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Full text of "Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of ethnology"

.TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 

u.s, 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1890- 91 



J. W. 



DIRECTOR 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1894 



T- 



LETTER OF T R A N S M I TT A L 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, 

Washington, I). C, July 1, 1891. 

SIR: I have the honor to submit my twelfth annual report 
as Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

The first part consists of an explanation of the plan of the 
Bureau and its operations during the fiscal year 1890- 91 ; the 
second part comprises an extended paper on the mound explo 
rations of the Bureau of Ethnology, giving an. example of the 
methods and results of the work of the Bureau relating to the 
important branch of archeology indicated. 

I desire to express my thanks for your earnest support and 
your wise counsel relating to the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, your obedient servant, 




Hon. S. P. LANGLEY, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 




CONTENTS. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 

Page. 

Introduction xxi 

Field work xxn 

Arclieologic field work xxui 

Researches by Mr. W. H. Holmes xxui 

Work of Mr. Gerard Fowke xxvii 

Work of Mr. Henry L. Reynolds xxvii 

Work of Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff xxvm 

General field work xxix 

Work of Mrs. M. C. Stevenson xxix 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman xxix 

Work of Mr. James Mooney xxx 

Office work xxxi 

Work of the Director xxxi 

Work of Col. Garrick Mallery xxxn 

Work of Mr. Henry W. Henshaw xxxn 

Work of Prof. Cyrus Thomas xxxm 

Work of Mr. W. H. Holmes xxxm 

Work of Rev. J. Owen Dorsey xxxm 

Work of Mr. Albert S. Gatschet xxxiv 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman xxxiv 

Work of Mr. James Mooney xxx v 

Work of Mr. James C. Pilling xxxv 

Work of Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt xxxv 

Work of Mrs. Matilda C. Stevenson xxxvi 

Work of Mr. Cosmos Miudeleff xxxvn 

Work of Mr. Jeremiah Curtin xxxvn 

Work of Mr. De Lancey W. Gill xxx vn 

Administrative work xxxvui 

Publications xxxvui 

Accompanying paper on the mound explorations of the Bureau xxxix 

Financial statement XLVIII 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER. 

REPORT ON THE MOUND EXPLORATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, BY CYRUS 

THOMAS. 

Page. 

Outline of this paper 17 

Preface 19 

Introduction.. 27 



VI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 



Field operations ....... 

Manitoba and the Dakotas 



Page. 



JO 

Minnesota ........................................... ................... 

4 O 

Pipestone county ................................................... 

Houston county ................ 

Wisconsin .............................................................. 

I )ane county ................... ................ * .......... 

Crawford county .................... ...................... , ....... 47 

Vernou county ................................... - .................. ^7 

Ciraiit county .......... - ............. - ........... - .................. 

Sheboygan county ............. ---- ........ 

Barron county .............................. 

Rock county ...................... ..... 

Iowa ................................ 

Allainakoe county ................................................... 99 

Clayton county ..................................................... 108 

Dunuquc county ........ .- ........................................... 108 

Wapello county: .................................................... 110 

Van Br.reu county .................................................. 112 

Leo county . ........................................................ 1 12 

Illinois ............................................................. -*.. . 112 

.loo Daviess county ---- ................. ....................... 112 

Pike county ........................................................ 117 

Brown county ...................................................... 118 

Adams county ...................................................... 120 

Calhoun county ..................................................... 121 

Madison and St. Clair counties .................................... . . 131 

Randolph county ................................................... 134 

.Jackson county ..................................................... 141 

Alexander county ................... . ............................... 148 

I In ion county ....................................................... 155 

Lawrence county ................................................... 163 

M issouri ................................................................ 163 

Clark county . . ...... ............................................ 163 

Lewis county ....................................................... 167 

St. Louis county .................................................... 167 

Cape Girardeau county .............................................. 168 

Bollingcr county ............................................. 170 

Stoddard county .............................................. 172 

Scott and Mississippi counties .................................... 183 

Butler county .......................................... 193 

Arkansas ............................................... jgg 

Clay county ................................................. igg 

Greene county ...................................... jgy 

Craigliead county ...................................... 200 

Poinsett county ......................................... 903 

Mississippi county ............................ 1 .... 9]g 

Independence county .................................. 224 

Jackson county ....................................... 225 

Crittenden county ............................... 226 

St. Francis county .......................................... 227 

Arkansas county ............................... 2?q 

Lee county .......................................... 93^ 

Monroe county .................................. 233 



CONTENTS. VII 



Field operations Continued. 



Arkansas Continued. Pagf> 

Phillips - county 233 

Desha county 237 

Drew county i 239 

Lincoln county 241 

Jefferson county 242 

Pulaski county 243 

Saline county 245 

Clark county 247 

Ouachita county 248 

Louisiana 250 

Mississippi 253 

Coahoma county 253 

Sunflower county 258 

Washington county 259 

Yazoo county 260 

Adams county 263 

Union county 267 

Western Tennessee .- 278 

Lauderdale county 278 

Obion county 279 

Kentucky 279 

Alabama 283 

Lauderdale county 283 

Madison county 285 

Marshall county 285 

Blount county 286 

Sumter county 286 

Elmore county 286 

Clarke county 289 

Barbour county 289 

Montgomery county 289 

Talladega county " 290 

Jefferson county 290 

Georgia 292 

Bartow county 292 

Habersham county 314 

Elbert county 315 

Richmond county 317 

South Carolina 326 

Kershaw district 

Florida 

St. Johns and Volusia counties 328 

North Carolina . 

Caldwell county ? 333 

Burke and Wilkes counties 

Haywood county 

Buncombe and Henderson counties 348 

Eastern Tennessee 

Sullivan county 

Carter county 

Cocke county 

Jefferson county 

Roane county 358 



Vlll KEPORT OF THE HUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Field operations Continued. 

Eastern Tennessee Continued. Page. 

Blount and Monroe counties 366 

London county 390 

Meigs county 404 

Rhea county 406 

West Virginia 407 

Fayette county 407 

Kanawha county 410 

Putnam county 434 

Mason county 435 

Cabell county 438 

Ohio 440 

Knox county 440 

I locking county 446 

Franklin county 449 

Brown county ". 451 

Coshocton county 457 

Licking county 458 

Perry county 470 

Ross county 471 

Pike county 489 

Pennsylvania 494 

Valley of the Monongahela 494 

Warren county 499 

New York 503 

Madison county 503 

Chautauqua county 505 

Niagara county 512 

Wyoming county 513 

Livingston county 514 

Michigan 516 

Archeologic areas and distribution of types 521 

Primary archeologic sections 521 

Archeologic districts of the mound area 529 

The northern section 539 

The Dakota district 530 

The Huron- Iroqnois district 540 

The Illinois district 559 

The < )hio district 5gl 

The Appalachian district 573 

The Central or Tennessee district 575 

The sou them sect ion 5^g 

The Arkansas district 5g 6 

The Gnlf district 50,0 

The Mound-builders 5 t, r> 

(ieuernl observations 59^ 

Different opinions r q- 

Objections answered f,n 

Other objections answered 69 ~ 

Inscribed tablets 6 J 9 

The historical evidence or 

A comparison of the works of the Mound-builders with those of the Indians. 659 

Architecture of the Mound-builders fifio 

Fortifications, etc.. 
667 



CONTENTS. IX 

The Mound-builders Continued. Page. 

Similarity in burial customs 671 

General resemblance in habits, customs, art, etc 680 

Links connecting the Indians directly with the Mound-builders 688 

The Etowah mound Stone graves 688 

Engraved shells, stone pipes, copper articles, stone images 701 

Evidences of tribal divisions Subsequent use of mounds by Indians 706 

Evidence of contact with modern European civilization found in the 

mounds 710 

Copper articles 713 

Other metals 712 

The Muskoki tribes 748 

General observations 722 




LLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

PLATE I. Plan of the Vilas and Flucke groups, Crawford county, Wisconsin. 72 

II. Plat of White s group, Vernon county, Wisconsin 82 

III. Elephant mound and surroundings, Grant county, Wisconsin 94 

IV. Plat of Rice lake group, Barron county, Wisconsin 96 

V. Ancient works near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa 102 

VI. Map of Cahokia group, Madison county, Illinois 134 

VII. Map of the western part of Madison county, Illinois 136 

VIII. Ancient works on Boul ware s place, Clarke county, Missouri 168 

IX. The De goto mound, Jefferson county, and the Knapp mounds, 

Pulaski county, Arkansas 242 

X. Plat of the Kuapp mounds, Pulaska county, Arkansas 244 

XI. Plat of the Carson mounds, Coahoma county, Mississippi 254 

XII. Mound &, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

XIII. Mound d, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 258 

XIV. Selsertown group, Adams county, Mississippi, and platform and 

mounds of the Selsertown group 264 

XV. View of the large mound, Etowah group 294 

XVI. Plan of the large mound, Etowah group] 298 

XVII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (human figure). 304 

XVIII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (bird figure) .. 306 

XIX. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 318 

XX . Map of mound distribution (In pocket. ) 

XXI. Observatory Circle, near Newark, Ohio 320 

XXII. Fair Ground Circle, near Newark, Ohio _ . . 322 

XXIII. High Bank Circle, near Chillicothe, Ohio 324 

XXIV. Pipes from Hollywood mound, Georgia 328 

XXV. Plat of the valley of the Little Tennessee River, Blount and Mon 
roe counties, Tennessee 366 

XXVI. Copy of Timberlake s map of Overhill Cherokee towns 368 

XXVII. Plat of group near Charleston, Kanawha county, West Virginia.. . 414 

XXVIII. Plan and sections of the Staats mound, Knox county, Ohio 440 

XXIX. Cemetery mound, Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio 444 

XXX. Newark works, Licking county, Ohio 458 

XXXI. Fair Ground Circle, Newark, Ohio 460 

XXXII. Observatory Circle, Newark, Ohio 462 

XXXIII. Octagon, Newark, Ohio 464 

XXXIV. Square, Newark, Ohio 466 

XXXV. Square of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 472 

XXXVI. Circle of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 474 

XXXVII. Circle of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio .. 
XXXVIII. Octagon of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio.. 

XXXIX. Square of Liberty tawnship works, Ross county, Ohio 

XL. Square of Baum works, Ross county, Ohio 

XLT. Plat of the "Angel mounds," near Evansville, Indiana 

XLII. Copy of Plate XI, " Brevis Narratio" 652 

XI 



XII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Page. 

FIG. 1. Elongate mound, Souris river, Manitoba 35 

2. Elongate mounds, Souris river, Manitoba 36 

3. Turtle ligure, Hughes county, South Dakota 40 

4. Inclosures and mounds, Pipestone county, Minnesota 44 

5. Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota 45 

6. Mound group near Madison, Wisconsin 46 

7. Walled vault in mound Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 48 

8. Bird mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 48 

9. Section of mound and pit, i jairie du Chien, Wisconsin 49 

10. Silver locket from mound, Prairie du Cnfon, Wisconsin 51 

11. Bracelet of silver from mound, Prairie du Chicii, Wisconsin 51 

12. Silver brooch from mound, Prairie du Chion, Wisconsin 51 

13. Silver cross from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 52 

14. Earthworks near Eastman Crawford county, Wisconsin 52 

15. Plat of southwestern part of Crawford county, Wisconsin 53 

16. Mounds on NE. Sec. 24, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 54 

17. Mound ground at Hazen Corners, Crawford count} 7 , Wisconsin 55 

18. Bird elligies at Ha/en Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin 56 

19. Quadruped etligy on Sec. 36, T. 8, R. 6 W., Wisconsin 59 

20. Group of bird effigies, Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 60 

21. Bird efligy, Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 61 

22. Mounds on Slaumer s land, Crawford county, Wisconsin 63 

23. Courtois group near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 64 

24. Mound No. 6, Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 65 

25. Plan of mound No. 16, Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.. 65 

26. Mound No. 20 (section), Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin . . 66 

27. Dousemun mound (plan), Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 68 

28. Douseman mound (section), Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 68 

29. The Polauder group, Sec. 14, T. 9N., R. 6 W., Crawford county, Wiscon 

sin . . 70 

30. Mound No. 3 (section), Polander group, Crawford county, Wisconsin. . 71 

31. Mound No. 16 ( horizontal section), Polander group 72 

32. Plan of the Anastrong group, near Lynxville, Wisconsin 74 

33. Plan of the Sue Coulee group, Crawford county, Wisconsin 75 

34 Copper spindles frern the Sue Coulee group Crawford county 76 

35. Mound group near Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin 78 

36. Plan of mound No. 4, Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin... 79 

37. Copper plate from mound No. 6, White group (N. M. 88336) 81 

38. Section of mound No. 10, White group CM 

39. Obsidian implement from mound No. 10. White group.. g9 

40. Pot from mound No. 11, White group OQ 

41. Elligy mounds near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 85 

J. Lines of works near Cassville, (irant county, Wisconsin 86 

43. Mound group Wyalusing, Grant county, Wisconsin 89 

44. El. phaut mound, according to Middleton s survey in 1884.. 92 

45. Elephant mound, after Warner s figure 93 

46. Inclosure near Sheboygan, Sheboygaii county, Wisconsin" 9J 

47. Mound No. 1, Rice lake group % 

48. Circular inclosure near New Albin, Allainakee county Iowa 100 
I! . In.-losure on Hay s farm, near New Albin, Allainakee countv, lowa" 105 
60, \\ ailed mound, Fish group, Allainakee county, Iowa . 107 

ronp near Peru, Dubuque county, Iowa.... JAG, 

52. Stone gorget, Dubuque county, Iowa [\[ no 

53. Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello county, Iowa 111 

54. Mound group, Dunleith, Illinois 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XIII 

Page. 

FIG. 55. Vault in mound No. 4, Dunleith, Illinois 115 

56. Section of mound No. 16, Duuleith, Illinois ng 

57. V;mlt in mound No. 16, Dunleith, Illinois 116 

58. Welch group, Brown county, Illinois 118 

59. Mound No. 1, Sec. 34, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhoun county, Illinois 122 

60. Mound No. 4, Sec, 34, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhoun county, Illinois 124 

61. Group of mounds on Sec. 31, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhoun county 111... 125 

62. Vertical section of mound No. 8, NE. Sec. 31, T. 10 S.,R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

63. Vertical section of mound on SE. i Sec. 15, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Illinois. 1 27 

64. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NW. Sec. 2., T. 9 S., R. 2 W., Illinois. 128 

65. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NE. Sec. 27, T 10 S., R. 2 W., Illinois. 130 

66. Wood river mounds, Madison county, Illinois 132 

67. Stone graves on Mill tract, Randolph county, Illinois 135 

68. The De Freane stone graves, Randolph county, Illinois 137 

69. Stone graves on bluff", Randolph county, Illinois 139 

70. Hut rings near the bank of Big Mary river, Illinois 140 

71. Pot from Jackson county, Illinois 142 

72. Vogel group, Jackson county, Illinois 144 

73. Spool-shaped ornament of copper 145 

74. Schlimpert mounds, Jackson county, Illinois 146 

75. Section of mound on Schliinpert s place, Jackson county, Illinois 147 

76. Mounds on Hale s place, Jackson county, Illinois 148 

77. Skull from mound 011 Hale s place (side view) 151 

78. Skull from mound on Hale s place (front view) 152 

79. Bone plate from mound on Hale s place 153 

80. Catholic medal from mound on Hale s place 154 

81. Stone grave on Hale s place 154 

82. Plat of works 011 Linn s place, Union county, Illinois 156 

83. Mound A, Linn group (vertical outline) 157 

84. Round pond mounds, Union county, Illinois 160 

85. Copper plate bearing dancing figures, Union county, Illinois 161 

86. Mound group, Clarke county, Missouri 164 

87. The Ben Proffer mound, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 168 

88. The Witting mounds, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 169 

89. The Peter Bess settlement, Bellinger county, Missouri 171 

90. The Lakeville settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 173 

91. Stone pipe, Lakeville settlement 174 

92. County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 174 

93. The Rich woods mounds, Stoddard county, Missouri 175 

94. Plan of mounds, Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6, Rich woods mounds 177 

95. Section of mound No. 3 and adjuncts, Rich woods mounds 178 

96. Pin Hook ridge mounds, Mississippi county 184 

97. Baker s mound, Mississippi county, Missouri 185 

98. Beckwith s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri 

99. Image vessel from Beckwith s ranch 188 

100. Bowl from Beckwith s fort 188 

101. Water vessel from Beckwit s ranch, Mississippi county, Missouri .. 

102. Water vessel from Beckwith s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri . . 

103. Gourd-shaped vessel from Beckwith s ranch, Mississippi county 190 

104. Owl image vessel from Beckwith s ranch 

105. Fish-shaped vessel from Beckwith s ranch . 

106. Meyer s mound, Scott county, Missouri 

107. Mound group near Harviell, Butler county, Missouri .. 

108. Power s fort, Butler county, Missouri 



XIV REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Page 
Flu. 109. Section of mound iu Power s fort, Butler county, Missouri . 

110. Etiect of earthquake of 1811 on mound, Green county, Arkansas.. 

111. Webb group, Craighead county, Arkansas . .. 

112. Mounds at Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas. . 

113. Section of mound No. 8, Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas . . 205 
11 .. Section of mound No. 12, Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansa. 205 

115. Section of mounds, Tyronza station 

116. Clay casts of ear of maize or Indian corn 207 

117. Clay floor of a three-room house 

118. Mode of lathing houses by Mound-builders ... 

119. The Miller mounds, Poinsett county, Arkansas . . 

120. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Miller group, Poinsett county . 210 

121. Mound No. 9, Mil[er group, Poinsett county, Arkansas. . 210 

122. Plan of mound No. 11, Miller group 

123. Plan of mound No. 12, Miller group 

124. Plat of Thornton group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 213 

125. Plat of Taylor shanty group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 214 

126. Mound No. 1, Taylor shanty group 215 

127. Section of mound No. 2, Taylor shanty group 215 

128. Section of mound No. 4, Taylor shanty group 217 

129. Plat of Pecan point works, Mississippi county, Arkansas 220 

130. Image vessel, Pecan point, Mississippi county, Arkansas 221 

131. Vessel ftom .Jackson mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

132. The Sherman mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

133. Engraved shell (Itttsycon perrersum) from mound, Independence 

county, Arkansas 224 

134. Stone spool from mound, Jackson county, Arkansas 225 

135. Bradley mounds, Crittenden county, Arkansas 226 

136. House site, St. Francis county, Arkansas 229 

137. Plan of Menard mounds, Arkansas county, Arkansas 230 

138. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 233 

139. Image pipe, Monroe ceunty, Arkansas 234 

140. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

141. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

142. Plan of Old Town works, Phillips county, Arkansas 236 

143. Pottery vessel from < )ld Town works 237 

144. Mound No. 3, Old Town works 238 

145. Ground plan and elevation of the Barney mound, Phillips county, 

Arkansas 238 

1 l>. Roger s mound, Phillips county, Arkansas 239 

147. Mound near Arkansas City, Desha county, Arkansas 240 

148. Old French fort, Desha county, Arkansas 241 

149. The Taylor mounds. Drew county, Arkansas 242 

150. Stone implement from Knapp group 245 

151. The Hughes mound, Saline county, Arkansas 246 

152. An ornamented water bottle, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

153. Flat-bottomed jar, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

154. Mound group near Camden, Arkansas 249 

155. Plat of Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish, Louisiana 251 

156. View of mound No. 6, Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish 252 

Omitted. 

158. Clarksdale works, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

159. Section of mound No. 1, Clarksdalo works 257 

160. Vessel in form of a shell, Sunflower county, Mississippi 259 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

Page. 

FIG. 161. Avomlale mounds, Washington county, Mississippi 260 

162. Outline of inound No. 1, Champlin group, Yazoo county, Mississippi. 261 

163. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Champlin group, Yazoo county 262 

164. Image A essel from Champlin mound, Mississippi 263 

165. Mound group in Union county, Mississippi 268 

166. Plan of mound No. 1, group in Union county, Mississippi 269 

167. Sections along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis 

sippi - 270 

168. Section along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis 

sippi 270 

169. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county 271 

170. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county 272 

171. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 273 

172. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 274 

173. Silver plate with Spanish coat of arms ; mound, Union county 275 

174. Fireplace in mound, Lauderdale, Tennessee 278 

175. Image vessel from mound, Obion county, Tennessee 279 

176. O Byana s fort, Hickman county,*Kentucky 280 

177. Mound No. 1, O Byam s fort 281 

178. Plat of Tally mounds, Jefferson county, Alabama 291 

179. Mound No. 2, Tally group (plan and section) 291 

180. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Jones s plat, No. 1 294 

181 . Plat of Etowah group, copy of Whittlesey s figure No. 1 296 

182. Plat of the Etowah group (original) 299 

183. Large mound of the Etowah group 300 

184. Vertical section of mound c, Etowah group 302 

185. Plan of burials in mound c, Etowah group 303 

186. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group 304 

187. Copper badge from mound c, Etowah group 305 

188. Copper ornament or badge from mound c, Etowah group 306 

189. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group 306 

190. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group 307 

191. Bust from Etowah mounds 308 

192. Copper plate with bird figure ; mound near Peoria, Illinois 309 

193. Section of the Rembert group, Elbert county, Georgia 316 

194. Plan of mound No. 1, Rembert group 317 

195. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Rembert group 318 

196. Upper horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 320 

197. Fragment of European pottery, Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

198. Lower horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

199. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 322 

200. A painted vessel from Hollywood mound, Georgia 323 

201. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

202. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

203. Copper article from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

204. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 325 

205. Pipe from Hollywood mound, Georgia 325 

206. Fragment of porcelain from Hollywood mound, Georgia 326 

207. T. F. Nelson mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina 334 

208. T. F. Nelson Triangle, Caldwell coifnty, North Carolina 336 

209. Copper cylinder, Nelson Triangle 

210. Bracelet of shell and copper beads, Nelson Triangle 

211 . Iron celt from Nelson Triangle 

212. Part of iron blade, Nelson Triangle , 337 



XVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

lage. 
FIG. 213. Engraved shell, Nelson Triangle. . 

214. Engraved shell, Nelson Triangle 

215. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

216. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 340 

217. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

218. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

219. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

220. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

221. Plan of VV. I). Jones mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina.. 342 

222. R. T. Leuoir burial pit (plan), Caldwell county, North Carolina 343 

223. Ancient burial ground, Wilkes county, North Carolina 345 

224. Clay hearth (or fire-bed), Wilkes county, North Carolina 346 

225. Bogus article, Hay wood county, North Carolina 347 

226. Bogus article, Hay wood county, North Carolina 348 

227. Bogus articles, Hay wood county, North Carolina 319 

228. Big mound, Hay wood county, North Carolina 350 

229. Section of Connor mound, Hendercon county, North Carolina 350 

230. Plan of mounds on the Holston river, Sullivan county, Tennessee .. 351 

231. Copper spindle from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 352 

232. Plan of burials in mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 353 

233. Stone pipe from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 354 

234. Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessee 355 

235. Section of grave No. 1, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

23(5. Section of grave No. 3, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

237 . Section of mound on Fain s island, Jefferson county, Tennessee 358 

238. Plat of mound groups on Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 359 

239. Diagram of mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 360 

240. Image from mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee ... 361 

241. Diagram of the, Hagler mound, Roane county, Tennessee 364 

242. Diagram of the JIardin mound, Blouut county, Tennessee 367 

243. Plat of the McMurray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee 368 

244. Diagram of MrMurray mound, No. 2 369 

245. Section of McMurray mound, No. 3 369 

246. Diagram of McMurray mound, No. 3 370 

247. Plat of Latimore and McSpaddin mounds (Citico group), Monroe 

county, Tennessee 372 

248. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Latimore group 372 

249. Vertical section of the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 374 

250. Plan of burials in the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 375 

251. Moccasin-shaped pot, Citico mound 376 

252. Copper rattle or hawk s bell, Citico mound 376 

253. Bone needle, Citico mound 377 

254. Plat of the Bacon and McGee mounds, Blount and Monroe counties. 

Tennessee 377 

255. Plan of burials in McGee mound No. 2 373 

256. Plat of the Toco mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 379 

257. Vertical section of the Big Toco mound, Monroe Bounty, Tennessee 380 

258. Plan of burials in the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee.. 381 

259. Bone implement, Big Toco mound 382 

260. Bone implement, Big Toco mound 339 

261. Stone pipe, Big Toco mound 333 

262. Ornamented shell, Big Toco mound 333 

263. Stone implement, Big Toco mound 333 

26-1. Pot, Big Toco mouud 



ILLUSTR A TIONS. XVII 

Page. 

FIG. 265. Vertical section of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

266. Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

267. Water vessel, Callaway mound 386 

268. Water vessel, Callaway mound 387 

269. Plat of the Niles ferry mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 388 

270. Group two miles below Niles ferry 389 

271. Plat of monnds on the Click farm, Monroe county, Tennessee 390 

272. Horizontal section, Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Tennes 

see 393 

273. Engraved stone from Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Ten 

nessee 394 

274. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, London county, Tennessee 395 

275. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 396 

276. The Lenoir mounds, Loudon county, Tennessee 397 

277. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Lenoir group 398 

278. Diagram of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 399 

279. Plan of burials in mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

280. Vertical section of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

281. Horizontal plan of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 401 

282. Ornamental pot, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 401 

283. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

284. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

285. Pipe, niound No. 2, Lenoir group 403 

286. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Frazier group, Rhea county, Tennes 

see 406 

287. Huddle-son s Circle, Fayette county, West Virginia 407 

288. Singular stone heaps, Fayette county, West Virginia 408 

289. Stone heap with two cavities, Fayette county, West Virginia 409 

290. Section of stone heap with triangular cavity, Fayette county, West 

Virginia 409 

291. Enlarged plan of mound No. 1, and inclosure a, Kanawha county, 

West Virginia 415 

292. Section of mound No. 1, Kanawha county, West Virginia 416 

293. Spring Hill inclosure on enlarged scale, Kanawha county, West Vir 

ginia 419 

294. Inclosure G, Kanawha county. West Virginia 421 

295. Inclosure I, Kanawha county, West Virginia 422 

296. Inclosure L, Kanawha county, W T est Virginia 423 

297. Inclosure K, Kanawha county, West Virginia 424 

298. A section of mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 425 

299. Copper bracelet from niound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 426 

300. Copper gorget, mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 426 

301. Steatite pipe from Kanawha county, West Virginia 427 

302. Section of mound No. 31, Kanawha county, West Virginia 432 

303. Mound group, 1 mile west of Barboursville, West Virginia . . . 438 

304. Section of the Hawn niound, Knox county, Ohio 44 1 

305. Plat and section of the area about the Staats mound, Knox county, 

Ohio 

306. Plan of Cemetery mound, Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio.. 

307. Section of Cemetery mound, Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio. . 

308. Works on the Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio . . 

309. Plan of the large work, Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio.. 

310. Ancient works near Dublin, Franklin county, Ohio. . 

311. Group of mounds, Brown county, Ohio 

12 ETH II 



XVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Page. 
Flo. 312. Stone grave, Brown county, Ohio.. 

313. Section of a stone grave, Brown county, Ohio 456 

314. Mounds near Brownsville, Ohio 458 

315. Small inclosure, Newark group, Licking county, Ohio 

316. Levels along parallels at Newark, Ohio 467 

317. Ancient inclosure, Licking county, Ohio 

318. Stone fort on Flint ridge, Licking county, Ohio 469 

319. Stone fort ueai* Glenford, Perry county, Ohio 470 

320. Section of the Cryder mound, near Adelphi, Ross county, Ohio. . . 471 

321. Small circle, Liberty township works, Ross county, Ohio 480 

322. Pyramidal mound, Baum works, Ross county, Ohio 485 

323. Bone implement point from Baum works 487 

324. Circle A, Seal township works 490 

325. Copy of Moorehead s station 241, PI. vi . . 492 

326. The Serpent mound, Adams county, Ohio 493 

327. Mound and graves near Monougahcla city, Pennsylvania 496 

328. Section of Irvinetou mound, Warren county, Pennsyl vania 500 

329. Pieces of silver from Irviueton mound, Warren county, Pennsylvania . 501 

330. Inclosure near Pittstield, Warren county, Pennsylvania 502 

331. Ancient fort on At well farm, Madison county, New York 504 

332. Seat of ancient Onondaga town, Madison county, New York 505 

333. Old fort near Ellington, Chautauqua county, New York 507 

334. Inclosure near Ellington, Chautauqua county, New York 509 

335. Inclosure on Dunn farm, Wyoming county, New York 514 

336. Rifle river fort No. 2, Ogemaw county, Michigan 517 

337. Map of the Huron-Iroquois district 541 

338. Elevation of large mound, Angel group 557 

339. Plat of large mound, Angel group 558 

340. The village of Secotan 621 

341. Interior of house of Virginia Indians 623 

342. Section of mound 11, Cook farm group, Davenport, Iowa 636 

343. Village of Pomeiock, from Brevis Narratio 66.9 

344. Pipe from Virginia 706 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



XIX 




TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



By J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR 



INTRODUCTION. 

The prosecution of ethnologic researches among the North 
American Indians, in accordance with act of Congress, was 
continued during the fiscal year 1890- 91. 

The general plan on which the work was prosecuted in 
former years, and which has been explained in earlier reports, 
was continued in operation. A noteworthy feature of this plan 
is that the ethnologists who, as authors, prepare the publica 
tions of the Bureau, personally gather the material for them in 
the field, supplementing this material by a study of all the con 
nected literature and by a subsequent comparison of all ascer 
tained facts. The continuance of the work for a number of 
years by the same zealous observers and students, who freely 
interchange their information and opinions, has resulted in their 
training with the acuteness of specialists, corrected and gener 
alized by the knowledge obtained from other authorities on the 
same or related specialties. 

General ]jnes of investigation were adopted by the Director 
and the details were intrusted to selected persons skilled 
in their pursuits, the results of whose labors are published 
from time to time in the manner prescribed by law. A brief 
statement of the work on which each of these special stu 
dents was engaged during the year, with its condensed result, 



XXI 



XXII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

is presented below. This, however, does not specify in detail 
all of the studies undertaken or services rendered by them, 
as particular lines of research have sometimes been tempora 
rily suspended, in order immediately to accomplish objects 
regarded as of paramount importance for the time. 

The present opportunity is embraced to invite again the 
assistance of explorers, writers, and students who are not and 
may not desire to be officially connected with this Bureau. 
Their contributions, whether in the shape of suggestions or of 
extended communications, will always be gratefully acknowl 
edged and carefully considered, and if published in whole or 
in part, either in the series of reports, monographs, or bulletins, 
they will receive proper credit. 

The items which form the subject of the present report are 
embraced in two principal divisions. The first relates to the 
work prosecuted in the field, and the second to the office work, 
which consists largely of the preparation for publication of the 
results of the field work, complemented and extended by study 
of the literature of the several subjects, and by correspond 
ence relating to them. 

It is with profound pleasure that attention is called to this 
abstract of the work of the officers of the Bureau during the 
term of a single year. By long training, by great zeal, and by 
deep scientific insight, these gentlemen are now able to accom 
plish results far beyond the expectations entertained when the 
Bureau was originally organized. The researches in this field 
have passed beyond the elementary stage, and the significance 
of the data being rapidly gathered becomes more and more 
apparent 

FIELD WORK. 

At the close of the last fiscal year the specific exploration of 
the mound area of the United States ceased, except so far as it 
was found necessary to verify surveys and supply omissions. 
A large part of the results of this specific work, which had been 
continued for several past years, appears in the present volume. 
A plan of general archeologic field work was practically initi 
ated by systematic explorations of the tide-water region in 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXIII 

the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia, and of the Ohio 
valley, which determined, among other points of interest, that 
the ascription of great antiquity to forms of stone implements 
of America, which have been hitherto classed with European 
paleoliths in age as well as in fabrication, was not substantiated 
by the ascertained facts. 

Careful exploration of the Verde valley in Arizona followed 
that previously made in other parts of the large southwestern 
region of the United States in which the presence of many ex 
tensive ruins had given rise to fanciful theories. The data as 
classified and discussed show that the hypothesis of a vanished 
race enjoying high civilization, proposed to account for the 
architecture of the ruined structures, is unnecessary. 

The close attention hitherto given to Indian languages was 
continued, in recognition of the fact that some of them are fast 
passing beyond the possibility of record and study, and that 
the ethnic classification of all of the Indian tribes can be made 
accurate only through the determination of their linguistic 
divisions and connections. The study of aboriginal mythology 
and religious practices was also continued, with special atten 
tion to the ghost dances and " Messiah religion," which have 
produced important consequences bearing on the problem of 
proper national dealing with the Indians. The misconception 
of Indian religious philosophy, which in fact presents rather 
apparent than actual antagonism to civilization as it is in the 
stage commonly traversed toward higher culture, has occa 
sioned needless loss of life and treasure. 

The field work of the year is divided into (1) archeology 
and (2) general field studies, the latter being directed chiefly 
to religion, technology, and linguistics. 

ARCHEOLOGIC FIELD WORK. 
RESEARCHES BY MR. W. H. HOLMES. 

As previously announced, general exploration of the mound 
region was discontinued and archeologic field work was placed 
in the charge of Mr. William H. Holmes. During the summer 
of 1890 he began the work of archeologic exploration in the 



XXIV REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Atlantic coast states. The ancient quarries of quartzite bowl 
ders and of steatite within the District of Columbia were 
explored and extensive excavations were made. This work was 
continued throughout July, and in August a quarry site near 
the new U. S. Naval Observatory, on a ridge overlooking Rock 
creek valley, was examined. The phenomena observed on 
this site were practically identical with those of Piney branch, 
described in the Eleventh Annual Report. A large area of 
bowlder beds of the Potomac formation, two or three acres 
in extent, had been worked over to the depth of several feet by 
the aboriginal quarry men, and all available bowlders had been 
utilized in the manufacture of leaf-shaped blades. These were 
probably blanks, subsequently specialized as spear heads, 
arrow points, perforators, and related instruments. 

In August Mr. Holmes proceeded to the Mississipi valley 
for the purpose of reexamining some mound groups not 
previously explored with sufficient care. He spent a week in 
Grant county, Wisconsin, mapping the remarkable groups of 
effigy mounds for which that region is noted. Subsequently 
he visited Pulaski county, Arkansas, and made a survey of 
the Knap]> mounds at Toltec station, whence he passed to the 
vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, to examine the ancient 
novaculite quarries near that place. Apparently the early 
inhabitants had quarried this rock extensively, and had used 
it in the manufacture of spear heads, arrow points, and other 
articles. The pittings were on a large scale, surpassing even 
those of the District of Columbia quarries. These works have 
generally been attributed by white settlers to Spanish gold- 
hunters of an early period. 

In September and October Mr. Holmes resumed his explora 
tions in the District of Columbia and extended the work into 
the valley of the Potomac between Point of Rocks and Cum 
berland, Maryland, and into the Ohio valley as far as Alle 
gheny. A visit was next made to the eastern shore of the 
Chesapeake, and a very interesting Indian village site on 
Jhoptank river, L> miles below Cambridge, was examined An 
ancient community of oyster dredgers was once established on 
a bluff about 20 feet above tide level. Subsequently this site 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXV 

was buried to the depth of 20 feet by wind-driven sand, and more 
recently the waves have encroached on the land, exposing 
a section of the bluff and its buried village site. The most 
important feature of this exposure was the section of an ossuary 
or burial pit 12 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep, which had 
been dug at the village site and filled with a mass of dis 
connected human bones, all of which were in an advanced 
state of decay. These remains were not accompanied by ob 
jects of art. 

In April Mr. Holmes made a journey to Bartow county, 
Georgia, and to Coahoina county, Mississippi, to make detailed 
observations on the great groups of mounds in these coun 
ties. The principal mound in Bartow county belongs to the 
group known as the Etowah mounds, and is a splendid example 
of the work of the builders. In shape the great structure 
is a four-sided truncated pyramid, not wholly symmetric. 
It is 63 feet high, and measures about 175 feet across the 
nearly level top. The measurements of the four sides of the 
base are 380, 330, 360, and 350 feet. The slopes are steep, 
reaching in places 45 degrees, and are broken by two decided 
eccentricities of configuration. On the south a terrace from 
40 to 50 feet wide slopes to the level of the base of the mound 
on the east, and ends in a nearly level platform about 45 feet 
square at the western end. The platform is about 20 feet 
lower than the mound, and does not appear to have had means 
of communication with its summit. This irregular terrace has 
been called a roadway, but it has more the character of an 
unfinished addition to the original mound. The other eccen 
tricity is a graded way extending eastward from the summit 
of the mound, and which to all appearances is the real road 
way to the summit. This way is 20 or more feet in width, 
though somewhat broken down by erosion, and has a slope of 
only 21 degrees. The great Etowah mound was doubtless 
the stronghold of the village, and its top was probably inclosed 
by a stockade. 

The Carson mounds in Coahoma county, Mississippi, form a 
group of unusual interest. There are four mounds of large 
size, two of tli em being oblong and having twin summits. The 



XXVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

highest has an elevation of 25 feet. Scattered about these 

o 

large mounds are nearly a hundred smaller ones from 
1 to 6 feet in height and from 10 to 200 feet in diameter, 
most of which, as the refuse indicates, represent house sites. 
The house floors were of clay, well smoothed on the upper 
surface, and the walls and possibly the coverings were also of 
clay, supported by a framework of canes. The clay in many 
cases has been baked, but whether from design in building or 
through the burning of the structure surmounting the mound 
is not easily determined. There are numerous large pits about 
the border of the site, from which the earth used in building 
the mounds was apparently obtained. The area covered by 
the village is three-fourths of a mile by half a mile. 

In the spring of 1891 Mr. Holmes began a systematic 
exploration of the tide-water region in Maryland and Virginia, 
which included a study of the art remains and of the phe 
nomena of shell banks and village sites, as well as the map 
ping of all sites which have interest to the historian and the 
archeologist. In this work he was assisted by Mr. William 
Dinwiddie, and for a short period by Mr. Gerard Fowke. 

Through documentary evidence it is known that the tide 
water region was occupied by tribes of Algonquin stock be 
longing to the Powhatan confederacy. So thorough was their 
occupation of this country that along the water courses nearly 
every available site bears evidence of it and, in the salt and 
brackish sections of the water courses, shell banks (the kitchen- 
middens of this people) cover the shores in almost continuous 
lines. The sites were so numerous that a careful study of all 
was found to be impracticable, and it was decided to select 
for detailed examination a small number which are typical. 
On the Potomac the following localities were chosen for 
special study: The vicinity of Little falls -at the head of 
tidewater; the site of Smith s town of " Nacotchtank," now 
Anacostia; "Chapowamsie" island, at the mouth of the creek 
of that name; the site of the village of " Patawomeck, " on 
Potomac creek; the great shell mounds of Pope creek "and 
the oyster-dredging stations about the mouth of Wicomico 
river. Many sites on the western shore of Chesapeake bay and 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXVII 

on Patuxeiit river, also many village sites along the James, 
most of them mentioned and located by Capt, John Smith, 
were visited and examined. These include "Chesapeack," on 
Lynnhaven bay, Virginia; "Nandsamund," on Chuckatuck 
creek, west of Norfolk; Jamestown island; "Chawopo," 
"Paspahegh," and "Quiyoughcohanock," near Clearmont; 
"Weanock," on Eppes island, opposite City Point ; and u Pow- 
hatan," just below Richmond. The art remains procured 
from these historic James river sites are identical in nearly 
every respect with the Potomac and Chesapeake relics, a fact 
which bears strongly on the question of the unity of the 
art products and the identity of the peoples of the tide-water 
country. 

WORK OF MR. GERARD FOWKE. 

Mr. Gerard Fowke entered upon his duties as assistant 
archeologist on May 1, 1891. He began at once the explora 
tion of James river valley, and at the close of the year was 
making excavations in an ancient cemetery near Gala, Alle 
gheny county, Virginia. The object of that work, aside from 
the usual archeologic exploration, was to determine from art 
products the western limits of areas occupied by the Algonquin 
tribes and the eastern limits of the various groups of peoples 
belonging further westward. 

WORK OF MR. HENRY L. REYNOLDS. 

Mr. Henry L. Reynolds was the only one of the former 
assistants in the Mound Division retained on the archeo 
logic field work. He was engaged during the early part of 
the last fiscal year in making examinations and resurveys of 
certain ancient works in Ohio, and in the spring of 1891 was 
sent to South Carolina to examine several important works in 
that state. Owing to severe illness, which terminated in his 
death (on April 17, 1891) while in the field, this last trip was 
not productive of scientific results. By the death of Mr. Rey 
nolds the Bureau has lost a skillful and industrious member, 
and archeology an enthusiastic student. For some time pre- 



XXVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

vious to his last trip, in addition to his other duties as assistant 
to Prof. Thomas, he was engaged in preparing a paper on 
the prehistoric; metallic articles of the mound area. 

WORK OF MR. COSMOS MINDELEFF. 

Late in November Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff was directed to 
proceed to the Casa Grande, on Gila river in Arizona, and to 
examine that ruin with a view to its preservation as provided 
for by act of Congress ; also to prepare plans and specifications 
and make contracts for the work. He was further directed to 
make an examination of the valley of Rio Verde, and collect 
data for a report on the archeology of that region. Owing to 
unforeseen delays the contracts for the Casa Grande work were 
not executed until May 15, 1891, and were not approved by 
the Secretary of the Interior until late in June. Subse 
quently the time for the completion of the work was extended 
two months. 

During his stay in the vicinity of the Casa Grande, Mr. 
Mindeleff made surveys of this structure and of the extensive 
ruin of which it forms a part, together with photographs, 
detailed plans, sketches, and notes, with a view to a detailed 
report. Among other results of his examination he found that 
the ruin of this imposing structure is now standing to within a 
very few feet of its height when built and occupied. 

Pending the execution and approval of the contracts for the 
Casa Grande work, Mr. Mindeleff made an examination of 
the valley of Rio Verde from its mouth to Camp Verde and 
beyond. This region had never been thoroughly examined, 
and it had been supposed that it would be found as rich in 
archeologic remains as the region about Cam]) Verde. Such, 
however, proved not to be the case. A chain of settlements was 
found extending from Camp Verde southward nearly to Fort 
McDowell, but the ruins are not so numerous as in the region 
immediately about Camp Verde. About 10 miles below the 
latter locality an extensive and well-preserved group of cavate 
dwellings was found. 

Throughout the whole Verde valley the buildings, now in 
ruins, were constructed of slabs of calcareous rock, or of 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXIX 

river bowlders, or of both, and in construction, location, and 
ground plans are affiliated with the northern type rather than 
with the southern type, of which the best example is the Casa 
Grande on Gila river. Data for a report on the ruins in the 
valley of Rio Verde, and on the irrigating ditches and the 
horticultural systems there pursued, were collected and have 
been prepared for publication. Mr. Mindeleff remained in the 
field until after the close of the iiscal year. 

GENERAL FIELD WORK. 
WORK OF MRS. STEVENSON. 

Mrs. Matilda C. Stevenson remained at the Pueblo of Sia, 
New Mexico, from July 1 to September 15, 1890. She was 
diligently engaged in completing her studies of the customs 
and mythology of the Sia Indians, desribed in the Eleventh 
Annual Report of this Bureau. She made their cosmogony 
and the rites of their secret cult societies special subjects of 
investigation, with the view of acquiring a clearer understand 
ing of their mythology and religious practices. The data thus 
obtained are incorporated in Mrs. Stevenson s memoir on the 
Sia in the last report of the Bureau. 

WORK OF DR. W. J. HOFFMAN. 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman in July visited the Menomoni reservation 
at Keshena, the Objibwa reservation at Lac Court Oreille, 
Wisconsin, the Ojibwa reservation at La Pointe, and the Ottawa 
Indians at Petoskey, Michigan. At Keshena he attended the 
annual ceremony of the Mita wit, or Grand Medicine Society, 
an order professing the powers of prophesy, the exorcism of 
demons, the cure of disease, and the ability to confer success 
in the chase. The ritual of initiation embraces the dramatiza 
tion of the Menomoni cosmogony, the reception by the Indians 
from the Great Manito of the power of warding off disease and 
hunger, and the instruction to candidates as to the proper mode 
of so living as to gain admission into the realm presided over 
by Naqpote (the woli), who is brother of Manabush, the mediator 
between the Menomoni and the Great Manito. The initiation 



XXX REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

ceremonies are preceded by a mortuary ritual, lasting one entire 
night, in honor of the deceased member, whose place is filled 
later on by the initiation of a substitute. 

Investigations were made of the Menornoni ceremony to 
compare it with a similar ritual found among the Ojibwa. It 
appears that the Menomoni practices are offshoots from the 
Ojibwa, and that where the Ojibwa shamans repeat certain 
phrases in an archaic form of language as handed down to 
them, the Menomoni employ Ojibwa words and phrases, per 
haps to mystify the hearers, or, perhaps, because the ritual 
was obtained from the Ojibwa in that form. The mode of 
manufacture of the several kinds of mats made by the Menom 
oni was also examined, and typical specimens were secured. 

On the completion of his work at the above reservations, Dr. 
Hoffman proceeded to La Pointe to inquire of the Ojibwa 
shamans concerning certain sacred birch-bark charts employed 
by them in the initiation of candidates into their society, 
and also to secure additional information relative to the expla 
nation of pictographic cosmogony records. He then visited 
the Ottawa Indians on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, 
near Mackinaw, to ascertain whether the ceremonies of the 
Grand Medicine Society are still practiced by them. This 
body of Indians profess to have discontinued these rites, but 
assert that a band of the Ottawa, living farther southward, near 
Grand Traverse, adhere to the primitive belief and conduct 
annual ceremonies. 

WORK OF MR. JAMES MOONEY. 

Mr. James Mooney made a short visit in July to the moun 
tain region of North Carolina and Tennessee, the former home 
of the Cherokees, for the purpose of collecting additional facts 
for a monograph on that tribe. In connection with the same 
work he had intended to visit the Cherokee nation in Indian 
territory during the following winter, but in the meantime the 
Messiah religion" had begun to attract so much attention 
that he was directed to investigate that subject also at the 
same time, as well as to gather more material bearing on the 
linguistic affinities of the Kiowa tribe He left Washington 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXI 

on December 22, and proceeding at once to the Cheyenne and 
Arapaho reservation in Indian territory, where the ghost 
dances were in full operation, remained for several weeks study 
ing the dances, making photographs, and collecting the songs 
used. This last was the most important part of the study, as 
most of the Messiah religion is embodied in songs, many of 
which go to the root of Indian mythology. That religion is 
a remodeling of aboriginal beliefs as influenced by the ideas 
of Christianity lately imbibed from the white man, to be used 
for the utter confounding of the white man himself. It is in 
no sense a warlike movement. It is somewhat remarkable 
that the ghost songs in use by the various tribes are almost all 
in the language of the Arapahoes, the members of that tribe 
being the most active propagators of the new religion and 
their language being peculiarly adapted to music. 

He then proceeded to the Kiowa reservation, where lin 
guistic and other materials were obtained by which it may 
become possible finally to classify that hitherto isolated tribe. 
Additional ghost-dance material was also collected. After 
revisiting the Cherokee nation, where several weeks were 
devoted to gathering information, especially in regard to the 
Indian geography of upper Georgia, he returned to Washing 
ton early in April. 

In accordance with arrangements for the World s Columbian 
Exposition it was decided to make a tribal exhibit from one of 
the more primitive prairie tribes. The Kiowas were selected 
for the purpose and the work was assigned to Mr. Mooney, 
who then returned to their reservation. During May and 
June he collected a large variety of articles illustrative of the 
home life, arts, dress, and ceremonials of the tribe, and was 
still in the field at the close of the fiscal year. 

OFFICE WORK. 

The DIRECTOR during the year devoted all the time he 
could spare from other official duties to the completion of 
a work on the linguistic families of North America. His 
effort to classify the North American languages so that the 
classification shall be of scientific value as well as of practical 



XXXII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

use, has been explained at length in previous reports. Such a 
classification, when properly made, will constitute an indispen 
sable preliminary to all accurate ethnologic work relating to 
this continent. The essay, with an accompanying linguistic 
chart, was substituted for another paper in the long delayed 
Seventh Annual Report of this Bureau. 

Col. GARRICK MALLERT, U. S. A., during the year, when not 
occupied in special and occasional duties designated by the 
Director, was engaged in arranging for publication the mate 
rial gathered by him during several previous years on the gen 
eral theme of picture-writing. That title was used to embrace 
all modes of expressing and communicating thoughts and facts 
in a permanent form without reference to sound. Such modes 
of expression being at one time, if not still, independent of oral 
language, the study of their history, evolution, and practice 
may assist in the solution of some ethnic and psychic prob 
lems, and may verify or modify some theories of anthropologic 
import. In the scheme of arrangement for publication the 
objective exhibition of mental concepts by the North American 
Indians has been classified with proper predominance, as it 
has exceeded in interest all others known which have not 
passed beyond the boundaries separating ideograms and 
emblems from syllabaries and alphabets. In order to promote 
explanation and comparison, however, copies and descriptions 
of a large number of petroglyphs and other forms of picto- 
grapha found in Europe, Asia, Africa. Australia, and in many 
islands, were collated. With the same object, still more earnest 
attention was directed to the synoptic presentation of illustra 
tions from Mexico, Central America, and South America as being 
presumably more closely connected than is the eastern hemi 
sphere with the similar developments found in the present area 
of the United States, whether inscribed on rocks with author 
ship generally unknown or actually in current use among many 
of the Indian tribes. This work was incorporated in the Tenth 
Annual Report of this Bureau. 

Mr. HEXRY W. HEXSHAW throughout the entire year devoted 
his time to administrative work and to continuing the prepara 
tion of the Dictionary of Indian Tribes alreadv described. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXIII 

Prof. CYRUS THOMAS was engaged during the year chiefly 
in the preparation of his report on the exploration of the 
mound area of the United States, which appears in the present 
volume, and in other office work necessary in connection with 
the publication of a bulletin entitled " Catalogue of Prehistoric 
Works East of the Rocky Mountains," printed during the 
fiscal year though not issued until after its close. He was 
also occupied in the preparation of maps for that bulletin and of 
illustrations for his general report. It was intended at first 
that the whole of that report should occupy two volumes as a 
part of the series of Contributions to North American Ethnol 
ogy, but it was found convenient to divide it between the 
present volume and the bulletin- mentioned. As this change 
of plan necessitated some modifications in the manuscript, the 
opportunity was embraced to incorporate additional data 
obtained through recent observations and correspondence. 

Mr. W. H. HOLMES included in his office work the prepara 
tion of papers on pottery, shell, textile fabrics, pipes, and other 
productions of the mound-building tribes, and the writing of 
reports on the numerous explorations made during the year. 
These reports have been brought up to date and are on file. 
He has adopted the policy of preparing reports on field work 
for file as the work proceeds, and his assistants are expected at 
the close of each separate piece of exploration or unit of study 
to make a report relating to it of a sufficiently finished nature 
to serve the purposes of record and reference in case of their 
disability or separation from the office. 

Rev. J. OWEN DORSET prepared the index to his monograph, 
"The $egiha Language Myths, Stories, and Letters, "and read 
the proof sheets of the second part of that volume,, which has 
since been published as Vol. vi of Contributions to North 
American Ethnology. He resumed his work on the (fegiha- 
English dictionary, inserting many new words occurring in the 
texts, and referring to each new word by page and line. He 
devoted considerable time to the tribal synonymy of the 
Athapascan, Caddoan, Kusan, Siouan, Takilman, and Yakonan 
families; comparing authorities, writing historical sketches of 
the tribes, gentes, and villages of these linguistic families, and 

12 ETH III 



XXXIV REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

rearranging- all the material hi order to make it ready for print 
ing. From December, 1890, to March, 1891, with the aid of a 
Kwapa delegate in Washington, he collected much information 
respecting the Kwapa (or Quapaw) tribe, a people closely related 
to the Omaha and Ponka, from whom they separated prior to 
1540. After March, 1891, he elaborated that material, which 
consists of about 150 personal names, arranged according to 
sex and gens, with the meaning of the name whenever attain 
able, together with over 3,500 entries for a Kwapa-English 
dictionary, and several epistles and myths with gramniatic and 
sociologic notes. This material was found to be of great assist 
ance to him in the preparation of the (f egiha-Engiish dictionary 
and other papers. 

He also prepared for publication the following papers : A 
study of Siouan cults, illustrated with numerous sketches col 
ored by Indians, which is incorporated in the Eleventh Annual 
Report; Omaha and Ponka letters, containing the (fegiha 
epistles, which could not be published in Contributions to 
North American Ethnology, Vol. vi; an illustrated paper on 
Omaha dwellings, furniture, and implements: and a paper on 
the social organization of the Siouan tribes. 

Mr. ALBERT S. GATSCHET during the fiscal year was en 
gaged in office work only. After completing the manuscript 
of the Ethnographic Sketch of his work, "The Klamath Indians 
of Southwestern Oregon," which was published during the year 
as Vol. n, Part i, of Contributions to North American Ethnology, 
he read the proof of it, which occupied him until October, 1890. 
Later he was engaged in extracting, copying, and carding the 
vocabularies and other matter collected by him dining the past 
ten years concerning the Tonkawe, the Hitchiti, the Shawano, 
Powhatan, and Creek Indians. A large number of personal, 
tribal, and local names of Indian origin were collected and 
partly explained in the intervals of the above work. 

Dr. W. J. HOFFMAN continued the arrangement and classifi 
cation of material relating to the society of shamans of the 
Ojibwa Indians, which, together with numerous illustrations, 
was prepared for publication, and forms part of the Seventh 
Annual Report of the Bureau. Dr. Hoffman was also engaged 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXV 

in the arrangement of the data and sketches relating to the 
pictography and gesture language of the North American 
Indians, obtained by him during previous field seasons, to be 
incorporated in the works of Col. Mallery on those topics. 

Mr. JAMES MOONEY devoted the earlier part of the fiscal 
year to the elaboration of his Cherokee material, the first 
results of which, under the title of "Sacred Formulas of the 
Cherokees," has appeared in the Seventh Annual Report of 
the Bureau. He also prepared a short descriptive catalogue 
of his previous ethnologic collections from the Cherokee and 
began work on a paper indicating that the southern Atlantic 
states w^ere formerly occupied by a number of Siouan tribes, 
if, indeed, that region was not the original home of the Siouan 
stock. In connection with this investigation, a closer study 
of the linguistic material from the Catawban tribes of Carolina 
confirms the statement, which has already been published by 
this Bureau, that they belong to the Siouan family. Mr. 
Mooney also at intervals assisted in work on the Dictionary of 
Tribal Synonymy. 

Mr. JAMES C. PILLING continued his bibliographic work 
throughout the fiscal year. At the date of the last report he 
was engaged in reading proof of the bibliography of the 
Algonquian languages. The volume has been published, com 
prising 614 pages and 82 full-page illustrations, chiefly fac 
similes of the title-pages of rare books, syllabaries, and other 
interesting bibliographic features. Among the special articles 
in it is one relating to the labors of the "Apostle" Eliot among 
the Indians of Massachusetts, and more especially to his 
linguistic work. As this author w r as the earliest and the most 
noted of those engaged in this line of research, considerable 
space was devoted to him and his labors, and it was thought 
proper to issue the article in separate form. It is noted below 
under the heading of publications. Mr. Pilling has terminated 
his connection with the U. S. Geological Survey, and is now 
associated exclusively with the Bureau of Ethnology, his ap 
pointment taking effect May 1, 1891. 

Mr. J. N. B. HEWITT has continued his work on the Tuskarora 
dictionary, the Tuskarora-English part being well advanced 



XXXVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

and the Knglish-Tuskarora part commenced. Much material 
for the compilation of a complete grammar of the Tuskarora- 
Iroquoian tongue was added to that previously acquired. 
For this object such anomalous, redundant, and defective verbs 
as have been recorded in the dictionary have been conjugated 
in all the derivative forms of which they are susceptible, a 
difficult but instructive task. Several regular verbs have also 
been conjugated to develop all their known derivative forms. 
The number of possible derivative forms of a regular verb in 
the several conjugations is estimated by Mr. Hewitt to reach 
between 2,800 and 3,000. This enumeration is of interest, first, 
because it has been asserted by students of Indian languages that 
the number of possible derivative forms of an American Indian 
verb is infinite, and, secondly, because it has been estimated 
that a Greek verb so conjugated would be represented by 
about 1,300 forms. 

He also paid special attention to grammatic gender. There 
are in the Tuskarora-Iroquoian tongue three genders, which he 
names the anthropic, the zoic, and the azoic, which are ex 
pressed through the prefix pronouns only. In the anthropic 
gender alone sex distinctions are found, and hence there are 
masculine and feminine pronouns therein; but in the zoic and 
azoic genders, sex is not indicated. Hence, by the prefix pro 
nouns, the objects of discourse are naturally classified into 
three genders. 

Mr. Hewitt continued making translations from the old 
French writers, Perrot, Lafitau, La Potherie, and others, of the 
notices and accounts of the beliefs, rites and ceremonies, super 
stitions, and mythic tales of the Iroquoian peoples. These were 
collated as aids in explaining and elaborating the matter col 
lected in the field by him personally. By adding their testi 
mony to the evidence of etymology he forms the opinion that 
the Iroquoian cosmogony or genesis-myth originates in the 
personification of the elements, powers, processes, and the liv 
ing creatures of the visible and sensible world. 

Mrs. MATILDA C. STEVENSON was engaged from the later 
part of September, 1890, to June 30, 1891, in preparing for 
publication the material collected at the pueblo of Sia, New 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXVII 

Mexico, during- the preceding spring- and summer, which is 
published in the Eleventh Annual Report of this series. 

Mr. COSMOS MIISDELEFF during the first five months of the 
fiscal year was occupied on the card catalogue of ruins 
referred to in the last annual report and in the compilation and 
preparation of maps showing the distribution of ruins in the 
southwestern part of the United States. This work was tem 
porarily discontinued late in November, when he was ordered 
into the field as set forth in preceding paragraphs. 

lie also has remained in charge of the modeling room. 
Its force during the year was devoted exclusively to the "dupli 
cate series," reference to which has been made in previous 
reports, and no new work was undertaken. Five models were 
added to the series, ranging in size from 16 square feet to 250 
square feet, and comprising the following subjects: Mummy 
cave cliff ruin, Arizona; Pueblo of Walpi, Arizona; Pueblo 
of Sechumovi, Arizona; Ruin of Peiiasco Blanco, New Mexico; 
and Pit of Nelson mound. This series is nearing completion, 
and the Bureau now has material sufficient to form the nu 
cleus of an exhibit, such as it is often called upon to make, 
without disturbing its series of original models now deposited 
in the National Museum. It has also a small number of mod 
els which can be drawn upon to supply the demand for such 
material for the purpose of exchange with colleges and other 
educational and scientific institutions. 

Mr. JEREMIAH CURTIN was occupied with office work exclu 
sively during the year. From July 1, 1890, until February 
1, 1891, he arranged and copied vocabularies which he had 
previously collected in California, namely: Hupa, Elmikan, 
Weitspekan, Wintu, Yana, and Palaihnihan. He devoted the 
later months of the year to classifying and copying a large 
number of myths which he had collected among the Hupa, 
Elmikan, and Wintu Indians. These myths are for the greater 
part connected with medicine, though some are creation myths 
and myths relating to religion and the origin of various tribal 
customs and usages. 

Mr. DE LANCY W. GILL continued in charge of the work of 
preparing and editing the illustrations for publications of the 



XXXVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Bureau. The work done for the year ending June 30, 1891, 

was as follows: 

Drawings of objects and ethnologic specimens and miscellaneous 

diagrams. . 

Ancient ruins, earthworks, and landscape drawings 
Maps. ^ 

Total.. 602 

These drawings were prepared from field surveys and 
sketches, from photographs, and from the collections brought 
in by the members of the Bureau. 

The photographic work remains under the able manage 
ment of Mr. J. K. Hillers. Photographic negatives were 
secured from sittings of Indians representing the following 
tribes, viz, Sac and Fox, Seneca, Creek, and Cherokee. From 
these negatives 129 prints were furnished. 

ADMINISTRATIVE WORK. Until April 30, 1891, Mr. James C. 
Pilling was chief clerk of the Geological Survey and performed 
similar functions for the Bureau of Ethnology; after Mr. 
Filling s resignation from the Geological Survey took effect, 
his successor, Mr. H. C. Rizer, beginning with May 1, con 
tinued to perform the duties of chief clerk of the Bureau of 
Kthnology. Mr. John T). McChesney, the chief disbursing 
clerk of the Geological Survey, continued to make disburse 
ments and transact the fiscal business for the Bureau through 
out the year. The duties of these officers have been performed 
in an eminently satisfactory manner, without compensation 
from the Bureau. Mr. W. A. Croffut, editor of the Geological 
Survey, has remained in charge of the editorial work of the 
Bureau, an exacting service which he also has performed for 
several years without compensation from the Bureau. In this 
work he has been efficiently aided by Mr. George M. Wood. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications issued during the year are: 
(1) Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume 
n, Part i. The Klamath Indians of Southeastern Oregon, by 
Albert Samuel Gatschet, a quarto volume of cvii+711 pages 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXIX 

and map. This part includes an ethnographic sketch of the 
Klamath people, texts of the Klamath language with explana 
tory notes, and a grammar of the Klamath language. The 
second part comprises the Klamath-English and English- 
Klamath dictionaries. It was in type at the end of the last 
fiscal year, but was not then received from the Public Printer. 
(2) Bibliographic notes on Eliot s Indian Bible and on his 
other translations and works in the Indian language of Massa 
chusetts. This is an abstract from a Bibliography of the 
Algonquian Languages, by James Constantine Pilling, and 
forms pages 127-184 of the Algonquian Bibliography, which 
has since been issued. As separately issued these " Notes" 
constitute a royal octavo pamphlet of 58 separately numbered 
pages. Two hundred and fifty copies were printed and issued. 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER ON THE MOUND EXPLO 
RATIONS OF THE BUREAU. 

In 1858, 1859, and 1860 the present Director of the Bureau 
of Ethnology was engaged in examining prehistoric mounds 
in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. At that time it was 
the prevailing opinion among archeologists that the mounds 
and other aboriginal earthworks of the eastern half of the 
United States are vestiges of a people more ancient and more 
advanced in culture than the tribes of Indians that occupied 
the continent at the time of the discovery by Columbus. 
Sharing these opinions, he began the preparation of a catalogue 
of mound-builders arts, in the progress of which work many 
mounds were visited and a few excavated, and the catalogue 
grew from observations thus made in the field and from the 
examination of collections in various parts of the country. In 
the fall of 1859 certain mounds on the shore of Lake Peoria, 
in Illinois, were examined and skeletons were found in one of 
the largest, and with them works of art of various materials, 
especially of stone and pottery. At the bottom, with some 
articles of pottery, shells, stone implements, etc., an ornament 
was found made of copper skillfully cut in imitation of a 
spread eagle, with head turned to one side. Lying by the side 
of this were a few glass beads. These challenged attention, 



XL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

and the question was necessarily presented to him, Did these 
ancient people have the art of making- glass I Subsequently 
the copper ornament was more carefully examined, and it ap 
peared to be made of rolled sheet copper, or if the sheet was 
made by hammering this was so deftly accomplished that 
every vestige of the process had disappeared, leaving only flat 
surfaces on both sides, with a uniform thickness of metal. If 
these articles were the work of the mound-builders in pre- 
Columbian times, then the people must have possessed arts 
more advanced than those shown by the mound arts previously 
studied. Thus a suspicion arose as to the correctness of the 
prevailing opinion. 

National events interrupted the investigation, and carried 
the investigator into other fields of activity; but while cam 
paigning in Missouri, Tennessee, and Mississippi, in 1861-64 
he discovered and examined many other groups of mounds. 
In these new fields, also, most of the works of art unearthed 
were of stone, bone, shell, and pottery, but in excavating a 
mound with stone graves, near Nashville, Tennessee, more 
glass beads were discovered and also an iron knife, very much 
rusted, which was afterward lost. At the time of this find his 
former suspicion became a hypothesis that the mounds from 
which the glass, copper, and iron articles were taken were con 
structed subsequent to the advent of the white man on this 
continent, and that the contents gave evidence of barter 
between the civilized and savage races. 

When the Bureau of Ethnology was first organized the 
energies of its members were devoted exclusively to the study 
of the North American Indians, and the general subject of 
archeology was neglected, it being the dominant purpose and 
preference of the Director to investigate the languages, arts, 
institutions, and mythologies of extant tribes rather than pre 
historic antiquities; but certain archeologists, by petition, 
asked Congress to so enlarge the scope of the Bureau as to 
include a study of the archeology of the United States, and 
thereupon, when the next appropriation was made, in Febru 
ary, 1881, the act of Congress was modified by including the 
italicized words in the following extract: 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XLI 

"Add to the paragraph appropriating $25,000 for con 
tinuing ethnological researches among the North American 
Indians the following: 

" Five thousand dollars of -which shall be expended in continuing 
arclieological investigation relating to mound-builders and prehistoric 
mounds. " 

This change in the statute was a surprise to the Director, as 
he had not been informed that such a movement was on foot. 
In compliance with the terms of the statute the work of inves 
tigating the mounds of the eastern half of the United States 
was at once organized, and Mr. Wills de Haas was placed in 
charge, as he was one of the men who had interested himself 
to have the investigation enlarged. Subsequently, in 1881, 
Mr. de Haas resigned, and Prof. Cyrus Thomas was put in 
charge of the w r ork, which he has ever since continued. The 
new line of researches thus inaugurated has led to the publica 
tion of a number of papers in the reports of the Bureau, and 
now one more comprehensive than any of the rest is presented 
by Prof. Thomas a treatise which will be of interest, as it 
seems to disprove the attractive theory that the ancient tumuli 
of the eastern half of the United States are the remains of a 
people more highly cultured than the tribes of who were In 
dians found by the white man, and who had vanished from the 
country anterior to the Columbian discovery. The problems 
raised in the mind of the present Director many years ago 
seem to have reached a solution. 

It is difficult to exaggerate the prevalence of this romantic 
fallacy, or the force with which the hypothetic "lost races" had 
taken possession of the imaginations of men. For more than 
a century the ghosts of a vanished nation have ambuscaded 
in the vast solitudes of the continent, and the forest-covered 
mounds have been usually regarded as the mysterious sep- 
ulchers of its kings and nobles. It was an alluring conjecture 
that a powerful people, superior to the Indians, once occupied 
the valley of the Ohio and the Appalachian ranges, their empire 
stretching from Hudson bay to the Gulf, with its flanks on 
the western prairies and the eastern ocean; a people with a 
confederated government, a chief ruler, a great central capital, 



XLII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

a highly developed religion, with homes and husbandry and 
advanced textile, fictile, and ductile arts, with a language, per 
haps with letters, all swept away before an invasion of copper- 
hued Huns from some unknown region of the earth, prior to 
the landing of Columbus. These hypothetic semicivilized 
autochthons, imagined to have been thus rudely exterminated 
or expelled, have been variously identified by ethnologists 
with the ancestors of the Aztecs or the Toltecs, the Mayas, the 
Colhuas, the Chichimecs, or the Pueblos, who have left no 
sign of their existence save the rude and feeble fortifications 
into which they fled from their foes, and the silent and obscure 
elevations in which their nobles found interment. 

Only about a hundred years have passed since scientific men 
became fully aware of these remarkable antiquities. They 
were first discussed by Dr. Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Presi 
dent Ezra Stiles of Yale College, Noah Webster, and their 
contemporaries, who advanced various theories to account for 
the origin of the mounds. Franklin and Webster were inclined 
to attribute to De Soto and other Spanish explorers the few 
that had been found and described, but Webster afterward 
abandoned this theory and ascribed the mounds to the Indians. 
Dr. Benjamin S. Barton, in 1797, set forth the conclusion that 
the mounds were not built by the living Indians or their pre 
decessors, but by a people of higher cultivation, with established 
law and order and a well disciplined police. His work, "New 
Views on the Origin of the Tribes of America," seems, in fact, 
to have been the first publication of the theory of the "lost 



races." 



At the beginning of this century the students of American 
archeology received two important accessions, Rev. T. M. Har 
ris, of Massachusetts, and Bishop Madison, of Virginia. Both 
of them traveled extensively in the mound region, and both 
were of scientific tastes and habits of mind. Bishop Madison 
saw in these antiquities no evidence of an art higher than or 
of tendencies different from those of existing Indians, while Dr. 
Harris thought that they evinced proofs of skill and culture 
implying the hand of a superior race and the influence of a 
civilization. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XLIII 

Since the days of Harris and Madison the discussion of this 
subject has gone forward on the lines which their differences 
defined. Those who hold that the Indians did not build the 
mounds are far from agreeing as to who did build them. Many, 
like Mr. John T. Short, author of "The Nortn Americans of 
Antiquity," follow Harris in the direction of the Toltecs, who, 
it is assumed, occupied the Mississippi basin prior to their 
appearance in the valley of Anahuac on the summit of the 
mountains of Mexico. Wilson, in his i Prehistoric Man," argues, 
on the contrary, that the Toltecs came from the south, and that 
the Aztecs went from the north after building our mysterious 
mounds. Dawson, in his "Fossil Man," holds that the mounds 
were built by the Tallegwi, a primitive people reconstructed 
from the traditions of the Delawares ; Lewis H. Morgan ex 
pressed the opinion that the makers of the mounds were 
related to the Pueblo tribes of New Mexico ; Squier and Davis, 
who, in their "Ancient Monuments," exercised a world- wide 
influence on this question partly because their conclusions 
were published under the powerful authority of the Smith 
sonian Institution, set forth their views as follows : 

"We may venture to suggest that the facts thus far col 
lected point to a connection more or less intimate between the 
race of the mounds and the semicivilized nations which for 
merly had their seats among the Sierras of Mexico, upon the 
plains of Central America and Peru, and who erected the 
imposing structures which from their number, vastness, and 
mysterious significance, invest the central portion of the con 
tinent with an interest not less absorbing than that which 
attaches to the valley of the Nile." 

But the assumption that the mounds scattered irregularly 
over the face of this country from Florida to the Red River 
of the North were the work of a lost and nameless race, and 
that the deposits of Indian remains within them were the result 
of "intrusive burials," has been losing ground before recent 
evidence accumulated by archeologists. The spade and pick, 
in the hands of patient and sagacious investigators, have every 
year brought to light facts tending more and more strongly to 
prove that the mounds, defensive, mortuary and domiciliary, 



XLVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

north to the large truncated pyramid of the south, the stone 
cairn, the house site, etc., stratified and unstratified; and the 
collaborators of the Bureau of Ethnology have collected an 
immense treasury of pottery, celts, pipes, gorgets, flint and 
bone implements, discoidal stones, copper articles, engraved 
shells and toys, and ornaments of many kinds, which will be 
invaluable to students of ethnology. 

Incidentally, as strongly pointing to the conclusions to 
which the explorations lead, Dr. Thomas introduces a summa 
tion of testimony tending to show that the ruined cities of 
Palenque, Copan, and Uxmal were founded and built not by 
an extinct ancient race but by the ancestors of the sturdy 
Mayas who still possess Central America, and that the 
deserted pueblos and cliff-dwellings of New Mexico and Ari 
zona are referable to the ancestors of the sedentary tribes who 
still cluster on the arid plains and mesas of that section. If 
this be true it follows as a corollary that they could not have 
constructed the mounds of eastern America in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

The ultimate conclusions resulting from the explorations 
chronicled in this volume may briefly be stated as follows : 

1. Nothing found in the mounds justifies the opinion that 
they are uniformly of great antiquity. 

2. The mound-builders comprised a number of tribes bear 
ing about the same relations and having about the same cul 
ture-status as the Indian tribes inhabiting the corresponding 
area when it was first visited by Europeans. 

3. The custom of removing the flesh before burial prevailed 
extensively among the northern mound-builders, and was not 
uncommon in the south. 

4. None of the mounds were built for religious or sacred 
purposes, but some religious ceremony was often performed 
at the burial, involving the use of fire, perhaps in cremation. 
There is no evidence that human sacrifice was practiced. 

5. In some southern districts, especially in the bottom lands 
of the lower Mississippi, it was customary to erect dwellings 
on low mounds, apparently artificial, and, when deaths oc- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XLVII 

curred, to bury the remains in the earthen floors, burn the 
houses, and heap mounds over the sites while the embers yet 
smoldered. These residences appear to have been constructed 
by setting upright sticks in the ground and wattling them by 
interweaving canes or twigs, then plastering these rude walls 
with clay and thatching the roofs exactly as described by the 
early French explorers of the region. 

6. The contents of the mounds examined reveal in the 
builders a people who had attained about the same status in 
warfare, domestic customs, social conditions, and arts, as the 
Indians of the same neighborhood when first visited by white 
men. 

7. The construction of similar mounds over the dead has 
been practiced extensively in many localities since the com 
ing of Europeans, as is demonstrated by the finding of silver 
and iron implements and religious emblems among the bones 
and ashes of the abandoned hearths. 

8. The explorations of the Bureau exhibit the fact that the 
mounds of the eastern portion of the United States cannot be 
distinguished from those of the western portion as belonging 
to a higher grade of culture, while there is abundant evidence 
that the western mounds have in part been erected and used 
by the Indians in historic times. The present Director has him 
self seen two burial mounds in process of construction one in 
Utah, on the banks of the Santa Clara, near the town of St. 
George, constructed by a tribe of the Shoshonean family; the 
other built by the Wintun Indians in the valley of Pitt river, 
near the fish-hatching station on that stream. The evidence 
in favor of the Indian origin of the western structures has 
been so great and the facts have been so well known that 
writers have rarely attributed them to prehistoric peoples. 

S. The explorations of the Bureau herein recorded justify 
the conclusion that works of certain kinds and localities are 
attributable to specific tribes known to history. This makes 
it possible for the archeologist to determine, to a limited 
extent, certain lines of migration. For example, it seems to be 
proved that the Cherokees were mound-builders, and that they 
built most of the mounds of eastern Tennessee and western 



XLVIII 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 



North Carolina, and probably those of the Kanawha valley of 
West Virginia. To the Shawnees may be ascribed the box 
or cist graves of stone and accompanying- mounds in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and northern Georgia. The stone graves in the 
valley of the Delaware are referable to the Dela wares. There 
are facts enough to corroborate the inference that the ancient 
works in northern Mississippi were built chiefly by the Chicka- 
saws; those in the region of Flint river, in southern Georgia, 
by the lichees; and a large portion of all those of the Gulf 
states by the Muskoki group. 

10. Finally, the links of evidence connecting the Indians 
and mound-builders are so numerous and well established as 
to justify archeologists in assuming that they were one and 
the same people. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Classification of expenditures made from the appropriation for North American Eth 
nology, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891. 



Amount of appropriation, 1890- 91, (act approved August 30, 1890) 

July 1, 1890, balance from previous appropriations 



$40,000.00 

. 12,033.08 



Total . . 



52, 033. 08 



Expenses. 



Services 

Traveling expenses 

Transportation of property 

Field subsistence 

Field supplies 

Field supplies for distribution to In 
dians 

Field material 

Laboratory material 

Books for library 

Stationery and drawing material. . . 



Amount. 



$33, 710. 23 

2, 354. 76 

290.20 

115. 16 

310. 71 

93.54 

.30 

32.26 

352. 16 

309. 00 



Expenses. 



Illustrations for reports $840. 35 

Office furniture 439. 96 

Office supplies and repairs 193. 41 

Specimens 174. 10 

Bonded railroad accounts forwarded 
to United States Treasury for set 
tlement 42. 70 

Balance on hand to meet outstanding 

liabilities 12, 774. 24 

Total . . 



Amount. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER. 



12 ETH 1 



REPORT 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 



CYEUS THOMAS. 




CONTENTS. 



Page, 

Outline of this paper 17 

Preface 19 

Introduction 27 

Field operations 35 

Manitoba and the Dakotas 35 

Minnesota 42 

Pipestone caunty 42 

Houston county 45 

Wisconsin 47 

Dane county 47 

Crawford county 47 

Vernon county 77 

Grant county 83 

Sheboygan county 93 

Barren county 94 

Rock county 98 

Iowa 99 

Allamakee county 99 

Clayton county 108 

Dubuque county 108 

Wapello county 110 

Van Buren county 112 

Lee county 112 

Illinois 112 

Joe Daviess county 112 

Pike county 117 

Brown county 118 

Adams county 120 

Calhoun county 121 

Madison and St. Clair counties 131 

Randolph county 

Jackson county 141 

Alexander county 

Union county 

Lawrence county 

Missouri 

Clark county 

Lewis county 

St. Louis county 

Cape Girardeau county 

Bellinger county 

Stoddard county - 

Scott and Mississippi counties 

Butler county 

5 



g CONTENTS. 

Fie hi operation* continued. * 98 

Arkansas . . jgg 

Clay county . 19 p 

Greene county - 900 

Craighead county .............................. "^ 

I oinsett county - - 2^9 

Mississippi county .. 224 
Independence county . . 
.Jackson county ................................. 

Crittenden county ................ 9 ^ 

St. Francis county .. "J 

Arkansas county ........................................ jj 

Loe county ...... 233 

Monroe county ............... 

Phillips county - 

De.sha county ....................... 

.... Zo" 

Drew county.. 

Lincoln county . " 

Jefferson county .-- 

Pulaski county . .............................. ~ 

Saline county ....................................................... 24 ^ 

Clark county ...... 



( )n:ickitu county .................................................... < 

250 
isiana ........................................................ ~ 



Mississippi ....................... 

Coahoma county .................................................... 

Sunflower county ................................................... 

Washington county ............................................ 

Ya/oo county ....................................................... 26 ^ 

Attains county ...................................................... 2fc> 

I nion county ....................................................... ^" 

Tennessee .............................................................. 27 ^ 

Lauderdale county .................................................. 278 

Ohion county ....................................................... 279 

Kentucky .............................................................. 27i) 

Alabama ............................................................... 283 

Lauderdale county ................................................. 283 

Minlison county ..................................................... 285 

Marshall county ................................. . .................. 285 

Hloniit county ...................................................... 286 

Suinter county ...................................................... 286 

Klinore county ...................................................... 286 

Clarke county ...................................................... 289 

Harbour county ..................................................... 289 

Montgomery county ................................................ 289 

Talladega county .................................................. 290 

.Jefferson county ....... /. ........................................... 290 

Georgia ................................................................ 292 

Bartow county ..... ................................................. 292 

Hahersham county .................................................. 314 

Klbert county ....................................................... 315 

Richmond county ................................................... 317 

South Carolina .......................................................... 326 

Kershaw district .................................................... 326 

Florida ................................................................. 327 

St. Johns and Volusia, counties ........ 328 



CONTENTS. 7 

Field operations continued. p 

North Carolina 333 

Caldwell county 333 

Burke and Wilkes counties 344 

Hay wood county 346 

Buncombe and Henderson counties 34$ 

East Tennessee 351 

Sullivan county 351 

Carter county 354 

Cocke county 353 

Jefferson county 357 

Roane county 358 

Blount, Monroe, and Loudon counties 366 

London county 390 

Meigs county 404 

Rhea county 406 

West Virginia 407 

Fayette county 407 

Kanawha county 410 

Putnam county 434 

Mason county 435 

Cabell county 438 

Ohio 440 

Knox county 440 

Hocking county 446 

Franklin county 449 

Brown county 451 

Coshocton county 457 

Licking county 458 

Perry county 470 

Ross county 471 

Pike county 489 

Pennsylvania 494 

Warren county 499 

New York 503 

Madison county 503 

Chautauqua county 505 

Niagara county 512 

Wyoming county 513 

Livingston county 514 

Michigan 

Archeological areas and distribution of types 

Primary archeological sections 

Archeological districts of the mound area 

The northern section 

The Dakotan district 

The Huron-Iroquois district 

The Illinois district 

The Ohio district 

The Appalachian district 

The Central or Tennessee district 

The southern section 

The Arkansas district 

The Gulf district .. - 59 



8 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The Mound-builders 595 

General obaervationa 595 

Different opinions 597 

Objections answered 610 

Other objections answered 625 

Inscribed tablets 632 

The shale tablets 638 

The historical evidence 645 

A comparison of the works of the Mound-builders with those of the Indians . 659 

Architecture of the Mound-builders 660 

Fortifications, etc 667 

Similarity in burial customs 671 

General resemblances in habits, customs, art, etc 680 

Links connecting the Indians directly with the Mound-builders 688 

The Etowah mound Stone graves 688 

Engraved shells Stone pipes Copper articles Stone images 701 

Evidences of tribal divisions Subsequent use of mounds by Indians 706 

Evidence of contact with modern European civilization found in the 

mounds 710 

Copper articles 710 

Other inetals 713 

The Muskoki tribes 71g 

General observations 722 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page, 

PLATE I. Plan of the Vilas and Flucke groups, Crawford county, Wisconsin. 72 

II. Plat of White s group, Veriion county, Wisconsin 82 

III. Elephant mound and surroundings, Grant county, Wisconsin 94 

IV. Plat of Rice lake group, Barron county, Wisconsin 96 

V. Ancient works near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa 102 

VI. Map of Cahokia group, Madison county, Illinois 134 

VII. Map of the western part of Madison couuty, Illinois 136 

VIII. Ancient works on Boul ware s place, Clarke county, Missouri 168 

IX. The De Soto mound, Jefferson county, and the Knapp mounds, 

Pulaski county, Arkansas 242 

X. Plat of the Kuapp mounds, Pulaski county, Arkansas 244 

XI. Plat of the Carson mounds, Coahoma county, Mississippi 254 

XII. Mound &, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

XIII. Mound d, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 258 

XIV. Selsertown group, Adams county, Mississippi, and platform and 

mounds of the Selsertown group 264 

XV. View of the large mound, Etowah group 294 

XVI. Plan of the large mound, Etowah group 298 

XVII. Figured copperplate from mound c, Etowah group (human figure). 304 

XVIII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (bird figure).. 306 

XIX. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 318 

XX. Map of mound distribution (In pocket. ) 

XXI. Observatory Circle, near Newark, Ohio 320 

XXII. Fair Ground Circle, near Newark, Ohio 322 

XXIII. High Bank Circle, near Chillicothe, Ohio 324 

XXIV. Pipes from Hollywood mound, Georgia . . 328 

XXV. Plat of the valley of the Little Tennessee river, Blount and Mon 
roe counties, Tennessee 366 

XXVI. Copy of Tirnberlake s map of Overhill Cherokee towns 368 

XXVII. Plat of group near Charleston, Kanawha county, West Virginia . . 414 

XXVIII. Plan and sections of the Staats mound, Knox county, Ohio 440 

XXIX. Cemetery mound, Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio 

XXX. Newark works, Licking county, Ohio 

XXXI. Fair Ground Circle, Newark, Ohio 460 

XXXII. Observatory Circle, Newark, Ohio 462 

XXXIII. Octagon, Newark, Ohio 

XXXIV. Square, Newark, Ohio 

XXXV. Square of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 

XXXVI. Circle of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 

XXXVII. Circle of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio 

XXXVIII. Octagon of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio 

XXXIX. Square of Liberty township works, Ross county, Ohio.. 

XL. Square of Baum works, Ross county, Ohio . . 
XLI. Plat of the "Angel mounds," near Evansville, Indiana. . 
XLII. Copy of Plate XI, " Brevis Narratio ". 



IQ ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

35 

FIG 1 Elongate mound, Souris river, Manitoba gg 

2 Elongate mounds, Souris river, Manitoba . . ^ 

3. Turtle figure, Hughes county, South Dakota 

4. Indosures and mounds, Pipestoue county, Minnesota * 

5. Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota . . ^ 
6 Mound group near Madison, Wisconsin 

7. Walled vault in mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 

8 Bird mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 

9. Section of mound and pit, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 49 

10 Silver locket from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin &1 

11 Bracelet of silver from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

12 Silver brooch from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin &l 

13. Silver cross from mound, Prairie du Chieu, Wisconsin W 

14 Earthworks near Eastman, Crawford county, Wisconsin ^ 

15! Plat of southwest part of Crawford county, Wisconsin 

16. Mounds on northeast quarter of Sec. 24, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin . . 

17. Mound group at Ha/en Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin 

18. Bird effigies at Hazen Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin 5b 

19* Quadruped effigy on Sec. 36, T. 8, R. 6 W., Wisconsin 

20. Group of bird effigies, Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 

21. Bird effigy, Sec. 35, T. 8 N, R. 6 W., Wisconsin . . 

22. Mounds on Slamner s land, Crawford county, Wisconsin 

23. Courtois group near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin . . 

24. Mound No. 6, Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 

25. Plan of mound No. 16, Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin . . . 

26. Mound No. 20 (section), Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin . . 

27. Houseman mound (plan), Prairie du Chieu 

28. Pouseman mound (section), Prairie du Chien. . 

29. The Polander group, Sec. 14, T. 9, R. 6 W., Crawford county, Wisconsin 70 

30. Mound No. 3 (section), Polander group, Crawford county, Wisconsin. . 71 

31. Mound No. 16 (horizontal section), Polander group 72 

32. Plan of the Armstrong group, near Lynxville, Crawford county 74 

33. Plan of the Sue < oulee group, Crawford county, Wisconsin 75 

34. Copper spindles from the Sue Coulee group, Crawford county 76 

35. Mound group near Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin 78 

36. Plan of mound No. 4, Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin 79 

37. ( opper plate from mound No. 6, White s group (N. M. 88336) 81 

38. Section of mound No. 10, White s group 81 

39. Obsidian implement from mound No. 10, White s group 82 

40. Pot from mound No. 11, White s group 83 

1 1 . Effigy mounds near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 85 

42. Lines of works near ( assville, Grant county, Wisconsin 86 

43. Mound group near Wyalusing, Grant county, Wisconsin 89 

44. Elephant mound, according to Middletou s survey in 1884 92 

45. Elephant mound, after Warner s figure 93 

46. Inclosure near Sheboygan, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin 94 

47. Mound No. 1. Rice lake group 95 

48. Circular inclosure near New Albin. Allamakee county, Iowa 100 

49. Inclosure on Hays s farm, near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa.. . 105 
ISO. Walled mound, Fish group, Allamakee county, Iowa 107 

51. Group near Peru, Pubuque county, Iowa 109 

52. Stone gorget, Pubuque county, Iowa 110 

f>3. Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello county, Iowa Ill 

~>4. Mound group, Punleith. Illinois 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 1 1 

Page. 

FIG. 55. Vault in mound No. 4, Dunleith, Illinois 115 

56. Section of mound No. 16, Dunleith, Illinois 116 

57. Vault in mound No. 16, Dunleith, Illinois 116 

58. Welch group, Brown county, Illinois 117 

59. Mound No. 1, sec. 34, T. 10, R. 2, Calhoun count}-, Illinois 122 

60. Mound No. 4, sec. 34, T. 10, R. 2, Calhoun county, Illinois 124 

61. Group of mounds on sec. 31, T. 10, R. 2 W., Calhoun county, Illinois. . . 125 

62. Vertical section of mound No. 8, NE. sec. 31, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

63. Vertical section of mound on SE. sec. 15, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

64. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NW. sec. 2, T. 9, R. 2 W., Illinois 128 

65. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NE. sec. 27, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 130 

66. Wood river mounds, Madison county, Illinois 132 

67. Stone graves on Mill Tract, Randolph county, Illinois 135 

68. The De Frenne stone graves, Randolph county, Illinois 137 

69. Stone graves on bluff, Randolph county, Illinois 139 

70. Hut rings near the bank of Big Mary river, Illinois 140 

71. Pot from Jackson county, Illinois 142 

72. Vogel group, Jackson county, Illinois 144 

73. Spool-shaped ornament of copper 145 

74. Schlimpert mounds, Jackson county, Illinois 146 

75. Section of mounds on Schlimpert s place, Jackson county, Illinois 147 

76. Mounds on Hale s place, Jackson county, Illinois 148 

77. Skull from mound on Male s place (side view) 151 

78. Skull from mound on Hale s place (front view) . . 152 

79. Bone plate from mound on Hale s place 153 

80. Catholic medal from mound on Hale s place 154 

81. Stone grave on Hale s place 154 

82. Plat of works on Linn s place, Union county, Illinois 156 

83. Mound A, Linn group (vertical outline) 157 

84. Round Pond mounds, Union county, Illinois 160 

85. Copper plate bearing dancing figures, Union county, Illinois 161 

86. Mound group, Clarke county, Missouri 164 

87. The Ben Proffer mound, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri . . 168 

88. The Witting mounds, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 169 

89. The Peter Bess settlement, Bollinger county, Missouri 171 

90. The Lakeville settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 173 

91. Stone pipe, Lakeville settlement 174 

92. County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 174 

93. The Rich woods mounds, Stoddard county, Missouri 

94. Plan of mounds, No. 3 to No. 6, Rich woods mounds 177 

95. Section of mound No. 3, and adjuncts, Rich woods mounds 178 

96. Pin Hook ridge mounds, Mississippi county, Missouri 

97. Baker s mound, Mississippi county, Missouri 

98. Beckwith s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri.. 

99. Image vessel from Beckwith s ranch . . . 

100. Bowl from Beckwith s fort 

101. Water vessel from Beckwith s ranch, Mississippi county, Missouri . 

102. Water vessel from Beckwith s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri.. 

103. Gourd-shaped vessel from Beckwith s ranch, Mississippi county. . 

104. Owl image vessel from Beckwith s ranch 

105. Fish-shaped vessel from Beckwith s ranch 

106. Meyer s mound, Scott county, Missouri... 

107. Mound group near Harviell, Butler county, Missouri . . 

108. Power s fort, Butler county, Missouri 



12 [LLUSTKATIONS. 

Fi<; 109. Section of mound in Power s fort, Butler county, Missouri . . 

110. Effect of earthquake of 1811 on mound, Green county, Arkansas 1 

111. Webb group, Craighead county, Arkansas -" 

112 Mounds at Ty ronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas -^ 

113. Section of mound No. 8, Tyronza station, Poinsett county. Arkansas. 

114. Section of mound No. 12, Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 20o 

115. Section of mounds, Tyronza station - 

116. Clay casts of ear of maize or Indian corn 

117. Clay floor of a three-room house 

118. Mode of lathing houses by Mound-builders 209 

119. The Miller mounds, Poinsett county, Arkansas 

120. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Miller group, Poinsett county 210 

121. Mound No. 9, Miller group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 

122. Plan of mound No. 11, Miller group. . 

123. Plan of mound No. 12, Miller group. . 

124. Plat of Thornton group. Poinsett county, Arkansas 

125. Plat of Taylor Shanty group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 

126. Mound No. 1, Taylor Shanty group . . 21 ^ 

127. Section of mound No. 2, Taylor Shanty group 

128. Section of mound No. 4, Taylor Shanty group . . 217 

129. Plat of Pecan point works, Mississippi county, Arkansas. . . 

130. Image vessel. Pecan point, Mississippi county, Arkansas 

131 . Vessel from Jackson mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

132. The Sherman mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 

133. Engraved shell (Busy con perversum) from mound, Independence 

county, Arkansas 224 

134. Stone spool from mound, Jackson county, Arkansas 225 

135. Bradley mounds, Critteuden county, Arkansas 226 

136. House site, St. Francis county, Arkansas 229 

I M. Plan of Menard mounds, Arkansas county, Arkansas 230 

13S. linage pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 233 

139. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 234 

140, Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

111. linage pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

142. Plan of Old Town works, Phillips county, Arkansas 236 

143. Pottery vessel from Old Town works 237 

144. Mound No. 3, Old Town works 238 

14">. Ground plan and elevation of the Barney mound, Phillips county, 

Arkansas 238 

146. Roger s mound. Phillips county, Arkansas 239 

147. Mound near Arkansas City, Desha county, Arkansas 240 

148. Old French fort, Desha county, Arkansas 241 

149. The Taylor mounds, Drew county, Arkansas 242 

150. Stone implement from Knapp group , 245 

151. The Hughes mound, Saline county, Arkansas < 246 

152. An ornamented water bottle, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

153. Flat-bottomed jar, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

154. Mound group near Camden. Arkansas 249 

155. Plat of Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish, Louisiana 251 

156. View of mound No. 6, Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish 252 

157. Excavation No. 10, Carson group Omitted. 

158. Clarksdalo works, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

159. Section of mound No. 1, Clarksdale works 257 

160. Vessel in form of a shell. Sunflower county, Mississippi 259 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 13 

I age. 

FIG. 161. Avomlale mounds, Washington county, Mississippi 260 

162. Outline of mound No. 1, Cliamplin group, Yazoo county, Mississippi. 261 

163. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Champliu group, Mississippi 262 

164. Image vessel from Champlin mound, Mississippi 263 

165. Mound group in Union county, Mississippi 268 

166. Plan of mound No. 1, group in Union county, Mississippi 269 

167. Sections along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis 

sippi-- 270 

168. Section along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis 

sippi - - 270 

169. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county 271 

170. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county 272 

171. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 273 

172. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 274 

173. Silver plate with Spanish coat of arms; mound, Union county 275 

174. I^ireplace in mound, Lauderdale, Tennessee 278 

175. An image vessel from mound, Obion county, Tennessee 279 

176. O Byam s fort, Hickmau county, Kentucky 280 

177. Mound No. 1, O Byam s fort 281 

178. Plat of Tally mounds, Jefferson county, Alabama 291 

179. Mound No. 2, Tally group (plan and section) 291 

180. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Jones s plat, No. 1 294 

181. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Whittlesey s figure No. 1 296 

182. Plat of the Etowah group (original) 299 

183. Large mound of the Etowah group . 300 

184. Vertical section of mound e, Etowah group 302 

185. Plan of burials in mound c-, Etowah group 303 

186. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group 304 

187. Copper badge from mound c, Etowah group 305 

188. Copper ornament or badge from mound c, Etowah group : 306 

189. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group 306 

190. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group 307 

191. Bust from Etowah mounds 308 

192. Copper plate with bird figure, mound near Peoria, Illinois 309 

193. Section of the Rembert group, Elbert county, Georgia 316 

194. Plan of mound No. 1, Rembert group 317 

195. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Rembert group 318 

196. Upper horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 320 

197. Fragment of European pottery, Hollywood mound, Georgia.. 

198. Lower horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia .. 

199. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia (135197) .. 

200. A painted vessel from Hollywood mound, Georgia 

201. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 

202. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 

203. Copper article from Hollywood mound, Georgia . . 

204. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 

205. Pipe from Hollywood mound, Georgia 

206. Fragment of porcelain from Hollywood mound, Georgia .. 

207. T. F. Nelson mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina . . 

208. T. F. Nelson Triangle, Caldwell county, North Carolina. . 

209. Copper cylinder, Nelson Triangle . . 

210. Bracelet of shell and copper beads, Nelson Triangle. . 

211. Iron celt from Nelson Triangle 33 ^ 

212. Part of iron blade, Nelson Triangle 



14 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

FIG. 213. Engraved shell, Nelson Triangle ... 

214. Engraved shell, Nelson Triangle 

215. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina ***> 

216. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina ^ 

217. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

218. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

219. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

220. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

221 Plan of W. D. Jones mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina 

222! R. T. Lenoir burial pit (plan), Caldwell county, North Carolina 343 

223. Ancient burial ground, Wilkes county, North Carolina 

224. Clay hearth (or fire-bed), Wilkes county, North Carolina 346 

225. Bogus article, Hay wood county, North Carolina - 

226. Bogus article, Hay wood county, North Carolina 

227. Bogus articles, Hay wood county, North Carolina 

228. Big mound, Hay wood county, North Carolina 350 

229. Section of Connor mound, Henderson county, North Carolina 350 

230. Plan of mounds on the Holstou river, Sullivan county, Tennessee ... 351 

231. Copper spindle from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 352 

232. Plan of burials in mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 353 

233. Stone pipe from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 354 

284. Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessee 355 

235. Section of grave No. 1, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

236. Section of grave No. 3, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

237. Section of mound on Gain s island, Jefferson county, Tennessee 858 

238. Plat of groups on Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 359 

239. Diagram of mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee .. . 360 

240. Image from mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 361 

24 1 . Diagram of the Hagler mound, Roane county, Tennessee 364 

242. Diagram of the Hardiu mound, Blount county, Tennessee 367 

243. Plat of the McMurray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee 368 

244. Diagram of McMurray mound, No. 2 369 

245 Section of McMurray mound, No. 3 369 

246. Diagram of McMurray mound, No. 3 370 

247. Plat of Latimore and McSpaddm mounds (Citico group), Monroe 

county, Tennessee 372 

248. Vertical section, mound No. 1 , Latimore group 372 

249. Vertical section of the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 374 

250. Plan of burials in the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 375 

251. Moccasin-shaped pot, Citico mound 376 

252. Copper rattle or hawk s bell, Citico mound 376 

253. Bone needle, Citico mound 377 

254. Plat of the Bacon and McGee mounds, Blount and Monroe counties, 

Tennessee 377 

255. Plan of burials in McGee mound No. 2 378 

256. Plat of the Toco mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 379 

257. Vertical section of the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee. 380 
358. Plan of burials in the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee.. 381 

259. Bone implement. Big Toco inound 382 

260. Bone implement, Big Toco mound 382 

261. Stone pipe, Big Toco mound 383 

262. Ornamented shell, Big Toco mound 383 

263. Stone implement, Big Toco mound 383 

264. Pot, Big Toco mound .. 384 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 15 

Page. 

FIG. 265. Vertical section of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

266. Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

267. Water vessel, Callaway mound 386 

268. Water vessel, Callaway mound 387 

269. Plat of the Niles ferry mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 388 

270. Group two miles below Niles ferry 389 

271. Plat of mounds on the Click farm, Monroe county, Tennessee 390 

272. Horizontal section, Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Tennes 

see 393 

273. Engraved stone from Bat creek mound No. 3, Loudon county, Ten 

nessee 394 

274. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 395 

275. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 396 

276. The Lenoir mounds, Loudon county, Tennessee 397 

277. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Leuoir group 398 

278. Diagram of mound No. 2, Leiioir group 399 

279. Plan of burials in mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

280. Vertical section of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

281. Horizontal plan of mound No. 2, Leuoir group 401 

282. Ornamental pot, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 401 

283. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

284. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

285. Pipe, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 403 

286. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Frazier group, Rhea count} , Tennes 

see 406 

287. Huddlesou s Circle, Fayette county, West Virginia 407 

288. Singular stone heaps, Fayette county, West Virginia 408 

289. Stone heap with two cavities, Fayette county, West Virginia 409 

290. Section of stone heap with triangular cavity, Fayette county, West 

Virginia 409 

291. Enlarged plan of mound No. 1, and inclosure a, Kanawha county, 

West Virginia 415 

292. Section of mound No. 1, Kauawha county, West Virginia 416 

293. Spring Hill inclosure on enlarged scale, Kanawha county, West Vir 

ginia .Q. 419 

294. Inclosure G, Kanawha county, West Virginia 421 

295. Inclosure I, Kanaw ha county, West Virginia 

296. Inclosure L, Kanawha county, West Virginia 

297. Inclosure K, Kauawha county, West Virginia 

298. A section of mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 425 

299. Copper bracelet from mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 426 

300. Copper gorget, mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia . . 426 

301. Steatite pipe from Kanawha county, West Virginia . . 

302. Section of mound No. 31, Kanawha county. West Virginia .. 

303. Mound group, 1 mile west of Barboursville, West Virginia . . 

304. Section of the Hawu mound, Knox county, Ohio . . 

305. Plat and section of the area about the Staats mound, Knox county, 

Ohio 

306. Plan of Cemetery mound, Mt. Vernon, Knox county, Ohio .. 

307. Section of the Cemetery mound, Mt. Vernon, Knox county, Ohio .. 

308. Works on the Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio .. 

309. Plan of the large work, Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio .. 

310. Ancient works near Dublin, Franklin county, Ohio .. 

311. Group of mounds, Brown county, Ohio 



16 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Flit. 312. Stone grave, Brown county, Ohio.... 455 

313. Section of a stone grave, Brown county, Ohio 456 

314. Mounds near Brownsville, Licking county, Ohio 458 

315. Small inclosure, Newark group, Licking county, Ohio 460 

316. Levels along parallels at Newark, Ohio 467 

317. Ancient iuclosure, Licking county, Ohio 468 

318. Stone fort on Flint ridge, Licking county, Ohio 469 

319. Stone fort near Glenford, Perry county, Ohio 470 

320. Section of the Cryder mound, near Adelphi, Ross county, Ohio 471 

321. Small circle, Liberty Township works, Ross county, Ohio 480 

322. Pyramidal mound, Bauin works, Ross county, Ohio 485 

323. Bone implement point, pyramidal mound, Baum works, Ross county, 

Ohio 487 

324. Circle A, Seal township works, Pike county, Ohio 490 

325. Copy of Moorehead s station 241, PI. vi 492 

32G. The Serpent mound, Adams county, Ohio 493 

327. Mound and graves near Monougahela City, Pa 496 

328. Section of Irviueton mound, Warren county, Pa 500 

329. Pieces of silver from Irvineton mound, Warren county, Pa 501 

330. Inclosure near Pittstield, Warren county, Pa 502 

331. Ancient fort on At well farm, Madison county, N. Y 504 

332. Seat of ancient Ouondaga town, Madison county, N. Y 505 

333. Old fort near Ellington, Chautauqua county, N. Y 507 

334. Inclosure near Ellington, Chantau]ua county, N. Y 509 

335. Inclosure on Dunn farm, Wyoming county, N. Y 514 

336. Rifle river fort No. 2, Ogemaw county, Michigan 517 

337. Map of the Huron-Iroquois district 541 

338. Elevation of the large mound, "Angel" group 557 

339. Plat of the large mound, Angel" group 558 

340. The village of Secotaii 621 

341. Interior of house of Virginia Indians 623 

342. Section of mound 11, Cook farm, group, Davenport, Iowa 636 

343. Village of Pomeiock 669 

344. Pipe from Virginia 706 




OUTLINE OF THIS PAPER. 



For the benefit of those who desire to learn the more important conclusions reached 
in this treatise, without the necessity of a thorough examination of the entire re 
port, an outline of them is here presented : 

(1) That the mound-builders of the area designated consisted of a number of tribes 
or peoples bearing about the same relations to one another and occupying about the 
same culture-status as did the Indian tribes inhabiting this country when first visited 
by Europeans. 

(2) That the archeological districts as determined by the investigations of the 
mounds and other ancient remains conform, in a general way, to the areas occupied 
by the different Indian tribes or groups of cognate tribes. 

(3) That each tribe adopted several different methods of burial, these differences 
depending to some extent upon the relative position, social standing, and occupation 
of the individuals. 

(4) The custom of removing the flesh before final burial prevailed very extensively 
among the mound-builders of the northern districts, and was not uncommon among 
those of the southern districts. 

(5) Very often some kind of religious ceremony was performed at the burial in 
which fire played a conspicuous part. Notwithstanding the common belief to the 
contrary, there is no evidence whatever that human sacrifice in the true sense was 
practiced. It is possible that cremation may have been practiced to a limited 
extent. 

(6) In some of the southern districts, especially those of the valley of the lower 
Mississippi, where the bottoms are much depressed, it was the custom to erect dwell 
ings on low mounds apparently constructed for this purpose, and, when deaths oc- 
curred,to bury the remains in the floor of these dwellings, bum the houses, and heap 
mounds over them before they were entirely consumed, or while the embers were yet 
smoldering. The houses in these districts appear to have been constructed of up 
right posts set in the ground, lathed with cane or twigs, and plastered with clay, 
having the root s thatched precisely as described by the early French explorers. 

(7) The links directly connecting the Indians and mound-builders are so numerous 
and well established that archeologists are justified in accepting the theory that 
they are one and the same people. 

(8) The statements of the early navigators and explorers as to the habits, customs, 
social condition and art, of the Indians when first visited by Europeans are largely 
confirmed by discoveries in the mounds and other ancient works of our country. 
This is especially true as regards the discoveries made by this bureau in Arkansas. 
Georgia, and other southern states. They bear out, even to details, the statements 
of the chroniclers of I)e Soto s expedition and of the early French explorers of the 
valley of the lower Mississippi. 

(9) The evidence obtained appears to be sufficient to justify the conclusion that 
particular works, and the works of certain localities, are attributable to particular 
tribes known to history ; thereby enabling the archeologist to determine in some 
cases, to a limited extent, the lines of migration. For example, the proof is appar 
ently conclusive that the Cherokees were mound-builders and that to them are to be 

> 17 



18 OUTLINE OF THIS PAPER. 

attributed most of the mounds of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina; it 
also renders it probable that they were the authors of most of the ancient works of 
the Kaiiawha valley in West Virginia. There are also strong indications that the 
Tallegwi of tradition were Cherokeesand the authors of some of the principal works 
of Ohio. The proof is equally conclusive that to the Shawuees are to be attributed 
tin- box-shaped stone graves, and the mounds and other works directly connected with 
them, in the region south of the Ohio, especially those works of Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and northern Georgia, and possibly also some of the mounds and stone graves in the 
vicinity of Cincinnati. The stone graves in the valley of the Delaware and most of 
those in Ohio are attributable to the Delawares. There are sufficient reasons for be 
lieving that the ancient works in northern Mississippi were built chiefly by the 
Chickasaws, and those in the region of Flint River, southern Georgia, by the Uchees, 
and that a large portion of those of the Gulf states were built by the Muskokee 
tribes. 

(10) The testimony of the mounds is very decidedly against the theory that the 
mound-builders were Mayas or Mexicans who were driven out of this region by the 
pressure of Indian hordes and migrated to the valley of Auahuac or plains of Yuca 
tan. It is also as decidedly against Morgan s theory that they were related to the 
Pueblo tribes of New Mexico. It likewise gives a decided negative to the suggestion 
that the builders of the Ohio works were pushed south into the Gulf states and incor 
porated into the Muskokee group. 

(11) Although much the larger portion of the ancient monuments of our country 
belong to prehistoric times, and some of them, possibly, to the distant past, yet the 
evidence of contact with European civilization is found in so many mounds where it 
can not be attributed to intrusive burial and in such widely separated localities, 
that it must be conceded that many of them were built subsequent to the discovery 
of the continent by Europeans. 



PREFACE. 



As the following report is based almost exclusively upon the results 
of explorations carried on by the Bureau of Ethnology since 1881, it 
seems desirable to set forth briefly the plan adopted and the methods 
pursued. 

During the first season the archeological work of the Bureau was as 
signed to Dr. Willis De Haas, but no definite and comprehensive plan 
of operations was adopted. In 1882 the Director organized a small divi 
sion in the Bureau to which he assigned the work of investigating the 
mounds and other ancient monuments in the United States east of the 
Eocky mountains. This division was placed under my charge with 
Dr. Edward Palmer, of Washington city; Col. P. W. Norris, of Norris, 
Michigan, and Mr. James D. Middleton, of Carbondale, Illinois, as regu 
lar field assistants. Subsequently Dr. Palmer left the division, and 
Mr. John P. Eogan, of Bristol, Tennessee, was engaged in his place. 
The division suffered the misfortune of being deprived of the valuable 
services of Col. Morris by death, in January, 1885, while he was en 
gaged in exploration. His enthusiasm for the work kept him in the 
field, although he was suffering from the disease which finally proved 
fatal. Mr. J. W. Emmert, who had been temporarily employed, was 
then engaged as a regular assistant. 

The following-named gentlemen have also been engaged for short 
periods in special fields: Mr. F. S. Earle and Mr. L. H. Thing, of Cob- 
den, Illinois; Mr. William McAdams, of Otterville, Illinois; Kev. J. P. 
McLean, of Hamilton, Ohio ; Mr. Gerard Fo wke, of New Madison, Ohio ; 
Eev. Stephen D. Peet, of Clinton, Wisconsin ; Mr. Henry L. Eeynolds, 
of Washington City, and Eev. W. M. Beauchamp, of Baldwiusville, 
New York. Mr. Eogan and Mr. Emmert having retired from the work, 
Mr. Fowke and Mr. Eeynolds were appointed regular assistants. 

The results of the explorations and field work of the division and a 
discussion of results with special reference to the authors of the ancient 
monuments of the area explored are given in the present volume. 
Special papers relating to the collections made will be presented in 
future reports or bulletins. 

In attempting to formulate a systematic plan for a work of such 
magnitude as the exploration of the mounds, great difficulties were 

19 



2Q PREFACE. 

encountered. The region occupied is vast, and the works are scat 
tered over it in great numbers, not by hundreds only, but by thou 
sands. It was at once perceived that to attempt a systematic and 
thorough examination of them all, or even of a large number of them, 
including surveys and mapping, would involve many years of labor and 
the expenditure of a very large amount of money. Neither the force 
nor the money necessary for a work of such vast magnitude was avail 
able, for the lines of research undertaken by the Bureau of Ethnology 
are necessarily many, and none may be unduly pushed at the expense 
of the others. On the other hand, to attempt the thorough investiga 
tion of the mounds of any single district to the neglect of the area as 
a whole, could result only in a failure to comprehend the more impor 
tant problems connected with the mounds and their builders. More 
over, it should not for a moment be forgotten that the mounds are fast 
being leveled by the encroachments of agriculture and under the stim 
ulus of commercial enterprise. Archeologic relics of all kinds have 
attained a new value in recent years because of the great increase in 
the number of private collectors. Those who gather specimens merely 
for sale rarely preserve any data in connection with them, and, although 
relics gathered in this haphazard manner have a certain value as 
examples of aboriginal art or as mere curiosities, their scientific value 
is comparatively small. As a consequence of the leveling of the 
mounds by the plow and their despoiling by the relic hunter, oppor 
tunities for acquiring a clear insight into the character and methods of 
mound-building and into the purpose of their builders, are rapidly 
diminishing. 

Chiefly for the above reasons a plan was adopted which comprises 
the advantage of thoroughness in the case of single mounds and single 
groups, and yet permits the work to be carried over a large area. No 
attempt has been made to exhaust the local problems of mound-build 
ing by a complete examination of the works of any given section. 
Nevertheless, such mounds and groups as are believed to be typical of 
their class have been examined with care and thoroughness. By the 
method of a careful examination of typical structures in the various 
districts it is thought that the end aimed at has been secured that is, 
the collection of data necessary to an understanding of the more gen 
eral and important problems relating to the mounds and the mound 
builders. The exhaustive examination of many single groups and the 
study of local problems is left to the future. It ?s hoped that this 
important work may be undertaken largely by local societies whose 
resources, when inadequate, may be supplemented by state aid. 

The questions relating to prehistoric America are not to be answered 
by the study of its ancient monuments alone, but also by the study of 
the languages, customs, arts, beliefs, traditions, and folklore of the 
aborigines. If any of these monuments are the work of an extinct 



PREFACE. 21 

people, this fact can be satisfactorily determined only by a comprehen 
sive study of the subject; if all are attributable to the races found 
occupying the continent at the time of its discovery, the necessity for a 
broad scientific method is equally apparent. 

The most important question to be settled is, " Were the mounds 
built by the Indians?" If a careful examination and study of the 
antiquities should result in deciding it satisfactorily in the affirmative, 
then the questions relating to the objects and uses of these ancient 
works would be merged into the study of the customs and arts of the 
Indians. There would then be no more blind groping by archeologists 
for the thread to lead them out of the mysterious labyrinth. The chain 
which links together the historic and prehistoric ages of our continent 
would be complete; the thousand and one wild theories and romances 
would be permanently disposed of; and the relations of all the lines of 
investigation to one another being known, they would aid in the solu 
tion of many of the problems which hitherto have seemed involved in 
complete obscurity. Should the result of the examination give a decided 
negative answer to the question, one broad field would be closed 
and investigation limited in the future to other lines. In either case a 
great step toward the ultimate solution of the problem would be taken 
and the investigations restricted within comparatively narrow limits. 

The director of the Bureau of Ethnology was desirous, therefore, that 
this important question, the origin of the mounds, should if possible be 
definitely settled, as it is the pivot on which all the other problems 
must turn. By following the plan adopted and using proper care to 
note the facts ascertained, without bias, not only would the facts bear 
ing on this important question be ascertained, but the data would be 
preserved for the use of archeological students without prejudice to 
any theory. 

Premising that accuracy as to details and statements, without regard 
to their bearing on any special theory, has been considered the chief 
and all-important point to be kept constantly in view in all the opera 
tions of the division, the methods of work pursued (except during the 
first year, when want of experience caused some of the details of accu 
rate work to be omitted), have been substantially as follows : 

First, a full and correct description of the groups examined, giving 
the topography of the immediate locality, the form, characters, and 
dimensions of the works and their relations to one another was written 
out. accompanied by diagrams and figures illustrating these descrip 
tions. 

As a rule each mound explored was measured before being excavated, 
and, if it varied from the ordinary conical type, a figure of it was made. 
As the exploration proceeded the character and thickness of the strata 
and the exact positions of the skeletons and relics found iii them were 
noted in a memorandum book. In many cases where there was prom- 



22 PREFACE. 

ise of important finds, outline figures, both of the horizontal and verti 
cal sections, were drawn on which the positions of the skeletons and 
relics were marked as found. 

Every effort possible was made at the time 01 collection to obtain all 
the facts in reference to each specimen. The assistants made full 
notes in the field and attached a number to each specimen before pack 
ing and shipping. Descriptive lists, with corresponding numbers, were 
forwarded with each shipment. All collections thus made were sent 
direct to the Bureau of Ethnology, and there, after being opened, exam 
ined and compared with the field catalogue, the numbers of the Bureau 
series were attached, and the collections forwarded to the National 
Museum, where the Museum numbers were placed upon them. After 
this a comparison was made, in most cases by the collectors themselves, 
to see that the memoranda, numbers, and articles agreed and were 
given correctly. The final catalogues contain not only the collector s, 
Bureau, and Museum numbers, which form checks upon one another, 
but also the name of the article, the locality, the collector s name, and 
remarks indicating the conditions under which each was found. These 
particulars are, of course, incomplete for specimens purchased and 
donated. 

As an illustration, the heading of the columns and one line from 
the general catalogue are given here: 



Ool- 






lec- 

tor s 
num 


Bureau Smithso- 
i Mum- uian 
ber. number. 


Xame of 
article. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


ber. 










08 


6832 


116021 


Boat-shaped Lenoir group, Lou- 


John W. Emmert. 


From mound Xo. 2, 








I )ot - don county, 5 by skeleton Xo. 49. 










Tennessee. 










1 



Two copies of this catalogue were made, one to be retained by the 
Bureau, the other to be transmitted with the specimens to the Secre 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, for use in the National Museum. 

Although the specimens are included in the general collection of the 
National Museum, they are so carefully marked and numbered that by 
reference to the catalogue any article can easily be found and the pre 
cise locality ascertained from which it was obtained, with the attend 
ant circumstances. In order to accomplish this, the collections made 
by the Bureau were retained until this accuracy was assured and the 
duplicate catalogues made out and compared. By reference to the fol 
lowing report all the particulars known regarding them may be learned, 
Also all the facts in reference to the works from which they were 
obtained. 

The number of specimens collected by the division since its organiza- 

on is not less than 40,000. Among those procured by the field assist - 

ts. which constitute by far the most valuable portion, will be found 



PREFACE. 23 

not only almost every variety of material, form, and ornamentation 
hitherto obtained in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, 
but also many new and interesting kinds. 

The chief value of the work to archeologists, however, it is believed 
will be found in the descriptions of the mounds explored and groups 
examined and surveyed. In order that students of American archeol 
ogy may have as complete illustrations as possible of groups and forms, 
not only are figures given but in numerous instances the complete field 
notes of surveys and measurements are added. 

The sections in which operations have chiefly been carried on are as 
follows: Southwestern Wisconsin and the adjoining sections of Minne 
sota, Iowa, and Illinois; the northeastern and southeastern parts of 
Missouri; the western part of southern Illinois; the eastern part of 
Arkansas; certain points in northern and western Mississippi; the 
Kanawha Valley of West Virginia; eastern Tennessee, western North 
Carolina, and northern Georgia. Some work has also been done in 
northern Florida, New York, Ohio, the Wabash valley, Kentucky, 
western Tennessee, Alabama, southwestern Georgia, and the Dakotas. 
Hundreds of groups have been examined and in most cases surveyed, 
platted, and described. Over 2,000 mounds have been explored, includ 
ing almost every known type of form, from the low, diminutive, circular 
burial tumulus of the north to the huge truncated earthen pyramid of 
the south, the embankment, the stone cairn, the house site, etc. Every 
variety of construction hitherto known, as well as a number decidedly 
different in detail, have been examined. Some of the latter are very 
interesting and furnish important data. Particular attention has been 
paid to the mode of construction and methods of burial in the ordinary 
conical tumuli, because these furnish valuable evidence in regard to the 
customs of the builders and aid in determining the different archeolog- 
ical districts. Many ancient graves and cemeteries and also several 
caches and cave deposits have been explored. 

Perhaps the most important portion of the collection from an archeo 
logical view is the pottery, of which some 1,500 specimens have been 
obtained, including most of the known varieties and several that are 
new in form and ornamentation. It is believed that this collection will 
be found to contain most, if not all, of the hitherto known types of tex 
tile impressions and some that are unusual. As the history of each 
specimen is known and its genuineness unquestioned, the collection 
will be of great value to antiquarians. 

An unusually large number of polished and pecked celts has been 
secured, including every known pattern and variety yet found in the 
area investigated. Special value attaches to this collection of celts 
from the fact that it has been obtained mostly from mounds and hence 
affords a means of comparing true mound specimens with surface finds. 

The number of stone pipes obtained is proportionally great, includ 
ing a large percentage of the usual forms and some new ones. But the 



24 PREFACE. 

most important fact in relation to this part of the collection is, that it 
so supplements other collections that the archeologist is enabled to 
trace the evolution of the comparatively modern and historic form from 
the " Monitor," or supposed earliest mound pipe. Moreover the record 
of localities whence the pipes have been taken may indicate the geo 
graphical line of this evolution. 

A number of copper articles, including nearly all the types hitherto 
known, are in the collection. In addition to these, among the new 
forms are specimens of two new types decidedly the most important 
yet discovered. These were obtained from both mounds and stone 
graves. 

The collection of engraved shells obtained from mounds probably 
exceeds any other in the country in number, variety, and importance. 

The specimens of textile fabrics and remnants of matting, though 
not numerous, are important and valuable. Among these is a large 
and well-preserved specimen of each class found in a cave deposit 
where the burial could not have taken place more than a hundred 
years ago ; yet they are of precisely the pattern and stitch found in the 
mounds and impressed on typical mound pottery. With the cloth and 
matting were also the bone implements used in weaving the former. 

The collection of chipped flint implements, stone axes, discoidal 
stones, gorgets, etc., is large. Among the stone articles are parts of 
three well-made stone images which must have been nearly one-half 
life size. Bone implements, shell, etc., are in fair proportion. 

As it was important that the explorations should be carried on dur 
ing the winter as well as the summer, it was found advantageous to 
work in the northern sections in the summer and move southward as 
the cold advanced. Each assistant at the close of the working year 
made a report of his operations during that time. These reports would 
have been incorporated as furnished, but, as in most cases they related 
to different sections investigated during the same year, this would 
have prevented a systematic presentation of results, and hence the idea 
was abandoned, and the data obtained have been arranged geograph 
ically by states and counties. This method, however, is subject to the 
objection that county lines are liable to frequent changes and seldom 
correspond with the natural lines which influenced primitive settle 
ment, Notwithstanding this objection, the fact that these political 
divisions afford the only means of defining localities on the maps of the 
present day has governed in selecting the method for this report. 

Mounds are frequently described and illustrations introduced which 
are seemingly unimportant. The object of this will be apparent to every 
archeologist, for seemingly unimportant works afford the student a 
means of comparison and furnish him with valuable negative evidence 
which otherwise would not be available. Moreover, in the preparation 
of the report, 1 have proceeded upon the theory that no fact should be 



PREFACE. 25 

omitted, however trivial it may now appear, as a time may come wheii 
it will supply needed evidence in archeological investigations. 

The geographical order in which the report is arranged is as follows: 
First, the Mississippi valley proper, commencing with Minnesota and 
Wisconsin and proceeding southward; next, the Gulf States from Mis 
sissippi eastward, after which follows the Appalachian district, includ 
ing North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and West Virginia, then Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan. 

The territory over which the explorations have been carried is large, 
and, from necessity, no one section has been exhaustively examined for 
reasons given above. Suffice it to say that the chief object kept con 
stantly in view was the search for types. But this included types of 
form, of modes of construction and internal arrangement, of methods of 
burial, of contents, and of indications of uses, etc. 

The illustrations are original with a few exceptions. Those which 
are copied are chiefly from previous publications of this Bureau. A 
few, however, are from the annual reports of the Smithsonian Institu 
tion, the electrotypes being kindly loaned for this purpose. 

Before concluding this preface I wish to acknowledge the many favors 
the division has received both in prosecuting the field work and in pre 
paring the report. We have been kindly received in all portions of the 
country to which our operations have extended, the citizens always 
showing a commendable desire to encourage our work and to give us 
all the information possible. Here and there permission to explore 
mounds has been refused, but such refusal has generally been based on 
valid reasons. 

To the assistants who have carried on operations in the field I extend 
thanks for the zeal and faithfulness with which their work was per 
formed. I am also indebted to Mr. W. H. Holmes, Eev. W. M. Beau- 
champ, and Mr. Gerard Fowke; and also to Mr. Eeynolds for val 
uable papers, and to Mr. James D. Middleton for the plats and results 
of the surveys made by him of works in Ohio and elsewhere. 

It is proper to state here that only a partial study of the articles col 
lected has as yet been made. Papers by specialists, describing and 
discussing them, are being prepared and will appear hereafter. 

C. T. 



V -* * 

OP 




REPORT ON THE MOUND EXPLORATIONS OF THE 
BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



BY CYRUS THOMAS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Before introducing the report of field work it will not be amiss to call 
attention to the various kinds of ancient monuments found in the area 
over which the explorations extended. 

It is somewhat strange that, notwithstanding the large number of 
works devoted wholly or partly to the antiquities of our country, which 
have appeared since the publication of the " Ancient Monuments," by 
Messrs. Squier and Davis, no attempt has been made to rectify their 
imperfect and faulty classification. Their division of these antiquities 
into " Constructions of Earth," " Constructions of Stone," and " Minor 
Vestiges of Art," is sufficient for practical purposes so far as it goes, 
and the same may be said of the divisioa of the first class into " En 
closures" and " Mounds." But their further classification into " En 
closures for Defense," "Sacred and Miscellaneous Enclosures," "Mounds 
of Sacrifice," "Temple Mounds," etc., is unfortunate, as it is based 
on supposed uses instead of real character, and has served to graft 
into our archeological literature certain conclusions in regard to the 
uses and purposes of these various works that, in some cases at least, 
are not justified by the evidence. For example, there is not a particle of 
evidence that any inclosure was formed for religious or. " sacred" uses, 
or that any mound was built for " sacrificial" purposes in any true or 
legitimate sense of the term. Yet author after author, down to the 
present time, has adopted this classification without protest. It is only 
in some very recent works that objections to it begin to appear. 

Failure to correct this faulty classification is doubtless due to the dif 
ficulties which lie in the way of satisfactorily grouping the variety of 
forms presented and to our imperfect knowledge of the uses and 
objects of these works. Nadaillac, after alluding to the various forms, 
remarks that " these facts will show how very difficult, not to say im 
possible, is any classification," 1 a statement which anyone who 



i Preh. Amer. French Ecln. p. 90-Engl. Ertn. p. 87. 



28 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

attempts a systematic arrangement will be disposed to accept as true. 
Auy attempt in this direction must be, to a large extent, arbitrary and 
a tentative arrangement. Nothing more than tliis is claimed for the 
classification here presented, which is limited to the works of the area 
now under consideration. Were it not for the absolute necessity of 
grouping under designated heads in order to simplify the work, no 
attempt in this direction would be made at this time. 

It is undoubtedly desirable to adopt some arrangement agreeing 
with the European classification if this be possible, but a comparison of 
European antiquities with those of North America will soon satisfy 
any one of its impracticability. The chronological arrangement into 
four classes, to wit, Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron, is con 
ceded to be inapplicable to America. Evidences of the two stone ages 
may possibly yet be found, and a copper age be substituted for the 
bronze, but the likeness will extend no farther. I may add that, per 
sonally, I doubt very much if this classification into ages has been of 
any advantage to archeology. 

As the first step, all antiquities of this region are considered as be 
longing to three general divisions: 

(1) Monuments, or local antiquities. Those antiquities that are fixed 
or stationary, which necessarily pertain to a given locality or place, as 
earthworks, stoneworks, cave dwellings, mines, quarries, etc. 

(2) Movable antiquities, or relics and remains. Those which have no 
necessary connection with a given place or locality, such as implements, 
ornaments, and other minor vestiges of art; also human and animal 
remains, etc. 

(3) Paleof/raphic objects. Inscriptions, picture writings, symbols, etc., 
whether on fixed stones or transportable articles. 

Although this arrangement is confessedly an arbitrary one, it is 
adopted because it appears to be a practical working system by 
which the lines of distinction are somewhat rigidly drawn. Moreover, 
it is adapted to the two methods of investigation and study, viz, in the 
field and in the museum. 

THE FIXED OR LOCAL ANTIQUITIES. 

The fixed or local antiquities of the section under consideration con 
sist chiefly of earthworks, stoneworks, cave deposits, mines and quar 
ries, and might be classed under these heads but for the fact that some 
belong partly to one class and partly to another; for example, while 
most mounds are built entirely of earth, some consist wholly of stone 
and others are partly stone and partly earth; then there are other 
local antiquities which can not be properly classed under either of these 
headings. The nearest approach, therefore, which can be made to a 
satisfactory classification is to group the individual monuments accord 
ing to types of form and external characters, reference being made to 
uses only where these are obvious. 



THOMAS.] MOUNDS DEFINED. 29 

The variety of ancient works so far as form and modes of construction 
are concerned, is almost endless, but all may be included, in a general 
way, under the folio wing primary headings, viz, Mounds, Refuse Heaps, 
Mural Works (such as inclosures, embankments, etc.), Excavations, 
Graves and Cemeteries, Garden Beds, Surface Figures, Hearths or 
Camp Sites, Hut Rings or House Sites, and Ancient Trails. Besides 
these as belonging to separate heads are Mines and Quarries, Cave 
Deposits, and Petroglyphs. 

MOUNDS. 

The term " mound," as used throughout this report, is limited to the 
artificial tumulus and is not intended to include walls, embankments, 
refuse heaps, or other works not usually classed as "mounds" in this 
country, though the lines of distinction between the examples which 
approximate each other in form are apparently arbitrary. 

The tumuli or mounds are the most common and most numerous of 
the fixed works, being found throughout the region under consideration, 
and, in fact, constituting the larger portion of most of the groups. 
The form are so varied that it would tax the imagination to devise one 
that is not represented. There is probably one exception and a some 
what remarkable one, as it is that which enters into the idea of a true 
pyramid. The form alluded to is the pyramid with true successive 
stages. There has been, it is believed, no mound found in the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains, with successive stages running 
entirely around the structure. In other words, the form figured by 
Pidgeon in the frontispiece to his "Decoodah" as the type of the 
" ancient American battle mound," is without a representative in the 
United States. 

Although so varied, they may for convenience be arranged in four 
classes, as follows : Conical tumuli, elongate mounds, pyramidal mounds, 
and effigy mounds. 

CONICAL TUMULI. 

Under this head are placed all those rounded, artificial heaps or hil 
locks which seem to have been cast up with some special object in view- 
that is to say, are not such mere accumulations of rubbish as the refuse 
heaps. The form is usually that of a low, broad, round-topped cone, 
but as at present found, is, in consequence of wear by the plow and 
the elements, often that of an irregular heap distinguished from the 
refuse heap only by internal evidences. 

Mounds of this type are the most common of our ancient monuments, 
being found throughout the region under consideration, sometimes iso 
lated, but more usually in association with other works. There art 1 , in 
fact, few groups of ancient works to be found where mounds of this 
kind are entirely wanting. 

They vary in size from a slight, scarcely perceptible swell in the sur 
face of the ground to elevations 80 or 90 feet high, and from 6 or 8 feet 



30 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

to 300 feet in diameter nt the base. As a general rule the burial mounds 
are of this form. 

The term " conical," although used in its widest and most general 
sense, is scarcely broad enough to include all tumuli that are referred 
to this class. The circular or nearly circular base is the usual form, 
but oval and pear-shaped mounds, especially the former, are not rare. 
Some two or three of a crescent shape have been observed, but these 
are exceptional cases. There are also some irregular forms which must 
be placed in this class if we would avoid multiplying divisions in our 
classification to an unwarranted extent. These are mostly irregular 
heaps, similar to " refuse heaps," but which, as internal evidence shows, 
can not be properly placed in the latter category. 

As the further subdivision of the class must be determined chiefly, 
if not wholly, by what the interior of the works presents, this part of 
the subject will be left for a subsequent chapter. However, it may be 
stated here that no attempt has been made to divide the conical tumuli 
into any further subclasses than burial mounds, and those not designed 
for burial purposes. 

ELONGATE OR WALL MOUNDS. 

This division is intended to include those singular elongate works 
which seem to be confined strictly to the effigy-mound district. The 
only characteristic which distinguishes them from the conical type is 
their wall-like form; in fact many of them, as may be seen by referring 
to Dr. Lapham s "Antiquities of Wisconsin," might very properly be 
called walls. This wall-like form is apparent even where the length 
is not great compared with the width; in other words, they seldom 
assume the oval shape. The width varies from 20 to 40 feet ; the length 
from 50 to 900 feet, though the height seldom, if ever, exceeds 4 feet. 
They appear to be simple lines of earth cast up from the adjoining 
surface, and are seldom used for burial purposes, and even in these few 
cases it is evident the burial in them was a subsequent thought, their 
construction having no reference to this use. The object in building 
them is yet an unsolved riddle. 

PYRAMIDAL MOUNDS. 

The typical form of this class is the truncated, quadrangular pyra 
mid. In some examples these are so reduced in height, compared with 
extent, as to assume the appearance of mere earthen platforms; others 
have a terrace extending outward from one or two sides. Although 
the mounds of this class are usually four-sided, some are circular or 
rounded, and a few pentagonal, but all are flat on top. The wearing 
by the plow and the elements has in most cases destroyed the sharp 
outlines of the original form, so that it is difficult, sometimes, to deter 
mine this satisfactorily. In such cases the statements of the early 
observers become important. But few works of this class are found 
in the northern districts. 



THOMAS.] INCLOSURES AND WALLS. 31 

EFFIGY MOUNDS. 

These are the singular earthen structures designed to represent ani 
mal figures, the human form, or some inanimate object. They are lim 
ited almost exclusively to the Wisconsin district, the only known excep 
tions being two or three in Ohio and two in Georgia. It is more than 
probable that most of those to which the name " Man-mound" has been 
applied are really bird effigies. 

Although not belonging strictly to the mound class in the restricted 
sense, yet, as being nearest allied thereto, we may arrange here the 
refuse heaps and house sites. 

REFUSE HEAPS. 

Although the ancient heaps of rubbish in America are composed 
chiefly of marine and fresh-water shells, the more comprehensive term 
refuse heap is given here, as under it may be placed not only the accu 
mulations of shells but other heaps known as kitchen-middens and open- 
air workshops or accumulations of flint chips. The heap is distin 
guished from the mound by the fact that the former is a mere accumu 
lation of rubbish, while the latter is constructed with a specific design 
in view. 

HOUSE SITES AND HUT RINGS. 

The works to which the latter of these names is applied are usually 
small rings or circles of earth from 15 to 50 feet in diameter, the inclosed 
area being more or less depressed. This name is given them because 
it is now conceded that they are the remains of circular houses or wig 
wams. In Arkansas and some other southern sections these rings ap 
pear to be replaced by low, flattened, mostly circular mounds in which 
are found the indications or remains of houses which in most cases appear 
to have been consumed by fire. To these and other similar remains, 
though not covered by mounds, the name " house sites" has been applied. 

CAIRNS. 

With the exception of two or three effigies and the accumulations of 
flint chips the only stone mounds found in the United States east of the 
Kocky Mountains are of the conical type. The term " cairn" is some 
times applied to the smaller and more regular ones, though u mound n 
is the word usually employed in this country in referring to them. 

INCLOSURES, WALLS, ETC. 

The works included in this class are inclosures, usually formed by a 
more or less complete surrounding wall of earth or stone; lines of walls, 
sometimes single, sometimes in pairs forming parallels; embankments, 
and other mural works. 



32 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

INCLOSURES. 

In this class are included some of the most important and most inter 
esting ancient monuments of our country. In form they are circular, 
square, oblong, oval, octagonal, or irregular. Those which approach 
regularity in figure and symmetry in their parts are either circular, 
square, or octagonal, and with a few exceptions are found in Ohio and 
in the immediately adjoinining sections of Kentucky and Indiana, and 
in West Virginia. 

Of the irregular in form there are several types ; some, especially 
those located on level ground where the space is ample, are irregularly 
circular and in most cases are flanked by a ditch. This form is common 
in the region bordering the northern lakes ; others, often of stone or 
stone and earth combined, are found on elevated points, the figure 
being determined by the boundaries or character of the area inclosed. 
I Reinsures of this type are frequently incomplete, a steep bluff, river, 
or lake shore forming one or two of the sides. 

Fii this class are included a few works where there is in reality no 
wall, a ditch or line of picket holes alone marking the boundary. 

WALLS AND EMBANKMENTS. 

Double or parallel lines of walls are in most, if not all, cases connected 
with other works. Single lines of wall are mostly those of earth or stone 
built across the neck of some projecting bluff or promontory or across 
some peninsula formed by the bend of a river or curve in a lake shore. 
These are evidently works thrown up for defensive purposes, often to 
protect a temporary or permanent village. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

This term is usually applied to those basin-shaped or irregular, arti 
ficial depressions often observed in connection with the more extensive 
groups. It is apparent in many cases that they have been dug with no 
other object in view than to obtain dirt with which to build a mound 
or construct a wall. But in other cases they have evidently been made 
for some specific, purpose. 

CANALS AND DITCHES. 

Indications of what may be properly designated as " ancient canals" 
have been discovered at a few points, mostly in the south. 

Ditches are seldom found except in connection with in closures or de 
fensive works. Yet, a few instances occur where they seem to replace 
the walls of iuclosures, one of the most important groups of the South 
being thus surrounded. 

PITS AND CACHES. 

Pits as a matter of course are excavations and in a strictly system 
atic arrangement should be placed under that head, nevertheless t,s the 



THOMAS.] GRAVES AND CEMETERIES. 33 

present object is to indicate the various works by the terms which have 
come into use in this country, they are given separately. They are fun 
nel-shaped or deep, cup-shaped excavations, the depth being greater in 
proportion to the diameter than the ordinary basin- shaped excavations. 
Those works, to which the term is applied, appear to be of two classes : 
First, the holes or pits made in digging for flint, which are usually 
known locally as " Indian diggings," and which, as a matter of course, 
are irregular as to form and size; second, the regularly formed pits of 
but a few feet in diameter and depth, and used chiefly as places for 
secreting food and other articles, and hence often called " caches." 

GRAVES AND CEMETERIES. 

The ancient graves of the area under consideration in this report are 
of various types, nevertheless there are one or two of these which form 
such important factors in discussing the question of the origin and 
builders of our ancient monuments that it is proper they should be 
mentioned here. 

One of the most common and most important types is the " box-shaped 
stone grave" or cist. This is in the form of an oblong box, constructed 

of unhewn stone slabs. Graves of this kind are found isolated, in 

^ 

groups forming cemeteries and also in mounds. 

Stone graves of other forms occur usually in mounds, but as these 
will be noticed hereafter it is unnecessary to describe them here. 

The term "cemetery" is, of course, used in its ordinary sense. 

GARDEN BEDS. 

These are certain surface indications, found chiefly in Michigan and 
Wisconsin, leading to the conclusion that the limited areas covered 
were formerly under cultivation. These indications are generally low, 
parallel ridges, as though made in planting corn in drills. They aver 
age about 4 feet in width, and the depth of the space between them a 
few (6 to 8) inches. They are generally arranged in beds or plats. 

OTHER FEATURES. 

Fire beds or hearths are nothing more than the indications of local 
fires, found in mounds and in the ground. Camp-sites are usually indi 
cated by marks of fire and other signs of temporary camps found near 
the surface of the ground. 

Ancient trails are sufficiently indicated by the name. 

Surface figures are outline figures of the human or animal form or of 
some object formed on the surface of the ground with pebbles or bones. 

Cave deposits are sufficiently indicated by the name. 

So far as ascertained the ancient mines of this country were limited 
to those of copper, flint, and other stone and mica. 
12 ETH 3 



FIELD OPERATIONS. 

MANITOBA AND THE DAKOTAS. 

Within the area embraced by the province of Manitoba and the two 
states of Dakota five distinct types of prehistoric works have been 
observed. First, the mounds of the Eed river valley, extending from 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, down to Selkirk, Manitoba, Secondly, the 
mounds along the Souris river in Manitoba and North Dakota, and in 
Benson, Eamsey, and Walsh counties, North Dakota. Thirdly, the 
mounds along the Big Sioux river in southeast Dakota and Iowa asso 
ciated with bowlder circles. Fourthly, the bowlder circles found upon 
the highest lands of the Missouri and James rivers and their tribu 
taries, associated with bowlder outlines of animals. Fifthly, the house 
sites in the form of basin-shaped depressions found along the Missouri 
river from the mouth of the Niobrara to 10 miles north of Bismarck. 

Of the first class, namely, the mounds bordering the Eed river of 
the North, there are but few, scarcely more than twenty now visible. 
Those visited by the Bureau agent were in the vicinity of Grand Eap- 
ids, North Dakota, St. Andrews, and East Selkirk, Manitoba. All had 
been explored. They occur singly rather than in groups. The soil of 
which they are composed appears to be that of the surrounding land. 
They are conical in form, and none at present exceed nine feet in diam 
eter, though originally, before they were cultivated and excavated, they 
were doubtless higher. Human burials were found in all. 

SOURIS RIVER MOUNDS. 

Along the Souris river, in southwestern Manitoba and south of the 
junction of the South Antler, numerous mounds were discovered. They 
extend over an extensive area up the river, and it is not improbable that 
they may be found following the stream across the border into Dakota. 

-C^^ ^^iiAfci\m|i|W|i||m^ IJJZ 

% f/l ^iiiiiiiiiiiw 

FIG. 1. Elongate mound, Souris river, Manitoba. 

They occur in large groups, are conical in form, and range from 1 to 5 
feet in height and from 30 to 40 feet in diameter. In their midst were 
seen the two forms of elongate mounds, one as shown in Fig. 1, the 
other the ordinary oblong form. As the discovery of these mounds was 
incidental, and our assistant carried no instruments upon the trip, no 

35 



36 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

survey of any of the groups could be made, The elongate mounds or 
embankments range from 1 to 21 feet high and from 100 to 300 feet 
long. In the form showing expansions or mounds at the ends, no per 
ceptible difference was noticed between the height of the mounds at 
the ends and the bank between them. They are composed of gravelly 
soil and in size are, as a rule, quite low and broad. Seven of these 
peculiar mounds were noticed just south of the junction of the South 
Antler, within 1 mile of Sourisford post-office. Two or more of this 
form sometimes occur either in an imbricated position or at right 
angles to one another, as in Fig. 2. Their positions and appearance 
are such as to preclude the idea that they were used for defense. 




Gt, 

\VVfe, 







Fin. 2. Elongate mounds, Soiiris riv-r, Manitoba. 

Some are- situated along the brink of the precipitous river bluff, while 
others lie farther inward upon the prairie level. The mounds or expan 
sions at the extremities of one were dug into but without any result. 

Mounds of this character were also seen down the Souris river across 
the South Antler. Large numbers of them lie between that stream 
and the junction of the North Antler, 1J miles distant. They range 
from 2 to 8 feet in height. The larger ones had been explored by set 
tlers. One, 5 feet high, situated near the left bluff of the South Antler, 
was composed throughout of the gravelly prairie soil, intermingled con 
siderably with buffalo bones. The bones of four skeletons were found 
in a confused condition in a pit dug in the original surface of the ground. 
A catlinite pipe of the tubular variety, curving towards the base, and 
many pieces of broken pottery were found with them. These pottery 
fragments are ornamented with straight incisions, and are composed 
of a mixture of clay tempered with line sand or pulverized granite. 

In another, 8 feet high, composed, like the last, of the gravelly prairie 
soil, the bodies or bones of five skeletons were found buried beneath 



THOMAS.] SOURIS RIVER MOUNDS. 37 

the original surface. They appeared to have been originally placed in 
a sitting posture in a circle facing one another. The bones bore no 
signs of decay. The decayed remains of timbers were found just above 
them. Five catlinite pipes of the tubular variety, a polished sandstone 
tablet engraved on one side with the rude figure of a turtle, and two 
small clay cups about the size of an ordinary finger bowl, accompanied 
the skeletons. The pottery has an incised spiral ornamentation extend 
ing all around the bowl and a corrugated rim. The composition is a 
mixture of clay with fine sand or pulverized granite. Quite a fresh 
piece of bark, apparently bearing the marks of a steel knife along- 
one edge, was also found accompanying these remains. 

In front of the residence of Mr. Amos Snyder and near the junction 
of the North Antler with the Souris there is a mound 3J feet high. 
This, not having been previously disturbed, was examined by Mr. Rey 
nolds. He found the mound composed throughout of the uppermost 
prairie soil, very compact and hard, and the remains of a single skele 
ton on the original surface of the ground. The bones, which were 
extremely well preserved, were disarticulated and piled together, as 
though interred after having been denuded of the flesh, and the cranium 
placed on top. Fragments of buffalo bones and pottery, similar in type 
to that above described, except that some of it was ornamented with 
straight parallel incisions, were found mingled among the earth. Also, 
three fine specimens of arrow heads of a light grayish flint and a por 
tion of some polished implement of bone, ornamented with straight 
incised lines which appear to have been produced with a sharp steel 
knife. 

Another mound, 4 feet high, about 50 rods westward from the last, 
was opened the same day. A trench 3 feet wide was cut through it to 
the original surface, but no burial remains were found. Many broken 
bufl alo bones, and pieces of pottery similar in description to those 
found in the other mounds, were intermingled in the earth throughout. 
A cross trench was abandoned for lack of time. 

Other mounds similar to these in appearance were seen on the oppo 
site or right bank of the Souris river on the Rurnball farm, 3 miles 
from Sourisford post-office. One situated near the dwelling is 3 feet 
high and 30 feet in diameter. It appeared to be composed, like those 
just described, of the soil of the surrounding land. Not far from the 
dwelling were also four oblong mounds, similar in form to that shown 
in Fig. 1. One of them measured 225 feet long and 24 feet broad. 
Their height is scarcely more than 1 foot above the surrounding level. 

While at Grand Forks, North Dakota, it was learned from Prof. 
Henry Montgomery that elongate, conical, and connected mounds, 
resembling these in character, and containing specimens of the types 
found in the mounds of this region, exist in Benson, Ramsey, and Walsh 
counties, North Dakota. 



38 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

SIOUX KIVElt MOUNDS. 

Along the Big Sioux river, within 10 miles south of Sioux Falls, and 
principally where the river forms the boundary line between Minne- 
halui county, South Dakota, and Lyon county, Iowa, there are said to 
be about 275 mounds. Many of these our assistant visited. They 
were found situated on both sides of the river in clusters or groups 
upon the highest points of the river hills, or upon the broad terraces 
of the valleys. One of the groups visited demands special attention. 
It is situated in the extreme northwest corner of Lyon county, Iowa, 
and comprises about 50 mounds of the simple conical type, averaging 
about 4 feet in height. In the midst of the mounds, at times touching 
the skirt of them, are seen stone rings, circular and oblong, made with 
the granite bowlders of the prairie, it is evident that these mark the 
site of an old village, the circles and oblong outlines indicating the 
positions of the lodges, the skin coverings of which were held down 
by stones, "With probably one or two exceptions every circle or oblong 
form presents a break, namely, a place about 3 or 4 feet wide where the 
continuity of the figure is broken by the absence of stones. This 
appears to have been the entrance, and in most instances it is at the 
southeast, or the point most protected from the cold northwest winds. 
They average about 30 feet in diameter. The number of lodges consti 
tuting the original village could not be counted, since about half of the 
group lies in a field, the original prairie sod of which has been disturbed 
by the plow of the settler and the stones utilized by him upon his farm. 
In the undisturbed portion they outnumber the mounds about three to 
one. The mounds are so intermingled with the stone figures as to show 
that the two were constructed by the same people, In some instances, 
where the stone circles nearly touch the skirt of a mound, the wash 
from the latter has covered the stones upon that side while those on 
the other side are fully exposed. This seems to indicate that the mounds 
had been constructed after the circles or lodges had been placed. These 
boulders are, as a rule, half imbedded in the prairie sod, but this fact 
does not necessarily imply great antiquity. Investigations had been 
made among these mounds by Mr. F. W. Petti grew, of Sioux Falls, but 
the result did not indicate that they were used for burial. 

About half a mile up the valley, on the same river terrace, there is 
another large village site consisting of mounds and circles similar in all 
respects to those just described. Each of these groups is upon a most 
beautiful and expansive terrace peculiarly adapted for a permanent vil 
lage. Groups of mounds, fewer in number and smaller in size, are to 
be seen in the vicinity upon the most commanding points of the river 
heights, and in these human interments have been discovered. These 
may therefore be considered as the burial places of this people. 

About 100 rods to the south of the village remains above described 
there is an irregular earthen inclosure somewhat octagonal in outline, 



BOWLDER CIRCLES. 39 

formed by throwing up the dirt from the inside. At one point it inter 
sects a low mound, seated upon the original surface, in which the owner 
of the land discovered a skeleton. The iuclosure embraces about 10 
acres, but no survey could be made at the time it was visited on account 
of the high corn crop that covered it. The group of mounds and stone 
circles above described has been accurately surveyed by Mr. F. W. Pet- 
tigrew, of Sioux Falls. 

BOWLDER CIRCLES. 

Iii addition to the bowlder circles above described there are some of 
another class, which, from all accounts, appear to be quite common 
throughout the Dakota country. They differ from the others in that 
they are unaccompanied by mounds, and average as a rule only 
17 feet in diameter. The bowlders are much smaller and are scat 
tered about irregularly instead of approximating a perfect circle like 
the others. They are, however, like these, half imbedded in the soil. 
Formerly they were doubtless much more common, but now they are 
found principally, if not altogether, upon the highest ridges or buttes 
overlooking the valleys. Those visited by the Bureau agent were sit 
uated on Medicine Butte, near Blunt, South Dakota, and Snake Butte, 
6 miles up the Missouri river from Pierre, South Dakota. They occupy 
the most commanding points of the buttes. In fact their locations are 
the very best in all those regions for grand, extensive views. No relics 
of any description are found about them, and everything seems to point 
to temporary occupation oidy. Their positions and character indicate 
that they are the sites of old teepees, and this is confirmed by the tes 
timony of all the old Indians and u squaw men " who were questioned 
as to their origin. In former times, they say, bowlders were the chief 
means by which the Indians held down the skins of their lodges, and 
even now it is resorted to in some of their temporary camps. Each of 
these groups of stone circles is accompanied by the outline figure of an 
animal, made with such small bowlders as are available upon the site, 
and similar to those composing the circles about them. Like the lat 
ter, they are half embedded in the ground. The figure accompanying 
the group upon Medicine Butte is a snake outlined with two rows of 
bowlders. These boulders vary in size, those of the body being larger 
than those of the tail, and that forming the nose or mouth larger than 
those forming the head. The curvature of the body, the head, and the 
eyes are all well defined. A sketch of this snake figure is given with 
others of the same type by Mr. T. IT. Lewis in the American Anthro 
pologist, vol. 9. His description is full and accurate. The figure ac 
companying the group on Snake butte above Pierre is that of a turtle, 
the figure of which, with dimensions as ascertained by our assistant, is 
given herewith (Fig. 3). It is 15 feet in length, and 7 feet across the 
body, and is composed of 83 stones varying somewhat in size, though 
not as much so as those forming the snake above described. A num.- 



40 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

bcrof smaller stones, as seen in the figure, ran from the neck through 
the body, which probably was intended to represent the life line, thus 
o-iving the figure a mythical significance. This effigy lay in a direction 
5 380 E . and was situated not far from the bluff of the Missouri river, 
to which it lay parallel. Tepee remains, or stone circles, are to be 




Fin. 3. Turtle figure, Hughes county, South Dakota. 

seen between it and the edge of the blutf, and on the other side, to the 
east, commencing about 150 feet to the south, is a long line of bowlders 
of similar description, which extend northerly fully 200 rods. In some 
places these stones are compact and set closely together, but towards 
each end they thin out by becoming farther and farther apart. At the 
north end this line terminates in a small heap of stones. This was 
torn down, and the earth beneath dug into, but without result. There 
are about .55 stone circles in this group, and the turtle figure lies in 
the midst of them, as does also the line of bowlders just described. 
They are seen on both sides of it to a certain distance. Some are also 
to be seen upon the high crest of the butte. These circles are of the 
same dimensions as those seen on Medicine butte, but the stones did 
not seem to be so deeply buried, in fact, they were as much above the 
surface as could be expected. Ashes were found upon digging in the 



THOMAS.] HUT RINGS. 41 

center of one of the circles, though 110 such traces were seen in others 
that were examined here and upon Medicine Butte. The animal fig 
ures on each of these sites are poorly situated, and in each case there 
are circles that almost touch them. Indeed, their position with refer 
ence to the latter is such as to make them seem incidental to the prior 
location of the tepees. If they were intended as objects of veneration 
and worship, as has been conjectured, there are sites in the immediate 
vicinity of each better adapted for such purposes sites where the 
archeologist more naturally expects to find them. 

HUT RINGS. 

Many old village sites, resembling each other in every respect, are to 
be seen on either side of the Missouri river from the mouth of the 
Mobrara to about 10 miles above Bismarck. Unlike the house sites of 
this type in southeast Missouri and Illinois no mounds accompany them, 
though kitchen-middens, resembling mounds, are seen among those 
farther up the river. Two of these village sites were examined by the 
agent of this Bureau near the town of Pierre, South Dakota. They 
occupied the second terrace of the river and were indicated by numerous 
basin-shaped depressions, sometimes, especially in the larger cases, 
with a distinct rim or bank around the edge. They are, at present, 
from 1 to 2 feet deep and 75 feet in diameter. Occasionally one is seen 
fully 4 feet deep and 75 feet in diameter. In some instances the en 
trance was indicated by a graded depression leading outward. At 
least fifty such hut rings were counted on each of these sites. It was 
apparent, however, that originally there were many more, for many had 
disappeared before the encroachments of the town. Numerous signs of 
former occupation abound, and refuse heaps are seen about almost 
every depression. Some of these refuse heaps were examined and 
found to consist chiefly of river loess, and to contain invariably much 
fragmentary pottery, discarded stone implements, and the broken bones 
of the buffalo and other food animals. Indications of fire were dis 
covered in the center of the depressions or house sites. The ornamen 
tation of the pottery is, as a rule, similar to that of the Mandans, except 
that it appears to be a trifle ruder. The characteristic incised lines of 
the Mandan pottery are constantly met with. The tempering material 
employed is also the same, it being a fine silicious sand. Quite a large 
group of these remains is to be seen farther down the river at the mouth 
of Chappelle creek, accompanied by the remains of an earthen inclosure. 
It was situated on the edge of the bank of the creek near its junction 
with the river. A distinct outside ditch was apparent on the side un 
protected by the bank. It had a single entrance way and the interior 
was well filled up with house sites of the above description. The num 
ber of these depressions within and without the fort indicate a much 
larger population than is known of any of the villages of the Missouri 
when first visited by whites. Another very large group, similar to these 



42 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

in every respect, is, according to Mr. J. C. Collester, of Bedfield, South 
Dakota, to be seen at the mouth of the Moreau river. These are doubt 
less the remains of the Ankara village that was visited by Lewis and 
Clarke in their passage up the Missouri in 1802. The houses of the 
Arikaras were described by these explorers as circular dome-like struc 
tures, the floor of which was about .3 feet below the level of the sur 
rounding land. But in house-building, as in the manufacture of pottery 
and other things, the customs of the Arikaras, though somewhat ruder, 
resembled those of the Mandans, and the similar remains farther up the 
river may therefore be due to that people. Some are probably the re 
mains of the Mandan villages described by Lewis and Clarke in 1802, 
and by Catlin in 1833. 

MINNESOTA. 

The only explorations made in this state on behalf of the Bureau 
were at and about the noted Pipestone quarry in Pipestone county and 
in the extreme southeastern county. 

PIPESTONE COUNTY. 

The only group known in this county is that in the vicinity of the 
sacred Pipestone quarry. 

A sketch and description of the locality as it formerly appeared, to 
gether with an account of the Indian traditions relating to it, may be 
found in Catlin s " North American Indians." 1 These works consist of 
low mounds and an irregular inclosure in the vicinity of Pipestone. 

One of these mounds, which for convenience is designated No. 1, is 
of the usual low conical form, 28 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. An 
exploration revealed nothing but the dark, adhesive soil of which it 
was chiefly composed, and stone fragments, a few of which were catlin- 
ite, bearing traces of tool marks. No bones, ashes, or charcoal were 
observed. Possibly it was nothing more than a refuse heap. 

No. 2 is the mound represented in Catlin s sketch 2 of which he gives 
the history, and which, according to his statement, was built two years 
before his visit, probably in 18.30 or 1837. He does not give the diam 
eter, but estimates the height at 10 feet. Nicollet saw and noted it in 
1838. Col. Norris noticed it in 1857, when, although apparently undis 
turbed, it was but little over feet in height. When he saw it again 
in 1877 it bore the marks of having been opened, and he then learned 
that a cranium and some of the weapons and trinkets deposited with 
the Indians buried had been unearthed and carried off. He found a 
perforated bear s claw and some glass beads among the angular frag 
ments of rock lying in the excavation. Making a thorough excavation 
when he visited it in 1882 on behalf of the Bureau, he found near the 
center some decayed fragments of wood, one of them apparently the 

1 Vol. 2, p. 144. * North American Indians, Vol . 2, p. 164, PI. 270. 



THOMAS.] PIPESTONE COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 43 

short, thick, perforated stock or handle of an Indian whip. With the 
dirt of the mound were mingled many fragments of stone. 

No. 3, composed of earth and angular fragments of stone, was prob 
ably a refuse heap from the diggings. 

Nos. 4 and 5, similar to No. 3. 

No. 6 is a conical tumulus on the bank of the creek about a hundred 
yards above the falls, arid is G feet high. Projecting through the sod 
was a stone slab 2 feet long, nearly as wide, and 9 inches thick, stand 
ing nearly perpendicular in the center; beneath it, lying flat, was 
another of similar form and size. Beneath the latter was a pile of 
broken stones, mostly of smaller sizes, among which were pieces of 
pipestone, badly decayed fragments of human and coyote bones, but no 
entire skeleton. In this were found charcoal and ashes, the only 
instance of their presence in any of the mounds at this place. They 
were underneath the pile of stones. A small .stone drill was found 
with them. 

No. 7, which is nearer the cliff than No. 6, is about 30 feet in diame 
ter and 4 feet high. It was but little else than a pile of angular stones. 

No. 8 is simply a bastion-like enlargement of the large circular 
earthwork at one of its numerous angles (see No. 8, Fig. 4), about 4 
feet high. Nothing was found in it, not even the angular stones so 
common in the other mounds. 

No. 9 is a circular mound inside the earthwork, 20 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high. In this was found a single skeleton lying at full 
length upon the right side, head north, on the original surface of the 
ground. It was covered with a layer or pile of stones about 2 feet 
thick, and was so much decayed that the bones and even the teeth 
crumbled to dust when exposed to the air. No implements or orna 
ments were found with it except a flint lance head, some arrow points, 
and two or three rude scrapers which were near the breast. 

No. 10 is merely an enlargement of the west horn of one of the circu 
lar works lying east of the large inciosure, of which more particular 
mention is made hereafter. Its diameter was found to be 20 feet; 
height, 3 feet. Nothing of interest was found in it. 

CIRCULAR AND CRESCENT EARTITWORKS. 

These interesting works are situated about 2 miles a little north of 
east from the quarry; a plan of them is given in Fig. 4. It is not cer 
tain that Catlin saw these works, although they are situated near the 
great war trail from Flandreau and the pipestone quarry to the Minne 
sota (formerly St. Peters) river. Nicollet, however, noted them in 
1838, and makes special mention of two circular inclosures, or " camps," 
as he calls them, estimating the circumference of one at 2,000 feet. 1 

The shape of this inciosure, which appears to be the only complete 
one in the locality is shown at a. The circumference, according to 

1 Senate Keport No. 237, 26th Congress, 2d session, p. 14. 



44 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Col. Norris s measurement, is 2,380 feet, the wall varying in height from 
a few inches to 4 feet. It has two well-marked and distinct openings, 
or gateways, one at the north, the other at the southeast, besides 
smaller and less evident ones. In the southern half is mound No. 9, 
heretofore mentioned. 

The crescent-shaped embankments, which are roughly sketched in 
the figure, are about half a mile east of the large inclosure. They are 
simply earth embankments of slight elevation and are possibly parts of 
unfinished works. 





FIG. 4. Incloaures and mounds, Pipestone county, Minnesota. 

Nicollet s statement in regard to the works is as follows: 

After having reconnoitered distinct marks of a buffalo path, we unexpectedly fell 
upon a circular breastwork of about 2,000 feet in circumference and sufficiently ele 
vated to protect the bodies of those who are defending themselves within. The 
principal entrance is still marked by the places where the chiefs or principal person 
ages of the nation had their lodges, the situation of these always indicating not 
only tin; main access to the cam}) but also the direction whence the enemy was 
advancing. 

Two miles further on, accordingly, we met with another camp of a similar charac 
ter. As the system of defense was on neither side more complicated than just 
described, it would seem that they had been erected during a long talk the result of 
which might lead to a war; whilst the small number of tumuli that are found 
within the breastwork would seem to imply that both parties remained in presence 
for some time, though there was no important battle fought. 

The Sioux have lost the reminiscences of these camps, and merely conjecture that 
they were occupied during the settlement of difficulties between the Tetous and 
Yauktons. 

Col. Norris thinks he saw in 1842 the second inclosure mentioned by 
Nicollet, but did not find it in 1882. 



THOMAS.] 



HOUSTON COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 



HOUSTON COUNTY. 



45 



The extreme southeast corner of this county, which is also the south 
east point of the State, is just north of the town of New Albin, Iowa, 
at the confluence of Winnebago creek with the Mississippi river. 
About 1 mile north of this point, upon the summit of a cliff rising 
vertically 400 or 500 feet from the eastern or Mississippi valley side, 
and barely accessible for a pedestrian up the steep and somewhat rocky 
slopes on the south, west, and north sides, three mounds were found 
and excavated, with the following results : 

No. 1, about 30 feet in diameter and 6 feet high, of the usual conical 
form, on the summit of the cliff, had already been opened sufficiently to 
remove therefrom the skeleton of an Indian warrior, together with his 
gun, hatchet, etc. The excavation which had been made was still 
partly open, and extending downward only about half the depth of the 
mound. Digging down about a foot farther into the hard, light-col 
ored earth, apparently a mixture of clay and ashes, a stone slab was 
encountered something over 2 feet long, something less in width, and 5 
inches thick, of the same kind of rock as that found in the cliff. 
This was lying flat upon others of various sizes, which were placed 
edgewise, so as to form an oblong cist or coffin, but so small that its 
contents, the decayed bones of an adult, were nearly in a heap, as 
though the skeleton had been folded and deposited after the flesh was 
removed. No implements or other vestiges of art were found. 




FIG. 5. Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota. 

No. 2. This interesting mound, situated about 50 feet soutk and 
somewhat down the slope from No. 1, is circular, about 25 feet in diam 
eter and 6 feet high. An excavation had been made in the top to the 
covering or top slabs of a stone vault or chamber which further explo 
ration showed the mound to contain. The form of this vault is shown 
in Fig. 5. It was about 6 feet in diameter throughout, and before it 
was disturbed probably reached nearly or quite to the top of the 
mound. Some of the top rocks had been thrown down, and, with some 
small human bones, were lying on the slope of the mound. The floor 
of the inner area was filled to the depth of about 2 feet with charcoal, 
ashes, and split bones of animals, among which were found two roughly 
chipped scrapers or skinners. This accumulation had not been dis 
turbed by those who made the first partial opening above, and who, as 
was learned, had unearthed the skeleton of an Indian child, with some 
modern beads and other trinkets. 



46 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. , 5 is situated about 100 feet north but much below No. 1, and is 
about 20 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. Nothing whatever of inter 
est was found in it. 

Nothing was observed in relation to these works differing from the 
usual conical mounds found in this region except the peculiar com- 




Fio. 6. Mound group near Madison, Wisconsin. 

manding position they occupy and the walled structure in No. 2. Of 
the numerous bluffs in this region no other affords such a clear and 
extensive view of the surrounding country as this. An unobstructed 
view of the Mississippi for a considerable distance above and below, 
also up the Little Iowa, Winnebago, and other streams, is here ob 
tained. From this position can be seen the mouth of lioot river 011 the 
west, and on the east the deep-gorged Badaxe, and the last battlefield 
on which Black Hawk fought. It must therefore have always been a 
favorite lookout point or station 



THOMAS.] EARTHWORKS IN WISCONSIN. 47 

Mound No. 2 seems to have been purposely built upon the sunny 
slope of the cliff just below the summit, so as to be sheltered from the 
cold northwest winds and partly also from observation, while its oc 
cupants had a nearly unobstructed field for observation and signals. 
Unlike the other mounds near it which were opened, it was composed 
wholly of the rock and soil taken from around it. Possibly it may 
have been used as a sentry post or signal station. The charcoal, ashes, 
and split bones of animals were doubtless the remains of the feasts 
and fires of the watchmen; the burial of a child in the mound was 
intrusive and by modern Indians. Not a fragment of pottery was found 
at this locality, although Avithin 10 miles of the pottery circle in Iowa, 
which will be noticed hereafter. 

WISCONSIN. 

The explorations in this State were confined chiefly to the southwest 
ern counties, though brief visits were made to some other localities, 
where a few mounds were opened and some interesting groups sketched. 

DANE COUNTY. 

One group near Madison, which does not appear to have been no 
ticed by other explorers, was examined. This is situated about 2 miles 
southeast of the capital and just beyond the mounds near Lake Wiii- 
gra, described by Dr. Lapham. The works consist chiefly of earthen 
circles and ovals, which in some cases surround excavations, and are 
shown in the annexed Fig. 6. As will be observed, with the exception 
of No. 8, which is a low mound, situated a short distance southwest of 
No. 7, they are in a single straight line running northwest and south 
east. No. 1 is a double excavation, one portion oval, the other in the 
form of a horseshoe and surrounded by a ring of earth 1 foot high ; 
depth of excavation from 3 to 6 feet. Nos. 2, (>, and 7 are low mounds, 
but the others, which are rings of earth, are about 5 feet high on the 
outside and 4 feet on the inside, the surface of the inner area being 
raised about a foot above the surrounding level. The respective diame 
ters are as follows: No. 2, 32 .feet; No. 3, 34 feet; No. 4, 36 feet (great 
est diameter) ; No. 5, 28 feet; No. 0, 2G feet; No. 7, 28 feet. No. lis 45 
feet long. No. 4 is not a complete circle, having a wide opening toward 
the southwest. 

These are certainly not the work of the white man, as they present 
nothing in common with his habits or customs. They appear now just 
as they did in 1844, except that some of those in the field at the north 
west end of the row have since been nearly obliterated by the plow. 

CRAWFORD COUNTY. 

The first group of mounds of this county noticed here is found on the 
bluff just above the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, 
and about 5 miles southeast of Prairie du Chien. The bluffs at this 



48 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



point form a sharp promontory jutting out toward the west, with remark 
ably steep and partially precipitous sides on the south and west, rising 
about 150 feet above the general level. This is capped by a sharp 
sandy ridge, rising in the central portion another hundred feet. On 
the crest of this ridge are four mounds, which may be numbered 1, 2, 3, 
and 4. Between 1 and 3 is a somewhat broad and flattened depres 
sion, in which mound No. 2 is situated. The ridge beyond the point 
gradually descends toward the east, becoming broadened and flattened 
as it recedes. On this portion there are 10 small circular mounds in a 
single line. 




FIG. 7. Walled vault in mound, Prairie du Chieu, Wisconsin. 

Mound No. 1 (Fig. 7) was opened in 1876 by Judge Bronson, who / 
found at the base of it some six or eight skeletons lying stretched out 
horizontally, and covered by a dry, light colored mortar, which had run 
between and incased the bones and even filled some of the crania. As 
only the southern portion had been opened, the remainder was carefully 




Fm. 8. Bird mound, Prairie du Cliien, Wisconsin. 

explored. The dried mortar was very hard and difficult to dig through, 
but the pick soon struck some flat limestone rocks, which, when 
fully exposed, were found to be parts of a rough wall about 3 feet high, 
from the natural surface of the ground, and 8 feet long. In the oppo 
site side of the mound, about 12 feet from this and parallel to it, was 
another similar wall. 

The ends of these walls are shown in Fig. 8. Between them on the 
natural surface had been placed side by side a number of skeletons 



THOMAS.] MOUNDS AT PRAIRIE DU CHIEN. 49 

lying flat aiid lengthwise, parallel with the walls. The heads of these 
are indicated by the row of little circles at the bottom. Immediately 
over these was the layer of mortar; next above this, between the walls 
and also over the vault forming the body of the mound, was a layer of 
very hard, light-colored clay mixed with ashes, but no charcoal. The 
top covering was of sand and soil to the depth of 18 inches. Before it 
was disturbed this mound was about 35 feet in diameter and 6 feet 
high. There was no evidence of fire, but much tending to show that 
the builders intended to incase the skeletons in a water-tight covering 
of mortar, which, when originally placed there, must have been suffi 
ciently soft to run into all the interstices between the skeletons, these 
all being filled, as were also some of the crania. 

On the depression of the ridge heretofore inentioned, between mounds 
1 and 3, is mound No. 2. This is an effigy representing a bird (see Fig. 
8), the dimensions of which are as follows : Length of body, 42 feet, or 
total length, including the head and neck, 60 feet; of each wing, 42 feet; 
greatest width of body, 18 feet, and greatest elevation 3 feet. Several 
pits dug in it proved it to have been constructed wholly of the yellow 




FIG. 9. Section of mound and pit, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 

sand and soil of the ridge. No bones or relics of any kind were found 
in it. The indications lead to the belief that it was carved out of the 
ridge, rather than thrown up, the wings still forming the crest from 
which the head and body slope gradually in opposite directions. 

Mound No. 3 (Fig. 9) is a few paces to the west of No. 2 and on 
slightly higher ground. This was also partially explored by Judge 
Bronsoii in 187G, and, with the further examination by the Bureau 
agent, gave the following results : First, a covering of soil and sand a 
foot or more in depth (No. 5), next a layer (No. 4) of calcined human 
bones nearly 2 feet in depth, without order, mingled with charcoal, 
ashes, and reddish brown mortar (clay and sand), burned as hard as a 
brick. Immediately below this was a layer (No. 3) 1 foot thick of mor 
tar consisting largely of sand burned to a brick-red color. Below this 
in the layer marked 2 were found the skeletons of 15 or 16 individuals 
without any arrangement, mingled with which were charcoal, firebrands, 
and ashes. The bones were charred and portions of them glazed 
with melted sand. The mass appears to have been first covered with 
12 ETH 4 



50 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

soft mortar, which filled the spaces, and the burning done afterward. 
Scattered through the mass were lumps of clay apparently molded in 
the hands, which the fire had converted into rude bricks. The bottom 
of this layer corresponded with the original surface of the ground. 
Further excavation to the depth of 2 or 3 feet revealed a circular pit in 
the original soil (marked 1 in the figure) about 6 feet in diameter, the 
bottom of which was covered an inch deep with fine chocolate-colored 
dust. The strangest fact regarding this pit is that, although the inter 
mediate filling between the 1-foot depth at the bottom and the layer 
above (the bottom of the mound proper) was similar in appearance to the 
ordinary soil of the ridge, yet the under portion of it lemained arched 
over the 1-foot space beneath. It was probably hardened by the fierce 
fire above. 

Eleven paces west of this mound, situate 1 on the brow of the bluff, 
is No. 4, only 12 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. This mound, like 
the others, was built up chiefly of very hard material resembling mor 
tar. In it was a single skeleton lying on its right side ; placed in the 
form of a circle on the left hip were 140 shell beads. The left arm lay 
extended along the upper side; the knees were drawn up at right 
angles to the body. Although now so dry and hard, the mortar at 
some former time had made its way into and filled the skull and fitted 
neatly around the bones which were all well preserved and had not 
been disturbed since they were first placed there. Around the neck 
were 12 shell beads and 5 small perforated sea shells. 

On the lower, broadened portion of the ridge, in its eastern exten 
sion, as before remarked, is a row of ten small circular mounds, which 
vary in height from 2 to 4 feet and in diameter from 19 to 32 feet. In 
addition to these there are also here two elongate mounds or embank 
ments in a line with each other, their nearer ends being about 3 paces 
apart. The longest of these is 192 feet in length, the other 45 feet. 
Two of the circular ones were opened, in both of which were found 
some indications of their having been used for burial purposes, but in 
one only were any bones obtained. No relics of any kind were discov 
ered. From the larger ones which had been previously opened a num 
ber of stone and copper implements were obtained. 

A short distance to the northwest of the foregoing group are traces 
of many circular mounds, some long earthworks, and eifigy mounds. 
In fact nearly the whole area of the valley of Prairie du Chieii town 
ship appears to have been once literally dotted over with ancient 
works. Many of these are effigy mounds representing deer, bears, 
rabbits, etc., apparently in droves, sometimes with and sometimes 
without other works intermingled. But in all cases the effigies are 
heading southwest, trending with the general course of the river in 
this section. 

At the upper end of the prairie are a number of effigy mounds and 
long works as yet but little injured, while others in the fields are 



THOMAS.] 



RELICS WITH INTRUSIVE BURIALS. 



51 



nearly obliterated. Some of these have been opened and various relics 
obtained, mostly those accompanying intrusive burials. 

The greater number of a row of large circular mounds, situated on a 
high bottom between the old bayou and the river, have been removed 
to make way for buildings, railroad tracks, etc., this being the only 
part of the immediate area which is not overflowed when the water is 
very high. Many articles of stone, copper, iron, and silver were found, 
but mainly from intrusive burials, though obtained at or beneath the 
base. 

One large mound, 70 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, was still unex 
plored. This was opened. It had been considerably defaced, especially 
on the western side. According to tradition it was a noted burial place 
of the Indians, which was certainly confirmed by the result. The 
surface or top layer was composed mainly of sand 
and alluvial earth to the depth of some 3 or 4 feet. 
Scattered through this in almost every part of the 
mound were found human skeletons in various 
stages of decay and in different positions, but mostly 
stretched horizontally on the back. Mixed with 
these remains were fragments of blankets, clothing, 
and human hair; one copper kettle, three copper 
bracelets, one silver locket, shown in Fig. 10; ten 
silver bracelets similar to the one shown in Fig. 11, 
one having the word "Montreal" stamped on it; and 
another the letters "A. B.; ? two silver ear-rings; six 
silver brooches similar to Fig. 12 ; one copper finger 
ring; one double silver cross (Fig. 13); one knife 
handle; one battered bullet, and one carved wooden 
pipe similar to those at present in use. In fact, the 
top layer to the depth of 3 or 4 feet seemed to be packed as full of skel 
etons as possible without doubling them, and even that had been re 
sorted to in some cases. 




FIG. 10. Silver locket 
from mound, Prairie 
du Chien, Wisconsin. 





FIG. 11. Bracelet of silver from mound, 
Prairie du Chien. Wisconsin. 



FIG. 12. Silver brooch from mound, 
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 



Carrying the trench down to the original surface of the ground there 
was found, near the center, at the bottom, a single skeleton of an adult,, 



52 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



. 1 

lay 



in the last stages of decay, and with it a stone skinner, stone drill, 
scraper, fragments of river shells, and fragments of a mammoth s tooth. 

The earth below the thick up 
per layer was mixed with clay 
and ashes or some other sub 
stance evidently different from 
the surrounding soil, but not 
so hard as the mortar-like ma 
terial found in the mounds on 
the bluff. 

The main road from Prairie 
du Chieu to Eastman follows 
chiefly the old trail along the 
crest of the divide between the 
drainage of the Kickapoo and 
Mississippi rivers. Along this 
are a number of effigy mounds ; 
some of them in cultivated 
fields, but the larger number in 
the forest, the trees upon them 
being of the same size as those 
on the surrounding ground. 
Most of these, which are in part 
referred to in Mr. Strong s notes 
and figures, 1 were surveyed and 
platted. A plat of the south 
west part of Crawford county 
showing the location of the 
groups mentioned is given in 
Fig. H. 

FIG. 13. Silver cross from mound, Prairie du Chien. Wis. ,. , . 

The first group measured is 

situated about a quarter of a mile north of Eastman, on Sec. 18, T. 8 N., 
U. 5 W. These mounds lie west of the road, partly in the woods and 



^m?^K^^^~*^ 
A^feaa^j^m^a^^ 

r&tSl 





FIG. 15. Earthworks near Eastman, Crawford county, Wisconsin. 

partly in the field. The group is in fact a series or chain of low, small 
circular tumuli extending in a nearly straight line northwest and south 
east, connected together by embankments as shown in Fig. 15. They 
are on the top of the ridge. 



Smithsonian Report of 1877, pp. 239-246. 



THOMAS.] 



CRAWFORD COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



53 




FIG. 14. Plat of southwest part of Crawford county, Wisconsin. 



54 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS, 



Commencing with mound No. 1, at the southern end of the line, the 
direction and distances from center to center and the diameters and 
heights are as follows : 



Number 
of mound. 


Course. 


Distance. 


Diameter, 
north and 
south. 


Diameter, 
east and 
west. 


Height, 






Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


i 






22 


25 


3 


1 to 2.. 


N.37W.. 


55 


18 


22 


3 


2 to 3.. 


N.33W.. 


55 


19 


23 


3 


3 to 4.. 


X.25W.. 


56 


18 


22 


24 


4 to 5.. 


> T .36W.. 


56 


23 


24 


3 


5 t<> 6.. 


N.31W.. 


56 


22 


25 


3 


6 to 7.. 


N.34W.. 


56 


20 


21 


2* 


7 to 8.. 


N.43 W.. 


53 


23 


27 


2* 


8 to 9.. 


N.36W.. 


56 


20 


18 


14 


9 to 10.. 


N.36W.. 


57 


23 


25 


2 


lOtoll.. 


N.39W.. 


58 


27 


25 


2 


11 to 12.. 


N.30W.. 


57 


22 


18 


1 



In the same section, at the village of Eastman (or Batavia), are the 
remains of two bird-shaped mounds, both on top of the watershed and 
both heading southward. 




FIG. 16. Mounds on northeast quarter of Sec. 24, T. 8 N M K. 6 W., Wisconsin. 

About 2 miles from Eastman, in the direction of Prairie du Chien, 
just east of the Black River road, on Sec. 24, T. 8 N., K. 6 W., are three 
effigy mounds and one long mound, shown in Fig. 1G. They are situ- 



THOMAS.] 



MOUND GROUP AT HAZEN CORNERS. 



55 



ated in a little strip of woods near the crest, but on the western slope 
of the watershed and near the head of a coulee or ravine. 

This is the group which Mr. Strong represents in his Figs. 12, 13, and 
14. 1 The two effigies representing quadrupeds (bears) are headed to 
ward the south, while the other (probably representing some swallow- 
tailed bird) is headed eastward; the long mound runs northeast and 



MooN09 ON TARM or B.G THOMAS. 
EASTMAN TOWNSHIP. CRAWFORD Co 




FIG. 17. Mound group at Hazen Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin. 

southwest. The dimensions of these are as follows: The total length 
of each of the quadruped figures is about 80 feet, greatest height about 
2 feet. The expansion of the wings of the bird from tip to tip is 207 
feet; length of the body from top of the head to the tip of the longer 
branch of the tail, 110 feet; height of the center of the body, 3 feet. 

Smithsonian Eeport, 1877, p. 244. 



56 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 






As will be seen by reference to Mr. Strong s figures, these measure 
ments differ considerably from his. This is due in part, but to no great 
extent, to the wearing down and consequent expansion since the date 
of his examination. 

The length of the long mound is 120 feet, average width 15 feet, and 
height from 12 to 15 inches. 

HAZEN CORNERS GROUP. 

The next group surveyed is situated on Mr. B. G. Thomas s farm, 
Sec. 36, T. 8 N., E. 6 W., at what is known as Hazen Corners. The 

mounds are on the crest of the 
ridge heretofore mentioned and 
on both sides of the Black River 
road, 9 miles from Prairie du Chieu. 
This is the group represented in 
Mr. Strong s Fig. 4. It is mostly 
covered with a growth of small 
trees, which confirms Mrs. Thom- 
as s statement that when her fam- 
ily first came to this place the ridge 
here was almost bare of trees. 

The main ridge runs a little east 
of north before reachin g this point, 
but here it curves and branches, 
g one branch running north, the other 
g- eastward. A few of the mounds 
g are on the crest, the rest on the 
3 southern slope of the ridgo that 
S runs eastward and on the eastern 
slope of the main ridge close to the 
junction of the branches. 

The group consists of 24 mounds, 
1 quadruped, 3 birds, 13 long and 7 
round mounds, all of which, except 
two of the birds, are shown in the 
diagram (Fig. 17); the latter are 
shown in Fig. 18. 

The dimensions of mound No. 1 
(quadruped) are as follows: Total 
length, 98 feet; width over the 
shoulder to the fore foot, 41 feet; 
width of body between the legs, 27 
feet; width of fore leg near the 
body, 23-feet ; width of the hind leg 

tear the body, 17 feet; distance between the legs at the body, 32 feet; 
height at highest point, 3 feet. The natural curves of the animal s 
body are remarkably true to nature. 




THOMAS-1 



MOUND GROUP AT HAZEN CORNERS. 



57 



The following table gives the dimensions (length and width of the 
long and diameter of the round mounds) of those numbered 2 to 21. 



Xo. 


Diameter 
or length. 


Width. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


2 


90 


13 to 18 


3 


93 


15 to 15 


4 


50 


14 to 18 


5 


24 




6 


31 










8 


102 


15 to 19 


9 


2 




10 


110 


14 to 17 


11 


166 


18 to 19 


12 


21 




13 


28 




14 


21 




15 


136 


11 to 17 


16 


138 


14 to 18 


17 


74 


12 to 16 


18 


110 


13 to 18 


19 


173 


18 to 22 


20 


155 


13 to 18 


21 


180 


16 to 23 



Height. 



Remarks. 



Feet. 
3 

2* 
2* 



This is the measure 
ment of the part re 
maining. 



* Approximate. 

The dimensions of bird mound (22) are as follows, commencing with 
the end of the north wing : 

Feet. 

Width of north wing at tip 8 

Width of north wing between tip 

and curve 15 

Width of north wing at curve 18 

Width of north wing at body 35 

Width of body and tail 15 

Width of body at h to 1 17 

Width of neck, i to A; 18 

Width of head, p to q 15 

Width of south wing at body, k to /. 32 

Width of south wing at curve, m to o . 19 
Width of south wing between curve 

and tip, at r 14 

Width of south wing at tip 4 



Feet. 

a to & 84 

b to c 44 

ctod 27 

d to e 100 

cto/ 34 

c to g 74 

/ to (j 108 

a to e 228 

cto A 23 

cto i 16 

c to k 15 

c to 1 20 

c to m 26 

c to u 36 

c to o . . 29 



This effigy lies with head down hill, and the washing from the ridge 
has filled in between the body and the wings until they are probably 
lower and narrower than when they were first built. The outline of 
the south wing is filled with this washing for a distance of 38 feet, and 
hence its dimensions here could not be accurately determined. It and 



58 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



the mounds numbered 17, 18, and 19 stand on the lowest ground of 
any of the group. It is about 3 feet high at the point c if the measure 
ment is taken from the surface about the head, but only about a foot 
and a half if taken under the right wing. The surface of the wings 
and body is rough and rounded, the slopes to the surface of the ground 
abrupt to the east and gradual to the west. The wings taper and 
decrease in height to the tips, but the body keeps its height and form. 

Mound No. 23 (Fig. 18) is also in the form of a bird with outstretched 
wings. It lies to the southwest of 22, on top of the ridge, with the head 
lying crosswise of the highest point. 

Mound No. 24 is close to the right or east, on the high part of the 
ridge, extending in the same direction as 23. 

The outlines of both are clear and the slopes to the surface abrupt. 
The wings curve and taper and decrease in height to their tips, while 
the bodies of both preserve their height and form. They are covered 
by a thick growth of young trees. The dimensions of No. 23 are as fol 
lows, commencing at the end of the left wing: 



Feet, 

94 

37 

56 

90 

37 

72 

109 

240 

22 

23 

c to k 28 

c to / 25 

c to n 44 

c to o 55 



a to & 

6 to c. 

ctod 

dtoe 

ctof 

ctog 

ftog 

a to e 
ctoh 
ctoi. 



Feet, 

Width of left wing at tip 9 

Width of left wing midway between 

tip and curve 18 

Width of left wing at body 25 

Width of body at tail 31 

Width of body at .h to 1 29 

Width of neck at i to k 25 

Width of head at end 24 

Width of right wing at body 30 

Width of right wing at curve 25 

Width of right wing midway be 
tween curve and tip 18 

Width of wing at tip 7 



The measurements of mound 24, also commencing with the left wing, 
are as follows : 



to b 

b to c 
ctod 
d to v 
c to/ 
cto g 
ftog 
atoe 
c to h 
c to i. 
ctok 
cto I 

C to M 



Feet. 

. 94 

. 35 

. 45 

. 95 

. 39 

71 

110 

230 

26 

23 

22 

24 

35 



Feet. 

c to o 46 

Width of left wing at tip 6 

Width of left wing midway between 

tip and bend 18 

Width of left wing at bend 21 

Width of left wing at body 25 

Width of body at tail 23 

Width of body at /* to I 29 

Width of neck 27 

Width of head 23 

Width of right wing at body 25 

Width of right wing at bend 23 

Width of right wing at tip 6 



THOMAS.] 



FOX-SHAPED EFFIGY. 



59 



The nearest spring is some 300 or 400 yards northeast of the group 
at the foot of the ridge. 

Three of the round mounds of this group were explored, in each of 
which were found skeletons much decayed. In two of them no speci 
mens, but in the other, on the original surface of the ground at the 
center, a small stone celt, some pieces of melted lead, and a regularly 
formed gunflint. These articles were close together and about 2 feet 
from the skeleton. 

Trenches were also cut through the long mounds, which showed that 
the first 10 or 12 inches were of the ordinary vegetable mold, but the 
remainder to the original surface, of yellow clay. In one or two places 
small pieces of charcoal were observed, but nothing indicating burial. 
The result was the same in all the trenches. 





FIG. 19. Quadruped effigy on Sec. 36, T. 8 B\, R. 6 W., Wisconsin. 

Northward of this group some 400 yards there is a mound in the 
form of a quadruped, probably a fox (Fig. 19), partly in the woods and 
partly in the field on the west side of the road. It is built on the crest 
of the ridge with the head to the south. The outlines of the body are 
clear, but those of the head are somewhat indistinct. It gradually 
decreases in height from the head, where it is about 18 inches, to the 
end of the tail and legs. It is in the same section as the mounds at 
Hazeii Corners. The nearest water is the spring before mentioned. 

The ridge slopes to the east and west from the mound and also falls 
slightly to the north and south. A partial exploration has been made, 
but nothing save a good sized rock was dug out of it. 



60 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The measurements of this mound are as follows : 



Feet. 
Length of nose to end of tail, a to e. . 145 

Length of body, h to n 62 

Length of tail, n to e 35 

Length of fore leg 32 

Length of hind leg 30 

Width of fore leg at body, h to k .... 18 

Width of fore leg at end 16 

Width of hind leg at body, I to n 19 



Feet. 

Width of tail at body 17 

Width of tail at end 3 

Width of body at fore leg, k to p 21 

Width of body between legs 19 

Width of body at hind legs 20 

Distance between legs at body, Jcto I 31 

Distance between legs at toes, i torn. 50 

Tip of nose to fore leg, a to i 64 



Width of hind leg at end 13 

The tail is pointed and the ends of the legs are round. 

MOUNDS ON SECTION 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W. 

About a mile southward of Hazen Corners on the Blake river road 

is a group of four 
bird-shaped and 
one long mound 
situated on the 
NE.ofsec.25,T. 8 
N., E. 6 W., at the 
cross roads. The 
effigy mounds are 
west of the road 
and the long one 
is east of it. They 
are all situated on 
the northern slope 
of the ridge not far 
from the top; the 
heads of the effigy 
mounds are, as 
usual, to the south 
and up the hill. 

Three of these ef 
figies are of about 
the same form, the 
only difference be 
tween No. 3 and 
the others being in 
the shape of the 
wings, which 
stretch nearly at 
right angles with 
the body instead 
of curving like the 
others. Their 
bodies are shorter 
than those at Hazen Corners; otherwise there is but little difference. 




THOMAS.] 



BIRD EFFIGIES. 



61 



The tops of all the mounds in this group are rounded and the slopes 
abrupt. Like the others they gradually narrow and descend to the tips 
of the wings. 

No. 1 (Fig. 20) is about 3 feet high; No. 2, 3J feet; No. 3, 2J feet; 
No. 4 (Fig. 21) 2 feet, and No. 5 (Fig. 20) (the long mound), 2 feet. 




FIG. 21. Bird effigy, Sec. 35, T. 3 N., K. 6 W., Wisconsin. 

The dimensions of No. 1, commencing with the tip of the left wing, 
are as follows : 

Feet. 
a to 6 . . 82 



b to c 28 

c to d . . 27 



d to e 
a to e 
c to/ 
c to g 
/to/7 



59 

161 
25 
56 
81 



c to h 21 

c toi 20 

c to k 21 

ctoZ 17 

c to m 24 

c to n 37 

c to o 36 

In No. 2, they are as follows : 

Feet. 

a to 6 71 

& to c 40 

c to d 48 

dtoe 74 

a toe 209 

ctof 15 

c to q 54 



Feet. 

Width of left wing at tip 7 

Width of left wing midway between 

bend and tip 21 

Width of left wing at body 26 

Width of body immediately under the 

wings 25 

Width of tail 20 

Width of head at the front 18 

Width of right wing at body 23 

Width of right wing at bend 21 

AVidth of right wing between bend 

and tip 17 

Width of right wing at tip 8 

Width of left wing at bend 22 



Feet. 

ftog 69 

c to h 18 

ctoi . 29 

ctok 22 

ctol 18 

c to m 34 

c to n . . 56 



62 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Feet. 

c to o 54 

Width of left wing at tip 5 

Width of left wing between tip and 

bend 17 

Width of left wing at road 18 

Width of left wing at body 23 

Width of body at butt of wings 41 



Feet. 

Width of body at tail 23 

Width of right wing at body ... 18 

Width of right wing at road 12 

Width of right wing between bend 

and tip 15 

Width of right wing at tip 6 



In No. 3, they are as follows : 



Feet. 
. 121 
. 98 
. 28 
. 56 
. 18 
21 



Feet. 

Width of body at butt of wings 25 

Width of body near the end 26 

Width of head 20 

Width of right wing at body 25 

Width of right wing between body 

and tip 16 

Width of right wing at tip 5 

a to c . . . 219 



a to b 

b to c 

b to d 

btoe 

6 to/ 

6 to <j 

b to k 17 

6 to i ". 20 

Width of left wing at tip 4 

Width of left wing between tip and 
body 17 

Of No. 4, the measurements are: 

Feet. 

Width of left wing at tip 7 

Width of left wing between tip and 

bend 18 

Width of left wing at bend 24 

Width of left wing at body 30 

Width of body at butt of wings 30 

Width of body at tail 22 

Width of neck at butt of wings 25 

Width of head at front 17 

Width of right wing at body 28 

Width of right wing at bend 23 

Width of right wing between bend 

and tip 17 

ctoo.. 44 Width of right wing at tip 5 

No. 5, the long mound, is 152 feet long and 19 feet wide at the 
north end, 22 in the middle, and 20 at the south end. 

The tips of the wings, the heads, and tails of the effigy mounds and 
the ends of the long mound are rounded. 

Those mounds do not appear to be included in those mentioned in 
Mr. Strong s paper. 

MOUNDS ON SLAUMKR S LAND. 

This is a small group consisting of but two mounds, an effigy, and a 
long mound. They are situated west of the Black river road, just north 
(10 or 15 rods) of the line between Prairie du Chien and Eastman town 
ships, on SW. J Sec. 35, T. 8 N., E. 6 W., on the top of the ridge in the 
woods. The ridge slopes from them to the east and west. The group 





Feet, 


a to b 


88 


b to c 


36 


c to d 


39 


dtoe 


83 


a to e 


214 


cto/ 


24 


c to (j 


61 


c to /< 


22 


e to j 


20 


c to A; 


23 


c to / 


25 


c to m 


44 



THOMAS.] 



COURTOIS GROUP. 



63 




is shown in Fig. 22. No. 1 (the long one) is 142 feet long, 21 feet wide 
at the north end, 20 in the middle, and 13 at the south end. It is about 
2 feet high and extends northwest and southeast. 

No. 2, the effigy, 410 feet 
south and a little west of No. 
1, is about 3 feet high, the top 
round, and the surface tolerably 
even, with highest point on the 
back ; the slopes to the east ab 
rupt. It measures from 

Feet. 

a to & 75 

b toe 38 1 

cto d 41 

dtoe 72 ! 

c to / 36 ! 

c to g 70 i 

ftog 106 

cto ft 22 t 

c to i 20 j 

ctofr 24 [ 

c to I 26 

c to m 49 i 

c to n 42 ] 

cto o 45 

Width of left wing at tip 8 

Width of left wing between tip 

and bend 17 < 

Width of left wing at bend 21 [ 

Width of left wing at body 23 - 

Width of body at end 20 ; 

Width of body at butt of wings. 30 

Width of neck at butt of wings . 28 

Width of head from p to q 31 

Width of head at end 14 

Width of right wing at body ... 24 

Width of right wing at bend ... 21 
Width of right wing between 

bend and tip 19 

Width of right wing at tip 7 

Expanse of wings, from a to e.. . 200 




\\ 



The ends of the wings and body are roughly semicircular. 



THE COURTOIS GROUP. 



About 3 miles north of Prairie du Ohien is a group of ordinary con 
ical mounds situated on Sec. 12, T. 7 N., E. 7 W., the general plan of 
which is seen in Fig 23. The mounds numbered 1 to 9 are on a long, 
narrow, sandy swell, about 70 or 80 feet wide, which runs north and 
south, and is just high enough to place them out of reach of the high 
water of the Mississippi ; the others, numbered 10 to 33, are in the 
adjoining fields. 



MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 



No. 1. Circular in outline, rounded on top, 60 feet in diameter at the 
base and 3 feet high. Made of black sandy loam. 

No. 2. An oblong, flat-topped mound; length, 60 feet; width, 35 feet, 
and height, 3 feet. As it was occupied in early times by the house of 
a Frenchman, and looks as though it had been plowed or graded down, 

the present form is 
probably not the ori 
ginal one. 

No. 4. Similar in 
size and form to No. 
I ; 5 feet high. A par 
tial examination of 
this mound had pre 
viously been made, 
when some specimens 



were found, but no 
particulars could be 
learned in regard to 
them. It consisted of 
three layers; first, a 
top layer, 2J ft. thick, 
of black sandy loam ; 
next a thin stratum 
of silver sand, and a 
bottom layer, 2 feet 
thick, of dark muck, 
slightly mixed with 
sandy loam. The re- 
examination revealed 
nothing save a few 
fresh -water shells. 

No. 5. Conical, 40 
feet in diameter and 
3J feet high, had pre 
viously been opened 
by a trench through 
it from north to south. 
A further examina 
tion brought to light 
some badly decayed human bones, which had been partially disturbed 
by the previous explorers, but enough remained in position to show 
that the bodies, or skeletons, had been folded when buried. These lay 
on the gravelly substratum of the ridge; hence it is presumed that 
the thin surface soil had been removed before burial. Nothing more, 
save a few decayed shells scattered here and there through the mound, 
was observed. 




THOMAS.] 



COURTOIS GROUP. 




No. G. Similar in size and form to No. 1 ; 4 feet high and composed 
throughout of dark sandy loam, similar to the surrounding surface soil. 
The plan of this mound, showing the relative positions of the skeletons 
and articles discovered, is given in Fig. 24 

In the western side (at/), about 
2 feet below the surface, was a 
small deposit of fresh-water shells, 
but so far decayed that no speci 
mens were saved. At e a folded 
adult skeleton was discovered, with 
head south and face west; under 
it lay a small stone perforator and 
above it a small arrow head. The 
bones were broken and very soft 
and the skull was crushed flat; 
from the indications it would seem 
that they had been broken before FlG - 24 Mound No - 6 Courtois group, Prairie du 

Chien, Wis. 

burial. 

At d the original surface of the ridge had been excavated to the 
depth of a foot and over an area about 12 feet in diameter. In this 
layer were some 6 or 7 adult skeletons, all folded, with the heads in 
various directions, but all so soft and badly decayed that none of the 
skulls could be saved. At </, near the eastern side, at the depth of 2 
feet, was part of an iron knife blade. 

Nos. 3, 7, 8, and 10 were found to consist of dark loam throughout, 
but furnished no specimens or any evidence of having been used as 
burial places. 

No. 16 is a very small and insignificant mound, scarcely exceeding 20 

feet in diameter and not more than a 
foot in height, though it has evidently 
been considerably worn down by the 
plow. Nevertheless it is important as 
presenting the characteristics of a 
somewhat peculiar class of mounds 
quite common in this State, but seldom 
met with elsewhere; for this reason 
the figures and details are given more 
fully than would otherwise be required. 
Circular in form, as shown by the 
plan given in Fig. 25, low, rounded, 
but somewhat flattish, it was con 
structed of material similar to the sur 
rounding soil, and of the same character throughout, without any indi 
cations whatever of stratification. A circular, basin-shaped excava 
tion had first been made in the ground to the gravel, in this case to the 
depth ot :l feet. The boundary of this excavated portion is indicated 
by the dotted circle. 
12 ETH 5 




FIG 25. Plan of mound No. 16, Courtois 
group, Prairie rtu Chien, Wis. 



66 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Four skeletons were found at the points indicated in the figure, all 
lying horizontally at full length; 2 side by side near the center on 
the gravel, with heads south and faces up; 1 at the north side on 
the gravel, with head west and face northeast, and the other on the 
south side, with head to the east. No implements or ornaments of any 
kind were observed. It is probable that tumuli of this character are 
the burial places of the common people. 

No. 17 was similar in every respect to No. 16 except that the excava 
tion was only to the depth of 1 foot, and that in it were 8 folded skele 
tons in no regular order, heads being in all directions. On the margin 
of the excavation and rather above the natural surface of the ground 
was a broken skull. 

No. 18, 20 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, unstratified, was com 
posed of earth similar to the surrounding soil. There were no indica 
tions that the original surface had been hollowed out in this case, as in 
most of the others of the group, nevertheless 2 broken skulls were 
found a little south of the center at the depth of 3 feet, hence 1 foot 
below the original surface. A few feet northwest of the center, scarcely 
a foot below the surface of the mound, were 3 folded skeletons, and in 
the center another lying at full length, head west and face up. The 
height of the mound had been reduced by plowing. 




FIG. 26. Mound No. 20 (section), Conrtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wis. 

No. 19, 25 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, was similar to No. 18. 
Broken human bones were found in this tumulus to the depth of 
6 inches, and 3 folded skeletons at different depths in no regular 
order of burial. But, what is somewhat singular, the skull in each 
case had been disconnected from and placed on top of the bundled 
bones of the skeleton. 

No. 20, 70 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. This mound, as will 
be seen by the section shown in Fig. 26, was stratified as follows: Top 
layer of soil, 18 inches; next a hard mortar-like substance, or clay 
mixed with ashes, 2J feet; below this a layer of black, sticky, wet 
earth, 1 foot, and a bottom layer of sand 1 foot thick, extending to the 
gravel 1 foot below the original surface of the ground. On the west 
side, in the top layer, at the depth of from 9 to 12 inches, were 6 
folded skeletons, and at the head of each a single sandstone of con 
siderable size. Other human bones occurred in the same layer at a 
depth of from 6 to 9 inches, 1 which had been disturbed by the plow. 
In this layer was also a small pile of lead ore, on it some burned 

The measurements indicating the depth of skeletons and articles are always to be understood to 
e upper surface thereof from the top of the mouud. 



THOMAS, j COURTOIS GROUP. 67 

bones, and on these a folded skeleton with the head west, a lance head 
by one shoulder, and a stone implement near by. 

Near the center, in the hardpan or mortar-like layer (No. 2) immedi 
ately under layer No. 1, was a folded skeleton with head east. By the 
head was a broken clay vessel. Directly under this, in layer No. 3, 
was a broken clay pot. At the west side, in the bottom or sand layer, 
was an extended skeleton, head east. Under the body a spearhead, 
and under the head a few copper beads. Some copper beads were also 
found around the ankles. 

No. 21. Sixty feet in diameter and 3 feet high. The first stroke of 
the spade brought to light broken human bones, which lay close to the 
surface and appeared to have been disturbed by the plow, as they 
were not in regular order. Near the center, a foot down, lay a folded 
skeleton with head west, and by it a broken pot. A little to the east 
of the last, and 3 feet down, was another skeleton stretched at full 
length, with the head and face up. Under the head were a few copper 
beads. South of this, and at the same depth, was a small copper orna 
ment, and a short distance southeast of the center, also at the same 
depth, a fine lance head. 

No. 22. Sixty feet in diameter and 5 feet high. First foot, soil; the 
rest black, mucky earth, with a slight admixture of sand. At the depth 
of 2 feet were seven skeletons, with heads in various directions, some 
stretched out with the faces up, others folded, also other bones. At 
the center, about 3 feet down, were a few rib bones, apparently the 
remains of a skeleton, over which lay a copper plate. At the same 
depth, a little south of the center, three silver beads were discovered. 

Although the excavation in this case, as in the rest of the mounds, 
was carried down into the gravel beneath, nothing was found below the 
depth indicated. 

No. 26. Sixty feet in diameter and 5 feet, high. Composed of earth 
similar to the surrounding soil. Near the center, 2 feet down, were two- 
folded skeletons, with the heads northeast. At the heads were two 
pots, one with the mouth up, the other on its side, and in it a lump of 
lead ore. Under one of the skulls were two perforated bear s teeth. 
Several soft sandstones were found in the southwest portion, and under 
them some very soft human bones, the remains of a body buried here. 

Southeast of the mound, and almost adjoining it, is a long, narrow, 
pear-shaped pile of dirt (not shown in the plat) about 40 feet long, 10 
feet wide at the widest point and 2 feet high. A broad trench across 
the middle revealed nothing except the fact that it was composed of 
earth similar to the surrounding soil. 

No. 23. A small mound 15 feet in diameter, 1 foot high, and of the 
same type as No. 16. In the excavation originally made in the natural 
surface was a single skeleton stretched at full length, head southeast 
and face up and near by it a broken pot. 



68 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The surface of the field around the mounds is uneven and looks as 
though the latter had been heaped up with dirt taken from about them, 
leaving irregular depressions. 

THK DOUSEMAN MOUND. 

A mound of the usual conical form, about a mile and a half north of 
Prairie du Chien, 75 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, situated on the 

land of Mr. H. L. Douse 
inan, was opened with the 
following result: It was 
composed throughout of a 
black sandy loam, like the 
surface soil of the field in 
which it stands, the mate 
rial probably coming from 
what seems to be an artifi 
cial depression immediate 
ly southeast of it. The an 
nexed figure (Fig. 27) is a 
horizontal plan showing 
the relative positions of the 
skeletons and other things 
discovered therein. Fig. 28 
is a vertical section. About 

Fio. 27. Douseman moxind (plan), Prairie dn Chien, Wis. g f ee east Of the Center (at 

b) 9 and 2 feet below the sur 
face, was a regularly built, solid, oblong pile of small rough sandstone 
and limestone fragments 2 feet long east and west, 18 inches wide, and 
15 inches high. Under it were portions of a human skeleton, but the 
skull was wanting; the bones were very soft and badly decayed. 





FIG. 28. DouHfiuaii mound (section), Prairie du Chien, Wis. 

North of the center, at c, 2 feet below the surface, was another pile of 
similar dimensions, but oval and hollow. At d was a third of similar 
size and form, and at e a fourth. These three were regularly built of 
soft, coarse-grained sandstones, which bear indications of fire, though 
no charcoal or ashes were on or about them. No bones were seen in 
or under either of these three piles or little vaults. Quite a number of 
vshell beads were found some 10 or 12 inches below the surface, imme 
diately under which was a folded skeleton /, head south, face west. Ke- 
maiusof two other skeletons were found, one in the center at g, at the 
base of the mound. This was so completely decayed that fragments of 



THOMAS.] THE VILAS MOUNDS. 69 

the skull oiily were left. The other, at h, 2 feet below the surface, 
was similarly decayed. 

THE VILAS MOUNDS. 

This group, shown in Plate i, is a large one, containing 56 mounds, 
and is situated on the area bounded by the Mississippi and Wisconsin 
rivers and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Eailroad, on Sees. 7 
and 8, T. 6 N., K. 6 W., about 3 miles south of Prairie du Chieu. They 
stand on the high sandy bank of the Wisconsin river, in a growth of 
small trees, some of them being flush with the brink, some on a small 
table land 10 or 15 feet higher than the others, and the rest on the gen 
eral level of the prairie, all above high water. 

The river banks are about 40 feet higher than the usual water level, 
the slopes steep, the surface where most of the mounds are situated 
comparatively flat, but to the northwest it rises in a small table some 
10 or 15 feet higher than the prairie that borders on the Mississippi 
river, and commands an extensive view of the bottoms. The soil is 
sandy and easy to work, although not deep nor very productive. The 
trees appear to be of recent growth. 

No. 48, S. 77 E. of 49, 62 feet long, extends east and west, and was 
intended to represent some kind of a quadruped, probably a bear. 
The eastern end at the time of examination was covered by a heavy 
growth of corn, and has been so plowed down that its form could not 
be fully ascertained. 

Nos. 23, 24, and 33 were carefully excavated, but furnished no indi 
cations of having been used for burial purposes; nor were ashes, char 
coal, or relics of any kind found in them ; yet under each there was an 
excavation to the depth of a foot or more. They were composed of 
dark, sandy soil. Others were examined, but nothing discovered. 

THE POLANDER GROUP. 

This group is about a mile up the Mississippi river from Lynxville, 
Crawford county, on Lot 2, Sec. 14, T. 9 N., E. 6 W., at the mouth of a 
deep, narrow ravine. 

The mounds are located partly on top of a narrow bench that runs 
around the foot of the bluff to the northwest and partly on its western 
slope. One of them is in the bed of a small creek (now dry) that 
drains the ravine. A plan of the group is given in Fig. 29. They are 
mostly simple conical heaps of earth, although there are some long 
ones in the group. Two of the large ones, close to the foot of the slope, 
are connected by a long, low embankment, like those found on the 
Souris river in Manitoba. The majority of them are small and low. 
The bank upon which they stand is probably 75 feet higher than the 
road that runs close to its foot on the west side. The bench is covered 
by a growth of trees, which the owner says have grown up within the 
last twenty- seven years. 



70 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mound No. 3, situated on the western slope of the bench, is conical 
in form, about 45 feet in diameter and 7 feet high. Commencing at 
the top, there was first a thin layer of vegetable mold 2 inches in 
thickness (a, Fig. 30) ; next a layer, mostly of clay, slightly mixed with 
sand, which had probably washed from the bluffs, 3J feet thick (e)$ 
below this a layer of clay, very hard, 18 inches (d) ; then a layer (6) 
of loose, fine, dry dust, which gave out a peculiar odor; and lastly, 

corresponding to 
the original sur 
face of the ground, 
a thin layer, appar 
ently composed of 
decayed vegetable 
matter (e). Be 
neath this was an 
excavation about 
1 foot in depth, 8 
feet wide, and 12 
feet long. Owing 
to the slope on 
which the inouiid 
was placed, this 
had been cut into 
so as to make a 
level bed, on which 
the bodies were 
deposited. Here 
were twelve skel 
etons ten of ad 
ults and two of 
children. The two 
children were in 
the northeast cor 
ner of the pit; the 
bones were in con 
fusion. Three of 
the adult skeletons 
were in the middle 
of the platform ; the bones were disarticulated, but those of each skeleton 
formed into a bundle. Two skulls and a few of the bones of the body 
were found between the children and the other three, one of the skulls 
lying on top of the other. In the south end of the pit were three skulls 
in fragments and the remains of five skeletons in a confused heap. A 
single skull, but no other bones with it, was found in connection with 
a few flat stones in the hard clay layer at the depth of 2 feet. 
Mound 9, 26 feet in diameter and between 2 and 3 feet high, stood 011 




THOMAS.) 



THE POLANDER GROUP. 



71 



the same slope as the preceding aud, like it, had an excavation in the 
original surface of the ground, but much smaller, the length being only 
4 feet, the width a little less, and the depth 1 foot. A foot from the top, 
near the center of the mound, lay a bundled skeleton, apparently an 
intrusive burial. Nothing was discovered in the pit except what were 
supposed to be decayed remains of two bundled skeletons. 

Mound 8, one of the smaller tumuli of the group, presented some 
marked variations from those described. The diameter was scarcely 
20 feet and height 3 feet. In the central portion, 2 feet distant from 
each other, were two stone graves, oval in outline, each 3^ feet long by 
3 feet wide, built up of cobblestones, and had probably been closed 
over dome-fashion at the top, though this portion had apparently fallen 
in. Over these, covering the tops about 6 inches and filling the spaces 
between and each side of them, was a layer of surface soil, and cover 
ing this a single layer of loose sandstones about 6 inches thick. In 
one grave were two bundled skeletons ; in the other, three. 




FIG. 30. Mound No. 3 (section), Polander group, Crawford county, Wis. 

Mound 6, circular, 23 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was con- 
structed as follows: Commencing at the top, there was first a layer, 2 
inches thick, of vegetable mold, then a foot of surface soil 5 next a sin 
gle layer of rough stones of various sizes ; next a layer of earth 1 foot 
thick. Immediately under the layer of stones, nearly in the center of 
the mound, were two folded or bundled skeletons, lying on some loose 
stones. These stones were found to be part of a wall lining a pit in 
the original soil. This pit was 4 feet long by 3 feet broad between the 
walls, which were of a single thickness of cobblestones, the sides 
somewhat flaring, the corners nearly square, 18 inches deep, and sides 
lined entirely around with stones. Lying on the bottom were the skele 
tons of three adults and one child, all folded. 

In mound No. 1 nothing was found save three good-sized stones. In 
No. 17 were three folded skeletons. In 29 there was a pile of stones 
somewhat in the form of an inverted cone, measuring 10 feet across the 
upturned base and tapering to a point at the depth of 3 feet; a few 
coals lay on the upper surface. At the bottom of the mound, on the 
original surface of the ground, were a copper drill and an arrow point. 

Trenches were cut across the long mounds, but nothing observed, 
except that they were formed of loose surface soil. 

No. 4 measured 26 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. In the center 
was a kind of vault formed by a circular stone wall C> feet in diameter 
from outside to outside, and 4 feet inside, built in a pit dug in theorig- 



72 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inal surface to the depth of a foot or 18 inches. In this vault or grave 
was a skeleton very well preserved, doubled up and lying on the right 
side, at the depth of 4 feet from the top of the mound. The vault was 
covered very carefully with flat limestones like those of which the wall 
was built. No implements, ornaments, or relics of auy kind were found. 
No. 11 was about the same size as No. 4. Lying on the natural sur 
face of the ground near the center were four large flat stones, placed 
so as to form a square. These bore distinct evidences of having been 
burned. In the area between them lay a single skeleton, folded and 
placed on its side. There were coals and ashes immediately about and 
on the stones, but none in direct contact with the skeleton. 

Mound No. 12 was like No. 4 throughout, with stone vault and single 
skeleton, differing only in the fact that the skeleton was stretched out 

horizontally and that the covering 
of stones over the vault was less 
complete. 

No. 16, though a small mound 
only 17 feet in diameter and 2J feet 
high, presented some interesting 
features. It also contained an 
incomplete stone vault (Fig. 31), 
which, though only about 3J feet 
wide, and of the form shown in the 
figure, extended from the top of 
the mound down a foot or more 
below the natural surface of the 
ground. This contained a single 
skeleton in a half upright position, 
the head being only about 2 feet 
below the surface of the mound 

while the feet were down some 3 or 4 feet below r the surface, or nearly 
2 feet lower than the head. The head was southwest, the feet north 
east. Near the right hip was a discoidal stone. There were no traces 
of coals or ashes in this mound. 

No. 30 contained neither stones, vault, nor skeleton, the only things 
found in it were a few badly decayed Unio shells near the bottom. 

THE FLtiCKE MOUNDS. 

This group, shown on plat (PI. i) in connection with the Vilas 
group, is on the farm of Mr. Joseph Fliicke, 2 miles south of Prairie du 
Chien, and in the vicinity of the Vilas group. It contains twelve cir 
cular mounds, the relative positions of which are shown in the figure. 
Of these, numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were opened with the following 
result: 

No. 1, 05 feet in diameter and 6 feet high, was composed of dark, 
sandy soil throughout, except near the bottom, where there were some 




FIG. 31. Mound No. 16 (horizontal section), Po- 
lander group. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 



FLUCKE GROUP 




PLAN OF THE VILAS AND FLUCKE GROUPS, CRAWFORD COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



THOMAS.] THE FLUCKE GROUP, 73 

very thin layers of black earth, but these were of limited extent, 
not reaching across the mound, and not exceeding 2 inches in thickness. 
Beneath the central portion was an excavation in the natural soil, 
about 12 feet in diameter and extending down to the yellow sand, a 
depth of something over a foot. On the bottom of this excavation 
were three skeletons, all lying in a horizontal position. No. 1, on the 
back, head east, elbows out and hands turned towards the head; near 
each hand was a fine, large obsidian spearhead, one of which is 9 
inches long. Near the head, on each side, were two spool-shaped arti 
cles of copper. From the position in which these were found, relative 
to the head, it is presumed they had been used as ear ornaments. 
Skeleton 2 was lying close to and on the north side of No. 1, the bones 
much decayed 5 no relics with it. No. 3 lay with the head northeast. The 
bones were partially burnt and charred from the head to the hips and 
more or less covered throughout with charcoal and ashes. The skull 
was crushed to pieces and charred until it was black ; near it were sev 
eral large copper beads, or perhaps ear pendants, made of sheet cop 
per rolled into the form of long cones, varying in length from three- 
fourths of an inch to an inch and a half. 

Mound 2 stands on the same elevation as No. 1. It measured about 
60 feet in diameter, and a little less than 6 feet high. This, like the 
other, had beneath it a slight excavation in the natural soil. In this 
were the bones (except the skull) of an adult, in a close, compact bun 
dle; with them were some of the teeth, but no part of the skull. The 
flesh had evidently been removed before burial here. Near by was a 
single arrowhead, the only article found in the mound. 

Mounds 3 and 4, each 3 feet high, and respectively 42 and 36 feet in 
diameter, were similar in construction to 1 and 2, with the usual exca 
vation beneath, but without any evidences of burial in them. 

No. 5, a beautiful mound measuring 68 feet in diameter and 7 feet 
high, stands on the same elevation as 1 and 2. In the center was a 
circular or inverted conical mass of yellow sand and gravel, extending 
from the top of the mound to the depth of 3 feet. In this mass were 
the much decayed bones of a child. One side of the skull was colored 
by copper; a small copper bracelet made of two pieces of slender copper 
wire twisted together and a coil of copper wire were found with the 
bones. As these are evidently of European manufacture this may 
have been an intrusive burial. At the bottom of the mound, in an 
excavation in the original surface, were other human bones, but so 
decayed that it was impossible to tell whether they belonged to one or 
two bodies. 

THE ARMSTRONG GROUP. 

This group, which is situated near the Mississippi, one-fourth of a 
mile below Lynxville, at the mouth of a deep and narrow ravine, and 
consists of eleven round mounds and one effigy, is represented in 
Fig. 32. 



74 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mound No. 11, somewhat oval in form, measured 48 feet in diameter 
from north to south, 33 feet from east to west, and a little over 4 feet high. 
Near the center was a skeleton lying on a circular platform of stones. 
This platform or layer of stones was about 5 feet in diameter and 
rested on the original surface of the gound. The skeleton was so far 
decomposed that it was impossible to determine precisely its position. 

No. 12 occupies the lowest point in the group and is only about 
200 yards from the river s edge, on a level about 20 feet above the usual 
water mark. It measured only 20 feet in diameter and 4 in height, and 
was composed almost wholly of stones, packed so tightly that it was 




FIG. 32,-Plan of the Armstrong group, near Lynxville, Crawford county, Wis. 

difficult to remove them. The stones being removed to the depth of 2J 
feet, a layer of dark earth was reached, though still filled with stones. 
At the bottom of this layer, which extended downward 18 inches, was 
a mass of human bones so closely packed that but little earth was mixed 
with them. They occupied a space about 6 feet in diameter and rested 
on a platform or layer of stones which extended under the larger portion 
of the mound. As there were nine skulls, there were at least nine individ 
uals or rather skeletons buried here. Among the bones were two bear s 
teeth, a few bone articles, some fragments of pottery, a piece of deer s 
horn, and the claw of some bird. 

On top of the high bluff immediately back of this group is another 
larger group of mounds, some of which are effigies. 

MOUND IX PRAIRIE DC CIIIEN. 

This mound,which is situated just below Old Fort Crawford, and meas 
ures CO feet in diameter and nearly 5 feet in height, is noticed here on 
account of the excavation beneath it. This was 12 feet in diameter, 



THOMAS.] 



THE SUE COULEE GROUP. 



75 




extending 5 feet below the original surface of the ground, and was filled 
with dark, sandy earth similar to that of which the mound was com 
posed. No specimens of any kind, charcoal, ashes, or indications of 
burial were discovered. 

SUE COULEE GROUP. 

This group, a plat of which is given at A in Fig. 33, is situated near 
the Mississippi river at the mouth of the ravine known as " Sue Coulee." 
It consists of eighteen beautiful round mounds, standing on a level 
bench or table, some 30 feet high, which runs back to the bluff. They 
have been plowed over for about sixteen years. Several of them had 
been partially explored previous to the visit of an employe of this Bu 
reau, but nothing could be learned of the result. 

At B, Fig. 33, is shown a cross section of Sue Coulee at a-b; 1 is the 
creek channel ; 2, the table or bench on which the mounds are located ; 
3, the bluff on the south 
side; and 4, the bluff on 
the north side. 

Mound 1, 42 feet in di 
ameter and 5 feet high, 
was composed of yellow, 
sandy soil similar to that 
of the surrounding sur 
face, uu stratified and no 
excavation beneath it. 
Near the center on the 
original surface were ten 
skeletons all piled to 
gether, with their heads 
in almost every direction, 
the leg and arm bones 
crossing one another. 
Some stones were lying 
immediately on them. 
Among them was a very 
large flint spear-head 
and some bear teeth. 

Mound 4, 44 feet in di 
ameter and 4 feet high, 

was composed of the same yellow, sandy soil as No. 1. In the center, 
lying on the natural surface, were three skeletons, two of them side by 
side, heads east, the third with the head northeast, the feet of the latter 
touching the feet of the other two, and all stretched at full length in a 
horizontal position. They were covered with stones as those in No. 1. 

Mound 9. but 30 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, was composed of 
darker earth than those already mentioned. A single skeleton, very 




FIG. 33. Plan of the Sue Coulee group. Crawford county, 
Wis. 



76 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



much decayed, probably of a comparatively young person, was found 
lying on the natural surface of the ground near the center of the mound. 
Some scattering pieces of charcoal were observed, but no stones. 

Mound 12, 48 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, was 
composed throughout of the yellow earth heretofore 
mentioned, but the portion extending from the depth 
of 3 to 5 feet was packed very hard and tight, much 
more so than that above or below it. No articles or 
indications of burial were observed. 

No. 16 is the middle one of the row (see Fig. 33) of 
five mounds running parallel to and on the side next 
the Mississippi. It measured 45 feet in diameter and 
4 feet in height. In the central portion, at the bot 
tom, were eleven skeletons close together, with the 
heads in every direction; no implements or orna 
ments accompanied them, but at some distance from 
them, and about a foot above the level at which the 
skeletons lay, was a large broken pot. At the bottom 
a pit had been dug to the depth of 3 feet in the natu 
ral soil, in which were four skeletons, two lying with 
heads southeast and the other two, one a child, with 
heads northwest. Near the head of the former lay a 
copper plate. This is 10 J inches in length and 2J 
inches in width at the widest part, a thin sheet less 
than one-twentieth of an inch thick, but slightly un 
even. Near each end, on one side, are four rows of 
small, circular indentations (some of them entirely 
through), which must have been made with a metallic 
instrument, as is evident from the raised points on 
the opposite side of the plate. This lay just below 
the skull and near the under jaw. Near the hand of 
the same skeleton were two long, slender, square 
copper drills or spindles, one about 9 inches long and 
one-fourth of an inch thick, pointed at one end and 
chisel-shaped at the other; the other 7 inches long 
and pointed at both ends, shown in Fig. 34. Near 
the head of one of these skeletons was a thin, cup- 
shaped ornament of copper, probably part of an ear- 
pendant. 

Mound 7, which stands on the highest ground of any of the group, is 
quite symmetrical, 00 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, and, with the 
exception of a column running down in the center, it consisted of 
yellow, sandy soil. The column, circular in outline, 5 to G feet in diam 
eter, and composed of loose dark earth, extended from the highest 
central point to the original surface of the ground. The yellow earth 
immediately surrounding it was very hard. 



FIG. 34. Copper spin- 
tiles from the Sue 
Coulee group, Craw 
ford county, Wis. 



THOMAS. MOUNDS OF VERNON COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 77 

Iii this column, at the depth of 5 feet from the top, lay a mass of 
human bones about 2 feet thick which spread over the entire circuit 
of the pit. Although but slightly decayed, they were mostly broken 
into pieces; even the skulls were in fragments, and all were heaped 
together in such confusion that it was impossible to determine the 
number of individuals represented, but there could not have been less 
than 10 or 12. 

Immediately below them a small copper spindle was discovered simi 
lar to those already mentioned, and some split bear teeth with holes 
through them. At the bottom of the mound was a complete skeleton, 
lying at full length on the original surface, face up, head east, and 
arms by its side. Near the left hand lay a fine copper ax, weighing 1 
pound 9 ounces, a little over 9 inches in length. By the side of this 
was a large round implement of chipped obsidian, and near the right 
hand were 67 small copper beads, a bear tooth, and the jaw bone and 
some teeth of a small quadruped. 

The respective distances of the mounds of this group from one another, 
measuring from center to center, are as follows: From 1 to 2, 365 feet; 
from 2 to 3, 88 feet; from 3 to 5, 88 feet; from 5 to 4, 210 feet; from 5 
to 6, 55 feet; from 6 to 7, 238 feet; from 7 to 8, 105 feet; from 8 to 9, 
108 feet; from 9 to 10, 112 feet; from 7 to 12, 200 feet; from 12 to 11, 
180 feet; from 12 to 13, 90 feet; from 13 to 15, 95 feet; from 15 to 14, 
65 feet; from 15 to 16, 101 feet; from 16 to 17, 80 feet; and from 17 to 
18, 85 feet. 

During the grading of a street that runs by Old Fort Crawford in 
Prairie du Chien, in a rise near the fort, a number of skeletons were 
unearthed. One of these had been buried in a small canoe about 9 
feet long. Most of the skeletons lay with the head to the southeast ; 
with some were brass or copper kettles with iron bails ; on the arm 
bone of some were bracelets made of thick copper wire. Among the 
articles found was a fine catliuite pipe and one or two other stone 
pipes. 

VERNON COUNTY. 

There are several mounds on the foot hills or lower benches of the 
bluffs in Sec. 15, T. 11 N., E. 7 W., in the extreme southwest corner of 
the county. The bluffs are very high and steep with a narrow strip 
of land between them and the Mississippi river, sloping, but not too 
steep to cultivate, the soil being very productive. A diagram showing 
the relative positions of those examined is given in Fig. 35. 

No. 1, 40 feet in diameter and 5 feet high ! , unstratified. Near the cen 
ter, a foot and a half below the surface of the mound, was an irregular 
layer of burned sandstones, some flat and others irregular in form. 
Immediately beneath these lay some partially burned human bones, 



1 When no reference is made to the form it is to be understood that the mounds are, of the simple 
conical type. 



78 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



and near them a single chipped stone hoe. A little northwest of the 
center, at the depth of 5 feet and apparently resting on the natural 
surface of the ground, were the remains of five folded skeletons, heads 
north and faces west, Under one of these was a single perforated 
bear tooth. The skeletons had been covered with a mortar-like sub 
stance which was dry and very hard. 

No. 2, 100 feet northwest of No. 1 (measuring from base to base), 75 
feet in diameter and 7 feet high. This was composed throughout 
(except the surtace layer) of blue clay mixed with sand, very hard and 
tough. Large sandstones, weighing [from 10 to 100 pounds, occurred 
at all depths, but not placed with any regularity or according to any 
perceptible plan. At the depth of 8 feet, and hence slightly below the 
original surface of the ground and a little southwest of the center, were 



* 




FIG. 35. Mound group near Battle island, Vernon county, Wis. 

six folded skeletons, lying on the bottom with the heads east and faces 
north. As soon as they were uncovered the bones fell to pieces so that 
not even the skulls could be saved. The dirt immediately around them 
was wet and sticky. 

Xo. 3, 60 feet north of No. 2, 40 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. 
The top layer, H feet in depth, consisted of black, rich loam, the re 
mainder of blue clay. The original soil had evidently been removed to 
the depth of a foot or more in one portion to the depth of 2 feet 
before burial. On the north side, not far from the margin, the clay, for a 
considerable space, was very hard and dry, immediately beneath which 
were some four or five folded skeletons, with heads, so far as could be 
determined, in various directions. Near the southeast margin, at the 
depth of 6 feet, lay six other skeletons at full length with heads in 
different directions. Under one of them were three bears 7 teeth. The 
owner in a previous examination found near the center, at the depth of 
15 or 18 inches, a long string of glass beads. 



THOMAS.] 



WHITE S GROUP. 



79 



No. 4, 300 feet north of No. 3, G5 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. 
At the depth of 4 feet eight skeletons were lying at full length on the 
natural surface of the ground, with heads east and faces up. They lay 
on the natural slope of the bench, so that the heads were higher than 
the feet. Their relative positions are given in Fig. 36 (a horizontal 
section of the mound), the larger figures indicating adult skeletons 
and the small one that of a child. Under the one at the northern end 
of the row were several bear 
teeth, and near them and at 
the same depth lay the under 
jaw of some animal. At the 
head of each skeleton was a 
large, irregular piece of sand 
stone. The composition of this 
tumulus was chiefly a mixture 
of sand and light yellow clay 
unstratified. 

No. 5, 30 feet northwest of 
No. 4, was 80 feet in diameter, 
5 feet high, and more flattened 
on top than is usual with tumuli 
of this type. On the northern 
side, at a depth of 3 feet, two 
folded skeletons were discov 
ered, under one of which were 
several copperbeads, and under 

all bears teeth. About the center and near the bottom was a single 
skeleton also folded and under the head were several bears teeth. In 
the southern side, at the depth of 5 feet, a single very fine lance head 
was discovered ; no bones were near it. 

No. 6, 125 feet northwest of No. 5, 85 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, 
wa.s composed of rich black earth interspersed with sandstones. Near 
the center, at the bottom, lay a single badly-decayed skeleton, over 
which was heaped an irregular pile of sandstones of various sizes. 

No. 7, 20 yards northwest of No. 6, 50 feet in diameter and 5 feet 
high, consisted chiefly of dry, yellow clay. In the northern side at the 
depth of 5 feet were three or four much decayed skeletons, apparently 
folded, with heads east and faces north and in the southern portion at 
the depth of 2 feet the fragments of a stone pipe. Under the latter 
was an irregular pile of burned sandstones; but no ashes or coals 
were discovered, from which fact it is inferred that the stones were 
placed here after having been subjected to fire. 

WHITE S GROUP. 

In the northwest corner of the county, in Sec. 28, T. 14 N.; E. 7 W. r 
on land owned by Mr. H. White, is a group of small circular mounds 




FIG. 36. Plan of Mound No. 4, Battle island, Vernon 
county, Wisconsin. 



80 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

extending in a nearly straight line along the margin of the sandy level 
known locally as "Sand Prairie," where it descends to the lower bot 
tom lands of Raccoon river. This level extends to the bluffs about a 
half mile distant, which are here very high and steep. A plan of the 
group is given in PL IT, from which it will be seen that it contains 22 
mounds of various sizes. 

No. 1 of this group, 35 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was composed 
throughout of black, sandy soil similar to that around it. Six inches 
below the surface, at the center, fragments of a red earthenware vessel 
were found, but so rotten that they fell to pieces on being handled. A 
little north of the center, at the bottom, lying on the natural sand 
stratum, were the remains of four skeletons, heads north. Another 
skeleton was found in the southern side at the same depth, folded, 
head south, face east; over the skull was a small lance head. 

No. 2, immediately north of No. 1, touching it at the base, was 45 feet 
in diameter and 3 feet high. It was composed throughout of earth 
similar to the surrounding soil. Five skeletons were found at various 
depths, from 2 to 4 feet. Some were lying at full length, others folded 
with heads in various directions, but were all so soft that none could 
be saved. 

No. 3, 100 feet north of No. 2, 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was 
not stratified. The skeleton of a child was lying near the center at the 
depth of 18 inches, head west. Under the head was a brass ornament 
wrapped in cotton cloth, and about the position of the breast the frag 
ments of another metallic ornament, also a few glass beads. This skele 
ton had evidently been incased in a wooden coffin of some kind, but 
whether of bark or boards could not be determined. In the southwest 
ern side the skeleton of an adult was discovered at the same depth, 
folded, with head south. Nothing else was observed, save a few frag 
ments of pottery near the surface. 

No. 4, about 100 feet northeast of No. 3, measured 50 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high, unstratified. Nothing was discovered in this mound. 

No. 6, 100 feet northwest of No. 5, oblong, 50 feet in diameter north 
and south, and 4 feet high, was composed of black, sandy soil from the 
fields. In the northern side, at the depth of 2 feet, were ten skeletons, 
some folded and others stretched out on their backs, heads in every 
direction. A little west of the center, at the depth of 4 feet, two more 
were found folded, with the heads west, On the skull of each of these 
was a thick copper plate, apparently beaten out of native copper with 
rude implements. The larger, over the southern skull, represented in 
Fig. 37, is 8 inches long by 4 inches wide. About 6 inches above it 
was a fine large lance head. The other plate is nearly square, 4J inches 
by 4J inches. The bones were so rotten and soft, except immediately 
under the copper plates, that none of them could be preserved. Fresh 
water shells were scattered through the mound at various depths. 



THOMAS.] 



WHITE S GROUP. 



81 



In No. 7, 25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, nothing was discovered 
save a single skeleton near the northern edge, a foot below the surface, 
and a few fragments of pottery near the head. 

No. 8, diameter, 65 feet ; height, 6 feet ; unstratified ; disclosed 
nothing. 

No. 9, diameter, 60 feet; height, 5 feet; unstratified; contained 
nothing worthy of notice. 



-r "**_ *-..*T C ^r r """" .=- ^ r _=.. ^ t.vrr =. %-"^ 







FIG. 37. Copper plate from Mound No. 6, White s group (No. 88336, National Museum). 

No. 10, 50 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. A vertical section 
of this niound is shown in Fig. 38. The top layer, 2 feet thick, consisted 
of black, loose, sandy loam similar to the surrounding soil of the field. 
Six skeletons were lying in this near the center, some folded, others 
stretched at full length, heads in different directions. The next or 
lo\. ^r layer, 3 feet thick, and extending downward slightly below the 
.original surface, consisted of red clay very largely mixed with sand. 
Skeletons were found in this at various depths. A little south of the 
center the original soil, below layer No. 2, had been hollowed out to the 




FIG. 38. Section of Mound No. 10, White s group. 

gravel. This excavation was about 7 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 1 foot 
deep. In it were the remains of a single adult skeleton, stretched at 
full length, face up, and covered with a layer of hard black muck. Tbe 
bones were nearly all gone, but their forms and positions could be 
traced. Under the skull was a fine lance head, and about 2 feet south, 
in the same excavation, a magnificent chipped implement of obsidian, 
represented in Fig. 39. 
12 ETH 6 



82 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. 11, touching No. 10 at the northeast, 50 feet in diameter and 4 
feet high, was composed chiefly of a dark, sandy soil, about 10 feet of the 
central portion being of yellow clay and sand mixed. In the southern 
portion, at the depth of 2 feet, were two very soft, folded skeletons, 
heads west. A little southwest of the center, at the depth of 3 feet, a 
few human bones were found incased in hard, black muck or mortar- 
like substance, and immediately under them some copper beads. Near 
the center, at about the same depth, was a folded skeleton, with the 




FIG. 39. Obsidian implement from Mound No. 10, White s group. 

head northeast,- also incased in the hard, black muck. By the skull was 
a broken earthen pot and a bottle-shaped vase, short neck and flat bot- 
The broken pot, which has been partially restored and is repre 
sented in Fig. 40, is equal, if not superior in the quality of the ware, to 
any mound pottery discovered in the Mississippi valley. A jasper 
lance head was discovered a little north of the center near the base. 
?he other mounds of the group, which are small, simple tumuli of the 
conical type, were not opened. Their sizes are as follows: 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


No. Diameter. 


Height, 


12 


Feet. 

45 


Feet. 


Feet. 
17 50 


Feet. 
4 


13 


U5 


3 


18 35 


2 


14 


25 


3 


19 20 


2 


15 


20 


2 


20 50 by 35 


4 


16 


50 


<i 


21 40 


34 



ORT PL. II 




PLAT OF WHITE S GROUP, VERNON COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



IHOMAS 1 GRANT COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 83 

About half a mile south of No. 1 of this group, on Sec. 3. J, same 
township, stands an isolated mound of the same type, which, upon 
opening, proved to be unstratified, as most of the others already men 
tioned. Diameter about 50 feet and height 7 feet. On the west side a 
few soft and badly decayed human bones were discovered at the depth 




FIG. 40. Pot from Mound No. 11. White s group. 

of 1 feet. On the east side similar bones were found at the depth of 4 
feet, and on the southwest, at the same depth, the fragment of a large 
sea shell (Bmycon perversum). 

GRANT COUNTY. 

On the bluffs north of Sinepy creek are the remnants of two groups 
or lines of mounds. These were visited in 1880 by Col. Norris, and in 
1890 a second visit was made. Such portions of the groups as have 
been subject to cultivation have entirely disappeared. On the narrow 
promontory overlooking the river is a row of small conical mounds, com 
posed largely of rough stones from the adjoining bluff. Five of these 
mounds were opened in 1880. All contained human bones, which in 
two cases were charred. 

Many of the bones in these mounds were disconnected and often 
broken as though deposited after the flesh had been removed, probably 
after exposure of the bodies on scaffolds or after previous burial. 

On a second promontory, east of the first, across a deep ravine, is a 
group of works consisting of two effigy mounds and one oblong mound. 



84 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Other oblong mounds, said to have been situated to the north of these, 
have been obliterated by the plow. The most southern of the effigy 
mounds would seem never to have been finished. The body is represented 
by a well-rounded ridge, and the head and forelegs are present, but only 
a trace of one of the hind legs appears. These mounds are in a forest 
and have not been disturbed by the whites. The other animal figure 
is somewhat larger, the body being 90 feet long. The legs are unusually 
long, the length from the toes to the back line being upwards of 40 feet. 
The head is merely a heavy rounded projection, and the tail is so ob 
scure as to be barely traceable. 

WORKS NEAR CASSVILLE. 

About 1 mile south of Oassville the road traverses a bench or level 
bottom, which is seldom overflowed, extending from the bluffs to a 
bayou, a distance of nearly 1 mile. Near this road on one side, when 
visited in 1880, were two lines of works, consisting of effigy, circular, 
and elongate mounds, and on the other a single row of circular mounds. 
These, except 1 and 2, are shown in their respective forms and positions 
in Fig. 41. 



No. 


Length. 


Height. 


Shape. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 


Feet. 






1 


10 by 20 


3 


Oblong 


Ordinary earth mound. 


2 


10 by 30 


3 


do 


Opened; nothing found. 


3 


90 




Effigy 


Probably represents an elk. 


4 


90 


4 


....do 


Do. 


5 






Circular 




6 






do . .. 




7 


150 


5 


Effigy 


Lizard; head and body 90 feet, tail 60 feet. 


8 


45 


3 


Oblong 


Ordinary earth mound. 


9 


72 by 84 


4 


Effigy . . 


A well-formed bird. 


10 


20 


2 


Circular 


Opened ; nothing found. 


11 


120 by 84 


4 


Effigy . . 


Probably an eagle. 



Nos. 12 to 15 are small circular and oval mounds on the eastern side 
of the road in a line south of the Eagle s head ; Nos. 16 to 28 the row 
of circular mounds on the west side of the road. The latter vary in 
diameter from 15 to 40 feet and in height from 3 to 5 feet. Quite a 
number of these had previously been opened, and, as was ascertained, 
presented evidences of intrusive burials. 

Excavations were made in a number of the mounds of this and adja 
cent groups, but nothing was discovered save human bones in the 
last stages of decay. 

This locality was revisited in 1890, when slight traces of these works 
were seen. The railroad had been carried directly through the group 
and an immense gravel pit now occupies the site. About three fourths 
of one of the bird figures remain and some shapeless hillocks mark the 
line of conical mounds. 



THOMAS.] 



WORKS NEAR CASSVILLE. 



85 



Stone cairns containing fragments of decaying human bones were 
found on top of the adjacent bluff; and upon the bank of the bayou near 
Cassville is a circular mound 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, in the 
base of which, beneath the hard earth, were four skeletons of adults in 
a much better state of preservation. 




FIG. 41. Effigy mounds near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin. 

The large Dewey farm, now owned by Gen. Newberry, extending 
from 1 to 3 miles north of Cassville, is literally dotted over with mounds 
and other works. This was a favorite haunt of the modern Indians, 
who used these earthen structures as depositories for their dead, hence 
intrusive burials are very common here. In a number explored, of 
which only the bottom central core remained undisturbed, nothing was 
found except decaying human bones and very rude stone implements. 

A remarkable series of mounds is situated upon the bluffs about 3 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



miles north of Cassville. These, remarks Mr. Holmes, may be taken 
as an illustration of the earthworks of this region. The bluffs are 
here upwards of 300 feet in height and are very abrupt on the margins 
overlooking the river. The horizontal beds of massive magnesian lime 
stone outcrop along the 
brink, giving a series of 
gray escarped promon 
tories, between which 
are notch-like recesses 
cut by the drain age. The 
steep faces of the bluff 
are without timber, but 
I the recesses and the up- 
l per surfaces are covered 
t with forests; this, to- 
gether with the dense 
I growth of underbrush, 
3 make exploration ex- 
3 tremely difficult. 
3 Between Muddy creek, 
I which comes out of the 

1 bluffs at right angles 
to the river escarpment 

2 and the Sandy, a rivulet 
* emerging three-fourths 

I of a mile farther south, 

i* 

there is a tongue of the 
Ji plateau divided into sev- 
s eral parts at the outer 
81 end and connected by a 
narrow ridge with the 
main plateau. This out 
standing mass is a mile 
in length and at the 
widest part not more 
than one-fourth of a 
mile wide. Mounds are 
found upon the main crest as well as upon most of the spurs. This 
distribution in groups was determined apparently by the topography, 
as will be seen by reference to the accompanying map. (Fig. 42.) 

The main lines of works occupy the crest of the principal ridge, 
which borders Muddy creek on the south. Beginning at the outer 
point we follow the curved ridge encountering first six oblong mounds 
of the usual character, then a conical mound standing somewhat alone, 
and beyond this a series of eight conical mounds connected into a chain 
by low ridges. Traversing a distance of about 700 feet a second chain- 




THOMAS .] WORKS NEAR WYALUSTNG. 87 

group is encountered, and at the eastern extremity of this lies the only 
effigy mound of the system so far as observed. East of this a broken 
series of oblong and chain mounds continues indefinitely. On the 
southern spurs of the promontory are three additional groups of con 
ical and oblong mounds following the crests of the ridges and termi 
nating near the escarped points. 

All of these Avorks are in an excellent state of preservation. A few 
have been dug into by relic hunters. The two isolated conical mounds 
are of average size, being about 25 feet in diameter and between 3 and 
4 feet high. The oblong mounds are straight even ridges, ranging from 
80 to 125 feet in length and from 10 to 20 in width, and in height rarely 
exceeding 3J feet. 

The chain mounds are of particular interest. They have been built 
with much care and are wonderfully preserved. The cones average 
less than 20 feet in diameter and are from 2 to 4 feet in height. The 
distance from center to center varies from 30 to 40 feet and the con 
necting ridges of earth are about 16 feet wide and from 2 to 3 feet 
high. 

The most noteworthy member of the series is the effigy mound. It 
is perhaps more suggestive of the puma than of any other quadruped. 
This work is well preserved, but the loose vegetable mold of which 
it is composed does not admit of the preservation of more than a gen 
eralized form, no matter to what extent the individuality of the original 
shape was developed. 

The full length of the figure may be given as 144 feet, although the 
tail is very indistinct toward the extremity. The head is toward the 
east and exhibits no other feature than a slight projection for the nose. 
The characters of the animal have received proper attention. The body 
is full and rounded and the extremities fall off gradually in width and 
height. The curves of the back and legs are well rendered, and the 
whole conception is presented with sufficient spirit. The distance from 
the toes to the back line is 36 feet. The body, at the point of greatest 
relief, is not over 3J feet high. 

The mounds of this group appear to be composed mainly of vegetable 
mold obtained on the spot. 

The conical mound, situated upon the very brow of the bluff, is 25 feet 
in diameter and 4 feet high. Abroad trench carried through it revealed 
only the decayed bones of a child, extended at full length beneath the 
central core of hard, dry earth. Pits sunk in the oblong mounds 
brought nothing to light. A number of circular mounds on the adja 
cent bluffs was also opened, but nothing save decayed human bones 
was found in them. 



WORKS NEAR WYALUSING. 



Four excellent illustrations of the remarkable mound groups of Wis 
consin are to be seen near Wyalusing, a station on the Burlington and 



88 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Northern Railroad. The village of Wyalusing is picturesquely situ 
ated on a narrow strip of alluvial land between the Mississippi river 
and the bluff, which here rises abruptly in a single step to the height 
of 350 feet. These bluffs, as those elsewhere in Grant county, are the 
margin of a plateau which extends eastward from the escarpment. 
The margin of this plateau is cut by numerous streams and is for the 
most part too rugged for cultivation. In the marginal region the 
ridges separating the streams are often narrow, but have rounded 
and somewhat level crests, which were favorite resorts of the mound 
builders. 

Upon the steep timbered bluff that rises above the village of Wya 
lusing is found a line of earthworks following the crest of a nearly 
straight ridge. The principal work of the group is an animal effigy, a 
quadruped. Jt is of large size and is in an excellent state of preser 
vation. Singularly enough it does not occupy the crest of the ridge 
which runs parallel to the river, but lies in a shallow depression in the 
slope between the crest and the margin of the steep bluff overlooking 
the village. The head is toward the south and the legs extend down 
the gentle slope toward the river. The form is perfectly preserved, 
the body is well rounded and the outline is everywhere distinct. So 
perfect is the preservation that the extension representing the ears or 
horns shows a slight parting at the outer end, and the two legs of each 
pair are separated by a shallow depression throughout their entire 
length. The feeling for correct form possessed by the builders even 
in this rude method of realization is indicated by the outline which 
defines the forehead, by the curves of the back and belly, and of the 
gambrel joints of the legs, as well as by the relief which expresses 
something of the rotundity and relative prominence of the parts. 
What additional details of form have been effaced by the lapse of 
time can not be determined. 

The length of the work from the forehead to rump is 115 feet; the 
length of the head is 47 feet; the distance from the feet to the back, 
representing the full height of the figure, is 50 feet; the width of the 
body is 28 feet, and the width of the legs about 20 feet. The relief 
does not exceed 3J feet at any point, the ears, nose, and legs not 
exceeding half that. 

Some years ago Mr. D. W. Derby, an enthusiastic collector of mound 
relics, dug into the body of this effigy about the locality of the heart, 
and found human bones and an earthen vessel about the size of the 
crown of an ordinary hat. The vessel had a flat bottom, but was so 
fragile from decay that no part of it could be preserved. 

Running approximately parallel with the greatest length of the ani 
mal figure and occupying the crest of the ridge is a row of oblong 
mounds. These vary from a straight line to accommodate themselves to 
the crest, and in orientation vary from S. 25 E. to S. 15 W. The largest 
one is 100 feet in length and the shortest 60 feet. The width averages 



THOMAS. ] 



WORKS NEAR WYALUSING. 



89 



about 20 feet and the height is in no case greater than 3 feet. On the 
rounded surface of the north end of the ridge is a number of small 
circular depressions that may represent old dwelling sites; others are 
seen on a level space about 100 feet north of the animal figure. The 
ridge terminates at the north in a rounded point and at the south in 
a long narrow one, and is con 
nected with the chain of ridges 
on the east by a broad saddle; 
along this, and extending for an 
indefinite distance, is an almost 
continuous series of mounds most 
ly of the oblong type. In the older 
cultivated fields only traces of the 
works are found, but in the new 
ground, and in the wooded areas, 
the forms are fully preserved. 
There is no telling what was the 
original extent of these wonderful 
lines of mounds, or what their 
connection with the other series, 
the remnants of which are found 
on nearly every part of the bluffs 
where tillage has not destroyed 
them. 

A second group of more than 
usual interest is located upon the 
promontory that overlooks the 
village on the north. This prom 
ontory extends to the northward, 
as a narrow ridge with an uneven 
crest, to the residence of Mr. 
Derby and beyond. Its trend is 
parallel with the river, from which 
it rises at an angle of 40 degrees 
or more. On the opposite side it 
falls off with abruptness to a 
little stream which runs to the 
southward and passes out at the 
north end of the village. From 
the railroad bridge at the cross 
ing of the stream we ascend the 
point of the promontory by a series of slopes and cliffs to the height of 
about 200 feet; beyond this point the ridge extends to the northward 
and is narrow, and for about one-quarter of a mile nearly horizontal. 

Upon the level crest, which is forest covered, are four mounds; at 
the south are two conical mounds and at the north two mounds repre- 




FIG. 43. Mound group near Wyalusing, Grant 
county. Wisconsin. 



90 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

senting animals, distributed as showu in Fig. 43. All are in an excel 
lent state of preservation save where recent excavations conducted by 
Mr. Derby have mutilated them. The southern mound was conical in 
shape and about 20 feet in diameter and 6 feet high. When Mr. Derby 
began his excavations the eastern half of the cone was covered with 
rough stone slabs obtained from the vicinity. In digging into the cen 
ter of the mound four stones as large as a human head were found near 
the surface. At the depth of a foot a circle of stones was encountered, 
having a diameter of 4 feet; at a depth of about 2 feet the top of a cis 
tern, 3 feet in diameter, of well laid stones, was uncovered. This was 
;> feet deep and had been built upon the surface of the limestones of 
the bluff. The well was filled with black earth, in which were found 
seven oblong shell beads, a copper celt of ordinary shape, and a red 
pipestone, platform pipe; outside of the well a flake of flint was found, 
and some curious lines of colored sand were observed. These seemed 
to radiate roughly from the center of the mound and were followed to 
the circumference by the explorers. Wide trenches were carried across 
the mound from east to west and from north to south. 

The second mound was much like the first and is still perfect, save 
for the sinking of a pit in the center. Nothing of interest was found. 
The present diameter is over 30 feet in the line of the ridge and some 
what less across it. The height is 6 feet. 

A little over 100 feet to the north of this mound is the first animal 
mound. The creature, possibly a bear, is represented as lying upon its 
side with the head to the south and the feet to the east. The body is a 
neatly rounded ridge 70 feet long and nearly 25 feet wide, and has a 
relief of nearly 4 feet. The head is about 30 feet long, the projection 
representing the ears being very slightly indicated and difficult to 
define. The low ridge representing the forelegs is straight, while that 
for the hinder ones is bent, thus defining the gambrel joint. The dis 
tance from the toes to the back line is a little less than 40 feet. This 
figure is of the most frequently occurring type of effigy works. 

The other effigy mound, 150 feet to the north, is of a form somewhat 
unusual. It is spread out upon the ridge, after the fashion of a lizard 
or alligator. The head is toward the south, and is merely a rounded 
projection of the body embankment. The tail at the opposite end is 
upwards of 35 teet long, but is very attenuated and indistinct toward 
the tip. The body is a rounded ridge 3J feet high and less than 20 
feet wide, and the legs, extended to the right and left, are low embank 
ments of earth, the forelegs being bent forward and the hinder ones 
backward, as shown in the illustration. 

Passing north along this ridge, another series of mounds is encoun 
tered. The first member is an oblong mound, about three-fourths of a 
mile beyond the residence of Mr. Derby. This is followed by a series 
of works in which are oblong, conical, and animal mounds, some of 
which are almost obliterated by the plow. 



THOMAS. I THE ELEPHANT MOUND. 91 

On the crest of the bluff, north of the last mentioned mounds and 
just south of the Wisconsin river, is a continuous straight line of 
mounds, all of which, except two, are elongate, embankment-like struc 
tures, giving to the line the appearance of an interrupted wall. Of the 
two exceptions one is oval and the other is an effigy mound, probably 
intended to represent an elk. Several of these mounds were opened, 
but in none, except the third from the south end of the line, was any 
thing found. This is somewhat oval, 24 feet in diameter, and 4 feet 
high. In the center was a rude, irregular stone coffin or vault of flat 
sandstones, so arranged around the single skeleton that a large one 
sufficed to cover it from animals. The bones were in the last stages of 
decomposition. 

The top of this bluff, for the distance of half a mile, is literally cov 
ered with these works, which are uniformly placed so near the brink of 
the descent to the Mississippi as to present a clear cut outline, except 
where the view is obstructed by trees. As the position is a command 
ing one, and as very few of the works were intended or used for burial 
purposes, it is difficult to conceive of any other object the builders could 
have had in view in their construction than that of defense. But how 
they were made available for this purpose without encircling any area 
or without closing the numerous openings is difficult to understand. 

On the NW. of Sec. 20, T. 6 N., E. 6 W., about 1 mile east of the 
works just mentioned, is another group of considerable interest. This 
consists of one continuous line of circular and effigy mounds, number 
ing 36 in all. 

THE ELEPHANT MOUND. 

This effigy, of which so much has been said and written, is situated 
on the southeast quarter of Sec. 21, T. 5 N., E. 6 W., in Blooniington 
township, 4 miles south of Wyalusing. It lies on the right side, head 
south, in a depression between two drift sand ridges, in what is known 
as the Cincinnati bottom. This bottom extends from the bluff on one 
side to a large bayou on the other, and is just above the overflows of 
the Mississippi. Although the mound has been under cultivation for 
five years, the outlines are yet distinct. " By a hasty measurement," 
says Col. Norris, who incidentally visited it while engaged by the Bureau 
in the northwest, " I made its entire length to the front of the head 135 
feet, the width across the body from 55 to 60 feet, the height varying 
from 3 to 6 feet. I made a rude sketch of it on the spot with pencil, for 
the purpose of showing the so-called trunk as I saw it. There is a 
depression some 4 or 5 feet deep between the trunk and breast, and a 
kind of slight platform or apron-like extension on the upper or back 
part of the head, from 2 to 3 feet high, or half as high as the rest of 
the head. Whether the resemblance to an elephant, which arises 
almost wholly from the proboscis- like extension to the head, is due to 
intentional work done by the builders or has resulted from the drift 
ing of the loose, sandy soil, of which it is mainly composed, is a ques- 



92 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

tion difficult to decide, I can only say that I represent it as I found 
it." This sketch, which is not reproduced here, shows the trunk some 
what distinctly as curved inward toward the fore legs. It is very 
doubtful whether this should be considered a part of the effigy. If 
both Mr. Warner and Col. Norris show correctly what they saw, the 
trunk was evidently a shifting line of sand. 




FIG. 44. Elephant mound, according to Middleton s survey in 1884. 

In November, 1884, Mr. Middleton was directed to call to his assist 
ance a civil engineer and make a regular and careful survey of this 
mound for the purpose of modeling it for the New Orleans Exposition. 
This was very carefully done, and the result is shown in outline in Fig. 
44. His report in reference to it, as seen at that time, is as follows : 

" The l Elephant mound is located on the southeast quarter of Sec. 
21, T. 5 N., E. 6 W., Blooniington township, in a long rectangular 
depression or rather cul de sac as shown in PI. in, the level of which 
is a few feet only above high water. The immediate spot on which it 
stands is a little higher than the general level around it. For 200 
yards north the surface is even, with a slight rise to the foot of the 
bank. This bank is about 20 feet higher than the mound level. Going 
east along line a b (PI. in) the ground at first dips slightly, but rises 
a little as it approaches the foot of the bank, which is here about 30 
feet above the mound level. South towards c the surface is flat for 
more than COO yards. The bank on the west is about the same height 
as that on the east. About 200 yards south is an effigy mound, a bird 
with outspread wings, head south. Near by there are a number of 
round mounds placed in a line and two or three long mounds. 

" Plowing over it for a number of years has considerably reduced 
the height of the elephant effigy, and has rendered the outlines of por 
tions of the head and back somewhat indistinct, but the body between 
the legs is quite plain. It is gently rounded on the surface, the high- 



THOMAS.] MANITOWOC AND SHEBOYGAN MOUNDS. 93 

est points teing at the hip, where it is nearly 4 feet high. Entire 
length, 140 feet; width across the body to the farther end of the hind 
leg, 72 feet; across the body between the legs, 55 feet; across the body 
and foreleg, 77 feet; across the neck, 40 feet; length of head from back 
to nozzle, 60 feet; width of hind leg at the body, 32 feet; at the foot, 
15 feet; length of hind leg, 22 feet; across the fore leg at the body, 28 
feet; at the foot 15 feet; length of fore leg, 28 feet." 




Fio. 45. Elephant mound, after Warner s figure. 

Fig. 45 is another view of this mound, which is an exact copy, re 
duced to half size, of the original manuscript pencil sketch by Jared 
Warner, from which the figure in the Smithsonian Eeport for 1872 was 
made. 

SHEBOYGAN COUNTY. 

MANITOWOC AND SHEBOYGAX MOUNDS. 

There are some scattering mounds on the hills bordering the Sheboy- 
gan marshes on the north. These are usually isolated, simple conical 
tumuli, though some are in irregular groups on elevated situations. 

The only one opened (the rest had been previously explored) was 
situated on a sandy ridge half a mile north of the marsh and 100 feet 
above it. It was about 50 feet in diameter at the base and 5 feet high. 
After passing through 18 inches of surface soil the central mass was 
struck, which appeared to be composed of earth mingled with firebeds, 
charcoal, ashes, and loose stones. Near the center of this mass, at the 
bottom of the mound, a large human skeleton in a sitting posture was 
discovered, apparently holding between its hands and knees a large 
clay vessel, unfortunately in fragments. These were covered over by 
an irregular layer of flat bowlders. Nothing else worthy of notice was 
found. 

About 2 miles west of this, on a bluff overlooking the marsh, was 
another mound of similar form and slightly larger, which had been pre 
viously opened by Mr. Hoissen of Sheboygau. It was found literally 



94 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



p 



- l=t A!^ 



FIG. 46. Inclosure near Sheboygan, Sheboygan county 
Wisconsin. 



filled, to the depth of 2 feet, with human skeletons, many of which were 
well preserved and evidently those of modern Indians, as with them 

were the usual modern weap 
ons and ornaments. Beneath 
these was a mass of rounded 
bowlders aggregating several 
wagon loads, below which were 
some 40 or 50 skeletons in a 
sitting posture, in a circle, 
around and facing a very large 
sea shell. This specimen, which 
with the other articles taken 
from this mound is in Mr. Hois- 
sen s collection, measures 21 
inches in length and 29 in cir 
cumference at its greatest 
girth. 

Just south of the outlet of 
the marsh is a small, oval in- 
closure, with an opening at one end of some 4 or 5 feet. It consists of a 
single wall 3 feet high and a ditch about two feet deep (shown in Fig. 46). 

BARRON COUNTY. 

THE RICE LAKE MOUNDS. 

The only explorations in this county were around Rice lake. This 
group, a plat of which is given in PI. iv, is situated at Kice lake 
village, on sec. 10, T. 35 K, E. 11 W., about half a mile above Red 
Cedar river. The land at this point is somewhat broken, and the 
area occupied by the group is cut by a small ravine that runs northeast 
to the lake. Some of the mounds are on gravely knolls, a few in the 
ravine, some on the slope up to the level which runs back to a ridge a 
quarter of a mile distant and some on this level. The location was well 
chosen for hunting, fishing, and procuring a supply of food, as game 
and fish are still abundant and wild rice formerly grew on the lake. 

The group consists of fifty-one mounds, chiefly of the ordinary coni 
cal form. There are no effigies or long slender embankments in it. Two 
of the long type, however, were found at the other end of the village. 

The construction varies so little that few only will be described as 
samples of the rest, No. 1, for instance, as representing Nos. 24, 26, 35, 
39, 46, and 45. This stands in the bottom of a ravine about 10 feet 
above the water level and about 500 feet from the shore of the lake; 
diameter, 28 feet; height, 4 feet. The construction, as shown in figure 
47, was as follows, commencing at the top : First, a layer of dark vege 
table mold (a), 2 inches thick which had formed since the mound was 
abandoned, next, a layer (&) of sandy loam with a slight admixture of 
clay; third, the core (c), forming the central and remaining portion of 








f 


m 

lllUII/u/, ( ,, 

"""*//, 4 


s 


~ 


= 


J 




W I^ 





f. 








THOMAS.] THE RICE LAKE MOUNDS. 95 

the structure and resting on the original surface of the gully. This 
consisted of clay mixed with sand and was very hard. It appeared to 
be composed of small, rounded masses about 16 to 18 inches in diame 
ter and 6 to 10 inches thick, doubtless representing the loads deposited 
by the builders. Lying on the original surface of the ground, under 
neath the core, were two skeletons (1 and 2) bundled, as was the case 
with nearly all found in this group. The bundling was done by plac 
ing the long bones together as closely as possible around the ribs, the 
vertebral bones being placed here and there so as to render the bundle 
as compact as possible. Close to these were the charred remains of 
another skeleton (3) pressed into a layer scarcely exceeding an inch in 
thickness, but, as there were no signs of fire, ashes, or coals on the sur 
face beneath, burning must have taken place before burial. As all the 
skeletons were under the core, and the small masses heretofore men 
tioned showed no signs of disturbance, they must have been buried at 
one time. 

Mound 24 measured but 22 feet in diameter and 3 in height. It dif 
fered from No. 1 only in containing four skeletons, none of them charred. 




FIG. 47 Mound No. 1, Rice lake group. 

Mound 20, but 25 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, contained four 
skeletons of the original burial and three of intrusive burial, as did also 
No. 35. 

In No. 46 there had been seven original burials, at the base of the 
core, as usual, one of a child, no intrusive burials. 

No. 8, oval in outline, 36 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 5 feet high, 
differed from the others, as it lacked the core and layer of sandy loam. 
With the exception of the top layer of vegetable mold it consisted of 
yellowish clay mixed with sand, probably taken from the immediately 
surrounding surface. Six skeletons were found in it; the first, 3 feet 
south of the apex and at a depth of 2 feet. No. 2 a foot and a half 
south of the first. These two appeared to have been buried at the 
same time, or nearly so, and most likely were intrusive burials. No. 3 
was at the bottom, on the original surface, under No. 1 ; No. 4 a foot 
northeast of 3; No. 5 two feet east of the last; and No. 6 a foot north 
of No. 5. The last four skeletons were probably the first interments 
in the mound, and appear to have been buried about the same time 
from the fact that they were bundled, and the bones clean and white, 
although so soft as to fall in pieces when exposed to the atmosphere. 

Mound No. 11, standing east of No. 8, is also oblong, 35 feet long, 



96 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

and 23 feet wide. The construction the same as the preceeding. There 
had been five original and five intrusive burials, the latter in the cen 
ter at the depth of 3 feet, the others at the bottom of the mound, 
in the north end. All of the skeletons were bundled, those near the 
surface being in a better state of preservation than those in the bot 
torn. A large pine stump was standing over the latter, the roots of 
which had broken them up to a considerable extent. 

Mound 42, standing in the ravine, measured 27 feet in diameter and 
4 feet high. The construction was found to be similar to that of No. 
1; first, the thin layer of vegetable mold; then sandy loam and the 
clay core; but here was a pit in the original soil, rectangular in 
form, 3 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1 in depth, the sides and ends flar 
ing. In this mound there had been three intrusive and two original 
burials. Two skeletons of the former were in the southwest part, at the 
depth of 2 feet; the third in the center at the depth of 4 feet, a cut 
having been made in the top of the core to receive it. The material of 
the layer over it had a disturbed appearance; indicating that these 
were intrusive burials. 

Two other skeletons were found on the bottom of the pit, bundled as 
usual. The bones of these two are larger than those of any of the 
other skeletons of this group. Mounds numbered 41, 47, and 48 were 
so similar in every respect to 42 as to need no further notice. 

Mound 49 stands on the lower margin of the gravelly ridge south of 
the gully, 20 or 25 feet above the water level of the lake; its diameter 
being 20 feet and height 5 feet. It was found to consist, except the top 
layer, of an unstratified mass of dark brown loam with a considerable 
mixture of sand and gravel, having the same appearance as the soil of 
the ridge on which it stands; an occasional lump of clay, similar to the 
load masses heretofore spoken of, was observed. Under this main layer 
or body of the mound, near the center, was an oval pit, diameters 2 and 
24 feet, and 1 foot in depth. This mound furnished evidence as usual 
of both intrusive and original burials. The original burials were two 
adults in the pit; these, as also the skeletons of the intrusive burials, 
being bundled, an indication that the two peoples who buried here be 
longed to the same race. Mounds 28 and 36 were similar throughout 
to Ko. 49. 

GROTJP ON SEC. 10, T. 35 N., R. 11 W. 

These mounds, which are on the opposite side of the lake from the 
preceding, are all of the round or conical type and are located on a 
point of land some 25 feet above and overlooking the lake and the other 
village just described. No. 8, one of the largest of the group, meas 
ured 45 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. Commencing at the top, the 
first 3 feet was a layer of sandy loam; the remainder was a hard core 
of clay mixed with sand, made up of small masses, like those heretofore 
described. The latter rested on a layer, about an inch thick, of what 



THOMAS.] THE RICE LAKE MOUNDS. 97 

seemed to be the decayed vegetable material of the original surface of 
the ground. A skeleton was discovered southeast of the center, only 
3 inches below the surface, bundled. Fragments of a skull were found 
near the center at the depth of 2 feet. Here there were evidences that 
a grave had been dug in the mound after it had been completed, and a 
body buried in bark wrappings, but all save these fragments of the 
skull had completely decayed. A third was at the same depth. Four 
feet east of the center was another at the depth of 3 feet, but the skull 
in this case was wanting from the bundle. In the apex of the central 
core, in which a cut had been made for its reception, was a fifth at a 
depth of 3J feet from the top and 6 inches in the core. No skeletons 
were found in the lower part of the mound, though at two points the 
earth was similar in character to that which results from decayed bodies 
and probably marked burial places. At the bottom of the mound, 
south of the center, was the only relic obtained, a copper drill or spin 
dle, similar to that shown in Fig. 34; this is 7J inches long, a little over 
one-fourth of an inch square, and pointed at each end. When found it 
was upright. 

Mound 12, situated west of No. 8, in a thicket, measured 32 feet 
in diameter and 3J in height. The upper layer consisted of loose sandy 
loam, like the surrounding surface. The remainder, of sand and clay, very 
hard, rested on the original surface of the ground. Under this was a 
pit, length 7 feet, width at one end 4 feet, at the other 5J, depth 2 feet, 
its walls perpendicular and bottom flat. Three bundled skeletons, the 
only ones found in the mound, were in this pit. With one were a few 
copper beads. 

Mound 14, standing 120 feet from the lake shore, measured but 26 feet 
in diameter and a little over 3 feet in height. The construction was 
similar to that of No. 8 j first a layer of sandy loam, 1 foot thick, then 
the core, 2 feet thick ; but in this case there was, immediately below 
the second layer, a stratum of charcoal 4 inches thick, covering an area 
6 feet in diameter, and immediately below it a layer of burned earth 3 
inches thick and covering tlje same area. Underneath this, on the 
original surface, were the remains of three bundled skeletons partially 
burned. The remains of two logs, which had been nearly consumed by 
fire, could be traced in the layer of burned earth. They must have been 
about 6 feet long and 4 or 5 inches in diameter. They were parallel, 
within a foot of each other, and had evidently been laid on the earth 
covering the skeletons, but there were no indications of a wooden vault. 
The evidence seemed conclusive that the fire had been kindled here 
after the skeletons and logs were in place. The first skeleton was in 
the center under the two burned logs, and the indications were that it 
had been wrapped in birch bark, parts of which, although both wrap 
pings and bones were charred, were obtained. The other two skeletons 
were north and west of this central one, and one of them showed but 
little of the effects of the fire, while the other was nearly consumed. 
12 ETH 7 



98 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Southward, outside of this burned area, but under the core or layer, 
were two other skeletons, which seemed to have been buried at the same 
time as the other three. 

ROCK COUNTY. 

In 1886 Rev. S. D. Peet explored an effigy mound, probably repre 
senting a turtle, in the group near the waterworks at Beloit. The 
results of this examination he reports in substance as follows : 

This mound was found by measurement to be 80 feet long, the length 
of the body and tail being equal, each 40 feet; the width of the body 
across the middle 15 feet, and across the ends 30 feet. 

Other parties had taken off the top before his examination. A broad 
trench running through the middle, lengthwise, was carried down to 
the original surface of the ground. Here he found 8 skeletons, bun 
dled, lying on the original surface of the mound. The dirt over them 
showed evidences of fire, but was not baked. The particulars, which 
resemble closely those observed in another effigy of the same kind 
belonging to the same group opened by Prof. S. Eaton, maybe summar 
ized as follows: First, the mound consisted of black loam; second, the 
earth was packed tightly about the bones; third, no gravel was found 
above the skeletons, but the original gravel of the bluff was immedi 
ately below them, indicating that the top soil had been removed before 
burial; fourth, the bodies were laid on the surface and the material of 
the mound, scraped from the surrounding area, thrown over them ; fifth, 
the bodies or skeletons were evidently not interred in an extended posi 
tion, for the bones of each individual were folded or heaped together, 
pieces of the skull in some instances resting upon them ; they were 
probably "bundled" skeletons, buried after the flesh had been removed; 
sixth, there were no implements or ornaments of any kind with them; 
seventh, some of the bones were tolerably well preserved, others much 
decayed ; and eighth, all of the skeletons were those of adults. 

The bones of each skeleton were in a separate pile or bundle, those 
of the lower extremities being doubled up along the trunk, but the 
skull in most cases placed on top. It is, therefore, evident that the 
burial had taken place after the flesh had been removed, probably by 
exposure on platforms or scaffolds a custom which seems to have been 
followed by the mound-building clans of this section. Under one body 
there was a small layer of stones. These stones were burned, smoked, 
and cracked, as if they had been subjected to great heat. Two or three 
pieces of dirt were taken out which were flat on one side, as though 
the dirt had been wet and packed down upon bark and then left to dry 
out, or, possibly, a fire had been kindled upon it, so as to take the color 
out of it. It was difficult to tell where the fire had been placed. Pieces 
of coal were scattered through the dirt and some of the bones showed 
signs of fire, though it was apparent that the bodies could not have 
been cremated. 



WORKS IN ALLAMAKEE COUNTY, IOWA. 99 



IOWA. 

The explorations made in this state on behalf of the Bureau were 
confined to the counties bordering on or adjacent to the Mississippi 
river, and chiefly in the extreme northeastern section. 

Some of the works of this section evidently belong to the same type 
as those of Wisconsin, effigy or figure mounds being found in one or 
two of the extreme northeastern counties of the state, showing that 
the tribes which reared the singular structures in Wisconsin were not 
limited geographically by the Mississippi, although they extended 
beyond it but a short distance and over a comparatively small area. 

As we proceed southward a change in the mode of construction and 
in other respects becomes apparent, indicating the presence of different 
tribes; yet there is sufficient resemblance in the two classes of works 
to indicate ethnic relationship, or at least that they belong to the same 
culture state. 

ALLAMAKEE COUNTY. 

This northeastern county of the state is bordered on the east by the 
Mississippi river, and much of it watered by the Little Iowa and its 
branches, all of which have worn deep channels through the Potsdam 
sandstone, which, whether remaining as castellated cliffs 300 or 400 
feet high or rounded off to bold bluffs or terraced slopes, results in giv 
ing the charming contour and sheltered valleys of a mountain region. 

POTTERY CIRCLE AND OTHER WORKS. 

About 7 miles above New Albin, on the Little Iowa river, is an exten 
sive group of earthworks, consisting of inclosures, lines of small mounds, 
excavations, etc., situated on the farm of Mr. H. P. Lane, and repre 
sented in PI. v. The largest work is an inclosure, marked A, and 
shown on a larger scale in Fig. 48, to which the name " pottery 
circle" has been applied. It is situated on the margin of a bluff 
overlooking the Little Iowa river and an intervening bog beyond, prob 
ably the former channel of the river. It is almost exactly circular in 
form with clear indications of straight stretches (not shown in the 
figure), as though somewhat polygonal, the curve being broken on the 
eastern side, where it touches the brink of the bluff, is there made to 
conform to the line of the latter. The ends at the southeast overlap 
each other for a short distance, leaving at this point an entrance way, 
the only one to the inclosure. A ditch runs around the inside from 
the entrance on the south to where the wall strikes the bluff on the 
north, but is wanting along the bluff side and overlapping portion. 
The north and south diameter, measuring from center to center of the 
wall, is 251 feet; from east to west, 235 feet; the entire outer circum 
ference, 807 feet; the length of the straight portion along the bluff, 



100 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



100 feet, and of the overlapping portion at the entrance, 45 feet. The 
wall is quite uniform in size, about 4 feet high and from 25 to 27 in 
width, and the ditch about 8 or 10 feet wide and from 1 to 3 feet deep. 
The entrance is 16 feet wide, but there seems to have been no ditch 
along this portion. On the north, adjoining the wall on the outside 




FIG. 48. Circular inclosure near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa. 



and extending along it for about 100 feet, is an excavation, Fig. 48 
(see plan and section), 35 feet wide at the widest point and 3 deep. 

As this ground, including the circle, has been under cultivation for 

fifteen years, it would be supposed that the height of the wall is con 

siderably less than originally, but this is doubtful. On the contrary, it 

s probable it was originally about 20 feet wide and not more than 3 



THOMAS.] EARTHWORKS AT NEW ALBIN. 101 

feet high, composed mainly of yellowish- brown clay, obtained, in part 
at least, from the ditch, but that, during occupancy, the accumulation 
of numerous bones of animals used for food, stone chips, river shells, 
broken pottery, and dirt, and since abandonment the accumulation of 
sand, drifted by the winds from the crumbling sandstone butte over 
looking it, have not only filled the ditch, but elevated the whole inte 
rior area and the wall 2 feet or more. This accumulation of sand is so 
great and so uniform over the adjacent plateau that fifteen years of cul 
tivation has not reached the clay of the original natural surface, nor 
has it unearthed or penetrated to the bones, pottery fragments, and 
other refuse matter covering the original surface in the circle. 

Three trenches 4 feet wide were dug through this wall from side to 
side and down to the original soil. The first was run through the 
northern portion opposite the large excavation. Here was found, first 
a layer of sand about 1 foot thick; next, an accumulation of refuse 
material mixed with earth, forming a layer from 1 to 2 feet thick; and 
below this the original clay embankment 2 feet thick, resting on the 
original surface. A section of the ditch, embankment, and excavation 
at this point is shown in Fig. 48. The dotted line a b indicates the 
natural surface; No. 1, the original clay layer of the embankment or 
wall; No. 2, the layer of earth and refuse material with which the ditch 
is filled; and No. 3, the top layer of sand. 

In No. 2 were found charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, fractured 
bones, etc. 

Trench No. 2, opened through the west side, gave a similar result. 
No. 3, in the southern part, across the lap of the walls and entrance 
way, varied in showing less clay and no distinct ditch. 

A broad belt of the inner area on the east side next the bluff wall 
was excavated and carefully examined. It was found to consist of the 
same kind of accumulations as No. 2 in the first trench, except that 
here the shells were more numerous and there were many burnt stones. 

SQUARE EARTHWORK. 

D, PI. v, is situated at the southwest corner of the plateau, on the 
margin of the bluff, facing west. It consists of a wall from 12 to 15 feet 
broad and 2 to 4 feet high, along three sides of a nearly regular par 
allelogram. The length of the wall on the south is 175 feet, that on 
the east 150, with traces of a ditch on the outside ; that on the north, 
200 feet. 

About 30 feet east of the northeast corner, which is the highest point 
adjacent to the work, and above the inclosed area, is an excavation now 
about 3 feet in depth. 

Within this square inclosure are three small mounds, which were 
opened with the following results: 

No. 1, 30 feet long by 20 wide and 4 high, was found to consist of atop 
layer of loose sand 1 foot thick, the remainder of hard yellowish clay. 



102 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

In the latter were several flat sandstone fragments, and beneath them, 
on the original surface of the ground, a much decayed human skeleton, 
with a few stone chips, Unio shells, and fragments of pottery. 

No. 2, 18 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was mainly a loose cairn 
of sandstones, covering traces of human bones, charcoal, and ashes. 

No. 3, 15 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, a stone pile or cairn cov 
ered with earth and heaped over a mass of charred bones, charcoal, 
ashes, and some fragments of pottery. 

This inclosure is about half a mile from the pottery circle, and, like 
it, well situated for defense, but not so well constructed and apparently 
more ancient. 

THE OBLONG WORK. 

This is an oblong inclosure, situated south of the group just men 
tioned, and just across an impassable slough, and is the one marked E 
in PI. v. It is on a sloping terrace at the foot of a bluff, which rises 
abruptly behind it to the height of 200 feet. The end walls run from 
this bluff to the margin of the slough, where there is also another 
descent. Along this margin runs a connecting wall some 300 feet in 
length. The wall at the west end is ICO feet long: that at the east end 
175. The height varies from 1 to 3 feet and the width from 10 to 15 
feet. On the outside of each end wall is a washout, possibly marking 
the ditches from which the dirt to form the walls was taken. 



MOUNDS. 



Extending southward from the pottery circle to the bluff bank that 
margins the slough, a distance of about half a mile, and expanding at 
the southern end to an equal extent, is a dry, undulating plateau. On 
the eastern half of this area are six parallel lines of mounds running 
northeast and southwest (marked B in PI. V ), mostly circular in form, 
varying in diameter from 15 to 40 feet and in height from 2 to 6 feet. 
A few, as indicated in the figure, are oblong, varying in length from 50 
to 100 feet. The number in the group exceeds 100. 

An examination revealed the fact that, in addition to the mounds, 
much of the area between them was used as a burying place, and that 
scattered here and there between the graves were charcoal and ashes, 
stone chips, shells, etc. Both in the mounds and these graves there 
was a compact layer of hard, light colored earth, having much the 
appearance of lime mortar, probably clay and ashes mixed together, 
which had undergone the action of fire. As the burials in these inter 
mediate spots were seldom over 18 inches deep, the only soil above the 
hard layer which covered them was the sterile sand from the sandy 
butte marked on the plate, while the mounds were uniformly covered 
with a layer of richest soil, although below this and covering the skel 
etons was the layer of hard, light colored earth. 

A trench cut through the oblong mound of this group (No. 1) 
revealed near the center an oblong pile of loose sandstones, beneath 



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ANCIENT WORKS NEAR NEW ALBIN, ALLAMAKEE COUNTY, IOWA 



THOMAS.] EARTHWORKS AT NEW ALBIN. 103 

which was found a crypt or rude stone coffin about 6 feet long and 18 
inches wide, formed by first placing flat sandstones on the natural clay 
surface of the ground, then other slabs edgewise at the sides and ends, 
and a covering of similar stones. Within this, extended at full length, 
with the head nearly west, was the skeleton of an adult, but too much 
decayed for preservation. With it were some stone chips, rude stone 
scrapers or skinners, a Unio shell, and some fragments of pottery sim 
ilar to those found in the pottery circle. 



THE SAND BUTTE. 

This prominent feature of the area (marked in PI. V), which, by 
the eroding influence of wind and rain, has covered the plateau to the 
depth of a foot or more with sand since the works were constructed, is 
about 100 feet high at its northern end and 150 at the southern extrem 
ity. On the narrow crest are three small circular mounds, in which 
were found human bones, fragments of pottery, etc. The same com 
pact earth as found elsewhere was also encountered in these, showing 
them to be the work of the same people. 

WALLED VAULT. 

Iii the side of the eastern bluff, about half way down from the top, 
is a somewhat singular work (marked F). This is a room or vault 
about 11 feet square, excavated in the face of the bluff and roughly 
walled up with flat sandstones. Although many of these stones are 
too large to be handled by an ordinary man, they were evidently 
brought by some means from the sand butte, and several are still on 
the top of the bluff above the vault. The back and most of the end 
walls are sustained by the bank, standing from 4 to 6 feet high, but the 
front, although built of the larger pieces, especially about the door 
way, is only about half as high. A careful examination of the interior 
revealed nothing but charcoal, ashes, and decaying firebrands, which 
might possibly have resulted from the burning of a timber roof. 
The regularity with which the walls were built, and the square corners, 
aside from all other indications, suggest that this is of comparatively 
recent date, and the work of a different people from those who con 
structed the circle and mounds of the plateau. It was probably made 
by some white or half-breed trapper within the past two centuries. 

Among the results of the exploration of this interesting group may 
be noted the following: That, although human skeletons and bones 
were found in great numbers in the mounds and under the surface 
of the plateau, none were found within the pottery circle or nearer than 
200 yards of it. Those found were sometimes mingled promiscuously 
with charcoal and ashes, but were usually whole skeletons, frequently, 
but not always, lying horizontally near the natural surface of the 
ground, without any apparent system, except that they were uniformly 
covered with from 1 to 3 feet of very hard earth, seemingly mixed with 



104 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

ashes or something- of a similar nature and color, giving this covering 
the appearance of dried lime or mortar. 

Fragments of pottery were found in abundance in the circle, in the 
mounds, in the washouts, and in fact at almost every point in the area 
covered by the group. Judging by the fragments, for not a single 
entire vessel was obtained, the prevailing forms were the ordinary 
earthen pot with ears, and a flask or gourd-shaped vase with a rather 
broad and short neck. The latter were the larger ones and were usually 
too thin for use in cooking, or even for holding liquids. The paste of 
which this pottery was made had evidently been mixed with pounded 
shells. The only ornamentation observed consisted in the varied forms 
given the handles or ears, and indentations or scratched lines. 

Nearly all the implements found were of stone, exceedingly rude, 
being little Ise than stone flakes with one sharp edge, many of which 
appear to have been resharpened and used as knives, scrapers, and 
skinners. Some had been worked into moderately fair perforators or 
drills for making holes in horn, bone, or shell, specimens of all these 
with holes having been found. 

The immense quantity of charred and fractured bones, not only of 
fishes, birds, and the smaller quadrupeds, such as the rabbit and fox, but 
also of the bear, wolf, elk, and deer, shows that the occupants of this 
place lived chiefly by the chase, and hence must have used the bow and 
arrow and spear; yet, strange to say, less than a dozen arrow or spear 
heads were found, and these so rude as scarcely to deserve the name. 
A single true chipped celt, three sandstones Avith mortar-shaped cavi 
ties, and a few mullers or flat stones used for grinding or some sim 
ilar purpose, were obtained. The specimens of other materials obtained 
consist of fragments of horn, evidently cut around by some rude instru 
ment and then broken oif at about a finger s length and possibly 
intended to be shaped into more perfect implements, or probably 
handles for knives. Several horn and bone punches and awls were 
also found, and among them one that is barbed, and another with a per 
foration through the larger end. 

ANCIENT INCLOSURE ON HAYS S FARM. 

On the farm of Mr. A. D. Hays, 2 miles southwest of New Albin, is 
the circular inclosure shown in Fig. 49. This is situated on the lower 
bluff just above the point where the Little Iowa river enters the Mis 
sissippi. The bluff here is about 100 feet higher than the bottoms 
which border these streams, and continues along the Mississippi for 
some distance at about the same height, with small circular mounds 
scattered over its surface; but the plateau slopes gradually to the mar 
gin of a deep ravine which enters the Little Iowa upon the western 
side. This area, including the circle, has been under cultivation for 
twenty-one years ; but, notwithstanding the wear, the lines of the works 
were distinctly traceable throughout. 



THOMAS.] 



INCLOSURE ON HAYS s FARM. 



105 



The circle consists of three parallel ditches and two intermediate 
earthen walls. The inside ditch (before the works were disturbed) was 
probably 5 or 6 feet deep and 12 feet wide ; the inner wall the same 
width ; the middle ditch 4 feet deep and a little over 12 feet wide ; and 
finally, the outer ditch 4 feet deep and about the same width as the 
wall. As will be seen from the figure, the inclosure is circular, with a 




f 





FIG. 49. Inclosure on Hays s farm, near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa. 

break on the side where it strikes the southern margin of the bluff 
overlooking the slough that runs into the Little Iowa river. The cir 
cumference of the circle, exclusive of the break, is 996 feet, and the 
extent of the break along the bluff 225 feet. At the southeast an 
embankment some 10 or 12 feet wide and from 3 to 5 feet high runs 
down the crest of a narrow spur about 150 feet, gradually taDering to a 



106 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

point. The slope on which this work is situated, like that at the pot 
tery circle, is considerable, but very smooth and even. The location is 
a good one for defense and was in all probability selected by the ancient 
people who erected the works on this account. 

The most singular parts of the works at this place are three stone 
structures, to which the name " furnaces " has been applied by the peo 
ple of this locality. One of these was found in a small mound within 
the inclosure (marked A in Fig. 49) and two not in mounds, outside 
and about 80 or 90 paces from the northwestern part of the circle. 
Light traces of those outside of the wall remain, while of that in the 
inclosed mound only about 1 foot of the wall was visible. But Mr. 
Hays, who has owned and occupied the land for twenty-one years and 
since it was first opened for cultivation, gave the following information 
in regard to them : The one in mound A, and the other, not shown in 
the figure, were each 18 feet long, each formed of two parallel walls 
about 3 feet high and 3 feet apart, composed of flat sandstones (yet to 
be seen close by), roughly laid up, and gradually drawn in near the top 
until one layer would cover the opening left in the top near that end. 
The inner stones stood fire well, as shown by the indications on them. 

Mound A in the circle is 24 feet in diameter, and now only about 1 
foot high. Fragments of pottery, stone chips, Unio shells, and pieces 
of bone are still abundant in and about the work, and especially among 
the stones in the mound. 

FISH S MOUNDS. 

These are situated on the lands owned by Mr. Fish, near the Missis 
sippi river, a short distance below the point where the Little Iowa joins 
it. Those of one group are placed along the crest of a ridge running 
parallel with the river, and about one-fourth of a mile therefrom. They 
number about 30; circular in form, and varying from 20 to 40 feet in 
diameter. One singular feature was observed; those on the higher 
and sandy ground having a core of clay about the same size and form 
as those on the firm clay portion of the ridge, though to the latter a 
layer of several feet of sand was added, making them appear much 
larger and more recent than the others; yet upon opening the two 
classes, the contents, consisting of decaying human bones, fragments 
of pottery, and rude stone implements, showed no perceptible differ 
ences. 

In one of the mounds opened two skeletons were found, lying hori 
zontally side by side, facing each other. They were at the base of the 
hard clay core, which seemed to have formed a perfect roof, while the 
sand, upon a sharp ridge, formed the flooring, thus protecting them 
from moisture and preserving them longer from decay than where less 
favorably situated; the skulls were obtained almost uninjured. 

Many mounds similar to these were found along the foothills of these 
rocky bluffs. 



THOMAS.] FISH S CAVE. 107 

Upon the terrace below these mounds, where the railroad track has 
been graded lengthwise, was a line of comparatively large mounds, the 
remaining portions of which show that, although from 6 to 15 feet 
high, and composed mainly of sand similar to that around them, they 
had a hard central core of clay mixed with ashes, from 2 to 4 feet high, 
under which was generally found at least one skeleton. Several stone 
hatchets, arrow and spear heads, and a few copper chisels, were found 
by the first explorers. One of the mounds, 32 feet in diameter and 8 
feet high, contained a walled circular vault, represented in Fig. 50 ; 
this, like the stonework in the furnaces, did not have the true arch, 
but, as the main portion of it, which still remains standing shows, it 
was built of flat stones, and gradually lessened in diameter as it rose, 




FIG. 50. Walled mound, Fish group, Allamakee county, Iowa. 

being covered at the top by a single stone. It contained a single adult 
skeleton in a squatting posture, with which was a small earthen vase 
of the usual globular form. 

FISH S CAVE. 

This is simply a fissure in the vertical face of the sandstone bluff 
facing the Mississippi, about 6 miles south of New Albin, which by the 
action of the river or other means has been enlarged to a cave or rock 
house 40 or 50 feet long and 12 feet high. The elevation is so little 
above the Mississippi that it must be at least partially flooded during 
high water. The walls and ceiling are literally covered with rude etch 
ings, representing quadrupeds, birds, turtles, bird tracks, totems, and 
symbolic or fanciful objects. These figures range in length from 2 or 
3 inches to 2 or 3 feet, and proportionally in width, and are cut into 
the soft rock from one-fourth to a full inch in depth, the width of the 
lines exceeding their depth. The width of these lines appears to have 
been increased by a crumbling process which must have gone on for a 
time after they were cut, but was checked by the formation of a dark- 
colored and hard crust over the surface, which now protects them. 1 
The floor was covered to the depth of 2 feet with a mass of refuse mate 
rial consisting of fish and other animal bones, fragments of pottery and 
stcne, charcoal, and ashes mingled with dirt. 

A tracing of the figures was made and handed to Col. Garrick Mallery, for use in 
his study of Sign Language. 



108 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

CLAYTON COUNTY. 

The ancient remains of this county are chiefly effigy mounds or em 
blematic works similar in character to those found in Wisconsin, and 
evidently attributable to the authors of those singular structures. So far 
as could be ascertained, these works are only found on the west side of the 
Mississippi, between Yellow river on the north and the Maquoketa on the 
south and westward, a distance of some ten or twelve miles. As will 
be seen by reference to a map of this region, this small belt is directly 
opposite that portion of Wisconsin which seems to have been the chief 
home of the effigy mound-builders, where, as well as in this small por 
tion of Iowa, they have left enduring evidences of a dense population 
or long occupancy, as the bluffs, the terraces, and even higher bottoms 
of the river subject to occasional overflow are alike dotted over with 
effigies and the usual accompanying small circular mounds and lines of 
earthworks. 

ELKPORT EFFIGY. 

This is situated on a bluff overlooking Turkey river near Elkport, 
about 10 miles west of the Mississippi, and is 120 feet long, nearly one- 
half its length consisting of an extremely elongated tail, which is in 
strong contrast with the short legs. It is probably intended to represent 
the otter. The greatest height of the body is 5 feet, the main portions 
of the extremities from 2 to 3 feet, but the tail tapers to a point. 

There are many other interesting works along Turkey river and 
upon high bluffs above McGregor, notably effigies of antlered elks, 
uniformly in lines or groups heading southward. Unfortunately the 
sketches made of these were so defaced by subsequent exposure to a 
heavy rain as to render them valueless for reproduction. 

Near the town of Clayton is another group of these works, which con 
sists of an extended line of effigy and circular mounds. 

DUBUQUE COUNTY. 

Near the town of Peru, immediately south of the mouth of Maquoketa 
creek, situated on a dry, sandy bench or terrace some 20 feet or more 
above a bayou which makes out from the Mississippi, is a group, 
mostly of small circular tumuli. As the relative positions may possi 
bly furnish some aid to the archeologist in studying their several uses, 
a sketch of the group is given in Fig. 51. Fifty years ago, according 
to the old settlers, this ground was covered with a heavy growth of 
timber, which was removed for the purpose of cultivation ; but the 
larger portion having afterwards been abandoned, most of the mounds 
are again covered with a young forest growth. A number were opened, 
but only detached portions of a skeleton were found, as a skull in one, 
a leg, arm, or other part in another, four or five adjacent ones appar 
ently aggregating one entire skeleton. Some of these bones are 
charred and all are much decayed, indicating great age. Otherwise 



THOMAS. I 



MOUNDS OF DUBUQUE COUNTY, IOWA. 



109 



nothing peculiar was observed in this group, except the arrangement 
of the mounds, which is shown in the sketch. Nos. 34, 35, 36, and 37 

are four oblong mounds, vary 
ing in length from 40 to 110 
feet, and from 1 j to 4 feet in 
height. The inner portions 
were found to be of hard, com 
pact earth, as is usual in this 
region. 

EAGLE POINT GROUP. 

This group is about 3 miles 
above Dubuque on the bluffs 
and terrace fronting the Mis 
sissippi. The larger number 
of the mounds about 70 
all of which, except two ob 
long ones, are small and con 
ical, are on a level terrace 
about 50 feet above high- 
water mark. On a bluff im 
mediately west of these is .a 
single embankment or mound 
about 300 feet long, 20 feet 
broad, and 3 feet high; and 
on Eagle point proper, imme 
diately north, which is the 
point of a bluff some 200 feet 
high overlooking the river, 
are several low circular and 
two long mounds and a stone 
cairn. 

Eleven of the small circular 
mounds on the terrace were 
opened thoroughly, but noth 
ing found in them except 
some charcoal, stone chips, 
and fragments of pottery. 




FIG. 51. Group near Peru, Dubuque county, Iowa. 



Ill an excavation made in the center of the long mound on the wesl 
ern bluff two decayed skeletons were found. Near the breast of one of 
them were a blue stone gorget (shown in Fig. 52) and five rude stone 
scrapers; with the other, thirty-one fresh- water pearls, perforated and 
used as beads. 

An excavation was made in one of the long mounds on the point, and 
also in one of the circular ones. Both were found to be composed of a 



110 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



very hard cement or prepared earth, which could be broken up only 
with the pick, when it crumbled like dry lime mortar, and was found 
to be traversed throughout with flattened horizontal cavities. These 
cavities were lined with a peculiar black felt-like substance, specimens 
of which were carefully preserved. There is scarcely a doubt that 
these cavities mark the spaces occupied by a body or bodies buried 
here, and it is possible that this felt-like substance is the remnant of 
the fleshy portion of the bodies. An examination for the purpose of 
deciding this point will be made and reported hereafter. 

WAPELLO COUNTY. 

The diagram of the area between Eldon and lowaville along the Des 
Moines river, shown in Fig. 53, is constructed from a careful examina 
tion of the ground 
and the statements 
of Mr. J. H. Jordan, 
who has resided 
here since the close 
of the Black Hawk 
war, and was the In 
dian agent to the 
Sacs and Foxes from 
the time of their re 
moval thither after 
the war until Black 
Hawk s death, Sept. 
15, 1838. Between 
the two points 
named stretches the 
noted Iowa bottom, 
which is at least 2 
miles wide at the 
middle, about which 
point formerly stood 
the old agency; near 
the same point is the 
present residence of 
Mr. Jordan. The 

FIG. 52 Stone gorjjct, Dubuque county, Iowa. position of Black 

Hawk s grave, the 

race tracks, the mounds of the lowas, the mounds of the Pottowata- 
inies, and the place where the scaffolds for their dead stood are also 
indicated on the plat. 

This valley had long been a famous haunt for the Indians, but at the 
time of Mr. Jordan s first acquaintance with it was in possession of the 
lowas, whose main village was around the point where his house stands. 




THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS NEAR IOWAVILLE. 



Ill 



The race course consisted of three parallel hard-beateii tracks nearly a 
mile in length, where the greater portion of the Iowa warriors were 
engaged in sport when surprised by Black Hawk and a large portion 
of them slaughtered, in 1830. After Black Hawk and his warriors had 
departed with their plunder the remaining lowas returned and buried 




FIG. 53. Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello county, Iowa. 

their dead in little mounds of sod and earth from 2 to 4 feet high at 
the point indicated in the diagram. 

After the Black Hawk war the remnant of the lowas, by a treaty, 
formally ceded their rights in this valley to the Sacs and Foxes. Here 
this noted chief was buried, in accordance with his dying request, in 
a full military suit given him by President Jackson, together with the 
various memorials received by him from the whites, and the trophies 



112 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

won from the Indians. He was placed on his back on a puncheon 
slanting at a low angle to the ground, where his feet were sustained 
by another, and covered with several inches of sod. Then a roof-shaped 
covering of slabs or puncheons, one end elevated and the other lowered, 
was placed above. Over all was thrown a covering of earth and sod 
to the depth of a foot or more, and the whole surrounded by a line of 
pickets some 8 or 10 feet high. The subsequent stealing of his bones 
and their return to his friends have been recorded by the historian and 
poet, and need not be repeated here. 

VAN BUREN COUNTY. 

MOUNDS NEAR DOUD. 

These mounds are some 18 in number, circular in form, of rather 
small size, and placed in a nearly straight line upon the very crest of 
a remarkably straight and sharp ridge, 30 or 40 feet higher than the 
plateau upon which the town is built. 

One denoted No. 1, about 25 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, had 
been previously opened by Mr. Doud, and yielded two gray disks each 
4 inches in diameter, a grooved stone axe and stone chips. 

No. 7, about 20 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was explored and 
found, as usual, to contain a core of hard earth, but nothing else. 

No. 12, diameter 25 feet and height 4 feet, was found to contain, be 
neath the hard core and lying on the original surface of the ground, 
decayed human bones and three fragments of dark colored pottery. 

No. 14, opened, nothing found. 

No. 15, same size as No. 12. In this, beneath a very hard core and 
lying horizontally on the original surface with head north, were the 
remains (scarcely more than traces) of a human skeleton. 

LEE COUNTY. 

Upon the bluffs near the junction of the Des Moines river with the 
Mississippi were many circular mounds, mosi: of which have been opened 
and numerous articles mostly of intrusive burials obtained therefrom. 
Several were opened by the Bureau agent, but nothing found in them 
save decayed human bones, fragments of pottery and stone chips. 

ILLINOIS. 
JOE DAVIESS COUNTY. 

Overlooking the city of East Dubuque (Dunleith) is a line of bluffs 
whose grassy slopes and summits are dotted over with ancient mounds 
of unusual symmetry, some of them above the usual size for this section 
of the country. The relative positions of these mounds to one another, 
to the bluffs, and to the river are shown in the diagram (Fig. 54). 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS AT DUNLEITH. 



113 



The following list gives the respective sizes and a brief statement of 
the results of the explorations made in them. They are all of the usual 
conical form : 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 


Feet. 




1 


12 


3 


Stone cairn. Goals, ashes, etc. 


2 


42 


5 


Human bones. 


3 


43 


4 


Nothing found. 


4 


46 


8 


Contained a stone crypt. 


5 


70 


12 


Large skeleton, copper ornaments, etc. 


6 


40 


8 


Opened, but result unknown. 


7 


40 


4 


Do. 


8 


32 


5 


Human bones. 


9 


34 


4 


Opened, but result unknown. 


10 


20 


3 


Nothing found. 


11 


25 


3 


Result unknown. 


12 


60 


9 


Vault and human bones. 


13 


45 


4 


Reopened, result given hereafter. 


14 


25 


3 


Skeletons. 


15 


45 


6 


Bones. 


16 


65 


10 


Vault found. 


17 


50 


8 


Opened, result unknown. 



Nos. 18 to 26, inclusive, form a line of nearly connected mounds, from 
30 to 50 feet in diameter and 4 to 7 feet high. 

A section of the bluff through the line of mounds No. 13 to No. 17 is 
shown in the lower part of Fig. 54, in which is seen the general slope 
of the upper area. 

No. 5, the largest of the group was carefully examined. Two feet 
below the surface, near the apex, was a skeleton, doubtless an intrusive 
Indian burial. Near the original surface of the ground, several feet 
north of the center, were the much decayed skeletons of some 6 or 8 
persons, of every size, from the infant to the adult. They were placed 
horizontally at full length, with the heads toward the south. A few 
perforated Unio shells and some rude stone skinners and scrapers were 
found with them. Near the original surface, 10 or 12 feet from the 
center, on the lower side, lying at full length upon its back, was one of 
the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as 
proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet. It was all 
clearly traceable, but crumbled to pieces immediately after removal 
from the hard earth in which it was encased. With this were three 
thin, crescent-shaped pieces of roughly hammered, native copper, 
respectively 6, 8, and 10 inches in length, with small holes along the 
convex margin ; a number of elongate copper beads made by rolling 
together thin sheets; and a chert lance-head over 11 inches long. 
Around the neck was a series of bear teeth, which doubtless formed a 
necklace; there were also several upon the wrists. Lying across the 
thighs were dozens of small copper beads, which perhaps once adorned 
12 ETH 8 



114 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



the fringe of a hunting shirt. These were formed by rolling slender 
wire-like strips into small rings. 

A partial exploration of ]So. 4 was made in 1857, revealing masses of 
burned earth and charred human bones mingled with charcoal and 
ashes. A further examination revealed, on the lower side, the end of a 




Vertical Section on dotted line^ a -a 



FIG. 54. Mound group, Dunleith, Illinois. 

double line of flat stones set on edge, about a foot apart at the bottom 
and adjusted so as to meet at the top in a roof-shaped arch or drain (for 
which it was probably intended). This extended inward nearly on a. 
level, almost to the center, at which point it was about 3 feet beneath 
the original surface of the ground. Here a skeleton was discovered in 
a vault or grave which had been dug in the ground before the mound 



THOMAS.] MOUND NO. 4 AT DUNLEITH. 115 

was cast up. Over that portion below the waist and the dislocated 
right arm, which was drawn below the waist, were placed flat stones 
so arranged by leaning as to support each other and prevent pressure 
on the body; no traces of fire were on them, yet when the upper por 
tions were reached, although extended in a natural position, they were 
but charred remains, scarcely traceable amid the charcoal and ashes 
of a fire that had nearly consumed them. 

It was apparent that a grave had first been dug, the right arm of the 
skeleton dislocated and placed beside it below the waist, and this part 
covered; then the remainder burned to a cinder and over all a mound 
raised, which covered, in addition thereto, a pile of charred human 
bones, charcoal and ashes. The mound, vault, and drain are repre 
sented in Fig. 55. (1, outline of the mound; 2, the vault, and 3, the 
drain.) 

A partial examination was made of mound No. 13 in 1857, showing it 
to be similar to the preceding, so far as then explored. Further explo 
ration brought to light a circle of stone slabs 10 feet in diameter, set on 




FIG 55 Vault in Mound No. 4, Dunleith, Illinois. 

edge at the natural surface of the ground. Within this circle, at the 
depth of 3 feet, were five skeletons, two of adults, two of children, and 
one of an infant. They were all lying horizontally side by side, heads 
south, the adults at the outside and the children between them. 

No. 15, except a roof or arched stratum 2 feet thick of prepared earth 
or mortar, so firm as to retain its form for several feet unsupported, 
was found to be an ossuary or heap of human bones in a promiscuous 
mass, many of them decayed. Only an ankle bone which had reunited 
after being broken was saved. 

The most interesting feature of the group was found in Xo. 16, a. 
symmetrical mound 05 feet in diameter and 10 feet high. 

The first 6 feet from the top consisted of hard gray earth, seemingly 
a mortar-like composition, which required the use of the pick. This 
covered a vault built in part of stone and in part of round logs. When 
fully uncovered this was found to be a rectangular crypt, inside meas 
urement showing it to be 13 feet long and 7 feet wide. The four 
straight, surrounding walls were built of small unhewn stones to the 



116 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



height of 3 feet and a foot or more in thickness. Three feet from each 
end was a cross wall or partition of like character, thus leaving a cen 
tral chamber 7 feet square, and a narrow cell at each end about 2 feet 
wide and 7 feet long. This had been entirely covered with a single 
layer of round logs, varying in diameter from 6 to 12 inches, laid close 
together side by side across the width of the vault, the ends resting 
upon and extending to uneven lengths beyond the side walls. 




FIG. 56. Section of Mouud No. 16, Duiileith. Illinois. 

In the central chamber were 11 skeletons, 6 adults, 4 children of dif 
ferent sizes, and 1 infant, the last evidently buried in the arms of one 
of the adults, presumably its mother. They had all apparently been 
interred at one time as they were found arranged in a circle in a sitting 
posture, with backs against the walls. In the center of the space 
around which they were grouped was a fine large shell, Busycon per- 
verftum, which had been converted into a drinking cup by removing 

the columella. Scattered around this 
were quite a number of pieces of bro 
ken pottery. 

The end cells, walled off as hereto 
fore stated, were nearly filled with a 
fine chocolate-colored dust, which, 
when first uncovered, gave out such 
a sickening odor that it was found 
necessary to suspend operations until 
the next day in order to give it time 
to escape. This dust may be the 
ashes resulting from burning the 
fleshy portions of the individuals buried in the central chamber. A 
bottle of it was saved for future examination. 

A vertical section of the mound and vault, lengthwise of the latter, is 
shown in Fig. 56. In this can be seen the end and partition wails of 
the vault, the cells, the skeletons, the ends of the logs forming the cover 
and the hard central mass of the mound. Fig. 57 shows the plan of 
the vault, the positions of the skeletons, and the projecting ends of the 
logs on one side. The covering consisted of oak logs, nearly all of which 
had been peeled and some of the larger ones somewhat squared by slab 
bing off the sides before being put in place. The slabs and bark thus 
removed, together with reeds and twigs, had been laid over the logs 




FIG. 57. Vault in Mound No. 16, Duiileith, 
Illinois. 



THOMAS.] MOUNDS OF PIKE COUNTY. 117 

to fill the crevices. It was not possible to decide from the indications 
what kind of implement had been used in peeling and slabbing the logs. 
The larger logs extended a foot or more, irregularly, beyond the side 
walls. Over the whole vault had been spread layer after layer of mor 
tar-like material evidently containing lime or ashes, a foot or more of 
ordinary soil, forming the outer or top layer, completing the mound. 

No. 12 was opened some years ago by Dr. Campbell, who found in it 
a vault similar in character to the one described. 

PIKE COUNTY. 

On the spur of the ridge upon which the Welch mounds of Brown 
county, hereafter noticed, are situated, and about midway between 
them and Chamber sburg, in Pike county, is a group of circular mounds, 
possibly the work of another people than those who built the effigies. 

They are mainly on the farm of Mr. W. A. Hume, who assisted in 
opening eight of them, of which but two are specially noticed here. 

The first was 5 feet high and but 25 in diameter, of true conical form. 
It was composed of the usual hard "burial earth" throughout, with 
nothing of interest at the bottom 5 but near the top, scarcely covered 
with earth, was found the skeleton of an adult, doubtless an Indian 
intrusive burial. 

The other, situated on the point of a commanding bluif, was also 
conical in form, 50 feet in diameter and 8 feet high. The outer layer 
consisted of sandy soil, 2 feet thick, filled with slightly decayed 
skeletons, probably Indians of intrusive burials. The earth of the 
main portion of this mound was a very fine yellowish sand which shov 
eled like ashes and was everywhere, to the depth of from 2 to 4 feet, as 
full of human skeletons as could well be stowed away in it, even to two 
and three tiers. Among these were a number of bones not together as 
skeletons, but mingled in confusion and probably from scaffolds or 
other localities. Excepting one, which was rather more than 7 feet 
long, these skeletons appeared to be of medium size and many of them 
much decayed. Some feet beneath all these was a single skeleton of 
ordinary size, much decayed, and with it a bone and skull of some quad 
ruped. 

The other mounds of the group are circular, varying in diameter 
from 30 to 50 feet and in height from 4 to 8 feet. In the six opened the 
only things found were the bones of intrusive burials near the top and 
sides, with a few arrow points and rude, chipped stone implements, 
probably scrapers. 

From a line of ancient fire beds and kitchen heaps along a rivulet 
that runs into McGee creek, near these mounds, some pieces of bones, 
a number of rude stone implements and fragments of pottery were 
obtained. 



118 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



BROWN COUNTY. 
THE WELCH GROUP. 

This group, of which a plan is given in Fig. 58, is on the farm of Mr. 
Edward Welch, 3 miles west of Perry Springs station, Wabash and 

St. Louis Eailroad, on a 
narrow ridge some 200 
feet above the bottom 
lands. It consists of six 
mounds (Nos. 1 to 6 in the 
plan) 
small 



and a number of 
saucer-shaped ba 
sins surrounded by low, 
earthen ridges, doubtless 
the sites of ancient dwell 
ings or wigwams. The 
latter are indicated on the 
plan by small circles. 

Mound No. 2, about 100 
feet in diameter and 8 feet 
high, had a very marked 
depression in the top. A 
pit 6 feet square carried 
down to the natural sur- 
facebroughtto light three 
fire beds at different 
depths. Numerous frag 
ments of pottery, stone 
chips, pieces of sand 
stone, which had been 
used as tool- sharpeners, 
and a flat sandstone 
nearly 2 feet square, on 
one side of which were sev 
eral long, deep grooves, 
probably made in sharp 
ening tools, were also 
found. 

No. 6 was also opened, 
but only disclosed the 
fact that it consisted of 
outer layer of soil 1 




an 



foot thick and the remainder, soil, clay, stone chips, and fragments of 
pottery commingled. 

As the land was in wheat at the time of examination, permission to 
make further excavations in the mounds was refused. 



THOMAS.] ANCIENT WORKS NEAR LA GRANGE. 119 

The dwelling sites vary considerably in size, some being as much as 
70 feet in diameter, and some of them 3 feet deep in the center after fifty 
years of cultivation. 

Mound No. 4 is oblong in form, the longer diameter 165 feet and the 
shorter 90, height 15 feet; regularly truncated, with flat top, the length 
on top about 100 feet. 

ANCIENT WORKS NEAR LAGRANGE. 

These works are on the top of the bluff facing the Illinois river, 
just below the mouth of Crooked creek. The principal area occupied 
is the top of a spur flanked by a ravine on each side and extending 
back from the river with a level plateau. At the back, where the side 
bluffs cease to form a sufficient natural defense, an embankment has 
been thrown up. This extends across the area from one ravine to the 
other, measuring 597 feet in length, leaving a slope of 48 feet to a 
ditch 30 feet wide and 8 or 10 feet below the level of the plateau beyond. 
Immediately within the wall was evidently the main village, as here 
are numerous saucer-shaped depressions or hut rings, and between 
these and the margin of the bluff in a nearly straight line -are three 
mounds, one oblong, the others circular. With or without palisades the 
place must have been easily defended in this direction. 

The only other assailable part of the bluff is a sloping ridge extend 
ing down toward the river on the left. This is fortified by an earthen 
wall, breast high, which follows the windings of the crest and which has 
a mound-like enlargement at each turn or change of slope. 

The length of the nearly level area from the rear wall to the oblong 
mound or embankment is 492 feet; thence to the mound which is 
on the very edge of the bluff the slope is marked and the distance is 
315 feet. There are other mounds outside of the fort on the point of a 
spur across the ravine to the right. 

A considerable collection of stone implements, mostly in fragments, 
was made at this place, gathered from the surface. Only four mounds 
were examined, as the remaining ones had been opened by others, who 
found a number of fine stone hatchets, pipes, arrowheads, gorgets, etc., 
mostly at the tops of the mounds. The dwelling sites are from 30 to 
50 feet in diameter and from 1 to 3 feet deep. 

The four mounds opened yielded only human bones and a few frag 
ments of stone implements. 

In one, diameter 50 feet, height 15 feet, lay a human skeleton at the 
bottom, much decayed. 

In the second, diameter 40 feet, height 10 feet, were decaying bones, 
stone chips, and fragments of pottery. 

No. 3, diameter 60 feet, height 15 feet, full of bones. 

No. 4, diameter 50 feet, height 15 feet, many bones. 

As all the human bones found in the last were near the surface, at 
the top or sides, they are presumably those of modern Indians, and the 
mounds may have been built for other than burial purposes. But those 



120 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

upon the bluff to the right are probably all burial mounds. They are 
mainly of very hard prepared earth, and one of those explored was 
certainly a depository of skeletons removed from elsewhere. 

Upon the level bottom between the bluff and a lake or bayou con 
necting with the Illinois river, and about 2 miles south of Lag-range, is 
a small group of mounds, very interesting from the fact that here we 
see the pyramidal form so common in the south, but so rare in this 
northern region. 

The dimensions of these mounds are as follows (the numbers are 
given merely as means of designating them) : 

No. 1, circular; diameter, 100 feet; height, 5 feet. 

No. 2, rectangular; base, 198 by 117 feet; top, 111 by 30 feet; height, 
30 feet; regularly truncated; top level. 

No. 3, rectangular; base, 165 by 82 feet; top, 105 by 30 feet; height, 
24 feet; regularly truncated; top level. 

No. 4, circular; diameter, 96 feet; height, 15 feet. 

No. 5, circular; diameter, 33 feet; height, 6 feet. 

The size, form, appearance, and surroundings of these mounds seem 
ingly indicate that they are the work of southern inound-builders. 

The neighboring bluffs are covered with the ordinary circular mounds, 
20 to 60 feet in diameter and 4 to 8 feet high. The tops of these had 
already been rifled of the intrusive burials of Indian skeletons, stone, 
and occasionally iron implements and other modern articles. Further 
exploration of the hard central core of many of them revealed only 
decaying human bones and unimportant articles. But those on the 
bottom are of a very different type from those on the bluffs, and prob 
ably are the work of a different people. The bottom on which these 
stand is subject to occasional overflows. Many acres of a dry, sloping 
terrace 2 miles south of this point are strewn with the finest lance and 
arrow heads and other stone implements found in the valley of the Illi 
nois river. Fragments of a better quality of pottery were also abun 
dant, but no entire vessels were found. 

ADAMS COUNTY. 

Upon the east bank of the Mississippi opposite Canton, Missouri, is 
an irregular line of mounds, nearly all of which are circular and vary 
in diameter from 30 to 120 feet, and in height iioin 4 to 10 feet. Two 
of these were opened with the following result: 

No. 1, about 100 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, was composed of, 
first, a layer of soil 2 feet thick, the remainder of compact earth so hard 
as to require the use of the pick. At a depth of 1 foot in the latter, or 
3 feet from the top, was a much-decayed skeleton of ordinary size lying 
horizontally with the head toward the west, about which were some 
fragments of pottery. Nothing else of interest was found. 

No. 2, 60 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was of similar construction, 
but nothing was found in it. 



THOMAS.] 



ANCIENT WORKS CALHOUN COUNTY. 



121 



INDIAN GRAVE PRAIRIE. 

About 5 miles southeast of the preceding on the western shore of a 
small lake is a spot known as "Indian Grave prairie," which in former 
times was a favorite haunt of the Indians. It is a circular area contain 
ing some 50 acres, rising about 5 feet above the surrounding lands, with 
a steep descent all around the margin, and is now a part of the levee. 
Mr. E. E. Thorn, who now occupies and cultivates it, says there is 
neither trace nor tradition of timber having ever grown upon it, but 
that he has found abundant evidence of long-continued occupancy prior 
to its possession by white men. 

Excavations made in several oval-topped mounds brought to light 
nothing except the fact that they were composed mainly of sand like the 
surrounding soil, although decayed human bones are said to have been 
found in some of them. 

Three or four feet in depth of the bank fronting the lake is, in fact, a 
refuse heap mixed with charcoal, ashes, stone chips, and other evidences 
of long occupancy. However, a single bone awl and some pieces of 
pottery were the only articles obtained by the Bureau assistant. 

A small image of pottery, found while plowing near one of the mounds 
on this area, is in possession of one of the residents. 

CALHOUN COUNTY. 

This county is a long narrow belt of land lying between the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers immediately above their junction. It consists chiefly of 
an elevated ridge from 250 to 300 feet high, flanked on each side by 
rich alluvial bottoms bordering the two rivers, its sides being cut by 
numerous deep ravines. The upland is irregular and broken, some of 
it too much so for cultivation, though the soil is rich. 

Mounds are comparatively numerous over this area, the larger por 
tion being found on the uplands. 

The first group examined was one consisting of four mounds situated 
on the NW. J, Sec. 34, T. 10 S.,E.2W. These are placed along the top 
of a spur of the ridge, about 250 feet above the bottoms ; the immediate 
position being flanked on the east and west by deep ravines. The fol 
lowing table shows the respective sizes of the tumuli and their courses 
and distances from one another, commencing with No. 1 at the north 
west end of the series and measuring from center to center; 



Xo. of 
mound. 


Bearings. 


Distance. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


1 




Feet. 


Feet. 

55 by 35 


Feet. 
4 


1 to 2 


S.47 E 


342 


15 by 16 


1 


2 to 3 
3 to 4 


S.75 30 E... 
S.5730 E.... 


310 
103 


40 
39 by 29 


6 
6 


4 to 5 


S. 45 E 


94 


28 by 20 


4 


5 to 6 
6 to 7 


S.3345 E.... 

S 9 5 E 


71 

100 


33 by 22 
61 by 34 


3J 

6 


7 to 8 


S 31 E 


120 


34 by 28 


4 1 













122 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The construction of No. 1, which stands on the highest point occu 
pied by the group, proved to be very simple. Passing through the 
vegetable mold Fig. 59, c, some 3 inches thick, a layer of earth d was 
reached which formed the mass of the mound, and was similar in char 
acter to the soil of the surrounding surface of the ridge. Under this 
was a pile of stones b resting on the original surface, 
except where excavated, the area covered measuring 
13 by 9 feet. Below this at g was an excavation in the 
original soil, 7 feet long by 2 feet wide, and a little more 
than a foot deep. In the bottom of this grave was a 
single badly decayed skeleton lying at full length on 
its back. Over it was earth mixed with stones, which 
I filled the grave. There were no indications that bark 
3 or any other wrapping had been used. 
Mound No. 2 was in fact nothing more than a single 
layer of stones covering an area of about 16 feet in di- 
g ameter, placed here doubtless to shield from the wild 
| beasts the half dozen bodies or skeletons buried beneath 
^ them. On top of the stones was a fire bed, showing 
-A that a fire had been built immediately after the stones 
were placed, as it lay on the stones but not on the mold 
which covered them. 

Mound No. 4 was found to consist after passing 
through the vegetable mold (e) chiefly of yellow clay 
6 from the surrounding surface. This was interrupted 
g only by two small heaps of stone, as shown in Fig. 60 
(plan and section), / indicating the clay layer and g and 
I h the stone heaps ; m is an excavation in the original 
surface. In this grave, which was but little more than 
$ 6 inches deep, was a single skeleton, resting on the 
right side, head northwest. There were no indications 
of wrappings or other covering than earth. 

Mound No. 5, which stands on the edge of the ridge, 
had been partially opened before. Its construction was 
similar to that of No. 1, except that the stone heap was 
smaller, and the form and arrangement of the grave be 
neath different. This grave was nearly 6 feet by 5, and 
18 inches deep. Slabs of limestone were set on edge around the sides. 
It contained a single skeleton, resting on the left side, accompanied by 
a shell needle, and surrounded by a quantity of light ash-like sub 
stance almost filling the grave. The bones were slightly decayed and 
the skull was crushed. 

The next group examined is situated on the SE. J Sec. 29, T. 10 S., 
R. 2 W., on the main ridge, probably 300 feet higher than the river bot 
toms. This consists of 12 mounds, two of which were excavated with 
the following results : 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



123 



Mound No. 1, between 3 and 4 feet high, diameters 31 and 22 feet, 
is oval in outline and somewhat flattened. It proved to be a simple 
heap of earth covering a single grave or slight excavation, in which 
lay a single skeleton at full length on the back. 

Mound No. 2 of this group presented the same method of construc 
tion as No. 1. 

In Fig. 61 is presented the plat of a group on the NE. \ Sec. 31, T. 
10 S., R. 2 W., the land of Mr. William I. Wilkinson. It consists of 
twelve mounds, situated on the top of a ridge some 200 feet above the 
river bottoms. They are all of the ordinary conical type, varying in 
diameter from 20 to 50 feet, and in height from 2 to 5 feet, as will be 
seen by reference to the following table (measurements from base to 
base). 



No. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Diameter. 


Height. 






Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


1 






33 by 30 


4 


Ito 2 


]S T .50W.. 


40 


30 by 26 


3J 


2 to 3 


N.55iW. 


41 


30 by 30 


3 


3 to 4 


1S T .84W.. 


62 


33 by 31 


3* 


4 to 5 


N. 80 W. 


44 


32 by 29 




5 to 6 


K". 81 W. 


114 


45 by 37 




6 to 7 


N.62W.. 


10 


28 by 21 


4 


7 to 8 


N. 41 W 


130 


50 by 20 




8 to 9 


K34W.. 


66 


40 by 23 


5 


9 to 10 


N. 34| W. 


95 


50 by 32 


5J 


6 to 11 


N.62 W.. 


55 


35 by 24 


3 


7 to 12 


N.41W.. 


62 


20 by 20 


2 



No. 2 is 40 feet from edge of ridge. 

No. 2, 3 feet high, was nothing but a simple heap of earth covering 
five skeletons, two of which were bundled, the others stretched at full 
length. These lay at different depths, from 1 to 3 feet, those at the 
latter depth being on the original surface of the ground. There was 
no excavation or grave beneath this mound. A Unio shell and two 
chipped implements were found with two of the skeletons. 

Mounds Nos. 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were of the same type, the only differ 
ence being that some of them contained but one skeleton, while others 
contained two or four. 

No. 7, standing near the edge of the ridge, presented some slight 
variations from the six mentioned. In this, which was 4 feet high, was 
found, at the depth of a few inches, a dark sticky mass about 2 feet in 
diameter and 1 foot thick, seemingly of burned animal matter, which con 
tained fragments of burned human bones, charcoal, and ashes. Under 
this was a layer of burned earth some 10 or 11 feet in diameter. Lower 
down and nearer the margin of the mound was another similar, but 
smaller, dark mass also mixed with burned human bones and charcoal. 
A single skeleton rested on the original surface, near the southwest 



124 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



edge of the tumulus. Two bird-shaped stone pipes (No&. 134706 aud 
1347G7) were taken from the layer of burnt earth and three chipped 
implements were also found in the same layer. 

No. 8, a section of which is shown in Fig. 62, also presents some vari 
ations worthy of notice. In this figure, e is the surface accumulation of 
vegetable mold, 3 inches thick ; / the yellow clay body of the mound, 
2 feet thick ; h a mass of burned clay ; A: a layer about 2 inches thick 
of dark, greasy earth; m an excavation in the original soil. The clay 
mass h had been burned to a brick red, and in the center was as hard 
as a brick. The grave was about 6 feet long by 2J in width, and con- 





FIG. GO. Mound No. 4, Sec. 34, T. 10, E. 2, Calhoun county, Illinois. 

tained the skeleton, probably of a female, lying on its back at full 
length. Immediately under the southwest end of the burned clay 
mass were the charred remains of three skeletons; and at g fragments 
of charred animal and human bones. 

A mound on the NE. J Sec. 15, T. 10 S., E. 2 W., standing on the 
brink of a bluff, presented the following features: It measured a little 
over 4 feet high and 30 feet in diameter, and was composed entirely of 
clay from the surface of the ridge immediately to the west, as was 
apparent from an excavation at this point some 2 feet deep. Contrary 
to the rule, this contained no covering of vegetable mold. The north 
ern, eastern, and southern margins were strengthened by flat stones 
(see Fig. 63), probably to prevent washing, as the surface of the ridge 
sloped rapidly away in these directions. 

The important feature of the mound was the number of skeletons 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



125 



found scattered through it, most of them intrusive and at various depths. 
The mode of burial was somewhat different from the usual custom in 
this region, though resembling that in mound No. 2 of the first group 
mentioned. The first three were in the eastern side at the depth of 12 
inches, lying at full lefigth ; the fourth at the depth of 9 inches, the 




bones of which had been charred before burial ; the fifth at the depth 
of 6 inches, bundled, lying on one flat stone and covered by another. At 
another point were three skeletons, at the depth of 9 inches, one of them 
at full length, the other two bundled. Four other skeletons, at the depth 
of a foot, were lying at full length on one layer of stones and covered by 
another. Mne others were scattered through the mound at various 
depths, some between stones and most of them bundled. 



126 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Underneath the mound were two excavations in the original soil ? 
the one marked a being but 2 J feet long, 2 feet wide, and 18 inches deep. 
In this were the bones of a single skeleton, but in such confusion as to 
make it evident they were buried after the flesh had been removed. 
The other excavation, &, 7 feet longby 2 wide and 2 feet deep, contained 
a single male skeleton lying at full length, face up and head south. The 
bottom of the grave under this skeleton was covered with decayed 
vegetable matter to the depth of 2 or 3 inches. 

Several relics were found in this tumulus, all with the skeletons. 
These were as follows: Two arrow points, a banner stone (134776); a- 
broken pot (134772) with the skeleton in grave ft; a stone celt (134775), 
a shell, a lot of bone beads (134770); a piece of lead ore (134773); and a 
grooved stone axe (134771). 

The next group examined, consisting of twenty mounds, is in the 
northwest quarter of Sec. 2, T. 9 S., E. 2 W., located along the narrow 
crest of a ridge rising from 125 to 300 feet above the Illinois river. 
The distance from 1 to 20 (at the opposite ends of the line), following 
the bend, is above three- sevenths of a mile. The following table gives 
the courses and distances of the mounds from one another, measuring 
from center to center, and the size of each : 



Number. 


Direction. 


Distance. 


Diameters. 


Height. 






Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


1 






65 by 45 


5 


1 to* 2 


N.2133 W... 


86 


25 by 20 


li 


2 to 3 


N.23 39 W... 


313 


31 by 27 


2 


3 to 4 


X.502 E 


74 


39 by 32 


4 


4 to 5 


N.3410 E.... 


93 


55 


5 


5 to 6 


X. 1933 E.... 


45 


17 


3 


6 to 7 


N 


30 


20 by 17 


1 


7 to 8 


X. 14 05 E .... 


149 


57 by 19 


3J 


8 to sta. a 


;N.2 03 E 


512 






Sta. a to 9 


E 


49 


40 by 25 


7 


Sta. a to 1 


X.240 E 


143 


44 by 30 


5 


10 to 11 


TS. 2 31 W .... 


103 


J8 by 30 


6 


11 to 12 


N.25 23 W... 


58 


26 by 16 


2 


12 to 13 


N. 1837 W... 


72 


26 by 21 


2 


13 to 14 


N. 17 22 W . . . 


95 


31 by 22 


H 


14 to 15 


N. 24 29 W . . . 


42 


32 by 24 


3 


15 to 16 


1ST. 26 53 W... 


. 93 


22 by 20 


2 


16 to 17 


N.2250 W... 


99 


50 by 40 


7 


17 to 18 


X.18 W 


86 


23 by 14 


2 


18 to 19 


X.28 W 


190 


24 by 15 


2i 


19 to 20 


N.38=>08 W... 


149 


59 by 45 


9 



Xo. 1 stands on the southern end of the ridge, occupying the full 
width of the top, which is here about 125 feet above the river. The 
structure, positions of skeletons, etc., are shown in Fig. 64, in which 
are presented vertical sections both of the length and width. 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



127 



In these, e is the surface sod, 2 inches thick; the remainder,/, down 
to the natural ground, consisted of yellow clay taken from the top of 
the ridge; g-g, the line of the original surface; Nos. 1 to 10 skeletons, h, 
a small fire bed, and A-, a flat stone resting on it. Skeleton 1, 6 inches 
below the sod, lay at full length, face up, head south; 2 and 3, at full 
length, faces up, heads northeast, at the depth of 10 inches; 4, on the 
original surface of the ridge, stretched out, head northwest, face toward 
the river. The bones in this case were more decayed than those fur 
ther up in the mound ; and near by was the fire bed, h also on the 
original surface. This was small, measuring but 2 feet in diameter, 




FIG. 62. Vertical section of Mound No. 8, NE. J Sec. 31, T. 10, R.2 W., Illinois. 



and not more than 2 inches thick; it was covered by a flat stone, fc, 
which bore no indications of fire. No. 5, a skeleton at the depth of 9 
inches, face up, head southwest; 6, at the depth of 15 inches, head 
southwest, face down, an unusual position; 7, at a depth of 3 feet, 
bones in a heap with the skull on top, the heap resting on the natural 
surface. No 8, but 3 inches below the sod, at full length, face up, head 
southwest; 9 and 10, at the depth of 10 inches, heads northeast. 

Most of the burials in this mound seem to have been intrusive or 
made at different periods. A few shell beads with skeleton Xo. 1 were 
the only relics found. 




FIG. 63. Vertical section of mound on SE. \ Sec. 15, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois. 



Mounds 2 and 5 were constructed much like Xo. 1; the former con 
taining no skeletons; the latter, which had been partially opened be 
fore, containing several skeletons, three of which remained. These 
were intrusive, all at full length, faces up. 

Mound 6 was similar in construction to the preceding. Under the 
northern end and resting on the natural surface of the ridge was a 
fire bed some 6 inches thick and 3 feet in diameter, of charcoal, ashes, 
and burned human bones. Judging by all the indications Mr. Middle- 
ton, the explorer, concluded that the body or skeleton of a medium- 
sized person had been placed on the surface of the ridge, face up, head 



128 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



eastward, and a fire kindled over tbe middle portion, consuming the 
larger bones. The skull does not seem to have been affected by heat. 
Another fact worthy of notice is that the earth immediately over the 
bones showed no indications of fire. 

In the southern end of the mound lay another skeleton at full length 
on the surface of the ridge, with the head south. 

Mound 7 was not thoroughly explored because of a large hickory tree 
standing on it. The construction so far as it could be made cut was as 
follows: 2 inches of sod, then the body of clay as usual: below this, 
resting on the surface of the ridge, was a layer of thoroughly burnt 
clay stretching nearly across the mound; this was covered with coals 
and ashes to the depth of 2 inches. Under this layer of burnt clay 
were the charred remains of a skeleton. The indications were that the 
body in this case had been buried in the flesh. 




Fio. 64. Vertical section of Mound No. 1, NW. Sec. 2, T. 9, R. 2 W., Illinois. 

Another group examined is situated on the W. of Sec. 2 and E. J 
of Sec. 3, T. 9 S., R. 2 W. This consists of 5 mounds varying in diam 
eter from 30 to 60 feet and in height from 3 to G feet; on the crest of a 
ridge as usual. 

All except one had been previously explored, and in one of them a 
box-shaped stone grave found. 

No. 4, the smallest of the group, the one which had not been dis 
turbed consisted of a top layer of vegetable mold and a body of clay 
as usual. Resting on the surface of the ridge near the center was 
a pile of flat limestones, which were probably brought from the 
eastern end of the ridge near by. This pile covered a space 12 feet 
in diameter, being 2J feet high in the center. The spaces were filled 
with decayed vegetable material, and the outer stones bore indications 
of weathering as though the pile had remained uncovered for some 
time after it was built. At the northern base of the heap, partly sur 
rounded by it, was a box-shaped stone grave 5 feet long and 2 feet wide. 
It was complete, having stones both at bottom and top, though the latter 
had fallen in. In it were two skeletons apparently of young persons, 
on their backs, but faces turned towards each other, heads east. They 
were surrounded by decayed vegetable or animal matter. Immedi- 



GROUP NEAR HARDIN, CALHOUN COUNTY. 



129 



ately east of the center of the mound and partially covered by the 
stone pile was a decayed skeleton lying at length on its back, head to 
the south. 

There are a number of groups on the western side of the county in 
the vicinity of Hamburg, most of which have been explored; one, how 
ever, appears to have been overlooked. This is located on the NW. ^ 
Sec. 1, T. 10 S., II. 3 W., on the crest of a ridge some 200 feet or more 
above the river level, and consists of six mounds. 

The dimensions of these are as follows : No. 1, diameters 01 by 23 feet; 
height, 4 feet. No. 2, diameters, 50 by 34 feet; height, 5 feet. No. 3, 
diameters, G6 by 37 feet; height, 6 feet. No. 4, diameter, 25 feet; height, 
4 feet. No. 5, diameters, 60 by 35 feet ; height, 6 feet. No. G, diame 
ters, 57 by 30 feet ; height, 3 feet. 

In No. 4 nothing was observed of interest except a small fire-bed on 
the natural surface of the ridge under the center of the mound. There 
were no indications of burials. 

The construction and contents of No. 5 were as follows : A layer of 
vegetable mold 3 inches thick ; then 2 feet of clay surface soil very hard 
and difficult to work ; under this, conforming to the shape of the mound 
and resting on the surface of the ridge, was a layer of earth about 9 
feet in diameter. This covered a mass of burnt clay 5 feet long, 3 feet 
wide, and 18 inches thick, which had been burned to a brick red and 
was in fragments. At the south end was a small heap of ashes which 
had probably been raked off the fire beds, and in the same locality 
but at the depth of 18 inches, was a skeleton resting at full length 
face up, in or under a small fire-bed. Judging from the indications, 
clay had been placed over the middle part of the body on which a fire 
had been kindled. As the bones were not charred it is probable the 
flesh had not been removed before burial. In the northern part, at the 
depth of 3 feet, was another badly decayed skeleton. 

Mixed in the fire bed were a number of charred human bones; parts 
of two skeletons, apparently intrusive burials, were found in the upper 
layer. 

Another group situated a short distance north of Hardin on the NE. 
i Sec. 27, T. 10 S., K. 2 W., stands on the margin of a bluff, about 200 
feet above the Illinois river. Directly in front of the mounds the bluff 
breaks down perpendicularly for about 40 feet. 

The dimensions are as follows : 



No. 


Diameters. Height. 


Feet. Feet. 


] 


93 by 100 19 


9 


47by2G 3 


3 


93 by 84 


16 


4 


25 by 21 


H 


5 


21 by 15 


- 



12 ETH- 



130 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. 1, the only one of the group explored, proved to be very inter 
esting. As will be seen by reference to Fig. 65, showing a vertical 
section, it is located on the very brink of the precipice. 

The upper portion (a) to the depth of 14 feet was a single layer com 
posed chiefly of yellow clay obtained from the surrounding surface of 
the bluff. Near the center, at the depth of 4 feet, was a horizontal 
bed (b) of hard, gray earth apparently muck from the river, 8 inches 
thick and covering an area about 20 feet in diameter, and three feet 
lower another bed (c) of burnt clay about the same thickness and 
extent as the preceding. Although particles of charcoal were mixed 
through the latter no ashes were observed on or about it. 

At the depth of 14 feet the top of what seems to have been the nucleus 
or original mound was reached, over which the heavy mass of clay had 
been cast at some subsequent period. Over this lay a thin covering of 




FIG. 65. Vertical section of Mound Xo. 1, NE. See. 27, T. 10, R. 2 AV., Illinois. 

white, ash-like material (//) not more than 2 inches thick and extending 
on all sides to the original base. This rested, for the most part, on a 
single layer of stones (##), the latter lacking several feet of extending 
to the outer margin. Examining carefully the stones which formed 
this layer, evidences of weathering on the upper side were distinctly 
visible, showing that the mound must have remained undisturbed at 
this height for a considerable length of time. The thin stratum of ash- 
like material seems to confirm this view as the decayed stems of grass 
found near the outer margin show that it was produced by burning a 
covering of grass which had probably grown over it. The dark spots 
(d and e) indicate two small fire beds resting on the layer of stones. 

Eemoving the stones and cutting a trench through the low, broad 
original mound or nucleus to the natural surface of the bluff, the con 
struction was found to be as shown in the figure. By z is indicated 
an oval basin, 10 by 13 feet, lined throughout with a layer of stones (m), 
similar to those above. It was filled with the yellow surface soil of the 
ridge and covered with the layer of stones g g. The stones below also 
bore distinct marks of weathering, and were covered with a thin layer 



THOMAS.] ALTAR MOUND. 131 

of a white material like ashes mixed with decayed leaves and grass. 
Under these stones and resting on the natural surface of the ridge was 
a thin layer of decayed vegetable matter (r). The slopes i i surround 
ing the basin were of yellow clay similar to that of the thick upper 
layer of the mound. The dark spots h and Jc indicate small fire beds. 

Partly under and partly in the bottom layer of decayed vegetable 
matter and exactly in the center of the mound was a single skeleton (o) 
lying on the back at full length, the feet to the south, but the head was 
wanting. Not a tooth or particle of the jaw or skull was to be found, 
though careful search was made. As all the other bones were well 
preserved and comparatively sound, except that the pelvis and some of 
the ribs were broken, it is presumed that the head must have been 
removed before burial. This is the second instance observed in which 
the head had been thus removed. The first was noticed at Pecan 
Point, Arkansas. 

Six feet south of the center of the mound was a small deposit of 
burned bones lying on the natural surface of the bluff. Seven feet 
west ot the center, lying on the original soil, were the remains of an 
infant (s), which had been doubled up until the knees touched the 
chin, wrapped in a grass covering, and placed upon its left side. 

A seashell (Busycon perversum) from which the columella had been 
removed, converting it into a drinking cup, which was at the right 
shoulder of the skeleton, and a fragment apparently of another similar 
shell, were the only relics found in the mound. The latter was in a 
stone box or cist 2J feet square and 1 foot deep, resting on the natural 
surface of the ridge. Not a fragment of bone was found in this box. 

Another singular feature observed consisted of three small pits (n, #, 
x) under the eastern base of the upper layer. These were three holes, 
from 15 to 18 inches in diameter and 1 foot deep. One of them con 
tained particles of rotten wood. There were several intrusive burials 
in the thick upper clay layer which presented nothing of special inter 
est. 

It would seem from the facts and figure given that we have in this 
tumulus a specimen of the Ohio " altar mound" type, as what we have 
called the nucleus or original mound is in fact one of the so-called 
" altars" of the type described by Messrs. Squier and Davis. 

MADISON AND ST. CLAIB COUNTIES. 

On the line separating these two counties is the celebrated Cahokia 
group, which includes the giant structure known as the Cahokia or 
Monk s mound. 

In the fall of 1882 Mr. William Me Adams was engaged by this Bureau 
to make an exploration and preliminary survey of this interesting re 
gion, but his work was suddenly cut short at the end of a month by 
severe winter weather. 



132 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The first mounds visited were those on Wood river where it emerges 
from the highlands and enters the bottom. This bottom, which extends 
southward from Alton along the Mississippi, is generally known as the 
"American bottom." Many small mounds are found on the bluffs in 
this vicinity, as shown in the accompanying map. (Fig. 06.) An oval- 
shaped one some 5 feet in height, situated on the sloping bluff between 
the forks of the stream, was of a yellowish clay much more compact 
and tenacious than the loess of the bluff. At the depth of 5 or 6 feet 
were the crumbling bones of a human skeleton. The body had evi 
dently been buried extended, with the face upward. With the bones 
were some ashes, but none of the bones showed any indications of 
having been burned. No relics of stone or other material were found. 




Fi<;. (56. Ay nod river mounds, Madison county. Illinois. 



An adjoining mound on the west and of nearly the same size was 
opened, but presented nothing materially different from the first. Sub 
sequently, however, in a small mound on the bluff above the railroad 
track, on thewest side of Wood river, a human skeleton was discovered, 
at the depth of about 2 feet, much decayed; the skull, however, was 
preserved. 

On this bluff there had been, in times not very remote, numerous 
burials without the erection of mounds. Some of the bones were but a 
few inches beneath the surface of the ground. 

The next excavation of any importance was made in a mound on the 
bluffinSt, Clair county, near the line between St. Olair and Madison 



THOMAS.] CAHOKIA MOUNDS. 133 

counties and nearly east of the Great Cahokia mound. This was con 
ical in shape and formed a landmark for some distance around. At 
the depth of about 3 feet the earth, which was a yellowish clay, became 
dry and very hard and quite different in character from the loess of the 
bluff on which the mound stands. At the depth of about 12 feet a 
layer of ashes, nearly an inch thick, was disclosed, and a foot below 
this another layer of ashes a foot or more in thickness. Excepting some 
thin, flat pieces of sandstone there were no relics nor other remains, not 
even a portion of bone. Below the ashes the earth showed the effect 
of heat for a few inches, but seemed to be the undisturbed surface of 
the bluff. 

Near this mound the projecting point of the bluff has been changed 
to form a flat circular platform that might, in times past, have served 
for some aboriginal purpose, possibly an outlook or signal station, as 
it occupies one of the highest points and overlooks the whole plain of 
the Cahokia. Numerous excavations in* this vicinity revealed the fact 
that at one time the top of the bluff had been a burying place, and 
from a small elevation in the loess, that might originally have been a 
mound of some dimensions for the place is under cultivation a toler 
ably well-preserved skull was obtained. There were three entire skel 
etons in the mound, the skulls of two being crushed. 

These burials were made by laying the bodies on their sides or backs, 
with the Jimbs straight. The form of the skull seems to be a common 
one on the bluff, but, as the explorer thinks, somewhat different from 
those found by him in the bottom or low lands. No relics of any kind 
were found with these bones. 

It is worthy of note that nearly all the relics found at the Cahokia 
group of mounds have been taken from the low ground between the 
mounds. The remarkable find of pottery, implements, and shells made 
by Mr. Me Adams in the winter of 1881 was in the low land a short dis 
tance from the northeast corner of the great mound. The articles were 
nearly all taken from a square rod of ground. This has been to some 
extent Dr. Patrick s experience in making his fine collection of pottery. 

The real burial place of the builders of the Cahokia mounds probably 
is yet to be discovered. 

The bank of Cahokia creek during the occupation of the mounds was 
evidently more to the south than its present line along the eastern part 
of the group. The old bank is still plainly visible, as shown in PI. 
VI. The low land between this old bank and the creek is now cov 
ered with forest trees. All along this bank, which forms the edge of 
the plateau on which the mounds stand, are abundant evidences of 
occupation in remote times. In digging 2 or 3 feet at almost any point 
along this bank indications of fireplaces are found, with numerous river 
shells, broken pottery, and kitchen refuse. As all the arable ground 
about the mound has been in cultivation many years, it is quite possi 
ble that some of the burial places, which are usually quite shallow, have 



134 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

been destroyed, as pieces of human bones are very common in the 
plowed fields. 

The location, forms, and heights of the various mounds of the Oahokia 
group as given in the annexed diagram (PI. vi) are from Mr. McAdams s 
survey and are believed to be strictly correct. The figures on or by 
the mounds indicate the height. 

The next excavations were made in the mounds at Mitchell, on Long 
lake. The principal digging was done in the base of the large mound 
through which the railroad tracks run. Bones and sea shells had been 
discovered here by some workmen in digging a trench through the base 
of the mound between two railroad tracks for the purpose of laying a 
water pipe to the lake. This ditch was reopened, then widened out, and 
the spot fully explored. There seemed to have been 4 or 5 skeletons of 
adults, which lay east and west. A great number of whorls of sea 
shells had been buried with them, probably taken out in forming drink 
ing cups or water vessels. These shells are from a few inches to a foot 
or more in length and belong mostly to the genus Busycon. 

The mound from which these shells were taken was nearly square in 
shape, 100 paces on each of its sides, 25 or 30 feet in height, with aflat, 
level summit. It is now, with the exception of a small portion in the 
center between two railroad tracks, obliterated, a part only of the base 
remaining. 

In removing the western side of the mound a few years ago, to make 
a road across Long lake, many human remains were found and, with 
them, implements of stone, bone, and copper. The mound was composed 
principally of black dirt or soil, and wherever excavations were made 
in the base, at the depth of 3 or 4 feet, the original under soil of the 
surrounding prairie, a yellowish sandy loam, was reached. This is the 
mound from which Mr. Henry E. Howland obtained the copper articles 
described and figured in his paper in the bulletin of the Buffalo Acad 
emy of Sciences, 1877. 

In addition to the maps already given, Mr. McAdams prepared a map 
of the western part of Madison county, including one range of sections 
in the northern part of St. Glair county, showing the location and rel 
ative positions of the various groups of mounds named. This map is 
shown (on a reduced scale) in PI. vii. 

RANDOLPH COUNTY. 
STONE GRAVES ON THE MILL TRACT. 

These are situated aboul half a mile north of Prairie du Rocher, on 
a long ridge that runs in a westerly direction nearly across the nar 
row bottom of a small creek that flows through the village. This 
ridge, which is about 25 feet higher than the bottom land, descends 
gradually from the hills to the west, having a steep slope on each side. 
The soil is yellow, tenacious clay. The graves were on the rounded top, 



THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES, RANDOLPH COUNTY. 



135 



some little distance back of the point. All were of the usual box shape 
and all but one more than 6 feet long ; some of them were so near the 
surface as to leave the tops exposed. The position of the head of the 
skeleton could easily be determined in all but three of them before the 
cover was removed, by the form of the grave, as the cists were wider at 
one end than the other, and somewhat coffin-shaped. They usually 
measured from 2 to 2 feet in width at the head, but only a foot or even 
less at the other end, the depth from a foot to 18 inches. In fact, it 
seems that in some cases the body must have been placed in position 
and the side and end stones fitted to it. In these cases slabs of lime 
stone were first placed in the bottom of the excavation, as the pieces 
forming the sides and ends rested edgewise on these, usually two pieces 



CreeJi 




Road to P^airU da. Rocher 



FIG. 67. Stone graves on Mill tract, Randolph county, Illinois. 

to a side and one at each end. Where the two pieces at the sides 
joined, there was a smaller piece thrust at right angles between them, 
the main projection being outward. The cover consisted of a single 
layer of these slabs, in some instances without breaking the joints, in 
others overlapping each other. In other cases the pieces forming the 
walls and ends appear to have been put into position before the bot 
tom was lined. In some of them a single slab formed one side ; if 
more than one slab was used, they either overlapped or another was 
added to strengthen the joint. The stones were obtained from the 
hillside a few rods farther up the ridge. 

The bodies buried in these graves were covered to a depth of 2 or 3 
inches with the yellow clay of the ridge; the covering over the graves 
consisted of limestone. The respective positions are shown in Fig. 67. 



13f> MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The positions of the bodies in the graves were as follows: 

Grave No. 1 : Skeleton on the back at full length, head to the 
south, face up. 

Grave No. 3: Skeleton on the back at full length. A small earthen 
pot was buried with it, but was so soft when found that it could not 
be moved before it had crumbled to pieces. 

Grave No. 4: Skeleton at full length on the back, head to the east, 
but face turned over toward the south. 

Grave No. 6: Skeleton bundled, but the skull in the east side of the 
cist with the face up. 

Grave No. 7 : Skeleton at full length on the back, head south, but 
face turned toward the west. 

Graves Nos. 8 and 0: Skeletons at full length on the back, faces up, 
heads to the south. 

Graves Nos. 11 and 2: Skeletons at full length on the back, heads 
east. 

With the exception of that in grave No. 6, the bodies appear to 
have been buried without removing the flesh. 

THE DE FRENNE STONE GRAVES. 

These graves are just outside of the limits of the village of Prairie 
du Rocher, on the steep point of a ridge of dry, yellow clay, which ter 
minates at the junction of the two branches of the creek, about half a 
mile below the graves previously mentioned. The ridge at this point 
is about 30 feet higher than the road which runs along the side of the 
creek. 

Although a plan of the cemetery and a section of the ridge was 
obtained, as shown in Fig. 08, the respective positions of only a part 
of the skeletons can be given, as several of the graves had been opened 
by other parties. All the cists were built in the same manner as those 
heretofore described, and differed from them only in having the head 
and foot of the same width, and a few of them also contained more 
than one skeleton. Five of them Nos. 21, 22, 23, 26, and 28 were 
graves of infants. The largest of these, No. 21, was only 15 inches 
long; the smallest, No. 26, only 9 inches long, 5 inches wide, and 4 
inches deep (inside measurement in all cases). Mrs. Morude, an old 
Belgian lady, who lives here, informed Mr. Middleton that when they 
were grading for the foundation of their house she saw skulls with 
the hair still hanging to them taken from these graves. It is there 
fore more than probable, and, in fact, is generally understood by the 
old settlers of this section, who derived the information from their 
parents, that these are the graves of the Kaskaskia and other Indians 
who resided here when this part of Illinois began to be settled by the 
whites. 

At the point of the hill the graves were but slightly covered with 
earth. In some instances this covering was not more than 6 inches 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 




UIIVSESIT 




THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES, RANDOLPH COUNTY. 



137 



deep, but toward the back part of the cemetery it reached a depth of 
4 feet. This was probably due in part to washings. 

In grave No. 1 the skeleton lay at full length on its back, head west. 
The skull was saved in good condition. 

Grave No. 2: There were two skeletons in this grave, heads west, 
both at full length on the back. Both skulls were saved. 

Grave No. 4: Skeleton at full length on the back, head west. 

Grave No. 6: This proved to be the largest grave in the cemetery 
measuring 6 feet in length, 5 in width, and 18 inches in depth (inside 
measurements to be understood in all cases). As seen by reference to 
the diagram (Fig. 68), this grave occupies a central position in the 









V%Y ; 

\ "V/,/////.. I 

\ : %%?!l?!Sv!|^ 
x 




FIG. 68. The De Frenne stone graves, Randolph county. Illinois. 

cemetery. It contained five skeletons, four of adults and one of an 
infant; one of the larger was that of a female. They all lay at full 
length on their backs, faces up, and heads north. 

Grave No. 7 : This contained two adult skeletons, both at full length, 
on their backs, heads east, but faces turned toward each other. Both 
skulls were secured in good condition. A clay muller was found with 
the skeleton on the north side and a stone muller with the other. 

Grave No. 9: The skeleton, apparently of a female, at full length, 
face up. With it were lour bone implements, one a tube, one an awl or 



138 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

perforator, one stone chisel, one stone drill, a shell ornament, a stone 
implement, the fragment of an unusually fine flint knife, some green 
paint, red paint, lead ore, and a chipped celt. 

Grave No. 10 : Skeleton at full length on the back, face up, head east. 

Grave No. 14: Skeleton at full length on the right side, head east, 
face north. With it were six bone implements, some shell spoons, and 
two shell pendants, the last from the sides of the head. 

Grave No. 16: Skeleton at full length on the back, face up, head 
west. With it were two earthen bowls by the head, and a single shell 
bead in the right hand. 

Grave No. 18 : The skeleton in this grave appeared to be that of a half- 
grown person. It was, as usual, at full length on the back, head east, 
face north. With it was a single quartz crystal, apparently from the 
region of Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Graves Nos. 21, 22, 23 : The skeletons in these graves all lay on 
their backs with heads east. A pot and shell spoon were found by the 
right cheek of the one in No. 23. The pot stood upright, with the spoon 
in it. 

Grave No. 24 : A single skeleton occupied this grave. It was, as 
usual, at full length on the back, head northwest. Two pots were by 
the head, one on each side, in an upright position. 

Grave No. 27 : In this grave there were two skeletons, at full length, 
heads northeast. Nine bone implements were found with them. 

Grave No. 29: A single skeleton and with it a pot. 

Grave No. 31 : A single skeleton and with it a piece of lead ore. 

No particulars were ascertained in reference to other graves which 
had been opened by other parties, except that all the skeletons were 
lying at full length, as those mentioned. 

STONE GRAVES ON THE BLUFF. 

These are situated on the bluff, just within the Eandolph county line, 
at the mouth of the first large ravine on the road from Glasgow to 
Prairie du Eocher. They are probably the graves mentioned by Dr. 
Wislizenus. 1 

They are located more than 100 feet above the bottom lands, on the 
point of a narrow steep spur. The cliffs immediately south of them 
are perpendicular. Their respective positions, with sections of the 
spur, are shown in Fig. 69. 

As all but three of these graves had been opened previous to the 
visit of the Bureau agent, and nothing peculiar was observed, a detailed 
description is deemed unnecessary. In one of the three which was 
undisturbed the skeleton was bundled, in the other two they lay at 
full length, heads east, faces up. The skull of the bundled skeleton 
was in the east end of the grave. 

i Traus. St. Louis Acad. Sci., Vol. I, p. 66. 



THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES At ROCKWOOl). 



139 



Southeast of Prairie du Bocher, on the bluffs, is auother cemetery of 
stone graves situated much as the one last mentioned, and near by is 
a fine spring. These had all been examined by previous explorers. 
The arrangement was found to be much like the last, one large grave 
with the others around it. 




v x N N. \ x \ \ ^ S\ % \ - V>O^ N 

^M^f<i 



/ / / . / ; l - LL ^imvOiofl^St 




FIG. 69. Stone graves on bluff, Randolph county, Illinois. 
STONE GRAVES AT ROCKWOOD. 

These are situated close to the village of Bock wood on the land of Mr. 
Beed, on a high bench or terrace that stands about 75 feet above the 
bottom lauds. 

The larger portion of them had been explored ; some had been carried 
down by a caving of the bank near which they were placed and others 
removed to make way for foundations of houses. This must have been 
a very extensive cemetery, as the area over which the remaining graves 
extend is comparatively large. The surface, which was level originally, 
seems to have been rounded up somewhat, as though intended for a 
low, broad mound, but so much excavating had been done that no posi 
tive conclusion could be reached on this point. 



140 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The graves were of the usual box shape, and all those which remained, 
except one, measured 5 feet or more in length. The small one, which 
had not been disturbed, was 2 feet square and 18 inches deep, but in 
place of bones were four uninjured earthen pots. 

In addition to the works mentioned, the following- antiquities are 
found in this county: 

MOUNDS. 

AtRockwood; at Prairie du Kocher; 3 miles south of Prairie du 
llocher, on the Simpson place; on the Mudd place; above Old Lafay- 




FKI. 70. Hut rinss near the bank of Big Mary river, Illinois. 

etteon the Kaskaskia river; at Chester; 3 miles south of Sparta, along 
Big Mary river, and at Evansville. 

STONE (JRAVKS. 

At the Bluff ferry; 1 mile south of Rockwood; on the West fork of 
Degognia creek, H miles from the bridge near the Brown farm ; 7 miles 
west of Sparta; 3 miles southeast of Sparta; on Henderson s place on 
Nine-mile creek west of Sparta; on William Cox s old place on the 
Kaskaskia river below the Mobile and Ohio railroad bridge, and on the 
Widow Bovd s nhice. . 



THOMAS.] SORRELS MOUND, JACKSON COUNTY. 141 

VILLAGE SITES. 

Three miles southeast of Sparta, on the left bank of Big Mary river, 
near the stone graves and mounds mentioned above, are the hut rings 
shown in Fig. 70. These are situated upon a flat topped ridge about 
30 feet higher than the creek bottoms. They are low, with the usual 
depression in the center, but the outlines are rather indistinct. Mr. 
Gault, of Sparta, who has long resided here, states that when he first 
moved to this section the Indians lived in houses or wigwams which, 
when decayed, left such remains as these. They hollowed out a shal 
low circular cavity in the surface soil, then, standing poles around the 
margin of this basin, brought them together at the top, and having cov 
ered them with bark or other material in other words, having con 
structed wigwams of the usual circular form covered them in whole 
or in part, especially the lower portion, with earth. He also said that 
after a camp was abandoned and the wood rotted away it left these 
rings of earth. Another of these camping places is situated 8 miles 
west of Sparta. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

THE SORRELS MOUND. 

This is situated 1 mile directly north of Carbondale, on the upper 
level bordering a small creek, at the margin or break where the land 
descends to the lower level and has been in constant cultivation for 15 
or 20 years. It is now nearly circular in outline, a little over 150 feet 
in diameter, 3 feet high, and composed throughout of dark sandy loam, 
with a slight admixture of clay, similar to that of the surrounding sur 
face of the ground, without any indications of stratification. 

Two skeletons were discovered in the central portion at the depth 
of 2 feet and about 10 feet apart. Both were closely folded and lying 
on the side, one with the head north, the other with the head south 
west. Judging from the manner in which they were folded it was evi 
dent they were buried after the flesh had been removed, as it would 
have been impossible to press the bones so closely together with the 
flesh on them, nor could they have assumed this condition in conse 
quence of the decay of the flesh and the pressure of the earth. 

Considerable pottery in fragments and varying in quality was found 
in and on the mound. Some of the pieces in the mound were so situ 
ated in relation to one another as to indicate that the vessels of which 
they had formed parts had been intentionally broken before they were 
buried. Most of the pottery found in the mound was very rude and 
coarse, made of materials not well pulverized and but slightly burned. 
By putting the pieces together one of the vessels proved to be a small 
jar with a flat bottom and, although the form gives it a decidedly modern 
appearance, it is probably the rudest piece of pottery in the National 
Museum. It bears on the outside marks of the grass with which it was 



142 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



surrounded before being burned. The chief interest which attaches to 
this rude specimen (shown in Fig. 71) is its close resemblance in form 
and material to an undoubted specimen of Iroquois pottery in the 
National Museum and its marked contrast with the pottery usually 
found in this part of the immediate valley of the Mississippi. One 
other vessel of similar character and closely resembling it was obtained 
by Mr. Perrine from a mound in Union county, and another similar in 

form but of better quality was found 
by Dr. Palmer in eastern Arkan 
sas; it is believed that these are 
the only ones of this type which 
have been found in the immediate 
valley of the Mississippi. The two 
found in southern Illinois are made 
of dark-colored clay, very slightly 
mixed with pulverized shells. 

On the surface of the mound 
were many small pieces of pottery 
which had probably been turned 
up by the plow, some of them 
undoubtedly attributable to the 
mound-builders. These were of 
much better quality than those 
iound near the skeletons, showing 
FIG. 7i.-Pot from Jackson county, Illinois. g()me attempt at ornamentation; 

some bearing traces of the red coloring often observed in southern 
mound pottery. 

Arrowheads, fragments of flint and greenstone implements, nodules 
of red and yellow paint, two bone awls, part of the carapace of a tor 
toise, Unio shells common in the streams of this section, and fragments 
of deer s horn, were also found. 




MOUNDS NEAR AVA. 



Two of these, small and circular, were discovered on the land of Mr. 
Henry Thompson, 5 miles southeast of Ava. One of them, about 3 
feet high and 20 feet in diameter, contained two empty box- shaped 
stone graves of the usual form, but without cover or bottom. They 
measured 3 feet in length and 2 in width. In the other mounds nothing 
was found except a pile of stones thrown together without order or 
arrangement. They probably formed a stone grave which had been 
disturbed, as the mound had previously been opened. 

On the bank of Rattlesnake creek, a short distance from the preced 
ing, another small conical mound, which was thoroughly explored, 
revealed nothing except a small piece of charcoal. An ancient grave 
close by was excavated with a similar result. 

Three small circular mounds on Mr. Dempsey Williamson s place were 



THOMAS.] VOGEL GROUP. 143 

next examined. These are similar in size and form to those above 
mentioned, each being about 25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. In 
one two empty stone graves without covering or bottom were found. 
They were about 10 inches below the surface, one of them 2 feet 3 
inches long by 2 feet wide and 16 inches deep. In the other was a 
single stone grave 2 feet 5 inches long, 20 inches wide, and 15 inches 
deep. This, like the others, was empty. In the third nothing was dis 
covered but some flat stones. 

That these graves formerly contained human bones can not be 
doubted, but whether they were -removed by explorers of modern 
times or not could not be determined. Though of such small size, it 
does not follow that they were used as depositories of children only, as 
it is not uncommon to find in the stone graves of southern Illinois 
adult skeletons crowded into as small a space as indicated by the 
measurements above given. 

THE VOGEL GROUP. 

This group, consisting of eleven mounds, is situated on the farm of 
Mr. Henry Vogel, about 3 miles from the following, both groups being 
in the Mississippi bottom near Fountain bluff. The relation of these 
mounds to each other is shown in Fig. 72. 

The largest of the group, No. 1, is 12 feet high and 190 feet long by 
130 wide. A trench 15 feet long and 4 feet wide, through the central 
portion, was carried down 12 feet, to the original surface. Considerable 
broken pottery and also a number of animal bones, most of them split 
and broken, were found between 8 and 11 feet from the top. At the 
depth of 11 feet was a bed of ashes mixed with earth and charcoal. In 
this fragments of pottery and bones were more abundant than elsewhere. 

The surrounding land, which is subject to frequent overflows, is com 
posed of a black waxy soil to the depth of 2 feet, and below this of sand. 
The mound was built entirely of this stiff waxy soil ; at the depth of 12 
feet the sand was reached. A wild-cherry tree 6 feet 3 inches in cir 
cumference, stands on the east end. On No. 2, which is 200 feet in cir 
cumference and 4 feet high, there is a walnut stump 9 feet 6 inches 
in circumference. 

No. 3, about 150 feet southwest of No. 1, is 4 feet high and 120 feet 
long by 75 in width. 

No. 4 is 250 feet in circumference and 6 feet high. In this a trench 
22 feet long was dug through the center. For most of the length it 
was carried down to a depth of 9 feet, or 3 feet below the original sur 
face of the ground. Human bones in considerable numbers were found 
at various depths from 6 inches down to 6 feet. Below this no human 
bones were observed, but at the depth of 9 feet some animal bones were 
obtained. As many as 12 skeletons were unearthed, but only 1 whole 
skull was obtained. 



144 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



At tlie depth of ;j feet, and lying by a skeleton, were the spool-shaped 
copper ornaments shown in Fig. T- J. At the depth of 5J feet, imme 
diately under a root about 2 inches in diameter, a small earthen pot 
was discovered near a skeleton. At the same depth, near the feet of 




FIG. 72. Vogcl group, Jackson county. Illinois. 

another skeleton, were the skull and teeth of some large animal. 
At the depth of 6 feet, by the knee of a large skeleton, was a lozenge- 
shaped gorget of slatestoue 4 inches long and 1 inches wide m the 
middle. Under the head of this skeleton was a whole shell and some 
pieces; also a small curiously-wrought stone which was probably an 
ear ornament, as it was at the side of the head. The skull of the skele 
ton, though damaged, was saved. 



THE SCHLIMPERT MOUNDS. 145 

Fragments of pottery, also a few shells (Unios), were scattered 
through the mound at various depths. The earth in this mound was 
more sandy than that of those in the field, and was in alternate layers 
of black soil and sand. 

Mound No. 5 is a little north of west from No. 4, the bases of the two 
approaching within 10 feet of each other. This is about 180 feet in cir 
cumference and something over 5 feet high. On the southern part 
stands a walnut stump 16 feet in circumference, and on the north side 
an ash 7 feet in circumference. Two trenches were carried down 
about a foot below the original surface of the ground. At one point, 5J 
feet below the surface, a skeleton lay immediately beneath roots from 
both trees. One of the roots from the walnut, although 12 feet from 
the stump, was 4 inches in diameter. At another point, at the depth 
of 4 feet, were two small Hint implements, and a foot below this some 




FIG. 73. Spool-shaped ornament of copper. 

human teeth, but no bones, though by looking carefully at the earth 
indications of the other parts of the skeleton, which had decayed, 
were discovered. 



GROUP ox SCHLIMPKRT S PLACE. 



These mounds are situated on Mr. Joseph Schlimpert s land the W. 
J of the NW. J of Sec. 22, in Fountain Bluff township and are located 
in reference to each other as shown in the annexed plat (Fig. 74). The 
soil around them is of a black waxy character, from 1 foot to 18 inches 
in depth, underlaid by sand. They lie near a slough which borders the 
farm 011 the north side, as shown in the plat. Nos. 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 
are mounds, No. 8 a sink or excavation, and No. 9 a platform or terrace. 

No. 6, circular in form, is 60 feet in diameter, a little over 4 feet high, 
and has growing on it several trees, the largest a hackberry 7 feet in 
circumference. It was excavated to and slightly below the original 
surface of the ground, but nothing was found except a few small sand 
stones. The interesting feature of this mound is its internal structure, 
which will be understood by reference to the vertical section shown in 
Fig. 75. 

In the first place a central core of sand c appears to have been 
thrown up 40 feet in diameter at the top (1 to 2), and about 4 feet high. 
Around this apparently in order to secure it, was placed a ring of the 
black waxy soil (66), so as properly to round it off. The V-shaped de 
pression in the top (d) measured 3 feet in diameter at the top and ex- 

12 ETH 10 



146 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tended downward about 2 feet. It was tilled with a mass of hard 
white sand. Over the whole was a layer of sand about 1 foot thick. 

The structure of this mound is suggestive of the so-called " altar 
mounds " of Ohio. Squier and Davis speak in one place of an altar or 
altar-shaped mass of sand found in a mound. 1 









FIG. 74. Schlimpert mounds, Jackson county. Illinois. 

No. 7, 60 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was composed almost 
wholly of the black waxy soil, with here and there small masses of 
sand. Nothing was found in it. 

No. 4 was composed entirely of sand except the top layer; nothing 
was found in it. 



1 Ancient Monuments, p. 156. 



MOUND WITH A SAND CORE. 



147 



No. 5, a small mound, was composed wholly of sand; No. 2, of the 
black waxy soil; No. 1, the largest of the group and somewhat oval in 
form longest diameter, 110 feet; shortest, 100 feet, about 8 feet high 
bore a strong resemblance in its construction to No. 6. 

The central portion of the last was filled with black waxy soil mixed 
with sand containing particles of wood coal. The diameter of this por 
tion was 44 feet. A few flint implements such as spear heads and 
arrow points were obtained from the surface of this mound. 

A very interesting feature of this group is the platform or low, flat, 
rectangular mound, marked No. 9 on the plat. This is about 100 feet 
long, 50 feet wide, and 2 feet high. It is quite level on top and stands 
on the edge of a low bench, so that the eastern side is somewhat higher 
than the western. The sides run a little west of north. 

A short distance northeast of mound No. 4 is a circular sink (No. 8 
on the plat), about 80 feet in diameter and 14 feet deep, which appears 
to be an artificial excavation. 




w ^tf/H^ti^S ,- \ 

^lifftiiiP 

FIG. 75. Section of mound on Schlimpert s place, Jackson county, Illinois. 

Some small mounds on Big Muddy river, in Sec. 22, T. 10 S., K. 3 W., 
were also examined. 

No. 1 is about 75 feet in diameter, 4 feet high, and flat on top. At 
the depth of 4 feet, on the natural surface of the ground, but at dif 
ferent points, were two skeletons of adults extended, with the heads 
west and faces up. Several layers of stone were placed over them, in 
fact the mound, to the depth of 3 feet, was composed in great part of 
flat stones, some of which would weigh probably 150 pounds. The only 
relic found in this mound was a broken flint implement. 

No. 2, a quarter of a mile south of No. 1, although only 3 feet high 
and of the same diameter as the preceding, was largely occupied by 
stone graves. 

Grave No. 1, 2 feet long and 9 inches wide, contained the badly 
decayed bones of a child. 

Grave No. 2, 3 feet long and 10 inches wide, also contained the bones 
of a child; badly decayed. 

Grave No. 3, 3 feet long and 1 foot wide, was occupied by the bones 
of an adult. There was no stone layer in the bottom of this cist. 

Grave No. 4 was 6 feet long and 1 foot wide; No. 5, 4 feet long and 1 
foot wide; No. 6, same size as No. 5, and No. 7, 2J feet long and 1 foot 
wide; each contained the bones of a single adult. 



148 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

ALEXANDER COUNTY. 
WORKS ox MALE S PLACK. 



About half a mile below the little village of Mill Creek, Union county 
(but just across the county line), a long ridge extending southeast ter 
minates in the low ground in the angle at the junction of Cooper with 
Mill creek. On the top of this ridge, at its lower terminus, are two or 
three low mounds and many stone graves, some of which had been pre 
viously opened and pottery, beads, and other articles taken from them. 
These appear to be in the midst of, or rather on, an immense refuse 



\ 
\ 




Fio. 76. Mounds on Hale s place, Jackson county, Illinois. 

heap ; in fact, the whole top of the ridge appears to be covered to a 
depth of from 3 to feet with an accumulation of flint chips, broken 
deer bones, broken pottery, mussel shells, etc. Charcoal, burned lime 
stone, and other evidences of fire are plentifully scattered throughout 
the mass. The locality would probably be better described as a 
" kitchen heap," averaging 4 or 5 feet in depth and covering several 
acres. 

The works and the grounds are shown in the annexed diagram (Fig. 
76). The line a a running across the ridge marks the boundary line at 



THOMAS.] WORKS ON KALE S PLACE. 149 

this point between Union and Alexander counties ; and Mill creek b & the 
boundary line between Alexander and Pulaski counties. The remains 
are, therefore, at the point where these three counties meet, but in 
Alexander. The line e e represents the fence which separates the land 
of Mr. Hale on the right (Sec. 5, T. 14 S., K. 1 W.) from that owned by 
Mr. Hileinan on the left. The boundary of the refuse heap is desig 
nated by the heavy shadings, the mounds by the Figs. 1, 2, and 3. No. 
1 is nearly square and some 6 or 8 feet high 5 on it Mr. Hileman has 
built his dwelling house. No. 3 is a small pile of flint chips. No. 2 is 
irregular in outline, as shown in the figure, and about 4 feet high. 
Permission was granted to make excavations on the east side of the 
fence only. 

Mound No. 2, as before stated, is about 4 feet high. Its length was 
found to be about 100 feet and average width 40 feet. The direction 
of the length is a little west of north. The surface was covered with 
loose flat stones thrown out by former explorers who had made a par- 
tail examination. A trench about 5 feet wide was carried obliquely 
across the middle directly east and west. Scattered through the soil to 
the depth of 5 or G inches were flint chips, fragments of stone and pot 
tery and bits of bones. Lying lengthwise with the ditch, about 6 feet 
from the east end, was an open stone grave or cist, the side stones 
reaching to the surface of the mound but still in place. This we called 
by way of distinction " Grave No. 1." It was 3J feet long and 14 inches 
wide (inside measurement). The top had been removed. The sides 
and ends were of limestone slabs from 1 to 2 feet long by 1 to 1 wide 
and from 1 to 2 inches thick. The contents of the grave had been 
removed by previous explorers. 

Immediately west of this, and 1 foot below the surface, were four 
large, roughly worked flint implements. 

No. 2, immediately east of No. 1, had been partially rifled, but some 
bits of a skull and other bones and some small fragments of pottery 
were found in it. Below the bottom layer of stone, which was still in 
place, was a layer of charcoal and other evidences of fire; the char 
coal stratum rested on a layer of rich black dirt about 10 inches thick, 
which lay on the yellow clay 2 feet below the surface. In this were 
some Unio and turtle shells and bits of pottery. 

No. 3, immediately west of No. 1, was near the surface, but had been 
rifled. 

No. 4, by the side of No. 3, but at a lower level, G feet long, 1 foot 
wide by 7 inches deep at the foot, and 14 inches wide by 12 deep at 
the head, had the boxing stones all in place, those of the cover laid on 
like shingles, beginning at the foot. This contained a single skeleton, 
stretched full length on the back, feet to the east; the head was sup 
ported on deer horns. The skull was secured entire as were also most 
of the long bones. Two roughly dressed flints were found near the 
head, and in the same locality a small perforated bone. 



150 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

No. 5, above and just west of No. 4, and near the surface, measured 
but 2 feet and 10 inches in length. It had been disturbed and, besides 
the dirt, contained nothing but some small bones. 

No. G lay obliquely across the trench; the feet of the skeleton toward 
the southeast at the surface of the ground and uncovered. The bones 
were much decayed. Length of the grave, Of feet. 

No. 7, just west of No. 0, parallel to it, and less than inches from it, 
was 7 feet long; width, from 12 to 10 inches. 

No. 8 lay with head resting below the feet of Nos. and 7; length, 
feet 9 inches. It was covered with several layers of thin flat stones, 
the lowest of which rested directly on the bones ; skeleton at full length 
lying on the back. The skull was crushed by the weight of the stones 
that lay upon it. A few water worn pebbles were noticed in this grave 
and also in No. 7. Signs of fire were observed immediately under the 
layer of stones forming the bottom, indicating that a fire had been 
kindled here and the stones afterward laid on the ashes. Some bits of 
charcoal were mixed with the dirt in nearly all the graves. 

No. 9, immediately north of the east end of No. 8, formed in part by 
the same side stones and covered by the same slabs, was evidently the 
grave of an infant, being but 2J feet long by 14 inches wide. The bones 
were mostly decayed. Near the head in a triangular cavity between 
two stones was a quantity of peculiar pinkish material which contained 
bits of lead ore. At the foot were four or five roughly worked flints 
and as many smaller ones at the head. 

No. 10 was on the north side of No. 9, and very near it, and measured 
2J feet in length by 9 in width. A few infant bones were found in it, 
but mostly decayed. Under these were two rough flints. 

No. 11, near the surface, contained the bones of a child that had not 
lost its first teeth. 

No. 12, also near the surface, contained an adult skeleton lying on 
the back with feet to the south; the skull was broken. A small pot, 
with handle on one side, stood near the back of the head. 

No. 13 was the grave of an infant, being 2 feet long and S inches 
wide. This was under No. 5 and on the same level as No. 14. 

No. 14. This was immediately below No. 8, the sides almost corre 
sponding with the latter, and on the same level as No. 13, that is to 
say, 3 feet below the surface. Length, 5 feet 8 inches. Two fragments 
of fossil wood, placed near the neck of the skeleton, were the only ob 
jects found. 

Below this grave was black soil several incnes thick, and then yellow 
clay. The latter lay 4 feet below the surface of the mound. The size 
of this grave and the small rounded skull render it probable that this 
was the resting place of a woman. 

Nos. 15 and 10. No 10 was on the same level as No. 14, but lay with 
its foot toward the head of the latter. It contained the remains of an 
adult. No. 15 lay in the same direction as and immediately above No. 



TJIOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES ON HALE 7 S PLACE. 



151 



16. It also contained the well-preserved skeleton of an adult, the skull 
of which was secured. 

No. 20, near the surface was 6 feet long and 1G inches wide at the 
head. This grave contained two skeletons the bones of which were 
very well preserved; they were lying side by side, the head of one a 
few inches nearer the end than that of the other. A quantity of red 
paint had been deposited near the chin of the one nearest the end while 
some flat, circular beads, made of mussel shells, placed between their 
breasts. 






FIG. 77. Skull from mound on Kale s place (aide view). 

From about the foot of grave No. 20, trench No. 1 was carried through 
a kitchen heap consisting of an immense number of flint chips, showing 
charcoal, burned limestone, broken bones of animals, broken pottery, 
etc. This was 2 feet deep here and rested on yellow clay. In a pros 
pect hole sunk just west of the foot of grave No. 20, the clay proved 
to be only a layer less than a foot thick, resting on a layer of pure char 
coal. There were no flints in either of these layers, but some broken 
bones, deer horns, and pottery were found in the charcoal stratum. A 
short distance west of this prospect hole, about 18 inches below the sur 
face, the trench cut through some human bones that were not inclosed 



152 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in stone cists 5 the femora and shin bones were lying side by side and 
some fragments of the skull and lower jaw bones with them. 

About 12 feet west of pit No. 1, in another prospect pit, the flint 
layer was from 1J to 2 feet thick and contained fewer bones and pot 
tery; at a depth of about 3 feet were some pockets of charcoal but no 
continuous layer. 

A few graves were found immediately south of trench No. 1, from one 
of which, that of a child, were obtained some univalve shells that had 
been perforated and worn around the neck. This small grave, only 23 




FIG. 78 Skull from mound on Half s place (front view). 



contained some bits of a heavy mineral, 



inches long by inches wide 
perhaps pulverized lead ore. 

Another child s grave contained a single gasteropod shell at the 
chin, another the skeletons of two children; the skull of the lower one 
of these two skeletons was filled with pure light-colored sand, the only 
sand seen in the mound. 

Trench No. 3 was run from near the northeast corner of the mound. 
Graves 1 and 2 of this trench had been disturbed. 

In grave 3 about a foot below the surface, the skeleton was Avell pre 
served. Here a number of shell beads were obtained which had been 



THOMAS.] STONE GRAVES ON HALE*S PLACE. 153 

worn around the waist. A skull and some other bones were found in 
the same grave at the feet of this skeleton. 

No. 4 lay directly below No. 3. From this was obtained a nearly 
perfect skull. It is small and the front narrow. (See Figs. 77 and 78.) 
This grave was one of the lowest tier, as it rested on the natural clay. 

No. 5 was also in the bottom layer. Near the head of the skeleton 
which this contained were two wooden trinkets in the form of elongate 
beads perforated lengthwise. They are about 1 inch long and half an 
inch thick and bear copper stains, rendering it probable they were 
originally covered with a thin plate of this metal. Their position near 
the head probably justifies the belief that they were used as ear pend 
ants. 

No. G was on the same level as No. 5, and close by the side of it. 
There were no indications that this grave had been disturbed, yet the 
skull was standing upright facing the feet, and 
directly in front of it, lying across the skeleton, ^-r** 5 ^ 1 "^ 

were the femora and shin-bones. The lower / . " ,J . -9J 1 ;? * .:- A 

jaw had been dislocated, and placed at the left AW Ik 

side of the skull. The other bones Avere in their Ml 
proper position. A long bone needle was stick- III 
ing up above the jaw, and some flakes of copper mm 
marked with flutings or ridges, like a piece taken mi 
from this mound by Mr. Bankstone, were found lU 
scattered through the dirt. On the bottom of V 
the grave, to the left of the skull and under the ^J 
lower jaw, were the remains of some woven bark 
matting stained with copper, and near the elbow 
of the right arm was an oblong bead of wood 

, , . , , . 1 FIG. 79. Bone plate from 

COated With OXlde OI Copper Similar tO those monncl on Hale s place. 

heretofore mentioned. 

No. 7 was near the surface of the mound. From it was obtained a 
very perfect skull and other bones 5 one femur is curiously deformed. 
No implements or ornaments accompanied the skeleton. 

No. 8 was about 1 foot below the surface with top open. This small 
grave, which was only 18 inches long and 12 inches wide, contained the 
bones of a single skeleton closely packed. The lower jaw, however, 
was missing. The skull was marked on both sides with copper stains. 

Trench No. 4 was run from near the southeast end of the mound, 
revealing two or three disturbed graves. In one of these was a skull 
with jaws open; in another the feet were lying in the wrong direction, 
the only case of the kind noticed. Near the head stood a small mug in 
the shape of some animal. Some thin plates of bone or turtle shell, 
each about 2 inches long, 1 inches wide, very thin, a little cup- shaped, 
and drilled with four or more holes (see Fig. 79), were found lying 
closely packed together in a separate stone grave or box hardly a foot 
long. There was nothing else in the box. 




154 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




In a grave a little to the west of this trench, near the surface, lay 
a skeleton stretched at full length. The skull was small and curiously 
flattened at the back and lying face down. 

The northwestern end of this mound is its highest point, but there 
were no burials in this portion. From the dirt thrown out of one of 
these graves was obtained the Catholic medal shown in Fig. 80. 

Subsequently to the exam 
ination of the works on the Hale 
place above referred to, some 
further explorations were made 
in the large mound, which was 
not completely worked over by 
the agent who first visited it. 
Two additional trenches were 
carried through it, running 
north and south. These re 
vealed the fact that the south 

FlQ. 80. Catholic medal from mound on Hale s place. ejrlp was COUlDOSed of refuse 

matter, mostly flint chips, with some fragments of pottery, bones, deer 

horns, etc. In this part there were no stone graves. 

In a child s grave in the upper tier near the center of the mound was 

a small pot placed by the head of the skel 
eton. In the same part of the mound, 3 
feet below the surface and immediately 
beneath a small walnut tree, was a stone 
coffin 7 feet long, of the usual width, which 
contained three skeletons. The heads of 
two of the skeletons had been separated 
from the bodies to which they belonged 
and laid side by side at the end of the cof 
fin, and the other bones placed at the 
sides near the foot. The head of the third 
skeleton lay on the other skulls. (See Fig. 
81.) The head of this coffin, like most of 
the others in the mound, was toward the 
west. The three skulls were saved. One 
of them is somewhat broken, but was pre 
served because of a singular protuberance 
on the top. In this coffin were some yellow 
paint, Unio shells, and two round stones, 
all lying near the upper skull. 
Several other graves were explored all in fact which had not been 

previously disturbed, but nothing found except skeletons and a few 

river shells. 

INDIAN DIGGINGS. 

Xot far from the little town of Mill Creek, and situated on Sees. 35 
and 30, T. 13 S., K. 2 W. are the so-called Indian Diggings. These 




FIG. 81. Stone grave on Hale s place. 



THOMAS.] WORKS ON LINN S PLACE. 155 

consist of numerous pits which have been dug at some distant day 
along the sides and on the tops, of narrow ridges in quarrying the flint 
or chert found here. They are now partially filled up and covered by 
the forest growth no way differing from that about them. Scattered 
all over the ground in the vicinity of these pits are immense numbers 
of flint or chert nodules, nearly all of which are broken; two only were 
discovered that were unbroken. Several large flint implements were 
also found. 

There are several places in this neighborhood where the flint taken 
from these pits was manufactured into implements, as large beds of 
flint chips of the same stone occur in which are many unfinished tools 
some of them showing good workmanship. 

In the same neighborhood as the preceding, on Sec. 30, T. 13 S., E. 1 
W., a number of stone graves were found and explored, but presented 
nothing different from those already described. However, a discovery 
was made here which deserves notice. 

In the immediate vicinity, in fact but a few feet from some of the 
graves, a stone pavement was discovered about a foot below the sur 
face of the ground. When fully exposed by removal of the earth this 
proved to be level, nearly circular, and about 9 feet in diameter. It 
was composed of flat pieces of limestone so neatly and closely fitted 
together that it was difficult to find a place where the steel prod could 
be thrust down between them. These showed the effect of fire, some 
of them crumbling into lime when disturbed; mingled with and scat 
tered through the earth which covered them were ashes, charcoal, and 
charred fragments of human bones. In this earth was also discovered 
a small clay pot. The graves and pavement are not in or near a mound, 
but on the highest point of a hill and in a cultivated field. 

A number of rude stone implements were found on the surface of the 
ground. There is also one point on the farm where these discoveries 
were made, where the surface is covered with flint chips to such an 
extent that it is difficult to plow it. As the flint diggings are near by, 
it is probable that stone implements were manufactured here, many 
unfinished and imperfect specimens being scattered over the ground. 

UNION COUNTY. 

ANCIENT WORKS ON LINN S PLACE. 

The first published notice of these interesting works was given by 
Mr. T. M. Perrine, of Anna, Illinois, in the Smithsonian Keport for 
1872. 1 

They are situated in the southwest part of Union county (Sec. 30, 
T. 13 S., K. 2 W.), on the bottom land of the Mississippi, a mile or more 
from this river. The immediate spot upon which they are located is a 
portion of the upper level of the bottom land, which is here some 10 or 
12 feet above the swamp land which surrounds it on the west and 



Pp. 418-420. 



156 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



northwest. This area, however, was overflowed in the great rise of 1844, 
and also in 1882, the large mound hereafter described being the only 
part not under water. A creek runs along the east and northeast, sep 
arating the area from the bluff. The soil is a rich deep alluvium, under 
laid by sand, with neither rock nor gravel in place. 
Referring to the annexed plat (Fig. 82) made by Prof. Hull from a 




careful survey taken by him during our visit, we see that a wall, start 
ing on the west side of the creek at the east end of the inclosure, runs 
thence southward to the bend, a distance of 400 feet, where it curves 
southwestward 126 feet. From this point it runs almost directly west 
to the corner 1,168 feet; thence north 1,036 feet to the northwest cor 
ner, thence east to the bank of the creek 569 feet, embracing in these 
boundaries about 28 acres. 



THOMAS.] 



WORKS ON LINN S PLACE. 



157 




The portion of the wall in the field, where it is much worn down, is 
not more than 2 feet high, while that part north of the fence and in the 
woods is from 4 to 5 feet high with indications of a ditch along the in 
side, though nothing of the kind is observable in the field. The width 
in the field varies from 20 to 25 feet, but is somewhat 
less in the woodland where not so much worn down. * 
On this part there are a number of oak trees from 1 to 
2 feet or more in diameter. 

A rough outline figure of the large mound (marked a 
in the plat) as seen from the east at a distance of about 
300 yards is shown in Fig. 83. The little rise at c is a 
low flat mound composed chiefly of fragments of lime- 
, stone partly calcined, situated a few yards immediately 
south of the large mound. The length of the eastern 
side of the large mound, from 1 to 2, is 160 feet;, the 
height at a is 13 feet; at b 11 feet and at m 12 feet. 
These letters, ., &, and m, also mark the places where 
pits were sunk during the first examination. The cir 
cumference of the base is 544 feet. 

At a, the highest point, a pit about 4 feet wide and 
10 feet long was sunk to the depth of 10 feet; some 
pieces of burnt clay, small fragments of human bones 
and flakes of flint were found scattered irregularly 
through it for the first 5 feet, but below this only sand. 

Three other pits were sunk in the depressed portion 
(b). In the first, at the depth of 3 feet, a bed of light, 
dry ashes was discovered, nearly a foot thick but only 
a few feet in extent horizontally. In this were two 
rather large fragments of pottery, one inside of the 
other, as though they had been so placed originally. 
At the depth of 4 feet a pot with ears was found, 
mouth upward. It still retained, in part, its original 
reddish-brown color. 

Below this was a layer of sand similar to that found 
in pit a. Near the surface were some small irregular 
pieces of burnt clay. In the second pit, some 3 feet 
northwest of the first, nothing of interest was found until a depth of 
4 feet was reached. At this point a considerable quantity of charred 
grass and ashes was observed. 

In the third of these three pits a number of rather large irregular 
pieces of burned clay, similar to that already mentioned, were found 
near the surface. About 3 feet from the surface lay a flat rock of con 
siderable size. A foot below this a layer of burned clay was encoun 
tered, the upper surface of which was as smooth and even as pottery. 
This proved to be part of an arch, the central portion of which had 
been broken and thrown down. 




158 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

As the pit sunk by Mr. Perrine was very near this point there can 
be no doubt that this was a portion of the arcli he speaks of. He also 
speaks of a wall of stone. This was not found, unless the large stone 
mentioned formed a part of it. 

This arch or dome of clay had evidently been spread over the surface 
of the mound when it had reached a height of 5 or 6 feet and over this 
dry grass and brush had been spread and burned. A large quantity 
of the charred grass and bits of wood-coal were found around the mar 
gin of this arch as far as explored, making it apparent that the fire had 
been extinguished probably by throwing dirt upon it before the grass 
and brush were entirely consumed. Immediately below the arch we 
came upon a thick loose bed of ashes. 

In another pit the strata were as follows : First, a layer of earth with , 
particles of charcoal mixed through it, 3 feet 8 inches; next, a layer of 
burnt sand and clay with evidences of straw having been used, 3 
inches; then another layer of earth 1 foot 10 inches; then a second 
layer of burnt sand and clay 4 inches thick, with indications of straw; 
next, a layer of sand 5 inches; then a third layer of burnt sand and clay 
3 inches (similar to the others) ; a layer of sand, 3 feet; and last a layer 
of ashes, 3 inches. 

But few things were found during these excavations ; still they are of 
some importance in our efforts to learn the method and object of build 
ing this mound. They consist of burnt straw, grass, and charcoal found 
on the upper side of each layer of burnt clay, the clay itself showing 
evidence of having grass mixed with it. Possibly this admixture may 
have resulted from tramping the grass into the soft clay while spread 
ing it over the surface previous to firing it. 

Fragments of burnt, cherty limestone, similar to that composing the 
little mound at the south end, marked c in Fig. 83, were found all through 
the second trench. Numerous fragments of pottery and several frag 
ments of human bones ; irregular pieces of burnt clay resembling brick ; 
a few fragments of river shells ( Unio); and some rude flint implements 
were also found. Among the ashes at the bottom were some fragments 
of bone and pottery ; one of the pieces of bone was found in the concave 
side of a large fragment of pottery. At another point in the same layer 
were fragments of pottery, bones, and shells. 

Firmly imbedded in the middle layer of burnt clay, was a broken 
pot and with it were pieces of bone. Three feet from the surface and 
above the upper layer of clay, another broken pot Avas obtained; this 
was filled with ashes, firmly packed and mixed with particles of char 
coal. Under the second layer of clay was a small pot filled with sand 
with a thin layer of ashes on the top. At one point between the upper 
and middle layers of clay was a small bed of ashes mixe d with frag 
ments of pottery, animal bones, and a piece of shell. In a small bed 
of ashes under the middle layer of clay were potsherds and some 
broken and split bones. 



THOMAS.] MOUNDS ON ROUND POND. 159 

At a point between the upper and middle layers of clay, with frag 
ments of pottery, pieces of bone and charcoal, was discovered a piece 
of charred wood. 

Mound &, about 450 feet east of a, of the form shown in the pint, is 
190 feet long by 66 in width, and 5 feet high. Two pits were dug in 
this and a few detached pieces of human bones found. 

Mound c is 100 feet in diameter and 9 feet high ; of, a little smaller 
and 6 feet high 5 e, about 150 feet in diameter and a little over 4 feet 
high 5 / and g are circular excavations outside of the wall: the for 
mer 120 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep; the latter with the longer 
diameter 154 feet; depth, 7 feet. Excavations made in the bottom of 
these indicate that they were artificially lined with a coating of stiff 
clay. At s is another sink, apparently artificial, but now partially 
filled with mold of decaying vegetation, leaves, etc. 

The a hut rings" or small circular depressions surrounded by slight 
earthen rings, indicated in Fig. 82 by little circles, are scattered irregu 
larly over the wooded portion of the inclosure, the number exceeding 
100. They vary in diameter from 20 to 50 feet, and in depth from 1 to 
3 feet and are often but a few feet apart. 

MOUND ON RUNNING LAKE. 

This mound, or rather remnant of a mound, is near Running lake in 
the southwestern part of Union county. A part of it had been removed 
for filling purposes on the line of the Mobile and Ohio railroad, which 
runs near it. It appears to have been about 9 feet high, and 60 feet in 
diameter and composed of sand, with the exception of 2 feet of top soil. 
At one point, about 2 feet below the surface, the leg bones of a single 
individual were found ; no other bones were with them ; at another and 
about the same depth were the bones of two feet and a deer s horn. 
Some pots and other implements were obtained from it by parties who 
had previously examined it. The parts of the skeleton found scattered 
through the mound appear to have been separated previous to burial. 

MOUNDS ON ROUND POND. 

These mounds are situated by the side of the public highway near 
the Reynolds place 2 miles from the Mississippi river and on the bank 
of a little lake known as Round pond. Two of them are so close to 
gether that one appears partially to overlap the other as shown in the 
accompanying sketch (Fig. 84). 

No. 1 is 40 feet in diameter, 6 feet high, and of the usual conical form. 
Two trenches near the middle carried down to the original surface 
showed it to be composed entirely of sand except the top layer of soil 
1 feet thick, but no bones or remains of any kind were observed. 
The top had been nearly covered with graves, but they were empty, 
having been rifled of their contents by previous explorers. 



160 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




Fio. 84. Round pond mounds, l T nion county, Illinois. 



No. 2 is only about 25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, and, like the 
other, is composed entirely of sand, except the top layer. On the west 
side, near the middle, were two empty stone graves (c c), each 7 feet 
long, 18 inches wide, and about 1 foot in depth, covered with a thin 
layer of soil. In the road where it crosses the connecting portions 

of tli e two mounds were 
three stone graves (a a 
a) . These, like the two 
in the mound, lay east 
and west,but were much 
smaller, being only 20 
inches long, 16 inches 
wide, and 15 inches 
deep, and were at the 
surface of the ground. 
Two were empty, but 
in the other was a skel 
eton doubled up, the 
skull and trunk lying 
on the left side, the 
lower jaw touching the 
west end of the grave; the trunk was bent double, the backbone touch 
ing the south side. Although confined in this narrow space, this was 
the skeleton of an adult. 

A few flint specimens were picked up from the surface of the ground 
about the mounds. 

ANCIENT GRAVES. 

These box-shaped stone cists are on a spur of the bluffs which bound 
the Mississippi bottoms in the NW. J Sec. 16, T. 13 S., E. 2 W. This 
spur is about 400 feet high, has steep sides and a narrow top. 

Grave No. 1, 2 feet under the surface, lay northeast and southwest; 
length, 6 feet; width, 2 feet; depth, 1 foot; bottom formed of two flat 
stones; each side of five similar stones and each end of two; the cover 
was in three layers, each formed of two rather thick flat stones. In 
the grave were two skeletons, an adult and a child, stretched at full 
length, faces up, and heads southwest. Under the skull of the adult 
were a bone needle and two stone implements. At the feet was a long- 
necked bottle-shaped vase. These remains were covered with very dry, 
yellow earth which well-nigh filled the grave. 

No. 2, 10 feet north of No. 1, was of the same size and form, but the 
top in this case had fallen in. It was 3 feet under the surface, lay east 
and west, and contained one skeleton, at full length upon its back, 
head west, bones comparatively sound. Under and near the skull 
were a small, circular, shell ornament, bone awl, bone needle, and bone 
punch. Two small pieces of thin copper plate were discovered, but 
were so corroded and fragile that they fell into minute particles when 



THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES IN UNION COUNTY. 



161 



handled. This grave was very dry, and nearly full of a loose, dry, 
yellowish earth. 

Four other stone graves were opened in section 20, same township 
and range. These were on a stony bench, east of the bottom, about 30 
feet high. They were of the same form and size as the others, but 
were only about 6 inches under the surface. These graves contained 
nothing but rotten bones. 

Another ancient cemetery is situated on the brow of a high, abrupt 
hill, NW. J Sec. 16, T. 10 S., E. 2 W., at the foot of which is the Upper 
Bluff lake." The graves are of stone, similar to those mentioned. 
Quite a number had been previously opened by Mr. T. M. Perrine. 

Grave No. 1 contained the skeleton of an adult, extended, face up, 
head west. The cover to the coffin, which had not been disturbed, 
was 2 feet below the surface. 

In this grave were one discoidal stone, one shell, and several pieces 
of copper plates. One of the latter, badly corroded, bears the impressed 
figure of a bird, similar to that 
shown further on in PL xvm, but 
wanting the head; the other, 
bearing dancing figures, is fortu 
nately but slightly corroded; it 
measures 6 by 6J inches, and is 
shown in Fig. 85. The latter 
plate was lying flat on the bottom 
rock of the grave at the left of 
the skull immediately above the 
shoulder. 

No. 2, only 2 feet long, was evi 
dently the grave of a child, as 
indicated by the skeleton. In it 
was an earthen bowl. 

No. 3 contained all the bones 
of a full- sized adult, but they were piled together in a coffin only 2 
feet long. Most of them were quite firm, but the skull was broken. 
With them was an earthenware pot with two handles or ears. 

No. 4 was the grave of a child and contained, besides the skeleton, 
two earthern vessels, one a small dish, at the head, the other, a bowl, 
at the feet. Over this grave stands a black oak 9 feet in circumfer 
ence which has evidently grown there since the grave was made, as 
some of the largest roots ran into it. Immediately under the trunk 
was another grave which was partially explored through the large hol 
low of the base. From it was obtained a broken dish. Upon one of 
the graves had been piled as much as a wagonload of stones. This 
was a few feet down the slope of the hill, and contained three skeletons 
and one long-necked water vessel. 

In the majority of the graves opened at this place the skulls were 
12 ETH 11 




FIG. 85. Copper plate bearing dancing figures. 
Union county, Illinois. 



162 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

broken. Although most of the stone coffins were from 5 to 7 feet long 
and the skeletons in them lying at full length, others did not exceed 2 
feet in length and 1 in width. In the latter the bones were in a con 
fused heap, showing that the flesh must have been removed before 
burial. 

In section 29, same township, on land belonging to Mr. Joseph Hind- 
man, is another cemetery of stone graves. It is on a bench about 50 
feet above the creek bottom. Fifteen of these graves were examined. 
The bones in most of them were comparatively firm and well preserved. 

Grave No. 1, 2 feet 3 inches long and 18 inches wide, contained all 
the bones of an adult and a water vessel. 

No. 2 contained only a few badly decayed bones. 

No. 3, 2J feet long and 15 inches wide, contained all the bones of an 
adult, rather firm but the skull broken. 

No. 4, 2 feet long, 18 inches wide, and 15 inches deep, contained the 
bones of an adult. 

> No. 5, 6J feet long and 15 inches wide, contained a single, extended 
skeleton, head west, face up. 

No. 7, 2 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet wide, and 15 inches deep, was filled 
with bones, apparently of three adults, as there were three skulls ; they 
were piled in without order. 

In grave No. 9, 5J feet long and only 15 inches wide, were two ex 
tended skeletons, quite firm, the skulls of which were secured. 

Nos. 6, 8, and 10 contained only badly decayed bones. 

No. 12, 5 J feet long, 18 inches wide, contained one skeleton, extended, 
head west. Bones firm, but skull broken ; by the latter stood a small 
water jar. 

No. 13 was of the same length as No. 12, but only 1 foot wide (inside 
measurement in all cases) ; skeleton extended and bones badly decayed. 

No. 14, length 4 feet, contained the skeleton of a child, extended; 
near the skull a small water jar and a bowl. 

No. 15, 6 feet long, 16 inches wide, contained a single skeleton, 
extended, head west, face up. 

The graves here were not so deep in the ground as those in section 
16, the tops of some of them being only 6 inches below the surface and 
the deepest only 18 inches. 

In the cemetery situated on the NW. J Sec. 16, T. 13 S., R. 2 W. 
is a circular stone grave south of the black oak tree. This grave, about 
5 feet in diameter, was formed by standing on end short slabs of stone 
around the circle. The sides of the grave were slightly flaring. There 
are some reasons for believing that this pertains to an earlier period 
than the other graves, though nothing positive on this point could be 
ascertained. 

The graves on the Hindman place are only about half a mile from the 
Linn mounds, those on the Hileman farm about 2 miles from them, and 



THOMAS.] MOUNDS IN LAWRENCE COUNTY. 163 

those on the hill 3 miles. It is possible, therelore, that the people who 
lived at the Linn farm and built the mounds and other works there 
buried their dead at one or more of those places. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

It was ascertained by the Bureau agent that some of the supposed 
mounds on the bluff or ridge opposite Vineennes, in which skeletons 
have been found are natural hillocks but used as burying grounds by 
the aborigines. 

BROWN S MILL MOUNDS. 

These are on Embarrass river 6 miles west of Viucennes, on the farm 
of Dr. F. E. Austin. There are but two in the group, one 4 and the 
other 6 feet high. Excavations to the base revealed nothing but sand, 
though stone implements and fragments of pottery have been plowed 
up here, some of which were obtained. 

MOUNDS NEAR RUSSELLV1LLE. 

These are situated near the bank of the Wabash about a mile south 
east of the town on the farm of Mr. William Wise. One had been 
opened a short time before the Bureau investigation and a skeleton 
found at the depth of 2 feet; a flat rock was lying over it, but no 
relics of any kind with it. Two others formerly stood near it, but have 
been removed. According to local information several skeletons were 
found at the bottom and with them two iron tomahawks, some pipes, 
some shells and glass beads, and parts of three pairs of beaded buck 
skin moccasins. 

Another mound on the Lawrenceville road, about 3 miles southeast 
of Eussellville, had also been opened and several skeletons found about 
2 feet below the surface, with heads outward and feet toward the center. 
No articles of any kind were with them. 

Near the town of Kussellville formerly stood several mounds, but 
they were excavated in repairing the road. In these w ere found arrow 
heads, a silver breast ornament, two iron tomahawks, a crescent- shaped 
earring, two stone turtles, two copper kettles, a brass ring, and several 
skeletons, all at the bottom of the mound. 

MISSOURI. 
CLARK COUNTY. 

Between Fox river and Sugar creek a sharp dividing ridge, about 
100 feet high, extends for a distance of nearly 2 miles, in a northwest 
erly direction, from where these streams debouch to the open bottoms 
of the Mississippi. 

At an abrupt turn to the east, near the middle, there is a bold point 
much higher, capped by an ancient mound which is surmounted by a 



164 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



station of the U. S. Coast Survey. This is one of a line of circular 
mounds scattered irregularly along the crest of this ridge, as shown in 
the accompanying diagram (Fig. 86). These range in size from 15 to 

50 feet in diameter at the 
base and from 2 to 6 feet 
high. The entire ridge is 
now covered with scatter 
ing large red and white 
oaks and dense thickets. 

The following circular 
mounds, numbering from 
the south end of the line, 
were opened : 

No. 1,30 feet base, 3 feet 
high, in which were found 
only fragments of rude pot 
tery. 

No. 2, very small; noth 
ing found in it. 

No. 3, diameter 35 feet, 
height 5 feet. In the cen 
tral part of this was a box- 
shaped stone coffin, or cist, 
2 feet wide and 7 feet long. 
This was covered by stone 
slabs, as usual, and then 
with enough rougher ones 
to form a heap over it. 
Over this was hard earth 
which filled the interstices 
as though it had been a 
mortar when placed there. 
Over all was a foot or more 
of yellowish earth similar 
to that forming the ridge. 
In the coffin was the skel 
eton of an adult, lying hori 
zontally on the back, but 
too much decayed for re 
moval. No stone imple 
ments or other articles of 
any kind were with it. 

No. 4, a trifle smaller than No. 3, was opened by running a trench 
from the eastern side. For a distance of 15 or 16 feet only ordinary 
earth was encountered, with which the whole mound to the depth of 2 
feet appeared to be covered; then a layer of rough stones, charcoal, 




THOMAS.] MOUNDS IN CLARK COUNTY. 165 

and ashes, with bones intermixed. In fact, the indications were that 
one or more bodies (or the bones) had been burned in a fire upon the 
natural surface of the earth near the center; the coals and brands then 
covered with rough stones thrown on without system to the depth of 
3 feet over a space 10 or 12 feet in diameter, and these covered with 
hard, light-colored earth. Only fragments of charred human bones 
and rude pottery and stone chips were found commingled with the 
charcoal and ashes of the fire. 

Several of the next (and larger) mounds had been previously opened 
by other parties. 

Nos. 16, 23, 25, and 26 were excavated, but nothing of interest was 
obtained from them. All except the last (No. 26) had a hard core in 
the center at the base, but this (No. 26) was composed wholly of ordi 
nary earth similar to that about it, and was easily spaded to the bot 
tom. 

ANCIENT WORKS ON J. N. BOULWARE S PLACE. 

These are in Clark county, but near the line between it and Lewis 
county, and on the land of Mr. John N. Boulware, 10 miles north ot 
Canton. Ordinary circular mounds are found scattered along the bluffs 
and terraces of the Mississippi for 7 miles southward from those here 
tofore mentioned near Fox river, to the group on Mr. Boulware s place. 
This group is on a bench or terrace, from 20 to 40 feet above the open 
bottoms of the Mississippi, and extending less than half a mile there 
from to the bluffs, which rise nearly 100 feet higher. Of these, fifty-one 
are in a woods pasture from which the undergrowth has been removed, 
affording a fine opportunity for exploration. A diagram of this group 
is given in PI. vm. 

No. 4 was opened, and in it, near the top, were found the much 
decayed fragments of a human skeleton and some broken pottery encir 
cled by a row of flat stones, set up edgewise and covered by others 
lying flat above them. Beneath these was a layer of very hard, light- 
colored earth, scattered through which were fragments of charred 
human bones, pottery, charcoal, and stone chips. 

No. 5 was examined, but nothing was found except a core of hard 
earth having the appearance of dried mortar, in which were patches of 
soft charcoal, fragments of pottery, and flakes of stone. 

The road runs near No. 50, and has cut away the eastern portion. A 
trench through the remainder brought to light the femora of an ordi 
nary sized skeleton, but no trace of the other portions could be found. 
With this were some rude stone scrapers, fragments of pottery, char 
coal, and ashes. 

No. 46 is about 60 feet in diameter and 6 feet high, conical and unu 
sually symmetrical. A trench 6 feet wide was carried entirely across 
it. The exterior layer, scarcely a foot thick, consisted of ordinary 
top soil; the remainder was unmistakably composed of dried mor 
tar, in which fragments of charred human bones, small rounded pieces 



166 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



of pottery, stone scrapers, and fleshers were commingled with charcoal 
and ashes. 

As all the mounds opened here presented this somewhat singular 
feature, a very careful examination was made of this mortar-like sub 
stance. It was found that there was a difference between different por 
tions in the same mound, sufficiently marked to trace the separate 
masses. This would indicate that the mounds had been built by suc 
cessive deposits of mortar thus mixed with charred bones, etc., not in 
strata, but in masses. 

All the facts seem to indicate that the builders of these mounds 
burned their dead, and that possibly each family mixed together the 
charred remains, ashes, etc., forming one of these masses, 1 or 2 bush 
els in amount, and then deposited it with others to form the central 
part of the mound. 

The following is a list of the mounds of this group, showing the size 
and form of each : 



No. 


Diameter. 


Shape. ; Height. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 




Ft. In. 




1 


33 


Circular . . 


3 




2 


30 


....do 


3 




3 


42 


....do 


3 6 




4 


45 


. . . .do 


4 fi 


Dug; human skeleton, fragments of pottery, etc. 


5 


54 


....do 


2 Dug ; hard earth like dried mortar. 


6 


46 


....do 


5 Dug; very hard light-colored earth; no remains. 


7 


45 


....do 


4 Dug; no remains in the hard earth. 


8 


35 


....do 


2 6 




9 


30 


....do 


2 




10 


30 


....do 


2 6 




11 


60 


....do 


G 


Dug ; fragments of human bones and round pieces of pot 










tery in a matrix of dried moriar. 


12 


25 


....do 


2 




13 


20 


....do 


1 G 




14 


20 


....do 


1 6 




15 


20 by 15 


Oblong ... 


1 




10 


75 by 20 


Wall- 










shaped . . 


2 




17 


35 


Circular . . 


3 




18 


15 


....do 


1 




19 


15 


....do 


1 G 




20 


54 


....do 


5 




21 


20 


....do 


2 




22 


GO 


...do 


5 ! 


23 


66 


...do 





24 


35 


...do 


3 


25 


50 


..do 


5 


26 


50 


...do 


5 Dug; only fragments of charcoal, ashes, small rounded 








pieces of bones and pottery. 


27 


15 


...do 


2 


28 


30 


...do 


2 


29 


20 


...do ... 


1 G 




30 


20 L.do 


1 G 





THOMAS.] 



"SALT KETTLE POTTERY." 



167 



No. 


Diameter. 


Shape. 


Height. 


Remarks. 


1 


Feet. 




Ft. In. 




31 


20 


Circular . . 


1 6 




32 


20 


...do 


1 6 




33 


20 


...do 


2 




34 


21 


...do 


1 6 




35 


15 


...do 


1 6 




36 


23 


...do 


1 6 




37 


23 


...do 


1 6 




38 


22 


...do 


2 





39 


20 


...do 


2 




40 


15 by 11 


Oblong 


2 




41 


25 


Circular . . 


2 




42 


25 


. do 


2 




43 


45 


..do 


5 




44 


40 


...do 


4 


Dug; dried mortar in appearance. 


45 


20 


...do 


2 




46 


60 


...do 


6 


Dug ; see description . 


47 


40 


...do 


4 


Dug; found only fragments of human bones, and pottery. 


48 


30 


...do 


3 6 




49 


50 


. . .do 


5 




50 


60 


...do 


5 


Dug; found human bones. 


51 


45 


...do 


4 




52 




do 




These four mounds are on the Mississippi bottoms, culti 










vated over for fifty years and much flattened but said 










to have resembled No. 51 in size and form. 


53 




do 






54 




do 






55 




do 

















Excavation, 75 by 100 feet, 5 feet deep; nearly full of water. 

LEWIS COUNTY. 

The only work examined in this county was a mound 2 miles north 
of Canton on the point of a bluff facing the Mississippi bottom. It is 
oblong, the longer diameter being 46 feet and the shorter 32 feet; 
height, G feet. A trench through the middle resulted in bringing to 
light decayed human bones commingled with charcoal, ashes, a few frag 
ments of rude pottery, and stone chips. These were upon the natural 
surface near the center, covered, first with nearly 3 feet of hard earth, 
over this earth similar to the surrounding soil. An oak tree 3 feet in 
diameter was growing on the northern slope. 

The character of this mound and its contents connect it with those of 
Clarke county 

ST. LOUIS COUNTY. 

"SALT-KETTLK TOTTERY." 

This is found near the Clifton Springs, 4 miles south of Kirkwood 
and about 10 miles southwest of St. Louis. 

Following a country road between the low rounded bluffs of a wind 
ing valley, we cross the brook twice within a distance of 400 yards, and 
upon the point of a terrace, between these crossings, we find numerous 



168 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



fragments of pottery fully an inch thick, being the heaviest ancient 
pottery yet discovered in this country. As may be seen by the form of 
specimens collected, the vessels were of unusually large size. No entire 
vessels, however, have been found, but the fragments show that they 
were low and shallow, like a salt pan or kettle, and destitute of ears or 
handles. 

As its popular name, "Salt-kettle pottery/ indicates, it is generally 
supposed to have been used in making salt. 

A careful examina 
tion of the pottery was 
made and the channel 
of the brook enlarged 
and deepened above 
and below, and a large 
drain made through 
the lowland beyond it, 
without discovering a 
fragment of the pot 
tery or of the charcoal 
or ashes of any ancient 
fires. As no indica 
tions of a change in 
the location of these 
springs or of the qual 
ity of their waters, 
which are as near sul 
phur as salt, were 
found, it is very doubt 
ful whether the pot 
tery was ever used for 
salt-making purposes 
here or elsewhere, as 

it was too heavy to carry without canoes, which could not have been 
used at this locality, or horses and wagons, which the pottery makers 
did not possess. Besides this, no traces of salt are observed on the 
fragments seen, and according to Prof. Collett, none has ever been 
found on them by chemical analysis. It is stated that at various local 
ities in this valley, including one not remote from this point, crypts or 
rude stone coffins containing human skeletons, weapons, and orna 
ments of considerable interest have been found, but none were ob 
served by the Bureau agent. 

CAPE GIRARDEAU COUNTY. 
THE BEN PROFFER MOUNDS. 

These are situated partly on the end of a high ridge, at the point 
where Bird creek unites with Whitewater river, and partly on the 
river bottom, as shown in Fig. 87. 




FIG. 87. The Ben Proffer mound, Capo Girardeau county, Missouri. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 




ANCIENT WORKS ON BOULWARE S PLACE, CLARKE COUNTY, MISSOURI. 



THOMAS.J 



THE BEN PROFFER MOUNDS. 



169 



No. 1, the largest, occupies a commanding position overlooking the 
valleys of both streams. Though not large, being only about 35 feet 
in diameter and 5 feet high, it is quite a conspicuous object, and has 
some local notoriety. It is rounded with steep slopes that contrast 
strongly with the low flat outline of the small mounds of the valley 
below (at a a). A number of chert stones were observed embedded in 
its surface. No. 2 is forty paces from No. 1 in an open field ; it is 30 
feet in diameter by 2 in height. There are two piles of stone on it, but 
these were probably placed there recently to get them out of the way of 
the plow. Flint chips are scattered around it in considerable numbers. 




FIG. 88. The Witting mounds, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are quite small and near to No. 1. The mounds in the bot 
tom at a a are circular, quite small, low, and flattened on top. They 
are probably the sites or foundations of former dwellings or wigwams. 

THE WITTING MOUNDS. 

These compose a small group on the farm of Mr. August Witting, 5 
miles west of Jackson, and seem to differ somewhat from the ordinary 
type. Their position is also peculiar, as they are near the top of the 
divide between Cane and Bird creeks and on the north slope of the hill, 
the only instance of this kind noticed. Their relative positions are 
shown in Fig. 88. Some two years ago a trench was dug through No. 



170 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

1, but no specimens or remains, except some broken stones, were found. 
A few sandstones and chert fragments are still lying in the trench. 

The following measurements, though made in haste and without 
strict accuracy, are probably of sufficient value to be recorded here : 

No. 1: 40 feet in diameter, 4| feet high. 

No. 2: 55 feet northwest of No. 1; 35 feet diameter, 2| feet high. 
No. 3: 85 feet north of No. 1, and same distance from No. 2; 30 feet diameter, 2 
feet high. 

No. 4: 55 feet north and a little west of No. 3; 25 feet diameter, 2 feet high. 
No. 5: 55 feet northeast of No. 4; 35 feet diameter, 2 feet high. 
No. 6: 80 paces southwest of No. 1; 20 feet diameter, 1 feet high. 
No. 7 : 70 paces west of No. 6: 20 feet diameter, 2 feet high. 

BOLLINGEK COUNTY. 

This county lies west of Cape Girardeau county, and like the latter 
is nearly all high land, but the southern end extends a short distance 
into the swamps. In the southeast corner is one of the inclosed " set 
tlements," which is here named after the owner of the land. 

THE PETER BESS SETTLEMENT. 

This is situated 5 miles west of Lakeville, on the western bank of 
the Castor river, near where the line of the Cape Girardeau and State- 
Line railway crosses that stream. The " settlement," as these groups 
are locally named, is a small one, the embankment inclosing only about 
12 acres. With the exception of a small strip on the east side, it has 
been under cultivation for forty years, so that the rings or residence 
sites have long since been obliterated. The wall extends entirely 
around the inclosure, excepting a small space at the northeast corner, 
where it is open toward the stream. A plat of it is given in Fig. 89, 
on which 1, 2, 3, etc., indicate mounds, a a embankments, and c c places 
where human bones were exposed. 

From the direction of the current of the river it seems quite possible 
that the wall once entirely surrounded the area, but that the northeast 
corner has been washed away. In the strip of woods on the eastern 
side the wall is a little over 3 feet high. In the field it is considerably 
worn down by the plow, but the line of it can still be easily traced. 
The laud inside of it is fully 2 feet higher than that outside, and is so 
much richer that the owner says it yields 75 bushels of corn per acre 
in favorable seasons, while that outside yields but 50. Frequent traces 
of burned earth and ashes are seen in the fields, and great quantities 
of broken pottery are scattered about. Where the land slopes a little, 
in the northeast and southeast corner (at c c), fragments of human 
bones have been washed out in considerable numbers. The large 
mound, No. 1, is situated a little north of the center of the inclosure. 
It is 150 feet across and about 10 feet high, nearly circular, but has 
been worn so much by forty years tillage that its original outline can 
not be satisfactorily determined. An old log house and some out- 



THOMAS.] 



THE PETER BESS "SETTLEMENT. 7 



171 



buildings occupy the nearly level top. In digging pestholes some 
bones and pottery were found, but no excavations have been made in 
it deeper than 2 or 3 feet. 

Mound No. 2, near the east wall, is circular in outline, 75 feet across, 
and 6 feet high. It has never been explored. 

Nos. 3 and 6 are quite small. A few stones have been plowed up on 
No. 3. In the same field, some little distance south of the inclosure, 
are two small mounds, Nos. 4 and 5. Mr. Bess stated that a few years 




FIG. 89. The Peter Bess settlement, Bellinger county, Missouri. 

ago, while plowing over No. 4, his plow struck something and on dig 
ging down he found two stone coffins, each containing a skeleton. In 
one of them he found a gourd-shaped vessel, ornamented with red 
stripes and filled with lead ore so pure that he afterwards made bullets 
from a part of it. An examination of this mound confirmed Mr. Bess s 
statement, as the disturbed remains of the stone cists were found. 
These were of the box-shaped type. Portions of a skeleton, including 
a well-preserved lower jaw and a few bits of painted pottery, were 
also discovered here. 



172 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

STODDARD COUNTY. 

Although this county lies wholly within what is known as the " swamp 
region," the central portion of it consists of a high clay ridge or table 
land which may be considered a spur from the Ozarks. This table 
land is separated from the bluffs of Cape Girardeau and Bolliuger 
counties to the north by a strip of lowland known as the Mingo swamp. 
During high water a portion of the overflow from the Castor reaches 
the Whitewater through this swamp. 

The county is bordered on the east by the Whitewater or Little river, 
which flows through an extensive tract of low, sandy swamp, which in 
places is as much as 20 miles wide. It is known to the people of 
Stoddard and Dunkliii counties as the "East swamp," and the Bureau 
agent heard no other name for it. Mr. Potter, in his report, 1 refers to 
it as "West swamp" and "West lake" in his description of New 
Madrid and Sikeston ridge. This is confusing, since the name of " West 
swamp" is given to a similar tract along the St. Francis, which forms 
the western boundary of the county. 

A little south of Dexter city the clay hills come to an end, and the 
divide between the East and the West swamps consists only of a low, 
sandy ridge. Under the local names of the " Eich woods " and the 
" West prairie" this extends in a southerly direction to the state line. 
Through Dunklin county it is crossed by sloughs that impede travel 
during wet weather. The swamps in this county consist of parallel 
sloughs of no great depth, with low, sandy ridges between them, which 
are for the most part above overflow. They are crossed at intervals 
by lower places that are covered during high water, thus converting 
the higher portions into islands. A good many farms have been 
cleared up on these ridges, so that the swamps support a scattered pop 
ulation. The sloughs are filled with a heavy growth of cypress (Taxo- 
dium distichum) and Tupelo gum (Nyssa uniftora}. On the ridges the 
timber is principally different species of oak and hickory and sweet 
gum (Liquidamber styraciflua). 

Earthworks of different kinds are very numerous throughout this 
county. Two settlements were examined during the preliminary visit, 
one near Lakeville, in the northern part, and the other in the extreme 
south, on the county line. 

Groups of small mounds are to be found along most of the little 
streams among the hills. Several were observed on the low ridges in 
the East swamp, south of the railroad. 

What is said to be the most extensive system of mounds in south 
east Missouri is found 7 miles south of Dexter city, on that portion of 
the sandy divide between the swamps, which is known as the "Eich 
woods." There seems to have been, as is shown further on, no wall or 
ditch here, and there are few circular depressions or lodge sites. 

1 Contributions to the Archaeology of Missouri (1880) pp. 5-8. 



THOMAS.] LAKEVILLE " SETTLEMENT." 173 

THE LAKEVILLE SETTLEMENT. 

This settlement or group of works, which is shown in Fig. 90, is 
located 2 miles southwe st of the village of Lakeville, on a narrow but 
rather high east- and- west ridge, between two cypress swamps. It 
consists of an inclosing wall, and includes mounds and hut rings. The 
inclosure is oblong, but when complete was probably rectangular ; it 
extends, however, at each end into fields which have been cultivated so 
long that the traces of it are lost here. The central portion (that shown 
in the figure), extending east and west about 360 yards, is still covered 
by heavy timber and a thick growth of underbrush and briers. Here 
the walls and other works are uninjured. 




00 
a, 

iili[|iMniiMi;iiHiiiiii:!iilill!illiniti[i!liihiiili!!ilUiliuili;|;|liii;illllllililil|iinlllUlMIIIIUI>|i;ii;iii!i!iiiliii 
llJIIIIIIIIHillllll/IIIIIIIIIIIIMlllllM/HilllllllllUHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMMIIIIIIlllllHUllHllllllllllllllMMtUiiiilllilinilillllllllll.llllll 



mw&im mmw* 







FIQ. 90. The Lakeville settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri. 

A Avail extends along each flank of the ridge facing the swamp that 
borders the latter on either side. They are 200 paces apart and run 
nearly parallel to each other in an east-and-west direction. Slight 
enlargements at irregular intervals are seen, and there are a few short 
breaks, but these may have been made by rainwater which had accu 
mulated on the inside. Whether these two lines were once connected 
by cross-end walls, can not now be determined, but it seems quite 
probable that such was the case. These walls, measured on the out 
side, average about 3 feet in height, varying but little in this respect; 
but the inside has been so filled up by the garbage and debris of the 
village or otherwise that this portion is now within 1 foot of the top 
of the wall. 



174 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Nearly the whole space between the walls is occupied by the hut- 
riugs or circular depressions. 
They are of the usual size, 20 to 
50 feet across, and 1 to 3 feet deep. 
In all that were excavated, beds 
of ashes, containing broken pot 
tery, burned clay, bits of bone, 
mussel and turtle shells, etc., were 
found at the depth of from 
inches to 1 foot. In one of these, 
near the southwest corner of the 
wooded portion, the sandstone 
pipe shown in Fig. 91 was discov 
ered. FIG. 91. Stone pipe, Lakeville settlement. 




SETTLEMENT AT THE COUNTY LINE. 

This settlement, shown in Fig. 92, on which a a denote the county 
line between Stoddard and Dunklin counties, is situated in an oak 
opening on West prairie, 500 yards east of the Dexter and Maiden 
road. It borders on East swamp and is surrounded on the other three 

sides by a ditch (b b) 
that averages 10 feet 
wide and 3 feet deep. 
The dirt seems to have 
been thrown out about 
equally on each side, but 
there is nothing that can 
be called a wall or an em 
bankment. The inclos- 
ure is 330 yards long by 
220 in width, and con 
tains about 15 acres. 
Nearly the whole of this 
space is occupied by cir 
cular depressions or hut- 
rings of the usual size 
and appearance, contain 
ing the usual amount of 
ashes, broken pottery, 

FIG. 92. County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri. bones et-C. There are 

no mounds in the inclosure, but just outside, near the northwest cor 
ner, is a low, circular one about 4 feet high and 100 or more feet in 
diameter. 




loa 

11^0^0 
ft-rx^O o 



ffo 



O 




500 yds to 




THOMAS.] 



THE KICH WOODS MOUNDS. 



175 



RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 

These mounds, shown in Fig. 93, are located 7 miles south of Dexter 
city on the road leading from that place to Maiden, and are doubtless 
the ones referred to in the Summary of Correspondence, Smithsonian 
Report, 1879, as re 
ported by Mr. Q. C. 
Smith. 

The low sandy ridge, 
known as the Rich 
Woods, is here between 
1 and 2 miles wide. The 
surface, which is quite 
level, stands generally 
about 15 feet above the 
ordinary water line of 
the swamp and is com 
posed chiefly of sand. 
The swamp bordering it 
on the east is known 
here as East swamp. 
The margin of the gen 
eral level, which breaks 
abruptly down, as is 
usual with the banks of 
Western rivers, is some 
what irregular, as shown 
in the figure, the inden 
tations being numerous, 
yet the general course is 
almost directly north 
and south. The mounds 
are principally located 
along or near the mar 
gin, the distance be 
tween the extreme 
northern one of the 
group and the most 
southern being about 
1,600 yards, or a little less than 1 mile, and the greatest width of the 
belt occupied, about 500 yards. 

All of the mounds except No. 1 stand on the upper or general level. 
ITcc. 1, 2, and 3, near the central part of the group, are large, varying 
in height from 20 to 26 feet, obscurely pentangular in outline and flat 
tened or. top. No. 3 forms, with 4, what may be called a composite 
mound. This appears to be the case also with 15 and 16 and with 23, 




176 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

*?4, and 25, which will be described further on. No. 6 is oval in shape, 
the diameter 266 by 110 and the height nearly 8 feet. There are some 
indications that it was formerly connected at its northern extremity 
with the double mound 3 and 4 by a graded way, though there are hut 
rings there now. Between this and No. 1 the ground suddenly descends 
to the lower level, as is seen by the abrupt bend in the hachured line 
marking the margin, which here makes a sudden turn to the west. 

No. 7, which lies directly west of No. 2, is the longest tumulus of the 
group, irregularly oblong in form, the diameters being 340 and 200 feet 
and height 15 feet, the top flat. The south end is irregularly pointed, 
but this condition may have resulted wholly or in part from washing, as 
the surface has been in cultivation for several years and was for some 
years the location of a schoolhouse. At the north end is an apron 6 feet 
high, extending northward about 60 feet. This is irregularly rounded 
at the extremity. It is possible, and, in fact, probable, that this was 
a regular oblong mound, with a rectangular apron, as are many mounds 
in eastern Arkansas. The top is perfectly level. No. 8, west of 7, is 
circular, flat on top, and about 7 feet high. 

No. 9, immediately north of 7, is peculiar in form, being a regular 
crescent, as shown in the plat, the distance between the tips of the 
horns about 75 feet, height 6 feet. Nos. 10, 11, 12, and 14 are circular 
mounds, ranging from 8 to 12 feet high. Nos. 13, 17, 18, 19, 31, 32, 33, 
20, 28, 29, 30, 26, 27, 34 are small, circular mounds, varying from 1 to 4 feet 
in height. The shape of 22 is peculiar. It appears as if a broad ditch 
had been dug from tfye east side to the center. A large oak stump in 
the middle of this supposed ditch shows that it is certainly not a recent 
excavation. Possibly the mound was for some reason thrown up in 
this form. The figure is too small to bring out the evident difference 
between this and the crescent. 

No-. 21, near the road, is of the ordinary conical form, 45 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high. 

No. 15, about 230 paces northeast of 14, is a large, oblong, flat-topped 
mound, the length east and west 170 feet and width 110 feet, height 
nearly 11 feet. There is a graded way running east from this and curv 
ing south to mound 16, which is circular and 6 feet high. 

Mounds 23 and 24 are oval in outline and of considerable size, the 
former measuring 223 by 180 feet and 8 feet high, the latter 213 by 112 
feet and 9 feet high. The line between their approximate ends is some 
what higher than the surface of the surrounding area, and may be the 
remains of a connecting graded way. 

No. 3, the tallest of the entire group, is fully 25 feet high. It is con 
ical in form and very steep, except on the side toward the ramp. This 
elevated way or ramp, commencing on the side some distance below the 
summit, descends regularly eastward to No. 4, which appears to be a 
landing or halting place rather than a true mound, and is, in fact, but 



THOMAS-1 



THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 



177 



an enlargement of the ramp or way at this point, with a fiat or level 
top. Tliis ramp seems to have extended to No. 5, and, as before stated, 
to No. G, forming here a grand platform. The hut rings which are so 
scattered around and over this immediate area are probably the 
remains of a subsequent occupancy to that by the builders of the 
mounds. Mound presents more the appearance of an elongated plat- 




FIG. 94. Plan of Mounds Nos. 3. 4, 5, and 6, Rich Woods mounds. 

form than a true mound. A plan of these four mounds and the graded 
way, prepared from a careful survey, is given in Fig. 04, and a section 
of 3, 4, and 5 in Fig. 05. 

As the surface of the area occupied is comparatively level it was 
thought best to make the survey of the group dependent upon one 
base and one auxiliary line. These in the reduction of the plat have 
been omitted. The base runs north and south, east of the group along 
the margin of the swamp, and makes three bends, on account of the 
changes in the direction of the margin of the upland and the obstruc- 
12 ETH 12 



178 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tions which would have to be encountered in 
the attempt to run a single straight line. The 
auxiliary line runs westward from station 46 on 
the chief base. The stations on these lines are 
numbered from 35 to 58, respectively, No. 36 be 
ing taken as the starting point, 35 simply in- 
dicating an after northern extension to connect 
with mound 18. The positions of the mounds 
I nearest these bases are indicated by lines run- 
| ning at right angles therefrom. The other 
r- mounds more distant are located by courses 
| and distances from those determined by means 
^ of the base lines. 

Measurements are in all cases to the center 
? of the mound, hut ring, or other work, unless 
| otherwise expressly mentioned. The various 
measurements made are shown in the following 
tables. 

Table I contains the measurements of the 

O 

chief base line; n, those of the auxiliary line; 
in, the positions of the mounds by the offsets 

1 from the base line; iv, the positions of the 
mounds by offsets from the auxiliary line; v, 
g the positions of the mounds as determined by 

2 lines from one to the other; vi, the courses and 
distances locating the hut rings; vn, the posi 
tions of the excavations; vm, the sizes of the 
mounds; ix, the diameter of the hut rings; and 
x, the sizes of the excavations. In order to 
make a plat of the group, start from the center 
of Mound 17 and run a line 57 feet N. 88 30 E. 
This will locate Station 36, from which all the 

other stations and mounds can be determined. 

TABLE I. -BASE LINE. 



Station. t 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




:> 








36 to 37 . 


S.122 E.... 


373 


Offset for mound 15. 


37 to 38 . 


S.122 E..... 


137 


Offset for mound 16. 


38 to 39 . 


S. 122 E .... 


349 


Bend in line. 


39 to 40 . 


S.400 E 


414 


Offset for mound 12. 


40 to 41 . 


S.400 E 


86 


Bend in line. 


41 to 42 . 


S.2349 E.... 


59 


Offset for mound 1 1. 


42 to 43 . 


8. 23 49 E.... 


83 


Offset for lmt-rin 59. 


43 to 44 . 


S.2349 E.... 


91 


Offset for mound 5. 



THOMAS. ] 



THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 

TABLE I. BASE LINE Continued. 



179 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 




Feet. 


44 to 45 . 


S. 2349 E.... 


204 


45 to 46 . 


S.2349 E.... 


416 


46 to 47 . 


S.2349 E....! 71 


47 to 48 . 


S.2349 E.... 


24 


48 to 49 . 


S. 45 W .... 


289 


49 to 50 . 


S. 45 W.... 


238 


50 to 51 . 


S. 45 W .... 


336 


51 to 52 . 


S. 45 W 


130 


52 to 53 . 


S. 45 W .... 


477 


53 to 54 - 


S. 45 W .... 


35 



Remarks. 



Offset for mound 6. 
Beginning of auxiliary line. 
Offset for mound 1. 
Bend in line. 
Offset for mound 21 . 
Offset for mound 22. 
Offset for mound 27. 
Offset for mound 28. 
Offset for mound 29. 
Southern end of line. 



TABLE II. AUXILIARY LINE. 



46 to 55 . 


S.8449 W... 


263 


Offset for mound 20. 


55 to 56 . 


S.84 49 W... 


302 


Offset for mound 2. 


56 to 57 . 


S.8449MV... 


581 


Offset for mound 7. 


57 to 58 


W 


434 













TABLE III. OFFSETS TO MOUNDS ALONG THE BASE LINE. 



36 to 17 . 


S. 88 38 W... 


57 


To station on mound. 


; 37 to 15 . 


S.8838 W... 


105 To station on eastern end of mound. 


38 to 16 . 


S.8838 W... 


40 


To station on mound. 


40 to 12 . 


S.8600 W... 


197 Do. 


42 to 11 . 


S.8600 W... 


101 Do. 


43 to 59 . 


S. 86 00 W... 


57 


To station in hut-ring, 


44 to 5 . . 


S.8600 W... 


75 To station on mound. 


45 to 6 .-. 


S. 86^00 W... 


66 


To station on northern end of mound. 


47tol .. 


S. 86 00 \v_ 


84 To station on mound. 


49 to 21 . 


S.6611 "W... 


84 


Do. 


50 to 22 . 


S.66 11 W... 


131 Do. 


51 to 27 . 


S.6611 W... 140 Do. 


52 to 28 . 


S. 66 11 W. .. 99 Do. 


53 to 29 . 


S.6611 W... 11) Do. 



TABLE IV. OFFSETS TO MOUNDS ALONG THE AUXILIARY LINE. 



55 to 20 -j S.5ll E 


125 


To station on 


56 to 2 ..! N.5ll W ... 


79 


Do. 


57 to 7 .. N. 5 11 W ... 


46 


Do. 


58 to 8 . . S 


61 











TABLE V. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM MOUND TO MOUND. 



7 to 9 . . 


N. 3 00 W . . 


416 To 


9 to 10 . 


. N.2835 E... 


227 


12 to 13 


. N. 56 29 W . . 


147 


12 to 14 


. N. 56 29 W . . 


343 


29 to 30 


. S.5430 W... 


338 


27 to 23 


. N. 66 00 W 


307 



To station on mound. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



180 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

TABLE V. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM MOUND TO MOUND Continued. 





Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Remarks. 








Feet. 






23 to 24 . 


S. 49 50 W ... 


253 To station on mound. 




24 to 26 . 


S.5429 W... 


226 


Do. 




24 to 25 . 


S.4055 W.... 


190 Do. 




15 to 32 . 


N. 22 15 W . . 


214 Do. 




15 to 31 . 


N. 75 45 W . . 


312 Do. 




15 to 33 . 


S.7015 W... 


510 Do. 




15 to 18 . 


N.1415 W .. 


9.5 Do. 




5 to 4 . 


S. 39 40 W ... 


135i Do. 




4 to 3 . 


S. 840 00 TV... 


152J Do. 




24 to 34 . 


S.8800 W... 


150 Do. 


TABLE VI. BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM THE MOUNDS AND HUT RINGS 1 


THE HUT RINGS. 




11 to 60 . 


S.2230 W... 


44 


To station in hut-ring. 




60 to 61 . 


S. GO 45 W .... 


27* 


Do. 




60 to 62 . 


S. 19 15 E.... 


89 Do. 




60 to 63 . 


S. 40 00 E ... 


66 


Do. 




62 to 64 . 


S.5200 W... 


41 Do. 




62 to 65 . 


S.2500 W... 


61 


Do. 




62 to 66 - 


S. 1930 E.... 


35 Do. 




5 to 67 . 


S.1716 W... 


60 Do. 




5 to 68 . 


S.O44 E 


83 Do. 




5 to 69. 


S.l28 W.... 


115 Do. 




5 to 70 . 


S.216 E 


143 Do. 




4 to 71 . 


N. 80 19 W . . 


30 


Do. 


TABLE VII.-BEARINGS AND DISTANCES OF THE EXCAVATIONS FROM THE MOUNI 




29 to a . . 


S. 86i W 


140 


To station in excavation. 




30 to b . . 


S. 69$ W 


120 


Do. 



TABLE VIII. SIZES OF THE MOUNDS. 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




1 


150 


20 




2 


150 by 140 


20 




3 


185 


26 


Slopes steep. 


4 


150 by 140 







5 


84 














6 


266 by 109 


74 


Extends north and south. 


7 


339 by 200 


15 


\flas apron about 6 feet high at northern end 
{ extending 60 feet from base northward. 


8 
g 


134 by 114 


6* 


Crescent-shaped. 


10 


130 by 125 


10 




11 


44 by 48 


5 




12 


60 by 65 


8 





THOMAS.] 



THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 
TABLE VIIL SIZES OF THE MOUNDS Continued. 



181 



No. 


Diameter. 


Heigbt. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




13 


50 by 40 


1 




14 


124 by 96 


5 




15 


109 by 171 


10| 


Extends east and west. 


16 


75 


6 




17 


100 by 69 


4 


Extends northwest, and southeast. 


18 


60 by 65 


3 


Circular. 


19 


60 




Estimated. 


20 


40 by 35 


3 


Circular. 


21 


45 


5 


Do. 


22 




51 




23 


181 by 223 


2 

8 


Extends east and west. 


24 


213 by 112 


9 


Extends north and south. 


25 


65 by 60 


5 


Circular. 


26 


78 


84 


Do. 


27 


40 


4 


Do. 


28 


50 


4 


Do. 


29 


64 by 40 


3 


Do. 


30 


60 by 56 


3i 


Do. 


31 


100 by 110 


3 


Do. 


32 


70 by 65 


31 


Do. 


33 


100 


3 


Do. 


34 


60 


2i 


Do. 



TABLE IX.- DIAMETER OF THE HUT RINGS. 



No. 


Diameter. 


No. 


Diameter. 


No. 


Diameter. 


60 


22 by 29 


64 


27 


68 


28 


61 


28 


65 


24 


69 


24 


62 


29 


66 


21 


70 


25 


63 


29 


67 


27 


71 


34 



TABLE X. SIZES OF THE EXCAVATIONS. 



Excavations. Diameter. 



a 70 by 35 

&... 55 



Depth. 



Remarks. 



4 Extends northeast and southwest. 
3J Circular. 



The first examination of this interesting group on behalf of the Bu- 
rean was made by Mr. Earle during his visit to this part of the state. 
Subsequently I visited them in company with Mr. Earle and Dr. Robert 
Allyn, president of the Southern Illinois formal University. I found 
Mr. Earle s description and the plat he furnished quite correct, though 
the latter has been replaced by the more accurate survey made by Mr. 
Middleton; but descriptions and plats, though critically correct, fail 
to convey a true conception of this magnificent group. 

Exploring No. 1 (Fig. 93), which by a careful remeasurement was 
ascertained to be 150 feet in diameter at the base and 20 feet high, we 



182 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

found it to consist of an external layer of surface soil, varying in depth 
from 2 to 3 feet, and an inner core of hard clay. This inner core, which 
evidently constituted the original mound, consisted of dry compact 
clay so hard that an ax was used to cut it. It was almost as dry as 
powder and of an ash-gray color, having here and there as we de 
scended the appearance of being slightly mixed with ashes. At the 
depth of 5 feet a broken pot-shaped jar, of ware similar to that usual 
to this region, was discovered. At this point a few ashes and some 
slight indications of fire were noticed. The same dry hard clay con 
tinued to the bottom of the pit (which was carried down to the depth 
of 17 feet), except one thin layer of sand about 6 inches thick at the 
depth of 10 feet. Other pits dug in the sides and near the base re 
vealed ample evidence of fire, indicating that after the central core was 
completed a quantity of brush and leaves had been burned over it, the 
coals and ashes sliding down, as it is quite steep, so that near the base 
a layer of charcoal several inches thick was formed. A thin layer of 
surface soil must have been thrown over it while burning, as consider 
able quantities of charred leaves were found mixed with the charcoal. 
In one of the pits some human bones were discovered before reaching 
the clay, doubtless an intrusive burial. 

This mound, as will be seen by reference to the plat, is outside of the 
hachured line which represents the edge or break of the general level, 
and is some 6 feet lower and on the same level as the road and not more 
than 6 or 7 feet above the usual water level of the swamp. 

Pits were sunk in No. 22 to the original surface without finding any 
thing of interest save some fragments of pottery. The height of this 
mound was found to be a little over 5 feet, and the composition, after 
passing through the surface soil, a uniform mixture of yellow clay and 
sand. On this mound is an oak stump 2 feet in diameter. 

No. 21 was examined with similar results, except that in it were found 
some small pieces of burned clay, flint chips, and traces of charcoal. 

No. 26 and a small tumulus west of it were found to consist wholly of 
sandy clay. A few fragments of human bones, small pieces of pottery, 
and some flint chips were discovered in them. 

An opening was made in the large mound No. 15 in a depression near 
the center where the height is between 1) and 10 feet. The pit was 
carried down to the original surface of tf le ground through yellow sandy 
clay. Nothing of interest was obtained. 

No. 32, a low mound but little more than 3 feet high, was, like most of 
the others, built of a mixture of sand and clay. It contained human 
bones and fragments of pottery, which were scattered irregularly through 
it. The ground was damp and soft, and most of the bones were soft, 
falling to pieces when any attempt was made to lift them up. We were 
unable to trace out a single complete skeleton or to find a whole vessel. 

Nos. 29, 30, and 31 were also explored, but nothing of special interest 
was observed in them, the construction being the same and of similar 
material as those already referred to. 



THOMAS.] MOUND NO. 6. 183 

No. was subsequently partially explored. A trench was carried 
down only to the depth of 5 feet. Nothing was found in it at a greater 
depth from the surface than 3J feet. Near the foot of the mound and 
2 feet below the surface was a skeleton with the bones rather firm; 
probably an intrusive burial, as they are not uncommon in this partic 
ular locality. This was extended, head south ; near it was a Unio shell. 
About 2 feet west of this skeleton and lying parallel with it was 
another of smaller size, probably of a female ; bones firm, but the skull 
broken when found. Near the skull was a bottle-shaped water vessel. 
Other vessels Avere found at different points and at the depth of only 1 
or 2 feet. 

About 2 feet down on the top and side of the mound were lumps 
of burnt clay, which appear to be fragments of plastering with which 
the walls of a dwelling or other house had been coated. As further 
evidence of this is the following fact, given in the words of the last ex 
plorer: "In the top of the mound, in a small circular depression, I dug 
down about 2 feet, when I came to a sort of platform of burnt clay. It 
seemed to be made of irregularly shaped pieces, one side being smooth 
and the other rough. And what was peculiar, the smooth side was 
down. I did not dig enough to ascertain the extent of the platform." 

It is easy enough to account for the smooth side being down if we 
suppose it to have been (as we shall hereafter see there is reason for 
believing) plastering from the walls of a house, for when the building 
was burned it would not be unlikely that the stiff and thick coat of 
plastering should fall over in a sheet and that pieces of it should roll 
down the side of the mound. 

Numerous other objects were discovered in this mound, as pieces of 
Unio shells, some of which had holes bored through them, and were ap 
parently unfinished beads ; many fragments of pottery scattered promis 
cuously through the outer layer, and quite a number of animal bones, 
from the skull of a deer down to the delicate bones of very small birds. 

Permissiou could not be obtained to make further exploration in this 
interesting and important group, nor to complete the excavation of the 
mounds partially examined. 

SCOTT AND MISSISSIPPI COUNTIES. 

In 1879 and 1880 the people in the neighborhood of Charleston, Mis 
sissippi county, discovered that the pottery, in which the mounds of 
this region seem to have been unusually rich, had a considerable com 
mercial value. A regular mining fever at once broke out and spread 
so rapidly that in some instances as many as twenty-five or thirty men, 
women, and children could be seen digging for pottery in one field at the 
same time. 

The specimens obtained were taken to Charleston and sold to the 
merchants, who in turn sold them to various museums, scientific insti 
tutions, and relic hunters. It is said that this trade brought to town 
several thousand dollars. 



184 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Some 10 or 12 miles southwest of the battlefield of Belmont is one of 
the peculiar sand ridges of this swampy region, called Pin Hook ridge. 
This extends 5 or G miles north and south, and is less than a mile in 
width; both of its tapering ends hook round in a westerly direction, as 
shown in Fig. 96. There is abundant evidence here that the entire 
ridge was long inhabited by a somewhat agricultural people, with sta 
tionary houses, who constructed numerous and high mounds, which are 
now the only place of refuge for the present inhabitants and their stock 
from the frequent overflows of the Mississippi. About one-halt of the 
ridge is under cultivation ; the remainder is covered by a native forest 
of oak, ash, gum, and other trees, which are as large upon these mounds 
and residence circles as elsewhere. 

BAKER S MOUND. 

This (No. 2 on the diagram) is situated nearly a mile southwest of 
Beckwith s Fort (marked No. 1, in Fig. 96), and hereafter more fully 




Fm. 96. Pin Hook Ili(l-o mounds, Mississippi county, Missouri. 

described; it is circular in form, about 50 feet in diameter and 4 feet 
high. The peculiar feature of this mound is the mode of its construc 
tion, which is shown in Fig. 97. The lower stratum, marked No. 2, 
consists of bluish swamp muck mixed with ashes, which, as a matter of 
course, when deposited was soft and pliable as dough, though now so 
hard as to require the use of a pick to penetrate it. Instead of the top s 
being leveled as usual, it was depressed in the middle, so as to form a 
saucer-shaped basin, the rim on the south side being higher than on 
the opposite side, as the mound stands on a natural slope. This was 
filled with sandy loam (No. 1) and rounded over, completing the mound. 
Near the upper part of this sandy layer Mr. Baker, who had pre 
viously opened it, found two skeletons, placed horizontally, with heads 



THOAMS.] 



BAKER S MOUND. 



185 




north, below which was a layer of decayed skeletons, and with them a 
number of vessels of pottery of forms usual to this region. Several of 
these vessels which 
were discovered in 
this first excavation 
were fractured; yet 
Mr. Baker obtained 
thirty uninjured 
specimens. Further 
excavation in the 
hard bottom layer re 
vealed the parts of 

Several Skeletons, a FIG. 97.-Baker s mound, Mississippi county, Missouri. 

number of broken 

vessels, and also one small pot or cup with scalloped rim, and one bot 
tle-shaped water vessel, which were obtained whole. A few rude stone 
scrapers were also found. 

GUM TREE MOUND. 

This is situated nearly to the east of the preceding, is circular in 
form, 60 feet in diameter, and 8 feet high. It is No. 3, of Fig. 96, and 

stands on the crest of a low 
ridge fronting upon a cypress 
swamp. It was found to con 
sist of five or six distinct lay 
ers, as follows, counting from 
the bottom up wards: Layer 
No. 1, 30 inches of clear white 
sand, probably the natural 
crest of the ridge. No. 2, 16 
inches of dark colored, hard 
clay, through which were scat 
tered fire-beds, charcoal, 
ashes, stone chips, fragments 
of pottery, and split animal 
bones. No. 3, 12 inches of yel- 

Fio. 98.-Beckwitb s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri. 10W Sand ? Containing but few 

relics of any kind. No. 4, 8 

inches of hard gray mortar, doubtless made of blue, muck and ashes 
mixed and covered with kitchen refuse similar to that found in No. 2. 
No. 5, 18 inches of loose gray sand, containing few relics; but all the 
central portion of this layer had been previously examined by others 
who found it and the top layer (No. 6) literally tilled with decayed 
human bones and a number of whole and broken vessels of clay. 




186 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

BECKWITH S FORT. 

Haifa mile north of the last mentioned mound, and upon the highest 
point of the bank fronting Pin Hook bayou, is a remarkable earthen 
inclosure (marked 1, in Fig. 90), to which the name Beckwith s fort is 
given, after that of the owner. An enlarged view of this work is 
given in Fig. 98. 

As will be seen by reference to this figure, the inclosure is nearly a 
semicircle in form, with the open base facing the swamp or bayou. 
The length of this open base from point to point of the wall (m to n) 
is 1,041 feet, and the circumference along the wall from m around to n, 
13,700 feet. The location was wisely chosen, as it is the only point within 
an area of many miles square where the natural surface of the ground 
was not covered by the great flood of 1882. The bank facing the 
swamp is here quite steep and fully 30 feet high. 

Mounds Nos. 1, 5, and G, and some small burial mounds not shown 
in the figure, are so nearly in a line as to form a strong breastwork 
along this front, except about 200 feet opposite mound No. 2, where 
there is no embankment, mound, nor the marks of ancient dwellings; 
thus, as is usual in this kind of fort, leaving an open court adjoining 
one side of the great flat-topped mound. 

The height and width of the wall vary at different points, in some 
places being as low as 2 feet, while at others it is fully 8 feet high; in 
some places it is not more than 15 feet wide, while at others it is 30 or 
more, 

Kunniug close along the outside of the wall is a ditch varying in 
width from 20 to 40 feet, and in depth from 4 to 8 feet, except where 
filled up by floods and frosts, especially the former, some of which may 
have broken through the walls to the great interior excavation. The 
area within the inclosure is almost entirely occupied by earthworks of 
one kind or another, those marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and G being mounds, 
those marked a, &, and c being excavations, and the numerous small 
circles scattered over it the little saucer-shaped depressions supposed 
to be house Kites or hut rings. 

Mound No. 1 is situated in the extreme northern corner, where the 
Avail ends on the bank next the swamp or bayou. It is 120 feet long 
from northwest to southeast, 100 feet broad, and about 10 feet high at 
the highest point. The central portion of the top had been lowered, 
either originally or subsequently, by a circular depression about 15 feet 
in diameter and 2 feet deep. Permission to excavate could not be 
obtained. 

Mound No. 2, or the so-called Temple mound, is situated almost 
directly south of No. 1 and near the central portion of the area. Its 
northern base comes directly to the margin of the great excavation a, 
while but a short distance away, a little to the northeast, is the small 
crescent excavation b. The dimensions, as nearly as could be ascer 
tained, are as follows: Length on top (northeast and southwest), 1G5 



THOMAS. j BECKWITH S FORT. 187 

feet 5 width, 105 feet; height, about 25 feet. Near each end, on the flat 
top, is a saucer-shaped depression 3 to 4 feet deep, reaching to a heavy 
deposit (in each) of charcoal, ashes, bones, etc., resting upon a layer of 
earth 3 or 4 inches thick, burned as hard as brick. Permission 
could not be obtained to make further excavations in this mound. 

Mound No. 3 is circular, 75 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, having 
a saucer-shaped depression on the top, and below this a tire-bed, char 
coal, ashes, etc., as usual. 

No. 4 is almost circular at the base, but square on the top, which is 
flat, each side measuring 30 feet. It is 15 feet high, the sides very 
steep and each bearing with the cardinal points. It was doubtless 
originally a regularly truncated pyramidal mound, the washings hav 
ing rounded the base. 

No. 5 is an oval mound with sloping sides, 10 feet high and 90 feet 
across the top, which is flat. It was composed, in part at least, of 
black swamp mud and blue clay and had in it several fire-beds, beds 
of clay burned brick red, stone chips, Unio shells, and fragments of 
pottery. 

No. G is 75 by 100 feet a 4 ^ base, 8 feet high, and now surmounted by 
the log house of the colored man who cultivates this portion of the 
extensive Beckwith plantation. 

Between 5 and G is a long low mound not marked on the diagram, 
the surface of which was strewn with fragments of human bones, pot 
tery, and stone chips. 

Excavation a is somewhat pear-shaped, the large end being near the 
northeast corner and the curved side running along the northern wall 
for fully 1,000 feet. The width at the widest part is 320 feet and the 
greatest depth 10 feet, but the depth decreases with the width toward 
the southwest point. The most of it is now a bushy swamp, though the 
larger end is an open pond never dry. 

Excavation b is small, the length along, the convex side not exceed 
ing 200 feet, narrow and crescent shaped. 1 1 lies j ust beyond the eastern 
end of the large excavation, one of its horns touching the latter. 

Excavation c is in the southwestern part of the area, and now a rect 
angular swamp, 300 feet long by 100 wide, 8 feet deep at the greatest 
depth, and seldom dry. 

IIOUSK SITKS OR HUT KINGS. 

These almost literally cover the remainder of the area, the only open 
space of any considerable size being the 200 feet square just east of the 
large mound (No. 2, Fig. 98). They are not confined to the natural 
level of the iuclosure, as some are found on the level tops of the mounds. 
They are circular in form, varying from 30 to 50 feet in diameter, 
measuring to the tops of their rims, which are raised slightly above the 
natural level. The depth of the depression at the center is from 2 to 
3 feet. Near the center, somewhat covered with earth, are usually found 



188 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



the baked earth, charcoal, and ashes of ancient fires, and around these 
and beneath the rims split bones and fresh- water shells. Often mingled 
with this refuse material are rude stone implements and fragments of 
pottery. 

The similarity in the size, form, and general appearance of these de 
pressions and earthen rings to those of the earth lodges of the aban 
doned Mandan towns along the Missouri river, leaves no doubt that they 
mark the dwelling sites of the people who formerly occupied this lo 
cality. 

Upon the top of the great mound, fully 35 feet above the bed of the 
adjacent excavation, stands a white oak tree 4 feet in diameter; also 




FIG. 99. Image vessel from Beckwith s ranch. FIG. 100. Bowl from Beckwith s fort. 

the stumps of several others, little if any smaller. On the wall back 
of the excavation is another white oak 16 feet 9 inches in circumference, 
4 feet from the ground, also a sassafras 30 inches in diameter at breast 
height, and other trees of similar dimensions. The annual growth-rings 
of several white oak and ash stumps on No. 6 and other mounds near 
the house, were counted and ranged in number from 350 to 500 each. 
The following is a list of the whole or nearly whole clay vessels obtained 
from various openings made in the mounds and elsewhere on Pin Hook 
ridge : 



1 image vessel (Fig. 100.) 
1 water vessel with human head. 
1 water vessel with eagle head. 
3 water vessels with hooded heads. 
1 flat open lamp. 



1 double headed vessel. 
1 pot (already mentioned.) 
1 howl with lip (Fig. 102.) 
Eleven others of various forms. 



THOMAS.] 



BECKWITHS RANCH. 
BKCKWITH S RANCH. 



189 



Although the ancient works at this place are less than 2 miles from 
the inclosure and other works just described, they are differently 




Fid. 101. Water vessel from Beckwith s ranch, Mississippi county, Missouri. 

occupied and appear to have been differently constructed. The area 
of the site is least subject to overflow of any in this region except the 
"Fort," but there is no trace of wall or ditch, nor is there a pyramidal 




FIG. 102. Water vessel from Beckwith s fort, Mississippi county, Missouri. 

mound in the group, the only works here being low, flattish, circular 
mounds and long oval ones, resembling so closely the low, natural swells 



190 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

of the level area as to require a practical investigation to determine 
whether they are natural or artificial. They appear to belong to two 
classes, those used for dwelling sites and those used for burial pur 
poses, the former being the higher and the color of the surface layer 
darker than that of the other class. This darker color of the surface 
layer is probably due to the fact that immediately below it are found 
fire-beds with burnt earth, charcoal, ashes, and the bones of animals, 
(mostly split). There are seldom any human skeletons or entire vessels 
"of pottery in the mounds of this class though .the earth is filled with 
fragments of broken vessels. In these tumuli, which are so close 




FIG. 103. Gourd-shaped vessel from Beekwith s ranch, Mississippi i-oimty, Missouri. 

together as sometimes to form an almost continuous ridge, are often 
found two or three, and sometimes even four, fire-beds in succession, at 
different depths, ranging from 1 to 4 feet down to the natural surface. 
The skeletons, among which were a number of clay vessels, were of 
medium size, lying at full length horizontally upon the back or side, 
without any apparent regularity as to direction, except so far as was 
necessary to avoid overlapping, which was seldom done in the same 
layer. The vessels were invariably placed by the side of or over the 
skull, which was often found indented or crushed. Many, and in places 
a majority or all, of the skeletons of a layer were without an accompany- 



THOMAS.] 



POTTERY FROM BECKWITll s RANCH. 



191 



ing entire vessel, but seldom without the fragments of a broken one 
where the entire one was wanting. 

As a rule, but one vessel was found to a skeleton, though occasionally 
two and even three were observed; but when this was the case they 
were of different forms and evidently intended for different purposes. 
Thus, if a long-necked water cooler was found on one side of the skull, 
the vessel on the other side, if any, would be a cup or basin or other 
food dish, and if a third were present it would be an effigy or orna 
mented vessel placed at the crown or above it. No fire-beds, charcoal, 
or split bones of animals were found among the skeletons. 




FIO.-104. Owl image vessel from Beckwith s ranch. 

The mounds of this class were often so low as to be scarcely apparent. 
Indeed, it is evident that the people who once occupied this locality 
buried their dead about 2 feet deep in the natural earth, and that the 
elevation of portions of their cemetery is the result of subsequent 
burials on the same site, as in such cases we found two or three layers 
of skeletons. 

At this place some 45 or 50 whole vessels were found of which the 
following were obtained for the Bureau, the owner of the place, Col. 
Beckwith, who assisted in the work, retaining the rest: 

1 water vessel, female image (Fig. 99). 

1 long-uecked water vessel with three legs (Fig. 101). 

1 water vessel, female image. 




192 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



1 gourd-shaped vessel with animal head (Fig. 103). 

1 owl image (Fig. 104). 

1 fish-shaped bowl (Fig. 105, a and b). 

1 vessel with animal head. 

1 vessel with human head. 

1 bowl with human head. 




Flu. 105. Fish-shaped vessel from Beckwith s ranch, a. view; l>. plan. 

1 shell-shaped bowl. 
I pottery ornament. 
1 pottery ornament. 
Seventeen other vessels, besides 5 pottery mullers and some stone implements. 

MEYERS MOUNDS. 

These, 2 in number, are situated on the county road from Cairo, Illi 
nois, by way of Bird s Point, to Charleston, about midway between the 



THOMAS.] 



THE MEYERS MOUNDS. 



193 




PLAN 



5 ECTION 
FIG. 106. Meyers mound, Scott county, Missouri. 



two points. They are on the highest ground in that immediate section 
and fronting a cypress swamp. One is double or terraced, and the 
other much lower and oval in outline. The latter is 73 feet long, 50 
feet broad, and 10 feet high, sides straight, but the ends rounded and 
Hat on top, where Mr. John Meyers, the owner, has placed his dwelling 
house. The large one (Fig. 106) consists of a higher portion or main 
part, which is pyramidal in 
form, 50 feet square on the level 
top, and 25 feet high, and a 
level terrace 63 feet long, 50 
feet broad, and 15 feet high, 
extending northward. 

A regular ancient cemetery 
which had been worked over by 
previous explorers, was found 
about 100 yards east of the 
main works. The area around 
the large mound, to the extent 
of several acres, except a small 
spot on the north side near the 
swamp, was formerly thickly 
covered over with small circu 
lar depressions or house sites, but these are now mostly obliterated by 
cultivation. 

Several low mounds in the vicinity had been so thoroughly upturned 
as to be now barely traceable. As a mattiv of course nothing was 
found in these but the fragments left by others; but in excavations 
made in other parts of the farm several vessels and images of pottery 
of the character and designs common in this section were obtained. 
No indications of a surrounding wall were observed. 

BUTLER COUNTY. 

Along the railroad from St. Louis to Iron mountain few mounds were 
observed, but from there to Poplar bluff they are numerous on the low 
valley lands, almost always circular in form, from 30 to 50 feet in diam 
eter, and from 3 to 4 feet high. So far as they have been opened, little 
else has been found in them than decaying human bones, often com 
mingled with charcoal and ashes, and occasionally fragments of pot 
tery. 

Four of this class found on the bottoms of Big Black river, about 2 
miles above Poplar bluff, were explored. They, like many others of 
similar appearance, are on land subject to overflow at ordinary high 
water. All are circular and some of them very flat, those excavated 
being the highest and situated in the midst of a dense growth of 
SAvainp oak, ash, elm, and other timber growing on the mounds the 
same as elsewhere. 
12 ETH 13 



194 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mound No. 1 measured but 25 feet in diameter and 4 feet in height. 
Nothing was found in it except a hard, central, or inner core of light- 
colored clay which, when thrown out, appeared like dry mortar mixed 
with charcoal, ashes, and stone chips. No traces of bones or indica 
tions of burial were observed. 

No. 2, 30 feet in diameter, 4 feet high ; resembled ]&o. 1 in internal 
arrangement and contents. 

No. 3, 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high; gave the same results as 
1 and 2. 

No. 4, similar in size, differed from the others only in the fact that 
at the bottom, in the center, was found a bushel or more of charcoal 
and ashes. 

In Fig. 107 is presented a group of this character near Harviell, 
which is given as a type of the groups of this class of mounds which 




FlG. 107. Mouud group near Harviell. Butler county, Missouri. 

literally dot all the land in this region except the cypress swamps. 
They are uniformly circular, seldom exceeding 50 feet in diameter, or 
4 feet in height. 

The seven of this group marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 and quite a 
number of other groups were excavated, the uniform result being to 
find the main portion composed of very hard clay with charcoal and 
ashes mixed in greater or less quantities and frequently, but not always, 
fragments of very rude pottery and rude stone scrapers or skinners. 



POWER S FORT. 



This is an ancient inclosure, connected with other works on the farm 
of Mr. Power, on alow ridge which runs between Little Black river 



THOMAS.] 



POWER S FORT. 



195 



and Cypress swamp, near the Kipley county line. A plat of the group 
is given in Fig. 108, from which it will be seen that it consists of a quad 
rangular (nearly square) inclosure with embankments or walls on three 
sides, and an outside ditch along the entire length of the walls, an 
excavation at each western corner outside, and four mounds on the 
interior area. The western wall, which runs exactly north and south, 
is 750 feet long and, as it is still covered by the original forest growth, 




KSSjl ^^^^^Si^Mwl^ 

^..mu,^^--!,.;^^.,;^:^,^ -"- " \ 






A^^^ -, *&j&i^MiwK 




FIG. 108. --Power s fort. Butler county, Missouri, 

is quite distinct. The ditch, which runs along the outside is also very 
distinct, being from 3 to 5 feet deep and about twice as wide. The 
northern and southern walls and ditches in the cultivated area are 
almost obliterated ; still they can be traced throughout from where they 
connect at the corners with the western wall, to the undisturbed 
extremities near the swamp. The northern line measures 762 feet and 
the southern 744. 



196 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The excavation connecting with the ditch near the southwest corner 
(a) is about 150 feet long, 100 feet wide and 15 feet deep at the lowest 
point. The excavation at the northwest corner (b) is somewhat longer, 
rather narrower, and not quite so deep, but both always contain water. 
The four mounds in the inclosure are located as indicated at 1, 2, 3 
and 4, No. 1, which is the largest, being nearly 150 feet long, north and 
south, 120 feet broad at base, and 20 feet high. The 
length and width have evidently been increased and 
the height lowered by the continued cultivation of 
fifty years. A thorough examination of this was 
made and the construction found to be somewhat 
peculiar, as will" be seen by reference to Fig. 109, 
which shows a vertical section through the length. 
The bottom layer (1) is a circular platform about 
100 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, formed of yel 
low sand similar to the original surface beneath and 
around it. 

The next layer, marked 2, is only 6 inches thick 
and consists of dark blue, adhesive clay, or muck, 
from the swamp; which has become very hard. It 
was strewn with burnt earth, charcoal, ashes, frag 
ments of split bones and pottery, stone chips and 
Unio shells. The next layer (3) is 8 feet thick at the 
central point of what appears to have been the orig 
inal mound, of which it was the top stratum. But 
it is not uniform, and, although showing no distinct 
strata, was not all formed at one time, as in it there 
were, at different depths, at least three distinct fire- 
beds of burnt earth and heavy accumulations of 
ashes, charcoal, and charred animal bones. 

In this layer, a little south of the center, were 
found the charred fragments of long poles and small 
logs, all lying horizontally, and also a post (ft), prob 
ably of locust wood, G inches in diameter and 5 feet 
long, still erect, but the upper end shortened by fire 
and the lower end haggled off by some rude imple 
ment. 

The layer marked 4 is an addition to the original 
plan. At this stage the occupants or builders, for 
some reason, made an addition to the original mound, extending it 
northward some 40 feet, apparently in this wise: the lower layer was 
built on the north end precisely as in the original mound and of the 
same height; then the layer corresponding to No. 2 of the original 
mound, which is No. 4 in the figure, was built up of bluish clay irregu 
larly mixed with fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, yellow sand, and calcined 
bones to the height of No. 3 and somewhat overtopping it. Having 



THOMAS.] POWER S FORT. 197 

thus obtained the desired form, layer No. 5, feet thick, chiefly of dark 
swamp-muck, was heaped over the original mound and addition. But 
this layer was probably formed by additions made to it from time to 
time, as it presents considerable variety in the appearance of the ma 
terial and also contains large masses of yellow sand, charcoal, ashes, 
fragments of pottery, and charred bones, among which were found the 
head of a deer and of an elk, with portions of the charred horns still 
attached. Many rude stone knives, scrapers, and perforators, a few 
rude lance-heads and fragments of a better class of pottery were scat 
tered through it. Northwest of the center, in this layer, were some 
charred timbers lying horizontally and one post (b) standing erect, re 
sembling the timber post found in No. 3. 

The external layer, 4 feet thick, and of a heterogeneous character, 
was apparently formed of various sized masses of bluish clay, yellow 
sand, and charcoal combined. 

Mound No. 2 is much smaller than No. 1, not exceeding 100 feet in 
diameter and 6 feet in height, and is flat on top. It consisted of four 
layers, the first or upper stratum of sandy soil, 2 feet thick, mixed with 
fragments of pottery; the second, about the same thickness, chiefly 
yellow sand, with patches of blue clay, charcoal, ashes, fragments of 
pottery, and human bones mostly unbroken but soft as pulp; the third, 
6 inches thick, was made up of blue clay and fragments of pottery, 
and the fourth, 18 inches thick, of yellow sand, well filled with decayed 
human bones, though some of them were plump and soft. Scattered 
among them were charcoal and ashes. 

Mound No. 3, also flat on top, 80 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was 
without regular layers; but the base was found to be composed chiefly 
of yellow sand, containing fire-beds, patches of bones, charcoal, ashes, 
fragments of pottery, etc. 

Mound No. 4 resembled No. 3 in form, size, composition, and contents. 
Fragments of pottery, stone chips, lance-heads, scrapers, and perfor 
ators were scattered over the area of the inclosure, and at one point 
there was an almost solid deposit of them. 

Mound No. 5, standing outside the inclosure in a grove of large oak 
timber and dense underbrush, is 40 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, 
circular and symmetrical in form. An opening 6 feet in diameter and 3 
feet deep had been made in the top so long ago that oak saplings have 
since grown up in it. Further excavation revealed nothing but the 
.fact that it Avas composed of four parallel, horizontal 1 strata, the first 
or top one of yellow sand 1 foot thick, the second, 1 foot of dark muck, 
the third, 4 feet of yellow sand, and the bottom, 1 foot of dark muck. 



As a general rule throughout this part of the Report " horizontal" when applied 
to strata is to be understood in the strict sense of the term and as implying that the 
stratum does not conform to the curve or contour of the mound. 



198 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



ARKANSAS. 

Although explorations were made in other parts of this state, much 
the larger portion of the ancient works referred to are in the north 
eastern part, or, in other words, the lands bordering the Mississippi and 
lower Arkansas and the area drained by the White and St. Francis 
rivers. This area, if extended southward so as to include Desha and 
Chicot counties, is known as the Mississippi alluvial region of Arkansas. 
With the exception of Crowley s ridge, which breaks its monotonous 
uniformity, it consists chiefly of broad bottom lands interrupted in 
places by swamps, sloughs and wet prairies, through which, or separat 
ing which, are generally low, broad swells or ridges (as they are called, 
though of but few feet in height) of rich sandy loam heavily timbered. 

Crowley s ridge, which runs through Green, Oaighead, Poinsett, and 
St. Francis counties, forming the divide between the waters of White 
and St. Francis rivers, terminates in Phillips county just below the city 
of Helena. The top, throughout its .entire extent in Arkansas, is com 
posed for the most part of siliceous clay and marl of quaternary date, 
usually resting on a bed of waterworn gravel. Numerous springs of 
good cool water flow from beneath this gravel bed along the eastern foot 
of the ridge near Helena. Most of the bottom lands are overflowed 
during high water. 

CLAY COUNTY. 

This, the extreme northeastern county of the state, is comparatively 
level and is drained by the St. Francis river on the east, Cache river 
in the center, and Black river on the west. These rivers are bordered 
by low, flat, bottom lands heavily timbered and subject to overflow. 
Between Black and Cache rivers is a low ridge, which extends south- 
westward through several counties. Between the Cache and St. Fran 
cis rivers is a still more prominent; and wider elevation, which is the 
beginning of Crowley s ridge. 

The only group of mounds examined in this county is situated in the 
immediate vicinity of Corning, the county seat, on a sandy ridge that 
rises some 20 feet above the cypress swamp flanking it on the east. 

A few of these were measured and opened with the following results: 

No. 1, oblong, measured 90 feet in length by 05 in width at the base 
and 9 feet high. About 20 feet of the north end had been removed by 
the townspeople. The only things of interest observed were fire beds 
of swamp muck, charcoal, ashes, stone chips, and a few charred bones. 
An examination of the remaining portion revealed nothing additional 
except the indications of long continued occupancy and the fact that it 
had been built up by successive layers. 

No. 2, oblong, 40 by 35 feet at base and 5 feet high, was explored 
with similar results. 

No. 3 measured 100 by 80 feet at base, but the height could not be 
determined, as it had been partially removed for grading the railroad 



EFFECT OF AN EARTHQUAKE. 



199 



track. From the number of decayed human bones and fragments of 
pottery found in the remaining portion, it is supposed to be the prin 
cipal burial place of the mound-builders who occupied the village 
located here. 

The small circular mounds were composed chiefly of sandy soil simi 
lar to that of the surrounding surface, but the fire beds, burned clay, 
stone chips, and bones discovered in them render it evident that they 
had been used as dwelling sites and that the custom of burying in the 
floor of the cabin had been followed here to some extent. 

GREENE COUNTY. 

The topographical features of this county are very similar to those 
of Clay county, its eastern boundary being the St. Francis river, which 
through this and the two counties south is a continuous lake-like 
swamp, being the section known as the u Sunken lands of the St. Fran 
cis." The western portion consists of the flat Cache river lands, 
partly black sandy levels and 
partly Avet post-oak flats. Be 
tween the lowlands of the two ex 
tremes and occupying a large por 
tion of the area, is Crowley s 
ridge, with its sandy lands. 

On the plantation of Mr. Rob 
ert Law, 9 miles east of Para- 
gould, fronting the cypress bor 
ders of the St. Francis lake, is 
a group of interesting mounds. 
They are chiefly in a forest of oak, 
ash, gum, and other heavy timber. 
The spot they occupy is in the " Sunken land region," or that section 
so terribly shaken by the great earthquake of 1811. 

At this particular locality the sand ridge and cypress swamp seem 
still to retain their original relative elevations, but the ridge is so cut 
up with trendies, narrow ridges, sinkholes, and " blow-outs" of line 
sand as to render the original size and even number of these mounds 
very uncertain. There are some indications of a surrounding wall, 
though not sufficient to justify the positive statement that there ever 
was one. 

The largest mound, which is flat on top, measured 120 feet long by 
72 feet broad on top, 192 by 145 at the base and 25 feet high. Several 
medium-sized trees are still standing on it, and there is evidence of 
larger ones having been overturned, possibly during the earthquake, 
or by some previous or subsequent severe windstorm. Be this as it 
may, the effects of the earthquake are still visible in this artificial 
structure, after a lapse of eighty years, in two very distinct and 
peculiar fissures, as shown in Fig. 110. These are from 4 to 6 feet deep 




FIG. 110. Effect of earthquake of 1811 on mound, 
Greene county, Arkansas. 



200 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

and fully as wide, partially disclosing the character of the mound, per 
mission to explore it being refused by the owner. 

THE BABCOCK MOUNDS. 

The small group bearing this name consists of but two mounds, sit 
uated in Sec. 30, T. 16 N., E. 2 E., of the fifth principal meridian, in the 
southeast corner of the county on a low ridge between Cache river and 
a cypress swamp. 

Mound 1 is of the ordinary round or conical form, 65 feet in diameter 
and 7 feet high, composed chiefly of earth similar to the surrounding 
soil. About halfway down from the top was found a thin layer of 
burnt clay reaching from 2 feet east of the middle to the western 
margin, which did not conform horizontally to the curve of the mound, 
but to the level of the ground on which the mound stands. A few 
inches above this layer were two small deposits of burnt clay. It is 
doubtful whether they were burnt where they were found, there being 
no coals or ashes about them and the earth in contact with them show 
ing no indications of heat. They were scarcely more than a foot square 
and 3 inches thick. 

Two skeletons found were probably intrusive burials, as they were 
placed only 12 and 16 inches below the surface. The most interesting 
thing observed in this simple, ordinary mound was the size of some of 
the supposed "load masses. 7 Near the bottom, in the central part, 
the clayey portion increased and the mottled appearance, supposed by 
mound explorers to be due to the deposits of individual loads, became 
quite distinct and some of these masses were apparently too heavy 
loads for even two persons, as they were 3 feet across the face and from 
a foot to 20 inches thick. 

The other mound had already been opened. 

CRAiaHEAD COUNTY. 

The topographical features of this county are much the same as 
those of Greene, the only important difference being that its area em 
braces a larger proportion of the lowlands of the St. Francis valley. 

According to Col. Norris, who visited the northeast part of the county, 
the entire region along this part of the St. Francis lake is so cut up 
with sink holes, a blo\v-outs," sand hillocks, and trenches (trending 
northeast and southwest), the effect of earthquakes, that the ancient 
works are scarcely traceable except in certain favored localities. One 
of these he found at Carpenter s lauding on the St. Francis lake, 12 
miles east of Brooklyn. Even this sandy ridge is much marred by the 
effects of the earthquake but there are unmistakable evidences that 
this locality was occupied in former times by a large mound-builder s 
village and cemetery. A long line of circular and oblong mounds- 
some nearly square and flat on top is still traceable iu what is now a 
swamp back of the ridge. 



THOMAS.] 



THE WEBB GROUP. 



201 



Several of these, much shattered by the earthquake, were examined 
and others uninjured were opened. All were formed of irregular layers 
of swamp muck on which Avere fire-beds, charcoal, ashes, fragments of 
pottery, and charred animal bones, as is usual in this region. 

In a conical mound on the ridge, at the depth of 3 feet from the top, 
was the skeleton of a child not more than 3 feet long, and by the side 
of the skull a dark scallop-rimmed basin, and close to it another vessel, 
light colored. At the bottom, on the natural surface of the ground, was 
a fire-bed. The main body of the mound was composed of gray loam, 
such as that of the soil around it, but the top was covered with a layer 
of soft, yellow sand, 20 inches thick at the center, and thinning out 
each way. 

A small circular mound, 25 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, found on 
Cane island in St. Francis lake, was explored. This had a rather mod- 








FIG. 111. Webb group, Craighead county, Arkansas. 

ern appearance and had evidently been built up at intervals. Passing 
through a top stratum of gray, sandy soil, something over a foot thick, 
the explorer reached a layer of charcoal and ashes about 6 inches thick ? 
covering an area of about 6 feet in diameter, in which were the charred 
fragments of animal bones. Next below this was a layer, 2 feet thick, 
of sand so loose as to shovel like ashes. This lay on a fire-bed of similar 
size, and at least a foot in depth of charcoal, in which were decayed* 
firebrands. This was, in fact, a coalpit in which were several bushels 
of excellent charcoal, but little ashes and no bones. About a foot or 
so below this was another similar charcoal bed. Not a particle of clay, 
mud, or a piece of stone or pottery was seen in any part of the mound. 
The group shown in Fig. Ill is situated in the southern part of the 
county, on Sec. 16, T. 13 N., R. 5 E., on the land of Mr. Jasper Webb, 
about 10 miles southeast of Jonesboro. 



202 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

No. 1, the largest of the group, is 85 feet long by 75 broad on the 
flat top and 13 feet high : but being occupied as a graveyard could not 
be explored. 

No. 2, conical in form, measured about 150 feet in diameter at the 
base and very nearly 20 feet high. It was examined but revealed noth 
ing of interest. 

No. 3, conical in form, 65 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, contained 
four skeletons, but so far decayed that they could only be partially traced. 
One was near the center at a depth of 5 feet, another on the west side 
3 feet below the surface. Two feet and a half below the latter was a 
broken pot with some badly decayed shells in it. Pottery was discov 
ered at all depths from G inches to 6J feet below the surface and in all 
conditions from unbroken vessels to those in fragments. All the whole 
vessels were sitting right side up and in most cases near the surface; 
those lower down wen 4 generally in fragments. Some parts of the 
mound appeared to be entirely barren of specimens while in other parts 
several were found near together. In one place on the south side, in a 
space of 3 feet square by 2 feet deep, were five pots. Thirty-four speci 
mens of the Bureau collection are from this mound. 

Mound No. 4 was but partially explored, the work being stopped by 
water rising in the trenches. In this were two skeletons and a number 
of clay vessels. With one of the skeletons were six pots. 

None of the specinisns found in this mound were buried more than 
2 feet deep and some of them were within G inches of the surface. This 
tumulus is situated close to a slough and is surrounded by water in 
times of great freshets. 

There are a few places near these mounds elevated about a foot above 
the surrounding land. One near mound No. 1 was examined and at 
the depth of a foot charcoal and fragments of very firm pottery were 
discovered; but further examination was stopped by the water which 
rose in the trenches. 

Mound No. 5 (not shown in the figure), circular, rounded on top, 40 
feet in diameter and 2 feet high, Avas composed entirely of sand and 
unstratified. Although it stands on low, wet ground, graves had been 
dug in the natural soil, or excavations made before it was built, as re 
mains and specimens were found at the dei)th of 4J feet below the sur 
face of the mound. 

Comparatively few human bones were discovered and these so badly 
decayed that none of them could be saved, but the number of pottery 
vessels was unusually large, over forty being found in the mound. 
Usually these vessels were in groups or nests; that is to say, from two 
to four would be found together, though occasionally one would be by 
itself; and as a general thing the mouths were up. The ware is through 
out of very inferior quality, usually thin and imperfectly burned. It 
consists of cooking pots, some with ears and some without, and some 
showing evidences of usage; long-necked water bottles, gourd-shaped 



MOUNDS AT TYRONZA STATION. 



203 



water vessels; bowls, one large with a flaring rim; dipper or skillet- 
shaped vessel with short handles; two clay pipes, etc. 

A limestone celt, lance head, and arrow point were the only stone 
implements discovered in it. Some coals and ashes, rough, burned 
stories, and lumps of burned clay were observed. 

POINSETT COUNTY. 

The topography of this county is throughout similar in every respect 
to that of Craighead county which lies immediately north of it. It 
has the same dividing ridge, the same low flat belt and the same bound 
ing streams. 

TYRONZA STATION . 

This is a mere siding about 1 mile east of the point Avhere the Kan 
sas City, Springfield, and Memphis railroad crosses the Tyronza river, 
constructed as a means of access to a large and valuable gravel bed 
underlying the sandy ridge, which is something less than a mile wide 
at this point and between 3 and 4 miles long. Although the summit of 
this ridge is from 10 to 15 feet above the swamp around it, only the 
tops of the larger and higher ancient mounds upon it remain above 
the water during the heavy overflows of the Mississippi river. Fig. 
112 shows the relative positions of the mounds and their relation to 
the railroad. 

The following list gives the numbers, the shape, diameter at the 
base, and the height of each of the mounds shown in the figure and 
remarks in regard to the contents of those explored. 



No. 


Shape. 


Diameter. 


Height. Remarks. 






Feet. 


Feet. 


1 


Circular 


120 


12 Flat-topped. Long occupied by a house. 


2 


....do 


100 


8 Used as a cemetery by the whites. 


3 


....do 


70 


5 Bones and fragments of pottery. 


4 


....do 


GO 


5 Do. 


5 


....do 


100 


6 Ancient tire-bed, ashes, and bones. 


6 


Oblong 


100 by 40 


3 Found nothing. 


7 


Circular 


75 


5 Two tiers of fire- beds and ashes. 


8 


....do 


80 


5 Opened thoroughly, finding the burned clay and plaster 








for the floor and walls of a dwelling 12 by 13 feet. 








Fig. 113 shows vertical section. 


9 


....do 


100 


6 Cut away by the railroad men ; dotted with red fire-beds, 








black earth above them filled with human bones and 








pottery. 


10 


do 


60 


3i Charred remains of a dwelling seemingly about 12 feet 








square. 


11 


....do 


60 


3 i Partly cut away by railroad men. Fire-beds, charcoal, 








ashes, and pottery. 


12 


do 


90 


4 ; Ruins of dwelling; Fig. 114 shows a vertical section. 


13 


....do 


40 


2 j Fire-bed and clay burned to a brick red. 


14 


....do 


50 


3 1 Do. 


15 


....do 


100 


4 Do. 


16 


....do 


80 


7 ! In the woods contained three tiers of fire-beds and in the 








upper, 2 feet from the surface, one skeleton aud pot. 


17 


....do 


120 


9 Contained t\vo lire-beds, ashes, aud bones. 

I 



204 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Three other similar mounds were seen in the woods but not excavated. 

Fig. 115 is a representation of the face of the cut made by the rail 
road in the gravel pit; or, in other words, a vertical section of the ridge 
to the depth of from 5 to 6 feet below the normal surface; also of the 
mounds on the line of the section. The length of the section shown in 




the figure is 1,100 feet. The heights, distances, and in fact all the fig 
ures given are from actual careful measurements. 

It will be seen from this, that not only were the mounds occupied as 
dwelling sites, but that the entire ridge, so far as the cut for the rail 
road extends, and to the depth of from 2 to 3 feet, has, scattered 
through it, burnt clay beds which in Arkansas are sure marks of house 
sites. The short, heavy, black, horizontal dashes mark the locations of 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS AT TYRONZA STATION. 



205 



fire-beds or indications of fire, as beds of ashes, charcoal, etc.; the 
cross-hatched, or shaded, short, horizontal dashes represent the burnt 
clay beds, some of which formed the hard floors of dwellings and some 
the fragments of plastered walls which have fallen over when the dwell 
ing was burned, as appears to have been the case in most instances. 
The positions and relations of these beds, as shown in the figure, make 
it evident that upon the site of one burned dwelling another was usually 
constructed, not infrequently a third, and sometimes even a fourth, 
the remains of each being underlaid and usually overlaid in part by very 
dark, adhesive clay or muck from the adjacent excavations which are 
found in the swamp as well as upon the ridge, and contain water and 
occasionally fish. 



Fia. 113. Section of Mound No. 8, Tyroiiza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 

The peculiar black color of these beds is chiefly in consequence of the 
large proportion of charcoal with which they are mixed, some of it 
doubtless the fine particles of burned grass and reed matting with 
which the cabins appear to have been thatched. In and immediately 
beneath these are found the deposits of human skeletons, pottery and 
other relics. 

In mound A (Fig. 115), and at the second red clay bed from the top 
was found a water vessel which is neatly ornamented with red figures, 
and in the next bed below an image vessel. 

On the bottom hearth of mound B was a layer of what had the 
appearance of hand-molded brick, well burned, and as red and hard 
as modern brick. These bricks, as a matter of course, were irregular 
in form and proportion, but seemed to have been intentionally formed 



KK;. 114. Swtion of Mound Xo. 12, Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 

before burning. Upon this floor, commingled with the burned plaster, 
which had formed the walls of the dwelling and which still showed the 
casts of cane, brush, and grass, were found balls or rounded masses of 
burned clay, containing the remarkably clear and distinct casts of small 
ears of maize (Fig. 116). This is judged from the casts to be the variety 
known in the South as the "gourd seed corn," which has the outer end 
of the grain very thin. Of these A is the original clay with the grain 
impressions in it; B is a cast of another piece showing the reverse of 
the impressions. 

Mound No. 8 is circular, 80 feet in diameter at the base, 5 feet high, 
and quite flat on top. It contained two beds of burned clay, indicating 
two successive dwellings. 



206 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Ill No. 12, a vertical section of which is shown in Fig. 114, were 
found the ruins of a dwelling, the plan of which, so far as it could be 
made out, is given in Fig. 117. There seems to have been three rooms 
(, b and d), each as nearly square as the builders were capable of making 
it, the floor consisting of a layer of clay, burned 
when formed. The floor of room a was in pieces, 
somewhat as represented in the figure. 

The floor of room b was smooth clay, hardened and 
partially burned. The sizes of these rooms were as 
follows: a, 11 feet 6 inches front by 12 feet 2 inches 
back; b, 11 feet 7 inches front by 11 feet 9 inches 
back; rf, 12* feet 3 inches front, the part remaining, 
feet back, but showing indications of about feet 
more, making the depth about 12 feet. 

The^black dots along the lines of the walls indicate 
the upright posts which supported the roof and to 
which the reed lathing for holding the plastering 
was attached. Remains of a sufficient number of 
>, these posts were found to show how far apart they 
-Ki r ^r * were placed, which appears to have been a little less 
than 2 feet, 

o 

From the burned fragments of the walls found it 
:H^;1AJ would seem that the cane lathing was worked in be 

tween the posts, as shown in Fig. 118, and was held 
^ in position by interwoven twigs until the plaster was 
|2 applied, both inside and out. The semicircular tig 
s nres (c c c] are supposed to represent fireplaces. The 
back room (d] may or may not have been square. 

As will be seen further on, the floor of another 
dwelling, somewhat similar in form to the one here 
shown, was discovered at another point (see Fig. 136). 
In digging away the gravel bank numerous skele 
tons were discovered, usually in a deposit of swamp 
mud, charcoal, and ashes, either immediately beneath 
or just above the layer of the hearth and burned plas 
tering of the ancient dwellings. All the indications 
go to confirm the theory that the dead were interred 
in a deposit of clay, swamp mud, or charcoal and 
ashes, or a mixture of them, either in or immediately beneath the dwell 
ings, which were then burned over them. Frequently several skeletons 
of different sizes were found in these places as though members of a 
family; but whether they were all interred at one time or were buried 
there one at a time, as they died, is not clear, as the evidence seems to 
point to both methods, and perhaps both were practiced. But there 
can be no doubt that it was a custom among the mound-builders of 
this section to spread a layer of fresh earth upon the charred remains 





THOMAS.] 



MOUND-BUILDERS 7 DWELLINGS. 



207 




of one dwelling, often while yet smouldering, to the depth of 1, 2, or 3 
feet, and subsequently use it as the site of another dwelling, and some 
times even a third, thus 
increasing the height of 
the mound; each lay 
er becoming the burial 
place of some, at least, 
of the occupants of the 
dwellings destroyed. 
In this way many, if not 
most of the smaller and 
medium-sized tumuli of 
this region, then as now 
subject to overflow, 
have been built up. A 
great majority of the 
mounds of this charac 
ter in this region are 
now and always were 
subject to overflow; but 
no instance is known 
where the large, flat- 
topped mound of a 
group is not now above 
all ordinary floods. Al 
though the latter also 
contain fire beds, these 
are not so common as 
in the smaller ones 
from which we may per 
haps justly conclude 
that the people realiz 
ing their situation, 
built up more rapidly 
one 1 a r g e c e n t r a 1 
mound above the floods as a site for several dwellings or a large com 
munal house, as well as a refuge for the villagers in times of floods. 

MILLER MOUNDS. 

This group, which is shown in Fig. 110, is situated in Sec. 10, T. 10 
N., E. 6 E. on land owned by Mr. William Davis on the west side of the 
St. Francis river. 

The large mound, No. 1 (probably in part a natural formation) and 
part of the surrounding lands are under cultivation ; the rest of the 
group is yet in the forest, which consists of oak, pecan, cottonwood, 
hackberry, haw, gum, and hickory trees and scattering stalks of cane. 




Y\fi. 116. Clsiy 



of car of maize, or India 



208 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The bottom land is a black, sticky soil, very rich, producing fine crops 
of cotton, corn, and tobacco. Mounds 1, 2, and 3 remain uncovered 
during overflows, the rest being submerged to the depth of 3 or 4 feet 
or more. Quantities of potsherds, broken stone implements, burned 
clay, bones, and arrowheads are plowed up every season and are 
scattered over the surface of the large mound and fields. 

Mound No. 1, if in fact it be throughout an artificial structure, is long, 
flat-topped, though not level, and irregular in form, the greatest length 
being about 900 feet and the greatest width about 225 feet. The height 

varies from 4 feet at 
the northern end to 12 
at the southern (see 
vertical section, Fig. 
120). 

At m (Fig. 119) there 
is a considerable de 
pression, as though it 
had not been filled up 
at this point or had 
been washed out, this 
portion being raised 
only 2 feet. On the 

7 J *r $&- : ^C^$^^ surface at e and d are 

) ,f- If-| >< MW^^c^W two small mounds 
IteiJF r>fHa-q;>A. : mtf about 3 feet high and 

20 feet in diameter, 
composed of hard 
clay. The soil is 
sandy and quite 
rich. 

Although designated a mound, this may be in part a natural forma 
tion, possibly the remnant of a former ridge which has been swept away 
by the overflows ; but that the height has been artificially increased at 
the southern end can not be doubted, though permission to dig here 
was not granted, as this dwelling and other houses were located here. 
No. 2, near the north end of No. 1, is about 110 feet in diameter and 
18 feet high ; conical and symmetrical. The surface layer proved to be 
a sandy soil and quite different from that of the woodland in which it 
stands, which is black and sticky. Several large trees are growing on 
the sides and near the top. 

No. 3 is GO yards from No. 2, oval and flat on top; diameter north 
and south, 105 feet, east and west 75 feet, and height 12 feet. 

No. 4 is about 50 yards east of No. 3, 25 feet in diameter, 3 feet high, 
and circular. In this little mound was a mingled mass of human bones 
in every conceivable position, covering an area of about 10 feet in 
diameter. All the skulls were soft and in pieces. Among the bones 



r- 




FIG. 117. Clay floor of a three room house. 



THOMAS.] 



THE MILLER MOUNDS. 



209 



were several whole earthen vessels and numerous fragments of pottery 
This is the only one of the group examined in which neither charcoal 
nor ashes were found. 

No. 5 is 40 yards southwest of No. 3, diameter 20 feet, height 2 feet. 

No. 6 is 70 yards west of No. 3, diameter 40 feet, height 3 feet. About 
2 inches of the top consisted of vegetable soil. Under this was a 
layer of burnt clay extending across the mound, but not reaching the 




FIG. 118. Mode of lathing houses by Mound-builders. 

margins. This was not in a compact layer, but consisted of broken 
fragments bearing the imprint of grass and twigs and in some places 
the casts of split cane. In most cases the smooth side was down. The 
layer conformed to the surface of the ground and not to the curve of the 
mound, and in the central portion was 
slightly depressed. Below this, as far as 
the excavation extended (water stopping 
the work) was dark muck. Immediately 
below the burnt clay were four small ash 
beds on the same level. On and immedi 
ately below the large layer of burnt clay 
were several whole earthern vessels, two 
water bottles, two pots, and three bowls, 
and in the clay bed a large number of frag 
ments of pottery. 

No. 7, 100 yards west of No. 2, stands on 
low, wet ground with water all around it; 
diameter 60 feet, height 5 feet. After pass 
ing through a top layer of vegetable mold 
some 2 or 3 inches thick an unusually heavy 
layer of burnt clay, some 15 feet in diame 
ter, was reached, which, in the center, 
measured 18 inches thick, but thinning out 
toward the margin, where it consisted of 
scattering fragments. The middle portion 
of the underside curved slightly upward, where it pressed upon a layer 
of ashes immediately below it. This layer of clay had the appearance 
of having been made by laying down irregularly shaped chunks of burnt 
12 ETH 14 




FIG. 119. The Miller mounds, Poin. 
sett county, Arkansas. 



210 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



clay, some of them very hard, and filling in between them with smaller 
pieces. Although not solid, it seems that it was intended it should be 
as compact and smooth on top as it could be made with such material- 

Under this was a layer of ashes some 2 or 3 inches thick 5 below 
-this, dark muck or sticky clay. Other small ash beds were also found- 
Eight pots were found in the large burnt clay layer, two -of them at 
the bottom of the layer by the side of an adult skeleton which lay in a 
horizontal position. 

No. 8, 35 yards south of No. 7, measured only 20 feet in diameter and 
2 feet in height. This, like the preceding, was composed chiefly of the 



FIG. 120. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Miller group, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 

black, sticky soil or muck of the swamp areas around the group. A 
trench across it revealed nothing except a layer of burnt clay, about 6 
inches thick, occupying about two-thirds of the area of the mound 

No. 9 is only about 15 feet southwest of No. 8, diameter 30 feet, 
height, 4 feet; circular, and flat on top; a large pecan tree stands on 

the northeast slope. The top 
layer, 6 inches thick, consisted 
of loose, sandy soil, followed by 
a layer of burnt clay, quite hard, 
9 inches thick ; the rest of the 
mound to the original surface of 
the ground consisted of black 
muck. 

Fig. 121 is a plat of this mound 
showing the relative positions 
of the articles found in it: 1, a 
chipped celt at the depth l of 6 
inches; 2, a folded skeleton, 
head east, at the depth of 6 
inches, and by the side of it a 
pot; 3, another skeleton at the 
depth of 9 inches, and by its side 
a bowl; 4, a clay disk at the 
depth of 6 inches; 5 and 6, two folded skeletons, depth 2J feet, heads 
west; 7 and 8, two folded skeletons, depth 18 inches, heads east, with 
a bowl by the side of one and a jug by the other; 9 and 10, folded skele 
tons with jug and pot; 11, a pottery disk at the depth of 2 feet; 12, stone 
disk at 18 inches; 13, 14, and 15, folded skeletons, heads southeast, 
depth 2feet, by them a three-legged jug, a bowl and pot; 16 and 17, a 
jug and bowl at the depth of 3 & feet, no skeletons with them ; 18, a single 
bowl, very small, depth 1 foot. A bone punch was also found here. 

1 Measurements of depth are always to the upper side of the article mentioned as It lies in the mound. 




FIG. 121. Mound No. 9, Miller group, Poinsett 
county, Arkansas. 



THOMAS.] MOUND NO. 11, MILLER S GROUP. 211 

Some of the clay vessels were quite soft at the time they were found, 
but the larger number were strong, well made, and of comparatively 
good material. Fragments of pottery, broken stone, clay, ashes and 
charcoal were found at various depths. The bones of the skeletons 
were soft and fell to pieces as soon as they were uncovered. 

No. 10, a small, circular mound, 3 feet high, was made up of several 
irregular layers as follows: First a top layer of soil 3 inches thick; be 
low this a layer of burnt clay similar to that of the other mounds, 
about 5 inches thick ; next, a foot of soil similar to that of the surround 
ing surface; and the remainder, to the original surface of the ground, 
a mixture of ashes, burnt clay, and soil. At the center of this was a 
considerable bed of ashes occupying its entire thickness, in which lay 
a single skeleton and with it four pots, two of them under the head of 
the skeleton. 

No. 11, 20 feet west of No. 10 ; diameter 35 feet, height 3 J feet ; circular. 

A broad trench was cut through it, carrying away the larger portion 
to the original earth. In Fig. 122 the positions of the articles found 
are marked. After passing through a 
very thin layer of surface soil a bed of 
hard-burned earth 4 inches thick was 
reached which covered the greater por 
tion of the mound; the remainder con 
sisted of black muck from the bottom 
lauds around; at the depth of 5J feet, 
or 2 feet below the original surface of 
the ground, was a layer of ashes and 
charcoal. Quantities of broken mussel 
shells, charcoal, potsherds and chunks of 

burned clay were found at various FIG. i22.-pian of mound NO. n, Miller 
depths. 

At 1 lay a very soft folded skeleton, head north, 2 feet below the 
surface; by the head a single earthen pot. Pots 2 and 3, and a bowl 
(4), were all immediately under the usual layer of burned earth. Nos. 
5 and 6 clay pipes were discovered at the depth of 2 feet; 8, a pot, 
at the depth of 2 feet ; a clay pipe (not shown in the figure) at the 
depth of 18 inches. 

Several pieces of burned clay bearing the impressions of split canes 
were secured. These probably were pieces of plastering from the walls 
of a dwelling which stood here and was destroyed by fire. The layer 
of burned earth or clay mentioned was quite hard. It was full of the 
impressions of grass and twigs, and looked as though grass and clay 
had been mixed together. Some small trees, varying from 6 inches to 
a foot in diameter, stood on the top and sides of the mound. 
No. 12, 25 feet southwest of No. 11, diameter 25 feet, height, 3 feet; 
circular; was composed of black, sticky muck, except a layer of bnrned 
clay 9 inches thick which covered the top. 




212 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




FIG. 12:j. Plan of Mound No. 12, Miller <:roup. 



Fig. 123 shows the positions of the following articles found in it. 
Nos. 1 and 2, pots at the depth of 9 inches, or immediately under the 
bed of burned clay; 3, clay disk, depth, 9 inches; 4, a folded skeleton, 
head north, depth, 1 foot, with a pot on each side of it; 5, a pot, depth, 

2 feet ; 6, a soft skeleton and 
a pot, depth, 2 feet; 7, a 
broken bowl at the depth of 
2 feet; 8, a bowl at a depth 
of 2 feet; 9, 10, 11, three 
skeletons, heads in different 
directions, at the depth of 2 
feet; 12, a clay pipe immedi 
ately under the top layer of 
burned clay. 

Most of the pottery in this 
mound was very soft, hence 
it was only with great care 
that the vessels could be 
taken out whole. The bones 
were so wet and soft that 
they went to pieces when 
h andled . Several small, 
hardwood trees, such as hackberry, hickory, pecan and walnut, grew 
on the mound, but none exceeded 6 or 8 inches in diameter. Soft mus 
sel shells, chunks of burned clay, charcoal, burned stones, ashes and 
fragments of charred cane were found at various depths. 

THORNTON GROUP. 

This group is situated in T. 11 N., It. 6 E., on the east bank of Little 
river, about 3 miles above its junction with the St, Francis. 

The bottom land on which the mounds stand, although under culti 
vation, is low and subject to overflow. The plan of the group is given 
in Fig. 124. 

Fragments of pottery, broken stone implements, mussel shells, stone 
chips, broken bones, and chunks of burned clay are scattered over a 
portion of the ground. A clay pipe was the only whole article that re 
warded a careful search of the surface. 

Owing to continued rains and abundance of water but two mounds 
of the above group were examined and very little of interest found in 
them. 

The following list gives the respective sizes and forms of the mounds 
of this group : 

No. 1. Seventy-five feet long north and south, 65 feet wide, and 2 
feet high. 

No. 2. Ninety feet long north and south an 40 feet east and west. 

No. 3. Thirty feet in diameter and 2 feet high. 



THOMAS.] 



TAYLOR SHANTY GROUP. 



213 



No. 4, 25 feet across the widest point and 2 feet high. 

No. 5, apparently double, 75 feet long north and south, 35 feet across 
at the widest point, and 3 feet high. 

No. 6, 50 feet long east and west, 30 feet wide, and 2 feet high. 

No. 7, which is but 20 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, was opened 
and found to consist throughout of sandy soil like that in the field 
around it. It was full of ashes, charcoal, burned clay, broken mussel 
shells, fragments of pottery, and stone chips. A soft, folded skeleton, 
with head north, was found on the northern side at the depth of 18 
inches; under it was a discoidal 
stone. A few large fragments 
of pottery, very soft, were at the 
center near the surface. The 
clay pipe heretofore mentioned 
was found on the surface of this 
mound. 

No. 8, diameter 35 feet and 
height 2 feet, is situated in a 
depression, and at the time of 
examination was surrounded by 
water. 

In No. 9, which is 25 feet in 
diameter and 3 feet high, was a 
folded skeleton at the depth of 1 
foot, with head south ; no relics 
of any kind with it. 

THE TAYLOR SHANTY GROUP. 

This group, shown in Fig. 125, 
is situated in the southern part 
of T. 11 N., K. C E., on the right 
bank of the St. Francis river, 
about 3 miles below where the 
Kansas City, Fort Scott and 
Memphis railroad crosses this 
stream. This part of the county 
lies within the bounds of what 
are known as the u Sunken lands 
of the St. Francis river; 7 hence 
the present condition is proba 
bly quite different from what it was previous to 1811, though it must 
have abounded in swamps and sloughs as far back as the time of De 
Soto s visit. The land on which the mounds stand is subject to over 
flow, and in 1882, 1883, and 1884 was inundated to the depth of 10 or 
12 feet, only the tops of the highest mounds remaining uncovered. 

Mound No. 1, shown on a larger scale in Fig. 126, is at this time but 




FIG. 124. Plat of Thornton group, Poiusett county, 
Arkansas. 



214 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



a remnant of what it was, the overflow and wash of the St. Francis 
river having worn- away a considerable portion of it. The length at 
present is 150 feet, greatest width 75, and height 6 feet, the top flat. 
On this were two small mounds shown at a and ft, each about 2G feet 
in diameter and 2 feet high. Trenches 20 feet wide were dug through 




FIG. 125. Plat of Taylor Shanty group, Poinsott county, Arkansas. 

these small mounds to the depth of 5 feet. In that (c d) running 
through the little mound , seven skeletons of adults were found, all 
extended and lying on their backs, and with each (save two) were two 
earthen vessels lying near the skulls, in most cases a bowl and jar. 
With one of the exceptional cases was one vessel ; with the other, three. 
At one point two skeletons were lying close together side by side, but 



THOMAS.] 



MOUND NO. 1. 



215 



with the feet of one to the head of the other. Shells and animal bones 
were observed; of the latter those of the deer were the most common. 
Burnt clay and ashes were scattered through the earth, but not in beds. 

In the trench (e f) running through mound b were also several skele 
tons, all lying horizontally, at full length, each with one or more earthen 
vessels close by it; with one 
there were four, two at the 
knees and two at the head. -In 
one of the pots found in this 
trench were a number of small 
animal bones. At the depth of 
2 feet was a bed of burnt clay 
and immediately beneath it a 
bed of charcoal and ashes, in 
which was found a single clay 
pipe. 

Mound No. 2 lies a few feet 
north of No. 1, and is somewhat 
oval in outline ; north and south 
diameter, 41 feet; east and west 
diameter, 58 feet; and height, 
5 feet. It was covered with a 
dense growth of cane, and a 
large tree had grown on the top 
near the center, but, having 

fallen, its trunk lay buried in -Mound No. 1, Taylor Shanty group. 

the top of the mound and was covered with vegetable mold to the depth 
of 2 inches. 

The construction of this mound as shown in Fig. 127, which repre 
sents an east and west cross section, is as follows, commencing at the 
top: First, a top layer of soil, a, 3 inches thick; next, a layer of burnt 
clay, 6, 15 inches thick in the central portion and thinning out to the 
margins, smooth on top, but rough beneath, with the usual indications 





FIG. 127. Section of mound No. 2, Taylor Shanty group. 

of admixture with straw and twigs. Immediately under this was a 
continuous layer of ashes and charcoal (c), equal in extent to the layer 
of burnt clay above it and about 2 inches thick. The remains of partly 
burned cane were found mixed through it; also fragments of pottery 
and burned stones. Under this were layers of burnt clay, e and /, 8 
inches thick, placed as shown in the figure, with a thin layer of ashes 



I 

216 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

between their overlapping edges. There were no indications of grass 
or twigs in the clay of these layers, as in that of the upper one, b. 
Beneath these was another horizontal and continuous layer of fine coal 
and ashes, #, about 2 inches thick. This had the appearance of burnt 
cane, as fragments of cane partially burned were found in it. Under 
this was still another layer of burnt clay (h) equal in extent to those 
above it and, like them, horizontal. Its upper side was comparatively 
smooth and flat. In the central portion it was rather more than a foot 
thick, but thinning out toward the margins. This had been cut at m 
in a north and south direction for the purpose of burying a single indi 
vidual, whose skeleton was found immediately below at 2. This layer 
appears to have been solid, and contained no indications of grass or 
weeds. Near the northern edge, at d, were a small bed of gray ashes, 
quite a quantity of coals, fragments of pottery and stones, and among 
them human bones slightly discolored by the ashes, but not burned. 
This deposit was some 4 or 5 inches thick, covering an area about 6 
feet in diameter and lying chiefly in the layer g. Immediately under 
this burnt clay was a layer (i) of gray, waxy soil about 1 foot thick, 
horizontal, 1 extending over the area of the mound, and of nearly uni 
form thickness throughout. On the south side of the mound in this 
layer, at n, was a small bed of ashes. Next and last, resting on the 
original surface of the ground, was another layer of burnt clay (o) 
some 7 inches thick in the center. This, to all appearances, had been 
burned where it lay; nevertheless it was in fragments, and indications 
of grass and twigs to a very limited extent were observed in it. It is 
possible, therefore, that it may have been plastering from a house. 

Skeletons and fragments thereof were found as follows : Bones (3) in 
the ash heap at d; skeleton lying at full length (1) in the layer of earth 
i; with this was a red-striped earthen bowl close to the head. No. 2 
was in the same layer as No. 1, but judging by the indications was 
buried subsequent to it, as the latter lay immediately under the undis 
turbed portion of the clay layer (7t), while 2 was under the opening which 
had evidently been made in the clay layer for its reception. This 
burial had taken place previous to the deposit of the layer of ashes, #, 
as this had not been disturbed. By the side of the latter, near the 
head, stood a water bottle and a bowl containing shell beads. Three 
skeletons (4, 5, and 0) lay at the bottom, on the original surface of the 
ground. By No. 4 was an earthen canteen ; by 5, a red and white striped 
water bottle; and by 6, a bowl. 

A wide mouthed water bottle and some human bones were discovered 
near the surface of the mound at 7, but these appear to have been 
brought up from some deeper position by the roots of the tree men 
tioned when it fell. A spoon-shaped clay vessel was buried in the ashes 
at d, and scattered through the dirt of the mound were fragments of 

horizontal, when used iu this connection, implies that the bed or stratum does not correspond with 
the curve or vertical contour of the mound, but is level or horizontal. 



THOMAS.] 



MOUND NO. 4. 



217 



pottery, fresh-water shells, and animal bones, chiefly of the deer and 
raccoon. 

Mound 3 is a small circular tumulus, standing near No. 2 on the west, 
14 feet in diameter and 2 feet high. Being nearly covered by water 
it was riot explored. 

Mound 4 is about 60 feet from the margin of No. 2; diameter 66 feet, 
height nearly 6 feet. The construction was as follows, commencing 
at the bottom and going up: The line a a in Fig. 
128 indicates the original surface of ground; fc, a 
layer of burnt clay, which lay chiefly on the right 
side, extending only a short distance to the left of 
the center, averaging about 5 inches in thickness. 
The impressions of grass and weeds were very 
abundant in it. The top was much smoother than 
the underside. The soil immediately beneath 
showed, to the depth of 2 or 3 inches, the effect of 
heat, from which it would seem that the clay was 
burnt on the spot where it lay. 

Overlapping the northern end of this layer was a 
bed of ashes and coals (c) a little beyond the cen 
ter of the mound. This covered an area about 6 
feet in diameter and was about 10 inches thick 
where deepest. Over this was a nearly horizontal 
layer (d) of clean surface soil, stretching entirely 
across the mound. On this lay a thin stratum (e) 
of burnt cane, but little more than an inch thick, 
on which, or rather in which, not far from the cen 
ter, were the remains of a few fires, marked by the 
ash bed .(/). Over the layer of burnt cane (e) was 
a thick layer of. surface soil, marked </, including 
and covering the bed of ashes (/). Over this was 
a second layer of black, loose soil (h), 13 inches 
thick, in which at i, lay a small bed of burnt clay, 
occupying an area about 5 feet in diameter, cov 
ered by a layer of ashes extending somewhat be 
yond its margins. Next above was another layer of 
burnt clay (/), 15 inches thick in the central portion, 
but thinning out to the margins, as shown in the 
figure, and covering an area of 36 by 27 feet. This 
was composed of chunks of burnt clay that ap 
peared to have been placed on top of the mound, and the crevices filled 
up with smaller fragments. 

Three skeletons were found in this mound; first (1), that of a person 
under medium size in the layer of soil (#), immediately on the stratum of 
burnt cane. It lay at full length face up, head east; the bones were 
very soft and the skull was much flattened, but not crushed. Near the 
head stood two clay vessels, a water bottle, and a bowl. Under the skull 



218 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



and part of the neck was a kind of pillow of burnt clay 13 inches long, 
10 wide, and 3 thick. Although showing the form, the moisture had so 
affected it that it crumbled on exposure. The corners were rounded and 
the form was appropriate to the use to which it was applied. 

The second skeleton (2) was in the bottom of the mound on the origi 
nal surface of the ground and partly covered by the ash bed c, though 
not charred. It lay extended, face up and head southeast, resting on a 
clay pillow similar to that already described. Near the right shoulder 
was a water bottle and close to it a bowl. The bottle stood erect and 
was about two-thirds full of water, which had probably soaked in during 
an overflow. 

The third skeleton (3) was in the southern part of the mound in the 
ash bed (/), and, though resting on the layer of burnt cane, the bones 
were not charred. It lay horizontally, the head resting on a clay pil 
low, as the others, and near it stood a water bottle and bowl; with these 
was also a chipped celt. 

Mound 5 stands 25 feet north of 4, measuring from base to base, and 
is similar in size and form to 3. On it is a black walnut stump, 16 feet 
in circumference. No. 6, 35 feet east of No. 2, is circular; diameter 26 
feet, height 3 feet. No. 7> 45 feet west of 4, is somewhat oval ; diameter 
52 and 61 feet, height 6 feet. Although neither of these three was 
explored, burnt clay was observed near the surface of each. 

No. 8 is 127 feet north of 7; diameter 50 feet; height about 3 feet. 
Two feet below the surface was a water bottle in the form of a fish, and 
near it a bowl. Nothing else was observed, except a few fresh-water 
shells, fragments of pottery, and a few coals. 

The positions and sizes of the remaining mounds of the group, which 
were not excavated, are given in the following table: 



No. 


Position. 


Form . 


Diameter. 


Height. 


9 


100 feet northwest of No. 8 




Feet. 
5^ 


Feet. 
4 


10 


200 feet northwest of No. 9 


do 


30 


2 


11 


93 feet northeast of No. 9 




8T by 30 


2i 


12 


90 feet north of No. 11 


Oblong 


75 by 25 


3jL 


13 


145 feet southwest of No. 7 


Circular 


35 


3 


14 


25 feet south of No. 13 




I lO by 112 


g 


15 


75 feet south of No. 13 . . 


Oblouo- 


87 by 44 


5 


16 


125 feet south of No. 15 






3 


17 


80 feet east of No. 15 


<lo 


10 


I 


18 


15 feet west of No. 16 


do 


30 


u 













Other mounds which presented little of interest may be briefly men 
tioned as follows : 

One in Sec. 9, T. 12 N., E, 2 E., conical, 60 feet in diameter and 2 J feet 
high, except the southeast quarter, which was raised a foot higher. 
Under the latter portion at the depth of 3 feet, was a single skeleton 
lying at full length, face up, head east. Fragments of pottery, shells, 
ashes, coals, bones, stones and burned earth were scattered through it. 



THOMAS.] PECAN POINT, MISSISSIPPI COUNTY. 219 

One on Sec. 35, T. 12 X., R. 2 E., conical, 35 feet in diameter and 4 
feet high, was situated on low wet land. Two folded skeletons occurred 
a-t the depth of 2 feet, and the usual amount of fragments of pottery, 
shells, coals, etc. 

One in S W. J Sec. 26, T. 12 N., E. 2 E., 75 feet in diameter, 4J feet high, 
circular and nearly flat on top. Near the center, at a depth of 2J feet, 
lay a bed of ashes covering an area about 5 feet in diameter. A lit 
tle to the north of this bed, at the same depth, were four folded skele 
tons, without order as to direction, and a little north of them another 
fire bed, to the right of which at the depth of 3 feet, was another skele 
ton, lying at full length, head west. Shells, stones, bones, fragments 
of pottery, etc., were scattered through it. 

One near the preceding, 25 feet in diameter and nearly 3 feet high, 
composed of dark brown loam, similar to the soil around it, contained 
only the usual mixture of shells, coals, ashes, etc. This and the one 
preceding it are subject to overflow, and like many of the others, prob 
ably most of the low circular ones were house sites. 

A conical and unusually steep mound on the SW. J Sec. 32, T. 11 N., 
E. 4 E., which had been partially explored, was examined. It was com 
posed of the sandy soil of the bottom land on which it stands, and 
covered with a layer of dark vegetable mold, about 9 inches thick. Two 
large poplars (tulip trees), each about 3 feet in diameter, stand on the 
northern slope. A folded skeleton, accompanied by three clay pots, 
was found near the apex at a depth of 1 foot under an old stump, and 
another at the depth of 9 inches, accompanied by three pots. Burned 
human bones occurred at three points, two at a depth of 2 feet and 
one at the depth of 5 feet. Fragments of pottery, stones, and mussel 
shells were scattered through the earth. In the center, at the base, was 
a hard layer of sand, several feet in extent and 2 feet deep. Under it 
lay five folded skeletons, all placed in the same direction. 

A third mound in the same locality, about 200 yards from the last 
and similar in form and size, was partially explored. A badly decayed 
skeleton, with head west and accompanied by a small water jug, was 
discovered at a depth of 18 inches, and another at a depth of 2 feet, by 
which stood a pot and bowl. Another pot and another bowl were also 
found. 

MISSISSIPPI COUNTY. 

This county, which is bounded on the east by the Mississippi river 
and on the west by the Tyrouza and Little rivers, is low and flat 
throughout, and the northern, middle, arid western portions much cut 
up by lakes, bayous, and cypress swamps. 

PECAN POINT. 



This is one of the most elevated points which the Mississippi, in its 
many bends and windings, has left as a part of its west bank along 



220 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



this portion of its course; yet it is but a high bank. Nearly a mile 
northwest of the present landing at this place is an oblong, oval-topped 
mound, 150 feet long, north and south, by 80 broad at the base and 15 
feet high. This is on the southern bank of a bayou where the river 
probably ran when it was built. As it is covered with modern graves 
of negroes and whites no excavations were allowed to be made in it. 
The people of the neighborhood state that in digging graves they bring 
up the remains of as many people as they bury. 

But the chief point of interest at this place is the old cemetery or 
burying ground of the ancient mound-builders, which lies immediately 
east of the mound mainly along the slough. 

A plat of the locality is given in Fig. 129; m indicating the mound, 
and the space c, surrounded by the dotted line, the cemetery. 

Although many individuals are buried in mounds, and, in this sec 
tion, in the dwelling sites, yet it is evident from the indications of long 




Cultivated Field 



FIG. 129. Plat of Pecan point, works, Mississippi county, Arkansas. 

occupancy and a numerous population, in many localities, that a large 
portion of the dead must have been buried elsewhere. Occasionally 
these burying grounds can be found. In the present case the cemetery 
furnishes the chief evidence that there was formerly an extensive vil 
lage here. It is possible the mounds and other works may have been 
swept away by the Mississippi changing its bed; possibly they never 
existed. 

The usual mode of burial here was horizontal at full length upon 
the back or side, in a bark coffin placed from 1 to 3 feet below the sur 
face. There are, however, exceptions to this mode, as some are placed 
with the face down, some with the legs drawn up, or, in other words, 
folded, some in a sitting or squatting posture; but this last is usually 
where a group of various sizes, as of a family, are found huddled to 
gether around some rare and highly prized object. There is no uni 
formity as to the direction in which they were placed, either in regard 
to the points of the compass or their relation to one another. It was 



THOMAS.] 



FULL FACE VESSELS. 



221 



under circumstances of this kind that the vessels representing the 
human head, one of which, shown in Fig. 130, was found here. 

Usually in the graves of the horizontal skeletons there was found 
with each a pot, bowl, or jug near the head, at the feet, or by the hips; 
often two and sometimes all three with one skeleton, but it was seldom 
that two vessels of the same kind or intended for the same use were 
with one skeleton. The human headed vessels were not together, but 
adjacent to each other, and, although the large one (shown in Fig. 130) 
was encircled by skeletons, none was nearer than V or 3 feet of it. In 
some places there were as many as three or four tiers of burials, the 
lower tiers being considerably deeper than the average mentioned. 




FIG. 130. Image vessel, Pecan point, Mississippi county, Arkansas. 

Scattered through this cemetery were fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, 
burned stones, and mussel shells from 6 inches to 2 feet below the sur 
face. The fire beds were layers of burned earth from 6 inches to a 
foot thick and usually about 10 feet in diameter, with ashes and char 
coal on and under them. Skeletons without accompanying relics were 
sometimes found near these fire beds. 

Figures of some of the interesting and rare forms of clay vessels 
obtained at this place have been published. 

In the central portion of this county, back of Osceola, there is a 
group of mounds on Frenchman s bayou, 6 miles west of Golden Lake 
post-office. 

These are all of the simple, ordinary, conical type, the highest not 



222 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

exceeding 8 feet elevation. The plow and previous explorers had cut 
them to pieces and all the valuable specimens had been removed. A 
large number of pieces of clay, burnt to a brick-like substance, were ob 
served together with ashes, animal bones and mussel shells, indicating 
that most of them were house sites. 

JACKSON MOUNDS. 

These are situated on the farm of Mr. B. F. Jackson, on the Little 
river cut-off, about 16 miles northwest of Osceola. 

No. 1, oval in form, 4 feet high, and the longest diameter 60 feet, was 
partially occupied by the graves of three white persons, but permission 
to dig so as not to disturb these was obtained. Three pits were carried 
to the original surface. The first passed through a top layer of black 
surface soil 2J feet thick, then a layer of burnt clay 10 inches thick, and 
below this a layer of charcoal and ashes 6 inches deep. Here, associ 
ated with the charcoal and ashes, was a skeleton, with pots at each side 
of the head. 

In the second pit thexesults were much the same, except that in this, 
below the skeleton a hard floor of well-burnt clay was encountered, 
which was covered with 2 feet of ashes, in which were some specimens 
of pottery, but no skeleton or bones. 

In the third the layers passed through were as the first, but no skel- 
eton was found. 

The other mound (there were but two mounds in the group) was some 
what higher than No. 1, but so occupied by modern graves that no ex 
amination of it could be made. 

About 30 yards from this, immediately under the surface of the 
ground, commences a level floor of hard clay, which, so far as examined, 
was burned to a brick red, and varied from 6 inches to nearly 2 feet 
in thickness. This layer extended more or less continuously over an 
area almost or quite 300 feet square. As a part of it is covered by a 
dwelling and outbuildings, and permission to examine only certain 
portions was given, it was not possible to determine the extent of the 
spaces thus continuously covered. Breaking through this at the points 
where digging was allowed, the Bureau explorer discovered, in each 
case at the depth of from 1 to 3 feet, skeletons and pottery. In one 
place two skeletons of adults were found a few feet apart, and close 
by one of a child. With each adult skeleton were five pots, and with 
the child one pot and two toy vessels; all were more or less embedded 
in ashes, but the bones were not charred. 

Several separate house sites were found in which ashes and broken 
pottery occurred. One of the vessels found here is represented in Fig. 
131. This was beneath the clay floor. 

Mr. E. B. Evans visited this county on his archeological tour in 1881, 
in behalf of the Chicago Times. He describes a mound on the land of 
a Mr. Sherman, at the head of Young s lake, midway between Osceola 



THOMAS.] 



THE JACKSON AND SHERMAN MOUNDS. 



223 



and Pitman s landing. The special reasons for calling attention to it 
here are because of the reference made by Mr. Evans to the supposed 
brick discovered in it, and the peculiar form of the mound, shown in 
Fig. 132, copied from the Times of April 9, 1881, which, as will be seen 
elsewhere, is almost identical with one observed by Col. Norris in 
Phillips county, Arkansas (see Fig. 145). 




FIG. 131. Vessel from Jackson mounds, Mississippi county. Arkansas. 

The dimensions given areas follows: Altitude of the first terrace 
11 feet, width 129 feet, length 158 feet; altitude of second terrace 3 feet 
7 inches, width 60 feet, length 93 feet; altitude of third terrace 6 feet, 
width 63 feet, length 78 feet.. 




FIG. 132. The Sherman mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas. 

Digging into the top he found, near the surface, fragments of burned 
clay, which increased in amount a little farther down, where they formed 
a layer apparently over the upper terrace. These lumps of burned 
clay, which he supposed to be brick, are evidently the fragments of 
plaster from the walls of a dwelling, as they were, in some cases, marked 
with the fluting elsewhere mentioned as occurring in the mounds of 
Arkansas. 



224 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 
INDEPENDENCE COUNTY 



The surface of this county is broken and hilly, and is crossed from 
the northwest to the southeast by White river. The Oil Trough bot 
tom in the southwest part, where the mounds mentioned are situated, 
is a rich alluvial tract lying along the west side of White river. 




Fro. 133,-Engraved shell (Busycon perversum) from mound, Independence county, Arkansas. 

The only works reported in this county are two mounds near Akron 
and 9 miles northwest of Jacksouport. 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 225 

The first of these is about 300 feet in diameter, 7 feet high and cir 
cular in outline. It is covered over with the graves of the townspeople 
to its very skirts, and hence could not be disturbed. It was ascer 
tained, however, that in digging the graves numerous articles had been 
found, among them a very fine specimen of Busy con perversum, engraved, 
which was obtained from Mr. M. A. Mull, of Jacksonport, for the Na 
tional Museum, and is shown in Fig. 133. A figure or image of some 
kind made of clay was taken out at the same time and sold to Messrs. 
Dodd, Brown & Co., of St. Louis, Mo. ; also a number of shell beads 
which were obtained by the Bureau. 

The second mound is much smaller, being only about 4 feet high and 
50 feet in diameter. One foot below the surface a 6-inch stratum of 
burnt clay was encountered, then 5 inches of ashes and charcoal. The 
base was composed of clay and sand. Only a few broken vessels and 
some fragments of pottery were obtained. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

On the farm of Mr. Riudinan, a mile and a half north of Jacksouport, 
on a narrow strip of land bordering a slough, are evidences of an ancient 
settlement. These consist of three small mounds and patches of burned 
clay, or " brick-like substance, 7 as the explorer terms it, immediately 
under the surface of the surrounding soil. 
An examination of this burnt clav showed it ^MET* 

# ^BBBBHSSiKK "*** " 

to be in patches, forming a layer from 6 to 10 .. .*, > 

inches thick, much of it bearing the impres- " ifi ^ 

sions of grass, roots, and cane ; occasionally ^ 

mud-daubers nests, burnt as hard as a brick, 

were found still sticking to it, from which it FIG. 134. stone spool from mound, 

is evident that it had formed the plastering Jackson couuty Arkansaa - 

of dwellings. 

The mounds varied from 15 to 25 feet in diameter, and from 18 to 36 
inches in height. In one, at the bottom, was a hard burnt clay floor, 
very smooth, covered with ashes; in another, some broken pots with 
ashes, and in the third only ashes. 

One mile east of Jacksonport, on the banks of White river, there 
stood, until last year, a mound, but it was carried away by the flood, 
which also washed off the top soil from the land for a considerable 
space around it, revealing fragments of pottery, bones, stone imple 
ments, and much burnt clay scattered about in patches. 

In a mound, 5 feet high and about 30 feet in diameter, 6 miles south 
of Newport, on the farm of Mr. G. E. Stevens, two skeletons were found 
lying in opposite directions, face down, and with them two small stone 
spools, one of which is shown in Fig. 134, marked with copper stains; 
also a shell pin, and a clay pipe. 
12 ETH 15 



226 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 
CRITTENDEN COUNTY. 



The topographical features of this county are similar to those of 
Mississippi county, which joins it on the north. The works in it which 
were examined are situated 1 mile from Oldham (formerly Bradley s 
landing), near the Mississippi river, on land belonging to the Bradley 




estate. A view of part of the group is given in Fig. 135. Unfortu 
nately the explorer s report on these interesting works is very brief. 

The land is not now subject to overflow, but an examination of the 
portion outside of the field shows that a stream formerly ran here and 
that then it was probably subject to occasional inundation, as, where it 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 227 

has not beeii disturbed by the plow, the strata of sand and vegetable 
remains are quite distinct. The Mississippi is one-fourth of a mile dis 
tant ; this land seems therefore to have been made since the river ran 
by the field. The old river bed is probably the former channel of the 
Wappanoke creek which now runs some distance back of the field in 
which the mounds are situated. Many of the trees on this land are 
5 feet in diameter and 80 feet high. The human and other remains 
found in this field are from 3 to 5 feet deep. The mounds occupy the 
highest point and the greater the distance from them the deeper are 
the remains, as would be the case with deposits made by overflows. 

The mounds had already been worked over, so attention was turned 
to the house sites scattered over the area around them. A number of 
these had also been previously examined, but several remained undis 
turbed. As an almost universal rule, after removing a foot or two of 
top soil, a layer of burnt clay in a broken or fragmentary condition 
would be found, sometimes with impressions of grass or twigs, which 
easily crumbled but was often hard and stamped apparently with an 
implement made of split reeds of comparatively large size. This layer 
was in places a foot thick and frequently burned to a brick red or even 
to clinkers. 

Below this, at a depth of 3 to 5 feet from the surface, were more or 
less ashes, and often 6 inches of charred grass, immediately covering 
skeletons. The latter were found lying in all directions, some with the 
face up, others with it down, and others on the side. With these were 
vessels of clay, in some cases one, sometimes more. 

From the excavations made here about seventy whole vessels and 
numerous fragments were obtained 5 also rubbing stones, hammer 
stones, celts, cupped stones, horn and bone implements, etc. 

ST. FRANCIS COUNTY. 

The surface of this county is quite level, with the exception of Crow- 
ley s ridge, which runs through the western portion north and south. 
East of the ridge is the broad region of alluvial lands of the White 
and Mississippi rivers. 

About 4 miles southeast of Forest city, and near Crow creek, some 
singular remains were discovered, called by the people of the neighbor 
hood the "Old Brick House," or "Fort," from the quantity of brick- 
like material or burnt clay found there. These appear to be house sites. 
There are three of them, rectangular in form, the larger one 30 feet 
long by 10 feet wide, consisting of a floor of burned clay 8 inches thick. 
The outer edges consisted of broken fragments forming ridges and pre 
senting the appearance of being the remnants of a clay wall which had 
fallen down during the destruction of a building by fire. The area 
occupied is about 2 feet higher than the surrounding level. Immedi 
ately below the clay floor was a layer of ashes 6 inches thick, and below 



228 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

this black loam. Some large trees are growing on these sites, one a 
poplar (tulip tree^ 1 3 feet in diameter and 100 feet high. 

The other squares have been more or less obliterated by a roadway 
made through them. Some years ago a large oak on one of them was 
blown down, revealing the bones of a skeleton, some pottery, and a pipe. 

Near by is a mound 10 feet high, oblong in shape and flat on top, the 
width of the upper surface 36 feet. It consisted of three strata, the 
first or top layer of soil about 10 inches thick ; next a layer of yellow 
c.lay 1 foot thick, and the remainder, to the bottom, white clay. No 
relics or evidences of its having been used for burial purposes were 

observed. 

CROOK S MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Capt. W. J. Crook, 10 miles southeast 
of Forest city and near the bank of Tunic creek. It is oval in form, 
408 feet Jong, 150 feet wide, and 15 feet high, flat 011 top. 

Thorough examination was not allowed by the owner, as it is the 
only retreat for his farm stock in time of high water. Three small pits 
revealed the fact that the first or top layer of loam was about 1 foot 
thick ; next below this a layer of ashes of variable depth ; the remainder, 
to the base, consisted of clay. It had been very deeply plowed and a 
skeleton or two and some pots taken out. 

LAKE ANDERSON MOUNDS. 

This group of mounds is on the bank of Lake Anderson or Mud lake, 
some 2 miles northeast of Forest city. The largest one is oblong in 
form, flat on top, with unusually steep sides; height, 12 feet; width on 
top, 30 feet. Permission to excavate it was refu ed because of the own 
er s wish to utilize it in times of freshets. Two small circular mounds 
on the immediate bank of the lake were composed of loam, clay, ashes, 
and burnt, brick-like material, mingled in a confused mass by the tramp 
ing of cattle in times of high water. 

A short distance from these were patches of burnt clay, slightly 
raised above the natural surface of the ground. But they had been so 
badly cut up by the passage of vehicles, the public road crossing di 
rectly over them, that nothing satisfactory could be ascertained in 
reference to their original form or condition. 

REMAINS ON THE ROBERT ANDERSON FARM. 

These are on the bank of the St. Francis river, 2 miles northeast of 
those last mentioned. 

At this place, on the immediate bank of the St. Francis river, is a 
projecting point, which was formerly much larger, but has been cut 
away by the river until but a few feet of the projecting portion remain. 
During this process of wearing away, many skeletons, much pottery, 
and numerous stone implements have been washed out. The point now 



In the South the name " poplar " is universally applied to the tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera. 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



229 



presents the appearance shown in Fig. 136, the squares indicating the 
remains of houses. In this, 1 is the St. Francis river; 2, 2, parts of the 
floors of two rooms or houses, the rest having been washed away; 3, a 
complete square or house floor. These squares are composed, as usual, 
of a layer of brick-like substance, with the impressions of grass and 
twigs in it. The edges are all higher and have a thicker layer of this 
material than the inner areas. The surface soil has been washed away, 
leaving these hard floors naked. This layer of burnt clay, except at 
the edges, is usually about 8 inches thick. Immediately beneath it is 
a layer of charcoal and ashes, of about the same thickness, and beneath 
this black loam. No. 4 in the figure indicates the public road, and 5, a 
small clear space between the square and the river. 

Two small circular mounds near by were partially examined. Per 
mission for further work in them could not be obtained. In one were 




FKJ. 136. House site, St. Francis county, Arkansas. 

found burnt clay and ashes commingled, the body of the mound below 
this consisting of sand. The other contained no burut clay or ashes, the 
top layer, 3 feet thick, being black loam, the remainder yellow clay. 

ARKANSAS COUNTY. 

One of the most remarkable mounds in this state is that called "the 
Meuard hill 7 (, Fig. 137, which is a plat of the group), on the farm of 
Mr. N. Meuard, 7 miles west of Arkansas post. Its peculiarity con 
sists in its unusual steepness, being, according to Dr. Palmer s measure 
ment, 50 feet high and only 150 feet in diameter at the base. It is 
flanked by two wings, indicated at /; and c. The larger of these wings 
is 150 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 20 feet high; the smaller is 75 feet 
long and 7 feet high. 

A slight examination of the main mound, carried down only to the 
depth of 10 feet, showed that it was composed of a mixture of sandy 



230 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



loam, decayed vegetable matter and clay, but there can be scarcely a 
doubt that the central core is hard clay which has preserved its form. 
An opening was made in the larger wing near the top. After pass 
ing through a top layer of sandy loam 6 inches thick, a layer of burnt 
clay of the same thickness was reached. Immediately below this was a 
layer of burnt matting 3 inches thick, scattered through which were 
grains of parched corn. In an opening previously made on the oppo- 




Fio. 137. Plan of Menard mounds, Arkansas county, Arkansas. 

site side of the same wing a thick layer of burnt clay was encountered 
and a number of broken pots were found. 

The small flat-topped mounds d d d, none of which are more than 2 
feet high, are probably house sites. They consisted of a top layer of 
soil, next a layer of burnt clay, and below this ashes, in which were 
skeletons and pottery. It was in these house sites that Dr. Palmer 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 

made the large find of pottery previous to his connection with the 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

As Dr. Palmer s report of his previous work has not been published, 
I copy from it his remarks in regard to this group : 

I found that this mound (the Menard hill) had been previously dug into, and I 
learned that a metal cross was found 4 feet below the surface. A field of 20 acres 
surrounds it, in which are numerous remains of ancient dwellings. In these, ashes 
were discovered under a layer of burnt clay, which I presume formed the roofing of 
the dwellings. Close to (under) the ashes a skeleton was usually found with from 
one to three pieces of pottery by the side of the skull. 

The most important result of the exploration was finding the remains of a large 
house. About 2 feet under the surface was a thick layer of burnt clay, which prob 
ably formed the roof. In tracing out the circumference a hard clay floor was found 
beneath, and between the two several inches of ashes, but no skeletons. There were 
a great many pieces of broken dishes so situated as to lead one to believe they were 
on top of the house at the time it was burned. When restored most of these ves 
sels proved to be basin-shaped bowls. 

LEE COUNTY. 

The topographical features of this county are very similar to those of 
St. Francis county, which joins it on the north. 

GREEK S MOUND. 

This is a very regular, oblong truncated or flat-topped mound, situ 
ated upon the point of a second or upper terrace of the L Anguille 
river 2 miles above its confluence with the St. Francis. It is rectangu 
lar, measuring on the top 87 feet in length and 51 feet in width and is 30 
feet high; the slope of the sides is very steep, being about 45. 

A shaft sunk in it near one end some years ago revealed, as is stated 
by the parties who made the exploration, the stump of a small tree and 
a stake 4 or 5 feet long near the bottom, the former growing in the 
natural soil. Layers of swamp mud and fire beds were found at irregu 
lar distances through the whole depth. 

Permission to make further exploration was not obtained. 

ANCIENT DWELLING SITES AND CEMETERIES. 

A careful examination was made of the bluffs and valleys both of the 
L Anguille and St. Francis rivers above their confluence for a distance 
of fully 20 miles, from which it was found that scarcely a terrace or 
hillock was without evidences of ancient occupancy, such as brick-red 
tire-beds, charcoal, ashes, etc., indicating camps or dwellings. 

For more than fifty years the Priest and Forest farms, where these 
evidences appear in greatest abundance, have been noted for the 
amount of ancient pottery of superior quality frequently unearthed in 
cultivating the land and recently by relic hunters. Quite a number of 
whole vessels of this pottery were obtained by the Bureau. 



232 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

There is usually sufficient space between the bluffs and the irregular 
line of hillocks, which slope off from them to the lower bottoms, for a 
roadway. The upper or highest portion of each hillock seems to have 
been occupied as a dwelling place until the accumulation of dark earth, 
fire-beds, and refuse material has reached a depth of from 2 to 10 feet, 
which gradually thins out with the slope in all directions. Shafts and 
trenches in these disclosed the fact that the material is in irregular 
layers or patches, in which are intermingled charcoal, charred bones of 
animals, as well as many split bones not charred, also the never absent 
stone chips, rude scrapers, and other implements. Occasionally one or 
more human skeletons are found, always beneath a fire-bed and 
usually accompanied by pottery. These are generally in low, oblong 
mounds, where the peculiar color of the earth indicates their presence, 
and the uppermost ones are at a slight distance below the surface. 
There are often two or three tiers of skeletons, apparently deposited 
without any other system than simply to avoid overlapping and so as 
to arrange them parallel with each other and at full length. 

The crania, which are not crushed, vary greatly, both in size and 
form, but are usually of the brachycephalic type. Occasionally one is 
found which shows very distinctly the effects of artificial compression 
ef the fro.it. 

Many of the skeletons observed had only fragments of pottery by the 
side of the cranium- some had a vessel, usually a water bottle; others 
a cup, bowl, or other open-mouthed vessel, and, perhaps, in addition, a 
human or animal effigy. 

Col. Norris, who made the explorations in this locality, says that he 
" rarely found more than three vessels with one skeleton, and one of 
them was always a water bottle. They were usually, but not always, 
found in the proper position to contain water, food, or other presents 
for the dead. I found a number of the bottles closed with stoppers 
made of clay, some of the latter in the form of mullers, and others 
simply rounded off and made to fit; but no relic of any kind in these 
bottles; while, on the contrary, polishing stones, shells, bones of birds, 
and red paint were frequently found in cups, basins, and other open- 
mouthed vessels. Although so similar in general form and finish, there 
are often such marked peculiarities in the finish, color, or ornamentation 
of vessels of neighboring villages but a mile or two apart as to enable 
a close observer to readily distinguish them. For instance, the Forest 
and Priest farms extend less than 2 miles each, yet any person, by close 
observation could soon learn to distinguish the pottery found at one 
extremity from that obtained at the other." 

At one point the skull of a skeleton was found crushed beneath ten 
platters, seven of which were placed edgewise above it on one side and 
three, slightly differing in form, on the other. Most of them, however, 
fell to pieces on being removed. 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



MONROE COUNTY. 



233 



No explorations were made in this county, but two large stone pipes 
were obtained, shown in Figs. 138, 139, 140, and 141, which are reported 
to have been found in the upper part of a large truncated rnound near 
Clarendon. 

The former (Figs. 138-140) is of quartzite, smoothed and partially pol 
ished, 8 inches high to the top of the head, 7 inches long and 3 inches 
thick. It represents a kneeling, naked individual; Fig. 138 is a side 
view ; Fig. 139 a front view, and Fig. 140 a view of the top of the head 
showing the carving. The latter (Fig. 141) is of a species of white 




FIG. 138. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas. 

marble, polished, 4 inches high, 4J long and 2% thick, a squatting figure 
with pipe bowl in the lap. There is no doubt as to their authenticity 
and that they were obtained as reported. 



PHILLIPS COUNTY. 



Several miles of the lower portion of the St. Francis river valley are 
included in this county. In portions of this stretch, especially opposite 
Phillips bayou, the river, in cutting into the high bottom, is constantly 
unearthing ancient pottery and human bones, many of the latter being 



234 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in such a state of preservation as to indicate that they, as well as many 
found on the west side above the bayou, pertain to a comparatively 
modern period. It is even stated by some of the oldest settlers of the 
locality that when first occupied by the whites it was not an unusual 
thing to plow up fragments of bark boxes or coffins, together with 
bones and pottery. 

OLD TOWN WORKS. 

These are situated on a sandy ridge between the Mississippi river 
and Old Town lake, at the point where they make their nearest ap 
proach to ea#h other and near the 
ancient outlet of the latter, which is 
now closed by the levee. They con 
sist of earthen walls or embank 
ments, mounds, and the saucer- 
shaped depressions supposed to be 
house sites, as shown in Fig. 142. 
The works to the left, marked a, con 
sist of an inclosing wall surrounding 
a space somewhat in the form of a 
quadrant of a circle ; a large, trun 
cated, pyramidal mound with ter 
race (No. 3 in the figure) and other 
smaller conical or oval mounds and 
numerous saucer-shaped house sites. 
Those at the right must have been 
very extensive, but have been to a 
large extent removed for the pur 
pose of forming the levee. 

The preservation of the wall 
around the western works is largely 
due to the fact that it has, in part, 
been utilized as a portion of the 
levee. 

No. 1, at the right and forming a 
part of the group marked ft, is the 
remnant of a wall which extended from the old bank of the river 400 
feet diagonally toward the head of the former outlet of the lake and 
terminated in a small rectangular inclosure 15 by 30 feet. 

Whether this wall and iuclosure are wholly the work of aborigines 
or partly of the whites is a question the Bureau assistant was unable 
to decide, but thought the latter view possible, judging from the size 
and rectangular form of the work. According to local tradition they 
were built by Moscosa and the remnant of De Soto s army while pre 
paring their brigantines for the descent of the Mississippi river. 

Much of mound No. 2 has been removed for levee purposes, but 
traces of the edges still remaining prove it to have been 600 feet long 




FIG. 139. Image pipe, Monroe county, Ark. 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



235 



and about 200 broad at its greatest width and oval in form. Its height, 
however, was only some 8 or 10 feet. It appeared from information 
obtained that it contained from one to three tiers of skeletons and that 
several hundred vessels of clay have at different times been taken 
from it. From the excavations made by the Bureau assistant in the 
remnants it was ascertained that it was built of the surrounding soil, 
with the usual admixture of fire-beds, charcoal and ashes. Several 
skeletons were unearthed and some vessels obtained, one of which is 
shown in Fig. 143. These skeletons were uniformly buried at full length 
upon their backs or sides without regard to the cardinal points and a 
number of them in bark coffins, which were unmistakably of cypress and 
in no way differing from others found near the surface and supposed to 
be intrusive burials of modern Indians. In one of these was a water bot 
tle close bv the side of the skull. 






FIG. 140. Image pipe, Monroe 
county, Arkansas. 



FIG. 141. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas. 



Mound No. 3, in the large iuclosure (a), is a truncated pyramid, nearly 
square, 96 feet long by 86 in width at the base; the first or lower plat 
form is 4 feet high, and forms a terrace 36 feet wide on two connecting- 
sides of the mound proper ; this rises 8 feet above this terrace, and is 
50 by 60 feet at its base arid 20 by 30 feet on the flat top. It is shown 
in Fig. 144 restored (a the elevation and b the ground plan). Excava 
tions were made, but nothing of interest was revealed. 

There was, as usual, a space fronting this mound destitute of the 
circular house sites. Excavations in the house sites revealed the usual 
fire-bed, charcoal, and fragments of pottery. 

BARNEY MOUND. 

This singular and interesting earthwork is shown in Fig. 145, a 
the ground plan and b the elevation. As will be seen, it consists 
of an oval platform constricted near the middle so as to appear like two 
conjoined, unequal circles, the larger of which is surmounted by an oval 



236 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



truncated mound. The platform averages throughout about 15 feet 
high, the diameter of the smaller end being about 200 feet and of the 
larger 338 feet. The mound rises about 20 feet above the platform or 
terrace and is flat on top, its larger diameter here being 108 feet. 

The whole is entirely surround 
ed, as shown in the figure, by 
a ditch varying in depth from 10 
to 15 feet and in width from 50 
to 75 feet. 

Excavations made at points 
on the summit and sides, both 
of the mound proper and plat- 
form ? brought to light patches 
or beds of clay burnt to a brick 
red. 




ROGER S MOUNDS 



This is the name given to a 
\ group a mile distant from the 
Barney mound, just described. 
The mounds are all of the ordi 
nary conical or oval form, except 
the largest one of the group, 
which is flat on top and sur 
mounted near one end by an 
other small hemispherical 
; mound, as shown in Fig. 146. 
i This is oval in outline, the 
longer diameter (at the base) 
247 feet, and the shorter nearly 
200 feet ; height of the platform 
or terrace 20 feet, the longer 
diameter on the top 150 feet,and 
the shorter 90. The little mound 
on the top is about 50 feet in 
diameter, 5 feet high, and round 
ed oif in the ordinary form. On 
the terrace are the ruins of a 
modern house and barn overgrown by brush and small trees. A very 
heavy lire-bed was found immediately below the surface of the upper 
mound ; others were also found at various points on the terrace and on 
the sides of the main mound. 

Near the surface of another mound, the next in size, was a bed 
of clay burned to a brick red, and so hard that it could not be cut 
with a spade, but had to be undermined and taken out in blocks like 
irregular bricks. A portion of this was removed and an excavation 



THOMAS. 1 ARKANSAS. 237 

made through charcoal, ashes, and flakes of mortar burned to a bright 
brick red, but retaining the casts of the stems of grass and cane. Two 
feet below this was another fire-bed. 

DESK A COUNTY. 

This county, which lies along the Mississippi and includes the mouths 
of Arkansas and White rivers, is embraced in the Mississippi alluvial 
region of the state. 

Fig. 147 represents a mound situated OIL a level bottom 1 mile north 
of Arkansas city. It is 108 feet long, 72 feet wide on top, and 12 feet 
high. There is a slope of about 35 feet at the east end, produced by a 




FIG. 143. Pottery vessel from Old Town works. 

slide which carried down some of the upper level. During the over 
flow of 1882, which was of unusual height, the top of this mound was 
never less than 5 feet above the water. It has, on this account, been 
utilized as a burying ground by the citizens of Arkansas City, where 
they bring their dead in boats in times of overflow. 

A conical mound at Walnut lake station, 40 feet in diameter and 8 
feet high, was composed wholly of sandy loam. Fig. 148 represents 
an ancient fort on what is known as the " Turner Place." It is near 
the Arkansas river, which formerly ran within 400 yards of this forti 
fication. Although evidently constructed by whites its history is 
unknown to the people of that section, who have the usual tradition of 
its being the work of De Soto and his army. It was probably built 



238 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



by the French to protect a trading post. As confirmatory of this 
theory there is a ridge near by on which are found the indications of 
houses such as were built by the whites. 



FIG. 144. Mound No. 3, Old Town works. 



Trees a foot through were cut from it twenty-two years ago ; but Dr. 
Palmer was informed by Mr. Bezzell, who lives near by, that thirty-six 
years ago the trees now growing on the new-made lauds along the river 
some of which are 3 feet in diameter, were small saplings. 




FIG. 145. Ground plan and elevation of the Barney mound, Phillips county, Arkansas. 

The fort is square, measuring 150 yards from side to side. On the 
west side extends a graded or covered pathway a distance of 250 yards, 
ending near the former bank of the river. The height of the wall of the 
fort is at present 4 feet. In one corner, as shown in the figure, is a hole 
6 feet deep supposed to be the site of the magazine. 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 239 

The articles picked up here from time to time and found in the pro 
cess of cultivating the soil belong both to the days of the first settle 
ment of the county and to very modern times. They are thimbles, 
pipes, broken dishes, parts of pistols and guns, pieces of silver coin, 
probably used as gun-sights, a Chinese coin, a toy pistol of stone, arti 
cles of Indian origin, stone bullet molds, etc. The remains of an old 
forge were uncovered here a few years ago. 

THE WYENN MOUNDS. 

This is a group of mounds situated on the bank of Mound lake, 16 
miles from the present mouth of the Arkansas river. The large one is 
18 feet high, oval in form, flat on top, and 130 feet long, exclusive of 
the apron-like appendage at one end, which is 140 feet long, 60 feet 
wide, and 3 feet high. As this is used as a graveyard it could not be 
explored nor was permission granted to examine the others which are 
small and of the usual conical form. 



FIG. 146. Roger s mound, Phillips county, Arkansas. 
CHOCTAW MOUND. 

This is a small circular mound, 10 feet high and 40 feet in diameter, 
situated at the junction of Choctaw bayou and Walnut lake. It was 
found by excavation to consist of a top layer of sandy loam 1 foot thick 
and the remainder, to the base, of hard tough clay. No charcoal, ashes, 
or other evidences of occupancy or use, save a few fragments of pottery, 
were discovered in it. 

Near this point there are evidences of two ancient trails running in 
different directions. 

DREW COUNTY. 
THE TAYLOR MOUNDS. 

This interesting group is located on the land of Dr. J. M. Taylor, 4 
miles west of Winchester railroad station. A view showing the larger 
portion of the group is given in Fig. 149. It consists of several com 
paratively large mounds, of the usual conical form, several small 
mounds, and numerous slight elevations which are supposed to be 
house sites. There is one large mound, with flat top and terrace, not 
shown in the figure, which is 30 feet high. The others range from 5 to 
14 feet in height. 

Along the left margin of the field, not shown in the figure, is a row 
of what are believed to be artifical ponds made by removing the dirt 
for the mounds. 



240 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The mounds and house sites had been opened and rifled of their 
treasures previous to the visit of the Bureau agent ; but he was for 
tunate in obtaining from the owner of the property, Dr. Taylor, several 
fine specimens of pottery taken out of them. Some of these have been 
figured by Mr. Holmes. 




THE TILLER MOUND. 

This mound, of the ordinary conical form, 9 feet high and rather less 
than 50 feet in diameter, is situated on the farm of Mr. J. T. Tiller, 2J 
miles southwest of Winchester station. It was found, by the thorough 
excavation made, to be composed of sandy soil similar to that of 
the surrounding ground, with a single, heavy layer of human bones, 
pottery, etc., closely packed in a confused mass. This layer was struck 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



241 



at the depth of 1 foot from the surface of the mound and proved to be 
something over 2 feet thick in the center but thinner toward the mar 
gins. 

The skeletons lay in every direction and without any noticeable order; 
in many cases the bones of one body lay across those of another. It 
was difficult, in fact impossible in some cases, to trace the different 
skeletons. Fifty-eight skulls were observed and sufficient bones to cor 
respond therewith. The pots and other vessels of clay were scattered 
irregularly through the deposit, but always near to and apparently 
associated with some cranium. Xear one head were four pots, close by 
another two pots and a pipe, and one or more by others. Several mus 
sel shells were obtained, generally near the heads, and two turtle shells 




FIG. 148. Old French Fort Desha, Arkansas. 

were discovered inside of a pot, but no burnt clay, charcoal, or ashes 
were found in or about the mound. Twenty-three whole vessels, a num 
ber of pipes, shells, animal bones, etc., were obtained here. 



LINCOLN COUNTY. 

A mound on the farm of Mr. Felix Smith, and another on the farm 
of Mr. J. D. Adams, both in E. 7 W., were examined and found to be 
composed of a top layer of loam and the rest of hard, stiff clay. No 
burnt clay, charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, or bones were ob 
served in either. One was 7 feetliigh and DO feet in diameter, the other 
20 feet high and 90 feet in diameter. 

Another group of small, conical mounds is situated near Heckatoo, in 
w^hich burnt clay or brick-like material was observed, usually about 18 
12 ETH 16 



242 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inches under the soil. Broken pottery and some rude stone implements 
were also found; but a thorough examination was not allowed, as the 
field was covered with cotton. 

JEFFERSON C 4 OUNTY. 

A mound on land belonging to the estate of Mr. Snuggs, 1 mile south 

of Garrettson s landing, 
was explored. This was 
composed wholly of sand 
except the thin layer of 
surface soil. No sj)eci- 
men of any kind nor any 
indications of life or use 
were discovered in it, yet 
its form and appearance 
were such as to show 
clearly that it was artifi 
cial. Height, 10 feet; 
diameter, 40 feet. 

A group of three fine 
conical mounds, some 
thing over a mile north 
of Lin wood station, was 
visited, but as they were 
covered with graves per 
mission to excavate them 
could not be obtained. 
The average height is 
about 15 feet, the three 
being very nearly of the 
same size and form. 

A short distance from 
these, on the Housou 
farm, are two other tu 
muli of similar form, one 
25 and the other 30 feet 
high, but being also cov 
ered with graves, dig 
ging was prohibited. 
Excavations for the 

graves do not appear to have brought to light any pottery, bones, or 

burnt clay. 

THE CLAYTON MOUNDS. 

This group, situated on the lands of Hon. Powell Clayton, in Sec. 36 
T. G S., E. 7 W., and 1G miles southeast of Pine Blutt , consists of four 




BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. IX 



w^SSmSSSf *& :< :." t . * -..WE?. 




THE DE SOTO MOUND, JEFFERSON COUNTY, ARKANSAS. 




^^^^^^f^%^;^^^ 




THE KNAPP MOUNDS, PULASKI COUNTY, ARKANSAS. 



[TJ1U7BESIT7] 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 243 

mounds. The most interesting of these is oblong in shape, rectangu 
lar, 125 feet long exclusive of the terrace or apron-like extension, 65 
feet broad, and 30 feet high, and resembles the following, shown in 
Plate ix. It is used by the neighborhood as a burying ground, and 
hence could not be disturbed. 

THE DE SOTO MOUND. 

The mound, which is shown in PI. ix, is on the laud of Mr. II. G. 
De Priest, 13 miles southeast of Pine Bluff and 2J miles northwest of 
the Clayton mound, which it resembles in form but exceeds in magni 
tude. It is 60 feet high at the west end. but somewhat less at the end 
to which the terrace is attached; the top, which is flat, as represented 
in the figure, is 144 feet long by 110 in width (exclusive of the terrace); 
back of the mound (from the house) is a large excavation, now a pond, 
from which the earth was taken for its construction. A part of the top 
is planted in forest trees; the rest is in cultivation. 

It is known in this locality as the u De Soto mound" from current 
tradition that this distinguished explorer camped here for some time. 

PULASKI COUNTY. 

THE KNAPP MOUNDS. 

These works form, without doubt, the most interesting group in the 
state, and, in fact, one of the most important in the United States. A 
plat of the group and surrounding wall is given in PI. x, and a sketch 
in PI. ix. They are situated on the farm of Mr. Gilbert Kuapp and 
directly on the east bank of Mound lake, a crescent- shaped bayou, 16 
miles southeast of Little Kock. 

As seen by reference to the plat, the area inclosed by the wall is 
oblong, or somewhat oval, the length north and south about 170 rods, 
and width east and west, 80 to 85 rods, containing 85 acres. The wall 
appears to have formed the defense on three sides, the lake being 
relied on for protection on the fourth. 

The lake is 3 miles long and about one-fourth of a mile wide. The 
field, in which the group is situated, is from 2 to 6 or 8 feet above 
average water level, and has been under cultivation for more than thirty 
years. The surrounding earthen wall reaches 5 or 6 feet in height 
where best preserved, but where most reduced by cultivation is about 
obliterated. It is a little over a mile in length and starts at the very 
margin of the lake on the south, circles around the field, and comes 
to the lake again on the north side. It is broken in three places, as 
shown on the plan. In two places deep trenches, probably of artificial 
origin, pass through the wall. They contain water for the greater part 
of the year. The other opening is not complete and may have been 
cut for a roadway by the whites. The curve of the northern half of 
the wall is very even, but near the middle portion there is a slight re- 



244 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

verse curve some hundreds of feet in length and the southern segment 
is quite uneven. 

In 1844, the period of the greatest overflow known in this section, 
these mounds were clear of the water, and it is said that many people 
came here for safety, bringing their household effects and stock with 
them. 

The largest mound (a, PL x.) is 48 feet high, 280 feet long from 
north to south, and 150 feet wide. The nearly level summit is about 50 
feet wide by 90 long. The whole surface is densely covered by forest 
trees and undergrowth. The slopes are even and rather steep, about 
35 or 40 degrees. It stand s in front, a little to the right, in Plate ix. 
Permission was given by the owner to sink a shaft into this mound. 
After descending 10 feet the clay became so hard that the work was 
abandoned. The first 2 feet passed through consisted of vegetable 
mold, in which were some animal bones and fragments of pottery ; then 
8 feet of sandy loam mixed with clay, the proportion of clay increasing 
until at this depth it became wholly clay, exceedingly hard and tough. 
A tunnel was carried in the side for 10 feet with a like result. No 
brick-like substance was found in it anywhere. 

Mound &, the second in size, is oblong and slightly rectangular in 
outline. The slopes are gentle, save where interfered with by the plow, 
which has encroached upon the base at the sides and ends. The base 
measures about 175 by 200 feet, and the height is 38 feet. A shaft 8 
feet square and 10 feet deep was sunk in the top, showing the first 2 
feet to be a black, waxy clay or muck, and the rest of the distance 
a yellow, greasy clay. Nothing was observed except two fine quartz 
crystals 2 feet beneath the surface and some fragments of pottery. 
The top is about 80 by 100 feet in extent, and has been used as a 
garden for a number of years. Fifty feet from the base is a shallow 
depression about 260 feet long and 150 in width which is now over 
grown with trees and underbrush. This contains water during a part 
of the year and may have been excavated by the ancient inhabitants 
to contain a water supply. 

Mounds c y d, and e lie to the southeast of the large one. The largest 
of these (c) is 12 feet high, about 100 feet long and 90 feet broad at the 
base. A shaft 11 feet deep was made in the center of it. For the first 
4 feet it passed through sandy loam, with here and there a piece of 
pottery and an animal bone; at the depth of 5 feet, in yellow sand 
which continued for 3 feet, was a broken pot; at a depth of 7 feet the 
sand became very wet and continued so to the bottom. Nothing else 
was found. 

Mound d is 5 feet high, about 100 feet long, and 75 feet wide at the 
base. In four places were patches of burnt clay, doubtless the remains 
of former dwellings; in five other places were deposits of ashes and 
human bones, but no burnt clay. These were generally 1 or 2 feet 
below the point reached by the plow in cultivating the soil. In these 



TJJTI7EKSIT7 




THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 245 

places a few stone implements were obtained, one of which is shown 
in Fig. 150; also a small Catholic medal of copper. Ten other mounds, 
in most cases very much reduced by the plow, were observed. The cir 
cular mounds range from 2 to 10 feet in height, and from 25 to 100 feet 
in diameter, and the oblong ones are from 40 to 350 feet in length. All 
bear evidence of having been used as residence sites, as pottery, stone 
tools and the refuse of chipped stonework are found associated with 
them. 

THIBAULT MOUNDS. 

On the farm of Mr. J. K. Thibault, 8 miles southeast of Little Rock, 
are a number of small mounds averaging only about a foot and a half 
in height and 18 feet in diameter. These belong to the class "house 




FIG. 150. Stone implement from Knapp group. 

sites," as examination showed that, under a top layer of soil 1 foot thick, 
a layer of burnt clay was always to be found; immediately beneath this 
a layer of ashes with which human remains and pottery were usually 
associated. 

They had been partially rifled of their contents by the owner of the 
ground, who, however, kindly donated most of the specimens to the 
Bureau, some of which are represented in Mr. Holuies s papers. 

SALINE COUNTY. 

On the farm of Mr. J. D. Chidester, 3 miles southeast of Benton, is-a 
space of about 10 acres covered with house sites in which are the usual 
layers of burnt clay, ashes, human bones, etc. They however had 
already been explored. 



246 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

HUGHES MOUND. 



This work, a sketch of which is given in Fig. 151, is situated on the 
farm of Mr. George Hughes, 3 miles southwest of Benton and within 
100 yards of Saline river, though the bank was formerly within 50 feet 
of it. Some low mounds, probably house sites, formerly surrounded it, 
but they have been removed. In these were skeletons, pottery and 
stone implements under ashes and burnt clay. 







The large work yet remaining consists of two parts, the mound 
proper, which is somewhat circular and a wing or extension on one side. 
The former is 25 feet high, flat on top, 124 feet in diameter at the base 
and 34 on the top. The wing, which runs northeast, is about 120 feet 
long, 80 teet broad at the point where it joins the mound and 54 at the 
northeast end, the height varying from 10 to 12 feet. 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 247 

A shaft, 10 feet deep, in the center of the mound reached the hard 
core without bringing to light any relics, clay, ashes or bones. At 
several places on the top and sides of the wing, layers of bnrnt clay were 
found at the depth of 2 feet from the surface and, under each, a layer 
of ashes and charcoal. At four points charcoal and ashes occurred, 
but without the layer of burnt clay. No human remains or indica 
tions of them were observed. 

CLARK COUNTY. 

WORKS ON SALINE BAYOU. 

According to tradition, when this section was first visited by the 
white settlers, the Indians were discovered here making salt. They were 
driven away by the whites, who, for many years, made salt here, and 
during the war the Confederate government utilized the saline waters 
for the same purpose. 

There are numerous salt wells and remains of evaporators and also 
several round mounds of small size. Those explored were very similar 
to one another j in each was a top layer of soil, then a layer of burnt 
clay, and beneath this, ashes. One, about 3 feet high, consisted of a 
top layer of loam 2 feet thick, then 4 inches of burnt clay, and beneath 
this 5 or 6 inches of ashes. In the last were parts of a skeleton and a 
bowl. 

The strata in another mound, about 4 feet high, were as follows : Top 
layer, 2 feet of black soil} next, 5 inches of burnt clay, and below this, 
8 or 9 inches of ashes, resting on a hard clay floor 1J inches thick and 
5 feet in diameter. Specimens of this floor were obtained. 

THE TRIGGS MOUND. 

This is a small mound on the farm of Mr. W. A. Triggs, 4 miles north 
west of Arkadelphia, on the bank of Caddo creek. It was partially 
washed away by the overflow of the creek, bringing to light two layers 
of burnt clay, ashes, and human bones, together with pottery and stone 
implements. The Bureau agent was fortunate enough to find it in this 
condition, and before the things had been carried away. Among the 
specimens of pottery found here are the following : 

Fig. 152, an ornamented water-bottle, one of the finest specimens of the kind ever 
obtained. 

Fig. 153, a flat-bottomed jar of unusual shape, partly broken. 

Another mound on the same farm was examined. This was 9 feet 
high with a wing on one side 6 feet high, and another on the opposite 
side 4 feet high. Three excavations in the main portion showed it to be 
composed entirely of loam, without a trace of fire, burial or relics of any 
kind. Two feet under the surface of the wings were traces of ashes 
and burnt clay. 

Two others opened were composed entirely of ashes and yellow clay 5 
no relics. 



248 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



OUACHITA COUNTY. 

The only explorations made in this county were of some groups near 
Camden. 

About 3 miles north of Camden, in Sec. 9, T. 13 S., B. 17 W., on the 
Piles plantation, is a group consisting of one large and two small 
mounds. It formerly contained another, which has been dug away to 
aid in filling a railroad embankment. The plantation on which they 
are situated has been in cultivation for thirty years or more. The soil 
is a reddish, sandy loam, not very productive, and subject to occasional 




Fin. 152. An ornamented water bottle. Clark county, 
Arkansas. 



Fio. 153. Flat-bottomed jar, Clark 
county, Arkansas. 



overflows. Broken bones, small pieces of pottery, broken stone imple 
ments, and mussel shells lie scattered over the surface. A few pitted 
stones, a number of arrowheads, a pestle or two, and a stone celt were 
also found on the surface. 

A plat of the group and its immediate surroundings is shown in Fig. 
154. As will be seen by this, the largest of the three mounds stands 
on the bank of a small slough. It is oblong, and nearly flat on top, 12 
feet high, length on the top, east and west, 70 feet, and width GO feet. 
Abutting against it on the east end is a long, apron-like extension run 
ning out for 175 feet, 100 feet wide, and 4 feet high. Both mound and 
terrace are composed of sandy loam, but the latter is much harder and 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



249 



firmer than the former. As the mound is used at the present time for a 
burying* place, permission was granted to sink only a single shaft in it, 
which revealed nothing worthy ot notice. 

Mound No. 2, situated about 200 yards south of the large mound (No. 
1), is circular in form, 2 feet high, and 25 feet in diameter. A thorough 



,-^iSiii ifete 




FIG. 154. Mound group near Caniden, Arkansas. 

excavation showed that the upper portion to the depth of 14 inches con 
sisted of sand similar to that of the surrounding surface, and the remain 
der to the depth of 9 inches, of rich black loam. In the latter were three 
much decayed skeletons, the head of one toward the east, that of an 
other north, and that of the third west. No relics of any kind were 



250 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

observed, though some fragments of pottery were picked up from the 
surface, which had probably been turned out by the plow. 

No. 3, about the same size as No. 2, though carefully explored, re 
vealed nothing worthy of notice. 

Another conical mound near this group, 35 feet in diameter and 3J 
feet high, was also examined. It was composed of loose, black loam, 
through which were scattered fragments of pottery and mussel shells. 
In the south side, at a depth of 2J feet, was a fire bed about 10 feet in 
diameter and 6 inches thick. This was covered with ashes, charcoal, 
fragments of pottery, and mussel shells. In the south side, at the 
depth of 3 feet, was a single skeleton, by which lay a broken clay pipe. 
An oak tree, 3 feet in diameter, stands on this mound. 

About 150 feet east of the last mound is a small circular tumulus 
with a flat top. This was composed throughout of very hard, dry, yel 
low clay, but contained no indications of burial, no evidences of fire, nor 
relic of any kind. This is somewhat remarkable, as the form and ma 
terial render it more than probable, judging by what has been ascer 
tained in regard to the mounds of this state, that it was built for a 
house site, and hence, according to the rule, should have contained fire- 
beds and ashes. Possibly it was the site of a baracao or storehouse, or 
was built for a house site, but not used. 

LOUISIANA. 

The explorations in this state were confined to Washita, Catahoula, 
and Tensas parishes. 

THE PARGOUD GROUP. 

This group, located in Washita parish, consists of two mounds situ 
ated on a point of land between Washita river and Ohauvin bayou. 
The larger one, about 28 feet high and flat on top, has had the sides 
cut away to obtain material for repairing the road that runs by its base. 
From this (as permission to explore it was refused) it was ascertained 
that it consists of several strata; first, a top layer, 2 feet thick, of black 
sandy soil, next 15 inches of yellow sand and black loam intermixed ; 
then IS inches of black sandy loam; next 2 feet of yellow sand, and 
below this, yellow sand and black loam intermixed. In the last were 
some pieces of pottery. The layers on the opposite side differed some 
what from the order and thickness given, though the material was the 
same. 

The smaller mound is conical in form and only 6 feet high. 

Evidences of house sites were found in the surrounding area, such as 
beds of burnt clay and ashes. 

TROYVILLE MOUNDS, CATAHOULA PARISH. 

This interesting group, a plat of which is given in Fig. 155, is located 
at the junction of the Tensas, Washita, and Little rivers, where the 
three unite to form Black river, and consists, as shown in the plat, of 



THOMAS.] 



LOUISIANA. 



251 



six mounds, an inclosing wall or embankment, and artificial ponds and 
canals. 

The wall which incloses the area on the south and west is very 
nearly or quite 1 mile in length, and at the points where least disturbed 
from 7 to 8 feet high and 20 to 25 feet wide. The inclosed area contains 
about 100 acres. 

The large mound (1), whichis near the center of the inclosure and about 




300 yards from Black river, was originally about 250 feet long, 160 
feet wide at base, and probably 00 feet high, though persons who saw it 
before it was disturbed say it was 75 feet high, with a nearly sharp 
summit. At present it is so gashed and mutilated, having been used 
during the war as a place for rifle pits, that its original form can 
scarcely be made out. It is now 45 feet high, 270 feet long, and 180 
feet wide. The top can be seen back of the house in Fig. 156. From the 



252 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



gashes in the side, one of which is 25 feet deep, it could be seen that it 

was composed chiefly of red and yellowish clay. In one of these cuts 

was exposed a layer of charred cane 1 foot thick extending back into 

the mound. 

Fig. 156 shows mound 6. This is 15 feet high, 00 feet long, and 75 

feet wide. Two excavations made in it proved it to be composed of a 

very hard, greasy 

clay. 

Mound No. 5 is 
200 feet long, 90 
feet wide, and 8 
feet high, and cov 
ered with modern 
graves. In dig 
ging these, skele 
tons and pottery 
are frequently 
thrown out. 

Mound ISTo. 4 is 
nearly destroyed, 
but according to 
local information 
was originally 20 
feet high. 

Mounds 2 and 3 
are also nearly 
destroyed. Num 
bers 8, 8, 8, 8 indi 
cate four artificial 
ponds which were, 
and to a certain 
extent are still, 
connected with 
each other and 
with the bayou on 
the southwest by 
canals which are 
still from 10 to 12 
feet wide and 5 feet 
deep. 
As the bayou connects with the river 3 miles below, it is apparent 

that canoes could reach the inclosure by this route. 
Two conical mounds, one 12 and the other 7 feet high, are situated on 

the plantation of Mrs. Brisco, in Tensas parish, 4 miles southeast of St. 

Joseph ; but as they are occupied, one as a graveyard and the other 

as a rain water cistern, they could not be excavated. 




THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 253 

MISSISSIPPI. 
OOAHOMA COUNTY. 

Col. P. W. Morris, who visited this section of the state, thinks that 
at some former period the Mississippi river ran 6 or 8 miles southward 
from Friars point, and then returned to where the present channel cuts 
across the bend westward toward Old Town. Along the eastern bank of 
the old channel, on the plantation of the Carson brothers, G miles 
south of Friars point, is an interesting group of mounds and earth 
works. The illustrations are by Mr. Holmes, who subsequently visited 
the group. 

The general plan of these works is shown in PI. xi. In the north 
west is an inclosure surrounded by an earthen wall and a ditch. Nos. 
a to /are mounds. There are also several excavations. The area em 
braced in the plat is about 1 mile east and west and something over half 
a mile north and south. 

The inclosure fronts west for a distance of 738 feet on a cypress 
swamp, probably an open bayou or one channel of the Mississippi 
when these works were constructed. It is in the form of a parallelo 
gram, the wall on three sides measuring 1,173 feet long, and embrac 
ing an area of about 5 acres. This wall is from 15 to 30 feet wide at 
the base, and from 3 to 5 feet high. A ditch is distinctly traceable 
along the whole length of the outside, but it is not exhibited on the 
plate. 

Within this area, a little northwest of the center, is a circular mound 
(&), 192 feet in diameter at the base, 15 feet high, and 6G feet across the 
nearly flat top. There appears to have been originally a platform some 
5 or 6 feet high, on which the mound proper was built. Several exca 
vations made in the top and on the sides showed that it was composed 
of earth from the bottom land, probably obtained from the excavation 
near the southeast corner of the inclosure. A number of fire-beds of 
burnt clay were found near the summit and at different elevations 
throughout the mound. Charcoal, ashes, and fragments of pottery 
and stone were also discovered, but no bones. It is probable, there 
fore, that these spots mark the sites of houses. 

Some slight elevations noticed within the inclosure were not ex 
plored but are shown on the plate. 

Just outside of the southwest corner is an artificial excavation 
about 100 feet in diameter, but now partially filled and converted into a 
bog. 

Mound ft, shown in detail in PI. xn, is double. There are at the bot 
tom indications of anoval platform, probably 10 feet high, with a length 
of 240 feet at the base. On this, two truncated cones, which occupy the 
entire length, but not the entire width of the platform, rise jointly for 
18 feet, and above the union rise separately 8 feet higher. The entire 



254 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

height of the mound from the natural surface of the land is therefore 
36 feet. The cones are level on top, the one being 42 feet in diameter 
at this point and the other 48. On this mound, near the top of the 
northern cone, stands a thrifty black oak, 5 feet in diameter. 

Little excavating was done in this mound and nothing of interest 
found, except the ever present fire-beds of burnt clay, stone chips, and 
fragments of pottery. 

Mound c is oval and rounded on top, 210 feet long, 150 broad at the 
base, and 16 feet high. This mound and several smaller ones near 
it are so nearly masses of fire-beds, burnt clay, fragments of stone and 
pottery, together with more or less charcoal and ashes, as to indicate 
clearly that they are the sites of ancient dwellings thus elevated by 
accumulation of material during long continued occupancy. 

Mound dj PI. xui, the finest of the group, is roughly pentangular and 
very symmetrical, level on the top, 25 feet high (including the platform), 
310 feet in diameter at the base, and 210 feet across the top. Besides 
the broad, sloping platform, 5 feet high, on which the mound rests, there 
is near by, almost adjoining, a small mound which, as in many other 
groups, forms a kind of appendage to the large one. This is about 100 
feet long, 75 feet wide, and 8 feet high, rounded on top. 

Not only are beds of hard burned clay (the fragments of which show 
the casts of cane and grass running through it) abundant upon the 
surface and sides of the mound, but are also found in the wells and 
cisterns and in other excavations made in digging cellars and for the 
foundations of buildings. It is evident from this that it was used as a 
dwelling place or as a location for a temple or some other public build 
ing. 

Mound e is double and similar in almost every respect to b. The 
platform is 5 feet high and 120 by 80 feet on top. Near the top of 
one cone is a red oak tree, 4 feet in diameter, and near the top of the 
other a black oak, 6 feet in diameter. In the depression between the 
two cones a partially decayed skeleton was found in digging a grave 
for a person now interred there. This skeleton was under a bed of 
burnt clay, and other, similar beds are found near the surface of the 
sides and summit. 

Mound /is oval, rounded on top, 150 feet long by 75 feet wide and 
between 5 and 6 feet high, differing but little from several others not 
shown on the plat. A thorough examination of this mound revealed 
the fact that from base to summit it was composed of burnt clay, mud, 
or alluvial earth in irregular layers formed of lumps or little masses 
burned to a brick red or actually melted into slag. Much of the top of 
this mound is a deposit resembling mud or clay plastering, from which 
the sustaining canes and timbers had been burned out, leaving their 
casts. It seems evident, therefore, that mud-walled and perhaps par 
titioned dwellings, stood here which were destroyed by fire. 



TJFIVEESIT7 




THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 255 

EXCAVATIONS. 

The places from which a part at least of the dirt was taken that was 
used to form the mounds are shown by the unevenness of the surface 
of the ground immediately around them. But there are several excava 
tions which must have furnished a large portion of the material for this 
purpose. They are still so deep as to form swamps, bogs, or open 
ponds, some of the last being well stocked with fish. 

During all the excavations made and digging dene by the present 
proprietors, who have made all the improvements there are on the 
plantation, but few skeletons have been unearthed and no whole vessels 
of pottery found. Still, it is possible that more extensive explorations 
of the small mounds may reveal these, but the owner will not allow them 
to be disturbed. 

The solid material of which the mounds are composed, together with 
their numerous fire beds or patches of burnt clay, are so well calculated 
to withstand the erosion of the elements in a region but little subject 
to frosts, that the lapse of time has had but little effect upon their appear 
ance. Still, the rounding off of the parts not protected by fire-beds, 
the boggy character of the excavations, and the considerable accumula 
tion of soil upon the works suggest that the town of the mound-builders 
located here was upon the bank of the Mississippi when this river flowed 
in its ancient channel, but was abandoned when it changed its bed. 

The more recent works at Old Town, built apparently by people hav 
ing the same customs, seem to favor this supposition. 

THE DICKERSON MOUNDS. 

On the Dickerson farm, 4 miles east of Friars point, is another interest 
ing group of mounds. These are situated 011 the dry, gravelly bank of 
the Sunflower river. There is no inclosure, but several fields of the farm 
are literally strewn with stone chips and fragments of ancient pottery, 
and upon long oval hillocks are found numerous fragments of human 
bones. 

The Sunflower is here scarcely a creek during low water and its 
gravelly banks are high above the floods; yet the mounds are mostly 
oblong or oval and flat on top, like those found on the bottoms subject 
to overflows. They are built as usual of the material from adjacent 
ground, which, being gravel instead of clay or mud, rendered the out 
lines of the beds of burned clay distributed through them more distinct 
than usual. Most of them seem to have been the sites of dwellings, the 
same as those upon the bottoms ; yet on the intermediate areas are 
saucer-shaped depressions, indicating that the earth lodge so common 
farther north had been in use here. 

Of the numerous mounds explored only one was found to be a true 
cemetery of the ancient inhabitants. This was, as usual, one of the 
least conspicuous of the group. The first tier of skeletons was barely 



256 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



covered and the vessels, which are usually a little higher than the skele 
tons, were broken into fragments, only one whole one being found in 
this tier. The next tier was about 2 feet below the first and the bones 
more decayed. ^Relatively fewer vessels were found and these so badly 
broken that but two bowls were obtained entire. The third tier was 
2 feet below the second, or 5 feet from the top, and slightly below the 
original surface of the ground. 

As less than a hundred skeletons were found here, there are doubt 
less other burying places in this group, but there are so many modern 
burials in these mounds that it was impossible to sink a pit without 
disturbing the skeletons of whites and negroes. 




FIG. 158. Clarksdale works, Coahoma county, Mississippi. 

At Clarksdale on the Sunflower river, is a group consisting of 
an inclosur e and six mounds. The plan of these works is presented in 
Fig. 158. At B is a semicircular iuclosure fronting the river, the sur 
rounding earthen wall partially obliterated by the plow, though suffi 
cient remains to trace satisfactorily the line. The length following the 
curve, as ascertained by pacing, is 2,004 feet; the height where least 
disturbed is from 3 to 5 feet. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are mounds; No. 
6 a wash-out, revealing a cemetery; No. 8, house sites, and in the south 
west corner at the end of the wall an excavation. 

The largest and most interesting of the mounds is No. 1 (Fig. 159), 
situated within the inclosure and directly on the bank of the river, so 
that the slope of the west side of the mound is continuous with the 
slope of the bank. It is rectangular in form, consisting first of a plat- 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 



257 



form 5 feet high, which forms the base, projecting as a narrow terrace 
on all the sides except that next the river. 

Above this rises the mound proper, 20 feet high, 153 feet long at the 
base, and nearly 100 feet wide. The top is flat and level and on it now 
stands the village church, but formerly there stood on it a little conical 
mound 5 feet high and 25 feet in diameter, consisting as is stated 
almost wholly of burnt clay, 
charcoal, ashes, and fragments 
of pottery, beneath which were 
found a fine scallop- edged, 
double-eared pot and a skele 
ton. Every observable por 
tion of this mound bears evi 
dence that the mode of con 
struction and doubtless the 
use made of it were the same 
as of those at Carson s plan 
tation, though this group is 
apparently less ancient. 

The other four mounds (2, 
3, 4, and 5) are small, and of 
the ordinary conical form ; No. 
7 is but slightly elevated, and 
scarcely deserves to be called 
a mound. 

No. 4, though the smallest 
of the group, proved to be in 
some respects the most inter 
esting. It is circular, 20 feet 
in diameter, and 3 feet high, 
and little more than a heap of 
ashes. A trench through it 
showed that it consisted of 
ashes, charcoal, and charred 
animal bones, also abundant 
stone chips and fragments of 
pottery, but no entire vessels. 
There was still sufficient 
strength in the ashes to 
roughen the hands, aifect the color of the boots, and be detected by 
the sense of smell ; but this, though less frequent, is not unusual in the 
heavy fire beds of this region. 

Human bones having been found in grading a roadway through the 

low, gravelly banks of a washout at No. 6 (Fig. 158), trenches were cut 

in both banks. Human bones, so hard as to be cut with difficulty by 

the spade, were found throughout the 50 feet in length of the trench, 

12 ETH 17 



258 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

both above and below the road (a, #, a), but the heaviest deposit was 
above the road on the north side, where they formed nearly a solid layer 
of skeletons scarcely a foot below the surface. So many entire skele 
tons were traceable that it is evident it was not a deposit of bones from 
scaffolds, but a burial of bodies en masse with little regard to regu 
larity. No weapons, charcoal, ashes, or pottery were found with them, 
and, although tradition gives us no information in regard to them, it is 
probable that the burials were comparatively modern. 

Mound 7, close to the burial place mentioned, was also a depository 
of the dead, differing from the former more in character and contents 
than in apparent age. The main portion of this low, dark colored 
mound or slightly elevated space was covered by a residence and 
small garden, but along a few feet of its vacant northern edge some ex 
cavations were made. The skeletons were nearly 3 feet below the 
surface in a single tier, lying horizontally, but without uniformity as to 
direction. Except the better preservation of the skeletons, the mode 
of burial and accompaniments and everything found in this mound were 
in all respects similar to the Old Town burials. But the pottery, of 
which only two entire vessels were obtained, like that from Dickerson s 
mound, is lighter colored and thinner than usual. 

A coarse clay pipe, donated by Mr. John Clarke, the owner of this 
property, was found in an extensive line of house sites marked by 
patches of burnt clay at No. 8 (Fig. 158). In the excavations made 
among these house sites a small stone mortar, a rude celt, and two very 
fine ones, also many fragments of pottery, a number of fleshers and 
scrapers were obtained. 

The largest excavation at this place is situated at the southwest cor 
ner of the inclosure. From this, in all probability, was obtained the 
material for building the large mound (No. 1). 

During the researches made through portions of the counties of 
Coahoma, Bolivar, and Sunflower, for a distance of some 30 miles 
south of Clarksdale, a large number of ancient dwelling sites were 
found, having the appearance, before being disturbed, of low, flattish 
mounds. Many were opened and uniformly found to be mere heaps or 
patches of burnt clay, ashes, and the dirt accumulated during occu 
pancy, covered by a thin layer of top soil. 

SUNFLOWER COUNTY. 

Not far from the shoals of Sunflower river, and in the midst of a cane- 
brake, a mound of considerable si/e was discovered. The dimensions, 
as nearly as could be determined, are as follows: Length, 125 feet; 
greatest width, about 100 feet; and height to the summit of its cone, 
25 feet. The apex is near the eastern end, and is surmounted by a 
white oak G feet in diameter. 

Along the steep side of the eastern end was the outcropping of a 
bed of burnt clay in small masses or lumps, and below it some very 



UFI7BRSITT 




THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 259 

light colored fragments of pottery. Almost the first spadeful of earth 
revealed decaying fragments of human bones. Tracing these horizon 
tally under the roots of the oak and under the clay bed, a skull was 
reached, resting on a broken platter-shaped vessel, and by the side of 
it a pot with a scalloped edge, a broken water bottle with female head 
on the top of the neck, a pottery tube, and a dipper in the form of a 
shell shown in Fig. 160. The portion of the platter which had been 
broken out to allow room for the neck of the bottle was wanting. 

Another excavation was made in the top of the terrace near the 
middle of the mound. After cutting through a layer of brick-red chunks 
of burnt clay some 4 or 5 inches thick, a layer of dark colored earth 
something over a foot in depth was reached. Immediately beneath this 




I iG. 160. Vessel iu form of a shell, Sunflower county, Mississippi. 

was a medium-sized human skeleton lying horizontally on its right side. 
Near the skull were a broken water vessel and fragments of other ves 
sels. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

THE AVONDALTC MOUND.S. 

This group, which is shown in Fig. 161, is located on the plantation of 
Mrs. P. J. Sterling, 1 miles east of Stoneville and 9 miles from Gran- 
ville. The land on which they are built is a rich, level bottom, subject 
to overflows. 

The mounds, as shown in the figure, are arranged somewhat in a 
semicircle. The largest, which is used as a graveyard by the whites, is 
30 feet high, flat on top, and oval in form, nearly 200 feet long and about 
175 broad. To the west of it is a depression of about 3 acres, from 
which it is probable the material was taken to build this mound. The 
second is 15 feet high and is covered with graves of colored people. 

Numerous fragments of pottery and lumps of burnt clay, containing 
impressions of cane and grass, were found near the surface of the small 
mounds. 



260 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Cutting a trench through No. 4 (the one at the extreme left of the 
figure), there was readied first, a layer of sandy loam ISinches thick, then 
2 feet of burnt clay, next a layer of charcoal and ashes 18 inches thick, 
and thence to the base hard clay. No human bones or evidences of 
burial were observed. 




YAZOO COUNTY. 



THE CHAMPL1N MOUNDS. 



This group, consisting of four mounds, is situated about the center of 
the county, 2 miles north of Yazoo City and 2 miles east of Yazoo river. 
The mounds stand on low, swampy land, about half a mile from the 
hills, and during the flood of 1882 were surrounded by water. One of 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 



261 



N 

I 



them is an irregular oval of comparatively large size, the other three 
are conical and smaller. 

The large mound is of the form shown in Figs. 162 and 163, the first 
giving the contour of the base, the other a vertical section through the 
middle, lengthwise. The dimensions were found by careful measure 
ments to be as follows: Length at base, from north to south, 106 feet; 
width of base at a a (Fig. 162), 50 feet; at J> fc, 36 feet; at d d, 38 feet; 
height at a (Fig. 163), 14 feet; at fc, 8 feet, and at d, 11 feet. It was 
explored thoroughly down to the 
original surface, and found to 
be composed throughout of dark 
earth, similar to the surrounding 
soil of this swamp region, yet 
there are no excavations or de 
pressions immediately around it 
from which the earth for building- 
it could have been taken. 

In the southern portion, at the 
depth of 3 feet 6 inches, were 
three adult skeletons about on 
the same level (No. 3, Fig. 163), 
all extended at full length. One 
lay with face up and head north; 
about the neck and wrists were a 
number of shell beads. Another 
lay also with face up, but head to 
the west; close by the head was 
a nicely polished celt. The other 
lay on the left side, with the head 
north; by the head was a polished 
celt and immediately in front of 
the face a small water bottle. 

At 2, an adult skeleton lay ex 
tended on the left side, with head 
south. The earth immediately 
around it was burned hard, the 
bones also showing signs of fire. 
Mixed with this burned earth 
was a considerable quantity of charcoal and ashes. 

At 3, same depth as 2, was the skeleton of a very young child. No 
relics were found with this or 2. 

At the bottom of the inound, at the point marked 4, were the remains 
of six skeletons. These had doubtless been buried after the flesh was 
removed, as the bones of each had been taken apart and placed in a 
heap, the parts of one skeleton forming one heap. Among the rib 




Fm. 162. Outline of mount! No. 1, Chaniplin group 
Tazoo county, Mississippi. 



262 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



bones of one were a few beads made of minute shells. Nothing was 
found with either of the other five. 

Immediately under the surface of the mound at 5 was a single pol 
ished celt. At 6, 3 feet from the top, lay an adult skeleton extended on 
the back, head east; no relics were found with it. At 7, 011 the same 
level, was another adult skeleton lying in the same position as the last 
mentioned; on the breast was a polished celt. At 
8 were the bones of another, separated and placed 
in aheap, as those previously mentioned, with a num 
ber of shell beads scattered among them. These 
were at the depth of 18 inches. At 9 lay the skel 
eton of an adult, at the depth of 3 feet, extended on 
the back, head west; nothing with it. 

No. 10 indicates the position of an adult skeleton 
at a depth of 4 feet 6 inches. This was also ex 
tended on the back, with the head east. The earth 
about it was unusually hard, making it impossible 
to get the bones out in good condition, yet the skull 
is sufficient to show the form, which indicates 
frontal pressure and backward elongation to an 
unusual extent. 

No. 11, three adult skeletons extended, with faces 
up and heads east. These were lying side by side 
at the bottom of the mound on the natural surface of 
the ground, and immediately over them a covering 
of bark, apparently of the red oak. This consisted 
of a single layer of wide pieces. Nothing else was 
found with them. 

In the northern end of the mound, immediately 
under the surface at the highest point, 12, was a 
small, red clay vessel (Fig. 164). The earth of this 
northern portion, to the depth of 3 feet, contained 
the remains of several skeletons (13), both of adults 
and children, which were so far decayed that their 
respective positions could not be determined; nor in 
fact was it possible to ascertain the exact number 
of them. Scattered among the bones were several 
celts, different lots of beads, and one small pot. 

No. 14 indicates the position of two adult skele 
tons, at a depth of 4 feet, one extended on the right side, head north, 
the bones of the other separated and placed in a pile. Around the 
neck of the former were a number of shell beads. 

No. 15 was the skeleton of an adult, at a depth of 9 feet, extended 
on the right side, head east ; nothing with it. 

Nos. 17 and 18, two skeletons of adults found at a depth of 10 feet; 
bones separated and placed in piles. No relics with them. 



i 



THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 263 

None of the burials in this mound were in inclosures or coffins of any 
kind, except the two instances where bark covering- was used, as already 
mentioned. 

All the skeletons referred to as having no relics buried with them 
had the heads compressed in the manner described. The others, those 
with ornaments or implements accompanying them, had heads of the 
usual type. Although this fact seems to indicate that individuals of 
two different tribes were buried here, it seems evident that they be 
longed to the same era, as there were no indications that the mound 
had been disturbed after it was completed. 

Mound No. 2 stands 1,300 feet east of the large one and is a regular 
cone, 58 feet in diameter and 13 feet high. The main body was coin- 
posed of dark swamp soil like that of the 
surrounding land, but at the bottom was 
a central, conical core of yellow clay, 12 
feet in diameter and 3 feet high. The 
nearest point where the clay of which it 
is composed could have been obtained 
is half a mile away. About 3 feet be 
neath the apex were a few human teeth 
and slight traces of other bones, with 
which were associated a few beads made 
of deer horn. Immediately below the 
surface, on one side, an ornamented water 
bottle was discovered. On the top of the 
central clay core lay a small bed of coals 
and ashes some 2 or 3 feet in diameter, 

FIG. 164. linage vessel from Chain pirn 

which contained a number of burned mound, Mississippi. 

mussel shells. 

Mound No. 3, about 700 feet from No. 2, is oval in outline, rounded 
on top, 35 feet long north and south, 27 feet wide, and 3 feet high. This 
was not explored. 

No. 4, which is 275 feet due south of No. 3, is similar in form and 
size to the latter. It was explored and found to be composed through 
out of dark, swamp soil. Nothing was discovered except a few coals. 

ADAMS COUNTY. 

The only mounds examined in this county are those forming the 
noted Selsertown group. Dr. Palmer made a hasty visit to them in 1884 ; 
subsequently, in 1887, Mr. Middleton made a careful survey of them. 
The description and figures here given are from Mr. Middleton s report. 

These works, a general plan of which is shown in PL xiv, 1, consist at 
present of a large, circular, flat topped mound, and three others of 
smaller dimensions, standing upon an elevated platform, a little over 
20 feet high and 5 or 6 acres in extent. They are situated in the hill 
country of the northern part of the county and some (> or 7 miles from 
the Mississippi bottom. 




264 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The topographical features of this section are similar to those of other 
counties bordering on this portion of the river, consisting of the bot 
toms along the Mississippi and the uplands which extend back from 
these and form the general surface of the state. The western border 
of these uplands, where they join the bottoms, terminates in somewhat 
abrupt descents to which the term "bluff s " has been applied. In Adams 
county the bottoms are from 1 to 3 miles wide north of Natchez, which 
is the only portion of the county it is necessary to refer to. About a mile 
above Natchez the Mississippi river, bending eastward, strikes the foot 
of the bluffs ; hugs them for a short distance below, and again recedes. 

The general level of the uplands, some 200 or 250 feet above the 
bottoms, is broken by the valleys of numerous creeks and their 
branches, through which the water of the upper area finds its way to 
the Mississippi. Among the smaller streams of this immediate section 
is one known locally as Dunbare creek, which runs westward to the 
Mississippi. The country about the headwaters of this creek, where 
the little streams which form its branches have cut ravines, is some 
what rough and broken up into ridges, spurs, and knolls. It is here that 
the works mentioned are situated, about a mile northwest of the site 
of the old village of Selsertown, 7 miles a little west of north from 
Washington, and 2 miles northwest of the railroad station (Stanton). 

As will be observed by reference to PI. xiv, 1, the platform, or oblong 
elevatien on which the mounds stand, is located on a rather narrow 
ridge which, starting from the higher level on the east, slopes down 
ward gradually but irregularly toward the west, fading out in an 
expansion on the lower level of the creek valley a little southwest of 
the platform. On the north is the valley of a small creek running 
westward ; on the south is another narrow valley or ravine in which is 
a small branch of Dunbare creek, running southwest. This ridge, as 
will be seen by reference to the figure, is quite irregular as to its sur 
face, course, and form. Coming westward from the eastern extremity 
the line of highest elevation bends southward by /*, terminating appar 
ently in a spur, which was not followed out. 

Following the line of the road, the descent i to ft, from the upper 
level li to the lower level </, of the ridge is about 40 feet and somewhat 
abrupt. From A; to the platform, the top of the ridge, with the excep 
tion of the rise at /, is nearly level lengthwise that is to say, along 
the line of the road. The rise at / is an elongate oval knoll, from 12 
to 15 feet high, and of the comparative size shown in the figure. As it 
is beyond all question a natural formation, no special measurement of 
it was made. 

At the point occupied by the platform there is a sudden bend and ex 
pansion of the ridge, though the crest is near the south margin, the line 
running inside (north) of, but near, the southern edge of the platform. 

Although the term " platform" has been used here to indicate this 
somewhat remarkable elevation on which the mounds are placed, Mr. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 




SELSERTOWN MOUND GROUP, ADAMS COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI. 




Section, on line a. 



Section- ori> Uru> c. &. 
PLATFORM AND MOUNDS OF THE SELSERTOWN GROUP. 



THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 265 

Middleton and Dr. Palmer express the opinion very confidently that 
it is chiefly a natural formation. This is based upon the following 
facts: The sudden bend and enlargement of the ridge at this point; 
the fact that natural knolls, or mound-like elevations, are not uncom 
mon on the ridges of this section, as for example, the one near by at 
/; and the evidence obtained by excavating, which, so far as it was 
carried, sustains this view. They think it quite probable that the orig 
inal form was artificially modified, so as to make the top more uniformly 
level and the margins more abrupt than they were formed by nature. 

At the eastern end of this platform, descending northward, is an old 
washout or gully. The surface contour, running east and west, across 
the platform, the mounds, and this gully from I to m is shown in the 
section at A, and that running north and south from p to q at B; a 
section of the ridge at r to * is shown at C. 

The shape and present condition of the platform and the mounds on 
it are shown in PI. xiv, 2. The extreme length from base to base varies 
but slightly from 700 feet; the greatest width, which is near the west 
end, is about 530 feet ; width at the east end, 330 feet. The extreme 
length of the surface area is about 590 feet; the width near the west 
end, 400 feet. The height varies from 21 to 45 feet, the northern and 
northwestern portion standing higher above the base or general slope of 
the ridge than the southern and eastern. The surface is comparatively 
level, though there are some depressions in the central portion, from 
which it is probable dirt was taken to be used in building the mounds. 

Although the base has a somewhat regular outline, the margin of the 
upper surface is so cut and gashed by sharp gulleys and indentations 
as to give scarcely any indications of its original form. 

The surface has been under cultivation for many years, but the slopes 
of the sides are covered with thick growths of cane, locust, sedge, and 
briars. The soil, which is similar to that of the surrounding area, con 
sists of loam and red clay, mixed somewhat with sand, which, though 
apparently adhesive, wears away rapidly under the action of water 
where the surface is abraded and the vegetation removed. The two 
chief gullies, the one at the northwest corner and the other near the 
southeast corner, which have evidently been formed by washing, are 
probably largely due to the fact that they are the lines of drainage and 
are the points long used as the places of ascent and descent for per 
sons, teams, and stock. 

There are at present four mounds 011 this elevated area, though, 
according to Squier and Davis 1 , there were formerly eleven. Of the 
four which remain, one is placed, as these authors state, about the 
middle of each end, that is, at the east and west margins. The 
other two are placed near the middle of the north and south sides. Of 
the other seven, no satisfactory traces were found by Mr. Middleton, 
but Dr. Palmer, who visited them three years before, thought he saw 



Anc. Mon., p. US. 



266 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

indications of other structures at points around the margin, but was 
inclined to the opinion that these were house sites, as fragments of pot 
tery and pieces of burnt clay, often with fluted impressions made by 
split reeds, were found in abundance at such points. But neither 
found any traces of a central mound, and the disposition of those 
which remain would indicate that this central space was left unoccupied. 
The wearing of the mound seems also to forbid the idea of a central 
tumulus, as it was here the surface water seemed to collect. 

The surface of the platform is strewn with fragments of pottery. On 
and about the smaller mounds down the northern slope, especially in 
the gullies or washouts, probably brought down from the top, are num 
erous fragments of burnt clay . This burnt clay is not in the form of 
bricks, nor at any point arranged in or used to form a wall. That on 
the slopes and in the gullies on the north side has certainly been 
brought down from the upper surface. It is mostly of a brick-red color 
and bears impressions of the split cane stamp, of which mention has here 
tofore been made. These have probably been taken for the impressions 
of fingers, an error which would have been easily corrected by observ 
ing that the curvature is outward instead of inward, as would have been 
the case if made by the fingers. Running through it, on what was the 
inner side, are the impressions of twigs and grass stems. It is in every 
respect similar to that observed in Arkansas, and is evidently the clay 
which formed the plastering of the houses, as mentioned by the French 
explorers, which, at the destruction of the houses by fire, was burned 
to the condition in which it is now found. 

The largest of the four mounds, the one to which writers have gener 
ally referred, is that marked e at the western end of the platform. It 
is nearly circular in form, truncated but somewhat rounded on top, the 
slopes tolerably steep. The diameter at the base is 145 feet; the diam 
eter of the top averages 72 feet (the upper surface being somewhat oval) ; 
height, 31 feet. It has been partially explored, but the result is not 
known with certainty. The last examination was made on behalf of 
Dr. Joseph Jones, of New Orleans, but it does not appear that he was 
at any time present while the excavation was going on. The depth 
reached was only 15 or 1C feet. This mound has, at some former time, 
been under cultivation, but owing, perhaps, to its steepness has been 
abandoned to briars and locust trees. 

The next largest mound is the one marked/, at the eastern extremity 
of the platform. It is somewhat irregular in form but approaches in 
outline a semi-oval, the base resting on the margin of the platform, 
with which the eastern side of the mound forms a continuous slope. It 
is possible that cultivation of its surface and wearing away at the east 
ern end has somewhat changed the original form. The top is flat but 
irregular, the height varying from 5 to 8 feet. The diameter of the 
base east and west is 110 feet; the greatest diameter north and south, 
near the east margin, is about 3 feet less. 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 267 



The other two mounds (g and ft), situated near the middle of the 
north and south margins are circular, quite small, the one marked y 
measuring but 38 feet in diameter and 2 feet high ; the other, marked /*, 
22 feet in diameter and 1J feet high. Both have been under cultiva 
tion, which has brought to light a layer of burnt clay near the top of 
each, showing them to be of the same type as the low domiciliary 
mounds of Arkansas. 

UNION COUNTY. 

The group of mounds here figured (Fig. 165) is located in the southern 
part of Union County, Mississippi, on the SE. J of Sec. 12, and XE. \ 
of Sec. 13, T. 8 S., E, 2 E. 

There are fourteen mounds belonging to the group, twelve of which 
are together, the other two (not shown) being one east and the other 
west, about half a mile from the large mound, which is the most prom 
inent of the group. 

The general level of the field is about 50 feet above the creek bot 
toms to the north and south, which are overflowed at every hard rain. 

Before the soil had been cultivated an embankment could be traced 
around the twelve central mounds which was about 2 feet high and 10 
feet across at the base, with a ditch on the outside entirely around. 
The ditch was mostly and in some places entirely filled up. At pres 
ent no trace of it remains and the embankment can be seen only for a 
few rods on the west and north sides, where it has not been plowed 
over. It was cut through in several places and showed no trace of 
wood. This, however, is not positive evidence that no palisades ex 
isted, for it may have been washed down farther than the posts would 
have been sunk, the area being much worn by drains. The earth form 
ing it is the same as the surrounding soil, and was probably thrown 
inward from the ditch. 

Before the land was cleared timber as large as can be found in the 
country grew up to the ditch on the outside while inside that limit noth 
ing grew but brush and small trees. The largest one on the embank 
ment, cut in 1842, showed by its growth-rings that it Avas 52 years old. 
This would give a period of not more than a century in whicli timber 
has been growing on the mounds. 

Dense canebrakes still exist within a few miles, which no doubt 
abounded in game, and in the creeks near at hand large fishes are 
caught in considerable numbers. The soil in this field, though now 
about worn out by careless tillage, was formerly very fertile. 

A pond of 5 or 6 acres begins at the western line of the embankment. 
The earth put into the larger mound was probably taken from this point, 
as all the different sorts of earth used in the mounds are to be found in 
the field or adjacent swamps. 

The line of the wall is shown as it was traced out by Mr. Parks, the 
first permanent settler of the country, and may not be correct, espe- 



268 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



daily on the southern line. The southeast corner should be at least 
100 feet farther south, or else the line should change its direction at 
some point as it does on the northern side. As laid down here it runs 
over mounds 8 and 10. From the contour of the ground it is probable 
that the bearing should be a little more to the south from both the 




WM/Mi/ ^. 




FIG. 165. Mound group in Union count y, Mississippi. 

southeast and the southwest corners, and that the change in direction 
should take place south of mound 10. 

Beginning at the northwest corner its sides measure from station to 
station as numbered 792, 957, 1,9,30, 1,505, and 1,937 feet. 



THOMAS.j 



MISSISSIPPI. 



269 



In the space inclosed by mounds 3, 4, and 9 is a cemetery, as shown 
by the bones and numerous fragments of pottery plowed up. Some 
arrow-points, beads, and a number of pitted stones were found scattered 
about on the surface. The arrow-points are all small and chipped from 
water-worn pebbles of jasper, which occur in considerable quantities. 
With one skeleton exhumed here were found an iron pipe, some silver 
ornaments, copper beads, wrought nails, and a piece of glass. 

The large mound is a flat-topped quadrilateral, with the longer axis 
nearly north and south. At the bottom, the sides, beginning with the 
southeast, measure 153, 210, 177 and 234 feet; on the top 87, 124, 94 
and 119 feet. From these measurements it will be seen that the slope 
of the sides is not uniform 
and that they are quite dif 
ficult to ascend. On the 
northeast side is a graded 
way, 20 feet wide at the top 
and running out 45 feet from 
the base. This figure (20 
feet) probably represents its 
original width on top along 
the whole length, though it 
is now much worn down. 
The height of the mound is 
27 feet. 

The numbers of the small 
mounds refer, for the first 
eight, to the order in which 
they were opened. In every 
case the dirt was removed 
down to the original soil 
and *far enough outwardly 
to make it certain that the 
limit of the mound was reached. Trenches, varying in width from 6 
to 10 feet, were carried to the center, then run to the edge in another 
direction and space cleared out about the center sufficient to show that 
nothing of interest remained. " Surface" refers to the original soil 
beneath the mound, and " center" to the line directly down from the 
highest point. All the mounds except the first have been plowed over 
until they are probably 3 to 5 feet lower than when built. 

Mound 1, located nearly west of the large mound, was the most 
prominent of the smaller ones. The first trench in this was made from 
the south side. (See Figs. 166, showing plan of trenches, and 367, 
and 168 showing sections of south trench.) 

Sixteen feet from the center, resting on the surface, was a mass of 
loose, cloddy dirt measuring 3 J by 2 feet and extending 3 feet up. It 
was such a condition as would result from a small coffin s decaying and 




FIG. 166. Plan of mound No. 1, group in Union county, 
Mississippi. 



270 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



letting the earth above it fall in, though careful search failed to show 
any traces of wood. On the bottom were found a skull, lying face 
upward, some bones of the arm and neck, and the head of a femur, all 







FIG. 167. Sections along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Mississippi. 

so badly decayed as to crumble almost at a touch. The teeth showed 
that it had been a person not over middle age. Very fine particles of 
galenite were adhering to the skull and to the earth in contact with it. 






FIG. 168. Section along south trench, mound Xo. 1, Union county, Mississippi. 




A number of shell beads, some the entire shells of a small marine species 
others cut from a large shell and drilled, lay with the skull. The frontal 
bone was saved ; it showed no depression at the root of the nose, and 



THOMAS. J 



MISSISSIPPI. 271 



one orbit was lower than the other, probably the result of an injury. 
The small size of the burial place, the position of the bones and the 
galenite sticking to the skull go to show that only the skeleton had 
been buried. 

Lying west of these bones, in the hard dirt, was a scapula belonging 
to a larger person than the last, along with other bones too badly de 
cayed and broken to tell what they were; also a few shell beads. At 
10 feet from the center and 4 feet from the surface was a small pile of 
ashes with the dirt slightly burnt below, showing that a fire had been 
made when the mound had reached that stage and afterwards covered 
up before the place had been disturbed. Three feet above the surface 
at the center, in hard dirt, was a badly decayed skull of an old person, 
and one cervical vertebra. Lying on the original surface at the center 
were some fragments of thick, red pottery and a small amount of 
charcoal. Six inches above the bottom a thin seam of red clay was 
continuous for 3 or 4 feet around the center. 




FIG. 169. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county. 

The next trench was run in from the northeast (see Figs. 169 and 170). 
Twenty-one feet from the center there was a depression of 6 inches where 
soil had been removed down to underlying red clay which was so hard 
as to be difficult to loosen with a pick. In this clay two holes, marked 
(a, Fig. 170, and 6, Fig. 169), had been dug 6 feet apart, one north of the 
other. Each was a foot across and 3 feet deep, rounded at the bottom, 
and filled with a shiny gray ooze. In the one to the south was found a 
piece of skull bone, in the northern one nothing but the soft mud or 
slime. Fourteen feet from the center were two similar holes, one 14 
inches across and 3 feet deep, the other 3 feet south of it of the same depth 
and 18 inches across. One is shown at c, Fig. 169. No traces of bones 
were found in these. They were filled with the same gray dirt as the 



272 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



first two, though it was not quite so wet. The dirt for 2 or 3 feet above 
all these holes was much looser than that at the sides, as if something 
had been placed over them which afterward gave way. Eleven feet 
from the center the surface rose to its natural place, making a step of 
11 inches, showing that the depression was not carried on a level. 

On the south side of this trench, 5 feet from the surface, were three 
graves, 11, 7, and 4 feet, respectively, from the center. Each was filled 
with loose dark dirt and surrounded by a mass of very hard clay, which 
showed no marks of burning, but seems rather to have been packed 
wet and allowed to dry before being covered over. In the first, which 
was 2 feet long and 18 inches across, no signs of bones appeared; in 
the second were the bones of the right forearm and the lower extrem 
ities, which were in their proper position and lay with the feet toward 
the southwest. Under the head of the right femur was a piece of rib, 




FIG. J70. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county. 



and under the middle of it the right half of a lower jaw, with the wis 
dom tooth just through the bone. The femur measured 17 inches and 
the tibia was not flattened. A few drilled shell beads, some large, 
others small, were found with the bones of the arm. 

In the last grave were traces of wood, probably the remains of bark 
wrapping, which fell to dust on being touched. This grave lay toward 
the southeast, intersecting the second one at about 4 feet from the edge 
of the trench. Each was 2 feet across. 

The peculiar arrangement of the dirt in this mound led the explorer 
to run another trench from between the north and northwest. (Figs. 
171 and 172.) Eighteen feet from the center, 2 feet from the surface, were 
some small fragments of bones and a few human teeth. Fifteen feet 
from the center, on the same level, were fragments of a skull and teeth, 
all too decayed for handling. A foot above these were the bones of 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 



273 



the arm and leg of another person broken up and laid in a pile. 
Twelve feet from the center, 4 feet from the surface, were fragments of 
a very thin skull with particles of galenite adhering to them. Eight 
feet from the center was a hole sunk a foot into the original soil and 
filled with loose black dirt and ashes, in which were traces of unburnt 
wood. From this hole a layer of unmixed ashes from 1 to G inches in 
thickness reached 6 feet to the south and west, sometimes on the sur 
face and again several inches above it. Five feet from the center, 8J 
feet from the surface, was the outer whorl of a conch shell. 

A trench was next run in from the west. Eighteen feet from the cen 
ter was a layer of ashes, 6 feet in diameter, 18 inches from the surface 
at its middle point and curved upward toward every side, or, in other 
words, dished. Lying on this was the lower part of the skeleton of a 
medium-sized man, with the feet toward the north. No bones of the 




FIG. 171. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county. 



pelvis or parts above were found, although the leg bones were well pre 
served. Three feet above the surface the skeleton of a large, strongly- 
built man lay extended at full length with the face up, the head 
toward the east and about six feet from the center. The skull was ob 
tained almost entire. Under it were thirteen water- worn quartz peb 
bles. The femur measured 1SJ inches. There was no clay or hard dirt 
packed around the frame nor any evidence that a fire had been made 
where it lay, although the leg bones had fine charcoal sticking to them. 
The humerus was perforated near the elbow. 

The arrangement of the dirt in this mound indicates that the origi 
nal mound was much smaller than it is now and that the skeleton em. 
bedded in the ashes was at the center. Afterward the mound wa s added 
to on the eastern side. A glance at the sections figured makes this 
plain. 

12 ETH 18 




274 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The lenticular masses show that the dirt had been carried in 
baskets or skins and thrown in without any attempt at stratification in 
the older part of the mound. These masses were from 12 to 18 inches 
across and from 4 to G inches thick. The lower side, as they lay in the 
mound, was always darker in color than the upper side. Occasionally 
a little charcoal or a fragment of bone or pottery occurred in the 
mound. 

Nothing was found in mound 2 except a small piece of pottery of 
very neat design that had probably been dumped in with the dirt. 
This mound was made up of soil lying close at hand and the dirt was 
in layers of regular thickness, as though it had been spread when 
deposited. On the southeast edge was a layer of mingled dirt and 
charcoal, GJ feet across, from 2 to 4 inches in thickness; a large amount 
of broken pottery was found scattered through it, but no ashes. This 
lay partly a foot below the top of the ground and partly on the surface. 




FIG. 172. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county. 



At a distance of 75 feet west of the center of mound 3 was a fire 
place, on the original surface, covered with a foot of dirt that had 
washed down from the mound. The mingled ashes, charcoal, and dirt 
measured 5 feet across and 15 inches thick at the middle, running out 
to a thin edge and packed very hard. Along with pieces of pottery and 
animal bones was a piece of iron that had apparently been a brace for a 
saddle bow. This was 8 inches under the top of the ashes and below 
most of the pottery found. 

Sixty feet from the center appeared a layer of gray clay, from 1 to 3 
inches thick. It was continuous under as much of the mound as was 
removed. In the trench on the west side was found one blade of a pair 
of scissors. Three feet above the surface at the center was an ash bed 
6 inches thick in the middle, G feet in diameter, curving up ward or dish- 
shaped and running to an edge on every side. It rested directly upon 



THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 275 

dirt that had been dumped like that in the first mound, and was in very 
thin layers as though many successive deposits had been made and 
spread out. Within an inch of the bottom was a small piece of green 
ish glass, apparently broken from a glass bottle. Eesting upon the 
ashes, though of less extent, was a mass 12 inches thick of charcoal, 
dirt, ashes, and broken pottery, in which lay an iron knife and a 
thin silver plate stamped with the Spanish coat of arms, Fig. 173. 
At the top was a thin layer of charcoal where a fire had been extin 
guished ; this was at a lower point than had ever been reached by the 
plow. There was a want of conformity between this mass and the sur 
rounding dirt, which shows it may have been of later origin; that the 
mound had been opened after its completion and afterward restored to 
its former shape; but the bed of ashes was undoubtedly as old as the 
mound itself, so that, although the iron knife and silver plate offer no 
positive proof as to age, the piece of glass is strong evidence that the 
mound was constructed after its builders had dealings with the whites. 
It maybe remarked here that this group is located in the area occupied 
by the Chickasaws. 

At about 40 feet from the center the dirt began 
to show the same arrangement of dumping as was 
seen in mound 1. 

Mound 4 was made throughout of a heavy gray 
clay, such as forms the ground to the north of it. 
The embankment ran, according to local belief, 
directly over this mound; it was, therefore, closely 
examined for any signs of palisades, but without 
success; nor is there now the slightest indication 
here of either wall or ditch. A small amount 
of mingled dirt and charcoal appeared at what 
seemed to be the center of the mound, but this was 
evidently thrown in at the time it was built to help FIG. i?3.-siiver plate, with 

,,,, Spanish coat of arms; 

nil Up. mound, Union county. 

Mound 5, not shown in the figure, is outside the 

inclosure to the east. A wide trench through it exposed thirteen skulls 
with a few fragments of other bones. They were all within 10 feet of 
the center and arranged in three layers, the first on the surface, the 
second nearly 2 feet above, and the third at about the same distance 
above that. The skulls belonged to persons of different ages, from the 
child whose first teeth were beginning to appear, to the aged individ 
ual whose teeth were worn to the gums. With the oldest was a burnt 
clay pipe, the only relic found in the mound. The bones were put in 
without regard to position ; a skull and a rib, for example, or a femur 
and a jawbone lying together. The mound was of the same dirt as the 
surrounding soil, except a deposit of gray clay a foot thick and 3 feet 
across at the center, about half of it lying below the original surface. 
Only one skull found here was in a condition to be preserved; all, how 
ever, were of one shape and that very like the modern Indian skull. 




276 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Mound 6, like mound 4, was on the supposed line of embankment. 
No trace of wood in the mound or of a ditch outside could be seen. It 
was formed of dirt gathered close around. Probably mounds 4 and 6 
were at a break in the embankment forming a passageway through it. 

Mound 7 showed at 55 feet east of the center a layer of gray clay, 
nowhere more than an inch in thickness, which ran 18 feet, then gave 
way for 9 feet to a layer of black soil, after which it reappeared and was 
found under all the remaining part excavated. The dirt showed the 
same marks of dumping as in mounds 1 and 3, and is of different colors, 
though all from around the mound. More charcoal and burnt dirt was 
found in this than in any other mound opened, but it seems to have been 
thrown in simply because it was convenient, being scattered here and 
there in small patches. 

Thirty-five feet from the center and 3 feet from the surface in mingled 
ashes, dirt, and charcoal, with a few decayed bones, were a number of 
fragments of pottery, pieces of one vessel which was broken before 
being covered. The whole was inclosed in very hard clay. It does not 
seem to have been a grave, but rather a place used for cooking. 

Twenty-one feet from the center and 5 feet from the surface was a 
tibia lying east and west; 5 feet west of it was a skull. Both were too 
soft to be removed. No bones were found between them, but both 
belonged to one individual whose body had been placed in a bed of gray 
sand and surrounded by ashes, charcoal, swamp mud, and burnt clay. 
It seems to have been an intrusive burial. Two feet southwest of the 
skull was a decayed femur; no other bones were with it. 

All the dirt about the center of this mound was very wet and heavy, 
and was brought from the swamp to the northeast. The arrangement 
and material of the mound show that dirt had been carried in from 
different places at the same time. Occasionally a layer of one material 
could be traced 3 or 4 feet, and then be lost in some other. 

Mound 8 was built partly on the slope of the ravine to the west. A 
layer of gray clay, averaging 4 inches in thickness, had been spread on 
the surface and the mound built upon it. The bottom of the mound on 
the western side sloped upward toward the center, following the inclina 
tion of the surface. Twenty-four feet from the center began a deposit 
of sticky mud from the creek bottom, which measured 2 feet in thick 
ness at the center. The remainder of the mound was composed of about 
equal parts of this bottom mud and the soil near by, dumped in without 
any order or regularity. At the center, near the top of the mound, was 
a deposit of yellow sand 3 feet across in very thin curved layers, about 
4 inches thick at the middle and curving to an edge at the sides. 
Under this was a hole a foot across and the same in depth, having a 
bottom of hard blue clay and filled with ashes, black dirt, and charcoal. 

Near the center were some shreds of a coarse woven cloth. Six feet 
north of the center, in the original soil, was a hole 18 inches across and 
14 inches deep, the sides burnt hard as brick, hlled with charcoal and 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 



277 



dirt. Seven feet northeast of the center was a similar but smaller hole. 
The gray layer at the bottom was undisturbed over both these spots, 
showing that the mound was built after this part of the field had been 
occupied. 

The swamp mud ran out at 30 feet north and northeast of the center. 
Twenty-two feet from the center, toward the north, a deposit of gray 
clay, varying from a few inches to 4 feet in thickness, began and reached 
nearly to the edge of the mound. The dumped dirt ended at 60 feet 
from the center. 

The field being in cultivation, none of the other mounds could be 
opened, except one, and there was nothing about that to indicate that 
it would repay investigation. 

If the large mound be considered a place of residence, the most prob 
able theory, it is not plain what use was made of the smaller ones. It 
is evident that those within the inclosure, with the exception of the 
first one opened, were not intended or used for burial purposes. 

EXPLANATORY NOTES. 

The courses and distances of the line of wall, as traced and located 
by the old settlers, are as follows, commencing at station 1, the north 
west corner : 



From 
station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


1 to 2 . . 
2 to 3 


S.83 E 
S 74 E 


Feet. 

792 

957 


3 to 4 . . 


S. 7 45 W ... 


1,930 


4 to 5 . . 


N.7745 W . 


1,505 


5 to 1 


N.1E 


1,937 



The smaller mounds were located by bearings from the center of the 
/arge mound, but the distances to all except 11 and 12 were measured 
from the south corner; for 11 and 12 the measurements were from the 
north corner. Mounds 5 and 13 are not shown on the plat. 



Mound 

No. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


1 


N. 88 W - - - - 


Feet. 
352 


Feet. 
64 


Feet. 
14 


2 


S.10iE 


165 


100 


4 


3 


S.34iE 


1056 


120 


6 


4 


S.53iE 


891 


54 


2 


5 


S.80E 


i mile. 


50 


4 


6 


S.58W 


792 


28 


3 


7 


S. 66E 


330 


120 


7 


8 


S.23E 


1,155 


120 


6 


9 


S.23iE 


693 


150 


7 


10 


S.9iE 


990 


160 


8 


11 


N. 24iW . . . 


891 


120 


4 


12 
13 


N. 70 W 


561 
x mile. 


90 
Plowed 


3 








level. 





278 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Pond, N. 75 W. Dirt for the large mound was probably taken from 
the excavation which begins at the wall. 

The passageway or ramp that extends from the top of the large mound 
to the ground is at the middle of the northeast side, beginning 79 feet 
from the east corner, and on the line of the base of the mound is 46 feet 
wide. It is 20 feet wide at the top of the mound, and extends outward 
45 feet from the base of the mound, with the corners at the bottom so 
rounded that they are 20 feet within the lines of the sides. 

Figs. 107 (A and F) and 168 show the sides and end of the south 
trench ; Fig. 167 A, the left or west side of the trench, and F, the north 
end; Fig. 168, the right or east side. In these 1 is surface soil; 2, gray 
clay; 3, red clay ; 4, red soil in lumps or masses; a, position of skull ; &, 
position of pottery, and 7i, grave going a foot into the wall. 

Figs. 169 and 170 show the sides of the northeast trench, same mound ; 
Fig. 169, side toward northwest; and Fig. 170, side toward southeast. 
The numbers indicate the strata as follows: No. 1, red, top soil mixed 
with clay; 2, yellow, bluish, and gray clays and dark soil mingled in con 
fusion; 3, gray clay from the swamp; 4, red soil in lens-shaped masses; 
5, dark soil in lens-shaped masses, a indicates a grave sunk in the 
original soil to the depth of 3 feet, filled with shining gray mud and 
containing part of a human skull; b and c similar pits. H, O, L, three 
graves 5 feet above the original surface extending southward. 

Figs. 171 and 172 represent the sections of the northwest trench, same 
mound; Fig. 171, east side; Fig. 172, west side. The numbers indicate 
the layers as follows: 1, top soil; 2, gray clay; 3, red clay; 4, red soil 
in lumps or small masses; 5, black soil in lumps or small masses. 

TENNESSEE. 
LAUDERDALE COUNTY. 

On the farm of Mr. Marley, 8 miles north west of Kipley, are a number 
of small mounds, most of which had been dug over thoroughly. Only 

one small one remained undisturbed. 
In this was found an old walled 
fireplace, circular in form, 3 feet high 
and about 1 foot thick, the inside 
half full of ashes. Back of this (out 
side) was a semicircular wall, also 
of burnt clay, 3 feet high and about 
1 foot thick. The annexed figure 
(174) gives an idea of the form and 
relation of these walls. The com 
plete circle A represents the wall 
around the fireplace, and B the semi 
circular outer wall, which was on the 
north side and originally may have been higher, as it reached the sur 
face of the ground. The little circles are two very smooth circular 
appendages or lumps of burnt clay on the wall. Close to this fireplace 
were two broken dishes mixed with the burnt clay. 




Fio. 174. Fireplace in iiiouml, Laudenlale, Tenn. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



279 



OBION COUNTY. 



RKKLFOOT LAKE MOUNDS. 



Around Reelfoot lake are several groups of mounds, mostly of small 
size. About half a mile southwest of Idlewilde four low mounds, not 
exceeding 2 feet in height, were examined. Below the top soil was a 
layer several inches thick of ashes and charcoal, in which were mussel 
shells, bones of birds, fishes, and quadrupeds; also, stone implements 
and fragments of pottery, but no burnt clay. 

At the crossing, on the northwest bor 
der, another group of somewhat larger 
mounds was visited, but only one could 
be opened; it was composed entirely of 
clay and contained no relics. 

A small group on Grassy island was 
also examined. One of these, circular in 
form and 8 feet high, was thoroughly ex 
plored, yielding a rich return for the labor 
spent upon it. It consisted chiefly of 
dark vegetable mold without any indica 
tions of layers. Fifteen skeletons were 
unearthed; eight of them were unac 
companied by anything except ashes and 
charcoal. By the others, vessels and im 
plements were discovered as follows: 
By one, a stone spade and two pots ; by 
another, two pots ; by another, a drinking 
vessel in the form of a kneeling female, 
shown in Fig. 175, and two pots, one in 
side of the other; by the fourth, three pots; and by three others, one 
pot each. Another vessel was found embedded in a mass of ashes 2 
feet thick, in which were also bird, fish, and quadruped bones, more or 
less charred. Several stone implements were also found scattered 
through the mound. 

Another mound of this group, 6 feet high, was excavated and found 
to consist entirely of sandy loam. Nothing was discovered in it. 

Two other mounds on the opposite shore of the lake, conical in form 
and about 7 feet high, yielded a similar result. 




FIG. 175. Imago vessel from mound, 
Obion county, Tennessee. 



KENTUCKY. 

While nearly all of southeastern Missouri below Cairo is level and 
subject to overflow during great floods, the bottoms on the Kentucky 
side opposite are usually narrow and the river skirted or directly 
flanked by bluffs, mainly of yellow clay, rising from 100 to 400 feet 
above it. These are cut by many creeks and rivulets, thus forming 



280 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



numerous headlands, easily rendered defensible, a number of which are 
occupied by ancient earthworks. Of the five of these visited the most 
interesting is in Hickman county, about 3 miles west of Oakton, and 
known locally as O Byam s Fort. 




Fio. 176. O Byam s fort, Hickman county, Kentucky. 

This work, illustrated in Fig. 176, is, as is usual in this region, upon 
the best position for defense in that immediate section, being located on 
the extreme point of a bluff some 50 feet high and almost vertical at 
its southern end. It consists of an inclosing wall and ditch, mounds, 
excavations, and hut rings. 

The length of the wall and ditch from a around to />, following the 



THOMAS.] 



KENTUCKY. 



281 



irregular curve, is very nearly 600 paces, or about 1,800 feet. There is 
no wall along the steep bluff facing east and south. Of these outlines the 
southern end is so steep as to render ascent impracticable ; the eastern 
slope is almost equally so 5 the northern line was well defended by em 
bankment and ditch, and for the remainder of the circuit the embank 
ment follows the edge of the high bottom, including in the line the iso 
lated hillock c. Mound 3, in the extreme southeast corner, is in a fine 
position for observation and to prevent any attempted ascent at this 
corner, the most accessible point on the un walled line of the bluffs. 

The best, if not the only, ford of O Byani s creek in this vicinity is a 
rock or gravel bar where the road crosses at the lower end of the 
bluff. 

In the plan of these works (Fig. 176), 1, 2, and 3 are mounds within 
the inclosure and 4 a mound outside; c, a natural mound or little hil 
lock; d, a cemetery, and e e e e e excavations. The small circles, which 
continue northward 
beyond the wall, are 
small saucer- shaped 
depressions marking 
the sites of ancient 
dwellings. 

Mound No. 1, as 
shown upon the plan 
of the works, extends 
fully halfway across 
a narrow portion of 
the bluff, and is a 

true flat-topped or truncated mound (Fig. 177) in all respects similar in 
appearance to and possibly of the same age and built by the same peo 
ple as those across the Mississippi, which are now the only refuge of 
white men and their stock during floods. But as this and the other 
mounds on this side of the river are on high places, beyond the reach 
of the greatest flood, the object in view in building them could not have 
been to escape inundation. 

It is very nearly a true circle 78 feet in diameter on the top and so 
steep on all sides that, although 23 feet high, it has a base of only 125 
feet and has been covered and surrounded by a heavy growth of oak, 
ash, and other timber. It stands on the margin of the upper level. 
A number of white persons have been buried on the summit, so that 
en tensive explorations could not be made; nevertheless enough was 
ascertained to prove it to be composed chiefly of yellow clay, but in 
successive layers and containing fire-beds of clay burnt to a brick-red 
color. These fire-beds differed from those usually seen, in that, while 
some were made of irregularly shaped little masses, approximately the 
size of an ordinary brick, and well burned before being laid down, each 
mass leaving an impression in the earth when removed, others were red 




FIG. 177. Mound No. 1, O Byam s fort. 



282 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

upon the top only, the color gradually diminishing toward the under 
side as though burned by long-continued fires. The masses were proba 
bly the broken plastering of upright walls, while the other layers 
were parts of the hard clay floor. Charcoal, ashes, and the charred 
bones of animals were found with these fire-beds. 

HUT RINGS. 

With the exception of a small open court south of No. 1 the entire 
area of that portion of the inclosure or fort upon the bluff, much of 
the bottom, and also of the adjacent bluffs on the north and east, are 
literally covered by these small, circular depressions surrounded by 
earthen rings, indicating a considerable population. 

Pits were dug in many of these, but only the usual fire-beds, 
charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, broken animal bones, and rude 
stone implements were found. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

The excavations for the mounds in this place are within the inclo 
sure and on the side of the bluff , those near mound No. 1 being as 
clearly defined and as unmistakable as though but of recent date. 

CEMETERY. 

Mound No. 2 is said to have been once used for burial purposes, 
but the skeletons and accompanying relics have been removed to 
make place for graves of modern times. At d, near mound 3, was 
found a small elevation, less than 30 feet square, which had not been 
disturbed, and proved to be a true ancient cemetery. There was but 
one tier of skeletons in it, at the depth of 2 feet from the surface. Only 
11 were found, lying in all directions and without any apparent sys 
tern, except that they were not doubled upon each other. All 
seemed to be skeletons of adults. Some vessels were with them, but 
never more than one with a skeleton. Among the specimens discov 
ered here was a clay rubber or muller. 

Mound No. 2 is oblong, 80 by 50 feet and 5 feet high. No. 3, nearly 
round, 50 by 40 feet and 4 feet high, was opened, but nothing was found 
in it. No. 4, circular, 60 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was opened 
and found to be composed of yellow clay and soil mixed; no relics or 
specimens in it. 

On what are known as McCard s bluffs, 3 miles below O Byam s Fort, 
is another group of low mounds, fire-beds, fragments of stone imple 
ments, broken pottery, and other evidences of an ancient village, but 
there is no inclosing wall. 

PECULIAR CONICAL MOUNDS. 

Here and there among the ancient works of this region are certain 
conical mounds, sometimes in groups or irregular lines and on the high 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 283 

ridges, which differ so materially from those already mentioned as to 
lead to the belief that they are the work of a different people. They 
range in size from 30 to 80 feet in diameter and from 4 to 10 feet in 
height, but are all true circular mounds and more than usually sym 
metrical in form. By excavations made in them it was ascertained 
that they are composed almost entirely of tine, soft, molding sand, uii- 
stratified and without any intermixture of clay or other material; nor 
were there any fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, or vestiges of art, or indica 
tions of burial in them, save here and there an occasional rude stone 
scraper. 

While the material of the other mounds of this region is evidently 
from the earth immediately about them, these circular mounds are 
formed of a very fine molding sand from some unknown source. 

A few mounds were observed in Ballard county about 5 miles above 
Cairo, but no special examination of them was made. 



ALABAMA. 
LAUDERDALE COUNTY. 

This, the extreme northwestern county of the state, is bounded along 
its entire southern margin by the Tennessee river. The works described 
are situated on or near the north bank of this river. 

STAFFORD MOUND. 

This is an elongate oval mound, located a little over a mile south 
of Florence on the farm of Mr. S. C. Stafford, some 35 or 40 yards from 
the river bank. It is 8 feet high, flat on top, the length on top, north 
and south, 85 feet, and at the base about 125 feet; width about half 
the length. 

A trench 10 feet wide and 15 feet long was dug in the northern end, 
the remainder of the upper portion having been much disturbed. When 
the trench had been extended southward the distance of 15 feet a layer 
of burnt clay was encountered at the depth of 2 feet, the 2-foot layer 
above it consisting of sandy soil. Immediately under the clay was a 
layer of ashes. Immediately under this was the much-decayed skele 
ton of a half-grown person lying on its side. Alt the back of the head 
was a wide-necked, bottle-shaped water vessel, tipped sidewise; by the 
side of it lay a stone disk which had apparently been used as a cover 
to the vessel. At each side of the head stood a small pot. Here 
the clay layer was between 4 and 5 inches thick and below this was a 
layer of ashes and charcoal 3 inches thick. The charcoal in this layer 
was burned from small sticks and brush. A few inches from the head 
of the skeleton mentioned was a piece of charred wood firmly fixed in 
the earth, apparently the remains of a post. A few inches from the 
skeleton at the outer edge of the burnt clay, on the east side, were 



284 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

pieces of pottery somewhat resembling tile. The soil being removed, 
it was found that the clay bed and layer of ashes gave out toward the 
northwest, at the end of 7J feet in this direction. About 4 feet south 
of the skeleton mentioned was a hearth of burnt clay, on which was a 
thick layer of ashes. This hearth was in the form of an irregular 
square, 2J feet in diameter and 2 inches thick ; near by were a few 
fresh-water shells. A few inches over 7 feet south of the skeleton and 
at the same depth the much-decayed skeleton of a child, face down 
and head northward, with a pot at each side of the head. Here was 
another corner of the clay bed. By working westward along the edge 
for the distance of a little over 7 feet another skeleton was found nearly 
turned to dust; by it was only one pot, and near it another fireplace 
like the one before described. All the corners of what appeared to 
have been the floor of a house were worked out; then the middle of 
the square, which contained nothing but the top soil, the clay bed, and 
ash layer were removed to the sandy loam of the base. When the 
trench had been extended southward to a point about 32 feet from the 
south end a layer of burnt cane 2J feet below the surface of the mound, 
but little more than an inch thick, was discovered, covering an area 
about 6 feet in diameter. The canes were in very small pieces. Near 
the middle of the mound, at the depth of 8 feet and apparently on the 
original surface of the ground, was a burnt-clay hearth or fireplace, 
about 2J feet in diameter, circular in form, and covered with a layer 
of ashes. Two cylindrical pieces of charcoal about 3 inches in diameter 
were found in the earth just outside of the fireplace on the west side, 
probably the remains of posts. Twenty feet from the south end, at the 
depth of 6J feet, was a layer of ashes, charred grass, and sticks, about 

2 inches thick and covering a circular space about 6 feet in diameter. 
Scattered through the earth of the mound were fragments of pottery, 
animal bones, flint chips, and a few stone implements. The mound is 
overflowed by the greater freshets of the Tennessee river. 

DOUGLASS MOUNDS. 

Near lock No. 10 of the Mussel Shoals canal survey, about 12 miles 
east of Florence, are two mounds on the Douglass farm. They are 
about half a mile from the river on an elevated hill overlooking the 
valley. The two are about 50 feet apart, each 30 or 35 feet in diameter, 

3 feet high, and composed throughout of red clay, which extends some 
what below the original surface of the ground. Here and there just 
below the surface of one were rude flint hoes, arrow points, and lance 
heads; near the surface of the other were four large rude stone imple 
ments. No skeletons, burnt clay, ashes, or charcoal were found in 
either. 

The country immediately about the Mussel Shoals was occupied by 
Cherokees when the first whites settled here. This area has long been 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 285 

noted for the number of worked and partially worked flint implements 
which have been found scattered over it. As the stone from which 
they are manufactured is found at this place, this will doubtless 
account for their abundance here. 

MADISON COUNTY. 

Near Whitesburg, on the north bank of the Tennessee river, is a long, 
narrow shell heap, between 400 and 500 yards in length and about 3 or 
4 feet high ; at present it is only a few yards in width, but was probably 
wider in former times, as a portion on the river side appears to have 
been carried away by the freshets. 

The residents of the place say that many skeletons, stone implements, 
and pottery vessels have been washed out of it. Three badly decayed 
skeletons were found at one point about 18 inches below the surface; 
near by were ashes and some broken stones, as though marking the 
site of a temporary fireplace or camp fire. A thick layer of shells cov 
ered these skeletons. Another skeleton was discovered at the depth 
of 3 feet, and near it ashes and broken stones, as in the other case; a 
third lay only 6 or 8 inches below the surface; a fourth near the river 
had been partly washed away; a broken pot stood by the side of it. 

Numerous pieces of pottery, arrowheads, stone implements, and a 
copper bead were scattered among the mussel shells. Not only has 
this bank been disturbed by floods, but at one time large buildings 
stood on it, which were carried away by high water. 

The fact that a portion of the shells forming this heap bear the marks 
of fire suggested the thought that they had been heated by the Indians 
to compel them to open. A great number of split, water- worn stones 
were scattered through the bank to the depth of 3 feet, sometimes 
loosely and without order, but frequently in such relation as to indicate 
an intentional arrangement; in this case they Avere accompanied by 
ashes, as though marking the places where fires had been built for 
cooking purposes. 

MARSHALL COUNTY. 

About 1 mile west of Guntersville is a cave known as Hampton cave. 
Its floor is covered to the depth of 4 feet with fragments of human 
bones, earth, ashes, and broken stones. This fragmentary condition of 
the deposits is chiefly due to the fact that they have been repeatedly 
turned over by treasure-hunters. Much of this deposit has been hauled 
away in sacks for fertilizing the land. The number of dead deposited 
here must have been very great, for, notwithstanding so much has 
been removed, there is yet a depth of 4 feet, chiefly of broken human 
hones. A fine specimen of the copper, spool- shaped ornament sup 
posed to have been worn in the ear was obtained here by Mr. James 
P, Whitman, who kindly presented it to the bureau. 



286 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

BLOUNT COUNTY. 

A cave in this county containing human remains is worthy of notice. 
The remains in this case Avere deposited in troughs, or canoe-shaped 
coffins, differing in this respect from any that have been mentioned. 
This, which is known as Cramp s cave, is 15 miles south of Blountville. 
In the back part is a large crevice, where it is stated the bodies were 
deposited in the coffins. The place is certainly well adapted for secur 
ity from wild animals, as a few stones would suffice to close this room 
or crevice ; moreover, it is much the driest portion of the cave. Per 
sons who saw the remains at the time they were found state that they 
were in a good state of preservation ; that the troughs were covered 
with matting made of bark or cane and bound around with withes or 
bark. Among the things found with them were wooden bowls and 
trays. Portions of one or two of these troughs were forwarded to and 
received by the Smithsonian Institution. Although the place had been 
thoroughly worked over the Bureau agent succeeded, after careful 
search, in finding part of a wooden bowl and some pieces of a trough. 
The troughs or coffins were evidently sections of hollow trees or had 
been hollowed out. 

SUMTER COUNTY. 
CEDAR HUMMOCK GROUP. 

Iii Sec. 5, T. 17 N., II. 1 E., of Stephen s meridian, in what is known 
locally as " Cedar hummock," with a creek 011 the west and a slough on 
the east, is a group of seven mounds. The hummock land on which 
they stand is about 10 feet above low water. The mounds are circular, 
from 35 to 50 feet in diameter and from 2 to 4 feet high. The brown 
sand of which they are chiefly composed has been taken from the soil 
immediately around them, leaving depressions which are yet distinct. 

In one of the three smaller mounds, at the depth of 2 feet, a small 
quantity of ashes was found, and with them fragments of animal bones ; 
with these exceptions, nothing but the brown sand was observed in the 
smaller mounds. 

In one of the four larger, at the depth of one foot, was a single skeleton, 
and by the thigh a stone implement; in another, at the depth of 3 feet, 
was a single skeleton resting on a thin layer of charcoal and ashes, and 
by it a few pieces of broken pottery; the third presented precisely the 
same particulars as the second; in the fourth, at the depth of 2 feet, 
lay a single skeleton. 

These skeletons were invariably in the center of the mound, lying at 
full length, but the heads in different directions, one toward the south 
west, another toward the northeast, and two toward the northwest. 

ELMORE COUNTY. 

Six miles north of Montgomery is Jackson lake, in which there is an 
island surmounted, on one side, by a mound of considerable size. This 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 287 

island is subject to overflow, but the top of the mound stands at all 
times high above the water. The length of the upper surface along 
the lake side is 130 feet; on this side the height, measuring down the 
steep slope, is 50 feet, while on the opposite side it is but 12 feet 
perpendicular. Growing on the upper surface are some large trees, 
among which are two poplars (tulip), one 3J and the other 4J feet in 
diameter, and a pine 3 feet in diameter. 

A pit 8 feet square sunk in the center through sandy soil, reached, 
at the depth of 5 feet, a quantity of ashes, near which were four skulls; 
two 011 each side. The larger bones of the four skeletons appear to 
have been laid across each other very irregularly. With these remains 
were some shell beads, shell pins, and a piece of copper. Some frag 
ments of pottery were scattered through the earth covering the bodies. 

MOUNDS AND HOUSE REMAINS NEAR COOSA RIVER. 

On the west bank of the Coosa river, about a mile above where it is 
joined by the Tallapoosa, are numerous evidences of a former aborigi 
nal village. These consist of fire beds marking the location of houses 
or wigwams, human remains, animal bones, fragments of pottery, etc. 
Many of these remains have been brought to light by the falling away 
of the bank occasioned by the encroachment of the river. 

The adjoining field not being plowed to the river bank leaves a strip 
of land undisturbed, in which the indications of dwellings, consisting 
chiefly of clay or fire-beds, usually about 5 feet across, and ashes, are 
most apparent. 

The first one of these examined was about a foot below the surface. 
Here, in the earth and ashes, were numerous pieces of pottery, mostly 
parts of a very flat dish of unusual form, many mussel shells, animal 
bones, piece of a gun barrel, a glass bead, iron nails, knife blade, pieces 
of brass, and copper ornaments. It is evident, therefore, that this is the 
site of a comparatively modern Indian village. 

The second was some 30 feet from the first and 18 inches below the 
surface. This, being at the bank, was partly washed away, only a part 
of a fire-bed and of a skeleton being left. On the one arm bone that 
remained was a brass bracelet made of drawn wire. This skeleton lay 
near the ashes, as usual. 

A third and fourth were also examined with similar results, charred 
cobs and corn, pieces of pottery, animal bones, brass bracelets, etc., 
being found. There are no mounds here. 



PARKER MOUNDS. 



These are situated on the bank of the Coosa river, near its junction 
with the Tallapoosa. 

One of them, about 50 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, which had 
been plowed over for years, contained two skeletons, which lay at the 
depth of less than a foot below the surface and about 5 feet apart, one 



288 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

with the head south and the other with the head west. On the breast 
of the smaller, which was that of a child, lay a small shell gorget; with 
the other were several bone implements. The mound throughout was 
composed of sand mixed with ashes. 

The other mound, some 400 yards southwest of the first, is about 60 
feet in diameter and 8 feet high. The first two feet from the top were 
chiefly sand, the remainder, to the bottom, clay. No ashes, coals, ves 
tiges of art, or bones were found in it. 

OLD FORT JACKSON WORKS. 

These are also near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers 
and mark the site of one of the oldest Creek towns of which we have 
any account. It is also the site of a victory gained by Gen. Jackson 
over these Indians. It was here that the old French fort, Toulouse, 
stood. After its abandonment and decay, Fort Jackson was built on 
the same spot. The banks of both rivers are caving in rapidly, so that 
now the space between them does not exceed 300 yards; in fact, most 
of the site of the fort has been washed away. The mound still remains 
and also some of the old house sites, supposed to be the % ,vork of the 
Creek Indians. 

The earth to the north, south, and east of the mound was found upon 
examination to be full of fire-beds or remains of houses, and the same was 
probably true of the western area, which has been washed away. 

At the west end the mound is 125 feet across and nearly or quite 45 
feet high; the east side is lower, and has a long slope extending about 
95 feet to the base. It has been examined at various times by curiosity- 
hunters, and several articles of European manufacture obtained. As 
the owner was absent during the visit of the Bureau agent, permission 
to make further exploration in it was refused. 

To the southeast and north is a field of three acres, which has been 
cultivated for many years and is thickly strewn over with fragments of 
pottery, charcoal, pieces of human bones, mussel shells, and fragments 
of burnt clay, evidently turned up from the fire beds or house remains 
which lie below the surface. A few, however, were discovered which 
lay below the reach of the plow. One of these was found undis 
turbed at the depth of 3 feet below the surface. Here was a much de 
cayed skeleton lying at full length with the head toward the west; and 
by it stood a large earthen pot, in which were a few shell beads, and 
a mussel shell. A quantity of ashes also lay near the head. At 
another point, 2 feet below the surface, probably marking the site of 
another house, there was a layer of ashes 1 foot thick, in and near which 
were fragments of pottery, animal bones (deer and fish), and mussel 
shells. Another of these remains, at the depth of 3 feet, was marked 
by a similar pile of ashes, by which lay a skeleton with the head toward 
the east. Near it w r as a brass kettle containing glass beads, brass 
buckles, brass rings made from wire, and bell buttons. Another, one 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 289 

foot below the surface, yielded arrowheads, celts, stone disks, pottery 
disks, smoothing- stones, fragments of clay pipes, long shell beads, and 
small glass beads. Among the ruins of another, 18 inches below the 
surface, was a single skeleton with the head west; near it, on one side 
a pile of ashes, and on the other two large pots, one over the other, and 
in the lower one some animal bones, fragments of a turtle shell, mussel 
shells, and shell beads ; here were also found two shell gorgets, four 
shell pins, some shell and glass beads mixed together, charred berries, 
shell spoons, charred seeds, lumps of blue coloring material, two celts, 
part of a brass plate, a bone punch, etc. At another point the remains 
presented the following series : After removing 10 inches of soil, a layer 
of burnt clay 5 inches thick was reached, then a clay hearth. This 
hearth was on a thick layer of ashes. The burnt-clay layers in these 
remains varied from 5 to 10 inches in thickness. In some they were 
entirely wanting, ashes only being present. 

CLARKE COUNTY. 

Four and a half miles east of Gaiuestown, on the north bank of the 
Alabama river, in Sec. 2, T. 5 N., E. 4 E. of Stephen s Meridian, is 
French s landing, the supposed site of old Fort Mauvilla. Not a ves 
tige of the old fort now remains and the mound that once stood here 
has been carried into the river, and the so-called " burying ground" 
has nearly all disappeared, a strip only about 20 feet wide remaining. 

At one place a foot below the surface in the break of the bank, where 
the wearing away is going on, were three skeletons in compact bundles, 
which must have been buried after the flesh had rotted off or been re 
moved from the bones. At another point, about 30 feet distant from 
those mentioned, were two other similar deposits at the same depth 
and arranged in the same way. Fragments of pottery occurred here 
and there in the soil. 

BARBOUR COUNTY. 

Tbe following and some of the previous notices are given simply be 
cause they may possibly aid in locating some of the old Indian villages. 

At the St. Francis bend of the Ohattahoochee river, 3 miles northeast 
of Eufaula, is an elevated bank of sandy soil on which it is said an old 
Creek town was once located. Although partially washed away by the 
river, there are sufficient remains of fire-beds, fragments of pottery, 
human bones, and stone implements to confirm the tradition. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

Nine miles southwest of the city of Montgomery and situated on the 

bank of the Alabama river is a group of five mounds. One of these, 

8 feet high and 50 feet in diameter, was composed entirely of clay, in 

which, at the depth of 2 feet, lay a single skeleton; no vestiges of 

12 ETH 19 



290 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

art with it. Another, considerably smaller, was composed wholly of 
brown sand, scattered through which were some fragments of pottery 
and broken animal bones. The third, about 60 feet in diameter and 
nearly 10 feet high, was covered to the depth of a foot with brown sand. 
The remainder was sharp, yellow, river sand; nothing was found in it. 
The fourth, which is slightly larger than the third, was covered with a 
layer of brown sand 18 inches thick, the remainder of clay to the base. 
In the clay, at the depth of 2 feet, lay a single skeleton. Nothing else 
was discovered. 

TALLADEGA COUNTY. 

Four miles southeast of Talladega is Cragdale, on the bank of Talla- 
dega creek, the site of a former Creek settlement. Dr. W. Taylor 
says that when he came to this place with his father, he being then 
but a boy, many of the Indian houses were still standing. He also 
says that it was a custom of these Indians to bury in the corners of 
their houses, not more than 18 inches or 2 feet below the floor ; that he 
had frequently examined these deposits and found with the bones shell 
beads, carved shell ornaments, pottery, and sometimes as many as 
three skeletons in a place, and occasionally as many as three corners 
thus occupied. He also says the Creeks frequently used mussel- shells 
for spoons. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Near Jonesboro is a small group of mounds on the plantation of Mr. 
N. D. Talley, Sec. 8, T. 19 S., E. 4 W., of the Huntsville meridian. The 
valley of the small creek that flows along the northern and eastern 
sides of the field in which the group is located is quite wide at this 
point, the round, knob-like hills which form its boundary standing at 
quite a distance from the mounds. 

The surface of the field immediately around the mounds is compara 
tively flat, pitching in a steep bank to the water, a few feet north of 
mound No. 1. (Fig. 178.) Northeast of this mound the surface has the 
appearance of having been dug or more probably washed out by the 
creek. East of mound 3 is what might be called the first bottom land, 
about 4 feet lower than the surface of the field. This point is above the 
overflow of the small creek, while farther down the valley the land is 
frequently inundated and had been under water a short time previous 
to examination. 

A plat of the group is given in Fig. 178. No. 1, is an oblong mound, 
measuring 30 feet east and A\ r est, and about 4 feet high at the highest 
point. A few small pine and hackberry trees have grown on the sides 
since it was built. It is made of the same red, sandy soil as that found 
in the field in which it stands. Only a few coals and a shovelful of 
ashes were found in it, which had probably been thrown there at the 
time it was built and may have been scraped up from the surface of 
the field with the rest of the material for the mound, but in hunting the 



ALABAMA. 



291 



field over for any specimen that might have been washed out or plowed 
up no ash beds were seen, nor did any of the tenants of the land remem 
ber plowing through such beds. 




w- 



\ 
/ 




/ 
\ 



FIG. 178. Plat of Tally mounds, Jefferson county, Alabama. 




PLAN, 




SfCT/OAf OAf UN 

FIG. 179. Mound No. 2, Tally group (plan and section). 

No. 2 (shown in Fig. 179) has the appearance of an oval platform 
with a small mound on one end of it. The longer diameter of the base 



292 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

of the platform is about 140 feet, the greatest width 100 feet, and the 
height 5 feet. The height of the upper mound, which is on the smaller 
end of the platform, is 7 feet, the diameter of the flattened top 30 feet. 
Its western slope is continuous with that of the platform. The figure 
shows the ground plan and the section through a b. The upper mound 
has been considerably torn up by treasure hunters, but scattered over 
the top was a large quantity of burnt clay, much of which bore the 
impression of a stamp made apparently of split cane. A trench length 
wise through the platform showed that the top layer consisted of 
4 feet of red,- sandy soil, evidently taken from the surface of the sur 
rounding field; the remainder, to the original surface of the ground, of 
pure river sand. The- upper mound was composed of sandy soil down 
to the platform, and hence it is reasonable to conclude that it was 
built at the same time the upper layer was placed on the platform. No 
bones, ashes, charcoal, or vestiges of art were observed in any part. 

No. 3 is a circular mound, about 110 feet in diameter at the base and 
60 feet across the top, which is flat; height, 8 feet. A trench across it 
through the center showed that it was constructed of sandy soil from 
the surrounding field. In the central portion, about half way down, 
was a layer of clear river sand 3 inches thick and about 5 feet in 
diameter. Nothing else was found in it. 



GEORGIA. 

The ancient works of this state, so far as known and examined, have 
been so thoroughly and ably described by Col. C. G. Jones, in his 
"Antiquities of the Southern Indians" and in his other works, that it is 
unnecessary to allude to any except such as received special attention 
by the Bureau of Ethnology. 

BARTOW COUNTY. 
ETOWAII GROUP. 

This deservedly celebrated group, situated close to the north bank of 
Etowah river, on the farm of Mr. G. H. Tumlin, 3 miles southeast of 
Cartersville, has been repeatedly described and figured; in fact, as I 
shall attempt hereafter to show, there is good reason for believing that 
it includes one of the mounds specially mentioned by the chroniclers of 
De Soto s expedition. 

As the group, its several works, and the relics which have been 
found in and about the mounds are of great archeological interest, and 
possibly furnish the key to some troublesome historical questions and 
archeological puzzles, I will give in this connection some of the descrip 
tions by other writers, that the reader may have all the facts before 
him and thus be enabled to draw his own conclusions in reference to the 
questions which are suggested by these remains. 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 293 

The first published notice of these works (unless they are referred to 
by the chroniclers of De Soto s expedition) is that by Rev. Elias Cor 
nelius/ and is as follows: 

I have l>ut one more article of curiosity to mention under this division. It is one 
of those artificial mounds which occur so frequently in the Avestern country. I have 
seen many of them and read of more, but never of one of such dimension as that 
which I am now to describe. 

It is situated in the interior of the Cherokee Nation, on the north side of the 
Etowee, vulgarly called the Hightower river, one of the branches of the Koosee. It 
stands upon a strip of alluvial land called river bottom. I visited it in company with 
eight Indian chiefs. The first object which excited attention was an excavation 
about 20 feet wide and in some parts 10 feet dep. Its course is nearly that of a 
semicircle, the extremities extending towards the river, which forms a small elbow. 
I had not time to examine it minutely. An Indian said it extended each way to the 
river, and had several nneXcavated parts, which served for passages to the area 
which it incloses. To my surprise I found no eubankmeut on either side of it. But 
I did not long doubt to Avhat place the earth had been remoA 7 ed ; for I had scarcely 
proceeded 200 yards when, through the thick forest trees, a stupenduous pile met 
the eye, whose dimensions were in full proportion to the intrenchment. I had at the 
time no means of taking an accurate admeasurement. To supply my deficiency 1 
cut a long A ine, which was preserved until I had an opportunity of ascertaining its 
exact length. In this manner I found the distance from the margin of the summit 
to the base to be 111 feet. And, judging from the degree of its declivity, the per 
pendicular height can not be less than 75 feet. The circumference of the base, 
including the feet of three parapets, measured 1,114 feet. One of these parapets 
extends from the base to the summit, and can be ascended, though with difficulty, 
on horseback. The other two, after rising 30 or 40 feet, terminate in a kind of 
triangular platform. Its top is level and, at the time I visited it, was so completely 
covered with weeds, bushes, and trees of most luxuriant growth that I could not 
examine it as well as I wished. Its diameter, I judged, must be 150 feet. On its 
sides and summit are many large trees of the same description and of equal dimen 
sions with those around it. One beech tree near the top measured 10 feet 9 inches in 
circumference. The earth on one side of the tree Avas 3 feet lower than on the 
opposite side. This fact \vill give a good idea of the degree of the mound s declivity. 
An oak, which was lying clown on one of the parapets, measured at the distance of 
6 feet from the butt, without the bark, 12 feet 4 inches in circumference. At a short 
distance to the southeast is another mound, in ascending which I took 30 steps. Its 
top is encircled by a breastwork 3 feet high, intersected through the middle Avith 
another elevation of a similar kind. A little farther is another mound, which I had 
not time to examine. 

On these great works of art the Indjaus gazed with as much curiosity as any white 
man. I inquired of the oldest chief if the natives had any tradition respecting them, 
to which he answered in the negative. I then requested each to say what he sup 
posed was their origin. Neither could tell, though all agreed in saying, " they were 
never put up by our people." It seems probable they were erected by another race 
who once inhabited the country. That such a race existed is now generally admitted . 
Who they were and what Avere the causes of their degeneracy or of their extermina 
tion no circumstances haA^e yet explained. But this is no reason why we should not, 
as in a hundred other instances, infer that existence of the cause from its effect, 
without any previous knowledge of its history. 

In regard to the objects which these mounds Avere designed to answer, it is ob 
vious they were not always the same. Some Avere intended as receptacles for the 
dead. These are small and are distinguished by containing human bones. Some 

1 Silliman s American Journal of Science and Art, 1st Ser., Vol. i (1818), pp. 322-324. 



294 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



may have been designed as sites for public buildings, whether of a civil or religious 
kind, and others no doubt were constructed for the purposes of war. Of this last 
description is the Etowee mound. In proof of its suitableness for such a purpose I 
need only mention that the Cherokees, in their late wars with the Creeks, secured 
its smmmit by pickets and occupied it as a place of protection for hundreds of their 
women and children. Gladly would I have spent a day in examing it more minutely, 

but my companions, 
unable to appreciate 
my motives, grew im 
patient, and I was 
obliged to withdraw 
and leave a more per 
fect observation and 
description to some 
one else. 

This account is 
particularly valu 
able, as it relates 
to the condition 
and appearance of 
these works before 
they were dis 
turbed by the 
plow. We also 
find in this ac 
count some items 
of interest which 
had disappeared 
before the works 
were visited and 
described by the 
more modern ob 
servers. 

The description 
by Col. O.C.Jones 1 
is the best we find 
hitherto pub 
lished. I there 
fore give it here in 
full, together with 
a reproduction of 
his illustration 
(Fig. 180): 




FIG. 180. Plat ot Etowah group, copy of Jones s plat No. 1. 



Viewed as a whole, this group is the most remarkable within the confines of this 
state. These mounds are situated in the midst of a beautiful and fertile valley. 
They occupy a central position in an area of some 50 acres, bounded on the south and 
east by the Etowah river, and on the north and west by a large ditch or artificial 



Antiquities of the Southern Indians, p. 136. 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 295 

canal, which at its lower end communicates directly with the river. This moat (G 
G, PI. i), at present, varies in depth from 5 to 25 feet, and in width from 20 to 75 feet. 
No parapets or earth walls appear upon its edges. Along its line are two reservoirs 
(D D) of about an acre each, possessing an average depth of not less than 20 feet, 
and its upper end expands into an artificial pond ( P) elliptical in form and somewhat 
deeper than the excavations mentioned. 

Within the inclosure formed by this moat and the river are seven mounds. Three 
of them are preeminent in size, the one designated in the accompanying plan (PI. i) 
by the letter A far surpassing the others both in its proportions and in the degree 
of interest which attaches to it. 

To the eye of the observer, as it rests for the first time upon its towering form, it 
seems a monument of the past ages, venerable in its antiquity, solemn, silent, and 
yet not voiceless a remarkable exhibition of the power and industry of a former 
race. With its erection, the modern hunter tribes, so far as our information extends, 
had naught to do. Composed of earth, simple, yet impressive in form, it seems cal 
culated for an almost endless duration. The soil, gravel, and smaller stones taken 
from the moat and the reservoirs were expended in the construction of these tumuli. 
The surface of the ground, for a considerable distance around the northern bases, 
was then removed and placed upon their summits. Viewed from the north, the val 
ley dips toward the mounds so that they appear to lift themselves from out a basin. 

The central tumulus rises about 65 feet above the level of the valley. It is en 
tirely artificial, consisting wholly of the earth taken from the moat and the excava 
tions, in connection with the soil collected around its base. It has received no 
assistance whatever from any natural hill or elevation. 

In general outline it may be regarded as quadrangular, if we disregard a slight 
angle to the south. That taken into account, its form is pentagonal, with summit 
admeasurements as follows : Length of the northern side, 150 feet ; length of eastern 
side, 160 feet ; Length of southeastern side, 100 feet ; length of southern side, 90 feet, 
and length of western side, 100 feet. Measured east and west, its longest apex dia 
meter is 225 feet ; measured north and south it falls a little short, being about 220 
feet. On its summit this tumulus is nearly level. Shorn of the luxuriant vegetation 
and tall forest trees, which at one time crowned it on every side, the outlines of this 
mound stand in bold relief. Its angles are still sharply defined. The established 
approach to the top is from the east. Its ascent was accomplished through the in 
tervention of terraces rising one above the other inclined planes leading from the 
one to the other. These terraces are 65 feet in width, and extend from the mound 
toward the southeast. Near the eastern angle, a pathway leads to the top ; but it 
does not appear to have been intended for very general use. May it not have been 
designed for the priesthood alone, while assembled upon the broad terraces the wor 
shipers gave solemn heed to the religious ceremonies performed upon the eastern 
summit of this ancient temple? 

East of this large central mound and so near that their flanks meet and mingle 
stands a smaller mound, about 35 feet high, originally quadrangular, now nearly 
circular in form, and with a summit diameter of 100 feet. From its western slope is 
an easy and immediate communication with the terraces of the central tumulus. 
This mound is designated in the accompanying plate by the letter B. Two hundred 
and fifty feet in a westerly direction from this mound, and distant some 60 feet in a 
southerly direction from it, is the third (C) and the last of this immediate group. 
Pentagonal in form, it possesses an altitude of 23 feet. It is uniformly level at the 
top, and its apex diameters, measured at right angles, were, respectively, 92 and 
68 feet. 

East of this group, and within the inclosure, is a chain of four sepulchral mounds, 
(F F F F), ovoidal in shape. Little individual interest attaches to them. Nothing, 
aside from their location in the vicinity of these larger tumuli and their being within 
the area formed by the canal and the river, distinguishes them from numerous earth 



296 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



mounds scattered here and there through the length and breadth of theEtowah and 
Oosteuaula valleys. 

The artificial elevation E, lying northwest of the central group, is remarkable for 
its superficial area, and is completely surrounded by the moat which at that point 
divides with a view to its iuclosure. The slope of the sides of these tumuli is just 
such as would be assumed by gradual accretions of earth successively deposited in 
small quantities from above. 

The summits of those mounds, and the circumjacent valley for miles, have been 
completely denuded of the original growth which overspread them in rich profusion. 
The consequence is, these remarkable remains can be readily and carefully noted. 

Without commenting at present upon this description, I give Col. 
Charles Wliittlesey s account as found in the Smithsonian Report for 
1881, together with his illustration No. 1. (See Fig. 181.) 




FIG. 181. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Whittlesey a figure No. 1. 
THE GREAT MOUND ON THE ETOWAH KIVEK, GEORGIA. 

Not having seen, a detailed description of this mound I made a visit to it in behalf 
of the Western Reserve Historical Society, in May, 1871. It stands upon the north 
bank of the Etowah. about 2 miles below where it is crossed by the Chattanooga and 
Atlanta railway, near Cartersville. Its form, size, and elevation are singular and 
imposing. It occupies the easterly point or angle of a large and luxuriant river 
bottom, a part of which is subject to inundations. The soil is a deep, rich, black 
loam covering several hundred acres, which has been cultivated in corn and cotton 
since the Cherokees left it, about forty years since. 

I was compelled, by bad weather, to make the survey in haste. The bearings were 
taken with a prismatic compass, the distances measured by pacing, and the elevations 
obtained with a pocket level. They are, therefore, subject to the corrections of future 
surveyors. Its base covers a space of about 3 acres, and stands at a level of 23 feet 
above low water in the river. In great floods the water approaches near the mound 
on the west, but has not been known to reach it. The body of the mound has an 
irregular figure, as shown in the plan. It is longest on the meridian, its diameter in 



1 Pp. 624-627. 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 297 

that direction being about 270 feet. On the top is a nearly level area of about an 
acre, the average height of which is 50 feet above the base. A broad ramp or graded 
way (1) winds upward from the plain, around the south face of the mound, to the area 
on the top. 

Like some of the pyramids of Egypt it has two smaller ones as tenders : one on 
the south, C ; another to the southeast, B ; each about 100 feet distant, their bases 
nearly square, and of nearly equal dimensions. If they were not in the shadow of 
the great mound they would attract attention for their size and regularity. The 
ground at B is 3 feet higher than at C. All of them are truncated. The mound C 
is not a perfectly regular figure, but approaches a square with one side broken into 
three lines. Its height above base is 18 feet. The bearing of its western side is 
north 10 degrees west, and the length on the ground 47 paces, having been somewhat 
spread out by plowing around the foot. On the east is a ramp, with a slope of 1 to 
2 degrees, which allows of ready ascent by persons on foot. 

The slopes of all the mounds are very steep and quite perfect, in some places still 
standing at an angle of 45 degrees. B is a regular truncated pyramid, with a square 
base about 106 feet on a side, two of the faces bearing 5 degrees west of the merid 
ian. Its elevation is 22 feet. There is no ramp or place of ascent which is less steep 
than the general slopes. Towards the southeast corner of the surface of B is a 
sunken place, as though a vault had fallen in. 

The proprietor has managed to cultivate the summits of all the mounds, regarding 
the group in the light of a continual injury by the loss of several acres of ground. 
Most of the material of the mounds is the rich black mold of the bottom land, with 
occasional lumps of red clay. The soil on their sides and summits produces corn, 
cotton, grass, vines, and bushes in full luxuriance. The perimeter of the base of the 
great mound is 534 paces. As the groiind had been recently plowed and was soaked 
with a deluge of rain, a pace will represent little more than 2 feet. I give the cir 
cumference provisionally at 370 yards. The area on the top is like the base, oblong 
north and south, but its figure is more regular. Its perimeter is 231 paces. 

From the center of the pyramid C a line on the magnetic meridian passes a few 
feet to the west of the center of the platform on the summit of A. Its sides are 
nowhere washed or gullied by rains. Prior to the clearing of the land, large trees 
nourished on the top and on the slopes. I estimate its mass to contain 117,000 cubic 
yards, which is about four-fifths of the Prussian earth-monument on the field of 
Waterloo. 

At the base the ramp is 50 feet broad, growing narrower as you ascend. It curves 
to the right, and reaches the area on the top near its southwest corner. Twenty- 
five years since, before it was injured by cultivation, visitors could easily ride to 
the summit on horseback along the ramp. From this spot the view of the rich valley 
of the Etowah towards the west, and of the picturesque hills which border it on 
either side, is one of surpassing beauty. 

About 300 yards to the north rises the second terrace of the valley, composed of 
red clay and gravel. Near the foot of it are the remains of a ditch, inclosing this 
group of mounds in an arc of a circle, at a distance of about 200 yards. The western 
end rests on the river, below the mounds, into which the high waters back up a con 
siderable distance. 

It has been principally filled up by cultivation. The owner of the premises says 
there was originally an embankment along the edge of the ditch on the side of the 
pyramids, but other old settlers say there was none. If the last statement is cor 
rect, a part of the earth composing the mounds can be accounted for by the ditch. 

Its length is about one-fourth of a mile, and it does not extend to the river, above 
the mounds. Near the upper end are two oblong, irregular pits, 12 to 15 feet deep, 
from which a part of the earth of the mounds may have been taken. The diameter 
of the pits varies from 150 to 200 feet, and the breadth from 60 to 70. The ditch is 
reputed to have been 30 feet wide and 10 feet deep. Two hundred yards to the 



298 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

northeast of A are the remains of four low mounds within the ditch near the large 
pits. Five hundred yards to the northwest, on the edge of the second terrace, is a 
mound which is yet 8 feet high, although it has been industriously plowed over 
more than thirty years. 

The place chosen by the mound-builders in this case for the location 
of their village is, as usual, one adapted to easy cultivation and withal 
one of real beauty. 

The river, which reaches the base of the hills above and below, here 
makes a bend to the south, while the line of hills curves toward the 
north, leaving a broad, fertile bottom some 3 miles long east and west 
and a mile or more in breadth. The mounds are visible from the hills 
throughout the entire circuit, rendering it easy to give notice of the 
approach of an enemy from any quarter on this side of the river. 

There is little doubt, therefore, that while one object in view in 
selecting this locality was to obtain land close at hand suitable for cul 
tivation, another was, as intimated by Rev. Elias Cornelius, security 
and means of defense against the attacks of enemies. The general plan 
of the works, from an examination and survey made in person, assisted 
by Mr. Eogan, in 1885, is given in Fig. 182. It will be seen from this 
figure that the works at present consist of a broad, surrounding ditch, 
flanked at two points by large excavations, six included and one out 
side mound, though it is apparent from the descriptions of previous 
visitors heretolore given and what is hereafter stated that these are not 
all the works which formed parts of this extensive village. 

The ditch, starting at n, on the east, 310 feet from the river and 1,140 
feet from the nearest point of the large mound, runs northwest, gradu 
ally curving westward and southward so as to form an almost complete 
semicircle, and striking the river below at p, about 870 feet from the 
nearest point of the large mound. The distance from m top direct is 
about 775 yards, and the length of the ditch from n to p, following the 
curve, about 1,060 yards. The greatest width of the area, that is, from 
the river to the margin of the large excavation r, is about 450 yards, 
the area inclosed being about 56 acres. Whether the ditch ever 
reached the river on the east can not be determined from present indi 
cations. There is still a slight depression, or swale, south of the termi 
nation, shown at n, but this does not reach the bank. Nevertheless, 
the plan of the works seems to require connection with the river at this 
point, and that this was the case may be assumed. It is probable that 
there was here a bridge or arrangement for crossing the ditch, and also 
that it was quite narrow here to prevent the too rapid influx of water 
from the river. A crossing point appears to have been at w, where the 
ditch enters the large reservoir or basin. The dotted lines in the plat 
(Fig. 182) along the break at i indicate the portion filled up by the pres 
ent and preceding owners in order to make a crossing for a road at 
this point. As it approaches the large excavation r, it suddenly ex 
pands and increases in depth, being at the cross section 1-2, 95 feet wide 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



VELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVI 







66-7 








PLAN OF THE LARGE MOUND ETOWAH GROUP. 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



299 



and 14 feet deep. At the point of connection with the excavation, w, it 
suddenly narrows to 12 or 14 feet, and the depth is not more than half 
of what it is a few feet above. It is evident that a dain was thrown 
across at this point, as some of the stones used were still in place when 
I examined it, and quite a number had fallen down into the large exca- 





Scale, 



FIG. 182. Plat of the Etowah group (original). 

vation. It is probable that this was connected with a fish-trap of some 
kind, and that advantage was also taken of the near approach of the 
sides to throw a wooden bridge across the ditch. 

The large excavation (r) embraces an area of about 3 acres; it is not 
uniform in depth ; in fact, a considerable portion of the central area is 



300 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

but slightly excavated and but little lower than the original surround 
ing surface; the remainder is about the same depth as the expanded 
portion of the ditch immediately above. The portion of the ditch ex 
tending from this basin to the outlet of the other, marked I, has never 
been plowed over and has suffered but little change from its original 
condition; here it is about 40 feet wide and 15 feet deep. The excava 
tion I is correctly represented in the figure; it is over 1 acres in extent 
and is 17 feet deep at the deepest point, the eastern side, where the 
bank or margin is almost perpendicular, a fact which seems to forbid 
the idea of great antiquity. The remainder of the ditch to the river 
has been plowed over and hence its sides are much worn down ; never 
theless the depth is some 8 or 10 feet, and the width at x y 68 feet. 
The distance from * to p is 1,070 feet. Its entrance to the river has 
been closed by the present owner to keep out the backwater. There 
are no indications at any point that there ever was an embankment on 
either side, the material taken out having doubtless been used in build 
ing the mounds. East and north of the large mound is a considerable 
depression from which, in all probability, additional material was ob- 




FIG. 183. Large mound of the Etowah group. 

tained. The outer margin of this depression is indicated by the shaded 
line. As the small mounds d, e, and / are in this depression, it is prob 
able they were built subsequent to the construction of the larger ones. 

The large mound, a. This is truly a grand and remarkable structure, 
being exceeded in size in the United States, judging by the cubical 
contents, only by the great Cahokia mound. All the descriptions of it 
which 1 have seen fail to note the important fact -that the broad road 
way which ascends it on the south side does not reach the top, falling 
short in this respect by 20 feet perpendicular and about 30 feet slant 
height. This fact is apparent from the views of it given in our Fig. 
183 and PI. XV, the latter from a photograph. 

A careful survey of it was made in 1884 by Mr. Victor Mindeleff for 
the purpose of preparing a model for the Exposition at New Orleans. 
A plat drawn to an exact scale, with heights, measuremei_ts, etc., is 
given in PI. xvi. From this it will be seen that the highest point, c, 
is G6J feet, assuming the northwest corner, which is Mr. Mindelefl s 
zero, as the base. But from personal inspection and what has been 
discovered in regard to the other two mounds near it, I am satisfied the 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 301 

original surface of the ground was somewhat higher than that around 
it to the north and east as it now appears. The level at the southwest, 
which is 3 feet higher than the northwest corner, is probably very near 
that of the original surface of the ground. Assuming this as the base, 
and taking the average of the heights of the top, the true elevation is 
found to be 61 feet. The length of the slope a little north of the south 
west corner, which is very steep, forming an angle of 45 degrees, is 86 
feet ; this gives within a few inches the same result as the preceding 
calculation. The slope here is considerably steeper than at any other 
point and indicates that the body of the mound is largely composed of 
clay, a question which could easily be determined by digging; but per 
mission to do this has not as yet been obtained. The longest diameter, 
including the roadway (a to &, PL xvi), is 380 feet; the diameter at 
right angles to this (from c to d) is 330 feet, and the area of the base a 
little less than 3 acres. The lengths of the sides of the top, which is 
somewhat quadrilateral, are as follows: From fc (northwest corner) to I 
(southwest corner), 180 feet; from I to m, 170 feet; from m to ?i, 176 
feet; and from n to fc, 164 feet; the offset &tp from the line connecting 
m and n is about 15 feet. The area of the top is, therefore, about seven- 
tenths of an acre. The length of the roadway along the slope from c 
to ft, Fig. 183), is 205 feet, the width varying from 37 to 56 feet; the 
height at its upper terminus (ft, Fig. 183) above the base is a few inches 
over 40 feet. There is at the upper terminus a level space which formed 
the uppermost of the terraces into which this roadway was originally 
divided, of which some indications yet remain. 

From these dimensions it is easy to calculate with approximate cer 
tainty the cubical contents of the mound, which we find to be, including 
the roadway, about 4,300,000 cubic feet, or 159,200 cubic yards. It 
therefore exceeds slightly in volume the entire wall of Fort Ancient, in 
Ohio, 1 and exceeds Col. Whittlesey s calculation by about 42,000 cubic 
yards. 

The ramp, or straight, steep roadway on the east, terminating at d 
(Fig. 183), is not very apparent at present, though it is evident that 
the slope here has been lengthened intentionally, and that an addition 
has been made to this side for some definite purpose; but it must have 
been too steep for any other purpose than descent. Possibly it was an 
earlier roadway than that on the south, which was abandoned and 
partially removed when the latter was built. 

Mound c. Although this mound is described by Col. Whittlesey as 
somewhat square, with aroadwayon the east side, I find theoutline to be 
more rounded and but slight indications of the eastward extension. 
The circumference of the base is 375 feet, and the average diameter of 
the nearly flat top exactly 60 feet ; the height, measured from the sur 
rounding surface of the ground, is about 18 feet, but the true height 

1 Science, vol. 8, 1886, p. 540. 



302 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



above the original surface was found, when it was excavated, to be 
only 15 feet. 

In excavating this mound Mr. Rogan, who did this part of the work, 
ran a trench 6 feet wide in from the south side, going through the hard 
clay slope until he struck the inner circle, whence he continued widen 
ing until he had gone over the entire area within the surrounding slope, 
carrying the excavation down at all points to the original surface. 

Continuing the excavation in this way until a complete exploration of 
the mound had been made, the construction was found to be as repre 
sented in Fig. 184, which shows a vertical section. The entire surround 
ing slope was of hard, tough, red clay, which could not have been 
obtained nearer than half a mile; the cylindrical core, 60 feet in diam 
eter, and extending down to the original surface of the ground, was 
composed of three horizontal layers, the bottom layer, No. 1, 10 feet 
thick, of rich, dark, and rather loose loam ; the next, No. 2, 4 feet 
thick, beaten (or tramped) clay, so tough and hard that it was diffi 
cult to penetrate it even with a pick ; and the uppermost, No. 3, of sand 
and surface soil, between 1 and 2 feet thick. 




FIG. 184. Vertical section of mound c, Etowah group. 

Nothing was found in the layer of clay, No. 2, except a rude clay 
pipe, some small shell beads, a piece of mica, and a chunkee stone. 
The burials were all in the lower layer (No. 1), of dark, rich loam, and 
chiefly in stone cists or coffins of the usual box shape, formed of stone 
slabs, and distributed horizontally, as shown in Fig. 185, which is a plan 
of this lower bed. 

Grave a, a stone sepulcher, 2 feet wide, 8 feet long, and 2 feet deep, 
was formed by placing steatite slabs on edge at the sides and ends, and 
others across the top. The bottom consisted simply of earth hardened 
by fire. It contained the remains of a* single skeleton, lying on its 
back, with the head east. The frame was heavy and about 7 feet long. 
The head rested on a thin copper plate ornamented with impressed 
figures; but the skull was crushed and the plate injured by fallen 
slabs. Under the copper were the remains of a skin of some kind, and 
under this coarse matting, apparently of split cane. The skin and 
matting were both so rotten that they could be secured only in frag 
ments. At the left of the feet were two clay vessels, one a water bottle 
and the other a very small vase. On the right of the feet were some 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



303 



mussel and sea shells and immediately under the feet .two conch shells 
(Busycon perversum) partially filled with small shell beads. Around 
each ankle was a strand of similar beads. The bones and most of the 
shells were so far decomposed that they could not be saved. 

Grave &, a stone sepulcher, 4 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1J feet deep, 
differed from a only in size and the fact that the bottom was covered 
with stone slabs. The skeleton was extended on the back, head east. 
On the forehead was a thin plate of copper, the only article found. 

Grave c, also a stone sepulcher, 3J feet long, 1 J feet wide, and 1 feet 
deep, the bottom being formed of burnt earth. Although extending 
east and west, as shown in Fig. 185. the bones had probably been dis 
connected and interred without regard to order, the head being found 
in the northeast corner with face to the wall, and the remaining por 
tions of the skeleton in a promiscuous heap. Yet there was no indica 
tion of disturbance after bur 
ial, as the coffin was intact. 
Placed in the heap of bones 
was a thin plate of copper 
that had been formed by 
uniting and riveting to 
gether smaller sections. 
(See PI. xvni.) Some of the 
bones found in this grave 
were saved. 

Grave <?, a small sepulcher 
only 1 J feet square by 1 foot 
deep, contained the remains 
of an infant; also a few small 
shell beads. The slabs form 
ing the sides and bottom of 
this grave bore very distinct 
marks of fire. 

Grave e consisted simply of a headstone and footstone, with the 
skeleton of a very small child between them; head east. On the wrists 
were some very small shell beads. The earth on the north and south 
sides had been hardened in order to form the walls, a strong indication 
that the mound had been built up to this height and a pit dug in it. 

Grave/, also a stone sepulcher, was 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 
1J feet deep, with a stone bottom. Skeleton with the head north. 
There were several pieces of copper about the head, which, together 
with the skeleton, were wrapped in a skin. The head rested on a large 
conch shell (Busycon perversum)^ and this on the remains of a coarse 
mat. Shell beads were found around the neck and also around each 
wrist and ankle. On the right was a small cup and on the breast an 
engraved shell. The copper had preserved a portion of the hair, which 
was saved ; portions of the skin and matting were also secured. Im- 




Fio. 185. Plan of burials in mound c, Etowah group. 



304 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



mediately under.fr was another stone grave or coffin, 3 feet long, 1 Jfeet 
wide and deep, extending north and south. The head of the skeleton 
was toward the north, but the feet were doubled back under the frame 
in order to get it in the allotted space. The only things found with 
this skeleton were some beads around the neck. 

At g the remains of a child 
were found without any 
stones about them. Some 
shell beads were around the 
neck and wrist, and an en 
graved shell on the breast. 
Grave h was a stone cist 
1 feet square and 1 foot 
deep, stone slabs on the 
four sides and top, but the 
bottom consisted simply of 
earth hardened by lire. This 
contained only a trace of 
bones and presented indi 
cations of at least partial 
cremation, as all around the 
slabs, outside and inside, 
was a solid mass of charcoal, 
and the earth was burned 
to the depth of a foot. 

Grave i, a stone cist 4J 
feet long, 1J feet wide and 
deep ; bottom of earth ; con 
tained the remains of a 
skeleton resting on the back, 
head north, and feet doubled 
back so as to come within 
the coffin. On the breast 
was a thin plate of copper, 
5 inches square, with a hole 
through the center. Beads 
were found around the 
wrists, and rather more than 
a quart about the neck. 

Atj were the remains of 
a small child, without stone surroundings ; under the head was a piece 
of copper, and about the neck and wrists a number of shell beads. 

These graves were not on the same level, the top of some being but 2 
feet below the clay bed (No. 2), while others were from 2 to 3 feet lower. 
All the articles alluded to as obtained in this mound were forwarded at 
once to the Bureau of Ethnology, and are now in the National Museum. 




FIG. 186. Figured copper plate from mound c 
Etowah group. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVII 




FIGURED COPPER PLATE FROM MOUND C, ETOWAH GROUP (HUMAN FIGURE). 



GEORGIA. 



305 




Examining them somewhat carefully since their reception, 1 find there 
are really more copper plates among them than at first supposed. 
Those which were not too much broken to determine the exact form and 
size are as follows : 

(1) A human figure with wings, represented in PI. xvii. This is 17 
inches long and 9 inches wide. A portion of the lower part, as shown 
by the figure, is wanting, probably some 3 or 4 inches. There is a break 
across the middle, but not sufficient to interfere with tracing out the 
design. A crown piece of the head ornament is also wanting. This 
plate was found in grave a. 

(2) Also a human figure, found in the same grave; is shown in Fig. 
186. Length, 16 inches; width, 7 inches. 

(3) Figure of a bird (PI. xvin). This is imperfect, as part of the head 
and of the outer margin of the wings are 

wanting. Length, 13J inches; width, 
7J inches. This plate shows indubita 
ble evidence of having been formed of 
smaller pieces welded together, as the 
overlapping portions can be easily 
traced. It has also undergone repairs ; 
a fracture, commencing on. the left and 
running irregularly halfway across the 
body, has been mended by placing a 
strip of copper along it on the back 
and riveting it to the main plate; a 
small piece has also been riveted to 
the head, and the head to the body; 
several other pieces are attached in 
the same way. The rivets are small 
and the work neatly done. This was 
found in grave c. 

(4) An ornament or badge of some 

kind found in grave b is shown in Fig. 187. The two crescent- shaped 
pieces are entirely plain except some slightly impressed lines on the 
portion connecting them with the central stem. This central stem 
throughout its entire length and to the width of six- tenths of an inch is 
raised, and cross strips placed at various points along the under side, 
for the purpose of inserting a strip of bone, a part of which yet remains 
in it and is seen in the figure where the oblique strips meet. The most 
important and interesting fact presented by this specimen is the evi 
dence it furnishes that the workman who formed it made use of me 
tallic tools, as the cutting in this case could not possibly have been 
done with anything except a metallic implement. A single glance at 
it is sufficient to satisfy any one of the truth of this assertion. Length 
of the stem, 9 inches; width across the crescents, 7J inches. 
12 ETH 20 



Fia. 187. Copper badge from mound c, 
Etowah group. 



306 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




FIG. 188. Copper ornament or badge fron 
mound c, Etowah group. 



(5) Part of an ornament similar to No. 4. These plates, especially 
No. 4, appear to be enlarged patterns of that seen behind the head in 
PL xvn. 

(6) An ornament or badge, shown in Fig. 188, found under the head 

of the skeleton in grave a. It is imper 
fect, a narrow strip across the middle 
and a portion of the tip being missing. 
As shown in the figure, it measures 
around the outer border 19 inches, and 
across the broad end 3J inches. The 
six holes at the larger end, in which the 
remains of strings can be detected, indi 
cate that it was, when in use, attached 
to some portion of the dress or fastened 
on a staff. 

(7) A fragment from the larger end of 
a piece similar to the preceding. At 
tached to this is a piece of cloth. 

In addition to the foregoing there are 
a number of small fragments, probably 
broken from these plates or parts of others; but so far I have been un 
able to fit them to their proper places. 

An examination of the supposed skin shows beyond question that it 
is animal matter and prob 
ably part of a tanned deer 
hide. The matting appears 
to be made of split canes. 

The shell represented in 
Fig. 189 is the one obtained 
in grave g. The one shown 
in Fig. 190 is that found in 
grave/. 

In one of the low mounds 
was subsequently found the 



bust shown in Fig. 191. 
It has been carved from a 
coarse marble, and shows 
considerable art. The face 
had been split off, but with 
out injury. The length of 
the fragment shown in the 
figure is 11 inches. 

I shall not attempt, at 
present, to speculate upon 




Fiu. 189. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group. 



these singular specimens of art further than to call attention to one or 
two facts which appear to bear upon their age and distribution. 
We notice the fact, which is apparent to every one who inspects the 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVIII 




FIGURED COPPER PLATE FROM MOUND C, ETOWAH GROUP (BIRD FIGURE). 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



307 



figures, that in all their leading features the designs are suggestive 
of Mexican or Central American work; yet a close inspection brings 
to light one or two features which are anomalies in Mexican or Central 
American designs; as, for example, in PI. xvn and Fig. 186, where the 
wings are represented as rising from the back of the shoulders. 
Although we can find numerous figures of winged individuals in 
Mexican designs (they are unknown in Central American), they always 
carry with them the idea that the individual is partly or completely 
clothed in the skin of the bird. This is partly carried out in the cop 
per plate, as is seen by the bird bill over the head ; the eye being that 




FIG. 190. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowali group. 

of the bird and not of the man. But when the wings are observed it 
is at once seen that the artist had in mind the angel figure with wings 
rising from the back of the shoulders an idea wholly foreign to Mexi 
can art. 

Another fact worthy of note in regard to the two chief plates repre 
senting human figures is that there is a combination of Central Ameri 
can and Mexican designs; the graceful limbs and the ornaments of the 
arms, legs, waist, and the headdress are Central American, while the 
rest, with the exception possibly of what is carried in the right hand, 
is Mexican. 



308 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



That these plates are not wholly the work of the Indians found in 
habiting the southern sections of the United States, or of their direct 
ancestors, is admitted. That they were not made by an aboriginal 
artisan of Central America or Mexico of ante-Columbian times, I think 
is probable if not from the designs themselves, from the apparent evi 
dence that the work was done in part with hard metallic tools. 

(2) Plates like those of this collection have been found, so far as I can 
ascertain, only in northern Georgia and northern and southern Illinois. 
The bird figure represented in Fig. 192, obtained by Maj. Powell, 
Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, from a mound near Peoria, 
Illinois, is introduced here for comparison with the bird figures found 
in the Etowah mound. 




FIG. 191. Bust from Etowah mounds. 

Another was obtained from an ordinary stone grave in Union 
county, Illinois, by Mr. Thing, while engaged by the Bureau of Eth 
nology. From a similar grave at the same place he also obtained the 
plate represented in Fig. 85. Fragments of another similar plate were 
taken by Mr. Ear le from a stone grave in a mound in Alexander county, 
Illinois. All these specimens were received by the Bureau of Ethnol 
ogy, and are now in the National Museum. 

I can not enter at present into a discussion of the questions raised by 
the discovery of these engraved shells, nor is it necessary that I should 
do so, as Mr. W. H. Holmes has discussed somewhat fully these de 
signs in the Second Annual lieport of the Bureau of Ethnology and 
I have ventured in "The Story of a Mound of the Shawnees in pre- 



i-HOMASj 



GEORGIA AND ILLINOIS. 



309 



Columbian times," to suggest a possible explanation of their presence 
in the interior regions. I may add that these figured copper plates and 
engraved shells present a problem very difficult to solve, as is evident 
from the following facts : 

(1) A number of the designs bear too strong resemblance to those of 
Mexico and Central America to warrant us in supposing this similarity 
to be accidental. (2) The fact that some of them were found in con 
nection with articles of European manufacture is unquestionable. (3) 
The indications of European workmanship are too evident to be over 
looked. (4) The evidence that some of the engraved shells can be 
traced to the Indians is well-nigh conclusive. 

Mound 1). This was examined by sinking a shaft 12 feet square in 
the center to the original soil, which was reached at the depth of 19 
feet from the top. Nothing was found indicating burials. The top 
layer to the depth of 2 feet consisted 
chiefly of white sand; next, 9 feet of red 
clay; then, 2 feet more of white sand: 
and, lastly, 6 feet of dark sandy loam 
to the original surface of the ground. 

About the center of the shaft were 
the remains of four posts, two being 
parallel with the other two. They were 
2 feet apart one way and 6 feet the 
other; that is to say, they stood at the 
corners of a parallelogram 2 feet wide 
and 6 feet long, and were in a compar 
atively sound condition, about 6 inches 
in diameter and extended 4 feet below 
the surface of the mound. They were 
probably the remains of some compar 
atively modern structure. The plow 
had taken off the tops to the depth of 
several inches. In the lower sand stratum the breast bone of a turkey 
and several bones of a bear were discovered. 

Here and there throughout the 9-foot stratum were patches of dark 
red clay from 18 inches to 2 feet in diameter, that had been hardened by 
fire. The dimensions of this mound, which is in the form of a truncated 
four- sided pyramid, quite regular and steep, are as follows: The longer 
diameter of the base 130 feet, the shorter 120 feet; the longer diameter 
of the level top 90 feet, the shorter 81 feet; the height in the center 19 
feet, though if measured from the surrounding surface this would be in 
creased by 3orne 3 or 4 feet. 

Subsequently a thorough examination was made of mound #, which 
stands about 450 yards north of the large mound and, as will be seen 
by reference to the plat (Fig. 182), outside of and some distance beyond 
the ditch. It is a low, conical tumulus, rounded on top, 192 feet in cir 
cumference at the base and 4J feet high. 




PIG. 192. Copper plate with bird figure; 
mound near Peoria, Illinois. 



310 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The construction of the mound, commencing at the bottom and going 
upward, is as follows : First, a layer 2 feet thick of dark red clay rest 
ing on the original surface of the ground ; mixed and scattered through 
this layer was a considerable quantity of pure charcoal, also water- 
worn bowlders, all thoroughly burned; next above and lying on this a 
2-inch stratum of river sand which had been burned, and, lastly, the 
remainder of the mound was finished up with clay of a deep red color 
without any admixture of ashes or charcoal, though the bottom portion, 
which rested immediately on the sand, presented some indications of 
heat. This layer was so hard that it was difficult to penetrate it. 

In the 2-inch sand stratum were two small pieces of very distinctly 
glazed pottery and lying at the bottom of the mound, on the natural 
surface of the ground, a piece of unglazed, ornamented pottery and a 
broken clay pipe. 

The bright red clay of this mound is similar to that in the land 
around it, while the darker variety is like that found a quarter of a 
mile away. 

An examination was also made of the strip of land on the east side 
of the mounds and along the north bank of the Etowah river. This 
land, it is proper to remark, has been under cultivation for many years. 
This examination was made by sinking pits, from 5 to 7 feet square 
and from 2 to 4J feet deep, at various places over the area, carrying 
them down in all cases to what appeared to be the second and undis 
turbed natural layer. 

The variation in the depth of the top layer is due in part to overflows 
from the river, the soil in some places having been washed out and 
deposits made in other places by this agency. But the examination 
made shows this layer over the entire area, to be, in the main, one 
vast refuse heap, as it is composed of sandy loam, ashes, red clay, frag 
ments of pottery, charcoal, and other refuse matter. In some places 
the appearance of the red clay shows that it has been dropped here 
in "batches 7 of a half bushel or less; in other places it is in a con 
tinuous mass, forming a layer; moreover, it must be borne in mind that 
it does not belong here, but was brought from a distance of nearly or 
quite half a mile, the nearest point where it could be obtained. 

This made earth is literally full of mussel shells, terrapin shells, animal 
bones, small fragments of pottery, with patches of charcoal and ashes 
scattered through the mass. The pottery and animal bones were broken 
into minute fragments. Among the animal bones (no human bones 
were found here) are many of the bear and hundreds of the turkey. 
Waterworn bowlders were also found scattered through this deposit 
and in every case showed very distinctly the action of fire. 

In some instances the charcoal found was in cylindrical pieces 3 or 4 
inches long, but never more than 3 inches in diameter. These were evi 
dently sections of pine saplings. In the bottom of one of the shafts 
were two post holes sunk into the natural soil beneath to the depth of 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 311 

18 inches. These holes, which were 16 inches in diameter, had perfectly 
smooth sides and were filled with pure sand. The two were 12 inches 
apart. 

At the bottom of another shaft, 4 feet below the present surface of 
the ground, were discovered some partially burned corncobs. These 
were in a little heap and completely surrounded by charcoal, which has 
doubtless assisted in their preservation. 

This refuse layer extends some distance west of the three mounds. 

Mound d. This is located about 150 yards due east of the large 
mound and is one of those marked F in Jones s figure. It is circular in 
form, the diameter of the base about 50 feet, and, although it shows ex 
ternally a height of only 4 feet above the surrounding ground, by exca 
vation it was found to be in fact 9 feet high above the original surface 
on which it was built, the land around it having been raised by deposits 
from overflows and debris. The excavation was carried to the bottom, 
5 feet below the present surface of the ground, there being no indication 
that a pit had been dug. At the depth of about 14 inches below the top 
of the mound a layer of partially burned clay from 2 to 3 inches thick 
was reached, the smooth side down. The impressions of twigs and grass 
could be seen running through it. This rested on a layer of packed ashes 
8 inches thick, which was literally filled mith mussel shells and animal 
bones, but so burned and packed that it was difficult to drive a pick 
through the mass. Next below this was a stratum in which were pieces 
of charcoal, next a layer of dark red clay 2 feet thick, and lastly a 
bottom layer,. 2 feet thick, of rich loam. This last layer was crowded 
with fragments of pottery and decayed animal bones, among which was 
noticed the head of a squirrel. Here were found one bone implement 
and some pieces of mica. 

Mound e. One hundred feet north of the preceding is another mound, 
oval in form and round topped, 60 by 80 feet in diameter and 6 feet high 
above the surrounding ground, but in fact 10 feet high above the 
original surface on which it was built. The stratification, commencing 
at the bottom and going upwards, was found to be as follows: First, a 
layer 1 foot thick of dark red clay resting on the original surface, inter 
mixed with which was charcoal ; then 1 foot of muck and charcoal ; 
next, 2 feet of bright red clay ; then 2 inches of sand ; next, 1 foot of 
charcoal and ashes; then 3 feet of bright red clay; next, 1 foot of clay 
burned almost as hard as a brick; and lastly, a top layer of soil 6 inches 
thick. In the bottom layer were a number of fragments of pottery, 
and in the 1 foot layer of charcoal and ashes a piece of a polished celt 
and a small worked stone. The 3-foot stratum of bright red clay could 
not be distinguished from a natural deposit ; in fact would have been 
taken as such but for the layer of charcoal and ashes below it. The 
burned clay layer was so hard that it could scarcely be broken up with 
a pick. The mound showed evidences of heat throughout. No traces 
of human or animal bones were noticed in it. 



312 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

THE PARROT MOUND. 

This single mound is located near the north bank of Etowah river, 
3 miles west of Cartersville, on a level bottom under cultivation. It 
is oval in form, rounded on top, its longest diameter (east and west), at 
base, being 65 feet and greatest width 48 feet; height, 8 feet. It con 
sisted chiefly of pure yellow clay; first a top layer 5 feet thick of soft 
clay; then a layer from 1 to 2 inches thick of pure sand, and below this 
to the natural surface yellow clay. No relics or indications of fire were 
seen. 

THE EDWARDS MOUND. 

This is situated on the south side of Etowah river, directly opposite 
the Tuinlin mounds. It is on a level bottom, 100 feet from the river, oval 
in form, 80 feet long at base, by 55 in width, 8 feet high, and flat on 
top. 

An excavation of this mound showed the surrounding slope to be 
constructed entirely of yellow clay and distinct from the central portion, 
resembling in this respect mound No. 3, of the Tumlin group. The 
central portion was made by tilling in with sand and red and yellow 
clay, with here and there a small batch of gravel; but wherever the 
gravel occurred the earth was burnt around it, and it also showed the 
action of fire. No human or other remains were observed. 

THE LEAP MOUND. 

This is 3 miles west of Cartersville and within a few feet of the Cher 
okee railroad, on bottom land about 35 or 40 feet above low-water mark. 
It is oval in form and flat on top; circumference of the base, 240 feet; 
longer diameter of the top, 53 feet; shorter diameter, 35 feet; height, 
4J feet. In the construction of this mound it appears that the original 
surface of the ground was first leveled and on this a layer, consisting 
of red clay, sand, and ashes, 18 inches thick, was placed; then it was 
finished off with yellow clay to the top. 

In addition to the preceding the following mounds in this county 
were examined, but, presenting nothing novel or very interesting, will 
be very briefly noticed : 

THE BEN AKERMAN MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Mr. Benj. Akerman, 7 miles west of 
Cartersville, on the east side of Etowah river. It stands on the margin 
of a terrace overlooking the narrow valley of the river, is of the ordinary 
conical form, diameter 38 to 40 feet, height 4 feet, but it has been plowed 
over for several years. The stratification was as follows : A top layer 
of soil an inch or two in thickness; then, below this, a layer 3 feet thick 
of dark red clay, with spots here and there through it of charcoal, ashes, 
and burned clay and sand, or, in other words, small fire beds; below 
this, a foot and a half of bright red unburned clay; and last, resting on 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 313 

the original soil, a layer, about an inch thick, of mussel shells. In the 
thick layer of dark clay, near the center, was a single limestone slab 
standing on end ; immediately over this the clay was thoroughly burned. 
It is perhaps worthy of notice that this clay had the appearance of hav 
ing been sun-dried before being burned; from which it is inferred that 
a portion of the top was added sometime after the main body of the 
mound was built, and that the stone was planted at this time. At the 
bottom of this thick layer, in the center, was about a quart of charred 
corn (maize) and corn-cobs. Nothing else was found. 

THE CONYERS MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Mr. Conyers, in the southeastern part 
of the county, on Euharlee creek, is somewhat oval, the longer diameter, 
98 feet, shorter 68 ; height, 7 feet. The stratification was as follows : 
First, a top layer 6 inches thick, of soil ; next, a layer, 4 J feet thick, of 
red clay mixed with dark soil, with charcoal and ashes scattered 
through it. In the top of this layer, at the center, was a curious basin- 
shaped fire-bed, 12 inches deep at the center and 2 feet in diameter. 
The next layer, 6 inches thick, consisted of pure white sand, and, last, 
a layer, 1J feet thick, of loam resting on the original surface of the 
ground. No indications of burial or articles were observed. 

THE ROWLAND MOUNDS. 

These are located on the south bank of Etowah river, about 3 miles 
southeast of Carter sville. The group consists of three mounds and a 
cemetery; the largest is somewhat irregular in form, the longer diame 
ter 150 feet, the shorter 140 3 the whole height 20 feet, but the height 
of the artificial portion 15 feet, rounded on the top. One-half of this 
was dug away; but finding neither specimens nor skeletons, no further 
investigations were made, but the strata being more numerous than 
usual are considered of sufficient interest to be mentioned here. First, 
a top layer, 6 inches, of soil; then, 3J feet of yellow clay mixed with 
sand; then, one foot of sand and ashes; next, 2 feet of sand; then, 1 
foot of ashes ; then, 3 feet of yellow clay ; next, 1 foot of sand and ashes ; 
and lastly, resting on the natural earth, a uniform level layer of red 
clay, 3 feet thick. The whole rested on a natural elevation about 5 
feet high. This elevation probably extended, when the mound was 
built, over the entire bottom, but has been worn away by frequent 
overflows. An occasional fragment of pottery was found here and there 
in the different strata, but no other relics were observed. The rather 
heavy layers of sand and ashes indicate that the mound was built by 
successive additions made at widely separated periods. 

The cemetery lies to the east of the mound near the bank of the river. 
A somewhat careful exploration of this was made, but it was found 
that a considerable portion of it had been washed away by the frequent 



314 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

overflows. This conclusion is based upon the fact that a portion of the 
area has been washed out to the depth of 2 to 2J feet, leaving exposed 
layers of stones like those found under skeletons in the remaining 
graves, and numerous fragments ot human bones. 

At one point were three skeletons lying extended side by side on 
their backs, heads east. They lay at a depth of 2J feet under the sur 
face, and rested on a single layer of water- worn bowlders which formed 
the bottom of the grave. The stones had the appearance of having 
been heated and then dipped into cold water. At the head of the grave 
was a medium- sized bowl. Eesting on the faces was an iron boring 
implement and hammer; around the neck of the middle skeleton were 
the remains of a strand of small shell beads. Between the skeletons 
were found a broken soapstone pipe, a piece of mica, and fragments of 
pottery. 

At another point was a single skeleton, doubled up and resting on 
the left side. This was 2 feet below the surface, resting on a layer of 
stones similar to those in the other grave. 

Not far distant, on the farm of Mr. Lewis Sams, three other mounds 
were examined, with the following results: No. 1, circular in form and 
round on top, circumference of base 152 feet, and height 5 feet, was 
found to be simply a mass of yellow sand with shells mixed through it. 
Part of a human upper jaw was found, but this was probably acciden 
tally put in while building, as there were no indications of burial. At 
the bottom in the center was a bed of charcoal 6 inches deep and 2 
feet in diameter. 

No. 2, circular and flat on top ; circumference of the base, 142 feet ; 
diameter of the top, 12 feet; height, 3 feet. Built entirely of sand, 
without stratification, but with shells intermixed, no ashes, coals, relics, 
or remains in it. 

No. 3, circular and round on top; circumference of base, 111 feet; 
height, 3 feet; composed entirely of sand. 

HABERSHAM COUNTY. 

But one mound in this county was examined. This is situated on the 
farm of Mr. Patton Jarrett, in the western part of the county, on the 
south bank of Tugalo river, one-fourth of a mile above the mouth of 
Toccoa creek. It is conical in form, the base almost exactly circular, 
precisely 100 feet in diameter, and a little over 14 feet high. The owner 
would permit no further examination than could be made by sinking 
one shaft. Nothing further than the stratification was ascertained, 
which is as follows: (1) top layer, 2 feet of soil similar to that of the 
surrounding surface, but with a quantity of charcoal scattered through 
it; (2) a layer 1 inch tjiick of charcoal; (3) 6 inches of dark clay or 
muck; (4) 2 feet of sandy loam; (5) 6 inches of bright red, very hard, 
clay, apparently sun-dried; (6) 4 feet of dark, rich loam, with a little 
charcoal scattered through it; (7) 6 inches of dark clay or muck; (8) 6 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 315 

iuches of sandy loam; (9) 2 feet of dark, rich loam; and, lastly, resting 
on the original surface, 2 feet of river sand. In the sixth and ninth 
layers were a few fragments of pottery. 

ELBERT COUNTY. 

THE REMBERT MOTJNDS. 

These mounds were visited by Bartram in 1773, who thus describes 
them : 

These wonderful labors of the ancients stand in a level plain very near the bank 
of the river ; now 20 or 30 yards from it ; they consist of conical mounts of earth 
and four square terraces. The great mount is in the form of a cone about 40 or 50 feet 
high, and the circumference of its base 200 or 300 yards, entirely composed of the 
loamy rich earth of the low grounds ; the top or apex is flat ; a spiral path or track 
leading from the ground up to the top is still visible, where now grows a large, beau 
tiful spreading, red cedar. There appear four niches excavated out of the sides of 
this hill, at different heights from the base, fronting the four cardinal points. These 
niches or sentry boxes are entered into from the winding path and seem to have 
been meant for resting places or lookouts. The circumjacent level grounds are 
cleared and planted with Indian corn at present and I think the proprietor of the 
lands, who accompanied us to this place, said that the mount itself yielded above 
100 bushels in one season. 1 

In 1848 George White (author of White s Statistics of Georgia) vis 
ited this group, in regard to which he remarks as follows: 

The large mound corresponds exactly with Bartram s description of it, with this 
exception, that the sides and summit are covered with a growth of cane and several 
large trees. The smaller mounds have been almost destroyed. Capt. Rembert has 
excavated the smaller mounds and found human skeletons, jars, pipes, beads, breast 
plates, stone hammers, hatchets, arrowheads, etc. Some of these are now in our 
possession and are really objects of curiosity. 2 

If these descriptions were correct at the time they were made, very 
decided changes have taken place in the appearance of the works since 
then. The group, consisting of 2 mounds, is situated on the farm of 
Mr. Z. A. Tate, near the bank of the Savannah river, 4 miles above the 
mouth of Broad river. They stand on the level bottom, one 130 and 
the other 320 feet from the bank of the river. This bottom extends 
several miles north and south, and three-fourths of a mile back from 
the river to the hills. As will be seen by reference to Fig. 193, which 
shows a section, north and south, of the area, there are 2 " washouts" 
flanking these mounds. The one on the north (a), commencing at the 
river, extends a fourth of a mile back in a southwest direction, covering 
an area of 7 or 8 acres. This approaches within about 200 feet of the 
large mound (b). The one on the south (c) also commences at the river 
and extends back southeastward only a few hundred feet beyond the 
mounds and runs within a few feet of them. These excavations are 
denominated u washouts " because the present owner of the land, Mr. 
Tate, remembers when they were made by high water. Nevertheless, 

1 " Travels," pp. 324 to 325. 2 Statistics of Georgia, p. 230. 



316 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




judging from present appearances, there are reasons for believing that 
^ at least a portion of the earth used in the construc 

tion of the mounds was obtained here, leaving depres 
sions, and that, during high water, when the land was 
overflowed, as is frequently the case, channels were 
washed out from them to the river. The south mar 
gin of the southern " washout" is fully 4 feet higher 
than the land on which the mounds stand. 

Mound No. 1. This, which is much the larger of 
the two, stands 130 feet from the river bank, and is, 
exclusive of the ramp or projection, an exact circle 
151 feet in diameter, nearly flat on top, and 30 feet 
high at the highest point (north side), but only 27 
feet near the south side. The diameter of the top is 
about 70 feet. The plan of the ramp or rather exten 
sion, as it seems to be, is shown in Fig. 194. The 
vertical outline of the mound, with a section of the 
shaft, is presented in Fig. 195. The right or south 
ern end of this shows the slope of the extension. 
This has an average width on top of 20 feet. 

The mound is covered with trees such as sugar- 
berry, walnut, hickory, and oak. One sugarberry is 
G feet in circumference (at stump height); a walnut, 
5 feet ; a hickory, 3 j feet ; and an oak, 10 feet. The 
shaft was carried down to the bottom. The first foot 
was of soil (a), then 7 feet of dark sandy loam (6), next 
1 J feet of thoroughly burned yellowish clay and sand 
(c), with a large percentage of ashes. This layer had 
the appearance of having been put down and packed 
while wet and then burned ; it was so hard that it 
was difficult to break it. Next 3 feet of black earth, 
also packed (d); then 8J feet of pure sand (e); and 
last, resting on the original surface, 6 feet of hard 
bluish muck (/). All of these layers, except the bot 
tom one, had charcoal, mica, fragments of pottery, 
and animal bones scattered through them, but the 
last were so far decomposed that none of them could 
be saved. 

As fragments of pottery and animal bones were 
found in spots, together with ashes and other indica 
tions of fire, it is probable these were fire beds where 
cooking had been done. All that portion of the shaft 
below the layer of burned clay was so very dry that 
when turned up it would crumble to dust. It is pos 
sible that the bottom layer of blue a muck n is partly 
the original soil, as it is much like the surrounding soil, and that a part 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



317 



of the surrounding surface has been washed away since the mound was 
built. 

Mound No. 2 (not shown in the figure) stands about 40 feet west of 
the base of No. 1. It is oblong in form, 58 feet long north and south, 
41 feet wide, and 6 feet high. A large shaft had been sunk in the 
middle by some previous explorer, hence investigations were confined 
to the eastern aud western sides, which presented one or two peculiari 
ties. With the exception of the top layer of soil, 1 foot thick, the 
remainder on the east side con 
sisted of river sand, with particles 
of charcoal and vegetable matter 
mixed through it, while on the west 
it was composed of small masses 
of red clay and dark earth. In 
this, at the depth of 2 feet, were 
thebonesof a single adult skeleton. 
These were packed together in a 
space 2 feet square and 18 inches 
deep; the skull was placed face 
down and all the other bones piled 
about it. Immediately over the 




FIG. 194. Flan of mound No. 1, Rembert group. 



bones was a layer of red clay 2 inches thick, burned hard. Besting on 
this layer were the remains of a pretty thoroughly burned fire. A few 
fragments of pottery and a small clay pipe were found. 



RICHMOND COUNTY. 

While this report was being prepared Mr. Henry L. Reynolds, one 
of my assistants, was sent to certain points in Georgia and South Caro 
lina to make examination of some works to which my attention had 
been called. The result of this examination is given in the following 
report, made by him. This includes the Hollywood mound of Rich 
mond county, Georgia, which proved to be of unusual interest, and the 
McDowell mound, Kershaw county, South Carolina. 

THE HOLLYWOOD MOUND. 

There are two mounds situated in a bend of the Savannah river, 
in Richmond county, Georgia, 3 miles east from Hollywood, a small 
flag station on the Georgia Central railroad about 10 miles below 
Augusta and 5 miles above Silver blufif. This latter, which is on the 
South Carolina side, seems to me, after a special investigation of this 
question, to be the most probable site of the ancient town of Cuti- 
fachiqui, where Be Soto and his army were so generously entertained. 

The mounds are situated on the lowest river land, which is annually 
subject to inundation. The overflows of the Savannah are very destruc 
tive, particularly at this point. Cattle are drowned, the rich riparian 



318 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



I 



crops are destroyed, and the farmers impoverished. At such times 
these mounds are the only land visible above a broad expanse of water, 
and it is this fact which has given rise to the tradition among the peo 
ple of the vicinity that they were thrown up by some former owner of 
the property to serve as places of refuge for his cattle during these 
inundations. A quarter of a mile to the north of the mounds near the 

river bank is an extensive shell heap, com 
posed chiefly of the shells of Unio. Upon 
the larger of the two mounds a simple barn 
has been erected. This mound appears to 
have been originally of the pyramidal type, 
but since its surface has suffered so greatly 
from the cattle that have been penned in 
upon it and the washing occasioned by floods, 
its original character, as well as whatever 
smaller physical features it may have pre 
sented, is now almost entirely lost. 

Mound No. 2, the one excavated, is in an 
adjoining field, the property of a gentleman 
of Augusta, Georgia. It is 280 feet due north 
of No. 1, is conical in form, 10 feet high, and 
70 feet in diameter. Though originally sur 
mounted by a small log barn, which a former 
flood removed to a point at its base, the 
mound had evidently remained unmolested 
since that time, for several small cottonwood 
trees, as well as considerable underbrush, 
were growing upon it. 

The excavation was conducted as follows : 
First two trenches, each 10 feet wide, were 
cut crosswise through the center, one north 
and south, the other east and west. These 
were carried down to the bottom, and in 
some places to the original pure micaceous 
soil that underlies the mixed loam of the 
surrounding field. The segments that re 
inained were then cut down several feet be 
yond the radius that covered the interments 
found in the trenches. In this manner the 
mound was thoroughly excavated and all its buried contents exposed. 
The mound is stratified, or, in other words, constituted of two differ 
ent kinds of soil, the upper being strictly sandy micaceous loam, 3 feet 
thick ; the lower a hard, compact vegetable earth, taken from what is 
commonly called in the south " crawfish land." This rested at the bot 
tom upon 9 inches of a very black and rich vegetable mold, permeated 
throughout with innumerable small pieces of burnt pottery, charcoal, 




BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XIX 




POT FROM HOLLYWOOD MOUND, GEORGIA. 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 319 

shell, mica, chipped flint, and charred and decayed bones too small for 
identification. The surface of this black mold appeared to be the origi 
nal surface upon which the mound was built. 

All the interments lay within the lower division of the mound. The 
absence of burial in the upper division, the different character of the 
earth, and the presence of fragmentary pottery (N. M. 1 135278-84) 
unlike that found in the subsoil, seems to indicate a subsequent addi 
tion. It also seems to indicate that the original builders or others who 
succeeded them were disposed to utilize these their old tombs for some 
purpose in connection with floods, for this additional earth seems to 
have been cast upon the inound to increase its elevation. 

It will also be seen from the sectional diagram that there were two 
general series of interments which comprise the find, or rather the im 
portant contents of the mound. The lowermost of these contained 
specimens either resting on the black mold at the bottom or within a 
foot and a half above it, and the upper from a foot to 2 feet below the 
line separating the two strata, or from 4 to 5 feet below the surface of 
the mound. Fire played some part in the ceremony of burial, for hearth 
remains of burnt earth and ashes were seen with each series of burials. 
These burials were made before the subdivision was finally completed; 
in other words, they were not intrusive, for there was no disturbance 
of the soil above them. 

Scattered indiscriminately throughout the soil composing the upper 
division of the mound were the following articles: One stone chisel (N. 
M. 135271), one stone celt, eight small pieces of white and blue glazed 
European crockery (N. M. 135279), many small fragments of Indian 
ware, and five pieces of old-fashioned rudely wrought iron nails much 
oxidized (N. M. 135280). These appeared to have been thrown up with 
the earth in the construction of this part of the mound. 

In the subsoil the hearth A (Fig. 196, which shows a horizontal sec 
tion) was first discovered almost touching the line of division. It was 
of reddish burnt earth, covered with pure wood ashes and a small quan 
tity of charcoal. It was 5 feet in diameter, 2 feet thick, and rested at 
the bottom on fine sand. Adjoining it on the southeast lay a large 
culinary pot (N. M. 135205), indicated on the diagram (Fig. 196) as No. 
1, the rim being 10 inches below the line dividing the lower from the 
upper strata and 3 feet 10 inches below the surface of the mound. 
Decomposed animal matter was found in the bottom mingled with 
scattered particles of black and white ashes. One foot and a half east 
from pot No. 1, on the same level, lay another pot, 2 (N. M. 135209), 
having inside of it another pot (N. M. 135208). In consequence of their 
inferior composition, badly decayed condition, and the pressure of the 
hard superincumbent earth, these vessels were so badly injured that 
they fell apart when taken out. Almost alongside of the last, on the 
same level, lay another, 3 (N. M. 135211), inside of which was an 



1 N. M. " in this connection signifies "National Museum " number. 



320 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inverted pot (N. M. 135210). Decayed animal matter, a few bone 
beads, a fragment of the tooth of some animal, and some scattering 
charcoal cinders were found in the bottom. In the earth alongside of 
these pots was found a piece of iron (N. M. 135275). Directly south 
of pot No. 1, on the same level, 6 feet distant, lay another pot, 4 (N. M. 
135212). In the earth surrounding it were found pieces of white 
European porcelain (N. M. 135279, Fig. 197). East of this last, 6 feet 
distant, lay a small pot, 5 (N. M. 135198). The rims of these two pots 
appeared to be about on the same level. Not far from pot No. 5 
were the decayed remains of a repousse figured copper plate (N. M. 
135226) so thin and brittle that it was with difficulty that it could 




FIG. 196. Upper horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

be handled without breaking. Alongside were the faint indications of 
human burial, as seen in small pieces of decayed bone and human 
teeth. Between these last and those indicated by the figures 1, 2, 3 
was a scant line of decayed bone, so scant and decayed that it was 
impossible to tell whether or not it was human. Traces of fire were 
seen about these bones. North of these traces of bone, and immediately 
under the line of pots Nos. 1, 2, 3, were three small upright timber 
molds, varying from 1 to 1J feet long. No traces of the timbers 
remained. Apparently lying on the dividing line between the two 
strata, 14 feet northwest of the center, was the fragment of an old 
drawing knife (N. M. 135261). A rude old iron nail, very much ox- 



irTRKAT OF ETHNOLOGY 



Wheat field 



Wheat field 




OBSERVATORY CIRCLE. NEAR NEWARK. 
Scale. 150 feet to 1 inch, or 1 : 1800 
Contour Interval 1 foot 
Surveyed in 1891 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



321 



dized, was found on the surface of the subsoil, 3 feet deep and VI feet 
southwest of the center. Another rude though sharp-pointed ancient 
iron nail was found not far from the last, but 8 inches below the sur 
face of the subsoil. A small piece of green glass was found 3 inches 
below the surface of the subsoil, in the 
southeast segment and east of the hearth. 
Resting on the sand that seemed to stretch 
over the entire area beneath these pots 
and the fire bed between them were the 
pots indicated by Xos. 6 (PI. xix, K M. 
135192) and 7 (X. M. 135200). A large 
bowl (N. M. 135199) was found inside of 
pot ~$o. 6, and by the side of the two ves 
sels, at the bottom, were the scanty re 
mains of some fabric. Two feet 8 inches from the surface of the mound 
were the remains of decayed timber, which ran down about 1 feet to 
the east of the pot at 6, almost touching its eastern rim. It is not un- 




FIG. 197. Fragment of European pottery, 
Hollywood mound, Georgia. 




FIG. 198. Lower horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

likely that this was the remnant of some post planted on the surface 
of the mound by some of its white owners. 

Alongside of the northwestern edge of the hearth A was a line of 
decayed bones, which, from the small pieces of skull and two or three 
teeth that remained, were found to be human. Though in the very 
12 ETH 21 



322 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



last stages of decay, the remains were so remarkably meager as to 
give the impression that all the bones of the body could not have been 
buried. The soil about all the bones found in this upper layer was 
absolutely free from any trace of animal or vegetable matter, which leads 
to the opinion that the bones were buried after having been denuded 
of flesh. A pot, No. 8 (N. M. 135193), lay close to the skull remains 
thus found. Like pots 1, 6, and 8, it had a small hole in the bottom, 
but had another sounder pot (N. M. 135200) placed within it. Seven 
and a half feet to the northeast of the tire bed, on a level apparently 
5 inches lower than that of the pots heretofore described, lay pot No. 15 
N. M. 135213. Near it to the northeast were the remains of human bones 
(No. 10). 




FIG. 199. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia (135197). 

In the lower division, as in that last described, all the articles 
seemed to be clustered about a hearth (B Fig. 198, which shows a 
lower horizontal section) and on the same general level. Here most of 
the human remains were found, but, like those in the upper burial, only 
the merest traces were observed. The conditions of this locality are 
very conducive to decay. Decayed and meager as they were, sufficient 
evidence was had in the case of each skeleton to show that it was 
human, such as the presence of teeth and certain identifiable bones. 

The hearth B, which in some places was 10 feet in diameter, was sit 
uated wholly southwest of the center. Its composition was peculiar. 
It consisted of four layers of pure white ashes each one-half inch thick, 
separated by red burnt earth averaging an inch in thickness. Ashes 



.BVRjU.r OP ETHNOLOGY . 




FAIRGROUND CIRCLE NEAR NEWAR 

Scale, 150 feet to 1 inch, or 1 1800 
Contour Interval 2 foet 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



323 



formed the bottom as well as the topmost layer. The -hearth rested on 
the curious black mold at the bottom. This black mold did not pene 
trate to the north and east border of the mound, but lay only over an 
area of which this hearth was the center. 

Southwest of the hearth B and in connection with the remains of 
skeleton No. 2 was pot 9 (N. M. 135197), a bottle standing on a tripod 
of human heads, shown in Fig. 199. As traces of fire were noticed 
above this pot and skeleton, there seems to have been more than one 
ceremony attendant upon the burial of these articles. The pot 10 (N. 




FIG. 200. A painted vessel from Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

M. 135194), which was found at the foot of this skeleton, seemed to have 
had originally a wooden cover, for in the earth taken from the top some 
small traces of decayed wood were noticed, and in the earth about it 
lay a clay pipe (N. M. 135223). Northeast of pot Xo. 9, and also near 
the fire bed, was a long-neck jar, 11 (N. M. 135295). (See Fig. 200.) 
At its western base lay the pipes (N. M. 135216, 135218, 135219, 
135220, 135221, 135222), five typical forms of which are shown in PI. 
xxiv. Pipe 3a and 3ft (135216) was carved from soapstone ; the remainder 
are of clay. Adjoining these articles on the northeast and on the same 



324 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



level were pots 12, 13, and 14 (X. M. L351JW, 135204, 137215), and 6 
inches below the former lay a copper ax head (N. M. 135228) wrapped 
in cloth and incased in bark. 




FIG. 201. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

Three or 4 feet west of these, lying against each other, were two other 
pots, 1G and 17 (N. M. 135202, 135203). No. 16 (Fig. 201) was found lying 
on its side upon the black mold at the bottom, and beneath it, as if the 




FIG. 202. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

pot were placed on top of them, were the fragments of thin and very brit 
tle plates of copper (N. M. 135227), bearing Mexican figures in relief, some 
flakes of mica, and decayed pieces of unidentified shells. The copper 




FIG. 203. Copper article from Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

had been originally first wrapped in some kind of leather, then in fine, 
rush matting, and the whole incased in bark. Beneath No. 17, which 
was also lying on its side, was a beautiful biconcave disk of quartz 



IHT?KAI T OF ETHNOLOGY. 




HIGH BANK CIRCLE. NEAR CH I LLICOTH E 
Scale, 150 feet to 1 inch, or I 18OO 
Contour Interval 1 foot 
Surveyed in 1891 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 325 

(N. M. 1352(50). Beneath this last, 3 or 4 inches deeper, aud lying on the 
black mold at the bottom, were two copper celts (N. M. 135229) wrapped 
in cloth together and incased on both sides in bark. Accompanying 
this were several large pieces of mica. There were scarcely more than 
a handful of decayed bones in connection with these objects, identifiable 
only by the help of a few human teeth. 
About the neck bones of skeleton 3, which lay 13 feet northwest of 




FIG. 20-t. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia. 

the center, were found a lot of shell beads (N. M. 135247, Fig. 202), 
and below these, a foot to the south, another lot of shell beads (N. M. 
135242), a lot of perforated shell disks (N. M. 135248), the copper- 
sheathed ornament of wood (N. M. 135256) shown in Fig. 203, and a 
lump of galenite. 

Immediately north of the remains last described, on the same level 
and about 15 feet northwest of the center, lay the bones and teeth of 




FIG. 205. Pipe from Hollywood mound. (Jeorgia. 

what seemed to be another skeleton (No. 8). With it were found the 
lot of shell beads (N. M. 135233) shown in Fig. 204, a copper ax or 
celt incased in wood (N. M. 135232), the decayed remains of the colu- 
mella of the Busycon perversum, and a lump of soggy glauconite. 

Nothing was found with skeleton No. 0, which lay southwest of the 
fire bed and near to skeleton 2 on the south, except a pipe (N. M. 
135224). 




326 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Skeleton No. 5 lay about 23 feet west of the ceuter, almost on the 
black mold at the bottom, and near its head were found a pipe (N. M. 
135217), representing the head of an owl (Fig. 205) ; one 
decayed shell ornament, three stone celts, five discoidal 
stones, an anomalous stone implement, and a lump of 
glauconite. The apparent remains of another human 
burial were seen to the east of the hearth (skeleton No. 
6), and near the teeth was discovered a well shaped stone 

FIG. 206. Fragment celt. 

Hoilywo odmoun^ A pipe (N. M. 135225) was found in the earth two feet 
Georgia. to tlie soutll o f hearth B. 

The piece of blue porcelain (N. M. 135279) shown in Fig. 206 was 
found 4 feet southwest of the center and 6 feet beneath the surface of 
the mound. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
KERSHAW DISTRICT. 

MCDOWELL MOUND NO. i. 

The Wateree river is at present washing away the western end of a 
large mound situated on its left bank on the McDowell farm, 4 miles 
southwest from Camden, South Carolina. It is a large, oblong struc 
ture, which, after repeated plowings and floods is now reduced to 10 
feet in height. Its major axis is 154 feet, and minor axis 115 feet. 
Three smaller mounds are yet to be seen almost adjoining it on the 
north and east, all of which it is said, were, formerly encircled by a low 
earthen wall, no trace of which, however, is now visible. 

In exploring it a trench 10 to 15 feet wide and GO feet long was run 
lengthwise through the mound in a northwest and southeast direction, 
which was connected also with a north and south trench 15 feet wide, 
coming from near its southern edge towards the center. 

This mound was not used as a place of burial, the scattered frag 
ments of human bones that were found being rather accidentally 
thrown up with the earth than remains of deliberate interments. The 
investigation has not succeeded in demonstrating the use for which 
it was constructed : possibly it was a domiciliary mound. 

Some fragmentary human bones, Unio shells, and the bones of deer 
were found scattered indiscriminately here and there through the earth 
at a depth of from 1 to 2 feet. They manifested but little sign of 
decay. A foot and a half below the surface, 3 feet east of the center, 
were the remains of a hearth or fire-bed about 9 feet in diameter. A 
similar fire-bed 4 feet in diameter lay at the same depth 15 feet south of 
the center. In the south trench, 6 feet from the center and 3 feet 
deep, was a small fire-bed, alongside of which were small piles of shells 
and charred corncobs. The molds left by four posts which had decayed 
away were met with a short distance east of the center 1 feet below 



THOMAS.! SOUTH CAROLINA. 327 

the surface. The two northernmost ran down perpendicularly 4J feet, 
and at the base of the southernmost, 5 feet deep, was a pile of burnt 
corncobs 1.J feet in diameter and 3 inches deep. Other smaller piles 
of these charred corncobs were found here and there through the mound 
at various depths, the deepest being 8 feet. No other feature of inter 
est could be discovered in connection with them. West of the northern 
post hole, near its base, had been placed a small rude pot of the texture 
similar to the fragments found in the vicinity. It was found crushed 
in completely, with a few black coals and conch shells within it. 
Four feet to the northeast of this, on the same level, lay a pile of six 
teen shells (N. M. 135763). Two small pieces of human bones were 
also found in the vicinity. 

Twenty-five feet south of the center, at a depth of 5 feet, a large fire- 
bed resting on sand was encountered, directly beneath which, in vertical 
succession, were three others, the lowermost being 8J feet deep. A pile 
of charred corncobs and a pile of shells were found adjoining these 
hearths on the north at the depth of 6 feet. All the shells found thus 
in piles in this mound were of the same kind and uniform in size. In 
the earth directly over these fire-beds were found a piece of perforated 
sheet copper (N. M. 135761) and a broken pipe (N. M. 135759). Forty- 
two feet east of the center, at a depth of 4 feet, four post holes were in 
a line north and south, but they could not be traced deeper than from a 
foot to a foot and a half. Immediately below the center, 9 feet deep, 
there was a pile of wood ashes mixed with black coals, 1J feet in 
diameter. Near by lay a small pottery disk and a small piece of bone 
from a human arm. 

MCDOWELL MOUND NO. 2. 

This is a small mound lying about 30 rods northeast of the one last 
described. It has been so materially reduced by the plow and the fre 
quent floods of the river that it is at present only 2 feet high. A trench 
was carried through it north and south, 4 feet deep and 11 feet wide, but 
nothing was found except the remains of a perpendicular post, 1 foot in 
diameter, a little to the south of the center. The post was indicated by 
the charcoal in the mold and about 2 feet of decayed wood at the bot 
tom. It appeared to be either of cottonwood or sassafras. Scattered 
promiscuously through the earth of this mound were fragments of pot 
tery similar to that taken from mound No. 1. A small discoidal stone 
was found. 

FLORIDA. 

Some work was done in this state by Mr. Eogan, but nothing deemed 
worthy of notice was observed except the construction and contents of 
two mounds, which are briefly described as follows : 

The Job Smith mound, situated in the extreme southern part of 
Alachua county and 1 mile north of Watcahootee, on cleared hummock 



328 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

land and surrounded on all sides by hummocks, was composed entirely 
of sand. A considerable amount of charcoal was found scattered 
irregularly through it, but there were no indications of stratification. 
It is circular in form, a little less than 3 feet high, and about 42 feet in 
diameter. 

In the north half six skeletons were found at the bottom, all extended, 
heads west, and each lying on the right side. They had evidently been 
laid on the surface of the ground and the mound heaped over them. 
Around or about the head of each was a small quantity of red paint. The 
bones were so far decayed that they crumbled to pieces on attempting to 
remove them. The skeleton lying nearest the center, though not above 
the ordinary height, was an exceedingly stout and large-boned frame. 
No implements or vestiges of art of any kind were observed. 

Another mound near the center of Alachua county, 3 miles southeast 
of Gainesville, situated on a high hummock on the land of Mrs. Peter 
G. Suowdon, was examined. This w r as composed of white sand, with 
small quantities of charcoal and ashes scattered here and there through 
it. Trees of considerable size were growing on it, one a hickory 18 
inches in diameter. The mound was circular, but flat on top, 4J feet 
high, and 71 feet ia diameter. Close to the base, along the north side, 
ran a trench from which the material of which it was built was probably 
taken. 

Exploration brought to light the fact that a level platform about 1 
foot high had first been formed, on which skeletons were placed and the 
mound then built over them. 

Thirty-seven skeletons, or rather the parts of thirty-seven skeletons, 
pieces of pottery, and a few decomposed conch shells (Busycon perver- 
sum) were discovered. The condition in which the bones were found 
showed that all the bodies, or possibly the skeletons after the flesh had 
been removed, had been buried in the following singular manner: The 
head was tirst taken off and placed in an upright position and the rest 
of the body or frame then disjointed and placed around and upon it. 
One of the skulls had a hole through it which might have been made 
by an ordinary rifle ball. It had entered the center of the top of the 
head and passed out immediately behind the right ear. The hole 
through which it entered was not ragged, but clean cut. The fragments 
of pottery were so placed as to make it clear that the vessels had been 
broken before burial. 

ST. JOHNS AND VOLUSIA COUNTIES. 

The following interesting account of some mounds in these counties 
has been kindly furnished the Bureau by Dr. W. H. Ball, from notes 
made during a trip to Florida in 1885 : 

MOUNDS AT SATSUMA AND ENTERPRISE. 

" Having an opportunity during my absence of visiting the celebrated 
shell mound at Old Enterprise, on Lake Monroe, I availed myself of it 



BUREAU OF ETHNOL^f! v 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. > 









PIPES FROM HOLLYWOOD MOUND, GEORGIA. 



THOMAS.] FLORIDA. 329 

in order to satisfy my curiosity in regard to certain points connected 
with its construction. In this examination I developed certain facts 
which seem worthy of being put on record, as they will, to some extent, 
modify the inference in regard to the construction of these mounds 
which might be drawn from the admirable monograph of Wyinan. 

"It will be understood, of course, that my remarks relate only to 
the particular mounds which I have examined, though perhaps they 
may prove of wider application. 

"The present state of the mounjd at Old Enterprise is one of dilapi 
dation. It is situated on land belonging to the De Bary estate and is 
fenced in, but the material is used in fertilizing orange groves and 
making shell walks, and, by the owners, or with their permission, 
probably two thirds of the mound have been carted away. The work 
of destruction at all events gives an excellent section of the mound 
down to its very foundations, and, however deplorable it may be on 
other grounds, was certainly a great help to me in determining its 
structure. 

" The mound is smaller than Wyman s frontispiece would lead one 
to believe, a misconception which has been brought about unintention 
ally by the artist, and which might have been remedied by putting a 
human figure in the foreground. Though it has extended about 150 
feet along the lake shore, its width at right angles to that direction 
could not have exceeded 50 feet and was probably less. The margins 
were originally so steep as to be difficult to scale, except by the path 
intended for ascent, but only a few yards of the original slope now 
remain, and this will soon be dug away. The mound is situated just to 
the eastward of the point where a considerable stream enters the lake, 
forming the outlet of the beautiful Green Sulphur spring which lies a 
few rods inland. North of the mound a triangular piece of swamp ex 
tends from near the stream, which its apex nearly reaches, to a little 
bay 400 or 500 yards to the eastward, where the base of the triangle 
may be a hundred yards in breadth or more. It is too soft to cross, 
and full of saw palmetto, reeds, etc., growing in hummocks separated 
by water and semifluid mud. This swamp is being cleared and drained 
and will soon cease to exist, but, as the mound originally stood, must 
have nearly isolated it from firm ground and formed an excellent defense 
against attack from that direction. Moreover, in this swamp lived the 
mollusks whose shells have been so important in the construction of 
the mound. 

" Westward from the mound and northwestward from the swamp lies 
an orange grove and some woods; the land gradually rising from the 
lake. The soil is composed of a layer 2 or 3 feet thick of beach sand, 
humus, and an admixture of muddy matter derived from the swamp, 
which was once more extensive in this direction. The surface of the 
ground is covered with shells from the mound, which have arrived 
there in three ways. Some have been carted over and spread about as 
a fertilizer; much has been washed along the shore by storms and 



330 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

thrown up by the waves on the banks, and some of the shells, particu 
larly the more perfect ones, are so round and light that they have sim 
ply been blown by the wind from the sides of the mound, scattered for 
a mile or two over the surface near the sandy beach, but not carried 
inland further than open spaces would permit a brisk breeze to blow. 

" Deep trenches have been dug in the orange grove to drain the 
ground between the rows of trees. Into these trenches a certain num 
ber of the shells from the surface have been blown or have fallen. 
Beside these, however, at a depth of 2 or 3 feet from the surface is a 
layer of mud full of shells of all sorts, and which appears to be a west 
ward extension of the present swamp. This marl and inud appeared 
to be about 2 feet thick in most places and rested on a hard eolian 
sandstone resembling the phosphatic rock of western Florida in appear 
ance, but mttth younger in age, full of recent land shells, and in which 
Pourtales and Wyman both found human bones imbedded at Rock 
island in Lake Monroe. 

u Behind the sand of the beach a little lagoon was originally formed, 
in which gradually accumulated the mud from decaying vegetation 
brought down by the streams or growing on the spot. Here nourished 
the Unios, Viviparas, etc., and in time formed a bed of mud and marl. 
Upon this the wind blew sand from the beach, and in this way the dry 
land has grown. The marl in position is rather soft, but when well 
drained it becomes very hard, almost forming a stone. The shells in 
it are just as they died, large and small, mostly in good condition, 
except the Unios, which are more perishable than the univalves, and 
always less perfect. The Viviparas are thin and light, but very strong, 
and a layer of them will sustain a weight of 150 pounds without break 
ing. Owing to the air they contain they are very buoyant, and a com 
pact layer 4 inches thick spread over the soft mud of the swamp will 
sustain the weight of a man, a fact which I personally tested. Besides 
the whole shells, there is a large amount of broken and decayed shelly 
matter. The large Ampullarias are very fragile and may have been 
broken up, but at all events are very rare in the marl. I saw no per 
fect ones. 

"The shore and bottom of the lake near the mound, and as far as 
could be observed into the deep water, are composed of clear sharp 
sand, affording no food or resting place for mollusks, and neither dead 
nor living ones are found in it, except such as may have been washed 
from the mound., The mound itself probably stands partly on the 
original sea beach and partly on the swamp. 

" The way in which its materials have been scattered about prevented 
the attainment of certainty in the matter, but the above suggestion 
accords with what was observed. About two-thirds of the mound has 
been dug away nearly to the level of the beach. In 1848 the bluff, 
where the storms had washed away the lakeward slope, was 15 feet 
high. The summit of the mound was about 5 feet higher, and on it an 



THOMAS.! FLORIDA. 331 

early settler built a small house, which at one time served to accommo 
date the occasional traveler. All traces of this are now gone and, in 
fact, the part of the mound on which it stood is believed to have been 
entirely dug away. The nearly vertical face from which excavations 
have been made offers an excellent means of inspecting the structure 
of the mound. The sides and base are buried in a talus almost exclu 
sively composed of Vivipara georgiana, Lea, which have weathered out 
of the general mass, and owing to their form and strength have re 
sisted decay. To the casual visitor this talus would give the idea that 
the mound was composed of clear Vivipara shells, which would be a 
very erroneous notion. After clearing away the talus it was evident 
that the body of the mound is formed of mud and marl resembling 
that previously described as underlying the orange grove and which I 
am convinced was brought to the spot from the swamp to build the 
mound. Land from the beach would be liable to be washed ot blown 
away at any time and the marl was but a few yards away. The main 
mass, especially toward the base of the mound, is composed of this 
material un stratified, and by the percolation of lime water rendered 
almost as hard as stone. At about half the height of the mound slight 
indications of stratification are apparent; here and there small layers 
of clean shells, Vivipara or Ampullaria, are visible, an inch or two 
thick and a yard OP two long in section, as if the shells from a repast 
had been thrown out. Bits of charcoal, occasional fish, and other 
bones are more abundant as we ascend. I did not succeed in finding a 
single artificial article of aboriginal origin in all the exposed area and 
talus after a careful search. About 2-J feet below the surface, in the 
compact material, I found one or two pieces of glass which had been 
subjected to the action of fire, and which by age had become beauti 
fully iridescent. It had been originally quite thin and of pale green 
ish color, like that used for cheap looking glasses, such as are used in 
Indian trade. It may, however, have been a relic of the early white 
settlers before referred to, though the depth to which it was buried is 
adverse to this idea. 

u I collected of the rough material composing the mound, about 4 feet 
below the surface, enough to fill a box such as holds 100 cigars. This 
weighed about 5 pounds, and 4 pounds of it were broken up, the con 
tained shells were sorted and identified, with the following result, the 
identifiable shells of each species being counted: 

Vivipara georgiana, Lea - . - 313 

Melania etowahensis, Lea 109 

Amnicola, sp. indet 1 

Unio buckleyi, Lea (valves) 30 

Unio (valves) 5 

Ameria scalaris, Jay 

Glandina truncata, Say 1 

Helix (Polygyra) auriformis, Bid 1 

Zonites minuscula, Binney - 13 



332 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Zonites arborea, Say 1 

Zonites ( Conulus) chersina, Say 1 

Pupa contracta, Say 2 

Pupa rupicola, Say 14 

"Total, 13 species and 495 specimen s of mollusks, besides a fragment 
of marine shell (a Cardium) too small to identify, several fish scales, 
two pieces of fish bones, and one piece of mammalian bone unidentifi 
able. The shells tabulated all live in the vicinity at the present time, 
but are not abundant, owing to the drying up of the swamp or other 
causes. At suitable localities about the lake they are believed to be 
abundant as ever at the proper season, i. e., midsummer. Of all the 
above mentioned, only the Vivipara and Unio have ever been consid 
ered edible. Most of them are far too minute for food. The Ampul- 
larias (A. depressa, Say), which, as before stated, are not disseminated 
through* the mass, but found assembled in small patches, were there 
fore probably gathered elsewhere, perhaps at no great distance, and 
those in the mound are doubtless only relics of dinners. The assem 
blage is just what we might expect in a fluvial marl, and a similar assem 
blage would doubtless be found in a similar mass of the marl from the 
orange grove. 

" My conclusion, therefore, is that the mound was artificially con 
structed as a post of observation (for which it is otherwise peculiarly 
well situated), a dwelling site, fortification against attack or flood, or 
for some other purpose requiring a dry or elevated site. That the build 
ing up, after high- water mark was passed, was intermittent, and the 
materials supplemented by kitchen midden matters and that the gradual 
elevation continued until about the time it was abandoned. 

"The theory that it is solely derived from the relics of dinners, etc., 
seems untenable for the following reasons: (1) The character of the 
main mass of which it is composed as above described; (2) the original 
steepness of the sides, too great to have been the unintentional result 
of throwing out small quantities of empty shells ; (3) the improbability 
that the builders would squat in a marsh or on a beach subject to over 
flow until their refuse had built them a dry site in spite of themselves; 
(4) the small area of the top, which renders it highly improbable that 
the d inner refuse of all who could sit on it could have made such a 
mound in many centuries; (5) and lastly, the fact that a material simi 
lar to that of which the mound is composed is close at hand and offers 
no difficulties to anyone desiring to get it. I should add that Mr. Le 
Baron, an engineer who contributed to the Smithsonian Report of 1882 
an interesting list of mounds observed by him in Florida, came, on 
other grounds, to a similar conclusion with regard to this mound. 



THE SATSUMA MOUND. 



"This mound is situated on the bank of the St. Johns river, about 20 
miles south of Palatka, near a small, new settlement called Satsuma. 



THOMAS. j NORTH CAROLINA. 333 

I did not visit it, but examined a large scow load of material brought 
from it to Palatka for shell walks, etc. I was informed that it was 
about 25 feet high and 100 feet long along the bank, with a swamp 
behind it. 

."An examination of the material showed a similar assemblage of spe 
cies, many of which could not have been gathered for food or any prac 
tical use. The consolidated material was also like that at Enterprise, 
and I was led to suspect from these facts that the Satsuma mound 
might have been like the former, artificially constructed of mud from 
an adjacent swamp. 

" The question having been recently discussed as to the use by exist 
ing residents of Florida of the fresh- water shells of the region for food 
and it having been incidentally stated by Wyman that the Florida 
" crackers n eat the Palndina ( Vivipara), and Unio, I made careful inqui 
ries among this class of people during my stay and found that none of 
them had ever heard of eating Vivipara and only in one case had Unio 
been tasted, and then as a matter of curiosity, which was so well satis 
fied that the old man said that i if the Lord would forgive him for that 
one he would never try another. 

" The error appears to have arisen from the fact that both the marine 
and fresh- water spiral shells are called conchs by these people, and 
the marine shells are not unfrequently used for food like i winkles in 
Great Britain ; so that Wyman was led to believe that both were com 
monly eaten, which is certainly not the case." 



NORTH CAROLINA. 
CALDWELL COUNTY. 

THE PATTERSON GRADING. 

This work is situated near Patterson, in the northwest part of the 
county and close to the Yadkin river. It is a terrace or platform partly 
natural and partly artificial, extending out from the steep terminus of 
a low ridge, which here descends at an angle of about 45 degrees. The 
artificial portion extends out from the natural terrace about 68 "feet, 
the height being 7 feet. A trench was cut half way across it, proving it 
to be composed chiefly of water worn bowlders, and red and yellow clay, 
with charcoal intermingled. Here and there pieces of mica were found ; 
at the depth of 2 J feet from the top and 6 feet from the edge was a pol 
ishing or whetstone, and at another point the fragment of a soapstone 
vessel with rudely carved figures on it, proving beyond question that 
the terrace is in part, at least, artificial. 

THE T. F. NELSON MOUND. 

This mound, so insignificant in appearance as scarcely to attract any 
notice, but hiding beneath the surface such important mementoes of the 



334 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



past, was located on the farm of Rev. T. F. Nelson, in the northwest 
part of the county, and about a mile and a half southeast of Patterson. 
It stood on the bottom land of the Yadkin, about 100 yards from the 
river, and was almost a true circle in outline, 38 feet in diameter, but 
not exceeding at any point 18 inches in height. The thorough excava 
tion made, in which Mr. Rogan, the Bureau agent, was assisted by Dr. 
J. M. Spainhour, of Lenoir, showed that the original constructors had 




first dug a circular pit about 38 feet in diameter to the depth of 3 feet 
and there placed the dead, some in stone cists and others uuinclosed, 
and afterwards covered them over, raising a slight mound above the pit. 
A plan of the pit, showing the stone graves and skeletons as they ap 
peared after the removal of the dirt and before being disturbed, is 
given in Fig. 207. 



THOMAS.] NORTH CAROLINA. 335. 

No. 1 is a stone grave or vault standing exactly in the center of this 
large pit, but in a small circular pit evidently made for this special pur 
pose, extending down 3 feet below the bottom of the larger one. This 
vault, built of cobblestones around a standing skeleton, was made 3 feet 
in diameter at the base, carried up perpendicularly for 4 feet and then 
narrowed so as to be covered by a single soapstone slab at the top. 
On the top of the head of the skeleton, which was found still standing, 
though much decayed, were several plates of cut mica, the only arti 
cles accompanying it. 

The skeletons in Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, though walled 
around in a similar manner, were in a squatting posture on the bot 
tom of the large pit. With skeleton No. 2 was one small celt; with 
No. 3 a discoidal stone; with No. 6 two celts, and over No. 9, but in 
side the vault, a pitted stone. 

Nos. 11, 12, and 13 are three skeletons found in a squatting position, 
with no wall around them and unaccompanied by relics of any kind. 
Nos. 14 and 15 were lying horizontally at full length, also uninclosed. 
With the former were pieces of broken pipes and with the latter one 
celt. No. 16 was an uninclosed " squatter " of unusually large size, not 
less than 7 feet high when living. Near the mouth was an entire soap- 
stone pipe; the legs were extended in a southwest direction upon a bed 
of burnt earth. 

The faces of all the squatting skeletons were turned away from the 
standing, central one. 

At A was a considerable quantity of black paint in little lumps, 
which appear to have been molded in the hull of some nut. B indicates 
a cubical mass of waterworn bowlders built up solidly and symmetri 
cally, 24 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches high, showing no 
indications of fire, without ashes or bones on or aro und it. 

On the contrary, the stones built around the bodies bore more or 
less evidence of fire, having been blackened by smoke in ylaces, and 
the earth immediately around them was considerably hardened by 
baking. The bones of the skeletons also showed indications of heat. 
Scattered throughout the mound were small pieces of pottery and char 
coal. 

THE T. F. NELSON TRIANGLE. 

This is the name applied to an ancient triangular burying ground 
on the farm of Eev. T. F. Nelson, and located about 75 yards north 
of the mound just described. 

It is simply a burial pit in the form of a triangle, the east and west 
sides each 48 feet long, and the southern base 32 feet, the depth vary 
ing from 2J to 3 feet. The top was not mounded up, but level with the 
surrounding surface. The apex, which points directly north, extends 
within 3 feet of the bank of the Yadkin river, the height above the 
usual water level being about 12 feet. A plat of the triangle, show 
ing the position of the burials in it, is given in Fig. 208. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 



336 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 indicate the positions of single skeletons lying horizon 
tally on their backs, their heads resting east or northeast. With No. 2 
was a broken soapstone pipe ; with Nos. 5 and 9 one small polished 
celt each. Nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were buried in stone vaults 




FIG. 208. T. F. Nelson Triangle, Caldwell county, North 
Carolina. 



Fin. 201). Copper cylinder, 
Nelson triangle. 



similar to those in the mound; 10, 12, 13, and 15 being in a sitting 
posture unaccompanied by any article. Nos. 11 and 14 indicate graves 
containing two skeletons each extended horizontally one above the other, 
the lower ones of smaller stature than those above, with the faces up, 




Fm. 210. Bracelet of shell and copper beads, Nelson Triangle. 

and very heavy stones placed on the extended arms and legs, fastening 
them down. The upper skeletons, of larger stature and face down, 
were resting on those below. No articles were found with them. Near 
No. 12 was*about a peck of singular, pinkish colored earth. 



THOMAS.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



337 



In the northeast part of the triangle, at A, were ten or more bodies 
in one grave or group, which appeared to have been buried at one time, 




FIG. 211. lion celt from Nelson triangle. 

the chief or principal personage of the group resting horizontally on his 
face, with his head northeast and his feet southwest. Under his 
head was the large engraved shell shown in 
Fig. 213 ; around his neck were a number of 
large- sized shell beads; at or near his ears 
lay five elongate copper beads, or rather 
small cylinders, varying in length from 1J to 
4J inches, and in diameter from one -fourth 
to half an inch, part of the leather thong on 
which they had been strung yet remaining 
in them. These are made of thin pieces of 
copper cut into strips and then rolled to 
gether so that the edges meet in a straight 
joint on one side. The copper looks as 
though it had been rolled into sheets and 
not hammered (Fig. 209). A piece of cop 
per was also under his breast. His arms 
were bent, the hands resting about 1 foot 
from each side of his head. Around each 
wrist were the remains of a bracelet com 
posed of copper and shell beads alternating, 
as shown in Fig. 210. At his right hand 
lay four iron implements, one of which, a 
roughly hammered celt or chisel, is shown 
in Fig. 211 ; another piece, some 6 or 7 inches 
long and about 1 inch wide, is evidently part 
of a sword blade or knife (Fig. 212) ; another, 
part of a punch or large awl, with a portion 
of the horn handle yet attached. Under his 
left hand was another engraved shell, the 
concave surface upward, and filled with shell beads of all sizes. 
12 ETH 22 



li/ 



FIG. 212. Part of iron blade, Nelson 
triangle. 



338 



MOt Nl) EXPLORATIONS. 



Around and partly over this skeleton, with their heads near his, 
were nine others. Under the heads of two of these skeletons, lying 
within a foot of the head of the first, were also several engraved shells, 
one of which is shown in Fig. 214. Scattered over and among the 
bones of these ten or more skeletons were numerous polished celts, 
discoidal stones, copper arrow points, pieces of mica, lumps of paint, 
black lead, stone pipes, etc. Some of the forms of the pipes from this 
and the other burial places in this locality are shown in Figs. 215-220. 




FIG. 2115. Engraved shell, Nelsou triangle. 
THK \V. OAVKXPOKT .IONES MOUND. 

Two miles east of Patterson, near the north bank of the Yadkin 
river, running out from a low ridge to the river bank, is a natural ter 
race about 12 feet high, with a level area of about an acre on top, and 
sloping on the sides at an angle of 45 degrees, on which, according to 
tradition, there was formerly an Indian village. About 200 yards east 
of this, on the second river bottom or terrace, there was a low, circular 
mound 32 feet in diameter and not more than 1 foot high, on the land 
of Mr. W. Davenport Jones. This mound was found upon investiga. 
tiou to cover a circular pit of the same diameter and 3 feet deep, the 
margin and bottom being so well defined as to leave no doubt as to the 



THOMAS. j NORTH CAROLINA. 339 

limits of the pit; in fact the bottom, which was of clay, had been baked 
hard by lire to the depth of 2 or 3 inches. The pit was tilled with soil 
and loose yellow clay similar to the surface soil around the mound cov 
ering twenty-six skeletons and one stone heap in the relative positions 
shown in Fig. 221. Some of the skeletons were inclosed in vaults 
formed of cobble stones. 




FIG. 214. Engraved shell, Ndsou triangle. 

No. 1, squatting, walled in with water- worn bowlders ; the face turned 
to the west; no implements or ornaments. 

No. 2, sitting with the face toward the center, two celts at the feet, and 
immediately in front of the face a cone-shaped piece of hard pottery 
paste. 




FIG. 215. Pipe, Caldwell county. Xorth Carolina. 



No. 3, sitting with face toward the center; several celts at the feet. 
No. 4, horizontal, with the head southeast; several celts at the feet. 
No. 5, horizontal, with the head toward the center; celts at the feet. 
No. G, sitting with the face toward the center; beads around the neck, 
a Unio shell on top of the head with the concave surface down, a conch 



340 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



shell (Bttsycon perversum) in front of and uear the face, and celts at the 
feet. 

No. 7. Sitting facing the center; celts at the feet. 

No. 8. Very large, lying on the left side, partially drawn up; walled 
in with bowlders; no implements. 

No. 0. Horizontal, face down, head toward the center; a pot (with 
out ears) on the head ; celts and discoidal stones at the feet. 




FIG. 216. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina. 

No. 10. Horizontal, face up, feet towards the center; a pot with ears ? 
over the face; stone implements at the feet. 

No. 11. Horizontal, head southeast, arms extended, and a bracelet of 
copper and shell beads around each wrist; shell beads around the 
neck; face up, with food cup (without handle) at the right side of the 
head. 

No. 114. Horizontal, lying on the back, head southeast; beads around 
the neck, a hook or crescent-shaped piece of copper on the breast, and 




111. Pipe, Caldwell 



a pipe near the face; one hand near each side of the head grasping coni 
cal copper ornaments (eardrops) and a bunch of hair. 

No. 13. Horizontal, lying on the back, head southeast; copper and 
shell beads around the neck and wrists, a hook or crescent-shaped piece 
of copper on the breast; food cup (with handle) lying on its side with 
the mouth toward the face of the skeleton ; a pipe near the mouth and 
two celts over the head. 

No. 14. Horizontal, lying on the back, head northeast, arms extended, 
and hands resting on shells. 



THOMAS.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



341 



No. 15. Horizontal, on the back, head west, knees drawn up to the 
chin ; stone implements at the feet. 

No. 16. Too much decayed to determine the position. 

No. 17. Four skeletons in one grave, horizontal, with feet toward the 




FIG. 218. Pipe, Calihvell county, North Carolina. 

west and large stones lying on the legs below the knees. Xo imple 
ments with them. 

No. 18. Two skeletons in one grave, with heads west, faces down, 
knees drawn up; no implements. 

No. 19. Horizontal, on the back, head east; no implements. 




FIG. 21.. Pipe. Calihvell i-omity, North Carolina. 

No. 20. Sitting, walled in with bowlders, face toward the east, a large 
stone lying on the feet (this may have fallen from the wall); no imple 
ments. 

No. 21. Sitting, walled in with bowlders. Over the head, but under 
the capstone of the vault, was a handful of flint arrowheads. 




v, North Carolina. 



No. 22. Doubled up, with head between the feet. 

A on the diagram indicates a solid oval-shaped mass of bowlders, 32 
inches long, 22 inches wide, and 24 inches high, resting on the bottom 
of the pit. There were no ashes, charcoal, or other sign of fire about it. 

Broken pottery, mica, galena, charcoal, red and black paint, etc., 



342 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



were found scattered in small quantities through the earth which filled 
the pit. The skeletons were so badly decayed that very few bones 
could be saved. 



It. T. LF.NOIK lU IUAI. 1 IT. 



This is a circular burial pit, similar to those already described, hut 
without any rounding up of the surface. It is located on the farm of 
Mr. Kufus T. Lenoir, about !) miles northeast of Lenoir and nearly a 
mile west of Fort Defiance. 



W 




"0 




9 
FIG. 221. Plan of W. I). Jones monixl. Cahlwell county, North Carolina. 

A diagram showing the relative positions of the graves or burials is 
given in Fig. 222. 

It is on the first river terrace or bottom of Buffalo creek, and about 
200 yards from this stream, which empties into the Vadkin about half a 
mile southwest of this point. This bottom is subject to overflow in 
time of high water. 

The pit, which is 27 feet in diameter and about 34 feet deep, is almost a 
perfect circle and well marked, the margin, which is nearly perpendic- 



THOMAS.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



343 



ular, and the bottom being readily traced. The dirt in this case, as in 
the others, was all thrown out. 

No. 1, abed of charred or rather burnt bones occupying a space 3 
feet long, 2 feet wide, and 12 inches deep, the bones so thoroughly 
burned that it was impossible to determine whether they were human 
or animal. Beneath this bed the yellow sand was baked to the depth 
of 1 or 2 inches. Under the bones was a shell with two holes through it. 

No. 2, a skeleton in a sitting posture, face northeast, a pipe near the 
mouth and a polished celt over the head. 




FIG. 222. R. T. Lenoir burial pit (plan), CaWwell county, North Carolina. 

No. 3. sitting skeleton, facing east, with shell beads around tlie neck 
and also around the arms just below the shoulders. 

No. 4, horizontal skeleton, lying on the back, head east and resting 
on the concave surface of an engraved shell. Conch shell (Bmycon 
perversum) at the side of the head, and copper and shell beads around 
the neck. 

No. 5, horizontal, head northeast, shell beads around the neck, and 
two discoidal stones and one celt at the feet. 



344 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

No. 6, a communal grave containing 25 skeletons in two tiers, buried 
without any apparent regularity as to direction or relative position. 
Thirteen of the 25 were flatheads, that is, with the head artificially com 
pressed in front. Scattered throughout this grave, between and above 
the skeletons, were polished celts, discoidal stones, shells, pieces of 
mica, galena, fragments of pottery, and one whole pot. Around the 
necks and wrists of some of the skeletons were also shell beads. There 
were a great many bones in this grave, and possibly more than 25 
skeletons, but this was the number of skulls observed. 

No. 8, an irregular layer of water worn bowlders, about 4 feet square. 
On the top was a bed of charcoal, about 3 inches deep, on and partially 
imbedded in which were three skeletons, but showing no indications 
of having been burned. Scattered over these skeletons were discoidal 
stones, one saucer, shells (one of which is engraved), pipes, shell beads, 
and pieces of pottery. 

No. 9, a grave containing three skeletons lying horizontally on their 
backs, two with their heads east and the one between them with the 
head west. They lay close together, and were unaccompanied by 
implements or ornaments. 

No. 10, horizontal, on the right side, head north, with stone imple 
ments in front of the face. 

No. 11, doubled up, top of the head south, shell beads around the 
neck, and celts at the feet. 

No. 12, a grave containing seventeen skeletons, seven of which had 
compressed heads; two of the number, children. Two of the adult 
heads were resting on engraved shells. In this grave were four pots 
and two food cups, the handle of one of the latter representing an 
owl s head, that of the other an eagle s head. One of the small pots 
was inside a larger one. Scattered among the skeletons were also 
shell beads, polished celts, discoidal stones, paint, etc. 

TIIK SHKRRIL MOUND. 

This is a small mound, 38 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, located on 
the farm of Sion J. Sherril, 3J miles east of Lenoir. It was composed 
of yellow clay and coarse yellow sand. Nothing else except a very 
small quantity of charcoal was observed. 

BURKE AND WILKES COUNTIES. 

A conical mound 320 feet in circumference and 7 feet high, situated 
on the farm of Mrs. J. E. Collet, in the northern part of Burke county, 
was explored, but aside from the yellow sand and yellow clay of which 
it was chiefly composed, nothing was found in it except some remnants 
of charred straw and cane. These were scattered in small quantities 
through the mound. 



THOMAS.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



345 



ANCIENT CEMETERY. 

On the farm of Mr. Charles Hunt in the central part of Wilkes 
county, is what appears to be a small, ancient cemetery, and probably 
the site of a camp or temporary village. It is about 3J miles east of 
Wilkesboro on the second bottom or terrace of the Yadkin river and 
differs from the burial places just described in having no large pit, the 
graves being separate and independent of each other. The diagram 
given in Fig. 223 shows the relative positions of the graves and small 
pits. 

No. 1, a grave or oval- shaped pit 2 feet long and 18 inches wide, the 
top within S inches of the surface of the ground, the bottom 2J feet 




FIG. 223. Anc-ient burial ground, Wilkes county, North Carolina. 

below it. This contained the remains of a doubled skeleton, which 
were surrounded by charcoal; some of the bones were considerably 
charred. In the pit were some fragments of pottery, a few flint chips, 
and a decayed tortoise shell. 

No. 2, a grave 2 feet wide, <> feet long, and 5 feet deep. It con 
tained quite a quantity of animal bones, some of them evidently those 
of a bear, also charcoal, mussel shells, and one bone implement, but no 
human skeleton. 

No. 3, a grave of the same size and depth as No. 2, containing ani 
mal bones, broken pottery, and some charcoal. 

No. 4, a grave, the size, depth, and contents the same as the preceding. 



346 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. 5, a circular pit 2 feet in diameter and 2 feet deep. This con 
tained a very large pot in which were some animal bones. It was on 
its side and crushed. 

No. (3, a pit 2 feet deep and 2 feet square, with a bed of charcoal in 
the bottom G inches deep. On this bed was a layer of flint chips, and 
on the chips a quantity of broken pottery, animal bones, a discoidal 
stone and a bone implement. 

No, 7, a grave similar to those described. 

No. 8, a large grave containing three skeletons lying at full length 
upon the right side, with the heads a little east of north. These are 
marked , ft, c in the diagram. Between a and fc, and in front of the 
face of <(, was a mass of mussel shells; at the head and back of a were 
a number of animal bones. Between a and />, opposite the pelvis, was 
a large broken pot. The right arm of c was extended forward and 
upward, the left arm resting across the head, a white flint chip grasped 
in the hand. The head of this skeleton was resting on a piece of a 
broken pot, and in front of the face, at the distance of a foot, was also 
part of a pot containing a stone fragment and some animal bones. 




FIG. 224. Clay hearth (or lire-bed), Wilkes county, North Carolina. 

Under the legs of the three skeletons, the head extended in front of 
the legs of <*, Avas the skeleton of a bear. In front of c were three 
broken pots containing animal bones. 

No. 9, a basin-shaped fire-bed, or bed of burnt clay, 8 inches thick. 
A section of this bed is shown in Fig. 224, />, />, />, the bed of burnt clay 
and sand 8 inches thick, the material evidently placed here and not a 
part of the original soil. The basin, , was filled with ashes, the depth 
being 12 inches, and the diameter from 1 to 2, 2 feet 3 inches; from 1 to 
3, and 2 to 4, each 1 foot and 6 inches. 

No. 10, a bed of mussel shells 3 inches thick and 3 feet in diameter, 
lying on aflat bed of burnt earth 3 inches thick. 

No. 11, a pit 5 feet deep and 3 feet in diameter, filled with animal 
bones, mussel shells, and broken pottery. 

There was no mound over any of these graves or the pit. 

HAY WOOD C OVNTY. 

An article in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland for June, 1882, in regard to some singular works of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



347 



art found in Haywood county, having excited the curiosity of our anti 
quarians, Mr. Emmert was sent into that region to procure, if possible, 
some specimens of this singular class of articles and to ascertain 
whether they were ancient or modern. After considerable difficulty he 
was entirely successful in his effort. IFe ascertained that these articles 
were made from the soapstone found in that region by some persons 
who had learned how to give them the appearance of age. This is 
done by placing them, after being carved, in running water which is 
tinctured with iron, as most of the streams in that region are. As a 
proof of the correctness of his statement Mr. Emmert had the same 
parties who stated they had made some articles 
for Mr. Valentine make quite a number of sim 
ilar articles for the Bureau. Some of these are 
represented in Figs. 225, 226, and 227 , I. 

THE RIG MOUND. 

This mound, of which a section through the 
length is shown in Fig. 228, is near Waynes- 
ville. It is oblong in form and flattened on 
top; the length of the base, 188 feet; width, 
about 70 feet; height at ., 12J feet, and at &, 
10 feet. 

Pits were sunk at <i and b to the original 
surface, through dark earth mixed with sand, 
uniform in character and showing no indica 
tions of stratification. Near the top in both 
pits were found several fragments of soapstone 
vessels, and at the bottom of pit 2 one celt, 
one shark s tooth, and several fragments of 
pottery, but no human remains or indications 
of burial. 

MOl XI) XKAK HK IILAXI) CREEK. 

This is situated on a ridge half a mile from 
Richland creek and 2 miles from Waynesville. 
It is apparently double, 70 feet long, 30 feet 
wide, and 3J feet high at each end, but consid 
erably lower in the middle. At the bottom, FlG - 223.-uu R us article. 

-,",,., . . rountv, North Carolina; 

under the highest point of the west end was a 

bed of dark earth in which were the remains of two skeletons lying at 
lull length side by side. With these were found seven arrow heads, 
one rude stone axe with a hole drilled through it, one polishing stone 
of iron ore, two broken stone gorgets, and a small lot of mica. Under 
the highest point of the east end was a similar bed of dark earth in 
which were the remains of one skeleton, also stretched out at full 
length. By this were three flint knives or scrapers and a clay pipe. 




348 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

BUNCOMBE AND HENDERSON COUNTIES. 

Some mounds in and along the borders of these two counties were 
explored which present some characteristics worthy of notice. 

MOUND ON LYTLE S FARM. 

This mound is near Cane creek, Henderson county, in a field of bottom 
land owned by Mr. A. Lytle. It measured 48 feet from east to west, 38 
feet from north to south, and 8 feet high. The oval shape is possibly 
due in part to the fact that it has long been plowed over in one direc 
tion. It was built of yellow sand throughout, showing no stratification 
except a single layer of coal and ashes, 3 inches thick, just above the 
original surface of the ground. 

THE CONNER MOUNT). 

This mound, located on the farm of Mrs. Bebecca Conner, 1 mile from 
the preceding, is 6 feet high, 44 feet in diameter, round, and forms 




FIG. 226. Bogus article, Haywood county. North Carolina. 

a symmetrical cone. Small trees were growing on it. It was found to 
contain what, to all appearances, were the remains of a charcoal pit. 
In the center had been placed pine poles, as shown in Fig. 229, and 
burned to charcoal and ashes. The diameter of the base of this conical 
heap w as 16 feet, the height nearly 6 feet, the sides sloping regularly to 
the apex. The interior portion consisted of ashes and small coals, mixed 
with earth, in which were found some burnt bones and tAvo perforated 
stones. 

All the mound, except the coal bed, consisted of red clay. It stood 
on a ridge about half a mile from the creek, on hard, gravelly soil, which 
bore no indications of having been disturbed before building the 
mound. 1 



Attention is called here to a statement by Haywood (Nat. and Aborig. Hist. Tenn., p. 234). Speak 
ing of the inhabitants of lower East Tennessee be says: " The former inhabitants appeared to have 
lived in houses which, on the outside, seemed to be the color of a blacksmith s coalpit. The houses 
were made by setting up poles and then digging out the dirt and covering the poles with it. They 
were round and generally about 10 feet in diameter." 



THOMAS.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



THE ALEXANDER MOUNDS. 



349 



No. 1 is oil the farm of Mr. J. B. Alexander, on the same creek, 
but 2 miles above the one last mentioned. It is on an elevated level 
one-fourth of a mile from the creek, in an old field which has been 
plowed over for sixty years. At the time explored it was only 2 feet 
high at the highest point and but 30 feet in diameter. The old settlers 
say it was formerly considerably higher, and that there was a ridge or 
raised roadway 200 feet long, running from it directly toward the creek. 
This is represented at present only by a line of red clay. It was 
entirely removed without finding any specimens or any indications of 
burial, but after reaching the natural surface of the ground a circu- 




FIG. 227. Bogus articles, Haywood county, North Carolina. 

lar pit, 12 feet in diameter, was discovered, which had been dug to the 
depth of 4 feet in the original red clay. This was filled to the top 
with ashes and charcoal, but no traces of bones could be discovered, 
though careful search was made for them. The mound was composed 
entirely of red clay. 

No. 2, half a mile from No. 1, diameter 52 feet, height 9 feet and hemi 
spherical in form, was covered with trees some of which were 18 inches 
in diameter. 

This mound was composed of three layers : a top stratum of red clay 
between 3 and 4 feet thick, next a layer of charcoal about 3 inches 
thick, running entirely across from side to side and following the curve 



350 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



of the surface, and last a layer of dark-colored earth extending to the 
original surface. In the bottom layer, lying on the original surface, 
were five skeletons. By the side of one of these were sixteen white quartz 
knives, one small stone pipe, and several arrowheads. At another 
point were a stone gorget, a large celt, and some arrowheads. 

The sixteen white quartz implements must have been made by one 
individual, as they are all of the same kind of stone, of the same form, 
and show the same workmanship. 

MOUND OX SUANANOA KIN Kit, HUNCOMBK COUNTY. 

This mound is about 4 miles from Asheville, on the bottom land, not 
more than 100 yards from the river, is circular, 80 feet in diameter, and 
9 feet high. A wide trench cut through it from side to side and down 
to the natural soil brought to light the fact that it was built partly of 
stone and partly of earth. The core or central portion, to the height 




FIG. 228. Big mound, Haywood county. North Carolina. 

of 4 feet above the original surface and covering a space about 30 feet 
in diameter, was built of irregular blocks of stone, heaped together 
without order or plan. The remainder of the mound Avas made of 
dark surface soil. The top layer of earth being removed down to the 




Fit;. 229. Section of Conner inoiiml, Henderson county. North Carolina. 

rock pile, the entire surface of the latter was found to be covered with 
charcoal and evidences that it had been burned here. Among the coal 
were numerous joints of charred cane. The stones were all removed, 
but no remains or relics, save a few arrowheads, were discovered. 



This mound is on the farm of Mr. J. B.Throsh, 1.J miles from Hominy 
creek, Buncombe county. It is located on a ridge, is circular, 33 feet 
in diameter at the base, and 4 feet high. Xo remains or vestiges of art 
were found in it. Its composition was as follows: First, a top layer, 18 
inches thick, of red clay similar to that around it, conforming to the 
curve of the mound and entirely covering the bottom layer of black 
earth which rested on the original soil. The latter had evidently been 
carried from the creek, a mile distant. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



351 



EAST TENNESSEE. 
SULLIVAN COUNTY. 

MOUNTS OX HOL8TOX RIVER. 

There are two mounds on Holston river about 10 miles east of Bristol. 
In Fig. 230 a plat and section of the area on which they are located are 
given. In the plat (A) No. 1 is the nionud on the north side of the 
river; No. 2, the mound on the south side. At B is shown a section 
running northwest and southeast through the mounds (1 and 2) on the 
upper level, 3 the lower level or river bottom, and 4 the river. 

Mound No. 1, which is on the north side of the river, was found when 





B 

FIG. 2150 Plan of mounds 011 the Holstou river, Sullivan county, Tennessee. 

measured to be 22 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, circular in form, 
and composed of red clay and. sand. 

Resting on the original surface of the ground near the center was a 
stone vault shaped somewhat like a beehive. It was constructed en 
tirely of Avater-worn bowlders and arched over the top by shortening 
and drawing in the courses. In this was a single sitting skeleton. It 
was evident" that the body, or more likely the skeleton, had been set 
down in this place and the vault built around it. Lying on the head 
was the long copper spindle shown in Fig. 231. It is 11 inches long, 
one fourth of an inch in diameter at the thickest part, and appears 
to have been roughly hammered out of native copper with some rude 
implement. Immediately under the lower jaw were two small copper 
drills or awls with portions of the deer-horn handles still attached to 
them; near the head a small pile of Hint chips and by the knees a long 



352 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

flint knife. The bones were so decayed that most of them crumbled to 
pieces as soon as exposed to the air. 

Mound No. 2 stood on the south side of the river opposite to No. 1 
and about the same distance from the stream as the latter. It was cir 
cular in outline, rounded on top, 38 feet in diameter at the base, and 5 
feet high. On the top was a pine stump 14 inches in diam 
eter, the tree having been cut down about thirty years ago. 
The excavation which was begun at the margin soon reached 
a wall 3 feet high and about a foot thick, built of stones taken 
from the bed of the river. This was followed and found to 
be an almost perfect circle 14 feet in diameter, in which, when 
the earth was cleared away, were discovered twelve small, 
beehive-shaped vaults built of stones of the same kind as 
8 those in the wall. One of these was exactly in the center, 
i the other eleven being placed in a circle around it and about 
equally spaced, as shown in Fig. 232. The bottom of the 
area within the circular wall, which corresponded with the 
natural surface of the ground, was covered to the depth of 
a 3 inches with charcoal and the graves or vaults were built 
| on this layer. In each vault were the remains of a single 
< sitting skeleton, all of adults. In the center vault a number 
| of shell beads were found around the neck of the skeleton 
Q 1 and near the mouth the h ne stone pipe shown in Fig. 233. 

1 This pipe is made of fine-grained syenite and highly polished. 
js No articles were found with any of the other skeletons. 

Each of the two last mentioned mounds is on the bench or 
g upper bottom and about one-fourth of a mile from the river. 
| This locality is said to have been for a long time an Indian 
^ camping ground, which seems to be confirmed by the fact 
that the surface of the ground is thickly strewn with flint 

2 chips and fragments of pottery. Tradition says that the In 
dians once had a great battle here, and that one party buried 
their dead in mound No. 2 and the other party buried theirs 
on the opposite side of the river, where there is still a great 
mound of river stones. 

Mound No. 3 (not shown in the plat) is also on the Holston 
river, 2 miles above those just described. This mound, 
which resembles No. 2 in several respects, was circular, 60 
feet in diameter, and nearly 5 feet high. The original surface 
of the earth had first been covered over with charcoal to the depth of 
3 inches, then the bodies or skeletons laid on it and each walled up 
separately with river stones; these were then covered over with a layer 
of black earth 18 inches thick, and on this was spread a layer of sand 
over a foot thick and on this was a thin layer of surface soil. On one- 
half of the circular layer of charcoal were six skeletons walled up sep 
arately as before stated, but so thoroughly decayed that only one skull 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 353 

could be saved. The other side of the mound had nothing in it except 
a fine stone pipe somewhat similar to that shown in Fig. 233, which was 
on the bed of coals some 10 or 12 feet from the nearest skeleton. Near 
the head of one of the skeletons were some beautiful arrow-heads, shell 
beads, a polished celt, and two perforated stones. 

ANCIENT GRAVES NEAR KINGSPORT. 

A plat showing the locality of these and some other works noticed is 
given in Fig. 234. In this d and e are five graves covered with piles of 




FlG.2:!2. Plan of Imrials in mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee. 

stone; c, the site of old Fort Patrick Henry, built in 1778; at/, on the 
opposite side of the river, is an ancient graveyard, some of the graves 
being covered with stones, others with earth; at a is a waste pit in 
Cherokee Island, full of broken pottery, bones, etc. The graves at e 
are on the old Bird well farm, about a mile above the head of Long Island. 
They are in the top and near the break of a high bluff which here over 
looks the river. The pile on each was oval in outline, measuring about 
14 feet in length, 9 feet in width, and 18 inches high, composed of broken 
limestone. The pit of one, which for convenience i s designated No. 1, 
appears to have been nearly equal in extent to the pile of stones over 
it and about 2 feet in depth. A longitudinal section is shown in 
12 ETH 23 



354 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Fig. 235. a a denote the surface level; 1, soil to the depth of 8 inches; 
2, red clay 2 feet thick ; 3, black earth, charcoal, and ashes 3 inches thick. 

A longitudinal section of the other, or No. 2, shows that the layers 
were the same in character and about the same in thickness as those 
of No. 1, but the extent of the pit in this case was much less than the 
pile of stones over it, the length being only 8 feet and the width in pro 
portion. No indications of burial were found in either, and had it not 
been for the layer of black earth, charcoal, and ashes at the bottom, 
and the fact that flint chips were found in this layer, we might con 
clude that no pit had been dug here, especially as its outline was not 
distinctly marked. The layer of surface soil under the piles of stone 
indicates that these were placed there long after the pits were filled up. 

The graves at d, one-fourth of a mile below those at e, were found to 
be similar in covering, size, and character to the latter, except some 
slight peculiarities in one of them, which is designated as grave No. 3. 
In this the stones were not only piled over the surface, but extended 
down some distance into the grave, as shown in Fig. 236. These must 




FIG. 233. Stoiie pipe from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee. 

have been pounded in, as they were so tightly packed that it was diffi 
cult to remove them. It was limited at the sides by natural ledges of 
limestone, which sloped towards each other, as shown in the figure. The 
usual layer of dark earth, charcoal, and ashes was at the bottom. In 
this were found some sheets of mica, fourteen arrowheads, one stone 
gorget, and one small copper rod or awl about 4 inches long, some frag 
ments of a soapstone vessel, and a lump of red paint. 

Nos. 4 and 5 were precisely similar to No. 1 at e. Some arrowheads, 
flint chips, and lumps of black ore were found in the coal bed of No. 4. 

As there was nothing in either of these graves or pits indicating 
burial, it is difficult to imagine the object in view in digging them. 
Other similar graves not opened are on the opposite side of the river, 
marked /on the plat. 

CARTER COUNTY. 

There is an ancient cemetery on the north bank of Watauga river 
just above the mouth of Buifalo creek. In 1886 a skeleton was found 
partially exposed, the river having washed away a part of the bank. 



TENNESSEE. 



355 



It lay at the depth of 3 feet, the head turned towards the southeast: with 
it were four arrowheads, several shell beads, and many small fragments 
of pottery; most of the latter about the head. Quite a number of skele 
tons were subsequently exposed by the high water and others in the 
process of digging a road through the grounds. 

The burial ground, on which many broken stone axes, arrow points, 
and other stone implements have been found, but which has been pretty 




I IG. 234. Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessee. 

4 

thoroughly worked over, is about one mile and a half below old Fort 
Watauga, mentioned by Haywood as the Watauga settlement. It is 
now on the farm of Mr. John S. Thomas and near the house where John 
Sevier and Tipton had their fight over the " State of Franklin." 
On Gap creek, about 4 miles from the fort, are two caves in a rocky 



356 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




FIG. 235. Section of grave No. 1, near Kings] 
Tennessee. 



ridge which borders the creek on the east. One of these is compara 
tively small, and can be entered only by a narrow, perpendicular descent 
of 10 feet. Here and there are places where the floor is covered with 
loose earth mixed with charcoal and ashes. During a rather hasty 
examination the explorer found in this debris a broken stone gorget, a 
spearhead, and some shell beads, but no indications of burial. 

COCKE COUNTY. 

But one mound in this county was examined. This is on Vincent 
island, Pigeon river, and is about 200 feet long and varies from 4 to 6 

feet in height; it was formerly 
about 50 feet wide, but a long 
strip oft one side has been washed 
away by the river. The general 
appearance is that of a refuse 
heap. 

Although the entire mound was 
removed, no skeletons or signs of burial were discovered ; but near the 
center and close to bottom was a somewhat singular collection contain 
ing the following articles: Thirty-three celts, mostly polished; frag 
ments of pottery and of soap- 
stone vessels ; four arrowheads ; 
four stone gorgets; two discoidal 
stones; one broken clay pipe; 
two grooved stone axes; one 
stone pestle; four stone ham 
mers; two large pitted stones; 
one unfinished stone tube; a steel-blade case knife of a peculiar pat 
tern, and one porcelain ( ?) bead. 

The presence of the knife and bead in this collection is difficult to 
account for, unless we suppose the whole to be a comparatively modern 
deposit, which is probably the fact. 

THE KAMSKY MOUND. 

On the north bank of French Broad river, immediately opposite the 
Franklin liailroad station, on the land of Mr. A. Ramsey, are the remains 
of a once large and imposing tumulus known as the Kamsey mound. 
It is mentioned by Haywood, who remarks in regard to it as follows: 

There is u mound on the French Broad river, 1 mile above the mouth of Nola- 
chucky, on the east side of the French Broad, 30 feet high. There is an acre of 
ground on the top. 1 

At present only a small part of it remains, the rest having been 
washed away by the river, which has gradually encroached upon it. 
Mr. Banisey, who has resided on the farm for fifty-five years, says the 
mound once extended to what is now the center of the river, a distance 
of 250 feet, and was 20 feet high, if not more. The exact dimensions 




FIG. 236. Section of grave No. 3, near Kingsport, 
Tennessee. 



1 Nat. and Aborig. Hist. Tenn., 1823, p. 146. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 357 

can not now be ascertained, but it is affirmed that the area of the level 
top was at least an acre and that it was cultivated as a garden. If this 
be correct it must have been a very large and important tumulus, prob 
ably 250 feet in length by 175 in width. What adds to the interest 
attaching to this work is the fact that, running around it in the form of 
a semicircle, and about 300 yards from it, is a series of large pits, twelve 
in number and somewhat evenly spaced. The dimensions can not be 
definitely ascertained, as they are now nearly filled up. They were 
probably 100 feet or more in diameter, and, according to the statement 
of citizens, fully 20 feet deep. Possibly they are the spots from which 
the material for building the mound was obtained. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Some explorations were made in this county, but the examinations 
were hasty and incomplete. The agent was, at the time of his visit, 
simply on a prospecting tour, expecting to return to those works which 
he thought worthy of special investigation. 

Two mounds were discovered immediately below Taylors bend of the 
French Broad river, 9 miles east of Dandridge. One of these, on the 
north side of the river, stands on a level bottom about 300 feet from the 
river bank. It is circular in outline, 120 feet in diameter and 12 feet 
high. Trenches were cut through it, but no evidence of burial or relics 
of any kind were revealed. The other mound is about half a mile above 
the preceding, south of the river, 011 the farm of Mr. John B. Stakely. 
It stands on the level bottom about 200 feet from the river; is similar 
in form to the other, but smaller, the diameter being 95 feet and height 
a little less than 5 leet. The ground on which it stands is subject to 
overflow, and the mound itself has been entirely covered with water 
more than once. A wide trench was carried through it and down to 
the original soil, but neither skeletons nor relics were found; nor any 
indications of burial. The whole body of it was composed of dark, 
sandy soil like that of the ground around it. At the bottom, resting 
on the natural surface, was a layer of sticky yellow clay, 3 to 4 inches 
thick, which appeared to underlie the entire mound. The nearest 
place where this pipe clay is found is a ridge about a mile distant. 

There is an ancient burial ground about one-fourth of a mile above, 
but on the opposite side of the river from the last mentioned mound. 

There is a mound on the south side of French Broad river opposite 
Swans island, about 3 miles above Daudridge. It stands on the lower 
bottom which borders the river, about 200 yards from the latter. There 
are traces of an old "trail" leading from it across the ridges for a dis 
tance of 3 miles to some stone graves near a creek. The largest trees 
along the trail are marked, but the marking extends up and down the 
trees according to the old method of blazing routes instead of across 
them, as is now usual. If these marks bear any relation to the trail and 
graves, it is probable that all are the work of modern Cherokees. 



358 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



MOUND ON FAIN S ISLAND. 



This mound is situated on the lower end of Fain s island, in French 
Broad river, about 3 miles southwest of Dandridge. It stands on the 
extreme lower end of the island, not more than 300 feet from the water s 
edge. As a shaft had been sunk in the center by a previous explorer 
a broad trench was cut on each side. In the first or southern one six 
teen skeletons were unearthed, but in the northern one nothing was 
found. Near the east end of the first was a series of fire beds, one 
below another. The uppermost, which lay near the surface of the 
mound, was about 3 feet in diameter, and each succeeding one was a 
little wider than the one above it, so that the bottom one, 3 feet below 
the first, measured 6 feet in diameter. All were circular and slightly 
basin-shaped or dished, and consisted of burnt clay, with layers of 
ashes between them. There were five in all. Below the last lay a 
mass of pure ashes, packed very hard, which extended downward some 
3 feet to the bottom of the mound. The earth immediately under this 
bed of ashes was burned to a hard crust to the depth of 5 or 6 inches. 

Fig. U37 is given to show the fire-beds (a) and the ash-bed (b) imme 
diately below them. 

The skeletons were, in most cases, lying at full length, with heads in 
various directions, though none toward the south. Only one or two 




FIG. 237. Section of mound 011 Fain s island. Jefferson county, Tennessee. 

were folded. They were at all depths, from 2% to 5 feet; one lay near 
the bottom, at the depth of 8 feet and close to the mass of ashes under 
the fire beds. 

With this skeleton were five celts and some shell ornaments; the 
skull was also obtained. The mound appeared to be composed almost 
entirely of dark, sandy soil, with here and there a small streak of lighter 
colored earth running through it. 

There is an ancient burial ground on the south side of the river, 
opposite the mound, which has not been examined. 

ROANE COUNTY. 

The first works examined in this county are on Long island, in the 
Holston river, which is from 3 to 5 miles long and varies in width from 
one-fourth to 1 mile. It lies nearly east and west, the course of the 
river at this point being from a little south of east to a little north of 
west. The western portion, near the lower point is low bottom land; 



THOMAS.) 



TENNESSEE. 



359 



the middle and upper portions are considerably higher, rising some 40 
to 50 feet above low water. A plat of the island, showing the respec 
tive positions of the nineteen mounds on it, is given in Fig. 238. These, 
as will be seen by the figure, are arranged in three groups, the group 
a containing five mounds, being near the extreme lower or western 
point on the lowest land of the island ; group ft, also containing five 
mounds, near the middle; and group c, containing nine mounds, near the 
upper or eastern end, the two latter groups being on the higher land. 
The mounds are numbered from 1 to 10, though all these numbers do 
not appear in the figure. 

Mound 1 of group a (the one next the northern branch) is by far the 
largest, being about 160 feet from east to west, 90 feet north and south, 
and 18 feet high. It is known as the Brakebill mound, and was par 
tially explored by Kev. E. O. Dunning on behalf of the Peabody 
Museum. As Mr. Johnson, the owner, has since built a corn house on 
it, permission could not be obtained to make further explorations in it. 



\ 




J3o t torn, L 



FIG. 238. Plat of groups on Long island, Roane county, Tennossee. 

Mounds 2 and 4, being covered at the time with growing corn, were 
not disturbed. 

MoundS, measuring 93 feet from north to south, 105 feet east and west, 
and 5 feet high, having been under cultivation for sixty years and 
partially examined by a previous explorer, is considerably lower than it 
originally was. 

The body of the mound was composed of dark, sandy soil similar to 
that of the surrounding surface of the island, with numerous small 
patches of yellow clay scattered through it without any apparent order 
or arrangement. In it were five skeletons near the original surface of 
the ground, arranged as shown in Fig. 239. In the center, at a, was a 
large, boat-shaped vessel of clay, 9 feet long, 4 feet wide in the middle, 
but tapering to each end, and about 15 inches deep. This vessel, which 
was probably only sun-dried, was watersoaked to such an extent that it 
crumbled into minute fragments when an attempt was made to remove 
it. It lay northwest and southeast and contained an adult skeleton 



360 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



lying- at full length with the head northwest. In the vessel, near the 
bead of the skeleton, was the stone image represented in Fig. 240. 
This, which represents a squatting figure, is 14J inches high and is 
carved out of stone. At each of the points marked /*, /<, A, /<, corre 
sponding with the cardinal points, was a sitting skeleton facing toward 
the center. With the one at the north was a clay pipe and two dis- 
coidal stones; lying by the feet of the one at the east was a large 
shell, and with the one at the south were two polished celts, one of 
which was broken. 

Mound 5, nearest the lower point of the island and within 50 feet of 
the water s edge and of the ordinary conical form, measured 60 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high, the highest point being toward one side. 

One foot from the top was a layer 

3\ of burnt clay from 3 to 4 inches 

thick, spreading horizontally 
over the entire area of the 
mound, reaching the surface all 
around. It did not conform to 
the curve of the rnound, but 
extended horizontally. At sev 
eral points on its surface, or 
mixed with it, were small piles 
or spots of charcoal and ashes. 
The body of the mound, both 
above and below this layer, con 
sisted of dark, sandy soil. 

In the central portion, close 
to the bottom, lay the remains 
of four skeletons, but so far de 
composed that it was impossible 
to determine their positions. 

Mound 11, as will be seen by 
reference to Fig. 238, is one of group c, situated on the higher ground. 
Diameter, G5 feet ; height, a little over 7 feet. This, as proved to be the 
case with all those on the high ground examined, was composed entirely 
of very hard, compact, red clay. 

About the center, at the depth of 2J feet, was a badly decayed skel 
eton which must have been doubled up or bundled. There was no dark 
colored earth about the bones, as is usually the case, the red clay being 
packed about them as hard as in any other portion of the mound. Di 
rectly under this, but at the bottom of the mound, resting on the natu 
ral surface of the ground, were two other skeletons lying at full length, 
side by side, with heads toward the west. The bones of these were in 
a much better state of preservation than of the one nearer the top. With 
them was some red paint and near their heads one spear point and two 
small discoidal stones. The earth immediately surrounding these two 




Fio 2:{9. Diagram of mound No. 3, Lous island, 
Roane county, Tennessee. 



TENNESSEE. 



361 



skeletons was dark and loose, all the rest of the mound being composed 
of red clay, so hard that we had to use the pick to loosen it. 

Mound 12, measured 52 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, and like 
the preceding consisted chiefly of red clay closely packed and very 
hard. In the center, at the depth of 3 feet, was a horizontal layer of 
mussel shells about 1 foot thick, covering a circular area 6 feet in 
diameter. The shells composing this layer were packed in dark-colored 





FIG. 240. Image from mound No. 3, Long ifiland, Roane county, Tennessee. 

earth and must have been carefully placed by hand, as they were in 
tiers, all with the concave side downward. 1 Underneath the layer of 
shells the earth was very dark and appeared to be mixed with vegeta 
ble mold to the depth of 1 foot. At the bottom of this, resting on the 
original surface of the ground, was a very large skeleton, lying horizon 
tally at full length. Although very soft, the bones were sufficiently 

J The same thing, as I learn from Dr. Patrick, of Belleville, 111., was observed in a mound which 
formerly stood on the site of East St. Louis. These, however, as appeared from the specimen shown 
me, were sea shells, mostly univalves. 



362 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

distinct to allow of a careful measurement before attempting to remove 
them. The length from the base of the skull to the bones of the toes 
was found to be 7 feet 3 inches. It is probable, therefore, that this in 
dividual when living was fully 7J feet high. At the head lay some 
small pieces of mica and a green substance, probably the oxide of cop 
per, though no ornament or article of copper was discovered. This 
was the only burial in the mound. 

By reference to the plan of the group (Fig. 238), it will be observed 
that Nos. 1 2, 13, 14, and 15 form the arc of the circle. They are regu 
larly spaced, the distance from the base of one to the base of the next 
being about 100 feet. No. 11 is about 200 feet from No. 12. 

No. 14, G5 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, was next explored by cut 
ting a trench 12 feet wide from side to side through the center down to 
the original soil. This was composed of hard, red clay, with here and 
there, from the depth of 1 to 3 feet, a small spot of very dark earth, 
which contained decayed mussel shells. At a depth of 3J feet, near 
the center, lay 2 skeletons very near each other, one with the head 
toward the east, the other with the head toward the west, with dark 
colored earth and some shells packed about them. Nothing further 
was discovered until near the bottom, where a bed of shells was 
reached. The shells in this bed were closely packed together in the man 
ner of those in mound No. 12. This bed or layer Avas circular in out 
line, about 12 feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, and contained a smaller 
proportion of dirt than that in No. 12. The layer beneath this, resting on 
the original soil, consisted of dark colored eartti in which, lying immedi 
ately under the center of the shell bed, were 2 skeletons. But these 
were so far decayed that their exact position could not be determined. 
Near their heads were two arrow points, two rude celts, and one dis- 
coidal stone. 

Mound 15, 64 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, presented in some 
respects a remarkable contrast to those just described. For a depth of 
5 feet it, like the others, consisted of hard, red clay; under this was a 
dark layer which spread over the entire area of the mound and seemed 
to be filled with skeletons; in fact, the entire bottom was apparently a 
mass of bones. All the earth above them being carefully removed, it 
became apparent that there was no regularity or order of burial, but 
that the bones were heaped together in a confused mass, it being im 
possible to trace out the individual skeletons. Many of the bones were 
broken and often three or four skulls piled together. They belonged to 
persons of all ages, from the young child to the aged. 

The number of persons buried here was estimated at 53, as that was 
the number of skulls found. All must have been deposited at one time 
and hence after the flesh had been removed. The remains were probably 
gathered from other temporary depositories and brought hero to be 
buried in one common grave. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 363 

Mound 10, 40 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was similar to No. 15, 
except that in this there were only twelve skeletons. 

Mound 17, similar in size and construction to No. 16, contained at 
the bottom 4 skeletons, much decayed ; no relics with them. 

Mound 18, 38 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was composed through 
out of red clay ; not even a change in color was noticed until the bottom 
was reached. Here, in the center, was a hearth of burnt clay and 
ashes about 5 feet in diameter and 5 or 6 inches thick. This layer or 
bed of burnt clay was level on the top, and the ashes Avhich lay on it 
had some pieces of charcoal scattered through them. 

As already stated, all the mounds of the higher ground of the island 
explored were made of red clay packed very hard, and the skeletons 
found in them were in an advanced stage of decay, with the exception 
of those in mound No. 15, where, although in a confused heap, they 
were much better preserved. It will be observed also that the skele 
tons found on the low bottom land were in better condition than those 
found in the red clay mounds of the uplands. It is surmised from this 
fact that the higher land formed at first the whole island, the lower 
point being a subsequent addition, and that the mounds on the former 
portion are much older than those on the lower point. 

Some 2 or 3 acres of the lower point, which was washed bare during 
the flood of April, 1886, is covered with fragments of pottery, broken 
arrowheads, flint chips, broken celts, etc. At one point the soil was 
all washed off down to the hard ground, exposing a floor of burnt 
clay about 30 feet square and 1 foot thick. In this could be distinctly 
seen the charred ends of posts which had been set in the ground. An 
examination of some of these proved them to be red cedar. They had 
been set into the ground through the burnt clay to the depth of about 
3 feet and some of them were still comparatively sound ; all were burnt 
off at the top. Unfortunately the explorer neglected to note at the time 
their respective positions. 

MOUND ON THE HAGLER FARM. 

This stands on the lower bottom about 100 feet from the river bank 
and 8 miles down the river from the preceding groups. It is imme 
diately opposite an island on one hand and a spur which runs down 
from the hills on the other. A broad level bottom extends along the 
river above the mound for half a mile and for 2 miles below it, but is 
very narrow where the mound stands. 

Although quite large, being 142 feet in diameter and 11 feet high, it 
is of the round conical type and quite symmetrical. At the depth of 2 
feet was a layei of burnt clay from 6 to 8 inches thick, extending over 
the whole mound, not horizontally, as usual, but conforming to the curve 
of the upper surface. It must, therefore, have formed the upper layer 
of the mound when it had reached this stage of its construction. 



364 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Immediately below this skeletons began to appear and contkmed to be 
found until a depth of 5 feet was reached; below this depth there were no 
more indications of burial. When the bottom was reached it was seen 
that a ditch had been dug in the original soil 1 foot deep and 2.} feet wide, 
running east and west and traceable for 12 or 13 feet. At two points, 
as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 241, were lateral extensions run 
ning off at right angles on each side; these could be traced only for a dis 
tance of 4 or 5 feet. Fourteen skeletons were discovered, none of which 

were at a greater depth than 5 
feet, and all were below the layer 
of burned clay, which did not ap 
pear to have been disturbed. All 
of these skeletons were lying hori 
zontally on their backs, at full 
length, and the heads of all, ex 
cept that of No. 1, toward the 
north, as indicated in the figure, 
which shows the respective posi 
tions of the skeletons and the 
ditch below. With skeleton No. 
1 were two relics, a fine spear 
head and a soapstone pipe ; with 
No. 5, a fine polished celt and 



two small discoidal stones; with 
No. 12, a singular stone tube, 
some small arrowheads, one dis 
coidal stone, and a beaver s tooth. 

All the specimens were found about the heads of the skeletons. 
On the farm of Mr. E. H. Evans, 6 miles below Long island and 2 

miles above the Hagler farm, are seven mounds, and 4 miles further 

down, on the lands of Mr. G. B. Johnson, five. 




FIG. 241. Diagram of the Hagler mound, Roane 
county, Tennessee. 



MOUNDS ANI> ANCIENT CEMETERY ON THE LEE FARM. 

The form of Mr. M. (T. Lee, lying on the north side of Clinch river, 
about 14 miles above Kingston, contains about 1,200 acres, mostly 
beautiful level land, denominated here " first and second bottoms." 
The west side of this extensive farm is bounded in part by White Oak 
creek. A mile above the mouth of the creek the land is considerably 
higher along the river bank than it is farther back. This ridge or high 
ground rises somewhat as it nears the point where the creek enters 
the river. In times of high water the river breaks around the upper 
end of the high ground and flows back of it until it reaches the creek, 
but in April, 1886, the water rose to an unprecedented height and swept 
entirely over this higher ground, washing off the sandy soil in some 
places to the depth of several feet, exposing a number of graves and 
showing that here was an ancient cemetery. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 365 

The locality was visited immediately after this occurrence. The dark 
soil had all been washed away, leaving the hard yellow sand exposed. 
On the highest point of the rise could be seen a large number of skele 
tons, some still resting in their graves, but more washed out and scat 
tered over the surface, or the bones drifted here and there in heaps. 
Several days were spent in examining this interesting spot and exca 
vating the graves from which the skeletons had not been removed or 
washed out. All that could be determined was that they had been 
buried horizontally in comparatively shallow graves dug in the original 
soil for their reception. There was no regularity as to direction, some 
heads being east, some west, some north, and others south. The area 
covered was about 2 acres. Scattered over this were small broken 
stones, arrowheads, flint chips, fragments of pottery, etc. 

Mound No. 1, about 55 feet in diameter and 3J feet high, stood on a 
slight elevation about one-fourth of a mile from the river, but some 
what nearer the creek. It had been plowed over for many years, bring 
ing to the surface human bones, some of which were lying on the top 
when examined. 

The entire mound was removed, revealing some large flat stones 
near the surface. The earth about these was dark and loose, while the 
remainder consisted of hard red clay. Nothing further of interest was 
observed. It is apparent, therefore, that the skeletons which were 
plowed up must have been near the top of the mound, which could not 
have been more than 6 or 7 feet high. 

Between mound No. 1 and mound No. 2, there is quite a depression, 
so much so that water frequently stands here. As this mound (No. 2) 
had never been plowed or disturbed, it retained its full proportions, 
being 60 feet in diameter, 10 feet high, and conical in form. At the 
depth of 2 J feet was a layer of rather large, flat limestone rocks, extend 
ing horizontally in all directions to the margin of the mound. Imme 
diately beneath these stones lay twenty- five skeletons so close to them 
that several of the skulls and other bones were crushed by them. Some 
of the stones were quite large, but all of them about 4 or 5 inches thick 
and some with the edges nicely squared, probably by the natural fracture, 
as there were no traces of tool marks on them. The entire mound con 
sisted of red clay, but that portion above the stone platform was loose 
and easily worked. About a foot above the bottom another bed of 
similar stones was reached, but this covered an area only 7 feet in 
diameter. Immediately under it, lying upon the original surface of the 
ground, were five skeletons, slightly covered with earth, over which the 
stones were laid. It is possible that after the first burial a small mound 
may have been thrown up and that a considerable interval elapsed 
before the second burial. That all the skeletons in a layer were depos 
ited at one time can not be doubted. The clay between the upper and 
lower layers was so hard that it required the use of picks to break it 
up. The skeletons in the lower layer were much decayed and crushed 



366 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

by the weight of the stones resting on them. No order as to position 
appeared to have been observed in either layer. No relics save a few 
arrow points and discoidal stones were discovered. 

Mound 3, 70 feet in diameter, 15 feet high, and conical in form, was 
also explored. At the depth of 3 feet were eight skeletons so far de 
cayed that it was impossible to determine their exact positions, except 
that they lay at about the same level. Near the bottom, though a lit 
tle above the natural surface of the ground, were three other skeletons 
lying about 5 or feet from each other. These were in a much better 
state of preservation than the eight near the top. There were no 
stones over the skeletons as in mound 2, nor were any relics found with 
them nor in the mound. 

Immediately below the mouth of White Oak creek is Jones island, 
on which it is said a mound formerly stood which has been washed 
away by the floods. The locality was visited, and though no traces of 
the mound could be seen, large quantities of broken pottery, flint chips, 
and other evidences of former occupancy were observed. 

One mile below this place, on the south side, are two large mounds 
situated on the point of a ridge which runs close to the river. They 
are covered with heavy timber. 

BLOUNT, MONROE, AND LOUDON COUNTIES. 

The valley of the Little Tennessee from where it leaves the Smoky 
mountains, which form the boundary between North Carolina and Ten 
nessee, to where it joins the Tennessee river in Loudoii county, is 
undoubtedly the most interesting archeological section in the entire 
Appalachian district. 

The numerous groups of mounds and other ancient works which are 
found along the valleys of the principal stream and its tributaries, 
appear to be intimately related to one another and are so evidently the 
work of one people that it is deemed unwise to arrange them by coun 
ties ; moreover, this would confuse the reader, hence it is thought best 
to vary the usual rule in this instance and describe the groups in the 
order in which they follow one another, commencing with the one 
situated nearest the point where the river leaves the mountains, 
thence moving down the stream to its junction with the Holston. In 
order that the reader may understand the relation of these groups, a 
map of the area embraced is given in PI. xxv, on which they are 
located. As this map is copied from one made by the geographical 
division of the IT. S. Geological Survey from recent surveys, and the 
groups located by a special survey made under the Bureau of Ethnology 
for this purpose, it may be relied upon as being more than usually 
correct. 

The river, after winding its way through the mountain gorges, enters 
a beautiful valley about half a mile wide and perfectly level to the 
foot of the Chilhowee mountains, to which it runs parallel for several 



,A OF THE ^3 

"UHIVERSIT 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



367 



miles. The first bottom as we descend is known as the Hardin farm. 
On this is a tumulus now named the Hardin mound. This is located 
north of the river about 5 miles above the mouth of Abrahams creek, 
and nearly opposite the mouth of Tallassee creek. (No. 1, PI. xxv.) 
It is of the usual conical form, measuring 120 feet in diameter and 
7 feet high. In this was a single adult skeleton near the center at 
the depth of 2 feet, lying on its back, head east, and arms spread 
out as indicated at a in Fig. 242. Lying at the right hand were a 
stone pipe and a polished celt; at the left hand, a stone pipe and 
nine arrowheads ; at the feet, a large pot broken in pieces. On the 
skeleton, chiefly around the neck, legs, and arms, were 1,039 beads, 
mostly shell; 384 of 
them were of large 
size; a few were 
fresh-water pearls. 
The bones crumbled 
to pieces as soon as 
an attempt was made 
to remove them. No 
other skeletons or in 
dications of burial 
were found; but at 
&, b, by bj resting on 
the natural surface 
of the ground, were 
four little piles of 
burnt clay, one at 
each of the points 
indicated, forming a 
square. These were 
rounded at the base, 
running to a sharp 
point at the top ; di 
ameter at the base, 2 feet, and height 2 feet. Some coals and ashes 
were about each, showing that the burning had been done after they 
were placed in position. There is scarcely a doubt that these remains 
mark the site of the old Cherokee town Tallassee. In order that the 
reader may understand the reason on which this assumption is based, 
a facsimile of Henry Timber-lake s map made in 1762 is inserted here. 
(PI. xxvi.) By referring to this as we proceed in our description of the 
groups along the Little Tennessee river, the reader will see the close 
correspondence in locality of the Cherokee towns with these groups. 

THE M MURRAY MOUNDS. 

These mounds, four in number, are some 5 or 6 miles lower down than 
the preceding, the first, as we descend, being on the south side of the 




FIG. 242. Diagram of the Hardin mound, Blount county, Tennessee. 



368 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



river, on the farm of Mr. Boyd McMurray, the others on the north side, 
on the farm of Mr. Samuel McMurray. (No. 2, PI. xxv.) A plat of the 
area, showing the relative positions of these mounds is given in Fig. 243. 
The direction from the point a directly opposite the mouth of Abrahams 
creek, to mound No. 1, on the Boyd McMurray farm, is S. 86 W. and 
distance 1,450 feet; from mound No. 1, to the point />, on the north bank 
of the river, N. 53 W., 1,270 feet; from b to center of mound No. 2 on 
the Samuel McMurray farm, N. 76 W., 745 feet; from No. 2 to No. 3, 
N. 79 W., 520 feet; from No. 3 to No. 4, N. 79 W., 335 feet, the meas 
urements always being from center to center. Mound No. 1 is 288 feet 
from the river bank; No. 2 is 173 feot; No. 3 is 258 feet; and No. 4 is 
108 feet. 

Mound 1, circular in form, 4 feet high, and with an average diameter 
of about 100 feet, was examined by cutting a broad trench through the 
center from side to side and down to the original soil. No indications 
of burial were observed nor was anything of interest found, except a 
large fire-bed. This was on the original surface of the ground exactly 



$ 




FIG. 243. Plat of the McMurray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee. 

at the center of the mound. It consisted of a layer of burnt clay 
between 7 and 8 feet in diameter and from 4 to 6 inches thick, and was 
covered with ashes; encircling the margin was a row of water- worn 
stones. Over this bed was a layer of clay 1 foot in thickness; the 
remainder of the mound was composed of dark loam like the surround 
ing soil. 

Mound No. 2, which is circular, measured 110 feet in diameter and afew 
inches less than 5 feet in height. In excavating this a trench was first 
run in from the south side; before reaching the center a stone grave 
or cist was found of the usual box shape. This contained an adult 
skeleton, much decomposed. A trench was then carried in on the north 
side, and at about the same distance from the edge was another 
cist of the same character; also containing a single skeleton. At the 
center, lay four uninclosed skeletons in an extended position on the 
original surface; two with their feet toward the south, the other two, 
whose heads were nearly touching the heads of this pair, having their 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



FWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XXVI 



LOCATION OFTHE. 

OVERHILL CHEROKEE TOWNS 

. ^ made by 

HENRY TTMBEKLAKE 




COPY OF TIMBERLAKE S MAP OF OVERHILL CHEROKEE TOWNS. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



369 



feet toward the north. The remainder of the mound, which was com 
posed throughout of yellow sand, except a little black earth about 
each skeleton, being cleared away, five other uninclosed skeletons were 
unearthed, which were found in the positions shown in Fig. 244. A 
few arrowheads, two polished celts, and some flint chips were found at 
different points in the mound, but none were with any of the skeletons. 

It was learned from Mr. 
McMurray that mound 
No. 4 was partially ex 
plored several years ago, 
and that several stone 
graves, such as tnose in 
No. 2, were found in it. 
This was probably by 
Rev. E. O. Dunning, on 
behalf of the Peabody 
Museum. Similar graves 
occur in considerable 
numbers in the field 
about the mounds, espe 
cially in the vicinity of 
No. 3 ; the side stones in 
many cases being visi 
ble above the surface. 
These are indicated by FlG 244 ._ Diagram of Mc Murra y ruouud, NO. 2. 

the dotted line about 3 

on the plat (Fig. 243). Several were explored but nothing found in 
them, except decaying skeletons. 

Mound No. 3 stood on the first bottom, in a beautiful level meadow, 
about 250 feet from the river. Its form was an ellipse, measuring 150 
by 122 feet, the longer axis being east and west; height 12 feet, but 
considerably reduced by the plow. A thorough excavation showed its 
composition, mode of construction, and contents to be as follows: The 





FIG. 245. Section of McMurray mound, No. 15. 

top portion, to the depth of 5 feet (except a circular space in the center), 
consisted of dark, sandy soil, mixed with pieces of broken pottery, flint 
chippings, and charcoal. This layer, which was beneath the slight 
outer covering of recent vegetable mold, did not extend down the 
curve of the mound toward the base, but was horizontal on the under 
side, as shown at />, Fig. 245, which represents a section of the mound. 
12 ETH 24 



370 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Immediately below this was a horizontal layer of charcoal (c c), 4 to 6 
inches thick, extending horizontally over nearly the entire area of the 
mound at this height, except where interrupted at the center by the 
conical mass (a a). The coals composing this layer were of cane and 
small boughs and very closely packed. The earth next under it was 
very hard for a depth of several inches. From this layer (d d) down to 
the natural surface of the ground the mound was composed of dark earth 
similar to that in the upper layer (b 6), and in this part were found all 
the skeletons hereafter mentioned, with the exception of No. 34. Ex 
tending down through the center from the top was a conical mass (a a) 




FIG. 246. Diagram of McMurray mound, No. 3. 

8 feet in diameter at the top and 4 at the bottom, composed of alternate 
layers of burnt clay and ashes. The clay layers were quite hard and 
slightly dished, and some of them a foot thick. The layers of ashes 
each measured 4 or 5 inches. As these beds were undoubtedly burnt 
in places it is plain they were made as the mound was built up. Occa 
sional small fire-beds at various depths in the entire layer (d d) bear out 
this opinion. 

In Fig. 246, which is a horizontal section or plan of the mound, are 
shown the skeletons in their respective positions. All these, except 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 371 

No. 34 the skeleton of a child were below the charcoal bed (c c] (Fig. 
245) and 7 or 8 feet below the top of the mound. The area occupied by 
them was comparatively small, probably not more than one- fifth of that 
covered by the mound. They were more crowded, and more nearly on 
the same level than is usual in a mound of this size. In some cases 
they lay touching one another; for example, Nos. 18 to 22 were so 
close together that Nos. 19, 20, and 21 had to be omitted from the figure. 
They were lying face up at full length, with arms in natural position 
by the sides, except three (Nos. 13, 15, and 16), whose arms were turned 
back so as to bring the hands to the head. By referring to the figure 
it will be seen that nearly every one has the head to the east ; five be 
ing toward the south and two or three toward the north. There were 
in all thirty- six, only eight of which were accompanied by any relics 
worth mentioning. Every pot that was found stood near the head of a 
skeleton; the beads and ornamented shells were about the neck or rest 
ing on the breast; the pipe, stone knife, and drilled celt were all at the 
head of No. 22; the celts and discoidal stones were generally found 
about the bones of the hands. 

By reference to the diagram it will be seen that No. 32 lay near the 
central shaft, and fully as deep in the mound as any other skeleton; 
with this was an iron chisel, lying on the breast; the beads about the 
neck of the skeleton were so placed in relation to the chisel (which 
was perforated at one end) as to lead to the belief that all of them had 
been suspended 011 one cord. 

The following is a list of the articles obtained from this mound: 

With skeleton No. 9, one pot and two ornamented shells. 

With skeleton No. 16, one pot, one ornamented shell, one discoidal stone, and beads. 
With skeleton No. 18, two pots. 

With skeleton No. 22, one pipe, one flint knife, one drilled celt. 
With skeleton No. 26, one pipe (steatite), one celt, two discoidal stones. 
With skeleton No. 27, one pipe (ornamented), two celts, one chipped flint imple 
ment. 

With skeleton No. 32, one perforated iron chisel, one discoidal stone, and beads. 

A cemetery, consisting chiefly of stone graves, lies immediately 
about this mound. Twelve of these were opened and found to be formed 
of slabs of slate stone, arranged in the usual box-like shape; each con 
taining a single skeleton. The remains at this point probably mark 
the locality of the old Cherokee town Chilhowey, not shown on PI. xxv. 

Proceeding down the river to the mouth of Mulberry creek we find 
here on the south side of the river indications of a village site. These 
consist of fragments of pottery, broken stone implements, fire-beds, etc. 
But there is no mound here. This is the village site No. 3, on the plat 
shown in PI. xxv, and corresponds with "Halfway-Town" of Timber- 
lake s map. (PI. xxvi.) 

THE LATIMORE GROUP. 

Moving on down the river, the next group reached is on the farm of 
Mr. Latimore, on the south bank, immediately above the mouth of 



372 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Citico creek. This is the upper and outlying portion of the group num 
bered 4 in PI. xxv. A plat of the entire group is given in Fig. 247, 
which includes the McSpaddiu mounds just below the creek. To show 
the relation of the two groups and their immediate surroundings it may 
be stated that this group consists of three mounds standing on the level 
top of a spur which is about 150 feet higher than the bottom lands. 




FKJ. 247. Plat of Latimoro and McSpaddin mounds (Citico group), Monroe county, Tennessee. 

The courses and distances between different points are as follows 

(Fig. 247): 

From a, the junction of Citico creek with the river, to b, at the foot of the spur, 
S. 10 K., 1,476 feet. 

From b to mound No. 1, S. 38 W., 310 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to mound No. 2, S. 45 W., 143 feet. 

From mound No. 2 to mound No. 3, N. 10 W., 108 feet. 

From 6 directly to the river bank, 310 feet. 

Measurements between the mounds are in all cases from center to center. 




FIG. 248. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Latimore g 

Mound Xo. 1 was slightly oval in form, 70 feet in diameter and a 
little over 8 feet high. A thorough exploration was made, bringing to 
light a confused heap of human bones near the center, at a depth of 
from 2 to 3 feet. In this heap, which was as compact as it could well 
be of such material, were eleven skulls, indicating that at least 11 
skeletons (for the flesh must have been off when deposited) had been 



TENNESSEE. 373 

buried here. All the bones were so much decayed that only one skull 
could be saved. Five feet farther down, near the original surface and 
immediately under this pile of bones, was a horizontal layer, or rather 
floor, of rough river stones, but no traces of coal or ashes. It was 
circular, with a diameter of 20 feet. (See vertical section in Fig. 248.) 
Mound No. 3 was 90 feet in diameter and 8 feet high. It as well as 
No. 1 were composed of red clay. Two skeletons were found near the 
center, at a depth of less than 2 feet. Nothing else of interest was 
observed. 

THE M C SPADDIN MOUNDS. 

This section of the group, but a short distance from the preceding, 
and on the same side of the river, is on the farm of Mr. T. T. McSpad- 
din, just below the mouth of Citico creek. It consists of five mounds, 
located as shown in Fig. 247, bearings and distances as follows: 

From c, at the junction of the creek with the river, to d, on the \vest bank of the 
river, N. 22 W v 444 feet. 

From d to Mound No. 4, S. 63 W., 538 feet. 

From Mound No. 4 to Mound No. 5, N. 68 W., 1,896 feet; the point on this line 
where it crosses the rise to the second bottom is 550 feet from No. 5. 

From Mound No. 5 to the point in the gap marked e, S. 24 W., 793 feet. 

From e to Mound No. 6, S. 66 W., 724 feet. 

From Mound No. 6 to Mound No. 7, N. 65 W., 215 feet. 

From Mound No. 7 to Mound No. 8, S. 39 W., 1,270 feet. 

The dotted line shows the old channel of the creek, now dry; its 
nearest point to Mound No. 4, is 208 feet; from the same mound to the 
nearest point on Citico creek as it now runs, is 480 feet. The second 
bottom is 10 feet higher than the first. The spur and hill, which seem 
to have been cut off from its point in past geological time, are of con 
siderable height. Behind these is an area of level land on which 
Mounds No. 6, 7, and 8 are situated; No. 8 is at a considerable dis 
tance from the others, and beyond a ravine. The distance from No. 4 
to No. 8, by way of the gap is about three-fourths of a mile. 

Mound No. 4, known locally as " Citico mound," is the largest, not 
only of this group, but of the entire section. In shape it resembles 
the half of an egg divided lengthwise, being broadest and highest 
nearer one end, sloping thence by regular, somewhat curved lines. The 
length is 220 feet; greatest breadth, 184 feet; greatest height, 14 feet. 
It may possibly have been flat on top originally, but no satisfactory 
evidence of this can be had; in fact, its present form seems to be that 
which it has had from the beginning, so far as can be judged from an 
examination of its structure. As is shown in the plat, it is located 
on the first bottom of the Little Tennessee, and, though often sur 
rounded by water in times of flood, was never known to be covered. 
For a space of 6 or 7 acres around it the soil is strewn with fragments 
of pottery, flint chips, broken stones, animal bones, charcoal, and other 
refuse. Great numbers of shell beads have been picked up here, and 
human skeletons have occasionally been plowed up or washed out by 



374 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

high water. There is a good view of the valley for 2 or 3 miles down 
the river from the top of the mound. On the second bottom, GOO yards 
northwest of this, is Mound No. 5, somewhat circular in form, 20 feet 
in diameter, and 2 feet high. Immediately back of this is a high 
ridge terminating in a cliff almost perpendicular on the side facing the 
creek. 

The other mounds, Nos. 6, 7, and 8, are on a high level back of the 
ridge. There is a deep gap, about 60 yards wide, through this ridge 
directly between Nos. 5 and G, thus affording an easy passageway from 
one group to the other. 

The first of this group explored was No. G, which is circular in form, 
about 80 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, and composed entirely of red 
clay. The plow had thrown out 1 skeleton and penetrated to 2 others, 
which were found near the surface, but so badly decayed that no part 
of them could be preserved. 

No. 5 was also composed of red clay, but no sign of burial was 
observed, nor were coals, ashes, or anything else of interest found in it. 

The large mound, No. 4, was thoroughly overhauled to the base. At 
the highest point, 6 inches below the surface, was a bed of burned clay, 
circular in form, about 6 feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, and burned 
so hard as to be very difficult to break up. First, three trenches were 




FIG. 249. Vertical section of the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4). 

run in from the margin of the mound from the north, south, and west 
sides intersecting at this clay bed. In cutting these, quite a number 
of skeletons were unearthed, some within 2 feet of the surface, others at 
a depth of 9 feet, at which depth a bed of yellow sand, slightly mixed 
with clay and firmly packed, was reached; this lay on the original sur 
face of the ground, and extended over the whole area covered by the 
mound. No skeletons were found in this lower layer or under it. By 
witting the trenches in the way described the clay bed was left un 
broken until its extent and relation to what lay around it had been 
ascertained. It was then found that, instead of there being a single 
clay bed, this was the top one of a series of five. The one in question 
was level; the others were saucer shaped, as shown at a , Fig. 249, 
each extending upward and outward to the slope of the mound, each 
succeeding one larger than the one above it, the lowest measuring 12 
feet in diameter. Alternating with them were layers of ashes; each 
resting on its corresponding layer of clay. About 3J feet below these 
was another layer of red clay (b b) burned very hard, circular in out 
line, saucer shaped, and 3 inches thick. This did not run out to the 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



375 



margin, though its diameter was about 20 feet. Skeletons were found 
both above and below it, and some rest directly upon it. 

The remainder of the mound was then removed, the result being that 
91 skeletons were unearthed from the respective positions shown in 
Fig. 250, which is a plat of the mound showing the plan of burials. 
As will be seen from this figure, nearly all of the skeletons were 
stretched out at full length without regard to direction. None of 
these were inclosed, but the earth on which each rested was very 
hard to the depth of 1 or 2 inches, and those lying on the clay bed, b &, 
had more or less coal and ashes about them. Traces of rotten wood 
were found immediately over some of them, and with one (No. 52) was 




FIG. 250. Plan of burials in the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4). 

a piece of solid pine a foot or more in length. This was at a depth of 
5J feet. Most of the articles found were lying close by the skeletons. 
The bones were so much decayed that but few whole skulls could be 
obtained. 

The following list shows the depth and position of most of the skele 
tons and the articles found with them: 

No. 4, depth 4 feet, face downward; 2 broken pots. 
No. 5, depth 7 feet, face up ; 1 broken pot. 
No. 6, depth 5 feet, face down ; 1 broken pot. 
No. 9, depth 8^ feet, face up ; 1 broken pot. 
No. 10, depth 3| feet, face up ; 2 broken pots. 
No. 13, depth 7 feet, face up ; 1 broken pot. 



376 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. 16, depth 7 feet, face up, with hands resting on the hreast and elbows thrust 
outward. By this skeleton lay 1 polished discoidal stone, 1 stone pipe, 1 
broken pot, 1 rough discoidal stone, and 1 engraved shell mask. The skull 
was preserved. 

No. 17, depth 3 feet, faceup; 1 broken pot. 

No. 18, in a sitting posture; by it 2 polished celts, 5 arrowheads, and some flint 
nodules. 

No. 21, depth 4 feet, face up, arms extended, 1 unbroken pot, and 1 polished celt, 

No. 22. depth 3 feet, face up ; 1 polished celt. 

No. 23, legs doubled up, but lying on its back. 

No. 24, hands folded on the breast. 

No. 25, squatting posture, with feet doubled under the body. 

No. 26, depth 7| feet, face up; 1 pot and 2 polished celts. 

No. 31, depth 3^ feet, face up ; 1 broken pot and 1 polished celt. 

No. 33, depth 5i feet, face up; by it 1 polished celt and 1 engraved shell. The skull 
was saved. 

No. 34, depth 6 feet, sitting posture; by it 2 broken pots, 1 nicely polished stone 
chisel, 1 discoidal stone, and 1 stone gorget. 

No. 35, depth 8 feet, face up ; 2 polished celts ; skull preserved. 

No. 39, depth 4 feet, face up ; 1 polished celt. 

No. 41, 1 engraved shell. 

No. 44, depth 8 feet, face up ; 4 polished celts. 





;. Jiil. Moccasin-shaped pot, Citic< 
mound. 



Fio. 252. Copper rattle or hawk s 
bell, Citiro mound. 



No. 46, depth 4 feet, face up; 1 discoidal stone, and 1 broken pot 

No. 51, depth 44- feet, face up ; 1 broken pot. 

No. 55, depth 3| feet, face up ; I polished celt. 

No. 57, depth 6 feet, face up. By this were 1 bowl, 1 shell mask, 2 shell pins, 2 bone 

awls or punches, and a number of shell beads. 
No. 58, depth 5.V feet, face up; 3 bone implements. 
No. 59, depth 7 A- feet, face up. With this were 2 shell gorgets, 1 broken engraved 

shell, 1 shell ornament, 1 shell pin, 1 bear s tooth, and 1 discoidal stone. 
No. 62, depth 5 feet, face up. With it a lump of red paint, a lot of shell beads, 4 

shell pins, 1 bear s tooth, 1 discoidal stone, and 1 ornamented pot. 
No. 63, depth 7 feet, face up. By it 1 broken vessel with image head. 
No. 66, depth 3 feet, face up. This was the skeleton of a child, and with it were 

found 1 moccasin-shaped pot (shown in Fig. 251), 4 copper sleigh-bells >r 

rattles, 1 of which is shown in Fig. 252, and a lot of shell beads. This was 

buried toward the side of the mound. 

No. 68, depth 8 feet, face up. By this lay 3 shell pins and 1 ornamented pot. 
No. 71, depth 6i feet, face up. With it were 4 shell pins, a lot of shell beads, a 

lump of red paint, and I ornamented bowl. 
No. 79, depth 5 feet, face up. Skeleton of a child. With it 1 shell mask or gorget, 

1 engraved shell, a lot of shell beads, 2 shell pins, and a lump, apparently 

of lime mortar. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



377 



No. 81, depth 8 feet, face up. With it 2 perfect ornamented pots, 2 shell pins, a lot 

of shell beads, and a lump of red paint. 
No. 89, depth 44 feet, face up. Skeleton of a child. With it 1 pot, 1 engraved shell 

gorget, 13 shell pins, I plain shell gorget, and 846 shell beads. 
No. 90, depth 2 feet, face up. With it the bone needle shown in Fig. 253. 




Fm. 253. Bono needle, Citi 

Mound No. #.--This was almost perfectly circular, 55 feet in diame 
ter, and between 8 and 9 feet high. It was composed entirely of red 
clay, and contained nothing- but two skeletons, which lay at full length, 
side by side, on the original soil at the center of the mound. 

The two clusters just described - the Latimore and McSpaddin 
mounds form the group marked 4 on PI. xxv, and correspond in loca 
tion with the Cherokee town Settacoo of Timberlake s map (PI. xxvi). 

THE KACOX AND M GKK MOUNDS. 

About 4 miles below the group last described, and a short distance 
from the little town 
of Mountain ville, are 
two mounds; one on 
the north side of the 
river, on the land of 
J . L. Bacon, the other 
on the south side, 
nearly opposite, on 
the land of Mrs. Ann 
McGee. These be 
long to the group 
marked 5 on PI. xxv. 
A plat of the area on 
which they are sit 
uated is given in Fig. 



254. As will be seen 
from this, the narrow 
valley is bounded on 
both sides, at this 
point, by high ridges. 
The courses and dis 
tances between tbe points indicated on the plat are as follows: 

From o, on the north bank of the river, where the bluff comes to the stream, to I, 
also on the north bank. S. 40 W. 840 feet. 
From 6 to mound No. 1, N. 15 W. 428 feet. 

From & to c, a point on the north bank of the river, S. 82 W. 700 feet. 
Fron; c to d, a point on the south bank, due south about 350 feet. 
From d to mound No. 2 on the McGee farm. S. 12 W. 685 feet. 




. 254. Plat of the Bacon and McGee mounds, Blount and Monroe 
counties, Tennessee. 



378 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mound JVo. 2 (on McGeefarm}. This mound, which is an ellipse 70 
by 55 feet ill its two diameters and about 5 feet high, was composed 
throughout of red clay, which must have been brought not less than 
half a mile, this being the distance to the nearest point at which it 
could have been obtained. The soil of the surrounding area is a rich 
dark loam, the subsoil sandy. 

The whole mound was removed, with the result indicated in Fig. 
255. Thirteen whole skeletons were discovered in the positions shown, 
generally with their heads westward, all lying on their backs, and all, 
except No. 1, with their arms by their sides; No. 1 had them extended 
right and left. 

At c lay twelve skulls on the same level, 3 feet below the surface 
of the mound, touching 1 each other, with no other bones in connection 




FIG. 255. Plan of burials in McGee mound, No. 2. 

with or immediately about them. At b, a little west of the center, 
and resting on the original surface, was a rough wall, about 2 feet 
high, built of slate stones; circular in form, inclosing a space about 9 
feet in diameter. The dirt inside being cleared away, twelve skulls 
and a large number of long and other bones were discovered. Eleven 
of the skulls Avere lying close together on one side, as shown in the 
figure, the other lying alone on the opposite side, but each entirely 
disconnected from the other parts of the skeleton to which it belonged. 
The other bones were much broken and mingled together in a promis 
cuous mass. West of the Avail and near the Avest end of the mound 
were five more skulls lying together, and amid other bones, marked a 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



379 



in the figure. The bottom of the inclosure, which corresponded with 
the original surface of the ground, was covered for an inch or two with 
coals and ashes, on which the skulls and other bones rested. But 
neither coal nor ashes were found outside of the wall. All the skeletons 
and other remains outside of the wall lay a foot or more above the 
original surface of the ground. 

The following articles were obtained from this mound : With skeleton 
No. 4, 1 ornamented pot; with No. 1, 1 polished stone ornament, 1 
stone pipe, 7 arrowheads, a small lot of copper beads, 1 shell gorget, 
2 perforated shells, and the fragment of a bone implement. The skulls 
of Nos. 1 and 7 were saved. 

As there are evidences about the McGree mound, on the south side of 
the river, of a somewhat extensive ancient village, and the locality cor 
responds exactly with the site of Chote, the u metropolis" and sacred 




FIG. 256. Plat of the Toco mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee. 

town of the Overhill Cherokees, there can be scarcely a doubt that the 
remains found here pertain to that town. Mound No. 1, on the north 
side of the river, is near the point where Timberlake locates an old fort 
built by Virginians. It was not examined. 

The mound and village site marked No. 6 on PI. xxv, immediately 
below the preceding, are at the point where Timberlake locates the lit 
tle town Tennessee, which gives a name to a great river and an impor 
tant state of the Union. 

THE TOCO MOUNDS. 

Continuing our course down the Little Tennessee, we come next to 
the Toco mounds, partly on the lands of Mr. J. L. Johnson and Mr. Cal- 
laway, south of the river and just above the mouth of Toco creek and 
partly below the mouth of the creek. These mounds are arranged in 
two groups, one consisting of five mounds, situated above Toco creek, 



380 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

and the other consisting of three mounds, situated some distance below 
it, as shown in Fig. 250, which indicates the respective positions of the 
works. The upper one of these groups is the same as No. 7 on PI. xxv, 
and corresponds with Toqua on Timberlake s map (PI. xxvi). The 
lower group is No. 8 of PI. xxv and corresponds with Tommotley of 
Timberlake s map (PI. xxvi). 

From a, a point on the south bank of the river opposite the extreme upper point 
of Callaway island, to 6, a point on the south bank directly north of mound No. 1. 
is N. 60 W., 1,470 feet. 

From b to mound No. 1, known as the " Big Toco mound," S., 310 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to Mound No. 2, known as the " Callaway mound," S. 40 K., 
320 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to the three small mounds, Nos. 3, 4, and 5, which are now 
nearly obliterated, S. 76 W., about 800 feet. 

From the Callaway mound to the foot of the ridge, S., 600 feet. 

From the point I) to the mouth of Toco creek, about 600 yards. 

The north side of the river is bordered by high bluffs throughout the 
area shown by the diagram. No. 6 is a small mom id on the top of a 
bluff opposite the mouth of Toco creek. 

From the mouth of Toco creek to the mouth of Swamp creek, along the bank of 
the river, 1,050 feet. 

From c, at the mouth of Swamp creek, to mound No. 9, S. 48 W., 850 feet. 
From mouiid No. 9 to mound No. 8, N. 65 W., 620 feet. 
From mound No. 8 to mound No. 7, S. 30 W., 327 feet. 




Pl;>. 257. Vertnal section of the IMg Toco mound, Monroe county. Tennessee. 

At mound No. 9 the swamp is about 250 feet wide and so wet that 
the mound is often surrounded by water. 

Mound No. 1, which is known locally as the "Big Toco mound," is 
an oval, 154 by 138 feet, the longer axis being east and west. Height 
at west end, 24 feet; at east end, 18 feet; top flat, but sloped toward 
the east, the descent at this end being much more gradual than at the 
other. The length of the flattened top was 94 feet ; greatest breadth, 
78 feet. The north, west, and south slopes are very steep. 

The elevation as seen from the south is shown in Fig. 257. 

This mound was built chiefly of the dark sandy soil around it, which 
continued uniform to the depth of 9 feet. Here a layer of hard yellow 
earth was encountered, which continued to the original surface of the 
ground. Kunning through this upper layer of dark sandy soil were 
numerous streaks or thin layers of yellow sand and also of burnt clay, 
the latter accompanied by coals and ashes. These layers were found 
from within 2 feet of the top down to the depth of 9 feet. It was 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



381 



noticeable that many of the skeletons, all of which were discovered in 
this upper layer, though immediately surrounded by loose earth, had 
directly over them a layer of thin burnt clay, usually broken up. 

A little northwest of the center of the mound, at the depth of 2 feet, 
commenced a series of hearths or fire-beds of burnt clay, with layers 
of ashes between them, placed one below another, much like those 
found in the large Citico mound heretofore described. These alternate 




FIG. 258. Plan of burials in the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee. 

beds continued down to the depth of 6 feet, increasing in diameter. 
There were no skeletons in this series of fire-beds. (See a, Fig. 257.) 

In several of the other layers of burnt clay (not the central series) 
were the remains of burnt stakes wilich had been driven into the sur 
face of the mound when at these respective heights and the top por 
tion burnt off , leaving nnburnt the part in the earth. In some cases 
these had rotted out, leaving only the impressions of the wood and bark; 







382 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in others, where partially charred, the remains were distinct. Some of 
these were observed within 3 feet of the surface; others at the depth of 
6 feet, and at intermediate depths. There was always around the place 
where these had stood a bed of coals and ashes, and in some of them 
pieces of charred human bones. 

Fifty- seven skeletons were discovered in this mound, the relative 
positions of which are shown in Fig. 258. None were nearer the top 
than 4 feet, and none, except No. 49, at a greater depth than 7 feet; 
all, except Nos. 29 and 49, lay in a horizontal position, with heads in 
various directions, as shown in the figure. 








FIG. 259. Bone implement, Big Toco mound. 

Quite a number of clay vessels were discovered, mostly pots, which 
had crumbled to pieces; some of them seemed to be perfect while in 
position, but were so thoroughly soaked with water that they fell to 
pieces as soon as an attempt was made to remove them. Nevertheless 
by digging carefully around and heating those which appeared whole 
a few were saved unbroken. Most of the celts were near the heads 
of the skeletons. Sometimes, where two heads were close together, the 
celt or celts were placed midway between them, either intentionally or 




FIG. 260. Bone implement, Big Toco mound. 

accidentally, in which case it was impossible to decide which skeleton 
they were buried with. 

In every case where ajar or other clay vessel accompanied a skel 
eton it was near the head, either by the side of the skull or back of it. 
In most instances where beads were found they were about the neck 
and breast. 

By reference to Fig. 258 the reader will observe that skeleton 49 is 
near the center of the mound ; that immediately around it are eight other 
skeletons (Nos. 13, 14, 15,40,45,46,47, and 48), with their heads turned 
nearly or directly toward it. About the head of 13 were the following 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



383 



specimens : A polished celt ; a small discoidal stone ; three bone imple 
ments, one of which is shown in Fig. 259, the other two of the form 
shown in Fig. 260 j a stone pipe (Fig. 261), shaped nmch like those in 





FIG. 261. Stone pipe, Biu: Toco mound. 



Em. 2 2. Ornamented shell, Big Toco mound. 



use at the present day, and bearing evidence of long usage; and the 
ornamented shell shown in Fig. 262. With No. 49, chiefly about the 
head, were the following articles : Three polished celts ; the stone iinple- 




FIG. 263. Stone implement, Big Toco mound. 



ment shown in Fig. 263, finely polished; a small water bottle; a large 
spearhead; a soapstone pipe (the bowl and handle had been made in 
one piece, but the stem in this case was broken off and the end ground 



384 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

to admit a caiie stem) ; the pot shown in Fig. 264; an enormous shell 
mask, the largest, perhaps, ever found in a mound ; two small orna 
mented shells; twenty-nine bone punches or needles, similar to that 
represented in Fig. 253; thirty-six arrowheads, and some very large 
shell beads. The bone implements were found by the right hand, which 
lay close to the right thigh bone; the rest of the articles were about 
the head, except the shell beads, which appear to have been around the 
body,about the hips; they were in two rows close side by side. 




Yin. 264. Pot, Big Toco mound. 

Articles found by the other skeletons were as follows: 

Skeleton 4, two polished celts and one discoidal stone. 

Skeleton 5, one polished celt. 

Skeleton 8, one polished celt, one soa.pstone pipe, one ornamented shell, and one pot. 

Skeleton 9, two polished celts. 

Skeleton 17, one polished celt. 

Skeleton 18, two polished celts, one stone pipe, two pots, two engraved shells and 

one shell-ornament, and a number of shell beads. 
Skeleton 22, two polished celts. 
Skeleton 24, one polished celt. 

Skeleton 26, two polished celts, three discoidal stones. 
Skeleton 27, one polished celt. 
Skeleton 28, two polished celts, one pot. 
Skeleton 31, two polished celts. 
Skeleton 33, two polished celts, two pots, one engraved shell, three shell ornaments, 

and a number of shell beads. 
Skeleton 34, three polished celts. 
Skeleton 36, one discoidal stone. 

Skeleton 37, one polished celt, one stone pipe, one engraved shell. 
Skeleton 41, one polished celt, one stone pipe, one pot, one engraved shell, one shell 

ornament. 

Skeleton 51, one ornamented shell, one Hint implement, a number of shell beads. 
Skeleton 52, one ornamented shell, one shell mask, one shell gorget. 

Skeleton No. 29 was buried in a perpendicular position, head down 
ward, and rock piled on the feet, as shown in Fig. 258. The top of the 
head rested on the hard stratum at the depth of 9 feet from the top of 
the mound. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



385 



THE CALLAWAY MOUND. 

Mound No. 2, known as the Callaway mound, stands on the level 
bottom, is conical in form, 93 feet in diameter, and 6 feet high. The 
soil of 8 or 10 acres around this and the Big Toco mound is very black. 
This seems due to a large intermixture of charcoal. Indeed, it seems 
almost impossible to step without treading ou coals, fragments of 




FIG. 265. Vertical section of Callaway mound, Monroe county. 

pottery, broken arrow-heads, shells, and flint chips. About half way 

between the mound and the river, the ground rises about 2 feet above 

the usual level, and then breaks off abruptly toward the river. On 

this little elevation, for a space of />0 or (JO feet in diameter, is a bed 

of burnt clay, the top 

portion broken up by $ 

the plow. It is much 

harder a foot or two 

under the surface than 

it is on top. 

Possibly it was here 
the people of the vil 
lage were accustomed 
to burn their pottery. 
The mound was found 
to be composed of loose, 
dark, sandy soil, simi 
lar to that around it. 
Lying on the surface or 
top, immediately under 
the grass, were frag 
ments of human bones, 
such as pieces of^the 
arm and leg bones, 
pieces of the skull, jaw 



bones,teeth,etc. These 




l i. 266. Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee. 



had doubtless been 
brought up by the plow, as the mound had been cultivated for fifty 
years, and was considerably worn down. In the central portion, at 
the depth of about 18 inches, was a level bed of burnt clay and coals 
(1, Fig. 265), which represents a vertical section of the mound looking 
north (2 indicates the position of the skeletons at the bottom). This 
varied from 2 to 3, or more, inches in thickness, and covered an area of 
about 18 by 20 feet. 
12 ETH 25 



386 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Fourteen skeletons were discovered in this mound, all lying extended 
in a horizontal position, but with their heads in different directions, as 
shown in Fig. 266. Some of the burials took place subsequent to the 
formation of the lire bed, as a few of the skeletons were above it or 
resting on it. Nos. 1 and 2 were lying face up, heads southwest, at a 
depth of 18 inches. No. 3 lay with the head to the northwest, about 
20 inches below the surface of the mound $ about the wrists and hands 

were some small shell beads, 

^^^^^^.^ but none about the neck, 

where they are usually found. 
No. 4 was lying on its back, 
head to the south ; No. 5 with 
the head to the southwest. 
No. C was about the center 
of the mound and at the depth 
of 3 feet, head northeast. It 
was much better preserved 
than those nearer the top. 
A few small shell beads were 
lying about the neck and 
breast. No. 7 was lying face 
up, head northeast, left hand 
by the side, but the right 
arm bent upAvard so as to 
bring the hand above the 
head. By this hand was the 
water vessel shown in Figs. 
267 and 268, made to repre 
sent an owl. The peculiarity 
of this specimen is found in 
the feather marks which or 
nament the back or portion 
representing the wings. The 
markings, instead of being 
like those on the Zuiii or Pu 
eblo pottery although the 
vessel is precisely of the pat 
tern made by the Pueblo 
tribes are of the strictly 




. 



Fw. 267.-AVat.u- vessel, Callaway mound. Mexican type. Tills 

was close to the skull, and 

almost touching the right hand. At each side of the head was a large 
sea shell (Bmycon perverxum), one of them 18 inches long, the circum 
ference at the widest part 22 inches. About the neck and breast were 
several hundred shell beads. Skeleton No. 8 was lying in the same po 
sition and about the same depth as No. 7. Near the right hand were 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



387 



five somewhat singular arrow points or drills, some of which are appar 
ently unfinished. No. 9, somewhat isolated, lay north of those last men 
tioned, with head directly east; depth from the surface, 3 feet. Near 
the northeast corner of the first pit, a stone wall, or rather a row of 
stone slabs set on edge, was encountered, which further investigation 
and a thorough removal of the dirt showed to be an oval vault (see 
Fig. 266) 10 feet long and 8 feet broad. This wall, composed of slabs 
of slate rock set on edge, 
was about 1 foot high, the 
top at the highest point 3 
feet below the top of the 
mound. The bottom was 
completely covered with a 
layer of slate slabs, as 
closely fitted together as 
the un worked edges would 
admit of. Besting on this 
floor were four skeletons, 
as shown in Fig. 266 (Nos. 
10, 11, 12, and 13), the heads 
north and northeast. With 
skeleton No. 11 were some 
fragments of copper-stained 
wood and some pieces of 
mica. Skeleton No. 14, out 
side of the vault, lay with 
the head northeast. 

Mounds 7, 8, and 9 really 
form a separate group and 
probably, as above stated, 
mark the site of a village 
distinct from the one on the 
east of Toco creek. Nos. 7 
and 8 are on a terrace some 
25 feet above the water Jj 
level, but No. 9, as before 3^; 
remarked, is in a swale 
drained by the little rivulet 
known as Swamp creek. 
All are of small size. 

Nos. 7 and 8 consisted chiefly of yellowish sandy soil from the ad 
jacent surface; for the first 2 feet from the top this was packed so hard 
as to require the use of a pick. In No. 8, at a depth of 2 feet, lay the 
skeleton of a child in the last stage of decay; about the head were 
several shell beads. Mound No. 9, similar in construction, contained 
four skeletons lying at a depth of 5 feet, and very nearly in the center 






388 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



of the mound. With them was a large discoid al mortar stone, 
ing else of interest was observed iii any of them. 



Noth- 



THK PATE MOUND. 

On the north side < if the Little Tennessee, a short distance above 
the mouth of Nine Mile creek, and nearly opposite Old Fort London, is 
a single conical tumulus known locally as the Pate mound. 

It is small, being only 4 feet high, with a diameter of 45 feet. Its 
stratification was as follows : At the top, a layer of vegetable mold 
about 4 inches thick ; next, 3 feet of damp red clay ; lastly, a layer of 
loose, dark clay, 8 inches thick, resting on the original soil. The lower 
portion of this bottom layer, to the thickness of an inch, increasing in 
the center to nearly 6 inches, was much darker than the other part. 
Six feet from the center, at a depth of three feet in the layer of red 
clay, lay a single folded skeleton. In the lowest layer, resting on the 
original surface, were three other skeletons extended horizontally, with 
faces up. With these were some mussel shells and a stone chisel. 

The village site on the opposite (south) side of the river (No. 9, PI. 
xxv) corresponds with Toskegee, of Tirnberlake s map, located in the 
immediate vicinity of Fort London. 

THE NILBS FERRY MOUNDS. 

This group, consisting of three mounds, is situated on the north side 
of the Little Tennessee, opposite the mouth of Tellico river and close 

to Mles s ferry, at the cross 
ing of the old Federal road. 
Fig. 269 shows their posi 
tion. Nos. 2 and 3, which 
are comparatively small 
and of the usual conical 
type, stand on a timbered 
ridge which comes to the 
river immediately below 
the old blockhouse oppo 
site Fort London. No. 1 is 
a very large mound, stand 
ing on the second bottom, 
about 400 feet from the 
river. A single shaft was 
sunk part way down in 
it some years ago by Dr. 
Palmer, but it has never 
been thoroughly explored. 

It is flat on top, 10 or 11 feet high, and about 300 feet in diameter. The 
Bureau agent, expecting to return to the group the following season, 




Flo. 269. Plat of the Niles ferry mounds, Monroe county 
Tennessee. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



389 



took no other notes than the courses and distances of the mounds from 
one to another and from the river. 

From a, opposite the mouth of the Tellico river, to &, on the north bank of the Lit 
tle Tennessee, N. 35 W., 300 feet. 

From 6 to mound No. 1, N. 30 E., 410 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to mound No. 2, S. 74 E., 1,200 feet (paced). 

From mound No. 2 to mound No. 3, S. 75 E., 550 feet. 

This group is No. 11 on the plat given in PI. xxv. 

Two miles below the preceding, on the south side of the river, is a 
group of three mounds, shown in Fig. 270. No. 1, conical, 53 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high, 
and No. 3, similar but 
somewhat larger, were 
excavated and found to 
consist of hard, yellow 
clay. In the former a few 
fragments of human bones 
were found, and in the lat 
ter two skeletons. Partly 
on the land about the 
mound and partly on the 
island are the indications 




If! 






FIG. 270. Group 2 miles below Giles s ferry. 



of a former village. This 
is the site of Timber-lake s 
Mialaquo, and is the group 
marked 10 on PI. xxv. 

It is necessary now to notice some other groups in Monroe county 
before continuing our course down the river, as the next group in this 
direction is in London county. 

MOUNDS IN TELLICO PLAINS. 

These, twelve in number, are located along the Tellico river in the ex 
treme southern part of the county, in the little basin-like valley known as 
Tellico plains. Mound No. 11, on a high ridge on the east side of the 
river, measured 46 feet in diameter and 6 feet high. It was composed 
of the following strata: First, below the thin stratum of vegetable 
mold and decayed leaves, was a layer of red clay to the depth of 3 feet; 
next, a layer of dark earth varying in thickness from 6 inches to 1 foot, 
but conforming to the curves of the mound. In this dark earth were 
small deposits of sand and gravel, which were probably brought from 
the river, each deposit being about a load for one person. Below this 
dark stratum was another layer of clay, reaching to and resting upon 
the original surface of the ground. In this, next to the original sur 
face, were two large lines of rotten wood, evidently the remains of two 
logs. These were 8 or 9 feet long, lying parallel to one another, and 6 
feet apart. Between them, also resting on the original surface of the 



390 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



ground, was a single skeleton, lying at full length, head south and feet 
north, the same direction as the logs, but so far decayed that the bones 
crumbled to pieces when handled. There may have been a covering of 
bark or brush, but nothing was observed to verify such conclusion. 
Nothing else worthy of notice was discovered. 

Nos. 8 and 9 were explored, but were found to be nothing more than 
heaps of yellow clay with a fire-bed near the top of each. As they were 
only about 40 feet in diameter and from 4 to 5 feet high, they may have 
been house sites. 

No. 10, C feet high and 48 feet in diameter, was also composed of yel 
low clay, except a limited area, a few inches thick, next the original 
surface in the center. Here there was a sudden change to dark, loose 
earth, covering a space about 4 feet in diameter and extending below 
the original surface. 

This being removed, a circular pit was revealed a little over 3 feet 
deep, rounded at the bottom and 4J feet in circumference. This had 
probably been filled with some substance which had decayed. 

MOTXDS ON THE CLICK FARM. 

This small group, consisting of three mounds, is situated on the Tel 
lico river, 8 miles above its mouth, on the Click farm. Fig. 271 is a 

diagram showing their posi 
tions. The river runs south 
about 70 degrees east from a 
short distance above the 
mounds to the mouth of a 
small branch below, then 
bends to about south 30 de 
grees east. There is no level 
bottom land on either side ex 
cept a few acres on which 
mound No. 3 stands. Nos. 1 
and 2 on the north side are on 
the point of a high ridge. All 
three are hemmed in on all 
sides by high bluffs and ridges. 
From No. 1 to No. 2 the dis 
tance is 170 feet; from No. 3 to the river bank, 290 feet. All are small, 
Nos. 1 and 2 being about 3 feet high, and No. 3 nearly obliterated. 

LOUDON COUNTY. 

Returning to the Little Tennessee, we continue our course down the 
river. 

MOUNJKS AHOITT MOHGANTON. 

Next below the group represented in Fig. 270 are some mounds on 
both sides of the river, in the vicinity of tlte little village of Morganton; 




Fio. 271. Plat of mounds on the Click farm, Monroe 
countv, Tennessee. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 391 

they are marked No. 13 on PI. xxv. There are two on the north side 
of the river, on the Cobb farm, near Baker s creek, and three on the 
south side, on the Tipton farm. 

Two of those on the south side were examined. They stand on the 
second bottom, about 200 yards from the river and 90 feet apart. In 
one, 64 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, composed throughout of red 
clay, were four badly decayed skeletons, at the bottom. The original 
surface of the ground on which they lay was thinly covered with coals. 
The other mound was similar in every respect to the first, except that 
it contained but two skeletons. 

Another mound near Morganton (not given in the plat), but situated 
on Mr. Samuel Lane s farm, close to Baker creek, was examined. This, 
which measured 48 feet in diameter and 4 in height, stood on the bot 
tom or lowest level of the valley, about 200 feet from the creek. The 
composition, commencing at the top, was as follows: First a foot of 
yellow clay, then a stratum of dark rich earth 8 inches thick, and last 
a bed of lighter colored earth extending down to and resting on the 
natural surface of the ground. 

Below the last layer, excavated in the original soil, was an oblong 
pit 8 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 1 foot deep. Resting on the bottom of 
this pit were two adult skeletons with heads to the east. Near the 
head of one were eight arrow points. The bottom of the pit, previous 
to the deposit of the bodies in it, had been covered to the depth of 2 or 
3 inches with coals and ashes. The remainder of the pit to the level 
of the natural surface of the ground was tilled with very dark colored 
earth. 

THE BAT CREEK MOUNDS. 

Two miles below Morganton, on the west side of the Little Tennessee 
river, Bat creek joins this stream. Both above and below the mouth of 
this creek there is a pretty level valley, extending back from the river 
at some points half a mile to the base of the steep hills which border it. 
Immediately in the angle where the creek joins the river is a compara 
tively large mound, and on the opposite or west side of the creek are 
two other mounds (Nos. 2 and 3). The first is on the bottom land, the 
others on a level terrace some 20 or 30 feet higher than the first bottom 
or lowest valley level ; the latter are about 100 feet distant from one 
another, measuring from center to center. 

These (No. 14 on PI. xxv) are on land owned by Mr. M. M. Tipton, 
but are different from those previously mentioned, which are about 2 
miles farther up the river. 

Mound 1, measuring 108 feet in diameter and 8 feet in height, was 
composed wholly of very dark soil, containing a great many small shells; 
these were in fact so abundant in places as to present the appearance 
of a shell heap. This condition continued to the depth of 3J feet to a 
layer of hard yellow sand; under this the remainder of the mound to 
the original surface, except a central, circular area 2 feet in diameter, 



392 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

consisted of dark earth similar to that of the top layer. The central, 
circular core consisted of a series of burned clay beds or hearths, alter 
nating with layers of coals and ashes. These extended downward from 
the layer of yellow sand to the bottom of the mound. A few charred 
animal bones occurred in some of the layers of ashes; nothing else of 
interest was observed. 

On the east side of the river, directly opposite this mound, is an 
ancient village site where the soil is very dark and has scattered through 
it in abundance specimens of broken pottery, flint chips, and other evi 
dences of occupancy. In several places little circles of burnt stones 
may be seen lying on beds of ashes. 

On mound 2, 44 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, stood a black-oak 
tree 3 feet in diameter. It was composed throughout of hard red clay. 
At the depth of 3J feet was the skeleton of an adult in a horizontal 
position, with the head east and the arms close by the sides. The earth 
immediately about the bones was of a dark greenish color and about 
the breast were two metal buckles, one of them having a fragment of 
leather or hide still adhering to it. On the leg bones were still to be 
seen fragments of buckskin and a metal button, the latter sticking fast 
to the bone. 

Whether or not this was an intrusive burial could not be determined, 
though the uniform composition of the mound and the size of the oak 
growing above seems to be against this supposition; nevertheless, the 
further discoveries made show that it was subsequent to the original 
burials and not in accordance with the original plan. 

At a depth of a little over 4 feet, and immediately under this skele 
ton, the top of a stone wall was reached; this was found by further 
excavation to be a vault 8 feet square, built up of rough, flat limestone 
rocks to the height of 5 feet above the original soil on which it rested. 
On the inside, about half way down, were seven skeletons, numbered, 
for convenience, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. No. 2 was the skeleton of a 
child, horizontal, with the head to the east; Nos. 3 and 4 lying together 
with the head north, one of which was a child s skeleton, with small 
beads about the head ; Nos. 5 and 6 were in a sitting posture in the 
northeast corner, and around the neck of one were many small shells 
and large shell beads; Nos. 7 and 8 were lying iu the center with the 
heads close together and crushed by large flat stones which lay on 
them. Nothing more was found in this vault until the bottom was 
reached, where nine more skeletons were discovered, much decayed, and 
lying in all directions, seemingly thrown in without any care. 

Mound 3 was of small size, measuring but 28 feet in diameter and 5 
feet in height. Some large sassafras trees were standing on it, and the 
owner, Mr. Tip ton, stated that he had cut trees from it forty years ago, 
and that it had been covered by a cluster of trees and grapevines as 
long ago as the oldest settler in the locality could recollect. At the 
time the excavation was made there was an old rotten stump yet on 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



393 



the top, the roots of which ran down to the skeletons. It was com 
posed throughout, except about the skeletons at the bottom, of hard 
red clay, without any indications of stratification. Nothing- of interest 
was discovered until the bottom was reached, where nine skeletons were 
found lying on the original surface of the ground, surrounded by dark 
colored earth. These were disposed as shown in Fig. 272. No. 1 
lying at full length with the head south, and close by, parallel with it, 
but with the head north, was No. 2. On the same level were seven 
others, all lying close side by side, with heads north and in a line. All 
were badly decayed. No relics were found with any but No. 1, imme 
diately under the skull and jaw bones of which were two copper brace 
lets, an en graved stone, 
a small drilled fossil, 
a copper bend, a bone 
implement, and some 
small pieces of polished 
wood. The earth about 
the skeletons was wet 
and the pieces of wood 
soft and colored green 
by contact with v the 
copper bracelets. * The 
bracelets had been 
rolled in something, 
probably bark, which 
crumbled away when 
they were taken out. 
The engraved stone 
lay partially under the 
back part of the skull 
an<l was struck by the 
steel prod used in prob 
ing. This stone is shown in Fig. 273. The engraved characters on it 
are beyond question letters of the Cherokee alphabet said to have been 
invented by George Guess (or Sequoyah), a half-breed Cherokee, about 
1821. 

MOUND ON A HIGH CLIFF. 

On top of a high cliff overlooking the river, on the opposite side and 
a little above the Tipton group above mentioned, on the land of Mrs. 
Blankenship, is a mound 36 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, which 
at the time of exploration was covered with small trees. At the depth 
of 1 foot the top of a stone wall was encountered, which was shown by 
farther excavation to be an irregularly circular vault about 10 feet in 
diameter, which rested on the original surface of the ground. The red 
clay which filled this vault or small inclosure was covered by a layer 
of flat stones. At the bottom were six skeletons lying extended on 



. 




FIG. 272. Horizontal section, Bat creek mound, No, 3, Loudon 
county, Tennessee. 



394 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

another layer of flat stones, which covered the bottom of this vault. 
Four of these lay with the heads north, and two, an adult and a child, 
with heads east. Over this stone floor, previous to burial, had been 
spread a thin layer of coals and ashes. 

One mile above the Tipton group mentioned, about 1 mile back from 
the river, on high, level upland, was found another mound 54 feet in 
diameter and G feet high. In the center of this mound, 2 feet below 
the top, were the bones of two skeletons lying in a pile, most of them 
broken and apparently buried after the flesh had been removed. A 
little north of the center was a straight stone wall about 10 or 12 feet 




Fm. 273. Engraved stone from Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Tennessee. 

long, 2 feet high, and a foot or more in thickness. This was not on the 
original surface of the ground, but extended down from 2 to 4 feet 
below the top. 

MOUNDS AT PARKS FKRRY (JACKSON S FERRY OX THE PLAT). 

These are situated 10 miles east of Lenoir s at a crossing of the Little 
Tennessee known as Parks ferry. The group (No. 15, PI. xxv) con 
sists of four mounds and five stone graves. Three of the former, which 
may be numbered 1, 2, and 3, were on the second bottom, No. 4 being 
on a high terrace and in the forest. 

Mound 1 measured 44 feet in diameter and 7 in height. At the depth 
of 18 inches, near the center, was a partially decayed skeleton in a sit 
ting posture, without the usual dark earth about it. Continuing the ex 
cavation, the explorer passed through a layer of rather dark, hard clay 
to the depth of 4 feet, reaching a layer of sticky yellow clay about 3 
inches thick. This, instead of conforming to the curve of the inound, 
was horizontal, as though it had been at one time the top, but did 
not reach the outer surface by about a foot and a half. Below this, to 
the natural surface of the ground, was a layer of lighter earth than the 
clay above it. A little to the north of the center of the base was a 
circular pit, 4 feet in diameter, which had been dug into the original 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



395 



soil to the depth of 4 feet. At the bottom of this were the bones of a 
child lying in a bed of wet ashes 4 or 5 inches thick. The rest of the 
pit above this bed was filled with very dark, loose earth, similar to that 
produced by decayed vegetable substance. Scattered through this 
dark earth were lumps of some green substance which crumbled to 
dust on exposure to the air. 

Mound 2 was 32 feet in diameter and only 2 feet high, and consisted 
throughout of light colored earth, similar to the surrounding soil. 
Small bits of charcoal were scattered through it, but no indications of 
burial. Beneath it, at the center, was a pit in the native soil similar 
to that in No. 1, but only 3 feet deep. This was filled with very dark 
earth. 

Mound 3 was similar in size and every other respect to No. 2. 

Mound 4 was 35 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. Around it were 
depressions from which it is.evident the earth was obtained to build it. 
Bits of charcoal were scattered all 
through the red clay of which it was 
composed. In the center, at the 
depth of 2 feet, was a single prostrate 
skeleton with the head to the north 
east. Near the head were a fine 
steatite pipe, some flint chips, a flint 
drill, and a small celt. There was, 
as usual in this group, a circular pit 
in the native soil about 4 feet across 
and 3 feet deep, in the bottom of 
which lay a folded adult skeleton, 
surrounded by charcoal and ashes 
and a few fragments of steatite ves 
sels. 

A short distance from this group, 

at the upper end of Jackson s island, there are seven shell heaps, some 
of which are 60 feet in diameter, though rising but little above the gen 
eral surface of the ground, yet by digging into them they were found 
to extend downward to the depth of from 3 to 4 feet. In these were 
several stone pestles, chipped flints, and other refuse material. 

MOUNDS ON THE JACKSON FARM. 

About the mouth of the Little Tennessee is a series of mound groups, 
mostly of the ordinary conical form, and of comparatively small size. 
The first of the series represented in Fig. 274 is on the upper end of the 
Jackson farm, 4 miles from Lenoir s station, and is No. 10, PI. xxv. 

The river at this point is deep and sluggish. A small creek enters 
it from the east side, flowing through a narrow bottom between high 
parallel ridges. Mound No. 2 is in the bottom, close to the creek and 
about half a mile from the river. It measured 00 feet in diameter and 




FIG. 274. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, 
London county, Tennessee. 



396 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS 






4 feet in height, and was composed throughout of red clay, scattered 
through which were gravel and small stones and a few fragments of 
human bones. 

Mounds Nos. 1 and 3 are on opposite sides of the creek, each on a high 
ridge. No. 1, about the same size as No. 2, had been explored. No. 3, 
46 feet in diameter and 3i feet high, was thoroughly excavated. Like 

No. 2, it consisted 
wholly of red clay. 
At the depth of 1 
foot was a skeleton 
lying with head 
to the south and 
much decayed. 
At the head a 
fine steatite pipe. 
Nothing else was 
found. 

Lower down the 
river, near the 
line between 
Jackson s farm 
and the land ot 
the Lenoir Manu 
facturing Com 
pany, is the group 
represented in 
Fig. 275. The fol 
lowing is a sum 
mary of the re- 




Fio. 275. Mounds on John Jackson s farm, Loudon county, Tennessee. 



suits of the exploration made here. The letters a, &, c, d mark the 
points on the river from, which courses and distances to the mounds 
were taken to form the plat, which is drawn to a scale, 1 18000. 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Composition. 


Remarks. 




Feet. 


Feet. 






4 


() 


2* 


lied clay 


Neither skeletons nor relics. 


6 


7:5 


12 


....do 


Four skeletons at bottom ; no relics. 


7 


45 


3 


do 




8 


45 


:s 


....do 


In each a few fragments of human hones; 










nothing else. 


9 


45 


:i 


....do 




10 


45 


3 


....do 




11 


65 


5 


....do 


Four skeletons at the bottom; no relics. 


12 


48 


:si 


do 


A few human bones at Ihe bottom. 



A few mounds of this group had been previously explored by other 
parties. This is No. 17, PI. xxv. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



397 



The mounds at and about the point where the Little Tennessee joins 
the Holston consist, as will be seen by reference to Fig. 276, of some 
three or four minor groups and several single mounds. These (with 
the exception of those on the point of Lenoir s island, which are num 
bered separately) are numbered consecutively from 1 to 16. Although 




these mounds are indicated on PI. xxv, the groups are not numbered 
there, as the locations compared with Fig. 276 will serve to identify 
them. 

The island contains about 200 acres, and its surface, which is level, 
is about 15 ieet above the ordinary stage of the river. The banks are- 
steep and have heavy timber and much cane growing along them. On 
the northern or lower end are two mounds. No. 1, which was found to 
be very symmetrical, the base almost an exact circle 100 feet in diameter 
and 6J feet high, was thoroughly worked over. In it were found four- 



398 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



teen skeletons, as shown in the diagram (Fig. 277). The top layer, 
about 18 inches thick, consisted of dark sandy soil, scattered through 
which were numerous fragments of pottery, shells, flint chips, and bits 
of charcoal. Next below this was a layer, about 4 inches thick, of yel 
low clay, thoroughly burnt and very hard. This conformed to the 
curvature of the mound, extending all around to the base, and entirely 
covering the nucleus which formed the original mound. Below this, 
and forming the nucleus, was a layer of dark, sandy soil, similar to 
the outer stratum, which extended nearly to the base and rested on a 
horizontal layer of burned clay, which covered the original surface of 
the ground to a depth of 4 or 5 inches. All the skeletons were found 
resting horizontally on, or a few inches above, this bottom layer of 

burnt clay or cement: 

No. 1, with the head 
north ; about the neck 
were several blue glass 
beads. 

Nos. 2 and 3, lying side 
by side, with heads west. 
Nos. 4 and 5, lying side 
by side, with heads east 
and feet close to the feet 
of Nos. 2 and .3. 

No. 6, the skeleton of 
a child, lying apart from 
the others, with head 
south; about the neck 
were a number of beads, 
and ar on iid the arm 
bones two iron bracelets. 
Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10 
were lying side by side, 




FIG. 277. Plan of burials in mound No. ], Lenoir groi 



touching one another, with heads to the west; with these were some 
sheets of mica and a stone knife. 

No. 11 was the skeleton of a child, lyin<>- apart from the others, head 
southwest; there were no ornaments with it. 

Nos. 12, 13, and 14 were lying side by side, with heads southwest. 

Mound No. 2, like No. 1, is on the northern end of the island, but it 
differs in one very important respect from any other mound so far ob 
served in this region. It has annexed to it a broad and extended ter 
race of the form shown in Fig. 278, A being the mound proper and B 
the annex or terrace. It is termed "annex," because it is evident that 
the mound was first completed and the terrace added afterwards, and 
not built up with and as a part of the mound. 

The mound is circular, 108 feet in diameter, flat on top, and nearly 
11 feet high. The terrace, which is level on top and 8 feet high, widens 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



399 



as it extends from the mound, and then gradually narrows until it 
conies to a point which coincides with the lower point of the island; 
its length is 570 and greatest breadth 380 feet. 

An explanation of the plan followed in working over this inound is 
given, as it will illustrate the method adopted in regard to the others 
of which figures are given. First stakes were set on the outer margin 
exactly at the four cardinal 
points by compass. Then on a 
large pasteboard a line was 
drawn representing the outline 
of the base. The exploration was 
then made by cutting successive 
parallel trenches from east to 
west entirely across it. When 
ever a skeleton was found it was 
carefully cleaned before an at 
tempt to remove it was made, 
and its position noted as accu 
rately as possible 011 the paste 
board. The result in this case 
is shown in Fig. 279. 

The construction of this mound 
was much like that of No. 1, on 
the Jackson farm, the chief dif 
ferences being thai in this case 
there were three layers of burnt 
clay instead of two, and there 
was a shaft extending down from 
top to bottom, filled with alter 
nate layers of burnt clay and 
ashes, as shown in Fig. 280. 

The central shaft, which was circular, 8 feet in diameter at the top 
and 4 at the bottom, extended from the top layer of dark soil down to 
the original surface of the earth. It consisted of a succession of fire- 
beds, the clay of one layer having been placed upon the accumulated 
ashes and coals of the one below it. 

The remains of quite a number of posts were found; these had evi 
dently been set perpendicularly in the surface of the mound when the 
clay stratum d d formed the covering. Some of these were nearly or 
quite 18 inches in diameter, others not more than (3; they were all about 
on the same level. The upper ends of all were charred, showing that they 
had been burned off; hence no estimate of their original height could 
be made. The portion remaining varied from 2 to 3 feet in length, prob 
ably showing the depth to which they were inserted in the earth of the 
inound. The lower ends of the larger ones were cut off square, but it 
was not possible to decide by the marks what kind of a tool had been 
used. Fig. 281 shows their relative positions. At a they were placed 




FIG. 278. Diagram of mound No. 2, Lenoir group. 



400 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in a circle, with a large one in the center, the circumference containing 
twenty-three, somewhat regularly spaced. The diameter of this circle 
was about 20 feet, with the door or entrance probably at 1. On the 
other quarter, near the central shaft (d), the positions of the posts around 




FIG. 279. Plan of burials in mound No, 2, Lenoir group. 

6 X indicate an irregular triangular structure of some kind. On the oppo 
site side there seems to have been, judging by the remains of posts, a 
small oval structure (e). 








FIG. 280. Vortical section of mound No. 2, Lenoir group. 

a a, the top layer of dark saudy soil, similar to that around the mound, 1 feet thick. 

6 6, a thin layer of burnt yellow clay or cement, from 3 to 4 inches thick. 

c c, dark sandy soil, 2^ feet thick. 

d d, a second layer of burnt clay, 3 inches. 

f e, dark saudy soil, 1^ feet thick. 

//, a third layer of burnt clay, 3 inches thick. 

g g, dark, mucky soil, resting on the original surface of the ground. 

ft, the central shaft of alternate layers of burnt clay and ashes. 

Hi i } remains of upright cedar posts. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



401 



Sixty-seven skeletons were discovered, all in the lowest layer (g) of 
dark mucky earth and all except two lying horizontally at full length. 
Although pointing in various directions, as shown in Fig. 279, which 




.0.-. 



FIG. 281. Horizontal plan of niuuiid No. 2, Lenoir group. 

represents their respective positions, it will be noticed that most of 
them have their heads toward the center of the mound. No. 11 was in 
a sitting or squatting posture, and No. 46 folded up, lying on the right 
side. The bones of the left leg of No. 27 were wanting. 




FIG. 282. Ornamental pot, uiouml No. 2, Leuoir roup. 

The appearance of a number of these skeletons indicated the follow 
ing method of burial. The body of the deceased was covered with a 
layer of cane or brush; over this was spread clay or cement in a plas 
tic state, and upon this a lire was built. 
12 ETH 26 



402 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The pots were generally found at the head of the skeleton, but the 
Hue ornamented one (Fig. 282) was lying on the breast of No. 7, while 

a flint knife, some red paint, and wampum 
beads were about the head. The pipes 
were generally close to the head. In one 
or two cases they lay with the bones of the 
hand. The large shells were always on the 
breast or close to the neck, indicating that 
they had been worn attached to a cord 
about the neck, on which shell beads were 
strung. The shell ornaments (like that 
shown in Fig. 283) were in every case at 
the sides of the head, and, as not one was 
found with a skeleton without finding its 
counterpart, it is assumed that they were 
ear ornaments. The long- pointed shell or 
naments, such as that shown in Fig. 284, 
were always found at the back of the head, 
as though they were used as hair orna 
ments. 

The following is a list of specimens from this mound, showing the 
particular skeleton with which each was found : 

Shell heads, from skeleton No. 2. 
Large shell, from skeleton No. 3. 

Very fine ornamented pot, flint knii e, red paint, wainpum beads, from skeleton 
No. 7. 

Two fine pots, from skeleton No. 10. 
Heads and shell ornament, from skeleton No. 11. 
Large shell heads, three copper ornaments, from skeleton No. 12. 
Pipe (Fig. 285), from skeleton No. 20. 
Eleven arrowheads, from skeleton No. 24. 
Large flint spearheads and wampum beads, from skeleton No. 25. 




FIG. 283. Shell ornament, mound No. 
2, Lenoir group. 




FIG. 284. Shell ornament, uiouud No. 2, Leiioir group. 

Large pipe and hone implements, from skeleton No. 29. 

Shell ornaineiits, from skeleton No. 34. 

Shell ornaments, from skeleton No. 35. 

Shell ornaments, from skeleton No. 36. 

Flint knife and broken red pipe, from skeleton No. 37. 

Six polished celts, red stone implement, and two steatite pipes, from skeleton No. 39. 

Bone implements, from skeleton No. 41. 

Two engraved shells, from skeleton No. 43. 

Two engraved shells (fine) and shell ornament, from skeleton No. 44. 

Pot, from skeleton No. 45. 

Fine shell, double pot, long pot, and moccasin-shaped pot, from skeleton No. 49. 

Large arrowhead, from skeleton No. 50. 



-ROMAS.] TENNESSEE. 403 

Fine pot, steatite pipe, shell ornaments, stone ax, clay ornaments, sknll, and two 
discoidal stones^ from skeleton No. 53. 

Two discoidal stones, celt, two steatite pipes, and a pot, from skeleton No. 61. 
Two spearheads and two large beads, from skeleton No. 62. 
Flint knife, iron chisel, large discoidal stone and sknll, from skeleton No. 63. 

The terrace connected with this mound, and already described, was 
only partially explored, further work being prevented by high water. 
In a single trench, 24 feet long and 10 feet wide, cut lengthwise in the 
center to the original surface, 9 skeletons were discovered. The first 
was that of a child at a depth of 18 inches; the bones were badly 
decayed and unaccompanied by relics of any kind. The other 8, all 
adults, were found at the depth of 7 feet, close to the bottom, and in a 
much better state of preservation than that of the child. With them 
were three whole pots and a few broken beads. 






FIG. 285. Pipe, mound No. 2, Lenoir group. 

The island was overflowed in 1887, the year the exploration was 
made, to a depth of 10 or 12 feet, the highest water, with one exception, 
ever known here. 

Mounds 13 and 14, in the bottom between the two creeks opposite 
the mouth of the Little Tennessee, were explored and both found 
to be composed throughout of red clay. They were of the ordinary 
conical form, the former 54 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, the latter 
46 feet in diameter and 2 feet high. In the center of the former, at the 
base, Avas a single skeleton resting on a circular layer of ashes, about 4 
feet in diameter and 2 inches thick, which had been spread on the orig 
inal surface of the ground. Nothing was found in No. 14. 

By reference to the plat (Fig. 276) it will be seen that there are nine 
mounds (Nos. 1 to 9) on the point between the Holston and the Little 
Tennessee. They are situated on a low ridge in groups of three. 

No. 4, 42 feet in diameter, 3j feet high, was excavated, and, like all 
the upland mounds in this section, consisted wholly of red clay. It 
contained neither skeleton nor relic. 

No. 1, measuring 45 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, is situated on 



404 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

the brow or highest point of the ridge, where it breaks off toward the 
Little Tennessee. The body of the mound consisted of red clay, except 
immediately in the center, where there was a circular bed about 6 feet 
in diameter, of darker colored earth, which was quite loose, the other 
part of the mound being very hard. This loose earth did not cease at 
the original surface of the ground, but continued downward to the 
depth of 4 feet; the pit into which it extended was circular and at the 
bottom were the remains of a single skeleton. With these remains 
were a tine steatite pipe, one large spearhead, seven arrowheads, one 
long polished stone, and some red and black paint. 

Nos. 5 and 6 were opened and found to consist as usual of red clay 
with a few human bones in each. 

Nos. 7, 8, and 9 had been examined previously. 

Want of time prevented any further examination during this visit of 
this interesting group. Subsequently some other mounds not desig 
nated on the plat were examined. 

One of these, lying between the Little Tennessee and Holston, near 
their junction and connected with a group of three, measured 38 feet in 
diameter and 6 feet in height. It was surrounded on the east and west 
by depressions from which it is probable the earth was taken to form 
it. Two large black-oak trees were growing on it. At the depth of 
1 foot a small pile of human bones was discovered. These were all 
broken, and had evidently been placed here after the tiesh was removed. 
The entire mound was composed of red clay and contained nothing of 
interest. 

There are two mounds on top of a high bluff in what is known as Hall s 
bend, on the south side of the Tennessee river, opposite Lenoirs island 
(Nos. 15 and 16, Fig. 276). One of these, 26 feet in diameter and 3 feet 
high, and surrounded by a ditch about a foot in depth, was explored. 
A foot below the top a layer of flat stones extending over the mound 
was reached. Below this the remainder, to the bottom, consisted of dark 
soil. A circular pit 3 feet in diameter and 2 feet deep extended into 
the native soil; in this were two adult skeletons in a sitting posture, 
side by side, pressed closely one against the other in consequence of 
the small space. At the head of one was a fine marble pipe, and at the 
bottom among the leg bones of the skeletons were several rude arrow 
points. The earth in the pit was very dark and unctuous. 

ME1GS COUNTY. 

THE M 1 ANDREW8 MOUNDS. 

This little group, consisting of but two mounds, is on the farm of Mr. 
Joseph McAndrews, in the southwestern part of the county, 1 mile from 
Brittsville, and stands on the terrace or upland bordering the river bot 
tom. 

Mound I, which stands a short distance from a creek, is elliptical in 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 40f) 

outline, 49 by 39 feet, the longer axis north and south, and a little over 
7 feet high. A broad trench carried through it, down to the original 
soil, showed its construction to be as follows: 

First, a top layer 12 inches thick of soil similar to that of the surface 
about the mound; next a layer, 18 inches thick, of red clay mixed with 
gravel ; and lastly, a central core, 5 feet thick, of dark, rich looking 
earth, with much charcoal scattered through it. This core, which was 
conical and rounded, was but 17 feet in diameter. It contained nothing 
of interest except a single stone grave, built of steatite slabs. This 
was at one side of the center, partly in the central mass and partly 
in the clay. It was 4 feet long, 2 wide, and 1 deep. In it lay a single 
adult skeleton, folded, with head south. Although there was a top 
covering of steatite slabs, the cist was filled with earth and the bones 
were far gone into decay. A fire had been kindled on the top slabs; 
this had left a small bed of ashes a foot in diameter and 2 inches 
thick, in which were a few pieces of charred sticks and the partially 
calcined bones of some small animals. The bones of the inclosed 
skeleton showed no signs of fire. The mound, which has been plowed 
over for a number of years, was formerly surrounded by a ditch, traces 
of which are still visible; this appears to be unusual in this section. 

Mound No. 2, circular, 38 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, is situated 
about one-fourth of a mile northeast of No. 1, on a high terrace. 

A trench through the central portion brought to light nothing of 
mportance, except the fact that it was composed of dark-red earth 
similar to that around it. The bones of a human skeleton were found 
at a depth of 3 feet. They were heaped together, in which position 
they may have been buried, or else they were the remains of a body 
that had been buried in a sitting or squatting posture. As the earth 
was loose above them, it may have been an intrusive burial. There 
were particles of charcoal scattered through the dirt. 

The chief interest in this mound arises from the fact that it appears to 
have been a signal station. At least, it is a point well adapted to this 
purpose, as it commands a fine view of the opening in the ridges some 
6 miles to the northwest, through which the Hiawassee flows into the 
Tennessee. Directly in front of this opening, in the mouth of the 
Hiawassee, is a large island containing between 500 and 600 acres. On 
the head of this is a large mound about 35 feet high. This latter 
locality seems to have been a place of much importance to the people 
who erected these structures, probably where they assembled for feast 
ing, consultation, or ceremony. A fire signal at No. 2 could easily be 
seen from this place. 

Two other mounds, on the farm of Mr. T. J. Watkins, in the same 
part of the county, were examined, but presented nothing of interest. 
They were both uustratitied, and composed throughout of red earth 
like that on which they stand. One was circular, 32 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high ; the other oval, 40 by 20 feet, and 5 feet high. 



406 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

RHEA COUNTY. 

THE FRAZIKK MOUNDS. 

The two mounds composing this group are on the farm of Mr. Sam 
uel Frazier, north of the Tennessee river, in the southern part of the 
county, 3 miles south of Washington. They are located on the second 
bottom, about one-fourth of a mile from the river. 

Mound No. 1, circular in outline, was only 30 feet in diameter and 3 
feet high. This was thoroughly worked over and found to be composed 
throughout of red clay, and to contain ten stone cists, placed as shown 
in Fig. 280. These were made of thin slabs of limestone, with bot 
tom and covering of 
the same. They dif 
fered somewhat from 
the usual form, being 
from 20 to 24 inches 
square and from 12 to 
24inchesdeep. Each 
contained the bones 
of a single skeleton, 
in most cases of ad 
ults. In every in 
stance, the head was 
at the bottom, the 
other bones being 
placed around and 
above it. All the 
space not occupied 
by the bones was 
filled with dirt. No 
relics were found. 

As will be observed 
by reference to the 
figure, the graves were confined to the southeastern portion of the 
mound. Those nearest the center were about a foot below the surface 
of the mound, while the stones of those nearest the margin were par 
tially exposed. This was probably owing to the mound s having been 
considerably worn down. 

Mound No. 2, which stands 40 feet from No. 1, is also small, being 
but 27 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. It had been opened by other 
parties, and, according to report, found to contain stone graves similar 
to those in No. 1. This was verified by an examination, as the bottom 
and side pieces of a number of them were found still in place. These 
were scattered throughout the mound, and their number must have 
been considerable. 

These small cists will probably recall to the minds of archeologists 




FIG. 286. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Frazier group. Rhea 
county, Tennessee. 



THOMAS.] 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



407 



the so-called " pigmy graves" about Sparta, in the same state, which 
excited so much interest and surprise many years ago, when they were 
discovered. 




^^ 



WEST VIRGINIA. 
FAYETTE COUNTY. 

THE HUDDLESON INCLOSURE. 

This work, situated on the farm of Mr. A. Huddleson, across the 
Kanawha river from Mount Carbon, is shown in Fig. 287. It consists 
of an inclosure circular in 
form 1,344 feet in circumfer 
ence, or about 430 feet in 
diameter, and is located on 
smooth bottom land above 
the overflows of the river. 
The surrounding wall, which 
consists of earth like the 
surface soil about it and a 
mixture of mussel shells 
similar to those now found 
in the Kanawha river, was 
formerly some 3 or 4 feet 
high, but has been reduced 
by long cultivation to a mere 
trace. 

At a is an ash pile 4 feet 
high surmounted by a long 
flat rock. At b was found a 
box-shaped stone cist at the 
depth of 1 foot below the 
surface. Eude stone hoes, 



r 



FIG. 287. Hinldleson s Circle, Fayette county, West 
Virginia. 



flint lance and arrow heads, lish darts, and other stone implements 
were found scattered over the ground. 

Kock etchings are numerous upon the smooth rocks near the princi 
pal fords of the river. Most of these are covered by water during the 
freshets. Others are found in the niches or long narrow clefts in the 
rocky cliifs. Although rude representations of men and animals and 
some probably symbolic figures are common here, none were observed 
superior to or essentially different from those of modern Indians 

ROCK CIRCLES. 

On the summits of nearly all of the prominent bluffs, spurs, and 
high points of this region are heaps of large angular stones. Unlike 
the loose cairns of the plains of the northwest and elsewhere, these 



408 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




appear to have been systematically constructed for some particular 
purpose, with a circular well-like space in the middle. 

First, the earth (unless the place selected is a bare rock) is removed 
to the solid rock foundation and an approximately level space from 10 
to 30 feet in diameter formed. Centrally on this was placed a layer of 
flat stones, with the best edge inward, around a circle about 3 feet in 
diameter. Upon the outer edge of these, others 
were placed with their outer edges resting upon 
the prepared foundation running entirely around 
the circle. Then another inner layer with the 
best edge inward and the thinner edge resting 
on the outer layer, the stones of one layer break 
ing joints with those below, as far as the size 
and form would admit of it. Outside of the 
inner row and with the edges resting on it other 
circles were added, until a diameter ranging 
from 20 to 50 feet, or even more, was attained ; 
thus often extending upon the sloping earth not 
removed in forming the foundation. The last, 
or outer circle, usually consisted of but a single 
layer, over which earth was thrown, being some 
times heaped up until it equaled in contents 
one-half the rock pile. The height of these piles 
was found to vary from 4 to 8 feet, in one or two 
instances reaching 10 feet. But in all cases the 
circular space or opening in the center continued 
to the top the same diameter as at the bottom, 
somewhat resembling the so-called " wellholes" 
of the early western pioneers. 

Many of the stones used in these heaps have 
evidently been obtained by rude quarrying in 
the stratified cliffs, often half a mile distant. 
Some of them measure from 4 to 6 feet in length, 
half as wide, and of a thickness which renders 
them so heavy as to require from two to four 
stout men to handle them. Beneath the some 
what upturned edges of many of these stones in 
the different layers are frequently found the 
decayed (and often charred) remains of human 
skeletons, usually horizontal, with the head or 
feet (generally the latter) toward the central " wellhole." With these 
were generally found fragments of coarse pottery, rude, but very large 
celts; also lance and arrow heads, and occasionally rude clay or stone 
pipes, but rarely, if ever, stone hoes or other agricultural implements. 
All the cavities of the heap not originally used for burial are filled with 
earth or mortar, often well baked by fire. 




THOMAS.] 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



409 



As typical of these heaps, Fig. 288 a b is given, showing one of the 
most perfect observed, which was thoroughly examined, carefully 
measured and sketched. At a it is shown as it appeared before being 
opened; at b is a vertical section showing the central cavity or " well- 
hole." This heap was found upon a rocky spur of Mount Carbon at 
the height of fully 1,000 feet above the river level, a point overlooking 
the valley of the Kanawha, and from which the latter could be dis 
tinctly seen for several miles both above and below. It measured 42 
feet in diameter at the base and 6 feet 8 inches high on the inside of 
the well, which was in the center, and a trifle less than 3 feet in 




FIG. 289. Stone heap with two cavities, Fayette county, West Virginia. 

diameter throughout. Although open at the top at the time it was 
examined and containing only an accumulation of decayed bones and 
rubbish, there were stones out of place and scattered about it sufficient 
in number to have finished it out and capped it over as indicated by 
the dotted lines in the figure. Whether they were used to complete it 
as indicated by these dotted lines is a matter of conjecture only. 

Although rock heaps of this class generally have but one "wellhole" 
in them, we occasionally meet with one having two, as shown in Fig. 
289. As a rule these piles are much less perfect than those shown in 
the figures, most of them being in a more or less disturbed condition. 




FIG. 290. Section of stone heap with triangular cavity, Fayette county, West Virginia. 

A somewhat different type of these heaps from that described is 
occasionally observed, especially on the sharp, rocky ridges. A section 
of one of these is shown in Fig. 290. These, which have a triangular 
cavity, were undoubtedly burial places, and were not built up with the 
care bestowed upon the others. 

ANCIENT STONE WALL UPON MOUNT CARBON. 

About 1,000 feet above the town of Mount Carbon are heavy and valua 
ble veins of coal. Some hundreds of feet above these are the remains 
of an ancient stone wall, the tortuous course of which can be followed 



410 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

along the steep face of the mountain fully a mile, then across its sharp 
summit and a like distance upon the other slope. It is said that it can 
be traced fully as much farther in such a manner as to connect the ends, 
and thus inclose a large area of the higher portion of the mountain. 
Little of this wall is now in place, it rarely being more than 1 or 2 feet 
in height, but the line of flat rocks strewn over a space of many feet 
in width, and often far down the mountain slope, indicates material 
largely in excess of that in an ordinary stone-wall fence. When dis 
covered by the early white rovers of this region, something more than 
a century ago, many portions of it were, as affirmed both by history and 
tradition, intact and 5 or G feet wide and high, although amid timbers 
as large as found elsewhere upon the mountain. 

ROCK CIRCLE. 

On Armstrongs creek, half a mile above its junction with the Ka- 
nawha, are the remains of an interesting rock heap inside of a circle. 
The latter is fully 100 feet in diameter, and after the removal of mate 
rial therefrom for nearly a half mile of stone fence is still 15 to 20 feet 
wide and 3 to 5 feet high. Central within this are the remains of what 
the oldest living white men and the early records and traditions of this 
region represent as having been a rock heap 25 or 30 feet in diameter 
at the base and 10 feet high, and similar to that shown in Fig. 288, 
except that the cap or cover was still in place when first observed. 
The explanation of this is supposed to be found in the fact that there 
was a passageway large enough to admit a man extending from the 
outside to the inner space. 

KANAWHA COUNTY. 

CLIFTOX WORKS. 

The Kanawha, as is usual with streams in hilly sections, meanders 
between bluft s, leaving a bottom now on this side and then on that. 
Such places have ever been the chosen haunts of the aboriginal tribes. 
A typical one of these bottoms is on the south side of the river, on 
which the present village of Clifton is located. Excavations made 
here for cellars, walls, and other purposes seldom fail to bring to light 
human bones, fragments of pottery, stone implements, and other evi 
dences of previous occupancy. Several days were spent in making 
excavations here, finding marked uniformity in the earth and its con 
tents. The sandy soil, which extends to the depth of 4 and 5 feet, was 
found to bo literally filled with charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, 
entire and broken stone implements, etc. Although resembling in 
character a refuse heap, it is probably a village site or camping ground, 
occupied continuously, or season after season for a long time, by a band 
of aborigines, but so far back in the past that the entire area was 
overgrown with the largest timber of the valley when first visited by 



THOMAS.] WEST VIRGINIA. 411 

white men, nearly a century and a half ago. Commingled with these 
relics, at a depth of from 2 to 4 feet, were found several medium-sized 
skeletons in various stages of decay. All were lying extended on the 
back or side, but in no regular order in respect to each other or the 
points of the compass. With some of these were quite a number of 
large beads (probably used as rattles), made by cutting short sections 
of the leg bones of small animals and bones of birds. These, one bone 
fishhook, and several bone bodkins, found near the surface, are but 
slightly decayed, and are probably the work of Indians. 

ROCK WALL. 

Between the Kanawha river and a branch of Paint creek is a high, 
irregular ridge, something more than 1,000 feet above the village of 
Clifton. The end near the village widens out suddenly in the form of 
a short paddle. The comparatively level top, surrounded on all sides 
by steep bluffs, offered a position easily defended. The more sloping 
front, which was the only assailable point, was defended by a stone 
wall running along the brow from the eastern to the western bluff, 
a distance of 260 paces, or nearly 800 feet. As but little of it is now 
standing, its original dimensions can not be accurately determined; 
but judging by the quantity of flat stones still in place and strewn 
along the hillside below the wall, and the statements of persons who 
saw it when but little injured, it must have been at least 5 or 6 feet 
high and constructed like an ordinary stone fence. There is no trace 
of a gateway in it, nor are there any indications that a wall ever existed 
across the narrow neck behind the paddle-shaped expansion. 

BROWNSTOWN WORKS. 

On the site of this village, just below the point where Len s creek enters 
the Kanawha, are traces of an ancient earthen inclosure. Being more 
or less covered with dwellings and other structures and almost entirely 
worn away, it was impossible to trace the wall with sufficient accuracy 
to plat it, but it probably inclosed some or 8 acres. It is said that -a 
part of it was utilized for defense by the early white settlers. In the 
streets and gardens and in the washed bank of the river numerous 
relics have been found similar to those observed at Clifton. It is also 
said that certain brass ornaments have been discovered here associated 
with stone implements and decayed human bones, but none of these 
were seen. 

LEN S CREEK MOUNDS. 

There are a number of mounds in the deep valley of this creek, of 
which one only was opened, and this because of its peculiar situation, 
being located where the valley is so narrow as scarcely to allow a road 
way between the creek and the bluff. Although scarcely 20 feet in 
diameter at the base and fully 7 feet high, and otherwise peculiarly 



412 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

modem in appearance, it bears on its top a beecli stump 30 inches in 
diameter. The material was yellow clay, evidently brought from an ex 
cavation in the hillside nearby. On the natural surface, near the center, 
lying horizontally on their backs, heads south, were the skeletons of 
six adults and one child. All were thoroughly charred and without any 
earth intermingled with them, but covered with ashes and several 
inches of charcoal and brands. It is evident that the fire was smothered 
before it had fully burned out. Three coarse lance-heads and a fish 
dart were found amid the bones of the adults, and at the neck of the 
child three copper beads made of thick wire bent in a circular form. 

ELK RIVER WORKS. 

On the opposite side of Elk river and 1 mile north of Charleston there 
is a circular inclosure 200 feet in diameter, the wall, after many years 
cultivation, being still from 3 to 4 feet higher than the nearly obliter 
ated ditch which runs along the inside of it. From this ditch the sur 
face rounds up a foot or so and continues at this height all over the 
central area. The inside of the wall is quite steep, while the outside 
slopes off very gradually except on the north side, which runs close to 
the face of a rocky cliff. The only opening or gateway in this wall is 
on the east and is guarded by a conical mound 50 feet in diameter and 
5 feet high. Strewn over the top of this mound were numerous frag 
ments of flat stones, many of which were marked with circular pits. 
The removal of these only disclosed others, which were mingled with 
very hard yellow clay, charcoal, ashes, stone chips, and fragments of 
rude pottery. Near the center and 3 feet below the top of the mound 
a decayed human skeleton was found, lying horizontally in a very rude 
box-shaped stone coffin. Beneath this were other flat stones, and under 
them charcoal, ashes, and baked earth, overlying the charred remains 
of at least three or four other skeletons. These, judging by what 
remained of them, must have been laid on the natural surface of the 
ground with the heads eastward. 

Four miles farther up Elk river, on the summit of a low pass, over 
which ran an ancient trail, was a small conical mound 30 feet in diam 
eter and 5 feet high. This had previously been opened to the depth of 
3 feet, and, as was afterward learned, a human skeleton and fifteen or 
twenty copper beads found. Carrying the excavation down to the 
natural surface a single, much decayed, adult skeleton was discovered, 
but nothing else. 

Two miles above the preceding is a group of small conical mounds 
from 2 to 3 feet high and from 20 to 30 feet in diameter. Some of these 
were opened, but nothing of interest observed except that on the nat 
ural surface of the earth beneath them was always found a layer of 
charcoal and ashes, among which were fragments of bones. 

Midway between these and the one in the pass is a "group of five 
mounds. One of these, 50 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was opened 



THOMAS.] WEST VIRGINIA. 413 

and found to be composed of yellow clay so hard that it was difficult 
to break it up with a pick. Upon the natural surface was a layer of 
charcoal and ashes in which were the remains of at least two skeletons. 

INCLOSURE NEAR ST. ALBIN. 

Near St. Albin, in a horseshoe bend of Goal river, 2 miles above its 
confluence with the Kanawha, is a bold promontory 300 feet high, be 
longing to the farm of Mr. B. Inman, the area of the top being some 
15 or 20 acres. It is connected with the upland behind it by a long- 
ridge so narrow in places as scarcely to afford room on top for a wagon 
track. 

Here what was possibly a " graded way " was traced along and near 
the outer edge of this promontory, past several small conical mounds 
and rock heaps to an inclosure upon the highest part. This is near the 
northern end and less than 100 feet down the rocky eastern hillside, 
where there is one of the finest springs of this section. This inclosure 
is circular in form and 104 feet in diameter, with a slight ditch inside 
the wall, which is steep on the inside and from 3 to 4 feet high. This 
wall is broken only in the northwestern part, where there is a gateway 
12 feet wide. In the center of the inclosed area is a mound 20 feet in 
diameter and 3 feet high. 

Mr. Wilson, an old resident, affirms that when he was a boy this 
work, in. common with the rest of the hill, was covered with a heavy 
growth of forest trees. These were long since cut down, and as the 
land has never been cultivated the area is now covered with a growth 
of young timber. He had partially opened the mound in his boyhood, 
and the flat sandstones which he then removed from the top are still 
lying at the foot. Observing a singular groove across the stones still 
in place, as well as those removed, Col. Norris, the explorer, replaced 
the latter and found that when properly fitted a chipped groove or 
gutter 3 inches wide and nearly as deep was continuous across them 
from the summit to the bottom. The object the builders of the mound 
had in view in working out this channel, which must have taken a long 
time with their rude tools, must be left wholly to conjecture, as there 
was nothing in or about the mound to give a clue to it. The mound, 
which was composed of light colored, mortar-like material, apparently 
a mixture of clay and ashes, extended down 6 feet below the natural 
surface. At this depth was found a single adult skeleton in the last 
stages of decay, lying prostrate on its back. In the hand of the out 
stretched right arm was a black slate gorget. 

Two hundred yards south of the inclosure, upon the slope, near the 
ancient roadway, stood another mound about 50 feet in diameter and 
6 feet high. This was composed of hard, tough clay to the natural 
slope, and below it was a vault or pit which had been excavated before 
the mound was thrown up. Tbis was 8 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 
about 3 feet deep at the upper end. In it was an adult skeleton 



414 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

on its back, with head uphill (north). Upon the breast was a well 
formed and well finished sandstone gorget, and on it a black, leaf- 
shaped flint implement and a small hematite celt. No bones of the 
right arm were found alongside those of the body, but a careful search 
resulted in finding them in a line of ashes running out at right angles 
from the shoulder. Upon the bones of the open hand were three piles 
of small, black flint knives, five in each pile, all with the points turned 
toward the shoulder. 

Two other conical mounds and one rock heap at this place were 
opened, but nothing of interest was found in them save fragments of 
bones in beds of coals and ashes on the natural surface of the ground. 

The ancient roadway, which in several places upon the sloping side 
of the hill is truly a " graded way," seems to have been fully 20 feet 
wide, somewhat rounded in the middle, and rather higher than the 
natural surface. On the slope the lower side is graded up and sus 
tained by a line of flat stones, and the upper side cut down precisely 
as a modern roadway is formed. The oldest settlers, when they first 
came to this region, found it covered with forest trees, as were the 
other ancient works. The entire length of this road was originally 
about half a mile, but a portion of it has been obliterated by cultiva 
tion. Possibly this is an old military road. 

ANCIENT WORKS NEAR CHARLESTON. 

Along the Kanawha river from 3 to 8 miles below Charleston are 
the most extensive and interesting ancient works to be found in the 
state of West Virginia. They consist of fifty mounds, varying in 
diameter from 35 to 200 feet and in height from 3 to 35 feet; some 
eight or ten inclosures containing from less than 1 to fully 30 acres; 
circular, clay-lined pits from 6 to 8 feet broad and as many feet in 
depth, and box- shaped stone cists. All are found on the upper river 
terraces beyond the reach of the highest floods. A plat of the group 
from Mr. Middleton s survey is given in PI. xxvii. 

Upon a commanding height, overlooking alike the village of Spring 
Hill and all of these works, is an ancient inclosure containing about 20 
acres. There are also on most of the high and jutting points of the 
bordering bluffs here from 200 to 400 feet high rock heaps 30 to 90 
feet in diameter and 4 to 8 feet high. 

For convenience the mounds and inclosures are numbered generally 
down the valley, commencing with the Oriel mound (No. 1, PI. xxvii). 
Those not corresponding to this order were added from a subsequent 
examination. 

An enlarged plan of this mound and the works immediately around 
it is given in Fig. 291, and a section of the mound itself farther on in 
Fig. 292. 

Inclosure a is 556 feet in circumference, with a surrounding earthen 
wall and interior ditch. The wall, where undisturbed by the plow, is 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XXVII 




PLAT OF GROUP NEAR CHARLESTON, KANAWHA COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA. 



^ 

TJKIVERSITT 




THOMAS.] 



SVEST VIRGINIA. 



415 



from 2 to 3 feet high and, as usual with the walls of iuelosures, quite 
steep on the inside and sloping on the outside. At the south, facing 
mound No. 3, is a well-defined gateway. Touching it on the outside 
at the southeast is a circular excavation (|>) 95 by 75 feet in diameter 
and 5 feet deep in the center. 

In the center of the inclosure is a conical mound (No. 2) 30 feet in 
diameter and 3 feet high. A shaft was sunk in the center of this down 
to and below the natural surface. Only hard-baked earth was found and 
at the base a few bones, some of which were human. 

Mound No. 3, which faces the southern gateway of the inclosure, is 
conical in form, 25 feet in diameter, and 3 feet high. This was opened 
by cutting a broad trench through it down to the natural surface, show 
ing it to be a gray material, probably earth mixed with ashes and, near 






FIG. 291. Enlarged plan of mound No. 1, and inclosure a, Kanawha county, West "Virginia. 

the bottom, well baked by fire. On this part, which covered the frag 
ments of two human skeletons, were ashes, coals, and firebrands. 
The remains of the skeletons were lying extended on the natural sur 
face, and with them were a lance head, a few fragments of pottery, and 
some stone chips. 

Inclosure B, according to Col. Norris, situated about 600 feet south 
west of A, is of the same size and form as the latter, but is so nearly 
obliterated by the plow that only a few faint traces remain. It seems 
to have had an inside ditch and a gateway opening toward the north 
west, opposite which stands mound No. 4 of the plat. It is proper to 
state, however, that Mr. Middleton failed to find sufficient traces of 
this inclosure to justify giving it exact form on his plat. 

Mound No. 1, locally known as the " Oriel mound," is midway be- 



416 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tween the two inclosures, about 300 feet from each. The top was lev 
eled in order to erect thereon an office and judges 7 stand in connection 
with a race course about it. It is 520 feet in circuit and 33 feet high, 
being, with one exception, the largest of the group; the top is 40 feet 
across, owing to the leveling mentioned above, to which is, perhaps, 
also due the fact that the center is 2 feet lower than the edge. 

A shaft 12 feet across at the top, narrowing to 8 feet at the bottom, 
was sunk through the center to the original surface of the ground, the 
process being aided by lateral trenches in which were offsets (see Fig. 
292, which shows a section). The material through which it passed for 
the first 2 feet was a light sandy loam. At the depth of 3 feet, in the 
center of the shaft, some human bones (a) were discovered, doubtless 
parts of a skeleton said to have been dug up before or at the time of 
the construction of the judges stand. At the depth of 4 feet, in abed 
of hard earth composed of mixed clay and ashes, were two skeletons 
(e e), both lying extended on their backs, heads south, arid feet near the 




FIG. 292. Section of mound No. 1, Kanawlia county, West Virginia. 

center of the shaft. Near the heads lay two celts, two stone hoes, 
one lance head, and two disks. 

From this point downward for 20 feet farther, nearly all the ma 
terial in the shaft was composed of the same apparently mixed sub 
stance, so hard as to require the constant use of the pick. At 24 feet 
it suddenly changed to a much softer and darker colored earth, dis 
closing the casts and some much decayed fragments of logs and poles 
from 6 to 12 inches in diameter. These, together with the fragments 
of bark, ashes, and animal bones which had been split lengthwise, con 
tinued to be found through a layer of about 6 feet. At the depth of 31 
feet a human skeleton (c) was discovered lying prostrate, head north, the 
skull crushed, but partially preserved by contact with a sheet of cop 
per that probably once formed part of a headdress of some kind, only 
fragments of which remained. By enlarging and curbing the foot of the 
shaft, a circular space 1G feet in diameter was uncovered, and the char 
acter and contents of the central, basal portion of the mound ascer 
tained. First, upon the well smoothed and packed surface had been 



THOMAS.] WEST VIRGINIA. 417 

carefully spread a floor mainly of elm bark (6), the inner side up. Upon 
this was spread a layer of fine white ashes, clear of charcoal, resem 
bling those of hickory bark, probabably 6 inches thick originally, 
though now not over an inch. On this the body was placed and cov 
ered with similar bark. Ten other skeletons, all buried in the same 
manner, were found at this point, arranged five on each side in a semi 
circle with the feet turned toward, but not quite touching, the one just 
mentioned. Owing to the crushed and decayed condition of the bones, 
it was impossible to decide positively as to the size and position. It is 
believed that all were adults of medium size and placed extended on 
their backs in bark wrappings. With each skeleton on the eastern 
side of the center, was a fine, apparently new or unused, lance head 
and by the side of the northern one of these five a fish dart, three 
arrow heads, and some decayed mussel shells. Although careful 
search was made, nothing was found with the five on the western 
side. With the central one, in addition to what has been mentioned, 
were six shell beads, and a flint lance head similar to those on the east 
ern side though larger. Near it was a hollow, conical mass or vault of 
very hard earth (d) nearly 4 feet high and fully 5 feet in diameter, the 
inner edge of which was in a line with and nearly touching the heads 
of the skeleton. This vault was partially filled with rotten wood, bark, 
human and other bones and a dark substance, apparently decayed mat 
ter of some kind. It was so loose as to be easily scratched out with 
the hands or a garden rake. The natural surface under this had been 
scooped out in basin shape to the depth of 2 feet and a breadth of 5 
feet. In the central part of this were two circular holes each 16 inches 
in diameter, 4 feet deep and 6 inches from one another in an east and 
west line. They were lined with a kind of bluish clay and partly filled 
with water. About 3 feet down was a cross communication between 
them as shown in the figure, large enough to thrust the arm through ; 
the hole to the east was about 4 inches deeper than the other. A flint 
spear head was found in each hole. Similar pairs of holes, ranging in 
depth from 2 to 3 feet and in diameter from 8 to 12 inches, were found 
beside the heads of each of the ten surrounding skeletons. 

Col. Norris and Mr. Thurston, of Charleston, who assisted in exca 
vating this mound, are of opinion that these 11 persons were buried at 
one time, possibly after the flesh had decayed from the bones in other 
depositories, or perhaps in the flesh after a battle, and that the central 
one was a person of importance. They seem to have been buried as 
above described in a timber- walled structure at least 16 feet in diame 
ter, 6 or 8 feet high at the eaves, and conically roofed. The small cen 
tral clay vault was probably a burial vault similar to those found in 
North Carolina mounds. It is worthy of notice in this connection that 
the mound in Sullivan county, Tennessee, figured on a preceding page, 
contained one central vault and eleven surrounding ones. 
12 ETH 27 



418 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The next five mounds in order (PI. xxvn) are circular, with dimen 
sions as follows: 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


4 


28 


2i 


5 


21 


2i 


G 


40 


4 


7 


45 


H 


8 


112 


9 







The last (No. 8), known locally as the Wilson mound, is within the 
inclosure marked C. It was partially opened many years ago, and 
human bones, with several celts and lance heads, were found at the 
bottom, near the center. It is now used as a burial ground. 

The inclosure (C) is now about obliterated ; from the statements of 
parties familiar with it, it was nearly square, inclosing about 20 acres, 
the walls 5 or 6 feet high, and had an interior ditch. 

Mound 9, which stands a short distance to the southwest of No. 8, is 
one of the oblong tumuli found in this region diameters 75 and 40 feet 
and height 5 feet. A trench was dug through it, but nothing found of 
interest. 

The wall of the ancient fort at Spring Hill (see PL xxvn), shown on 
an enlarged scale in Fig. 293, has been greatly reduced in height and 
partly obliterated by long cultivation. It is the only inclosure of the 
entire group located on a hill; is in a position allowing easy defense and 
supplied with living water. These facts and its large size render it 
probable that it was a place to which the inhabitants of the extensive 
village retired in times of danger. It is flanked on each side by a deep 
ravine and, on the northwest, fronts on a steep bluff fully 100 feet 
above the level of the valley. The form is somewhat that of a semi 
circle, the curved line being on the nearly level land above, while the 
straight line joining the ends of the curve is a few feet over the edge or 
break of the bluff. There was formerly, it is said, a ditch around the 
outside of the southern portion of the curve on the higher level area, 
but no trace of it now remains. The wall is nowhere 2 feet high or 19 
feet in breadth. As near as can now be determined, the length of this 
circular portion from gate to gate is 2,144 feet. 

The straight front wall from gate to gate is 1,132 feet long and in no 
place more than a foot high. There is necessarily a ditch on the inside 
where the wall is on the slope, as indicated in the sections shown in the 
figure. The area is somewhat more than 20 acres. There was appar 
ently a gateway or entrance at each angle, the eastern one (which can 
not be clearly traced) being 136 feet wide, the western 123 feet. Near 
each gateway, inside, is a mound, Nos. 10 and 11. These were formerly 
of about the same shape and size, each being 8 or 9 feet high. No. 11 
is now 35 by 40 feet at the base and 4 feet high. In the center, 3 feet 
below the surface, was a vault 8 feet long and 3 feet wide. In the bot- 



THOMAS. | 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



419 



torn of this, among the decayed fragments of bark wrappings, lay a 
skeleton fully 7 feet long, extended at full length on the back, head 
west. Lying in a circle immediately above the hips were fifty-two per- 




FIG. 293. Spring Hill inclosure on enlarged scale, Kanawha county, West Virginia. 

forated shell disks about an inch in diameter and one-eighth of an inch 
thick. The bones of the left arm were lying along the side of the body, 
but those of the right were stretched out horizontally at right angles 



420 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

to the body, the bones of the hand touching a small conical mass of 
earth, which proved to be a kind of vault similar to that in the Oriel 
mound (No. 1) above described. This was formed of a mortar or cement, 
but the contents, which must have been animal or vegetable, were com 
pletely decayed. It was yet unbroken and barely large enough to have 
covered a squatting skeleton. 

On the river bottom northwest of the preceding are the remains of a 
small inclosure, which seems to have been a square or parallelogram (E, 
PI. xxvn), part of the north side having been washed away by the river. 
The remaining portion extends 420 feet along the river, the width being 
now about 100 feet. It is probable there never was a northern wall, the 
river forming the boundary on this side. The remaining works of the 
group are on the higher terrace on the opposite side of the river. 
Mound No. 12 is directly north of inclosure C on the opposite side. It 
is circular, 50 feet in diameter, and after long cultivation is now but 2 
feet high, composed entirely of sandy soil. 

Mound No. 13, a little southwest of No. 12, measured 35 feet in diam 
eter and about 2 in height. Nothing of interest was found in either of 
.these two. 

Inclosure F, of which no trace now remains, was, according to the 
old settlers, a circle of about 65 feet diameter on the margin of a slight 
terrace directly opposite iuclosure C. There was an inside ditch. 

Moving down the river toward the southwest, we next reach a num 
ber of works which seem to be more or less connected. 

The first and most important is the inclosure G, shown on an enlarged 
scale in Fig. 294. This is one of the best preserved and most interest 
ing of the so-called " sacred enclosures" in the Kanawha valley. It is 
a parallelogram with slightly rounded corners, the longer direction 
being a little west of north and east of south; the length, measured 
from center to center of the wall, is 420 feet, width 150 feet. There is 
an interior ditch and the single entrance is at the south end. On the 
eastern side, where it has never been plowed over, the vertical distance 
from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the wall is from 4 to 6 feet; 
at other points from 2 to 3 feet. The interior area is somewhat higher 
than the outside surface and slightly rounded up toward the center. 
Close by the eastern side is a narrow ravine nearly 50 feet deep, 
through which runs a little rivulet known as Smith s branch. 

The point marked a in the wall of the inclosure is the reputed site 
of an ancient walled well. Excavation revealed a pile of large, flat, 
angular stones. The water from the ditch runs through the embank 
ment here and discharges itself over the bluff . 

A number of other excavations were made in this embankment in 
order to ascertain its composition. At the point b was a cache, a cir 
cular pit about 6 feet in diameter and 7 deep, the sides plastered 
with clay, burned hard. This was nearly full of earth, carried in mainly 
by the plow. In the bottom, among what appeared to be decayed wood 



THOMAS.] 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



421 



and corn, were numerous fragments of pottery, some of which appar 
ently belonged to vessels broken at the time they were deposited. Six 
feet north of the edge of this, at c, was another pit, much smaller, be 
ing only 3 feet in diameter and 3 deep. In this was a mass of decom 
posing shells, many of them still retaining their form, but crumbling 
on exposure to the air. They consisted chiefly of small sea shells and 




Secti>rv on/ line a*, b 




FIG. 294. Inclosure G, Kanawha county, West Virginia. 

disks, all perforated, probably shell beads placed here for security in time 
of danger. 

At the northern and southern ends of the inclosure, outside of the 
walls, at the points 1 to 6, were six box- shaped stone graves, three at 
each end. These were formed of large, angular slabs, brought from 
the cliffs a fourth of a mile away. The covers of Kos. 1 and 3 had been 
displaced by the plow. Those at the south end, beginning with the 



422 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



eastern one, are numbered 1, 2, and 3; those at the north, 4, 5, and 6. 
The first five lay nearly east and west; No. 6 was north and south. 

Grave 1, 7 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 30 inches deep at the head, con 
tained faint traces of a human skeleton. 

Grave 2: The head of this was near the foot of No. 1, in a line with 
it, and similar in form and size. With the decayed skeleton in this 
grave were two small hematite celts, four small flint knives, and one 

lance head. 

Grave 3, with head close to and in line with No. 2, was similar to it 
in size and construction. Only faint traces of a skeleton. 
Grave 4 was like No. 5 in size and appearance. 

Grave 5 : A fine cist, 6J feet 
long, 2 feet wide, and 2 feet 
deep, having a smooth stone 
slab at bottom. At the east 
ern end of the grave, in one 
corner, near the head of the 
greatly decayed skeleton, 
were twenty-two entire and 
a number of broken flint- 
flake knives. 

Grave 6, like No. 5 in con 
struction, contained only 
traces of a small skeleton, 
probably a female. 

In each of these six graves 
were two waterworn bowl 
ders from 6 to 8 inches in di 
ameter, placed together near 
the middle of the grave, al 
ways transverse to its longer 
axis; those in No. 6 were 
about 12 inches in their 
longest diameter. 

These graves and also the 
caches noted appear, from 

their positions in reference to the inclcstire, tc be due to people who 
occupied this locality subsequent to its abandonment by the authors 
of the works found here. 

Inclosurell, 405 feet east of the great mound No. 31, is 264 feet long 
and 132 feet wide, lying northwest and southeast like L, which it 
closely resembles in all respects. Many heavy flat rocks, probably 
parts of stone cists, were observed, but no complete cist was found. 

Inclosure 1 (shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 295) lies a little 
north of west from the large mound (31), is circular in form, measuring 
G18 feet around the top or middle of the embankment, which is much 
worn away, being only about 2 feet high from the ditch inside. 




FKJ. 295. luclosure I, Kanawha county, West Virginia. 



THOMAS.] 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



423 



Inclosure L is on the Cabell farm, about 1 mile directly west of inclos- 
ure H, which it resembles in every respect, except that it is slightly 
larger. The form and proportions are shown in Fig. 290, from Mr. 
Middleton s survey, the length being 287 feet and width 150 feet, meas 
uring from center to center of the embankment. The walls are rather 
less than 2 feet high and the ditch inside about 2 feet deep. 

Inclosure K, shown in Fig. 297, consists of two parallel or concen 
tric circular embankments with a ditch between them. The diameter 
of the outer wall, measuring from the middle on one side to the middle 
on the other side, is 295 feet, the diameter of the inner wall 212, the 
width of the walls being about 20 feet, and the width of the ditch the 
same. Theinnerwall 
is almost obliterated 
by cultivation, but 
the outer one is still 
from 1 to 2 feet high. 
The ditch is still 
about 2 feet deep. 
There is a broad gate 
way on the n orthwest 
through the outer 
wall and ditch, but 
the inner circular 
embankment seems 
to have been un 
broken. 

Mound 15, 540 feet 
west of the northern 
end of inclosure G, 
circular in form, 
measured 65 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet 
in height. A consid 
erable portion had 
been plowed off. In 
the top was a basin - 
shaped fire-bed 7 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 16 inches deep at the center. 
This was lined with a mixture of clay and ashes burned to a brick red 
on the upper surface, but the under side had a black, greasy appear 
ance. Below this was a similar bed, on and about which were numer 
ous small fragments of bones, too much broken and charred to show 
whether they were human or animal. 

Mound 16, 480 feet southeast of mound 15, is conical in form, meas 
uring 30 feet in diameter, and 2 feet high. It was composed chiefly of 
hard clay. Near the center, on the original surface, were the decayed 
fragments of a skeleton and with them a single gorget of striped slate. 

Mound 17 is 1,826 feet nearly west of mound 15. It is now only 18 




OTV Zt/te- GL. b. 



FIG. 296. Inclosure L, Kanawha rounty, West Virginia. 



424 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inches high and 20 feet in diameter. Its surface and the surface around 
it were strewn with stone chips, fragments of pottery, and lance and 
arrowheads. Stone chips and arrowheads were scattered through the 
hard earth of which it was composed, and a few decayed bones lay at 
the bottom near the center. 

Mound 18, which stands 270 feet west of mound 17, measures 65 feet 
in diameter and 4J feet high. This, like many of the other mounds, 
has been worked over until the earth has been removed down to the 
hard central core of brick-red clay. It is said that in plowing this 
away many relics of stone, bone, and shell were found. A series of 

basin -shaped fire 
beds, similar to 
those in mound 15, 
were lying one be 
low another in the 
central portion. 
Below them, near 
the bottom of the 
mound, was a con 
siderable bed of 
charcoal and ashes, 
and immediately 
under this, on the 
original surface of 
the ground, the 
fragments of a 
skeleton, and a 
number of broken 
arrow and spear 
heads. 

Passing north 
ward across the 
railroad from this 
group over a strip 
of rather low 
ground we reach a 
small terrace, where there is another interesting group. 

Mound 19, the one farthest to the east, is GO feet in diameter and 5 
feet high. It was found to contain a rude vault of angular stones, 
some of them as much as two men could lift. This had been built on 
the natural surface and was 8 feet long, 4 wide, and 3 high, but con 
tained only the decaying fragments of a large skeleton and a few frag 
ments of pottery. 

Mound 20, a short distance southwest of the preceding and nearei 
the large tumulus (Mound 21), measured 30 feet in diameter and 2J 




Sections on, Unc- a.b. 



Section, on, line, 



FIG. 297. Inclosnre K, Kanawha county, West Virginia. 



THOMAS.] 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



425 



high, and was composed throughout of a compact mass of yellow clay 
unlike anything immediately around it. 

Mound 21, or the Great Smith mound. This, the largest of the 
entire series, represented on PL xxvn, is a somewhat regular cone 
175 feet in diameter at the base 
and 35 feet high. A section with 
partial restoration is given in Fig. 
298. It is a mound of two stages; 
the first building carried it to a 
height of 20 feet; after a consider 
able time had elapsed another 
stage of work carried it to its pres 
ent height. The top, which was 
flat with a central depression, 
measured about 30 feet in diame 
ter. On this were an oak stump 
fully 4 feet across and a black 
walnut of about the same size. 
The surface, in the depression at 
the top, was covered with an irreg 
ular layer of stones; beneath them 
were others set up edgewise around 
a circle 7 feet in diameter. The 
stones in and about this pit be 
ing removed, it was found to be 4 
feet deep and paved with a floor 
of flat stones, upon which lay a 
skeleton much decayed and lack 
ing the head. Slight traces of fire 



were seen, but 110 evidence of a 



coffin or covering of bark, a meth 
od of burial so common in this re 
gion. This depression resulted, 
as will be shown further on, from 
the caving in of a vault in the 
mound, and it is probable that the 
skeleton in this stone grave was 
an intrusive burial, placed here 
after the builders of the mound 
had abandoned it. A shaft 12 feet 
in diameter at the top was carried down to the bottom of the mound. 

At the depth of 6 feet a small heap of bones was encountered, evi 
dently those of a bundled skeleton, as some of them bore unmistakable 
signs of having been weathered and bleached before final burial. 

At 9 feet was an entire adult skeleton of medium size, lying extended 




426 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




upon the left side, head west. About it were the remains of black wal 
nut bark, in which it had been buried. The skull showed very plainly 
the flattening of the front. Below this nothing of interest was observed 
nor any change of material, except some small deposits of ashes evi 
dently carried in with diit until the depth of 12 feet was reached, 
where the fragments of a black walnut log were found; judging by the 
very distinct cast, this log must have been 12 inches in diameter and 
several feet in length, as it was traced into the wall of the shaft. 

At the depth of 14 
feet a rather large hu 
man skeleton was found, 
which was in a partially 
upright position with 
the back against a hard 
clay wall. Around it 
were the remains of the 
bark wrapping in which 
it had been inclosed. 
All the bones were badly 
decayed, except those of 
the left wrist, which had 
been preserved by two 
heavy copper bracelets. 
Here was a commingled 
mass of rotten timber, 
decayed bark, and loose, dark earth. It was apparent from the indi 
cations that the shaft had entered a large vault, the timber- covered 
roof of which had given away to the heavy pressure above and tumbled 
in, thus accounting for the depression in the top of the mound. 

Nineteen feet from the top the bottom of 
this debris was reached, where, in the remains 
of a bark coffin, a skeleton, measuring 7J feet 
in length and 19 inches across the shoulders, 
was discovered. It lay on the bottom of the 
vault stretched horizontally on the back, head 
east, arms by the sides. Each wrist was en 
circled by six heavy copper bracelets, similar 
to that shown in Fig. LJ09, which represents one 
of the twelve. A fragment of the bark wrap 
ping preserved by contact with the copper 
shows that it was black walnut bark. A piece of dressed skin, which 
had probably formed part of the inner wrapping, was also preserved 
by the copper. From the clay with Avhich this was connected we may 
possibly infer that the body was first wrapped in a dressed skin, this 
plastered over with a coating of clay (it seemed to be clay and ashes 
mixed), and this surrounded by the bark. Upon the breast was a cop 
per gorget, shown in Fig. 300; length, 3J inches; greatest width, 3| 



Fi. 299. Copper bracelet from mound !S T o. 21, Kauawha county, 
West Virginia. 





FiG. 300. Copper gorget, Mound 
Xo. 21, Kanawha county, AV. Va. 



THOMAS.] WEST VIRGINIA. 427 

inches ; thickness, about one-eighth of an inch. It had been hammered 
into shape apparently from native copper. By each hand of this giant 
frame were three unused black flint lance heads; near the right hand, 
a small hematite celt and part of an axe of the same material, the latter 
bearing evidence of usage. Around the head, neck, and hips were 
about one hundred small perforated sea shells and thirty- two shell 
beads. Upon the left shoulder, one upon another, were three sheets 
of mica, from 8 to 10 inches long, 6 to 7 wide, and half an inch thick. 

Eemoving the rotten timbers and bark, and loose dry earth, the size 
and character of the vault were ascertained. Four adult skeletons of 
medium size, one in each corner of the vault, were found, besides the 
two described. They seemed to have been wrapped in bark, and placed 
leaning against the sides of the vault in a nearly erect position, with 
faces inward. The vault was nearly square, 13 feet long and 12 wide, 
inside measurements. 

From all the indications, the casts of posts and logs, the bark and 
clay lining, fallen timbers, bark of the roof, etc., it is presumed that 
the vault was constructed as follows : After the mound, which at this 
stage was 20 feet high, had been 
standing for an indefinite length of 
time, a square pit 12 by 13 feet was 
dug in the top to the depth of 6 feet; 
posts were placed along the sides 
and ends, the former reaching only 
to the surface, but the central ones, 
at the ends, rising 4 feet higher; on 

these latter was placed the ridge- FIG. 301.-Steatite pipe from Kauawha county, 

pole (the walnut log first discovered). 

The sides were plastered with a mixture of clay and ashes and possibly 
lined with bark ; the roof was covered with poles and bark. Over all 
was heaped the superincumbent mound 15 feet in height. On top of 
this was built, perhaps at a far more recent date, the stone cairn. 

With each of the four skeletons in the corners were several arrow 
and lance heads, 1 fish dart, and a few shell beads. Scattered through 
the material in the vault were several other articles. The entire list of 
specimens found, including those already mentioned, is as follows : 1 
copper gorget (shown in Fig. 300); 16 copper bracelets (see Fig. 299); 
1 steatite pipe (shown in Fig. 301); 2 stone disks, 2 hematite celts, 3 
sheets of mica, 55 spear and arrow points, 1 flint knife, 1 stone pestle, 
8 polished celts, 2 small hemispheres of hematite or meteoric iron; a 
number of perforated s