having water tubes made up of large 
tubes closed at the ends with smaller tubes suspended within the 
large tubes to provide circulation of steam and water upward in 
the smaller tubes and of the cooler water downward in the annular 
spaces between the larger and smaller tubes. The inventor suggests 
the use of tubes of different metals to produce a galvanic action 
for the purpose of j^reventing deposits of scale within the tubes. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 22 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 23 




CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COIXECTIONS HX 

The boiler represented by the model consists of a series of vertical 
tubes suspended into the furnace from a horizontal header across the 
top of the boiler setting. The tubes are closed at their lower ends, 
and within each tube is one of smaller diameter. The smaller tubes 
are suspended from a plate within the header. The headers connect- 
ing each row of tubes across the boiler are, in turn, connected by a 
longitudinal drum above them. 

RHODES STEAM GENERATOR, 1869 

U.S.N.M. no. 309210; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to William K. Rhodes, of Portland, Maine, June 29, 1869, no, 91869. 

The model represents a horizontal inclined water-tube boiler with 
solid headers and horizontal baffling. Each header is constructed 
with its outside face vertical and the tube sheet perpendicular to 
the tubes so that the front header has a larger volume at the top 
to be used as a steam reservoir, while the back header has a larger 
volume at the bottom for water. 

LtJDERS STEAM BOILER, 1869 

U.S.N.M. no. 309211; original patent model; transferred from the United Statea 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Herman W. Liiders, of Philadelphia, Pa., August 31, 1869. 
no. 94226. 

Tlie model represents a boiler having inclined water tubes pro- 
jecting through forward and back brick walls, which form the 
furnace and boiler setting. The ends of the tubes projecting from 
the setting front and back are joined in sets of three by short hori- 
zontal cross tubes to large, vertical, upright pillar tubes on either 
side of the setting, which, in turn, connect to a horizontal drum on 
each side of the top of the setting. A third longitudinal drum is 
placed between the other two drums, and all three are joined by one 
cross drum above them. The short horizontal tubes at the back 
are cast in longitudinal sections and connected by ball-and-socket 
joints designed to permit the free expansion and contraction of the 
tubes. 

HOWARD AND BOUSFIELD BOILER, 1871 

U.S.N.M. no. 309212 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to James Howard and EdAvard Bousfield, of Bedford, England, 
April 4, 1871, no. 113298. 



112 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The model represents a sectional marine water-tube boiler in which 
the proportions of the elements and the manner of their connections 
are designed by the inventor to facilitate the removal of tubes or 
sections within a relatively small space. 

The boiler is constructed of sections, each of which consists of a 
vertical tube at the back of the boiler from which projects a vertical 
row of horizontal tubes. Each horizontal tube is closed at the front 
end with a screw plug through which a short central tube connects 
to a small vertical tube, common to all the horizontal tubes of a 
vertical row. These vertical tubes at the front are closed at the 
bottom end and are joined by a transverse steam pipe at the top. 
The horizontal tubes are staggered and may be withdrawn hori- 
zontally by disconnecting them from the tAvo vertical tubes at front 
and back. Each horizontal tube has an internal tube designed to 
improve the circulation. The back vertical tubes are flat-sided and 
placed together to form the back of the boiler. The horizontal tubes 
in the outside sections are assembled close together to form the sides 
of the boiler. 

RITTY STEAM BOILER, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 309215 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Sebastian Ritty, of Dayton, Ohio, July 22, 1873, no. 141172. 

The model represents a horizontal cylindrical flue boiler from the 
center of which is suspended a rectangular water chamber or header. 
From this header a series of horizontal closed-end water tubes ex- 
tend forward and back within the furnace below the drum. The 
outside ends of the tubes are closed and are supported in sheets, 
which form the front and back walls of the furnace. The forward 
lower tubes support the grates, and the products of combustion pass 
through an opening in the central header around the back tubes up 
and then forward through the flues of the drum. 

FIRMENICH AND STIKER BOILER, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 309213 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Joseph Firmenich and Flavins P. Stiker, of Buffalo, N. Y., 
November 16, 1875, no. 169977. 

The model represents a boiler made up of sections, each of which 
consists of two longitudinal horizontal drums, one set in the under 
side of the brick work at the top of the boiler, the other well below 
it, and the two connected by two rows of vertical tubes. The lower 
-drums in alternate section are below the grates and act as mud drums ; 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS HJ 

the other lower drums are located just above the grates. The upper 
drums are connected to one large horizontal cross drum. The drums 
are flattened for greater convenience in joining the two rows of ver- 
tical tubes. Passages are provided in the brickwork through which 
air for combustion is drawn and preheated. 

TROWBRIDGE STEAM GENERATOR, 1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 308699 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United State* 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to W. P. Trowbridge, of New Haven, Conn., January 1, 1878, no. 
198863 ; Automatic Boiler & Engine Co., assignee. 

The model represents a small vertical coiled water-tube boiler pro- 
vided with a stack or hopper in the center of the shell, which acts as 
a fuel reservoir to supply fresh fuel to the fire automatically. 

The boiler consists of a cylindrical shell the base of which forms 
the ashpit above which the grates are supported. The shell above the 
grates is built with increasing diameter upward to form the firebox,. 
and immediately above this it is contracted for a short distance and 
then continues in a cylinder of constant diameter. Around the fire- 
box and fitting closely to the shell is a single coil of tubing, which is 
continued up through the cylindrical portion where alternate coils 
are staggered slightly. Projecting downward within the coils is a 
second cylindrical shell closed at the top by a removable cover. This 
shell is used as a fuel reservoir and feeding device and also forms an 
annular passage with the outer shell which requires the hot gases of 
combustion to pass over the coils. The automatic fuel supply device 
is not shown or described. 

NATIONAL WATER-TUBE BOILER, 1885 

PlATE 23 

U.S.N.M. no. 309374; model; gift of .John A. Manley ; photograph no. 2799D. 

This is a model of an inclined-tube solid-header boiler of the type 
constructed by the National Water Tube Boiler Co. about 1885-1890. 
It incorporates many features patented by W. E. Kelly. . 

The model represents an inclined-tube, 3-pass, inclined solid header 
boiler, with longitudinal drum. The risers both front and back con- 
sist of one group of four tubes arranged in a diamond-shaped group. 
The boiler is complete with ornamental front, gauges, and blow-off 
safety valve. It is equipped with grates for hand firing. The brick- 
work setting is cut away to show the boiler parts and the method of 
suspension. 



11/^ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ERIE CITY DRUM-TYPE BOILER, 1928 
U.S.N.M. no. 309411 ; gift of the Erie City Iron Works ; not illustrated. 

This is a model of a modern 500-horsepower boiler of the curved 
tube or drum type, equipped with a unit coal pulverizer and burner. 
The boiler has the Seymour water-cooled furnace walls and a vertical, 
curved-tube, drum-type economizer. 

The brickwork of the boiler is represented cut away to show the 
arrangement of all the heating elements, including the furnace wall 
cooling tubes and the economizer. The headers of the water walls are 
connected to the upper forward or steam drum, while water from the 
economizer is fed to the upper back drum. The combustion chamber 
extends over the entire height of the boiler with two coal-burner 
nozzles directed downward from the top. 

"EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM BOILER" 

U.S.N.M. no. 309876; 14 drawings; gift of the Babcoclc & Wilcox Co.; not 
illustrated. 

This is a series of 18-by-24-inch illuminated drawings showing the 
evolution of stationary and marine water-tube boilers from Heron's 
aeolipile of the first century, B. C, to the 1400-pounds-per-square-inch 
boilers of 1928. The draAvings are by Edmund Mills. 

In the order in which they are displayed, the drawings illustrate 
and describe the following boilers : 

(1) Heron of Alexandria, boiler and engine, c. 50 B. C. : .John Blakey water 
tube boiler, 1766; James Rumsey, 1788; Joseph Eve first sectional water-tube 
boiler, 1825. 

(2) Goldsworthy Gurney, 1826; Stephen Wilcox inclined water-tube boiler, 
1856; George Twibill inclined-tube sectional boiler, 1865; Babcock & Wilcox 
bolted-header inclined-tube boiler at Cape Fear Fibre Co., 1872. 

(3) Babcock and Wilcox sinuous-header boiler at Pearl Street Station of 
Edison Illuminating Co., New York, 1881 ; model of Pearl Street Station, 1881- 
1890. 

(4) Babcock and Wilcox, 1,400 pounds per square inch pressure, 1,510 rated 
horsepower boiler, with underfeed stoker, superheater, water economizer, air 
preheater, and reheater superheater, for Edison Electric Illuminating Co., Boston, 
1927. 

(5) Manufacture of high-pressure (1,400 pound) forged-steel seamless drums 
from ingot mold to completed forging, showing pouring, reheating, cropping, hot- 
punching, expanding the ingot, elongation, furnace annealing, boring, turning, 
closing the ends, and several completed forgings. 

(6) Allan Stirling 3-drum boiler, 1889; typical 5-pass, 4-drum boiler, 1898; 
Stirling boiler, with superheater and natural draft stoker, 1914; Stirling boiler 
installation with superheater and forced-blast chain-grate stoker, 1920. 

(7) High-pressure drum-type boiler, 2,853 rated horsepower, 1,390 pounds 
steam working pressure, with plate air preheater, radiant heat superheater, 
radiant heat reheater superheater, and water-cooled (30,000 cu. ft.) powdered 
coal furnace, installed at the Lakeside Station of the Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Co., 1926. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 115 

(8) Stirling water-tube boiler, 469 rated horsepower, 450 pounds steam work- 
ing pressure, with superheater, air preheater, and pulverized coal furnace, for 
the American Tobacco Co., 1928. 

(9) Stirling water-tube boiler with superheater and slag-tapped pulverized 
coal furnace, 1929. 

(10) "Marine Boilers", Blasco de Garay, 1.543; Denis Papin, 1707; John Fitch 
(and Henry Voight) pipe boiler, 1787; James Barlow boiler, 1793; Col. John 
Stevens "porcupine" boiler, 1804; John Babcock, 1826; Babcock & Wilcox, 
U. S. S. Munroe boiler, 1876. 

(11) Babcock and Wilcox marine boiler, tested 1895, installed in S. S. Beards- 
ley, 1901 ; U. S. S. A Icrt type, 1899 ; Shipping Board type with coiled superheater, 
1918. 

(12) Inclined (18°) tube, cross-drum boiler of the type used on battleships 
of the U. S. S. Oklahoma and U. S. S. Maryland classes, 1912; Type of boiler of 
which 12 were installed in S. S. Calif ornia, 1925 (275 pounds working pressure, 
130° superheater) ; express type, 3-drum, bent, 1-inch-tube boiler for large powers 
with minimum weight for fast vessels. 

(13) Large marine boiler, with interdeck superheater, air heater, and under- 
feed stoker, 1926. 

(14) Early type of Great Lakes boiler, installed on S. S. Empire City, with 
upper deck of 2-iiich tubes in groups of four, lower deck of 4-inch tubes, and 4- 
inch side-wall tube.s, 1897 ; in.stallation in S. S. City of Saginaic and S. S. City of 
Flint of typical Great Lakes boiler with chain-grate stoker, 1929. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX STEAM GENERATOR, 1867 
Plate 24, Figuke 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309837; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 27158F, 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to George H. Babcock and Stephen Wilcox, Jr., of Providence, R. I., 
May 28, 1867, no. 65042. 

This boiler is described as one in which the water being converted 
into steam is held in a number of small containers rather than in one 
large mass. The advantages that the inventors mention are a com- 
paratively greater resistance to the expansive force of the steam within 
the smaller sections, the loosing of a smaller destructive force follow- 
ing the rupturing of any section, and a greater economy in construc- 
tion as the design permits the use of cast iron instead of wrought iron. 
Disadvantages common to boilers of this class, such as deficient circu- 
lating capacity, difficulty of removing incrustations, and a want of 
economy in applying heat to the heating surfaces, were said to be elimi- 
nated in this boiler. 

The model represents a nest of horizontal tubes, which serve as a 
steam and water reservoir above and connected to a second nest 
of inclined tubes normally filled with water. The tubes in both 
nests are arranged in vertical rows, the tubes in each row being 
connected by means of suitable end tubes, which are cast as 
part of the individual tubes. The end tubes are held together by 



llg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

long bolts passing through their axes and secured at the ends by 
nuts. Each vertical row of horizontal and inclined tubes forms a 
section and the various sections are joined together by a double 
transverse pipe at the top and back of the boiler. Each inclined 
tube is fitted with a small circulating pipe extending through the 
axis of the main pipe "to allow the colder particles of the water 
in the main pipe to separate from the warmer particles and return 
through the smaller pipe to the lower end of the main pipe." 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER, 1876 
U.S.N.M. no. 309868 ; model ; gift of the Babcock & Wilcox Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is a half-size model of the boiler that won the award for sec- 
tional steam generators at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia 
in 1876. It was in service until recent years and is now preserved by 
the Babcock and Wilcox Co., the makers. 

The boiler represented is a hand-fired, inclined-tube boiler, with 
two parallel longitudinal drums connected by a cross steam drum. 
The headers are of the earliest type of cast-steel sinuous header and 
are seven tubes high. The boiler is suspended from two cast-iron 
arched beams that rest upon the side walls of the brickwork. The 
highly ornamental cast-iron front is trimmed in gold paint. The 
boiler is equipped with a ball-and-lever safety valve, three water- 
level sight gauges, and a pressure gauge. 

The Centennial boiler was sold to the De Castro and Donner Sugar 
Kefinery in Brooklyn, N. Y., after the exposition and was continued 
in service until recently. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX STEAM GENERATOR, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 308690 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to George H. Babcock, of Plainfield, N. J., and Stephen Wilcox,, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., April 4, 1876, no. 175548. 

The model represents the typical elements of an inclined tube, 
horizontal longitudinal drum boiler upon which are shown the mode 
of mounting and supporting such boilers and the provisions for 
making the connections of the parts that are the subject of the patent. 

The drum of the boiler is represented as having cast-iron ends, 
each of which is formed with a stout horn near the top adapted to 
receive a suspension link from a cross girder resting upon columns 
at the sides of the boiler. Each end casting is further provided with 
a series of holes near the bottom properly adapted to receive tubes 
joined thereto by the process known as ex]:)anding. These tubes at 
front and back are joined to the vertical tubes rising from the water- 
tube headers by means of hollow castings in which hand holes are 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 24. 




Sectional Boilers. 

1. Babcock and Wilcox steam generator, 1867 (model; U.S.X.M. no. 309837). See p. 115. 

2. Sinuous boiler headers, 1867-1926 (cutaway; U.S.X.M. nos. 309871-309875). See p. 117. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 25 




Double-deck Inclined-tube Boiler, 1929. 
Model (U.S.N.M. no. 309869). See p. 117. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS HJ 

provided that permit both sets of tubes to be expanded in the open- 
ings in the castings. 

These improvements are said to be the results of the inventors' 
experience with the boiler patented by them February 18, 1873, 
no. 135877. 

DRUM-TYPE WATER-TUBE BOILER, 1929 
U.S.N.M, no. 3(»870; model; gift of the Babcock & Wilcox Co.; not illustrated. 

This is a one-eighth size model of a Stirling 4-drum bent-tube 
boiler, with superheater, air preheater, and water-cooled pulverized- 
coal furnace. The boiler is rated at 579 horsepower and is designed 
for 415 pounds steam working pressure and 250° F. superheat at 
300 percent of rating. 

The boiler represented is approximately 56 feet high from the 
ashpit floor and 35 feet from front to back. The boiler heating sur- 
face is 5,790 square feet; the superheater 1,606 square feet; and the 
air heater 7,350 square feet. The boiler is equipped with Bailey 
walls and Bailey-Tenney burners. 

DOUBLE-DECK INCLINED-TUBE BOILER, 1929 

Plate 25 

U.S.N.M. no. 309869; model; gift of the Babcock & Wilcox Co.; photograph no. 
32799A. 

This is a one-eighth size sectional model of a large inclined-tube 
boiler, with interdeck superheater, air preheater, economizer, water- 
•cooled furnace walls, and underfeed stoker. The boiler is rated at 
1,658 horsepower and is designed for 375 pounds steam working pres- 
sure and 677° total steam temperature. 

From ashpit floor to top of air preheater the boiler represented is 
approximately 80 feet high by 35 feet from front to back. The boiler 
has 16,583 square feet of heating surface; the superheater, 3,150 
square feet. The boiler is equipped with a Webster furnace with 
Baile}' furnace walls. It is fired by a Westinghouse underfeed stoker. 

SINUOUS BOILER HEADERS, 1867-1926 

PrATE 24, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. nos. 309871-S09875 ; originals; gift of the Babcock & Wilcox Co.; 
photograph no. 32809 (group). 

The group of sections of actual boiler headers shows important 
steps in the development of the header from the cast-iron built-up 
headers of 1867 to forged-steel headers designed for 1,400 pounds per 
square inch pressure. 

The huilt-up tiihiiJar header of 1867 is made up of the single tube 
^nds cast on each end of each tube. The faces of the tube ends are 



X18 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

carefully machined and are assembled, staggered, one on top of the 
other, with a through bolt from top to bottom holding each vertical 
row of tubes together. Two short lengths of tubes with tube ends 
and T-head through bolt and plates comprise the exhibit. The tubes 
and tube ends are of cast iron. 

The cast-steel sinuous header of 187 J^ is an example of a very early 
type of continuous header. This is the form that was used on the 
Centennial boiler of 1876 (see above). The header is in effect a 
curved tube with expanded portions into which the ends of tha 
boiler tubes are let. The expanded portions have circular holes cut 
to receive the tube ends and opposite holes through which the tube 
ends can be rolled in assembling and through which the tubes may 
be cleaned. These holes are covered with outside fitting, circular 
plates. The header is designed so that the tubes in one vertical row 
are staggered in order that the next vertical row will fit snugly 
against it. The header section exhibited is three tubes high with a 
short length of tube rolled into the top tube opening. 

The ca^t-steel marine boiler header, 1901, is a sinuous header of 
rectangular section, arranged to take 2-inch tubes in groups of four. 
Each group of four tubes has a square hand-hole fitting. Boilers 
with headers of this type were installed on naval vessels of the Okla- 
homa and the Maryland type. The header section exhibited is about 
four tube groups high, with the top group fitted with two short tube 
ends and sectioned. The other tube openings are not bored. 

The vertical lorought-steel header of 1921 is used to the present 
day for boiler pressures of 450 pounds per square inch. The header 
is square in section, sinuous in form, and about five-eighths inch 
thick. Hand holes are elliptical in shape, machine faced, and milled 
to a true plane to form a gasket seat. The openings are closed by 
inside fitting, forged-steel plates, shouldered to center in the opening. 
The section exhibited is a 4-tube piece with the upper end and a hand- 
hole cover in section. A short length of tube is rolled into the upper 
tube opening. 

The forged steel header of 1926 for 1,400 pounds per square inch 
steam pressure is designed for boilers for central power stations of 
which there are a number operating at this pressure in the United 
States. The header is rectangular in section with rounded corners,, 
sinuous in form, and made of forged steel approximately 1 inch 
thick. The tube openings are provided with grooves into which 
the tube ends are expanded. The specimen exhibited is about three 
tubes high, with a %-inch thick tube expanded into the upper open- 
ing and sectioned. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS H^ 

STEAM-BOILER ACCESSORIES AND BURNERS 

STEVENS SAFETY VALVE, 1825 

Plate 26, Fiqubb 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 180029; origiual; deposited by the Stevens Institute of Technology; 
photograph uo. 2720. 

Tliis is the safety valve used with the Stevens water-tube boiler 
of 1803-1825 described above under "Steam Boilers." It is a simple 
disk valve held closed by a spherical lead weight and stirrup at the 
end of a lever of the "second-order." The lever or beam of the valve 
is notched so that the weight can be moved to set the valve to open 
at different steam pressures. The effective area of the disk is ap- 
proximately 0.6 square inch; the notches of the lever are 41^, 5%, 
6%, 8%, 9, and IQi^ inches from the pivot; the center of the valve 
is 1%6 inches from the pivot; and the ball weighs 3 pounds 14 ounces. 

ROEBLING SAFETY STEAM GAUGE, 1842 

U.S.N.M. no. 308C51 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John A. Roebling, of Saxonburg, Pa., July 16, 1842, no. 2728. 

The model represents a section of a steam-boiler flue and head to 
which is attached the safety gauge. The gauge consists of a box 
fastened to the top of the flue and containing a fusible metal upon 
which rests a weight connected through a lever to a valve in the 
boiler head. Should the level of water within the boiler fall below 
the top of the flue, the fusible metal would melt and allow the weight 
to fall and open the valve, attracting the attention of the engineer. 
A rod is provided by which the lever and weight are raised by the 
engineer before admitting more water, so that the fused metal will 
solidify below the weight and the gauge be in a position to function 
again. 

WORTHINGTON AND BAKER "PERCUSSION" WATER-LEVEL GAUGE, 

1847 

U.S.N.M. no. 308052; origiual patent model; transferi'ed from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Henry R. Worthington, of New York, N. Y., and William 
H. Baker, of Williamsburg, N. Y., February 20, 1847, no. 4972. 

The model represents a steam-boiler water-level gauge in which a 
vertical metal cylinder is connected to the boiler so that water and 
steam stand in the cylinder at the height of the water and steam in 
the boilers. Within the cylinder is a piston connected to a handle 



120 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and pointer in a quadrant case above the cylinder. To operate the 
gauge the piston is raised by the handle to the top of the cylinder and 
then brought sharply down "so as to act with percussive force upon 
the surface of the water by which it will be suddenly arrested", thug 
indicating the height of water in the boiler. "This apparatus has 
been attached to a boiler furnished with the ordinary try cocks, and 
has proved them to vary in some instances, four inches and a half 
from the truth, while the indications by percussion have been un- 
varying." 

FRICK FEED-WATER APPARATUS, 1858 

U.S.N.M. no. 308661 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Jacob Frick, of Philadelphia, Pa., December 14, 1858, no. 
22284. It is an improvement on the patent issued to Frick, March 
18, 1856, no. 14449. 

The model represents a combination of an air chamber, a safety 
valve, feed-water and blow-off cocks, a feed-water failure alarm, 
and a water jet for extinguishing fires, all arranged in one instru- 
ment so that all can be secured to the boiler by one attachment only, 
thereby avoiding the necessity of piercing and "wounding" the 
boiler in several places. 

GILL STEAM-PRESSURE GAUGE AND ALARM, 1859 

U.S.N.M. no. 308917 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to W. Y. Gill, of Henderson, Ky., March 8, 1859, no. 23166. 

The invention represented by the model consists in constructing 
the piston of a gauge in which a piston acts in opposition to a coiled 
spring so that the upper portion of the stem of the piston may be 
marked with indications on several sides, while at the same time the 
lower part of the cylinder is pierced with a number of openings 
through which steam will escape and attract attention when the 
piston is forced beyond the opening by the pressure of steam in the 
boiler. 

The gauge resembles the familiar automobile-tire pressure gauge 
of similar construction except that the indicating stem is attached 
to the piston and rises and drops with it. The inventor suggests 
that if the piston is made a loiown part of a square inch the gauge 
can be calibrated or checked very simply by turning it upside down 
and hanging weights on a ring provided at the end of the stem. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 121 

GARVIN AND PETTIBONE TUBULAR GRATE, 1867 

U.S.N.M. no. 309216 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Benjamin Garvin and E. J. Pettibone, of Oslikosh, Wis., 
February 12, 1867, no. 62022. 

The model represents a furnace grate formed of tubes designed 
to be connected to the boiler so that water will be circulated through 
the grates and be partially heated therein. The particular feature 
of this invention is the manner of supporting and connecting the 
tubes so that they might expand and contract freely. 

COLLINSON MANHOLE COVER FOR BOILERS. 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 309219; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Henry Collinson, Boston, Mass., April 13, 1875, no. 161934. 

The invention consists of a lid or cover with a true flat face ar- 
ranged in such a manner that while being forced home against a flat 
seat it receives a sliding and rotating motion thereon. 

The model represents an opening in a plate around which is formed 
a flat plane face, which forms a seat for the dish-shaped lid or cover. 
A curved bar of metal spans the opening over the cover and supports 
a threaded nut through which passes a T-handled screw by which the 
cover is forced against the seat. At the inner end of the screw is an 
eccentric head that fits m a recess in the center of the cover, so that 
turning the screw forces the cover against the seat and moves the 
center of the cover in a circle, while the friction causes the cover to 
rotate somewhat about its own center. The result is a combined slid- 
ing and rotating of the cover as it is forced against the seat. 

COCKRELL PULVERIZED-FUEL SYSTEM, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 308753; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This is the model submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Allin Cockrell, of Lamar, Mo., August 1, 1876, no. 180550. 

The model represents a 2-door return-flue boiler equipped with a 
pulverizing mill, a screw conveyor for supplying the fuel to feeding 
spouts, and a paddle-bladed fan or blower. The fan, which has a 
long, 4-bladed, paddle-wheel rotor, spans the front of the boiler. Its 
cylindrical housing is extended as two ducts or spouts into the two 
combustion chambers of the furnace under the boiler. The screw 
conveyor from the pulverizing mill extends across the boiler over 

49970—39 9 



122 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the two air ducts, discharging the fuel into the air streams halfway 
between the fan and the furnace. The system was designed to burn 
tanbark, culm, sawdust, etc. One feature described is the connection 
between the smoke box at the forward end of the flue and the fan 
housing, by which hot gases were returned to the furnace in the mix- 
ture of air and fuel. Cool air was drawn into the fan through its 
hollow shaft. 

SALISBURY HYDROCARBON BURNER, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308764; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Otfice; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Silas C. Salisbury, June 24, 1879, no. 216898. 

The model represents a burner in which two concentric annular 
chambers are framed around a central hollow tube. The chambers 
are connected to pipes so that the fuel is fed to the outer chamber, 
steam to the inner one, while air for combustion is supplied through 
the centra] tube. The shells forming the annular chambers, and the 
tube are assembled with long threaded joints, which permit the posi- 
tions of the parts to be varied for the purpose of controlling the 
combustion. The inventor described a burner with the forward ends 
of the shells and tube flared outward as well as one with tlie ends 
curved inward, either of which would be used depending upon the 
shape of the fl.ame desired. 

DEXTER HYDROCARBON (OIL) BURNER, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308765 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Thomas B. Dexter, of Lynn, Mass. (assignor of one-half his 
right to the Gilmanton Mills, Belmont, N. H.), AugTist 19, 1879, no. 
218619. 

The model represents a tubular burner with a slightly reduced tip, 
provided with a vertical diaphragm that divides the burner into two 
sections. The space on one side of the diaphragm is connected to the 
oil line and to an air inlet pipe provided with a damper for adjust- 
ing the flow of air. The other space is connected to the steam line. 
In operation the flow of steam from the tip creates suction enough to 
draw the oil and air through the burner. The oil and air are heated 
by contact with the diaphragm, which separates them from the steam, 
and are irtimately mixed when they issue from the burner. The 
diaphragm i-^ notched just inside the tip so that the mixing of the 
steam and the air and oil results in the formation of a wide, thin, 
horizontal sheet. This produced a sheet of flame that spread over 
a large part of the furnace. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 123 

STEVENS ROCKING GRATE BAR, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 309217 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Francis B. Stevens, November 11, 1879, no. 221430. 

The model represents a grate surface formed of ordinary fish- 
bellied grate bars on each of the lower ends of which two journal 
bearings are formed that fit into and rest in two corresponding 
rounded socket bearings. The bar is made to rock in each of these 
bearings alternately to the right and left, so that the upper part of 
the grate overhangs the right-hand socket when rocked to the right, 
and the left-hand socket when rocked to the left. That the upper 
part of the grate bar will overhang the center on which it turns is 
the improvement claimed by the inventor. 

REXFORD FIRE GRATE, 1883 

U.S.N.M. no. 309218 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Philander Kexford, of Syracuse, N. Y., August 14, 1883, no. 
283144. 

The model represents a furnace grate made up of long grate bars, 
which are pivoted midway of their depth and have projecting from 
the upper part of one side of each bar a series of teeth or ribs. Wlien 
in their normal positions the bars stand obliquely and the smooth 
solid back of one bar and the ribbed face of the next form the two 
sides of a trough across the grate. The solid portion is designed 
to support very fine coal, while the ribbed portion permits the passage 
of air for combustion. 

RAY OIL BURNER, 1914 
U.S.N.M. no. 311161 ; original ; gift of the Ray Oil Burner Co. ; not illustrated. 

Tliis is a horizontal, rotary oil burner and is of the first type manu- 
factured under the patents of William K. Eay. Its essential element 
is a rapidly revolving atomizing cup that breaks the oil into minute 
particles by centrifugal force and discharges them from the rim of 
the cup directly into a stream of air from a fan built into the burner. 
The cup, which is of brass and about an inch inside diameter, is 
turned at high speed by an electric motor. Oil enters the cup from 
a small stationary pipe led into the center of the cup through the 
hollow cup shaft. A fan is mounted on the same shaft and enclosed 
in a flat circular housing to which the motor and various parts of 
the burner are attached and which is hinged so that the entire unit 
swings away from the furnace door for inspection or adjustment. 



124 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The air leaves the fan through an annular passage surrounding the 
atomizing cup so that the swirl of oil from the cup mixes intimately 
with the swirl of air. This old burner is rated at a capacity of 2 
to 8 gallons of oil an hour. It has a 1/3 -horsepower motor. 

The burner was in use from 1914 to 1936, when it was removed 
from service for presentation to the Museum. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX MECHANICAL OIL BURNER, 1929 

Plate 26, Figube 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309878 ; original ; presented by Babcock & Wilcox Co. ; photograph 
no. 13477A. 

This burner, known as the Lodi design, consists of a mechanical 
atomizer element and an adjustable air register. The atomizer ele- 
ment consists of a gooseneck connector body, which incloses a 
strainer, an extension tube, a sprayer plate, and a tip. Oil heated 
to the proper fluidity enters the element under pressure furnished by 
the fuel pumps and leaves the sprayer plate and tip in the form of 
a hollow cone of very finely atomized oil. 

The air register consists of a cylindrical air chamber, the rim of 
which is composed of hinged, adjustable air doors, which automati- 
cally close in the event of a furnace explosion or flare-back. The 
furnace side of the air chamber connects to a cast-iron spiral-bladed 
air cone converging toward the furnace. Concentric with the air 
cone is a conical center impeller placed with its blades surrounding 
the tip of the atomizer. Air control is by means of the adjustable 
air doors and by adjusting the position of the atomizer and center 
impeller in the air cone. 

The burner is designed for natural or forced draft. Its capacity 
is 1,500 pounds of oil an hour. 

METTLER GAS BURNER, 1930 

U.S.N.M. no. 310203 ; original ; gift of the Lee B. Mettler Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is a low gas pressure, atmospheric air pressure, multijet, 
multiunit type of gas burner. It consists of a number of tubes within 
which the gas and air are mixed, heated, and ignited. The tubes are 
holes formed in a thick refractory block that protects the gas mani- 
fold from the heat of the flame and provides an incandescent zone 
at the mouth of each tube, which heats and ignites the mixture. 
The. gas is supplied under pressure to each tube through four jets 
impinging at a central point within the tube with a resulting agita- 
tion and mixing of the gas and air within the tube. The. air is drawn 
into the furnace through the tube by reason of the draft within 
the furnace. It is claimed that the burner effects complete combus- 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 26 




2720: 13477A 



Boiler Accessories. 



1. Stevens safetv valve, 1825 (U.S.X.^^. no. 180029). See p. 119. 
2. Babcock and Wilcox mechanical oil burner, 1929 (cutaway; U.S.N.-M. no. 309878). 

See p. 124. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 27 





Feed-water Injectors. 



1. Giffard injector, 1860 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 309368). See p. 127. 
2. Sellers exhaust feed-water heater hijector (cutaway; U.S.N.M. no. 309561). See p. 132. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 125 

tion of the fuel with only 12 to 14 percent of the air in excess of 
that theoretically required for complete combustion. 

This burner has eight burner tubes and consists of three principal 
parts, the refractory block in which the tubes are formed, the gas 
manifold, and the air damper. The gas manifold is a rectangular 
box that fits against the back of the tube block and has cylindrical 
openings in line with the tubes. In each tube opening in the mani- 
fold are cast the four jets through which gas is supplied to the tube.. 
The damper is a hinged door that fits over the back of the gas mani- 
fold and controls the flow of air into the air tubes. 

This burner, which is 11 inches square, burns 1,500 cubic feet of 
natural gas an hour at 3-ounce gas pressure, or 2,400 cubic feet at 
10-ounce pressure. 

BOILER FEED-WATER PUMPS AND INJECTORS 

The problem of putting water into a steam boiler against the 
pressure of the steam within the boiler was not a serious one when 
the pressures used were only slightly above atmospheric pressure. 
The first boiler feed-water pumps were small pump pistons attached 
to the walking beams of the early engines which pumped water to 
elevated reservoirs from which the water flowed into the boilers by its 
own weight. Later these pumps were designed to pump water di- 
rectly into the boilers as it was needed. So long as the boiler was 
considered a part of the steam engine it was reasonable and practical 
to operate the boiler feed pump directly from the engine and this 
arrangement continued to the middle of the nineteenth century. In 
the meantime the steamboat and the steam locomotive had been suc- 
cessfully introduced, and it was found that running a steamboat 
while made fast to a landing and idling a locomotive up and down 
a terminal track, for no purpose other than to replenish the water 
in their boilers, were awkward procedures, and separate steam op- 
erated pumps soon came into use on boats and locomotives. Finally 
engines and boilers came to be considered as entirely independent 
units, and in stationary land plants boilers were located in separate 
parts of the buildings under the direction of individual boiler op- 
erators, and practical arrangement required that boiler feed pumps 
be designed as boiler accessories independent of any connection with 
the main plant engines. Boiler feed pumps have taken many forms, 
including the most popular direct-connected "simplex" and "duplex" 
reciprocating pumps and the recent steam and electric, multistage, 
centrifugal pumps. Several forms of reciprocating feed-water 
pumps are described below under the section "Steam Pumps" (p. 133). 

Apart from the development of the feed-water pump was the 
perfection of the boiler feed-water injector, a device that emi^loys 
steam from the boiler, acting directly upon the water to force the 



126 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

water into the boiler against the pressure of the steam therein. This 
de%dce was the invention of Henri Jacques Giffard, of France, en- 
gineer and mathematician. About 1849 Giffard became interested in 
the development of dirigible balloons and the designing of light- 
weight steam engines and boilers to power them. In this connection 
he invented the feed- water injector as a light-weight substitute for the 
steam pump as a means of supplying water to the dirigible boiler. 
On May 8, 1858, Giffard received French letters patent for his 
"injecteur automoteur," a simple combination of nozzles and tubes by 
which a jet of steam draws water into the injector, imparts to it a 
high velocity, and discharges the rapidly moving stream of water 
into a gradually enlarging passage in which the stream slows down 
and the energy apparently lost in diminishing velocity is converted 
to an increase in pressure sufficient to overcome the pressure in the 
boiler. 

The original injector was made by M. Flaud & Co., of Paris, and 
is now preserved there in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 
The theoretical analysis that Giffard made of the action of the steam 
jet and of the laws of velocity, acceleration, and pressure was so 
sound that the curves of nozzles and tubes laid down by him for the 
original model are still followed where the elementary form of the 
injector is manufactured. For his invention Giffard was awarded 
the Grand Mechanical Prize for 1859 by the Academic des Sciences of 
France. 

The story is told that subsequent improvements in the design and 
performance of his dirigibles permitted Giffard to use heavier pumps, 
and he abandoned the development of the injector until he was urged 
by Sharp, Stewart & Co. to permit them to introduce the injector 
into England. It is further related that this firm suggested that 
it be introduced into the United States and recommended William 
Sellers & Co., of Philadelphia, to accomplish this. On April 24, 1860, 
Giffard was issued United States Patent no. 27979, and William Sel- 
lers commenced the manufacture of the Giffard injector the same year. 
The model submitted with the application for the patent, actually 
the first injector in the United States, was made by M. Flaud, the 
maker of the original one, which it greatly resembles. 

The injector was applied to several locomotives during the first 
year and after several years slowly overcame all opposition, to take 
its place as a dependable method of replenishing locomotive and sta- 
tionary boilers. 

The development of the injector has been to make it as nearly self- 
adjusting as possible under fluctuations in steam pressure and water 
supply, to improve its lifting action, to make it self-starting after 
interruption of the water supply, and finally to incorporate in it 
the functions of an exhaust steam feed-water heater. The develop- 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 127 

ment is illustrated by the injectors in the collections, which are 
described below. 

GIFFARD INJECTOR, 1860 

Plate 27, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309368 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; photograph no. 15316C. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Henry Giffard, of Paris, France. April 24, 18C0, no. 27979. 

This injector is the first seen in the United States and was made for 
Giffard by M. Flaud & Co., of Paris, who made the original Giffard 
injector in 1858. It greatly resembles the first injector, its appearance 
being characterized by its length and the ring of adjustable windows 
through which the state of the jet could be examined. 

Within the tube of the injector is a steam nozzle or jet that is 
opened or closed by a conical plug operated by a crank projecting 
from the end of the injector. This nozzle projects into the end of a 
converging tube so that an annular space is foimed around the nozzle 
tip. This space is connected to the water reservoir, and the effect 
of the steam rushing into the tube is to entrain the air in the space and 
form a partial vacuum there, which draws water into the tube. 
Water entering the tube "has an impulsive force imparted to it by 
the steam-jet and simultaneously receives a considerable amount of 
heat therefrom before it enters the boiler." On issuing from the 
tube the jet of water and condensed steam enters a second tube, which 
gradually diverges so that the velocity of the water is reduced (and 
the pressure increased) and the water arrives at the boiler end of 
the injector with a pressure slightly above boiler pressure and a very 
low velocity. 

MILLHOLLAND INJECTOR, 1862 

U.S.N.M. no. 309369; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to James Millholland, Reading, Pa., June 10, 1862, no 35575. 

The inventor of this very simple injector declared that it could be 
made for one-twentieth of the cost of the "elaborate and costly 
Giffard's injector." It consists principally of a casting having a 
chamber connected to a water inlet and, through a nozzle-shaped 
bore, to the boiler pipe. A separate steam nozzle projects through 
the chamber into the opening of the bore. The injector has no 
valves or overflow opening and requires that the steam supply be 
controlled by^ a valve in the steam line and that a bypass and suitable 
cock be provided in the boiler pipe to return the overflow to the 
water tank when starting. 



128 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

GIFFARD-SELLERS INJECTOR, 1863 

U.S.N.M. no. 309367 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to William Sellers, of Philadelphia, Pa., July 21, 1863, no. 
39313. 

William Sellers, who introduced the Giffard injector into the 
United States in 1860, immediately invented useful improvements in 
its construction. This model incorporates an improvement in the 
packing between the steam and water chambers and effects a mate- 
rial reduction in the length of the whole injector. 

GIFFARD-SELLERS INJECTOR, 1865 

U.S.N.M. no. 309187 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to William Sellers, of Philadelphia, Pa., August 15, 1865, no. 
49445. 

Injectors before this required that the supply of water and steam 
be constantly regulated by hand and the overflow, which was always 
provided to permit the escape of water until the jet attained the 
proper velocity, was also used to permit the excess of steam or water 
caused by fluctuations in boiler pressure to escape without stopping 
the operation of the jet. This injector is designed to use the pressure 
created by an overflowing jet to adjust immediately the parts of the 
injector to check the tendency to overflow and to use the partial 
vacuum that will result from an excess of steam over water supply, 
and to adjust the injector to correct this condition without wasting 
water at the overflow. These objects are accomplished by means 
of a "floating" combining tube, which is free to move along the 
axis of the tube under the influence of variations in the absolute 
pressure within the overflow chamber and automatically preserve the 
correct ratio between w^ater and steam supply. 

ROBINSON AND GRESHAM INJECTOR, 1866 

U.S.N.M. no. 309189 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John Robinson and James Gresham, of Manchester, England, May 
29, 1866, no. 55218. 

The feature of this injector is to provide a means of varying the 
area of the annular space through which the water enters the com- 
bining tube for the purpose of properly proportioning the steam 
and water supplies. The combining tube is made free to slide in 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 129 

the direction of the axis of the tube and is adjusted by a hand wheel 
at the side of the injector, the shaft of which projects into the 
injector and carries a small pinion that meshes with a short rack 
formed on the tube. Packing around the sliding tube is dispensed 
with by forming the tube in two parts, a fixed part and a sliding 
part, and proportioning the two parts so that the ends of the sliding 
part will be "opposite that part of the passing current where it has 
attained its highest velocity; and by this arrangement the passing 
liquid has no tendency to escape but rather to draw in air or fluid." 

GIFFARD-SELLERS INJECTOR, 1868 

TJ.S.N.M. no. 309372 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent? 
issued to William Sellers, of Philadelphia, Pa., March 3, 1868, no. 
75059. 

The objects of the improvements incorporated in this design of 
injector were to enable injectors to throw a smaller quantity of water 
without affecting their maximum capacity, to permit them to draw 
water from a lower level, and to make the waste orifice self-closing. 

FRIEDMAN INJECTOR, 1869 

U.S.N.M. no. 308G79 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Alexander Friedman, of Vienna, Austria, April 6, 1869, 
no. 88620. 

The model represents a steam injector designed for elevating or 
forcing water and reducing the shock produced by the sudden con- 
densation of steam when brought into contact with the water. 

The injector is of the usual form with the addition of a small 
auxiliary steam jet, or ejector, which serves to draw water into the 
mixing chamber before the main steam valve is opened. A safety 
cock is also provided, which permits a part of the water to escape as 
the pressure is being raised to the degree sufficient to overcome the 
resistance against which the injector is working. 

SELLERS SELF-ADJUSTING INJECTOR, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 309558; original; gift of William Sellers & Co., Inc.; not illus- 
trated. 
This is the 1876 commercial form of the floating combining tube, 
self-adjusting injector first patented in 1865 (see above). It is 
constructed for convenient operating and repairing and is started, 



3^30 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

regulated, and stopped by means of a single lever requiring no hand 
adjustment for variations in pressure of steam, height of lift, or 
temperature of the feed water. 

WOTAPEK INJECTOR, 1884 

U.S.N.M. no. 309181 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United 
States Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Joseph Wotapek, of New York, N. Y., May 6, 1884, no. 298329; 
assigned to the Nathan Manufacturing Co. 

The improvement involved in this injector is the use of a nozzle 
holder by which the scale-incrusted nozzle or tube of the injector 
may be easily removed to permit cleaning. The holder is threaded 
into the shell of the injector from which it and the tube are drawn 
by unscrewing the holder. The holder turns independently of the 
tube so that the tube itself is not subjected to torsion when being 
withdrawn from the shell. 

JENKS AND HART INJECTOR, 1886 

U.S.N.M. no. 309182 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Ofl5ce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to James Jenks and Thomas J. Hart, Detroit, Mich. 

The principal feature of this injector is the method provided for 
varying the area of the water passage that surrounds the steam-forc- 
ing jet. A conical nut screwed onto threads on the outside of the 
steam tube forms one wall of the water space. The position of the 
nut on the tube and the area of the water space are changed by turn- 
ing the nut. The nut is turned by a handwheel, worm, and worm 
wheel. 

SELLERS SELF-ACTING INJECTOR, 1887-1927 

U.S.N.M. no. 309559; original; gift of William Sellers & Co., Inc.; not illus- 
trated. 

This is a modern lifting injector that incorporates features de- 
veloped in 1887. The injector has an auxiliary annular steam nozzle 
that lifts the water and discharges into a draft tube surrounding 
the forcing steam nozzle from which the jet receives the impulse 
that causes it to enter the boiler. Free discharge is provided for the 
lifting jet with the result that a vacuum is maintained in the lifting 
pipe, which always raises water to the injector after interruptions 
of the water supply and restores the continuity of the jet. 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 131 

MURDOCK INJECTOR, 1890 

U.S.N.M. no. 300186; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This injector was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Horace B. Murdock, of Detroit, Mich., November 11, 1890, 
no, 440183 ; assigned to the American Injector Co. 

This is a double injector having two force tubes arranged in par- 
allel order and operated with a single actuating shaft. The overflow 
valves as well as the steam valves of the two sets of tubes are operated 
by the same shaft so that the steam valve of the first set opens in 
advance of the steam valve of the second set and the overflow valve 
of the first set closes in advance of the overflow valve of the second 
set. The stems of all conical plug valves are extended outside of the 
injector shell and are provided with slotted ends by which they may 
be turned with a suitable tool to grind upon the valve seats. 

SCHUTTE INJECTOR, 1892 

U.S.N.M. no. 309010; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This injector Avas submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Louis Schutte, of Philadelphia, Pa., February 9, 1892, no. 
468698. 

This is a double-tube injector in which water is delivered by 
one set of tubes, or nozzles, generally known as the lifting tubes 
into another set generally known as forcing tubes through which the 
water is forced into the boiler. The peculiar feature of this injector 
is a means of increasing or reducing the area of the opening of the 
steam nozzle of the lifting tubes, by which the quantity of v/ater 
discharged by the injector is controlled without in any way inter- 
fering with the operating mechanism for starting and stopping tha 
injector. 

SELLERS SELF-ACTING INJECTOR, 1900-1927 

U.S.N.M. no. 30D560 ; original ; gift of William Sellers & Co., Inc. ; not illustrated. 

This is a self-adjusting and restarting injector similar to the pre- 
ceding one, but it does not have the steam jet for lifting water to 
the injector. It has the floating combining tube of the earlier in- 
jectors and the combination of two tubes in the same axial line with 
apertures between them, as in the preceding injector, which develop 
a vacuum in the feed pipe and make the injector automatically 
restarting. 



132 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DESMOND INJECTOR, 1901 

U.S.N.M. no, 309190 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John Desmond, of Cincinnati, Ohio, October 8, 1901, no. 683914; 
assigned to the Lunkenheimer Co. 

Features of this injector are the construction of the starting lever, 
which with one motion operates both the steam and overflow valves 
and also permits the ovei^flow valve to close independently of the 
lever; a removable ring of resistant metal inserted in the combining 
tube at its smallest diameter to receive the corroding action of the jet 
at that point; and an arrangement of steam and water passages 
designed to prevent the raising of the temperature of the feed water 
to such a temperature as to deposit scale within the tubes of the 
injector. 

ALLEN AUTOMATIC INJECTOR, 1902 

U.S.N.M. no. 309176 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Charles B. Allen, of Wadsworth, Ohio, April 15, 1902, no. 697770. 

This injector is designed to start itself automatically when supplied 
with steam and connected to the water supply and to restart auto- 
matically if for any reason the jet should be temporarily interrupted. 
The peculiar feature of the injector is the forcing tube, which is pro- 
vided with two successive overflows formed in it by a series of 
laterally opening holes which have a definite areal relation to the 
smallest cross-sectional area of the combining tube and which are in 
addition to the usual large overflow between the combining tube and 
the forcing tube. 

SELLERS EXHAUST FEED- WATER HEATER INJECTOR, 1925 

Plate 27, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309561 ; original ; gift of William Sellers & Co., Inc. ; photograph 
no. 15316B. 

This is a nonlifting injector within which water from the locomo- 
tive tank is heated by exhaust steam, picked up by one set of exhaust 
steam injector tubes, and delivered to a live-steam injector, which 
forces the water into the boiler at a temperature of about 260° to 
300°. The object of this design of injector is to save the large quantity 
of heat usually lost in the exhaust steam and return it to the boiler, 
thereby improving the economy of operation of the locomotive. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COI-LECTIONS 
MISCELLANEOUS STEAM INJECTORS 



133 



The following patent models of injectors, transferred from the 
United States Patent Office, are not otherwise described or illustrated. 
The list is chronological. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Patentee 


Patent no. 


Date 


309188 


T. O'Rorke 


129491 
314553 
334124 
350547 
377912 
407499 
416702 
No number 
604233 
645274 
645273 
662459 


Julv 16 1S72 


309371 


James Jenks _ 


Mar 24 1885 


309370 


W. B. Mack 


Jan. 12, 1886 


309179 


W. L. Messinger 


Oct. 12, 1886 


309177 


Louis Schutte 


Feb. 14, 1888 


309175 


Thomas J. Sweeney 


July 23, 1889 
Dec. 3 1889 


309178 


Albert Lambert. 


309185 


H. B. Murdock 


Apr. 15, 1890 
May 17, 1898 
Mar. 13, 1900 
Mar. 13, 1900 


308721 


Jacob Huber_ 


309174 
309180 


Francis Sticker 

Francis Sticker 


309183 


H. T. Nice 


Nov. 27, 1900 


309191 


Unidentified 













Cataloged photographs of injectors in the collection are as follows : 

U.S.N.IM. nos. 309522A and E. Two photographs and one card of the original 
Giffard injector. From the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 

U.S.N.M. no. 309525. A colored phantom photograph of a modern Sellers 
injector showing the construction and operation. From Gatchel & Manning, Inc. 

STEAM PUMPS 

WORTHINGTON DIRECT-ACTING STEAM PUMP, 1855 

Plate 28, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309245 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 32644D. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Henry R. Worthington, July 31, 1855, no. 13370. 

The model represents a double-acting water cylinder of a direct- 
connected steam pump so designed that toward the end of each stroke 
the pressure on each side of the water piston will be momentarily 
balanced to permit the expansion of steam already in the steam cyl- 
inder to quickly move the piston so that the steam valve operated by 
the piston will be quickly and positively opened for the return stroke. 

At the midpoint of the water cylinder is an opening connected to 
the force pipe through which the water is discharged. The piston 
is made of such length that this opening is uncovered to the suction 
side of the piston only near the end of the stroke. The effect of this 
is momentarily to subject both sides of the piston to the same water 
pressure and so relieve the steam piston of most of its resistance so 
that it can move rapidly and actuate the valve sharply and positively. 



134 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The inventor refers to this as an improvement on the invention of 
"a new and improved method of insuring the action of steam valves 
in direct-acting pumping engines", patented by himself and William 
H. Baker, April 3, 1849. 

WORTHINGTON "DUPLEX" STEAM PUMP, 1859 

U.S.N.M. uo. 251300 ; original model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model was part of the application for the patent issued to 
Henry K. Worthington, of Brooklyn, N. Y., July 19, 1859, no. 24838. 

This is a 2-cylinder, direct-connected steam pump in which the 
steam and exhaust valves of each steam cylinder are actuated in 
part by the motion of the piston in the other cylinder. The "du- 
plex" pump has had a wide application as a boiler feed-water pump. 

The engine consists of two horizontal double-acting steam cylin- 
ders, each directly connected to a double-acting pump cylinder. In 
operation steam is admitted to one steam cylinder forcing the piston 
to move, until at some position in its stroke it engages a series of 
levers that open the steam valve of the other cylinder. The piston 
continues on until it engages a second lever, which shuts off the 
steam to its cylinder and the piston comes to rest. Meanwhile the 
second piston, moving through its stroke, actuates levers that open 
the steam valve to the first cylinder and causes the first piston to 
start on its return stroke. The second piston continues to move until 
it closes its own steam valve and then remains at rest until its steam 
valve is opened by the movement of the first piston, and so on. 

This arrangement of valves produces a positive motion of the 
pump, prevents "short-stroking", and provides the action of at least 
one piston upon the water at all times, thereby reducing shock or 
pounding in the water discharge. 

SEWELL AND CAMERON STEAM PUMP, 1864 

U.S.N.M. no. 808669; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to William Sewell and Adam S. Cameron, of Nev/ York, N. Y., 
May 10, 1864, no. 42694. 

The model represents a direct-connected steam pump in which the 
water piston rod is keyed in a socket in the end of the steam piston 
rod, so that the two may be disconnected when it is desired to oper- 
ate the pump by hand. The socket is sufficiently long to serve as a 
guide for the water piston rod, and a suitable rock shaft and capstan 
head is provided for working the pump by hand. 

The purpose of the combination is to provide a hand pump for the 
various purposes for which a pump might be required aboard a 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 28 




STEAM Pumps. 



I. Worthington direct-acting steam pump, 1855 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 309245). See p. 133. 
2. Cameron pump valves, 1874 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 308686). See p. 135. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 29 




STEAM Pumps. 



1. Knowles steam pump, 1879 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 309250). See p. 136. 
2. Frost steam-pump valve, 1890 (model; U.S.N.M. no. 308718). See p. 138. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I35 

vessel when steam is down and the steam pump cannot be used, 
while eliminating some of the piping that would be necessary if 
separate pumps were provided. 

KING DIRECT-ACTING PUMP VALVE GEAR, 1870 

U.S.N.M. no. 308682 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to John C. King, of New York, N. Y., September 20, 1870, 
no. 107504. 

The model represents a direct-connected steam pump provided 
with rotary oscillating valves on the steam and water cylinders 
operated by an arm on the piston rod and a swinging lever. The 
peculiar feature of the design is the use of a sharp-edged spring- 
actuated slide, which acts upon a roller on the swinging lever to 
rapidly change the valve position as the pistons near the end of 
their strokes. During the first part of the stroke the roller on the 
swinging lever acts upon one side of the slide and forces it up against 
a coil spring. Toward the end of the stroke the roller passes under 
the sharp edge of the slide and the force of the spring causes the 
slide to push the roller and swinging lever rapidly in the direction 
in which it is traveling. 

WORTHINGTON DUPLEX STEAM PUMP, 1871 

U.S.N.M. no. 308681; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Henry E. Worthington, of New York, N. Y., June 20, 1871, no. 
116131. 

The model is a relief panel showing a section through the two steam 
cylinders of a duplex pump arranged to use steam at boiler pressure 
in one steam cylinder of small diameter, expand the exhaust steam in 
a receiver of much larger volume than the small cylinder, and use the 
steam at low pressure in a second cylinder of larger diameter. This 
arrangement was devised to permit the use of steam expansively in 
a duplex pump without the use of two compound cylinders, as was 
formerly the method. 

CAMERON PUMP VALVES, 1874 
Plate 28, Figuhk 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S6S6 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 32644B. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Adam S. Cameron, of New York, N. Y., November 10, 1874. no. 
156769. 



l^Q BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This invention relates to a design of pump valves so controlled by 
spindles and guides that the necessity of central bearings in the valve 
seat is avoided, leaving a clear circular opening for the passage of the 
fluid being pumped. 

The model represents a valve chest of a pump cylinder equipped 
with four valves arranged in pairs, in which one valve is located above 
the other. In each pair the valve stem of the upper valve projects 
upward into a hollow plug in the top of the valve chest and downward 
into a socket in the lower valve. The socket of the lower valve ex- 
tends downward into a hollow plug or guide in the bottom of the valve 
chest. Both valves are spring closed and the lower valve is free to 
move independently of the upper valve. 

KNOWLES STEAM PUMP, 1879 

Plate 29, Figtjbe 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309250 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 32644C. 

This model was filed with the application for the patent issued to 
Lucius J. Knowles, of Worcester, Mass., April 1, 1879, no. 213823. 

The model represents the steam cylinders of a duplex pump fitted 
with what the inventor calls auxiliary engines to operate the valves 
of each cylinder when it is desired to use one cylinder of a duplex 
pump without the other. Actually the piston of the auxiliary en- 
gine is the valve of the main cylinder and the invention is in effect 
a one cylinder or "simplex" pump with steam-actuated valve. This 
is one of the earliest uses of the steam-actuated valve for steam 
pumps. 

The auxiliary cylinder forms the steam chest and valve ports of the 
main cylinder while the auxiliary piston acts as the valve. The 
auxiliary piston has its own valve system, which consists of ports in 
the auxiliary cylinder wall connected to the main steam passages and 
so located that they will register with openings in the auxiliary piston 
when the auxiliary piston is given a slight twist at the end of the 
main piston's stroke. These openings connect to passages in the 
auxiliary piston that direct the steam pressure to the proper end of 
the auxiliary cylinder to cause the auxiliary piston to move to the 
other end of the cylinder and so reverse the stroke of the main piston. 

Lucius James Knowles (July 2, 1819-February 26, 1884) origi- 
nated and developed the Knowles Steam Pump Co. and the L. J. 
Knowles & Brother Loom Works at Warren, Mass., and Worcester, 
Mass., both of which became leading organizations in their respective 
fields. The Knowles steam pump was one of the best known of the 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I37 

direct-acting pumps, and Knowles is recognized as having contributed 
much to the final development and refinement of the device. He was 
one of the first to take up and develop the steam-actuated valve and 
received several patents for his inventions of improvements in valves 

DOW DIRECT-ACTING STEAM PUMP, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308703 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent OfSce; not illustrated. 

This model was filed with the application for the patent issued to 
G. E. Dow, of San Francisco, Calif., November 4, 1879, no. 221220. 

The model represents a form of valve gear for a direct-connected 
steam engine in which the main valve is partially operated by a 
system of cam-shaped levers actuated from the main piston rod and 
partially by a supplementary steam piston, the movement of which 
is controlled by valves connected to the same levers. 

DAVIES STEAM PUMP, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308711 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to Joseph D. Davies, of Covington, Ky., March 9, 1880, no. 
225351. 

The model represents a direct-acting steam pump, provided with 
two auxiliary oscillating cylinders, which offer a constantly decreas- 
ing resistance to the movement of the steam piston during the first 
half of its stroke and a constantly increasing assistance during the 
remaining half. The purpose of this is to equalize the effective force 
of the steam piston throughout its stroke when the steam is used 
expansively. 

The two auxiliary cylinders are mounted in trunnions, one on each 
side of the frame of the engine. The rods from the auxiliary pistons 
are attached to a clamp on the main piston rod, so located that the 
auxiliary cylinders are perpendicular to the main piston rod when 
the main piston is at midstroke. The auxiliary pistons, in the model, 
work against a spiral spring, which is compressed during the first 
half of the stroke and which expands during the last half. In effect; 
the springs act as would a flywheel, storing the energy in excess of 
the resistance, while steam at high pressure acts upon the engine pis- 
Ion, and delivering the stored energy after the steam has been cut 
off and is expanding in the cylinder. The inventor described his de- 
vice using a fluid, as steam or water under pressure within the 
auxiliary cylinders. 

49970—39 10 



138 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

FROST STEAM-PUMP VALVE, 1890 
Pi^TE 29, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308718 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 32644B. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Eichard L. Frost, of Battle Creek, Mich., February 11, 1890, 
no. 421355. The patent was assigned to the Union Manufacturing 
Co. of the same place. 

The model represents a section through the steam cylinder, piston, 
and steam valve of a direct-connected steam water pump. The valve 
is a steam-actuated piston valve so designed that an increase in the 
exhaust pressure cannot act on the valve as to entirely close the live- 
steam port and stop the engine. 

The valve is a piston slide valve that admits live steam at its ends 
through a hollow section to the cylinder steam ports close to the 
middle of the valve. The exhaust is to the center. Formed on the 
ends of the piston valve are enlarged pistons v.-hich closely fit cylin- 
ders provided for them. Ports in these cylinders are so connected 
to the main cylinder ports and the main cylinder that pressure on one 
end server practically to balance the valve, while pressure on the 
other end actuates the valve. The main piston is relatively long and 
has an annular depression between its two ends. The space thus 
formed between the piston ends and the cylinder in combination with 
ports in the cylinder acts to supply steam to the valve cylinder to 
actuate the valve. 

MOORE STEAM PUMP, 1891 

U.S.N.M. no. 308717; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

The model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Ila N. Moore, of Battle Creek, Mich., June 23, 1891, no. 451753. 

The feature of this pump power is a piston with steam ports in the 
piston leading to the ends of the cylinder and a valve fitted to slide 
on the elongated and reduced barrel of the spool-shaped piston con- 
trolling the admission of steam through the steam ports. The object 
is to provide a steam pump requiring no steam chest. Steam is ad- 
mitted at the center of the cylinder through two short passages 
connecting directly with the steam pipe. Exhaust is to a chamber 
on the opposite side of the cylinder. A hollow tail rod, gland, and 
housing form part of the exhaust passage. The piston valve, which 
slides on the barrel of the piston, is actuated in part by the pressure 
of the steam and in part by the motion of the piston. Packing rings 
on the outside of the valve heads operate across the steam inlet ports 
in the C3dinder wall and the lands between grooves in the bore of the 
valve operate across the ports in the piston barrel. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I39 

ADDITIONAL STEAM BOILER ITEMS IN THE COLLECTION, NOT 
OTHERWISE DESCRIBED 

A model of a locomotive stack feed-water heater patented by Matthias 
Baldwin and David Clark of Philadelphia. Pa., February 14, 1&34, no. 10514. 
Transfer from the United States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 308992. 

A small vertical copper-tube boiler heated by a spirit lamp, used to demon- 
strate three working models of steam steering engines (U.S.N.M. nos. 31U475 
and 310476) invented by Herbert Wadsworth. U.S.N.M. no. 310477. 

A model of a brass boiler mounted on a swivel. Not identified. Transfer 
from tlie United States Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 309011. 

A model of a draft blower. Not identified. Transfer from the United States 
Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 308723. 

FIRE ENGINES 
HUNNEMAN HAND-PUMP FIRE ENGINE, 1854 
U.S.N.M. no. 310747; original; gift of Charles T. Nehf; not illustrated. 

This engine is a fairly large hand-pumper typical of city fire- 
fighting apparatus just prior to the introduction of steam fire engines. 
It has a history that is also typical in that it was purchased first by 
a volunteer company of a city, Terre Haute, Ind., served there until 
replaced by newer equipment, when it was given to the town of 
Jasper, Ind., where it was the village fire fighter until motorized, 
consolidated companies gave outlying communities adequate modern 
protection at costs they could afford. It v;as then acquired by the 
donor as a memorial to the services of the company w^hich first owned 
it and of which he was a member. 

The engine was built in 1854 by Hunneman & Co. at Boston and 
sold originally at $720. 

It consists of a large tank body mounted on wheels and acting as 
the support of a 2-cylinder beam-actuated pump. The beam, which 
runs lengthw^ise of the vehicle, carries two long handle bars parallel 
to the beam but so attached as to swing across the ends of the beam 
to permit 8 to 12 men to pump at each end of the beam. Water 
entered the pump from a short suction hose when a stream or pool 
could be reached, otherwise a bucket brigade poured water into the 
tank body of the engine from which it was delivered by the pump to 
hoses to play upon the fire. A hand-hammered copper surge cham- 
ber, or dome, is a striking feature in the appearance of the engine. 

CLAPP AND JONES PISTON STEAM FIRE ENGINE, 1876-1878 

U.S.N.M. no. 310396; original; gift of the United Fire Engine Co. No. 3; !iot 
illustrated. 

This steam fire engine was one of three exhibited by the makers, 
Clapp & Jones, of Hudson, N. Y., at the Philadelphia International 
Exposition in 1876, where it assisted in securing for the makers the 
award in tlie class of piston steam fire engines. In 1878 the engine 



■j^^O BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

was purchased by the United Fire Engine Co. No. 3 of Frederick, 
Md., and was used continuously until 1912. It is a remarkably well 
preserved example of the best in steam fire engines of the period of 
1876. The United Co. has a collection of about 20 trophies that have 
been awarded to it over a period of many years for achievements of 
the engine. The engine has for many years been known throughout 
the vicinity of Frederick as the "Lily of the Swamp." It proudly 
carries the motto of the United Co., Veni-Vidi-Vici. 

The engine has a vertical boiler, with both fire tubes and water 
tubes. The fire tubes extend from the crown sheet of the fire box 
up through the top of the shell and the water tubes hang from the 
crown. The outer rows of water tubes extend nearly to the bottom 
of the fire box and surround rows of shorter tubes, which are about 
half the length of the outer row. In each water tube long narrow 
sheet-metal diaphragms form a triangular passage in the center of 
the tube for the return of water carried up by the steam. The dia- 
phragms are stamped with lipped openings turned upward, which 
serve to drain into the return passage much of the water lifted with 
the steam before it reaches the top of the tube. 

The pump is 1-cylinder, double-acting, and horizontal. The water 
enters the pump in the center of the front head and is distributed to 
all sides of the pump cylinder and the valve chambers through an 
annular space that surrounds the entire cylinder. This space is so 
designed that it makes a very free watercourse to the valves and also 
retains sufficient water in the pump to assure positive starting with- 
out priming even against very high suction lifts. No connection to 
the boiler or other means of priming with grease or water is provided 
on the engine. The intake valves of the pump are arranged in a 
ring surrounding each end of the cylinder. This ring is easily re- 
moved with the cylinder head. The valves of either end are the same 
and are interchangeable. The discharge valve is a ring of india 
rubber attached to the front cylinder head but is enough longer than 
the head to reach over an annular space at the center of the cylinder 
and lap over a ring on the cylinder that forms the valve seat. This 
annular space or band around the middle of the cylinder is con- 
nected to the discharge gates and discharge dome. The air chambers 
provided permit the pump to work at very high speeds. The piston 
is all metal and is water packed. 

The steam engine that drives the pump is small, double-acting, 
direct-connected, and horizontal. A cross head is provided from 
which a connecting rod drives a shaft on which are a pair of light 
flywheels and an eccentric for operating the valves of the engine. 

Wlien first made the engine was drawn by hand, but in 1905 it 
was slightly remodeled by adding a sliaft and a driver's seat, so that 
it could be drawn by horses. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 141 

AMOSKEAG STEAM FIRE ENGINE, c. 1885 

U.S.N.M. no. 310467 ; model ; gift of Frank A. Wartllaw, Jr. ; not illustrated. 

This is a fully operating model of the fire engine no. 444 built by 
the Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., of Manchester, N. H . and used 
by the New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y., fire department. The 
model was made by Frank A. WardlaAv, father of the donor, in 1912- 
13. It was awarded a silver medal at the Exhibition of the Society 
of Model and Experimental Engineers at London, October 1913. 

The fire engine depicted by the model consists of a vertical steam 
cylinder connected to a vertical pump cylinder placed directly below 
it. The connecting rods of both cylinders connect to a single crank 
on a shaft, located midway between them, which swings a light-weight 
flywheel. The boiler is a vertical water-tube boiler enclosed in the 
typical brightly plated and polished shell. The engine was horse- 
drawn. 

The model burns coal, operates on a pressure of 55 pounds per 
square inch, and throws a stream of water a distance of 46 feet. 

AMOSKEAG FIRE-ENGINE PUMP 

U.S.N.M. no. 309821 ; model ; gift of the Franklin Machine Co. ; not illustrated. 

The model, which is cut away, represents one vertical pump cylinder 
of a fire engine. The cylinder itself is enclosed at the center of a 
cylindrical casing of much larger diameter, one side of which is the 
intake or suction passage, the other side being the delivery or pressure 
passage of the pump. The cylinder heads enclose the ends of the 
outer casing and form a chamber over each end of the piston cylinder. 
The annular space between the piston cylinder and the casing is closed 
at top and bottom with an annular valve seat each containing four 
circular intake and four circular delivery valves. 

"METROPOLITAN" STEAM FIRE ENGINE, 1906 

U.S.N.ISL no. 309884; original; gift of the American-La France and Foamite 
Corporation ; not illustrated. 

Built by the American Fire Engine Co., of Seneca Falls. N. Y., in 
1906, this engine was purchased by the city of Alexandria, Va., where 
it was used until about 1930. It is typical of the final development 
in horse-drawn, steam, fire engines before they were replaced by self- 
propelled and motor-driven fire apparatus. 

This is a vertical 2-cylinder steam engine direct-connected to a 
2-cylinder double-acting pump. The valves of the engine are operated 
from a crankshaft driven by connecting rods running from wrist pins 
on the engine and pump rods. The boiler is of the vertical, water- 
tube type in which the tubes are lengths of pipe joined by pipe fittings 
in loops that are laid together in a nearly solid cube of horizontal 



142 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and vertical tubes, filling the entire center of the shell. The shell 
of the boiler is double, Avith the space betAveen serving as the water 
reservoir, which is small compared to the tube surfaces. The exhaust, 
let into the top of the stack, induces the draft through the boiler. 
The grates are fixed and flat. No ashpit is provided. 

MISCELLANEOUS PUMPS 

CLOW ROTARY WATER PUMP, 1856 

U.S.N.M. no. 30865S ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to C. N. Clow, of Port Byron, N. Y., July 1, 1856, no. 15221. 

The model represents a cam pump in which two smooth elliptical 
cams run in contact in a casing, which is roughly a horizontal figure- 
eight in cross section. The cams are made to revolve together cor- 
rectly by means of gear wheels on the outside of the casing on the 
same shafts to which the cams are attached. The pitch line of the 
gears correspond in shape to the ellipitical peripheries of the cams. 
The pump is operated by a hand crank. 

EADS SAND PUMP, 1869 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S143; models; gift of the American Society of Civil Engineers; 
not illustrated. 

Sand pumps or ejectors of the pattern of these models w^ere de- 
signed and used under the direction of James B. Eads for removing 
sand and gravel from the caissons employed in the construction of 
the bridge over the Mississippi River at St. Louis, 1868-1874. 

The pump consists of a cylindrical casing into which water is 
pumped under pressure and from which it can escape only through a 
concentric internal pipe leading and discharging upward. The water 
enters the lower end of the discharge pipe through a passage that 
gives the water the shape of an annular jet. The jet creates a vac- 
uum below it by which suction is created in a short intake pipe let 
into the sand. Sand is thus drawn into the jet and carried upward 
with the stream of w^ater. 

As used at St. Louis the pumps with 3-inch discharge pipes each 
discharged 10 cubic yards of sand and gravel in an hour including 
stones as large as 2^/2 inches in diameter. 

One model is sectioned, and both are mounted in an old little 
exhibition case marked "Designed by James B. Eads, July 1st, 
1869; St. Louis, Mo." 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I43 

JOHNSTON AIR COMPRESSOR, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308706 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to William Johnston, of Washington, D. C, November 4, 
1879, no. 221318. 

The compressor represented by the model is in effect a bellows. It 
is constructed as a cylindrical casing mounted upon a stationary 
horizontal shaft about which it oscillates. Two diaphragms extend 
in radial planes from the inside and top of the casing to a bearing 
on the upper side of the shaft. The space between these diaphragms 
is wedge-shaped. The two spaces thus formed are valve spaces, inlet 
and outlet, respectively. Flap valves are let into the diaphragm 
connecting the valve spaces with the lower part of the casing interior. 
A third diaphragm, called a lug, is fixed to the under side of the 
shaft and extends downward to the cylinder casing. 

In use the casing is filled with water to the level of the center 
of the shaft. When the case is rocked the water is held approxi- 
mately stationary by the lug and the air between the surface of the 
water and the diaphragm on the down side is compressed while a 
partial vacuum is formed in the space between the surface of the 
"water and the diaphragm on the up side. The compressed air es- 
capes through the outlet valve and air is drawn into the up side 
through the inlet valve. As the casing is rocked back and forth 
it is in effect a double-acting bellows. 

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES 

Early history. — Strictly speaking the history of the internal com- 
bustion engine begins in the thirteenth century with the first use of 
the cannon. However, the first explosive engine capable of produc- 
ing work was that designed by the Abbe Hautefeuille, the son of 
an Orleans (France) baker. In 1678 he suggested a motor to raise 
water by burning pow'der in a vessel communicating with a reservoir 
of water. As the gases of combustion cooled a partial vacuum was 
formed in the vessel and atmospheric pressure raised the water from 
the reservoir. In 1682 he described a machine in which water was 
raised by the direct expansive action of the gases of combustion. 
Christian Huygens in 1680 was the first to employ a cylinder and 
piston in an explosive engine, and Denys Papin in 1690 made an 
improvement in the valves of the Huygens engine. Huygens died 
in 1695, and Papin turned his attention to steam, and for a hundred 
years no new explosive engine was produced. In 1791 John Barber 
of England made an engine in which wood, coal, or petroleum gas 
was mixed with air and pumped into a vessel termed the "exploder'', 



144 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

where the mixture was ignited. The resulting flame issued in a 
steady stream against the blades of a paddle wheel. The next en- 
gine (1794), that of Kobert Street of England, might be called the 
first of the modern idea of an internal-combustion engine. Tur- 
pentine or petroleum was introduced into the cylinder, which was 
warmed by an external fire. The fuel, vaporized by the heat, was 
mixed with a quantity of fresh air drawn into the cylinder by the 
upstroke of the piston. The mixture was ignited by a flame sucked 
in from a burner outside the cylinder. The explosion drove up the 
piston and forced down the piston of a pump for raising water. 
Philippe Lebon of France in 1801 patented an engine in which the 
mixture was ignited by an electric spark and had other admirable 
features. Samuel Brown in 1823-1826 brought out his vacuum gas 
engines, which were the first explosive engines to run in London. 
William Barnett, of England, who brought out three engines in 
1838, may be said to be the first to compress the explosive mixture 
in the cylinder before ignition as is now done. Between the years 
1838-1860 many engines were designed and patented in England, 
France, and America, but few were built. Barsanti and Mattenci, 
of Italy, patented engines in England in 1854 and 1857 that failed 
through mechanical defects but contained many of the features later 
found in the free piston engine of Otto and Langen. These engines 
involved the fundamental principle of utilizing the whole force of 
the explosion in as complete expansion as possible. The first prac- 
tical working gas engine is credited to Jean-Joseph-fitienne Lenoir, 
of Paris, who brought out his first engine in 1860. This engine was 
double-acting and worked on a 2-stroke cycle without compression 
before ignition. Air and gas were drawn into the cylinder during' 
the first part of the forward stroke of the piston, the intake valves 
then closed, and the mixture was exploded at the same time. Ex- 
pansion took place to the end of tlie stroke when the exhaust valves 
opened. The burned gases were exhausted on the back stroke. Igni- 
tion was effected by an electric spark. During the first year one of 
6 horsepower and another of 20 horsepower were built, and in the 
first five years more than 300 were made in France and about 100 in 
England. The first trials of any gas motors were made by Tresca 
on the Lenoir engine. Insufficient expansion (or late ignition) and 
the absence of compression resulted in a low economy, which with 
certain difficulties of lubrication brought forth concerted condem- 
nation of the engine. For silent, smooth, and regular working, how- 
ever, it has seldom been surpassed, and its success was sufficient to 
bring out a host of imitators as well as those who set up claims to 
prior invention. Lenoir applied his motor to the propulsion of a 
wagon and shares with Siegfried Marcus, of Vienna, and George B. 
Brayton, of Boston, the recognition for having made the earliest 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I45 

attempts to propel vehicles with internal-combustion engines. Reith- 
man, of Munich, designed an engine similar in principle to that of 
Lenoir in 1858, and Hugon, of Paris, who brought out a similar 
engine in 1862, patented 1865, claimed that his patent of 1858 was the 
Lenoir engine in principle. Gustave Schmidt in 1861 declared that 
better economy would result from compression of the explosive mix- 
ture, and Million the same year applied the principle of previous 
compression of the gas and air by means of a separate pump. The 
next important development was the descriptive patent of Beau de 
Rochas, of France, in which were set forth the events of the 4-stroke 
cycle and a discussion of its advantages. Fifteen years elapsed before 
this cycle, which is the most common in use today, was carried out 
in an engine. In 1866 Nicolaus Otto and Eugen Langen, of Cologne, 
brought out their atmospheric, or free-piston, engine (see U. S. N. M. 
no. 308675) constructed on the lines of the Barsanti and Mattenci en- 
gine of 1857. It succeeded where the earlier engine failed because 
of a more ingenious mechanical design. At the time of its introduc- 
tion it was the most economical of gas engines. The Bisschop (Eng- 
land) engine was of similar design, embodying improvements to 
avoid noise and recoil. Brayton's engine of 1873 and Simon's (Eng- 
land) of 1878 involved the principle of ignition at constant pressure 
(see under "American Developments"). In 1876 Otto and Langen 
abandoned the noisy, unsteady, and irregular free-piston engine and 
patented one in which the important innovation was the compression 
of the charge of air and gas before ignition (see U. S. N. M. nos. 
251284 and 309556). In this engine the whole cycle advocated by 
Beau de Rochas is effected in one cylinder. The engine was single 
acting, and in it one explosion or impulse was obtained in every four 
piston strokes. The first stroke compressed the explosive mixture 
and explosion occurred near the end of this stroke, the force of the 
explosion drove out the piston on the third stroke, and in the fourth 
stroke the products of combustion were discharged. The earliest 
trials of the Otto engine (Braner and Slaby in Germany, 1878) 
showed a striking economy of 38 to 40 cubic feet of gas per horse- 
power hour, as compared to 44-50 cubic feet with the Lenoir. Tlie 
success of this engine was undoubted from the first, and for many 
years few others were sold. It superseded all others and is the 
design from which all the 4-stroke gas and gasoline engines of today 
were developed. In 1880 Dugald Clerk of England introduced an 
engine in which an explosion was obtained after every second stroke 
or one explosion in every revolution. This was the 2-stroke cycle 
engine. Compression of the mixture was obtained in a separate 
pump cylinder. Atkinson introduced several engines that were of 
more interest as ingenious mechanisms than as any great advance. 
His engine of 1884 operated on the 4-stroke cycle effected in four 



146 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

separate strokes of di-ff event lengths. Beck in 1888 introduced an 
engine operating on a new cycle, the 6-stroke cycle in which there 
was an explosion every six strokes of the piston. The object was to 
obtain a more complete elimination of the products of combustion 
by admitting fresh air on the fifth stroke and discharging it to the 
atmosphere on the sixth stroke. These two strokes were known as 
"scavenger" strokes. 

American developments. — Oliver Evans, who built steam engines 
at Philadelphia before 1800, described a volcanic engine that, in 
spite of its name, was not an explosive engine, Samuel Morey, of 
Orford, N. H., designed the first American internal-combustion en- 
gine of record. His vapor engine was described in the Journal of 
the Franklin Institute of 1826, and a letter of his indicates that he 
used the engine to drive a small boat (probably a model) success- 
fully. In the Morey engine a vacuum was produced in the cylinder 
by firing an explosive mixture of air and vapor from common proof 
spirits mixed with a small portion of spirits of turpentine. A model 
of this engine ran smoothly for periods of several hours, but there 
is no record that a large engine was ever built. A "gentleman" did 
"go to England for the purpose of obtaining a patent in that coun- 
try." Morey 's engine was an atmospheric engine but Stuart Perry, 
of Newport, N. Y., patented an engine in 1814 that operated on the 
expansion of the products of combustion occurring within the cylin- 
der. This was the first of the class of noncompression gas engines, 
the type successfully introduced by Lenoir, of France, about 15 
years later. The Perry engine operated on the explosive vapors ob- 
tained from rosin heated by the exhaust gases in a retort that was a 
part of the engine. He patented an improved engine in 1846 that 
incorporated water cooling of the cylinder, an incandescent platinum 
igniter, and a receiver for compressed air to be used in starting the 
engine. Dr. Alfred Drake, of Philadelphia, patented an engine in 
1855 that was similar to one he had exhibited at Philadelphia as early 
as 1843. A Drake engine with a 16-inch cylinder and a large fly- 
wheel — "the whole resembling a steam engine of about 25 horse- 
power" — was used to furnish part of the power for the machine room 
of the 27th Annual Exhibition of the American Institute at New 
York in 1855. This was probably the first internal-combustion engine 
other than a model to be built in the United States. Drake later 
advertised his engines for sale. The Otto & Langen atmospheric 
free-piston engine, however, was the first to be used here in any 
number. It was patented in this country in 1867 and was introduced 
a short time later. George B. Brayton, of Exeter, N. H., and Boston, 
Mass., was the first American to design and build an engine that was 
a commercial success. He built and ran an engine as early as 1870 
and patented his design in 1872. His engine operated with combus- 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I47 

tion at constant pressure. The explosive mixture of gas and air 
entered the cylinder through a series of wire-gauze diaphragms, was 
ignited just before admission, and entered the cylinder as a flame. 
A steady combustion was maintained behind the piston during about 
one-third of the stroke. Brayton experienced difficulty with the use 
of gas as a fuel for this engine and designed one in 1874 to employ a 
light petroleum oil. This engine is considered to be the first safe 
and practical oil engine ever built. It employed a heated-surface 
carburetor and was quite efficient in the use of fuel. Many of these 
were built in various sizes and combinations of cylinders, and a small 
three cylinder one is shown in the drawing on which George Selden 
obtained his w^ell-known automobile patent. Its chief drawback was 
the gas-burning grate, which required frequent renewal. The Otto 
4-cycle engine was patented in the United States in 1877 and was in- 
troduced shortly after this, the first engines being large, slow-moving, 
horizontal, and stationary and having flame ignition. Gottlieb 
Daimler, of Cologne, Germany, patented the first compound- or mul- 
tiple-expansion engine in the United States in 1879. This was the 
first engine employing two cylinders operating independently on the 
4-stroke cycle but connected to the same crankshaft. It might be 
considered the forerunner of the present-day multiple-cylinder high- 
speed automobile engine. The first 2-stroke cycle engine patented in 
the United States was that of Wittig and Hees, of Hanover, Ger- 
manj^, who patented their engine in 1880. This is quite similar to 
the engine patented here in 1881 by Dugald Clerk, who is usually 
considered the inventor of the 2-stroke cycle engine. L. H. Nash 
in 1888 patented the 2-cycle engine using inlet and exhaust ports 
controlled by the piston and effecting compression in the crankcase 
of the engine. In 1895 Selden received the first patent for the appli- 
cation of the internal combustion engine to a road vehicle, and from 
this date on the development of the internal combustion engine for 
automotive use has been in engineering refinement rather than in 
principle. 

STUART PERRY GAS OR VAPOR ENGINE, 1844 

Plate 30, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309253; original patent model; transferred from the United 
States Patent Office ; photograph no. 18493C. 

This model was submitted with application for Patent no. 3597, 
issued May 23, 1844, to Stuart Perry, of Newport, N. Y. 

This is the first of the class of noncompression gas engines to be 
patented in the United States. It preceded the Lenoir (U. S. Patent 
no. 31722, Mar. 19, 1861), the best known of this type, by about 16 
years. It was designed to use the inflammable vapors of liquids or 



148 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

solids, such as undistilled turpentine or rosin, generated in the retort 
that was part of the engine. 

The model shows an engine with a 'horizontal double-acting cyl- 
inder. The piston transmits its motion to a vertical walking beam 
from which a connecting rod drives the motor crankshaft. Beneath 
the cylinder is located a pump beam. Below the engine cylinder also 
is a rectangular tank or retort for vaporizing the fuel. This retort 
has tubular openings through which the hot exhaust gases are di- 
rected. The pump supplies air to the retort and directly to the 
engine cylinder in proportions regulated by hand cocks. The com- 
bustible mixture from the retort and additional air from the pump 
are admitted to the engine by a rotary cylindrical valve. The valve 
is driven by gearing from the crankshaft, and the engine may be 
reversed by shifting the valve gears. Ignition is effected by flames 
from lamps at either end of the cylinder. The ignition valves are 
operated by pins on the piston. A lamp is also provided below 
the retort for vaporizing the fuel in starting the engine. 

In operation a mixture of vapor and air from the retort is admitted 
with a quantity of pure air as the piston moves away from the cylin- 
der head. Ignition occurs at the same time, and combustion continues 
for a part of the stroke when admission stops and the piston is car- 
ried to the end of the stroke by the expanding gases. 

Perry operated the engine with a retort heated solely by the heat 
of the cylinder, and he also suggested jacketing the cylinder and 
cooling it with a stream of air from a blower. 

STUART PERRY GAS ENGINE, 1846 

U.S.N.M. no. 251278 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with application for Patent no. 4800, 
issued October 7, 1846. 

This engine is very similar to the Perry engine of 1844. It differs 
in that the cylinder is water-jacketed and the hot cooling water is 
used to heat the fuel retort. Ignition is effected by heated platinum 
exposed to or separated from the explosive mixture by a valve. 

Tlie model shows a horizontal double-acting engine completely 
water- jacketed. Beside the cylinder is the retort for generating the 
vapors. Air is mixed with the vapor in a valve box above the retort, 
and valves operated by cams from a lay shaft admit the explosive 
mixture to passages leading to the cylinder. The gas is ignited 
by incandescent platinum, and combustion continues during about 
one-third of the stroke, the expansion of the products of combustion 
forcing the piston to the end of the stroke. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 30 




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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 31 




CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 149 

To start the engine it was necessary to heat the water about the 
retort to generate the vapor and to heat the igniter. When running 
the engine developed sufficient heat for both purposes. 

Perry designed this engine so that the water served not only to 
cool the cylinder but also to lubricate the piston and piston rod. 

ALFRED DRAKE GAS ENGINE, 1855 
Plate 30, Figuee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308724; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 18493D. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
12715, issued to Alfred Drake, of Philadelphia, Pa., April 17, 1855. 

As early as 1843 Alfred Drake exhibited a gas engine at Philadel- 
phia. This one of 1855, however, is the only one that he patented. 
The incandescent igniter is the novel feature of the engine. 

In this engine and the earlier one gas and air were drawn into th© 
cylinder at atmospheric pressure, and the mixture was fired by a small 
metal tube kept at white heat by an external flame. The force of the 
explosion drove out the piston, giving a maximum pressure of about 
100 pounds per square inch. The cylinder has a water jacket, and 
the piston is hollow. 

The engine was afterward modified and worked chiefly by 
petroleum. 

OTTO AND LANGEN GAS ENGINE, 1867 

Plate 31, Figtjke 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 308675; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 10498. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
67659, issued August 13, 1867, to Nicolaus Otto and Eugen Langen, 
of Cologne, Germany. 

This is the Otto and Langen free-piston or atmospheric gas engine 
introduced at the Paris Exposition of 1866. In this design the in- 
ventors improved the expansion of gases in the engine by employing a 
free piston, which, in theory, gives unlimited expansion. 

In the model a long, slender, vertical cylinder, water-jacketed for 
one-third of its lower end, is fitted with a short piston. The piston rod 
is a toothed rack that is always engaged with a gear wheel at the top 
of the cylinder. This gear runs free on the motor shaft during the 
upstroke of the piston but is connected automatically to the shaft in 
an ingenius roller clutch during the downstroke. A valve rod driven 
by an eccentric on an auxiliary shaft operates a slide valve at the base 
of the cylinder. Air and gas are drawn into the cylinder during the 
upstroke. The mixture is exploded by a flame when the piston is 



J50 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

partly advanced, and the free piston is driven to the top of its stroke. 
Cooling of the gases then forms a partial vacuum in the cylinder, and 
the piston, which is now engaged to the motor shaft, is driven down- 
ward by atmospheric pressure. A slight compression of the gases 
of combustion at the bottom of the cylinder retards the fall of the 
piston sufficiently to free it from the motor shaft so that it may be 
picked up again lightly for the next stroke. A heavy flywheel carries 
the engine through the cycle. 

Engines of this type consumed 44 cubic feet of Paris gas per indi- 
cated horsepower hour. The maximum pressure in these engines 
seldom exceeded 50 pounds per square inch. The great defects of the 
engine were its noisy and unsteady action and the excessive vibration 
and recoil. 

See Gas^ Oil and Air Engines^ by Bryan Donkin (London, 1905), 
for drawings, indicator diagram, and description. 

BRAYTON GAS ENGINE, 1872 

U.S.N.M. no. 251280; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not Illustrated. 

This working model was submitted by George B. Brayton, of Bos- 
ton, Mass., with his application for U. S. Patent no. 125166, dated 
April 2, 1872. 

The engine was the first to employ the principle of combustion at 
constant pressure. It also accomplished compression of the explosive 
mixture before ignition and was one of tlie first gas engines built 
commercially. See also Brayton Oil Engine, 1874. 

In this engine gas and air were drawn in above the piston, com- 
pressed in the upper part of the cylinder, and discharged into a re- 
ceiver under pressure of about 60 pounds per square inch. The ex- 
plosive mixture entered the lower part of the cylinder through a series 
of wire gauze diaphragms, which prevented the flame from flashing 
back to the explosive mixture in the receiver. The mixture was ig- 
nited just before admission and entered the cylinder in a state of 
flame and drove the piston forward without any rise in pressure, a 
steady combustion being maintained behind the piston during one- 
third of the forward stroke. 

ERRANI AND ANDERS PETROLEUM ENGINE, 1873 

U.S.N.M. no. 251283 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with application for Patent no. 140021, 
issued to Louis Charles Errani and Richard Anders, of Liege, Bel- 
gium, June 17, 1873. 

This is the first oil engine patented in the United States in which 
the fuel was vaporized within the cylinder. It is also the first to 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 151 

inject the oil into the cylinder in the form of a spray. It was pro- 
vided with electric ignition. 

In construction the engine resembles a steam engine, including a 
horizontal single-acting cylinder in which is a reciprocating piston, 
a crank deriving its motion from the piston, a flywheel on the main 
shaft, and valve gear for operating a main valve connected with the 
engine cylinder. It was actuated by the combustion of a mixture of 
sprayed petroleum and air during a portion of the stroke. The 
petroleum was sprayed by means of a jet of air from a rubber bulb, 
acted upon by a sliding plunger, in combination wnth a tube and 
nozzle rising from the oil reservoir in the base of the engine, 
somewhat in the manner of a common household atomizer. The 
quantity of petroleum supplied to the cylinder was regulated by a 
bypass cock in the air line from the rubber bulb. 

HOCK PETROLEUM ENGINE, 1874 

U.S.N.M. no. 251282 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model accompanied the application for Patent no. 151129, 
issued to Julius Hock, of Vienna, Austria, May 19, 1874. 

This engine, which resembles the slightly earlier Errani and An- 
ders engine in many details, attained nearly the same degree of pop- 
ularity abroad as did the Brayton oil engine in this country and 
England. It differs from the Errani and Anders engine in having 
the oil reservoir separate from the engine, in having flame ignition, 
and in the method of controlling the supply of oil from the reser- 
voir. It was not so successful as the Brayton because it used a lighter 
and more dangerous fuel. 

Like the Errani and Anders, it resembled a single-acting horizon- 
tal steam engine. The oil tank stood back of the cylinder and was 
equipped with a plunger by which the height of the column of oil 
supplying the spraying device could be varied to change the quantity 
of oil being supplied. The oil was atomized by air from a rubber 
bulb compressed by a plunger on the crankshaft. The engine oper- 
ated on the 2-stroke noncompression cycle similar to the Lenoir, 
Brayton, Errani and Anders, and others. 

BRAYTON OIL ENGINE, 1874 

Plate 31, Ficuee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 251281; original patent model; transferred from tbe United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 30417. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
151468, issued to G. B. Brayton, of Boston, Mass., June 2, 1874. 

When Brayton experienced difficulty with the flame of the cylinder 
striking back into the explosive mixture in the receiver of his gas 



152 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

engine of 1872, he redesigned the engine to use petroleum. The re- 
sulting engine, the one described in this patent, is considered to be 
the first safe and practical oil engine. 

The model (wooden) shows an engine that resembles the earlier 
gas engine in arrangement. It consists of a vertical cylinder closed 
at both ends, cast integral with a tall, heavy tank. The rod from 
the piston extends upward to a bell crank at the top of the tank. 
The other arm of the bell crank drives, through a long connecting 
rod, a crankshaft running under the cylinder. Cams on the crank- 
shaft operate the intake or carburetor valve and the petroleum pump. 

In operation, air is drawn into the upper part of the cylinder, 
compressed, and stored in the receiver tank. Petroleum is pumped 
under pressure into the carburetor, which is one of the most inter- 
esting features of the engine. It consists of a chamber containing 
a porous material into which jets of petroleum and air impinge, the 
air acting to break up or pulverize the petroleum. A lift valve 
admits air to the carburetor from the receiver, which dilutes the 
mixture in the carburetor and continues, through a wire-gauze di- 
aphragm, into a chamber in which a flame burns continuously. The 
mixture is ignited and issues into the cylinder as a flame. The wire 
gauze prevents the striking back of the flame as in a safety lamp. 
Combustion continues for about one-third of the stroke when the 
air valve closes. The air and petroleum valves operate at the proper 
time, and the cycle is repeated. 

DAIMLER GAS ENGINE, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 308689 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
168623, issued to Gottlieb Daimler, of Muelheim-on-the-Rhine, Prus- 
sia, October 11, 1875. 

Daimler, who was managing director of Otto's Gas Moteren 
Fabric, 1872-1882, introduced this engine as an improvement over 
the Langen and Otto engine of 1866. The engine is of the double- 
acting, free-piston, atmospheric type. 

A water-jacketed cylinder open to the atmosphere at both ends 
contains a working piston and two other pistons, one on each side 
of the working piston, which are loose or unconnected and operate 
in conjunction with the working piston in the following manner: 
With the working piston at the end of its back stroke, a charge of 
gas and air is drawn into the space between it and the front loose 
piston and is exploded. The said loose piston is thrown to the 
front end of the cylinder (without doing work) where it is held 
by a wedge device, whereupon a partial vacuum being formed in 
the cylinder by the expansion and cooling of the gaseous products 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I53 

of combustion, the working piston will by atmospheric pressure be 
caused to perform its forward stroke, the back loose piston traveling 
with it. On approaching the front loose piston the back loose piston 
is arrested in its motion while the working piston completes its 
stroke, moving close up to the front loose piston and expelling the 
products of combustion from between them, while at the same time 
a charge of gas and air is drawn into the space formed between the 
working piston and the back loose piston. On the charge being 
exploded, the back loose piston is thrown to the back end of the 
cylinder and the working piston performs its back stroke, together 
with the front loose piston, and the operation is repeated as above 
described. 

GILLES GAS ENGINE, 1876 

U.S.N.M. no. 311362; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflBce ; not Illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to Friedrich W. Gilles, of Kalk, Germany, July 11, 1876, no. 179782. 

The engine represented by the model is a 1-cy Under vertical gas 
engine employing two pistons, a working piston (the lower one) and 
a loose piston (the upper one). The loose piston was intended to fly 
to the top of the cylinder where it would be caught and held, produc- 
ing within the cylinder a reduced pressure, which would cause the 
work piston to return under the pressure of the atmosphere and thereby 
perform work on the return stroke as well as the explosion stroke. 
Provision was made to cushion the free piston at the top of its stroke 
for the purpose of quiet running. The combustible mixture was drawn 
in and ignited on the explosion stroke without compression. 

OTTO GAS ENGINE, 1877 

Plate 32. Fiqukb 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 251284 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 18623A. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
194047, issued to Nicolaus Otto, of Deutz, Germany, August 14, 1877. 

This patent was the first issued for a 4-stroke cycle engine in this 
country and marks the introduction of this important engine here. 

The model shows a horizontal single-acting piston engine, with a 
lay shaft, driven by bevel gearing from the crankshaft, extending to 
the head end of the cylinder. The lay shaft terminates in a crank 
that operates a slide valve across the head of the cylinder. A cam on 
the lay shaft operates through a crank a drop valve on the opposite 
side of the cylinder, and a centrifugal governor is driven from a gear 
on the lay shaft. The cylinder is water- jacketed. The slide valve acts 

49970 — .39 11 



l^^ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

as a gas intake valve and ignition valve. The drop valve is the ex- 
haust valve, and the governor acts on the gas throttle valve. The cycle 
is the Otto, or 4-stroke. 

OTTO AND CROSSLEY GAS ENGINE, 1877 

U.S.N.M. no. 308695 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office, not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent is- 
sued to Nicolaus A. Otto, of Deutz, Germany, and Francis W. and 
William J. Crossley, of Manchester, England, October 23, 1877, no. 
19G473. 

The gas engine described is designed to effect a gradual combustion 
of the charge by the use of a weak mixture in the cylinder. In order 
that the mixture would not ignite too slowly a strong or explosive 
mixture was introduced into a separate but connecting chamber and 
ignited in the conventional way. The flame issuing with some force 
from the chamber into the cylinder effected a sufficiently rapid igni- 
tion of the weak charge. 

The inventors also describe a means of raising the pressure on the 
cavity of the slide valve carrying the burning ignition charge in a 
flame ignition engine, high enough to equal the compression pressure 
within the cylinder of the engine. 

MULTIPLE-PISTON GAS ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S726 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent 
issued to Wilhelm Wittig and Wilhelm Hees, of Hanover, Prussia, 
March 25, 1879, no. 213539. 

This model shows an engine with a vertical cylinder open at both 
ends. Within the cylinder are two pistons, so connected to the same 
crankshaft that they move in unison in and out from the midpoint 
of the cylinder, alternately traveling apart and then approaching 
each other at the midpoint. The intake and exhaust valves are the 
poppet type. Ignition is effected by a flame timed by a slide valve. 

The engine works on the 4-stroke cycle. As the pistons travel away 
from the midpoint of the cylinder the combustible mixture of air 
and gas is drawn into the space between them. When the pistons 
come together on the next stroke the charge is compressed and when 
near the end of the stroke ignited. Combustion drives the pistons 
to the ends of the cylinders, performing work, and the spent gases 
are expelled on the next instroke of the piston. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 32 




8623A: 1W98A 



Internal-combustion Engines. 



1. Otto 4-stroke cvcle engine, 1877 (model; U.S.X.M. no. 251284). See p. 153. 
2. Otto gas engine, 1882 (U.S.N..M. no. 309556). See p. 156. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 3i 





Internal-combustion engines. 



1. Hornsby-Akrovd oil engine, 1893-1895 (U.S.N.M. no. 309637. See p. 157. 
2. Charles Manly radial engine, 1901 (U.S.N.M. no. 248651). See p. 158. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS J 55 

DAIMLER COMPOUND GAS ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. no. 308697 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
222467, issued to Gottlieb Daimler, of Deutz-on-Rhine, Germany, 
December 9, 1879. 

This is the first compound or multiple-expansion internal combus- 
tion engine patented in the United States. It was also the earliest 
engine employing two cylinders operating independently on the 
4-stroke cycle but connected to the same crankshaft and so timed that 
a power stroke occurred once in every revolution of the shaft. 

The model shows two horizontal single-acting cylinders connected 
to cranks at either end of the same crankshaft. The two cranks are 
in the same plane. A third cylinder of large capacity is located 
between these two and coimects to a crank 180° ahead of the other 
two cranks and on the same shaft. The two smaller cylinders each 
draw in a combustible charge, compress it, fire it, and perform their 
strokes together, but the working stroke of one cylinder takes place 
while the other cylinder is taking in its combustible charge. The 
products of combustion expelled from these cylinders pass to the 
third or low pressure cylinder and perform further work by expan- 
sion therein. The low pressure piston performs its working stroke 
during each instroke of the high pressure cylinders. The high-pres- 
sure cylinders in construction and operation resemble the Otto Engine 
of 1877 {q.v.). 

WITTIG AND HEES TWO-CYCLE GAS ENGINE, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308707; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was filed in 1879 with the application for U. S. Patent 
no. 225778, issued to Wilhelm Wittig and Wilhelm Hees, of Hanover, 
Germany, March 23, 1880. 

This is the first 2-cycle engine patented in the United States. It is 
of that class of engines having two cylinders, between which the 
operations of the Otto cycle are divided. One cylinder and piston 
serve to draw in, compress the explosive charge, and deliver it to 
the working cylinder so that in the working cylinder a power im- 
pulse is obtained on every alternate stroke. This type of engine is 
generally considered the invention of Dugald Clerk, of Glasgow, 
who received British Patent no. 1089, March 14, 1881, and United 
States Patent no. 249307, November 8, 1881, for a similar engine. 

The model, which is made principally of wood, is purely diagram- 
matic and illustrates only the features of the engine that are covered 
by the patent. It indicates two parallel cylinders, with pistons con- 



156 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

nected to craiil^s on the same shaft. An automatic intake valve in 
the right hand or pump cylinder, a lift valve, operated by push rod 
and cam, between the cylinders, and a similar exhaust valve in the 
working cylinder are shown. In operation, the combustible mixture 
is drawn into the pump cylinder by the back stroke of the pump 
piston. The mixture is compressed during the forward stroke, near 
the end of which the valve between the two cylinders opens and the 
compressed mixture enters the work cylinder, where it is immediately 
ignited and performs work during the outstrike of the piston. The 
exhaust valve of the work cylinder is open during the return stroke 
of the work piston, and the spent gases are expelled. Both pistons 
make their strokes together, i. e., there is no angular distance between 
the cranks. 

OTTO GAS ENGINE, 1882 

Plate 32, Figutje 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 309556 ; original ; purchased from the Otto Engine Works ; photo- 
graph no. 10498A. 

This engine, serial no. 554, was built by Schleicher, Schum & Co., 
of Philadelphia, in 1882. It was used at Princeton University in 
the mechanical laboratories to 1928, when it was procured for the 
Museum by the Otto Engine Works. 

This is a 4-horsepower, flame-ignition, 4-stroke cycle, horizontal 
gas engine, the same as the first of the type introduced into the United 
States in 1878. In appearance it resembles a horizontal steam en- 
gine, with cross head, connecting rod, crankshaft, and flywheel. It 
is, however, single acting. A lay shaft driven by bevel gearing from 
the crankshaft extends the whole length of the engine and performs 
many duties. A small belt from the lay shaft operates the lubri- 
cators, bevel gears drive the ball governor, cams on the lay shaft 
through a crank and lever operate the exhaust valve on the opposite 
side of the cylinder, and the shaft ends in a crank that operates the 
slide valve across the end of the cylinder. The slide valve acts as 
gas and air intake and ignition valve. The intake picks up a charge 
of gas, exposes it momentarily to a flame that burns continuously 
outside the engine, and carries the little quantity of burning gas to 
a passage in the head of the engine to ignite the compressed explosive, 
mixture in the cylinder. 

In the operation of the engine, air and gas are drawn into the 
cylinder through the slide valve by the backstroke of the piston, the 
valve closes, and the mixture is compressed on the forward stroke; 
near the end of the stroke the compressed mixture is ignited, and 
the combustion drives the piston back; on the next forward stroke 
the exhaust valve opens, and the gases of combustion are expelled ; the 
exhaust valve closes just before the end of the stroke, and the cycle is 
repeated. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I57 

ATKINSON "CYCLE" GAS ENGINE, 1889-90 
U.S.N.M. no. 310371; original; gift of the heirs of Samuel Powel ; not illustrated. 

This is a 2-liorsepower, 4-stroke cycle, illuminating-gas engine, 
built in 1889-90 by Henry Warden, of Philadelphia, licensee under 
patents of James Atkinson, of Hampstead, England, Patent no. 
367496, August 2, 1887. 

The feature of the engine is the vibrating toggle linkage between 
the piston rod and crankshaft by which four piston strokes of dif- 
ferent lengths are produced in each revolution of the crank. This 
arrangement gives one explosion stroke per revolution and permits 
the use of an explosion stroke considerably longer than the suction 
or compression strokes with a resulting degree of expansion greater 
than is obtained with the usual four strokes of equal lengths. 

The cylinder of the engine is horizontal, the crankshaft is well 
above the center of the cylinder, and the connecting rod from the 
crank has a short T-head to one pin of which is attached the piston 
rod, to the other a vibrating arm pivoted to the engine frame slightly 
below tlie center of the cylinder and beyond the center of the 
crankshaft. 

This arm swings through an arc of approximately 90°, and the 
crank is the only revolving part of the system. Valves for exhaust, 
air intake, and fuel intake are located in the head of the cylinder and 
are operated by a short cam shaft, which, in turn, is driven by a 
bevel gear from a long inclined lay shaft to the crankshaft of the 
engine. The lay shaft carries a small centrifugal governor, which 
moves the fuel valve follower away from its actuating cam when 
the speed of the engine increases. Ignition is by means of a hot tube 
located on the top of the cylinder and heated by a gas burner and 
refractory lined chimney. The ignition port is uncovered by the 
piston. The cylinder diameter is 5 inches, suction stroke 4^ inches, 
compression stroke Syo inches, explosion stroke 5 inches, and exhaust 
stroke 6 inches. 

The engine was built for Samuel Powel, of Newport, R. I., who 
used the engine to power a small experimental machine shop there. 

HORNSBY-AKROYD OIL ENGINE, 1893-1895 
Pl.\te 33, FiGuiiE 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 309637; original; from Robert McReady; photograph no. 6092. 

This engine was the first one built by the De La Vergne Refrig- 
erating Machine Co. after acquiring the American license to the 
inventions of IT. Akroyd Stuart and C. R. Binney in 1893. It was 
the first 4-stroke, heavy-oil engine including a hot-bulb vaporizer 
and igniter built in the United States. Built as an experimental 
engine in 1893, it was run for test purpo.scs at the factory until 1895, 



158 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

when it was given the serial number 1501 and sold as the first one of 
thousands of its type. 

Stuart and Binney patented the hot-bulb vaporizer and igniter in 
England in 1890, and in the same year they introduced an engine in 
which fuel oil was sprayed into the cylinder after the compression 
of pure air. United States patents were granted in 1890 and 1893. 
The hot-bulb vaporizer is an uncooled chamber extending from the 
cylinder and connected to it by a constricted passage. This chamber 
is maintained at red heat by the combustion in the cylinder. 

The engine operates on a 4-stroke cycle, drawing in a charge of air 
on the back stroke of the piston, compressing the air on the return 
stroke. Ignition is caused by the increase in temperature due to 
compression aided by the hot surfaces of the vaporizer. Combustion 
drives out the piston on the power stroke and the spent gases are 
exhausted on the return. Oil is injected into the vaporizer just 
before the end of the compression stroke. 

A torch and hand-driven blower are provided to heat the vaporizer 
for starting the engine. The oil pump supplies a constant quantity 
of oil at each stroke. Governing is accomplished by diverting part 
of the oil back to the reservoir, through a bypass valve that is 
controlled by a fiyball governor. 

CHARLES MANLY RADIAL ENGINE, 1901 

Plate 33. Figuee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 248651 ; original ; deposited by the Smithsonian Institution ; photo- 
graph no. 30592A. 

This is the 5-cylinder, 4-cycle, radial, water-cooled, gasoline engine 
built by Charles M. Manly in the shops of the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington for the full-size Langley Aerodrome. The engme 
was completed in December 1901 and was tested in January 1902. 
Under a Prony brake load of 52.4 horsepower at 950 revolutions per 
minute, it ran continuously during three 10-hour tests. The net 
weight of the engine proper is 124.2 pounds ; with the two flywheels, 
140 pounds ; and with 20 pounds of cooling water and accessories the 
total weight of the airplane power plant was 207.5 pounds, or 3.96 
pounds per horsepower. 

The following account of the building of the Manly engine, its de- 
scription, and tests is based on Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flighty 
pt. ^, 1897-1903, by Charles M. Manly, Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 123-284, 1911. 

Wlien Dr. Langley decided to build a full-size flying machine as 
a result of his success with small models, he required an assistant 
with engineering ability. Accordingly, Charles M. Manly was em- 
ployed at the suggestion of Dr. R. H. Thurston, director of Sibley 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I59 

College at Cornell University, Avhere Manly was a student, and he 
assumed charge of the experimental work as assistant in charge of 
experiments in June 1898. It Avas then the intention of Dr. Langley 
to have the engine for the aerodrome constructed for him by some 
established engine builder, while he and Manly constructed the aero- 
drome proper. A contract was therefore made with a builder who 
agreed to construct an engine to weigh not more than 100 pounds 
and to develop not less than 12 horsepower. This arrangement failed 
to produce an engine, and a new contract was entered into with 
S. M. Balzer, automotive engine builder of New York City, who 
agreed to furnish an engine of the above description before March 1, 
1899. 

The engine was not delivered within the contract time, and in May 
1900 Manly went to New York to assist in the completion. \Vlien it 
was found then that the engine developed not quite 3 horsepower, 
it was decided that Manly should accompany Dr. Langley, who was 
then preparing to leave for Europe, and they would attempt to have 
the engine built abroad. No one in France, Germany, or England 
would attempt the job, and Langley was told rather generally that 
such an engine was an impossibility. Tlie two returned in August 
1900 and found the engine still below specifications, whereupon Balzer 
was paid the contract price for the engine as it stood, and Manly 
returned to Washington to continue the construction of the engine 
himself. Using some of the parts from the Balzer engine and con- 
structing others. Manly within little more than a month had an 
experimental engine at work that developed 18^2 horsepower on 
the Prony brake at 715 revolutions per minute and weighed 108 
pounds. This was a "patched up" affair that was provisionally cooled 
by wrapping wet cloths around the cylinders and accordingly could 
run for only a few minutes at a time. It was so successful, however, 
that plans were made to construct an engine for the full-size aero- 
drome immediately. Another delay was met in obtaining materials 
for the engine, and construction was not started until the summer of 
1901. The first part of the year was not wasted, however, as a long 
series of tests was run on the experimental engine to determine the 
most satisfactory carburetor and ignition arrangement. The wiping 
contact sparker proved unsatisfactory and was abandoned, and Manly 
then devised what is supposed to have been a new and valuable 
multiple-sparking arrangement whereby only one batterj^ one coil, 
and one contact maker were utilized for causing the spark in all five 
cylinders. 

A small commutating arrangement in the high-tension circuit dis- 
tributed the sparks to the proper cylinders. Most of the spark plugs 
then available were found unsatisfactory, and so Manly constructed 
his own. In this connection he effected one minor improvement that 



IgO BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

has since been incorporated in all plugs. Difficulty was experienced 
from a coating of soot that formed on the porcelain and caused a 
short circuit between the points. This was overcome by extending 
the metal portion of the plug into the cylinder about three-quarters 
of an inch beyond the porcelain. The terminal through the insulator 
was also extended about half an inch and bent to co-act with a piece 
of platinum on the inside wall of the plug. After this improvement 
was made, no difficulty from short circuits was experienced. The 
float-feed type of carburetor proved unsuitable as the tremor of the 
frame caused the float to act as a pump, periodically flooding the 
carburetor. Manly next tried a type, of mixing valve in which the 
gasoline was fed through the valve seat of a lightly loaded valve 
that opened when there was suction in the intake pipe. The amount 
of gasoline was controlled by a pin valve. He then built and tested 
several shapes and sizes of tanks filled with absorbent material that 
was saturated with gasoline and the surplus drawn off before start- 
ing. As the result of about one dozen tests he found the best type to 
consist of a tank filled with small lumps of a porous cellular wood 
(tupelo wood) initially saturated with gasoline and into which gaso- 
line was fed through a distributing pipe as rapidly as it was taken 
up by the air. Heated air was drawn from around the cylinders to 
counteract the cooling effect of the evaporation within the carburetor. 
A carburetor of this type kept the engine running at full speed even 
when the aerodrome had turned completely over on its back. 

The full-size engine finally built is the 5-cylinder, water-cooled, 
radial engine shown in the accompanying illustration. Construction 
was started in the summer of 1901, and it was completed in December 
of the same year. 

The engine cylinders each consist of a main outer shell of steel one- 
sixteenth of an inch thick, near the bottom end of which was screwed 
and brazed a suitable flange by which it was bolted to the supporting 
frame drum or crank chamber. These shells, which were seamless 
with the heads formed integral, were designed to be of sufficient 
strength to withstand the force of the explosion in them, and in 
order to provide a suitable wearing surface for the piston, a cast- 
iron liner one-sixteenth of an inch thick was carefully shrunk into 
them. At the side of the cylinder near the top was the combustion 
chamber, machined out of a solid steel forging also forming the 
port that entered the cylinder and was fastened to it by brazing. The 
water jackets, which were formed of sheet steel 0.020 inch thick, were 
also fastened to the cylinders by brazing. 

The pistons are of cast-iron having a slightly convex head rein- 
forced by two deep but thin ribs. The head is approximately one- 
eighth inch thick, the side walls above the wrist pin journal one- 
quarter inch, and the skirt below the wrist pin about one-sixteenth 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS Igl 

inch thick. The pistons are 5 inches in diameter and 4 inches long. 
They are slightly tapered from the middle, where they are 0.005 inch 
smaller than the cylinder bore toward the outer end, where they were 
0.0075 inch smaller than the bore. The outer piston ring was 0.0035 
inch narrower than its groove, the second one 0.003 inch, the third 
0.0025 inch, and the inner one 0.002 inch narrower than its groove. 
The rings were bored one-sixteenth inch off center with the exterior 
surface and had one-eighth inch diameter of spring. They were of 
the lap joint type, with the sides of the laps carefully fitted and only 
one sixty-fourth inch clearance at the ends of the laps to allow for 
thermal expansion. As no grinding facilities were available in 
Washington, the cylinders were carefully bored smooth and free 
from taper, and the pistons were worn in to a perfect fit by running 
them in by a belt for 24 hours with a copious oil supply. 

The main connecting rod was seven-eighths inch in diameter and 
solid, while the other four were of the same diameter but with a %- 
inch hole in them. The gudgeon pins in the pistons were hollow 
steel tubes, seven-eighths inch in diameter and case hardened, and 
were oiled entirely by oil thrown off by centrifugal force from the 
crankpin bearing, the oil running along the connecting rods and 
through suitable holes in the heads into oil grooves in the bronze 
bushings in these heads. 

The arrangement of connecting rods consists of a main connect- 
ing rod formed of a steel forging terminating in a sleeve that 
encircles the crankpin and is provided with a bronze bushing for 
giving a proper bearing surface between the connecting rod and the 
crankpin, both the steel sleeve and the bronze liner being split, 
at right angles to each other, to permit assembling them on the 
crankpin. This steel sleeve, the upper half of which is formed in- 
tegral with the main connecting rod, is rounded off to a true circle 
on its exterior circumference except at the point where the rod 
joins it. The other four connecting rods terminating in bronze 
shoes are then made to bear on the exterior of this sleeve, being 
held in contact therew^ith, and permitted to have a sliding motion 
thereon sufficient to take care of the variation in angidarity of the 
connecting rods, by means of cone nuts, which are screw-threaded 
to the sleeve and locked thereto by means of jam nuts. The main 
connecting rod acts in the same way as in the ordinary case where 
each cylinder has its separate crankpin. The other four connecting 
rods deliver their effort to the crankpin through the sleeve in which 
the first connecting rod terminates, and they, therefore, do not receive 
any of the rubbing effect due to the rotation of the crankpin except 
that of slipping a very short distance over the circumference of the 
sleeve during each revolution, the amount of slipping depending on 
the angularity of the connecting rod. 



Jg2 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The lubrication of the main crankshaft bearing and the crankpin 
was effected by means of a small oil cup fastened to the port bed 
plate, which fed oil through a hole in the hub of the drum to a cir- 
cular groove formed in the bronze bushing of the hub. The crank- 
shaft being hollow, a hole was drilled through it in line with the 
groove in the bushing, and the oil was then led from the interior 
of the crankshaft through a pipe connected to the plug in the end 
thereof and through a hole drilled in the crank arm to the hollow 
crankpin. Small holes through the crankpin permitted oil to pass 
to the exterior thereof and thus oil the bearing of the main connect- 
ing rod. Small holes through the sleeve and bushing of the main 
connecting rod fed oil under the shoes of the other four connecting 
rods, the small holes being placed in oil grooves formed in the in- 
terior of the bronze bushing. The lubrication of the pistons was 
effected by means of small crescent-shaped oil cups fastened to the 
outer walls of the cylinders, which distributed the oil equidistantly 
around the circumference of the pistons, through small tubes that 
projected through corresponding holes drilled in the cylinder wall. 
These oil cups for the cylinders were, while small, of sufficient size 
to furnish a supply for approximately one hour, and were posi- 
tioned on each cylinder to have a gravity feed. The crankshaft bear- 
ing in the starboard drum was oiled from an oil cup mounted on 
the outside of the bed plate and connected by a pipe to a hole in 
the inner wall of the drum which was connected to the oil grooves 
in the bronze bushing in the hub of the drum. 

The sparking apparatus comprised first a primary sparker of the 
form in which a cam driven by the engine co-acts with a pawl on the 
end of a spring, but in this case, as the sparker was used for all five 
cylinders, the cam was driven at a speed of two and one-half times 
that of the engine speed, thus making and breaking the primary 
circuit five times in each two revolutions of the engine. Second, a 
spark coil the primary terminals of which were connected to the 
primary sparker and to a set of dry batteries. Third, a secondary 
distributor consisting of a disk carrying a contact brush and driven 
at a speed one-half that of the engine, this brush being constantly 
connected through a contact ring to one of the terminals of the 
high tension side of the spark coil and running over the face of a 
five section commutator, each of the sections of which was connected 
to a spark plug, the other high tension terminal of the spark coil 
being of course grounded on the engine frame. After considerable 
trouble with the insulation of the high-tension wires it was found 
impossible to purchase any wire properly insulated, and it was finally 
necessary to insulate these wires by covering them with several 
thicknesses of ordinary rubber tubes of different diameters telescoped 
one over the other. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 163 

After tlie engine was connected to the transmission equipment, it 
was found necessary to add flywheels. After much experimenting 
these were made of two automobile wheels with tangent spokes in 
which special cast aluminum rims of U -section were substituted for 
the original too flexible steel rims. 

When completed the net weight of the engine proper was 124.47 
pounds; with the two flywheels, 140 pounds; and with 20 pounds 
of cooling water and accessories the total weight of the power plant 
was 207.47 pounds. 

In three separate tests of 10 hours each, of continuous running, the 
engine carried a continuous load of 52.4 horsepower at 950 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

HAYNES AUTOMOBILE ENGINE, 1914 

U.S.N.M. no. 2S3279 ; origiual ; presented by the Haynes Automobile Co. ; not 
illustrated. 

This is a 6-cylinder, L-head, gasoline engine. The cylinders are 
cast in pairs, the bore is 414 inches, the stroke 5i/^ inches. The valves 
are the poppet type operated by a camshaft geared to the crank- 
shaft. The engine developed 65 horsepower and weighs 1,000 
pounds. It has splash lubrication with a plunger pump to return 
the oil to the splash basins. It is equipped with a Leece-Neville elec- 
tric starting and lighting system and high-tension magneto ignition. 
The carbureter is a Stromberg, to which gasoline is fed under pres- 
sure supplied by a hand pump and a mechanical air pump. 

The engine is exhibited with its transmission, which is fitted with 
a Vulcan electric solenoid gearshift. 

AUTOCAR GASOLINE TRUCK ENGINE, 1921 

U.S.N.M. no. 307254 ; original ; gift of the Autocar Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is a 4-cylinder, vertical, cast-in-block, 4-cycle, cylinders-in- 
line, water-cooled, gasoline engine. It has 4i/^-inch bore, 5^-inch 
stroke; and A. L. A. M. rating of 28.9 horsepower. The crankshaft 
is supported in two annular roller bearings, with no center bearing. 
Lubrication is by the splash of the connecting rods in cups on the 
ends of standpipes located under each crank. Oil is circulated from 
the reservoir in the bottom of the crankcase through a strainer to 
the splash cups, by a gear pump. Water is circulated by a centrifugal 
pump. The engine is equipped with Bosch high-tension magneto and 
a Stromberg carburetor. A centrifugal governor operating from the 
camshaft limits the top speed of the engine. 



164 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BUDA ENGINE, 1924 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S310 ; original ; gift of the Buda Co. ; not illustrated. 

This is an example of the modern 4-cylinder, 4-cycle gasoline en- 
gine built for use in motor-coach and truck service. The engine, 
which is sectioned, is revolved by an electric motor to illustrate the 
operation of the engine. 

This engine has a 414-inch base and 5i^-inch stroke and develops 
53 horsepower at 2,000 revolutions per minute. The four cylinders 
are cast in block and are jacketed for water cooling. The water is 
circulated by a centrifugal pump regulated by a Fulton thermostat. 
Intake and exhaust valves are of the mushroom type and located on 
the same side of the cylinders. A 3-bearing camshaft operates the 
valves. The cylinder head is of the type known as L-head. The spark 
plugs are located at the centers of the cylinder heads. The pistons 
are packed with three rings above the wrist pin and a wiper or oil 
ring below. The crankcase is made of aluminum alloy. The crank- 
shaft is counterbalanced and is supported in three bearings. It is 
drilled for lubrication. An oil pump supplies the lubricant to all 
bearing surfaces under pressure. The engine is equipped with 
magneto ignition and a combination electric starter-generator. The 
carburetor receives air through a centrifugal dust remover. 

WILLYS-KNIGHT AUTOMOBILE ENGINE, 1927-28 

U.S.N.M. no. 310292; original; presented by Willys-Overland, Inc.; not illus- 
trated. 

This is a 6-cylinder engine of the Knight sleeve-valve type. It 
has 177.9 cubic inches displacement and is rated at 20.7 horsepower at 
300 revolutions per minute and develops 53-horsepower maximum. 

The valves are cast-iron sleeves with annular slotted ports near the 
tops. These sleeves, two to a cylinder, fit one within the other with 
the inside ones forming the cylinders within which the pistons work. 
The sleeves are operated by short rods from eccentrics on two eccen- 
tric shafts and move up and down a distance of about 1 inch. The 
valves are adjusted so that the intake opens 10° after top center and 
closes 35° after bottom center; the exhaust opens 60° before bottom 
center and closes 5° before bottom center. 

OTHER GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES 

There are many gasoline and oil engines included in the aero- 
nautical and automotive collections of the Division of Engineering, 
but not described in this publication. A few are mentioned below, 
though many of equal interest are omitted. None are illustrated. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 
Automobile Engines 



165 



Make 



Type 



U.S.N.M, 
no. 



Duryea, 1892-93 

Havnes, 1893-94 

Balzer, 1894 

Olds, 1896 

Knox, 1900 

Autocar, 1901 

Winton "Bullet #1," 1901-2 

Cadillac, 1903 

Simplex, 1912 

Ford, 1913 

Cadillac, 1923 



l-cylinder, horizontal 

1-cylinder, vertical, 2-horsepower_ _ 

3-cylinder, rotary 

1-cylinder, horizontal, 6-horsepower 

1-cylinder, air-cooled 

2-cylinder, opposed, horizontal 

4-cylinder 

1-cylinder, vertical, 10-horsepower_ . 

4-cylinder, cast in 2 blocks of 2 

4-cylinder 

8-cylinder, V-type 



307199 
262135 
181658 
286567 
308332 
307257 
309602 
308217 
309549 
311052 
308218 



AirTplane Engines 



Wright, 1909 

Curtiss, 1909 

James Martin, K III, 1917 

Spad (French), 1918 

FokkerD-7, 1918 

DeHavilland-4, 1918 

Curtiss Racer. 1925 

"Spirit of St. Louis", 1928... 

"Polar Star", 1935 

Curtiss-Baldwin, 1908 

Wright, 1911 

Hendee, 1911 

Hall-Scott, 1911 

Gyro, 1913 

LeRhone, 1917 

Gnome, 1917 

Liberty, 1917 

King Bugatti Dusenberg, 1918 

Curtiss O-X-5, 1918 

Mavbach, 1918 

Curtiss C-D-12, 1921 

Wright D-1, 1923 

Packard Diesel, 1928 



4-cylinder, in-line, 30-horsepower 

8-cylinder, V-type, 50-horsepower 

Gnat ABC, 2-cylinder, opposed, 45- 
horsepower. 

Hispano Suiza, 220-horsepower 

Mercedes, 6-cylinder; 180-horsepower. 
Packard #4, the first 1 2-cylinder Lib- 
erty engine. 

Curtiss V-1400; 610-horsepower 

Wright, Whirlwind, radial 

Pratt & Whitney "Wasp" 

4-cylinder, vertical 

6-cylinder, in-line, 60-horsepower 

2-cylinder, rotary, 50-horsepower 

8-cylinder, V-type, A-type, 80-horse- 

power. 
#50, 5-cylinder, rotary, 30-horsepower_ 

rotary, 7-cylinder, 80-horsepower 

rotarv, 9-cylinder, lOO-horsepower 

first 8-cylinder, V-type, 250-300-horse- 

power. 
16-cylinder, V-type, with two crank- 
shafts, 460-horsepower. 

8-cylinder, V-type, 90-horsepower 

6-cyIinder, in-line, 260-horsepower 

12-cylinder, V-type, 400-horsepower — 
dirigible engine, 6-cylinder, in-line, 400- 
horsepower. 
9-cylinder, radial, 225-horsepower 



271135 
309380 
308351 

307722 
307726 
307693 

30S526 
309414 
311095 
310268 
310661 
308221 
310269 

276602 
307733 
308119 
308489 

307729 

307730 
310655 
308486 
308487 

310291 



The collections include also an additional model of a gas engine 
for which a patent was issued to N. A. Otto, but not otherwise 
identified. U.S.N.M. no. 308T28. 

CARBURETORS 

At the time when useful internal combustion engines were begin- 
ning to appear, manufactured illuminating gas was available in 
the principal cities of the world, and inventors of combustion en- 
gines designed them to use gas as fuel. For this reason the internal- 
combustion engine reached practical perfection as a gas engine. 



IQQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It was then apparent that the usefiihiess of the engine would be 
greatly increased if it did not depend upon a connection to a gas- 
manufacturing plant for its fuel. Combustible liquids such as tur- 
pentine, alcohol, and petroleum were used in the earliest engines by 
heating the liquid fuel in separate retorts or within the cylinders 
of the engines and mixing the evaporated vapor with air to form 
combustible mixtures. Also, several early engines had atomizers 
and oil "pulverizers", which operated under pressure from fuel 
pumps to spray finely divided oil into the air before or after it 
entered the cylinder. However, the internal-combustion engine did 
not cease to be the gas engine until the invention of carbureting 
devices that formed combustible mixtures from liquid fuels through 
the action of the suction stroke of the engine alone. Carburetors 
in this sense have been historically of three classes, surface carbu- 
retors, mixing valves, and spray carburetors. 

Surface carburetors are essentially mixing chambers in which a 
quantity of the liquid fuel is so contained that air drawn through 
the chamber passes over the largest possible surface of the fuel, 
to become saturated or carbureted with the vapor of the fuel. In 
the earliest ones the fuel was held in shallow trays or allowed to 
run over metal screens to obtain the necessary surface area of liquid. 
They were at first large clumsy tanks, often installed underground, 
and, though they permitted the gas engine to be used where gas 
was not available, they did not add much to the portability of the 
engine. Later surface carburetors were made with such porous 
materials as wood, wicking, and gauze in place of the trays or 
screens, with the result that when the absorbent material was wetted 
with fuel a much larger total surface of liquid was obtained in a 
smaller space. The Manly carburetor, described below, is an example 
of the use of wood for this purpose. An English automobile was 
equipped with a surface carburetor in which cotton wicking v/as 
used, as late as 1911. The first small and portable carburetors were 
the surface carburetors of Daimler and Benz in which the air was 
drawn across the surface of the fuel through a diffuser floating upon 
the surface. These carburetors made the internal combustion engine 
portable and made possible the early development of the gasoline 
automobile. However, they lacked the flexibility necessary to sup- 
ply correct mixtures at varying speeds and temperatures and fre- 
quently removed the lighter constituents from the fuel leaving be- 
hind the heavier liquids, which in time clogged the surfaces. Surface 
carburetors were generally superseded by inixing valves. 

The usual form of the mixing valve was a flat conical valve, the 
tip of which shut off the fuel supply at the same time that the body 
of the valve closed the air intake passage. The valve was closed 
by a light spring and was opened b}^ the partial vacuum created by 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS IQJ 

the suction stroke of the engine. When open, the fuel ran down 
over the surface of the valve to mingle with the stream of air, which 
was drawn through the valve to the engine. In many of the mixing 
valves excess fuel drained into a lower tank from which it was 
pumped to a fuel tank higher than the mixing valve. Dugald Clerk, 
the Scotch inventor, is credited with having first used the mixing 
valve in 1881. C. Sintz and A. Winton patented carburetors of this 
type in the United States in 1896 and 1898. The Haynes-Apperson 
mixing valve (below) is a good example of a typical one. 

All these earlier forms of carburetors gave way gradually to 
the spray type of carburetor, in which a spray of fuel is drawn into 
the air by the flow of the air past a jet connected to the fuel supply. 
In these, various methods of maintaining the supply of fuel at the 
jet have been employed. The first was by pumping the fuel in 
measured quantities through the jet, as shown in the atomizers at- 
tached to the Errani and Anders and the Hock petroleum engines 
(above). Another method was that of allowing the fuel to run by 
gravity to the jet in quantities metered by an adjustable valve. The 
carburetor of the R. E. Olds automobile of 1896 (below) is an ex- 
ample of this type. The next step in the development toward the 
present-day carburetor was that of maintaining under all conditions 
of operation a constant level of fuel in the reservoir supplying the 
jet. An early method of accomplishing this was to have the reser- 
voir provided with an overflow outlet and then supply fuel to the 
reservoir at a rate slightly faster than it Avould be drawn through 
the jet, the excess spilling over the overflow and draining to a second 
fuel tank. This is the method employed in the carburetor used on 
the Duryea automobile of 1892-93 (below). In the present-day 
carburetors the level of liquid in the reservoir is maintained con- 
stant by a float in the reservoir that closes the fuel intake valve 
when the level of liquid in the reservoir is correct. The "Inspirator" 
of Edward Butler, England, 1889 (patented in the United States in 
1890), was the first of this class known as float-feed, constant-level, 
induced-jet carburetors. This and the Maybach, Germany, 1893, 
are considered the first of the modern type. Charles E. Duryea was 
probably the first to use the float-feed carburetor on an automobile 
for sale in the United States. To correct the tendency of the spray 
carburetor to form mixtures of increasing richness as the engine 
speed increases, various means have been adopted. Spring-closed 
valves that open as the suction increases in the mixing chamber to 
supply supplementary air to dilute the mixture were first used by 
Charles E. Duryea in 1901 and by A. Krebs, of France, in 1902. In 
1906-1908 INI. Baverey, of France, introduced a combination of two 
jets, one of which tended to produce a leaner mixture at higher 
speeds, the other a richer mixture giving an average mixture of 



Igg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

proper strength at all speeds. A modern carburetor using this prin- 
ciple is the Zenith described below. The Tillotson carburetors 
(below) show the use of the bypass, accelerating pump, and econo- 
mizer in modern automobile carburetors. 

DURYEA CARBURETOR 
Plate 34, Figure 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 307199; original, gift of Inglis M. Uppercu ; photograph no. 18076. 

This carburetor was made by Charles E. Duryea and was used by 
him on his successful gasoline automobile of 1892-93. It is a posi- 
tively controlled, constant-level, induced-jet, spray carburetor, in 
which the quantity of gasoline supplied to the jet is controlled by a 
needle valve and the volume of air is determined by the setting of 
a rotary-disk valve. 

The carburetor consists of two tubular chambers put together in 
the form of a T, with the axes of both chambers horizontal. The 
construction is evident from the illustration. The short chamber 
through which gasoline is permitted to flow corresponds to the float 
chamber of the present-day carburetor. Entering it are two pipes, 
one of which leads to a tank above the carburetor, the other to a 
tank below it. Gasoline flowed continuously into the chamber from 
the tank above and overflovv-ed from the chamber to the tank below, 
maintaining a constant level of gasoline somewhere between the lip 
of the overflow pipe and its center. The rate of flow was controlled 
by a valve and could be observed through a sight glass in the feed 
line. The gasoline that reached the lower tank was returned to 
the upper one by means of a hand pump. The gasoline entered the 
small space about the shaft of the needle through the valve seat 
and stood in this space at the height of the gasoline in the constant 
level chamber. The jet consists of this space and a horizonal tube 
of very small bore leading from it slightly above the level of gasoline 
to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is simply a hollow 
tube obstructed by a diaphragm having a large circular hole through 
its center and small openings near the wall of the tube. Against 
the diaphragm is a movable disk similarly pierced and carrying 
at its center a tube, which is slightly converging in the direction of 
flow and into the entering end of which is bent the small-bore jet 
tube. At all times the opening through the center of the flow tube 
and diaphragm is unobstructed, but the openings in the diaphragm 
near the wall of the tube may be varied or closed by moving the disk. 
Air is drawn through the mixing chamber by the suction of the intake 
stroke of the piston of the engine, and that part of the air passing 
through the tube draws a spray of gasoline from the jet tube. This 
gasoline mixes with the air and passes to the engine. Both the needle 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS IgQ 

valve and the air supply valve are positively controlled, that is, they 
must be set for the speed and load under which the engine is to 
operate. 

OLDS CARBURETOR 

U.S.N.M. no. 286567; origiual ; gift of tlie Olds Motor Work.s; not illustrated. 

This carburetor is a part of the automobile built by Kansom E. 
Olds in 1896, as it is now exhibited in the Museum. 

In this carburetor fuel feeds by gravity to a nozzle in the air 
intake passage. The rate of flow of the fuel is controlled by a needle 
valve. The fuel is raised to the level of the carburetor by a pump; 
that not drawn into the engine returns by gravity to the tank. 

The carburetor consists of an upper chamber to which the fuel 
is pumped from the tank below. A return line from this chamber 
carried fuel back to the tank when the supply pump exceeded the 
quantity used. The fuel passes through a strainer into a small-bore 
copper tube that projects into a mixing chamber below. A needle 
valve controls the rate at which the fuel enters this tube. The suction 
stroke of the engine draws air through this chamber and gasoline is 
drawn from the tube and mixed with the air. The air intake passage 
is protected by a wire-mesh screen. The fuel that might drip from 
the nozzle between suction strokes of the engine returns to the fuel 
tank through a return line from the bottom of the mixing chamber. 

A. L. DYKE FLOAT-FEED CARBURETOR, 1900 
Plate 34, Figure 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S479; original; gift of A. L. Dyke; photograph no. 18494C. 

This is a single- jet constant-level carburetor with a main air inlet 
and a throttle of the vertical, barrel, rotary type. The constant level 
of the gasoline in the carburetor was maintained by a float -operated, 
needle, feed valve. Designed by A. L. Dyke and G. P. Dorris and 
manufactured by A. L. Dyke, at St. Louis, Mo., in 1900, carburetors 
of this type were the first to be manufactured and marketed in the 
United States. It involves man}'^ features of the present-day carbu- 
retor. 

The carburetor is of cast brass and consists of two main compart- 
ments, the float chamber and the mixing chamber. Gasoline enters 
the top of the float chamber through a fitting that carries a needle- 
valve seat. Within the chamber is a hollow brass float carrying a 
needle shaft that rises to close the valve when the gasoline within 
the chamber reaches the proper level. A spring held "flusher pin" 
is fitted to the float chamber for the purpose of depressing the float 
to "flood" the carburetor for starting. The mixing chaniber is a 
hollow cylinder having a large air intake opening at the bottom and 

49970—39 12 



]^70 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

side and a large opening at the center, through which the mixture 
of air and gasoline passes to the engine. Rising vertically from the 
center of the bottom of the chamber is a hollow tube or jet connected 
to the bottom of the float chamber, so that gasoline stands in the 
tube at the level of the gasoline in the float chamber. Surrounding 
the jet is a hollow barrel valve controlling the volume of the mixture 
that can pass to the engine. Air enters the bottom of the chamber 
and sweeps uj) and around the jet, drawing a spray of gasoline mixed 
with the air into the engine. An adjusting screw operates a needle 
valve at the tip of the jet to control the richness of the mixture. 

HAYNES-APPERSON MIXING VALVE, c. 1900 

U.S.N.M. no. 262135; original; gift of Elwood Haynes; not illustrated. 

This carburetor is part of the equipment of the Haynes automo- 
bile of 1893, as it is now exhibited in the Museum. This type of 
carburetor was patented by Elwood Haynes, May 30, 1905, Patent 
no. 791192. 

This is typical of the class of carburetors known as mixing valves. 
In it gasoline flows by gravity to the seat of a flat conical (mixing) 
valve, which is caused to open by the suction of the engine piston, 
allowing the gasoline to spray over the valve and mix with the air, 
which is drawn past the valve into the engine. 

In this carburetor gasoline flows to the mixing valve through a 
needle valve, which is adjustable to control the rate of flow of the 
gasoline. Air enters the mixing chamber by way of a gate valve. 
The same lever controls the needle valve and the air valve, opening 
or closing both together. This lever was controlled by a pedal on 
the dash of the machine. As used, gasoline flowed to the carburetor 
from a small tank above it, which was filled from the main tank 
by a small pump operating from the engine shaft. 

"AUTOCAR" CARBURETOR, 1901 

U.S.N.M. no. 307257; original; gift of the Autocar Co.; not illustrated. 

This is a float-feed, constant-level, induced-jet carburetor of early 
and very simple construction. It is a part of the Autocar automobile 
of 1901, as exhibited in the Museum. 

This carburetor, which is of cast aluminum, is constructed in two 
compartments, the float chamber and the mixing chamber. A cork 
float operates a needle valve in the gasoline feed line to maintain a 
constant level of gasoline in the float chamber and in the jet in the 
mixing chamber. Air is drawn through the carburetor by the suction 
induced by the piston of the engine and by inspirator action draws 
a spray of gasoline from the jet. The mixture passes out of the car- 
buretor to the engine manifold by way of a rotary-barrel type of 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 171 

throttle valve. A conical piece of wire gauze directly above the jet 
acted to assist the "atomization" and subsequent vaporization of the 
mixture which impinged upon the gauze. 

CARBURETOR OF THE MANLY ENGINE, 1901 

Plate 34, Figube 3 

U.S.N.M. no. 310194 ; original ; deposited by the Smithsonian Institution ; photo- 
graph no. 18081. 

This is an elementary type of surface carburetor. It consists of a 
large copper tank (approximately 10 by 18 by 24 inches) filled with 
small pieces of a porous, cellular wood (tupelo wood) and fitted with 
a gasoline inlet valve, two gasoline drains, a great many small air- 
inlet tubes, and a large outlet from which the mixture was drawn by 
the suction of the engine. 

This carburetor was adopted by Charles Manly in 1901 for the 
engine of the Langley Aerodrome after testing the various mixing 
valves and float-feed carburetors then available. It performed satis- 
factorily in the attempted flight and kept the engine running after 
the aerodrome turned over on its back. 

ZENITH CARBURETOR, MODEL U5, 1921 

U.S.N.M. no. 308362; original; gift of the Zenith-Detroit Corporation; not 
illustrated. 

In this carburetor two fuel nozzles are employed in combination to 
obtain automatic regulation of the strength of the mixture regardless 
of the changes in suction, due to variations of the speed and load of 
the engine. One nozzle flows a constant amount of fuel regardless of 
suction and alone would produce a mixture growing leaner and leaner 
as the suction increased. The other nozzle flows more fuel as the 
suction increases and alone would produce a richer mixture as the 
suction increased. The two in combination give an average mixture 
of correct proportions. This principle was developed by M. Baverey, 
of France, 1906-1908. 

The carburetor consists of three compartments : The float chamber, 
the mixing chamber, and a small gravity chamber. Gasoline feeds to 
the bottom of the float chamber through a needle valve controlled by a 
float to maintain a constant level of fuel within the carburetor. 
Within the mixing chamber are a main gasoline nozzle surrounded 
by a second annular nozzle and a small orifice just opposite the 
edge of the disk throttle valve. The small orifice and the annular 
nozzle are in permanent comnmnication with the small gravity 
chamber, which is open to the air and which is supplied with gaso- 
line at a slow but constant rate from the float chamber. At starting, 
the gravity chamber is full of gasoline, and a rich mixture is ob- 



]^72 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tained as the main and annular nozzles and the small orifice all 
supply gasoline to the entering air. For slow running at light load 
the throttle is nearly closed and the orifice alone supplies the gasoline 
to the air. At normal speed and load the gravity chamber becomes 
depleted and the carburetion of the air is mainly dependent upon 
the inner main nozzle. 

These carburetors are still being made, though they have been to 
a large extent supplanted by improved Zenith carburetors employing 
the same compound-nozzle system but embodying automatic, built- 
in, accelerating, economizing, and starting devices. 

ZENITH CARBURETOR, MODEL U, 1924 

U.S.N.M. no. 308343, original ; gift of tiie Zenith Carburetor Co. ; not illustrated. 
This carburetor, similar to the one preceding, is sectioned and ex- 
hibited with the Buda engine (U.S.N.M. no. 308340) described above. 

TILLOTSON CARBURETOR, MODEL SP-19C, 1926 

U.S.N.M. no. 300G13, original; gift of the Tillotson Manufacturing Co.; not 
illustrated. 

This carburetor is of the type known as plain tube, as opposed to 
air-valve and combination designs. In addition to a bypass or low- 
speed jet and a main nozzle, the carburetor is equipped with an ac- 
celerating pump and an economizer to meet the accelerating and 
power requirements of 6- and 8-cylinder automobile engines. 

The economizer consists of a metering pin, or lift needle, in an 
auxiliary fuel passage to the main nozzle. In use this pin is raised 
by the choke control and allows a predetermined quantity of fuel to 
deliver into the main nozzle to assist in warming a cold engine. The 
pin is also connected to the fuel throttle so that it is raised at ap- 
proximately full throttle to supply an additional flow of fuel for 
maximum power requirements. 

Tlie accelerating pump is added for the purpose of temporarily 
enriching the mixture for a sudden acceleration of the engine. It 
consists of a piston operating in a fuel-filled well, which is in com- 
munication with an accelerating jet. The piston is depressed when 
the throttle lever is opened and a sudden opening of the throttle 
forces the fuel in the well into the accelerating jet. Fuel that will 
not immediately pass the restricted jet opening is driven into a grav- 
ity chamber above the jet, from which it flows into the jet prolonging 
the accelerating effect. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I73 

TILLOTSON CARBURETOR, MODEL V2A, 1927 

U.S.N.M. no. 309614; original; gift of the Tillotsou Manufacturing Co.; not 
illustrated. 

This carburetor is of the plain-tube type, employing a bypass or 
low-speed jet, a main fuel nozzle, an economizer, and an accelerating 
pump. Its operation is in principle the same as that of the preceding 
Tillotson carburetor model SP-19C. 

BOSCH FUEL INJECTION PUMP FOR OIL-ENGINES, 1935 

U.S.N.M. no. 311017 ; original ; gift of the United American Bosch Corporation ; 
not illustrated. 

This unit is a cut-away injection system for a solid-injection, 4- 
cjdinder, oil engine. It comprises four individual pump elements, 
an injection advance device (timer), a manual fuel-supply priming 
pump, an idling and maximum speed governor, and one nozzle and 
nozzle holder. It is the Bosch model P E 4 D, adapted for hand- 
crank operation in the Museum. 

In this system fuel is supplied to the injection nozzle of each 
cylinder of the engine at the proper pressure and in the proper 
amount by a constant-stroke single plunger per cylinder. Each 
pump element consists of a ground-steel pump plunger and pump 
barrel. Each element is a self-contained fuel metering device of 
the plunger-controlled, bypass type, as well as a pump. 

The plunger is girdled with an annular groove with a helical 
upper edge, which starts just below the head of the plunger and 
spirals down about half an inch. This groove is connected by a 
vertical groove with the space above the plunger. The barrel of 
the pump is pierced with a fuel inlet and a bypass port, which are 
covered by the plunger as it starts its upward stroke. Fuel is deliv- 
ered through a third port or delivery valve to the engine cylinder 
until the helical edge of the groove uncovers the bypass port, when 
the remaining fuel above the plunger passes down and out through 
the bypass port. The point in the plunger stroke at which the port 
is uncovered is adjustable by rotating the barrel about its axis. 
This places the port at different points about the circumference of 
the plunger where it will register with differing heights of the helical 
groove. The position of the barrel is controlled by means of a toothed 
quadrant on the barrel and a rack that engages quadrants on all the 
barrels of the unit and is connected to the manual control rod or 
governor. 

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE ACCESSORIES 

The following are internal -combustion engine accessories in the 
collection not otherwise described: 



J^'74 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MAGNETOS, DYNAMOS, AND GENERATORS 

Vincent Apple ignition dynamo, 1895. Gift of the Vincent G. Apple Lab- 
oratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310748. 

Apple Gas Engine Igniter (dynamo), 1899. Gift of the Vincent G. Apple 
Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310749. 

Apple belt pulley clutch governor for regulating ignition dynamo, 1902. 
Gift of the Vincent G. Apple Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310759. 

Automobile generator, 1902. Gift of Edward T. Birdsall. U.S.N.M. no. 
309623. 

Flywheel magneto, 1902-03. Gift of the Vincent G. Apple Laboratories. 
U.S.N.M. no. 3107.50. 

Atwater Kent high-tension ignition system. From Ransom Matthews. 
U.S.N.M. no. 308517. 

Motsinger magneto. From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M, no. 307309. 

Automobile generator (incomplete), 1904. Gift of the Vincent G. Apple 
Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310752. 

Automobile generator and starter combined, 1910-11, Aplco, model A-75. 
Gift of the Vincent G. Apple Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310735. 

Controller for Aplco generator-starter above. Gift of the Vincent G. Apple 
Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310760. 

Apple Electric Co. generator, model S-R.2, 1911. Gift of the Vincent G. 
Apple Laboratories. U.S.N.M. no. 310754. 

Bosch magneto, NU-4. From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M. no. 308518. 

Eisemann magneto (impulse starter). Gift of the Eisemann Magneto Cor- 
poration. U.S.N.M. no. 306998. 

Gorman Bosch magneto. From Ransom Matthews. USNM. no. 308519. 

Splitdorf magneto (accessory on Buda engine, U.S.N.M. no. 30S341), 1924. 
Gift of the Splitdorf Electrical Co. U.S.N.M. no. 308341. 

Acme magneto, type "JS." From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M. no. 308116. 

Bosch magneto, type 1822H. From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M. no. 30S117. 

IGNITERS 

C. C. Chamberlain "make and break" igniter, 1902. From the United States 

Patent Office. U.S.N.M. no. 308720. 

"Make and break" igniter. From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M. no. 307370, 
Webster Electric Co. combined rocker magneto and "make and break" 

Igniter. Type A. From Ransom Matthews. U.S.N.M. no, 308520, 

SPARK PLUGS 

The collection includes about 270 spark plugs of almost as many designs, in- 
tended principally for automotive engine use. The majority of these were re- 
ceived from Ransom Matthews, but they include also gifts from Daniel A. 
Abbott and the Splitdorf Electrical Co, 

ENGINE STARTERS 

Compressed-air automobile-engine starter. Experimental model. Gift of 
Albert M. McMillan. U.S.N.M. no. 310828. 

"Everready Automatic Engine Starter." A spring-actuated, automobile-engine 
starter. Gift of Van Dusen's Garage. U.S.N.M, no. 310974. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 34 




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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 33 




30369; 3*!2.i 



HOT-AIR ENGINES. 



1. Ericsson hot-air engine, 1855 (model; U.S.X.M. no. 251279). See p. 177. 
2. Rider hot-air engine, 1871 (model; U.S.X.M. no. 308714). See p. 180. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 175 

CALORIC, OR HOT-AIR, ENGINES 

Turbines driven by hot air or hot gases are very old. Heron 
(Alexandria, 50 A. D.) described a simple hot-air reaction turbine 
that mysteriously animated dancing figures when an altar fire was 
lighted: Leonardo da Vinci (Florence, c. 1490) in his notes and 
sketches suggested the chimney- jack or chimney-gas turbine to utilize 
the hot gases from a fire to turn a roasting spit; and Guillaume 
Amontons (France, 1699) had an atmospheric "fire wheel" in which 
a heated column of air was made to drive a wheel. Some chimney 
jacks, toys, and the small exhaust-gas turbines used to drive super- 
chargers for automobile and aircraft engines are probably the only 
present-day uses of this form of hot-air engine. 

The use of heated air expanding in a cylinder against a piston 
to perform work is just as old. The recent development, however, 
dates from the British patent of Glazebrook (1797), followed by 
Cayley (1807) and Stirling (1826), and reached its peak about 
1850-1860 following Ericsson's demonstrations of 1845-1855. These 
engines in their simplest form consist of two chambers filled with 
air or gas and connected by pipes with the opposite ends of a 
cylinder in which a piston reciprocates as the bodies of air in the 
chambers are alternately expanded and contracted by heating and 
cooling the chambers. This is the form of Stirling's engine. The 
great number of hot-air engine designs are but variations of this 
idea. Some compress the air before or after heating, others sepa- 
rate the heaters from the chambers, or discharge the air at the 
end of the stroke; some use screens and baffles as regenerative heat- 
ers; and others use moistened air, mixtures of steam and air, and 
water pistons to cut down friction and abrasion. 

John Ericsson (1803-1858), who applied the screw propeller to 
ship propulsion and designed the U. S. S. Monitor^ of Civil War 
fame, devoted a large part of his life to the development of the hot- 
air engine. As early as 1826 he made one at Havre, France, which 
he demonstrated unsuccessfully at London. In 1833 he patented 
a regenerator to utilize the heat in the exhausted air to preheat the 
new supply of cold air. He continued his experiments after coming 
to America in 1839 and built eight hot-air engines between 1840 and 
1850. He gradually increased the size of his engines and in 1851 
built the ninth (at a cost of $17,000), which had a 2-foot stroke 
and two compressing cylinders of 4-foot diameter. He claimed an 
economy of 1 horsepower-hour from 11 ounces of coal. Two large 
engines working satisfactorily in factories at New York received 
favorable notice in the press and enabled Ericsson to obtain the sup- 
port necessary to construct a ship propelled by a caloric engine with 
\four 168-inch working cylinders and four 137-inch compressing 



176 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

cylinders, each with 6-foot stroke. This vessel made a successful 
trip from New York to Washington, D. C, and return, only to 
founder in a sudden tornadolike squall in New York Bay. Ericsson 
then returned to the construction of smaller engines, and in the 
following two years he built over a thousand of them. He em- 
ployed large hot-air engines to drive air compressors and distributed 
compressed air to drive small individual air motors on sewing 
machines in clothing- factory buildings. Later he developed small 
hot-air engines that operated over gas burners to furnish individual 
drives to machines and machine tools. 

Between 1855 and 1875 there were about 80 different hot-air en- 
gines introduced and manufactured. Descriptions of those of Still- 
man (1860), Roper (1863), Baldwin (1865), Messer (1865), Wilcox 
(1865), Lauberan (1849), Schwartz (1864), Peters (1862), Bickford 
(1865), and Kritzer (1862) are given in the article "Air Engines" 
in the American Mechanical Dictionary ^ by Edward H. Knight, 
New York, 1874. 

Hot-air engines in large sizes have not proved generally practical. 
The maximum permissible temperature is rather low, owing to lubri- 
cation difficulties and the characteristics of the common metals, with 
the result that the capacities of hot-air engines are extremely low for 
their size as compared to steam and internal combustion engines. 
The result has been that few engines of more tlian 1 horsepower have 
been built. 

The value and popularity of hot-air engines are due to the fact 
that they are safe and dependable and can be operated by the least 
skilled of attendants. They are clieap, and their economy compares 
favorably with other prime movers of the same power. In farm in- 
stallations, particularly for pumping water, many are still in use. 
At one time they were regularly installed to pump water in school 
and office buildings in New York City, where they were also used 
extensively for driving such machines as sewing machines (in cloth- 
ing factories) and printing presses. Because of their dependability 
many were purchased by the Bureau of Lighthouses and installed to 
generate power in isolated houses. Since 1900 the increasing con- 
venience of electric power has diminished the demand for hot-air 
engines, though they are still being built and sold. 

LYMAN AIR ENGINE, 1854 

U.S.N.M. no. 311371; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OfBce; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted w^ith the application for the patent 
issued to A. S. Lyman, of New York. N. Y., February 28, 1854, 
no. 10576. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS I77 

The model represents a high-pressure hot-air engine employing 
two vertical transfer (called generating) cylinders and a horizontal 
work cylinder. The upper walls of the transfer cylinders are heated 
by hot water from a separate tubular boiler, while the lower walls 
are cooled by cold water from a separate tubular refrigerator. In 
operation the transfer cylinders move the air alternately from the hot 
to the cold walls, causing it to expand and contract. Each transfer 
cylinder is connected to one end of the work cylinder. They are 
timed somewhat as the valves of a steam engine so that the work 
piston moves alternately from end to end of the work cylinder as 
the air in each transfer cylinder expands and contracts. The work 
piston is connected to the crankshaft of the engine as in a steam 
engine. The transfer pistons are raised and lowered by plunger 
rods, which are racks meshing with tooth segments that are rocked 
by levers worked by cams on the crankshaft. 

The novel features of the engine are claimed to be the use of 
glass, which is relatively nonconducting, in rods and tubes as tha 
heat-storing or regenerative surfaces (see the Ericsson engine of 
1855, next below) ; the use of large passages between the working 
and transfer cylinders; and use of water and oil to seal the working 
surfaces. Comparison with the engines of Stirling and Ericsson 
and suggestions for the use of liquid carbonic acid instead of air 
are made in the patent. 

ERICSSON HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1855 

Plate 35, Figuee 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 251279 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; photograph no. 30369. 

This model was filed with the application for Patent no. 13348, 
issued to Jolm Ericsson, July 31, 1855. 

This model shows a 2-cylinder, horizontal engine, in each cylinder 
of which are two pistons so connected that cold air is drawn into the 
cylinder, compressed, transferred to the heater, returned to the same 
cylinder, and then expanded. It includes the regenerator that 
Ericsson developed in 1833 to utilize the heat in the exhausted air 
to heat the new supply of air. From this design were developed most 
of the commercial hot-air engines used in this country. 

The operation within each cylinder is the same though the pistons 
move always in opposite directions. "When the pistons in a cylinder 
are at the end nearest the crank the two are close together, but wlien 
they start away from the crank the inner or transfer piston moves 
faster than the other (the work piston) and draws air into the cylin- 
der between the two. When they approach the other end of the 
stroke they close up again and the air is compressed between them. 



178 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This air then passes through a regenerator on the way to the furnace 
where it is heated. The heated air returns to the cylinder and ex- 
pands against the outer piston, producing motive power. After 
expanding in the cylinder, the hot air is exhausted to the atmosphere 
through the regenerator. The regenerator is a vessel containing a 
nest of metal tubes so arranged that the cold air going to the heater 
after compression passes through the tubes and is warmed by the 
transfer of heat from the hot exhaust air, which passes through the 
vessel around the tubes to the atmosphere. The two cylinders produce 
two power impulses per revolution. 

ERICSSON HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1858 

U.S.N.M. no. 308660 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
22281, issued to John Ericsson, December 14, 1858. 

This is one of the earliest hot-air engines in which cold air is drawn 
into, compressed, heated, and expanded within the same cylinder. 
This and the Ericsson engine of 1855 were the basis of design for 
most of the later commercial hot-air engines introduced in this 
country. 

The model is of an engine having a very large horizontal cylinder, 
one end of which is occupied by the grate and flue of a furnace. In 
the cylinder bej^ond the furnace are two pistons, one of which is a 
transfer or pump piston, the other the working piston. The two 
pistons complete their outward stroke (away from the furnace) at 
about the same time, but the transfer piston, which is nearer the 
furnace, moves inward faster than the work piston and draws in a 
supply of cold air through a self-acting valve in the working piston. 
Upon the outward stroke the transfer piston closes up on the work 
piston and compresses the charge between the two and transfers it 
through valves to the space around the heater. The pressure pro- 
duced by the increase of temperature during this transfer propels 
the working piston through the outward stroke and supplies the 
motive force. The return stroke is effected by means of a flywheel. 

ERICSSON HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1860 

U. S. N. M. no. 300822; original patent model; transferred from the United 
States Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John Ericsson, October 9, 1860, no. 30306. 

This engine employs two "equilibrium" pistons in connection with 
two cylinders and a work piston to prevent diminution of the working 
pressure during the stroke of the work piston. 



CATALOG OF THE aiECHANICAL COLLECTIONS IJQ 

The engine consists of two "equilibrium" cylinders placed in line 
end to end and a short distance apart. Within each cylinder is a 
hollow equilibrium piston, both connected by a long piston of rela- 
tively small diameter, called the working piston, which passes 
through airtight stuffing boxes in the heads of the equilibrium cyl- 
inders. The cylinders are connected to a heater and to a water- 
cooled chamber, through suitable valves and passages, so that both 
ends of one equilibrium cylinder are simultaneously in communi- 
cation with the cooler. The pressure being higher in the heater than 
in the cooler, the eiFect is to force the working piston out of the 
cylinder in communication with the heater into the other. The 
equilibrium pistons move with the work piston and circulate the air 
in the cylinders to the heater or cooler and back to the respective 
cylinders, maintaining a constant pressure in each cylinder through- 
out the stroke. When the piston has completed its stroke the valves 
are reversed and a continuous motion is produced. This engine in- 
cludes the regenerator or "heat deposit vessel", which was a feature 
of most of Ericsson's engines. In this construction it is a vessel filled 
with disks of wire cloth, which are heated by the hot air passing from 
the cylinders to the cooler and, in turn, give up this heat to the air 
passing from the cooler to the heater. 

CRANE HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1865 

U.S.N.M. no. 308670; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the Patent no. 
46084, issued to Moses G. Crane, of Newton, Mass., January 31, 1865. 

This engine consists of one vertical work cylinder and two pump 
or air-transfer cylinders connected to two furnaces. In operation 
two separate quantities of air are used repeatedly. One quantity of 
air is circulated between one furnace and the upper end of the work 
cylinder by one of the air pumps, while the other charge of air is 
supplied from the other furnace to the lower end of the work cyl- 
inder. In each case the air is heated in the furnace, transferred 
to the work cylinder, allowed to expand doing work against the pis- 
ton, and is then returned to the furnace by the pump, to be reheated. 
The pump pistons and valves are actuated by slotted bell cranks 
on the ends of the engine crankshaft. 



J^gQ BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

RIDER HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1871 

Plate 35, Figuee 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 308714, original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; photograph no. 39028. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patenc no. 
111088, issued to Alexander K. Rider, of New York, N. Y., January 
17, 1871, reissued August 24, 1880, no 9353. 

This engine consists of a power piston and a transfer pision cu 
connected with valves and passages that the cold air is received and 
compressed in the same cylinder in which the hot air performs its 
work. Its simple construction is an improvement on the John Erics- 
son hot-air engines of 1855-1858. 

A vertical cylinder contains two independent pistons with suitable 
valves that permit cold air to be drawn into the cylinder, compressed, 
circulated between heated furnace walls, expanded under a power 
piston and then exhausted. The upper piston is equipped with two 
spring-closed intake valves that open on the upstroke of the piston 
allowing air to fill the cylinder between the upper and lower pistons. 
This air is then compressed on the downstroke of the upper piston 
until the pressure is sufficient to open a valve in a passage leading to 
a heated space surrounding the furnace. The heated and compressed 
air then passes into the cylinder below the lower piston where it 
expands, performing work against the piston. 

OTTO CALORIC ENGINE, 1875 

U.S.N.M. no. 30S684 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office ; not illustrated. 

This wooden model (incomplete) was submitted with the applica- 
tion for Patent no. 145123, issued to Nicolaus Otto, of Deutz, Ger- 
many, December 2, 1873. 

In this engine hot gases were admitted to the cylinder above the 
piston during one-third of the downstroke. The remainder of the 
stroke dilated the confined gases and rendered a great portion of the 
heat of the gases latent. The remaining portion of the heat was 
absorbed by the water-cooled cylinder surfaces and the piston was 
returned by the pressure of the atmosphere. The piston is so con- 
nected to the crankshaft that the upward stroke was much slower 
than the downward stroke to permit the heat that was rendered latent 
on the downstroke and that was liberated during the upstroke to be 
absorbed by the cooled surfaces of the cylinder. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS Igl 

ERICSSON HOT-AIR ENGINE, 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 251286 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for Patent no. 
226052, issued to John Ericsson, of New York, N. Y., March 30, 
1880. 

In this engine a charge of air is repeatedly heated and cooled as 
it is transferred from end to end of a single cylinder, one end of 
which is surrounded by a furnace, the other end of which is water- 
jacketed. The air expands and contracts beneath a work piston that 
travels through a short stroke near the upper end of the cylinder. 
The air is displaced from end to end of the cylinder at the proper 
time by a large loosely fitting transfer piston independently con- 
nected to the crankshaft. 

This model is similar in design to the pumping engine of 1906, 
described below. 

ERICSSON HOT-AIR ENGINE, c. 1880 

U.S.N.M. no. 308142; original demonstrating model; gift of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers ; not illustrated. 

This is a small demonstrating engine of the type patented by 
John Ericsson on March 30, 1880 (see above) . 

This engine is equipped with a gas-heated furnace and has metal 
radiating fins at the upper end of the cylinder in place of the usual 
water jacket. 

A brass plate on the engine is inscribed : "To Mrs. E. W. Stoughton 
from her friend John Ericsson." 

ERICSSON PUMPING ENGINE, 1906 
Plate 36 

U.S.N.M. no. 309533 ; original ; gift of Jonathan Hagan ; photograph no. 39028-A. 

This is an 8-inch, i^-horsepower (120 revolutions per minute) en- 
gine of the type patented by John Ericsson on March 30, 1880 
(see above) . It was built by the Rider-Ericsson Engine Co. in 1906 
and was used to operate a deep-well pump on the farm of the donor 
until 1927. Wood was used for fuel. The engine is about 66 inches 
high and has a 30-inch flywheel. 

The engine has a long slim vertical cylinder closed at the lower end, 
with a short closely fitting work piston near its upper end and a largo 
loosely fitting transfer piston below the work piston. The lower 
end of the cylinder is surrounded by a furnace; the upper end is 
cooled by a water jacket. The work piston and transfer piston move 



132 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

independently of each other. The quantity of air contained within 
the cylinder is used repeatedly. 

At the beginning of the cycle of operation the work piston is at 
the bottom of its stroke, and the transfer piston is near the top of 
its stroke, having displaced the air to the bottom of the cylinder. 
The air absorbs heat from the furnace walls and expands, perform- 
ing work as it forces the work piston to the top of its stroke. The 
transfer piston in the meantime travels to the bottom of the cylinder 
and displaces the air to the top where it gives up heat to the water- 
jacketed surface and contracts. Atmospheric pressure then forces 
the work piston down to the bottom of its stroke as the transfer 
piston rises and displaces the air to the heated lower part of the 
cylinder, completing the cycle. 

AIPw-AND-STEAM ("AERATOR") ENGINES 

A class of engines known as aerosteam engines, using the expan- 
sive power of a mixture of heated air and steam and supposed to 
attain the better features of both air and steam engines, engaged the 
attention of many inventors during the nineteenth century. Oliver 
Evans (c. 1790) suggested a "volcanic engine" in which the gases 
from the furnace were mixed with the steam going to the engine. 
The hot-air engine of Glazebrook, mentioned above, used moistened 
air to reduce abrasion of the sliding surfaces. Bennet (1838), Wil- 
liam Storm (1851-5), Washburn (1865), and Tarr (1867) made aero- 
steam engines of various types. 

WHITING AEROSTEAM ENGINE, 1879 

U.S.N.M. CO. 251285 ; original patent model ; transferred from the United States 
Patent Office; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with its application for Patent no. 
217758, issued to James M. AVliiting, of Providence, R, I., July 22, 
1879. 

This is an example of combined air and steam engines, many de- 
signs of which have been proposed and built. In this engine the use 
of steam is intended to reduce the bulk of the heated air required to 
operate an engine of a given capacity and consequently reduce the 
size of the engine. 

The model shows a vertical fire-tube steam boiler of ordinary con- 
struction above the tubes of which is placed a hollow drum that is 
heated by the hot gases from the boiler. There is also a small steam 
pump and a vertical high-speed steam engine of the slide-valve type. 
Steam from the boiler is mixed with the heated air in the upper 
drum, and the mixture of heated air and steam is led directly to the 
engine and expanded. The air pump supplies air to the heated drum. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 36 




Ericsson hot-air pumping Engine. 1906 
U.S.X.M. no. 309533. Sec p. 181. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 173 PLATE 3T 





Refrigerating Machines. 

1. Audlffren refrigerating machine, 1913 (U.S.N.M. no. 311060). Seep. 183. 
2. Frost-Maker domestic refrigerating unit, c. 1914 (U.S.N.M. no. 311358). See p. 184. 



CATALOG OP THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 183 

REFRIGERATING MACHINES 

GORRIE ICE MACHINE, 1851 

U.S.N.M. no. 285397; original patent model; transferred from the United States 
Patent OflSce ; not illustrated. 

This model was submitted with the application for the patent issued 
to John Gorrie, of New Orleans, La., May 6, 1851, no. 8080. 

The model represents the first patent for a mechanical refrigerating 
or ice-making machine issued by the United States Patent Office. It 
is of additional interest in that the inventor successfully employed 
ice and cooled air in the treatment of tropical diseases, and for his 
work in this connection and the invention of the ice machine he is 
honored by a statue placed in Statuary Hall in the United States 
Capitol by the State of Florida. 

The machine was designed "to convert water into ice artificially by 
absorbing its heat of liquefaction with expanding air." The model, 
made largely of wood, is diagrammatic only. It consists of a double- 
acting compressor cylinder and a double-acting work or expanding 
cylinder, the pistons of which are connected to a crankshaft designed 
to be turned by a steam engine or other prime mover not shown. The 
air compressed in the compressor cylinder was cooled by the im- 
mersion of the cylinder in cold water, the injection of cold water 
into the cylinder and by passing the air through a worm immersed 
in a tub of water. The compressed air was Jed to a receiver and 
thence to the expanding cylinder, which was surrounded by a cistern 
of "uncongealable" liquid. The expansion of air absorbed heat from 
the liquid, which was circulated to a worm in a freezing tub where 
the liquid absorbed heat from water in the tub causing it to freeze. 

AUDIFFREN REFRIGERATING MACHINE, 1913 

Plate 37, Figxjre 1 

U.S.N.M. no. 311060; transferred from the United States Department of Agri- 
culture; photograph no. 32583A. 

The refrigerating machine invented by the Frenchman Abbe Audif- 
fren about 1904 is interesting as the first entirely self-contained and 
sealed machine. It was introduced for manufacture in the United 
States about 1911, and this one was purchased by the United States 
Bureau of Plant Industry in 1913. 

The unit resembles a large dumbbell in appearance, with two large 
balls on a hollow shaft with which they are turned by a beltpulley 
on the end of the shaft. One ball contains the compressor, which 
hangs, cylinder down, on a crankshaft, which turns with the unit. 
This ball turns in a tank of circulating cooling water. The compressor 
is connected through the hollow shaft to the other ball, which is the 



184 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

expansion or cooling chamber. This ball in the original installation 
turned in a tank of brine, which was chilled thereby and circulated 
where needed. 

These machines were charged with the necessary refrigerant (SO2) 
and lubricating oil at the factory and usually required little attention 
during years of service. This machine operated for 22 years with 
the same oil and refrigerant and only one adjustment in that period. 

FROST-MAKER REFRIGERATING UNIT, c. 1914 
Plate 37, Figuke 2 

U.S.N.M. no. 311358; original; gift of W. W. Stuart, photograph uo. 33065A. 

This is a small, direct-drive, water-cooled, gear-pump type of do- 
mestic refrigerating unit. It used SO2 as a refrigerant and had a 
rated capacity equivalent to the heat absorbed by the melting of 300 
pounds of ice per day (I. M. E.). It is of the type of machine 
variously marketed as the Frost-maker, Isko, and Jack Frost during 
the early period of domestic refrigerating machines. 

In the machine a condenser chamber enclosing the condenser coil 
and a reservoir for liquid sulphur dioxide is supported upon a cylin- 
der containing the compressor and oil-cooling coil. These are bolted 
to a base with an electric motor directly connected to the compressor 
shaft. The compressor is a herringbone gear pump. The compressed 
gas entered the top of the condenser chamber and passed over the 
nest of coils through which the cooling water circulated. The cooled 
liquid sulphur dioxide collected at the bottom of the chamber from 
%vhich it discharged to the refrigerator. 

The name plate reads : "Frost-Maker, Patented July 22, 1913, Feb. 
10, 1914. Frost-maker Ice Machine Co., 140 S. Dearborn St. Chi- 
cago, 111. Capacity 300#, hp. I/2, serial no. 156." 

DOMESTIC ELECTRIC REFRIGERATING UNIT, c. 1918 

U.S.N.M. no. 310729; original; gift of Winslow-Baker-Meyering Corporation; 
not illustrated. 

The essential elements of the automatic electric reciprocating com- 
pressor type of refrigerating unit for cooling household refrigerators 
are combined in this old machine. It consists of a small, motor- 
driven, 1-cylinder, air-cooled compressor, mounted inside of the coils 
of a so-called "cage" condenser, which is a continuous, rectangular 
coil of copper tubing. Compressor cylinder and condenser are cooled 
by a stream of air from the fanlike spokes of the compressor fly- 
wheel-pulley. The cooling coils are contained in a zinc brine chamber 
provided with openings to take ice freezing trays of muffin-pan de- 
sign. The operation of the motor is controlled by a thermostat switch 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS 185 

designed to hold the temperature of the brine at an approximately 
even temperature. 

In operation a refrigerant gas, SO2, is compressed in the cylinder 
of the compressor and delivered to the condenser, where it is cooled 
to approximately the temperature of the air that is blown over the 
condenser. The compressed and cooled SO2 then passes through a 
reducing valve, which permits it to expand to a low pressure in the 
cooling coils in the brine tank. As it is a physical property of a gas. 
that in expanding it absorbs heat, the expanding SO2 takes heat 
from the surrounding brine and thus lowers the temperature of the 
chamber. The SO2 then returns to the compressor where it is again, 
compressed and the process continues. When the brine is cold enough/ 
the thermostat switch turns off the motor until the temperature rises 
a few degrees when it starts the motor again. 

The unit is said to be the one that Edmund J. Copeland, then chief 
engineer of the Kelvinator Corporation, believed to be the first one 
of his designs to approach successful, automatic, dependable opera- 
tion. It contains parts taken from earlier machines and now includes, 
parts of later dates. 



49970—39 13 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The bibliography of the fields included in the mechanical collec- 
tion of the Museum is large. A few of the more useful publications 
are listed here in groups corresponding to subdivisions of the catalog. 
In each list the leading items are placed first because they are recent 
or current works, are generally available, present broader views of 
of subjects treated, and in most instances contain bibliographies. 
The use of these will give the student the best start in developing the 
details and exhausting the sources of the various divisions. It is 
suggested that reference to the standard encyclopedias, particularly 
the older editions in which bibliographies or sources were included 
in the articles, will in many cases give the beginner his most effi- 
cient approach. The lists given here are not exhaustive, and many 
fine works will not be found. 

GENERAL HISTORIES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF INVENTION, TECHNOLOGY, AND 

ENGINEERING 

1. UsHEK, Abbott Payson : A history of mechanical inventions. McGraw-EQll 
Book Co., New York, 1929. Bibliography, pp. 373-382. 

2. Nbjubergee, Au^KRT^. Technical arts and sciences of the ancients (translated 

by Henry L. Brose). Macmillan Co., New York, 1930. 

3. Bishop, Carl Whiting, in collaboration with Charles Greely Abbot and 

AleS HRDLieKA: Man from the farthest past. Smithsonian Scientific Se- 
ries, vol. 7. Smithsonian Scientific Series, Inc., New York, 1930. 

4. Kaempffebt, Waldemab: A popular history of American invention, 2 vols. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1924. 

5. Newcomen Society for the Study of the History of Engineering and Tech- 

nology: Transactions, vols. 1-15 (annual). London, 1921-1935. Annual 
analytical bibliography of the history of engineering and technology. 

6. Shaw, Ralph E. : Engineering books available in America prior to 1830. 

Bull. New York Public Library, Jan.-May 1933. 

7. HoDoms, E., and F. Alexander Magoun : Behemoth : The story of power, 

Doubleday, Doran & Co., Garden City, N. Y., 1932. 

8. VowLES, Hugh P. and Margaret W. : The quest for power from prehistoric 

times to the present day. Chapman & Hall, London, 1931. 

9. Byrn, Edward W. : The progress of invention in the nineteenth century. 

Munn & Co., New York, 190O. A review of developments based on United 
States patents granted. 

10. iMAsoN, Otis Tufton : The origins of invention. Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York, 1905. 

11. Beckmann, John: A history of inventions and discoveries (translated by 

William Johnston), ed. 3, 4 vols. London, 1817. 

12. Knight, Edward H. : American mechanical dictionary, 3 vols. J. B. Ford & 

Co., New York, 1874. 
186 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS Jgy 

13. Amebican Society of Mechanical Engineers: The engineering index. An 

index of current engineering periodicals from 18S4 to date. Many articles 
on engineering history have appeared in the periodicals indexed, and the 
notices may be quickly located under subject headings. Now an annual. 
Vol. 1 (1884-1891) was published by the Association of Engineering 
Societies; vols. 2-4 (1892-1905) by the Engineering Magazine Co. 

14. Rees, Abkaham: The cyclopedia, or universal dictionary of arts, sciences, 

and literature, 30 vols. London, 1819. 

15. EwBANK, Thomas: Descriptive and historical account of hydraulic and 

other machines for raising water, ancient and modern, with observations 
on the mechanic arts, and the development of the steam engine, ed. 16. 
New York, 1870. 

16. SoTHERAN, Henry, Ltd. : Bibliotheca chemico-mathematica. Catalogue of 

works ... on exact and applied science, with subject index, 2 vols. Lon- 
don, 1921 ; 1st suppl., 1932. 

ANIMAL POWER 

Refer to Items 1, 7, 8, and 9 aiove. 

17. Bennett, R., and J. Elton : History of corn milling, 4 vols. London, 1898- 

1904. Hand, animal, wind, and water mills. 

18. Jenkins, Rhys : The collected papers of Rhys Jenkins. Newcomen Society, 

Cambridge, 1936. Note on "Elizabethan Human-power Engine," pp. 1-8. 

19. Marks, Lionel Simeon, editor : Mechanical engineers' handbook, ed. 1. 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1916. Article, "Muscular Energy of 
Men and Animals," pp. 863-864. Many of the engineering handbooks have 
historical notes dispersed through their texts ; others are old enough to 
indicate changes in practice over long periods through their various edi- 
tions. Trautwine, Clark, and Kent are editors of handbooks known by 
their names that might prove helpful. 

20. Beckmann, John: A history of inventions and discoveries (translated by 

William Johnston), ed. 3, 4 vols. London, 1817. Article, "Corn-mills," 
vol. 1, pp. 227-272. 

WINDMILLS 

Refer to Items 1, 17, and 20 above. 

21. Wailes, Rex : Windmills of eastern Long Island. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 

vol. 15, pp. 117-151, 1934-35. Short bibliography. 

22. Wolff, Alfred R : The windmill as a prime mover. John Wiley & Sons, 

New York, 1S85. 

23. Taylor, A. Hoyt: Development, storage and utilization of wind power. 

University of South Dakota, 1912. 

24. Perry, Thomas O. : Experiments with windmills. U. S. Geol. Surv. Irri- 

gation Paper no. 20, 1899. Other Geological Survey Irrigation Papers 
containing interesting notes on windmills are nos. 29, 41, and 42. 

25. Carliix, James: Wind power. Smithsonian Inst. Ann. Rept. for 1918, 

pp. 147-156. Washington, 1920. Reprinted from the Edinburgh Review, 
Oct. 1918. 

26. Smeaton, John : An experimental Inquiry concerning the natural powers of 

water and wind. London, 1760. 



Igg BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

WATER WHEELS AND TURBINES 

Refer to Items 1, 17, and 20 ahove. 

27. MEiiD, Daniel Webster: Water power engineering, ed. 2. McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., New York, 1920. Historical introduction, pp. 1-23, illus. ; 
bibliography of water-wheel and water-power development. 

28. American Society of Mechanical Engineers : Mechanical Engineering, 

vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 386-iOO, Apr. 1930. Articles, "The Pelton Wheel," by 
E. M. Breed; "American Hydraulic Turbines," by W. M. White; "Early 
Hydraulic Turbine History," by E. D. Adams; "Hydroelectric Engineer- 
ing," by L. F. Harza. 

29. Frizell, J. P.: The old-time water wheels of America. Trans. Amer. Soc. 

Civil Eng., vol. 28, pp. 237-249, illus., 1893. 

30. Franklin Institute: Journal. Papers on early turbine development appear 

in VOL 20, 1850; vol. 22, 1851 (Geyelin) ; voL 4, 1842 (Morris); vol. 
6, 1843 (Morris) ; vol. 8, 1844 (Whitelaw), 

31. Glynn, Joseph: Power of water, ed. 6. London, 1879. (Ed. 1, 1852; ed. 2, 

1866.) Historical introduction, pp. 1-10, illus. 
82. Francis, James B. : Lowell hydraulic experiments. Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, 1855. 

33. Tyler, W. W. : The evolution of the American type of water wheel. Trans. 

Western Soc. Eng., vol. 3, pp. 879-901, 1898. 

34. Rice, A. C. : Notes on the history of turbine development in America. En- 

gineering News, vol. 48, pp. 208-209, 1902. 

35. Adams, Edward Dean : Niagara power, history of the Niagara Falls Power 

Company, 1886-1918, 2 vols. Niagara Falls, N. Y., 1927. 

THE STEAM ENGINE 

Refer to items 1, 7, and 8 aiove. 

36. Dickinson, H. W., and Rhys Jenkins : James Watt and the steam engine. 

Watt Centenary Memorial Volume, 1927. 

37. Jenkins, Rhys: Savery, Newcomen, and the early history of the steam 

engine. Trans. Newcomen Soc, vol. 3, pp. 96-118, 1922-23; vol. 4, pp. 
113-133, 1923-24. 

38. Stitabt, Robert: Historical and descriptive anecdotes of steam engines and 

of their inventors and improvers, 2 vols. London, 1829. 

39. Thurston, Robert H. : A history of the growth of the steam engine. D. 

Appleton & Co., New York, 1891. This extends the earlier histories 
through the "period of refinement" of the steam engine. 

40. Thurston, Robert H. : A manual of the steam-engine, 2 vols. John Wiley & 

Sons, New York, 1891. 

41. Rankine, William J. M. : Manual of the steam engine and other prime 

movers, ed. 14. London, 1897. 

42. Stanwood, James B. : Recent American steam engine practice. Cassier's 

Mag., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 488-502, Oct. 1900. 

43. Smith, Edgar C. : A short history of naval and marine engineering. Cam- 

bridge University Press, London, 1938. 

THE STEAM TURBINE 

44. Stodola, a.: Steam turbines (translated by Louis C. Lowenstein). BUs- 

torical Rev., art. 66, pp. 302-307, 1905. 



CATALOG OF THE MECHANICAL COLLECTIONS IgQ 

45. SosNOWBKi, K. : Roues et turbines k vapeur. Series of articles in Bull. Soc. 

d'Bncouragement I'lndustrie Nat, ser. 5, vol. 1: Aug. 1896, pp. 1153-1168; 
Sept. 1896, pp. 1227-1261; Oct. 1896, pp. 1319-1357; Nov. 1896, pp. 1491- 
1525. Paris. A profusely illustrated review of the turbine history from 
Heron to 1896, taken largely from patent records. The last article 
includes a detailed account of De Laval turbines and De Laval turbine 
pump, separator, and generator units. 

46. Kexleb, Emil, and Fkancis Hodqkinson : The steam turbine in the United 

States, Part I — Developments by Westinghouse Machine Company. Me- 
chanical Engineering, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 683-696, Nov. 1936. 

47. Cheistie, Alexander Graham : The steam turbine in the United States, 

Part II — Early Allis-Chalmers steam turbines. Mechanical Engineering, 
vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 71-82, Feb. 1937. 

48. Robinson, Ernest L. : The steam turbine in the United States, Part Ill- 

Developments by the General Electric Company. Mechanical Engineering, 
vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 239-256, Apr. 1937. 

STEAM-ENGINE VALVES AND GEARS 

Refer to Items 38 and 39 above. 

49. MoNE, F. : Treatise on the steam engine. New York, 1852. Describes early 

cut-off valves and valve gears. 

50. Peabody, Cecil H. : Valve-gears for steam engines. John "Wiley & Sons, 

New York, 1892-1900. 

51. Rose, Joshua : Modem steam engines. Henry Carey Baird & Co., Philadel- 

phia, 1887. 

52. Zeunek, GtrsTAv Anton : Treatise on valve-gears, ed. 3, 1869. 

INVENTIONS OF G. H. CORLISS 

Refer to Item 39 above. 

53. American Historical Society: The life and work of George H. Corliss. 

. New York, 1930. 

54. Shiixitto, Frank W., Jr.: Handbook of Corliss steam engines, ed. 3. 

Bridgeport, 1902. 

STEAM-ENGINE INDICATORS 

55. Pray, Thomas, Je. : Twenty years with the indicator. New York, 1896. 

56. Miller, Edward F. : Steam engine indicator. Crosby Steam Gage & Valve 

Co., Boston, 1917-1921. 

STElAJyf BOILERS 

Jtefer to Items 1 and 38 above. 

57. Barcock & Wilcox Co. : Steam, ed. 36. New York, 1931. 

58. Armstrong, R.: An essay on the boilers of steam engines. London, 1839. 

59. Peabody, C. H., and E. F. Miller : Steam boilers. John Wiley & Sons, New 

York, 1897-1902. 
eO. Babcock & Wilcox Co. : Fifty years of steam. New York, 1931. 

61. Thurston, Robert H. : A manual of steam boilers, their designs, construc- 

tion and operation, ed. 7. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1901. 

62. Jenkins, Rhys: The collected papers of Rhys Jenkins. Newcomen So- 

ciety, Cambridge, 1936. Note on early "boiler-making," pp. 126-130. 
€3. Perkins, Jacob: On the explosion of steam boilers: On the economy of 
using highly elastic steam. London, c. 1840. 



190 BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND ACCESSORIES 

64. DoNKiN, Bbyan: Gas, oil and air engines, ed. 2. London, 1896. Contains 

detailed history, with tables of trials, results, indicator diagrams, and 
other details of performance. 

65. Cleek, Dugald; The gas, petrol, and oil engine. London, 1909-10. 

66. Morrison, Lacey H. : Diesel engines. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 

1923. 

67. Stbeetee, R. L., and L. C. Lichtt: Internal-combustion engines: Theory, 

analysis and design, ed. 4. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1933. 

68. BuTLE3{, Edwabd: Carburetors, vaporizers and distributing valves. London, 

1909. 

69. Allen, James Titus : Digest of United States patents : Air, caloric, gas and 

oil engines, 178&-1906, 5 vols. Washington, 1907. 
TO. Allen, James Titus: Digest of United States patents for automobile con- 
struction, 3 vols, and supplements. Washington, 1900-1911. 

71. Hiscox, G. D. : Gas, gasoline and oil vapor engines. N. W. Henley & Co., 

New York, 1897. Contains list of United States patents, 1875-1896, in- 
clusive, by years. 

72. Morrison, L. H. : Thirty years of the Diesel engine. Power, vol. 69, no. 12, 

pp. 468-469, Mar. 19, 1929. 

73. RosBLOOM, Julius: Diesel handbook. Diesel Engineering Institute, Jersey 

City, 1937. 

74. Diesel Publications, Inc. : Diesel Power and Diesel Transp., vol. 16, no. 5, 

May 1938. Anniversary number, 40 years of the American Diesel. 



INDEX 



Abbott, D. A., donor, 174. 

Acme magneto, 174. 

Adams, I., riding cut-off valve, 62. 

Aeolipile, 25, 26, 59, 114. 

Aerator engines, 182. 

Aerometer, windmill, 11. 

Aerosteam engines : Bennet, 1838 ; 
Storm, 1851-55; Tarr, 1867, Wash- 
burn, 1865; Whiting, 1879, 182. 

Aetna, steamboat, 1818, 35; boilers of, 
105. 

Agriculture, U. S. Department of, donor, 
183. 

Air-and-steam engines, 182. 

Air compressor, Johnston, 1879, 143. 

Air engines, Kimmau, 102. (See also 
Hot-air engines.) 

Air pumps. ( See Condenser air pumps. ) 

Alexandria & Orange Railroad, shop en- 
gine, 1864, 48. 

Allaire, J. F., 35-37, 39. 

Allaire Works, 36. 

Allen. C. B., injector. 1902, 132. 

Allen, Horatio, valve gears, 1841, 62; 
1842, 63; 1848, 63; 1855, 64; 1857, 65. 

Allen, T. S., 4. 

Allen, Z., valve gear, 60. 

American Fire Engine Company's 
"Metropolitan," 1906, 141. 

American Injector Co., assignee, 131. 

American Institute, N. Y., exhibition, 
146. 

American-La France and Foamite Cor- 
poration, donor, 141. 

American Ship Windlass Co., 4. 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 
donor, 142, 181. 

American Steam Gauge Co., 93. 

American Tobacco Co., boiler, 1928, 115. 

Amontons, G., fire wheel, 175. 

Amoskeag fire engine, c. 1885, 141 ; fire- 
engine pump, 141. 

Anders, R., and L. C. Errani, oil engine, 
1873, 150, 167, 

Anderson woden boilers, 108. 

Animal power, 4-7 ; bibliography, 187. 

Antifriction bearings and alloys, 103. 

Apple, V. G., dynamo pulley governor, 
flywheel magneto, generators, gener- 
ator-starter and controller for, igniter 
(dynamo), ignition dynamo, 174. 

Appleton Co., turbine for, 17. 

Archimedes, 2. 

Archytas, 2. 

Aristotle, 2. 



Arnold, Gov. Benedict, 10. 

Ashworth, J., belt splicing, 102. 

Atkins, J., hydraulic turbine, 18, 19. 

Atkinson, J., engine, 1884, 145 ; 1889-90, 
157. 

Atmosphere, weight of, model, 1654, 26. 

Atmospheric engines. (See under In- 
ternal combustion engines, Free pis- 
ton, and Steam engines, atmospheric.) 

Atwater Kent ignition system, 174. 

Audiffren, A., refrigerating machine, 
1913, 183. 

Autocar, carburetor, 1901. 170; engine, 
163, 165. 

Autocar Co., donor, 163, 170. 

Automatic Boiler & Engine Co., as- 
signee, 113. 

Automobile engines, 147, 163, 165; 
steam, 54, 55 ; igniters, q. v., starters, 
q. V. 

Automotive vehicles, first, 144. 

Babcock, G. H., and S. Wilcox, Jr., 
steam boilers, 1867, 115; 1876, 115; 
steam generator, 1876, 116 ; valve gear 
(steam engine), 1866, 67. (See also 
Babcock & Wilcox Co.) 

Babcock, H. C, belt lacing, 102. 

Babcock, J., marine boiler, 115. 

Babcock & Wilcox Co., boiler headers, 
1867-1929, 117-118 ; Centennial boiler 
(model), 1876, 116-118; donor, 114- 
118, 124 ; double-deck, inclined-tube 
boiler (model), 1929, 117; dnmi type 
boiler (model), 929, 117; "Evolution 
of the Steam Boiler" (drawings), 
114; oil burner, 1929, 124. 

Bailey furnace walls, 117. 

Bailey-Tenney burners, 117. 

Bain, R. E. M., donor, 51. 

Bain, Mrs. R. E. M., donor, 59. 

Baker, J. G., steam engine, 1878, 51. 

Baker, W. H., and H. R. Worthiiigton, 
water-level gauge, 1847, 119 ; and S. H. 
Baldwin, rotary engine. 1839, 55. 

Baldwin hot-air engine, 176. 

Baldwin, M., and D. Clark, feed-water 
heater, 139. 

Baldwin, S. H., and W. H. Baker, rotary 
steam engine, 1839, 55. 

Ball Engine Co., donor, 91, 92. 

Balzer, S, M., aerodrome engine, 159; 
automobile engine, 16.5. 

Bangs, Isaac, 32. 

Barber, J., gas engine, 1791, 143. 

191 



192 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Barker, Dr., turbine, 15. 

Barlow, J., marine boiler, 115. 

Barnett, W., gas engine, 1838, 144. 

Barsanti and Matteuci gas engine, 144. 

Bartlett, L. D., valve gear, 1867, 68. 

Baverey, M., carburetors, 1906-1908, 167, 
171. 

Bearings. (See Shaft bearings.) 

Beau de Rochas, engine cycle, 145. 

Beck gas engine, 146. 

Beightou, H., engraver, Newcomen en- 
gine, 28. 

Bell, P. F., and H. Otto, slide valve, 
1883, 70. 

Belt driving accessories, 102-103. 

Bennet, aerosteam engine, 182. 

Benson, B. S., steam engine, 1847, 44. 

Benson, J., windmill, 14. 

Benz carburetor, 166. 

Bevil, H. H., windmill, 13. 

Bickford hot-air engine, 176. 

Binney, C. R., and H. A. Stuart 
( Hornsby-Akroyd engine), 157. 

Birdsall, E. T., donor, 174. 

Birmingham (England) Canal Co., 31. 

Bisschop gas engine, 145. 

Blackford, C. M., donor, 43. 

Blackford, W. M., 1829, 43. 

Blakey, J., boiler, 107, 114. 

Bodemer, J. G., governor, 1876, 84. 

Boiler accessories, steam, 119^139; in- 
jectors, 125-133 ; pumps, 133-138. 

Boiler headers, 1867-1929, 117-118. 

Boiler pumps. {See Injectors, Steam 
pumps. ) 

Boilers, marine steam : U. S. S. Alert, 
1899, 115 : Babcock, 1826, 115 ; Babcock 
& Wilcox, 1867, 1876, 115; Barlow, 
1793, 115 ; Blasco de Garay, 1543, 115 ; 
."S. S. Beardsley, 1901, 115; U. S. S. 
California, 1925, 115; S. S. City of 
Flint, 115; S. S. City of Saginaw, 
1929, 115; Corliss, 1862, 79; S. S. Em- 
pire City, 1897, 115 ; Fitch and Voight, 
1787, 115; Great Lakes, 1897-1929, 
115; U. S. S. Maryland, 1912, 115, 
118; U. S. S. Munroe, 1876, 115; 
U. S. S. Oklahoma, 1912, 115, 118; 
Papin, D., 1707, 115 ; Shipping Board 
type 115 ; Stevens, 1804, 109, 115. 

Boilers, steam : American Tobacco Co., 
1928, 115 ; Automatic Boiler & Engine 
Co., assignee, 113 ; Babcock and Wil- 
cox, 1867, 115 ; Babcock & Wilcox Co., 
q. v.; 1872. 114; 1876, 115, 116; 1881, 
114; bibliography, 188-189; Blakey, 
1766, 107, 114 ; Bousfield and Howard, 
1871, 111 ; Cape Fear Fibre Co., 1872, 
114 ; Corliss, 1879, 80 ; Crawford fur- 
nace, 1850, 110; drums for manufac- 
ture of, 114 ; Erie City Iron Works, 
1928, 114 ; Edison Electric Illuminat- 
ing Co., 1927, 114 ; Edison Illuminat- 
ing Co., 1881, 114; Erie City, 1928, 
114; Evans, 105-106; Eve, 1825, 107, 
114; "Evolution of (drawings), 114- 



115; Fairbairn, 1844, 106; flre-tube, 
106-107 ; Firmenich and Stiker, 1875, 
112; Griffith, 1821, 107; Gurney, 1826, 
114; headers, 1867-1929, 117-118; 
1879, 80; Heron, 103, 114; Howard 
and Bousfield, 1871, 111 ; Kelly, 113 ; 
Lakeside Station, Milwaukee, 1926, 
114; Lancashire, 106; Lawrence, 
Mass., pumping station boiler, 107 ; 
Luders, 1869, 111; Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Co., 1926, 114; 
National, 1885, 113; Neville, J., 106; 
Newcomen, 104; patents for first 
U. S., 106; Read, 1790, 106; Rhodes, 
1869, 111; Ritty. 1875, 112; Roman, 
107; Roosevelt, Smallman, and 
Stauduiger, 108 ; Rumsey, 37, 107, 114 ; 
safety valves, 109, 110 ; Savery, 104 ; 
Sequin, 106; Seymour furnace walls, 
114; Smeaton, 105; Staudinger and 
Livingston, 105; Steenstrup, 1828, 
106; Stephenson, 106; Stevens, Jl, 
locomotive, 1803-25, 107, 109; steam- 
boat, 1804, 107, 109; Stevens, J. C, 
107 ; Stiker, 1875, 112 ; Stirling, 1889- 
1920, 114; Trevithick, 105-106, Trow- 
bridge, 1878, 113; Twibill, 1865, 114; 
wagon type, 104 ; water-tube, 107 ; 
Watt, 104; Wiegand, 1867, 110; Wil- 
cox, 1856, 108, 114 ; Wilcox and Bab- 
cock, 1867, 115 ; wooden, 1801-15, 108 ; 
Woolf, 105. 

Booth Cotton Mills, turbine, 18. 

Bosch fuel pump, 1935, 173. 

Bosch magneto, 163, 174. 

Bosch magneto, German, 174. 

Boulton, M., 31. 

Boulton & Watt, 31, 33; engine, 35; 
engine for Fulton, 39; Mss., 40. 

Bousfield, E., and J. Howard, boiler, 
1871, 111. 

Box, A., chain hoist, 4. 

Boyden, U., hydraulic turbine, 17. 

Bozerian, E. E. G., foot-power treadle, 
7. 

Bramwell, W., gate valve, 97. 

Branca, G., turbine, 1629, 26. 

Braner and Slaby, gas engine tests, 
145. 

Brayton, G. B., automotive vehicle, 144; 
gas engine, 1872, 150; oil engines, 
145-147, 151. 

Brooks, E. B., water wheel, 1880, 21. 

Brown, C. H., and C. Burleigh, valve 
gear, 69, 

Brown, J., atmospheric steam engine, c, 
1790, 33. 

Brown, R. T., hydraulic turbine buckets, 
19. 

Brown, S., vacuum gas engine, 144. 

Buckeye Engine Co., assignees, 69, 85; 
lubricator, 96. 

Buckeye steam engine, 69; c. 1875, 50, 
85. 

Buda Co., donor, 164. 

Buda engine, 1924, 164; carburetor of, 
172, magneto of, 174. 



INDP]X 



193 



Burleigh, C, and. G. H. Brown, valve 
gear, 69. 

Burners. {See Gas burners, Oil burn- 
ers, etc.) 

Burnham, J. P., vt^indmills, 10. 

Burt, G. E., belt lacing, 102. 

Butler, E., carburetor, 167. 

Cadillac automobile engines, 165. 

Cameron, A. S., pump valves, 1874, 135 ; 
and W. Sewell, steam pump, 1864, 
134. 

Cape Fear Fibre Co., boiler, 114. 

Carbon disulphide engine, Colvrell, 1879, 
101. 

Carburetors, 165-173; atomizers, 150, 
166; Autocar, 1901, 170; Baverey, 
1906-1908, K'>7, 171: Benz. 166; Bosch 
fuel pump, 1935, 173; Butler, 1889, 
167; Clerk, 1881, 167; Daimler, 166; 
Dorris and Dyke, 1900, 169; Duryea, 
1892-93, 167-168; 1901, 1G7; Dyke 
and Dorris, 1900, 169; Errani and 
Anders, 167; float feed, early, 167, 
169-173; Haynes-Apperson, c. 1900, 
167, 170; Haynes, 170; "Inspirator," 
1889, 167 ; jet, see Spray ; Krebs, 1902. 
167 ; Manly, 166, 171 ; Maybach, 1893, 
167 ; mixing valves, 166, 167, 169, 170 ; 
Olds, 1896, 167, 169 ; Sintz, 1896, 107 ; 
spray, 166-169, 171-173: Stromberg, 
1914 and 1921, 163 ; surface, 166, 171 ; 
Tillotson, 168; 1926, 172; 1927, 173; 
Winton, 1898, 167; Zenith, 168, 1921, 
171; 1924, 172. 

Cardan, 24. 

Carhart, J. W., balanced valve, 1866, 67. 

Carpenter, O. C., hydraulic engine, 1878, 
101. 

Cartwright, Dr., 38. 

Cato the Elder, 5. 

Catoctin Iron Furnace, 33. 

Cattle mills, 5. 

Cave & Son, boiler for Fulton, 41. 

Cawley, J., atmospheric steam engines, 
31, 

Cayley, hot-air engine, 175. 

Centrifugal separators, 98-100; Deer- 
foot Farm, 1879, 98; DeLaval, 1931. 
100; Thomson and Houston, 1881, 99. 

Chain hoists, 3, 4. 

Chamberlain, C. C, igniter, 174. 

Chancellor Livingston, steamboat, ma- 
chinery of (drawing), 39, 41. 

Chandler, L. S., and S. N. Silver, hy- 
draulic engine, 1878, 100. 

iJMef Justice Watte, steamboat, engine, 
53. 

Chimney jacks, 175. 

Chinese windlass, 3. 

Clapp & Jones, fire engine, 1876, 139. 

Clark, D., and M. Baldwin, feed-water 
heater, 189. 

Clarke, L. S., donor, 55. 

Clerk, D., carburetor, 167; gas engine, 
145, 147, 155. 



Clermont, steamboat, 35: machinery of, 
39; model, 40. 

Clow, C. N., rotary pump, 1856, 142. 

Clutch pulley, 103. 

Coal, powdered. {See Pulverized fuel.) 

Cochrane Corporation, donor, 58. 
Cockrell, A., pulverized fuel system, 
1876, 121. 

Cogswell, W. A., and J. Judson, gover- 
nor, 1875, &3. 

Colles, C. steam-engine builder, 32. 

Collinson, H., manhole cover, 1875, 121. 

Colton, H. M., water motor, 24. 

Colwell, W. S., carbon-disulphide en- 
gine, 1879, 101. 

Compressed-air engine, Kimman, 102. 

Condenser air pumps, Corliss, 1876-77, 
76 ; Watt, 1769, 25, 86. 

Condensers, steam-engine, 86-88: Pitts 
and Gluyas, 1872, 88 ; Starbuck, 1878, 
88; Stevens, 1862, 1863, 87; Watt, 
1769, 25, 86. 

Connecting rod, Hinkley, 103. 

Connecting rods for Manly radial en- 
gine, 161. 

Conowingo hydroelectric generating 
station, 1928, 18, 23. 

Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, 126, 
133. 

Cook, J., windmill, 14. 

Cooper, E., 90. 

Copeland, E. J., 185. 

Corliss, G. H., bibliography, 189; boilers, 
marine, 1862, 79; water-tube, 1879, 
80 ; Centennial engine, 1876, 80 ; gov- 
ernor valve, 79; pressure regulator, 
1869, 75; pumping engine, 1870, 75; 
1879, 78; steam engine, "Evolution 
of," 80 ; steam engine governor, 1882, 
78 ; steam pump, 1857, 73 ; 1876, 1877, 
76; vacuum dasli pot, 1875, 76; valve 
gears, 1849, 61, 71 ; 1851, 72 ; 1859, 74 ; 
1860, 77 ; 1875, 76 ; 1876, 77, 79. 

Cornell University, 159. 

Cottle, J., and F. M., windmill, 1879, 13. 

Crane, M. G., hot-air engine, 1865, 179. 

Crawford, B., boiler furnace, 1850, 110. 

Cream separators. {See Centrifugal 
separators. ) 

Croft, D. L., belt tightener, 102. 

Crosby, G. H., indicator, 1879, 92. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co., indi- 
cators, 1930. 93-94. 

Crossley, W. J., and N. A. Otto, gas en- 
gine, 1877, 154. 

Curtenius, Sharp and, foundry, 32. 

Curtiss engines, 165. 

Custer, J. D., engine governor, 85. 

Cylinders of steel tubing and cast-iron 
liners. Manly, 160. 

Daimler, G.. carburetor, 166; compound 
gas engine, 147, 155; free piston en- 
gine. 1875, 152. 

Dardan, 8. 

Davies, J. D., steam pump, 1880, 137. 



194 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



da Vinci, Leonardo, 8, 175. 

Davis, O. N., donor, 59. 

De Castro and Donner Sugar Refinery, 
116. 

de Cans, S., 24, 25, 59. 

Deerfoot Farm Co., centrifugal sepa- 
rator, 1879, 98. 

de Garay, Blasco, boiler, 1543, 115. 

De Laval, G.. turbine, 100, 189. 

De Laval Separator Co., centrifugal 
oil clarifier, 1931, 100. 

De La Vergne Refrigerating Machine 
Co., 157. 

Desmond, J., injector, 1901, 132. 

Detmold, C. E., horsepower locomo- 
tive, 1830, 6. 

De Witt, R. v., description of Cler- 
mont's engine, 39, 40. 

Dexter, T. B., oil burner, 1879, 122. 

Doble, A., 19. 

Doble, W. A., water wheel, 1889, and 
water-wheel buckets, 22, 23. 

Dodd, water-wheel buckets, 19. 

Dodge, W. H., rope drive, 103. 

Dog power, 4, 5, 7. 

Dorris, G. P., and A. L. Dyke, carbu- 
retor, 1900, 109. 

Dow, G. E., steam pump, 1879, 137. 

Draft blower, unidentified model, 139. 

Drake, A., gas engine, 1&43, 146; 1855, 
149. 

Drop cut-off. (See Valve gears; Cor- 
liss, G. H.; Sickels, F. E.) 

Duryea, C. E., automobile engine, 165 ; 
carburetor of, 167-168. 

Dyke, A. L., and G. P. Dorris, car- 
buretor, 1900, 169. 

Dynamos for engine ignition, 174. 

Eads, J. B., sand pump, 1869, 142. 

Eclipse windmill, 10. 

Edison Electric Illuminating Co., Bos- 
ton, boiler, 1927, 114. 

Edison Illuminating Co., New York, 
boiler, 114. 

Eisemann magneto, 174. 

Engines, gas and oil, internal combus- 
tion, etc. {See Internal-combustion 
engines. ) 

Engines, steam, air, etc. (See under 
name of, as Steam engines.) 

Ericsson, John, hot-air engines, 1845- 
55, 175; 1855, 177; 1858, 178; 1860, 
178; 1880, 1906, 181; steam engines, 
1849, 46; 1858, 47; 1864, 48. 

Errani, L. C, and R. Anders, carbu- 
retors, 167 ; oil engine, 1873, 150, 151. 

Erie City Iron Works, boiler, 114. 

Estes, C. H., donor, 20. 

Evans, O., 34, 35 ; boilers, 105-106 ; vol- 
canic engine, 146, 182. 

Eve, J., boiler, 107, 114. 

"Everready Automatic Engine Starter," 
spring actuated, 174. 

Eyster, W. F., water motor, 21. 



Fairbairn, Sir William, boiler, 106. 

Farmer, M. G., wind-electric generator^ 
1880, 11, 13. 

Feed-water apparatus, Frick, 18.58, 120. 

Feed-water heater (injector), 132, 139. 

Feed-water pumps and injectors, 125; 
steam pumps, 125, 133. (See Injec- 
tors. ) 

Fickett, A., belt fastener, 102. 

Field, J., and J. Maudslay, steam engine, 
43. 

Fire engines, American Fire Engine Co., 
1906, 141; Amoskeag, model, c. 1885, 
141 ; Amoskeag, pump, 141 ; Clapp & 
Jones, 187(>-78, 139; hand pumper, 
1854, 139 ; Hunnemau & Co., 1854, 139 ; 
"Lily of the Swamp," 140 ; "Metropoli- 
tan," 1906, 141. 

Fire wheel, smoke jack, 175. 

Firmenich, J., and F. P. Stiker, boiler, 
1875, 112. 

Fiske, W. S., steam engine, 1880, 53. 

Fitch, J., 33, 35, 115. 

Fitts, B., governor valve, 1859, 98. 

Flaud & Co., M., Giffard injector, 126, 
127. 

Flexible shaft, Stow, 1872, 103. 

"Flying Dutchman," horsepower loco- 
motive, 1830, 6. 

Foot-power motor, 7. 

Ford automobile engine, 165. 

Fourneyrou, B., hydraulic turbine, 16,. 
17. 

Fowle, J. W., governor, 1877, 84. 

Francis, J. B., hydraulic turbine, 1849,. 
17, 18. 

Franklin Machine Co., donor, 70, 74, 75, 
77, 79, 80, 141. 

Frick, J., feed-water apparatus, 1858, 
120. 

Friedman, A., injector, 1869, 129. 

Frost, R. L., steam pump valve, 1890,. 
138. 

Frost-maker, refrigerating unit, c. 1914, 
184. 

Fuel, pulverized. (See Pulverized fuel.) 

Fulton, R., 6, 35, 36, 38-40. 

Fulton thermostat, 164. 

Furnace walls, Bailey, 117; Seymour, 
114. 

Furnaces, boiler, Crawford, 1850, 110; 
Webster, 1929, 117. 

Gabriel, M., rotary steam engine, 1867^ 

56. 
Galileo, 25. 
Gantry cranes, 24. 
Garvin, B., and R. J. Pettibone, grate,. 

1867, 121. 
Gas burner, Mettler, 1930, 124. 
Gas Moteren Fabric, 152. 
Gatchell & Manning, Inc., 133. 
Gauge, steam, and alarm. Gill, 1859, 

120; Safety steam gauge, Roebling, 

1842, 119. 



INDEX 



195 



Gauge, water-level, Worthington and 
Baker, 1847, 119. 

Gear, planetary, 103. 

Gear, roller, Stokes and McGlinchley, 
103. 

Gears, wooden, c. 1870, 20. 

Gearshift, Vulcan electric, 163. 

Gebb, G. R., engineer, 31. 

General Electric Co., steam turbine, 
1926-30, 57. 

Generators, engine ignition, 174. 

German Bosch, magneto, 174. 

Germeyer, C. F., donor, 52. 

Gibson, G. H., vacuum vapor power 
plant, 58. 

Giffard, H. J., injector, 1860, 126, 127. 

Giffard-Sellers injector, 1863, 1865, 128 ; 
1868, 129. 

Gill, W. Y., steam gauge and alarm, 1859, 
120. 

Gilles, F. W., gas engine, 1876, 153. 

Gilman, S. H., valve gear, 65. 

Gilmanton Mills, assignee, 122. 

Girard, hydraulic turbine, 19. 

Glazebrook, hot-air engine, 175, 182. 

Gluyas, G. K., and W. R. Pitts, con- 
denser, 1872, 88. 

Gnat ABC engine, 165. 

Gnome engine, 165. 

Gorrie, J., ice machine, 1851, 183. 

Governor valves, Corliss, 79 ; JFitts, 1859, 
98. 

Governors, engine : Bodemer, 1876, 84 ; 
Cogswell & Judson, 1875, 83; Corliss, 
1882, 78, valve for, 79; Custer, 1839, 
85; Fowle, 1877, 84; Hodgson and 
Stearns, 1&52, 81; Hunt and Thomp- 
son, 1878, 69, 85; Judson and Cogs- 
well, 1875, 83; Kelly & Lamb, 1865, 
82 ; Luttgens. 1851, 80 ; Pickering, old 
style, 85; 1931, 86; Peavey, 1870, 82: 
Porter, 1858, 81; Reid, 1879, 85; 
Stearns and Hodgson, 1852, 81 ; 
Thompson and Hunt, 1878, 69, 85; 
Woodbury, 1870, 83. 

Graham, W., steam engine, c. 1880, 52. 

Grates, furnace, Garvin and Petti- 
bone, 1867, 121; Rexford, 1883, 123; 
rocking bar, Stevens, 1879, 123. 

Greek mills, 14, 15. 

Greene, G., belt tightener, 102. 

Greene- Wheelock, valve. 70. 

Gresham, J., and J. Robinson, injector, 
1866, 128. 

Griffith, J., boiler, 107. 

Gurney, G., boiler, 114. 

Gyro engine, 165. 

Hagan, J., donor, 181. 

Hall, J., steam engine builder, 33, 35. 

Halladay Co., 10. 

Halladay, D., windmill, 10. 

Plallock, V. H.. belt tisrhtener, 102. 

Hall-Scott engine, 165. 

Hand-and-foot motor, Mott, 7. 



Harrison, A. L., lubricator, 1880, 95. 
Hart, T. J., and J. Jenks, injector, 1886, 

130. 
Haswell, C. H., 39. 
Hathaway, L. J., donor, 55. 
Hautefeuille, Abb6, explosive engine. 

143. 
Haworth, J., water motor, 20. 
Hay, P. D., oiler, 1888, 95. 
Hayes, C. Q,, universal joint, 1879, 103. 
Haynes-Apperson carburetor, c. 1900» 

167, 170. 
Haynes Automobile Co., donor, 163. 
Haynes automobile engine, 163, 165. 
Haynes, Elwood, mixing valve, 170. 
Headers, boiler, 1867-1929, 117-118. 
Hees, W., and W. Wittig, gas engine, 

1879, 154, 155; 1880, 147. 
Hendee engine, 165. 

Heron of Alexandria, 8, 24, boilers, 103, 
114 ; hot-air turbine, 175 ; steam tur- 
bine (aeolipile), 24, 26, 59, 114; wind 
wheels, 8. 

Herot, 2. 

Hesse, Prof., hydraulic turbine buckets, 
19. 

Hewitt, J., piston-rod packing, 1879, 98. 

Higginson, A., steam engine, 1877, 51. 

Hinkley, H., connecting rod, 103. 

Hispano Suiza engine, 165. 

Hitzeroth, Macdonald, and Williams, 
rope drive, 1892, 103. 

Hoadley, J. C, governor, 85. 

Hock, J., carburetor, 167; oil engine, 
1874, 151. 

Hodgson. W., and G. S. Stearns, gover- 
nor, 1852, 81. 

Hogg & Delameter Iron Works, 47. 

Hogg, P., 47; valve gear, 60. 

Hoists. 3, 4. 

Hope Furnace, 33. 

Hornblower engine, 33. 

Hornblower, Joseph, 32, 36. 

Hornblower, Josiah. 32, 33. 36. 

Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine, 1893-95. 
157. 

Horse mills, 5, 6. 

Horse-powered ferry boat, 6; locomo- 
tive, 6. 

Horsepower unit, 5, 6. 

Hot-air engines, 175-182; Baldwin, 
1865, 176; Bickford. 1865. 176: Cayley, 
1807, 175; Crane, 1865, 179; Ericsson, 
1845-1S55, 177: 1858, 178; 1860. 178; 

1880. 181: c. 1880. 181: mOT.. 181; 
Glazebrook, 1797, 175, 182; Kritzer, 
1862, 176: Lauberon, 1849, 176; Ly- 
man, 1854, 176; Messor, 1865. 176; 
Otto, 1875, 180; Peters. 1862, 176; 
Rider, 1871. 180; Kidor-Ericsson En- 
gine Co.. 1006, 181: Ropor, 1863. 176; 
Schwartz, 1864, 176; Stillman, 1860, 
176; Stirling. 1826. 175: summary, 
175-176: Wilcox. 1865. 176. 

Hot-air and steam engines, 182. 



196 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Hot-bulb and hot-tube igniter, 157, 
158. (See also Igniters and Ignition 
devices. ) 

Houston, E. J., and E. Thomson, centrif- 
ugal creamer, 1881, 99. 

Howard, J., and E. Bousfield, boiler, 
1871, 111. 

Howd, S. B., hydraulic turbine, 17, 

Huber, J., injector, 133. 

Hug, water-wheel buckets, 19, 

Hugon, gas engine, 145. 

Human treadmill, 5, 6. 

Hunneman & Co., fire engine, 1854, 139. 

Hunt, N., and J. W. Thompson, gover- 
nor, 1878, 69, 85; steam engine, 1875, 
50. 

Hunt, N. C, donor, 50, 93. 

Hurdy-gurdy tangential water wheel, 
19. 

Huygens, C, 25 ; explosive engine, 143. 

Hydraucone draft tube, 18. 

Hydraulic engines. Chandler and Silver, 
1878, 100; Carpenter, 1878, 101. 

Hydraulic turbines. (See Turbines, 
hydraulic ; Water motors ; and Water 
wheels. ) 

Hydrocarbon burners. (See Oil burn- 
ers.) 

Hydrostatic engine lubricator, 96. 

Igniters and ignition devices, 174 (.see 
also Spark plugs) ; electric spark, 
1801, 1860, 144; 1873, 150; flame. 
1844, 148 ; 1867, 149 ; 1872, 150 ; 1874, 
151; 1874, 152; 1877, 154; 1879, 154; 
1882, 156; hot-bulb, 1889-90, 157; 
1893-95, 157; incandescent metal, 
1846, 146; 1855, 149; Manly engine, 
159, 162. 

Impulse starter, Eisemann magneto, 174. 

Inclined plane, mechanical element, 2, 3. 

Indicators, engine, 89-94, bibliography, 
189; continuous card, 1930, 94; Cros- 
by, 1879, 92; Crosby Steam Gage & 
Valve Co., 1930, 93-94 ; Krausch, loco- 
motive, 1862, 91; Lanza, 94; Mc- 
Naught, 89; c. 1835-42, 91; Novelty 
Iron Works, N. Y.. 90 ; reducing wheel, 
93; Richards, 1862, 89; c. 1867, 92, 
93; Southern, 89; summary, 89-90; 
Thompson, c. 1883, 93; Watt, 89, c. 
1796, 90. 

Injectors, boiler feed-water : Allen, 1902, 
132; American Injector Co., assignee, 
130; Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers, photographs, 133; Desmond, 
1901, 132 ; feed-water heater, 1925, 132 ; 
Friedman, 1869, 129 ; Gatchel & Man- 
ning, Inc., photograph,?, 133; Giffard, 
1858: (photographs) 133; 1S60, 126, 
127; Giffard-Sellers, 1863. 1865, 128; 
1868, 129; Gresham and Robinson, 
1866, 128 ; Hart and Jenks, 1886, 130 ; 
Huber, 1898, 133; Jenks and Hart, 
1886, 130 ; Jenks, 1885, 133 ; Lambert, 
1889, 133; Lukenheimer Co., assignee, 
1901, 132 ; Mack, 1886, 133 ; Messinger, 



18S6, 133 ; Millholland, 1862, 127 ; Mur- 
dock, 1889, 133; 1890, 131; Nathan 
Manufacturing Co., assignee, 130 
Nice, 1900, 133; O'Rorke, 1872, 133 
Robinson and Gresham, 1866, 128 
Schutte, 1892, 131 ; 1888, 133 ; self-act 
ing, 130, 131 ; Sellers, 1863, 1865, 128 
1868, 129; Sellers, William, & Co, 
1876, 129; 1887-1927, 130; 1900-1927 
131; 1925, 132; photographs, 133 
Sticker, 1900, 133 ; summary, 125-127 
Sweeney, 1889, 133 ; unidentified, 133 
Wotapek, 1884, 130. 

"Inspirator," carburetor, 167. 

Internal-combustion engines : American 
developments, 146 ; Anders and Er- 
rani, oil engine, 1873, 150, 151 ; At- 
kinson, unequal stroke, 1884, 145 ; 
1889-90, 157 ; Autocar, 1901, 165 ; 1921, 
163; Balzer, 159; rotary, 1894, 165; 
Barber, gas engine, 1791, 143; Bar- 
nett, 1838, 144; Barsanti and Mat- 
tenci, 1854, 1857, 144 ; Beau de Rochas, 
4-stroke cycle, 145; Beck, 6-stroke, 
1888, 146; bibliography, 190; Biuney 
and Stuart, 157; Bisschop, 145; 
Braner and Slaby, tests, 1878, 145; 
Brayton, oil engine, 145; 1874, 147, 
151; gas engine, 1872, 150; Brown, 
vacuum gas engine, 1823-26, 144; 
Buda, gasoline, 1924, 164, 172; CadU- 
lac, 1903, 1923, 165; Clerk, 2-stroke, 
1880, 145. 147 ; 1881, 155 ; Crossley & 
Otto, 1877, 154 ; Curtiss, q. v. ; Curtiss- 
Baldwin, 1908, 165; Daimler, q. v.; 
Drake, 1843, 1855, 146; 1855, 149; 
Duryea, 1892-93, 165; Errani and 
Anders, oil engine, 1873, 150, 151, 167 ; 
Ford, 1913, 165; free piston engines, 
144-146, 152, 153 ; Gilles, loose piston, 
1876, 1.53: Gnat ABC, 1917, 165; 
Gnome, 1917, 165; Gyro, 1913, 165; 
Hall-Scott, 1911, 165; Hautefeuille, 
explosive engine, 1678, 143 ; Haynes, q. 
V. ; Hendee, 1911, 165 ; Hispano Suiza, 
1918, 165 ; Hock, oil engine, 1874, 151, 
167 ; Hornsby-Akroy, oil engine, 1893- 
95, 157; Hugon, 1858, 1862, 1865, 145; 
Huygens, explosive engine, 1680, 143; 
King Bugatti Dusenberg, 1918, 165; 
Knight, sleeve valve, 1927-28, 164; 
Knox, 1900, 165; Langen and Otto, 
free piston, 144, 145; Lebon, 144; 
Lenoir, gas, 1860, 144, automobile, 
144-146 ; LeRhone, 1917, 165 ; Liberty, 
1917, 165; Manly, radial, 1901, 158- 
163 ; Marcus, automobile, 144 : Mat- 
tenci and Barsanti, 18.54, 1857, 144; 
Maybach, 1918, 165; Mercedes, 1918, 
165; Million, 1861, 145; Morey, first 
American, vacuum, 1826, 146; Nash, 
2-stroke, 1888, 147; Olds. 1896, 165; 
Otto, q. v. ; Packard, Liberty, 1918, 
165; Diesel, 1928, 165; Papln, 1690, 
143; Perry, q. v.; Pratt & Whitney 
"Wasp," 1935, 165; radial, 1901, 158; 
1928, 65 ; Reithman, 1858, 145 ; rotary. 



INDEX 



197 



1894, 1911, 1913, 165; Schmidt, com- 
pression, 1861, 145; Selden, automo- 
bile, 1895, 147 ; Simon, 1878, 145 ; Sim- 
plex, 1912, 165: Slaby and Braner, 
tests, 1878. 145; Street, 1794, 144; 
Stuart and Binney, 157 ; summary. 
143-147; tests of, 144, 145; Tresca, 
tests, 144; Willys-Knight, 1927-28, 
164; Winton, 1901-1902. 165; Wittig 
and Hees, 2-stroke, 1880, 147, 155; 
multiple piston, 1879, 154; Wright, 
q. V. 

Internal-combustion engine accessories, 
173-174. (See also Carburetors, Ig- 
niters, and Ignition devices.) 

Invention, bibliography of, 186-187. 

I. P. Morris turbine, 18. 

Jenks, James, injector, 133. 

Jenks, James, and T. J. Hart, injector, 
1886, 130. 

Jenks, Joseph, water mill patent, 16. 

Jet carburetors. (See Carburetors, 
spray. ) 

Johnson, T., pavpl and ratchet, 4. 

Johnson, Gen. T., iron furnace, 33. 

Johnston, W., air compressor, 1879, 143. 

Jonval, N., hydraulic turbine 16, 17. 

Judson, J., and W. A. Cogswell, gov- 
ernor, 1875. 83. 

Kelly, O. A., and E. Lamb, governor, 

1865, 82. 
Kelly, W. E., 113. 
Kelvinator Corporation, 185. 
Kilburn, G., hydraulic turbine, 17. 
Kimman, H. J., compressed-air engine, 

102. 
Kimman, M. T., donor, 102. 
King Bugatti Dusenberg engine, 165. 
King. J. C, pump-valve gear, 1870, 135. 
Kingsbury bearing, 18. 
Kinsley, A., 34. 
Knight, sleeve-valve engine, 1927-28, 

164. 
Knight, water wheel, 19. 
Knowles, L., simplex pump, 1879, 136. 
Knox automobile engine, 165. 
Knox, W. C, animal treadmill, 1882, 7. 
Krausch, C. W. T., indicator, 1862, 91. 
Krebs, A., carburetor, 1902, 167. 
Kritzer, hot-air engine, 176. 
Kumme windmill, 11. 

Lakeside Station, Milwaukee, boiler, 

114. 
Lamb, E., and O. A. Kelly, governor, 

1865, 82. 
Lamb, G. A., water wheel, 24, 
Lambert, A., injector, 133. 
Lancashire boiler, 106. 
Langen, E., and N. Otto, free-piston 

gas engine, 1866, 144-146, 152; 1867, 

149. 
Langley aerodrome, engine for, 158 ; 

carburetor, 171. 
Langley, S. P., 158, 159. 



Lanza, G., indicator, 94. 
Lauberan, hot-air engine, 176. 
Lawrence, Mass., pumping station boil- 
er, 107. 
Lebon, P., gas engine, 144. 
Leece-Neville, automobile starting and 

lighting, 163. 
Lefiel, J., hydraulic turbine, c. 1883, 18, 

22. 
Leffel, James, & Co., turbine, 22. 
Lenoir, J.-J.-E., gas engine, 1860, 144- 

147, 151. 
LeRhone, aircraft engine, 165. 
Leuchsenring, R., water engine, 1880, 

21. 
Levers, mechanical elements, 2, 3. 
Liberty aircraft engine, 165; Packard-, 

1918, 165. 
Lighthall, W. A., steam engine, 1838, 43 ; 

1849, 46. 
Lighthouses, Bureau of, hot-air engines, 

176. 
"Lily of the Swamp," steam fire engine, 

140. 
Livingston, Chancellor R. R., 6, 34, 105- 

108. 
Locomobile engine, 55. 
Lodi oil burner, 124. 
Loper, R. F., steam engine, 1845, 44; 

1849, 45. 
Los Angeles hydroelectric plant, 18. 
Loud, H., antifriction bushings, 103. 
Lubricators, engine, gravity oiler, 96; 

hand-pump (Buckeye Engine Co.), 

96 ; Harrison, 1880, 95 ; Hay, 1888, 95 ; 

hydrostatic, 96. 
Luders, H. W., boiler, 1869, 111. 
Lunkenheimer Co., assignee, 132. 
Luttgens, H. A., engine governor, 1851, 

80. 
Luttgens, H. A., and H. Uhry, valve 

gear, 64. 
Lyman, A. S., hot-air engine, 1854, 176. 

Macdonald, Williams, and Hitzeroth, 

rope drive, 103. 
Mack, W. B., 133. 
Magnetos, dynamos, and generators for 

engine ignition, 174. 
Magnus effect, windmills, 11. 
Make-and-break igniters, 174. 
Manhattan Co., 34. 
Manhole cover, boiler, Collinson, 1875, 

121. 
Manley, J. A., donor, 113. 
Manly, C. M., carburetor, 1901, 166, 

171 ; radial aerodrome engine, 1901, 

158-163. 
Manual or muscular power, 1-3, 5, 6. 
Marcus, S., early automotive vehicle, 

144-145. 
Mark, J., part in foundry, 33. 
Mars Iron Works, 35. 
Mason Regulator Co., donor, 54. 
Matach and Nancarrow, 35. 
Mattenci and Barsanti, gas engine, 144. 
Matthews, R., donor, 174. 



198 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Maudslay, J., and J. Field, steam en- 
gines, 1842, 43-44. 

Maxim, H. S., steam pumping unit, 1874, 
50. 

Maybach carburetor, 167; engine, 165. 

Mayhew, T., diaphragm steam engine, 
1879, 52. 

McAlpin and Mclnnis, rice mills, 42. 

McCafferty, W. II., 48. 

McElroy, J. B., belt fastener, 1875, 102. 

McGlinchley, C. E., and C. F. Stokes, 
roller gear, 103. 

McMillan, A. M., engine starter, 174. 

McNamar, J. H., and II. Scheidler, 
throttle valve, 1875, 98. 

McNaught, J., indicator, 89 ; c. 1835-42, 
91. 

McQueen, R., steam engine builder, 34- 
36. 

McReady. R., 157. 

Mechanical elements and powers, 2rA. 

INIengel Co., 54. 

Mercedes engine, 165. 

Mercury motor, Miller, 1877, 60. 

Merrimac Co., 17. 

Messer, hot-air engine, 176. 

Messinger, W. L., injector, 133. 

"Metropolitan" steam lire engine, 1906, 
141. 

Mettler, Lee B., Co., donor, 124; gas 
burner, 1930, 124. 

Michigan Lubricator Co., 95. 

Miller, C, rotary steam engine, 1859, 56. 

Miller, T. D., mercury motor, 1877, 60. 

Millholland, J., injector, 1862, 127. 

Million, gas engine, 1861, 145. 

Mills, E., draftsman, 114. 

Mills, K. L., water motor, 24. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., 1926, 114. 

Mithridates, 14. 

Mixing valves. {See under Carburet- 
ors.) 

Moebius, C. E. L., reversing mechanism, 
103. 

Monitor, U. S. S., 175. 

Monitor windmill, 1881, 10, 11. 

Moody, L. F., draft tube, 18, 24. 

Moore, I. N., steam pump, 1891, 138. 

Moore, J., water wheel, 19. 

Moore, T., chain hoist, 4. 

Morey, S., first gas (vacuum) engine 
in America, 146. 

Morin, animal power capacity, 6. 

Morris, EUwood, hydraulic turbine 
tests, 17. 

Morris, I. P., hydraulic turbine, 18. 
Morrow, Charles, 37. 
Motsinger magneto, 174. 
Mott, D. W., hand and foot motor, 7. 
Muhlenburg, D., 35. 

Miirdock, H. B., injector, 1889, 133; 
1890, 131. 

Nancarrow, J., steam-engine builder, 

33, 35. 
Nash, L. H., 2-stroke gas engine, 147. 



Nathan Manufacturing Co., assignee, 
130. 

National Water Tube Boiler Co., boiler, 
1885, 113. 

Nehf, C. T., donor, 139. 

Neville, J., boiler, 106. 

Newcomen, Thomas, 25; boiler, 104; 
steam engine, 1712, 28-32, 36. 

Newcomen Society, donors, 28. 

New England Rolling Mills, 77. 

New Jersey Copper Mine Association, 
33, 35. 

New Jersey Historical Society, donor, 
36; original Fulton drawings at, 39. 

New York Historical Society, descrip- 
tion Fulton drawings, 39. 

Nice, H. T., injector, 133. 

"Noria," 14. 

Norse mills, 14, 15. 

North River, steamboat, 39. 

Novelty Iron Works, N. Y., 91. 

Novelty Iron Works, Savannah, 42. 

Oak Grove hydroelectric plant, 18. 
Oil burners, Babcock & Wilcox, 1929, 

124; Dexter, 1879, 122; Lodi, 1929, 

124 ; Ray, 1914, 123 ; Salisbury, 1879, 

122. 
Oil engines. (See Internal-combustion 

engines. ) 
Oilers. (See Lubi'icators, engine.) 
"Old Bess," Watt steam engine, 31. 
Olds Motor Works, donor, 169. 
Olds, R. E., automobile engine, 165; 

carburetor, 167, 169, 
Ormsbee, E., repairing steam engine, 

33. 
O'Rorke, T., injector, 133. 
Otto, H., and P. F. Bell, slide valve, 

1883, 70. 
Otto, N. A., 4-stroke gas engine, 1876, 

145; 1882, 156; hot air engine, 1875, 

180; models of, 153, 105; tests of, 

145, 346. 
Otto, N. A., and E. Langen, free piston 

gas engine, 1866, 144-146, 152; 1867, 

149. 
Otto, N. A., and W. J. Crossley, gas en- 
gine, 1877, 154. 
Otto Engine Works, 156. 

Packard aircraft engines, 165. 

Papin, D., steam engines, c. 1690, 25, 
27, 59; 1707, 115; internal-combus- 
tion engine valves, 143. 

Pascal, 25. 

Patents, first U. S. steam boiler, 106, 

Pearl Street Station, 114. 

Peavy, A. J., governor, 1870, 82. 

Pelton, L. A., water wheels, 19. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., 19; buckets, 
1901-1912, 22, 23. 

Perry, S., gas engine, 146-148. 

Perry, T. O., windmills, 10, 11. 

Peters hot-air engine, 170. 

Pettibone, R. J., and B. Garvin, grate, 
1867, 121. 



INDEX 



199 



Philadelphia Electric Co., 18, 23. 

Philadelphia waterworks, 34, 106, 108. 

Philo of Byzantium, water wheel, 14. 

Pickering, J., chain hoist, 1870, 4. 

Pickering, T. R., governor, 85. 

Pickering Governor Co., donor, 85 ; gov- 
ernor, 1931, 86. 

Pitts, W. R., and G. K. Gluyas, con- 
denser, 1872, 88. 

Planetary gear, 103. 

Piatt, J., rotary steam engine, 1862, 56. 

Pococke, Dr., 32. 

Polacca, steamboat, 1798, 34. 

Pomeroy, O. C, belt lacing, 103. 

Poncelet, 6, 11 ; water wheel, 15 ; hy- 
draulic turbine, 16, 18. 

Porta, 24. 

Porter. C. T., governor, 1858, 81. 

Portland Railway Light & Power Co., 18. 

Powdered fuel. {See Pulverized fuel.) 

Powel, heirs of Samuel, donors, 157. 

Prairie windmill, 12. 

Pratt & Whitney "Wasp" engine, 165. 

Prayer wheel, 7. 

Pressure cooker, Papin, 27. 

Princeton University, 156. 

Pulley, mechanical element, 2, 3. 

Pulverized fuel system, Cockerell, 1876, 
121. 

Pump, rotary water, Clow, 1856, 142. 

Pump, sand, Eads, 1869, 142. 

Pump, ship's combination, 1864, 134- 
135. 

Pumping engine, steam, Corliss, 1870, 
75 ; 1879, 78. 

Pumping unit, automatic steam, Maxim, 
1874, 50. 

Pumps, steam. (See Steam pumps.) 

Kank, L., antifriction journal bearing, 

103. 
Raukine, animal power tests, 6. 
Ray Oil Burner Co., donor, 123. 
Ray, W. R., oil burner, 1914, 123. 
Read, N., boiler, 106 ; steam engine, 33. 
Refrigerating machines : Audiffren, 

1913, 183 ; domestic electric unit, c. 

1918, 184; Frost-maker, c. 1914, 184; 

Gorrie, 1851, 183. 
Reid, J., governor, 1879, 85. 
Reily, H., and P. Waldo, rotary steam 

engine, 1875, 57. 
Reithman, internal-combustion engine, 

145. 
Reversing mechanism, Moebius, 103. 
Rexford. P., fire grate, 1883, 123. 
Rhodes, W. K., boiler, 1869, 111. 
Richards, C. B., indicators, 89 ; c. 1867, 

92, 93. 
Richards, T., balanced valve, T^^HH. 68 
Rider, A. K., hot-air engine, 1S71, ISO. 
Rider-Ericsson Engine Co., 181. 
Ritty, S., boiler, 1875, 112. 
Roach, John V., engine builder, .11. 
Robeson & Sons, hydraulic turbine at, 

17. 



Robinson, J., and J. Gresham, injector, 

1866, 128. 
Rocket, locomotive, boiler of, 106. 
Roebling, J. A., safety steam gauge, 

1842, 119. 
Rogers, T., cut-off, 71. 
Roller gear, Stokes and McGlinchley, 

103. 
Roosevelt, Nicholas, 33-36. 
Roosevelt, Smallman, and Staudinger, 

boiler, 108. 
Rope drives, 103. 
Roper, hot-air engine, 176. 
Rotary water engine, 21. 
Rotary water pump. Clow, 1856, 142. 
Rourke, J., Sr., donor, 42. 
Rumsey, J., 33 ; boiler, 37, 107, 114. 
Rumsey, T., 37. 
Rush, J., steam engine builder, 35. 

Safety gauges. (See Gauge, steam, and 
Safety valves.) 

Safety valves, boiler. Frick, 18.58, 120; 
Papin, c. 1690, 27; Roebling. 1842, 
119; Stevens, 1804, 109; 1803-25, 110; 
1825, 119. 

Salisbury, S. C, hydrocarbon burner, 
1879, 122. 

San Francisquito No. 2 hydroelectric 
generating station. IS. 

Sand pump, Ead.s. 1869, 142. 

Sangyl, George, 40. 

Sargeant. C, belt hook, 102. 

Savery, T., 25 ; boilers, 104 ; engine, 1698, 
27, 59. 

Sawyer, E. O., belt coupling, 103. 

Scheidler, R., and J. H. McNamar, 
throttle valve, 1875, 98. 

Schleicher, Schuni & Co.. 156. 

Schmidt, G., gas engine, 145. 

Schofield, F. F., rotary steam engine, 
1876, 57. 

Schuhknecht, A., belt fastener, 103. 

Schutte, L., Injector, 131. 

Schuyler, Col. J., 32, 36. 

Schuyler, P., 33. 

Schwartz hot-air engine, 176. 

Science Museum, London, 86, 90, 107. 

Sciple, H. M., steam engine, 1880, 52. 

Scotield, S. C, universal joint, 1870, 
103. 

Screw, mechanical element, 2. 

Secor, T. F., 36. 

Selden, G.. automobile patent, 147. 

Sellers, William, Giffard-Sellers injec- 
tors, 186.3, 186.5, 12S; 1868, 129; steam 
engine. 1872, 49. 

Sellers, William, & Co.. Inc., donors, 
129-131 : inj.vtors, 1876, 129 : ia«i7- 
1927. 130; 1900-1927, 131; 1925. 132; 
introduced Giffard injector, 126. 

Separators, centrifugal. (See Centrif- 
ugal .separators.) 

Sequin, boiler, 106. 

Sewell, W., and A. S. Cameron, steam 
pump, 1864, 134. 



200 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Seymour furnace walls, 114, 

Shaft, bearings, 103; couplings, 103; 
flexible, Stow, 1872, 103. 

Sharp and Curtenius, 32. 

Sharp, Stewart & Co., 126. 

Shlarbaum, H., oscillating engine, 47. 

Shock, W. H., 39. 

Siamese steam engine, 44. 

Sickels, F. E., drop cut-ofe, 1841, 61, 
62; 1852, 64; valve gear, 60. 

Silver, S. N., and L. S. Chandler, hy- 
draulic engine, 1878, 100. 

Simon, engine, 145. 

Simplex automobile engine, 165. 

Singley, S., antifriction alloy, 103. 

Sintz, C., carburetor, 167. 

Slaby & Braner, gas engine tests, 145. 

Smallman, J., 35. 

Smallman, Staudinger, and Roosevelt, 
boiler, 108. 

Smeaton, boiler, 105. 

Smith, B. H., windmill, 14. 

Smith, N. E., belt splicing, 102. 

Smithsonian Institution, 158, 171. 

Smoke jacks, 175. 

Soho (N. J.) engine works, 34, 35. 

Solenoid electric gear shift, 163. 

Somerset, E., Marquis of Worcester, 
steam engine, 25. 

South Carolina Railroad Co., 6. 

Southern, J., indicator improvement, 
89. 

Southern Railway System, donor of 
steam engine, 48. 

Spark plugs, 174. (See also Igniters 
and ignition devices.) 

Sparks, L. H., windmill, 11. 

Splitdorf Electrical Co., magneto, 174. 

Spring motor, Warren, 1880, 7. 

Stackhouse & Rogers, steam-engine 
manufacturers, 35. 

Stanley Automobile Co., 55. 

Stanley, F. E., and F. O., automobile 
engine, 1897, 54, 55. 

Starbuck, G. H., condenser, 1878, 88. 

Starters, engine, 174 ; generator, Apple, 
1911, 174. 

Staudinger, 36; Staudinger, Roosevelt, 
and Smallman, boiler, 108; Stau- 
dinger and Livingston, boiler, 105. 

Steam-boiler accessories, steam boilers, 
etc. (See Boilers, steam, etc.) 

Steam-engine accessories, 95-100. 
(See also Belt drives, Governors, In- 
dicators, Valve gears) : Bibliography, 
189; gate valve, Bramwell, 1859, 97; 
governor valve, Fitts, 1859, 98 ; lub- 
ricators, gravity oilers, 96; Harrison, 
1880, 95 ; Hay, 1888, 95 ; hydrostatic, 
96; oil clarifier (centrifugal), De 
Laval, 1931, 100; piston-rod packing, 
Hewitt. 1879. 98. 

Steam engines, atmospheric, 25, 27-33, 
36 ; "Automatic," Thompson and 
Hunt, 1875, 50 ; Westinghouse, Junior, 
c. 1900, 54; automobile, Locomobile, 



1901, 55; Stanley, first, 1897, 54; c. 
1923, 55; bibliography, 188; dia- 
phragm type, Mayhew, 1879, .52. 
Steam engines, general : Aeolipile, c. 
150, 24, 26, 59; Allaire, 36; Baker, 

1878, 51; beam (model), 60; Benson, 
1847, 44 ; Blackford, 1829, 43 ; Boulton 
and Watt, c. 1776, 31; c. 1801, 34; 
1805-6, 35; Branca, c. 1629, 26; 
Brown, c. 1790, 33 ; Buckeye, q. v., 
1875, 50; builders, early, .35-.36; Car- 
dan, 24 ; Chancellor Livingston, 41 ; 
Clermont, 39, 40; Colles, 1773-74, 32; 
compound, models by Wardlaw, 59; 
Corliss, G. H., q. v. ; de Cans, 24, 25, 
59: Ericsson, J., 1849, 46; 1858, 47; 
1864, 48 ; Evans, O., 1773-1819, 34, 35 ; 
exported, 1806. 35; first in America, 
1755, 32, 36 ; Fitch, 1786-87, 33 ; Fitch, 
Thornton, and Hall, 1790, 33 ; Fulton, 
1805-1806, 35, 39-^12; Heron, q. v.; 
Higginson, 1877, 51; history (early) 
24; history (in America), 32; hori- 
zontal (full size) 1864, 48; Horn- 
blower, 1755, 32, 36; indicator and 
diagram, 1840, 90 ; Kinsley, 1801, 84 ; 
Lighthall, 1838, 43; 1849, 46; Loper, 
1845, 44; 1849, 45; Manufacturers, 
early, 35-36; Maudslay and Field, 
1842, 43; Maxim, 1874, 50; Mayhew, 

1879, 52; McQueen, c. 1801, 34, 36; 
mercury vapor. Miller, 1877, 60; Nan- 
carrow, c. 1876, 33 ; Newcomen, q. v. ; 
New York waterworks, 1774-75, 1785, 
32; 1799 and 1801, 34; "Old Bess," 
1777 ; oscillating cylinders, q. v. ; 
Papin, c. 16.90, 24, 27, 59; Porta, 24; 
portable, Sciple, 1880, 52; radial, 
William Mont Storm, 1865, 49; Read, 
1788, 33 ; John V. Roach & Sons, 36 ; 
Roosevelt, Schuyler, and Mark, 1798- 
1800, 33, 34; Rumsey, 33, 37; at Sa- 
vannah, 1815, 42 ; Savery, 1698, 25, 27, 
59; Sciple, portable, 1880, 52; Small- 
man, 1802-1806. 35 ; Soho, N. J., 1798, 
34 ; Somerset, Marquis of Worcester, 
c. 1663, 25 ; steamboat, see Steam en- 
gines, marine; Stevens, 1804, 38; 
Stevens, Livingston, and Roosevelt, 
1798, 34; Storm, radial, 1865, 49; 
Thompson and Hunt, 50; triple ex- 
pansion, models by Wardlaw, 59 ; Van 
Deren, 1860, 59; vapor, carbon di- 
sulphide, Colwell, 1879, 101; vertical 
hoisting, 51 ; vertical, models by 
Wardlaw, 59 ; Watt, q. v. ; Willis, W. 
N., 59; wobble disk type, 45. 

Steam engines, marine : Balanced, 1864, 
48 ; Chancellor Livingston, 39, 41-42 ; 
Chief Justice Waite, 1888', 53; early 
experimenters, see also by name, 33- 
41 ; Ericsson, 1858, 47 ; 1864, 48 ; half- 
beam, 1849, 46; horizontal, 1845, 44; 
horizontal with vertical beam, 1838, 
43; 1849, 46; Lighthall, 1838, 43; 
1849, 46; Loper, 1845, 44; 1849, 45; 



INDEX 



201 



Maudslay and Field, 1842, 43-44; 
Rumsey, 1787, 37; Stevens, 1804, 38; 
walking beam, 1888, 53. 

Steam engines, oscillating cylinders, 
Fiske, 1880, 53; Graham, c. 1880, 52; 
piston. Baker, 1878, 51 ; Sellers, 1872, 
49 ; Shlarbaum, 1863, 47. 

Steam engines, rotary (see also Tur- 
bines, steam) : Baker and Baldwin, 
1839, 55; Gabriel, 1867, 56; Miller, 
1859, 56; Piatt, 1862, 56; Reily and 
Waldo, 1875, 57; Schofield, 1876, 57; 
unidentified, 59. 

Steam-engine valve gears. (See Valve 
gears, steam engine.) 

Steam gauges. (See Gauges, steam.) 

Steam pumps, 125, 133-138: Cameron 
and Sewell, 1864, 134 ; Corliss, q. v. ; 
Davies, 1880, 137; direct-acting, 133, 
135, 137 ; Dow, 1879, 137 ; duplex, 134, 
135 ; Knowles, 1879, 136 ; Moore, 1891, 
138 ; Sewell and Cameron, 1864, 134 ; 
simplex, Knowles, 1879, 136; Worth- 
ington, 1855, 133 ; 1859, 134 ; 1871, 135. 

Steam pump valves: Cameron, 1874, 
135; Frost, 1890, 138; King, valve 
gear, 135 ; Union Manufacturing Co., 
assignee, 138. 

Stearns and Hodgson, governor, 1852, 81. 

Steenstrup, Paul, 106. 

Stephenson, G., locomotive boilers, 106. 

Stephenson valve gears, 54, 55, 64. 

Stevens, E. A., 38 ; donor, 109. 

Stevens, F. B., condensers and still, 
1862, 1863, 87; grate bar. 1879, 123; 
valve gear, 1861, 66. 

Stevens, F. B., and R. L., valve gear, 66. 

Stevens, J., 6, 34-36; boiler, 107; 1804, 
109, 115 ; 1803-25, 109 ; safety valve, 
1825, 119 ; steamboat engine, 38. 

Stevens, J. C, boiler, 107. 

Stevens. R. L. and F. B., valve gear, 
1841, 66. 

Stevens Institute of Technology, 39, 
119; donor, 109. 

Sticker, F., injectors, 133. 

Stiker, F. P. and J. Firmenich, boiler, 
1875, 112. 

Still, sea water, Stevens, 1863, 87. 

Stillman, hot-air engine, 176. 

Stirling, A., boilers, 114, 115. 

Stirling hot-air engine, 175, 177. 

Stoker, Westinghouse, 117. 

Stokes, C. F. and C. E. McGlinchley, 
roller gear, 103. 

Stone, J. M., adjustable eccentrics, 1865, 
71. 

Storm, W. M., aerosteam engine, 182; 
steam engine, 1865, 49. 

Stoughton, Mrs. E. W., 181. 

Stow, N.. flexible shaft, 103. 

Strabo, 14. 

Street, R., gas engine, 144. 

Stromberg carburetor, 163. 



Stuart, H. A., and C. R Binney 

(Hornsby-Akroyd engine), 157. 
Stuart, W. W., donor, 184. 
Sturtevant and McQueen, 35. 
Sulzer Brothers, valve gear, 71. 
Swain, A. M., hydraulic turbine, 18. 
Sweeney, T. J., injector, 133. 

Tabor, Amos, windmill, 10. 

Tarr, aerosteam engine, 182. 

Thermostiit, Fulton, on gasoline engine, 
164. 

Thompson, J. "W., indicator, 93: valve 
gear, 1875, 69, 85. 

Thompson, J. W., and N. Hunt, governor, 
69; 1878, 85; steam engine, c. 1875, 
50. 

Thomson, E., and E. J. Houston, cen- 
trifugal creamer, 1881, 99. 

Thornton, W., steamboat engine, 33. 

Thurston, R. H., 158. 

Tillotson carburetor, 168; 1926, 172; 
1927, 173. 

Tillotson Manufacturing Co., donor, 172, 
173. 

Torricelli, 25. 

Transmission of power, mechanical, 
102-103. 

Traxler, F. K., dog power, 1878, 7. 

Treadles, Bozerian, 7; Mott, 7. 

Treadmills, 5-7. 

Tresca tests, 144. 

Trevithick, R., boiler, 105. 

Trowbridge, W. P., boiler, 1865, 114. 

Turbines, hydraulic {see also "Water 
motors. Water wheels) : Bibliog- 
raphy, 188; first in United States, 
17; impulse or tangential, 18-23: 
Atkins. 1853, 18, 19; bucket, develop- 
ment, 19; Doble, 22, 23; Girard, 19; 
hurdy-gurdy, 18, 19: jets, control of, 
19, 20: Pelton, 22, 23. Reaction, 15- 
18, 24: axial flow, first, 14, 15; Bar- 
ker, 1743, 15; Boyden, 1844, 17: 
Brooks, 1880, 21; at Conowingo, 24; 
double runner. Leffel, 18, 22: draft 
tube, 18 ; efficiency of early, 17 ; 
Fourneyron, 16, 17 ; Francis, 17, 18 ; 
Greek mills, 14, 15; guide vanes, 18; 
high head, 18 ; Howd, 17 ; Hydraucone, 
18; I. P. Morris, 18: Jonval, 16, 17; 
Kilburu, 17 ; mixed flow, IS ; Morris, 
17; Nor.se mills, 14, 15; Poncelet, 16, 
18; radial flow, 16, 17; Scotch mills, 
16; seal rings, 18. 

Turbines, steam (see also Steam en- 
gines, rotary) : Bibliography, 188; 
Branca, 26 : Davis, static pressure, 
59; De Laval, 1883, 100, 189; Gen- 
eral Electric. 1926-1930, 57; Heron, 
24, 26, 59. 

Tuthill, N., windmill, 10. 

Twibill, G., boiler, 114. 



49970—39- 



-14 



202 



BULLETIN 173, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Uhry, H., and H. A. Luttgens, valve 
gearing, 1855, 64. 

Union Manufacturing Co., assignees, 
138. 

United American Bosch Corporation, 
donor, 173. 

United Fire Engine Co., No. 3, donor, 
140. 

United States Military Railroad De- 
partment, engine, 1864, 48. 

Universal joints, 103. 

Uppercu, I. M., donor, 168. 

Vacuum vapor "power plant," 1933, 58. 

Valve gears, steam engine, 60-79: 
Adams. 1838. 62; Allen, 1841, 62; 
1842, 63; 1848, 63; 1855, 64; 1857, 
65; Babcock & Wilcox, 1866, 67; 
Bartlett, 1867, 68; Brown and Bur- 
leigh, 1856, 69; Buckeye Engine Co., 
69; Carhart, 1866, 67; Corliss, 1849, 
71 ; 1851, 72 : 1859, 74 ; 1860, 77 ; 1875, 
76; 1876, 77; 1882, 78, 79; cut-ofifs: 
drop, 60-65, 71-74, 76-79 ; first. Watt, 
1776, 1782, 60 ; riding, 62, 67 ; rotary, 
66 ; separate valves, 63 ; variable, 60 ; 
Oilman, 1850, 65; Greene- Wheelock, 
70; link motion, 54, 55, 64; Otto and 
Bell, 1883, 70; poppet, 61-65, 68; 
Richards, 1866, 68 ; Rogers, 1845, 71 ; 
Sickels, 1841, 60-62 ; 1852, 64 ; steam- 
boat, Stevens, 1861, 66; Steenstrup, 
boiler, 1828, 106; Stephenson, 54, 55, 
64 ; Stevens, F. B., 1861, 66 ; Stevens, 
F. B. and R. L., 1841, 66 ; Stone, 1865, 
71 ; Sulzer Brothers, 71 ; Thompson, 
1875, 69, 85; Uhry and Luttgens, 
1885, 64; Wiegand, 1857, 65; Whee- 
lock, 1885, 70; Woodbury, 1859. 66. 

Valves, steam-engine : Balanced, 67, 68 ; 
cone valve, 64 ; governor, 79, 98 ; grid- 
iron plug valves, 70 ; slide valve, 70 ; 
throttle, 79, 98. 

Van Deren, G. W., steam engine, 59. 

Van Dusen's Garage, donor, 174. 

Vapor engines, carbon disulphide, 1879, 
101 ; mercury, 1877, 60 ; vacuum vapor 
power plant, 1933. 58. 

Vertical windmill, 1879, 12. 

"Viking Tower," 9. 

Vincent G. Apple Laboratories, donor, 
174. 

Vinci, Leonardo da, 8; chimney jack, 
175. 

Vitruvius, water mill, 14. 

Voight, H., 33. 115. 

Volcanic engine, Evans, 146, 182. 

von Guericke, 25, 26. 

Vulcan electric gearshift, 163. 

Wadsworth, H., boiler models, 139. 
Waldo, P. G. and H. Reily, rotary 

steam engine, 1875, 57. 
Walker, B. P., belt joint, 102. 
Ward, J. B., 47. 
Warden, H., licensee, 157. 



Wardlaw, F. A., model of fire engine, 
141 ; steam engines, 59. 

Wardlaw, F. A., and F. A. Jr., donors, 
59, 141. 

Warren, J., spring motor, 1880, 7. 

Washburn, aerosteam engine, 182. 

Washington, George, 5, 35. 

Water engine, Leuchsenring rotary, 
1880, 21. 

Water-level alarm, Frick, 1858, 120. 

Water mill, first, 14 ; gearing, c. 1870, 20. 

Water motors, Colton, 1881, 24; Lamb, 
1865, 24; mills, 1887, 24; domestic 
Eyster, 1879, 21 ; Haworth, 1878, 20. 

Water wheels {see also Pelton, Turbines, 
hydraulic, and Water motors) : Bibli- 
ography, 188; breast wheel, 15; 
Brooks, 1880, 21 ; current wheel, 14, 
18; Doble, 1899, 22; efficiencies of, 
15, 17 ; firsts, the Noria, chain of 
buckets, water mill, 14 ; over-shot, 15 ; 
Poncelet, 15, 18; Roman mill, 14; 
tangential, 18 ; undershot, 15, 16. 

Watkins, J. E., donor, 86. 

Watt, James, 5. 25; boilers, 104-105; 
condenser, 1769, 25, 96 ; engines, 31 ; 
engine at Savannah, 1815, 42 ; engine 
cut-off, 60; engine indicators, 89, c. 
1796, 90; indicator diagram, 90. (See 
also Boulton & Watt.) 

Webster Electric Co., magneto and ig- 
niter, 174. 

Webster furnace, 117. 

Weis, A. L., donor, 53. 

Weis, F. N., model river steamboat en- 
gine, 53. 

Westinghouse, stoker, 117 ; junior steam 
engine, c. 1900, 54. 

Weston, T. A., chain hoist, 4. 

West Point Foundry, 39. 

Wheel-and-axle, mechanical element, 2. 

Wheeler, L. H., windmill, 10. 

Wheeler, S., universal joint, 1869, 103. 

Wheeler, W. A., windmill, 1879. 12. 

Wheelock, J., valve, 1885, 70; Greene- 
Wheelock valve, 70. 

"Whirlwind," Wright engine, 165. 

White, W. M., hydraucone, 18. 

Whiting, J. M., aerosteam engine, 1879, 
182. 

Wiegand, S. L., valve gear, 1857, 65; 
boiler furnace, 110. 

Wilcox, S., Jr., boiler, 108, 114; hot-air 
engine, 176. 

Wilcox, S., Jr., and G. H. Babcock, boil- 
ers, 1867 and 1876, 115 ; steam gener- 
ator, 1876, 116; valve gear, 1866, 67. 
(See also Babcock & Wilcox Co.) 

Wilkinson, D., 33. 

Willet, A. W., 31. 

Williams, Hitzeroth, and Macdouald, 
rope drive, 103. 

Willis, W. N., steam engine, 59. 

Willys-Knight, engine, 1927-28, 164. 

Willys-Overland, Inc., donors, 164. 

Wind-electric generators, 11 ; Farmer, 
1880, 13. 



INDEX 



203 



Windmills, 7-14 : Airplane-propeller, 11 ; 
American type, 9, 11, 13 ; Benson, 
1878, 14 ; Bevil, 1880, 13 ; bibliography, 
187 ; brakes, 8, 13 ; Burnham and 
Halladay, 10 ; construction, early, 8 ; 
Cook, 1878, 14 ; Cottle, 1879, 13 ; Cru- 
saders brought to Europe, 8 ; direct- 
ing into wind, 8-11, 13 ; Dutch type, 
a Flemish invention, 9 ; Dutch type in 
America, 9, 10 ; electric generators, 
11; Farmer, 11, 13; firsts, authentic 
record, 1191, 8 ; wind wheels, 7, 8 ; 
governors, 9, 10 ; Halladay and Burn- 
ham, 1854, 10; Halladay Co., 10; 
Heron, c. 150 A. D., 8 ; horizontal, 11 ; 
Kumme system, 11 ; "Magnus effect," 
11; Monitor, 1881, 11; at Newport, 
1677, 9 ; paddle wheel, horizontal and 
vertical, 12; Perry, T., experiments, 
10, 11 ; improved efficiency, 11 ; post 
mills, 8, 9 ; prairie, 12 ; pulley winder, 
9; Smith, E. H., 1878, 14; smock, 8; 
Sparks, Monitor, 1881, 11 ; tower mills, 
9; vertical, 12; Wheeler, 1879, 12; 
Wood, 1879, 14, 

Wind power, 7-14. 

Wind wheels, 7, 11. 



Winslow-Baker-Meyeriug Corporation, 
donor, 184. 

Winton, A., automobile engine, 165 ; car- 
buretor, 167. 

Wittig, W., and W. Hees, gas engines, 
1879, 154, 155 ; 1880, 147. 

Wood, H. M., windmill, 14. 

Woodbury, D. A., shaft governor, 1870, 
83 ; valve gear, 1859, 66. 

Woolf's boiler, 105. 

Worcester, Marquis of, steam engine, 25. 

Worthington, H. R., direct-acting pump, 
1855, 133 ; "duplex" pumps, 1859, 134 ; 
1871, 135. 

Worthington, H. R., and W. H. Baker, 
direct-acting pump, 1849, 134 ; water- 
level gauge, 1847, 119. 

Wotapek, J., injector, 1884, 130. 

Wright aircraft engines, 165. 

Yale and Towne Manufacturing Co., 

donor, 3. 
Youle, J., iron castings, 36. 

Zenith carburetor, 168, 171. 172. 
Zenith-Detroit Corporation, donor, 171, 
172. 



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