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Dickinson Seminary 

Junior College 


Preparatory School 



Entered at the Post Office at Williamsport, Pa., 

as second class matter under the Act of Congress, 

August 24, 1912 

Vol. 14 FEBRUARY, 1931 No. 1 

Issued Suarterly 
August, November, February and May 





Dickinson Seminary 


REGISTER FOR 1930-1931 


FOR 193M932 




Monday, January 5 Christmas Recess Ends 

Tuesday, January 6 Classes Resume 

Friday, January 30 First Semester Closes 

Saturday, January 31 Second Semester Begins 

Wednesday, April 1 Easter Recess Begins 

Tuesday, April 7 Easter Recess Ends 

Wednesday, June 10 Commencement 


Monday, September 14 Registration of Day Students 

Tuesday, September 15 Registration of Boarding Students 

Wednesday, September 16 Classes Begin 

Friday, September 18 Reception by Christian Associations 

Sunday, September 20 Matriculation Service 

Friday, October 16 Faculty Musical Recital 

Friday, October 23 Reception by President and Faculty 

Thursday, November 26 Thanksgiving Day 

Friday, December 18 Christmas Recess Begins 

Monday, January 4 Christmas Recess Ends 

Tuesday, January 6 Classes Resume 

Friday, January 29 First Semester Closes 

Saturday, January 30 Second Semester Begins 

Wednesday, March 23 Easter Recess Begins 

Tuesday, March 29 Easter Recess Ends 

Monday, June 6 Senior Reception 

Wednesday, June 8 Commencement 


John W. Long, President 

A.B., D.D., Dickinson College; Drew Theological Seminary. 
Dickinson Seminary 1921- 

J. Milton Skeath, Dean Orientation, Mathematics 

A.B., Dickinson College; M.A., University of Pennsylvania. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1921- ; Dean, 1925- 

MiNNiE V. Taylor, Dean of Women Sociology 

Ph.B., Syracuse University; Graduate Work, Columbia and Syra- 
cuse Universities. 

Santiago College for Girls, Santiago, Chile, S. A., 1906-1912; Social 
Worker, 1915-1930; Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

JoHN G. CoRNWELL, Jr. Chemistry, Biology 

A.B., Dickinson College; A.M., University of Pennsylvania; Grad- 
uate Work, Columbia University. 
Hanover High School, 1921-1923; Dickinson Seminary, 1923- 

George C. Camp English 

B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University; M.A., Ohio State University. 
Instructor in English 1926, Teaching Fellow in English 1927-1928, 
Ohio Wesleyan University; Instructor in English, Ohio State 
University, 1928-1930; Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

JoHN M. Kelso Latin, Greek, History 

A.B., A.M., Dickinson College; B.D., Drew Theological Seminary; 

Graduate Work, University of Pennsylvania. 
Wesley Collegiate Institute, 1922-1929; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

Phil G. Gillette Spanish, French, German 

A.B., Ohio University; M.A., Ohio State University. 
Kenmore High School, 1926-1928; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

Cautious a. Choate Bible, Religious Education, College Pastor 
A.B., Friends University; B.D., Drew University; B.A., Cambridge 

University; additional work, Columbia University. 
Macksville (Kansas) High School, 1922-24; Belmont (Kansas) High 

School, 1924-25; Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Charles S. Williams Commercial Law, Political Economy 

A.B., Dickinson College; B.L., Dickinson Law School; Member 

Pennsylvania Supreme Court Bar. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Marie Eugenie Vigneron English, Public Speaking 

A.B., Skidmore College; M.A., Cornell University. 
Woodlawn Junior High School, 1927-1928; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

RuTH Inez Kapp History 

B.A., Pennsylvania State College; Graduate Work, Pennsylvania 

State College. 
Clearfield High School, 1923-1924; Dickinson Seminary, 1924-1928, 


Charlotte MacLear French, Spanish 

B.A., Connecticut College for Women; Alliance Francaise, Paris; 

Graduate Work, Columbia University. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1928- 

Elliott Chidsev Armstrong Latin 

A.B., A.M., D.D., Lafayette College; B.D., Union Theological Semi- 
South Orange Academy, 1880-1882; Principal, 1881-1882; New York, 
1883-1886; private teaching, 16 years; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

RoBERT Wilson Heisel English, Physical Education 

B.S., Washington and JeflFerson College; Graduate Work, Butler 

Lock Haven High School, 1928-1930; Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Paul E. Smith English; Assistant, Physical Education 

A.B., Dickinson College. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Eleanor J. Fitch Science, Physical Education for Girls 

A.B., Wells College; Graduate Work, Cornell University. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Francis R. Geigle Commercial Subjects; Assistant, 

Physical Education 
Extension Course, Bucknell University; Indiana State Teachers Col- 
lege, Summer Sessions. 
Trevorton High School, 1926-1929; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

Grace E. Westover Commercial Subjects 

Wyoming College of Business; Extension Course Susquehanna Uni- 
Dickinson Seminary, 1930- 

Minnie Mae Hooven Academic Department 

M.E.L., Dickinson Seminary. 

Pennington Seminary, 1905-1911; Dickinson Seminary, 1897-1906, 

Harold Austin Richey Piano 

Pennsylvania College of Music; Mus.B., Mus.M., Oberlin College; 

American Conservatory, France. 
Oberlin College, 1921-1923; Converse College, 1924-1925; Director of 

Music Department, Dickinson Seminary, 1926- 

Mrs. Myrra Bates Voice 

Sophia Newcomb College; Chicago Musical College; Studied Voice 
with Arthur J. Hubbard, Boston; Mme. Mina Lenz, New York 
Coached Oratorio and Opera with Richard Hageman, Chicago ; Dick- 
inson Seminary, 1926- 

Marion Affhauser Piano 

Mus.B., Oberlin College. 

Head of Piano Department, Pacific University, 1925-1926; Dickin- 
son Seminary, 1926- 

Florence Dewey Violin, Theoretical Subjects 

London Conservatory of Music; New England Conservatory of 

Music; Graduate Work, Institute of Musical Art of the Juil- 

liard Foxmdation. 
Neighborhood Music School, 1926-1928; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

LuciE Mathilde Manley Art 

Elmira College for Women; Art Students' League, New York; Pri- 
vate Study, Boston, Mass., and Florence, Italy. 
Mansfield State Teachers College; Westminster College; Dickinson 
Seminary, 1920. 

Harriet Enona Roth Commercial Art, Costume Design, 

Interior Decoration 
Pennsylvania Museum, School of Industrial Art; Graduate Work, 
School of Industrial Art. 

Scranton Schools and Private Teaching, 1922-1926; Dickinson Semi- 
nary, 1926- 

Charlotte Hoy Librarian 

Ohio University; A.B., Pennsylvania State College; Graduate Work, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
State College Library, 1927-1928; University of Pennsylvania Li- 
brary, 1928-1929; Dickinson Seminary, 1929- 

Mrs. Lulu Brunstetter Assistant Librarian 

Bloomsburg State Normal. 
Dickinson Seminary, 1925- 



The School 

grade boarding school for both sexes. It offers two years 
of college and four years of preparatory work, also 
courses in music, art, expression, home economics, and business. 


It is located at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, "The Queen City 
of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River," on the famed Sus- 
quehanna Trail, midway between Buffalo, New York, and Washing- 
ton, D. C. Statistics prove it to be the healthiest city in the State 
of Pennsylvania, and it is reported to be the third healthiest city in 
the United States. Williamsport is famous for its picturesque 
scenery, its beautiful homes, and the culture and kindness of its 
people. The Pennsylvania, the Reading, and the New York Central 
Railroads, with their fast trains, put it within two hours' reach of 
Harrisburg, four and a half hours of Philadelphia, and six hours 
of Pittsburgh. 


Williamsport Dickinson Seminary was founded in 1848 by a 
group of men of Williamsport under the leadership of Rev. Benja- 
min H. Crever, who, hearing that the old Williamsport Academy 
was about to be discontinued, proposed to accept the school and 
conduct it as a Methodist educational institution. Their offer was 
accepted and, completely reorganized, with a new president and 
faculty, it opened September, 1848, as Dickinson Seminary, under 
the patronage of the old Baltimore Conference. It was acquired 
in 1869 and is still owned by the Preachers' Aid Society of the 
Central Pennsylvania Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and is regularly chartered under the laws of the State of 
Pennsylvania. It is not a money-making institution. All of its 
earnings as well as the generous gifts of its friends have been spent 
for maintenance and improvements. During a large part of its his- 
tory its curriculum covered the work now included in a high school 

course and at the same time included about two years of college 
work. By its charter it is empowered to grant degrees, which au- 
thority was for a time exercised. In 1912 it began to confine itself 
to the college preparatory field and continued in that field till 1929. 
After considering both the opportunity and the need of doing more 
advanced work, the Board of Directors at their meeting in October, 
1928, voted to continue the college preparatory and general 
academic work, and to add two years of college work, paralleling 
the freshman and sophomore years in a liberal arts college. These 
junior college courses are outlined herein and may be found on 
later pages of this catalogue. 

Grounds and Buildings 

The campus is located near the center of the City on a slight 
eminence, which causes the Seminary to be affectionately referred 
to as "the school upon the hilltop." Stately elms, maples, and trees 
of other variety add beauty and dignity to the campus and form an 
attractive setting for the imposing buildings. To the south and 
across the Susquehanna, within twenty minutes' walk, is the beau- 
tiful White Deer Range of the Allegheny Mountains, affording a 
view of perennial charm. To the north are the Grampian Hills. In 
fact Williamsport, "beautiful for location," is seldom surpassed or 
equaled in its wealth of beautiful scenery. 

On the campus stand the buildings conveniently grouped. They 
are of brick and steel construction, heated by steam from a central 
plant, lighted by electricity and supplied throughout with hot and 
cold water and all modern conveniences. The rooms are large, airy 
and well lighted. 

The Main Building is an imposing structure of brick and occu- 
pies the central part of the campus. In this building are the ad- 
ministrative offices, dining room, library, chapel, school parlor, class 
rooms, and dormitories. There are hardwood floors throughout. 

Bradley Hall is the Fine Arts Building. It was erected in 1895 
of red brick and is modern in construction. The splendid music 
studios and practice rooms, the art studios, and the accommodations 
for the Home Economics Department are here. The dormitory 

rooms in this building are large and aflford splendid quarters for 
the girls in the Junior College. 

The Service Building is also of red pressed brick and is a mod- 
ern fireproof building. The basement and the first floor house the 
heating plant and the laundry. The second and third floors contain 
dormitories and are used for the boys of the Junior College. 

The Maids' Building is located directly back of the Main Build- 
ing and provides quarters for the maids employed by the school. 

The New Gymnasium 

The new gymnasium, which was dedicated November 8, 1924, 
meets the needs for more adequate equipment in the department of 
Physical Education which was felt for a long time. 

The building itself is 110 ft. by 88 ft. 6 in., of semi-fireproof 
construction, and of beautiful design. The exterior is of red brick 
corresponding with Bradley Hall and the Service Building, with 
limestone and granite trimmings. A feature of the exterior archi- 
tecture is a balcony over the entrance portico. 

Entrance to the new building is through a pretentious vestibule 
flanked on either side with stairs of ornamental iron and marble. 
Leading from the entrance hall is a door to a retiring room for 
women, provided with ample toilet facilities. To the left is a room 
for the Physical Director and an examination room, from which 
point of vantage the entire gymnasium is under the personal super- 
vision of the Physical Director at all times. 

The basement includes a modern swimming pool 20x60 ft., 
equipped with a sterilization and filtration plant, that necessitates 
changing the water only four times a year. The pool is constructed 
of tile and is amply lighted, with large sash to the open air making 
a sunlit pool at nearly all hours of the day. 

There are also two bowling alleys of latest design with separate 
private rooms and showers for both home and visiting teams. Pro- 
vision for private dressing rooms and shower rooms for girls and 
women is made. 

The gymnasium floor proper is 90x65 ft. with a stage at the 
easterly end so that the main floor can readily be converted into an 
auditorium if need be, suitable for recitals and even more preten- 
tious productions. In every way the building is a center of athletic, 
social and cultural activities. 


The purpose of Dickinson Seminary is to prepare students for 
their life work in a homelike religious atmosphere at a minimum 
cost. In its Preparatory Department it fits its students for any 
college or technical school. For those who do not plan to go to 
college it offers exceptionally strong courses leading to appropriate 
diplomas. In the Junior College Department it aims to give two 
years of college work under the most favorable conditions, especially 
appealing to those who graduate from high school at an early age 
and who would like to take the first two years of college work un- 
der conditions affording more intimate personal contacts with the 
teachers and assuring personal interest and helpful guidance. It 
offers a large amount of college work in the form of electives to 
those whose college career will likely be confined to two years. 

A Home School 

The Seminary recognizes the fact that it is more than a school. 
It accepts responsibility for the home life of its students as well. 
Every effort is put forth to make the Seminary as home like as pos- 
sible. Here lasting friendships are formed, and memories are 
stored up to which they may, in future years, look back with affec- 
tion and pride. 

Cultural Influences 

The Seminary aims to develop in its students an easy familiarity 
with the best social forms and customs. Intercourse with young 
people of both sexes in the dining hall, at receptions and other 
social functions, together with frequent talks by instructors, do 
much in this way for both girls and boys. Persons of prominence 
are brought to the school for talks and lectures, and excellent 
talent provides for recreation and entertainment. Two courses of 


entertainment are provided by community organizations which 
bring the best artistic talent to the city. Students whose grades 
justify it are permitted and urged to take advantage of these op- 

Religious Influences 

The Seminary is a religious school. It is not sectarian. At 
least four religious denominations are represented on its Board of 
Directors. Every student is encouraged to be loyal to the church 
of his parents. The atmosphere of the school is positively religious. 
Every effort is made to induce students to enter upon the Christian 
life and be faithful thereto. 

A systematic study of the Bible is required of all students. 
Regular attendance is required at the daily chapel service. Stu- 
dents attend the Sunday morning service at one of the churches in 
the city. On Sunday evening all attend a Vesper Service held in 
the school chapel. There is a weekly Prayer Service conducted by 
the President, a member of the faculty, or a visiting speaker. There 
are chapters of Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciations that do active work in promoting the religious life of the 

Through the generosity of the late Honorable M. B. Rich, for 
eighteen years President of the Board of Directors, a Department 
of Religious Education has been established in the school, and the 
professor in charge of this department is also COLLEGE PAS- 
TOR and gives a large portion of his time in promoting a helpful 
religious atmosphere in the school and in personal interviews with 
students on matters of vital interest to them. 


It is aimed to develop in each student a sense of loyalty to the 
Seminary and a sense of fitness in his actions through the appeals 
of ideals and examples. Offenses are dealt with by the withdrawal 
of certain student privileges; while good work in class room and 
good conduct in school life are rewarded by special privileges 
granted only upon the attainment of certain levels of scholarship 
and deportment. 


It is understood that students entering Dickinson Seminary do 
so with the intention of making an honest effort to do satisfactory- 
work in every respect. Where a student is not able to conform to 
the school program, the parents or guardians are asked to withdraw 
the student from the school. 


Coeducation, properly administered, is both highly satisfactory 
and desirable. In a coeducational school where boys and girls asso- 
ciate under proper conditions and supervision their influences are 
mutually helpful. Boys become more refined and careful of their 
appearance and conduct. Girls learn to appreciate the sterling 
qualities of purposeful boys rather than the more flashy attractions 
of the fop when they are permitted to associate and compete with 
them in the activities of school life. 

The apartments of the girls are entirely separate from those of 
the boys. Proper supervision of the girls and boys is maintained 
at all times. 


The Faculty is composed of thoroughly trained, carefully se- 
lected Christian men and women. The two ideals they hold before 
themselves are scholarship and character. They live with the stu- 
dents, room on the same halls, eat at the same tables, and strive in 
every way to win their confidence and friendship. The Seminary 
aims to make the home and working conditions of the members of 
the faculty so pleasant they will be encouraged to do their very 
best work and look forward to years of pleasant and helpful service 
in the school. This policy has resulted in building up a faculty of 
which we are justly proud. 

Athletics and Physical Training (Boys) 

The object of this department is to promote the general health 
and the physical and intellectual efficiency of the students. Per- 
sistent effort is made to interest everybody in some form of indoor 
and outdoor sports. All forms of sane and healthful exercise are 


encouraged, but excesses and extravagances are discouraged. The 
athletic teams are carefully selected and systematically trained. 
They are sent into a game to win if they can, but more emphasis 
is placed upon playing the game fair and straight than upon win- 
ning. The Seminary is represented each year in inter-scholastic 
contests by football, basketball, baseball, track and tennis teams. 
An excellent athletic field offers every facility for football, base- 
ball, tennis, and other out-door sports. 

Athletics and Physical Training (Girls) 

The aim of this work is the care and the development of th^ 
body by means of appropriate exercises. The results to be achieved 
are better health, good poise, and the overcoming of such physical 
defects as will yield to corrective exercises. A portion of the time 
each week is given to physical culture with the purpose that the 
body may become free and more graceful. The gymnastic exercises 
consist largely of floor work and include arm and leg exercises, 
dumbbell, wand and Indian club work. All the girls are given 
training in basketball according to girls' rules. 


A part of the new equipment to meet the enlarged program of 
the Junior College is the library. A large, well lighted, and at- 
tractive room conveniently located in the main building has been 
provided. The equipment is entirely new including steel shelving, 
quartered oak tables and chairs, desk, filing cabinet, etc. The more 
than six thousand volumes in the old library were carefully as- 
sorted, retaining four thousand volumes, to which new carefully se- 
lected reference volumes have been added and will continue to be 
added. A trained full time librarian and a full time assistant are 
in charge and every effort is made to train the student in an intel- 
ligent use of the library with its facilities. 

The James V. Brown Library is within two squares of the 
Seminary. Its large collection of books as well as its courses of 
lectures and entertainments are freely open to all students of the 



The Board of Directors of Williamsport Dickinson Seminary 
at their fall meeting in October, 1928, decided to establish a Junior 
College Department with a desire to enlarge the scope of service 
and influence of the Seminary. This department offers the Fresh- 
man and Sophomore years of college work. It is not intended to 
interfere in any way with the excellent College Preparatory De- 
partment which the school has maintained from the beginning. The 
junior college work is organized on a separate basis. The college 
students room in separate dormitories and meet in separate classes; 
the faculty meets all of the standard requirements for college 
teachers, and the work is in all ways of a collegiate grade. 

The following considerations were taken into account in adding 
junior college work: 

In recent years the enrollment in institutions of higher learn- 
ing in Pennsylvania has increased rapidly, far above the average 
for the United States and without a proportionate increase in col- 
lege facilities. While a great many new high schools have been 
built and most communities have increased their high school facili- 
ties, few colleges have been established in the last fifty years. The 
lack in expansion and building equipment has resulted in over- 
crowding and limiting enrollment. 

Students are graduating from high schools at an early age. 
Crowding into the larger universities while so immature results in 
a large freshman mortality which every one, particularly the par- 
ents and young people themselves, would like to avoid. Attending 
a preparatory school after graduating from high school has its ad- 
vantages, but the scholastic work in that case is largely review while 
those who attend a Junior College get all the advantages of a 
boarding school and their scholastic work is of a collegiate grade. 


The Junior College offers many special advantages. Smaller 
classes, more frequent contacts with the professors, and larger op- 
portunity for self-expression are some of the most obvious advan- 
tages. Probably its chief justification is in helping every student 
to find himself before he enters into the larger life and freedom 
of the university. 

The Junior College was opened September, 1929, with an en- 
rollment of fifty students and with courses in Liberal Arts, Busi- 
ness Administration, and Secretarial Science. The standards for 
Junior Colleges set up by the Association of Colleges and Prepara- 
tory Schools of the Middle States and Maryland were met from 
the beginning. Additions were made to the faculty, a full time 
Librarian was added, the Library and Laboratories were enlarged, 
new furniture and equipment were added. Thus the conditions 
necessary to do satisfactory college work were secured from the 
outset. New courses will be added and additional members of the 
faculty will be secured as the enrollment and demand justify. 

The Seminary's enviable record made through eighty years of 
educational effort in which the highest standards of scholarship and 
character have been maintained is the best guarantee that this new 
department will be maintained on the same high level, embodying 
the best of the old and the new in educational theory and practice. 

Junior College Curricula 

The Junior College offers the following courses leading to a 
diploma or a certificate: 

I. Arts and Science. 

This course comprises the first two years of a standard four-year 
course in a senior college leading to a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of 
Science degree. 

II. General Course. 

This course is intended for students who do not look forward to a 
four-year college course or to advanced study. It aims to provide the 
essential intellectual background of an educated person, and to lay the 
foundations upon which may be built a solid structure of broad knowl- 
edge and good citizenship. 


III. Secretarial Science and Commerce and Finance. 

These courses are intended to furnish a fundamental business edu- 
cation in preparation for positions as secretaries and minor business 
executives. The Commerce and Finance Course also offers the studies 
in the first two years of a four-year college course in Commerce and 
Finance, leading to a Bachelor of Science degree. 

IV. Christian Workers* Course. 

The Christian Workers Course is intended primarily to fit yoimg 
women for positions as pastors' assistants. 

The large modern church, with its many and varied duties, sorely 
taxes the faithful pastor who feels the need of a trained assistant. 
The church may not be in a position and it may not desire to secure 
an assistant pastor or deaconess but would be glad to have someone 
with special training in various lines of church work. 

A young woman, trained in secretarial duties, with courses in 
Bible and Religious Education and with training in Public Speaking, 
Dramatics and Pageantry will be able to give the pastor and church 
invaluable help. 

She can take care of the oflB.ce, and, if necessary, act as financial 
secretary, and assist in Sunday School and other Young People's work. 
She can take charge of Children's Day and Christmas programs and 
present the truth most effectively in an occasional Sunday evening 
religious pageant. 

If she is musical, she will find an excellent opportunity to improve 
her ability by taking a course in the Music Department. 

A young woman with "gifts and graces" and with the training 
afforded by the above course will be a most valuable assistant to the 
overburdened pastor. She will find congenial employment and an op- 
portunity for unselfish service. 

V. Art.* 

These courses are intended for (1) those who desire to major in 
art in the Fine Arts College of a university; (2) those who desire to 
pursue advanced study in an Art School; (3) those who do not intend 
to pursue a professional art career, but who desire training in general 
art for its cultural and practical value. 

VI. Music. 

The Junior College offers a two-year course in music paralleling 
the first two years of courses in a conservatory. 

* For detailed statement of art courses see pages 51 and 62. 


Requirements for Admission 

Fifteen units of high school work are required for admission to 
the Junior College. Graduates of accredited high schools are ac- 
cepted on certificate. Listed below are the normal subjects re- 
quired for entrance to the various courses: 

Arts and General Secretarial Science 

Sciences and 

Commerce and 
Units Units Units 

English 3 3 3 

Foreign Language **2 *0 

History Ill 

Mathematics 2% 1 2 

Science Ill 

Electives 5^/2 9 8 

Total 15 15 15 

* See page 16. If work done in this course is to be offered for ad- 
vanced standing elsewhere 2 units of a foreign language must be offered 
for admission. 


In one language. 

To be admitted to the Music or Art Courses a student must 
present a diploma from an approved secondary school. 

Where the student wishes to pursue only special studies the 
above mentioned units are not applicable in detail. 

A candidate for admission to the Junior College presenting a 
diploma and 15 units of accredited secondary school work but lack- 
ing one or two units in either mathematics or foreign language, 
may be permitted to make up the work in the Preparatory Depart- 
ment and carry at the same time a reduced amount of college work. 

In addition to the above scholastic requirements every candi- 
date for admission must present a certificate of good moral charac- 
ter from some responsible person, a recommendation from his high 
school principal; and upon admission he must present a certificate 
of vaccination from his physician. 

* A unit of work represents a year's study in any subject in a second- 
ary school consisting of approximately a quarter of a full year's work. 
Four years of English, however, are considered as onlv three imits. 


Requirements for Graduation in Various Curricula 
The Seminary does not award degrees. Upon completion of 
65 semester hours of work the junior college diploma will be 

Arts and Science 


Credit Credit 

Orientation 1 English 6 

English 6 *Foreign Language 6 

•♦Mathematics or Science 6 or 8 Pliysical Education 2 

Foreign Language 6 Electives 18 

History 6 — 

Electives 6 Total 32 

Physical Education 2 

Total 33 or 35 

**A second foreign language may be substituted for mathematics or 

* Required in Sophomore year only if begun in college. 


Credit Credit 

Orientation 1 English 6 

English 6 Physical Education 2 

Physical Education 2 Electives 24 

Electives 24 — 

_ Total 32 

Total 33 

Necessary credit hours in both above courses may be chosen from the 
following electives: Psychology, History, Bible, Religious Education, Eco- 
nomics, Sociology, and Public Speaking. 

Secretarial Science 


Credit Credit 

English 101, 102 6 English B 6 

♦Secretarial Bookkeeping .... 6 Law 6 

Penmanship ^ Economics 6 

Spelling and [■ 6 *Shorthand 6 

Word Study ) *Typewriting 6 

♦Shorthand 6 ♦♦Office Practice 1 

♦Typewriting 6 Physical Education 2 

Physical Education 2 — 

Total 33 

Total 32 


Commerce and Finance 



Orientation 1 

English 101, 102 6 

Mathematics B 6 

Accounting 6 

Economics 6 

Physical Education 2 

Electives (History, Language 

Science, Typewriting, 

Shorthand) 6 

Total 33 



English B 6 

Law 6 

Physical Education 2 

Electives (History, Science, 

Language, Typewriting, 

Shorthand, Psychology, 

Sociology, Geography, 

Salesmanship) 18 

Total 32 

* Taken five times per week and allowed three credits per semester. 
** Twice per week and allowed one credit. 

Christian Workers Course 





English 101, 102 6 

Bible 6 

Religious Education 6 

( Shorthand 6 

■j Typewriting 6 

( Bookkeeping 6 

Physical Education 2 


Total 38 Total 38 

* Membership in Dramatic Class including actual experience in plays 

and pageants. 

+ If student has had previous secretarial training she may take any of 

the following subjects instead: Orientation, Psychology, Sociology. 



English 201, 202 6 

Bible 6 

Religious Education 6 

Shorthand 6 

Typewriting 6 

Public Speaking 6 

Physical Education 2 




Class Credit 

hrs. hrs. 

Cast I 9 3 

Portrait I 3 1 

Still Life I 6 2 

Design I 3 1 

Water Color 3 1 

Composition I 1 2 

Anatomy I 1 1 

Lettering 2 l^ 

Perspective 2 ^4 

English 3 3 

History and Appre- 
ciation of Art I ... 1 1 
Physical Education .... 2 2 


Class Credit 

hrs. hrs. 

Cast II 9 3 

Life I 6 2 

Still Life II 6 lYz 

Sketch 2 Vz 

Painting 5 2 

Composition II 1 2 

Anatomy II 1 2 

French or Academic 

Elective 3 3 

History and Appre- 
ciation of Art II .... 1 1 

Physical Education .... 2 2 

35 19 





The highest standard of musical excellence and artistic worth 
is maintained in every branch of the musical work at Dickinson. 
Special attention is called to the advantages attendant upon pur- 
suing a course of study in a regular and fully equipped school of 
music. Private and public recitals are frequently held, in which 
the students take part. Instrumental and vocal ensemble work 
also has a definite place in the curriculum. 

Full and complete courses are offered in Piano, Voice, Violin, 
Ear Training, History and Appreciation of Music, Elementary 
Theory, and Ensemble. All certificate and diploma students are 
required to do a certain amount of public recital work, and all other 
students are required to appear in private or public recitals at the 
discretion of the Director. The length of time necessary to com- 
plete any one course depends altogether on the ability and appli- 
cation of the student. All students in the Preparatory Music Course 
must give a group of at least three compositions in public in their 
senior year, and all students in the College Music Course must give 
a graduating recital in their final year of work. 

Two distinct courses are offered in music: (1) the Preparatory 
Music Course, which is a four-year course, designed to be con- 
veniently taken along with the College Preparatory Course, or the 
General Academic Course, or the History and Literature Course 
(see page 33) ; (2) the College Music Course, which combines in 
an excellent manner a detailed music course and a considerable 
amount of work in the Junior College. The College Music Course 
is a two-year course, and is open only to those students who pre- 
sent the same entrance qualifications as those who enter the regular 
Junior College work, namely, a high school diploma. In addition, 
it is understood that the student shall present musical qualifica- 
tions equivalent to the Preparatory Music Course as outlined in 
this catalogue (page 45) with the exception of the theoretical work. 
A diploma in College Music is granted to a student who success- 
fully completes the required work in the College Music Course as 
outlined in the catalogue below. 


The Music Department maintains a Choral Club, an Orchestra, 
and a String Ensemble. All Seminary students are eligible to 
these organizations. 

Outline of The Junior College Course in Music 

Note: A credit of one semester hour is given for each hour of class 

work. A credit of two semester hours is given for each hour of daily 
practice, six days per week. 

Piano Major Semester 


First Year 1st 2nd 

Piano — 2 lessons per week; 3 hours practice 6 6 

Harmony II 2 2 

English 3 3 

Ear Training II 1 1 

Piano Ensemble 1 1 

Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

16 16 

Second Year 

Piano — 2 lessons per week; 3 hours practice 6 6 

History and Appreciation of Music 3 3 

Recital 1 1 

Psychology 3 3 

Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

(AJl lessons in Piano with Director) 16 16 

Voice Major 

First Year 1st 2nd 

Voice — 2 lessons per week; 2 hours practice 4 4 

Piano — 1 lesson per week; 1 hour practice 2 2 

Harmony II 2 2 

Ear Training II 1 1 

Choral 1 1 

English 3 3 

Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

16 16 


Second Year .f'^T^ 

1st 2nd 

Voice — 2 lessons per week; 2 hours practice 4 4 

Piano — 1 lesson per week; 1 hour practice 2 2 

History and Appreciation of Music 3 3 

Recital 1 1 

Psychology 3 3 

Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

(All lessons in Piano with Assistant) 16 16 

Violin Major 

First Year -Z»* 2nd 

Violin — 2 lessons per week; 2 hours practice 4 4 

Piano — 1 lesson per week; 1 hour practice 2 2 

Harmony II 2 2 

Ear Training II 1 1 

Orchestra or String Ensemble 1 1 

English 3 3 

Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

16 16 

Second Year 1st 2nd 

Violin — 2 lessons per week; 2 hours practice 4 4 

Piano — 1 lesson per week; 1 hour practice 2 2 

History and Appreciation of Music 3 3 

Recital 1 1 

Psychology 3 


Elective (Preferably Modern Language) 3 3 

(All lessons in Piano with Assistant) 16 16 

Note: In the case of a student who possesses sufficient talent to pass 
the requirements in practical music as outlined in the Preparatory Music 
Course, but who has had no theoretical training, the student may take Har- 
mony I and Ear Training I in the first year of the College Music Course, 
and substitute Harmony H and Ear Training II for the Elective in the 
second year, though this will be allowed only in the case of a talented 
student, and depends entirely on the decision of the Director and the 
Music Faculty. 


Required Work in Piano 

First Year 

Scales: Majors and harmonic minors in thirds and sixths; the chro- 
matic scale. 

Arpeggios: The Mason Form. 

Studies: Czerny, Cramer, Hutcheson, Bach — 3-part Inventions. 

Pieces: Selected from standard composers. Intermediate sonatas. 

Second Year 

Scales: All majors and harmonic minors in combination forms: 
double thirds. 

Arpeggios: Combination forms — tenths, sixths, etc. 

Studies: Czerny, Cramer, dementi, Tausig, Pischna. 

Pieces: The standard composers, including sonatas and concertos. 

Required Work in Voice 

First Year 

Scales: The Chromatic Scale. 

Arpeggios: Dominant seventh to octave, tenth and twelfth. 

Studies: Vaccai Practical Method. 

Songs: Arias and songs by the best composers. 

Second Year 

Scales: Advanced study of scales in all forms. 

Arpeggios: Thorough study in all forms. 

Studies: Spicker; Masterpieces of Vocalization. 

Songs: Advanced study of repertoire, including opera and oratorio. 

Required Work in Violin 
First Year 

Scales: Major and melodic minors, 3 octaves; harmonic minors, 2 oc- 
taves. Thirds, sixths, octaves. 

Arpeggios: Majors and minors in 3 octaves. 
Studies: Kreutzer, Fiorello, Sevcik, Oruenberg. 
Pieces: Suitable pieces in intermediate grades. 

Second Year 

Scales: General scale study continued. 
Arpeggios: Further detailed study of arpeggios. 
Studies: Kreutzer, Fiorello, Rode. 

Pieces: Suitable pieces for recital purposes. The study of the classic 
sonatas, and concertos. 


Theoretical Courses 
Harmony II 

Simple modulations and original hymn writing. Harmonization 
of more difficult melodies and basses. Dominant ninth chords and 
their inversions ; modulations, chromatic chords, suspensions, passing 
tones, etc. Composition of original melodies for solo voice or in- 
strument with simple accompaniment. 

Ear Training II 

The study of sight-singing and ear-training, but including such 
material as will be used more in connection with the course in 
Harmony II. 

History and Appreciation of Music 

The development of counterpoint and polyphonic music. The 
Italian, French, and German opera. The development of instru- 
mental music. Special emphasis is given to the study of the lives 
and works of the great composers, classic and modern, with illus- 
tration by means of orthophonic victrola and piano and vocal num- 
bers. The study of music from the standpoint of the three ele- 
ments: rhythm, melody, and harmony. 

Piano Ensemble 

The study of the art of ensemble playing. Playing in various 
combinations ; four-hands, one piano ; four-hands, two pianos ; eight- 
hands, two pianos; twelve-hands, two pianos, etc. The study of 
sight-reading and accompanying. 

Harmony I 

The study of tone relations, intervals, scales, construction and 
progression of common chords ; inversion of triads. The harmoniza- 
tion of simple melodies and basses. Chords of the dominant seventh 
and its inversions; collateral chords of the seventh and their in- 


English Bible 

I. The Life and Teaching of Jesus. The life and teachings 
of Jesus are studied with the Synoptic Gospels as a basis. A com- 
parison with the Johannine presentation is then made. Distinc- 
tive features of the respective Gospels' portraits of Jesus are con- 
tinually pointed out. Emphasis is also placed on the significance 
for the present day of the material studied. 

First Semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 

II. The Literature of the New Testament. A general intro- 
duction to the literature of the New Testament. The various books 
will be studied with reference to their background, authorship, date, 
and general teaching. General critical questions and those peculiar 
to each book will be considered. 

Second Semester. Three hours. Offered 1931-32. 

III. The Literature of the Old Testament. A general introduc- 
tion to the more important books of the Old Testament. Questions 
as to the nature, authorship, and general teaching of these books will 
be discussed. Special attention will be directed to those features 
which aid in the preparation for teachings of Christianity. 

Second Semester. Three hours. Offered 1931-32. 

IV. The Prophets and Their Prophetic Messages. A general 
outline study of the history of the Hebrews will be followed by a 
special study of the periods of prophetic activity. The nature, 
function, and development of prophecy will then be discussed. 
This, in turn, will be followed by a detailed study of the individual 
life and work of the greater prophets. 

Second Semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 

V. St. Paul and His Epistles. A study of the life and teach- 
ings of St. Paul as presented in the Acts and the Apostles' great 
Epistles. An effort will be made to distinguish the features which 
arise from Judaism, Hellenism, and his own experience. 

First Semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 


VI. How We Got Our Bible. A general study of the rise of a 
religious literature among the Hebrews and early Christians, the 
choosing of the books of the Bible, and the transmission of the 
Bible to the present age. The course will include a study of the 
history of the English translations and a comparison of modern 

Second Semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 


I. General Biology. A study of the fundamental facts and 
principles relating to the structure and activities of living organ- 
isms, both plants and animals; laboratory examination of a series 
of type forms passing from the simplest organisms to Pteridophytes 
and Crustacea. 

Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory work. First semester. 
Credit three units. 

II. A continuation of Course I. A study of the general prin- 
ciples and theories of biology, the relations of organisms with one 
another and with their environment; laboratory study of the struc- 
ture and physiology of flowering plants, and of a series of selected 
vertebrate animal forms leading up to a brief study of the anatomy 
and physiology of the human body. 

Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory work. Second semes- 
ter. Credit three units. 


101. An introductory course in general chemistry to develop 
the meaning of those terms and ideas essential to an understanding of 
the science. There is a careful study of the atomic, kinetic-molecular, 
and ionization theories, and their relation to chemical action. Some 
of the non-metallic elements and their compounds are discussed, 
giving opportunity for practical illustrations of the various laws 
and theories. 

Lecture and recitation, three hours per week, first semester. 
Laboratory, four hours per week. Credit four units. 


102. A descriptive study of the preparation, properties, and 
uses of the important non-metallic elements not discussed during the 
first semester; a brief study of the most important metals, including 
metallurgical process and main analytical reactions. Both metals 
and non-metals are discussed in relation to their atomic structures 
and the periodic classification of the elements. 

Lecture and recitation, three hours per week, second semester. 
Laboratory, four hours per week. 

201. A study through lectures, discussions, and problems of 
the theory of qualitative analysis, accompanied by laboratory work 
on the methods of anion and cation separations. Lectures and reci- 
tations, two hours per week; laboratory, four hours per week. 

First semester. Three hours' credit. 

202. A continuation of 201. 
Second semester. Three hours' credit. 

Courses in Commerce and Finance 

Principles of Economics. This is a general course in Economic 
theory. Economic terminology, business organization, value, ex- 
change, production, consumption and similar subjects of theory 
will be emphasized. The fundamental relation of this subject to 
other sciences is shown. 

First semester. Three hours. 

Economic Problems. This is a continuation of the Principles of 
Economics but is concerned primarily with problems of distribution. 
Wages, profits, interest, rent, tariff, social control of industry and 
kindred questions will be treated. 

Second semester. Three hours. 

Elementary Accounting. This course develops the various types 
of statements, books of final and original entry of sole proprietor- 
ship and partnership businesses. Posting, closing ledgers, depreci- 
ation and reserves, the work sheet, controlling accounts will receive 
the required attention. 

First semester. Three hours. 


Advanced Accounting. This is a continuation of Elementary 
Accounting but will be confined to corporation accounting and ac- 
counts peculiar to it. A more advanced analysis of accounting re- 
ports and statements will be followed. 

Second semester. Three hours. 

Economic Geography. The purpose of this course will be to 
trace the effects of climate, conformation, and other physical factors 
on commercial and industrial development. 

First semester. Three hours. 

Salesmanship. The leading types of wholesale, retail, staple, 
and specialty selling will be emphasized. The personal sales proc- 
ess ; construction and delivery of sales talks ; steps in a sale will be 

Second semester. Three hours. 

Business Law. A consideration of contracts, agency, partner- 
ship, and the law of corporations will constitute the basis for this 

First semester. Three hours. 

Business Law. This is a continuation of the first semester's 
work and will cover the law of negotiable instruments; the law of 
sales ; the law of real and personal property, bailments, bankruptcy 
and guaranty and surety. 

Second semester. Three hours. 

Secretarial Science 

Elementary Typewriting. A systematic study of the technique 
of typewriting with no attempt at speed. The parts of the machine 
are studied and practice is given in copying matter and in the ar- 
rangement of business letters and papers. 

Advanced Typewriting. The work of this course includes speed 
practice, tabulating, mimeographing, operating the Ediphone, the 
preparation of manuscripts, and legal documents, an intensive study 
of the business letter. 

Elementary Stenography. A thorough study of the principles 
of Gregg Shorthand. 


Advanced Stenography. The aim of the course is the building 
up of a good shorthand vocabulary and the development of such 
speed in the taking of dictation and the preparation of typewritten 
transcript as shall be consistent with the maintenance of accuracy. 

Office Practice 

A study of methods and problems in office organization and 
such matters as office furniture and special appliances, records and 
systems, incoming and outgoing mail, special reports, and general 


101. Composition. Required of all freshmen. Exposition and 
argument. The aim is correct, intelligent expression. Constant 
practice in writing. Required conferences. Outside reading and 

First Semester. Three hours. 

102. Composition. Required of all freshmen. Continued prac- 
tice in writing. Two of the following are studied: the informal 
essay, artistic description, narration. Class discussion of one long 
literary work. Outside reading and reports. Prerequisite, English 

Second Semester. Three hours. 

101 (a). Review of elementary principles for students who 
are found to be deficient. 
Throughout the year. 

201-202. Survey of English Literature. The historical de- 
velopment of English literature as seen in its most important 
writers and their background. Forms and points of view. Lectures, 
discussion, reports. Required of sophomores. 

Three hours throughout the year. 


203. Advanced Composition. Formal exposition, formal and 
informal argument. Investigations, reports. Reading and analysis 
of selected models. Class discussions. Conferences. Suggested 
especially to all students who expect to pursue a senior college 

First Semester. Three hours. 

204. Advanced Composition. Continued practice in writing. 
Description, narration, the essay. Reading from current literature. 
Discussion. Conferences. 

Second Semester. Three hours. 

English B. Business English presents the basic elements and 
fundamentals of English adapted to the usages of modern business. 
It applies the principles of business letter writing, including let- 
ters of inquiry, adjustment, collections, applications, orders. Text- 
book and laboratory exercises in the analysis and revision of let- 
ters, reports, and advertisements. 

Three hours throughout the year. 


101. French. Intermediate French aims to review thoroughly 
the fundamentals of grammar, idioms, and verbs by means of com- 
position and conversation. Study of a modern French story. 

Prerequisite: Two or more years of preparatory French. 
First semester. Three hours. 

102. French. Continuation of French 101. Alternative exer- 
cises in composition and conversation. Reading of two short 

Prerequisite: French 101 or its equivalent. 
Second semester. Three hours. 

201. French. The Novel of the late 19th Century. Represen- 
tative works of this period read in class. Special reports and 

Prerequisite: French 102 or its equivalent. 

First semester. Three hours. 


202. French. 19th Century Drama. Representative works 
read and discussed. Special reports. Introduction to French 

Prerequisite: French 102 or its equivalent. 

Second semester. Three hours. 


The courses in German are designed with two main objectives: 
(1) To equip the student with a working knowledge of the lan- 
guage necessary to an understanding of German culture; and (2) 
to impart a knowledge of the development of German literature and 
to foster appreciation of its masterpieces. 

Because of its literary importance and because of its value in 
research, German is rapidly regaining its former position among 
foreign languages. Students who anticipate taking up graduate 
study or who expect to pursue the study of medicine or of chemistry 
should have a reading knowledge of the language. At least two 
years of college German is necessary for this purpose. 

101. Study of the essentials of grammar. Short compositions 
and verb drills. Thorough study of declensions and word order. 

First semester. Three hours. 

102. A continuation of the work of the first semester with the 
reading of one or more modern novels. 

Second semester. Three hours. 

103. German. Intermediate German. Emphasis on correct 
pronunciation, syntax, and idioms. Reading of a modern German 

Prerequisite: Two or more years of preparatory German. 
First semester. Three hours. 

104. German. Continuation of German 101. Intensive read- 
ing of two modern novels. Practice in conversation and composition. 

Prerequisite: German 101 or its equivalent. 
Second semester. Three hours. 


201. German. Reading of selected works of Goethe and 
Schiller. Lectures and special reports. 

Prerequisite: German 102 or its equivalent. 
First semester. Three hours. 

202. German. Reading of selected works of the Romantic 
school. Special reports, and lectures, on German contribution to 

Prerequisite: German 102 or its equivalent. 
Second semester. Three hours. 


Students desiring to begin the study of Greek are offered the 
following courses: 

101. Beginning Greek. Study of forms, and simple exercises 
for translation. 

First semester. Three hours. 

102. Continuing the work of the first semester, and reading 
in Xenophon's Anabasis, including exercises for translation into 

Second semester. Three hours. 

For students having had the equivalent of the foregoing, these 
courses are offered: 

103. Epic Poetry or Prose. Readings in Homer's Iliad, with 
study of forms; or. Selections from Lysias, including consideration 
of judicial proceedings in Athens. 

First semester. Three hours. 

104. Prose Literature. Introduction to Socrates and his 
thought through Plato's Apology of Socrates, Crito, and Xenophon's 

Second semester. Three hours. 
Collateral readings throughout the year. 


201. New Testament Greek. This course is designed to enable 
the student to read with ease and to use the Greek Testament. Much 
attention is given to vocabulary and a comparison of classical and 
New Testament Greek. Reading of Mark's and John's Gospels. 

First semester. Three hours. 

202. Continuation of 201. Acts and First and Second Thes- 
salonians are read, the former for the history, and the latter for a 
view of St. Paul's teaching in the early Church. The Cambridge 
Greek Testament is used. Collateral reading. 

Second semester. Three hours. 


101. History of Europe from 1500 to 1815. A study of the 
foundations of modern Europe, the Renaissance, the Reformation, 
colonial and commercial expansion of Europe. The scientific re- 
vival, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic period. Special 
attention is given to the teaching of the proper methods of histori- 
cal study. 

First semester. Three hours. 

102. 1815 to the Present. A survey of the political develop- 
ments, industrial and social changes, the commerce and diplomacy in 
Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 
Second semester. Three hours. 

201. United States History 1783-1865. A study of the politi- 
cal, economic and social development of the United States from 
1783 to the end of the Civil War. The making of our present 
Constitution, the development of nationality, Jacksonian democracy, 
secession, and the war for the preservation of the Union. 

Three hours. First semester. 

202. United States History Since 1865. A study of the Re- 
construction Period and the principal problems and movements and 
individuals in American history to the present time. Studies the 
labor organizations, industrial corporations, financial reforms, edu- 
cational problems and international relations. 

Three hours. Second semester. 



101. Prose Literature. Selections from the Roman Historians 
Livy and Sallust; alternating with Pliny's Letters. Sight reading. 
Simple Prose. 

Credit: Three hours. First semester. 

102. Poetry. Selections from Ovid, with special attention to 
Roman mythology; alternating with Odes of Horace. Scansion. 
Collateral reading. 

Credit: Three hours. Second semester. 

201. Roman Thought and Private Life as Given in Cicero's 
DeAmicitia and Letters. Prose Composition. 

Credit: Three hours. First semester. 

202. Poetry. Vergil's Bucolics; Selections as found in such 
editions as Latin Poetry (Basore and Weber). Collateral reading 
throughout the year. 

Credit: Three hours. Second semester. 

Prose Composition; A course of advanced grade for those who 
have had at least three years of preparatory prose composition. 
Emphasis will be upon correct syntax and the translation of ideas, 
rather than words. Daily written exercises will form the basis for 
a thorough discussion of all the fundamental principles of syntax. 
Students considering this course are asked to consult the instructor 
before registering. 

Credit: Three hours, throughout the year. 


101. College Algebra: After a rapid review of quadratic equa- 
tions this course deals with the binomial theorem, permutations and 
combinations, probability, series, determinants, and theory of equa- 
tions. Three hours — first semester. 

102. Trigonometry: An introductory course in plane trigo- 
nometry dealing with the use of logarithms in the solution of plane 
triangles, together with the trigonometric functions of any angle 


and the fundamental identities connecting its functions. Three 
hours — second semester. 

103. Mathematics of Investments. Explanation of the mathe- 
matics involved in computation of interest, annuities, amortization, 
bonds, sinking funds, and insurance. 

Prerequisite: Intermediate Algebra. 

201. Analytic Geometry. A study of the graphs of various 
equations, curves resulting from simple locus conditions, vfith stress 
on the loci of the second degree; polar coordinates, etc. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 101-102. 
First semester. Three hours. 

202. Differential Calculus. Usual course including the ele- 
ments of differentiation and integration, maxima and minima, curve 
tracing, areas, lengths, etc. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 201. 
Second semester. Three hours. 


A course dealing with problems of college life and the proper 
adjustment to the same. Organization of time and efficient methods 
of study are emphasized. Such matters as mental fitness, taking 
of notes, use of library and laboratory, preparing papers, taking 
tests, and general factors in classroom aptitude are considered. 

First semester. One hour. 

Political Science 

Principles of Government. An introductory course in political 
science acquaintang the student with the theories and principles up- 
on which modern governments rest. Special attention is given to 
the development of the federal constitution; the president and his 
powers; national administration; the organization, procedure, and 
powers of Congress; and the federal judicial system. 

Throughout the year, 3 hours credit each semester. 


Public Speaking 

First Semester. Study of conversational quality, outlining 
speeches, the laws of attention applied to the speaker. Delivery of 
weekly speeches. Study of selections from great literature after 
study of reading principles. Three hours' credit. 

Second Semester. Laws of attention applied to the audience, 
persuasion and its powers, platform manners. Delivery of speeches. 
Advanced work in debating and argument. Oral reading from se- 
lections and complete reading of Twelfth Night for oral presen- 
tation. Three hours' credit. 

Text books: "Public Speaking," by J. A. Winans ; "The Oral 
Interpretation of Literature," by A. Tassin. 

Library references: Avery, Dorsey and Sickels, Shurter, New 
ed., Woolbert. 


101. Psychology. A course in general psychology including 
a brief study of the nervous system, sensory processes, emotion, idea- 
tion. The course is built up on the stimulus-response hypothesis 
and the physiological drives as motives in behavior. Textbook, 
lectures, special readings, and experiments. 

Credit: Three hours. First semester. 

102. Psychology. An intensive study of the psychology of 
the child with special attention to the physical, mental, emotional, 
and moral development. The effects of heredity, the instincts and 
their relation to education, and the training of the child will be 
considered. Textbook, lectures, and special readings. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

Credit: Three hours. Second semester. 

201. Psychology. Applied Psychology. Considers the appli- 
cation of the principles taught in general psychology during the 


first semester in personal efficiency, in individual differences, and 
in the professional and industrial fields. 

Three hours. One semester. 

Religious Education 

I. Principles of Religious Education. A general study of the 
theories underlying religious education and the problems arising 
from its administration. The course is an introductory one and 
will comprise the study of human nature, aims, methods, and prob- 
lems arising from organization, administration, and leadership. 

For a study of the pupil the student is referred to the courses 
in psychology, especially Psychology 102. 

First semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 

II. Organization of the Church for Religious Education. A 
study of the problem of organizing the church for the purpose of 
fulfilling its responsibility of religious education. A special at- 
tempt is made to make the findings practicable to the small church. 
Through the courtesy of the pastors, certain churches in Williams- 
port are used as laboratories in which to study the organization for 
religious education. 

Second semester. Three hours. Not offered 1931-32. 

III. The Teaching of Religion, There will be a general study 
of methods in teaching with special emphasis on the task of teach- 
ing religion. The use of textbooks will be accompanied by obser- 
vation, and, if possible, practice in the teaching of religion. The 
use of life situations will be emphasized. 

First semester. Three hours. Offered 1931-32. 

IV. The Curriculum of Religious Education. A study of the 
various suggested curricula of religious education with special em- 
phasis on the needs of the child. 

Second semester. Three hours. Offered 1931-32. 



An Introduction. The course is designed to give a general ap- 
proach to the study of society; its beginning, development and or- 
ganization, with consideration of major present day problems. 
Textbook and assigned reading. 

Three hours throughout the year. 


101. Spanish. Intermediate Spanish. Review of grammar, 
idioms, and irregular verbs. Composition and conversation. One 
modem short story. 

Prerequisite: Two or more years of preparatory Spanish. 

First semester. Three hours. 

102. Spanish. Continuation of Spanish 101. Representative 
works from Palacio Valdes, Alarcon, and Martinez Sierra. Ad- 
vanced composition at intervals, treating the more difficult gram- 
matical problems. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 101 or its equivalent. 

Second semester. Three hours. 

201. Spanish. 19th Century Drama. Representative works 
of the most important dramatists of the nineteenth century. Special 
reports and lectures. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 102 or its equivalent. 

First semester. Three hours. 

202. Spanish. 19th Century Novel. Selected readings from 
Valera, Blasco-Ibanez, Galdos, and Alarcon. Individual reports. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 102 or its equivalent. 

Second semester. Three hours. 



Courses of Study 

The Diploma of the Seminary will be awarded to the student 
who completes any one of the following courses: College Prepara- 
tory, General Academic, History and Literature, Regular Commer- 
cial, Piano, Voice, Violin, Expression, Art and Home Economics. 

Students completing a course in one of the special departments 
but without the necessary academic requirements will be awarded 
a certificate instead of a diploma. 

The College Preparatory course offered by the Seminary covers 
the needs of those preparing for college and technical school. 

The minimum requirement for graduation in the College Pre- 
paratory course consists of fifteen college entrance units, three of 
which must be in English, and two and one-half of which must be 
in Mathematics. American History, one unit of Science, and not 
less than two units each of two Foreign Languages or four of one 
Foreign Language must be included in the fifteen units. 

The General Academic course is not intended to prepare for 
college. The minimum requirement for graduation in this course 
consists of sixteen and one-half units, four of which must be in 
English. The student must also have a credit for American 

The minimum requirement for graduation in the History and 
Literature course consists of twelve units. Only those students who 
are graduating at the same time in Music, Art, or Expression are 
eligible to graduate in this course. 

A student in any course must have to his credit one semester of 
Bible, five periods per week. He must also have one year of Physi- 
cal Training for each year spent in Dickinson Seminary. 


A unit represents one year of work, thirty-six weeks, five forty- 
five-minute periods per week, except in the case of English and 
First and Second-year Algebra, in which cases only three-fourths 
of one unit is allowed for one year of work. 

Wherever elective subjects are listed in any course, it is the 
aim of the faculty to schedule a student in the way which will best 
train him or her for the particular college course or vocation to be 

College Preparatory 

General Academic 

History and Literature 

English I 



English I 5 


English I 




Algebra I 



Ancient History 5 


Ancient History 




( Latin I 


Algebra I 5 






*^ French I 



Biology 6 





( Spanish I 


**Bible 5 

Physical Training 


ji.( Ancient History 
\ Biology 



Physical Training 2 





Physical Training 





Enghsh II 



English II 5 


English II 



Plane Geometry 



Med. & Mod. His. 5 


^ French I 
^< Spanish I 

( Med. and Mod. 




Med. & Mod. His. 



Public Speaking I 5 




, ( Latin I or II 
T-j French I or II 
( Spanish I or II 


C Latin I 5 




4- ) French I 5 
1 1 Spanish I 5 










(, Plane Geometi-y 5 

Physical Training 



Physical Training 


**Bible .-) 



Physical Training 2 



English III 



English III 5 


English III 



Algebra II 



Public Speak. II 5 


. 5 French II 
^ l Spanish II 



f Latin III 


r Latin II 5 




4- J French II or III 
1 I Spanish II 



4. J French II 5 
' J Snanish II 5 

Public Speaking I 









\ Physics 


I Alsebra II 5 

Physical Training 




** Bible 5 

Physical Training 



Physical Training 2 



English IV 



English IV 5 


English IV 



i Latin IV 


Amer. His. and 

Amer. Hist, and 

I French III 


Civics .5 





, 1 Chemistry 

T< Amer. His. and 

"*■ j Civics 


... 5 Typewriting 5 
•'•) Bookkeeping 5 

.,./ French III 









Other electives 



1 Sol. Geom. and 

**Bible .'i 

Physical Training 


\ Math. Review 


Physical Training 2 



Physical Training 








* Elect one from group indicated 

t Elect two from the group indicated. 

t Elect three from the group indicated. 

** Bible, five times per week, one semester, 

is required and one half credit is allowed in any course. 


Emphasis will be laid upon thoroughness of work. The faculty 
reserves the right to limit the number of studies which any pupil 
will be allowed to carry. 

Students who do not intend to pursue one of the regular courses, 
with the consent of their parents and the approval of the faculty, 
may elect such studies as they desire. 

At least two years of any language elected in any course will 
be required for graduation. 

For more detailed information, see Courses of Instruction. 

Certificates, with recommendation for admission to college, will 
be granted in any subject only to students who make a grade of 
at least 80%. 

Our certificates are accepted by all colleges accepting certifi- 
cates. A number of colleges are now admitting by certificates only 
those who rank in a certain section of their class, usually the first 




The material of the Old and New Testaments is presented in 
story form. The aim is to teach the content of the Bible rather 
than to treat it critically. However, evidences of growth in re- 
ligious thought will be pointed out. Memory passages, maps, and 
reports on special topics are required. Required for graduation. 

One semester. Five hours. 

The course will be offered each semester. 

Classical Languages 

The practical value of a study of the classics has often been 
questioned, but nothing has ever been found to take their place. 
The classics are still retained in the best courses of the best schools, 
and are pre-eminently adapted to bring the student to an acquain- 
tance with the sources of inspiration of all the literature of suc- 
ceeding periods. 


First Year: Careful study of simple Latin forms and construc- 
tions. Sight and prepared translation of connected Latin sentences. 
Prose composition. Vocabiilary building. Study of simple English 
derivatives. Frequent reviews to fix the work. 

Second Year: Thorough and systematic review of First Year 
forms and constructions. Continued study of more difficult inflec- 
tions and principles of syntax. The readings are confined to easy 
stories, Roman history and biographies, the first semester, and to 
selections from Caesar, the second semester. Study of English 
derivatives continued. Prose composition. 


Third Year: Review of grammar of the First and Second Years. 
The readings are limited mainly to the select orations and letters of 
Cicero. Attention is directed to the style, personality, and influence 
of the author, and such phases of Roman life are studied as will 
lead to a better understanding of the Latin read. Prose composition. 

Fourth Year: Review of grammar of the previous years. The 
readings are confined to selections from Ovid and Vergil's Aeneid. 
Scansion is emphasized. Assigned readings in mythology. Con-r 
tinued study of such phases of Roman life as will help the student 
better to understand the text read. 


The purpose of the work in English is to develop, as far as pos- 
sible, in every student, the ability to speak and write correctly. 
Representative classics of England and America are studied, along 
with the history of the literatures of the two countries. The sched- 
ule of English classics for college entrance requirements is followed 
throughout the four years. An attempt is constantly made to in- 
still a "feeling for language," and to inculcate some conception of 
style, and toward the end of the course interpretative criticism on 
the part of the students themselves is striven for. 

The four books of the "Literature and Life" series, by Green- 
law and others, are used throughout the course — one each year. Be- 
sides the classics from "Literature and Life" listed below for in- 
tensive study during the four years, all the introductions to the 
various chapters in the "Literature and Life" books, as well as 
practically all of the stories, essays, poems, etc., therein, are care- 
fully read. The chapter introductions to Books II and IV comprise 
brief, but comprehensive, histories of American and English Litera- 
tures respectively, and are stressed. 

Two pieces of written work are required of each student each 
week. Oral themes are required also from time to time. Each 
student, in addition to his regular class work, must read, and report 
on, four books each year. These books are selected with the ap- 
proval, or on the recommendation, of the teacher. 


First Year 

The work of the first year includes a thorough study of the 
functions of words, the sentence, and the paragraph. Attention is 
also given to oral expression as a basis for composition writing. 
For first practice frequent short themes are assigned. 

Classics for Intensive Study: Coleridge, The Rime of the An- 
cient Mariner; Homer, The Odyssey, Books VI-VIII, Bryant's 
Translation; Lowell, The Vision of Sir Launfal; Scott, The Lady 
of the Lake; Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; Stevenson, Treasure 

Second Year 

An introduction to the forms of discourse is given. The social 
and business forms of letter writing are taught. Oral expression 
is continued and frequent themes required. The work of the first 
year is reviewed thoroughly. This course also includes a brief sur- 
vey of American literature. 

Classics for Intensive Study: Arnold, Sohrab and Rustum; 
Byron, The Prisoner of Chillon; Eliot, Silas Marner; Keats, The 
Eve of St. Agnes; Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher and The 
Purloined Letter; Shakespeare, As You Like It; Tennyson, Enoch 

Third Year 

This course includes a comprehensive study of the forms of dis- 
course and of the three rhetorical principles, unity, coherence, and 
emphasis in the paragraph and in the whole composition. Practical 
application of these principles is made in themes. Letter writing 
and grammar are reviewed. 

Classics for Intensive Study: Addison and Steele, The Sir 
Roger de Coverley Papers; Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer; 
Shakespeare, Henry the Fifth; Stevenson, Travels with a Donkey; 
Tennyson, selections from The Idylls of the King. 

Fourth Year 

A special effort is made in the fourth year to prepare the stu- 
dent adequately for Freshman English in college. The course in- 


eludes a thorough review of the principles of grammar, composition, 
and rhetoric. Verse is studied intensively, and the other literary 
types are given sufficient attention. A brief history of English lit- 
erature is required. 

Classics for Intensive Study: Arnold, Wordsworth; Bacon. Of 
Truth, Of Studies, Of Wisdom for a Man's Self, Of Dispatch; 
Chaucer, The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales; Emerson, Manners 
and Self-reliance; Everyman; Goldsmith, The Deserted Village; 
Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Church-yard; Macaulay, The 
Life of Samuel Johnson; Milton, Lycidas; Rosetti, The Blessed 
Damozel; Shakespeare, Macbeth; Tennyson, A Dream of Fair 


Students are required to fill in outline maps, to take notes of 
class work and to prepare reports on subjects assigned for indi- 
vidual investigation. Collateral reading of not less than five hun- 
dred pages is required. Current topics are emphasized in connec- 
tion with the history courses. 

I. Ancient History begins with a brief introduction of the 
Eastern nations, which is followed by a thorough study of Greece 
and Rome, to about 800 A. D., with special reference to their insti- 
tutions and permanent contributions to the modern world, 

II. Mediaeval and Modern History includes a review of the 
later Roman Empire, the rise of the Christian Church, the later 
mediaeval institutions, the beginnings of the modern age, as well as 
giving suitable attention to the rise of the modern states, European 
expansion, the development of free institutions, economic progress 
and social change, 

III. American History and Civil Government. One semester 
is given to each of these subjects. Texts used: An American His- 
tory, Muzzey; American Government, Magruder. 



Arithmetic. Arithmetic is completed in the Academic and Com- 
mercial courses. Standard Arithmetic, Milne. 

Algebra I. The four fundamental operations are thoroughly 
mastered, with special emphasis on inspection methods. The sub- 
ject is pursued through factoring, fractions, and simultaneous equa- 
tions. The large number of carefully graded written problems both 
show the value and interest of algebraic processes and develop the 
student's powers of applying principles to practical problems. 

Algebra II. A month is devoted to a thorough review of first 
year work. Intermediate work is completed through quadratics, the 
progressions, and the binominal theorem, fully preparing the stu- 
dent for advanced work. 

Plane Geometry. A complete working knowledge of the prin- 
ciples and methods of the subject is aimed at, together with a de- 
velopment of the ability to give clear and accurate expression to 
statements and reasons in demonstration. A large amount of inde- 
pendent exercise of his reasoning powers is required. 

Solid Geometry. By emphasis on the effects of perspective, 
and by the use of models, the student is helped to a comprehension 
of figures and relations in three dimensions. The practical appli- 
cation to mensuration problems are a feature of the course. 

Romance Languages — French 

Courses are offered in French which fully prepare for college 
entrance. The aim is to give at least the beginnings of a real in- 
sight into the language and literature. As far as possible the lan- 
guage studied is made the language of the class room. Daily exer- 
cises in grammar, translation and composition are supplemented by 
frequent conversational exercises, the memorizing of standard 
poems, and class singing. French table. 

First Year 

"Junior French" — Mercier. "French Reader for Beginners" 
Pumpelly. Conversation. Pronunciation. Sight translation. Com- 
position. Poems memorized. 

Second Year 

"Le Tresor du Vieux Seigneur" — Robert. "Junior French" — 
Mercier. Conversation. Dictations. Sight translation. Pronun- 
ciation. Composition. 

Third Year 

Advanced composition, free reproductions. Sight translations. 
"Lecture Expliquee" — Cru. "French Review Grammar" — Carna- 
han. One book to be read outside. Reading of French Newspapers. 
The language of the classroom is French during the course. 


The growing commercial relations between the United States 
and South America and the valuable literature and history found in 
the Spanish language, make the study of that language more and 
more desirable if not a necessity. We are, therefore, offering a 
two years' course in this subject. The aim will be to acquire as 
early as possible a ready use of the spoken language, and to meet 
the requirements for admission to the colleges, all of which now 
allow credit in Spanish for entrance. Spanish table. 

First Year 

Grammar: A First Spanish Grammar, Harden and Tarr. 
Reader: A Spanish Reader for Beginners, Sherman W. Brown. 
Writing Spanish from dictation. Composition. Pronunciation. 
Memorizing of poems. Class singing. 


Second Year 

Grammar: A First Spanish Grammar, Marden and Tarr. 
Reader: Un verano en Espana, R. B. Weems. Letters. Conversa- 
tion. Spanish Composition. Reading Spanish Newspapers. 


Biology. This one-year course aims to give the proper perspec- 
tive to the student beginning the study of science. It seeks to ap- 
proach the study of life, especially in its simpler forms, with the 
idea of opening before the student the door to a true realization of 
the meaning of physical life and to an appreciation of its problems. 
New Essentials of Biology, Hunter. 

Physics. One year is devoted to the study of Physics. The 
course includes four recitations and two hours of laboratory work 
per week. Forty experiments are performed, data recorded, and 
notes written up in the laboratory. Practical Physics, Carhart and 

Chemistry. The subject of Chemistry is pursued throughout the 
year, the course consisting of four recitations and two hours of la- 
boratory work each week. The course includes descriptive chemis- 
try, and a thorough and systematic treatment of the science with 
considerable emphasis put on the chemistry of modern life. Forty 
experiments are completed and written up in the laboratory. Be- 
ginning Chemistry, Fletcher, Smith and Harrow. 

Commercial Courses 

The business world offers attractive and varied opportunities for 
those whose talents and inclinations fit them for its pursuits. It 
affords the biggest field in which education can be put to practical 
use, and it is the field which pays the highest immediate returns to 
those who possess initiative, ambition, and a careful business 


Inviting Entrances 

The Sicimming Pool 
The BoicUng Alleys 

The Dining Room 
Girls' Uormitorii Room 

At Work in the Art Department 
Dramatic Club 

A Winning Team 
A Daily Scrimmage 


Baseball Squad 
Track Squad 

A Class in the 
New and Well Equipped Gymnasium 

Boys' Basketball Squad 
Girls' Basketball Squad 

The Music Department — The Director's Studio 
Gymnasium Auditorium 

Sludctii Council, Junior College 
Choral and Glee Clul) 

The Orchestra 
The String Enseinhle 

Gyinnashim Lobby 
Near'mg the Goal — Commencement Dai/ Procession 

Regular Commercial Course 

Diploma Course 

This course is designed not only to prepare the student for im- 
mediate employment, but also to give a broad education in the gen- 
eral principles underlying all business. In addition, students re- 
ceive a thorough training in related secondary school subjects. 

First Year 

First Semester 

English I 

Latin I, French I or Spanish I 


Ancient History 


Grammar and Spelling 

Bookkeeping I 


Second Semester 

English I 

Latin I, French I or Spanish I 


Ancient History 


Grammar and Spelling 

Bookkeeping I 


Second Year 

Enghsh II 

Caesar, French II or Spanish II 

Shorthand I 


Bookkeeping II 

Typewriting I 


English II 

Caesar, French II or Spanish II 

Shorthand I 

Typewriting I 




Third Year 

Enghsh III 
Commercial Law 
Commercial Arithmetic 
Shorthand II 
Typewriting II 

English III 
Commercial English 
Rapid Calculation 
Shorthand II 
Typewriting II 
Office Practice 


Stenographic Course 

This course offers intensive training in shorthand and typewrit- 
ing and those allied subjects most frequently needed by a stenog- 

First Semester Second Semester 

Shorthand I — 2 periods per day Shorthand II — 2 periods per day 

Typewriting I — 2 periods per day Typewriting II — 2 periods per day 

Business English I Office Practice 

The student is taught how to operate dictating machine and 
mimeograph and other requirements of the modern office. 

Bookkeeping may be elected in this course but at extra cost 
(see Expenses). 

Bookkeeping Course 

This is a course intended to give the student a good basic knowl- 
edge of the principles of double entry bookkeeping and accounting. 
In addition, the student is given instruction in the other business 
subjects which are necessary to round out the knowledge of the 
bookkeeper. This is an intensive and highly practical course. 

First Semester 
Bookkeeping I 
Commercial Arithmetic 
Commercial Law 

Second Semester 
Bookkeeping I 
Rapid Calculation 
Commercial English 
Typewriting I 




The aim of the School of Art is to cultivate, in the pupil, an 
understanding and appreciation of the best in the world of art; and 
to develop technical skill and serious, intelligent, individual work. 

This department holds the reputation of being one of the best 
equipped art departments among the preparatory schools of the 
country. It maintains the highest standards of work. 

The department furnishes instruction in Drawing, Painting, 
Clay Modeling, Commercial Design, Illustration, Interior Decora- 
tion, Costume Illustration and Design, History of Art and Art Ap- 
preciation. Crafts, including China Painting, Leather Tooling, and 
Block Printing. 

The work of the year must be left for exhibition during com- 

Prerequisite Course 

First year subjects required of all students working toward a 

Drawing from cast and costume life, painting in water colors from 
still life and flowers, clay modeling, fundamental principles of design as 
related to decorative and commercial art, free-hand perspective, theory 
and practice of color harmony and lettering. Students with a taste for 
art not yet sufficiently defined to justify the choice of a profession will find 
this a suitable foundation for later specialization. This course is not re- 
quired of those who desire work only in some special subject. 


Three Year Course — 35 Periods a Week 

Sophomore Year — Prerequisite Course 

Jimior Year 

Drawing from full length cast and from costume life. Painting in 
oils and water colors from still life and from nature. Design — theory and 


application. Anatomy — understanding of construction necessary to intelli- 
gent drawing. History and appreciation of painting — illustrated lectures. 

Senior Year 

Advanced painting in oils and water colors from landscape and from 
life. Original illustrations from given subjects submitted weekly. His- 
tory of architecture and sculpture — illustrated lectures. 

Commercial Art 

Two Year Course — 35 Periods a Week 

Junior Year — Prerequisite Course 

Senior Year 

Advanced drawing, color harmony, design, involving original studies in 
space and line arrangement, pencil, ink, and color renderings. Principles 
of advertising are studied, also cover and poster designs, book plates, deco- 
rative page arrangements and study of reproductive processes. 

Costume Design 

Two Year Course — 35 Periods a Week 

Junior Year — Prerequisite Course 

Senior Year 

Advanced studies in color harmony, nature study and its adaptation to 
design. History of costume — its value and adaptation, designing of cos- 
tumes and accessories, block printing, rendering of costumed models in 
various mediums. 

Interior Decoration 

Two Year Course — 35 Periods a Week 

Junior Year — Prerequisite Course 

Senior Year 

Elements of color and design, historic ornament, water color render- 
ing, history of period furniture and architecture, design and rendering of 
interiors, mechanical drawing. 

Note — Students expecting to study architecture will be given valuable 
preparation by this course. 


PubKc Speaking and Expression 

Private Lessons 
The three-year Expression course, with one period per week, 
aims to increase the pupil's chance to succeed and to serve in life 
through an intelligent appreciation and oral interpretation of 

The laboratory method is used whereby the pupil and teacher 
work together in determining, through the inductive process, the 
fundamental rules of good speech. These principles are further 
applied in the oral interpretation of selections of literary merit. 

Sophomore Year 

Evolution of Expression — Volumes I and II — Voice Culture, Study of 
"The Merchant of Venice" and "Taming of the Shrew." Poems, narratives, 
and dramatic selections used for expressional reading. 

Junior Year 

Evolution of Expression — Volumes III and IV — Vocal Technique, 
Gesture, Dramatic Action, Interpretative Study of "Macbeth" and "As 
You Like It." Selections from classical and modern literature. 

Senior Year 

Study of forms. Expressive Voice. Scenes from the English Classics. 
Dramatic analysis of "Hamlet" and "Julius Caesar." 

Public Speaking 

The department offers a regular two years' course in Public 
Speaking. Class instruction is given five periods per week and 
credit for this work is allowed in the regular courses with excep- 
tion of College Preparatory. 

First Year 

The course is devoted to a study of the two means of expression — 
voice and body. Drills and exercises, coupled with original speeches, are 
given for the development of these powers. Much practice in the delivery 
of cuttings from selected orations follows: 

Text book, Public Speaking, Edwin D. Shurter. 

Second Year 

An analysis of thought, language, voice and action is followed by 
practice in delivery of poems, narratives, dramatic selections and orations. 
Original speeches are planned, prepared and presented in class. 

Text book. The Fundamentals of Speech, Charles Henry Woolbert. 


Preparatory Music 

A Diploma in Preparatory Music is granted to a student who 
completes the required work in the Preparatory Music Course as 
described below in the catalogue. The candidate must have com- 
pleted our College Preparatory Course, General Academic Course, 
or the History and Literature Course, or its equivalent. Any can- 
didate having completed the work in the Preparatory Music Course, 
but who does not have the equivalent of a high school certificate, 
will be granted a Certificate in Preparatory Music. 

Any student, whether he takes up the study of theory or not, 
may take lessons in the practical subjects. Piano, Voice, and Violin, 
thereby getting the benefit of study with systematic supervision. 
Such students are not eligible, of course, to any diploma in music, 
but will be listed as "special students in music." 

For additional preliminary statement see Junior College page 19. 

Outline o£ the Preparatory Course in Music 

First Year 

Practical Music — 1 lesson per week. (Piano, Voice, Violin). One 
hour practice per day. 

Second Year 
Practical Music — 1 lesson per week. One hour practice per day. 
Elementary Theory — 1 one-hour class per week. 

Third Year 
Practical Music — 2 lessons per week. One hour practice per day. 
Ear Training I — 1 one-hour class per week. 

Fourth Year 

Practical Music — 2 lessons per week. Two hours practice per day. 

Harmony I — 2 one-hour classes per week. 

Piano Ensemble, Choral Club, Orchestra — One hour per week. (A 
choice of one, according to practical subject.) 

Note: Any student in the College Preparatory Course, or similar aca- 
demic courses, may easily carry the Preparatory Music Course along with 
his regular course. Arrangement should be made, however, to have a fairly 
light academic schedule in the senior year, in order to devote a little more 
time to the music work. The last two years in piano must be taken with 
the Director of the department. The other two years may be taken with 
assistant if desired. 


Required Work in Piano 

Preparatory Course 

First Year 
Scales: All major and harmonic minors, two octaves, parallel motion. 
Arpeggios : All major and minor triads, two octaves, parallel motion. 
Exercises: Exercises for principles of touch, tone, and action. 
Studies: Selected from Czerny, Heller, Burgmuller, and others. 
Pieces: Selected from Mozart, Mejidelssohn, Orieg, Beinhold, etc. 

Second Year 

Scales: All major, harmonic and melodic minor scales, four octaves, 
parallel motion. 

Arpeggios: All major and minor triads, four octaves, parallel motion. 
Studies: Selected from Czerny, Heller, Burgmuller, and others. 
Pieces: Selected from the early and romantic masters. 

Third Year 

Scales: All major and harmonic minors, three octaves contrary mo- 
tion; the whole-tone scale. 

Arpeggios: Major and minor triads, three octaves contrary motion; 
the dominant seventh. 

Studies: Czerny, Daring, Philipp, Bach — Little Preludes. 

Pieces: Selected from the classic, romantic and modem masters. The 
study of Sonatinas. 

Fourth Year 

Scales: Major and harmonic minors in tenths; parallel motion in 
dotted and triple rhythms. 

Arpeggios: The Diminished seventh. 

Studies: Czerny, Doring, Heller, Philipp, Bach — two part Inventions. 

Pieces: Selected from the standard composers. Easy Sonatas. 

Required Work in Voice 

Preparatory Course 

First Year 
Scales: All majors, vocalized to the octave. 

Exercises: Study of intervals; throat anatomy; correct position; re- 
laxation and breath-control; articulation and pronunciation. 
Arpeggios: Major triads to the octave. 
Studies: Connell and Marchesi. 
Songs: Easy songs by the best composers. 


Second Year 
Scales: All majors to the octave, legato and staccato. 
Exercises: Sustained tones exemplifying crescendo and dimuendo. 
Arpeggios: Major triads to the octave and tenth. 
Studies: Connell and Marchesi. 
Songs: Easy songs by the best composers. 

Third Year 

Scales: All majors and harmonic minors to the octave, legato and 

Arpeggios: Major and minor triads to the octave, tenth and twelfth. 

Studies: Marchesi and Seiber. 

Songs: Schubert, Franz, Schumann and the moderns. 

Fourth Year 

Scales: Majors, harmonic minors and melodic minors. 

Exercises : Trills, embellishments, etc. 

Arpeggios: The dominant seventh to the octave. 

Studies: Marchesi and Lutgen. 

Songs: Classic and modern composers; beginning study of arias. 

Required Work in Violin 
Preparatory Course 

First Year 

Scales: Major and melodic minors, one octave. 

Arpeggios : Major and minor triads, one octave. 

Studies: Selected from Wichl, Wohlfahrt, Gruenberg, Bostleman. 

Pieces: Chosen from Wecker, Dancla, Hauser, Bohm^, etc. 

Second Year 
Scales: Major and melodic minors, two octaves. 
Arpeggios: Major and minor triads, two octaves. 
Studies: Sitt and Dont. 
Pieces: Bohm, Beethoven, Gossec, Thome. 

Third Year 
Scales: Major and melodic minors, two octaves, faster tempo. 
Arpeggios: Major and minor triads, two octaves, faster tempo. 
Studies: Sevcik, Dont, Sitt. 
Pieces: Friml, Borowski, Bohm, Bizet, Handel. 

Fourth Year 

Scales: Major and melodic minors, three octaves. Chromatic scales. 
Arpeggios: Major and minors, two octaves. 
Studies: Kreutzer, Sevcik, Dont. 

Pieces: Bach, Handel, Wieniawski, Kreisler, Burleigh, Wilhelmj. 
Student Concertos. 


Theoretical Courses 

Elementary Theory 

The study of the rudiments of music, including signatures, 
rhythms, the scales, terminology, special signs and expression 
marks, key-relationship, etc. 

Ear Training I 

The study of intervals, the beginning principles of sight-sing- 
ing and ear-training. Easy melody dictation and rhythm. 


There are opportunities in the school for self-help for only a 
very few girls. About forty boys are able to earn part of their 
expenses in various ways in the school, and there are many oppor- 
tunities for student work in the town. 


A limited number of worthy students, members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, may secure loans from the Student Loan 
Fund administered by the Board of Education of that Church. 
Christian character, satisfactory scholarship, promise of usefulness, 
financial responsibility, and the recommendation of the church to 
which the applicant belongs are essential to a loan. Each borrower 
must sign an interest-bearing promissory note. 

There are also loan funds in the Philadelphia and Central 
Pennsylvania Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church for 
students from these conferences on practically the same terms as 

Detailed information may be secured from the President. 



Over two thousand dollars are awarded annually in scholarships 
and prizes. This not only encourages scholastic attainment, but 
also affords generous help to needy, worthy students. The list of 
scholarships and prizes follows, together with the awards in each 
case made at Commencement, 1930: 

The DeTVitt Bodine Scholarship, founded by the late DeWitt 
Bodine, of Hughesville, Pa. 

The entire expenses of board and tuition to that pupil of the 
graduating class of the Hughesville High School who shall excel 
in scholarship and character. 

Miss Marjorie A. Stohxer Hughesville, Pa. 

The Edward J. Gray Scholarship, founded by the late Rev. Dr. 
Edward J. Gray, for thirty-one years the honored President of this 

The interest on $1,000 to be paid annually, in equal amounts to 
the two applicants who attain a required rank highest in scholar- 
ship and deportment in the Senior Class. 

L^ Misg Roberta V. White Williamsport, Pa. 

Misa Carol Virginia Bryan Ramey, Pa. 

The Alexander E. Patton Scholarship, founded by the late Hon. 
Alexander E. Patton, Curwensville, Pa. 

The interest on $1,000 to be paid annually, in equal amounts 
to the two applicants who attain a required rank highest in scholar- 
^^ ship and deportment in the Junior Class. 

Miss Leora Williams Williamsport, Pa. 

Miss Rosemary Kelso Williamsport, Pa. 

The Elizabeth S. Jachson Scholarship, founded by the late Mrs. 
Elizabeth S. Jackson, of Berwick, Pa. 

The interest on $500 to be paid annually to the applicant who 
\ attains a required rank highest in scholarship and deportment in 

\ the Sophomore Class. 

Miss Charlotte J. Hills Mill Hall, Pa. 


The William Woodcock Scholarship, founded by William L. 
Woodcock, Esq., of Altoona, Pa. 

The interest on $500 to be paid annually to the applicant who 
attains a required rank second in scholarship and deportment in 
the Sophomore Class. 

Miss Mahoahet E. Betek Ramey, Pa. 

The Mrs. Jennie M. Rich Scholarship of $5,000, the gift of her 
son, John Woods Rich, the interest on which is to be used in aiding 
worthy and needy students preparing for the Christian ministry 
or for deaconess or missionary work. 
Awarded Phivately. 

The McDowell Scholarship, founded by Mr. and Mrs. James E. 
McDowell, of Williamsport, Pa. 

The interest on $500 to be awarded annually by the President 
and Faculty of the Seminary to that ministerial student of the 
graduating class who shall excel in scholarship, deportment, and 
promise of usefulness, and who declares his intention to make the 
ministry his life work. 

Mr. Robert A. Knox Newton Hamilton, Pa. 

The David Grove and Wife Scholarship, founded by the late 
David Grove, of Lewistown, Pa. 

The interest on $2,040 to be given to a worthy, needy student 
studying for the ministry, the holder or holders thereof to be ap- 
pointed by the said Dickinson Seminary. 

Mr. LiBORio Puzzo Boston, Mass. 

The Clara Kramer Eaton Memorial Scholarship, founded by the 
late Clara Kramer Eaton, of Trevorton, Pa. 

The interest on $8,000 to be awarded annually to that student 
in the graduating class at Trevorton High School attaining the 
highest average in scholarship, for the purpose of defraying the 
expenses of a year of instruction at Williamsport Dickinson 

Mr. Ralph Geigle Trevorton, Pa. 


The Hiravi and Mary Elizabeth Wise Scholarship, founded by 
Hiram Wise of Montoursville, Pa. 

The interest on $500 to be paid annually to that ministerial or 
missionary student who because of present circumstances and prom- 
ise of future usefulness shall, in the judgment of the President, be 
deemed worthy of the same. 

Miss Kathryn Larimer Ebensburg, Pa. 

The Alumni Scholarship. At the Annual Meeting of the Alumni 
Association held Commencement Week, 1926, it was voted that the 
Alumni Association should pay each year fifty dollars on the next 
year's tuition for that student of the Freshman, Sophomore, or 
Junior Class who has made the greatest progress under the great- 
est difficulties in his or her studies — the faculty to decide who 
should be the recipient. 

Mr. Vincent P. Frangiamore Springfield, Mass. 

The Bishop JViUiam Perry Eveland Memorial Scholarship, 

founded by the Alumni of Dickinson Seminary who were students 

during the administration of Bishop William Perry Eveland and in 

his honor. The interest on $1,000 to be paid annually to a needy 

worthy student or students who shall make the most satisfactory 

progress in scholarship and give promise of future usefulness and 

who by loyalty, school spirit, and participation in school activities 

is considered by the President and faculty to most fully represent 

the standards and ideals of Dickinson Seminary. 

Miss Barbara K. T. Young New York City 

Mr. Thomas E. Esbenshade Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Amos Johnson Scholarship, founded by the late Rev. Amos 
Johnson, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Five Hundred Dollars to be held and invested by Dickinson 
Seminary and the income arising therefrom to be used for the edu- 
cation of ministerial students of limited means. 

Mr. Thomas S. Dietrich Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Dickinson College Scholarship. The Jackson Scholarships, 
established by the late Col. Clarence G. Jackson, of the Dickinson 


College, class of 1860, will be awarded to students going from Wil- 
liamsport Dickinson Seminary to Dickinson College, and to such 
students only as have attained good rank in scholarship. These 
scholarships, two in number, of fifty dollars each, are good for one 
year in college and may be continued at the option of the school 

The Wesleyan University (Middletotvn, Conn.) Scholarships. 
Two competitive scholarships, covering full tuition for the Fresh- 
man year of $140 will be awarded upon the recommendation of the 
President of the Seminary. If the students manifest scholarly 
ability and maintain a good record of character during the Fresh- 
man year and need further assistance, the tuition scholarship will 
be continued after the Freshman year, in accordance with rules gov- 
erning scholarships in the University. 

The Allegheny College Scholarship. In case there are more 
than fifty in the class two scholarships, one of one hundred and 
one of fifty dollars, may be awarded to any two of the highest five. 
If there are less than fifty, only one scholarship, $100, will be 

Ohio Wesleyan University offers a scholarship annually to such 
student of Dickinson Seminary seeking admission to the Univer- 
sity who may be recommended by the President for excellence in 
general scholarship. The scholarship is good for one year but may 
be renewed on the maintenance of satisfactory standards until 
graduation. It is worth $15.00 and entitles the holder to an annual 
discount on the University bills of that amount. 

The American University Scholarship. Full tuition for the first 
year to any member in the first third of the graduating class who 
possesses good character and good health and who gives promise 
of being able to carry a college course with credit. It will be re- 
newed as a half-tuition scholarship for the second year if the can- 
didate does work of distinction during the first year. 

Miss Anna Forrest Bellwood, Pa. 



The President's Prize to that member of the Senior Class who 
shall excel in oratory on Commencement Day. 

Miss Robehta White Williamsport, Pa. 

The Faculty Prize to that member of the Junior Class who shall 
excel in writing and delivering an oration. 

Miss Helen Sterling Granger Williamsport, Pa. 

The Rich Prizes of $25.00 each, given by the Hon. M. B. Rich, 
of Woolrich, Pa., to the two students in the Freshman Class who 
shall attain a required rank the highest in scholarship and deport- 

Mr. Willard F. Kruhm Spencerville, Md. 

Miss Margery J. Courson Long Beach, Calif. 

The Karns Prize of $10.00 given by the Reverend and Mrs. W. 
Emerson Karns, of the Central Pennsylvania Conference, to that 
student who shall be adjudged to have done the most faithful work 
in Latin I. 

Miss Miriam Brokaw Kyoto, Japan 

The Metzler Prize of $10.00 for superior work in Junior Eng- 
lish, given by the Reverend Oliver Sterling Metzler of the Central 
Pennsylvania Conference. 

Miss Charlotte J. Hnxs Mill Hall, Pa. 

The Theta Pi Pi Prize of $10.00 to be awarded by the Presi- 
dent to that young man whom he shall judge to be most deserving 
of the same. 

Mr. Bruce Tatloe Canandaigua, N. Y. 

The Prize of a Greek Testament to each member of the class in 
Greek I who shall attain for the year an average of at least ninety 
per cent. 


The Rich Prizes of $20.00, $15.00, $10.00, and $5.00 each, 
given by the Hon. M. B. Rich, of Woolrich, Pa., to the four best 
spellers at a public contest in the Chapel at a time announced be- 

Miss Roberta White "Williamsport, Pa. 

Mr. Carl Tatlor Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Miss Virginia Doerr Oreland, Pa. 

Miss Virginia Bryak Ramey, Pa. 

The Rich Prizes of $10.00, $5.00, $5.00, and $5.00 each, the 
gift of the Hon. M. B. Rich, of Woolrich, Pa., to the four students 
who at a public contest shall excel in reading the Scriptures. 

Miss Kathryn F. Larimer Ebensburg, Pa. 

Miss Barbara Young New York City 

Miss Betty Brtjnstetter Williamsport, Pa. 

Mr. LaRue Shempp Williamsport, Pa. 

The Rich Prizes of $15.00 and $10.00 each, the gift of Hon. M. 
B. Rich, of Woolrich, Pa., to be awarded to the two students who 
shall excel in writing and delivering an original oration. 

The Haas Prize given by Rev. W. E. P. Haas, D.D., member 
Philadelphia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to 
that student of Williamsport Dickinson Seminary who shall be 
judged by the student body to be the most cheerful student. 
Miss Margaret C. Schuster Williamsport, Pa. 

The Benjamin C. Conner Prize. The interest on five hundred 
dollars given by an alumnus of the Seminary to be awarded to that 
student securing the highest grade in Junior Mathematics. Recipi- 
ent must be a full Junior and must not be repeating Junior 

Miss Leora Williams Williamsport, Pa. 

The Anna Elizabeth Ruth Prize of $5.00, the gift of Mrs. Ruth, 
of Snow Shoe, Pa., to the student who shall rank first in excellency 
in the reading of hymns of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Miss Barbara Young New York City 


The Dickinson Union Prizes for the best story. Play, Editorial, 
Poem, Essay, and Book Review. 

Short Story — "Ocean Secrets," Miss Margaret Schuster, 
Williamsport, Pa. 

Play— "And They Called It Oswald," Mr. Richard Oyler, 
Berwick, Pa. 

Editorial — "You Cannot Judge a Book by Its Cover," 
Mr. Thomas Dietrick, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Poem — "Sonnet," Miss Helen Sterling Granger, Williams- 
port, Pa. 

Essay — "The Value of Having One Aim in Life," Mr. Ed- 
ward S. Hays, Montoursville, Pa. 

Book Review — "The Sign of the Lamp," Mr. James Hart- 
man, KuJpmont, Pa. 

The Music Director's Prize of $5.00 for the best original com- 
position in Second Year Harmony. 

Miss LoRMA Nipu: Turbotville, Pa. 

Because of her interest in the Spanish language, Mrs. Charlotte 
Brewster Jordan has given the Spanish Department of Dickinson 
Seminary a prize to be awarded to the student who is most profi- 
cient in the Spanish language for the present school year. This 
prize is a famous novel of Palacio Valdes, entitled "Jose." 
Mr. Alan H. Black Huntingdon, Pa. 

Prize offered by the Rev. Hiram R. Bennett for the best theme 
on "Vergil and Culture." 

Miss Virginia Bryan Ramey, Pa. 



Young people of good moral character may enter the Seminary 
at any time for a single semester or longer. 

Applicants must bring certificate of work done and recommen- 
dation from schools previously attended or from former instructors, 
or other responsible persons. 

Students from a distance are required to live in the buildings, 
but those having near relatives residing in Williamsport are some- 
times granted permission to make their homes with them. 

Students are expected to come on the first day of the semester 
and remain until the last day. Absences from classes, at the be- 
ginning or end of holiday recesses, count double and will not be 
excused, except for very special reasons. 

Parents should not call their children home during the semester. 
Any absence interferes with good work. 

Permits from home are accepted as advices, not mandates. In 
any case the final decision as to whether a permission will be 
granted, rests with the President and Faculty. A permit, to be con- 
sidered, should be mailed directly to the President. 

No student shall be considered as having severed his connec- 
tion with the Seminary, until notice has been given and permission 
obtained from the President. 

Students must report at the Seminary immediately upon arrival 
in Williamsport. 

Students are responsible to the Seminary en route to and from 
the School. Smoking, unseemly conduct, or anything else which 
will reflect upon the school will not be indulged in by the thought- 
ful student. 

Students should be sparingly supplied with spending money. 
Whenever desired a member of the Faculty will act as patron, pay- 
ing weekly such allowances as may be designated, and supervising 
all expenditures. 


The whole wardrobe for girls should be in good taste but simple 
and inexpensive. Unbeseeming costume and elaborate jewelry are 
not permitted. 

Frequenting hotels and pool rooms, using intoxicating liquors, 
playing at cards or games of chance, indulging in coarse or profane 
language are strictly forbidden. 

No firearms of any kind are allowed in the buildings. 

Any student, who for disciplinary reasons, is requested to leave 
the city before a certain time, shall be considered as having ex- 
pelled himself if he delays his departure beyond the time designated. 

The Sabbath must be fittingly observed. Attendance upon 
church services is required of all. 

All students are expected to provide themselves with a hymnal 
for use in the chapel service. 

Students in residence at the Seminary shall not be allowed to 
maintain automobiles at the school or in the city, except for special 
reasons and on permission from the President, nor shall they be 
allowed to hire or leave the city in automobiles without permission 
from the President. 

Our rooms are thoroughly furnished. We supply bed, bedstead, 
pillows, pillow slips, sheets, blankets, and counterpanes. We sup- 
ply one 50 watt bulb for each room. For each additional light 
socket in the room, the student will be charged $2.50 each semester. 
The student should bring with him the following: 4 table napkins, 
2 laundry bags, 1 pair slippers, shoe polishing outfit, 1 clothes 
brush, 1 bath robe, 6 face towels, 4 bath towels. We supply two 
double blankets. If students wish more they must bring them. 
Every article of clothing that goes to the laundry should be plainly 
marked with the student's full name with the best indelible ink that 
can be purchased. 

Meeting or engaging in conversation by boys and girls is for- 
bidden except at such times and places as may be arranged for by 
the Faculty. 

Teachers and students remaining at the Seminary during the 
short vacations will be charged $1.50 for each day or part of a day. 


Guests may be entertained only when the permission of the 
President has first been obtained and their hosts pay the regular 
rates for their entertainment. Parents or guardians visiting pupils 
are for the first twenty-four hours the guests of the Seminary. No 
visitors are allowed in the halls or in the students' rooms without 

Everyone who desires to continue as a student of the Seminary 
must show a reasonable disposition to comply with its regulations. 
In addition to the above some of the things expected are the fol- 
lowing : 

To be present at recitations or in his own room or in the study 
hall during study hours. 

To keep his room and furniture in good condition. 

To pay at once for any damage done by him to furniture, room, 
or any part of the grounds and buildings. 

To refrain from using tobacco in any form about the buildings 
or grounds. 

Not to leave the city or go bathing, boating, skating, fishing, 
gunning, or riding without permission from the President. 

To obtain the permission of the Dean before dropping any study 
which has been taken up. 

Day students during school hours are under the same regula- 
tions as the boarding students. They are required: 

To study quietly in the Study Hall when not in actual attend- 
ance upon recitations. 

To attend the morning chapel services. 

To procure from parent or guardian a written excuse for absence 
from chapel or recitation. 

To abstain from all visiting in dormitory halls or in students' 
rooms during study hours. 

Any public announcement made during the school year by any 
one in authority is as binding as if printed in the catalogue. 


Boarding Students Academic Year 

Board and tuition. Junior College Department $610.00 

Board and tuition, College Preparatory Department 560.00 

This sum includes board, furnished room, tuition, and laundry 
(twelve ordinary pieces per week), in the regular courses — College 
Preparatory, General Academic, History and Literature, Commer- 
cial, and Home Economics, and is for two students rooming to- 
gether. Students rooming alone must pay, at the time the room is 
engaged, an extra charge of fifteen dollars per semester. 

This includes four five-hour literary subjects in the prepara- 
tory department. Students taking more than four five-hour subjects 
will be charged an additional fee of $12.50 per semester for each 
additional five-hour subject taken. 

This does not include books, but does include a ten dollar fee 
which admits to all entertainments, lectures, musicales, athletic 
games, et cetera, arranged by the Seminary, and also entitles them 
to an annual subscription to the Dickinson Union. 

Students not in commercial courses using typewriters will be 
charged $12.50 per semester for use of machine and instruction. 

Bookkeeping, when taken with the Stenographic course, costs 
$12.50 extra each semester. 

A damage fee deposit of $10 will be required of each boarding 
boy at time of admission. Any unused amount will be returned pro 
rata at end of school year. 

A deposit of fifty cents is required for each key. 

For extra service, such as meals served in rooms, additional 
laundry work, private instruction outside the class room, et cetera, 
an extra charge will be made. 

The following charges are also extra for all students in the 
studies named: 

Laboratory Fees, College Preparatory Department Semester Year 

Physics $ 2.50 $ 6.00 

Chemistry 2.50 5.00 

Biology 2.50 5.00 

Laboratory Fees, Junior College Department Semester Year 

Physics $ 5.00 $ 10.00 

Chemistry 5.00 10.00 

Biology 6.00 10.00 


Day Students 

Junior College Department 

Charges per Semester Year 

For tuition and special fee $105.00 $210.00 

College Preparatory Department 

Charges per Semester Year 

For tuition in four regular subjects and special fee $ 80.00 $160.00 

Academic Department 

Charges per Semester Year 

For tuition and special fee $ 55.00 $110.00 

Separate charges are made for Music, Art, and Expression. 

Tuition Per Semester 

Piano, with director, (two lessons per week) $90.00 

Piano, with director (one lesson per week) 45.00 

Piano, with assitant (two lessons per week) 64.00 

Piano, with assistant (one lesson per week) 27.00 

Vocal (two lessons per week) 54.00 

Vocal (one lesson per week) 36.00 

Violin (two lessons per week) 54.00 

Violin (one lesson per week) 36.00 

Harmony, in class (two hours per week) 12.00 

History and Appreciation, in class (three hours per week) 12.00 

Ear Training, in class (one hour per week) 7.00 

Elementary Theory, in class (one hour per week) 7.00 

Piano Ensemble, in class (one hour per week) 7.00 

Piano, for practice (one period per day) 3.00 

Note: AU lessons in practical music are one-half hour in duration. 
All classes are one hour. 


Tuition Per Semester 

Any Regular Art Course $76.00 

Art History and Art Appreciation 6.00 

China Painting 27.00 

Single lessons in China Painting 1.76 

China fired at lowest rates. 

A fee of $2.00 will be required for every subject taken in addi- 
tion to those prescribed in a given course. 

A fee of $1.00 will be charged for use of leather and block 
printing tools. 


Tuition per semester in the following subjects: Drawing, Clay 
Modeling, Oil Painting, Water Color Painting, Commercial Art, 
Costume Design and Illustration, Interior Decoration, Normal Art, 
Illustration, Crafts including Block Printing and Leather Tooling: 

Three periods a week $22.60 

Six periods a week 42.00 

Nine periods a week 60.00 

Twelve periods a week 75.00 

Fifteen periods a week 76.00 

Single lessons $1.50 each 


Private lessons per semester (two a week) $54.00 

Classes, four or more, per semester for each student — 

One lesson per week 13.50 

Two lessons per week 27.00 


All remittances should be made payable to Williamsport Dick- 
inson Seminary as follows: 

Boarding Students 

On registration $ 10.00 

Junior College 

September 15 $155.00 

November 17, Balance of semester bills and extras. 

January 31 150.00 

April 6, Balance of semester bills and extras. 

College Preparatory 

September 15 $142.50 

November 17, Balance of semester bills and extras. 

January 31 135.00 

April 6, Balance of semester bills and extras. 


Day Students 

On registration $ 500 

In all regular and special departments one-half of the regular 
semester charge and special fee are due and payable on the open- 
ing date of the semester, or the day on which the student enters. 
The balance of the semester bill with extras is due for the first 
semester on November 17, and for the second semester on April 6. 

Students are liable to suspension if bills are not paid within five 
days of dates mentioned unless ample security is furnished. 

No deduction is made for absence, except in cases of prolonged 
and serious illness or other unavoidable providence, when the price 
of board (not tuition, room, etc.) is refunded. No deduction is 
made for the first two weeks or the last three weeks of the year or 
the term. 

In order to graduate and receive a diploma or certificate a stu- 
dent must have spent at least one year in study at the Seminary 
and also have paid all his bills, in cash or its equivalent — not in 


The charge for tuition as day students to children of ministers 
who are serving churches in Williamsport and vicinity will be one- 
fourth the regular amount. 

Special discounts are allowed on the regular expenses to the 
following : 

(1) Two students from the same family at the same time. 

(2) Children of ministers living elsewhere than in Williamsport 
and vicinity. 

(3) Students preparing for the ministry or missionary work. 

Not more than one discount will be allowed to any student. 

The Seminary reserves the right to withdraw any discount from 
a student whose work or behavior is unsatisfactory. 



Diplomas of Graduation 

Awarded June 11, 1930 

Junior College — Secretarial Science 
Witt, Margaret Williamsport 

College Preparatory 

Black, Alan Hamilton Huntingdon 

Bryan, Carol Virginia Ramey 

Cornely, Julia Anne Madera 

Forrest, Annie Lydia Bellwood 

Kilgus, Robert Wells Williamsport 

Knox, Robert A Newton Hamilton 

McGarvey, George Luther Sinnemahoning 

Niple, Lorma A Turbotville 

Rich, Margaret Shaw Woolrich 

Skalmer, Alva New York, N. Y. 

Taylor, Carl Beck Canandaigua, N. Y. 

White, Roberta V Williamsport 

WiUard, Cynthia Sybilla Camp Hill 

Zitnay, Louis A Bridgeport, Conn. 

General Academic 

Bloom, Myron Wallace Northumberland 

Borland, Gerald C State College 

Bowen, Gerald C Sunbury 

DeLong, Francis Herman Warren 

Esbenshade, Thomas E Philadelphia 

Goldy, Orville Clair Williamsport 

Long, Dorothy Frances Williamsport 

Nicholson, John Barnesboro 

Pozzo, Liborio Boston, Mass. 

Saussaman, Nancy Louise Elizabethville 

Shempp, LaRue Williamsport 

Stocker, Paul Homer Crafton 

Thomas, Nelson A Blandburg 

Williams, Harry L Gilberton 

Wood, Kathryn LaMonte Williamsport 

History and Literature 
St. Pierre, Marjorie Estelle Kane 

Commercial Art 
Thomas, Elizabeth Mae Williamsport 



Bryan, Carol Virginia Ramey 

Cupp, Ruth Louise Williamsport 

Kemp, Jean R "Williamsport 

Niple, Lorma A Turbotville 

Reese, Jeanne M Everett 

St. Pierre, Marjorie Estelle Kane 

Pianoforte—Post Graduate 
Rhoads, Mary A Jersey Shore 


Stenographic Course 

Black, Eleanor Dorothea State College 

Corter, Shirley Lucille Wiliamsport 

Green, Harris R., Jr St. Marys 

Hykes, Margaret Oakmont 

Isenberg, Mildred Wagner State College 

McCloskey, Mildred K Lock Haven 

Somberger, Rebecca Jane Williamsport 

Starr, Ruth Ida Williamsport 

Fernandez, Eduardo Havana, Cuba 

Pianoforte— Post Graduate 
Stover, Marion H Williamsport 

The following students were in attendance during the sessions 



Bell, Ann Esther Houtzdale 

Brunstetter, Elizabeth Williamsport 

Clevenger, Helen E Everett 

Cline, Mary R East McKeesport 

Coleman, Madelyn G Williamsport 

Geigle, Ralph C Trevorton 

Hart, George Robert Williamsport 

Hartman, James H Kulpmont 

Kopp, Martha Jane Altoona 

Larimer, Kathryn F Ebensburg 

Long, Olive Mildred Williamsport 

Mark, Charlotte E Williamsport 


Martin, Clarence R Williamsport 

Mclntyre, Genevieve Six Mile Run 

Myers, Fred L Muncy Valley 

Neff, Miriam E Williamsport 

Reese, Jeanne M. — Pianoforte Everett 

Reinard, Howard M Wenonah, N. J. 

Schuster, Margaret C Williamsport 

Spotts, Mary Elizabeth Williamsport 

Taylor, E. Bruce Canandaigua, N. Y. 


Allison, Elizabeth V Crafton 

Birks, Wynifred E. N Williamsport 

Boatman, Ellen Lou Hughesville 

Bodtorf, Roy O Milroy 

Breen, John Frederick Williamsport 

Brumbaugh, Mary Irene Springdale 

Bullock, Betsy Ann Williamsport 

Bunnell, Alice R East Orange, N. J. 

Chadwick, Mary E Williamsport 

Comely, John C Nanty-Glo 

Darrow, Burton E Williamsport 

DeLong, Francis H Warren 

Dieffenderfer, Max C Antes Fort 

Dougherty, Mabel E Jersey Shore 

Fenstemacher, Joseph W Williamsport 

Fiedler, Maxine B Williamsport 

Galbraith, James B Williamsport 

Hile, Betty Arlene Kerrmoor 

Hiller, John Frederick Houtzdale 

Hopler, William C Williamsport 

Hummel, Norman L., Jr Williamsport 

Isenberg, Mildred W State College 

Keefer, Grace Lucille State College 

Kiessling, William S Williamsport 

Knox, Robert A Newton Hamilton 

Kreamer, Charles Henry Mauch Chunk 

Lannert, Anna Kathryn Williamsport 

Long, Dorothy F Williamsport 

Long, James S Brookville 

Lyon, George Walton Williamsport 

McConnell, Eleanor A Hughesville 

McGarvey, George L Sinnemahoning 

Meminger, William D Juniata 

Mosser, James K Williamsport 

Nefif, Harry B State College 

Paylor, John A Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pozzo, Liborio Boston, Mass. 

Ritter, Harry E., Jr Liverpool 

Rubendall, Dorothy Louise Williamsport 

Shempp, LaRue C Williamsport 

Siegel, Dorothy M Sergeant 

Sindy, Clyde William Paw Paw, West Va. 

Smith, Carolyn V Williamsport 

Stahl, Donald A Williamsport 

Stiffler, Donald L State College 


Watkins, Richter V Williamsport 

Whitehead, Dunbar F South Williamsport 

Williams, Clifford C Williamsport 

Wingate, H. Lucille Wellsboro 

Witherson, Nellie Catherine Houtzdale 

Unclassed or Special 

Bock, Dorothy E Philipsburg 

Bullock, Robert A Williamsport 

Clinger, A. Louise Williamsport 

Comer, Hannah E Port Norris, N. J. 

Dodson, James R Shickshinny 

Ficklin, Hugh Howard Williamsport 

Gorsuch, Mary Jane Altoona 

Gould, William H Hazleton 

Hagen, Grace Elizabeth Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Hevner, Dorothy Ida Renovo 

Mcllvaine, Margaretta Kinzer Philadelphia 

O'Bryon, William V Coraopolis 

Squires, Millard F., Jr Richardson Park, Del. 

Stein, Howard D Williamsport 

Stoke, G. Wayne Blain 

Taggert, Daniel B Williamsport 

Williams, Harry L Gilberton 

Williams, Oren R Elimsport 



Comer, Hannah E Port Norris, N. J. 

Cummings, Martha E Williamsport 

Dietrich, Thomas S Philadelphia 

Ewing, George E Queens Village, L. I., N. Y. 

Granger, Helen Stirling Williamsport 

Kelso, Rosemary Williamsport 

Long, John William, Jr Williamsport 

Murray, Clifford Eaton Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Tredway, William Henry Baltimore, Md. 

Wein, Madeleine E South Williamsport 

Wein, Robert A South Williamsport 

Williams, E. Leora Williamsport 

Young, Paul L Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

General Academic 

Benton, T. Robert, Jr Franklin 

Berry, Harry Edward Williamsport 

Clark, Fred T Coraopolis 

Cochran, Geraldine F Salina 

Croft, Sylvia Waynesboro 

Downs, William R Jersey Shore 

Edwards, Madalyn E Muncy 

Hays, Edward S MontoursviUe 

Hoffnagle, George M South Williamsport 


Martin, Ellis R Lock Haven 

Musso, Rita E New York City 

Raffel, Myer B Harrisburg 

Reed, Mary Ann Foust "Williamsport 

Ryerson, Dorothy M Williamsport 

Stanley, Ethel Elizabeth Williamsport 

Strayer, Mattel E Mechanicsburg 

Thompson, Raymond D Philadelphia 

Wagner, Helen Mae Penbrook 

Weaver, Byron H Montoursville 

Wiedeman, Joseph A Steelton 

Wise, Shirley M Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Beyer, Margaret E Ramey 

Born, H. Spencer Philadelphia 

Cassell, Stafford H Shamokin 

Graham, Esther Philadelphia 

Klepper, Blanche Montoursville 

MacDonald, Elizabeth Mount Carmel 

McGarvey, Alice Marie Sinnemahoning 

Musso, Alfred S New York City 

Owens, Eleanor G Mount Carmel 

Peeling, Robert W Williamsport 

General Academic 

Bailey, Charles A Delaware, Ohio 

Benkovic, Thomas L Steelton 

Glenn, Walter F Howard 

Heck, F. Richard Coudersport 

Holdren, Donald D Millville 

LaForce, Thomas M Williamsport 

MacMasters, T. Chalmers Franklin 

McClintock, Miller V Franklin 

Smith, Edwin O Nescopeck 


Bauers, Henry Richardson Philadelphia 

Bell, Andrew Buffalo, N. Y. 

Boice, Charles F Philadelphia 

Brown, Merrill S Franklin 

Camarinos, Tasso E Williamsport 

Cannon, Frances Lee South Williamsport 

Conover, Paul H Wenonah, N. J. 

Evans, John Warren Philadelphia 

Farnsworth, Virginia Gray Philipsburg 

Frangiamore, Vincent P East Springfield, Mass. 

Garlick, Margaret E Osceola 

Hall, Thomas J Carnegie 

Harris, Oscar Paul Montoursville 

Kruger, Charlotte Osceola 

Kruhm, Willard F Spencerville, Md. 


Larrabee, John A Williamsport 

Meminger, Howard Juniata 

O'Bryon, Burt Coraopolis 

Sheffer, Carl A Williamsport 

Stine, Elizabeth Jeanne Osceola Mills 

Stokes, Edward C Girardville 

Tait, Samuel A Philadelphia 

Wein, Delphine A South Williamsport 


Blake, Gladys A Philadelphia 

Fischer, John Williamsport 

Gallagher, Suzanne M Houtzdale 

Knauber, Lee M Williamsport 

Levergood, C. Clyde Trout Run 

Rhian, Foster B. South Williamsport 

Staggs, Carroll H Cresaptown, Md. 

Stokes, Jack J Girardville 

Walter, Ruth E York 

Williams, Burton L Mount Carmel 

Unclassed or Special 

Bernhart, Thomas E Pittsburgh 

Bullock, Robert A Williamsport 

Castillo, Orlando Granada, Nicaragua, C. A. 

Fraley, Evelyn Anna South Williamsport 

Furey, Durant L South Williamsport 

Garcia, Ricardo Havana, Cuba 

Hagen, Grace Elizabeth Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Hauber, Louise L Williamsport 

Kreamer, Charles H Mauch Chunk 

Kuhns, Fred C Trevorton 

Lauten, William Henry Havana, Cuba 

Mcllvaine, Margaretta K Philadelphia 

Myers, Rowland Williamsport 

Rittersbaugh, Arthur A Canton, Ohio 

Ross, Kenneth R Port Matilda 

Spotts, Richard H Williamsport 

Stein, Howard D Williamsport 

VanderBurgh, Arnott K Williamsport 

Wasicek, Charles J North Belle Vernon 

Stenographic Course (Seniors) 

Coleman, Frederick Williamsport 

Grittner, Dorothy Maye Turbotville 

King, Phoebe Jersey Shore 

Kober, Helen H Williamsport 

Rothfuss, Mae Belle Williamsport 

Seeling, Dorothy A Williamsport 

Stover, Fonda Oakmont 

White, Roberta Williamsport 


Bookkeeping Course (Seniors) 

Cratty, James Q Detroit, Mich. 

Cryder, C. LaRue Renovo 

Stringfellow, Orville O Renovo 

Three- Year Commercial Course 

Garcia, Ricardo Havana, Cuba 

Winner, Paul K Williamsport 

Unclassed or Special 

Bell, Andrew Buffalo, N. Y. 

Castillo, Orlando Granada, Nicaragua, C. A. 

Cochran, Geraldine F Salina 

Downs, William R Jersey Shore 

Furey, Durant L South Williamsport 

Hays, Edward S Montoursville 

Kelso, Rosemary Williamsport 

Lauten, William Henry Havana, Cuba 

Reed, Mary Ann Foust Williamsport 

Spotts, Richard H Williamsport 

Stokes, Edward C Girardville 

Strayer, Martel E Mechanicsburg 

Wise, Shirley M Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Hoagland, Miriam Williamsport 

Third Year 

Dougherty, Mabel Jersey Shore 

Sykes, Rose Williamsport 

Second Year 

Bickel, Ellen Jane Williamsport 

Gray, Vivian Jane Trout Run 

Hayes, Margaret Jersey Shore 

Keys, Margaret Williamsport 

Lehman, Florence WilUamsport 

Losch, Wilma Williamsport 

Lyman, Jean Williamsport 

Mott, Evelyn Williamsport 

Rubendall, Dorothy Williamsport 

Stine, Elizabeth Osceola MiUs 

Strub, Eloise Williamsport 

Williams, Leora Williamsport 

First Year 

Lyons, Vera Williamsport 

McGarvey, Alice Marie Sinnemahoning 

Owens, Eleanor Mount Carmel 

Salmon, Ruth Williamsport 

Seaton, Adalaide Williamsport 


Special Students 

Allgaier, Margaret Williamsport 

Cramer, Freda Williamsport 

Cupp, Ruth Williamsport 

Gilliland, Mary Elizabeth Williamsport, 

Harley, Emily Jane Williamsport 

Hauber, Louise Williamsport 

Jackson, Dorothy Mae Hornell, N. Y. 

Johnson, Helen Louise Williamsport 

Kelso, Margaret Jane Williamsport 

Leavy, Esther Muncy 

Mankey, Charlotte Emily Williamsport 

Maynard, Marion Elsie Williamsport 

Nicely, Elizabeth Williamsport 

Porter, Catherine C Williamsport 

Randolph, Marguerite Kingston, Canada 

Rubendall, Marion B Williamsport 

Siegel, Dorothy Mary Sergeant 

Stover, Marion South Williamsport 

Walter, Ruth E York 

Young, Thelma Wiliiamsport 


Third Year 

Alexander, Ora Williamsport 

Bartow, Eldora E Hughesville 

Swope, Blanche Lock Haven 

Second Year 

Bastian, Frances „ Williamsport 

Harvey, Marguerite Lock Haven 

Kuhns, Fred C. Trevorton 

Laubach, Morrill Williamsport 

First Year 

Allison, Elizabeth Crafton 

MacDonald, Elizabeth Mount Carmel 

Special Students 

Bunnell, Alice R East Orange, N. J. 

Clevenger, Helen E Everett 

Curtis, Olive Williamsport 

Gehron, Dorothy M Williamsport 

Hawkins, Blanche Lock Haven 

Isenberg, Mildred State College 

Jones, Doris Williamsport 

Kaufifman, Caroline South Williamsport 

Kayhart, William Williamsport 

Shefifer, Carl A Williamsport 

Young, Helen Williamsport 



Third Year 

Aschinger, Jack Williamsport 

Stuart, Nathan Williamsport 

Second Year 
Gallagher, Suzanne M Houtzdale 

Special Students 

Gilliland, Alice Jane Williamsport 

Kelso, Rosemary Williamsport 

Miller, Russell ." Williamsport 

Randolph, Marguerite Kingston, Canada 


Alexander, Ora Williamsport 

Bartow, Eldora E Hughesville 

Bastian, Frances Williamsport 

Bickel, Ellen Jane Williamsport 

Bunnell, Alice R East Orange, N. J. 

Cornwall, Anna Williamsport 

Cupp, Ruth Williamsport 

Dougherty, Mabel Jersey Shore 

Gallagher, Suzanne M Houtzdale 

Gray, Vivian Jane Trout Run 

Harvey, Marguerite Lock Haven 

Hayes, Margaret Jersey Shore 

Hoagland, Miriam Williamsport 

Kuhns, Fred C Trevorton 

Lehman, Florence Williamsport 

Losch, Wilma Williamsport 

Lyman, Jean Williamsport 

MacDonald, Elizabeth Mount Carmel 

Mott, Evelyn Williamsport 

Owens, Eleanor Mount Carmel 

Porter, Catherine C Williamsport 

Reese, Jeanne M Everett 

Rubendall, Dorothy Williamsport 

Rubendall, Marion B Williamsport 

Stine, Elizabeth Osceola Mills 

Strub, Eloise Williamsport 

Stuart, Nathan Williamsport 

Sykes, Rose Williamsport 

Williams, Leora Williamsport 


Commercial Art — Seniors 

Ritter, Helene South Williamsport 

Welsh, Lovdie Augusta Montoursville 



Affhauser, Marion Williamsport 

Brumbaugh, Mary Irene Springdale 

Burrell, Margaret DeForest Williamsport 

Clark, Fred Taylor Coraopolis 

Corter, Shirley Lucille Williamsport 

Cummings, Mary Rebecca Williamsport 

Hoffman, Helen Christine Philadelphia 

Jackson, Dorothy Mae Hornell, N. Y. 

Kent, Bertha Mae Ocean City, N. J. 

King, Luella Mae Williamsport 

Lyon, Florence Priestley Williamsport 

Lupfer, Samuel Harry Williamsport 

MacLear, Charlotte Williamsport 

McConnell, Eleanor A Hughesville 

McEachren, Roberta Louise Douglas, Ga. 

Mussina, Henry B Williamsport 

Poticher, Helen Frances Carlisle 

Potter, Lydia C Antes Fort 

Randolph, Marguerite W Kingston, Canada 

Renninger, Inez K Williamsport 

Rich, Joan Williamsport 

Rich, Phoebe Williamsport 

Smead, Marion P Williamsport 

Strayer, Martel E Mechanicsburg 

Wagner, Helen Mae Penbrook 

Westover, Grace E Williamsport 

Wheeland, Alverna Williamsport 

Wise, Shirley M Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wolfe, William Ross Williamsport 

Wood, Kathryn LaMonte Williamsport 


Castillo, Orlando Granada, Nicaragua, C. A. 

Fischer, Joan Williamsport 

Garcia, Ricardo Havana, Cuba 

Gehron, Herbert L Williamsport 

Kelso, Margaret Jane Williamsport 

Lauten, William Henry Havana, Cuba 

Lyon, Lucille Margaret Williamsport 

Percy, Alfred South WUIiamsport 

Randolph, Marguerite W Kingston, Canada 

Steinberg, Sarah R Williamsport 



Students in Junior College Department 90 

Students in College Preparatory Department 105 

Students in Commercial Course 25 

Students in Music: 

Piano ■*! 

Voice 20 

Violin 7 

Theory 35 

Total 103 

Students in Art 35 

Students in Academic Department 10 

Students in All Departments 368 

Students in All Departments excluding duplications 282 



*HoN M. B. Rich President 

Mr. Charles E. Bennett Vice President 

Mr. J. Henry Smith Secretary 

Mr. J. Henry Smith Treasurer 

Term Expires 1931 

Mr. C. E. Bennett Montoursville 

Mr. Walter C. Winter Lock Haven 

Col. Henry W. Shoemaker McElhattan 

Dr. Guy R. Anderson Barnesboro 

Mr. John E. Person Williamsport 

Rev. Edwin A. Pyles, D.D Carlisle 

Mrs. Clarence L. Peaslee Williamsport 

Mr. Charles F. Sheffer Watsontown 

Mr. F. W. Vandersloot Williamsport 

Rev. W. Edward Watkins, D.D Williamsport 

Term Expires 1932 

Bishop William F. McDowell Washington, D. C. 

Mr. W. W. E. Shannon Saxton 

Mr. George W. Sykes Conifer, N. Y. 

Rev. Simpson B. Evans, D.D Philipsburg 

*Mr. J. Walton Bowman Williamsport 

Rev. J. E. A. Bucke, D.D Harrisburg 

Dr. Charles A. Lehman Williamsport 

Mr. Henry D. Brown Williamsport 

Term Expires 1933 

Hon. Herbert T. Ames Williamsport 

Hon. H. M. Showalter Lewisburg 

Hon. Max L. Mitchell Williamsport 

Rev. Oliver S. Metzler, Ph.D Williamsport 

*HoN M. B. Rich Woolrich 

Rev. J. E. Skillington, D.D Altoona 

Mr. J. Henry Smith Williamsport 

Mr. H. B. Powell Clearfield 

Mr. James B. Graham Williamsport 

Mr. B. a. Harris Williamsport 

* Deceased. 



Rev. O. S. Metzler, Ph.D. Mr. Charles E. Bennett 

Mr. J. Henry Smith W. Edward Watkins, D.D. 

Mr. F. W. Vandersloot 

Hon. Herbert T. Ames Mr. James B. Graham 

Mr. Charles E. Bennett Hon. Max L. Mitchell 

Mr. John E. Person 

Hon. Harry M. Showalter Mr. Walter C. Winter 

Mr. George W. Sykes *Mr. J. Walton Bowman 

Mr. B. a. Harris 

J. E. Skillington, D.D. Simpson B. Evans, D.D. 

J. E. A. BucKE, D.D. 

J. Henry Smith, Treasurer 

Sarah Edith Adams, Accountant 

Bessie L. White, Secretary to the President 

Sarah Elizabeth Dyer, Matron 

William H. Cross, Custodian of Buildings and Grounds 

Baltimore Conference 
Rev. R. H. Bartlett Rev. E. P. Fellenbaum 

Central Pennsylvania Conference 
Rev. R. J. Allen Rev. A. C. Shue 

Rev. Harry Daniels 

Philadelphia Conference 
Rev. L. S. Palmer Rev. W. H. Cannon 

Rev. J. B. MacKay Rev. H. N. Olewiler 




The Rev. John R. Edwards, D.D Matriculation Sermon 

The Rev. Arlo Ayres Brown, LL.D Baccalaureate Sermon 

Bishop Ernest G. Richardson, LL.D Commencement Address 

Faculty Musical Recitals 

Faculty Expression Recital 

Senior Recitals 
Senior Musicale 

Kappa Delta Pi Plays 
"A Night in an Inn" "Other People's Husbands" 

Dramatic Club Plays 
"The New Poor" "The Touch Down" 

Theta Pi Pi Play 
Minstrel Show 

Faculty Play 
"Over the Garden Wall" 

May Day 

Children's Plays 
"When the Sun Stayed in Bed" "The Frog Fairy" 




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