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John Bunyan 

From the contemporary drawing in pencil by Robert White, 
now in the British Museum 










Copyright, 191 i 




fF^ n\ A O Q O 1 O Q 




I. Bunyan's Life and Works vii 

II. The Pilgrim's Progress ...... xxv 

Descriptive Bibliography xxxix 

Title-Page of First Edition i 

Note on the Text 2 

The Pilgrim's Progress 3 

Notes and Comment . . . . . . . .179 

Questions for Disc=--on 233 

Portrait of Bunyan . ...... Frontispiece 

Bedford Bridge xxxviii 

Portrait of Bunyan Sleeping xlii 



John Bunyan, whose book, The Pilgrim's Progress, 
is still after two centuries reprinted and read in number- 
less editions, sprang from surroundings of small literary 
promise. His father barely held his head above poverty; 
and Bunyan himself in his most prosperous years was the 
pastor of a congregation of small shopkeepers and laborers 
in a provincial town. With less education than the son 
of a day laborer in our times, by high purpose and the 
fire of imagination he put his name beside those of Milton 
and Dryden, in the history of English literature; and no 
book written in his time has begun to have so many readers 
and so widespread and continuing an audience as The 
Pilgrim'' s Progress. 

To understand this power and intensity of his genius 
we must take into account not only the man and his 
temperament, but also the stirring times in which he 
lived; for when a nation is deeply stirred by a g'-eat moral 
conflict, and particularly when honest and high-minded 
men are to be found on both sides in that conflict, a few 
gifted men are apt to lift the style of their language to a 
new level of beauty and meaning. A notable case is Abra- 
ham Lincoln, who in the Gettysburg Address and the two 
Inaugurals brought English prose style to the highest 
point which it reached in the nineteenth century. An- 

vlii Introduction 

other case, in the century before Bunyan is the English 
Bible; however men may differ as to its authority as a 
translation, there is universal agreement as to the weighty 
and serene beauty and the subdued glow of its style, which 
was wrought out in the fierce struggles of the English 
Reformation. So we may be sure that some of the throb- 
bing vividness of Bunyan's writing is due to the fact that 
in the England of his day no man could live the humdrum 
life of quieter centuries. All through the seventeenth cen- 
tury, within which his life fell, England was seething with 
religious and political strife; and the grim fixity of pur- 
pose which drove Cromwell's troopers over and through 
the ranks of the Cavaliers was forged and welded in the 
spiritual exaltation of the yeomanry and peasantry of Eng- 
land, from whom Bunyan sprang. His Kfe spanned all 
the most exciting events of the time; for he was born in 
1628, three years after Charles succeeded to the crown, and 
he died in 1688, the year in which the Stuarts were finally 
driven from the throne of England. To understand his 
career, therefore, we must very briefly review these stirring 

The reign of Charles I, which began in 1625, was a 
continual struggle between the king and the people; and 
as the struggle was based on honestly held, but diametric- 
ally opposed, conceptions of civil and religious authority, 
it had to be fought out to the death. Charles beUeved 
conscientiously in the divine right of kings to absolute 
rule; and he attempted to enforce this right by arbitrary 
taxation and confiscation of property, and by dictating 
the forms of worship which his people should follow. But 
Parliament, backed by the strength of the nation, was too 
much for him ; one after another his means of exaction and 
oppression were forced from his hands; and in the end 

Introduction ix 

Strafford, his chief minister in civil affairs, and Archbishop 
Laud, through whom he ruled the church, were brought 
to the scaffold. Then in 1642, when Bunyan was fourteen 
years old, civil war broke out, and ran its course for four 
years. At first victory wavered; then with the rise of 
Oliver Cromwell and his proof that in a war of principle 
honest and God-fearing men make the best soldiers, and 
the singing of psalms the best war cry, the stern determi- 
nation of the Puritan party was crystaUized into an irre- 
sistible force. Charles became a prisoner; the remnant 
of the Long Parliament was overawed by the army; and 
he was brought to trial for high treason, and beheaded on 
January 30, 1649. ^^ this war Bunyan served for a time 
as a private: he was twenty-one years old when Charles 
was put to death. 

Then came the nine years during which Cromwell 
governed England, for the most part uncontrolled by 
Parliament, but with a firmness and ability which put 
England high among the powers of Europe. But the 
great Puritan movement had burned itself out, and the 
grim and austere life which it attempted to force on the 
people of England was intolerable to average human 
nature. Accordingly, on Cromwell's death in 1658 there 
was hardly an effort to maintain his son Richard in his 
place; and when Charles II came back from France in 
1660 almost all England went wild with joy. 

For the remnants of the Puritan party, among whom 
Bunyan was to be counted, evil times were at hand. 
Among the first fruits of the new rule was the Act of 
Uniformity, which required all public worship to be carried 
on under the forms of the Book of Common Prayer; and 
the bishops enforced the Act with fines and imprisonment. 
Bunyan was one of the first victims of the persecution. 
Charles himself was in his indolent way as covetous of 

X Introduction 

despotic power as his father; but he was more earnest in 
his wish to re-estabhsh the Church of Rome in England. 
He was too shrewd to risk another civil war; but he took 
with open hands the bribes which Louis XIV of France 
showered on him in the hope of seeing England once more 
not only Roman Catholic, but also his subservient ally 
in a general war on civil and religious liberty. Bunyan 
incidentally benefited by this tortuous policy; for he was 
set free when Charles, in order to relieve the Roman 
Catholics from galling disabilities, in 1672 issued the 
Declaration of Indulgence, which suspended the penal 
lav,'s against all religious offenders. Though ParHament 
the next year forced the king to withdraw the Declara- 
tion, the remainder of his reign was marked by more and 
more open recognition of the Roman Catholics by the king 
and the court, and increasing dread and hatred of them 
by the country at large. 

James II came to the throne in 1685 a declared Roman 
Catholic, and with the avowed purpose of making Eng- 
land once more a Roman Catholic state. He was too 
blind in his fanaticism, however, and fatally unsympathetic 
with his people; and when it was clear that neither Parlia- 
ment nor the law had any restraints which he respected, 
an invitation to take the English throne was sent by 
men of all parties to William of Orange, who had married 
the elder daughter of Charles 11. He landed in 1688, so 
welcome that James could muster no force against him 
in England. With the latter's flight passed away the power 
of the Stuarts, and all danger to the Protestant ascend- 
ancy in England. 

Thus Bunyan's life fell in a time when men's minds 
were hot with religious and civil strife. All Protestants, 
— and England was almost solidly Protestant — except 
high church Episcopalians, feared and hated the Church 

Introduction xiii 

vice and ungodliness." On the other hand, we must not 
leave out of account what he tells us on the other side. 
''The Lord," he says, "even in my childhood did scare 
and affright me with fearful dreams, and did terrify me 
with dreadful visions. For often after I had spent this 
and the other day in sin, I have in my bed been greatly 
afflicted, while asleep, with the apprehension of devils, 
and wicked spirits, who still, as I then thought, labored 
to draw me away with them; of which I could never be rid." 
Furthermore, he tells us that even in the midst of his 
wickedness, ''if I have at any time seen wicked things by 
those who professed goodness, it would make my spirit 
tremble." And he seems to have counted playing the 
game of "cat" (which consisted in driving a short, pointed 
piece of wood by hitting the end with a stick) , and ringing 
the bells of Elstow church, if not among his sins, at any 
rate among the worldly vanities which were unworthy of 
a soul which was seeking salvation. We must not forget 
that the Puritans of this time kept themselves worked up 
to what seems to us a morbid sense that the whole human 
race was hanging on the edge of a yawning pit of eternal 
damnation, and that in consequence any time taken away 
from repentance for sin and the struggle to make them- 
selves worthy of salvation was not only a foolish but a 
wicked waste of life. On the whole, we may suppose that 
as a boy and a young man he lived freely the life of a 
coarse age, but that he was by no means the hardened 
sinner that his words, if taken literally, would seem to 

In 1644, when Bunyan was sixteen years old, his mother 
died, and within a couple of months, apparently after the 
custom of his time and rank, his father married again. 
Soon after this must have occurred Bunyan's service in 
the army, to which he makes such cursory reference in 

xiv Introduction 

the Grace Abounding. "When I was a soldier," he says, 
"I with others were drawn out to go to such a place to 
besiege it; but when I was just ready to go, one of the 
company desired to go in my room; to which, when I had 
consented, he took my place; and coming to the siege, as 
he stood sentinel, he was shot into the head with a musket- 
bullet, and died." 

How long his service in the army lasted we do not know; 
but as the army was disbanded in 1646, then at any rate 
he must have returned to his trade as tinker. Soon after 
this must have occurred his marriage, but he tells neither 
the date, nor the name of his wife. With almost whimsical 
unconcern he says, ''Presently after this I changed my 
condition into a marriage state ; and my mercy was to light 
upon a wife whose father was counted godly. This woman 
and I, though we came together as poor as poor might be, 
not having so much household stuff as a dish or a spoon 
betwixt us both, yet this she had for her part. The Plain 
Man's Pathway to Heaven, and The Practice of Piety, 
which her father had left her when he died." This wife 
bore him four children, and died some time before 1660; 
for then we find Bunyan's second wife, by name Elizabeth, 
interceding for him and "the four small children that 
cannot help themselves, of which one is blind." 

The piety of this first wife, and reading with her in the 
*two books that she brought him seem to have put the 
first real thoughts of religion into Bunyan's mind. "She 
would also be often teUing of me," he writes, "what a 
godly man her father was, and how he would reprove 
and correct vice, both in his house, and amongst his neigh- 
bors; what a strict and holy Hfe he lived in his day, both 
in word and deed." A httle later a sermon preached 
by the village parson touched him still more. But even 
now, as he says, "when I had satisfied nature with my 

Introduction xv 

food, I shook the sermon out of my mind, and to my 
old custom of sports and gaming I returned with great 

Almost immediately, however, came the voice from 
heaven that was in the end to make over the loose-living 
village boy into the man whose spiritual fervor has touched 
all succeeding generations. "But the same day," he goes 
on, "as I was in the midst of a game at cat, and having 
struck it one blow from the hole, just as I was about to 
strike it the second time, a voice did suddenly dart from 
heaven into my soul, which said, wilt thou leave thy sins, 
and go to heaven ; or have thy sins, and go to hell? At this 
I was put into an exceeding maze; wherefore, leaving my 
cat upon the ground, I looked up to heaven, and was as if I 
had, with the eyes of my understanding, seen the Lord 
Jesus looking down upon me, as being very hotly dis- 
pleased with me, and as if he did severely threaten me with 
some grievous punishment for these, and other my ungodly 
.practices." Bunyan was of the tense emotional tempera- 
ment which gave all these experiences of conviction of 
sin and repentance an unusual violence; and for the next 
four years he suffered torments of spirit which must have 
brought him to the verge of insanity. Grace Abounding, 
in which he describes them, is one of the famous spiritual 
autobiographies of the world. A woman reproved him 
for his swearing, and he gave it up, and presently his out- 
ward reformation made the neighbors "marvel much to 
see such a great and famous alteration in his Ufe and man- 
ners" — "from prodigious profaneness to something like a 
moral life." But still he had not arrived, and did not for 
three years more, at the certainty that God had worked 
the real conversion in his heart. Soon after came doubts 
about bell-ringing, in which formerly he had taken great 
delight, but which his over- tender conscience now began 

xvi Introduction 

to tell him was "but vain." Accordingly he looked on, 
but^dared not ring. 

"''As one reads this story and the others which follow, 
one no longer w^onders at the vividness of imagination 
which has given the perennial life to The Pilgrim^ s Progress. 
A man who at the same time felt spiritual forces so in- 
tensely, and saw the world about him wdth such keen eyes 
and retentive memory, had the faculties necessary to 
stir readers and hearers. The story of his almost hope- 
less floundering in the Slough of Despond, of his long 
sojourn in Doubting Castle and the torments he suffered 
at the hands of Giant Despair and his wife Diffidence, is 
too long to retell here. It was marked by a vivid sense of 
the bodily presence of the Tempter, by visions, by voices 
borne in him from the air. "One day," he tells us, "as I 
was betwixt Elstow and Bedford the temptation was hot 
upon me, to try if I had faith, by doing some miracle; 
which miracle, at that time, was this: I must say to the 
puddles that were in the horse pads, Be dry; and to the 
dry places. Be you the puddles." So the struggle went: for 
the most part he was cast down and harassed in spirit; 
but occasionally as he turned over the pages of his Bible 
a text would catch his eye which would comfort him for 
a time. At other times, his eye would be caught by a 
text that seemed to chnch the desperateness of his fate, 
and the dungeon would close in on him again, blacker 
than ever. 

,/ In the end he won through to the certainty that he was 
, saved from his sins by the grace of Cod and the blood 
of his Savior Christ. Humanly his chief aid came from 
Mr. John Gifford, the minister of the Baptist congrega- 
tion at Bedford, who had himself passed through a sudden 
conversion from the rough and loose life of a soldier in the 
Royal army to a deep and lasting piety and faith. Bun- 

Introduction xvli 

yan joined his church in 1653, and probably in 1655 moved 
in from Elstow to Bedford. Here he was soon chosen 
one of the deacons of the church; and as the members 
of the congregation came to reahze that he had had stir- 
ring spiritual experiences, and that his words were tipped 
with fire, they called on him to take part in the preaching. 
They showed their confidence in him by taking him at 
first out into the country round about; and then he was 
''more particularly called forth, and appointed to a more 
ordinary and public preacliing the word." 

Of his success he speaks humbly, but confidently; and 
so surely did he strike home to the hearts and souls of 
men that he was soon preaching not only in Bedfordshire, 
but in the surrounding counties. At the same time his 
success aroused against him enemies among the conserva- 
tive minded, who were "angry with the tinker because 
he strove to mend souls as well as kettles and pans." As 
early as 1658 he was indicted for preaching, but the mat- 
ter seems not to have been pressed. 

Very soon after he began preaching Bunyan also began 
to write and publish. His first work, Some Gospel Truths 
Opened, was an argument against the anarchical mysticism 
of the Quakers of his day; and his second, A Vindication 
of Gospel Truths, was a rejoinder to a reply drawn forth 
by the first. His third book was a homily on the parable 
of the rich man and Lazarus, pointed at the sinners of 
Bedfordshire and England with Bunyan's unerringly vivid 
sense of fact. 

With the restoration of Charles II in May, 1660, Eng- 
land ran into a blind debauch of loyalty to both church 
and state; and men who clung to the habit of thinking 
for themselves about either were lumped together as 
enemies to both. In Bedfordshire the magistrates issued 
in early October an order for the public reading of the 

xvili Introduction 

liturgy of the Church of England; and they revived the 
old laws of the time of EHzabeth which punished all who 
refused to go to the services of the parish church and at- 
tended unauthorized conventicles. Bunyan seems never 
to have had a doubt that it was his duty to go on with 
the ministry which had been committed to him; and on 
November 12, within six months of Charles's landing, he 
w^as arrested w^hile preaching to a little assembly at the 
hamlet of Lower Samsell, thirteen miles to the south of 
Bedford. He had been w^arned, he tells us in his work, 
A Relation of the Imprisonment of Mr. John Bunyan, but, 
as he says, " I thought, that seeing God of his mercy should 
choose me to go upon the forlorn hope in this country, 
that is to be the first that should be opposed for the Gospel, 
if I should fly, it might be a discouragement to the whole 
body that might follow after." Accordingly he quietly 
went to his preaching, and was interrupted by the con- 
stables in the midst of his discourse. 

The magistrates seem to have been more interested 
in bringing the unlicensed preaching to an end than in 
punishing Bunyan; and when he was brought before them 
he was told if he w^ould agree not to preach he should be 
set free. He quietly answered, "Sir, I shall not force or 
compel any man to hear me, but yet if I come into any 
place where there is a people met together, I should ac- 
cording to the best of my skill and wisdom, exhort and 
counsel them to seek out after the Lord Jesus Christ, for 
the salvation of their souls." And from this answ^er he 
would not stir, in spite of the arguments of the magistrates 
and the smooth pleading of a pretended friend, Mr. Foster 
of Bedford. The scene must have given him material 
for the portrayal of Mr. Worldly Wiseman. Bunyan's 
refusal to make any agreement about preaching forced the 
hands of the magistrates, and they committed him to jail. 

Introduction xlx 

The imprisonment on which Bunyan thus entered with 
such cool and high purpose was to last for twelve years. 
His friends made some effort to free him; but Bunyan 
himself evidently felt that he would do more service by 
being made an example of the arrogance and intolerance 
of his persecutors. He shows httle resentment against 
them; it is characteristic of him that he felt the issue to 
be in the hands of God. "I was not at all daunted," he 
writes, "but rather glad, and saw evidently that the Lord 
had heard me." 

Seven weeks later, in January, 1661, "John Bunyan, 
laborer, of the town of Bedford," was brought before the 
Quarter Sessions for formal trial. Sir John Keeling, who 
presided at the trial, was harsh and blustering; he called 
Bunyan's answers ''pedlars' French" and told him to 
leave off his canting. Bunyan must have had him in mind 
when he wrote of the Lord Hate-good who presided at 
the trial of Faithful in Vanity Fair. But Keeling had no 
choice under the law; for Bunyan quietly confessed to 
holding the prohibited meetings and to his determination 
to go on holding them. Accordingly KeeHng sent him to 

The next year Bunyan's second wife, Elizabeth, whom 
he had married about a year before his arrest, and who 
now had the sole care of his four children, made every 
effort for his release. She traveled to London with a 
petition to the House of Peers; but had only the answer 
that "the matter was one for the judges." At the next 
midsummer assize she presented three times her husband's 
request that he might be legally put on his trial. Sir Mat- 
thew Hale, who was presiding, showed much kind feeling; 
but he could only tell her that her husband must either 
sue for a pardon or obtain a writ of error. Neither would 
have done any good; for to obtain pardon Bunyan must 

XX Introduction 

have promised to abstain in the future from the same 
offenses against the law; and the latter if successful would 
have led only to making regular the present result. Ac- 
cordingly he remained in prison, except for a short interval 
in 1666, until 1672, twelve years from his first committal. 

His confinement, taking into account the condition of 
all prisons at the time, seems not to have been rigorous. 
Probably it was more severe for the first six or eight years. 
After 1668, however, his name appears in the book of the 
Bedford Baptist church without reference to his being a 
prisoner; and as he was deputed with others to visit and 
remonstrate with erring brethren of the church, apparently 
he was allowed to go out at times on parole. At the same 
time there seems to have been little restraint on his preach- 
ing in the jail, w^here we know that he had a numerous 
company of sympathizers w^ho w^re also suffering for their 
faith. Nevertheless, we must not minimize the hardships. 
All prisons in the seventeenth century were cramped and 
foul nurseries of disease: and though Bedford jail was 
probably not one of the worst, it must have been much 
crowded while Bunyan was there; straw to lie on was al- 
lowed as a luxury; and there can have been none of the 
arrangements which we look on as elementary necessities 
for sanitation and ventilation. Moreover, during the ear- 
lier part of his imprisonment Bunyan had, or thought 
that he had, serious reason to fear that further persecu- 
tion might bring him to the gallows. Moreover, he had 
private anxieties. ^'The parting with my wife and poor 
children hath often been to me in this place, as the pull- 
ing the flesh from my bones; and that not only I am some- 
what too fond of these great mercies, but also because I 
should have often brought to my mind the many hard- 
ships, miseries, and wants that my poor family w^as like 
to meet with, should I be taken from them, especially my 

Introduction xxi 

poor blind child, who lay nearer to my heart than all I 
had besides." 

In spite, therefore, of what seem unusual liberties, Bun- 
yan had enough to try the strength of his purpose in the 
close and poisonous air, in the restraint on the work to 
which he was so passionately devoted, and in the separa- 
tion from his family and his anxious thought about them. 

With all his anxiety, however, he was far from idle. 
To help towards the support of his family, we are told by 
one who knew him in prison, he made many hundred gross 
of ''long tagged laces." For books he had Foxe's Book of 
Martyrs and the Bible. The former is one of the great 
monuments of English prose from the sixteenth century, 
written with the same combination of vigor and richness 
with homely simplicity that marks Bunyan's own writing; 
and its stories of men who from the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era had suffered persecution for their faith must have 
brought comfort to his spirit. Of his use of the Bible 
almost every line that he ever wrote bears testimony: I 
shall come back to its influence on his writing in the dis- 
cussion of The Pilgrim's Progress. 

His preaching led to much writing. Most of his works 
are said to have sprung from sermons, which he after- 
wards expanded. The partial list of his works in the 
Bibliography at the end of this Introduction will show 
how active he was. Nor was writing without labor for 
him. He brought his works to completion, he tells us, 
"first with doing, and then with undoing, and after that 
with doing again." 

Of the works which he wrote in prison during this long 
imprisonment by far the most important has the title, 
Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; or, A Brief and 
Faithful Relation of the Exceeding Mercy of God in Christ 
to his Poor Servant, John Bunyan. This is, except perhaps 

xxii Introduction 

for St. Augustine's Confessions, the most remarkable 
spiritual autobiography in existence. In it Bunyan por- 
trays with most graphic cletail, and with homely but burn- 
ing eloquence, the history of his soul from his youth until 
his imprisonment. His own description of his purpose in 
the preface is the best characterization of the work: "I 
could have enlarged much in this my discourse of my 
temptations and troubles for sin, as also of the merciful 
kindness and working of God with my soul. I could also 
have stepped into a style much higher than this in which 
I have here discoursed, and could have adorned all things 
more than here I have seemed to do. But I dare not: God 
did not play in tempting of me ; neither did I play, when I 
sunk as into a bottomless pit, when the pangs of hell caught 
hold upon me. Wherefore I may not play in relating of 
them, but be plain and simple, and lay down the thing as 
it was. .He that Hketh it, let him receive it; and he that 
does not, let him produce a better." The passages already 
quoted in this Introduction will show the vividness and the 
nervous vigor of the style. 

Bunyan's release from his long imprisonment came in 
1672. He received license to preach on IVi. y , and his 
pardon under the great seal is dated September 13. He 
had already in January been called to be pastor of the 
Baptist congregation in Bedford, an offic . which he took 
up on his release, and held till his death. Even now, 
however, his troubles were not over; Tor as we have seen. 
Parliament promptly forced Charles to recall the Declara- 
tion of Indulgence, and persecution of the nonconformists 
broke out afresh. At this time he suffered another, though 
short term of imprisonment, probab^ " tradition says, 
in the town jail, a small building on < piers of the 

bridge over the Ouse. It was during this imprisonment 
that he wrote The Pilgrim's Progress. 

Introduction xxiil 

In the meantime he was constantly occupied with the 
care of his own church and the oversight of many others, 
and with much writing. Under the Declaration of Indul- 
gence he had obtained licenses for twenty-five preachers 
and thirty places of worship in Bedfordshire and the 
surrounding counties. His oversight of all these churches 
brought him the affectionate title of "Bishop" Bunyan. 
He had become famous as a preacher, and wherever he 
was announced to preach he was met by throngs. In 
this work of preaching and pastoral care and in writing 
he used all his time. He seems to have kept wholly clear 
of the heated and turbid politics of the time. In his works 
there is hardly a reference to the parties which so tore 
England throughout his lifetime. 

Of the writings produced during these latter years we 
need consider here only four. The Pilgrim's Progress, 
Part I, which was written probably in 1675, and was pub- 
lished in 1678, will have separate consideration. The Life 
and Death of Mr. Badman, which Bunyan intended as a 
complement to The Pilgrim's Progress, appeared in 1680. 
It describes tbn evil career of a typical tradesman of the 
lower midv"'e'«ikss, a scoundrel, a debauchee, and a hypo- 
crite. But Bunyan's unerring sense of fact did not let him 
spoil his purpose by inventing a monster. Mr. Badman 
is shrewd, beside being wicked; he marries a rich and 
godly wife through'deceit, and abuses her for many years; 
and he thrives in hiH'bwn business by cunningly concealed 
dishonesty. In the end, however, he is caught up with; 
and his disasters then seem inevitable. After his wife's 
death he is tricked into a marriage with an abandoned 
w^oman; with he: ^y sinks into increasing debauchery 
and poverty, and i; iche end dies miserably. If Bunyan 
had not been first and last a preacher, he might have been 
the originator of the modern English novel; for Air. Bad- 

xxiv^ Introduction 

man shows ^rewd insight into character and the power 
to portray it by vivid incident, and also an unerring sense 
for the action and reaction of human conduct. 

Two years later in 1682 appeared Bunyan's other great 
allegory, The Holy War. This is far more elaborate and 
ingenious than The Pilgrim's Progress. Under the figure 
of a campaign and siege Bunyan describes how Diabolus 
by a surprise captures Mansoul, and then how Shaddai 
(the Almighty), sends his servants and captains who at 
last by the help of Emmanuel retake it. There is no less 
understanding of human nature, and extraordinary re- 
source in the coining of proper names, as where Mr. Tell- 
true bears witness that he had heard Mr. Atheism declare 
that there was no God, and fixes the places as in Black- 
mouth Lane and in Blasphemers Row, and Mr. Hate-lies 
declares that he had heard like impieties ''in Drunkards' 
Row, just at Rascal Lane's end, at a house in which Mr. 
Impiety lived." But the allegory as a whole is artificial; 
and one's attention wanders from the story to the lively 
and homely detail with which it is filled. 

In 1684 Bunyan published The Second Part of The 
Pilgrim's Progress, a continuation of the allegory, dealing 
with the adventures of Christian's wife Christiana and 
their children, who presently follow him in the pilgrimage 
to the Celestial City. It has many vivid figures such as 
Great-heart and Feeble-mind and the man with the muck- 
rake, and some beautiful passages ; but like most continua- 
tions, something of the fervor has evaporated, and the 
story flows less spontaneously. 

When James came to the throne on the death of 
Charles II in 1685, he made an attempt to entangle the 
nonconformists in his plot for the restoration of the Roman 
Catholics. The corporation of Bedford, among other 
places was reconstituted, and among the new members 

Introduction xxv 

were several drawn from Bunyan's congregation. An 
active effort was made to enlist Bunyan himself, both by 
the bait of toleration for his own church, and by the offer 
of a place under government. For the first he was too 
shrewd, and the second he declined with disdain. It was 
his uniform policy to keep out of politics, and follow the 
prophecy which had been committed to him. 

He did not live to see the Revolution of 1688. In the 
spring of that year he had been weakened by an attack 
of the sweating sickness; and in the summer he took a 
severe cold while riding up to London, where he was going 
to bring about a reconciliation between a father and a son. 
Fever followed on the cold; and he died in London, Au- 
gust 31, 1688. He was buried in the cemetery used by the 
nonconformists in Bunhill Fields. 



"An allegory is a prolonged metaphor," says The In- 
ternational Dictionary; and "a metaphor is a compressed 
simile." The Pilgrim's Progress falls well enough within 
this definition of an allegory, for it is a prolonged elabora- 
tion of the simile which compares the life of an earnest 
Christian to the journeyings of a pilgrim through hard- 
ships and dangers to a sacred goal. On the other hand, 
the book is far more than an ingenious literary exercise, 
or than the laborious and literal spinning out of a figure 
of speech into a story; and there is reason in the view of 
those critics who have called The Pilgrim's Progress the 
first English novel. Let us therefore scrutinize more 
closely the differences between an allegory and a novel. 

xxvi Introduction 

''An allegory is a prolonged metaphor," or to take the 
fuller definition, it is "a figurative sentence or discourse, 
in which the principal subject is described by another 
subject resembling it in its properties and circumstances." 
A novel ''is a fictitious tale or narrative, professing to be 
conformed to real life." Starting from these definitions, 
let us try to define the essential character of an allegory, 
and that of a novel. 

Since an allegory is an expanded simile we shall do 
well to go back to a plain and uncomplicated example of 
the simile; and we can find one in another of Bunyan's 
own works. Following a very favorite fashion of the seven- 
teenth century he put out in 1686 The Country Rhymes, a 
small collection of "divine emblems," in which he set forth 
a series of moral lessons by means of various comparisons in 
verse. They are not highly poetical, but they have a good 
deal of homely humor, as the following example will show: 

Upon the Frog 

The frog by nature is both damp and cold, 
Her mouth is large, her belly much will hold; 
She sits somewhat ascending, loves to be 
Croaking in gardens, though unpleasantly. 


The hypocrite is like unto this frog, 

As like as is the puppy to the dog. 

He is of nature cold, his mouth is wide 

To prate and at true goodness to deride. 

And though the world is that which has his love, 

He mounts his head as if he lived above. 

And though he seeks in churches for to croak, 

He neither loveth Jesus nor his yoke. 

Such a simile as this is the simplest form of figurative 
writing; for the points of resemblance between the real 

Introduction xxvii 

subject and the figure through which it is described are 
expHcitly named. It brings to the surface, therefore, 
with great distinctness the real purpose of all figurative 
writing, viz., to clothe an idea which is either abstract or 
remote, with something of the warmth and distinctness 
of real experience by putting it into terms of the sensations 
which we have of real things. Thus in this example, the 
coldness of a hypocrite is an abstract quality, which we 
admit as something that every one knows, but without 
caring much about it one way or the other; Bunyan, by 
comparing this coldness with the clammy coldness of a 
frog, stirred up the feeling of repugnance which such 
clamminess causes in us, in order to rouse in us more 
active disgust for the hypocrite. In the same way with 
the parables of the Bible: whether the form is that of a 
metaphor, as in the parable of the sower, or of a simile, 
as in that in which the kingdom of heaven is Hkened to a 
grain of mustard seed, is of little consequence, for the 
difference in form is due chiefly to convenience of expres- 
sion : in either case we carry over as we read something of 
the actual feelings which the objects of real fife stir in us 
to objects of thought which are more abstract and de- 
tached. Between parable and allegory, again, there is no 
certain line to be drawn, except that a parable usually im- 
plies a figure drawn from "something which really might 
occur in fife or nature." Their purpose is the same: to 
communicate to abstract ideas something of the warmth 
and moving reality of actual life. 

This definition will bring us to the difference between 
an allegory and a novel: they start from different ends. 
Both forms use the two great faculties of the human mind, 
feeling and thought; but the writer of an allegory, starting 
from the abstract idea which is the fruit of thought, casts 
about for means to clothe the abstraction with the warmth 

xxviii Introduction 

and the moving power of feeling. The writer of a novel, 
on the other hand, starting from a warm and vivid im- 
pression of the life about him, must clarify this impression 
by thinking out a clear structure for his story and by 
crystallizing his people into types, which while remaining 
individual shall still fit in with common experience. Mac- 
beth — and for our present purpose plays may be classed 
with novels — is not only a very living personality, who 
stirs our feelings in a very individual way, but he is also 
the type of ambition and of its sapping and demoralizing 
effects on character, of which we can all recognize some 
seeds or reflection in ourselves. In the same way with 
Silas Marner: we in America, and a hundred years after 
the events would have occurred, read the book not merely 
for the story and because of the liveliness and humor with 
which the people are portrayed, but also because the self- 
indulgence of Godfrey Cass and the inevitable misery it 
brings on him and other people, and the redeeming force 
of Silas's love for Eppie, are thrown into high relief, and 
make us understand more clearly forces which we indis- 
tinctly feel to be potent in our own lives. The writer of 
a novel, hke all other artists, gets his idea by feehng and 
intuition, in much the same way that the rest of us feel 
that we understand the characters of our friends, even 
though we cannot explain them. 

Thus in the allegory the main idea is regularly the prod- 
uct of thought, the faculty by which we make generaliza- 
tions and abstractions; in a novel the main idea or motive 
shapes itself by intuition or feeling. It is pretty clear 
that the allegory is the less natural form of literature. 
Story-telling is the most spontaneous use that we make of 
our speech; making sermons — and an allegory is a disguised 
sermon — comes comparatively late, whether in history or 
in our own individual lives, and to many people not at all, 

Introduction xxix 

Therefore though the number of stories is legion, and we 
all read some of them, the number of allegories of which 
we know even the name is very small; and the allegories 
which are read a hundred years after they were written 
get down to two or three. 

Now, why is it that The Pilgrini's Progress is one of 
these two or three? Is it not that it combines with the 
intellectual abstraction that goes to the making of an 
allegory so much of the warm and vivid feeling for life 
and character that it can also, as we have seen, be looked 
on as a novel? In ''The Author's Apology for his Book" 
Bunyan tells us that the story came to him without fore- 
thought or planning: 

I, writing of the way 
And race of saints in this our gospel day, 
Fell suddenly into an allegory 
About their journey, and the way to glory, 
In more than twenty things, which I set down. 
This done, I twenty more had in my crown; 
And they again began to multiply. 
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly 
Nay, then, thought I, if that you breed so fast 
I'll put you by yourselves. 

From this it would seem to be clear that the first im- 
pulse in Bunyan's mind was not to puzzle out a form for 
an abstract idea which he had carefully thought out; but 
that rather he was merely, as it were, an instrument for 
writing out a story which came to him fully formed, and 
for which the material was furnished by his Hvely inter- 
est in the life about him. This impulse is essentially the 
same as that which created Hamlet and Macbeth and Julius 
Ccesar, or nearer our own day, the novels of those great 
morahsts, George EHot, Dickens, and Thackeray. 

How much there is in The Pilgrim's Progress of this 

XXX Introduction 

novelist's impulse, which sees into the heart of what is 
significant in the individual lives of men, one can see by 
noting the variety in the adventures of the characters. 
In the Valley of Humiliation Christian is hard put to it 
by Apollyon; in the Valley of the Shadow of Death he 
was terrified by clouds of smoke and flame and by the 
bowlings of unclean spirits. Faithful, on the other hand, 
reports that he had sunshine all through both valleys. 
Nothing could show more clearly Bunyan's strong sense 
of reality, and this sense is the one essential faculty for 
a novelist. To his imagination Christian and Faithful 
and Hopeful were all individual li\dng men, who of neces- 
sity in passing through the same experiences would take 
them in different ways. 

It is the same with the characters as with the course 
of the story : they all are filled with the breath of life. We 
read about Faithful not because he is the personification 
of a noble virtue, but because in his straightforward and 
sunny certainty that the path before him is good, he is like 
people that we have known ourselves. So Talkative and 
By-ends and Mr. Worldly Wiseman come to us straight 
from the streets of Bunyan's England, and are as vividly 
real as the people in the novels of Defoe. It is this vivi- 
fying of his imagination by his constant sense of reality, 
the essential faculty of the novelist, that kept Bunyan's 
allegory from falling into the dreary limbo of abstractions, 
towards which almost all other allegories have hurried in 
pale procession. 

Thus The Pilgrim^ s Progress may be thought of as be- 
longing to two classes of literature: on the one hand, in 
intention, in outward form, and in many of its parts, it 
belongs with the allegories; on the other hand, it belongs 
.also with the great class of novels, for it portrays the hopes 
and joys, the good and evil impulses of men of great variety 

Introduction xxxi 

of character in a way that we instantly feel is true to the 
world that we know ourselves. 

The idea from which Bunyan started in The Pilgrim's 
Progress was far from new. There are extant several 
allegories based on the comparison of the life of man 
through this world to a pilgrimage; one such, which was 
written in French in the fourteenth century, is known to 
have been translated into English, though the translation 
was not printed before Bunyan's time. Another French 
work. The Voyage of the Wandering Knight, which has, 
however, little resemblance to The Pilgrim's Progress, 
was translated into English and printed in 1607. There 
is no reason to think that Bunyan took his idea from either 
of these. Indeed the idea was so obvious and well-known 
that there is no reason to expect that he borrowed from 
any specific source. Sir Walter Raleigh, nearly a hundred 
years 'before Bunyan, wrote a charming little poem on the 
idea; its first stanza is: 

Give me my scallop-shell of quiet, 

My staff of faith to walk upon, 
My scrip of joy, immortal diet, 

My bottle of salvation, 
My gown of glory, hope's true gage; 
And thus I'll take my pilgrimage. 

And George Herbert, a generation later, wrote another. 
If Bunyan had been asked for a source, he would prob- 
ably have referred to The Epistle to the Hebrews: 

These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but 
having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and em- 
braced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on 
the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they 
seek a country. And truly, if they had been mindful of that country 
from whence they came cut, they might have had opportunity to 

xxxii Introduction 

have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an 
heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for 
he hath prepared for them a city. — Hebrews xi. 13-16. 

And still further back, when Joseph brings his father 
Jacob before Pharaoh: 

Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage 
are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the 
years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the 
years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage. — 
Genesis xlvii. g. 

The idea, then, of likening the life of man to a pilgrimage 
would have come to Bunyan naturally and without search 
or labor of invention. 

But why should this work of Bunyan, founded on an 
idea which had been common property for many centu- 
ries, so touch the imaginations of mankind as to be printed 
and reprinted in numberless editions for English speaking 
people, and translated into nearly eighty foreign lan- 
guages? 1 The answer to this question we have found in 
part in the fact that Bunyan had the constant, vivifying N 
sense of reality, which is to-day the chief faculty of nov- / 
elists. Beyond that we must look to the style of the work/ 
and to the story itself and the allegory which it embodies. 
I will take up each of these in turn. 

The style more nearly approaches that of the EnglisKX 
Bible than that of any other work in Enghsh Hterature. ) 
This I conceive is due chiefly to two causes, Bunyan's 
close familiarity with the Scriptures, and the nature of 
his subject. 

How intimately Bunyan knew the Bible and how satu- 
rated his mind was with its phrases will appear from the 

^ For a list of the latter, see Brown, John Bunyan, Appendix II. 

Introduction xxxiii 

commentary which- follows this text. This will show how 
much of the body of the text is drawn direct from the 
language of the Bible. This unconscious enriching of his 
own style followed naturally from the way in which Bun- 
yan, like most of his contemporaries, read the Bible. His 
own accounts in Grace Abounding, tell us how he pored 
over the book, sometimes searching at random for a text 
which should settle his spiritual fate, sometimes reading 
at large and continuously. And in prison, as we have 
seen, he had only two books, the Bible and Foxe's Book 
of Martyrs. The range of his citations in The Pilgrim's 
Progress is proof that he knew all parts of the Bible, and 
had sought to distil the full spiritual meaning from every 
chapter and verse in both Old and New Testaments. It 
is this close scrutiny of the individual texts that created 
his familiarity with the book. Reading for the story or for 
the larger meaning of a prophecy makes one know the 
civilization and the ideas of the Old Testament, perhaps, 
and the doctrine of the New; but it does not make the in- 
dividual words and phrases a part of the texture of one's 
thought as did the older way of reading, when faith in the 
inspiration of each individual word of the Scriptures had 
not been questioned. 

Not only, however, was Bunyan's mind thus running 
over with the language of the Bible, but his subject and 
his manner of treating it led naturally to his use of a style 
that is marked by the same directness and simpHcity . 
The Old Testament was written for a people of primitive 
simpHcity of thought, and in a language which had no 
means of expression for ideas which were not simple and 
concrete. The New Testament is nearly as simple. Even 
the epistles of St. Paul, though they deal with the mys- 
teries of the faith, were sent to churches made up chiefly 
of the unlearned; and accordingly they set forth their 


hich \ 
ision I 

xxxiv Introduction 

truths rather by illuminating or suggestive figures of 
speech than by abstraction and generalization. Further- 
more, the translation into EngHsh was made at a time 
when the English language had comparatively few learned 
words, and it was made for the express purpose of spread- 
ing the gospel widely among the common people of Eng- 
land. All these facts combined to produce a style which 
is the simplest and most concrete that we know in EngHsh; 
and simplicity makes for universal appeal, as concreteness 
does for vividness and warmth of expression. Now these 
are just the qualities which best fitted Bunyan's purpose. 
He too was writing in the first place for the unlearned; 
and therefore he put his allegory into language w 
would reach all men. And he was bodying forth a vision 
that came to him with singular vividness and living con- 
creteness, for we must not forget the testimony of Grace 
Abounding that he heard voices in the air about him, and 
saw visions as it were with his bodily eyes. For both these 
reasons it was inevitable that knowing every word and 
syllable of the Bible as he did he should unconsciously use 
its language when he came to the writing of The Pilgrim^ s 

Another cause makes it not surprising that Bunyan's 
style is like that of the Bible, and that is his use of the 
vigorous and homely language which he himself talked 
with his flock in the streets and on the farms of Bedford- 
shire. Here again there is close similarity between Bunyan 
and William Tindale, the first translator of the English 
Bible. The latter we are told in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 
had declared before he entered on the work, speaking to 
a bigoted priest and echoing the w^ords of Erasmus, that 
he would "cause a boy that driveth the plough shall know 
more of the Scripture than thou doest"; and by transla- 
tion arid vigorous compositions of his own he labored to 

Introduction xxxv 

bring the gospel to every man and woman in England, 
until his labors were brought to an end at the stake. With 
this purpose firm in his mind he turned the Hebrew and 
the Greek into the homely language of the street and 
market-place and farm. Thus the language of the Bible 
was singularly fitted to the purpose of Bunyan, who also 
was writing in the first place for the unlettered, and who 
had the same prophetic spirit and mission that touched 
Tindale's language with fire. We find in The Pilgrim's 
Progress, therefore, nearly the same combination of un- 
conscious and transparent simplicity with high and in- 
spired earnestness that has made the style of the English 
Bible the highest standard of English prose. 

In his allegory Bunyan set forth the life of a Christian 
believer from the time that he awakens to a sense of his 
sins and turns steadfastly to a new life. The brief biog- 
raphy of Bunyan in the earher part of this Introduction 
will show how much he drew on his own experience. The 
outward frame of the allegory is drawn from the Cal- 
vinistic scheme of theology, which was ultimately derived 
from the theology of St. Augustine; and that in turn was 
based on a vivid sense of the everlasting war between 
the good and the evil in human nature. According to 
this doctrine, as it was worked out by Calvin, and held 
by all parties of the English Puritans, all mankind, through 
the original sin of Adam, is born corrupt; repentance and 
good works are not in themselves sufficient to remove the 
penalties of this original taint of sin, forgiveness for which 
can come only by the free grace of God, earned by the 
sacrifice of Jesus on the cross; and this free grace comes 
to those only whom He in His eternal wisdom has elected, 
without deserving on the part of those who are thus pre- 
ordained to be saved. Therefore, when Christian in the 

xxxvl Introduction 

allegory has turned his back on the City of Destruction, 
and has repented of his sin, he has made only a preliminary 
step: he must then struggle on and pray until he feels 
the burden of his sins fall from his back and roll into the 
sepulcher of Jesus. 

But except for this beginning of the allegory and a few 
other passages, such as the incident of poor Ignorance at the 
end, Bunyan pays little attention to the theological scheme. 
If he had not seen through its precisions and subtleties to 
the universal moral truths on which it rests. The Pilgrim's 
Progress would never have lived to our day. Every man 
who has turned his back on inclination and set himself 
to follow the narrow path of duty, finds here reflected his 
own experience. For all of us the first resolution is easy; 
but old-established habits, and the memories of the pleas- 
ures that the new duties proscribe, even more readily 
gather to clog the good resolution : the Slough of Despond 
belongs to universal human experience. So do the Valley 
of Humihation and the Valley of the Shadow of Death, 
Vanity Fair, w^here all the passing allurements of the 
passing day are laid out to distract attention from higher 
purposes, and at the very end, when the day seems won, 
Doubting Castle and the Giant Despair. Nor are the 
comforts w^hich Christian meets on his pilgrimage less 
largely conceived: the house of the Interpreter with the 
ministrations of the grave and beautiful damsels who 
represent the Christian virtues, the House Beautiful and 
the chamber whose name was Peace, and the Delectable 
Mountains with their glimpse of the supernal glories be- 
yond, all figure forth realities of human life as each of 
us know it. In this struggle some of us must, like Chris- 
tian, fight our way through the lowest depths; others, 
Hke Faithful, find sunshine in the darkest places. But the x 
allegory holds for every one who has set himself to rise j 

Introduction xxxvii 

to a higher level of living; and the enormous number of 
readers of many nations is proof that the book has touched 
essential chords in our common human nature. 

There is a passage in the Grace Abounding which, I 
think, best embodies the real spirit of The Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress. It is near the beginning of the book, where Bunyan 
has been describing the black despair which oppressed 
him after the conviction of his sinful life was borne in on 
him. " But upon a day," he goes on, " the good providence 
of God did cast me to Bedford, to work on my calling; 
and in one of the streets of that town, I came where there 
were three or four poor women sitting at a door, in the 
sun, talking about the things of God. . . . And methought 
they spake as if joy did make them speak; they spake with 
such pleasantness of Scripture language, and with such 
appearance of grace in all they said, that they were to 
me, as if they had found a new world. ... I saw as if 
they were set on the sunny side of some high mountain, 
there refreshing themselves with the pleasant beams of 
the sun, while I was shivering and shrinking in the cold, af- 
flicted with frost, snow, and dark clouds." It is this sense 
of the religious life as a sunny life, which spreads a glow 
of cheer and happiness around it, that is after all the domi- 
nant note of The Pilgri^n's Progress; and it is significant 
that the passage where Bunyan's style kindles to its great- 
est beauty is the passage that describes the final blessed- 
ness of the Celestial City; for the allegory is really con- 
cerned, not with theological tenets, but with large moral 
truths, which are deep-seated and universal in human 


The standard biography of Bunyan is John Bunyan, 
His Life, Times, and Work, by John Brown, B.A., D.D., 
Minister of the Church at Bunyan Meeting, Bedford: 
1900. It gives all the facts known about Bunyan, and 
many more about his times, and the church of which he 
was pastor. In Appendix II is a list of the sevent5:-3even 
languages into which The Pilgrim's Progress has been 

The Life of John Bunyan, by Canon Venables, in the 
Great Writers Series, is more compact. It has at the 
end a copious bibliography of Bunyan and works on Bun- 
yan, by John P. Anderson of the British Museum. Canon 
Venables also wrote the excellent sketch of Bunyan in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, and an elaborately anno- 
tated edition of both parts of The Pilgrim's Progress and 
of Grace Abounding for the Clarendon Press Series. 

J. A. Froude's Bunyan, in the EngHsh Men of Letters 
Series, though occasionally inaccurate, has a full and 
interesting discussion of Bunyan's religious views and 
of the significance of his work. 

Macaulay's Essay on Southey's Edition of The Pilgrim's 
Progress, and his sketch of Bunyan written for the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, are famous pieces of penetrating, 
though arbitrary criticism. 

The complete works of Bunyan have been edited by 
G. OfTor, in three volumes, with introductions to the 
separate works. 

Earlier allegorical pilgrimages have been studied and 

xl Descriptive Bibliography 

noted in A Study of Jhe Sources of Bunyan's Allegories, 
by James Blanton Wharey, in a dissertation submitted 
for the degree of Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University in 

In Anderson's BibHography of Bunyan there appear 
in the chronological list of works by Bunyan forty-five 
independent publications, and ten other treatises which 
appeared for the first time in 1692 in the first collected 
edition of Bunyan's works. Many of these are theological 
and polemical treatises, often developed from sermons, 
and are of slight interest to-day. In the present Hst only 
the more important works are mentioned. A brief de- 
scription follows the title of each book in those cases 
where none appears in the Introduction. 

1656. Some Gospel Truths Opened. 

This, Bunyan's first work, was a vigorously argued attack 
on the doctrines of the Quakers. Almost every sentence is 
supported by citations from the Bible, which show that at 
this early time Bunyan had an exhaustive knowledge of it. 
To this work an answer was made by a young Quaker, 
Edward Burroughs; and Bunyan sent out in reply: 

1657. A Vindication of Gospel Truths Opened. 

1658. Sighs from Hell; or the Groans of a Damned Soul. 

A commentary on the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, 

full of graphic application to the men and times of Bunyan 

1661. Profitable Meditations. 

Bunyan's first pubhcation from prison, "The book is in the 

form of poetical dialogue, and has small literary merit of 

any sort." (Brown.) 
1663. / Will Pray unto the Spirit and with the Understanding also; or 

a Discourse Touching Prayer. 

This sets forth Bunyan's objections to the service of the 

EstabHshed Church; it is full of deep spiritual fervor. 
1665. The Holy City, or the New Jerusalem. 

An exposition of the vision of the New Jerusalem in the 

latter chapters of Revelation. 

Descriptive Bibliography xli 

1666. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 

1672. A Confession of Faith, and a Reason of My Practice. 

A vindication of the principles for which he had been im- 

1673. Difference in Judgment about Water Baptism No Bar to Com- 


An answer to two attacks on his doctrine, in which he pro- 
tests against divisions in the church founded on points not 

1678. The Pilgrim's Progress. 

1680. The Life and Death of Mr. Badman. 

1682. The Holy War, Made by Shaddai upon Diabolus for the Re- 
gaining of the Metropolis of the World; or the Losing and 
Taking Again of the Town of Mansoul. 

1684. The Pilgrim's Progress, the Second Part. 

1686. A Book for Boys and Girls, or Country Rhymes for Children, in 
Verse, on 74 Things. 

A collection of short moral poems, of the nature of "em- 
blems. " 

1688. The Jerusalem Sinner Saved, or Good News for the Vilest of Men. 
A homily in which Bunyan speaks at times of his own life. 
A Relation of the Imprisonment of Mr. John Bunyan. 
An account of his arrest, trial, imprisonment, and of the 
effort made by his wife to free him. (First published in 

Portrait of Bunyan sleeping, with Christian on his pilgrim- 
age in the background. Frontispiece of the third edition 
of The Pilgrim's Progress, by Robert White. From a copy 
in the British Museum 


Pilgrim's Progrefs 



T O 

That which is to come: 

DeMvered under the Similitude of a 


Wherein is Diffcovered, 

The manner of kls letting out^ 

His Dangerous Journey 5 Andfafe 

Arrival at the Defired Countrey, 

I have ufcd Similitude s<i Hof. 12. 1 o. 

By John Bnnyan. 

Hicf nlcD aun CSntrcD iccojouiff co ^Djocr, 

I (? N /; N, 

Printed for Nath. Ponder at the Peacock, 

in the Poultre^ near Cornhil, 1678. 

The title-page of the first edition of The Pilgrim's Progress 
From a copy in the British Museum 


The text of this edition of The Pilgrim's Progress is 
that of the eleventh edition, of 1688, which was the last 
to receive Bunyan's own attention. This eleventh edition, 
with notes of all variations in the text down to that edition, 
was edited for the Cambridge EngHsh Classics Series by 
Dr. John Brown, the biographer of Bunyan. 

In the present text the spelling and punctuation have 
been modernized, and the somewhat erratic use of itahcs 
in the early editions has been abandoned. Bunyan's in- 
dication of conversation varied so freely and so arbitrarily 
that it has not been possible to follow modern conventions 
with much uniformity in reprinting it. Accordingly quota- 
tion marks have been used only to show direct and exact 
quotations from the Scriptures. The references to chapter 
and verse have been removed from the margin, where they 
were printed in the original editions, to the Notes and 
Comment at the end; and there for the sake of rnodern 
readers, who rarely have Bunyan's exhaustive familiarity 
with the Scriptures, they have with very few exceptions, 
been reprinted in full. Passages which were not cited by 
Bunyan have been specially noted. The text is reprinted 
entire and unamended, except for the omission of one 
short passage of seventeenth century intolerance towards 
Roman Catholics. 



When at the first I took my pen in hand 
Thus for to write, I did not understand 
That I at all should make a httle book 
In such a mode; nay, I had undertook 
To make another; which, when almost done, 
Before I was aware, I this begun. 

And thus it was: I, writing of the way 
And race of saints, in this our gospel day, 
Fell suddenly into an allegory 
About their journey, and the way to glory, 
In more than twenty things which I set down. 
This done, I twenty more had in my crown; 
And they again began to multiply. 
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly. 
Nay, then, thought I, if that you breed so fast, 
I'll put you by yourselves, lest you at last 
Should prove ad infinitum, and eat out 
The book that I already am about. 

Well, so I did; but 3''et I did not think 
To show to all the world my pen and ink 
In such a mode; I only thought to make 
I knew not what : nor did I undertake 
Thereby to please my neighbor: no, not I; 
I did it my own self to gratify. 

Neither did I but vacant seasons spend 
In this my scribble; nor did I intend 
But to divert myself in doing this 
From worser thoughts which make me do amiss. 

Thus, I set pen to paper with delight. 
And quickly had my thoughts in black and white; 
For, having now my method by the end. 
Still as I pulled, it came; and so I penned 

The Pilgrim's Progress 

It down: until it came at last to be, 

For length and breadth, the bigness which you see. 

Well, when I had thus put mine ends together, 
I showed them others, that I might see whether 
They would condemn them, or them justify. 5 

And some said. Let them Hve; some, Let them die; 
Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so; 
Some said, It might do good; others said. No. 
Now was I in a strait, and did not see 

Which was the best thing to be done by me: 10 

At last I thought. Since you are thus divided, 
I print it will, and so the case decided. 

For, thought I, some, I see, would have it done. 
Though others in that channel do not run: 
To prove, then, who advised for the best, 15 

Thus I thought lit to put it to the test. 

I further thought, if now I did deny 
Those that would have it, thus to gratify; 
I did not know but hinder them I might 
Of that which would to them be great delight. 20 

For those which were not for its coming forth, 
I said to them, Offend you I am loath. 
Yet, since your brethren pleased with it be. 
Forbear to judge till you do further see. 

If that thou wilt not read, let it alone; 25 

Some love the meat, some love to pick the bone. 
Yea, that I might them better palliate, 
I did too with them thus expostulate: — 
May I not write in such a style as this? 

In such a method, too, and yet not miss 3c 

My end — thy good? Why ma}' it not be done? 
Dark clouds bring waters, when the bright bring none. 
Yea, dark or bright, if they their silver drops 
Cause to descend, the earth, by yielding crops. 
Gives praise to both, and carpeth not at either, 35 

But treasures up the fruit they yield together; 
Yea, so commixes both, that in her fruit 
None can distinguish this from that: they suit 
Her well when hungry; but, if she be full, 
She spews out both, and makes their blessings null. 40 

You see the ways the fisherman doth take 

The Author's Apology 

To catch the fish; what engines doth he make! 
Behold! how he engage th all his wits; 
Also his snares, hnes, angles, hooks, and nets; 
Yet fish there be, that neither hook, nor line, 
Nor snare, nor net, nor engine can make thine: 
They must be groped for, and be tickled too, 
Or they will not be catch'd, whate'er you do. 

How doth the fowler seek to catch his game 
By divers means! all which one cannot name: 
His guns, his nets, his lime-twigs, fight, and bell; 
He creeps, he goes, he stands; yea, who can tell 
Of all his postures? Yet there's none of these 
Will make him master of what fowls he please. 
Yea, he must pipe and whistle to catch this; 
Yet, if he does so, that bird he will miss. 

If that a pearl may in a toad's head dwell, 
And may be found too in an oyster-shell; 
If things that promise nothing do contain 
What better is than gold; who will disdain. 
That have an inkling of it, there to look 
That they may find it? Now, my little book 
(Though void of all these paintings that may make 
It with this or the other man to take) 
Is not without those things that do excel 
What do in brave but empty notions dwell. 

"Well, yet I am not fully satisfied. 
That this your book will stand, when soundly tried." 

Why, what's the matter? "It is dark." What though? 
"But it is feigned." What of that? I trow 
Some men, by feigned words, as dark as mine. 
Make truth to spangle and its rays to shine. 
"But they want solidness." Speak, man, thy m.ind. 
"They drown the weak; metaphors make us blind." 

Sohdity, indeed, becomes the pen 
Of him that writeth things divine to men; 
But must I needs want soHdness, because 
By metaphors I speak? Were not God's laws 
His gospel laws, in olden times held forth 
By types, shadows, and metaphors? Yet loath 
Will any sober man be to find fault 
With them, lest he be found for to assault 

The Pilgrim's Progress 

The highest wisdom. No, he rather stoops, 
And seeks to find out what by pins and loops, 
By calves and sheep, by heifers and by rams, 
By birds and herbs, and by the blood of lambs, 
God speaketh to him; and happy is he 
That finds the light and grace that in therii be. 

Be not too forward, therefore, to conclude 
That I want solidness — that I am rude; 
All things solid in show not solid be; 
All things in parables despise not we; 
Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive, 
And things that good are, of our souls bereave. 
My dark and cloudy words, they do but hold 
The truth, as cabinets enclose the gold. 

The prophets used much by metaphors 
To set forth truth; yea, who so considers 
Christ, his apostles too, shall plainly see. 
That truths to this day in such mantles be. 

Am I afraid to say, that holy writ. 
Which for its style and phrase puts down all wit, 
Is everywhere so full of all these things — 
Dark figures, allegories? Yet there springs 
From that same book that luster, and those rays 
Of light, that turn our darkest nights to days. 

Come, let my carper to his Hfe now look, 
And find there darker lines than in my book 
He findeth any; yea, and let him know. 
That in his best things there are worse Hnes too. 

May we but stand before impartial men, 
To his poor one I dare adventure ten. 
That they will take my meaning in these lines 
Far better than his lies in silver shrines. 
Come, truth, although in swaddhng clouts, I find, 
Informs the judgment, rectifies the mind; 
Pleases the understanding, makes the will 
Submit; the memory too it doth fill 
With what doth our imaginations please; 
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease. 
Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use, 
And old wives' fables he is to refuse; 
But yet grave Paul him nowhere did forbid 

The Author's Apology 

The use of parables; in which lay hid 
That gold, those pearls, and precious stones that were 
Worth digging for, and that with greatest care. 
Let me add one word more. O man of God, 
Art thou offended? Dost thou wish I had 
Put forth my matter in another dress? 
Or, that I had in things been more express? 
To those that are my betters, as is fit, 
Three things let me propound; then I submit. 

1. I find not that I am denied the use 
Of this my method, so I no abuse 

Put on the words, things, readers; or be rude 
In handling figure or similitude 
In application; but, all that I may. 
Seek the advance of truth this or that way 
Denied, did I say? Nay, I have leave 
(Example too, and that from them that have 
God better pleased, by their words or ways, 
Than any man that breatheth now-a-days) 
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare 
Things unto thee that excellentest are. 

2. I find that men (as high as trees) will write 
Dialogue- wise; yet no man doth them slight 
For writing so: indeed, if they abuse 

Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use 
To that intent; but yet let truth be free 
To make her sallies upon thee and me. 
Which way it pleases God; for who knows how, 
Better than he that taught us first to plow. 
To guide our mind and pens for his design? 
And he makes base things usher in divine. 

3. I find that holy writ in many places 

Hath semblance with this method, where the cases 
Do call for one thing, to set forth another; 
Use it I may, then, and yet nothing smother 
Truth's golden beams: nay, by this method may 
Make it cast forth its rays as light as day. 

And now before I do put up my pen, 
I'll show the profit of my book, and then 
Commit both thee and it unto that Hand 
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones stand. 

The Pilgrim's Progress 

This book it chalketh out before thine eyes 
The man that seeks the everlasting prize; 
It shows you whence he comes, whither he goes; 
What he leaves undone, also what he does; 
It also shows you how he runs and runs, 5 

Till he unto the gate of glory comes. 
It shows, too, who set out for life amain. 
As if the lasting crown they would obtain; 
Here also you ma}^ see the reason why 
They lose their labor, and like fools do die. 10 

This book will make a traveler of thee, 
If by its counsel thou wilt ruled be; 
It will direct thee to the Holy Land, 
If thou wilt its directions understand: 

Yea, it will make the slothful active be; 15 

The blind also dehghtful things to see. 

Art thou for something rare and profitable? 
Wouldest thou see a truth within a fable? 
Art thou forgetful? Wouldest thou remember 
From New Year's day to the last of December? 20 

Then read my fancies; they will stick Hke burs, 
And may be, to the helpless, comforters. 

This book is writ in such a dialect 
As may the minds of listless men affect: 

It seems a novelty, and yet contains 25 

Nothing but sound and honest gospel strains. 
Wouldst thou divert thyself from melancholy? 
Wouldst thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly? 
Wouldst thou read riddles, and their explanation? 
Or else be drowned in thy contemplation? 30 

Dost thou love picking meat? Or wouldst thou see 
A man i' the clouds, and hear him speak to thee? 
Wouldst thou be in a dream, and yet not sleep? 
Or wouldst thou in a moment laugh and weep? 
Wouldest thou lose thyself and catch no harm, 35 

And find thyself again without a charm? 
Wouldest read thyself, and read thou knowest not what, 
And yet know whether thou art blest or not, 
By reading the same lines? Oh, then come hither, 
And lay my book, thy head, and heart together. 40 




As I walked through the wilderness of this world, I 
lighted on a certain place where was a Den, 
and I laid me down in that place to sleep: 
and, as I slept, I dreamed a dream. I dreamed, and be- 
5 hold, I saw a man clothed with rags, standing in a certain 
place, with his face from his own house, a book in his 
hand, and a great burden upon his back. I looked, and 
saw him open the book and read therein; and, as he read, 
he wept, and trembled; and not being able longer to con- 
lotain, he brake out with a lamentable cry, „. 

'' His outcry 

saying. What shall I do? 

In this plight, therefore, he went home and refrained 

- himself as long as he could, that his wife and children 

should not perceive his distress; but he could not be silent 

15 long, because that his trouble increased. Wherefore at 
length he brake his mind to his wife and children; and 
thus he began to talk to them. O my dear wife, said he, 
and you the children of my bowels, I, your dear friend, 
am in myself undone by reason of a burden ^^.^ ^^^^^ 

20 that lieth hard upon me. Moreover, I am 

for certain informed that this our city will be burned with 
fire from heaven, in which fearful overthrow both myself, 
with thee, my wife, and you my sweet babes, shall miser- 
ably come to ruin, except (the which yet I see not) some 

25 way of escape can be found, whereby we He knows no ivay 
may be delivered. At this his relations of escape as yet 
were sore amazed; not for that they believed that what 


10 The Pilgrim's Progress 

he had said to them was true, but because they thought 
that some frenzy distemper had got into his head. There- 
fore, it drawing towards night, and they hoping that sleep 
might settle his brains, with all haste they got him to bed. 
But the night was as troublesome to him as the day; where- 5 
fore, instead of sleeping, he spent it in sighs and tears. So, 
when the morning was come, they would know how he did. 
He told them, Worse and worse. He also set to talking 
to them again : but they began to be hardened. They also 
thought to drive away his distemper by harsh and surly 10 
carriages to him; sometimes they would deride, sometimes 
Carnal physic for they would cMde, and sometimes they would 
a stck soul quite neglect him. Wherefore he began to 

retire himself to his chamber, to pray for and pity them, 
and also to condole his own misery; he would also walk 15 
solitarily in the fields, sometimes reading, and sometimes 
praying: and thus for some days he spent his time. 

Now, I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in the 
fields, that he was, as he was wont, reading in his book, 
and greatly distressed in his mind; and as he read, he 20 
burst out, as he had done before, crying. What shall I do 
to be saved? 

I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as 
if he would run; yet he stood still, because, as I perceived, 
he could not tell which way to go. I looked then, and 25 
saw a man named EvangeHst coming to him, who asked, 
Wherefore dost thou cry? 

He answered. Sir, I perceive by the book in my hand 
that I am condemned to die, and after that to come to 
judgment; and I find that I am not willing to do the first, 30 
nor able to do the second. 

Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since 
this life is attended with so many evils? The man an- 
swered, Because I fear that this burden that is upon my 

Evangelist il 

back will sink me lower than the grave, and I shall fall 
into Tophet. And, sir, if I be not fit to go to prison, I 
am not fit to go to judgment, and from thence to execu- 
tion; and the thoughts of these things make me cry. 
5 Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why 
standest thou still? He answered, Because conviction of the 
I know not whither to go. Then he gave ^'^'^'iiy of flying 
him a parchment roll, and there was written within, Fly 
from the wTath to come. 

lo The man therefore read it, and looking upon Evan- 
gelist very carefully, said, Whither must I fly? Then 
said Evangelist, pointing with his finger over a very wide 
field. Do you see yonder wicket-gate? The man said, 
No. Then said the other. Do you see Christ, and the way 

15 yonder shining Hght? He said, I think I yJ^^Sut^tL 
do. Then said Evangelist, Keep that light Word 
in your eye, and go up directly thereto. So shalt thou 
see the gate; at which when thou knockest it shall be told 
thee what thou shalt do. 

20 So I saw in my dream that the man began to run. Now, 
he had not run far from his own door, but his wife and 
children perceiving it, began to cry after him to return; 
but the man put his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying. 
Life! life! eternal life! So he looked not behind him, but 

25 fled towards the middle of the plain. 

The neighbors also came out to see him run; and as he 
ran, some mocked, others threatened, and Thev that fiy from 
some cried after him to return. And 'areTgaJngTck 
among those that did so there were two ^o the world 

30 that resolved to fetch him back by force. The name of 
the one was Obstinate, and the name of the other PHable. 
Now by this time, the man was got a good obstinate and 
distance from them; but, however, they were 
resolved to pursue him, which they did, and in a little 

12 The Pilgrim's Progress 

time they overtook him. Then said the man, Neighbors, 
wherefore are ye come? They said. To persuade you to 
go back with us. But he said. That can by no means be; 
you dwell, said he, in the City of Destruction, the place 
also where I was born. I see it to be so ; and dying there, 5 
sooner or later, you will sink lower than the grave, into a 
place that burns with fire and brimstone. Be content, 
good neighbors, and go along with me. 

What! said Obstinate, and leave our friends and our 
comforts behind us? 10 

Yes, said Christian (for that was his name), because 
that all which you shall forsake is not worthy to be com- 
pared with a Httle of that which I am seeking to enjoy. 
And if you will go along with me, and hold it, you shall 
fare as I myself; for there where I go is enough and to 15 
spare. Come away, and prove my words. 

Obst. What are the things you seek, since you leave 
all the world to find them? 

Chr. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, 
and that fadeth not away, and it is laid up in . heaven, 20 
and safe there, to be bestowed, at the time appointed, on 
them that diligently seek it. Read it so, if you will, in my 

Obst. Tush! said Obstinate, away with your book. 
Will you go back with us or no? 25 

Chr. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid 
my hand to the plow. 

Obst. Come then, neighbor PHable, let us turn again, 
and go home without him. There is a company of these 
crazy-headed coxcombs, that, when they take a fancy 3c 
by the end, are wiser in their own eyes than seven men 
that can render a reason. 

Pli. Then said Pliable, Don't revile; if what the good 
Christian savs is true, the things he looks after are bet- 


Obstinate 13 

ter than ours. My heart inclines to go with my neigh- 

Obst. What! more fools still! Be ruled by me, and 
go back. Who knows whither such a brain-sick fellow 
5 will lead you? Go back, go back, and be wise. 

Chr. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbor, PH- 
able; there are such things to be had which I spoke of, 
and many more glories besides. If you ^, . . 

,,. ,, . 1.1, Chnshan and 

believe not me, read here m this book; Obstinate puii for 
10 and for the truth of what is expressed 

therein, behold all is confirmed by the blood of Him that 

made it. 
Pli. Well, neighbor Obstinate, said PHable, I begin 

to come to a point; I intend to go along puahie contented to 
15 with this good man, and to cast in my lot &o with Christian 

with him. But, my good companion, do you know the 

way to this desired place? 

Chr. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evan- 
gelist, to speed me to a little gate that is before us, where 
20 we shall receive instructions about the way. 

Pli. Come, then, good neighbor, let us be going. Then 

they went both together. 
Obst. And I will go back to my place, said Obstinate; 

I will be no companion of such misled, obstinate goes rail- 
25 fantastical fellows. *"^ ^"'^ 

Now I saw in my dream, that, when Obstinate was 

gone back. Christian and PHable went Talk between chris- 

talking over the plain; and thus they be- fi<^^ <^^ P^'^^ie 

gan their discourse. 
30 Chr. Come, neighbor PHable, how do you do? I am 

glad you are persuaded to go along with me. Had even 

Obstinate himself but felt what I have felt of the powers 

and terrors of what is yet unseen, he would not thus lightly 

have given us the back. 

14 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Pli. Come, neighbor Christian, since there are none 
but us two here, tell me now further what the things 
are, and how to be enjoyed, whither we are going. 

Chr. I can better conceive of them with my mind, 
God's things than speak of them with my tongue; but 5 

unspeakable ^^^^ siuce you are desirous to know, I will 

read of them in my book. 

Pli. And do you think that the words of your book 
are certainly true? 

Chr. Yes, verily; for it was made by Him that can- 10 
not he. 

Pli. Well said; what things are they? 
r Chr. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, 
/ and everlasting life to be given us, that we may inhabit 
that kingdom for ever. 15 

Pli. Well said; and what else? 

Chr. There are crowns of glory to be given us, and 
garments that will make us shine like the sun in the fir- 
mament of heaven! 

Pli. This is very pleasant; and what else? 20 

Chr. There shall be no more crying, nor sorrow; for 
He that is owner of the place will wipe all tears from our 

Pli. And what company shall we have there? 

Chr. There we shall be with seraphims and cherubims, 25 
creatures that will dazzle your eyes to look on them. There 
also you shall meet with thousands and ten thousands 
that have gone before us to that place. None of them are 
hurtful, but loving and holy; every one walking in the 
sight of God, and standing in His presence with acceptance 30 
for ever. In a word, there we shall see the elders with 
their golden* crowns; there we shall see the holy virgins 
with their golden harps. There we shall see men that 
by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of 

The Slough of Despond 15 

beasts, drowned in the seas, for the love that they bare 
to the Lord of the place, all well, and clothed with immor- 
tality as with a garment. 

Pli. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. 
5 But are these things to be enjoyed? How shall we get 
to be sharers thereof? 

Chr. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath re- 
corded that in this book ; the substance of which is, if we 
be truly willing to have it, he will bestow it upon us freely. 
10 Pli. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of 
these things; come on, let us mend our pace. 

Chr. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this 
burden that is on my back. 

Now, I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended 
15 this talk they drew near to a very miry slough, that was 
in the midst of the plain ; and they, being The siough of 
heedless, did both fall suddenly into the ^''^"""^ 
bog. The name of the slough was Despond. Here, there- 
fore, they wallowed for a time, being grievously bedaubed 
20 with the dirt; and Christian, because of the burden that 
was on his back, began to sink in the mire. 

Pli. Then said Pliable, Ah! neighbor Christian, where 
are you now? 

Chr. Truly, said Christian, I do not know. 
25 Pli. At that Pliable began to be offended, and angrily 
said to his fellow, Is this the happiness you have told me 
all this while of? If we have such ill speed at our first 
setting out, what may we expect betwixt this and our 
journey's end? May I get out again with my Kfe, you 
30 shall possess the brave country alone for me. 7/ ,5 not enough to 
And, with that, he gave a desperate struggle ^^ ^^'"^^^ 
or two, and got out of the mire on that side of the slough 
which was next to his own house. So away he went, and 
Christian saw him no more. 

l6 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough 
Christian in of Despoud aloue : but still he endeavored to 

\7fei)ur^trfL struggk to that side of the slough that was 
his own house ^^{\\ further from his own house, and next to 

the wicket-gate; the which he did, but could not get out, 5 
because of the burden that was upon his back. But I 
beheld in my dream, that a man came to him, whose 
name was Help, and asked him. What he did there? 

Chr. Sir, said Christian, I was bid go this way by a 
man called Evangelist, who directed me also to yonder 10 
gate, that I might escape the wrath to come; and as I 
was going thither I fell in here. 
^, „ . Help. But why did not you look for the 

The Promises j j 


Chr. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next 15 
way and fell in. 

Help. Then said he, Give me thy hand. So he gave 
„ , ,., , . him his hand, and he drew him out, and set 

Help lifts htm up ' i i_ • , i • 

nim upon sound ground, and bid mm go on 
his way. 20 

Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, 
Sir, wherefore, since over this place is the way from the 
City of Destruction to yonder gate, is it that this plat is 
not mended, that poor travelers might go thither with 
more security? And he said unto me. This miry slough 25 
is such a place as cannot be mended. It is the descent 
What makes the wMthcr the scum and filth that attends 
oug of espo conviction for sin doth continually run, 
and therefore it is called the Slough of Despond. For 
still, as the sinner is awakened about his lost condition, 30 
there ariseth in his soul many fears, and doubts, and dis- 
couraging apprehensions, which all of them get together, 
and settle in this place. And this is the reason of the 
badness of this ground. 

Slough of Despond 17 

It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should 
remain so bad. His laborers also have, by the direction 
of His Majesty's surveyors, been for above these sixteen 
hundred years employed about this patch of ground, if 
5 perhaps it might have been mended. Yea, and to my 
knowledge, said he, here have been swallowed up at least 
twenty thousand cart-loads, yea, millions of wholesome 
instructions, that have at all seasons been brought from 
all places of the King's dominions, and they that can tell, 

10 say they are the best materials to make good ground of 
the place; if so be, it might have been mended, but it is 
the Slough of Despond still, and so will be when they 
have done what they can. 

True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver, cer- 

15 tain good and substantial steps, placed The promises of 
even through the very midst of this slough, {^j/^^r^ 
But at such time as this place doth much ^yf""'^^ ^'^ ^Am/ 
spew out its filth, as it doth against change of weather, 
these steps are hardly seen; or, if they be, men, through 

20 the dizziness of their heads, step beside, and then they 
are bemired to purpose, notwithstanding the steps be 
there. But the ground is good when they are once got in 
at the gate. 

Now, I saw in my dream, that by this time Pliable 

25 was got home to his house. So his neighbors came to 
visit him; and some of them called him wise „,. ,, 

' . nil- Pliable got home, 

man for coming back, and some called mm and isyisited of 
fool for hazarding himself with Christian. 
Others, again, did mock at his cowardliness; saying. Surely, 
30 since you began to venture, I would not have been so 
base to have given out for a few difficulties. „. ^ ^ . 

1 . -r» ^" entertainment 

So Pliable sat sneaking among them. But by them at Ms 

at last he got more confidence, and then 

they all turned their tales, and began to deride poor 

l8 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Christian behind his back. And thus much concerning 

Now as Christian was walking solitarily by himself, 
he espied one afar off, come crossing over the field to 
„ „, ,„ . meet him ; and their hap was to meet just as s 

Mr. Worldly ' , ^ r ^ ^ 

Wiseman meets they werc crossmg the way of each other. 
The gentleman's name that met him was 
Mr. Worldly Wiseman: he dwelt in the town of Carnal 
Policy, a very great town, and also hard-by from whence 
Christian came. This man then meeting with Christian, lo 
and having some inkling of him, — for Christian's setting 
forth from the City of Destruction was much noised 
abroad, not only in the town where he dwelt, but also it 
began to be the town talk in some other places, — Mr. 
Worldly Wiseman, therefore, having some guess of him, 15 
by beholding his laborious going, by observing his sighs 
and groans, and the like, began thus to enter into some 
talk with Christian. 

World. How now, good fellow, whither away after 
rr ,1.^. . • . ,r this burdened manner? 20 

Talk betwixt Mr. 

Worldly Wiseman Chr. A burdened manner, indeed, as 
ever, I think, poor creature had! And 
whereas you ask me. Whither away? I tell you. Sir, I 
am going to yonder wicket-gate before me; for there, 
as I am informed, I shall be put into a way to be rid of my 25 
heavy burden. 

World, Hast thou a wife and children? 

Chr. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that 
I cannot take that pleasure in them as formerly; me- 
thinks I am as if I had none. 30 

World. Wilt thou hearken unto me if I give thee 

Chr. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good 

Mr. Worldly Wiseman I9 

World. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all 
speed get thyself rid of thy burden; for j,^, p^.^,^^;^ 
thou wilt never be settled in thy mind till ^'■i«'«.««> <^'>unsd 

•; /o Christian 

then; nor canst thou enjoy the benefits of 

5 the blessing which God hath bestowed upon thee till then. 

Chr. That is that which I seek, for ever to be rid of 

this heavy burden. But get it off myself, I cannot; nor 

is there any man in our country that can make it off my 

shoulders. Therefore am I going this way, as I told you, 

10 that I may be rid of my burden. 

World. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy 

Chr. a man that appeared to me to be a very great and 

honorable person ; his name, as I remember, is EvangeHst. 

15 World. I beshrew him for his counsel! there is not 

a more dangerous and troublesome way in the world 

than is that unto which he hath directed ,. „^ ,., „„ 

Mr. Worldly Wtse- 

thee ; and that thou shalt find, if thou wilt man condemned 
be ruled by his counsel. Thou hast met 

20 with something, as I perceive, already; for I see the dirt 
of the Slough of Despond is upon thee; but that slough 
is the beginning of the sorrows that do attend those that 
go on in that way. Hear me, I am older than thou. Thou 
art like to meet with, in the way which thou goest, weari- 

25 someness, painfulness, hunger, perils, nakedness, sword, 
lions, dragons, darkness, and, in a word, death, and what 
not! These things are certainly true, having been con- 
firmed by many testimonies. And why should a man so 
carelessly cast away himself, by giving heed to a stranger? 

30 Chr. Why, Sir, this burden upon my back is more 
terrible to me than are all these things which ^, . . . 

. . . _ The frame of the 

you have mentioned. Nay, methinks I heart of a young 

, _ . 1 • 1 -r Christian 

care not what 1 meet with m the way, 11 so 

be I can also meet with deHverance from my burden. 

20 The Pilgrim's Progress 

World. How earnest thou by the burden at first? 
Chr. By reading this book in my hand. 
World. I thought so; and it is happened unto thee 
as to other weak men, who, meddhng with 

Worldly Wiseman ^ • t r ^ i iiirn 

does not like that thiugs too high for them, QO sudaenly lail s 
TerioL'^in reading iuto thy distractious ; wMch distractions 
the Bible ^^ ^^^ ^^^ unmau men, as thine, I per- 

ceive, has done thee, but they run them upon desperate 
ventures to obtain they know not what. 

Chr. I know what I would obtain; it is ease for my lo 
heavy burden. 

World. But why wdlt thou seek for ease this way, 
seeing so many dangers attend it? especially since, hadst 
thou but patience to hear me, I could direct thee to the 
obtaining of what thou desirest, without the dangers 15 
that thou in this way wilt run thyself into; yea, and the 
remedy is at hand. Besides, I will add, that, instead of 
those dangers, thou shalt meet with much safety, friend- 
ship, and content. 

Chr. Sir, I pray, open this secret to me. 20 

World. Why, in yonder village — the village is named 
MoraHty — there dwells a gentleman whose name is Le- 
gality, a very judicious man, and a man of a very good 
Whether Mr. name, that has skill to help men off with 

Jrefeis^fZi7i"r ^^^^ burdcus as thine are from their shoul- 25 
before the strait gate ^^^^ Yca, to my kuowlcdgc, he hath 
done a great deal of good this way. Ay, and besides, he 
hath skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in their 
wits with their burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayest 
go, and be helped presently. His house is not quite a 30 
mile from this place, and if he should not be at home him- 
self, he hath a pretty young man to his son, whose name 
is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as well as the old 
gentleman himself. There, I say, thou mayest be eased 

Mr. Worldly Wiseman 21 

of thy burden; and if thou art not minded to go back to 
thy former habitation, as, indeed, I would not wish thee, 
thou mayest send for thy wife and children to thee to this 
village, where there are houses now standing empty, one 
5 of which thou mayest have at reasonable rates. Provi- 
sion is there also cheap and good; and that which will 
make thy life the more happy is, to be sure, there thou 
shalt live by honest neighbors, in credit and good fashion. 
Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently 
10 he concluded, If this be true, which this ^, . . 

. . Lhnsttan snared 

gentleman hath said, my wisest course is to by Mr. Woridiy 
take his advice; and with that he thus fur- 
ther spoke. 

Chr. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's house? 
15 World. Do you see yonder high hill? . 

Chr. Yes, very well. 

World. By that hill you must go, and the first house 
you come at is his. 

So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Le- 
2ogality's house for help; but, behold, when he was got 
now hard by the hill, it seemed so high, and also that 
side of it that was next the way-side did hang christian afraid 
so much over, that Christian was afraid to that Mount Sinai 

' ^ _ would fall, on Ins 

venture further, lest the hill should fall on his ^"^«<^ 
25 head. Wherefore there he stood still, and wotted not what 
to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to him than 
while he was in his way. There came also flashes of fire 
out of the hill, that made Christian afraid that he should be 
burned. Here, therefore, he sweat and did quake for fear. 
30 And now he began to be sorry that he Evangelist findeth 
had taken Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel. Christian under 

•^ Mount btnat, and 

And with that he saw Evangelist coming looketh severely 

to meet him; at the sight also of whom he 

began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer 

22 The Pilgrim's Progress 

and nearer; and coming up to him, he looked upon him 
with a severe and dreadful countenance, and thus began 
to reason with Christian. 
Evan. What dost thou here, Christian? said he. At 

which words Christian knew not what to s 

Evangelist rea- 
sons afresh with answer; wherefore at present he stood 

Christian , , , ^ , . 

speechless before fum. 

Then said Evangelist further. Art not thou the man 
that I found crying without the walls of the City of De- 
struction? How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned lo 
aside? for thou art now out of the way. 

Chr. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got 
over the Slough of Despond, who persuaded me that I 
might in the village before me find a man that could 
take off my burden. 15 

Evan. What was he? 

Chr. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much 
to me, and got me at last to yield. So I came hither. 
But when I beheld this hill, and how it hangs over the 
way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it should fall on my 20 

Evan. What said that gentleman to you? 

Chr. Why, he asked me whither I was going? And 
I told him. 

Evan. And what said he then? 25 

Chr. He asked me if I had a family? And I told him. 
But, said I, I am so laden with the burden that is on my 
back, that I cannot take pleasure in them as formerly. 

Evan. And what said he then? 

Chr. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden; 30 
and I told him 'twas ease that I sought. And, said I, 
I am therefore going to yonder gate, to receive further 
direction how I may get to the place of deliverance. So 
he said that he would show me a better way, and shorter. 

Evangelist 23 

not so attended with diflSculties as the way, Sir, that you 
set me in; which way, said he, will direct you to a gentle- 
man's house that hath skill to take off these burdens. So 
I believed him, and turned out of that way into this, if 
5 haply I might be soon eased of my burden. But when I 
came to this place, and beheld things as they are, I stopped 
for fear (as I said) of danger: but I now know not what 
to do. 
Evan. Then, said EvangeHst, stand still a httle, that 

10 1 may show thee the words of God. So he stood trembhng. 
Then said Evangelist, "See that ye refuse not him that 
speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that 
spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn 
away from him that speaketh from heaven." He said, 

15 moreover, "Now the just shall live by faith: but if any 
man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him." 
He also did thus apply them: Thou art the ^ 

.^"i ... Evangelist con- 

man that art runnmg mto this misery; thou vinces christian 
hast begun to reject the counsel of the Most 

20 High, and to draw back thy foot from the way of peace, 
even almost to the hazarding of thy perdition. 

Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying. 
Woe is me, for I am undone! At the sight of which, Evan- 
geHst caught him by the right hand, saying, "All manner 

25 of sin and blasphemies shall be forgiven unto men." "Be 

not faithless, but believing." Then did Christian again 

a little revive, and stood up trembling, as at first, before 


Then Evangelist proceeded, saying. Give more ear- 

30 nest heed to the things that I shall tell ,^ „, ,^, „,. 

, . 11' ^''- Worldly Wise- 

thee of. I will now show thee who it was man described by 

that deluded thee, and who it was also to 

whom he sent thee. The man that met thee is one Worldly 

Wiseman, and rightly is he so called; partly, because he 

24 The Pilgrim's Progress 

savoreth only the doctrine of this world (therefore he al- 
ways goes to the town of Morality to church) : and partly, 
because he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth him 
best from the cross. And because he is of this carnal 
Evangelist dis- temper, therefore he seeketh to pervert 5 
Mr'woridif^'^ my ways, though right. Now there are 
Wiseman three things in this man's counsel, that 

thou must utterly abhor. 

I. His turning thee out of the way. 2. His laboring 
to render the cross odious to thee. And, 3. His setting 10 
thy feet in that way that leadeth unto the administration 
of death. 

First, thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way; 
and thine own consenting thereto: because this is to re- 
ject the c(^unsel of God for the sake of the counsel of a 15 
Worldly Wiseman. The Lord says, "Strive to enter in 
at the strait gate," the gate to which I send thee; for " strait 
is the gate that leadeth unto life, and few there be that 
find it." From this httle wicket-gate, and from the way 
thereto, hath this wicked man turned thee, to the bringing 20 
of thee almost to destruction. Hate, therefore, his turn- 
ing thee out of the way, and abhor thyself for hearkening 
to him. 

Secondly, Thou must abhor his laboring to render the 
cross odious unto thee ; for thou art to prefer it before 25 
the treasures in Egypt. Besides, the King of Glory hath 
told thee, that he that will save his life shall lose it. And, 
"He that cometh after me, and hateth not his father, 
and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and 
sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my dis- 30 
ciple." I say, therefore, for man to labor to persuade 
thee, that that shall be thy death, without which, the 
truth hath said, thou canst not have eternal Ufe — this 
doctrine thou must abhor, 

Legality 25 

Thirdly, Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the 
way that leadeth to the ministration of death. And for 
this thou must consider to whom he sent thee, and also how 
unable that person was to dehver thee from thy burden. 
5 He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name 
Legality, is the son of the bondwoman which now is in 
bondage with her children ; and is in a mys- ^, , , 

T. „. . i-i 1 1 ^"^ bondwoman 

tery this Mount bmai, which thou hast 

feared will fall on thy head. Now, if she, with her children, 

10 are in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be made 
free? This Legality, therefore, is not able to set free from 
thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by 
him; no, nor ever is like to be. Ye cannot be justified 
by the works of the law; for by the deeds of the law no 

15 man living can be rid of his burden. Therefore, Mr. 
Worldly Wiseman is an alien, and Mr. Legality is a cheat; 
and for his son Civility, notwithstanding his simpering 
looks, he is but a hypocrite and cannot help thee. Beheve 
me, there is nothing in all this noise, that thou hast heard 

20 of these sottish men, but a design to beguile thee of thy 
salvation, by turning thee from the way in which I had 
set thee. After this, Evangelist called aloud to the heavens 
for confirmation of what he had said : and with- that there 
came words and fire out of the mountain under which poor 

25 Christian stood, that made the hair of his flesh stand up. 
The words were thus pronounced: "As many as are of the 
works of the law are under the curse; for it is written. 
Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things 
which are written in the book of the law to do them." 

30 Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and be- 
gan to cry out lamentably; even cursing the time in which 
he met with Mr. Worldly . Wiseman ; still calling himself 
a thousand fools for hearkening to his counsel. He also 
was greatly ashamed to think that this gentleman's argu- 

26 The Pilgrim's Progress 

ments, flowing only from the flesh, should have the prev- 
alency with him as to cause him to forsake the right way. 
This done, he applied himself again to Evangelist in words 
and sense as follows : — 

Chr. Sir, what think you? Is there hope? May I 5 
^, ... now go back and go up to the wicket-gate? 

Christian inquires -^, „ t ^ ^ ^ i- i • i 

if he may yet he bhall 1 not be abandoned for this, and sent 
^ back from thence ashamed? I am sorry 

I have hearkened to this man's counsel. But may my sins 
be forgiven? lo 

Evan. Then said Evangelist to him. Thy sin is very 
great, for by it thou hast committed two evils: thou hast 
Evangelist com- forsaken the way that is good, to tread in 
forts him forbidden paths. Yet will the man at the 

gate receive thee, for he has good- will for men. Only, 15 
said he, take heed that thou turn not aside again, lest thou 
perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. 

Then did Christian address himself to go back; and 
Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him one smile, 
and bid him Godspeed. So he went on with haste, neither 20 
spake he to any man by the way; nor, if any asked him, 
would he vouchsafe them an answer. He went like one 
that was all the while treading on forbidden ground, and 
could by no means think himself safe, till again he was 
got into the way which he left, to follow Mr. Worldly 25 
Wiseman's counsel. So, in process of time Christian got 
up to the gate. Now, over the gate there was written, 
''Knock, and it shall be opened unto you." 

He knocked, therefore, more than once or twice, say- 
ing:— 30 

" May I now enter here? Will he within 
Open to sorry me, though I have been 
An undeserving rebel? Then shall I 
Not fail to sing his lasting praise on high." 

Good-will 27 

At last there came a grave person to the gate, named 
Good-will, who asked who was there? and whence he 
came? and what he would have? 

Chr. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from 

5 the City of Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, 

that I may be delivered from the wrath to come. I would, 

therefore. Sir, since I am informed that by this gate is the 

way thither, know if you are willing to let me in? 

Good-will. I am willing with all my ^, 

1.111 1 ^^'^ s^^^ ^^^^ *^ 

10 heart, said he; and with that he opened opened to broken- 

, , , hearted sinners 

the gate. 

So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him 
a pull. Then said Christian, What means that? The 
other told him, A little distance from this gate, there is 
15 erected a strong castle, of which Beelzebub ^ . , 

. • r oatan envies those 

IS the captain; from thence, both he and that enter the strait 
them that are with him shoot arrows at 
those that come up to this gate, if happily they may die 
before they can enter in. ^, • ,■ . ^ 

-. . . , Christian entered 

20 Then said Christian, I rejoice and trem- the gate with joy 
ble. So when he was got in, the man of 
the gate asked him who directed him thither? 

Chr. EvangeHst bid me come hither, and knock (as 
I did); and he said that you. Sir, would tell me what I 
25 must do. 

Good-will. An open door is set before thee, and no 
man can shut it. 

Chr. Now I begin to reap the benefits Sfa'^STSS" 
of my hazards. 
30 Good-will. But how is it that you came alone? 

Chr. Because none of my neighbors saw their danger, 
as I saw mine. 

Good-will. Did any of them know of your coming? 

Chr. Yes; my wife and children saw me at the first. 

28 The Pilgrim's Progress 

and called after me to turn again. Also, some of my 
neighbors stood crying and calling after me to return; 
but I put my fingers in my ears, and so came on my way. 

Good-will. But did none of them follow you, to per- 
suade you to go back? 5 

Chr. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable. But when they 
saw that they could not prevail, Obstinate went raihng 
back, but Pliable came with me a little way. 

Good-will. But why did he not come through? 

Chr. We, indeed, came both together, until we cameio 
at the Slough of Despond, into the which we also suddenly 
, fell. And then was my neighbor. Pliable, 

A man may have j o 7 7 

company when he discouragcd, and would uot adveuturc fur- 

sets out for heaven, y . . . , 

and yet go thither tficr. Wherefore, gettmg out agam on that 

side next to his own house, he told me 1 15 
should possess the brave country alone for him. So he 
went his way, and I came mine — he after Obstinate, and 
I to this gate. 

Good-will. Then said Good- will, Alas, poor man! 
is the celestial glory of so small esteem with him, that 20 
he counteth it not w^orth running the hazard of a few 
difficulties to obtain it? 

Chr. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of 
Pliable, and if I should also say all the truth of myself, it 
^, . . , will appear there is no betterment betwixt 25 

Christian accuseth i . , ^r -r • 

himself before the him and mysclf. It -IS true, he went back 
man a e ga e ^^ j^.^ ^^^^ housc, but I also tumcd asidc to 
go in the way of death, being persuaded thereto by the 
carnal arguments of one Mr. Worldly Wiseman. 

Good-will. Oh! did he light upon you? W^hat! he 30 
would have had you a sought for ease at the hands of 
Mr. Legality? They are, both of them, a very cheat. 
But did you take his counsel? 

Chr. Yes, as far as I durst; I went to find out Mr. 

Good-will 29 

Legality, until I thought that the mountain that stands 
by his house would have fallen upon my head; wherefore, 
there I was forced to stop. 

Good-will, That mountain has been the death of 

5 many, and will be the death of many more. 'Tis well 
you escaped being by it dashed in pieces. 

Chr. Why, truly, I do not know what had become of 
me there, had not EvangeHst happily met me again, as 
I was musing in the midst of my dumps; but it was God's 

10 mercy that he came to me again, for else I had never 
come hither. But now I am come, such a one as I am, 
more fit, indeed, for death, by that mountain, than thus 
to stand talking with my Lord. But, oh, what a favor 
is this to me, that yet I am admitted entrance here! 

15 Good-will. We make no objections against any; not- 
withstanding all that they have done be- christian com- 
fore they came hither, they are in no wise ^'"^^ ''^'^^" 
cast out. And therefore, good Christian, come a little 
way with me, and I will teach thee about the way thou 

20 must go. Look before thee; dost thou see this narrow 
way? That is the way thou must go; it christian directed 
was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets, y'^ <>» f^^' ^'^y 
Christ, and his apostles; and it is as straight as a rule can 
make it. This is the way thou must go. 

25 Chr. But, said Christian, are there no turnings or 
windings, by which a stranger may lose christian afraid of 

his way? losing his way 

Good-will. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon 
this, and they are crooked and wide. But thus thou 
3omayest distinguish the right from the wrong, the right 
only being straight and narrow. 

Then I saw in my dream, that Chris- ^fg^^ZdeT" 
tian asked him further if he could not help 
him off with his burden that was upon his back; for as 

30 The Pilgrim's Progress 

yet he had not got rid thereof, nor could he by any means 
get it off without help. 

There is no deliver- ^e told him, As to thy burden, be con- 
ancefrom the guilt tent to bear it, until thou comest to the place 

and burden of Stn, r ^ ^• r • •uriir 

but by the death and 01 dcliverance; for there it will fall from thy 5 
*w ./«„-,, back of itself . 

Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address 
himself to his journey. So the other told him. That by 
that he was gone some distance from the gate, he would 
come at the house of the Interpreter, at whose door he 10 
should knock, and he would show him excellent things. 
Then Christian took his leave of his friend, and he again 
bid him God-speed. 

Then he went on till he came at the house of the In- 
„, . ,. , terpreter, where he knocked over and over. 15 

Chrtsttan comes to ^ ^ ^ 

the house of the At last ouc Came to the door, and asked 


who was there. 

Chr. Sir, here is a traveler, who was bid by an ac- 
quaintance of the goodman of this house to call here 
for my profit. I would therefore speak with the master 20 
of the house. So he called for the master of the house; 
who, after a Httle time, came to Christian, and asked him 
what he would have. 

Chr. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come 
from the City of Destruction, and am going to the Mount 25 
„ . , . . ^ Zion; and I was told by the man that 

Be IS entertained \ i i , r i • 

Stands at the gate, at the head of this way, 
that if I called here, you would show me excellent things, 
such as would be a help to me in my journey. 
Illumination Inter. Thcu Said the Interpreter, Come 30 

in; I will show that which will be profitable to thee. 
Christian sees a So he Commanded his man to light the 

grave picture candle, and bid Christian follow him: so he 

had him into a private room, and bid his man open a door; 

The Interpreter 31 

the which when he had done, Christian saw the picture 
of a very grave person hang up against The fashion of the 
the wall; and this was the fashion of it: It ^^'^'"''^ 
had eyes hfted up to heaven, the best of books in his hand, 
5 the law of truth was written upon his Hps, the world was 
behind his back. It stood as if it pleaded with men, and 
a crown of gold did hang over its head. 

Chr. Then said Christian, What meaneth this? 
Inter. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thou- 

10 sand. He can beget children, travail in birth with children, 
and nurse them himself when they are born. And whereas 
thou seest him with his eyes lift up to heaven, the best of 
books in his hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips, 
it is to show thee that his work is to know and unfold dark 

15 things to sinners; even as also thou seest him stand as if 
he pleaded with men. And whereas thou seest the world 
as cast behind him, and that a crown hangs ^^^ meaning of 
over his head, that is to show thee that the picture 
slighting and despising the things that are present, for 

20 the love he that hath to his Master's service, he is sure in 
the world that comes next to have glory for his reward. 
Now, said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this pic- 
ture first, because the man whose picture why he showed him 
this is, is the only man whom the Lord of the picture first 

25 the place whither thou art going, hath authorized to be 
thy guide in all difficult places thou mayest meet with in 
the way; wherefore, take good heed to what I have showed 
thee, and bear well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest 
in thy journey thou meet with some that pretend to lead 

30 thee right, but their way goes down to death. 

Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a 
very large parlor that was full of dust, because never 
swept. The which, after he had reviewed a little while, 
the Interpreter called for a man to sweep. Now when 

32 The Pilgrim's Progress 

he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to fly- 
about, that Christian had almost therewith been choked. 
Then said the Interpreter to a damsel that stood by, 
Bring hither the water, and sprinkle the room. The which, 
when she had done, it was swept and cleansed with s 

Chr. Then said Christian, What means this? 

Inter. The Interpreter answered, This parlor is the 
heart of a man that was never sanctified by the sweet 
grace of the gospel; the dust is his original sin, and inward lo 
corruptions, that have defiled the whole man. He that 
began to sweep at first, is the Law; but she that brought 
water, and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas 
thou sawest, that so soon as the first began to sweep, the 
dust did so fly about that the room by him could not be 15 
cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked therewith; 
this is to show thee, that the law, instead of cleansing the 
heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive, put strength 
into, and increase it in the soul, even as it doth discover 
and forbid it, for it doth not give power to subdue. 30 

Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room 
with water, upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; 
this is to show thee, that when the Gospel comes in the 
sweet and precious influences thereof to the heart, then, 
I say, even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dust by 25 
sprinkling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and 
subdued, and the soil made clean through the faith of it, 
and consequently fit for the King of glory to inhabit. 

I saw, moreover, in my dream, that the Interpreter 
took him by the hand, and had him into a little room, 30 
„ , ^ , . where sat two little children, each one in 

He showed htm i • i • <-m r ^ ^^ -r. 

Passion and his chair. 1 he name of the eldest was Pas- 

sion, and the name of the other Patience. 
Passion seemed to be much discontented; but Patience 

Passion and Patience 33 

was very quiet. Then Christian asked, What is the rea- 
son of the discontent of Passion? The „ . 

, ^ Fassion will have 

Interpreter answered, The Governor of all now. Patience 
them would have him stay for his best " "''«"»''«« 
5 things till the beginning of the next year ; but he will have 
all now. But Patience is wiUing to wait. 

Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought 
him a bag of treasure, and poured it down p^^^-^^ ;^^^ f^-^ 
at his feet: the which he took up and re- desire 
lojoiced therein, and withal laughed Patience And qukkiy lav- 

T-x , T 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 •! 1 ishes all away 

to scorn. But 1 beheld but a while, and 

he had lavished all away, and had nothing left him but 


Chr. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Ex- 

15 pound this matter more fully to me. 

Inter. So he said, These two lads are figures: Passion, 
of the men of this world; and Patience, The matter ex- 
of the men of that which is to come; for, po^^ded 
as here thou seest. Passion will have all now this year, 

20 that is to say, in this world. So are the men of this world: 
they must have all their good things now, they cannot 
stay till next year, that is, until the next world, for their 
portion of good. That proverb, A bird in the hand is 
worth two in the bush, is of more authority with them 

25 than are all the Divine testimonies of the ^, 

The worldly man 
good of the world to come. But as thou for a bird in the 

sawest that he had quickly lavished all 
away, and had presently left him nothing but rags; so will 
it be with all such men at the end of this world. 
30 Chr. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience 
has the best wisdom, and that upon many Patience has the 
accounts. First, because he stays for the ^^^t wisdom 
best things. Second, and also because he will have the 
glory of his, when the other has nothing but rags. 

34 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Inter. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory 
of the next world will never wear out; but these are sud- 
denly gone. Therefore Passion had not so much reason 
to laugh at Patience, because he had his good things first, 
as Patience will have to laugh at Passion, because he had 5 
his best things last. For first must give place to last. 
Things that are first bccausc last must havc his time to come ; but 
m:^!iLf^£' last gives place to nothing, for there is not 
are lasting another to succeed. He, therefore, that 

hath his portion first, must needs have a time to spend it; 10 
but he that hath his portion last, must have it lastingly; 
therefore it is said of Dives, ''Thou in thy lifetime re- 
Dives had his good ccivedst thy good things, and likewise Laza- 
thims first j-us evil things: but now he is comforted, 

and thou art tormented." 15 

Chr. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things 
that are now, but to wait for things to come. 

Inter. You say the truth: ''For the things which are 
seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are 
eternal." But though this be so, yet since things present 20 
The first things are ^ud our fleshly appetite are such near neigh- 
hut temporal hox?, onc to auothcr; and again, because 

things to come, and carnal sense, are such strangers one 
to another; therefore it is that the first of these so sud- 
denly fall into amity, and that distance is so continued 25 
between the second. 

Then I saw in my dream that the Interpreter took 
Christian by the hand, and led him into a place where 
was a fire burning against a wall, and one standing by 
it, always casting much water upon it, to quench it; yet 30 
did the fire burn higher and hotter. 

Then said Christian, What means this? 

The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace 
that is wrought in the heart. He that casts water upon 

The Fire 35 

it, to extinguish and put it out, is the Devil; but in that 
thou seest the fire notwithstanding burn higher and hotter, 
thou shalt also see the reason of that. So he had him 
about to the backside of the wall, where he saw a man with 
5 a vessel of oil in his hand, of the which he did also con- 
tinually cast, but secretly, into the fire. 
Then said Christian, What means this? 
The Interpreter answered. This is Christ, who con- 
tinually, with the oil of his grace, maintains the work 

10 already begun in the heart: by the means of which, not- 
withstanding what the devil can do, the souls of his people 
prove gracious still. And in that thou sawest that the 
man stood behind the wall to maintain the fire, that is 
to teach thee that it is hard for the tempted to see how 

15 this work of grace is maintained in the soul. 

I saw also, that the Interpreter took him again by the 
hand, and led him into a pleasant place, where was built 
a stately palace, beautiful to behold; at the sight of which 
Christian was greatly delighted. He saw also, upon the 

20 top thereof, certain persons walking, who were clothed 
all in gold. 

Then said Christian, May we go in thither? 
Then the Interpreter took him, and led him up to- 
wards the door of the palace; and behold, at the door stood 

25 a great company of men, as desirous to go in, but durst 
not. There also sat a man at a Httle distance from the 
door, at a table-side, with a book and his inkhorn before 
him, to take the name of him that should enj:er therein. 
He saw also, that in the doorway stood many men in 

30 armor to keep it, being resolved to do the men that would 
enter what hurt and mischief they could. Now was Chris- 
tian somewhat in amaze. At last, when _,, ,. ^ 

' The valiant man 

every man started back for fear of the armed 

men, Christian saw a man of a very stout countenance 

36 The Pilgrim's Progress 

come up to the man that sat there to write, saying, Set 
down my name. Sir. The which when he had done, he saw 
the man draw his sword, and put an helmet upon his head, 
and rush toward the door upon the armed men, who laid 
upon him with deadly force; but the man, not at all dis- 5 
couraged, fell to cutting and hacking most fiercely. So 
after he had received and given many wounds to those 
that attempted to keep him out, he cut his way through 
them all, and pressed forward into the palace. At which 
there was a pleasant voice heard from those that were 10 
within, even of those that walked upon the top of the 
palace, saying — 

Come in, come in; 

Eternal glory thou shalt win. 

So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as 15 
they. Then Christian smiled and said, I think verily 
I know the meaning of this. 

Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said 
the Interpreter, till I have showed thee a Httle more, and 
after that thou shalt go on thy way. So he took him by 20 
Despair like an the hand again, and led him into a very 
iron cage dark room, where there sat a man in an 

iron cage. 

Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad; he sat with 
his eyes looking down to the ground, his hands folded 25 
together, and he sighed as if he would break his heart. 
Then said. Christian, What means this? At which the 
Interpreter bid him talk with the man. 

Then said Christian to the man, What art thou? The 
man answered, I am what I was not once. 30 

Chr. What wast thou once? 

Man. The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing 
professor, both in mine own eyes, and also in the eyes 

The Cage of Despair 37 

of others. I once was, as I thought, fair for the Celestial 
City, and had then even joy at the thoughts that I should 
get thither. 

Chr. Well, but what art thou now? 
5 Man. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it, 
as in this iron cage. I cannot get out. Oh, now I cannot! 

Chr. But how camest thou in this condition? 

Man. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins 
upon the neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of 
10 the Word and the goodness of God; I have grieved the 
Spirit, and he is gone; I tempted the devil, and he is come 
to me; I have provoked God to anger, and he has left 
me; I have so hardened my heart, that I cannot repent. 

Then said Christian to the Interpreter, But is there 
15 no hope for such a man as this? Ask him, said the In- 

Chr. Then said Christian, Is there no hope, but you 
must be kept in the iron cage of despair? 

Man. No, none at all. 
20 Inter. Why, the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful. 

Man. I have crucified him to myself afresh; I have 
despised his person; I have despised his righteousness; I 
have counted his blood an unholy thing; I have done 
despite to the Spirit of Grace. Therefore I have shut 
25 myself out of all the promises, and there now remains to 
me nothing but threatenings, dreadful threatenings, fear- 
ful threatenings of certain judgment and fiery indignation, 
which shall devour me as an adversary. 

Inter. For what did you bring yourself into this con- 
30 dition? 

Man. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; 
in the enjoyment of which I did then promise myself 
much delight: but now every one of those things also bite 
me, and gnaw me like a burning worm. 

38 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Inter. But canst thou not now repent and turn? 

Man. God hath denied me repentance. His Word 
gives me no encouragement to beHeve; yea, himself hath 
shut me up in this iron cage; nor can all the men in the 
world let me out. O eternity ! eternity ! how shall I grapple 5 
with the misery that I must meet with in eternity ! 

Inter. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let 
this man's misery be remembered by thee, and be an 
everlasting caution to thee. 

Chr. Well, said Christian, this is fearful ! God help 10 
me to watch and be sober, and to pray that I may shun 
the cause of this man's misery! Sir, is it not time for me 
to go on my way now? 

Inter. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, 
and then thou shalt go on thy way. 15 

So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him 
into a chamber, where there was one rising out of bed; 
and as he put on his raiment, he shook and trembled. 
Then said Christian, Why doth this man thus tremble? 
The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the reason 20 
of his so doing. So he began and said, This night, as I 
was in my sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heavens grew 
exceeding black; also it thundered and lightened in most 
fearful wise, that it put me into an agony. So I looked up 
in my dream, and saw the clouds rack at an unusual 25 
rate, upon which I heard a great sound of a trumpet, 
and saw also a man sit upon a cloud, attended with the 
thousands of heaven; they were all in flaming fire: also 
the heavens were in a burning flame. I heard then a voice 
saying. Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment; and with 30 
that the rocks rent, the graves opened, and the dead that 
were therein came forth. Some of them were exceeding 
glad, and looked upward; and some sought to hide them- 
selves under the mountains. Then I saw the man that 

The Dream of Judgment 39 

sat upon the cloud open the book, and bid the world 
draw near. Yet there was, by reason of a fierce flame 
which issued out and came from before him, a convenient 
distance betwixt him and them, as betwixt the judge and 
5 the prisoners at the bar. I heard it also proclaimed to 
them that attended on the man that sat on the cloud, 
Gather together the tares, the chaff, and stubble, and 
cast them into the burning lake. And wdth that, the 
bottomless pit opened, just whereabout I stood; out of 

10 the mouth of which there came, in an abundant manner, 
smoke and coals of fire, with hideous noises. It was also 
said to the same persons. Gather my wheat into the garner. 
And with that I saw many catched up and carried away 
into the clouds, but I was left behind. I also sought to 

15 hide myself, but I could not, for the man that sat upon 
the cloud still kept his eye upon me. My sins also came 
into my mind; and my conscience did accuse me on every 
side. Upon this I awaked from my sleep. 

Chr. But what was it that made you so afraid of this 

20 sight? 

Man. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was 
come, and that I was not ready for it. But this frighted 
me most, that the angels gathered up several, and left me 
behind; also the pit of hell opened her mouth just where 

25 1 stood. My conscience, too, afflicted me; and, as I 
thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me, showing 
indignation in his countenance. 

Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou con- 
sidered all these things? 

30 Chr. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear. 

Inter. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they 
may be as a goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in 
the w^ay thou must go. 
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address 

40 The Pilgrim's Progress 

himself to his journey. Then said the Interpreter, The 
Comforter be always with thee, good Christian, to guide 
thee in the way that leads to the City. 
So Christian went on his way, saying — 

"Here I have seen things rare and profitable; 5 

Things pleasant, dreadful, things to make me stable 
In what I have begun to take in hand; 
Then let me think on them, and understand 
Wherefore they showed me were, and let me be 
Thankful, O good Interpreter, to thee." lo 

Now I saw in my dream, that the highway up which 
Christian was to go, was fenced on either side with a wall, 
and that wall was called Salvation. Up this way, there- 
fore, did burdened Christian run, but not without great 
difficulty, because of the load on his back. 15 

He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending, 
and upon that place stood a cross, and a Httle below, in 
the bottom, a sepulchre. So I saw in my dream, that 
just as Christian came up with the cross, his burden loosed 
from off his shoulders, and fell from off his back, and began 20 
to tumble, and so continued to do, till it came to the mouth 
of the sepulchre, where it fell in, and I saw it no more. 

Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said, with 
a merry heart, He hath given me rest by his sorrow, and 
When God releases ^^^^ ^.y his death. Then hc stood Still awhik 25 
us of our guilt and to look and woudcr; for it was very sur- 

burden we are as , , , ' -' 

those thai leap for prismg to him, that the sight of the cross 
should thus ease him of his burden. He 
looked, therefore, and looked again, even till the springs 
that were in his head sent the waters down his cheeks. 30 
Now, as he stood looking and weeping, behold, three 
Shining Ones came to him and saluted him with. Peace 
be to thee. So the first said to him, "Thy sins be forgiven 
thee"; the second stripped him of his rags, and clothed 

Simple, Sloth, and Presumption 41 

him with change of raiment; the third also set a mark on 
his forehead, and gave him a roll with a seal upon it, 
which he bade him look on as he ran, and that he should 
give it in at the Celestial Gate. So they went their way. 
5 Then Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went on 

Thus far I did come laden with my sin; 
Nor could aught ease the grief that I was in 
Till I came thither: What a place is this! a Christian can 

10 Must here be the beginning of my bliss? ''"^ though alone, 

Must here the burden tall irom oii my back? him the joy of his 

Must here the strings that bound it to me crack? ^^'^''^ 
Blest cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather be 
The man that there was put to shame for me! 

15 I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even 
until he came at a bottom, where he saw, a little out of 
the way, three men fast asleep, with fetters simpk, sioth, and 
upon their heels. The name of the one was Presumption 
Simple, another Sloth, and the third Presumption. 

20 Christian then seeing them lie in this case, went to 
them, if peradventure he might awake them, and cried, 
You are like them that sleep on the top of a mast, for 
the Dead Sea is under you — a gulf that hath no bottom. 
Awake, therefore, and come away; be wdlling also, and I 

25 will help you off with your irons. He also told them, If 
he that goeth about hke a roaring lion comes by, you will 
certainly become a prey to his teeth. With that they 
looked upon him, and began to reply in this sort: Simple 
said, I see no danger; Sloth said, Yet a _, . ^ 

' o 7 . . , There ts no persua- 

3oKttle more sleep; and Presumption said, sionwHidojjGod 

_^ . ^ , . ■, , ^ openeth not the eyes 

Every fat must stand upon its own bottom; 

what is the answer else that I should give thee? And so 

they lay down to sleep again, and Christian went on his 


42 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger 
should so little esteem the kindness of him that so freely- 
offered to help them, both by awakening of them, counsel- 
ing of them, and proffering to help them off with their 
irons. And as he was troubled thereabout, he espied two 5 
men come tumbling over the wall, on the left hand of the 
narrow way ; and they made up apace to him. The name of 
Christian talked ^hc ouc was Formalist, and the name of the 
with them other Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they drew 

up unto him, who thus entered with them into discourse. 10 

Chr. Gentleman, whence came you, and whither go 

Form, and Hyp. We were born in the land of Vain- 
glory, and are going for praise to Mount Sion. 

Chr. Why came you not in at the gate which standeth 15 
at the beginning of the way? Know you not that it is 
written, that he that cometh not in by the door, "but 
climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a 

Form, and Hyp. They said. That to go to the gate for 20 
entrance was, by all their countrymen, counted too far 
about; and that, therefore, their usual way was to make a 
short cut of it, and to climb over the wall, as they had done. 

Chr. But will it not be counted a trespass against 
the Lord of the city whither we are bound, thus to violate 25 
his revealed will? 

Form, and Hyp. They told him, that, as for that, he 
They that come into needed uot to troublc his head thereabout; 
ZlZXnk'thit for what they did they had custom for; 
'llZ^ZSnd^Zn and could produce, if need were, testi-30 
of their own practice mony that would witucss it for more than 
a thousand years. 

Chr. But, said Christian, will your practice stand a 
trial at law? 

Formalist and Hypocrisy 43 

Form, and Hyp. They told him, That custom, it being 
of so long a standing as above a thousand years, would, 
doubtless, now be admitted as a thing legal by any im- 
partial judge. And beside, said they, if we get into the 
5 way, what's matter which way we get in? if we are in,, 
we are in. Thou art but in the way, who, as we perceive, 
came in at the gate; and we are also in the way, that came 
tumbhng over the wall. Wherein, now, is thy condition 
better than ours? 

10 Chr. I walk by the rule of my Master; you walk by 
the rude working of your fancies. You are counted thieves 
already, by the Lord of the way; therefore, I doubt you 
will not be found true men at the end of the way. You 
come in by yourselves, without his direction, and shall 

15 go out by yourselves, without his mercy. 

To this they made him but little answer; only they 
bid him look to himself. Then I saw that they went on 
every man in his way, without much conference one with 
another; save that these two men told Christian, that 

20 as to laws and ordinances, they doubted not but they 
should as conscientiously do them as he. Therefore, 
said they, we see not wherein thou differest from us but 
by the coat that is on thy back, which was, as we trow, 
given thee by some of thy neighbors, to hide the shame of 

25 thy nakedness. 

Chr. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved, 
since you came not in by the door. And as for this coat 
that is on my back, it was given me by the Lord of the 
place whither I go; and that, as you say, to cover my na- 

30 kedness with. And I take it as a token of his kindness to 
me; for I had nothing but rags before. And besides, thus 
I comfort myself as I go: Surely, think I, when I come to 
the gate of the city, the Lord thereof will know me for 
good, since I have his coat on my back — a coat that he 

44 The Pilgrim's Progress 

gave me freely in the day that he stripped me of my rags. 
Christian has got ^ ^^^^ moreover, a mark in my forehead, 
his Lord's coat on of which, perhaps, you have taken no no- 

his back, and IS . , . i r t 

comforted there- tice, which One of my Lord s most intimate 
forte'd, also, with his associates fixed there in the day that my 5 

mark and his roll l^^^^gj^ f^H ^ff ^y shoulderS. I will tell yOU, 

moreover, that I had then given me a roll, sealed, to com- 
fort me by reading as I go on the way; I was also bid to 
give it in at the Celestial Gate, in token of my certain 
going in after it. All which things, I doubt, you want, 10 
and want them because you came not in at the gate. 

To these things they gave him no answer; only they 
looked upon each other, and laughed. Then I saw that they 
went on all, save that Christian kept before, who had no 
Christian has talk ^i^rc talk but with himsclf, and that some- 15 
with himself timcs sighingly, and sometimes comfortably. 

Also he would be often reading in the roll that one of the 
Shining Ones gave him, by which he was refreshed. 

I beheld, then, that they all went on till they came 
He comes to the Hill ^o the foot of the Hill Difficulty; at the 20 
Difficulty bottom of which was a spring. There were 

also in the same place two other ways besides that which 
came straight from the gate; one turned to the left hand, 
and the other to the right, at the bottom of the hill; but 
the narrow way lay right up the hill, and the name of the 25 
going up the side of the hill is called Difl&cult. Christian 
now went to the spring, and drank thereof, to refresh 
himself and then began to go up the hill, saying — 

The hill, though high, I covet to ascend, 

The difficulty will not me offend; 30 

For I perceive the way to life lies here. 

Come, pluck up heart, let's neither faint nor fear; 

Better, though difficult, the right way to go, 

Than wrong, though easy, where the end is woe. 

The Hill Difficulty 45 

The other two also came to the foot of the hill; but 
when they saw that the hill was steep and high, and that 
there were two other ways to go; and supposing also that 
these two ways might meet again, with that up which 

5 Christian went, on the other side of the hill; therefore 
they were resolved to go in those ways. Now the name 
of one of those ways was Danger, and the name of the 
other Destruction. So the one took the way 
which is called Danger, which led him into turning out of the 

10 a great wood, and the other took directly "^^^ 

up the way to Destruction, which led him into a wide 
field, full of dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell, 
and rose no more. 

I looked, then, after Christian, to see him go up the 

15 hill, where I perceived he fell from running to going, and 
from going to clambering upon his hands and his knees, 
because of the steepness of the place. Now, , , , 

. , r 1 1 -11 -^ ward of grace 

about the midway to the top of the hill 

was a pleasant arbor, made by the Lord of the hill for the 

20 refreshing of weary travelers ; thither, therefore. Christian 
got, where also he sat down to rest him. Then he pulled 
his roll out of his bosom, and read therein to his comfort; 
he also now began afresh to take a review of the coat or 
garment that was given him as he stood by the cross. 

25 Thus pleasing himself awhile, he at last fell into a slumber, 
and thence into a fast sleep, which detained him in that 
place until it was almost night; and in his sleep his roll 
fell out of his hand. Now, as he was sleep- ^^ ^^^^^ ^i^^p^ ,-^ ^ 
ing, there came one to him, and awaked ^^^^^ 

30 him, saying, ''Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her 

ways, and be wise." And with that Christian started up, 

and sped him on his way, and went apace, till he came to 

the top of the hill. 

Now, when he was got up to the top of the hill, there 

46 The Pilgrim's Progress 

came two men running to meet him amain; the name of 
^, . . the one was Timorous, and of the other, 

Lnnsttan meets /^i • • . , ^. 

with Mistrust and Mistrust; to whom Christian said, Sirs, 
what's the matter? You run the wrong 
way. Timorous answered, that they were going to the City 5 
of Zion, and had got up that diflficult place; but, said he, 
the further we go, the more danger we meet with; where- 
fore we turned, and are going back again. 

Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of 
lions in the way, whether sleeping or waking we know 10 
not, and we could not think, if we came within reach, 
but they would presently pull us in pieces. 

Chr. Then said Christian, You make me afraid, but 
whither shall I fly to be safe? If I go back to mine own 
country, that is prepared for fire and brimstone, and 1 15 
shall certainly perish there. If I can get to the Celestial 
^, . . , , City, I am sure to be in safety there. I must 

Lnnsttan shakes •' i i • i • i 

oSjear vcuture. To go back is nothing but death; 

to go forward is fear of death, and life everlasting beyond 
it. I will yet go forward. 20 

So Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill, and Chris- 
tian went on his way. But, thinking again of what he had 
heard from the men, he felt in his bosom for his roll, that 
^, . ^. . ^ he might read therein, and be comforted; 

Christian missed i <• i i i- i • -^i 

his roll wherein he but he fclt, and found it uot. Then was 25 

used to take comfort /-,,.,. . . t . i i 

Christian in great distress, and knew not 
what to do; for he wanted that which used to reheve him, 
and that which should have been his pass into the Celestial 
City. Here, therefore, he began to be much perplexed. 
He is perplexed for ^^^ kucw uot what to do. At last he bc- 30 
his roll thought himself that he had slept in the 

arbor that is on the side of the hill ; and, falling down upon 
his knees, he asked God's forgiveness for that his fooHsh 
act, and then went back to look for his roll. But all the 

Christian Loses his Roll 47 

way he went back, who can sufficiently set forth the sorrow 
of Christian's heart! Sometimes he sighed, sometimes 
he wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for being so 
foolish to fall asleep in that place, which was erected 

5 only for a little refreshment for his weariness. Thus, 
therefore, he went back, carefully looking on this side 
and on that, all the way as he went, if happily he might 
find the roll, that had been his comfort so christian bewails 
many times in his journey. He went thus, his foolish sleeping 

10 till he came again within sight of the arbor where he sat 
and slept; but that sight renewed his sorrow the more, 
by bringing again, even afresh, his evil of sleeping into 
his mind. Thus, therefore, he now went on bewailing 
his sinful sleep, saying, O wretched man that I am! that 

15 I should sleep in the day-time! that I should sleep in the 
midst of difficulty! that I should so indulge the flesh as 
to use that rest for ease to my flesh, which the Lord of 
the hill hath erected only for the relief of the spirits of 
pilgrims ! 

20 How many steps have I took in vain ! Thus it happened 
to Israel, for their sin; they were sent back again by the 
way of the Red Sea; and I am made to tread those steps 
with sorrow, which I might have trod with delight, had 
it not been for this sinful sleep. How far might I have 

25 been on my way by this time! I am made to tread those 
steps thrice over, which I need not to have trod but once. 
Yea, now also I am like to be benighted, for the day is 
almost spent. Oh, that I had not slept! 

Now, by this time he was come to the arbor again, 

30 where for a while he sat down and wept; but at last, as 
Christian would have it, looking sorrow- cy^^n^^ ^^deth 
fully down under the settle, there he espied his roll where he 
his roll; the which he, with trembling and 
haste, catched up, and put it into his bosom. But who 

48 The Pilgrim's Progress 

can tell how joyful this man was when he had gotten his 
roll again! for this roll was the assurance of his life and 
acceptance at the desired haven. Therefore he laid it up 
in his bosom, gave thanks to God for directing his eye 
to the place where it lay, and with joy and tears betook 5 
himself again to his journey. But oh, how nimbly now 
did he go up the rest of the hill! Yet, before he got up, 
the sun went dow^n upon Christian; and this made him 
again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance; 
and thus he again began to condole with himself. O thou 10 
sinful sleep : how for thy sake am I like to be benighted in 
my journey! I must walk without the sun; darkness must 
cover the path of my feet; and I must hear the noise of 
the doleful creatures, because of my sinful sleep. Now 
also he remembered the story that Mistrust and Timorous 15 
told him of, how they were frighted with the sight of the 
lions. Then said Christian to himself again. These beasts 
range in the night for their prey; and if they should meet 
with me in the dark, how should I shift them? How 
should I escape being by them torn in pieces? Thus he 20 
went on. But while he w^as thus bewailing his unhappy 
miscarriage, he lift up his eyes, and behold there was a 
very stately palace before him, the name of which was 
Beautiful; and it stood just by the highway side. 

So I saw in my dream that he made haste and went 25 
forward, that if possible he might get lodging there. Now, 
before he had gone far, he entered into a very narrow 
passage, which w^as about a furlong off of the porter's lodge; 
and looking very narrowly before him as he went, he 
espied two lions in the way. Now, thought he, I see the 30 
dangers that Mistrust and Timorous were driven back 
by. (The lions were chained, but he saw not the chains.) 
Then he was afraid, and thought also himself to go back 
after them, for he thought nothing but death was before 

The House Beautiful 49 

him. But the porter at the lodge, whose name is Watch- 
ful, perceiving that Christian made a halt as if he would 
go back, cried unto him, saying. Is thy strength so small? 
Fear not the lions, for they are chained, and are placed 

5 there for trial of faith where it is, and for discovery of 
those that none have. Keep in the midst of the path, 
and no hurt shall come unto thee. 

Then I sav/ that he went on, trembling for fear of the 
lions; but taking good heed to the directions of the porter, 

10 he heard them roar, but they did him no harm. Then 
he clapped his hands, and went on till he came and stood 
before the gate where the porter was. Then said Christian 
to the porter, Sir, what house is this? And may I lodge 
here to-night? The porter answered. This house was built 

15 by the Lord of the hill, and he built it for the relief and 
security of pilgrims. The porter also asked whence he 
was, and whither he was going. 

Chr. I am come from the City of Destruction, and 
am going to Mount Zion; but because the sun is now set, 

20 1 desire, if I may, to lodge here to-night. 
PoR. What is your name? 

Chr. My name is now Christian, but my name at 
the first w^as Graceless; I came of the race of Japheth, 
whom God will persuade to dwell in the tents of Shem. 

25 PoR. But how doth it happen that you come so late? 
The sun is set. 

Chr. I had been here sooner, but that, wretched man 
that I am! I slept in the arbor that stands on the hill 
side. Nay, I had, notwithstanding that, been here much 

30 sooner, but that in my sleep I lost my evidence, and 
came without it to the brow of the hill; and then feeling 
for it, and finding it not, I was forced, with sorrow of 
heart, to go back to the place where I slept my sleep, 
where I found it, and now I am come. 

5© The Pilgrim's Progress 

PoR. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this 
place, who will, if she likes your talk, bring you in to 
the rest of the family, according to the rules of the house. 
So Watchful, the porter, rang a bell, at the sound of which 
came out at the door of the house a grave and beautiful 5 
damsel, named Discretion, and asked why she was called. 

The porter answered. This man is in a journey from 
the City of Destruction to Mount Zion, but being weary 
and benighted, he asked me if he might lodge here to-night. 
So I told him I would call for thee, who, after discourse 10 
had with him, may est do as seemeth thee good, even 
according to the law of the house. 

Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he 
was going; and he told her. She asked him also how he 
got into the way; and he told her. Then she asked him 15 
what he had seen and met with in the way; and he told 
her. And last she asked his name; so he said. It is Chris- 
tian, and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here 
to-night, because, by what I perceive, this place was 
built by the Lord of the hill, for the relief and security 20 
of pilgrims. So she smiled, but the water stood in her 
eyes; and after a little pause, she said, I will call forth 
two or three more of the family. So she ran to the door, 
and called out Prudence, Piety, and Charity, who, after 
a little more discourse with him, had him into the family; 25 
and many of them, meeting him at the threshold of the 
house, said, Come in, thou blessed of the Lord; this house 
was built by the Lord of the hill, on purpose to entertain 
such pilgrims in. Then he bowed his head, and followed 
them into the house. So when he was come in and sat 30 
down, they gave him something to drink, and consented 
together, that until supper was ready, some of them should 
have some particular discourse with Christian,' for the 
best improvement of time; and they appointed Piety, and 

I Piety 51 

I Prudence, and Charity to discourse with him. And thus 
they began: 

Piety. Come, good Christian, since we have been so 
loving to you, to receive you in our house Piety discourses 
5 this night, let us, if perhaps we may better **^ 
ourselves thereby, talk with you of all things that have 
happened to you in your pilgrimage. 

Chr. With a very good will, and I am glad that you 
are so well disposed, 
[o Piety. What moved you at first to betake yourself 
to a pilgrim's life? „ ^, . ,. 

^ " . How Lnnsttan was 

Chr. I was driven out of my native driven out of his 

. 1 1 r 1 1 . 1 i • <"^« country 

country, by a dreadful sound that was in 

mine ears: to wit, that unavoidable destruction did attend 

15 me, if I abode in that place where I was. 

Piety. But how did it happen that you came out of 
your country this w^ay? 

Chr. It was as God would have it; for when I was 
under the fears of destruction, I did not know whither to 

20 go; but by chance there came a man, even now he got into the 
to me, as I was trembling and weeping, ^ay/oZiow 
whose name is Evangelist, and he directed me to the wicket- 
gate, which else I should never have found, and so set me 
into the way that hath led me directly to this house. 

25 Piety. But did you not come by the house of the In- 

Chr. Yes, and did see such things there, the remem- 
brance of which will stick by me as long as I live; espe- 
cially three things: to wit, how Christ, in a rehearsal of what 

30 despite of Satan, maintains his work of he saw in the way 
grace in the heart; how the man had sinned himself quite 
out of hopes of God's mercy; and also the dream of him 
that thought in his sleep the day of judgment was come. 
Piety. Why, did you hear him tell his dream? 

52 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. Yes, and a dreadful one it was. I thought it 
made my heart ache as he was telling of it; but yet I am 
glad I heard it. 

Piety. Was that all that you saw at the house of the 
Interpreter? 5 

Chr. No; he took me and had me where he showed 
me a stately palace, and how the people were clad in gold 
that were in it; and how there came a venturous man 
and cut his way through the armed men that stood in the 
door to keep him out, and how he was bid to come in, lo 
and win eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish 
my heart ! I would have stayed at that good man's house 
a twelvemonth, but that I knew I had further to go. 

Piety. And what saw you else in the way? 

Chr. Saw ! why, I went but a little further, and I saw 15 
one, as I thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon the 
tree; and the very sight of him made my burden fall off 
my back (for I groaned under a very heavy burden), but 
then it fell down from off me. 'Twas a strange thing to 
me, for I never saw such a thing before. Yea, and while 20 
I stood looking up, for then I could not forbear looking, 
three Shining Ones came to me. One of them testified 
that my sins were forgiven me; another stripped me of 
my rags, and gave me this broidered coat which you see; 
and the third set the mark which you see in my forehead, 25 
and gave me this sealed roll. (And with that he plucked 
it out of his bosom.) 

Piety. But you saw more than this, did you not? 

Chr. The things that I have told you were the best; 
yet some other matters I saw, as, namely: I saw three 30 
men. Simple, Sloth, and Presumption, lie asleep a Httle 
out of the way, as I came, with irons upon their heels; 
but do you think I could awake them? I also saw For- 
maHty and Hypocrisy come tumbhng over the wall, to 

Prudence 53 

go, as they pretended, to Zion, but they were quickly lost, 
even as I myself did tell them ; but they would not beheve. 
But above all, I found it hard work to get up this hill, 
and as hard to come by the lions' mouths; and truly if it 
5 had not been for the good man, the porter that stands at 
the gate, I do not know but that after all I might have 
gone back again. But now% I thank God I am here, and 
I thank you for receiving of me. 

Then Prudence thought good^to ask him a few ques- 
10 tions, and desired his answer to them. 

Prud. Do you not think sometimes of the country 
from whence you came? Prudence dh- 

Chr. Yes, but with much shame and courses him 
detestation: truly, if I had been mindful of that country 
IS from whence I came out, I might have had ^, . . , , , 

"^ 111 T ^nrtstian s I noughts 

opportunity to have returned; but now I of his native 
desire a better country, that is, an heavenly. 

Prud. Do you not yet bear away with you some of 
the things that then you were conversant withal? 
20 Chr. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my 
inward and carnal cogitations, with which ^, , ^. ^. , , _, 

*^ Christian distasted 

all my countrymen, as well as myself, were with carnal cogita- 

delighted; but now all those things are my 

grief; and might I but choose mine own things, I would 

25 choose never to think of those things more. 

But when I would be doing of that which is ^'"""'"'' ''"''' 
best, that which is worst is with me. 

Prud. Do you not find sometimes, as if those things 
were vanquished, which at other times are your perplexity? 

30 Chr. Yes, but that is seldom; but they ^, . . , ,, 

' • 1 . 1 1 1 • Christians golden 

are to me golden hours m which such thmgs hours 
happen to me. 

Prud. Can you remember by what means you find 
your annoyances, at times, as if they were vanquished? 

54 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. Yes, when I think what I saw at the cross, that 
„ ^, , . will do it ; and when I look upon my broid- 

How Cnnsitan .n i • i i t i i 

gets power against ered coat, that Will do it; and when 1 look 
ts corruptions .^^^ ^^^ ^^jj ^j^^^ j Carry in my bosom, that 

will do it; and when my thoughts wax warm about whither 5 
I am going, that will do it. 

Prud. And what is it that makes you so desirous to 
go to Mount Zion? 

Chr. Why, there I hope to see him alive that did hang 
„„ ^, . . dead on the cross; and there I hope to be 10 

Why Christian • ^ r ^^ ^ ^ ' ^ l"i 

would be at Mount rid 01 all thosc thiugs that to tlus day are 
m me an annoyance to me; there, they say, 
there is no death; and there I shall dwell with such com- 
pany as I like best. For, to tell you truth, I love him, 
because I was by him eased of my burden; and I am weary 15 
of my inward sickness. I would fain be where I shall die 
no more, and with the company that shall continually 
cry. Holy, Holy, Holy! 

Charity dis- Then Said Charity to Christian, Have 

courses him you a family? Are you a married man? 20 

Chr. I have a wife and four small children. 

Char. And why did you not bring them along with you? 

Chr. Then Christian wept, and said. Oh, how willingly 
^, . . , , would I have done it! but they were all 

Christians love ^o . 

his wife and of them Utterly averse to my going on 25 

children ., . ./ <-. ^ 


Char. But you should have talked to them, and have 
endeavored to have shown them the danger of being 

Chr. So I did; and told them also what God had shown 30 
to me of the destruction of our city; but I seemed to them 
as one that mocked, and they believed me not. 

Char. And did you pray to God that he would bless 
your counsel to them? 

Charity 55 

Chr. Yes, and that with much affection: for you must 
think that my wi'fe and poor children were very dear 
unto me. 

Char. But did you tell them of your own sorrow, and 
5 fear of destruction? for I suppose that destruction was 
visible enough to you. 

Chr. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also 
see my fears in my countenance, in my tears, 
and also in my trembling under the appre- peHsUngmithne 
lohension of the judgment that did hang over Ztilmance'''^ 
our heads; but all w^as not sufficient to pre- 
vail with them to come with me. 

Char. But what could they say for themselves, why 
they came not? 
15 Chr. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, 
and my children were given to the foolish ^^^^ ,,„,, ^^^^ ;„., 
delights of youth: so what bv one thing, wife and children 

^ , , , 1 1 r" dtd not go unth htm 

and what by another, they left me to wan- 
der in this manner alone. 

20 Char. But did you not, with your vain life, damp all 
that you by words used by way of persuasion to bring 
them away with you? 

Char. Indeed, I cannot commend my life; for I am 
conscious to myself of many failings therein : I know also, 

25 that a man by his conversation may soon overthrow what 
by argument or persuasion he doth labor to fasten upon 
others for their good. Yet this I can say, I was very 
wary of giving them occasion, by any unseemly action, 
to make them averse to going on pilgrim- christian's good 

30 age. Yea, for this very thing they would Tw/S''^"" 
tell me I was too precise, and that I denied ^'^'^'^''^« 
myself of things, for their sakes, in which they saw no 
evil. Nay, I think I may say, that if what they saw in 
me did hinder them, it was my great tenderness in sin- 

56 The Pilgrim's Progress 

ning against God, or of doing any wrong to my neigh- 

Char. Indeed Cain hated his brother, "because his 

^, . . , , own works were evil, and his brother's 

Christian clear of i -r i -r 1 i m i 

their blood if they nghteous , and if thy wife and children 5 

have been offended with thee for this, 
they thereby show themselves to be implacable to good, 
and thou hast delivered thy soul from their blood. 

Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking 
together until supper was ready. So when they had 10 
made ready, they sat down to meat. Now the table 
What Christian was fumishcd with fat things, and with 
had to his supper ^-^^^ ^^^^ ^^g ^^^U Tcfined: and all their 

talk at the table was about the Lord of the hill ; as, namely, 
about what he had done, and wherefore he did what he 15 
Their talk at ^^^^ ^^^ ^^Y ^^ ^^^ built that housc. And 

supper-time ^y ^.^at they Said, I perceived that he 

had been a great warrior, and had fought with and slain 
him that had the power of death, but not without 
great danger to himself, which made me love him the 20 

For, as they said, and as I believe (said Christian), he 
did it with the loss of much blood; but that which put 
glory of grace into all he did, was, that he did it out of 
pure love to his country. And besides, there were some 25 
of them of the household that said they had been and 
spoke with him since he did die on the cross; and they 
have attested that they had it from his own lips, that he 
is such a lover of poor pilgrims, that the like is not to be 
found from the east to the west. 30 

They, moreover, gave an instance of what they affirmed, 
and that was, he had stripped himself of his glory, that 
he might do this for the poor; and that they heard him 
say and affirm, that he would not dwell in the mountain 

The Treasures of the House 57 

of Zion alone. They said, moreover, that he had made 
many pilgrims princes, though by nature ^ 

J t^ b t^ J ,,. .. , Christ makes 

they were beggars born, and their origmal princes of beggars 
had been the dunghill. 
5 Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and 
after they had committed themselves to their Lord for 
protection, they betook themselves to rest: the Pilgrim 
they laid in a large upper chamber, whose christian's 
window opened toward the sun-rising: the bedchamber 
10 name of the chamber was Peace, where he slept till break 
of day, and then he awoke and sang — 

Where am I now? Is this the love and care 
Of Jesus for the men that pilgrims are? 
Thus to provide! that I should be forgiven! 
15 And dwell already the next door to heaven? 

So in the morning they all got up; and, after some more 
discourse, they told him that he should not depart till 
they had shown him the rarities of that ^, . . , , . 

. Christian had into 

place. And hrst they had him into the the study, and 

, 1 ,1 , II- 1 r wAa/ he saw there 

20 study, where they showed him records of 

the greatest antiquity; in which, as I remember in my 
dream, they showed him first the pedigree of the Lord 
of the hill, that he was the son of the Ancient of Days, 
and came by that eternal generation. Here also was 

25 more fully recorded the acts that he had done, and the 
names of many hundreds that he had taken into his 
service; and how he had placed them in such habitations, 
that could neither by length of days, nor decays of nature, 
be dissolved. 

30 Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that 
some of his servants had done: as, how they had "sub- 
dued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained prom- 
ises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence 

58 The Pilgrim's Progress 

of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness 
were made strong, waxed vaHant in fight, and turned to 
flight the armies of the ahens." 

They then read again, in another part of the records 
of the house, where it was showed how wilHng their Lord 5 
was to receive into his favor any, even any, though they 
in time past had offered great affronts to his person and 
proceedings. Here also were several other histories of 
many other famous things, of all which Christian had a 
view; as of things both ancient and modern; together 10 
with prophecies and predictions of things that have their 
certain accomplishment, both to the dread and amaze- 
ment of enemies, and the comfort and solace of pilgrims. 

The next day they took him and had him into the ar- 
Christian had into ^^ory, wherc they showed him all manner 15 
the armory ^f furniture, wMch their Lord had provided 

for pilgrims, as sword, shield, helmet, breastplate, all- 
prayer, and shoes that would not wear out. And there 
was here enough of this to harness out as many men for 
the service of their Lord as there be stars in heaven for 20 

They also showed him some of the engines with which 
some of his servants had done wonderful things. They 
Christian is made showcd him Moscs' rod; the hammer and 
to see ancient things j^ail with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitch- 25 
ers, trumpets, and lamps too, with which Gideon put to 
flight the armres of Midian. Then they showed him the 
ox's goad wherewith Shamgar slew six hundred men. They 
showed him also the jaw-bone with which Samson did such 
mighty feats. They showed him, moreover, the sling and 30 
stone with which David slew Goliath of Gath; and the 
sword, also, with which their Lord will kill the Man of Sin, 
in the day that he shall rise up to the prey. They showed 
him, besides, many excellent things, with which Christian 

The Delectable Mountains 59 

was much delighted. This done, they went to their rest 

Then I saw in my dream, that on the morrow he got 
up to go forward; but they desired him to stay till the 
5 next day also; and then, said they, we will if the day be 
clear, show you the Delectable Mountains, ^, . 

,., , ., ,, - , Christian showed 

which, they said, would yet further add to the DeUctabie 

his comfort, because they were nearer the 

desired haven than the place where at present he was; so 

10 he consented and stayed. When the morning was up, 
they had him to the top of the house, and bade him look 
south. So he did: and behold, at a great distance, he 
saw a most pleasant mountainous country, beautified 
with woods, vineyards, fruits of all sorts, flowers also, 

15 with springs and fountains, very delectable to behold. 
Then he asked the name of the country. They said it 
was Immanuel's Land; and it is as common, said they, 
as this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when thoii 
comest there from hence, said they, thou mayest see to 

20 the gate of the Celestial City, as the shepherds that Hve 
there will make appear. 

Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and 
they were willing he should. But first, said christian sets 
they, let us go again into the armory. So /'"■«'«''^ 

25 they did ; and when they came there, they harnessed 
him from head to foot with what was of christian sent 
proof, lest, perhaps, he should meet with a«'a3'amed 
assaults in the way. He being, therefore, thus accoutered, 
walketh out with his friends to the gate, and there he asked 

30 the porter if he saw any pilgrims pass by. Then the 
porter answered. Yes. 

Chr. Pray, did you know him? said he. 
PoR. I asked him his name, and he told me it was 

6o The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. Oh, said Christian, I know him; he is my towns- 
man, my near neighbor; he comes from the place where 
I was born. How far do you think he may be be- 

PoR. He is got by this time below the hill. 5 

Chr. Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord be 
„ ^, . . :, with thee, and add to all thy blessings 

Eow Chnsttan and .' ^ ■, • ^ i , 

the Porter greet at much mcrcasc, for the kmdncss that thou 
'^'^'"^ hast showed to me. 

Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, lo 
Charity, and Prudence would accompany him down to 
the foot of the hill. So they went on together, reiterating 
their former discourses, till they came to go down the hill. 
Then said Christian, As it was difficult coming up, so, 
so far as I can see, it is dangerous going down. Yes, said 15 
Prudence, so it is, for it is a hard matter for a man to go 
The Valley of dowu luto the Valley of Humiliation, as 

Humiliation \ho\x art now, and to catch no slip by the 

way; therefore, said they, are we come out to accompany 
thee down the hill. So he began to go down, but very 20 
warily; yet he caught a slip or two. 

Then I saw in my dream that these good companions, 
when Christian was gone to the bottom of the hill, gave 
him a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins; 
and then he went on his way. 25 

But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian 
was hard put to it ; for he had gone but a little way, before 
he espied a foul fiend coming over the field to meet him; 
his name is ApoUyon. Then did Christian begin to be 
afraid, and to cast in his mind whether to go back or to 30 
stand his ground. But he considered again that he 
Christian has no ^^^ ^^ armor for his back; and therefore 
armor for his back thought that to tum the back to him might 
give him the greater advantage with ease to pierce him 

Apollyon 6i 

with his darts. Therefore he resolved to venture and 
stand his ground; for, thought he, had I ^, . . , 

. . 11 • r thnsttans resolu- 

no more in mine eye than the saving of Uonaitheap- 
my Hfe, 'twould be the best way to stand. ^"'^'^ ° " ^°^ 
5 So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the mon- 
ster was hideous to behold; he was clothed with scales, 
like a fish (and they are his pride), he had wings like a 
dragon, feet like a bear, and out of his belly came fire 
and smoke, and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion. 
loWhen he was come up to Christian, he beheld him with 
a disdainful countenance, and thus began to question 
with him. 

Apol. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 
Chr. I am come from the City of Destruction, which 
15 is the place of all evil, and am going to the City of Zion. 
Apol. By this I perceive thou art one of „. , . 

•' '■ . . Discourse betwixt 

my subjects, for all that country is mine. Christian and 

and I am the prince and god of it. How is 

it, then, that thou hast run away from thy king? Were 

20 it not that I hope thou mayest do me more service, I would 
strike thee now at one blow to the ground. 

Chr. I was born, indeed, in your dominions, but your 
service was hard, and your wages such as a man could 
not live on, '4or the wages of sin is death"; therefore, 

25 when I was come to years, I did as other considerate 
persons do, look out, if, perhaps, I might mend myself. 

Apol. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose 
his subjects, neither will I as yet lose thee; ^^,;^^,,„,,^,,,,,^ 
but since thou complainest of thy service 

30 and wages, be content to go back: what our country will 
afford, I do here promise to give thee. 

Chr. But I have let myself to another, even to the 
King of princes; and how can I, with fairness, go back 
with thee? 

62 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Apol. Thou hast done in this, according to the prov- 

erb, Changed a bad for a worse; but it is 

values Christ's Ordinary for those that have professed 

themselves his servants, after a while to 

give him the sHp, and return again to me. Do thou so 5 

too, and all shall be w^ell. 

Chr. I have given him my faith, and sworn my alle- 
giance to him; how, then, can I go back from this, and 
not be hanged as a traitor? 

Apoiiyon pretends ApoL. Thou didst the samc to me, and 10 
10 be merciful yg^ I am willing to pass by all, if now thou 

wilt yet turn again and go back. 

Chr. What I promised thee was in my nonage; and, 
besides, I count the Prince under whose banner now I 
stand is able to absolve me; yea, and to pardon also what 15 
I did as to my compliance with thee. And besides, O 
thou destroying ApoUyon! to speak truth, I like his serv- 
ice, his wages, his servants, his government, his company 
and country, better than thine; and, therefore, leave off 
to persuade me further. I am his servant, and I will 20 
follow him. 

Apol. Consider, again, when thou art in cool blood, 
Apoiiyon pleads the what thou art like to meet with in the way 
cl^^sHans, to"dis- that thou goest. Thou knowest that, for 
jrompersttingin ^hc most part, his scrvants come to an ill 25 
^^^^^y end, because they are transgressors against 

me and my ways. How many of them have been put to 
shameful deaths; and, besides, thou countest his service 
better than mine, whereas he never came yet from the 
place where he is to deliver any that served him out of 30 
their hands. But as for me, how many times, as all the 
world very well knows, have I delivered, either by power, 
or fraud, those that have faithfully served me, from him 
and his, though taken by them; and so I will deliver thee. 

ApoUyon 63 

Chr. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on 
purpose to try their love, whether they will cleave to him 
to the end; and as for the ill end thou sayest they come 
to, that is most glorious in their account; for, for present 
5 deliverance, they do not much expect it, for they stay 
for their glory, and then they shall have it, when their 
Prince comes in his and the glory of the angels. 

Apol. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service 
to him; and how dost thou think to receive wages of him? 
10 Chr. Wherein, O ApoUyon! have I been unfaithful 
to him? 

Apol. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou 
wast almost choked in the Gulf of Despond; thou didst 
attempt wrong ways to be rid of thy burden, ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
I? whereas thou shouldest have stayed till Christian's injirmi- 

' , ^ . , , ■, • r-i- , 1 1 • 1 i • '^^^ against him 

thy Pnnce had taken it off; thou didst sin- 
fully sleep and lose thy choice thing; thou wast, also, 
almost persuaded to go back, at the sight of the lions; ^ 
and when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou 

20 hast heard and seen, thou art inwardly desirous of vain- 
glory in all that thou sayest or doest. 

Chr. All this is true, and much more which thou hast 
left out; but the Prince whom I serve and honor is merci- 
ful, and ready to forgive; but, besides, these infirmities 

25 possessed me in thy country, for there I sucked them in; 
and I have groaned under them, been sorry for them, 
and have obtained pardon of my Prince. 

Apol. Then ApoUyon broke out into a grievous rage, 
saying, I am an enemy to this Prince; I hate ApoUyon in a rage 

30 his person, his laws, and people; I am come fails upon Christian 
out on purpose to withstand thee. 

Chr. ApoUyon, beware what you do; for I am in the 
king's highway, the way of holiness; therefore take heed 
to yourself. 

64 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Apol. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole 
breadth of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this 
matter. Prepare thyself to die ; for I swear by my infernal 
den, that thou shalt go no further; here will I spill thy soul. 

And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast; 5 
but Christian had a shield in his hand, with which he 
caught it, and so prevented the danger of that. 

Then did Christian draw, for he saw it was time to be- 
stir him: and Apollyon as fast made at him, throwing 
darts as thick as hail; by the w^hich, notwithstanding 10 
all that Christian could do to avoid it, Apollyon wounded 
Christian wounded him in his head, his hand, and foot. This 
tng%ltand'^' ^^^de Christian give a little back ; Apollyon, 
conversation therefore, followed his work amain, and 

Christian again took courage, and resisted as manfully 15 
as he could. This sore combat lasted for above half a' 
day, even till Christian was almost quite spent; for you 
must know that Christian, by reason of his wounds, must 
needs grow weaker and weaker. 

Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to 20 
, „ , gather up close to Christian, and wrestling 

Apollyon casteth . , , . , . i ,r , r „ , 

down to the ground With him, gavc him a dreadful fall; and 
with that Christian's sword flew out of his 
hand. Then said Apollyon, I am sure of thee now. And 
with that he had almost pressed him to death, so that 25 
Christian began to despair of life: but as God would have 
it, while Apollyon was fetching his last blow, thereby 
to make a full end of this good man, Christian nimbly 
stretched out his hand for his sword, and caught it, saying, 
"Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy: when I fall 1 30 
shall arise " ; and with that gave him a deadly thrust, which 
Christian's victory Hiadc him give back, as one that had re- 
over Apollyon ceived his mortal wound. Christian per- 

ceiving that, made at him again, saying, "Nay, in all 

Christian's Victoiy 65 

these things we are more than conquerors through him 
that loved us." And with that Apollyon spread forth 
his dragon's wings, and sped him away, that Christian 
for a season saw him no more. 
5 In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen 
and heard as I did, what yelling and hideous ,,.,,,. , 

.,,,. ., A brief relation of 

roaring Apollyon made all the time of the the combat by the 

fight — he spake like a dragon; and, on the 

other side, what sighs and groans burst from Christian's 

10 heart. I never saw him all the while give so much as one 
pleasant look, till he perceived he had wounded Apollyon 
with his two-edged sword; then, indeed, he did smile, 
and look upward; but 'twas the dreadfulest sight that ever 
I saw. 

15 So when the battle was over. Christian said, I will here 
give thanks to him that delivered me out ^, . . . ^ . 

" 1 Ti Christian gives Cod 

of the mouth of the Hon, to him that did thanks for 

, , . .1, * 1 1 !• 1 deliverance 

help me against Apollyon. And so he did, 
saying — 

20 Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend, 

Designed my ruin; therefore to this end 
He sent him harnessed out: and he with rage 
That helHsh was, did fiercely me engage. 
But blessed Michael helped me, and I, 

25 By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly. 

Therefore to him let me give lasting praise, 
And thank and bless his holy name always. 

Then there came to him a hand, with some of the leaves 
of the tree of life, the which Christian took, and appHed 
30 to the wounds that he had received in the battle, and 
was healed immediately. He also sat down christian goes on 
in that place to eat bread, and to drink of ifs^sZo^IdZwn 
the bottle that was given him a little before. ^'^ ^"'^ '^""^ 
So, being refreshed, he addressed himself to his journey, 

66 The Pilgrim's Progress 

with his sword drawn in his hand; for he said, I know not 
but some other enemy may be at hand. But he met with 
no other affront from ApoUyon quite through this valley. 

Now, at the end of this valley was another, called the 
The Valley of the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and Chris- 5 
Shadow of Death ^[^^ must needs go through it, because the 
way to the Celestial City lay through the midst of it. 
Now, this valley is a very solitary place. The prophet 
Jeremiah thus describes it: ''A wilderness, a land of deserts 
and of pits, a land of drought, and of the shadow of death, 10 
a land that no man" (but a Christian) ''passed through, 
and where no man dwelt." 

Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his 
fight with Apollyon: as by the sequel you shall see. 

I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got 15 
The children of the o^ the bordcrs of the Shadow of Death, 
spies go back there met him two men, children of them 

that brought up an evil report of the good land, making 
haste to go back; to whom Christian spake as follows: — 

Chr. Whither are you going? 20 

Men. They said, Back! back! and we would have 
you to do so too, if either life or peace is prized by you. 

Chr. Why, what's the matter? said Christian. 

Men. Matter! said they; we were going that way as 
you are going, and went as far as we durst; and indeed 25 
we were almost past coming back ; for had we gone a little 
further, we had not been here to bring the news to thee. 

Chr. But what have you met with? said Christian. 

Men. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow 
of Death; but that, by good hap, we looked before us, 30 
and saw the danger before we came to it. 

Chr. But what have you seen? said Christian. 

Men. Seen! Why, the Valley itself, which is as dark 
as pitch; we also saw there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and 

The Valley of the Shadow of Death 67 

dragons of the pit; we heard also in that Valley a con- 
tinual howling and yelling, as of a people under unutter- 
able misery, who were sat down in affliction and irons; 
and over that Valley hang the discouraging clouds of 
5 confusion. Death also doth always spread his wings 
over it. In a word, it is every whit dreadful, being utterly 
without order. 

Chr. Then, said Christian, I perceive not yet, by what 
you have said, but that this is my way to the desired 

10 haven. 

Men. Be it thy way; we will not choose it for ours. 
So they parted, and Christian went on his way, but still 
with his sword drawn in his hand, for fear lest he should 
be assaulted. 

15 I saw then in my dream so far as this valley reached, 
there was on the right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch 
is it into which the blind have led the blind in all ages, 
and have both there miserably perished. Again, behold, 
on the left hand, there was a very dangerous quag, into 

20 which, if even a good man falls, he can find no bottom 
for his foot to stand on. Into that quag King David 
once did fall, and had no doubt therein been smothered, 
had not He that is able plucked him out. 

The pathway was here also exceeding narrow, and 

25 therefore good Christian was the more put to it; for when 
he sought, in the dark, to shun the ditch on the one hand, 
he was ready to tip over into the mire on the other; also 
when he sought to escape the mire, without great careful- 
ness he would be ready to fall into the ditch. Thus he 

30 went on, and I heard him here sigh bitterly; for, besides 
the dangers mentioned above, the pathway was here so 
dark, that ofttimes, when he Hft up his foot to set for- 
ward, he knew not where or upon what he should set it 

68 The Pilgrim's Progress 

About the midst of this valley, I perceived the mouth 
of hell to be, and it stood also hard by the wayside. Now, 
thought Christian, what shall I do? And ever and anon 
the flame and smoke would come out in such abundance, 
with sparks and hideous noises (things that cared not for 5 
Christian's sword, as did Apollyon before), that he was 
forced to put up his sword, and betake himself to another 
weapon, called All-prayer. So he cried in my hearing, 
*'0 Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul!" Thus he 
went on a great while, yet still the flames would be reaching 10 
towards him. Also he heard doleful voices, and rushings 
to and fro, so that sometimes he thought he should be 
torn in pieces, or trodden down like mire in the streets. 
This frightful sight was seen, and these dreadful noises 
were heard by him for several miles together; and, coming 15 
to a place where he thought he heard a company of fiends 
coming forward to meet him, he stopped 

Christian put to a i i i i i ■ , i 

stand, but for a and began to muse what he had best to do. 
Sometimes he had half a thought to go back ; 
then again he thought he might be half way through the 20 
valley. He remembered also how he had already van- 
quished many a danger, and that the danger of going 
back might be much more than for to go forward; so he 
resolved to go on. Yet the fiends seemed to come nearer 
and nearer; but when they were come even almost at him, 25 
he cried out with a most vehement voice, I will walk in 
the strength of the Lord God! So they gave back, and 
came no further. 

One thing I would not let slip: I took notice that now 
Christian made be- poor Christian was so confounded, that he 30 
mUheLiesXfen did not know his own voice; and thus I 
'ImgesudZmiL perceived it. Just when he was come over 
his mind against the mouth of the burning pit, one of 

the wicked ones got behind him, and stepped up softly to 

The Day Breaks 69 

him, and whisperingly suggested many grievous blasphe- 
mies to him, which he verily thought had proceeded from 
his own mind. This put Christian more to it than any- 
thing that he met with before, even to think that he should 
5 now blaspheme him that he loved so much before. Yet, 
if he could have helped it, he would not have done it; 
but he had not the discretion either to stop his ears, nor 
to know from whence these blasphemies came. 

When Christian had traveled in this disconsolate con- 

lodition some considerable time, he thought he heard the 
voice of a man, going before him, saying, "Though I 
walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will 
fear no evil, for thou art with me." 

Then he was glad, and that for these reasons: 

15 First, Because he gathered from thence, that some 
who feared God were in this valley as well as himself. 

Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them, 
though in that dark and dismal state; and why not, thought 
he, with me? though, by reason of the impediment that 

20 attends this place, I cannot perceive it. 

Thirdly, For that he hoped, could he overtake them, 
to have company by and by. So he went on, and called 
to him that was before; but he knew not what to answer; 
for that he also thought himself to be alone. And by 

25 and by the day broke. Then said Christian, ^, . . 

TT 1 1 11 11 r 1 1 • Christian glad al 

He hath turned the shadow 01 death into break of day 
the morning. 

Now morning being come, he looked back, not out of 
desire to return, but to see, by the light of the day, what 
30 hazards he had gone through in the dark. So he saw more 
perfectly the ditch that was on the one hand, and the 
quag that was on the other; also how narrow the way 
was which led betwixt them both; also now he saw the 
hobgoblins, and satyrs, and dragons of the pit, but all 

JO The Pilgrim's Progress 

afar off (for after break of day, they came not nigh) ; yet 
they were discovered to him, according to that which is 
written, "He discovereth deep things -out of darkness, 
and bringeth out to Hght the shadow of death." 

Now was Christian much affected with his dehverance 5 
from all the dangers of his soHtary way; which dangers, 
though he feared them more before, yet he saw them 
more clearly now, because the light of the day made them 
conspicuous to him. And about this time the sun was 
rising, and this was another mercy to Christian ; for you 10 
must note, that though the first part of the Valley of the 
, Shadow of Death was dangerous, yet this 

The second part of , , • i i -r 

this valley very sccond part which he was yet to go, was, 11 
angerous possiblc, far morc dangerous: for from the 

place where he now stood, even to the end of the valley, 15 
the way was all along set so full of snares, traps, gins, 
and nets here, and so full of pits, pitfalls, deep holes, and 
shelvings dow^n there, that, had it now been dark, as it 
was when he came the first part of the way, had he had a 
thousand souls, they had in reason been cast away; but, 20 
as I said just now, the sun was rising. Then, said he. His 
candle shineth upon my head, and by his light I walk 
through darkness. Then sang Christian — 

O world of wonders! (I can say no less) 

That T should be preserved in that distress 25 

That I have met with here! O blessed be 

That hand that from it hath delivered me! 

Dangers in darkness, devils, hell, and sin 

Did compass me, while I this vale was in: 

Yea, snares and pits, and traps, and nets, did lie 30 

My path about, that worthless, silly T 

Might have been catched, entangled, and cast down; 

But since I live, let Jesus wear the crown. 

Now, as Christian went on his way, he came to a little 
ascent, which was cast up on purpose that pilgrims might 35 

Faithful 71 

see before them. Up there, therefore, Christian went, 
and looking forward, he saw Faithful before him upon 
his journey. Then said Christian aloud, Ho! ho! Soho! 
Stay, and I will be your companion! At that. Faithful 
5 looked behind him; to whom Christian cried again, Stay, 
stay, till I come up to you. But Faithful answered. No, 
I am upon my life, and the avenger of blood is behind me. 
At this. Christian was somewhat moved, and putting 

to all his strength, he quickly got up with Christian overtakes 

10 Faithful, and did also overrun him; so the ^«'W«^ 

last was first. Then did Christian vain-gloriously smile, 
because he had gotten the start of his brother; but not 
taking good heed to his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell, 
and could not rise again until Faithful came up to help him. 
15 Then I saw in my dream they went very lovingly on 
together, and had sweet discourse of all christian's fail 
things that had happened to them in their Zll'iitgiy^ ""^ 
pilgrimage ; and thus Christian began : together 

Chr. My honored and well-beloved brother, Faith- 
2oful, I am glad that I have overtaken you; and that God 
has so tempered our spirits, that we can walk as compan- 
ions in this so pleasant a path. 

Faith. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your 
company quite from our town; but you did get the start 
25 of me, wherefore I was forced to come thus much of the 
way alone. 

Chr. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction, 
before you set out after me on your pilgrimage? 

Faith. Till I could stay no longer; for there was great 
30 talk presently after you were gone out, that 

our city would, in short time, with fire from Their talk about the 
heaven, he burned down to the ground. whence the "lame 

Chr. What! did your neighbors talk so? 

Faith. Yes, it was for a while in everybody's mouth. 

72 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. What ! and did no more of them but you come out 
to escape the danger? 

Faith. Though there was, as I said, a great talk there- 
about, yet I do not think they did firmly beheve it. For 
in the heat of the discourse, I heard some of them derid- 5 
ingly speak of you and of your desperate journey (for so 
they called this your pilgrimage); but I did believe, and 
do still, that the end of our city will be with fire and brim- 
stone from above ; and therefore I have made my escape. 

Chr. Did you hear no talk of neighbor Pliable? 10 

Faith. Yes, Christian, I heard that he followed you 
till he came at the Slough of Despond, where, as some 
said, he fell in; but he would not be known to have so 
done; but I am sure he was soundly bedabbled with that 
kind of dirt. 15 

Chr. And what said the neighbors to him? 

Faith. He hath, since his going back, been had greatly 
„ „,. ,, in derision, and that among all sorts of peo- 

How Pliable was ' i 7 . i . , 

accounted of , when pie; somc do mock and despise him; and 

scarce will any set him on work. He is now 20 
seven times worse than if he had never gone out of the city. 

Chr. But why should they be so set against him, since 
they also despise the way that he forsook? 

Faith. Oh, they say, hang him, he is a turn-coat! he 
was not true to his profession. I think God has stirred 25 
up even his enemies to hiss at him, and make him a prov- 
erb, because he hath forsaken the way. 

Chr. Had you no talk with him before you came out? 

Faith. I met him once in the streets, but he leered 
away on the other side, as one ashamed of what he had 30 
done; so I spake not to him. 

Chr. Well, at my first setting out, I had hopes of that 
man; but now I fear he will perish in the overthrow of the 
city; for " it is happened to him according to the true prov- 

Faithful 73 

erb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again; and the 
sow that was washed, to her wallowing in ^,^ ,^^ ^^ ,,^ ^^^ 
the mire." 

Faith. These are my fears of him too; but who can 
5 hinder that which will be? 

Chr. Well, neighbor Faithful, said Christian, let us 
leave him, and talk of things that more immediately con- 
cern ourselves. Tell me now, what you have met with 
in the way as you came; for I know you have met with 
lo some things, or else it may be writ for a wonder. 

Faith. I escaped the Slough that I perceived you 
fell into, and got up to the gate without Faithful assaulted 
that danger; only I met with one whose h Wanton 
name was Wanton, that had like to have done me a mis- 
15 chief. 

Chr. 'Twas well you escaped her net; Joseph was hard 
put to it by her, and he escaped her as you did; but it 
had like to have cost him his Hfe. But what did she do to 
20 Faith. You cannot think, but that you know some- 
thing, what a flattering tongue she had; she lay at me 
hard to turn aside with her, promising me all manner of 

Chr. Nay, she did not promise you the content of good 
25 conscience. 

Faith. You know what I mean; all carnal and fleshly 

Chr. Thank God you have escaped her: The abhorred 
of the Lord shall fall into her ditch. 
30 Faith. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape her 
or no. 

Chr. Why, I trow, you did not consent to her desires? 

Faith. No, not to defile myself; for I remembered an 
old writing that I had seen, which said, ''Her steps take 

74 The Pilgrim's Progress 

hold on hell." So I shut mine eyes, because I would not 
be bewitched with her looks. Then she railed on me, and 
I went my way. 

Chr. Did you meet with no other assault as you came? 

Faith. When I came to the foot of the hill called Diffi- 5 
culty, I met with a very aged man, who asked me what I 
He is assaulted by was, and whither bound. I told him that I 
Adam the First ^^ ^ pilgrim, going to the Celestial City. 
Then said the old man, Thou lookest like an honest fel- 
low; wilt thou be content to dwell with me for the wages 10 
that I shall give thee? Then I asked him his name, and 
where he dwelt. He said his name was Adam the First, 
and that he dwelt in the town of Deceit. I asked him 
then what was his work, and what the wages that he would 
give. He told me, that his work was many delights; and 15 
his wages, that I should be his heir at last. I further 
asked him what house he kept, and what other servants 
he had. So he told me, that his house was maintained 
with all the dainties in the world; and that his servants 
were those of his own begetting. Then I asked if he had 20 
any children. He said that he had but three daughters: the 
Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes, and the Pride of 
Life, and that I should marry them all if I would. Then 
I asked how long time he would have me live with him? 
And he told me, As long as he lived himself. 25 

Chr. Well, and what conclusion came the old man 
and you to at last? 

Faith. Why, at first, I found myself somewhat inclin- 
able to go with the man, for I thought he spake very fair; 
but looking in his forehead, as I talked with him, I saw 30 
there written, " Put off the old man with his deeds." 

Chr. And how then? 

Faith. Then it came burning hot into my mind, what- 
ever he said, and however he flattered, when he got me 

Adam the First 75 

home to his house, he would sell me for a slave. So I bid 
him forbear to talk, for I would not come near the door 
of his house. Then he reviled me, and told me that he 
would send such a one after me, that should make my 
5 way bitter to my soul. So I turned to go away from him; 
but just as I turned myself to go thence, I felt him take 
hold of my flesh, and give. me such a deadly twitch back, 
that I thought he had pulled part of me after himself. 
This made me cry, "Oh, wretched man!" So I went on 

lo my way up the hill. 

Now when I had got about half way up, I looked be- 
hind and saw one coming after me, swift as the wind; so 
he overtook me just about the place where the settle 

15 Chr. Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest 
me; but being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll 
out of my bosom. 

Faith. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as 
the man overtook me, he was but a word and a blow, 

20 for down he knocked me, and laid me for dead. But 
when I was a Httle come to myself again, I asked him 
wherefore he served me so. He said, because of my secret 
inclining to Adam the First: and with that he struck me 
another deadly blow on the breast, and beat me down back- 

25 ward; so I lay at his foot as dead as before. So, when I 
came to myself again, I cried him mercy; but he said, I 
know not how to show mercy; and with that knocked me 
down again. He had doubtless made an end of me, but 
that one came by, and bid him forbear. 

30 Chr. Who was that that bid him forbear? 

Faith. I did not know him at first, but as he went 
by, I perceived the holes in his hands and in his side; 
then I concluded that he was our Lord. So I went up 
the hill. 

76 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. That man that overtook you was Moses. He 
The temper of spareth none, neither knoweth he how to 
^0^^^ show mercy to those that transgress his law. 

Faith. I know it very well; it was not the first time 
that he has met with me. 'Twas he that came to me s 
when I dwelt securely at home, and that told me he would 
burn my house over my head if I stayed there. 

Chr. But did you not see the house that stood there 
on the top of the hill, on the side of which Moses met 
you? 10 

Faith. Yes, and the Hons too, before I came at it: but 
for the lions, I think they were asleep, for it was about 
noon; and because I had so much of the day before me, 
I passed by the porter, and came down the hill. 

Chr. He told me, indeed, that he saw you go by, but 15 
I wish you had called at the house, for they would have 
showed you so many rarities, that you would scarce have 
forgot them to the day of your death. But pray tell me. 
Did you meet nobody in the Valley of Humility? 

Faith. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would 20 
willingly have persuaded me to go back again with him; 
Faithful assaulted ^Is rcasou was, for that the valley was alto- 
by Discontent gethcr without houor. He told me, more- 

over, that there to go was the way to disobey all my 
friends, as Pride, Arrogancy, Self-conceit, Worldly-glory, 25 
with others, who, he knew, as he said, would be very much 
offended, if I made such a fool of myself as to w^ade through 
this valley. 

Chr. Well, and how did you answer him? 

Faith. I told him that although all these that he 30 
FaithfuVs answer ^amcd might ckim kindred of me, and that 
to Discontent rightly, for indeed they were my relations 

according to the flesh; yet since I became a pilgrim, they 
have disowned me, as I also have rejected them; and 

Shame 77 

therefore they were to me now no more than if they had 
never been of my Hneage. 

I told Mm, moreover, that as to this valley, he had 

quite misrepresented the thing; for before honor is hu- 

5 mility, and a haughty spirit before a fall. Therefore, 

- said I, I had rather go through this valley to the honor 

that was so accounted by the wisest, than choose that 

which he esteemed most worthy our affections. 

Chr. Met you with nothing else in that valley? 

10 Faith. Yes, I met with Shame; but of all the men that 
I met with in my pilgrimage, he, I think, ^, ., ^,,^„^^,^ 
bears the wrong name. The others would with Shame 
be said nay, after a little argumentation, and somewhat 
else; but this bold-faced Shame would never have done. 

15 Chr. Why, what did he say to you? 

Faith. What? Why, he objected against religion itself: 
he said 'twas a pitiful, low, sneaking business, for a man 
to mind religion; he said that a tender conscience was an 
unmanly thing; and that for a man to watch over his words 

20 and ways, so as to tie up himself from that hectoring liberty 
that the brave spirits of the times accustom themselves 
unto, would make him the ridicule of the times. He ob- 
jected also, that but few of the mighty, rich, or wise, were 
ever of my opinion; nor any of them neither, before they 

25 were persuaded to be fools, and to be of a voluntary fond- 
ness, to venture the loss of all, for nobody knows what. He, 
moreover, objected the base and low estate and condition 
of those that were chiefly the pilgrims of the times in 
which they lived: also their ignorance and want of under- 

30 standing in all natural science. Yea, he did hold me to it at 
that rate also, about a great many more things than here 
I relate; as, that it was a shame to sit whining and mourn- 
ing under a sermon, and a shame to come sighing and 
groaning home; that it was a shame to ask my neighbor 

78 The Pilgrim's Progress 

forgiveness for petty faults, or to make restitution where 
I have taken from any. He said, also, that religion made 
a man grow strange to the great, because of a few vices, 
which he called by finer names; and made him own and 
respect the base, because of the same religious fraternity. 5 
And is not this, said he, a shame ? 

Chr. And what did you say to him? 

Faith. Say? I could not tell what to say at the first. 
Yea, he put me so to it, that my blood came up in my 
face; even this Shame fetched it up, and had almost beat 10 
me quite off. But at last I began to consider, that "that 
which is highly esteemed among men, is had in abomina- 
tion with God." And I thought again, this Shame tells me 
what men are; but it tells nothing what God or the Word 
of God is. And I thought, moreover, that at the day of 15 
doom, we shall not be doomed to death or Hfe according 
to the hectoring spirits of the world, but according to the 
wisdom and law of the Highest. Therefore, thought I, 
what God says is best, indeed is best, though all the men 
in the world are against it. Seeing, then, that God prefers 20 
his religion; seeing God prefers a tender conscience; seeing 
they that make themselves fools for the kingdom of heaven 
are wisest; and that the poor man that loveth Christ is 
richer than the greatest man in the world that hates him; 
Shame, depart, thou art an enemy to my salvation! Shall 25 
I entertain thee against my sovereign Lord? How then 
shall I look him in the face at his coming? Should I now 
be ashamed of his ways and servants, how can I expect 
the blessing? But, indeed, this Shame was a bold villain; 
I could scarce shake him out of my company; yea, he 30 
would be haunting of me, and continually whispering me 
in the ear, with some one or other of the infirmities that 
attend religion. But at last I told him it was but in vain 
to attempt further in this business; for those things that 

Faithful in the Valley of the Shadow 79 

he disdained, in those did I see most glory; and so at last 
I got past this importunate one. And when I had shaken 
him off, then I began to sing — 

The trials that those men do meet withal, 
5 That are obedient to the heavenly call, 

Are manifold, and suited to the flesh, 
And come, and come, and come again afresh; 
That now, or sometime else, we by them may 
Be taken, overcome, and cast away. 
10 Oh, let the pilgrims, let the pilgrims, then 

Be vigilant, and quit themselves like men. 

Chr. I am glad, my brother, that thou didst with- 
stand this villain so bravely; for of all, as thou sayest, I 
think he has the wrong name; for he is so bold as to follow 

15 us in the streets, and to attempt to put us to shame before 
all men: that is, to make us ashamed of that which is good; 
but if he was not himself audacious, he would never at- 
tempt to do as he does. But let us still resist him; for 
notwithstanding all his bravadoes, he promoteth the fool 

20 and none else. ''The wise shall inherit glory," said Solo- 
mon; "but shame shall be the promotion of fools." 

Faith. I think we must cry to Him, for help against 
Shame, who would have us to be valiant for the truth 
upon the earth. 

25 Chr. You say true; but did you meet nobody else in 
that valley? 

Faith. No, not I; for I had sunshine all the rest of the 
way through that, and also through the Valley of the 
Shadow of Death. 

30 Chr. 'Twas well for you. I am sure it fared far other- 
wise with me; I had for a long season, as soon almost as 
I entered into that valley, a dreadful combat with that 
foul fiend Apollyon; yea, I thought verily he would have 
killed me, especially when he got me down and crushed 

8o The Pilgrim's Progress 

me under him, as if he would have crushed me to pieces; 
for as he threw me, my sword flew out of my hand; nay, 
he told me he was sure of me: but I cried to God, and he 
heard me, and delivered me out of all my troubles. Then 
I entered into the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and had s 
no light for almost half the way through it. I thought I 
should have been killed there, over and over; but at last 
day broke, and the sun rose, and I went through that 
which was behind with far more ease and quiet. 

Moreover, I saw in my dream, that as they went on, lo 
Faithful, as he chanced to look on one side, saw a man 
whose name is Talkative, walking at a distance beside 
^ „ . , ., , them; for in this place there was room 

Talkative described ' . , „ ^ n -rx n 

enough for them all to walk. He was a tall 
man, and something more comely at a distance than at 15 
hand. To this man Faithful addressed himself in this 

Faith. Friend, whither away? Are you going to the 
heavenly country? 

Talk. I am going to the same place. 20 

Faith. That is well; then I hope we may have your 
good company. 

Talk. With a very good will will I be your companion. 
Faithful and Talk- Faith. Comc ou, then, and let us go to- 
ative enter discourse gethcr, and let US spcud our time in discours- 25 
ing of things that are profitable. 

Talk. To talk of things that are good, to me is very 
acceptable, with you or with any other; and I am glad 
Taikative's dislike ^hat I havc met with those that incline to 
of bad discourse go good a work ; for, to speak the truth, there 30 
are but few that care thus to spend their time (as they are 
in their travels), but choose much rather to be speaking 
of things to no profit; and this hath been a trouble to me. 

Faith. That is indeed a thing to be lamented; for what 

Talkative 8i 

things so worthy of the use of the tongue and mouth of 
men on earth, as are the things of the God of heaven? 

Talk. I like you wonderful well, for your sayings are 
full of conviction; and I will add, what thing is so pleasant, 

■ sand what so profitable, as to talk of the things of God? 
What things so pleasant (that is, if a man hath any delight 
in things that are wonderful)? For instance, if a man 
doth delight to talk of the history or the mystery of things; 
or if a man doth love to talk of miracles, wonders, or signs, 

lo where shall he find things recorded so delightful, and so 
sweetly penned, as in the Holy Scripture? 

Faith. That is true; but to be profited by such things 
in our talk should be our chief design. . 

Talk. That is it that I said; for to talk of such things is 

15 most profitable: for by so doing, a man may Talkative' s fine 
get knowledge of many things; as of the ^i^^ourse 
vanity of earthly things, and the benefit of things above. 
Thus, in general, but more particularly, by this, a man 
may learn the necessity of the new birth, the insufficiency 

20 of our works, the need of Christ's righteousness, &c. Be- 
sides, by this a man may learn, by talk, what it is to repent, 
to believe, to pray, to suffer, or the like; by this also a man 
may learn what are the great promises and consolations of 
the gospel, to his own comfort. Further, by this a man 

25 may learn to refuse false opinions, to vindicate the truth, 
and also to instruct the ignorant. 

Faith. All this is true, and glad am I to hear these 
things from you. 
Talk. Alas! the want of this is the cause why so few 

30 understand the need of faith, and the necessity of a work 

of grace in their soul, in order to eternal life; but ignorantly 

live in the works of the law, by which a man can by no 

means obtain the kingdom of heaven. 

Faith. But, by your leave, heavenly knowledge of these 

82 The Pilgrim's Progress 

is the gift of God; no man attaineth to them by human 
industry, or only by the talk of them. 

Talk. All this I know very well; for a man can re- 
ceive nothing, except it be given him from 

brave Talkative , ,, • r . r i t i j 

heaven ; all is of grace, not of works. 1 could 5 
give you a hundred scriptures for the confirmation of this. 

Faith. Well, then, said Faithful, what is that one 
thing that we shall at this time found our discourse upon? 
Talk. What you will. I will talk of things heavenly, 

or things earthly; things moral, or things 10 

brave Talkative , • , i • , i • c 

evangelical; things sacred, or things profane; 
things past, or things to come; things foreign, or things at 
home; things more essential, or things circumstantial; 
provided that all be done to our profit. 

Faith. Now did Faithful begin to wonder; and stepping 15 
Faithful besuiied to Christian (for he walked all this while 
by Talkative ^y himsclf ) , he Said to him (but softly). 

What a brave companion have we got! Surely this man 
will make a very excellent pilgrim. 

Chr. At this Christian modestly smiled, and said, 20 
Christian makes a This man, with whom you are so taken, will 
ti::j:mnfF^& ^eguHe with this tongue of his twenty of 
who he was ^hgn^ j-^at kuow him not. 

Faith. Do you know him then? 

Chr. Know him ! Yes, better than he knows himself. 25 

Faith. Pray, what is he? 

Chr. His name is Talkative; he dwelleth in our town. 

1 wonder that you should be a stranger to him, only I 
consider that our town is large. 

Faith. Whose son is he? And whereabout does he dwell? 30 
Chr. He is the son of one Say-well; he dwelt in Prating 
Row; and he is known of all that are acquainted with 
him, by the name of Talkative in Prating Row; and not- 
withstanding his fine tongue, he is but a sorry fellow. 

Talkative 83 

Faith. Well, he seems to be a very pretty man. 
Chr. That is, to them who have not thorough ac- 
quaintance with him; for he is best abroad; near home, 
he is ugly enough. Your saying that he is a pretty man, 
5 brings to my mind what I have observed in the work of 
the painter, whose pictures show best at a distance, but, 
very near, more unpleasing. 

Faith. But I am ready to think you do but jest, be- 
cause you smiled. 

10 Chr. God forbid that I should jest (although I smiled) 
in this matter, or that I should accuse any falsely! I will 
give you a further discovery of him. This man is for any 
company, and for any talk; as he talketh now with you, 
so will he talk when he is on the ale-bench; and the more 

IS drink he hath in his crown, the more of these things he 
hath in his mouth; rehgion hath no place in his heart, or 
house, or conversation; all he hath, lieth in his tongue, 
and his religion is, to make a noise therewith. 

Faith. Say you so! then am I in this man greatly de- 

20 ceived. 

Chr. Deceived! you may be sure of it; remember the 
proverb, ''They say and do not." But the ''kingdom of 
God is not in word, but in power." He Talkative talks, but 
talketh of prayer, of repentance, of faith, does not 

25 and of the new birth; but he knows but only to talk of 
them. I have been in his family, and have observed him 
both at home and abroad; and I know what I say of him 
is the truth. His house is as empty of reli- ^-^ ^^^^^^ ^^ g^p(y 
gion as the white of an egg is of savor. 0/ religion 

30 There is there neither prayer, nor sign of repentance for 
sin ; yea, the brute in his kind serves God ^^ {^ ^ ^iai„ to 
far better than he. He is the very stain, ''^^ision 
reproach, and shame of rehgion, to all that know him; it 
can hardly have a good word in all that end of the town 

84 The Pilgrim's Progress 

where he dwells, through him. Thus say the common 
people that know him, A saint abroad, and 

The proverb that F^ J^ ^^. p -i ii j 4. 

goes of him- a devil at home. His poor family tinds it so ; 

he is such a churl, such a railer at and so unreasonable with 
his servants, that they neither know how to do for, or s 
speak to him. Men that have any dealings with him, say 
it is better to deal with a Turk than with him; for fairer 
„ , , , , dealing they shall have at their hands. This 

Men shun to deal ° •> . , .i i \ mi -u J 

with him Talkative (if it be possible) will go beyond 

them, defraud, beguile, and overreach them. Besides, he lo 
brings up his sons to follow his steps; and if he findeth in 
any of them a fooHsh timorousness (for so he calls the 
first appearance of a tender conscience), he calls them fools 
and blockheads, and by no means will employ them in 
much, or speak to their commendations before others. 15 
For my part, I am of opinion, that he has, by his wicked 
life, caused many to stumble and fall; and will be, if God 
prevent not, the ruin of many more. 

Faith. Well, my brother, I am bound to beUeve you; 
not only because you say you know him, but also because, 2c 
like a Christian, you make your reports of men. For I 
cannot think that you speak these things of ill-will, but 
because it is even so as you say. 

Chr. Had I known him no more than you, I might 
perhaps have thought of him, as, at the first, you did; yea, 
had he received this report at their hands only that are 
enemies to religion, I should have thought it had been a 
slander— a lot that often falls from bad men's mouths upon 
good men's names and professions. But all these things, 
yea, and a great many mo-e as bad, of my own knowledge, 30 
I can prove him guilty of. Besides, good men are ashamed 
of him; they can neither call him brother, nor friend; the 
very naming of him among them makes them blush, if 
they know him. 


Talkative 85 

Faith. Well, I see that saying and doing are two things, 
and hereafter I shall better observe this distinction. 

Chr. They are two things, indeed, and are as diverse 
as are the soul and the body; for as the body without the 
5 soul is but a dead carcass, so saying, if it be j^/^^ carcass 0/ 
alone, is but a dead carcass also. The soul ^^^^sion 
of religion is the practical part: "Pure religion and unde- 
filed, before God and the Father, is this, to visit the father- 
less and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself un- 

10 spotted from the world." This Talkative is not aware of; 
he thinks that hearing and saying will make a good Chris- 
tian, and thus he deceiveth his own soul. Hearing is but 
as the sowing of the seed ; talking is not sufficient to prove 
that fruit is indeed in the heart and life; and let us assure 

15 ourselves, that at the day of doom men shall be judged 
according to their fruits. It will not be said then. Did you 
believe? but, Were you doers or talkers only? and accord- 
ingly shall they be judged. The end of the world is com- 
pared to our harvest; and you know men at harvest regard 

20 nothing but fruit. Not that anything can be accepted 

that is not of faith, but I speak this to show you how 

insignificant the profession of Talkative will be at that day. 

Faith. This brings to my mind that of Moses, by 

which he describeth the beast that is clean. ^ . ,, , . ^ 

. , 1 1 r 1 Patthjul convinced 

25 He is such a one that parteth the hoof and of the badness of 
cheweth the cud; not that parteth the hoof 
only, or that cheweth the cud only. The hare cheweth the 
cud, but yet is unclean, because he parteth not the hoof. 
And this truly resembleth Talkative; he cheweth the cud, 

30 he seeketh knowledge, he cheweth upon the word; but 
he divideth not the hoof, he parteth not with the way of 
sinners; but, as the hare, he retaineth the foot of a dog or 
bear, and therefore he is unclean. 

Chr. You have spoken, for aught I know, the true 

86 The Pilgrim's Progress 

gospel sense of those texts. And I will add another thing: 

Paul calleth some men, yea, and those great talkers, too, 

sounding brass and tinkling cymbals, that 

Talkative like to . . ° , , • , , 

things that sound IS, as he expounds tnem m another place, 

things without life, giving sound. Things 5 
without life, that is, without the true faith and grace of 
the gospel; and consequently, things that shall never be 
placed in the kingdom of heaven among those that are 
the children of life; though their sound, by their talk, be 
as if it were the tongue of an angel. 10 

Faith. Well, I was not so fond of his company at first, 
but I am sick of it now. What shall we do to be rid of him? 

Chr. Take my advice, and do as I bid you, and you shall 
find that he will soon be sick of your company too, except 
God shall touch his heart, and turn it. 15 

Faith. What would you have me to do? 

Chr. Why, go to him, and enter into some serious 
discourse about the power of religion ; and ask him plainly 
(when he has approved of it, for that he will) whether 
this thing be set up in his heart, house, or conversation. 20 

Faith. Then Faithful stepped forward again, and said 
to Talkative, Come, what cheer? How is it now? 

Talk. Thank you, well. I thought we should have 
had a great deal of talk by this time. 

Faith. Well, if you will, we will fall to it now; and since 25 
you left it with me to state the question, let it be this: How 
doth the saving grace of God discover itself, when it is in 
the heart of man? 

Talk. I perceive, then, that our talk must be about 
the power of things. Well, it is a very good question, and 30 
^ „ ■ . , , , I shall be wilUng to answer you. And take 

Talkative' s false . i . r i -i->- 

discovery of a work my auswcr m brief, thus: First, Where the 
grace gracc of God is in the heart, it causeth there 
a great outcry against sin. Secondly 

Talkative and Faithful 87 

Faith. Nay, hold, let us consider of one at once. I 
think you should rather say, It shows itself by inclining 
the soul to abhor its sin. 

Talk. Why, what difference is there between crying 
5 out against, and abhorring of sin? 

Faith. Oh, a great deal. A man may cry out against 
sin of policy, but he cannot abhor it, but to cry out against 
by virtue of a godly antipathy against it. sin, m sign of grace 
I have heard many cry out against sin in the pulpit, who 
10 yet can abide it well enough in the heart, house, and con- 
versation. Joseph's mistress cried out with a loud voice, 
as if she had been very holy; but she would willingly, 
notwithstanding that, have committed uncleanness with 
him. Some cry out against sin, even as the mother cries 
15 out against her child in her lap, when she calleth it slut 
and naughty girl, and then falls to hugging and kissing it. 
Talk. You He at the catch, I perceive. 
Faith. No, not I; I am only for setting things right. 
But what is the second thing whereby you would prove 
20 a discovery of a work of grace in the heart? 
Talk. Great knowledge of gospel mysteries. 
Faith. This sign should have been first; but first or 
last, it is also false; for knowledge, great Great knowledge m 
knowledge, may be obtained in the mys- sign of grace 
25 teries of the gospel, and yet no work of grace in the soul. 
Yea, if a man have all knowledge, he may yet be nothing, 
and so consequently be no child of God. When Christ 
said. Do you know all these things? and the disciples had 
answered, Yes; he addeth. Blessed are ye if ye do them. 
30 He doth not lay the blessing in the knowing of them, but 
in the doing of them. For there is a knowledge that is 
not attended with doing: He that knoweth his master's 
will, and doeth it not. A man may know like an angel, 
and yet be no Christian, therefore your sign of it is not 

88 The Pilgrim's Progress 

true. Indeed, to know is a thing that please th talkers an^ 
boasters; but to do is that which pleaseth God. Not that 
Knowledge and the heart can be good without knowledge; 
knowledge {qj- without that, the heart is naught. There 

is, therefore, knowledge and knowledge: knowledge that 5 
resteth in the bare speculation of things; and knowledge 
that is accompanied with the grace of faith and love, 
which puts a man upon doing even the will of God from 
the heart. The first of these will serve the talker; but 

without the other the true Christian is not 10 

True knowledge at- n /~^' t it 

tended with en- contcnt. Give me Understanding, and I 
shall keep thy law; yea, I shall observe it 
with my whole heart." 

Talk. You lie at the catch again; this is not for edifica- 
tion. 15 

Faith. Well, if you please, propound another sign 
how this work of grace discovereth itself where it is. 

Talk. Not I, for I see we shall not agree. 

Faith. Well, if you will not, will you give me leave to 
do it? 20 

Talk. You may use your liberty. 

Faith. A work of grace in the soul discovereth itself. 
One good sign of either to him that hath it, or to standers by. 
^'"'^^^ To him that hath it thus: It gives him 

conviction of sin, especially of the defilement of his nature 25 
and the sin of unbelief, for the sake of which he is sure to 
be damned, if he findeth not mercy at God's hand, by 
faith in Jesus Christ. This sight and sense of things 
worketh in him sorrow and shame for sin ; he findeth, more- 
over, revealed in him the Savior of the world, and the 30 
absolute necessity of closing with him for Hfe, at the which 
he findeth hungerings and thirstings after him; to which 
hungerings, &c., the promise is made. Now, according 
to the strength or weakness of his 'faith in his Savior, 

Talkative and Faithful 89 

so is his joy and peace, so is his love to holiness, so are his 
desires to know him more and also to serve him in this 
world. But though I say it discovereth itself thus unto 
him, yet it is but seldom that he is able to conclude that 
S this is a work of grace ; because his corruptions now, and 
his abused reason, make his mind to misjudge in this 
matter. Therefore, in him that hath this work, there is 
required a very sound judgment before he can, with 
steadiness, conclude that this is a work of grace. 
10 To others, it is thus discovered: 

1 . By an experimental confession of his faith in Christ. 

2. By a Hfe answerable to that confession; to wit, a 
Hfe of holiness, heart-holiness, family-holiness (if he hath a 
family), and by conversation-holiness in the world; which, 

15 in the general, teacheth him, inwardly, to abhor his sin, and 
himself for that, in secret; to suppress it in his family, 
and to promote holiness in the w^orld; not by talk only, 
as a hypocrite or talkative person may do, but by a prac- 
tical subjection, in faith and love, to the power of the 

20 Word. And now. Sir, as to this brief description of the 
work of grace, and also the discovery of it, if you have 
aught to object, object; if not, then give me leave to pro- 
pound to you a second question. 

Talk. Nay, my part is not now to object, but to hear; 

25 let me, therefore, have your second question. 

Faith. It is this: Do you experience this first part of 
this description of it? and doth your life and ^„„^;^^^ ^^^^ ,-^„ 
conversation testify the same? or standeth <>/ grace 
your religion in word or in tongue, and not in deed and 

30 truth? Pray, if you incline to answer me in this, say no 
more than you know the God above will say Amen to; 
and also nothing but what your conscience can justify 
you in; ''for, not he that commendeth himself is approved, 
but whom the Lord commendeth." Besides, to say I am 

90 The Pilgrim's Progress 

thus and thus, when my conversation, and all my neigh- 
bors, tell me I lie, is great wickedness. 

Talk. Then Talkative at first began to blush; but, 
recovering himself, thus he replied: You come now to 

experience, to conscience, and God; and to 5 

Talkative not ^ . ,.-..'. ' , . ^ 

pleased with Faith- appeal to iiim lor justmcation of what is 
u s question spokcu. This kind of discourse I did not 

expect; nor am I disposed to give an answer to such ques- 
tions, because I count not myself bound thereto, unless 
you take upon you to be a catechiser, and, though you 10 
should so do, yet I may refuse to make you my judge. 
But, I pray, will you tell me why you ask me such ques- 

Faith. Because I saw you forward to talk, and because 
I knew not that you had aught else but notion. Besides, 15 
to tell you all the truth, I have heard of 

The reasons why . , . . , . 

Faithful put to him you, that you are a man whose rehgion hes 
a quesion .^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ your couversatiou gives 

this your mouth-profession the lie. They say, you are a 

spot among Christians; and that religion 20 

Faithful's plain . .1, ^u r 11 

dealing with farcth the worse for your ungodly conver- 

sation; that some have already stumbled 
at your wicked ways, and that more are in danger of 
being destroyed thereby. Your rehgion, and an ale-house, 
and covetousness, and uncleanness, and swearing, and 25 
lying, and vain-company keeping, &c., will stand together. 
The proverb is true of you which is said of a whore, to 
wit, that she is a shame to all women; so are you a shame 
to all professors. 

Talk. Since you are ready to take up reports and to 30 
Talkative flings J^^ge SO rashly as you do, I cannot but con- 
away from Faithful cludc you are some peevish or melancholy 
man, not fit to be discoursed with; and so adieu, 

Chr. Then came up Christian, and said to his brother. 

Talkative and Faithful 91 

I told you how it would happen : your words and his lusts 
could not agree; he had rather leave your company than 
reform his Hfe. But he is gone, as I said; 
let him go, the loss is no man's but his own. 
5 He has saved us the trouble of going from him ; for he 
continuing (as I suppose he will do) as he is, he would 
have been but a blot in our company : besides, the apostle 
says, "From such withdraw thyself." 

Faith. But I am glad we had this little discourse with 

10 him; it may happen that he will think of it again. How- 
ever, I have dealt plainly with him, and so am clear of 
his blood, if he perisheth. 

Chr. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you 
did. There is but little of this faithful dealing with men 

i5now-a-days, and that makes religion to stink so in the 
nostrils of many, as it doth; for they are these talkative 
fools whose rehgion is only in word, and are debauched 
and vain in their conversation, that (being so much ad- 
mitted into the fellowship of the godly) do puzzle the 

20 world, blemish Christianity, and grieve the sincere. I 
wish that all men would deal with such as you have done: 
then^sjiould they either be made more conformable to 
religion, or the company of saints would be too hot for 
them. Then did Faithful say — 

25 How Talkative at first lifts up his plumes! 

How bravely doth he speak! How he presumes 
To drive down all before him! But so soon 
As Faithful talks of heart-work, like the moon 
That's past the full, into the wane he goes. 

30 And so will all, but he that heart-work knows. 

Thus they went on talking of what they had seen by 
the way, and so made that way easy which would other- 
wise, no doubt, have been tedious to them; for now they 
went through a wilderness. 

92 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Now, when they were got almost quite out of this wilder- 
ness, Faithful chanced to cast his eye back, and espied one 
coming after them, and he knew him. Oh! said Faithful 
to his brother. Who comes yonder? Then Christian 
looked, and said, It is my good friend EvangeHst. Aye, 5 
and my good friend too, said Faithful, for it was he that 
Evangelist overtakes sct me the way to the gate. Now was 
them again Evangclist come up to them, and thus 

saluted them: 

Evan. Peace be with you, dearly beloved; and peace 10 
be to your helpers. 

Chr. Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist; the 
They are glad at sight of thy countcnauce brings to my re- 
the sight of him mcmbraucc thy ancient kindness and un- 
wearied laboring for my eternal good. 15 

Faith. And a thousand times welcome, said good 
Faithful. Thy company, O sweet EvangeHst, how de- 
sirable it is to us poor pilgrims ! 

Evan. Then said Evangelist, How hath it fared with 
you, my friends, since the time of our last parting? \\^t 20 
have you met with, and how have you behaved your- 
selves? ^^m^ 

Then Christian and Faithful told him offil^fliings 
that had happened to them in the way; and how, and 
with what difficulty, they had arrived to that place. 25 

Evan. Right glad am I, said Evangelist, not that you 
His exhortation to ^avc met with trials, but that you have 
^^^'^ been victors; and for that you have, not- 

withstanding many weaknesses, continued in the way 
to this very day. 30 

I say, right glad am I of this thing, and that for mine 
own sake and yours. I have sowed, and you have reaped: 
and the day is coming, when both he that sowed and 
they that reaped shall rejoice together; that is, if you 

Evangelist 93 

hold out: for in due season ye shall reap, if ye faint not. 
The crown is before you, and it is an incorruptible one; 
so run, that you may obtain it. Some there be that set 
out for this crown, and, after they have gone far for it, 
5 another comes in, and takes it from them. Hold fast, 
therefore, that you have; let no man take your crown. 
You are not yet out of the gun-shot of the devil ; you have 
not resisted unto blood, striving against sin; let the king- 
dom be always before you, and believe steadfastly con- 

locerning things that are invisible. Let nothing that is 
on this side the other world get within you; and, above 
all, look well to your own hearts, and to the lusts thereof, 
for they are deceitful above all things, and desperately 
wicked. Set your faces like a flint; you have all power 

15 in heaven and earth on your side. 

Chr. Then Christian thanked him for his exhortation; 
but told him, withal, that they would have him speak 
further to them for their help the rest of the jj^^y ^^ ^^^„^ f^■^ 
way, and the rather, for that they well knew >'" ^'' exhortation 

2oJffi|^t he was a prophet, and could tell them of things that 
^Bg^^ happen unto them, and also how they might resist 
and overcome them. Ti©* which request Faithful also 
consented. So Evangelist began as followeth: — 

Evan. My sons, you have heard, in the words of the 

25 truth of the gospel, that you must, through He predkieth what 
many tribulations, enter into the kingdom m^et with in Vanity 
of heaven. And, again, that in every city agekthfmT"'' 
bonds and afflictions abide on you; and steadfastness 
therefore you cannot expect that you should go long on 

30 your pilgrimage without them, in some sort or other. 
You have found something of the truth of these testi- 
monies upon you already, and more will immediately 
follow. For now, as you see, you are almost out of this 
wilderness, and therefore you will soon come into a town 

94 The Pilgrim's Progress 

that you will by and by see before you; and in that town 
you will be hardly beset with enemies, who will strain hard 
but they will kill you; and be you sure that one or both 
of you must seal the testimony which you hold, with 
blood. But be you faithful unto death, and the King 5 
He whose lot it will will give you a crown of life. He that shall 
wiuZ!:'tAer die there, although his death will be unnat- 
0/ his brother ^j-^j^ ^j^^j j^js ^^[^ pcrhaps great, he will 

yet have the better of his fellow; not only because he will 
be arrived at the Celestial City soonest, but because he 10 
will escape many miseries that the other will meet with 
in the rest of his journey. But when you are come to the 
town, and shall find fulfilled what I have here related, 
then remember your friend, and quit yourselves like men, 
and commit the keeping of your souls to your God in 15 
well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator. 

Then I saw in my dream, that when they were got 
out of the wilderness, they presently saw a town before 
them, and the name of that town is Vanity; and at the 
town there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair: it is kep^^2o 
the year long; it beareth the name of Vanity Fair, hge^K 
the town where it is kept is fl|i!ler than vanib 
because all that is there sold, or that jpometh^ 
vanity. As is the saying of the wise, all that c^ 
vanity. 25 

This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of 
ancient standing; I will show you the original of it. 

Almost five thousand years agone, there were pilgrims 
The antiquity of Walking to the Cclcstial City, as these two 
this fair honest persons are : and Beelzebub, Apollyon 30 

and Legion, with their companions, perceiving by the 
path that the pilgrims made, that their way to the city 
lay through this town of Vanity, they contrived here to set 
up a fair; a fair wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity, 

Vanity Fair 95 

and that it shoukl last all the year long. Therefore at 
this fair are all such merchandise sold, as houses, lands, 
trades, places, honors, preferments, titles. The merchandise 
countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures, and oj this fair 
5 delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds, wives, husbands, 
children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, sil- 
ver, gold, pearls, precious stones, and what not. 

And, moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be 
seen juggling, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, 
10 and rogues, and that of every kind. 

Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing, thefts, 
murders, adulteries, false swearers, and that of a blood- 
red color. 

And as in other fairs of less moment, there are the several 

IS rows and streets, under their proper names, where such 

and such wares are vended; so here likewise you have the 

proper places, rows, streets (viz. countries and kingdoms), 

where the wares of this fair are soonest to be found. 

re is the Britain Row, the French Row, the Italian 

2o^^j^the Spanish Row, thrf^erman Row, The streets of this 

yeral sorts of vaniUSare to be sold, ^'^^^ 

said, t^^HPPR the Celestial City Hes just 
X^w^JfE^ this lusty fair is kept; and he 
fo to tn^City, and yet not go through this town, 
25 must needs go OcX of the world. The Prince Christ went through 
of princes himsc'.^ when here, went through ^hisfair 
this town to his own country, and that upon a fair day 
too. Yea, and s I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief 
lord of this fair^ chat invited him to buy of his vanities; 
30 yea, would have i-^iade him lord of the fair, would he but 
have done him reverence as he went through the town. 
Yea, because ht was such a person of honor, Beelzebub 
had him frc.-ii street to street, and showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world in a little time, that he might, if 

96 The Pilgrim's Progress 

possible, allure the Blessed One to cheapen and buy some 
of his vanities; but he had no mind to the merchandise, 
Christ bought noth- ^nd therefore left the town, without laying 
ing in this fair q^|- go much as oue farthing upon these 
vanities. This fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long 5 
The Pilgrims enter Standing, and a very great fair. Now these 
'^^fai'' pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through 

this fair. Well, so they did: but, behold, even as they 
The fair in a hub- entered into the fair, all the people in the 
bub about them f^jr were moved, and the town itself as it 10 
were in a hubbub about them; and that for several reasons; 

First, The Pilgrims were clothed with such kind of 
The first cause of raiment as was diverse from the raiment of 
the hubbub any that traded in that fair. The people, 15 

therefore, of the fair, made a great gazing upon them: 
some said they were fools, some they were bedlams, and 
some they are outlandish men. 

Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel,^o 
Second cause of the they did likA^e at their speech; 
hubbub could uudcrs^^ what they 

naturally spoke the languaUHfcp'ri^.an, bi 
kept the fair were the men of t^Bfa|rld; so^ 
one end of the fair to the other, the^lemed 
each to the other. 25 

Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the 
merchandisers was, that these pilgrims set very light 
Third cause of the ^Y ^H their warcs; they cared not so much 
*"*^"* as to look upon them; and if they called 

upon them to buy, they would put their fingers in their 30 
ears, and cry, "Turn away mine eyes from beholding 
vanity," and look upwards, signifying ' that their trade 
and traffic was in heaven. 

One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriages of the 

Vanity Fair 97 

men, to say unto them, What will ye buy? But they, 
looking gravely upon him, answered. We Fourth cause of 
buy the truth. At that there was an occa- '^'^ hubbub 
sion taken to despise the men the more; some mocking, 
5 some tauntinej, some speaking reproachfully, 

^ , ,5?' , . 1 They are mocked 

and some callmg upon others to smite them. 
At last things came to a hubbub and great stir in the fair, 
insomuch that all order was confounded. The fair in a 
Now was word presently brought to the hubbub 
10 great one of the fair, who quickly came down, and deputed 
some of his most trusty friends to take these men into 
examination, about whom the fair was almost overturned. 
SiAie men were brought to examination; ^, 

gKKp , , , 111 ^hsy are exatmnea 

,m^they that sat upon them, asked them 
15 whence they came, whither they went, and what they 
did; there, in such an unusual garb? The men told them 
t they were pilgrims and str^gers in ^, „ , , 

-' ,11 . , . They tell who they 

, and that they were gomg to their are, and whence 
(Country, which was theJieavenly Je- ^^^'^^^^ 

and that they ha^^men no occasion to the men 
^jior yet tQ^pl^Rrchandisers, thus to abuse 
trPir journey, except it was for 
em what they would buy, they 
ey^ would buy the truth. But they that were ap- 
25 pointed to examine them did not believe They are not 
them to be any other than bedlams and Relieved 
mad, or else such as came to put all things into a con- 
fusion in the fair. Therefore they took They are put in 
them and beat them, and besmeared them '^^ '^^^^ 
30 with dirt, and then put them into the cage, that they 
might be made a spectacle to all the men of the fair. 

There, therefore, they lay for some time, and were made 
the objects of any man's sport, or malice, or revenge, 
the great one of the fair laughing still at all that befell 

98 The Pilgrim's Progress 

them. But the men being patient, and not rendering rail- 
Their behavior in i^g for railing, but contrariwise, blessing, 
the cage ^nd giving good words for bad, and kind- 

ness for injuries done, some men in the fair that were 
more observing, and less prejudiced than the rest, began 5 
to check and blame the baser sort for their continual 
abuses done by them to the men. They, therefore, in 
The men of the fair angry manner, let fly at them again, count- 
t^^iaZlZir ing them as bad as the men in the cage, 
these two men ^^^^ telling them that they seemed confed- 10 

erates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes. 
The other replied, that for aught they could see, the men 
were quiet, and sober, ar^ intended nobody any harm: 
that there were many that traded in their fair that 
more worthy to be put Jrit^ the cage, yea, and pillory 
than were the men thg^ l\ad abused. Thus, after dii 
words had passed on feth sides, the men behaving th( 
They are made the selvcs all the while Very wisely and sob( 
'diSurbaicf' before.the'n;,-iihey fell to some blows 

Then were these two poor] 
aminers again, and there ( 

They are led up and late hubbub ^^ ^^^^^^ 

thZtflr'i'tinor they beat them pitifuli^nd han^Hnions 
to others upon them, and led them in chains up and 25 

down the fair, for an example and a terror to others, lest 
any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto 
them. But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves 
yet more wisely, and received the ignominy and shame 
that was cast upon them, with so much meekness and 30 
Some of the men of patieucc, that it wou to their side, though 
the fair won to them \^^^ fg^ [^ comparisou of the rcst, sevcral 
of the men in the fair. This put the other party yet into 
greater rage, insomuch that they concluded the death 

The Trial of Faithful and Christian 99 

of these two men. Wherefore they threatened, that 
neither cage nor irons should serve their Their adversaries 
turn, but that they should die, for the resolve to km them 
abuse they had done, and for deluding the men of the fair. 
5 Then were they remanded to the cage again, until 
further order should be taken with them. So they put 
them in, and made their feet fast in the stocks. 

Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they 
had heard from their faithful friend Evangelist, and were 

10 the more confirmed in their way and sufferings, by what 
he told them would happen to them. They also now com- 
forted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even he 
should have the best of it; therefore each man secretly 
wished that he might have that preferment. But commit- 

15 ting themselves to the all-wise disposal of Him that ruleth 
all things, with much content, they abode in the condition 
in which they were, until they should be otherwise dis- 
posed of. 

Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought 

20 them forth to their trial, in order to their ^, 

^1 ^- ^^^y ^'■^ ^sam put 

condemnation. When the time was come, into the cage, and 

,v 1 i.j.ur i-T_- • J after brought to trial 

they were brought before their enemies and 
arraigned. The Judge's name was Lord Hate-good. Their 
indictment was one and the same in substance, though 
25 somewhat varying in form , the contents whereof were this : — 
That they were enemies to and disturbers of their 
trade; that they had made commotions and ^, . . ,. 

. . ' . •' Thetr indictment 

divisions in the town, and had won a party 
to their own most dangerous opinions, in contempt of 
30 the law of their prince. 

Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set 
himself against that which hath set itself Faithful's answer 
against Him that is higher than the highest. ^'"' ^''"^f^/ 
And, said he, as for disturbance, I make none, being my- 

lOO The Pilgrim's Progress 

self a man of peace; the parties that were won to us, were 
won by beholding our truth and innocence, and they are 
only turned from the worse to the better. And as to the 
king you talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of our 
Lord, I defy him and all his angels. 5 

Then proclamation was made, that they that had 
aught to say for their lord the king against the prisoner 
at the bar, should forthwith appear and give in their evi- 
dence. So there came in three witnesses, to wit. Envy, 
Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then asked if lo 
they knew the prisoner at the bar; and what they had to 
say for their lord the king against him. 

Then stood forth. Envy, and said to this effect: My 
. . Lord, I have known this man a long time, 

Envy begins i .n i i r -i • 

and will attest upon my oath before tmsi5 
honorable bench that he is 

Judge. Hold! Give him his oath. (So they sware 
him.) Then he said — 

Envy. My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausi- 
ble name, is one of the vilest men in our country. He 20 
neither regardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; but 
doth all that he can to possess all men with certain of his 
disloyal notions, which he in the general calls principles 
of faith and holiness. And, in particular, I heard him 
once myself affirm that Christianity and the customs of 25 
our town of Vanity were diametrically opposite, and could 
not be reconciled. By which saying, my Lord, he doth at 
once not only condemn all our laudable doings, but us in 
the doing of them. 

Judge. Then did the Judge say to him. Hast thou 30 
any more to say? 

Envy. My Lord, I could say much more, only I would 
not be tedious to the court. Yet, if need be, when the 
other gentlemen have given in their evidence, rather 

The Trial of Faithful and Christian loi 

than anything shall be wanting that will despatch him, 
I will enlarge my testimony against him. So he was bid 
to stand by. 

Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon 
5 the prisoner. They also asked, what he could say for 
their lord the king against him. Then they sware him; so 
he began. 

Super. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with 
this man, nor do I desire to have further superstition 

lo knowledge of him. However, this I know, fo^^o^s 

that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse 
that, the other day, I had with him in this town; for then, 
talking with him, I heard him say, that our religion was 
nought, and such by which a man could by no means 

15 please God. Which sayings of his, my Lord, your Lordship 
very well knows, what necessarily thence will follow, to 
wit, that we still do worship in vain, are yet in our sins, 
and finally shall be damned ; and this is that which I have 
to say. 

20 Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, 
in behalf of their lord the king, against the prisoner at 
the bar. 

Pick. My Lord, and you gentlemen all. This fellow 
I have known of a long time, and have heard nckthank's 

25 him speak things that ought not to be spoke ; '^^'^^ony 

for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub, ?nd 
hath spoken contemptibly of his honorable ^ins are all lords, 
friends, whose names a ~e the Lord Old Man, ""^ ^"'"^ ''"" 
the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious, the Lord 

30 Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir Having 
Greedy, with all the rest of our nobility; and he hath said, 
moreover. That if all men were of his mind, if possible, 
there is not one of these noblemen should have any longer 
a being in this town. Besides, he hath not been afraid 

I02 The Pilgrim's Progress 

to rail on you, my Lord, who are now appointed to be 
his judge, calling you an ungodly villain, with many other 
such like vilifying terms, with which he hath bespattered 
most of the gentry of our town. 

When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge di- 5 
rected his speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying. Thou 
runagate, heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what 
these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee? 

Faith. May I speak a few words in my own defence? 

Judge. Sirrah! Sirrah! thou deservest to live no longer, 10 
but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that all 
men may see our gentleness towards thee, let us hear 
what thou, vile runagate, hast to say. 

Faith, i. I say, then, in answer to what Mr. Envy 
Faithful's defence ^ath spokcu, I ncver said aught but this, 15 
of himself That what rule, or laws, or customs, or peo- 

ple, were flat against the Word of God, are diametrically 
opposite to Christianity. If I have said amiss in this, 
convince me of my error, and I am ready here before you 
to make my recantation. 20 

2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his 
charge against me, I said only this. That in the worship 
of God there is required a Divine faith; but there can be 
no Divine faith without a Divine revelation of the will 
of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into the worship 25 
of God that is not agreeable to Divine revelation, cannot 
be done but by a human faith, which faith will not be 
profitable to eternal life. 

3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding 
terms, as that I am said to rail, and the like), that the 30 
prince of this town, with all the rabblement, his attend- 
ants, by this gentleman named, are more fit for being 
in hell, than in this town and country: and so, the Lord 
have mercy upon me! 

Faithful's Defence 103 

Then the Judge called to the jury (who all this while 
stood by, to hear and observe) : Gentlemen y^^., j^^^^,^ ^^,,^^ 
of the jury, you see this man about whom "^ the jury 
so great an uproar hath been made in this town. You 
5 have also heard what these worthy gentlemen have wit- 
nessed against him. Also you have heard his reply and 
confession. It lieth now in your breasts to hang him or 
save his life; but yet I think meet to instruct you in our 

10 There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the 
Great, servant to our prince, that lest those of a contrary 
religion should multiply and grow too strong for him, 
their males should be thrown into the river. There was 
also an Act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the 

15 Great, another of his servants, that whosoever would not 
fall down and worship his golden image, should be thrown 
into a fiery furnace. There was also an Act made in the 
days of Darius, that whoso, for some time, called upon 
any god but him, should be cast into the lions' den. Now^ 

20 the substance of these laws this rebel has broken, not 
only in thought (which is not to be borne), but also in 
word and deed; which must therefore needs be intoler- 

For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposi- 

25 tion, to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; 

but here is a crime apparent. For the second and third, 

you see he disputeth against our religion; and for the 

treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death. 

Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blind- 

30 man, Mr. No-good, Mr. MaHce, Mr. Love- The jury, and their 
lust, Mr. Live-loose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High- '"^^'' 
mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, 
and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in his private 
verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards 

104 The Pilgrim's Progress 

unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the 
Judge. And first, among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, 
Every one's private the foreman, Said, I see clearly that this 
verdict jn^n is a heretic. Then said Mr. No-good, 

Away with such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr. 5 
Malice, for I hate the very looks of him. Then said Mr. 
Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I, said Mr. Live- 
loose, for he would always be condemning my way. Hang 
him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said 
Mr. High-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr. 10 
Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. Liar. Hanging is too 
good for him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let us despatch him 
out of the way, said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr. Im- 
placable, Might I have all the world given 

They conclude to ^ x i j ^ -u -i j ^ i,- 4-i- 

hring him in guilty me, I could not be reconciled to mm; there- 15 

fore, let us forthwith bring him in guilty of 
death. And so they did; therefore he was presently con- 
demned to be had from the place where he was, to the 
place from whence he came, and there to be put to the 
most cruel death that could be invented. 20 

They therefore brought him out, to do with him ac- 
ne cruel death of cording to their law ; and, first, they scourged 
Faithful hijn^ then they buffeted him, then they 

lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him 
with stones, then pricked him with their swords; and, 25 
last of all, they burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus 
came Faithful to his end. 

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a 
. , , , chariot and a couple of horses, waiting for 

A chariot and _,.,., , , , . , . 

horses wait to take Faithful, who (so soou as lus adversaries 30 
away at ju ^^^^ dcspatchcd Mm) was taken up into it, 

and straightway was carried up through the clouds, with 
sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the celestial gate. 
But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was 

The Death of Faithful 105 

remanded back to prison. So he there remained for a 
space; but He that overrules all things, hav- christian is still 
ing the power of their rage in his own hand, '^'^'^^ 
so wrought it about, that Christian for that time escaped 
S them, and went his way; and as he went, he sang, saying — 

Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully professed 
Unto thy Lord; with whom thou shalt be blest, „. 
When faithless ones, with all their vain delights, Christian made to 
Are crying out under their hellish plights: Faithful after his 

10 Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive; 
For, though they killed thee, thou art yet alive. 

Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth 
alone, for there was one whose name was christian has an- 
Hopeful (being made so by the beholding other companion 

15 of Christian and Faithful in their words and behavior, in 
their sufferings at the Fair), who joined himself unto him, 
and, entering into a brotherly covenant, told him that 
he would be his companion. Thus, one died to bear testi- 
mony to the truth, and another rises out of his ashes, to 

20 be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage. This 
Hopeful also told Christian, that there were ^, 

. . There are more of 

many more of the men m the Fair, that the men of the Fair 
would take their time and follow after. 

So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the 
25 Fair, they overtook one that was going be- j^^^y ,,,,;^^, 5^. 
fore them, whose name was By-ends : so they ^"^^ 
said to him, What countryman, Sir? and how far go you 
this way? He told them that he came from the town of 
Fair-speech, and he was going to the Celestial City, but 
30 told them not his name. 

From Fair-speech! said Christian. Is there any good 
that lives there? 

By-ends. Yes, said By-ends, I hope. 

Chr. Pray, Sir, what may I call you? said Christian. 

io6 The Pilgrim's Progress 

By-ends. I am a stranger to you, and you to me. If 
By-ends loath to tell Y^^ ^c goiug this Way, I shall be glad of your 
his name company; if not, I must be content. 

Chr. This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have 
heard of; and, as I remember, they say, it is a wealthy place, s 

By-ends. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have 
very many rich kindred there. 

Chr. Pray, who are your kindred there? if a man may 
be so bold. 

By-ends. Almost the whole town; and in particular, lo 
my Lord Turn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord 
Fair-speech (from whose ancestors that town first took 
its name), also Mr. Smooth-man, Mr. Facing-both-ways, 
Mr. Any- thing; and the parson of our parish, Mr. Two- 
tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side. 15 
And to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of 
good quaUty, yet my great-grandfather was but a water- . 
man, looking one way and rowing another, and I got most 
of my estate by the same occupation. 

Chr. Are you a married man? 20 

By-ends. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman. 
The wife and kin- the daughter of a virtuous woman. She 
dred of By-ends ^.^g jj^y Lady Feiguiug's daughter; therefore 
she came of a very honorable family, and is arrived to 
such a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to 25 
all, even to prince and peasant. It is true we somewhat 
„„ „ , ^., differ in religion from those of the stricter 

Where By-ends dif- , *. i, • r 

fers from others in sort, yet but m two Small pomts: nrst, we 
''^ ^^'"^ never strive against wind and tide ; secondly, 

we are always most zealous when religion goes in his silver 30 
slippers; we love much to walk with him in the street, 
if the sun shines, and the people applaud him. 

Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow, 
Hopeful, saying. It runs in my mind that this is one By- 

By-ends 107 

ends of Fair-speech; and if it be he, we have as very 
a knave in our company, as dwelleth in all these parts. 
Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should not be 
ashamed of his name. So Christian came up with him 
5 again, and said. Sir, you talk as if you knew something 
more than all the world doth; and if I take not my mark 
amiss, I deem I have half a guess of you: Is not your name 
Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech? 
By-ends. This is not my name, but indeed it is a nick- 

10 name that is given me by some that cannot abide me: 
and I must be content to bear it as a reproach, as other 
good men have borne theirs before me. 

Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to call 
you by this name? 

15 By-ends. Never, never! The worst that ever I did to 
give them an occasion to give me this name ^^^ gy^^^^ ^^^ 
was, that I had always the luck to jump ^'""a'"^ 
in my judgment with the present way of the times, what- 
ever it was, and my chance was to get thereby. But if 

20 things are thus cast upon me, let me count them a blessing; 

but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach. 

Chr. I thought, indeed, that you were the man that 

I heard of; and to tell you what I think, I fear this name 

belongs to you more properly than you are willing we 

25 should think it doth. 

By-ends. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help 
it; you shall find me a fair company-keeper, ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^ 
if you will still admit me your associate. company with 

r^ -rr •^^ ' ^ ^ Christian 

Chr. if you will go with us, you must go 
30 against the wind and tide; the which, I perceive, is against 
your opinion. You must also own religion in his rags, 
as well as when in his silver slippers; and stand by him, 
too, when bound in irons, as well as when he walketh the 
streets with applause. 

io8 The Pilgrim's Progress 

By-ends. You must not impose, nor lord it over my 
faith; leave me to my hberty, and let me go with you. 

Chr. Not a step further, unless you will do in what 
I propound as we. 

Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old princi- s 
pies, since they are harmless and profitable. If I may not 
go with you, I must do as I did before you overtook me, 
even go by myself, until some overtake me that will be 
glad of my company. 

Now I saw in my dream, that Christian and Hopeful lo 
By-ends and Chris- fofsook him, and kept their distance before 
tianpart \^m.\ but ouc of them looking back, saw 

three men following Mr. By-ends, and behold, as they came 
up with him, he made them a very low congee; and they 
also gave him a compliment. The men's names were Mr. 15 
He has new Hold-thc-world, Mr. Money-love, and Mr. 

companions Savc-all; men that Mr. By-ends had for- 

merly been acquainted with; for in their minority they 
were schoolfellows, and were taught by one Mr. Gripe- 
man, a schoolmaster in Love-gain, which is a market town 20 
in the county of Coveting, in the north. This schoolmaster 
taught them the art of getting, either by violence, cozen- 
age, flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise of religion; 
and these four gentlemen had attained much of the art 
of their master, so that they could each of them have kept 25 
such a school themselves. 

Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, 
Mr. Money-love said to Mr. By-ends, Who are they 
upon the road before us? (for Christian and Hopeful were . 
yet within view). 30 

By-ends[ character By-ends. They are a couplc of far coun- 
of the pilgrims trymcu, that, after their mode, are going 
on pilgrimage. 

MoNEY-LOVE. Alas! Why did they not stay, that we 

By-ends' Companions 109 

might have had their good company? for they, and we, 
and you. Sir, I hope, are all going on a pilgrimage. 

By-ends. We are so, indeed; but the men before us 

are so rigid, and love so much their own notions, and do 

5 also so lightly esteem the opinions of others, that let a 

man be never so godly, yet if he jumps not with them in 

all things, they thrust him quite out of their company. 

Save-all. That is bad, but we read of some that are 
righteous overmuch; and such men's rigidness prevails 

10 with them to judge and condemn all but themselves. 
But, I pray, what, and how many, were the things wherein 
you differed? 

By-ends. Why, they, after their headstrong manner, 
conclude that it is duty to rush on their journey all wea- 

15 thers; and I am for waiting for wind and tide. They are 
for hazarding all for God at a clap; and I am for taking 
all advantages to secure my life and estate. They are 
for holding their notions, though all other men be against 
them; but I am for religion in what, and so far as the 

20 times, and my safety, will bear it. They are for religion 
when in rags and contempt; but I am for him when he 
walks in his golden slippers, in the sunshine, and with 

Mr. Hold-the-world. Aye, and hold you there still, 

25 good Mr. By-ends; for, for my part, I can count him but 
a fool, that, having the liberty to keep what he has, shall 
be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as serpents; it is 
best to make hay when the sun shines; you see how the 
bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs her only when she 

30 can have profit with pleasure. God sends sometimes rain, 
and sometimes sunshine ; if they be such fools to go through 
the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather along 
with us. For my part, I like that religion best that will 
stand with the security of God's good blessings unto us; 

no The Pilgrim's Progress 

for who can imagine, that is ruled by his reason, since God 
has bestowed upon us the good things of this life, but that 
he would have us keep them for his sake? Abraham and 
Solomon grew rich in religion. And Job says, that a good 
man shall lay up gold as dust. But he must not be such 5 
as the men before us, if they be as you have described them. 

Mr. Save-all. I think that we are all agreed in this 
matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it. 

Mr. Money-love. No, there needs no more words 
about this matter, indeed; for he that believes neither 10 
Scripture nor reason (and you see we have both on our 
side), neither knows his own liberty, nor seeks his own 

Mr. By-ends. My brethren, we are, as you see, going 
all on pilgrimage; and for our better diversion from thmgs 15 
that are bad, give me leave to propound unto you this 
question : — 

Suppose a man, a minister, or a tradesman, &c., should 
have an advantage lie before him, to get the good bless- 
ings of his life, yet so as that he can by no means come by 20 
them except, in appearance at least, he becomes extraor- 
dinarily zealous in some points of rehgion that he meddled 
not with before : may he not use these means to attain his 
end, and yet be a right honest man? 

Mr. Money-love. I see the bottom of your question; 25 
and, with these gentlemen's good leave, I will endeavor 
to shape you an answer. And first, to speak to your ques- 
tion as it concerns a minister himself : Suppose a minister, 
a worthy man, possessed but of a very small benefice, 
and has in his eye a greater, more fat, and plump by far; 30 
he has also now an opportunity of getting of it, yet so as 
by being more studious, by preaching more frequently, 
and zealously, and, because the temper of the people re- 
quires it, by altering of some of his principles; for my part, 

Mr. Money-love 1 1 1 

I see no reason but a man may do this (provided he has a 
call), aye, and more a great deal besides, and yet be an 
honest man. For why — 

1. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this cannot 
5 be contradicted), since 'tis set before him by Providence; 

so then, he may get it, if he can, making no question for 
conscience sake. 

2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him 
more studious, a more zealous preacher, &c., and so makes 

lohim a better man; yea, makes him better improve his 
parts, which is according to the mind of God. 

3. Now, as for his complying with the temper of his 
people, by deserting, to serve them, some of his principles, 
this argueth — (i) That he is of a self-denying temper; (2) 

IS Of a sweet and winning deportment; and so (3) more fit 
for the ministerial function. 

4. I conclude, then, that a minister that changes a 
small for a great, should not, for so doing, be judged as 
covetous; but rather, since he has improved in his parts 

20 and industry thereby, be counted as one that pursues 
his call, and the opportunity put into his hand to do 

And now to the second part of the question, which 
concerns the tradesman you mentioned. Suppose such 

25 an one to have but a poor employ in the world, but by 
becoming religious, he may mend his market, perhaps 
get a rich wife, or more and far better customers to his 
shop; for my part, I see no reason but that this may be 
lawfully done. For why — 

30 I. To become religious is a virtue, by what means so- 
ever a man becomes so. 

2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom 
to my shop. 

3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming reli- 

112 The Pilgrim's Progress 

gious, gets that which is good, of them that are good, by 
becoming good himself; so then here is a good wife, and 
good customers, and good gain, and all these by becoming 
religious, which is good. Therefore, to become religious, 
to get all these, is a good and profitable design. 5 

This answer, thus made by this Mr. Money-love to 
Mr. By-end's question, was highly applauded by them 
all; wherefore they concluded, upon the whole, that it 
was most wholesome and advantageous. And because, 
as they thought, no man was able to contradict it, and lo 
because Christian and Hopeful were yet within call, they 
jointly agreed to assault them with the question as soon 
as they overtook them; and the rather because they had 
opposed Mr. By-ends before. So they called after them, 
and they stopped, and stood still till they came up to them; 15 
but they concluded, as they went, that not Mr. By-ends, 
but old Mr. Hold-the-world, should propound the ques- 
tion to them, because, as they supposed, their answer to 
him would be without the remainder of that heat that 
was kindled betwixt Mr. By-ends and them, at their part- 20 
ing a Httle before. 

So they came up to each other, and after a short salu- 
tation, Mr. Hold-the-world propounded the question to 
Christian and his fellow, and bid them to answer it if 
they could. 25 

Chr. Then said Christian, Even a babe in religion 
may answer ten thousand such questions. For if it be 
unlawful to follow Christ for loaves (as it is in the sixth 
of John), how much more abominable is it to make of him 
and religion a stalking-horse, to get and enjoy the world ! 30 
Nor do we find any other than heathens, hypocrites, devils, 
and witches, that are of this opinion. 

I. Heathens; for when Hamor and Shechem had a 
mind to the daughter and cattle of Jacob, and saw that 

Christian 113 

there was no way for them to come at them, but by be- 
coming circumcised; they say to their companions, If 
every male of us be circumcised, as they are circumcised, 
shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every beast 
5 of theirs, be ours? Their daughter and their cattle were 
that which they sought to obtain, and their religion the 
stalking-horse they made use of to come at them. Read 
the whole story. 

2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of this religion; 
10 long prayers were their pretence, but to get widows' 

houses was their intent; and greater damnation was from 
God their judgment. 

3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was 
religious for the bag, that he might be possessed of what 

IS was therein; but he was lost, cast away, and the very son 
of perdition. 

4. Simon the witch was of this religion too; for he 
would have had the Holy Ghost, that he might have got 
money therewith; and his sentence from Peter's mouth 

20 was according. 

5. Neither will it out of my mind, but that that man 
that takes up religion for the world, will throw away 
religion for the world; for so surely as Judas designed the 
world in becoming religious, so surely did he also sell 

25 rehgion and his Master for the same. To answer the 
question, therefore, affirmatively, as I perceive you have 
done, and to accept of, as authentic, such answer, is both 
heathenish, hypocritical, and devilish; and your reward 
will be according to your works. 

30 Then they stood staring one upon another, but had not 
wherewith to answer Christian. Hopeful also approved 
of the soundness of Christian's answer; so there was a 
great silence among them. Mr. By-ends and his company 
also staggered and kept behind, that Christian and Hope- 

114 The Pilgrim's Progress 

ful might outgo them. Then said Christian to his fellow, 
If these men cannot stand before the sentence of men, 
what will they do with the sentence of God? And if they 
are mute when dealt with by vessels of clay, what will 
they do when they shall be rebuked by the flames of a 5 
devouring fire? 
Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again, and 
went till they came at a delicate plain called 

The ease that ptl- ^ . •' . . i , 

grimshaveisbut Ease, where they went with much content; 

but that plain was but narrow, so they were 10 
quickly got over it. Now at the further side of that plain 
Lucre Hill a dan- ^as a little Hill Called Lucre, and in that hill 
gerous hill ^i silver mine, which some of them that had 

formerly gone that way, because of the rarity of it, had 
turned aside to see; but going too near the brink of the 15 
pit, the ground being deceitful under them, broke, and 
they were slain; some also had been maimed there, and 
could not, to their dying day, be their own men again. 

Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road, 
Demas at the Hill ^^^^ against the silver mine, stood Demas 20 
Lucre. He calls to (gentleman-like) to call to passengers to 

Christian and ^^ , ^ , . , 5^, . . , 

Hopeful to come comc and scc; who said to Christian and 
his fellow. Ho! turn aside hither, and I will 
show you a thing. 

Chr. What thing so deserving as to turn us out of the 25 
way to see it? 

Demas. Here is a silver mine, and some digging in it 
„ , , , for treasure. If you will come, with a little 

Hopeful tempted to . . -; . ^ r 

go, but Christian pams you may richly provide for yourselves. 

Hope. Then said Hopeful, Let us go see. 30 

Chr. Not I, said Christian, I have heard of this place 

before now; and how many have there been slain; and 

besides that, treasure is a snare to those that seek it; for 

it hindereth them in their pilgrimage. Then Christian 

Demas 115 

called to Demas, saying, Is not the place dangerous? 
Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage? 

Demas. Not very dangerous, except to those that are 
careless (but withal, he blushed as he spake). 
5 Chr. Then said Christian to Hopeful, Let us not stir 
a step, but still keep on our way. 

Hope. I will warrant you, when By-ends comes up, 
if he hath the same invitation as we, he will turn in thither 
to see. 
iQ Chr. No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him that 
way, and a hundred to one but he dies there. 

Demas. Then Demas called again, saying. But will 
you not come over and see? 

Chr. Then Christian roundly answered, saying, Demas, 
15 thou art an enemy to the right ways of the christian roundeth 
Lord of this way, and hast been already con- "^ ^^^'^^ 
demned for thine own turning aside, by one of his Maj- 
esty's judges; and why seekest thou to bring us into the 
like condemnation? Besides, if we all turn aside, our 
20 Lord the King will certainly hear thereof, and will there 
put us to shame, where we would stand with boldness 
before him. 

Demas cried again, that he also was one of their fra- 
ternity; and that if they would tarry a little, he also him- 
25 self would walk with them. 

Chr. Then said Christian, What is thy name? Is it 
not the same by the which I have called thee? 

Demas. Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of Abra- 
30 Chr. I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather, 
and Judas your father; and you have trod in their steps. 
It is but a devilish prank that thou usest; thy father was 
hanged for a traitor, and thou deservest no better reward. 
Assure thyself, that when we come to the King, we will 

Ii6 The Pilgrim's Progress 

do him word of this thy behavior. Thus they went their 

By this time By-ends and his companions were come 
again within sight, and they, at the first beck, went over 
By-ends goes over to Demas. Now, whether they fell into the 5 
to Demas ^{^ by looking over the brink thereof, or 

whether they went down to dig, or whether they were 
smothered in the bottom by the damps that commonly 
arise, of these things I am not certain; but this I observed, 
that they never were seen again in the way. Then sang 10 
Christian — 

By-ends and silver Demas both agree: 

One calls, the other runs, that he may be 

A sharer in his lucre; so these do 

Take up in this world, and no further go. 15 

Now I saw that, just on the other side of this plain, 
They see a strange the pilgrims Came to a pkcc whcrc stood 
monument ^^ old mouumcnt, hard by the highway 

side, at the sight of which they were both concerned, be- 
cause of the strangeness of the form thereof; for it seemed 20 
to them as if it had been a woman transformed into the 
shape of a pillar. Here therefore they stood looking and 
looking upon it, but could not for a time tell what they 
should make thereof. At last Hopeful espied written 
above the head thereof, a writing in an unusual hand; but 25 
he being no scholar, called to Christian (for he was learned) 
to see if he could pick out the meaning. So he came, and 
after a little laying of letters together, he found the same 
to be this. Remember Lot's wife. So he read it to his 
fellow; after which they both concluded that that was 30 
the pillar of salt into which Lot's wife was turned, for 
her looking back with a covetous heart, when she was 
going from Sodom for safety. Which sudden and amazing 
sight gave them occasion of this discourse, 

The Pillar of Salt 117 

Chr. Ah, my brother! this is a seasonable sight; it 
came opportunely to us after the invitation which Demas 
gave us to come over to view the Hill Lucre; and had we 
gone over, as he desired us, and as thou wast inclining 
5 to do, my brother, we had, for aught I know, been made 
like this woman, a spectacle for those that shall come after 
to behold. 

Hope. I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am made 
to wonder that I am not now as Lot's wife; for wherein 

10 was the difference betwixt her sin and mine? She only 
looked back; and I had a desire to go see. Let grace be 
adored, and let me be ashamed that ever such a thing 
should be in mine heart. 

Chr. Let us take notice of what we see here, for our 

IS help for time to come. This woman escaped one judg- 
ment, for she fell not by the destruction of Sodom; yet 
she was destroyed by another, as we see she is turned into 
a pillar of salt. 
Hope. True, and she may be to us both caution and 

20 example: caution, that we should shun her sin; or a sign 
of what judgment will overtake such as shall not be pre- 
vented by this caution. So Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, 
with the two hundred and fifty men that perished in their 
sin, did also become a sign or example to others to beware. 

25 But above all, I muse at one thing, to wit, how Demas and 
his fellows can stand so confidently yonder to look for 
that treasure, which this woman, but for looking behind 
her, after (for we read not that she stepped one foot out 
of the way), was turned into a pillar of salt; especially 

30 since the judgment which overtook her did make her an 
example, within sight of where they are; for they cannot 
choose but see her, did they but lift up their eyes. 

Chr. It is a thing to be wondered at, and it argueth 
that their hearts are grown desperate in the case; and 

Ii8 The Pilgrim's Progress 

I cannot tell who to compare them to so fitly, as to them 
that pick pockets in the presence of the judge, or that 
will cut purses under the gallows. It is said of the men 
of Sodom, that they were sinners exceedingly, because 
they were sinners before the Lord, that is, in his eyesight, 5 
and notwithstanding the kindnesses that he had showed 
them; for the land of Sodom was now like the garden of 
Eden heretofore. This, therefore, provoked him the more 
to jealousy, and made their plague as hot as the fire of 
the Lord out of heaven could make it. And it is most 10 
rationally to be concluded, that such, even such as these . 
are, that shall sin in the sight, yea, and that too in despite ] 
of such examples that are set continually before them, 
to caution them to the contrary, must be partakers of 
severest judgments. 15 

Hope. Doubtless thou hast said the truth; but what a 
mercy is it, that neither thou, but especially I, am not 
made myself this example! This ministereth occasion 
to us to thank God, to fear before him, and always to 
remember Lot's wife. 20 

I saw, then, that they went on their way to a pleasant 
^ . river; which David the king called "the 

river of God," but John, "the river of the 
water of life." Now their way lay just upon the bank 
of the river; here, therefore, Christian and his companion 25 
walked with great delight; they drank also of the water 
of the river, which was pleasant, and enlivening to their 
weary spirits. Besides, on the banks of this river, on 
either side, were green trees for all manner of fruit; and 
^ , , . the leaves they eat to prevent surfeits, and 30 

Trees by the nver. , -^ . . , , 

The fruit and leaves Other discascs that are mcident to those 

that heat their blood by travels. On either 

side of the river was also a meadow, curiously beautified 

with lilies, and it was green all the year long. In this 

By-path Meadow • 119 

meadow they lay down, and slept; for here they might 
lie down safely. When they awoke, they , , . 

' r ^ e • r ^ ^ ■^ tneodow ttt 

gathered agam of the irmt of the trees, and which they ue down 
drank again of the water of the river, and 
5 then lay down again to sleep. Thus they did several days 
and nights. Then they sang — 

Behold ye how these crystal streams do glide, 
To comfort pilgrims by the highway side; 
The meadows green, beside their fragrant smell, 
ID Yield dainties for them: and he that can tell 

What pleasant fruit, yea, leaves, these trees do yield. 
Will soon sell all, that he may buy this field. 

So when they were disposed to go on (for they were 
not, as yet, at their journey's end), they ate and drank, 

15 and departed. 

Now, I beheld in my dream, that they had not journeyed 
far, but the river and the way for a time parted; at which 
they were not a little sorry; yet they durst not go out of 
the way. Now the way from the river was rough, and 

20 their feet tender by reason of their travels; so the souls 
of the pilgrims were much discouraged because of the way. 
Wherefore, still as they went on, they wished for better 
way. Now, a little before them, there was „ , ,, . 

-^ ' ' By-path Meadow 

on the left hand of the road a meadow, and 
25 a stile to go over into it; and that meadow is called By- 
path Meadow. Then said Christian to his fellow, If this 
meadow lieth along by our wayside, let's go over into it. 
Then he went to the stile to see, and behold, ^ , ,_. , 

One temptation does 

a path lay along by the way, on the other make way for 
30 side of the fence. 'Tis according to my wish, 

said Christian. Here is the easiest going; come, good 
Hopeful, and let us go over. 

Hope. But how if this path should lead us out of the 

I20 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. That's not Hke, said the other. Look, doth it 
^. . . not ffo along by the wayside? So Hopeful, 

strong Christians *^ 111 i.-rii ^r. 

may lead weak ones being persuaded by his fellow, went after 
eway j^.^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^tH^, When they were gone 

over, and were got into the path, they found it very easy 5 
for their feet; and withal, they, looking before them, es- 
pied a man walking as they did (and his name was 
, . . Vain-confidence) ; so they called after him, 

See what it is too i i i • ^ • ^ i i i tt 

suddenly to fall in and asked him whither that way led. He 
s rangers ^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ Celestial Gate. Look, said 10 

Christian, did not I tell you so? By this you may see 
we are right. So they followed, and he went before them. 
But, behold, the night came on, and it grew very dark; 
so that they that were behind lost the sight of him that 
went before. 15 

He, therefore, that went before (Vain-confidence by 
A pit to catch the name), not seeing the way before him, fell 
vainglorious in j^to a dccp pit, wMch was on purpose there 
made, by the Prince of those grounds, to catch vain- 
glorious fools withal, and was dashed in pieces with his 20 

Now Christian and his fellow heard him fall. So they 
called to know the matter, but there was none to answer, 
only they heard a groaning. Then said Hopeful, Where 
. , are we now? Then was his fellow silent, as 25 

Reasoning between . . i i i i i i • r i 

Christian and mistrustiug that he had led him out 01 the 

" way; and now it began to rain, and thunder, 

and lighten in a very dreadful manner; and the water rose 

Then Hopeful groaned in himself, saying, Oh, that 1 30 
had kept on my way! 

Chr. Who could have thought that this path should 
have led us out of the way? 

Hope. I was afraid on't at the very first, and therefore 

By-path Meadow 121 

gave you that gentle caution. I would have spoken plainer, 
but you are older than I. 

Chr. Good brother, be not offended; I am sorry I 
have brought thee out of the way, and that ^, . . , 

^ , , . , . . , Chrishan s repent- 

5 1 have put thee into such imminent danger; ancefor leading of 

■,,1 J. . TJ'j J.J his brother out of 

pray, my brother, forgive me; 1 did not do the way 
it of an evil intent. 

Hope. Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive thee; 
and believe, too, that this shall be for our good. 

lo Chr. I am glad I have with me a merciful brother. 
But we must not stand thus: let us try to go back 

Hope. But, good brother, let me go before. 

Chr. No, if you please, let me go first, that if there 

15 be any danger, I may be first therein, because by my 
means we are both gone out of the way. 

Hope. No, said Hopeful, you shall not go first; for 
your mind being troubled may lead you out of the way 
again. Then, for their encouragement, they heard the 

20 voice of one saying, "Set thine heart toward the high- 
way, even the way which thou wen test; turn again." 
But by this time the waters were greatly risen, by reason 
of which the way of going back was very dangerous. 
(Then I thought that it is easier going out of the way, 

25 when we are in, than going in when we are ^, , , 

s__ ' 11 11 T^^y «''« *» danger 

out). Yet they adventured to go back, of drowning as they 
but it was so dark, and the flood was so 
high, that in their going back they had like to have been 
drowned nine or ten times. 
30 Neither could they, with all the skill they had, get 
again to the stile that night. Wherefore, at last, lighting 
under a little shelter, they sat down there until the day- 
break; but, being weary, they fell asleep. Now there 
was, not far from the place where they lay, a castle 

122 The Pilgrim's Progress 

called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant 
_, , . , Despair; and it was in his grounds they 

They sleep in the ^. ' . Tirt 7 i Z 

grounds of Giant now Were Sleeping. Wnereiore he, get- 
^^^'^"^ ting up in the morning early, and walking 

up and down in his fields, caught Christian and Hopeful s 
He finds them in aslcep in Ws grounds. Then, with a grim 
^iarrfeTtfem ?o"'^ and surly voicc, he bid them awake; and 
Doubting Castle askcd them whence they were, and what 
they did in his grounds. They told him they were pil- 
grims, and that they had lost their way. Then said the lo 
Giant, You have this night trespassed on me, by trampHng 
in and lying on my grounds, and therefore you must go 
along w4th me. So they were forced to go, because he 
was stronger than they. They also had but little to say, 
for they knew themselves in a fault. The Giant, there- 15 
The grievousness of ^0^*6, drovc them before him, and put them 
their imprisonment j^to his castlc, into a Very dark dungeon, 
nasty and stinking to the spirits of these two men. Here, 
then, they lay from Wednesday morning till Saturday 
night, without one bit of bread, or drop of drink, or light, 20 
or any to ask how they did; they were, therefore, here 
in evil case, and were far from friends and acquaintance. 
Now in this place Christian had double st)rrow, because 
'twas through his unadvised counsel that they were 
brought into this distress. 25 

Now, Giant Despair had a wife, and her name was 
Diffidence. So when he was gone to bed, he told his wife 
what he had done; to wit, that he had taken a couple of 
prisoners and cast them into his dungeon, for trespassing 
on his grounds. Then he asked her also what he had best 30 
to do further to them. So she asked him what they were, 
whence they came, and whither they were bound; and he 
told her. Then she counselled him that when he arose 
in the morning he should beat them without any mercy. 

Giant Despair 123 

So, when he arose, he getteth him a grievous crab-tree 
cudgel, and goes down into the dungeon to them, and 
there first falls to rating of them as if they were dogs, 
although they never gave him a word of distaste. Then 
S he falls upon them, and beats them fear- ^ ^, , 

r 11 . 1 1 1 1 1 0« Thursday, 

fully, in such sort, that they were not able Giant Despair beats 
to help themselves, or to turn them upon the 
floor. This done, he withdraws and leaves them, there to 
condole their misery, and to mourn under their distress. 

10 So all that day they spent the time in nothing but sighs and 
bitter lamentations. The next night, she, talking with 
her husband about them further, and understanding they 
were yet alive, did advise him to counsel them to make 
away themselves. So when morning was come, he goes to 

15 them in a surly manner as before, and perceiving them to 
be very sore with the stripes that he had given them the 
day before, he told them, that since they were never like 
to come out of that place, their only way would be forth- 
with to make an end of themselves, either with knife, 

20 halter, or poison; for why, said he, should on Friday, Giant 
you choose life, seeing it is attended with fhemtktT''^' 
so much bitterness? But they desired him themselves 
to let them go. With that he looked ugly upon them, 
and, rushing to them, had doubtless made an end of them 

25 himself, but that he fell into one of his fits -pf^g Q{a„( ^^^g. 
(for he sometimes, in sunshiny weather, fell Hmes has fits 
into fits), and lost for a time the use of his hand. 
Wherefore he withdrew, and left them as before, to 
consider what to do. Then did the prisoners consult 

30 between themselves, whether 'twas best to take his 
counsel or no; and thus they began to discourse: — 
Chr. Brother, said Christian, what shall ^, . ,. , . 

' ' . . Christian crushed 

we do? The life that we now live is miser- 
able. For my part I know not whether is best, to live thus, 

124 The Pilgrim's Progress 

or to die out of hand. My soul chooseth strangling rather 
than life, and the grave is more easy for me than this 
dungeon. Shall we be ruled by the Giant? 

Hope. Indeed, our present condition is dreadful, and 
Hopeful comforts ^eath would be far more welcome to me 5 
^'"^ than thus for ever to abide; but yet, let us 

consider, the Lord of the country to which we are going 
hath said. Thou shalt do no murder: no, not to another 
man's person; much more, then, are we forbidden to take 
his counsel to kill ourselves. Besides, he that kills another, 10 
can but commit murder upon his body; but for one to kill 
himself is to kill body and soul at once. And, moreover," 
my brother, thou talkest of ease in the grave; but hast 
thou forgotten the hell, whither for certain the murderers 
go? For "no murderer hath eternal life," &c. And let 15 
us consider, again, that all the law is not in the hand of 
Giant Despair. Others, so far as I can understand, have 
been taken by him, as well as we; and yet have escaped 
out of his hand. Who knows, but that God that made the 
world may cause that Giant Despair may die? or that, 20 
at some time or other, he may forget to lock us in? or that 
he may, in a short time, have another of his fits before us, 
and may lose the use of his limbs? and if ever that should 
come to pass again, for my part, I am resolved to pluck 
up the heart of a man, and to try my utmost to get from 25 
under his hand. I was a fool that I did not try to do it 
before; but, however, my brother, let us be patient, and 
endure a while. The time may come that may give us a 
happy release; but let us not be our own murderers. With 
these words. Hopeful at present did moderate the mind of 30 
his brother; so they continued together (in the dark) that 
day, in their sad and doleful condition. 

Well, towards evening, the Giant goes down into the 
dungeon again, to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel; 

Giant Despair 125 

but when he came there he found them aHve; and truly, 
ahve was all; for now, what for want of bread and water, 
and by reason of the wounds they received when he beat 
them, they could do little but breathe. But, I say, he 
5 found them alive; at which he fell into a grievous rage, 
and told them that, seeing they had disobeyed his counsel, 
it should be worse with them than if they had never been 

At this they trembled greatly, and I think that Chris- 

10 tian fell into a swoon; but, coming a little to himself again, 
they renewed their discourse about the christian stm 
Giant's counsel; and whether yet they had ^^/'^^'^'^ 
best to take it or no. Now Christian again seemed to be 
for doing it, but Hopeful made his second reply as fol- 

i5loweth: — 

Hope. My brother, said he, rememberest thou not 
how valiant thou hast been heretofore? Hopeful comforts 
Apollyon could not crush thee, nor could ii7fTJer thing"' 
all that thou didst hear, or see, or feel, in '" remembrance 

20 the Valley of the Shadow of Death. What hardship, 
terror, and amazement hast thou already gone through, 
and art thou now nothing but fearP Thou seest that I 
am in the dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by nature 
than thou art; also, this Giant has wounded me as well as 

25 thee, and hath also cut off the bread and water from my 
mouth; and with thee I mourn without the light. But 
let us exercise a little more patience; remember how thou 
playedst the man at Vanity Fair, and wast neither afraid 
of the chain, nor cage, nor yet of bloody death. Where- 

30 fore let us (at least to avoid the shame, that becomes not a 
Christian to be found in) bear up with patience as well 
as we can. 

Now, night being come again, and the Giant and his 
wife being in bed, she asked him concerning the prisoners, 

126 The Pilgrim's Progress 

and if they had taken his counsel. To which he replied, 
They are sturdy rogues; they choose rather to bear all 
hardship, than to make away themselves. Then said she, 
Take them into the castle-yard tomorrow, and show them 
the bones and skulls of those that thou hast already des- 5 
patched, and make them believe, ere a week comes to an 
end, thou also wilt tear them in pieces, as thou hast done 
their fellows before them. 

So when the morning was come, the Giant goes to them 
again, and takes them into the castle-yard, and shows 10 
them, as his wife had bidden him. These, said he, were 
pilgrims as you are, once, and they trespassed in my 
OnSaturda the g^ounds, as you have done; and when I 
Giant threatened thousfht fit, I torc them in picccs, and so, 

that shortly he . , f ' , -r -n i /^ / 

would pull them in withm ten days, I will do you. Go, get 15 
^'^^" you down to your den again; and with that 

he beat them all the way thither. They lay, therefore, all 
day on Saturday in a lamentable case, as before. Now, 
when night was come, and when Mrs. Diffidence and her 
husband, the Giant, wxre got to bed, they began to renew 20 
their discourse of their prisoners; and withal the old Giant 
wondered, that he could neither by his blows nor his 
counsel bring them to an end. And with that his wife 
replied, I fear, said she, that they live in hope that some 
will come to relieve them, or that they have picklocks 25 
about them, by the means of which they hope to escape. 
And sayest thou so, my dear? said the Giant; I will, there- 
fore, search thetn in the morning. 

Well, on Saturday, about midnight, they began to 
pray, and continued in prayer till almost break of 30 

Now a httle before it was day, good Christian, as one 
half amazed, brake out in this passionate speech: What a , 
fool, quoth he, am I, thus to lie in a stinking dungeon, 

Giant Despair 127 

when 1 may as well walk at liberty ! I have a key in my 
bosom, called Promise, that will, I am per- ^ ^^^ ,„ ^^^^^^^^ 
suaded, open any lock in Doubtins; Castle, tian's bosovi, called 

, ^ -^ . '^ rromtse, opens any 

Then said Hopeful, That is good news, good lock in Doubting 
5 brother; pluck it out of thy bosom, and try. 

Then Christian pulled it out of his bosom, and began 
to try at the dungeon door, whose bolt (as he turned the 
key) gave back, and the door flew open with ease, and 
Christian and Hopeful both came out. Then he went to 

10 the outward door that leads into the castle-yard, and, 
with his key, opened that door also. After, he went to 
the iron gate, for that must be opened too; but that lock 
went damnable hard, yet the key did open it. Then they 
burst open the gate to make their escape with speed; but 

15 that gate, as it opened, made such a creaking, that it 
waked Giant Despair, who, hastily rising to pursue his 
prisoners, felt his limbs to fail, for his fits took him again, 
so that he could by no means go after them. Then they 
went on, and came to the King's highway, and so were 

20 safe, because they were out of his jurisdiction. 

Now, when they were gone over the stile, they began 
to contrive with themselves what they should do at that 
stile, to prevent those that should come after, from falling 
into the hands of Giant Despair. So they consented to 

25 erect there a pillar, and to engrave upon a ^-Hf^f g^g^ted b 
the side thereof this sentence — Over this Christian and his 
stile is the way to Doubting Castle, which 
is kept by Giant Despair, who despiseth the King of the 
Celestial Country, and seeks to destroy the holy pilgrims. 

30 Many, therefore, that followed after, read what was writ- 
ten, and escaped the danger. This done, they sang as 
follows : — 

Out of the way we went, and then we found 
What 'twas to tread upon forbidden ground; 

128 The Pilgrim's Progress 

And let them that come after have a care, 

Lest heedlessness makes them, as we, to fare. 

Lest they for trespassing his prisoners are. 

Whose castle's Doubting, and whose name's Despair. 


They went then till they came to the Delectable Moun- 5 
The Delectable tains, which mountains belong to the Lord 
Mountains q{ that hill of which we have spoken before ; 

so they went up to the mountains, to behold the gardens 
and orchards, the vineyards and fountains of water; where 
also they drank and washed themselves, and did freely 10 
They are refreshed ^at of the viucyards. Now there were on 
in the mountains ^hc tops of thcse mountains shepherds feed- 
ing their flocks, and they stood by the highway side. The 
pilgrims therefore went to them, and leaning upon their 
staves (as is common with weary pilgrims, when they 15 
stand to talk with any by the way), they asked, Whose 
Talk with the Delectable Mountains are these? And 

Shepherds whosc be the sheep that feed upon them? 

Shep. These mountains are Immanuel's Land, and 
they are within sight of his city; and the sheep also are 20 
his, and he laid down his life for them. 

Ckr. Is this the way to the Celestial City? 

Shep. You are just in your way. 

Chr. How far is it thither? 

Shep. Too far for any but those that shall get thither 25 

Chr. Is the way safe or dangerous? 

Shep. Safe for those for whom it is to be safe; ''but 
the transgressors shall fall therein." 

Chr. Is there, in this place, any relief for pilgrims that 30 
are weary and faint in the way? 

Shep. The Lord of these mountains hath given us a 
charge not to be "forgetful to entertain strangers"; there- 
fore the good of the place is before you. 

The Shepherds 129 

I saw also in my dream, that when the Shepherds per- 
ceived that they were w^ayfaring men, they also put ques- 
tions to them, to which they made answer as in other 
places; as, Whence came you? and. How got you into the 
5 way? and, By what means have you so persevered therein? 
For but few of them that begin to come hither, do show 
their faces on these mountains. But when the Shepherds 
Heard their answers, being pleased therewith, they looked 
very lovingly upon them, and said. Welcome jhe shepherds wei- 

10 to the Delectable Mountains. ^'"''^ '^^^^ 

The Shepherds, I say, whose names were Knowledge, 
Experience, Watchful, and Sincere, took The names of the 
them by the hand, and had them to their Shepherds 
tents, and made them partake of that which was ready at 

15 present. They said, moreover. We would that ye should 
stay here awhile, to be acquainted with us; and yet more 
to solace yourselves with the good of these Delectable 
Mountains. They then told them, that they were content 
to stay; so they went to their rest that night, because it 

20 was very late. 

Then I saw in my dream, that in the morning the Shep- 
herds called up Christian and Hopeful to walk with them 
upon the mountains; so they went forth with them, and 
walked a while, having a pleasant prospect on every side. 

25 Then said the Shepherds one to another. They are shown 
Shall we show these pilgrims some wonders? "bonders 
So when they had concluded to do it, they had them first 
to the top of a hill called Error, which was The Mountain of 
very steep on the furthest side, and bid them ^^^"'' 

30 look down to the bottom. So Christian and Hopeful 
looked down, and saw at the bottom several men dashed 
all to pieces by a fall that they had from the top. Then 
said Christian, What meaneth this? The Shepherds an- 
swered. Have you not heard of them that were made to 

130 The Pilgrim's Progress 

err, by hearkening to Hymeneus and Philetus, as concern- 
ing the faith of the resurrection of the body? They an- 
swered, Yea. Then said the Shepherds, Those that you 
see He dashed in pieces at the bottom of this mountain 
are they; and they have continued to this day unburied, 5 
as you see, for an example to others to take heed how 
they clamber too high, or how they come too near the 
brink of this mountain. 

Then I saw that they had them to the top of another 

mountain, and the name of that is Caution, 10 
and bid them look afar off; which, when 
they did, they perceived, as they thought, several men 
walking up and down among the tombs that were there; 
and they perceived that the men were bhnd, because they 
stumbled sometimes upon the tombs, and because they 15 
could not get out from among them. Then said Christian, 
What means this? 

The Shepherds then answered, Did you not see a little 
below these mountains a stile that led into a meadow, 
on the left hand of this way? They answered, Yes. Then 20 
said the Shepherds, From that stile there goes a path that 
leads directly to Doubting Castle, which is kept by Giant 
Despair, and these, pointing to them among the tombs, 
came once on pilgrimage, as you do now, even till they 
came to that same stile. And because the right way was 25 
rough in that place, they chose to go out of it into that 
meadow, and there were taken by Giant Despair, and cast 
into Doubting Castle. Where, after they had been a while 
kept in the dungeon, he at last did put out their eyes, 
and led them among those tombs, where he has left them 30 
to wander to this very day, that the saying of the wise 
man might be fulfilled, "He that wandereth out of the 
way of understanding, shall remain in the congregation 
of the dead." Then Christian and Hopeful looked upon 

The Shepherds 131 

one another, with tears gushing out, but yet said nothing 
to the Shepherds. 

Then I saw in my dream, that the Shepherds had them 
to another place, in a bottom, where was a door in the 
5 side of a hill, and they opened the door, and bid them look 
in. They looked in, therefore, and saw that within it was 
very dark and smoky; they also thought that they heard 
there a rumblng noise as of fire, and a cry of some tor- 
mented, and that they smelt the scent of brimstone. 
10 Then said Christian, What means this? The Shepherds 
told them, This is a by-way to hell, a way 

,11 . . '' -^ , \ „ ^ by-way to hell 

tnat hypocrites go m at; namely, such as sell 
their birthright, wdth Esau; such as sell their master, with 
Judas; such as blaspheme the gospel, with Alexander; and 
15 that lie and dissemble, with Ananias and Sapphira his wife. 

Hope. Then said Hopeful to the Shepherds, I perceive 
that these had on them, even every one, a show of pilgrim- 
age, as we have now; had they not? 

Shep. Yes, and held it a long time too. 
20 Hope. How far might they go on in pilgrimage in their 
day, since they notwithstanding were thus miserably cast 

Shep. Some further, and some not so far, as these 
25 Then said the pilgrims one to another, We have need 
to cry to the Strong for strength. 

Shep. Ay, and you will have need to use it, when you 
have it, too. 

By this time the pilgrims had a desire to go forward, 
30 and the Shepherds a desire they should; so they walked 
together towards the end of the mountains. Then said 
the Shepherds one to another. Let us here 7^^^ shepherds' 
show to the pilgrims the gates of the Ce- Perspective glass 
lestial City, if they have skill to look through our perspec- 

132 The Pilgrim's Progress 

tive glass. The pilgrims then lovingly accepted the mo- 
^, „.„ ^, tion; so they had them to the top of a high 

The Hill Clear , .„ n , :-,, 1 , 1 • 1 

hill, called Clear, and gave them their glass 
to look. 

Then they essayed to look, but the remembrance of 5 
that last thing that the Shepherds had shown them, made 
The fruits of senile their hands shake; by means of which im- 
■^^«'' pediment, they could not look steadily 

through the glass. Yet they thought they saw something _ 
like the gate, and also some of the glory of the place. Then 10 
they went away, and sang this song — 

Thus, by the Shepherds, secrets are revealed, 

Which from all other men are kept concealed. 

Come to the Shepherds, then, if you would see 

Things deep, things hid, and that mysterious be. 15 

When they were about to depart, one of the Shepherds 

gave them a note of the w^ay. Another of them bid them 

, , . beware of the Flatterer. The third bid them 

A twofold cautton ^ -r^ 

take heed that they sleep not upon the En- 
chanted Ground. And the fourth bid them God-speed. 20 
So I woke from my dream. 

And I slept, and dreamed again, and saw the same 
two pilgrims going down the mountains along the high- 
way towards the city. Now, a little below these moun- 
The country of tains, on the left hand, Heth the country 25 
which came '^ of Conccit; from which country there 
Ignorance comcs iuto the way in which the pilgrims 

walked, a httle crooked lane. Here, therefore, they met 
with a very brisk lad, that came out of that country; and 
his name was Ignorance. So Christian asked him from 30 
what parts he came, and whither he was going. 

Ignor. Sir, I was born in the country 

Christian and Ig- ^. ^ rr ^ ^• i liri J 

norance have some that licth off there a little ou the leit hand, 
and I am going to the Celestial City. 

Ignorance 133 

Chr. But how do you think to get in at the gate? for 
you may find some difficulty there. 

Ignor. As other good people do, said he. 

Chr. But what have you to show at that gate, that 
5 may cause that the gate should be opened to you? 

Ignor. I know my Lord's will, and I have been a good 
liver; I pay every man his own; I pray, fast, j^^., ^,,„„^ „jj^, 
pay tithes, and give alms, and have left my »or<^"<^^'s f^op^ 
country for whither I am going. 
10 Chr. But thou camest not in at the wicket-gate that 
is at the head of this way; thou camest in hither through 
that same crooked lane, and therefore, I fear, however 
thou mayest think of thyself, when the reckoning day 
shall come, thou wilt have laid to thy charge that thou art 
15 a thief and a robber, instead of getting admittance into 
the city. 

Ignor. Gentlemen, ye be utter strangers to me, I 
know you not; be content to follow the religion of your 
country, and I will follow the religion of He saith lo every 
20 mine. I hope all will be well. And as for one that he is a jooi 
the gate that you talk of, all the world knows that that 
is a great w^ay off of our country. I cannot think that 
any man in all our parts doth so much as know the way 
to it, nor need they matter whether they do or no, since 
25 we have, as you see, a fine, pleasant green lane, that comes 
down from our country, the next way into the way. 

When Christian saw that the man was "wise in his 
own conceit," he said to Hopeful whisperingly, "There 
is more hope of a fool than of him." And said, moreover, 
30 "When he that is a fool walketh by the way, his wisdom 
faileth him, and he saith to every one that he is a fool." 
What, shall we talk further with him, or How to carry it to a 
out-go him at present, and so leave him to -^"''^ 
think of what he hath heard already, and then stop again 

134 The Pilgrim's Progress 

for him afterwards, and see if by degrees we can do any 
good to him? Then said Hopeful — 

Let Ignorance a little while now muse 

On what is said, and let him not refuse 

Good counsel to embrace, lest he remain 5 

Still ignorant of what's the chiefest gain. 

God saith, those that no understanding have, 

Although he made them, them he will not save. 

Hope. He further added, It is not good, I think, to say 
to him all at once. Let us pass him by, if you will, and 10 
talk to him anon, even as he is able to bear it. 

So they both went on, and Ignorance he came after. 
Now when they had passed him a little way, they entered 
into a very dark lane, where they met a man whom seven 
devils had bound with seven strong cords, and were carry- 15 
ing him back to the door that they saw on the side of the 
hill. Now good Christian began to tremble, and so did 
Hopeful his companion. Yet as the devils led away the 
man. Christian looked to see if he knew him; and he 
The destruction of thought it might be one Turn-away, that 20 
one Turn-away ^^^\^ j^ the town of Apostasy. But he did 
not perfectly see his face, for he did hang his head hke a 
thief that is found. But being once past. Hopeful looked 
after him, and espied on his back a paper with this inscrip- 
tion, "Wanton professor and damnable apostate." Then 25 
Christian tdieth his ^^^^ Christian to his fcllow, Now I call to 
companion a story rcmembrancc, that which was told me of a 

of Ltttle-fatth ,.11 ■, , 1 

thmg that happened to a good man here- 
about. The name of the man was Little-faith, but a good 
man, and he dwelt in the town of Sincere. The thing was 30 
Broad-way Gate ^his: At the entering in at this passage, 

there comes down from Broad-way Gate, a 

Dead Man's Lane j^^^^ ^^jj^^ -^^^^ ^^^,^ j^anC; SO Called bc- 

cause of the murders that are commonlv done there. 

Little-faith 135 

And this Little-faith going on pilgrimage, as we do now, 
chanced to sit down there, and slept. Now there hap- 
pened, at that time, to come down the lane, from Broad- 
way Gate, three sturdy rogues, and their names were Faint- 
5 heart. Mistrust, and Guilt (three brothers), and they 
espying Little-faith, where he was, came galloping up 
with speed. Now the good man was just awake from his 
sleep, and was getting up to go on his journey. So they 
came up all to him, and with threatening language bid 
10 him stand. At this Little-faith looked as white as a clout, 
and had neither power to fight nor fly. Then said Faint- 
heart, Deliver thy purse. But he making ,.,,., „ , 

' , . /r 1 11 1 Little-faith robbed 

no haste to do it (for he was loth to lose hy Faint-heart, 

, . \ -Mf . . J.T.' J Mistrust, and Guilt 

his money), Mistrust ran up to mm, and 
15 thrusting his hand into his pocket, pulled out thence a 
bag of silver. Then he cried out. Thieves! ^, 

MP,! • TTT- /-. •! '1 They got away hts 

Thieves! With that Guilt, with a great silver, and knocked 
club that was in his hand, struck Little- 
faith on the head, and with that blow, felled him flat to 

20 the ground, where he lay bleeding as one that would 
bleed to death. All this while the thieves stood by. But, 
at last, they hearing that some were on the road, and 
fearing lest it should be one Great-grace, that dwells in 
the city of Good-confidence, they betook themselves to 

25 their heels, and left this good man to shift for himself; 

w^ho getting up, made shift to scrabble on his way. This 

was the story. 

Hope. But did they take from him all that ever he had? 

Chr. No; the place where his jewels were they never 

30 ransacked, so those he kept still. But, as Littie-jaith lost not 
I was told, the good man was much afflicted ^" ^''^ ^^""^' 
for his loss, for the thieves got most of his spending-money. 
That which they got not (as I said) were jewels, also he 
had a little odd money left, but scarce enough to bring 

136 The Pilgrim's Progress 

him to his journey's end. Nay, if I was not misinformed, 

he was forced to beg as he went, to keep himself alive; for 

his jewels he might not sell. But beg, and 

Little-faith forced , \ ^ ■, ij , ^/ \ vu 

to beg to his jour- do what he could, he went (as we say) with 
"^^ ^ ^ many a hungry belly, the most part of the 5 

rest of the way. 

Hope. But is it not a wonder they got not from him 
his certificate, by which he was to receive his admittance 
at the Celestial Gate? 

Chr. 'Tis a wonder; but they got not that, though they 10 
missed it not through any good cunning 

He kept twt his u • j- j vu ^i. • 

best things by his of his. toY he, bemg dismayed with their 

own cunning . i . i j •, i 

coming upon him, had neither power nor 
skill to hide anything; so 'twas more by good Providence 
than by his endeavor, that they missed of that good thing. 15 

Hope. But it must needs be a comfort to him, that 
they got not his jewxls from him. 

Chr. It might have been great comfort to him, had 
he used it as he should; but they that told me the story 
said, that he made but Httle use of it all the rest of the 20 
way, and that because of the dismay that he had in the 
taking away his money. Indeed, he forgot it a great part 
of the rest of his journey. And besides, when at any 
time it came into his mind, and he began to be comforted 
therewith, then would fresh thoughts of his loss come 25 
again upon him, and those thoughts would swallow up all. 
„ . ..,,,, Hope. Alas! poor man. This could not 

He IS pitted by both . - , . 

but be a great grief to him. 
Chr. Grief! ay, a grief indeed. Would it not have 
been so to any of us, had we been used as he, to be robbed, 30 
and wounded too, and that in a strange place, as he was? 
'Tis a wonder he did not die with grief, poor heart! I 
was told that he scattered almost all the rest of the way 
with nothing but doleful and bitter complaints; telling 

Little-faith 137 

also to all that overtook him, or that he overtook in the 

way as he went, where he was robbed, and how; who they 

were that did it, and what he lost; how he was wounded, 

and that he hardly escaped with his life. 

5 Hope. But it is a wonder that his necessity did not 

put him upon selling or pawning some of his jewels, that 

he might have wherewith to relieve himself in his journey. 

Chr. Thou talkest like one upon whose head is the 

shell to this very day. For what should he pawn them, 

10 or to whom should he sell them? In all that ^, . . ,, , 

- , 1 1 1 1 • • Cknshan snubbeth 

country where he was robbed, his jewels his jeiiow for un- 

were not accounted of; nor did he want that '^ ^"^ ^ ^'^ ^"^ 

relief which could from thence be administered to him. 

Besides, had his jewels been missing at the gate of the 
15 Celestial City, he had (and that he knew well enough) 

been excluded from an inheritance there; and that would 

have been worse to him than the appearance and villany 

of ten thousand thieves. 

Hope. Why art thou so tart, my brother? Esau sold 
20 his birthright, and that for a mess of pottage, and that 

birthright was his greatest jewel; and if he, why might 

not Little-faith do so too? 

Chr. Esau did sell his birthright indeed, and so do 

many besides, and by so doing exclude them- ^ ,. 

-, r I'cii • -^ discourse about 

25 selves from the chief blessing, as also that Esau and uttie- 
caitiff did ; but you must put a difference be- 
twixt Esau and Little-faith, and also betwixt their estates. 
Esau's birthright was typical, but Little-faith's jewels 
were not so; Esau's belly was his god, but Little-faith's 

30 belly was not so; Esau's want lay in his Esau was ruled by 
fleshly appetite. Little-faith's did not so. *"^«^'^ 
Besides, Esau could see no further than to the fulfilling 
of his lusts; ''Behold I am at the point to die (said he), 
and what profit shall this birthright do me?" But Little- 

138 The Pilgrim's Progress 

faith, though it was his lot to have but a little faith, was 
by his Httle faith kept from such extravagances, and 
made to see and prize his jewels more than to sell them, 
as Esau did his birthright. You read not anywhere that 
Esau never had Esau had faith, no, not SO much as a little; 5 
/a«'* therefore no marvel if, where the flesh only 

bears sway (as it will in that man where no faith is to 
resist), if he sells his birthright, and his soul and all, and 
that to the devil of hell; for it is with such, as it is with 
the ass, who in her occasions cannot be turned away. 10 
When their minds are set upon their lusts, they will have 
them whatever they cost. But Little-faith was of another 
temper: his mind was on things divine; his livelihood was 
upon things that were spiritual, and above. 
not live upon Therefore, to what end should he that is of 15 

pottage ^xj^q\^ a temper sell his jewels (had there been 

any that would have bought them) to fill his mind with 

empty things? Will a man give a penny to fill his belly 

with hay; or can you persuade the turtle- 

A comparison be- "1. /i • i-i ^i. -i 

tween the turtle-dove dovc to livc upon the camou like the crow.-* 20 

le crow Though faithless ones can, for carnal lusts, 

pawn, or mortgage, or sell what they have, and themselves 
outright to boot; yet they that have faith, saving faith, 
though but a little of it, cannot do so. Here, therefore, 
my brother, is thy mistake. 25 

Hope. I acknowledge it; but yet your severe reflection 
had almost made me angry. 

Chr. Why, I did but compare thee to some of the birds 
that are of the brisker sort, who will run to and fro in 
untrodden paths, with the shell upon their heads; but 30 
pass by that, and consider that matter under debate, and 
all shall be well betwixt thee and me. 

Hope. But, Christian, these three fellows, I am per- 
suaded in my heart, are but a company of cowards; would 

Christian and the Robbers 139 

they have run else, think you, as they did, at the noise 
of one that was coming on the road? Why „ ^ , 

J., . T ., . 1 r '.^ ^ ^ . Hopeful swaggers 

did not Little-faitn pluck up a greater 
heart? He might, methinks, have stood one brush with 
5 them, and have yielded when there had been no remedy. 
Chr. That they are cowards, many have said, but 
few have found it so in the time of trial. As 

, . , , No great heart for 

for a great heart, Little-iaitn had none ; and God, where there is 
I perceive by thee, my brother, hadst thou 
10 been the man concerned, thou art but for a brush, and 
then to yield. And, verily, since this is the „, , 

;: -^ We have more cour- 

height of thy stomach, now they are at a dis- age when out, than 

f. 111.1 J ^1 when in the conflict 

tance from us, should they appear to thee 
as they did to him, they might put thee to second thoughts. 
15 But, consider again, they are but journeymen thieves, 
they serve under the king of the bottomless pit, who, 
if need be, will come in to their aid himself, ^, . . „ , . 

. . . r ^^ T Christian tells his 

and his voice is as the roaring of a lion. I own experience in 
myself have been engaged as this Little- 

20 faith was, and I found it a terrible thing. These three 
villains set upon me, and I beginning, hke a Christian, 
to resist, they gave but a call, and in came their master. 
I would, as the saying is, have given my life for a penny; 
but that, as God would have it, I was clothed with ar- 

25 mor proof. Ay, and yet, though I was so harnessed, I found 
it hard work to quit myself like a man. No man can tell 
what in that combat attends us, but he that hath been in 
the battle himself. 

Hope. Well, but they ran, you see, when they did but 

30 suppose that one Great-grace was in the way. 

Chr. True, they have often fled, both they and their 
master, when Great-grace hath but ap- The King's 
peared; and no marvel; for he is the King's champion 
champion. But, I trow, you will put some difference be- 

140 The Pilgrim's Progress 

twixt Little-faith and the King's champion. All the King's 
subjects are not his champions, nor can they, when tried, 
do such feats of war as he. Is it meet to think that a 
little child should handle Goliath as David did? Or that 
there should be the strength of an ox in a wren? Some 5 
are strong, some are weak; some have great faith, some 
have little. This man was one of the weak, and therefore 
he went to the wall. 

Hope. I would it had been Great-grace for their sakes. 

Chr. If it had been, he might have had his hands full; 10 
for I must tell you, that though Great-grace is excellent 
good at his weapons, and has, and can, so long as he keeps 
them at sword's point, do well enough with them; yet, 
if they get within him, even Faint-heart, Mistrust, or the 
other, it shall go hard but they will throw up his heels. 15 
And when a man is down, you know, what can he do? 

Whoso looks well upon Great-grace's face, shall see 
those scars and cuts there, that shall easily give demon- 
stration of what I say. Yea, once I heard that he should 
say (and that when he was in the combat), "We despaired 20 
even of life." How did these sturdy rogues and their 
fellows make David groan, mourn, and roar? Yea, Heman, 
and Hezekiah, too, though champions in their day, were 
forced to bestir them, when by these assaulted; and yet, 
notwithstanding, they had their coats soundly brushed 25 
by them. Peter, upon a time, would go try what he could 
do; but though some do say of him that he is the prince 
of the apostles, they handled him so, that they made him 
at last afraid of a sorry girl. 

Besides, their king is at their whistle. He is never out 30 
of hearing; and if at any time they be put to the worst, he. 
Leviathan's ^^ possiblc, comcs in to help them; and of 

stuTdiness )^\^ it is Said, ''The sword of him^ that lay- 

eth at him cannot hold the spear, the dart, nor the haber- 

Christian and the Robbers 14I 

geon: he esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten 
wood. The arrow cannot make him flee; sHng stones are 
turned with him into stubble. Darts are counted as stub- 
ble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear." What can a 
5 man do in this case? It is true, if a man could, at every 
turn, have Job's horse, and had skill and courage to ride 
him, he might do notable things; "for his neck is clothed 
with thunder, he will not be afraid as the ^, 

' .The excellent mettle 

grasshopper ; the glory of his nostrils is that is in job's 

ro terrible: he paweth in the valley, and re- 
joiceth in his strength, he goeth on to meet the armed 
men. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted, neither 
turneth he back from the sword. The quiver rattleth 
against him, the glittering spear, and the shield. He 

15 swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage, neither 

believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet. He saith 

among the trumpets. Ha, ha! and he smelleth the battle 

afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting." 

But for such footmen as thee and I are, let us never 

20 desire to meet with an enemy, nor vaunt as if we could 
do better, when we hear of others that they have been 
foiled, nor be tickled at the thoughts of our own man- 
hood; for such commonly come by the worst when tried. 
Witness Peter, of whom I made mention before. He 

25 would swagger, ay, he would; he would, as his vain mind 
prompted him to say, do better, and stand more for his 
Master than all men; but who so foiled, and run down by 
these villains, as he? 

When, therefore, we hear that such robberies are done 

30 on the King's highway, two things become us to do: i. To 
go out harnessed, and to be sure to take a shield with us; 
for it was for want of that, that he that laid so lustily at 
Leviathan could not make him yield: for, indeed, if that 
be wanting, he fears us not at all. Therefore, he that had 

142 The Pilgrim's Progress 

skill hath said, "Above all, taking the shield of faith, where- 
with ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the 

2. It is good, also, that we desire of the King a con- 
u is good to have a voy, yea, that he will go with us himself. 5 
convoy Xhis made David rejoice when in the Valley 

of the Shadow of Death; and Moses was rather for dying 
where he stood, than to go one step without his God. 
Oh, my brother, if he will but go along with us, what need 
we be afraid of ten thousands that shall set themselves 10 
against us? But, without him, the proud helpers fall 
under the slain. 

I, for my part, have been in the fray before now; and 
though, through the goodness of him that is best, I am, 
as you see, alive; yet I cannot boast of my manhood. Glad 15 
shall I be, if I meet with no more such brunts; though I 
fear we are not got beyond all danger. However, since 
the lion and the bear have not as yet devoured me, I hope 
God will also deliver us from the next uncircumcised 
Philistine. Then sang Christian — 20 

Poor Little-faith! Hast been among the thieves? 
Wast robbed? Remember this, whoso beheves, 
And gets more faith, shall then a victor be 
Over ten thousand, else scarce over three. 

So they went on, and Ignorance followed. They went 25 
then till they came at a place where they saw a way put 
itself into their way, and seemed withal to 

A way, and a way , i • i i i i i 

he as straight as the way which they should 
go: and here they knew not which of the two to take, for 
both seemed straight before them ; therefore, here they 30 
stood still to consider. And as they were thinking about 
The batterer finds the way, behold a man, black of flesh, but 
'^«'" covered with a very light robe, came to 

them, and asked them why they stood there. They an- 

Flatterer 143 

swered they were going to the Celestial City, but knew not 
which of these ways to take. Follow me, said the man, it is 
thither that I am going. So they followed christian and his 
him in the way that but now came into the ^"''"' <^^'"<^^'^ 
5 road, which by degrees turned, and turned them so from 
the city that they desired to go to, that, in little time, their 
faces were turned away from it; yet they followed him. 
But by and by, before they were aware, he led them both 
within the compass of a net, in which they jf^^y ^^^ ,^^^„ •„ 

10 were both so entangled, that they knew not '^ "*'' 
what to do ; and with that the white robe fell off the black 
man's back. Then they saw where they were. Where- 
fore, there they lay crying some time, for they could not 
get themselves out. 

15 Chr. Then said Christian to his fellow. Now do I see 
myself in error. Did not the Shepherds bid ji^^y ^^^^ ^^g,y 
us beware of the flatterers? As is the say- ^^ondMon 
ing of the wise man, so we have found it this day, "A 
man that flattereth his neighbor, spreadeth a net for his 

20 feet." 

Hope. They also gave us a note of directions about 
the way, for our more sure finding thereof; but therein 
we have also forgotten to read, and have not kept our- 
selves from the paths of the destroyer. Here David was 

25 wiser than we; for, saith he, '' Concerning the works of 
men, by the word of thy lips, I have kept me from the 
paths of the destroyer." Thus they lay bewailing them- 
selves in the net. At last they espied a Shining One com- 
ing towards them with a whip of small cord , ^,. . ^ 

. 1 • 1 1 TTTi 1 11^ Shining One 

30 m his hand. When he was come to the place comes to them with 
where they were, he asked them whence they 
came, and what they did there. They told him that they 
were poor pilgrims going to Zion, but were led out of their 
way by a black man, clothed in white, who bid us, said 

144 The Pilgrim's Progress 

they, follow him, for he was going thither too. Then 
said he with the whip. It is Flatterer, a false apostle, that 
hath transformed himself into an angel of light. So he 
rent the net, and let the men out. Then said he to them, 
Follow me, that I may set you in your way again. So he s 
led them back to the way which they had left to follow 
the Flatterer. Then he asked them, saying, Where did 
you lie the last night? They said. With the Shepherds, 
upon the Delectable Mountains. He asked them then, 

. . if they had not of those Shepherds a note lo 

They are examined, .... . , _.,, 

and convicted of of directiou for the way. Iney answered, 
iorge u ness y^^ -g^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^ ^^^ wheu you wcre 

at a stand, pluck out and read your note? They answered, 
No. He asked them, Why? They said, they forgot. He 
asked, moreover, if the Shepherds did not bid them beware 15 
Deceivers fine ^^ ^^^ Flatterer. They answered. Yes, but 

spoken ^TQ did not imagine, said they, that this fine- 

spoken man had been he. 

Then I saw in my dream, that he commanded them to 
, . , lie down ; which, when they did, he chastised 20 

They are whipped, ^ ■, ^ 

and sent on their them sorc, to tcach them the good way 
wherein they should walk; and as he chas- 
tised them he said, " As many as I love, I rebuke and 
chasten ; " be zealous, therefore, and repent. This done, he 
bid them go on their way, and take good heed to the other 25 
directions of the Shepherds. So they thanked him for all 
his kindness, and went softly along the right v/ay, singing — 

Come hither, you. that walk along the way; 

See how the pilgrims fare that go astra}'! 

They catched are in an entangling net, 30 

'Cause they good counsel lightly did forget: 

'Tis true they rescued were, but yet you see, 

They're scourged to boot. Let this your caution be. 

Now, after a while, they perceived, afar off, one coming 

Atheist 145 

softly and alone all along the highway to meet them. 
Then said Christian to his fellow, Yonder is a man with 
his back tow^ards Zion, and he is coming to meet us. 

Hope. I see him; let us take heed to ourselves now, 
5 lest he should prove a flatterer also. So he ^i^^ ^^^^g,-,^ ^^^^^ 
drew nearer and nearer, and at last came '*^'" 
up unto them. His name was Atheist, and he asked them 
whither they were going. 

Chr. We are going to Mount Zion. 
10 Then Atheist fell into a very great ^, ,,„^,, ,, ,,,, 

Chr. What is the meaning of your laughter? 

Atheist. I laugh to see what ignorant persons you 
are, to take upon you so tedious a journey, and you are 
15 like to have nothing but your travel for your pains. 

Chr. Why, man, do you think we shall ji^^y .^^..^^ 
not be received? '''''^'' 

Atheist. Received! There is no such place as you 
dream of in all this world. 
20 Chr. But there is in the world to come. 

Atheist. When I was at home in mine own country, 

I heard as you now affirm, and from that hearing went 

out to see, and have been seeking this city this twenty 

years; but find no more of it than I did the first day I 

25 set out. 

Chr. We have both heard and believe that there is 
such a place to be found. 

Atheist. Had not I, when at home, beHeved, I had 
not come thus far to seek; but finding none (and yet I 
30 should, had there been such a place to be ^;^,^,;i,.,^,,^,, 
found, for I have gone to seek it further up his content in 

' . .11 • 1 -n this world 

than you), I am gomg back agam, and will 

seek to refresh myself with the things that I then cast away, 

for hopes of that which I now see is not. 

146 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Christian proveth ^HR. Then Said Christian to Hopeful 

his brother j^jg companion, Is it true which this man 

hath said? 

Hope. Take heed, he is one of the flatterers; remember 
HopefuVs gracious what it hath cost us once already for our 5 
answer hearkening to such kind of fellows. What! 

no Mount Zion? Did we not see, from the Delectable 
A remembrance of Mountaius, the gate of the city? Also, are 
former chastise- wc uot now to Walk by faith? Let us so on, 

ments la a help . i tt r i i ^ • ^ i i • 

against present said Hopeiul, lest the man w^itn the whip 10 

temptations , , 

overtake us again. 

You should have taught me that lesson, which I will 
round you in the ears withal: "Cease, my son, to hear 
the instruction that causeth to err from the words of 
knowledge." I say, my brother, cease to hear him, and 15 
let us ''believe to the saving of the soul." 

Chr. My brother, I did not put the question to thee 
for that I doubted of the truth of our belief myself, but 
A fruit of an honest to provc thee, and to fetch from thee a fruit 
^^°'^* of the honesty of thy heart. As for this 20 

man, I know that he is blinded by the god of this world. 
Let thee and I go on, knowing that we have belief of the 
truth, "and no lie is of the truth." 

Hope. Now do I rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 

So they turned away from the man; and he, laughing at 25 
them, went his w^ay. 

I saw then in my dream, that they went till they came 
They are come to the into a Certain country, whose air naturally 
Enchanted Ground tended to make one drowsy, if he came a 
stranger into it. And here Hopeful began to be very dull 3c 
Hopeful begins to be ^ud hcavy of slcep; wherefore he said unto 
drowsy Christian, I do now begin to grow so drowsy 

that I can scarcely hold up mine eyes; let us lie down here 
and take one nap. 

' The Enchanted Ground I47 

Chr. By no means, said the other; lest S^T^f^^^ 
sleeping, we never awake more. 

Hope. Why, my brother? Sleep is sweet to the labor- 
ing man; we may be refreshed if we take a nap. 
5 Chr. Do you not remember that one of the Shepherds 
bid us beware of the Enchanted Ground? He meant by 
that, that we should beware of sleeping; '' Therefore let 
us not sleep, as do others, but let us watch and be sober." 
Hope. I acknowledge myself in a fault; and had I 
lobeen here alone, I had by sleeping run the ^^ .^^^^„^^„^ 
danger of death. I see it is true that the 
wise man saith, "Two are better than one." Hitherto 
hath thy company been my mercy, and thou shaft have 
a good reward for thy labor. 
15 Chr. Now then, said Christian, to pre- j,^ ^,,,,„, rf,,„.„-. 
vent drowsiness in this place, let us fall mto "^^/j'^^^/^^^f 
good discourse. 

Hope. With all my heart, said the other. q„„^ discourse pre- 
Chr. Where shall we begin? -»'^ '^^"'^^'«''" 

20 Hope. Where God began with us. But do you begm, 
if you please. 

Chr. I will sing you first this song:— 

When saints do sleepy grow, let them come hither, 
And hear how these two pilgrims talk together: 
25 Yea, let them learn of them, in any wise, j.^^ dreamers' note 

Thus to keep ope their drowsy slumb'ring eyes. 
Saints' fellowship, if it be managed well, 
Keeps them awake, and that in spite of hell. 

Chr. Then Christian began and said, I will ask you 
30 a question. How came you to think at first 
of doing what you do now? 

Hope. Do you mean, how came I at first ^^^^ ^^^.^ ^, ^^^ 
to look after the good of my soul? SS'^ ""'" 

Chr. Yes, that is my meaning. 

148 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Hope. I continued a great while in the delight of those 
things which were seen and sold at our fair; things which, 
I believe now, would have, had I continued in them, still 
drowned me in perdition and destruction. 

Chr. What things are they? 5 

Hope. All the treasures and riches of the world. Also 
Hopeful's life be- I delighted much in rioting, revelHng, drink- 
fore conversion j^g^ swcariug, lying, unclcanncss. Sabbath- 
breaking, and what not, that tended to destroy the soul. 
But I found at last, by hearing and considering of things 10 
that are divine, which indeed I heard of you, as also of 
beloved Faithful, that was put to death for his faith and 
good living in Vanity Fair, that "the end of these things 
is death." And that for these things' sake "cometh the 
wrath of God upon the children of disobedience." 15 

Chr. And did you presently fall under the power of 
this conviction? 

Hope. No, I was not willing presently to know the 
„ r , r ^vil of sin, nor the damnation that follows 

Hopeful at first ' . . r •. i . i i 

shuts his eyes upou the couimissiou of it; but endeavored, 20 

when my mind at first began to be shaken 
with the Word, to shut mine eyes against the light thereof. 

Chr. But what was the cause of your carrying of it 
thus to the first workings of God's blessed Spirit upon 
you? 25 

Hope. The causes were — i. I was ignorant that this 
Reasons of his re- was the work of God upoH mc. I never 
sisting of the light thought that, by awakenings for sin, God at 
first begins the conversion of a sinner. 2. Sin was yet 
very sweet to my flesh, and I was loath to leave it. 3. 1 30 
could not tell how to part with mine old companions, 
their presence and actions were so desirable unto me. 4. 
The hours in which convictions were upon me, were such 
troublesome and such heart-affrighting hours, that I could 

Hopeful's Conversion 149 

not bear, no not so much as the remembrance of them upon 
my heart. 

Chr. Then, as it seems, sometimes you got rid of your 
5 Hope. Yes, verily, but it would come into my mind 
again, and then I should be as bad, nay, worse, than I 
was before. 

Chr. Why, what was it that brought your sins to mind 
10 Hope. Many things; as, 

1. If I did but meet a good man in the when he had lost 

ctrppfc- nr his sense of sin, 

Streets, or, ^ what brought this 

2. If I have heard any read in the Bible; '^^<^''* 

15 3. If mine head did begin to ache; or, 

4. If I were told that some of my neighbors were sick ; or, 

5. If I heard the bell toll for some that were dead; or, 

6. If I thought of dying myself; or, 

7. If I heard that sudden death happened to others; 
20 8. But especially, when I thought of myself, that I 

must quickly come to judgment. 

Chr. And could you at any time, with ease, get off 

the guilt of sin, when by any of these ways it came upon 

25 Hope. No, not I, for then they got faster hold of my 

conscience; and then, if I did but think of going back 

to sin (though my mind was turned against it), it would be 

double torment to me. 

Chr. And how did you do then? 
30 Hope. I thought I must endeavor to wj,,„ f,, ,,^1^ „, 

mend my Hfe; for else, thought I, I am sure ^^JJf/ j^'Sj-^ ^" 

to be damned. course's, then he en- 

^ * 1 1 • 1 1 . 1 -> deavors to mend 

Chr. And did you endeavor to mend? 

Hope. Yes; and fled from not only my sins, but sinful 

150 The Pilgrim's Progress 

company too; and betook me to religious duties, as prayer, 
reading, weeping for sin, speaking truth to my neighbors, 
&c. These things did I, with many others, too much here 
to relate. 

Chr. And did you think yourself well then? 5 

Then he thought HoPE. Ycs, for a while; but at the last, 

himself well jj^y troublc Came tumbling upon me again, 

and that over the neck of all my reformations. 

Chr. How came that about, since you were now re- 
formed? 10 

Hope. There were several things brought it upon me, 
especially such sayings as these: "All our 

Reformation at last . r^,^ n u -n xi. 

could not help, and rightcousness are as filthy rags. By the 
"'^^ works of the law shall no flesh be justified." 

When ye shall have done all those things, say. We are un- 15 
profitable; with many more such Hke. From whence I 
began to reason with myself thus : If all my righteousnesses 
are filthy rags; if, by the deeds of the law, no man can be 
justified; and if, when we have done all, we are yet un- 
profitable, then it is but a folly to think of heaven by the 20 
law. I further thought thus : If a man runs 

His being a debtor 111 i • ^ ^i i i > 

by the law troubled a hundred pounds mto the shopkeeper s 
^^^ debt, and after that shall pay for all that he 

shall fetch; yet, if this old debt stands still in the book 
uncrossed, for that the shopkeeper may sue him, and 25 
cast him into prison till he shall pay the debt. 

Chr. Well, and how did you apply this to yourself? 

Hope. Why, I thought thus with myself: I have, by 
my sins, run a great way into God's book, and that my 
now reforming will not pay off that score; therefore 1 30 
should think still, under all my present amendments. 
But how shall I be freed from that damnation that I have 
brought myself in danger of, by my former transgressions? 

Chr. a very good appHcation : but, pray, go on, 

Hopeful's Conversion 151 

Hope. Another thing that hath troubled me, even 
since my late amendments, is, that if I look narrowly 
into the best of what I do now, I still see sin, new sin, 
mixing itself with the best of that I do; so _. ^ . _ 

o Hts espying bad 

K that now I am forced to conclude, that things in his best 

^ . , ,. . r ^ '^ f duties troubled him 

notwithstandmg my former fond conceits of 
myself and duties, I have committed sin enough in one 
duty to send me to hell, though my former life had been 
ic Chr. And w^hat did you do then? 

Hope. Do! I could not tell what to do, till I brake my 
mind to Faithful, for he and I were well ac- j,^.^ ^^^^ ^.^ 
quainted. And he told me, that unless I p^fjlt]' ^Ift^i^ 
could obtain the righteousness of a man him the way to be 

. 11.1 • -1 • saved 

15 that never had smned, neither mine own, 

nor all the righteousness of the world could save me. 

Chr. And did you think he spake true? 

Hope. Had he told me so when I was pleased and 

satisfied with mine own amendment, I had called him 

20 fool for his pains; but now, since I see mine own infirmity, 

and the sin that cleaves to my best performance, I have 

been forced to be of his opinion. 

Chr. But did you think, when at first he suggested it 
to you, that there was such a man to be found, of whom 
25 it might justly be said, that he never committed sin? 

Hope. I must confess the words at first sounded 
strangely, but after a little more talk ^nd ^, ^f^ich he started 
company with him, I had full conviction «'^''<'^««' 
about it. 
30 Chr. And did you ask him what man this was, and 
how you must be justified by him? 

Hope. Yes, and he told me it was the Lord Jesus, that 
dwelleth on the right hand of the Most High. And thus, 
said he, you must be justified by him, even by trusting 

152 The Pilgrim's Progress 

to what he hath done by himself, in the days of his flesh, 

and suffered when he did hang on the tree. I asked him 

further, how that man's righteousness could be of that 

. , efficacy to justify another before God? 

A more particular ^^^^^^ i .1 ^1 

discovery of the way And he told me he was the mighty God, and 5 
did what he did, and died the death also, 

not for himself, but for me; to whom his doings, and the 

worthiness of them, should be imputed, if I believed on 


Chr. And what did you do then? 10 

Hope. I made my objections against my believing, 

He doubts of f o^ t^^t I thought he was not willing to save 

acceptation VTit. 

Chr. And what said Faithful to you then? 

Hope. He bid me go to him and see. Then I said it 15 
was presumption; but he said, No, for I was invited to 
He is better comc. Then he gave me a book of Jesus, 

instructed }j|s inditing, to encourage me the more freely 

to come; and he said, concerning that book, that every 
jot and tittle thereof stood firmer than heaven and earth. 20 
Then I asked him. What I must do when I came; and he 
told me, I must entreat upon my knees, with all my heart 
and soul, the Father to reveal him to me. Then I asked 
him further, how I must make my supplication to him? 
And he said, Go, and thou shalt find him upon a mercy- 25 
seat, where he sits all the year long, to give pardon and 
forgiveness to them that come. I told him that I knew 
„ . . . , not what to say w^hen I came. And he bid 

He IS bid to pray .... /^ i ^ • r i 

me say to this effect: God be merciful to me 
a sinner, and make me to know and beheve in Jesus Christ; 30 
for I see, that if his righteousness had not been, or I have 
not faith in that righteousness, I am utterly cast away. 
Lord, I have heard that thou art a merciful God, and hast 
ordained that thy Son Jesus Christ should be the Savior 

Hopeful's Conversion 153 

of the world; and moreover, that thou art willing to bestow 
him upon such a poor sinner as I am (and I am a sinner 
indeed) : Lord, take therefore this opportunity, and magnify 
thy grace in the salvation of my soul, through thy Son 
5 Jesus Christ. Amen. 

Chr. And did you do as you were bidden? 
Hope. Yes; over, and over, and over. He prays 
Chr. And did the Father reveal his Son to you? 
Hope. Not at the first, nor second, nor third, nor fourth, 
10 nor fifth; no, nor at the sixth time neither. 
Chr. What did you do then? 
Hope. What? why I could not tell what to do. 
Chr. Had you not thoughts of leaving off praying? 
Hope. Yes; an hundred times twice told. ^, (^,^^^1 to leave ' 
15 Chr. And what was the reason you did oi praying 

Hope. I believed that that was true which had been 
told me, to wit, that without the righteous- ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
ness of this Christ, all the world could not ^^^'■«y»«S' ^"^ 
20 save me; and therefore, thought I with my- 
self, if I leave off I die, and I can but die at the throne of 
grace. And withal, this came into my mind, "Though it 
tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not 
tarry." So I continued praying until the Father showed 
25 me his Son. 

Chr. And how was he revealed unto you? 
Hope. I did not see him with my bodily eyes, but with 
the eyes of my understanding; and thus it Christ is revealed to 
was: One day I was very sad, I think sadder ^^^^ ««^ ^"'^ 
30 than at any one time in my life, and this sadness was 
through a fresh sight of the greatness and vileness of my 
sins. And as I was then looking for nothing but hell, and 
the everlasting damnation of my soul, suddenly, as I 
thought, I saw the Lord Jesus Christ look down from 

154 The Pilgrim's Progress 

heaven upon me, and saying, "Believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and thou shalt be saved." 

But I replied. Lord, I am a great, a very great sinner. 
And he answered, "My grace is sufficient for thee." 
Then I said, But, Lord, what is beheving? And then I 5 
saw from that saying, "He that cometh to me shall never 
hunger, and he that beheveth on me shall never thirst," 
that believing and coming was all one; and that he that 
came, that is, ran out in his heart and affections after 
salvation by Christ, he indeed beheved in Christ. Then 10 
the water stood in mine eyes, and I asked further. But, 
Lord, may such a great sinner as I am be indeed accepted 
of thee, and be saved by thee? And I heard him say, 
"And him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out." 
Then I said, But how, Lord, must I consider of thee in my 15 
coming to thee, that my faith may be placed aright upon 
thee? Then he said, "Christ Jesus came into the world 
to save sinners." "He is the end of the law for righteous- 
ness to every one that beheveth." He died for our sins, 
and rose again for our justification. " He loved us, and 20 
washed us from our sins in his own blood." He is media- 
tor betwixt God and us. " He ever liveth to make inter- 
cession for us." From all which I gathered, that I must 
look for righteousness in his person, and for satisfaction 
for my sins by his blood; that what he did in obedience 25 
to his Father's law, and in submitting to the penalty 
thereof, was not for himself, but for him that will accept 
it for his salvation, and be thankful. And now was my 
heart full of joy, mine eyes full of tears, and mine affec- 
tions running over with love to the name, people, and 30 
ways of Jesus Christ. 

Chr. This was a revelation of Christ to your soul in- 
deed; but tell me particularly what effect this had upon 
your spirit. 

Ignorance 155 

Hope. It made me see that all the world, notwithstand- 
ing all the righteousness thereof, is in a state of condem- 
nation. It made me see that God the Father, though he 
be just, can justly justify the coming sinner. It made 
5 me greatly ashamed of the yileness of my former life, 
and confounded me with the sense of mine own ignorance ; 
for there never came thought into my heart before now, 
that showed me so the beauty of Jesus Christ. It made 
me love a holy life, and long to do something for the honor 
10 and glory of the Lord Jesus; yea, I thought that had I now 
a thousand gallons of blood in my body, I could spill it 
all for the sake of the Lord Jesus. 

I saw then in my dream that Hopeful looked back and 
saw Ignorance, whom they had left behind, coming after. 
15 Look, said he to Christian, how far yonder youngster 
loitereth behind. 

Chr. Ay, ay, I see him ; he careth not for our company. 

Hope. But I trow it would not have hurt him, had he 
kept pace with us hitherto. 
20 Chr. That is true ; but I warrant you, he thinketh other- 

Hope. That, I think, he doth; but, however, let us 
tarry for him. So they did. 

Then Christian said to mm. Come away, comes up again,- 

, , ^ -.i-j-, Iheir talk 

25 man, why do you stay so behind? 

Ignor. I take my pleasure in walking alone, even 
more a great deal than in company, unless I like it the 

Then said Christian to Hopeful (but softly), Did I not 

30 tell you he cared not for our company? But, however, 
said he, come up, and let us talk away the time in this 
sohtary place. Then directing his speech to Ignorance, 
he said, Come, how do you? How stands it between God 
and your soul now? 

156 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Ignor. I hope well; for I am always full of good mo- 
ignorance's hope, tions, that come iiito my mind, to comfort 

and the, round of it j^e aS I Walk. 

Chr. What good motions? pray, tell us. 

Ignor. Why, I think of God and heaven^ 5 

Chr. So do the devils and damned souls. 

Ignor. But I think of them and desire them. 

Chr. So do many that are never like to come 
there. ''The soul of the sluggard desireth, and hath 
nothing." 10 

Ignor. But I think of them, and leave all for them. 

Chr. That I doubt; for leaving all is a hard matter: 
yea, a harder matter than many are aware of. But why, 
or by what, art thou persuaded that thou hast left all 
for God and heaven? 15 

Ignor. My heart tells me so. 

Chr. The wise man says, ''He that trusts his own 
heart is a fool." 

Ignor. This is spoken of an evil heart, but mine is a 
good one, 20 

Chr. But how dost thou prove that? 

Ignor. It comforts me in hopes of heaven. 

Chr. That may be through its deceitf ulness ; for a 
man's heart may minister comfort to him in the hopes 
of that thing for which he yet has no ground to hope. 25 

Ignor. But my heart and life agree together, and there- 
fore my hope is well grounded. 

Chr. Who told thee that thy heart and life agree to- 

Ignor. My heart tells me so. 30 

Chr. Ask my fellow if I be a thief! Thy heart tells 
thee so! Except the Word of God beareth witness in this 
matter, other testimony is of no value. 

Ignor-. But is it not a good heart that hath good 

Ignorance 157 

thoughts? and is not that a good life that is according to 
God's commandments? 

Chr. Yes, that is a good heart that hath good thoughts, 
and that is a good Hfe that is according to God's com- 
smandments; but it is one thing, indeed, to have these, 
and another thing only to think so. 

Ignor. Pray, what count you good thoughts, and a 
life according to God's commandments? 

Chr. There are good thoughts of divers kinds; some 
10 respecting ourselves, some God, some Christ, and some 
other things. 

Ignor. What be good thoughts respect- what are good 
ing ourselves? thoughts 

Chr. Such as agree with the Word of God. 
15 Ignor. When do our thoughts of ourselves agree with 
the Word of God? 

Chr. When we pass the same judgment upon our- 
selves which the Word passes. To explain myself — the 
Word of God saith of persons in a natural condition, 
20 ''There is none righteous, there is none that doeth good." 
It saith also, that every imagination of the heart of man 
is only evil, and that continually. And again, ''The imagi- 
nation of man's heart is evil from his youth." Now then, 
when we think thus of ourselves, having sense thereof, then 
25 are our thoughts good ones, because according to the Word 
of God. 

Ignor. I will never believe that my heart is thus bad. 

Chr. Therefore thou never hadst one good thought con- 
cerning thyself in thy Hfe. But let me go on. As the Word 
3opasseth a judgment upon our heart, so it passeth a judg- 
ment upon our ways ; and when our thoughts of our hearts 
and ways agree with the judgment which the Word giveth 
of both, then are both good, because agreeing thereto. 

Ignor. Make out your meaning. 

158 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Chr. Why, the Word of God saith that man's ways 
are crooked ways; not good, but perverse. It saith they 
are naturally out of the good way, that they have not 
known it. Now, when a man thus thinketh of his ways; 
I say, when he doth sensibly, and with heart-humiliation, 5 
thus think, then hath he good thoughts of his own ways, 
because his thoughts now agree with the judgment of the 
Word of God. 

Ignor. What are good thoughts concerning God? 

Chr. Even as I have said concerning ourselves, when 10 
our thoughts of God do agree with what the Word saith 
of him; and that is, when we think of his being and attri- 
butes as the Word hath taught, of which I cannot now 
discourse at large. But to speak of him with reference 
to us: then we have right thoughts of God, when we think 15 
that he knows us better than we know ourselves, and can 
see sin in us when and where we can see none in ourselves; 
when we think he knows our inmost thoughts, and that 
our heart, with all its depths, is always open unto his eyes; 
also, when we think that all our righteousness stinks in 20 
his nostrils, and that, therefore, he cannot abide to see 
us stand before him in any confidence, even in all our best 

Ignor. Do you think that I am such a fool as to think 
God can see no farther than I? or, that I would come to 25 
God in the best of my performances? 

Chr. Why, how dost thou think in this matter? 

Ignor. Why, to be short, I think I must beHeve in Christ 
for justification. 

Chr. How! think thou must believe in Christ, when 30 
thou seest not thy need of him! Thou neither seest thy 
original nor actual infirmities; but hast such an opinion 
of thyself, and of what thou dost, as plainly renders thee 
to be one that did never see a necessity of Christ's personal 

Ignorance 159 

righteousness to justify thee before God. How, then, dost 
thou say, I beHeve in Christ? 

Ignor. I beheve well enough for all that. 

Chr. How dost thou believe? 
5 Ignor. I believe that Christ died for sinners; and that 
I shall be justified before God from the curse, through 
his gracious acceptance of my obedience to The faith of 
his law. Or thus, Christ makes my duties, i&^orance 
that are religious, acceptable to his Father, by virtue of his 
10 merits; and so shall I be justified. 

Chr. Let me give an answer to this confession of thy 

I. Thou believest with a fantastical faith; for this faith 
is nowhere described in the Word. 
15 2. Thou believest with a false faith; because it taketh 
justification from the personal righteousness of Christ, and 
applies it to thy own, 

3. This faith maketh not Christ a justifier of thy person, 
but of thy actions; and of thy person for thy actions' sake, 

20 which is false. 

4. Therefore, this faith is deceitful, even such as will 
leave thee under wrath, in the day of God Almighty. 
For true justifying faith puts the soul, as sensible of its 
lost condition by the law, upon flying for refuge unto 

25 Christ's righteousness, which righteousness of his is not 
an act of grace, by which he maketh, for justification, 
thy obedience accepted with God; but his personal obedi- 
ence to the law, in doing and suffering for us what that 
required at our hands. This righteousness, I say, true 

30 faith accepteth; under the skirt of which, the soul being 
shrouded, and by it presented as spotless before God, it 
is accepted, and acquit from condemnation. 

Ignor. What! would you have us trust to what Christ, 
in his own person, has done without us? This conceit 

i6o The Pilgrim's Progress 

would loosen the reins of our lust, and tolerate us to live 
as we list; for what matter how we live, if we may be justi- 
fied by Christ's personal righteousness from all, when we 
believe it. 

Chr. Ignorance is thy name, and as thy name is, so 5 
art thou; even this thy answer demonstrateth what I 
say. Ignorant thou art of what justifying righteousness 
is, and as ignorant how to secure thy soul, through the 
faith of it, from the heavy wrath of God. Yea, thou also 
.art ignorant of the true effects of saving faith in this 10 
righteousness of Christ, which is, to bow and win over 
the heart to God in Christ, to love his name, his word, 
ways, and people, and not as thou ignorantly imaginest. 

Hope. Ask him if ever he had Christ revealed to him 
from heaven. 15 

Ignor. What! you are a man for revelations! I believe 
hnorance jangles that what both you, and all the rest of you, 
with them say about that matter, is but the fruit of 

distracted brains. 

Hope. Why, man! Christ is so hid in God from the 20 
natural apprehensions of the flesh, that he cannot by 
any man be savingly known, unless God the Father re- 
veals him to them. 

Ignor. That is your faith, but not mine; yet mine, 
„ ' I doubt not, is as erood as yours, though I 25 

He speaks re- . ^ •' \ . . 

proachfuiiy of what havc not m my head so many whimsies as 

he knows not 

Chr. Give me leave to put in a word. You ought not 
so slightly to speak of this matter; for this I will boldly 
affirm, even as my good companion hath done, that no 30 
man can know Jesus Christ but by the revelation of the 
Father; yea, and faith too, by which the soul layeth hold 
upon Christ, if it be right, must be wrought by the exceed- 
ing greatness of his mighty power; the working of which 

Ignorance 1 6 1 

faith, I perceive, poor Ignorance, thou art ignorant of. 
Be awakened, then, see thine own wretchedness, and fly 
to the Lord Jesus; and by his righteousness, which is the 
righteousness of God, for he himself is God, thou shalt 
5 be delivered from condemnation. 

Ignor. You go so fast, I cannot keep pace with you. 
Do you 20 on before; I must stay a while ^, ,^ , ^ 

-^ ^ ^ •' The talk broke up 

Then they said — 

lo Well, Ignorance, wilt thou yet foolish be, 

To slight good counsel, ten times given thee? 

And, if thou yet refuse it, thou shalt know, 

Ere long, the evil of thy doing so. 

Remember, man, in time; stoop, do not fear, 
15 Good counsel taken well, saves: therefore hear. 

But if thou yet shall slight it, thou wilt be 

The loser (Ignorance), I'll warrant thee. 

Then Christian addressed thus himself to his fellow : — 
Chr. Well, come, my good Hopeful, I perceive that 

20 thou and I must walk by ourselves again. 

So I saw in my dream that they wxnt on apace before, 
and Ignorance he came hobbling after. Then said Chris- 
tian to his companion. It pities me much for this poor man, 
it will certainly go ill with him at last. 

25 Hope. Alas! there are abundance in our town in his 
condition, whole families, yea, whole streets, and that of 
pilgrims too; and if there be so many in our parts, how 
many, think you, must there be in the place where he was 

30 Chr. Indeed the Word saith. He hath blinded their 
eyes, lest they should see, &c. But now we are by our- 
selves, what do you think of such men? Have they at no 
time, think you, convictions of sin, and so consequently 
fears that their state is dangerous? 

i62 The Pilgrim's Progress 

Hope. Nay, do you answer that question yourself, 
for you are the elder man. 

Chr. Then I say, sometimes (as I think) they may; 
but they being naturally ignorant, understand not that 
such convictions tend to their good; and therefore they 5 
do desperately seek to stifle them, and presumptuously 
continue to flatter themselves in the way of their own 

Hope. I do believe, as you say, that fear tends much to 
The good use of mcn's good, and to make them right, at 10 
^^^ their beginning to go on pilgrimage. 

Chr. Without all doubt it doth, if it be right; for so 
says the Word, " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of 

Right fear HoPE. How will you describc right fear? 15 

Chr. True or right fear is discovered by three things: — 

1. By its rise; it is caused by saving convictions for 

2. It drive th the soul to lay fast hold of Christ for 
salvation. 20 

3. It begetteth and continueth in the soul a great rever- 
ence of God, his Word, and ways, keeping it tender, and 
making it afraid to turn from them, to the right hand or 
to the left, to anything that may dishonor God, break its 
peace, grieve the Spirit, or cause the enemy to speak re- 25 

Hope. Well said; I believe you have said the truth. 
Are we now almost got past the Enchanted Ground? 

Chr. Why, art thou weary of this discourse? 

Hope. No, verily, but that I would know where we are. 30 

Chr. We have not now above two miles further to go 
„„ . thereon. But let us return to our matter. 

Why Ignorant per- . 

sons stifle convic- J\ow the ignorant know not that such 
convictions as tend to put them in fear 

The Fear of God 163 

are for their good, and therefore they seek to stifle 

• T 1 -^ ^" general 

Hope. How do they seek to stilie them? 
Chr. I. They think that those fears are wrought by 
t: the devil (though indeed they are wrought , 

r/->.ixi7.i- 1 • 1 ^" particular 

of God) ; and, thmkmg so, they resist them 
as things that directly tend to their overthrow. 2. They 
also think that these fears tend to the spoiling of their 
faith, when, alas for them, poor men that they are, they 
10 have none at all! and therefore they harden their hearts 
against them. 3. They presume they ought not to fear; 
and therefore, in despite of them, wax presumptuously 
confident. 4. They see that those fears tend to take away 
from them their pitiful old self-holiness, and therefore 
15 they resist them with all their might. 

Hope. I know something of this myself; for, before I 
knew myself, it was so with me. 

Chr. Well, we will leave, at this time, our neighbor 
Ignorance by himself, and fall upon another profitable 
20 question. 

Hope. With all my heart, but you shall still begin. 

Chr. Well then, did you not know, about ten years 
ago, one Temporary in your parts, who Talk abom one 
was a forward man in religion then? Temporary 

25 Hope. Know him! yes, he dwelt in Graceless, a town 
about two miles off of Honesty, and he dwelt ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
next door to one Turnback. 

Chr. Right, he dwelt under the same roof with him. 
Well, that man was much awakened once; He was lowardiy 
30 1 believe that then he had some sight of his ""'^^ 
sins, and of the wages that were due thereto. 

Hope. I am of your mind, for, my house not being 
above three miles from him, he would ofttimes come to me, 
and that with many tears. Truly I pitied the man, and 

164 The Pilgrim's Progress 

was not altogether without hope of him; but one may see, 
it is not every one that cries, Lord, Lord. 

Chr. He told me once that he was resolved to go on 
pilgrimage, as we go now; but all of a sudden he grew ac- 
quainted with one Save-self , and then he became a stranger 5 
to me. 

Hope. Now, since we are talking about him, let us a 
little inquire into the reason of the sudden backsliding of 
him and such others. 

Chr. It may be very profitable, but do you begin. 10 

Hope. Well, then, there are in my judgment four rea- 
sons for it: — 

1. Though the consciences of such men are awakened, 

yet their minds are not changed; therefore, 
towardiy ones go whcu the powcr of guilt wcarcth away, that 15 

which provoked them to be religious cease th. 
Wherefore they naturally turn to their own course again, 
even as we see the dog that is sick of what he has eaten, 
so long as his sickness prevails, he vomits and casts up all ; 
not that he doth this of a free mind (if we may say a dog 20 
has a mind), but because it troubleth his stomach. But 
now, when his sickness is over, and so his stomach eased, 
his desire being not at all alienate from his vomit, he turns 
him about and Hcks up all, and so it is true which is writ- 
ten, "The dog is turned to his own vomit again." Thus 25 
I say, being hot for heaven, by virtue only of the sense 
and fear of the torments of hell, as their sense of hell, and 
the fears of damnation, chills and cools, so their desires 
for heaven and salvation cool also. So then it comes to 
pass, that when their guilt and fear is gone, their desires 30 
for heaven and happiness die, and they return to their 
course again. 

2. Another reason is, they have slavish fears that do 
overmaster them; I speak now of the fears that they have 

How the Apostate goes back 165 

of men, for ''the fear of man bringeth a snare." So then, 
though they seem to be hot for heaven, so long as the flames 
of hell are about their ears, yet when that terror is a Httle 
over, they betake themselves to second thoughts; namely, 
5 that 'tis good to be wise, and not to run (for they know 
not what) the hazard of losing all, or, at least, of bringing 
themselves into unavoidable and unnecessary troubles; 
and so they fall in with the world again. 

3. The shame that attends religion Hes also as a block 
10 in their way; they are proud and haughty, and religion 

in their eye is low and contemptible. Therefore, when 
they have lost their sense of hell and wrath to come, they 
return again to their former course. 

4. Guilt, and to meditate terror, are grievous to them. 
15 They like not to see their misery before they come into 

it; though perhaps the sight of it first, if they loved that 
sight, might make them fly whither the righteous fly and 
are safe. But because they do, as I hinted before, even 
shun the thoughts of guilt and terror, therefore, when 

20 once they are rid of their awakenings about the terrors 
and wrath of God, they harden their hearts gladly, and 
choose such ways as will harden them more and more. 

Chr. You are pretty near the business, for the bottom 
of all is, for want of a change in their mind and will. And 

25 therefore they are but like the felon that standeth before 
the judge: he quakes and trembles, and seems to repent 
most heartily, but the bottom of all is the fear of the 
halter. Not that he hath any detestation of the offence, 
as is evident, because, let but this man have his liberty, 

30 and he will be a thief, and so a rogue stiU; whereas, if his 
mind was changed, he would be otherwise. 

Hope. Now I have showed you the reasons of their 
going back, do you show me the manner thereof. 
Chr. So I will willingly. 

i66 The Pilgrim's Progress 

1. They draw off their thoughts, all that they may, 
How the apostate ^"^om the remembrance of God, death, and 
goes back judgment to come. 

2. Then they cast off by degrees private duties, as 
closet prayer, curbing their lusts, watching, sorrow for 5 
sin, and the like. 

3. Then they shun the company of lively and warm 

4. After that they grow cold to public duty, as hearing, 
reading, godly conference, and the like. 10 

5. Then they begin to pick holes, as we say, in the 
coats of some of the godly; and that devilishly, that they 
may have a seeming color to throw religion (for the sake 
of some infirmity they have espied in them) behind their 
backs. 15 

6. Then they begin to adhere to, and associate them- 
selves with, carnal, loose, and wanton men. 

7. Then they give way to carnal and wanton discourses 
in secret; and glad are they if they can see such things 
in any that are counted honest, that they may the more 20 
boldly do it through their example. 

8. After this they begin to play with little sins openly. 

9. And then, being hardened, they show themselves 
as they are. Thus, being launched again into the gulf 
of misery, unless a miracle of grace prevent it, they ever- 25 
lastingly perish in their own deceivings. 

Now I saw in my dream, that by this time the pilgrims 
were got over the Enchanted Ground, and entering into 
the country of Beulah, whose air was very sweet and 
pleasant, the way lying directly through it, they solaced 30 
themselves there for a season. Yea, here they heard con- 
tinually the singing of birds, and saw every day the flowers 
appear in the earth, and heard the voice of the turtle in 
the land. In this country the sun shineth night and day; 

The Land of Beulah 167 

wherefore this was beyond the Valley of the Shadow of 
Death, and also out of the reach of Giant Despair, neither 
could they from this place so much as see Doubting Castle. 
Here they were within sight of the city they were going 
5 to, also here met them some of the inhabit- , , 


ants thereof; for in this land the Shining 
Ones commonly walked, because it was upon the borders 
of heaven. In this land also, the contract between the 
bride and the bridegroom was renewed; yea, here, "As 

10 the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so did their God 
rejoice over them." Here they had no want of corn and 
wine; for in this place they met with abundance of what 
they had sought for in all their pilgrimage. Here they 
heard voices from out of the city, loud voices, saying, 

15 "Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation 
Cometh! Behold, his reward is with him!" Here all the 
inhabitants of the country called them, "The holy people, 
The redeemed of the Lord, Sought out," &c. 

Now, as they walked in this land, they had more re- 

2ojoicing than in parts more remote from the kingdom to 
which they were bound; and drawing near to the city, 
they had yet a more perfect view thereof. It was builded 
of pearls and precious stones, also the street thereof was 
paved with gold; so that by reason of the natural glory of 

25 the city, and the reflection of the sunbeams upon it. Chris- 
tian with desire fell sick. Hopeful also had a fit or two of 
the same disease. Wherefore, here they lay by it a while, 
crying out, because of their pangs, If ye find my beloved, 
tell him that I am sick of love. 

30 But, being a little strengthened, and better able to 
bear their sickness, they walked on their way, and came 
yet nearer and nearer, where were orchards, vineyards, 
and gardens, and their gates opened into the highway. 
Now, as they came up to these places, behold the gardener 

i68 The Pilgrim's Progress 

stood in the way, to whom the pilgrims said, Whose goodly 
vineyards and gardens are these? He answered, They 
are the King's, and are planted here for his own delight, 
and also for the solace of pilgrims. So the gardener had 
them into the vineyards, and bid them refresh themselves 5 
with the dainties. He also showed them there the King's 
walks, and the arbors where he delighted to be. And here 
they tarried and slept. 

Now I beheld in my dream, that they talked more in 
their sleep at this time than ever they did in all their 10 
journey; and being in a muse thereabout, the gardener 
said even to me, Wherefore musest thou at the matter? 
It is the nature of the fruit of the grapes of these vineyards 
to go down so sweetly as to cause the Hps of them that are 
asleep to speak. 15 

So I saw that when they awoke, they addressed them- 
selves to go up to the city; but, as I said, the reflection of 
the sun upon the city (for "the city was pure gold,") was 
so extremely glorious, that they could not, as yet, with open 
face behold it, but through an instrument made for that 20 
purpose. So I saw, that as I went on, there met them two 
men, in raiment that shone like gold; also their faces shone 
as the light. 

These men asked the pilgrims whence they came; and 
they told them. They also asked them where they had 25 
lodged, what difl&culties and dangers, what comforts and 
pleasures they had met in the way; and they told them. 
Then said the men that met them, You have but two dif- 
ficulties more to meet with, and then you are in the city. 

Christian then, and his companion, asked the men to 30 
go along with them; so they told them they would. But, 
said they, you must obtain it by your own faith. So I 
saw in my dream that they went on together, until they 
came in sight of the gate. 

Christian in Deep Waters 169 

Now, I further saw, that betwixt them and the gate 
was a river, but there was no bridge to go ^ , 

1 . 1 A T . 1 Death 

over: the river was very deep. At the sight, 
therefore, of this river, the pilgrims were much stunned; 
5 but the men that went with them said. You must go 
through, or you cannot come at the gate. 

The pilgrims then began to inquire if there was no 
other way to the gate; to which they an- p,,,^ ,.,„,, ^,^. 
swered, Yes; but there hath not any, save come to nature, 

' , . . , , though by tt we pass 

10 two, to Wit, Enoch and Elijah, been per- out of this world 
mitted to tread that path, since the foun- *" ^ ^ "'^'^ 
dation of the world, nor shall, until the last trumpet shall 
sound. The pilgrims then, especially Christian, began 
to despond in their minds, and looked this way and that, 

15 but no way could be found by them, by which they might 
escape the river. Then they asked the men if the waters 
were all of a depth. They said. No; yet , , , , 

111 .1 r Angels help us 

they could not help them m that case; tor, mt comfortably 
said they, you shall find it deeper or shal- '^^"^ 

20 lower, as you believe in the King of the place. 

They then addressed themselves to the water; and 
entering, Christian began to sink, and crying out to his 
good friend Hopeful, he said, I sink in deep waters; the 
billows go over my head, all his waves go over me ! Selah. 

25 Then said the other, Be of good cheer, my brother, I 
feel the bottom, and it is good. Then said Christian, 
Ah! my friend, " the sorrows of death have christian's conflict 
compassed me about;" I shall not see the at the hour of death 
land that flows with milk and honey; and with that 

30 a great darkness and horror fell upon Christian, so 
that he could not see before him. Also here he in 
great measure lost his senses, so that he could neither 
remember, nor orderly talk of any of those sweet re- 
freshments that he had met with in the way of his pil- 

170 The Pilgrim's Progress 

grimage. But all the words that he spake still tended 
to discover that he had horror of mind, and heart fears 
that he should die in that river, and never obtain en- 
trance in at the gate. Here also, as they that stood 
by perceived, he was much in the troublesome thoughts 5 
of the sins that he had committed, both since and be- 
fore he began to be a pilgrim. It was also observed that 
he was troubled with apparitions of hobgoblins and evil 
spirits, for ever and anon he would intimate so much by 
words. Hopeful, therefore, here had much ado to keep 10 
his brother's head above water; yea, sometimes he would 
be quite gone down, and then, ere a while, he would rise 
up again half dead. Hopeful also would endeavor to com- 
fort him, saying, Brother, I see the gate, and men standing 
by to receive us; but Christian would answer, 'Tis you, 15 
'tis you they wait for; you have been Hopeful ever since 
I knew you. And so have you, said he to Christian. Ah, 
brother! said he, surely if I was right he would now arise 
to help me; but for my sins he hath brought me into the 
snare, and hath left me. Then said Hopeful, My brother, 20 
you have quite forgot the text, where it is said of the 
wicked, "There are no bands in their death, but their 
strength is firm. They are not in trouble as other men, 
neither are they plagued like other men." These troubles 
and distresses that you go through in these waters are 25 
no sign that God hath forsaken you; but are sent to try 
you, whether you will call to mind that which heretofore 
you have received of his goodness, and live upon him in 
your distresses. 

Then I saw in my dream, that Christian was as in a 30 
>,, . . , , , muse a while. To whom also Hopeful 

Chnsttan delivered ^ ^ ^ -i • ^ t\ r t 

from his fears in added this word. Be of good cheer. Jesus 

Christ maketh thee whole; and with that 

Christian brake out with a loud voice. Oh! I see him again, 

Nearing the Gate 171 

and he tells me, "When thou passest through the waters, 
I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not 
overflow thee." Then they both took courage, and the 
enemy was after that as still as a stone, until they were 

5 gone over. Christian therefore presently found ground to 
stand upon, and so it followed that the rest of the river was 
but shallow. Thus they got over. Now, The angds do wait 
upon the bank of the river, on the other {2;!t:/;./e7r/ 
side, they saw the two shining men again, oj this world 

low^ho there waited for them; wherefore, being come out 

of the river, they saluted them saying, We are ministering 

spirits, sent forth to minister for those that shall be heirs 

of salvation. Thus they went along towards the gate. 

Now you must note that the city stood upon a mighty 

15 hill, but the pilgrims went up that hill with ease, because 
they had these two men to lead them up They have put of 
by the arms; also, they had left their mor- »»«'^'a'»'3' 
tal garments behind them in the river, for though they 
went in with them, they came out without them. They, 

20 therefore, went up here with much agility and speed, 
though the foundation upon which the city was framed 
was higher than the clouds. They, therefore, went up 
through the regions of the air, sweetly talking as they went, 
being comforted, because they safely got over the river, 

25 and had such glorious companions to attend them. 

The talk they had with the Shining Ones was about 
the glory of the place; who told them that the beauty 
and glory of it was inexpressible. There, said they, is 
the Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the innumerable, 

30 company of angels, and the spirits of just men made per- 
fect. You are going now, said they, to the paradise of 
God, wherein you shall see the tree of life, and eat of the 
never-fading fruits thereof; and when you come there, 
you shall have white robes given you, and your walk and 

172 The Pilgrim's Progress 

talk shall be every day with the King, even all the days of 
eternity. There you shall not see again such things as 
you saw when you were in the lower region upon the earth, 
to wit, sorrow, sickness, affliction, and death, "for the 
former things are passed away." You are now going to 5 
Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob, and to the prophets — men 
that God hath taken away from the evil to come, and 
that are now resting upon their beds, each one walking 
in his righteousness. The men then asked. What must 
we do in the holy place? To whom it was answered. You 10 
must there receive the comforts of all your toil, and have 
joy for all your sorrow; you must reap what you have sown, 
even the fruit of all your prayers, and tears, and sufferings 
for the King by the way. In that place you must wear 
crowns of gold, and enjoy the perpetual sight and visions 15 
of the Holy One, for there you ''shall see him as he is." 
There also you shall serve him continually with praise, 
with shouting, and thanksgiving, whom you desired to 
serve in the world, though with much difficulty, because 
of the infirmity of your flesh. There your eyes shall be 20 
delighted with seeing, and your ears with hearing the 
pleasant voice of the Mighty One. There you shall enjoy 
your friends again, that are gone thither before you; and 
there you shall with joy receive even every one that fol- 
lows into the holy place after you. There also shall you 25 
be clothed with glory and majesty, and put into an equi- 
page fit to ride out with the King of glory. When he shall 
come with the sound of trumpet in the clouds, as upon the 
wings of the wind, you shall come with him; and when he 
shall sit upon the throne of judgment, you shall sit by him; 30 
yea, and when he shall pass sentence upon all the workers 
of iniquity, let them be angels or men, you also shall have 
a voice in that judgment, because they were his and your 
enemies. Also, when he shall again return to the city, 

The Welcome of the Heavenly Host 173 

you shall go too, with sound of trumpet, and be ever with 

Now while they were thus drawing towards the gate, 
behold a company of the heavenly host came out to meet 
5 them; to whom it was said, by the other two Shining Ones, 
These are the men that have loved our Lord when they 
were in the world, and that have left all for his holy name; 
and he hath sent us to fetch them, and we have brought 
them thus far on their desired journey, that they may go 

10 in and look their Redeemer in the face with joy. Then 
the heavenly host gave a great shout, saying, "Blessed 
are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the 
Lamb." There came out also at this time to meet them, 
several of the King's trumpeters, clothed in white and 

15 shining raiment, who, with melodious noises, and loud, 
made even the heavens to echo with their sound. These 
trumpeters saluted Christian and his fellow with ten thou- 
sand welcomes from the world; and this they did with 
shouting, and sound of trumpet. 

20 This done, they compassed them round on every side; 
some went before, some behind, and some on the right 
hand, some on the left (as it were to guard them through 
the upper regions), continually sounding as they wTnt, 
with melodious noise, in notes on high: so that the very 

25 sight was to them that could behold it, as if heaven itself 
was come down to meet them. Thus, therefore, they 
walked on together; and as they walked, ever and anon 
these trumpeters, even with joyful sound, would, by mixing 
their music with looks and gestures, still signify to Chris- 

3otian and his brother, how welcome they were into their 
company, and with what gladness they came to meet 
them; and now were these two men, as it were, in heaven, 
before they came at it, being swallowed up with the sight 
of angels, and with hearing of their melodious notes. Here 

174 ^^^ Pilgrim's Progress 

also they had the city itself in view, and they thought 
they heard all the bells therein to ring, to welcome them 
thereto. But above all, the warm and joyful thoughts 
that they had about their own dwelHng there, with such 
company, and that for ever and ever. Oh, by what tongue 5 
or pen can their glorious joy be expressed ! And thus they 
came up to the gate. 

Now, when they were come up to the gate, there was 
written over it in letters of gold, "Blessed are they that 
do his commandments, that they may have right to the 10 
tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the 

Then I saw in my dream, that the Shining Men bid 
them call at the gate; the which, when they did, some 
looked from above over the gate, to wit, Enoch, Moses, 15 
and Elijah, &c., to whom it was said. These pilgrims are 
come from the City of Destruction, for the love that they 
bear to the King of this place. And then the pilgrims 
gave in unto them each man his certificate, which they 
had received in the beginning; those, therefore, were 20 
carried in to the King, who, when he had read them, said. 
Where are the men? To whom it was answered, They 
are standing without the gate. The King then commanded 
to open the gate, "That the righteous nation," said he, 
"that keepeth the truth, may enter in." 25 

Now I saw in my dream that these two men went in 
at the gate: and lo, as they entered, they were transfigured, 
and they had raiment put on that shone like gold. There 
were also that met them with harps and crowns, and gave 
them to them — the harps to praise withal, and the crowns 30 
in token of honor. Then I heard in my dream that all 
the bells in the city rang again for joy, and that it was said 
unto them, "Enter ye into the joy of your Lord." I 
also heard the men themselves, that they sang with a loud 

The Celestial City 175 

voice, saying, "Blessing and honor, and glory, and 


Now, just as the gates were opened to let in the men, 

5 I looked in after them, and, behold, the City shone like 

the sun; the streets also were paved with gold, and in 

them walked many men, with crowns on their heads, palms 

in their hands, and golden harps to sing praises withal. 

There were also of them that had wings, and they 

10 answered one another without intermission, saying. Holy, 
holy, holy is the Lord. And after that they shut up the 
gates; which, when I had seen, I wished myself among 

Now while I was gazing upon all these things, I turned 

IS my head to look back, and saw Ignorance ignorance comes up 
come up to the river side ; but he soon got '" '^^ ^^""^^ 
over, and that without half that difficulty which the 
other two men met with. For it happened that there 
was then in that place, one Vain-hope, a ferryman, that 

20 with his boat helped him over; so he, as the vain-hope does 
other I saw, did ascend the hill, to come up f^'^y '''"' "^'^^ 
to the gate, only he came alone; neither did any man 
meet him with the least encouragement. When he was 
come up to the gate, he looked up to the writing that was 

25 above, and then began to knock, supposing that entrance 
should have been quickly administered to him; but he 
was asked by the men that looked over the top of the gate, 
Whence came you? and what would you have? He an- 
swered, I have eat and drank in the presence of the King, 

30 and he has taught in our streets. Then they asked him 
for his certificate, that they might go in and show it to 
the King; so he fumbled in his bosom for one, and found 
none. Then said they. Have you none? But the man 
answered never a word. So they told the King, but he 

176 The Pilgrim's Progress 

would not come down to see him, but commanded the 
two Shining Ones that conducted Christian and Hopeful 
to the City, to go out and take Ignorance, and bind him 
hand and foot, and have him aw^ay. Then they took him 
up, and carried him through the air, to the door that I 
saw in the side of the hill, and put him in there. Then I 
saw that there was a way to hell, even from the gates of 
heaven, as well as from the City of Destruction! So I 
awoke, and behold it was a dream. 

Conclusion 177 


Now, Reader, I have told my dream to thee; 
See if thou canst interpret it to me, 
Or to thyself, or neighbor; but take heed 
Of misinterpreting; for that, instead 
Of doing good, will but thyself abuse: 
By misinterpreting, evil ensues. 
Take heed, also, that thou be not extreme, 
In playing with the outside of my dream: 
Nor let my figure or similitude 
Put thee into a laughter, or a feud. 
Leave this for boys and fools; but as for thee. 
Do thou the substance of my matter see. 
Put by the curtains, look within my veil, 
Turn up my metaphors, and do not fail. 
There, if thou seekest them, such things to find, 
As will be helpful to an honest mind. 
What of my dross thou findest there, be bold 
To throw away, but yet preserve the gold; 
What if my gold be wrapped up in ore? — " 
None throws away the apple for the core. 
But if thou shalt cast all away as vain, 
I know not but 'twill make me dream again. 


(Heavy numerals refer to page: light ones to line) 

In the following notes and comment will be found, besides expla- 
nations of archaic and obsolete words and biographical and historical 
facts which throw light on the allegory, occasional elucidation of 
the allegory, and in particular, the references to passages from the 
Scriptures, which in the original editions were printed in the mar- 
gins of the pages. Where Bunyan used a passage (longer than a 
short phrase), without change, it is marked in the text by quotation 
marks, and the source is given in the notes. Where a passage has 
supplied him with part of his phrasing, or where it directly illumi- 
nates the text, it is printed in full in the notes, with the reference. In 
a good many cases, it will be seen, Bunyan made no reference to his 
source: in such cases we may suppose that he assumed familiarity 
with the source, or else, as must have often happened, that his mind 
was so saturated with the language of the Scriptures, that he hardly 
realized that he was using Scripture language. In some cases, and 
these chiefly in the more doctrinal part of the allegory, the Scrip- 
ture passages hav^e not been printed in full; such~references may 
easily be looked up in the Bible by any one who wishes to trace 
out Bunyan's sources in detail. But no one can understand Bunyan's 
view of the world and of man's place and duties in it, nor appreciate 
the beauty and the force of his style, who does not recognize how 
completely the Bible language was a part of his thought, and how 
constantly and naturally he used its noble and powerful vocabu- 

3. The Author's Apology. This half playful, but elaborate, 
apology for sending out The Pilgrim's Progress throws light on the 
times and on the men with whom Bunyan lived. Many of the 
Puritans were possessed of a grimness of devotion to which anything 
Hke lighter Hterature seemed a wicked trifling with eternity. Bun- 
yan's sunny nature and shrewd good sense saved him from such 


i8o Notes and Comment 

tragic misunderstanding of the purpose of life; but still he felt that 
he should justify a method which seemed poetical by showing that 
Scripture used the same mode of allegory. 

3, 2, For to. This idiom was once in better usage. 

3, 7. The way and race of saints: probably a reference to 
The Straight Gate, a tract by Bunyan, published in 1676. 

3, 17. Ad infinitum: " to infinity." The natural use of this 
phrase shows that Bunyan must have done a good deal of read- 
ing since his youth. 

3, 28. Worser: a double comparative, which was not uncom- 
mon in the older writers, before the usages of the language be- 
came settled. 

3, 32. Still as I pulled. The metaphor is derived from spin- 
ning; the spinner draws the wool or flax from the mass on the 
distaff, and twists it together into a thread. 

4, 9. In a strait: in doubt or perplexity; a figure drawn from 
passing through a narrow place. 

4, 27. Palliate: to conciliate; an unusual use of the word. 

5, I. Engines: contrivances. 

5, 6. Groped for: a way of catching fish with the hands. 

5, ID. Lime-twigs, light, and bell. Birds were caught by smear- 
ing the twigs of trees with birdlime, a very sticky substance. 
The light and bell were used to draw them to the tree. 

5, II. Goes: w^alks. 

5, 16. A pearl may in a toad's head dwell: a belief current 
down to the eighteenth century. 

5, 25. Brave: showy. 

5, 28. What though: what then. 

6, 2. Pins and loops: a reference to the elaborate directions 
for the building and furnishing of the tabernacle, in the latter part 
of Exodus: see Exodus xxvi. 5. The older theologians held that all 
such passages had besides their literal meaning a hidden, symbolical 
meaning. Compare Faithful's explanation of the Levitical rules for 
knowing the clean and unclean beasts, 85, 24. 

6, 39. Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use. 

If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt 
be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith 

Notes and Comment i8i 

and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained. But refuse pro- 
fane and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness. 
/ Timothy iv. 6-7. 

7, 22. As high as trees: of high station. 

7, 29. That taught us first to plow. See the description of 
plowing in Isaiah xxviii. 24-2g. 
7, 35. Nothing: in no way. 
9, 4. I dreamed a dream: 

And the Lord answered me, and said, Write the vision, and make it 
plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it. Habakkuk it. 2. 

9, 5. A man clothed with rags. The rags typify the attempt 
of man to justify himself by his own righteousness, rather than 
by trusting in the freely given grace of God. 

But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are 
as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the 
wind, have taken us away. Isaiah Ixiv. 6. 

9, 6. With his face from his own house: 

So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he 
hath, he cannot be my disciple. Luke xiv. 33. 

9, 7. And a great burden upon his back: 

For mine iniquities are gone over mine head: as an heavy burden 
they are too heavy for me. Psalm xxxviii. 4. 

9, lo. Brake: the old preterite of break. 

9, II. What shall I do? Bunyan refers to a passage from the 
account of the Day of Pentecost: 

Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and 
said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what 
shall we do? Acts ii. 37. 

9, 12. The passage beginning, "In this plight," and ending, 
" What shall I do to be saved," 10, 21, was added by Bunyan 
in the second edition. 

ID, 2. Frenzy distemper. Frenzy, a rare and colloquial use 
of the noun as an adjective; distemper, illness or ailment, now 
chiefly confined to an ailment of dogs. 

i82 Notes and Comment 

10, lo. Surly carriages: surly behavior. 

The grievous distress of Christian under his first conviction of 
sin is drawn from the fife; see the account of Bunyan's own con- 
version, Introduction, p. xiv-xvi. 

10, 21. What shall I do to be saved? Bunyan gives a reference 
to the story of St. Paul's deliverance from prison, and the con- 
version of the keeper of the prison, which ends: 

Then he called for a light, and sprang in, and came trembling, an* 
fell down before Paul and Silas, and brought them out, and said, Sirs, 
what must I do to be saved? Acts xvi. 2Q-30. 

10, 29. And after that to come to judgment: 

And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judg- 
ment. Hebrews ix. 27. 

10, 30. Not willing to do the first, nor able to do the second: 
Job xxvii. 21-22; Ezekiel xxii. 14. 

Early editions, after the fourth, had a number of quaint illustra- 
tions with verses below, which were undoubtedly written by Bunyan 
himself. At this point was one of Evangelist, with the verse: 

Christian no sooner leaves the world, but meets 
Evangelist, who lovingly him greets, 
With tidings of another; and doth show 
Him how to mount to that from this below. 

11, 2. Tophet: 

For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he 
hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the 
breath of the Lord, hke a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it. Isaiah 
XXX. 33. 

And he (Josiah) defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children 
of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass 
through the fire to Molech. 2 Kings xxiii. 10. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

Tophet became a type of Hell. 
11,8. Fly from the wrath to come: 

But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his 
baptism, he said unto them, generation of vipers, who hath warned 
you to flee from the wrath to come? Matthew Hi. 7. . 

II, 13. Yonder wicket-gate : 

Notes and Comment 183 

Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is 
the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in 
thereat: because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth 
unto life, and few there be that find it. Matthew vii. 13-14. 

A wicket-gate is a small gate, often one set into a larger gate. 
II, 15. Yonder shining light: 

Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path. Psalm 
cxix. 105. 

We have also a more sure prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye 
take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day 
dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts. 2 Peter i. ig. 

II, 23. But the man put his fingers in his ears, and ran on: 

If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and 
wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, 
he cannot be my disciple. Luke xiv. 26. 

II, 24. So he looked not behind him, etc.: from the story of 
Lot's escape from Sodom. 

And it came to pass when they had brought them forth abroad, that 
he said. Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither sta}' thou in all 
the plain: escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed. Genesis 
xix. 17. 

11, 26. The neighbors also came out to see him run: Jere- 
miah XX. 10. 

12, 12. Is not worthy to be compared with a little of that 
which I am seeking to enjoy: 2 Corinthians iv. 18. 

12, 15. For there where I go is enough and to spare. Bunyan 
refers to the parable of the prodigal son. 

And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of 
my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger. 
Luke XV. 17. 

12, 16. Prove: test or try. 

12, 19. I seek an inheritance incorruptible: 

To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not 
away, reserved in heaven for you. i Peter i. 4. 

12, 20. And it is laid up in heaven: Hebrews xi. 16. 
12, 26. I have laid my hand to the plow: 

184 Notes and Comment 

And Jesus said to him, No man, having put his hand to the plow, and 
looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God. Luke ix. 62. 

12, 30. Take a fancy by the end: a homely figure, drawn from 
the spinning wheel. 

12, 31. Are wiser in their own eyes: 

The sluggard is wiser in his own conceit than seven men that can 
render a reason. Proverbs xxvi. 16. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

13,11. Confirmed by the blood of him that made it : Hebrews ix. 

14, 10. By Him that cannot lie: 

In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before 
the world began. Titus i. 2. 

14, 13. An endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlasting 
life to be given us: Isaiah xlv. 17; Johfi x. 27-29. 
14, 17. Crowns of glory, etc.: 

Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which 
the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me 
only, but unto all them also that love his appearing. 2 Timothy iv. 8. 

Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their 
garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy. 
Revelation Hi. 4. 

Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of 
their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. Matthew xiii. 43. 

14, 21. No more crying nor sorrow: 

He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord God will wipe 
away tears from off all faces; and the rebuke of his people shall he take 
away from off all the earth: for the Lord hath spoken it. Isaiah xxv. 8. 

And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall 
be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any 
more pain: for the former things are passed away. Revelation xxi. 4. 
See also Revelation vii. //. 

14, 25. Seraphims and cherubims: 

In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a 
throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it 
stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered 
his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did 
fly. Isaiah vi. 1-2. 

Notes and Comment 185 

Seraphim and cherubim are already plural in Hebrew. 
14, 27. Thousands and tens of thousands . . . every one walk- 
ing in the sight of God : 

For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with 
the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead 
in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be 
caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: 
and so shall we ever be with the Lord. / Thessalonians iv. 16-17. 

And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the 
throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten 
thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands. Revelation 

14, 3 1 . The elders with their golden crowns : 

And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon 
the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; 
and they had on their heads crowns of gold. Revelation iv. 4. 

14, 32. The holy virgins with their golden harps: Revelation xiv. 


14, 7,2,. Men that by the world were cut in pieces: John xii. 25. 

15, 2. Clothed with immortality: 

For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our 
house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be 
found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being bur- 
dened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that 
mortality might be swallowed up of life. 2 Corinthians v. 2-4. 

15, 7. The Lord . . . hath recorded that in this book the 
substance of which is ... he will bestow it on us freely: Isa- 
iah Iv. 12; John vi. 37, vi'i. jy; Revelation xxi. 6, xxii. ly. 

The Slough of Despond. Bunyan knew the Slough of Despond 
himself only too vividly. For four years after he first turned to 
religion he was tortured by doubts as to whether his sins were not 
too gross to be forgiven and his nature too depraved for him to 
receive the grace of God. See Introduction, p. xv. But the truth 
and suggestiveness of the Slough of Despond go far beyond the 
Puritan system of theology to universal human nature. Every 
one knows how, when he tries to break up old habits and to live 
in a new way, the old habits and the old memories stick to him and 
clog every step forward. 

1 86 Notes and Comment 

15, 30. Alone for me: alone for all I care. 

16, 15. The next way: the nearest way. 
16, 18. And he drew him out: 

He brought me up also out of aa horrible pit, out of the miry clay, 
and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings. Psalm xl. 2. 

16, 28. Conviction for sin. The phrase is used for the sinner's 
sense of the heinousness of his ways when he begins to repent. 

17, I. It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should 
remain so bad: Isaiah xxxv. 3-4. 

17, 3. His Majesty's surveyors: the writers of the Bible, by 
whose teachings all later instruction is directed. The sixteen 
hundred years are the period that had elapsed from the life of 
Jesus to the time of Bunyan. 

17, 21. To purpose: thoroughly, or as we say to-day, to good 

17, 22. The ground is good: i Samuel xii. 23. 

17, 32. So Pliable sat sneaking among them. A good example 
of the vividness with which Bunyan saw all the scenes of his 
story. If he had lived to-day this faculty might have made him 
a great novelist. Compare the description of the life and death 
of Mr. Badman, Introduction, p. xxiii-xxiv. 

17, 34. Turned their tales: turned their talk from Pliable to 
the foolhardiness of Christian. 

18, 3. The whole episode of Mr. Worldly Wiseman, from 
" Now as Christian was walking soHtarily by himself," 18, 3, to 
" So in process of time," 26, 26, was added in the second edition. 

Worldly Wiseman stood in Bunyan's mind as the type of the 
prosperous and conservative citizen and member of the established 
church, to whom religion meant chiefly going to regular services 
and observing all the outward ceremonies of the church. Compare 
Grace Abounding, where he tells that when he first began to read 
religious books, "they did be^t within me some desires to religion. 
So that, because I knew no better, I fell in very eagerly with the 
rehgion of the times: to wit, to go to church twice a day, and that 
too with the foremost; and there should very devoutly, both say 
and sing as others did, yet retaining my wicked life. But withal, 
I was so overrun with the spirit of superstition, that I adored, and 

Notes and Comment 187 

that with great devotion, even all things (both the High-place, 
priest, clerk, vestments, service, and what else), belonging to the 
church; counting all things holy that were therein contained; and 
especially the priest and clerk most happy and without doubt greatly 
blessed, because they were the servants, as I then thought, of God, 
and were principal in the holy temple, to do his work therein." 

18, 29. Methinks I am as if I had none: 

But this I say, brethren, the time is short: it remaineth, that both thej' 
that have wives be as though they had none. / Corinthians vii. 2Q. 
(Not cited by Bunyan.) 

19, 24. Wearisomeness, painfulness, etc. It is to be noted 
that almost all of this prophecy of Mr. Worldly Wiseman came 
true. Bunyan never blinked the fact that the seeker after right- 
eousness has no broad and easy way to travel. 

20, 21. The village is named Morality. See the note on 18, 3, 

20, 30. Presently: immediately, at once; not as now, after 
a while. 

20, 32. Pretty. In Bunyan's time this word was nearer in 
meaning to our handsome, and could be applied to a man with- 
out implying lack of manliness. 

20, 32. To his son: an obsolete idiom. 

20, 33. To speak on: so to speak. 

21, 7. There thou shalt live by honest neighbors, in credit 
and good fashion. This sounds like the advice that was given 
to Bunyan when he was first arrested. See his Relation of the Im- 
prisonment; especially where he tells us how Mr. Foster of Bed- 
ford, a friend of the justice, said to him, "That was none of my 
(Bunyan's) work; I must follow my calling, and if I would but 
leave off preaching, and follow my calling, I should have the jus- 
tice's favor, and be acquitted presently." Great numbers of earnest 
and pious Englishmen of the established church must have looked 
on the fact that Bunyan, a tinker, who had not been ord&ined by a 
bishop, was a preacher and the pastor of a church, as a profanation 
of the holy things of God. In the catechism of that church, under 
the head of duty to one's neighbor, are included the precepts, "to 
submit myself to all my governors, teachers, spiritual pastors and 

1 88 Notes and Comment 

masters; to order myself lowly and reverently to all my betters; . . . 
to do my duty in that state of life, unto which it shall please God to 
call me." In our happier times men of all Christian churches can 
work together; in Bunyan's day diflferences in theology destroyed 
sympathy and mutual understanding. 

21, 15. Mount Sinai: the symbol for the law of Moses. Ac- 
cording to the teachings of Calvinism, no man can keep the whole of 
the old law, nor escape the consequences of breaking it without 
the mercy granted through Christ. The attempt of the sinner, 
therefore to find justification by strict observance of the old law 
can lead only to disaster. See 25, 6, and the comment on it. 

21, 27. Flashes of fire out of the hill: 

And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there 
were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and 
the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that 
was in the camp trembled. . . . And Mount Sinai was altogether on a 
smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke 
thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount 
quaked greatly. Exodus odx. 16, 18. 

21, 29. Quake for fear: 

And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear 
and quake. Hebrews xii. 21. 

Here in editions after the fourth was another illustration, with 

the verse: 

When Christians unto carnal men give ear. 
Out of their way they go, and pay for't dear; 
For Master Worldly Wiseman can but show 
A saint the way to bondage and to woe. 

23, II. " See that ye refuse not," etc.: Hebrews xii. 25. 
23, 15. " Now the just shall live," etc.: Hebrews x. 38. 
23, 24. *' All of manner of sin," etc.: Matthew xii. 31. 

23, 25. " Be not faithless," etc.: John xx. 27. 

24, I. He savoreth only the doctrine of this world, i John iv. 
5. Savoreth; to have the flavor or quality of- 

24, 3. It saveth him best from the cross: Galatians vi. 12. 
24, 16. " Strive to enter in," etc.: Luke xiii. 24. 
24, 17. " Strait is the gate," etc.: Matthew vii. 14. 

Notes and Comment 189 

24, 25. Before the treasures in Egypt: 

Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to 
enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; Esteeming the reproach of Christ 
greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the 
recompense of the reward. Hebrews xi. 25, 26. 

24, 27. He that will save his life shall lose it: 

For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall 
lose his Hfe for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it. Mark 
via. js- See also John xii. 25, Matthew x. jg. 

24, 28. *' He that cometh after me," etc.: Li{ke xiv. 26. 

25, 6. The bondwoman: 

Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? 
For it is written that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, 
the other by a freewoman. But he who was of the bondwoman was 
born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. Which 
things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from 
the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this 
Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, 
and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is 
free, which is the mother of us all. For it is written, Rejoice, thou 
barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: 
for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an 
husband. Galatians iv. 21-27. 

25, 26. "As many as are of the works of the law," etc.: 
Galations Hi. 10. 

25, 32. Still: constantly. 

26, 16. Lest thou perish from the way: 

Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his 
wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust 
in him. Psalm ii. 12. 

26, 28. ♦* Knock, and it shall be opened unto you ": Matthew 
vii. 7. 

After this line in early editions after the fourth there is an 
illustration, with the verse: 

He that will enter in must first without 
Stand knocking at the gate, nor need he doubt 
That is a knocker but to enter in; 
For God can love him, and forgive his sin. 

190 Notes and Comment 

27, 15. Beelzebub: 

But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the 
chief of the devils. Luke xi. 15. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

In Paradise Lost Milton makes Beelzebub second in rank to 

27, 18. Happily: by good chance, i. e., from Beelzebub's point 
of view. 

28, 25. Betterment betwixt him and myself: no choice between 
us. Betterment is now an unusual word, except in a technical 
legal sense. 

28, 30. He would have had you a sought. The a, which stands 
for to have, is one of the natural contractions of homely, every- 
day speech. 

29, 9. Dumps: a homely word, which, however, is more homely 
to-day than it was in Bunyan's time. 

29, 17. In no wise cast out: 

All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh 
to me I will in no wise cast out. John vi. 37. 

29, 28. Butt down upon this: abut on. 

30, 8. That by that he was gone : that by the time he was gone. 
30, ID. Interpreter seems to be a figure for the ministers of 

the gospel, who help searchers to find the truth, and give them 
comfort in their trials. One thinks of the comfort and illumination 
that the saintly John Gifford brought to Bunyan himself when he 
was still struggling towards the light. See Introduction, p. xvi-xvii. 
30, 28. Excellent things : 

Hear; for I will speak of excellent things; and the openings of my lips 
shall be right things. Proverbs viii. 6. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

31,1. The picture of a very grave person. Among the familiar 
works of edification in Bunyan's time were "divine emblems," 
which were usually short poems appended to quaint and often 
elaborate illustrations. The Emblems Divine and AI oral, of Francis 
Quarles, published in 1635, are among the best known. In this 
work Quarles annotates or expounds a number of texts of Scripture 
by short poems which describe curiously elaborate pictures, in a 

Notes and Comment 191 

manner not very different from Interpreter's. The seventeenth 
century exercised much ingenuity in the invention of allegories, 
emblems, and "conceits" or fantastic figures of speech, 

31, 9. The man whose picture this is: St. Paul, in whose epistles 
are found more expositions of difificult theological doctrine than in 
the books of any other writer of the Bible. 

For though ye have ten thousand instructers in Christ, yet have ye 
not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the 
gospel. I Corinthians iv. !$■ 

My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be 
formed in you. Galalians iv. ig. 

32, II. He that began to sweep at first is the law. Compare 
the symbolism of Christian's going astray to Mount Sinai, p. 21, and 
the comment thereon. For the present passage Bunyan cites Ro- 
mayis vii. 6, i Corinthians xv. 56, and Romans v. 20. 

32, 21. Sawest the damsel sprinkle the room. For this para- 
graph Bunyan cites John xv. j, Ephesians v. 26, Acts xv. p, Ro- 
mans .xvi. 25-26, John XV. ij. 

33, 3. The Governor of them: the tutor. 

33, 16. Figures: symbols. 

34, 12. " Thou in thy lifetime," etc.: Ltike xvi. 25. 

34, 18. " For the things that are seen," etc.: 2 Corinthians iv. 

35, 9. Christ . . . maintains the work: 

And he said unto me, My grace is sufScient for thee: for my strength 
is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory 
in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. 2 Co- 
rinthians xii. 9. 

36, 8. He cut his way through them all: Acts xiv. 22. 

36, 21. Despair like an iron cage. This whole description has 
much in common with Bunyan's account of his own spiritual 
torments, in the Grace Abounding. 

36, 32. A fair and flourishing professor: professor, one who has 
publicly professed his religious faith. 

They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word 
with joy; and these have no root, which for a time believe, and in time 
of temptation fall away. Luke viii. ij. 

192 Notes and Comment 

37, 21. I have crucified him: 

If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing 
they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an 
open shame. Hebrews vi. 6. 

37, 22. I have despised his person: 

But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying. We 
will not have this man to reign over us. Luke xix. 14. 

37, 23. I have counted his blood an unholy thing: 

He that despised Moses' lav/ died without mercy under two or three 
witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be 
thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath 
counted the blood of the covenant, wherein he was sanctified, an unholy 
thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? Hebrews x. 28-29. 

38, 21. This night ... I dreamed. For this dream Bunyan 
cites a number of passages, from which most of the details are drawn: 
I Corinthians xv.; i Thessalonians iv.; Jiide ij; John v. 28; 2 Thes- 
salonians i. 8; Revelation xx. 11-15; Isaiah xxvi, 21; Micah vii. 16- 
ly; Psalm v. 1-3. 

38, 25. Rack: to fly as vapor, or broken clouds. — International 

39, 2. By reason of a fierce flame that issued out: 

But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when 
he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' sope: And he 
shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of 
Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the 
Lord an offering in righteousness. Malachi Hi. 2-3. 

I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did 
sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the 
pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning 
fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth before him: thousand thou- 
sands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood 
before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. Daniel 
vii. g-io. 

39, 7. Gather together the tares, etc. : 

Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and 
gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with un- 
quenchable fire. Matlhew Hi. 12. 

Notes and Comment 193 

Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of the 
harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and 
bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn. 
Matthew xiii. 30. 

For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and the 
proud, yea, and all they that do wickedly shall be stubble: and the day 
that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall 
leave them neither root nor branch. Malachi iv. i. 

39, 13. Catched up: an old and colloquial form of the participle, 
not now in good use. 

Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together 
with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we 
ever be with the Lord, i Thessalonians iv. 17. 

39, 17. My conscience did accuse me: 

For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the 
things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto 
themselves: which show the work of the law written in their hearts, 
their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another. Romans ii. 14-15. 

40, 13. That wall was called Salvation: 

In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah; We have a 
strong city; salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks. Isaiah 
xxvi. I. 

40, 19. His burden loosed from off his shoulders. In the 

Calvinistic theology, which was accepted by all parties among the 
Puritans, forgiveness for sin, whether for the original sin under 
which all mankind were held to lie or for the individual sins com- 
mitted by each human being, came only through the free grace of 
God through the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. Hence Christian's 
burden falls without his having any share in the loosening of it, and 
rolls into the sepulcher of Christ. 

40, 30. Sent the waters down his cheeks: Zechariah xii. 10. 

40, 33. ** Thy sins be forgiven thee": Mark ii. 5. 

41, I. With change of raiment: 

And he answered and spake unto those that stood before him, saying, 
Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him he said. Be- 
hold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe 
thee with change of raiment, Zechariah Hi. 4. 

194 Notes and Comment 

41, I. Set a mark on his forehead: 

And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of 
the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to 
whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying. Hurt not the 
earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of 
our God in their foreheads. Revelation vii. 2-3. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

41, 2. A roll with a seal upon it: 

In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the 
gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were 
sealed with that holy Spirit of promise. Ephesians i. 13. 

41, 4. So they went their way. After this sentence, in early 
editions after the fourth stood an illustration with the verse: 

Who's this? the Pilgrim. How! 'tis very true, 
Old things are pass'd away, all's become new. 
Strange! He's another man, upon my word. 
They be fine feathers that make a fine bird. 

41, 20. Case: condition. 

41, 22. Like them that sleep on the top of a mast: 

Yea, thou shalt be as he that lieth down in the midst of the sea, or 
as he that lieth upon the top of a mast. Proverbs xxiii. 34. 

41, 26. Goeth about like a roaring lion: 

Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring 
lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour, i Peter v. 8. 

41, 31. Fat: vat, or tub. 

42, 8. Formahst and Hypocrisy. One of the most deep-rooted 
and fervently held principles of the Puritans was their objection 
to all set forms of worship, which they believed led inevitably 
to a deadening of the, spiritual life. 

42, 17. " But climbeth up some other way," etc. : John x. i. 

43, 12. Doubt: suspect or fear; an obsolete meaning of the word. 
43, 26. By laws and ordinanaces: 

Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by 
the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ 
that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the 
works of the law : for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. 
Galatians it. 16. 

Notes and Comment 195 

44, 7. A roll, sealed: with a seal to give it authority, not to 
close it. 

44, 10. All which things, I doubt, you want: I think that you 

44, 27. Went to the spring: 

They shall not hunger nor thirst: neither shall the heat nor the sun 
smite them: for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the 
springs of water shall he guide them. Isaiah xlix. lo. 

45, 12. Dark mountains : 

Give glory to the Lord your God, before he cause darkness, and be- 
fore your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, and while ye look for 
light, he turn it into the shadow of death, and make it gross darkness. 
Jeremiah xiii. i6. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

45, 13. And rose no more. After this line in early editions 
after the fourth was an illustration, with the verse: 

Shall they who wrong begin yet rightly end? 
Shall they at all have safety for their friend? 
No, no; in headstrong manner they set out. 
And headlong will they fall at last no doubt. 

45) 15- Going: walking. 

45, 17. (Margin). Ward of grace. Ward means a place that 
is guarded. 

45> 30- *' Go to the ant," etc.: Proverbs vi. 6. 

46, I. Amain: with all their strength. 

46, 10. Lions in the way. Compare, " The slothful man saith, 
There is a lion in the way." Proverbs xxvi. ij. (Not cited by 

46, 25. Christian missed his roll. In his joy at being on the 
right way Christian grows overconfident, and forgets to turn to 
God for guidance. 

47, II. But that sight renewed his sorrow: Revelation ii. 5; 
I Thessalonians v. y-S. 

47, 20. Have I took in vain. Took is an old, colloquial form 
of the participle, now obsolete. 

47, 21. Sent back again by way of the Red Sea. When the 
people of Israel, coming out of Egypt, shrank back from the danger of 

196 Notes and Comment 

conquering the promised land of Canaan, and murmured against 
the rule of Moses, the Lord sent them back to wander forty years in 
the wilderness of the Red Sea. See Numbers xiv. 

48, I. Gotten: an archaic form of the participle, which after 
being in good use in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
dropped out of reputable usage, but within the last few years 
seems to be reestablishing itself. 

48, 13. The noise of the doleful creatures: 

But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be 
full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall 
dance there. Isaiah xiii. 21. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

48, 14. My sinful sleep: i Thessalonians v. 6-7. 

48, 19. How should I shift them: get rid of them. 

49, I. Whose name is Watchful: Mark xiii. 34. 

49, 8. Then I saw that he went on. Before this line early 
editions after the fourth have an illustration with the verse: 

Difficulty is behind, Fear is before. 
Though he's got on the hill, the lions roar; 
A Christian man is never long at ease. 
When one fright's gone, another doth him seize. 

49, 23. Japheth: 

God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; 
and Canaan shall be his servant. Genesis ix. 27. 

49, 27. Wretched man that I am: 

O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death? Romans vii. 24. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

50, 5. Came out at the door: an old idiom, for which we use 
came out of. 

50, 27. Come in, thou blessed of the Lord: from the story of 
Isaac and Rebecca. 

And he said, Come in, thou blessed of the Lord; wherefore standest 
thou without? for I have prepared the house and room for the camels. 
Genesis xxiv. 31. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

52, 24. Broidered: an obsolete form for which we use em- 

Notes and Comment 197 

53, 14. Truly, if I had been mindful of that country ... an 
heavenly: a direct quotation from Hebrews xi. 15-16, except 
that the third person plural is changed to the first singular. 

53, 21. (Margin) Christian distasted with: disgusted with. 

53, 26. But when I would be doing that which is best: 

If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law that it is 
good. Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. 
For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing: 
for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I 
find not. For the good that I would I do not: but the evil that I would 
not, that I do. Romans vii. i6-ig. 

54, 13. There is no death: 

He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord God will wipe 
away tears from off all faces; and the rebuke of his people shall he take 
away from off all the earth: for the Lord hath spoken it. Isaiah xxv. 8. 

And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be 
no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any 
more pain: for the former things are passed away. Revelation xxi. 4. 

54, 17. The company that shall continually cry, Holy, Holy, 
Holy: a reminiscence of one of the most splendid passages of the 
Book of Revelation: 

And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they 
were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, 
holy, holy. Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come. 
And when those beasts give glory and honor and thanks to him that 
sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, the four and twenty 
elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him 
that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, 
saying, thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: 
for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were 
created. Revelation iv. 8-1 1. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

54, 19. The whole passage about Christian's family, 54, 19 to 
56, 8, was added in the second edition. 
54, 32. As one that mocked: 

And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in law, which married his 
daughters, and said, Up, get you out of this place; for the Lord will 
destroy this city. But he seemed as one that mocked unto his sons in 
law. Genesis xix. 14. 

198 Notes and Comment 

55, 25. Conversation: conduct, as well as talk. 

56, 3. ** Because his own works were evil," etc.: i John in. 12. 
56, 8. Thou hast delivered thy soul: 

Yet if thou warn the wicked, and he turn not from his wickedness, 
nor from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but thou hast de- 
livered thy soul. Ezekiel in. ig. 

56, 12. With fat things, and with wine that was well refined: 

And in this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people a 
feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of mar- 
row, of wines on the lees well refined. Isaiah xxv. 6. (Not cited by 

56, 19. Him that had the power of death: 

Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he 
also himself took part of the same; that through death he might destroy 
him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them 
who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 
Hebrews ii. 14-15. 

57, I . Made many pilgrims princes : 

He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar 
from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them in- 
herit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the Lord's, and 
he hath set the world upon them, i Samuel ii. 8. See also Psalm 
cxiii. 7-8. 

57, 3. Original: origin. 

57, 23. Ancient of Days: from Daniel vii. g. See note on 39, 2. 

57, 31. " Subdued kingdoms," etc.: Hebrews xi. jj, 34. 

58, 16. Furniture: armor and equipment. Bunyan makes 
allusion here to the well-known passage in Ephesians vi. in which 
St. Paul describes "the whole armor of God," and of the shorter 
passage, i Thessalonians v. 8. All-prayer Bunyan seems to have 
coined from the verse: 

Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and 
watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all 
saints. Ephesians vi. 18. 

58, 19. Harness: equip or arm. Harness as a noun originally 
meant armor. 
58, 22. Engines: instruments. 

Notes and Comment 199 

58, 24. Moses' rod, etc. Most of these " engines " appear in 
familiar stories of the Old Testament. The story of Moses' rod is 
found in the early part of Exodus, beginning with ch. iv.\ that of Jael 
and her killing of Sisera by driving a nail through his head as he 
slept in her tent in Judges iv.; that of Gideon's putting to Alight 
the hosts of Midian by the pitchers, lamps, and trumpets in Judges 
vii. Shamgar is mentioned in a single verse, Judges Hi. ji. The 
account of how Samson slew a thousand men with the jawbone of 
an ass is found in Judges xv. 14-17; and that of the death of Goliath 
in I Samuel xvii. The Man of Sin, a mystical or symbolical figure, 
appears in 2 Thessalonians ii. 3-10. 

59, 6. The Delectable Mountains: one of Bunyan's happiest 
inventions. Delectable occurs only once in the Bible, and then 
in another connection. 

59, 12. At a great distance: 

He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall be the munitions of 
rocks: bread shall be given him, his waters shall be sure. Thine eyes 
shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very 
far ofif. Isaiah xxxiii. 16-17. 

59, 17. Immanuel's Land: the form of the name in the Old 
Testament, Isaiah vii. 14 and viii. 8, where it comes directly from 
the Hebrew. In Matthew i. 2j, the only other place in which it 
occurs, it is spelled Emmanuel, following the Greek, from which 
the New Testament is translated. 

59, 26. With what was of proof: armor that had been tested. 

60, 17. Valley of Humiliation: another of Bunyan's phrases 
which has grown into the language, almost as if it came from the 

60, 24. A loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins. 
These are the provisions which Ziba, the servant of Mephibosheth, 
brought to David when the latter was driven out of Jerusalem by 
Absalom. See 2 Samuel xvi. i. 

60, 29. Apollyon: a Greek word, meaning destroyer. See the 
next note. 

61, 5. The monster was hideous to behold: 

And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless 
pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek 

200 Notes and Comment 

tongue hath his name ApoUyon. Revelation ix. ii. (Not cited by 

And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were 
as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the 
dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. Revela- 
tion xiii. 2. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

(From the description of Leviathan.) His scales are his pride, shut 
up together as with a close seal. Job xli. 15. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

61, 24. " For the wages of sin is death ": Romans vL 23. 

62, 13. Nonage: minority or legal infancy, when no contracts 
binding at law can be made; from non, not, and age. 

64, I. Then ApoUyon straddled quite over the whole breadth 
of the way. A famous passage. Note how many words of action, 
drawn chiefly from the Anglo-Saxon, are used. 

64, 6. A shield in his hand: 

Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to 
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. Ephesians vi. 16. (Not cited 
by Bunyan.) 

64, 23. Christian's sword: 

And the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Ephesians vi. 
17. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

64, 30. " Rejoice not against me," etc. : Micah vii. 8. 

64, 34. " Nay, in all these things," etc.: Romans viii. 37. 

65, 3. And sped him away: 

Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. James iv. 7. 

65, 13. But 'twas the dreadfuUest sight that ever I saw. Here 
in early editions after the fourth was an illustration with the verse: 

A more unequal match can hardly be, — 
Christian must fight an angel;. but you see, 
The valiant man by handling sword and shield. 
Doth make him, though a dragon, quit the field. 

65, 28. The leaves of the tree of life : 

In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was 
there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded 
her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing 
of the nations. Revelation xxii. 2. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

Notes and Comment 201 

66, 3. Affront: assault; from the Latin ad frontem, " face to 

66, 8. The prophet Jeremiah thus describes it. From Jere- 
miah ii. 6, slightly changed. See the note on 67, 9. 

66, 17. Children of them that brought back an evil report of 
the good land. When the children of Israel, approaching the 
land of Canaan, sent forward twelve spies to view the land, all 
the spies except Caleb and Joshua brought back the report that 
the land was too strong to attack. See Numbers xiii. 30-jj. 

66, 29. Valley of the Shadow of Death: 

Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered 
us with the shadow of death. Psalm xliv. iq. 

Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, being bound in 
affiction and iron. Psalm cvii. 10. 

66, 34. Satyrs. See Isaiah xiii. 21, quoted in the note on 48, 13. 

67, 4. Clouds of confusion: Job Hi. 5; x. 22. 
67, 9. This is my way: 

Neither said they, Where is the Lord that brought us up out of the 
land of Egypt, that led us through the wilderness, through a land of 
deserts and of pits, through a land of drought, and of the shadow of 
death, through a land that no man passed through, and where no man 
dwelt? Jeremiah ii. 6. 

67, 16. A very deep ditch: 

Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink: let me be delivered 
from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters. Let not the 
waterflood overflow me, neither let the deep swallow me up, and let 
not the pit shut her mouth upon me. Psalm Ixix. 14-15. 

67, 21. Into that quag King David once did fall : 

Save me, O God, for the waters are come in unto my soul. I sink in 
deep mire, where there is no standing: I am come into deep waters, 
where the floods overflow me. Psalm Ixix 1-2. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

67, 2>2,- He knew not where or upon what he should set next. 
Here, in early editions after the fourth, was an illustration with 
the verse: 

Poor man! where art thou now? thy day is night. 
Good man, be not cast down, thou yet art right. 
Thy way to heaven lies by the gates of hell; 
Cheer up, hold out, with thee it shall go well. 

202 Notes and Comment 

68, 8. All-prayer: see the note on 58, 16. 

68,9. "O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul": Psalm 

cxvi. 4. 

69, I. And whisperingly suggested many grievous blasphemies 
to him. Here Bunyan is again drawing from his own experience. 
In Grace Abounding he tells us in great detail of the tortures he 
suffered from the voices which came to him suggesting various 
blasphemies for him to utter. For example, "The tempter came 
upon me again, and that with a more grievous and dreadful tempta- 
tion than before; and that was, to sell and part with this most 
blessed Christ, to exchange him for the things of this life, for any 
thing ... It did always, in almost whatever I thought intermix 
itself therewith, in such sort that I could neither eat my food, stoop 
for a pin, chop a stick, or cast mine eye to look on this or that, but 
still the temptation would come. Sell Christ for this, or sell Christ 
for that; sell him, sell him." 

69,11. "Though I walk through the valley," etc.: Psalm 
xxiii. 4. 

69, 19. Though . . . I cannot perceive it : 

Lo, he goeth by me, and I see him not: he passeth on also, but I 
perceive him not. Job ix. 11. 

69, 26. He hath turned the shadow of death into the morn- 

Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the 
shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with 
night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out 
upon the face of the earth: The Lord is his name. Amos v. 8. 

70, 3. " He discovereth the deep things," etc.: Job xii. 22. 
70, 16. Gins: snares; a contraction of engine. 

70, 21. His candle shineth upon my head, etc.: quoted, with 
shght changes, from Job xxix. j. 

71, 7. The avenger of blood. The phrase comes from the 
provision in Deuteronomy for cities of refuge to which a man 
who had killed another by accident could flee for refuge. See 
Deuteronomy xix. 

71, ID. Overrun: outrun. 

Notes and Comment 203 

71, 10. So the last was first: 

So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but 
few chosen. Matthew xx. i6. 

72, 20. Set him on work. The modern idiom is set him to work. 
72, 26. His enemies to hiss at him: Jeremiah xxix. i8-ig. 

72, 29. He leered away on the other side: colloquial for he 
slunk of with a sidelong glance. 

72, 34. " It is happened to him according to the true proverb," 
etc.: 2 Peter ii. 22. 

73, 16. For the episode of Joseph and Potiphar's wife see 
Genesis xxxix. 

73, 28. The abhorred of the Lord: 

The mouth of strange women is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the 
Lord shall fall therein. Proverbs xxii. 14. 

73, 34. " Her steps take hold on hell ": Proverbs v. 5. 

74, I . So I shut mine eyes : 

I made a covenant with mine eyes; why then should I think upon a 
maid? Job xxxi. i. 

74, 12. Adam the First: 

That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, 
which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts. Ephesians iv. 22. 

74, 2 1 . He had but three daughters : 

For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the 
eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world*. 
I John it. 16. 

74, 3 1 . " Put off the old man " : 

Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with 
his deeds. Colossians Hi. g. 

75,9. "O wretched man": Romans vii. 24. See the note 
on 49, 27. 

75, 19. He was but a word and a blow. Compare with Faith- 
ful's experiences at the hands of Moses, Christian's fear that the 
hill Sinai, typifying the law of Moses, should fall on him and 
crush him; d. 21. 

204 Notes and Comment 

76, II. But for the lions, I think they were asleep. The differ- 
ences between Faithful's experiences here, and later in the Valley 
of Humiliation and in the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and those 
of Christian show Bun^^an's keen understanding of the varieties of 
human character and the experiences which result from it. 

77, 4. Before honor is humility: 

Before destruction the heart of man is haughtj^ and before honor 
is humility. Proverbs xviii. 12. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

77, 5. A haughty spirit before a fall: 

Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall. 
Proverbs xvi. 18. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

77, 23. That but few of the mighty, rich, or wise: 

For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after 
the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called. / Corinthians 
i. 26. 

Let p,o man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to 
be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. 
I Corinthians Hi. 18. 

But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a 
servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in 
fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, 
even the death of the cross. Philippians ii. 7-8. 

Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him? John 
vii. 48. 

78, II. *' That which is highly esteemed of men," etc.: Ltike 
xvi. 15, slightly changed. 

78, 28. Ashamed of his ways: 

Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this 
adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy 
angels. Mark viii. 38. 

79, 20, " The wise shall inherit glory," etc.: Proverbs Hi. 35. 

80, 15. And something more comely at a distance than at hand: 

a good instance of Bunyan's close and interested observation of 
men. Note the glib way in which Talkative uses the more con- 
ventional religious terms and phrases of the day, and the diffuse- 
ness of his talk. 

Notes and Comment 205 

82, 22. (Margin) Christian makes a discovery of Talkative: 
Christian exposes Talkative, 

83, I. Pretty. See note on 20, 32, above. 

83, 22. " They say and do not ": Matthew xxiii. j. 

" The kingdom of God," etc.: i Corinthians iv. 20. 
83, 29. As the white of an egg is of savor: 

Can that which is unsavory be eaten without salt? or is there any 
taste in the white of an egg? Job vi. 6. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

83, 32. The very stain, reproach, and shame of religion: Ro- 
mans a. 24-25. 

85, I. Well, I see that saying and doing are two things. The 

contrast between Faithful and Christian is drawn with much keen 
and shrewd perception of character in this whole episode of Talka- 
tive. Faithful is so simple and direct himself that he does not see 
the shallowness and hypocrisy of Talkative until Christian expounds 
it to him. In the same way, unHke Christian, he met only sunshine 
in the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Professor James in The Varie- 
ties of Religions Experience compares the faith of such believers to 
the clear blue of the sky. 

85, 7. " Pure religion and undefiled," etc.: James i. 27. 

85, 15. Judged according to their fruits. Bunyan cites here 
Matthew xiii. and xxv., in which are found the parables of the 
sower and of the talents. 

85, 24. The beast that is clean: Leviticus xi.; Deuteronomy xiv. 
This allegorical interpretation of this passage as symbolizing the 
union of moral and spiritual qualities is very much older than 
Bunyan, and is found in some of the early Fathers of the Church. 

86, 3. Sounding brass and tinkling C5rmbals; things without 
life, giving sound: 

Though I speak with the tongues of m€n and of angels, and have 
not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 
I Corinthians xiii. i. 

And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, 
except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what 
is piped or harped? i Corinthians xiv. 7. 

87, 17. You lie at the catch: you are lying in wait to catch me. 

2o6 Notes and Comment 

87, 24. The mysteries of the gospel : 

And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, 
and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove 
mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. / Corinthians xiii. 2. 

87, 28. Do you know all these things? 

If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them. John xiii. 17. 
(Not cited by Bunyan.) 

87, 32. He that knoweth his master's will. In spite of the 
form this is not a direct quotation. It is an allusion to the parable 
of the two brethren. Matthew xxi. 28-31. 

88,11. " Give me understanding," etc.: P^a/w c^ix. 54. 

88, 22. A work of grace in the soul. Faithful's discourse reads 
Hke such a sermon as Bunyan himself might have delivered, with 
its direct and homely application of theological doctrines, and its 
abundant references to Scripture. Bunyan's references are here 
appended : 

John xvi. 8; Romans vii. 24; John xvi. g; Mark xvi. 16. 
Psalm xxxviii. 18; Jeremiah xxxi. ig; Galatians ii. 16; Acts iv. 12; 
Matthew v. 6; Revelation xxi. 6. 

Romans x. 10; Philippians i. 27; Matthew v. ig. 

John xiv. 15; Psalm I. 23; Job xiii. 5-6; Ezekiel xx. 43. 

89, 28. Conversation: manner of life. See note on 55, 25. 

89i 33- "Not he that commendeth himself," etc.: 2 Corin- 
thians x. 18. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

91, 8. "From such withdraw thyself " : i Timothy vi. 5. 

91, 34. Wilderness: a region that is wild and deserted, but 
not necessarily barren. 

92, I. The whole of the passage containing the talk with 
Evangehst, from " Now, when they were got," 92, i, to " unto 
a faithful Creator," 94, 16, was added in the third edition. 

Almost quite out of: almost wholly out of. Quite is tending 
through long and general misuse to lose its meaning and value. 
92, 25. Arrived to: an obsolete idiom, for which we use arrive at. 
92, 32. I have sowed: 

And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life 
eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice 
together. John iv. 36. 

Notes and Comment 207 

And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, 
if we faint not. Galalians vi. 9. 

93, 2. The crown is before you: 

Know ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth 
the prize? So run, that ye may obtain. And every man that striveth 
for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a 
corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible. I therefore so run, not as 
uncertainly; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air: but I Ifeep under 
my body, and bring it into subjection: lest that by any means, when I 
have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. / Corinthians 
ix. 24-27. 

93, 5- Hold fast: 

Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man 
take thy crown. Revelation iit. 11. 

93, 13. Deceitful above all things: 

The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who 
can know it? Jeremiah xvii. 9. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

93, 14. Set your faces like a flint: 

For the Lord God will help me; therefore shall I not be confounded: 
therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be 
ashamed. Isaiah I. 7. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

93, 22. To which request Faithful also consented: agreed; 
consent was more active in meaning in Bunyan's time, and nearer 
to the Latin consentire. 

93, 27. In every city bonds and afflictions: 

Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds 
and afflictions abide me. Acts xx. 23. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

94, 2. Hardly: in its original sense of severely, stiffly. 
94, 5. Be you faithful unto death: 

Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil 
shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall 
have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give 
thee a crown of life. Revelation ii. 10. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

94, 14. Quit yourselves like men: 

Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like men, be strong. 
I Corinthians xvi. 13. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

2o8 Notes and Comment 

94, 20. Vanity Fair. Another famous phrase. Thackeray- 
took the name of his novel from it. Fairs had long been familiar 
institutions in England: it is probable that Bunyan had in mind 
the great fair which had been held for centuries at Sturbridge, near 
Cambridge, which lasted for weeks. "It was proclaimed by the 
Vice-Chancellor of the University, and opened with great state 
by the mayor and other members of the Corporation of Cambridge. 
It was of large extent, covering an area of half a square mile, and 
had its long line of booths named in rows after the forms of trafl&c 
there carried on. It had its Great One of the fair, its Court of 
Justice presided over by the mayor or his deputy, who was attended 
by his eight Redcoats or Runners. It was a vast emporium of com- 
merce. Mercers from France brought their silks, and Flemings 
from the Low Countries their woolens; traders from Scotland and 
from Kendal set forth with their packhorses on the road to be in 
time for the fair, while barges from London came round by Lynn 
and brought the merchandise of the city along the Ouse and the 
Cam. . . . When business was over it was succeeded by pleasure. 
Round the square, in the centre of which rose the great maypole with 
its vane at the top, there were coffee-houses, taverns, music-halls, 
buildings for the exhibition of drolls, legerdemain, mountebanks, 
wild beasts, monsters, dwarfs, giants, rope-dancers, and the like." 
Bunyan, by J. Brown, 270. 

94, 23. All that Cometh is vanity: 

Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is 
vanity. Ecclesiastes i. 2. See also Isaiah xl. 7. 

94, 30. Beelzebub: see note on 27, 15; Apollyon: see note on 
60, 29; Legion: from the story of the man with the unclean spirit 
in the country of the Gadarenes: see Mark v. 1-17. Verse g is as 

And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, 
My name is Legion: for we are many. 

95, 23. Lusty: gay, joyous. Compare the German lustig. 
95, 25. Must needs go out of this world: 

Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the 
covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go 
out of the world, i Corinthians v. 10. 

Notes and Comment 209 

95» 30- Would have made him lord of the fair: 

Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, 
and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; 
and saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall 
down and worship me. Matthew iv. 8-g. See also Luke iv. $-7. 

96, I. Cheapen: to bargain for. 

96, 16. Made a great gazing upon them: i Corinthians ii. 6-8. 

96, 17. Bedlams: madmen. The word is a corruption of Beth- 
lehem. The priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem in London was 
converted after the Reformation into a hospital for lunatics, 
which was long one of the sights of London. 

96, 18. Outlandish men: foreigners. Compare Dutch Uit- 

96, 22. The language of Canaan: that is, of the chosen people. 

96, 24. Barbarians: used in the classical sense for one who 
speaks a foreign tongue. This is its use in the New Testament, 
where Bunyan would have come to know it. Compare Romans 
i. 14: 

I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the 
wise, and to the unwise. 

96, 31. ** Turn away mine eyes," etc.: Psalm cxix. 37. 
96, 32. Their trade and traffic was in heaven: 

Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory 
is in their shame, who mind earthly things. For our conversation is in 
heaven; from whence also we look for the Savior, the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Philippians in. ig-20. 

96, 34. Carriages: behavior. 

97, 2. We buy the truth: 

Buy the truth, and sell it not; also wisdom, and instruction, and 
understanding. Proverbs xxiii. 23. 

97, 17. Pilgrims and strangers: from Hebrews xi. ij; see In- 
troduction, p. xxxi-xxxii. 

97, 22. Let: to hinder. Compare the idiom " without let or 
hindrance." The word has almost completely reversed its mean- 

2IO Notes and Comment 

97, 31. Made a spectacle to all the men of the fair. Here in 

early editions after the fourth was an illustration, with the verse: 

Behold Vanity Fair! the Pilgrims there 

Are chained and stand beside: 
Even so it was our Lord passed there, 

And on Mount Calvary died. 

98, I . Not rendering railing for railing : 

Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise 
blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit 
a blessing. / Peter Hi. g. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

98, 34. Concluded: determined upon. 

99, 8. The paragraph beginning " Here, therefore, they called 
again to mind," was added in the second edition. 

99, 23. Lord Hate-good: " The chairman of the bench was the 
brutal and blustering Sir John Keeling, the prototype of Bunyan's 
Lord Hate-good in Faithful's trial at Vanity Fair, who afterwards 
by his base subservience to an infamous government, climbed to 
the Lord Chief Justice's seat, over the head of Sir Matthew Hale." 
Bunyan, by Venables, 91. 

There is much in common between Bunyan's account of his own 
trial and his story of Faithful's trial. 

99, 28. Their indictment. After this in early editions after 
the fourth was an illustration, with the verse: 

Now Faithful, play the man, speak for thy God: 
Fear not the wicked's mahce, nor their rod: 
Speak boldly, man, the truth is on thy side: 
Die for it, and to life in triumph ride. 

100, 10. Pickthank: a flatterer. 

loi, 25. Spoke: an obsolete form of the participle. 

103, 13. Their males should be thrown into the river: from 
the oppression of the children of Israel by Pharaoh; see Exodus i. 

103, 16. Should be thrown into a fiery furnace: from the story 
of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego; see Daniel in. 

103, 19. Should be cast into the lions' den: from the story of 
Daniel; see Daniel vi. 

103, 29. The jury. The account of the trial is a masterpiece of 
satire, in no way exaggerated, on the brutaUty with which the 

Notes and Comment 211 

judges of the Restoration carried on the trials of the dissenters. The 
names of the jurymen have an extraordinary power of personifying 
them. Note the reahsm with which Bunyan clothes the brief judg- 
ment of each of them. At this period jurymen were expected to 
render their verdict as much on the basis of their own knowledge of 
the case as on the evidence put before them. 

104, 29. A Chariot and a couple of horses: drawn from the 
story of Elijah. 

And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, be- 
hold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted 
them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. 
2 Kings a. II. 

104, S3- The nearest way to the celestial gate. Here in editions 
after the fourth was an illustration, with the verse: 

Brave Faithful, bravely done in word and deed; 
Judge, witnesses, and jury have, instead 
Of overcoming thee, but shown their rage: 
When they are dead, thou'lt Hve from age to age. 

105, 29. Fair-speech: 

When he speaketh fair, believe him not: for there are seven abomina- 
tions in his heart. Proverbs xxvi. 25. 

106, 10. By-ends. Bunyan's interest in By-ends evidently 
grew, for he enlargW the part given to him in the second and third 
editions. The short passage from "Almost the whole town," 106, 10, 
to "by father's side," 106, 15, was added in the second edition; and 
the much longer passage describing the talk between By-ends and 
his company, from "Now I saw in my dream," 108, 10, to "rebuked 
by the flames of a devouring fire," 114, 5, was added in the third. 

Time-servers in matters of religion were plentiful in the troubled 
times of the seventeenth century: churchman had suffered at the 
hands af Puritan, and in Bunyan's later life Puritan was suffering 
at the hands of churchman; and on each side fines, confiscations, 
and imprisonment were the instruments used to enforce conformity. 

106, 25. To carry it: to behave. 

107, 17. To jump in my judgment with: to agree with. 

108, 14. Congee: a low bow; from the French conge. 

212 Notes and Comment 

io8, 2 2. Cozenage: cheating. 
109, 9. Righteous overmuch: 

Be not righteous over much; neither make thyself over wise: why 
shouldest thou destroy thyself? Ecclesiastes vii. 16. (Not cited by 

It is a characteristically shrewd touch of Bunyan's to make By- 
end's new company quote Scripture so freely. 
109, 27. Let us be wise as serpents: 

Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye 
therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. Matthew x. 16. 
(Not cited by Bunyan.) 

lie, 5. Lay up gold as dust: 

Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the 
stones of the brooks. Job xxii. 24. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

no, 29. Benefice: the pastorate of a church, endowed with 
funds to maintain the services. 

no, 31. Of getting of it: an obsolete idiom, now only heard in 
vulgar use. 

Ill, I. Provided he has a call: used in the Puritan sense of a 
religious call. Compare Romans i. i: Paul . . . called to be an 
apostle. The word is constantly used in this sense in St. Paul's 

111, 27. Get a rich wife. In the Life and Death of Mr. Bad- 
man, Bunyan makes the hero by pretending to be religious de- 
ceive a young woman " that was both godly and one that had a 
good portion " into marrying him. 

112, 28. Follow Christ for loaves: 

Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you. Ye 
seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the 
loaves, and were filled. John vi. 26. 

112, 30. Stalking-horse: a horse, or figure resembling a horse, 
behind which the hunter conceals himself from the game he is 
going to kill. — International Dictionary. 

113, 7. Read the whole story: Genesis xxxiv. 

Notes and Comment 213 

113, 10. To get widows' houses : 

Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love 
greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and 
the chief rooms at feasts; which devour widows' houses, and for a shew 
make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation. Luke xx. 

ii3» 13- Judas the devil: Judas Iscariot: 

This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a 
thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein. John xii. 6. 
(Not cited by Bunyan.) 

113, 17. Simon the Witch. Witch was formerly used of men as 
well as of women. For the story of Simon, " who bewitched the 
people of Samaria," see Acts viii. 

113, 23. Designed: had designs on. 

114, 20. Demas: 

For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and 
is departed unto Thessalonica. 2 Timothy iv. 10. (Not cited by 

Note the touch of reahsm in Bunyan's addition of the epithet 
"gentlemanhke"; it is as if instinctively he had to give a bodily 
presence to a character who in the Bible is hardly more than a name. 

115, 2. Hindered many: Hoseaiv. i8. 
115, 14. Roundly: peremptorily. 

115, 17. For thine own turning aside. See the note on 114, 20. 

115, 30. The story of Gehazi, who secretly took gifts from 
Naaman, and so incurred the curse of Elisha, is to be found in 
2 Kings V. 

For the story of Judas, see Matthew xxvi. 14-16, 47-50, xxvii. 3-10. 

116, I. Do him word: an obsolete idiom; we say to-day, bring 
him word. 

116, 16. The passage about Lot's wife, from " Now I saw that 
just on the other side " to " did they but lift up their eyes," 
117, 32, was added in the second edition. 

116, 31. The pillar of salt: 

But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar 
of salt. Genesis xix. 26. 

214 Notes and Comment 

117, 22. Korah, Dathan and Abiram. For this story see Num- 
bers xvi. Bunyan cites the summary of the incident in Numbers 
xxvi. g-io: 

And the sons of Eliab; Nemuel, and Dathan, and Abiram. This is 
that Dathan and Abiram, which were famous in the congregation, who 
strove against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korah, 
when they strove against the Lord: and the earth opened her mouth, 
and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died, 
what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men: and they be- 
came a sign. 

This summary is embedded in a dry genealogical hst of the fam- 
ihes of Israel: nothing could better show Bunyan's minute acquaint- 
ance with the Bible than his selection of it. 

118, 3. Cut purses. Purses were formerly worn hanging from 
the girdle, whence they could be readily cut off by a thief. 

118, 4. Sinners exceedingly: 

But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord ex- 
ceedingly. Genesis xiii. 13. 

118, 7. Like the garden of Eden: 

And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it 
was well watered every where, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and 
Gomorrah, even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as 
thou comest unto Zoar. Genesis xiii. 10. 

118, 21. A pleasant river: 

Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it: thou greatly enrichest it with 
the river of God, which is full of water: thou preparest them com, 
when thou hast so provided for it. Psalm Ixv. g. 

And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, pro- 
ceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of the 
street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, 
which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: 
and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. Revelation 
xxii. 1-2. 

Bunyan cites also Ezekiel xlvii. 1-12, the vision of the holy waters 
which issue from under the mystical temple of Ezekiel's vision. 
This passage deeply influenced the author of Revelation, as may 
be seen from v. 12: 

And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, 
shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the 

Notes and Comment 215 

fruit thereof be consumed: it shall bring forth new fruit according to his 
naonths, because their waters they issued out of the sanctuary: and the 
fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine. 

118, 7,:^. Curiously: with tasteful art. 

119, I. They lay down and slept : 

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside 
the still waters. Psalm xxiii. 2. 

And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down 
in safety. Isaiah xiv. 30. 

119, 21. Were much discouraged: 

And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red sea, to 
compass the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much dis- 
couraged because of the way. Numbers xxi. 4. 

120, 17. Fell into a deep pit: 

For the leaders of this people cause them to err; and they that are led 
of them are destroyed. Isaiah ix. 16. 

120, 34. Afraid on't: an obsolete idiom, occasionally heard in 
vulgar use to-day, instead of afraid of it. 

121, 20. " Set thine heart toward the highway," etc. : Jeremiah 
XX xi. 21. 

122, I. The whole passage about Doubting Castle and Giant 
Despair, one of the most famous in the book, is a good illustration 
of Bunyan's method of writing allegory. Instead of starting with 
an abstraction and writing about it in terms of real life, he starts 
from a deeply moving personal experience; but then, instead of 
giving his people and places proper names as would a story-writer 
to-day, he fits them with. phrases which though abstract, are yet 
so apt and descriptive that they stamp the work of his imagination 
on our minds for good. Note the numberless little touches, such 
as "from Wednesday morning till Saturday night" by which the 
description is made vivid. 

122, 17. A very dark dungeon. It will be remembered that 
Bunyan wrote Pilgrim's Progress in prison, and that he had had 
long and bitter experience of confinement. So far as we know 
Bedford jail was not a very bad example of the prisons of the time; 
but in the time of the great reformer Howard, a century later, the 

2i6 Notes and Comment 

best prisons were dark, ill- ventilated, and foul to a degree of which 
we can hardly conceive. Bunyan's description must have been 
drawn in part at any rate from the Ufa. 

Bunyan cites here Psalm Ixxxmii. i8. 

122, 25. Brought into this distress. After this Hne in editions 
after the fourth stood an illustration, with the verse : 

The pilgrim, now, to gratify the flesh, 
Will seek its ease; but oh! how they afresh 
Do thereby plunge themselves new grief into! 
Who seek to please the flesh, themselves undo. 

122, 26. The passage in which the Giant Despair's wife enters, 
from "Now Giant Despair had a wife," to "I will therefore search 
them in the morning," 126, 28, was added in the second edition. 

122, 27. Diffidence. This word as Bunyan used it implies 
doubt and timidity rather than bashfulness. 

123, I. Crab-tree cudgel: therefore both tough and knotty. 
123, 7. To turn them. The idiom to-day is turn themselves. 
123, 9. Condole: used transitively. 

123, 13. Make away themselves. Our idiom is make away 
with themselves. 

123, 17. Never like to come out: formerly in good use for likely. 

123, 34. Whether is best. Whether formerly meant which of 
two. Compare, Whether of them twain did the will of his father? 
Matthew xxi. ji. 

124, I. My soul chooseth strangling: 

So that my soul chooseth strangling, and death rather than my life. 
Job vii. 15. 

124, 15. "No murderer hath eternal life ": 

Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no 
murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. i John in. 15. (Not cited 
by Bunyan.) 

126, 19. Mrs. Diffidence. In Bunyan's time Mrs. was pro- 
nounced Mistress. 

126, 30. Continued in prayer till almost break of day: perhaps 
a reminiscence of the imprisonment of Paul and Silas: 

And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises unto God: 
and the prisoners heard them. Acts xvi. 25. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

Notes and Comment 217 

For the escape from the dungeon compare also the dehverance of 
Peter. Acts xii. 

127, 13. Damnable hard: adjective for adverb, a usage wholly- 
vulgar nowadays. 

127, 24. Consented: agreed: see note in 93, 22. 

128, 18. Here in editions after the fourth stood an illustration, 
with the verse: 

Mountains, delectable they now ascend, 
Where shepherds be, which to them do commend 
Alluring things, and things that cautious are. 
Pilgrims are steady kept by faith and fear. 

128, 20. The sheep also are his : 

I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the 
sheep. John x. ii. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

128, 28. ** But the transgressors shall fall therein": Rosea 
xiv. 9. 

128, 2)S- Not to be '' forgetful to entertain strangers ": 

Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have enter- 
tained angels unawares. Hebrews xiii. 2. 

See Genesis xviii for the story of Abraham and the three angels. 

129, 28. A hill called Error. Even now, when Christian has 
passed through so many dangers and battled so loyally for the 
faith, he may still slip and fall away from salvation. 

130, I. Hymenasus and Philetus: 

And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and 
Philetus; who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrec- 
tion is past already; and overthrow the faith of some. 2 Timothy ii. 

I30> 32- " He that wandereth out of the way," etc.: Proverbs 
xxi. 16. 

131, 4. In a bottom: in a valley. 

131, II. A way that hypocrites go in at. (The following pas- 
sages are not cited by Bunyan.) 

And Jacob sod pottage: and Esau came from the field, and he was 
faint: and Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same 
red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom. And 

21 8 Notes and Comment 

Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthright. And Esau said, Behold, I 
am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me? 
And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him: and he 
sold his birthright unto Jacob. Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pot- 
tage of lentiles; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way: 
thus Esau despised his birthright. Genesis xxv. 2Q-34. 

Judas : 

And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with 
him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and 
elders of the people. Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, say- 
ing, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast. And 
forthwith he came to Jesus, and said. Hail, master; and kissed him. 
And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Then 
came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. Matthew xocvi. 


Of whom is Hymenasus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto 
Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. / Timothy i. 20. 

Ananias and Sapphira: 

But a certain man named Ananias, with Sapphira his wife, sold a 
possession, and kept back part of the price, his wife also being privy to 
it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. But 
Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled tbine heart to lie to the 
Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land? Whiles it 
remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine 
own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? thou 
hast not lied unto men, but unto God. And Ananias hearing these 
words fell down, and gave up the ghost: and great fear came on all 
them that heard these things. And the young men arose, wound him 
up, and carried him out, and buried him. And it was about the space of 
three hours after, when his wife, not knowing what was done, came in. 
And Peter answered unto her, Tell me whether ye sold the land for so 
much? And she said. Yea, for so much. Then Peter said unto her, How 
is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? be- 
hold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband are at the door, 
and shall carry thee out. Then fell she down straightway at his feet, 
and yielded up the ghost: and the young men came in, and found her 
dead, and, carrying her forth, buried her by her husband. Acts v. i-io. 

131, 34. Perspective glass: a field glass or telescope. 
I33> 7- I pray, fast, pay tithes: probably an allusion to the 
parable of the Pharisee and the pubhcan, which begins as follows: 

Notes and Comment 219 

Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and 
the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with him- 
self, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, 
unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast t'^ice in the week, 
I give tithes of all that I possess. Luke xviii. 10-12. (Not cited by 

I33> IS- A thief and a robber: 

Verily, verily, I say unto you. He that entereth not by the door into 
the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and 
a robber. John x. i. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

133, 2 2. A great way off of. The modern idiom is of from. 
I33> 28. ** There is more hope of a fool," etc. : Proverbs xxvi. 12. 
I33> 30- " When he that is a fool," etc.: Ecclesiastes x. j. 

I33> 33- At present: at once. 

134, II. Anon: presently; the common answer of waiters in 
taverns in Shakespeare's plays. 

134, 14. Whom seven devils had bound: 

When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry 
places, seeking rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into • 
my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it 
empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh with himself 
seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and 
dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even 
so shall it be also unto this wicked generation. Matthew xii. 43-45. 

His own iniquities shall take the wicked himself, and he shall be 
holden with the cords of his sins. Proverbs v. 22. 

134, 25. Wanton: dissolute. 

134, 32. Broadway- Gate. Note the expressiveness, and at 
the same time the naturalness, of the names in this passage. 

135, 10. Clout: a cloth. 

135, 34. But scarce enough to bring him to his journey's end: 
I Peter iv. 18. 

136, II. Any good cunning of his: knowledge 01; skill. The 
word had not in Bunyan's time the implication of slyness. 

136, 15. They missed of that good thing. The preposition oj 
is no longer used with missed. 

136, 20. He made but little use of it: 2 Peter i. g. 

137, 8. Upon whose head is the shell. See 138, 29, In popular 

220 Notes and Comment 

natural history young lapwings run about before they have got 
fairly free of the shell. 

137, 19. Esau. .See the note on 131, 11. 

137, 26. Caitiff: a worthless person. The word comes from 
the Latin captivus, through the Old French. 
.137, 27. Estates: condition or circumstances. 

137, 28. Typical: of the nature of a type: representing some- 
thing by a form, model, or resemblance. International Dic- 

i37» 33- ** Behold, I am at the point to die," etc.: Genesis 
XXV. 32. 

138, 9. As it is with the ass. See Jeremiah ii. 24. 

I39» 15- Journeymen thieves: that is, working for some one 

139, 18. As the roaring of a lion: 

Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring 
lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour. / Peter v. 8. (Not 
cited by Bunyan.) 

139, 33. King's champion. At the coronation of the king of 
England a knight still appears and declares that he will meet in 
single combat any one who denies the right of the king to the throne. 

140, 4. Should handle Goliath as David did. For the story 
of how David, the youth ruddy of countenance, slew Goliath, the 
giant warrior of the Philistines, with a pebble thrown from his 
sling, see i Samuel xvii. 

140, 14. If they get within him: get within his guard. 
140, 20. " We despaired even of Ufe ": 

For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which 
came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, 
insomuch that we despaired even of life. 2 Corinthians i. 8. (Not 
cited by Bunyan.) 

140, 2 2. I^ake David groan, mourn, and roar: an allusion to 
various psalms of lamentation ascribed to David in the Book of 

Heman and Hezekiah, too. Psalm Ixxxviii., which is ascribed 
to Heman, is a cry of bitter misery. Hezekiah was king of Judah 
when the Assyrians destroyed the kingdom of Israel, and threatened 

Notes and Comment 221 

to destroy Judah. In Isaiah xxxviii. 10-20 is to be found a psalm 
of lamentation ascribed to Hezekiah when he was sick unto death: 
it is closely akin in character to Psalm Ixxxviii. 

140, 26. Peter, upon a time, would go try what he could do. 
See Luke xxii. 31-34; 54-62. 

140, 29. Sorry: poor or mean. 

140, Z3- " The sword of him that layeth at him," etc.: Joh xlL 
26-2 g. Bunyan seems to have thought of Leviathan as one of the 
forms assumed by Satan, or perhaps as one of Satan's followers. 
The description in Joh, however, is of a mythical sea monster, based 
perhaps, on some vague report of the crocodile. 

140, 34. Habergeon: a short coat of mail. 

141, 7. *'For his neck is clothed with thunder," etc.: Joh 
xxxix. 19-23, slightly adapted at the beginning. 

141, 19. Footmen: men who would fight on foot. 

142, I. " Above all, taking the shield of faith," etc.: Ephesians 
vi. 16. 

142, 6. David rejoice when in the Valley of the Shadow of 

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will 
fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort 
me. Psalm xxiii. 4. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

142, 7. Moses was rather for dying: 

And he said unto him, If thy presence go not with me, carry us not 
up hence. Exodus xxxiii. 15. 

142, 10. What need we be afraid of ten thousands: Psalm in. 
§-8. Verse 6 is: 

I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, that have set them- 
selves against me round about. See also Psalm xxvii. 1-3. 

142, II. Fall under the slain: 

Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall 
fall under the slain. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his 
hand is stretched out still. Isaiah x. 4. 

142, 19. The next uncircumcised PhiUstine: an allusion to the 
story of David and Goliath. 

And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine 
to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from 

222 Notes and Comment 

his youth. And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's 
sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the 
flock: and I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of 
his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, 
and smote him, and slew him. Thy servant slew both the lion and the 
bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing 
he hath defied the armies of the living God. David said moreover. The 
Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw 
of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And 
Saul said unto David, Go, and the Lord be with thee. Samuel xvii. 
33-37- (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

143, 18. " A man that flattereth his neighbor," etc.: Proverbs 
xxix. 5. 

143) 25. " Concerning the works of men," etc.: Psalm xvii. 4. 

143, 29. With a whip of small cord in his hand: perhaps a 
reminiscence of Jesus' driving the traders and money-changers 
from the temple. 

And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them, all 
out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the 
changers' money, and overthrew the tables. John it. is. (Not cited 
by Bunyan.) 

144, 2. Flatterer, a false apostle: 

For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming them- 
selves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is 
transformed into an angel of light. 2 Corinthians xi. 13-14. See also 
Proverbs xxix. 4 and Daniel xi. 32. 

144, 13. At a stand: perplexed. 

144, 17. Fine-spoken man : Romans xvi. 18. 

144, 19. He commanded them to lie down: 

And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the 
judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, ac- 
cording to his fault, by a certain number. Deuteronomy xxv. 2. 

144, 23. "As many as I love," etc. : Revelation Hi. iq. See also 
2 Chronicles vi. 26-2^. 

145, 24. But find no more of it than I did the first day I set out: 

The labor of the foolish wearieth every one of them, because he 
knoweth not how to go to the city. Ecclesiastes x. is. See also Jere- 
miah xxii. 12. 

Notes and Comment 223 

146, 9. To walk by faith: 

For we walk by faith, not by sight. 2 Corinthians v. 7. 

146, 13. Round you in the ears: bring home to you. 

" Cease, my son," etc.: Proverbs xix. 27. 
146, 16. Believe to the saving of the soul: 

But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them 
that believe to the saving of the soul. Hebrews x. 39. 

146, 19. To prove thee: to test thee. 

146, 22. Let thee and I go on. Bunyan often writes in the 
rough and homely style which he would have heard and used 
in his own daily life. 

146, 23. '* And no lie is of the truth ": 

I have not written unto you because ye know not the truth, but 
because ye know it, and that no lie is of the truth, i John ii. 21. 

146, 31 (Margin). Hopeful begins to be drowsy. The contrast 
between Hopeful and Christian is drawn with almost as much dis- 
tinctness as that between Faithful and Christian. This episode of 
the Enchanted Ground brings out Hopeful's lighter and more mer- 
curial temperament, which is thrown into relief by the stern caution 
and steadiness of purpose shown by Christian. Hopeful is a much 
younger man. Bunyan could never let his allegorical figures remain 
abstractions; he spontaneously clothed them with living individ- 

147, 7. " Therefore let us not sleep," etc.: i Thessalonians v. 6. 

147, 12. Two are better than one: 

Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their 
labor. Ecdesiastes iv. g. 

148, 7 (Margin). Hopeful's life before conversion. This whole 
account of Hopeful might almost be a summary, with the intensely 
personal element removed, of Bunyan's account of his own younger 
years in Grace Abounding; and it has something of the same eager- 
ness and fervor of tone. The swinging between hope and despair, 
the comfort or discouragement brought by isolated texts of Scrip- 
ture, the gradual dawning of the light that brought peace, the 
suggestion of almost bodily visions, all are found in the moving 
pages of that work. 

224 Notes and Comment 

148, 13. The end of these things is death: Romans vi. 21-23. 

Verse 2/ is 

What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? 
for the end of those things is death. 

148, 14. " Cometh the wrath of God," etc.: Ephesians v. 6. 

148, 18. Presently to know: immediately to know. 

148, 34. Such troublesome and such heart-affrighting hours. 

Compare, Grace Abounding: "In these days the thoughts of re- 
ligion were very grievous to me; I could neither endure it myself, 
nor that any other should: so that when I have seen some read in 
those books that concerned Christian piety, it would be as it were 
a prison to me." 

150, 12. " All our righteousnesses," etc.: Isaiah Ixiv. 6. Com- 
pare the description of Christian at the beginning of the work, 

9, 5- 

i5o» 13- " By the works of the law," etc.: Galatians ii. 16. 

150, 15. We are unprofitable: 

So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are 
commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that 
which was our duty to do. Luke xvii. lo. 

151, 34. You must be justified by him. In support of this 
doctrine Bunyan cites Hebrews x., Romans iv., Colossians i., and 
I Peter i. 

152, 16. I was invited to come: 

Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give 
you rest. Matthew xi. 28. 

152, 20. Stood firmer than heaven and earth: 

Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. 
Matthew xxiv. 35. 

152, 2 2. I must entreat upon my knees: Psalms xcv. 6; Daniel 
vi. 10; Jeremiah xxix. 12-13. 
152, 25. Upon a mercy seat: 

And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from 
above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon 
the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in com- 
mandment unto the children of Israel. Exodus xxv. 22. See also Leviti- 
cus xvi. 2; Numbers vii. 80; Hebrews iv. 16. 

Notes and Comment 225 

153, 22. " Though it tarry," etc.: Hahakkuk ii. 3. 
i53> 27. With the eyes of my understanding: 

The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may 
know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory 
of his inheritance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of 
his power to usward who believe, according to the working of his mighty 
power. Ephesians i. 18-19. 

154, I. " Beheve on the Lord Jesus Christ." This was a part 
of the answer of Paul and Silas to the keeper of the prison, when 
they had been released by the earthquake. Acts xvi. 31. 

i54> 4- ** My grace is sufficient for thee ": 2 Corinthians xii. p. 
This was one of the texts which brought comfort to Bunyan him- 
self in his struggle. "Wherefore one day, as I was in a meeting of 
God's people, full of sadness and terror, for my fears again were 
strong upon me; and as I was now thinking my soul was never the 
better, but my case most sad and fearful, these words did with great 
power suddenly break in upon me: My grace is sufficient for thee, 
my grace is sufficient for thee, my grace is sufficient for thee, three 
times together. And oh! me-thought that every word was a 
mighty word unto me; as my, and grace, and sufficient; they were 
then, and sometimes are still far bigger than others be." Grace 

154, 6. *' He that cometh to me," etc. : John vi. 35. 

154, 14- " And him that cometh to me," etc. : John vi. 37. 

154. 17" Christ Jesus came into the world, etc.: i Timothy 
i- IS- 

154. 18. ** He is the end of the law," etc. : Romans x. 4. 

154, 19. He died for our sins : 

Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our 
justification. Romans iv. 25. 

154, 20. " He loved us," etc.: Revelation i. 5. 
154, 21. He is mediator: 

For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the 
man Christ Jesus, i Timothy ii. 5. 

Bunyan it will be noticed, in quoting this passage freely uses the 
more homely and colloquial betwixt for between. 

226 Notes and Comment 

154, 22. '* He ever liveth," etc.: Hehreivs vii. 25. 

156, I. Full of good motions: full of good thoughts or impulses. 

He that trusteth in his own heart is a fool: but whoso walketh wisely, 
he shall be delivered. Proverbs xxviii. 26. 

156, 9. " The soul of the sluggard," etc.: Proverbs xiii. 4. 
156,17. "He that trusts his own heart," etc.: Proverbs 

xxviii. 26. 

157, 20. " There is none righteous," etc.: Romans Hi. 10, 12. 

157, 21. The imagination of the heart of man. From the story 
of the Flood. 

And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and 
that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil con- 
tinually. Genesis vi. 5. 

157,22. "The imagination of man's heart," etc.: Genesis 

via. 21. 

158, 2. Crooked ways: 

As for such as turn aside unto their crooked ways, the Lord shall lead 
them forth with the workers of iniquity: but peace shall be upon Israel. 
Psalm cxxv. 5. 

Whose ways are crooked, and they froward in their paths. Proverbs 
a. 15- 

158, 3. Out of the good way: 

They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofit- 
able; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Romans Hi. 12. 

158, 3$. Renders thee: shows thee. 

159, 13. Fantastical: based on unreal grounds. 
159) 32- Acquit: an obsolete form of the participle. 

160, 31. By the revelation of the Father: 

All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth 
the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the 
Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. Matthew xi. 27. 
See also i Corinthians xii. 3, and Ephesians i. i8-ig. 

161, I. Poor Ignorance, thou art ignorant of. Bunyan con- 
ceived his story so vividly that Ignorance, who started as an alle- 
gorical abstraction and type of theological error, has taken on a 
living personality. 

Notes and Comment 227 

161, 27. Pilgrims. Bunyan uses the term for all those who 
are seeking the truth. See Introduction, p. xxxv-xxxvii. 

161, 30. He hath blinded their eyes: 

He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they 
should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be 
converted, and I should heal them. John xii. 40. (Not cited by 

162, 13. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. 

For this saying Bunyan cites Proverbs i. 7, ix. 10; Psalm cxi. 10, 
and Job xxviii. 28, in all of which it appears, though with some 
variation in phrasing. 

162, 29. Art thou weary of this discourse? It is a lifelike 
touch, perhaps not without some humorous intent, that the young 
Hopeful should show signs of being bored by so much theological 
discourse. These discussions are a good way from the interest of 
modern readers; but it should not be forgotten that in Bunyan's 
time differences of opinion on such matters were held good ground 
for sending men to prison. These disquisitions of Christian's would 
have been read with the liveliest interest by Bunyan's own followers. 

164, 2. Not every one that cries: 

Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the 
kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in 
heaven. Matthew vii. 21. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

164, 25. " The dog is turned," etc.: 2 Peter ii. 22. See 72, 34. 

165, I . " The fear of man," etc. : Proverbs xxix. 25. 

166, 13. Color: excuse. 
166, 29. Beulah: 

Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any 
more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah, and thy 
land Beulah: for the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be 
married. Isaiah Ixii. 4. 

Marginal Bibles explain that Hephzibah means. My delight is in 
her, and Beulah, Married. 

Notice how Bunyan's style begins to glow as he brings Christian 
near to the Celestial City. These last few pages of the allegory 
rise to the very highest level of English prose, 

228 Notes and Comment 

i66, 32. The singing of birds: 

My beloved spake, and said unto me, Rise up, my love, my fair one, 
and come away. For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone; 
the flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing of birds is come, 
and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land. Song of Solomon ii. 

166, ss- Turtle: turtle-dove. 

167, 9. "As the bridegroom rejoiceth," etc.: Isaiah Ixii. 5. 
167, II. No want of com and wine: 

The Lord hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, 
Surely I will no more give thy corn to be meat for thine enemies; and 
the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy wine, for the which thou 
hast labored. Isaiah Ixii. 8. 

167, 15. " Say ye to the daughter of Zion," etc. : Isaiah Ixii. 11. 
167, 17. " The holy people ": 

And they shall call them. The holy people. The redeemed of the Lord: 
and thou shalt be called, Sought out, A city not forsaken. Isaiah Ixii. 

167, 2 2. It was builded of pearls and precious stones. See the 

description of the Heavenly Jerusalem in Revelation xxi. 

167, 28. If ye find my beloved, etc.: Song of Solomon v. 8, 
slightly changed. 

168, 4. Had them into the vineyard: 

When thou comest into thy neighbor's vineyard, then thou mayest 
eat grapes thy fill at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in 
thy vessel. Deuteronomy xxiii. 24. 

168, II. Being in a muse thereabout: wondering about it. 
168, 16. They addressed themselves: they prepared them- 

168, 18. *' The city was pure gold ": Revelation xxi. 18. 

168, 20. Through an instrument : 

But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the 
Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even p'- by 
the Spirit of the Lord. 2 Corinthians Hi. 18. 

169, 10. Enoch: 

And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him. 
Genesis v. 24. 

Notes and Comment 229 

Elijah. For the translation of Elijah, see note on 104, 29. 
169, 12. The last trumpet: 

Behold, I shew you a mysterjs We shall not all sleep, but we shall all 
be changed. In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: 
for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, 
and we shall be changed. / Corinthians xv. 51-52. 

169, 23. Deep waters: 

Deep calleth unto deep at the noise of thy waterspouts : all thy waves 
and thy billows are gone over me. Psalm xlii. 7. See also Psalm 
Ixix. 2. (Neither is cited by Bunyan.) 

169, 24. Selah: a Hebrew word, which stands at the end of 
many verses in Psalms. Its exact meaning is unknown, but it is 
supposed to be a direction concerning the music with which the 
psalm was accompanied. 

169, 27. " The sorrows of death ": 

The sorrows of hell compassed me about: the snares of death pre- 
vented me. Psalm xviii. 5, and 2 Samuel xxii. 6. (Not cited by Bun- 

169, 29. Land that flows with milk and honey: 

But I have said unto you. Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give 
it unto you to possess it, a land that floweth with milk and honey: I am 
the Lord your God, which have separated you from other people. 
Leviticus xx. 24^ and frequently in Numbers and Deuteronomy. (Not 
cited by Bunyan.) 

169, 33. Orderly: the adjective for the adverb. 

170, I. All the words that he spake. Bunyan's vivid sense of 
reality leads him to carry over scenes from an actual deathbed 
into the allegory of the river. 

170, 22. "There are no bands in their death," etc.: Psalm 
Ixxiii. 4-5. 

170, 32. Be of good cheer: 

And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, Ij'ing on a 
becf'ind Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be 
of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee. Matthew ix. 2. (Not cited by 

171, I. ** When thou passest through the waters," etc.: Isaiah 
xliii' 2, 

230 Notes and Comment 

171,11. Ministering spirits: 

Are tbey not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them 
who shall be heirs of salvation? Hebrews i. 14. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

171, 13. Towards the gate. Here, in early editions after the 
fourth stood an illustration, with the verse: 

Now, now look how the holy pilgrims ride, 
Clouds are their chariots, angels are their guide: 
Who would not here for him all hazards run. 
That thus provides for his when this world's done. 

171, 21, Framed: supported; a meaning of the word now 

171, 20. The Mount Zion: Hebrews xii. 22-24. Verse 22 is: 

But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living 
God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of 

171, 31. The paradise of God: 

He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the 
churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, 
which is in the midst of the paradise of God. Revelation it. 7. See' also 
Revelation Hi. 4, and xxii. 5. 

172, 4. *' For the former things are passed away ": Revelation 
xxi. 4. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 

172, 8. Resting upon their beds : Isaiah Ivii. 1-2. Verse 2 is: 

He shall enter into peace: they shall rest in their beds, each one 
walking in his uprightness. See also Isaiah Ixv. 17. 

172, 12. You must reap: 

Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, 
that shall he also reap. Galatians vi. 7. 

172, 16'. There you shall see him as he is: 

Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what 
we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like 
him; for we shall see him as he is. i John Hi. 2. 

172, 17. There also you shall serve him continually with praise. 

For the rest of this paragraph about the glories of the blessed in 

Notes and Comment 231 

heaven Bunyan cites i Thessalonians iv. 13-17; J tide. 14; Daniel 
vii. g-io; i Corinthians vi. 2-3. For Daniel vii. g-io see the note 
on 39, 2. I Thessalonians iv. 16-17 's: 

For the Lord himself shall descend irom heaven with a shout, with 
the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead 
in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be 
caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: 
and so shall we ever be with the Lord. 

I Corinthians vi. 2-3 is: 

Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the 
world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest 
matters? Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more 
things that pertain to this life? 

173, II. '' Blessed are they which are called," etc.: Revelation 
xix. p. 

174, 9. '* Blessed are they that do his commandments," etc.: 
Revelation xxii. 14. 

174, 24. *' That the righteous nation," etc.: Isaiah xxvi. 2. 

174, T,:^. Enter ye into the joy: 

His lord said unto him. Well done, thou good and faithful servant: 
thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over 
many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. Matthew xxv. 21. 
(Not cited by Bunyan.) 

175, I. " Blessing and honor, and glory," etc.: Revelation v. 13. 
175, 10. Holy, holy, holy is the lord: Revelation iv. 8. 

175, 29. I have eat and drank: 

Then shall ye begin to say. We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, 
and thou hast taught in our streets. But he shall say, I tell you, I 
know you not whence ye are: depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity. 
There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abra- 
ham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of 
God, and you yourselves thrust out. Luke xiii. 26-28. (Not cited by 

176, 3. Bind him hand and foot: 

And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having 
a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the 
servants. Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into 
outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Matthew 
xxii. 12-13. (Not cited by Bunyan.) 


These questions are added as suggestions for study and discussion 
rather than for use in examination. It is hoped that they may start 
inquiry and interest, and that they may draw attention to the im- 
portant points of the allegory. 

The questions have been divided roughly into three groups, though 
no effort has been made to make very sharp distinctions between 
the groups. Where answers to the questions are not to be found in 
the Introduction or the text they will be found in the Notes and 

On the Story 

I. What is symbolized by the rags in which Christian is clothed? 
2. What gave him his first ray of comfort? 3. How did his neighbors 
treat him when he turned his back on the City of Destruction? 
4. Which of them started on the way with him? 5. What lively 
human touches are there in the portrayal of Pliable? 6. What 
makes the Slough of Despond so true to life? 7. What was the coun- 
sel of Mr. Worldly Wiseman? 8. What is the significance of Mount 
Sinai? 9. Why did Evangelist disapprove of what it stood for? 
10. Who were Legahty and Civility? 

II. What does the gate signify? 12. What danger did Christian 
undergo there? 13. What was Christian's first stopping place 
after he started on his way? 14. What was signified by the sweep- 
ing of the parlor? 15. By the two children, Passion and Patience? 
16. By the fire burning against the wall? 17. By the man in the 
iron cage? 18. By the man who told Christian his dream? 

19. How did Christian become freed from his burden? 20. Who 
were Simple, Sloth, and Presumption? 21. Who were the two men 
who came tumbling over the wall? 22. Why are they so described? 
23. What becomes of them at the Hill Difficulty? 24. What happened 


234 Questions for Discussion 

to Christian there? 25. What did Mistrust and Timorous tell him? 
26. What error did he commit at the arbor? 27. What happened to 
him before he got into the House Beautiful? 28. Whom did he meet 
there, and what entertainment did he have? 29. What was the name 
of his bedchamber. 30. What was showed to him the next morning? 
31. What was to be seen from the roof of the House Beautiful? 

32. What was Christian's first adventure when he set forward 
again on his journey? 33. Why is this a natural incident in the 
allegory? 34. Who was Apollyon? 35. What characteristics of 
style make the account of the fight with him so graphic? 36. What 
came after the Valley of Humiliation? 37. What dangers did Chris- 
tian now meet? 

38. With whom .did Christian now fall in? 39. What vvas the 
subject of their talk? 40. In what ways does the character of Faith- 
ful contrast with that of Christian? 41, How is this contrast brought 
out? 42. Whom had Faithful met on his journey? 43. What . )rt 
of a person was Talkative? 44. How does Bunyan make us see his 
character? 45. Who next overtakes Christian and Faithful? 

46. What is the significance of Vanity Fair? 47. From what may 
we suppose Bunyan to have taken the idea? 48. What famous book 
is named after it? 49. Why is the name fitting? 50. What adventures 
had Christian and Faithful in Vanity Fair? 51. How does Bunyan 
make the trial so vivid? 52. Is it an exaggeration of real events in 
England in his time? 53. Who were some of the judges who might 
have been prototypes of Lord Hate-good? 54. Of what story in the 
Bible is the chariot which carries Faithful away a reminiscence? 

55. Who is Christian's next companion? 56. Who is By-ends, 
and what sort of a person does he typify? 57. How do the names 
which Bunyan makes up here help to give vividness to the story? 
58. What were some of the questions discussed by By-ends and 
his companions with Christian and Hopeful? 59. Who was Demas, 
and what part does he take in the story? 

60. How do Christian and Hopeful go astray? 61. What befalls 
them? 62. What is signified by Giant Despair and his wife Diffi- 
dence? 63. Why is this episode in place in this part of the allegory? 
64. What counsel did Diffidence give her husband? 65. How do 
Christian and Hopeful escape from Doubting Castle? 

Questions for Discussion 235 

66. Who met them on the Delectable Mountains? 67. What 
was shown them there? 68. What does Ignorance stand for? 69. How 
do he and the fate he meets throw light on the state of opinion and 
of religion in the seventeenth century? 70. What is the story of 
Little-faith? 71. Who was Great-grace? 72. Who is Leviathan? 
73. From what part of the Bible is he drawn, and what is he prob- 
ably as there described? 74. How does Bunyan describe him? 
75. How is Flatterer described? 76. How does he mislead the pil- 
grims? 77. What happens to them on the Enchanted Ground? 

78. In what ways did Hopeful's life resemble that of Bunyan himself? 

79. What sort of person does Ignorance seem to be? 

80. What does the river signify? 81. How do Christian's experi- 
ences here illustrate Bunyan 's gift of making the story seem real? 
82. What difference is there between the experience here of Christian 
and of Hopeful? 83. To what is the difference due? 84. Who met 
them on the other side of the river? 85. What makes the style of 
this description of the Celestial City so beautiful? 86. What sort 
of words does Bunyan use here? 87. From what sources does he 
draw them? 88. How does Ignorance get over the river? 89. What 
happens to him? 90. Does his fate seem just? 


On the Pilgrim's Progress as Literature 

I. What characters in the story seem to you the most lifelike? 
2. Why? 3. What devices does Bunyan use that would be useful 
to a novelist? 4. Do you think that The Pilgrim's Progress can 
rightly be thought of as a novel? 5. Why? 6. What are the main 
characteristics of an allegory? 7. Of a novel? 8. Do you know any 
other allegories? 9. Does The Pilgrim's Progress seem to you to 
typify the sort of experience that might occur to-day? 10. Illustrate 
fully how this may be, using for the purpose the incidents of the 
allegory. 11. Do you think that the story is likely to have the 
same great vogue in the future that it has had in the past? 12. Ex- 
plain your reasons for your view? 13. Why should The Pilgrim's 
Progress be given a place in English literature? 14. What qualities 

236 Questions for Discussion 

has it in common with poetry? 15 With novels? 16. To what 
qualities of mind and of character do you think that Bunyan owed 
his power? 


On the Biblical Allusions 

I. What details in the description of Christian are drawn direct 
from the Bible? 2. What do they typify? 3. What story in the 
Bible is suggested by Christian's cry, "What shall I do to be saved" ? 
4. What was Tophet? 5. From what part of the Bible does Bunyan 
draw the imagery of the wicket gate and the narrow way? 6. How 
does Bunyan use the parable of the Prodigal Son in Christian's 
discourse with Obstinate? 7. What is that parable, and where is 
it found? 8. What is the allusion in Christian's saying, "I have put 
my hand to the plow " ? 9, What are seraphim and cherubim? 
10. Where are they mentioned in the Bible? 11. What happened 
to Moses on Mount Sinai? 12. From what parts of the Bible does 
Bunyan chiefly draw the dream of judgment recounted by the 
man in the iron cage of despair? 13. W^hat is the allusion in the 
sentence, "Thus it happened to Israel; for their sin they were sent 
back again by the way of the Red Sea"? 14. What is the allusion in 
the passage, "The company that shall continually cry, Holy, Holy, 
Holy "? 15. From what passages does Bunyan draw the imagery in 
the description of the arming of Christian? 16. What was the story 
of Moses' rod? 17. Of Jael and Sisera? 18. Of Gideon and the hosts 
of Midian? 19. Of Samson and the jawbone of the ass? 20. Of 
Goliath? 21. What is the meaning of Immanuel? 22. What is its 
form in the New Testament? 23. From what part of the Bible did 
Bunyan draw Apollyon? 24. To what does Bunyan allude when he 
speaks of the evil report brought back of the good land? 25. From 
what passage in the Bible does Bunyan draw his mention of satyrs? 
26. What is the allusion in the phrase, "sounding brass and tinkling 
cymbal"? 27. From what book of the Bible does Bunyan draw the 
saying, "All is vanity"? 28. Whence does Bunyan draw the name 
Beelzebub? 29. What story in the Bible is connected with the name 
Legion? 30. What is the allusion in the mention of Pharaoh the 

Questions for Discussion 237 

Great and the sentence, "Their males should be thrown into the 
river?" 31. What story is alluded to in the mention of Nebuchad- 
nezzar and the fiery furnace? 32. What is the allusion in the mention 
of Darius and the Hons' den? 33. From what part of the Bible 
comes the phrase, "wise as serpents and harmless as doves"? 34. To 
what story in the Bible is there an allusion in the phrase, "to follow 
Christ for loaves"? 35. Who was Judas? 36. What is the story of 
the pillar of salt? 37. What is the story of Korah, Dathan, and 
Abiram? 38. From what part of the Bible is the saying, "For 
thereby some have entertained angels unawares" drawn? 39. To 
what story does this saying allude? 40. What is the story of 
Esau's sale of his birthright? 41. What is the story of Ananias and 
Sapphira? 42. From what parable is the saying, "I pray, fast, and 
pay tithes," drawn? 43. To what parable is allusion made in the 
sentence, "Whom seven devils had bound"? 44. Who was Heze- 
kiah? 45. To what story is allusion made in the sentence, "Peter 
upon a time would try what he could do; but . . . they made him 
at last afraid of a sorry girl"? 46. From what part of the Bible 
is the phrase, "the valley of the shadow of death," drawn? 
47. What is the mercy seat? 48. In what part of the Bible is it 
referred to? 49. In what books of the Bible is the saying, "The 
fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," chiefly found? 50. What 
is the meaning of Beulah? 51. From what parts of the Bible does 
Bunyan chiefly draw his description of the approach to the Celes- 
tial City? 52. To what parable is the plea of Ignorance, "I have 
eat and drank in the presence of the King," an allusion? 53. From 
what parable is the sentence of Ignorance, "Bind him hand and foot," 

jEnoltsb IReaMnos tor Scf3ools 

Wilbur L. Cross, Yale University, General Editor 

Addison: Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. 

Edited by Nathaniel E. Griffin, Princeton University. 
Arnold: Sohrab and Rustum, and Other Poems. 

Edited by Walter S. Hinchman, Groton School. 

Browning: Selections. 

Edited by Charles W. Hodell, Goucher College, Baltimore. 
Bunyan: Pilgrim's Progress, Part I. 

Edited by John H. Gardiner, Harvard University. 
Burke: On Conciliation. 

Edited by Daniel V. Thompson, Lawrenceville School. 
Byron : Prisoner of Chillon and Other Poems. 

Edited by Hardin Craig, University of Minnesota. 

Defoe: Robinson Crusoe. 

Edited by Wilbur L. Cross, Yale University. 
Dickens : Tale of Two Cities. 

Edited by E. H. Kemper McComb, Manual Training High 

School, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Eliot: Silas Marner. 

Edited by Ellen E. Garrigues, De Witt Clinton High 
School, New York City. 

Franklin : Autobiography. 

Edited by Frank W. Pine, Hill School, Pottstown, Pa. 
Gray: Elegy and Other Poems, with Goldsmith: The 

Deserted Village and Other Poems. Edited by Morris 

W. Croll, Princeton University. 

Huxley: Selections. 

Edited by Charles Alphonso Smith, University of Virginia. 

Irving: Sketch Book. 

Edited by Arthur W. Leonard, Phillips Academy, Andover, 

Lincoln : Selections. 

Edited by William D. Armes, University of California. 

Macaulay: Life of Johnson. 

Edited by Chester N. Greenough, Harvard University. 

Macaulay: Lord Clive and Warren Hastings. 

Edited by Frederick E. Pierce, Yale University, and 
Samuel Thurber, Jr., Technical High School, Newton, Mass. 

JBixQlieb IReaDlngs for Qcboole— Continued 

Milton : Lyric and Dramatic Poems. 

Edited by Martin W. Sampson, Cornell University. 

Old Testament Narratives. 

Edited by George H. Nettleton, Yale University. 

Scott: Quentin Durward. 

Edited by Thomas H. Briggs, Eastern Illinois State Normal 
School, Charleston, 111. 

Scott: Ivanhoe. 

Edited by Alfred A. May, Shattuck School, Faribault, Minn. 

Scott: Lady of the Lake. 

Edited by Alfred M. Hitchcock, Public High School, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Shakespeare: Macbeth. 

Edited by Felix E. Schelling, University of Pennsylvania. 

Shakespeare: Merchant of Venice. 

Edited by Frederick E. Pierce, Yale University. 

Shakespeare: Julius Caesar. 

Edited by Ashley H. Thorndike, Columbia University. 

Shakespeare: As You Like It. 

Edited by John W. Cunliffe and George Roy Elliott, 
University of Wisconsin. 

Stevenson: Inland Voyage and Travels with a Donkey. 
Edited by Edwin Mims, University of North Carolina. 

Stevenson: Treasure Island. 

Edited by Stuart P. Sherman, University of Illinois. 

Tennyson: Idylls of the King. 

Edited by John Erskine, Columbia University. 

Thackeray: English Humorists. 

Edited by William Lyon Phelps, Yale University. 

Washington: Farewell Address, with Webster: First 
Bunker Hill Oration. Edited by William E. Simonds, Knox 
College, Galesburg, 111. 

Wordsworth: Selections. Also from Coleridge, Shelley, 
and Keats. Edited by James W. Linn, University of 


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