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Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated ^ Published Monthly 

Volume XI— April to September 1907 













raiinxo by soi-thwood, sunn ako co., Lra 




Portrait of a Young Man by Hals ......... 3 

The Case for Modern Painting. By a Modern Painter : — 

Part I .......... . 

Part II— The R.I. and R.B.A 

Part III — The Royal Water-Colour Society .... 

Part IV — The Royal Academy and the New English Art Club 

Part V — The Ideals of Modern Germany ..... 
The Modern House and the Modern Picture : A Reply. By A. Clutton-Brock 
The Slip Decorated Dishes of Chirk Castle. By M. L. Solon . 
The Florentine Temperament. By G. T. Clough ..... 
The Fisherwomen : A Colour-Print by Hokusai ..... 

A Note on Colour-Printing in China and Japan. By Laurence Binyon 
The So-called 'Janina ' Embroideries. By Louisa F. Pesel. 
The Bodegones and Early Works of Velazquez. By Sir J. C. Robinson, C.B. : — 

Part II 

Part III — The Altar-piece of Loeches. ..... 

Some Old Silver Plate in the Possession of Lord Mostyn. By E. Alfred Jones 
The Painters of Denmark ......... 

Notes on an Early ' Persian ' Bowl and ' Rice-Grain ' Wares. By R. L. Hobson 

London Leaded Spires — III. By Lawrence Weaver, F.S.A. 

Chardin ............ 

A Copy of Van Dyck by Gainsborough ....... 

A Portrait Bust of Agrippina. By Cecil H. Smith ..... 

A Crucifixion, by Konrat Witz of Basel. By Claude Phillips 

Professor Joseph Strzygowski on the Throne of St. Maximian at Ravenna, and on 
the Sidamara Sarcophagi. By Eugenie Strong .... 

An Early Valencian Master at South Kensington .... 

Theory, engraved by Blake after Reynolds. By Katharine A. McDowall 
The Representation of the British School in the Louvre. By Percy Moore Turner 
II — Gainsborough, Hoppner, Lawrence .... 

Past Excavations at Herculaneum. By Ethel Ross Barker . 

The Water-colour Method of Mr. William Callow . 

A Note on Water-colour Technique. By Roger E. Fry . 

The Gold Medals of Abukir. By Dr. A. Koester 

Dutch and Flemish Furniture. By R. S. Clouston . 

A 3>ian with a HaVck, by Henry Wyatt ..... 

The History of Tapestry. By C. H. Wylde .... 

The Origin of the Early Stained Glass in Canterbury Cathedral. By Clement 
Heaton .......... 

A New Book on the PoUaiuoli. By Dr. Wilhelm Bode . 

Some Mezzotints by MacArdell and Valentine Green. By Dr. Hans W. Singer 
The Marble and Ceramic Decorations of the Roman Campanili. By J. Tavenor 
Perry .........••• 

Hans Wydyz the Elder. By Dr. Rudolf F. Burckhardt .... 




















1 1 1 

1 12 




CONTENTS OV \'OL. X\— Continue,/ 

Egypt and the Ceramic Art of the Nearer East. By A. J. Butler, D.Litt. . 

A Picture by Corot ......••••• 

T^ Cotfugf, by r. W. Watts 

A Portrait by Bartolommco \'cntto .....•••• 
Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections. Hy Lionel Cust, M.V.O., F.S.A. 

X — Franco-Flemish School : 7Vv Dhifie Mother 

Where did .Michelangelo Learn to Paint ? By C. J. Holmes .... 
Nathaniel Bacon, .\rtist. By H.H. Prince Frederick Duleep Singh . 
The Jiuni-TennO of Takuma Ch6ga. By Professor R. Petrucci 

The Book Cyphers of Henri M. By Cyril Davenport 

James Daret.' By W. H. J. Wealc' ' 

Claude. By Roger \i. Fry ......... 

Notes on the Dra\vings of Claude. By C. |. H. 

Bruges and the Golden Fleece Celebrations. By Francis M. Kelly 

The New Van Dyck in the National Gallery. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O., F.S.A. . 

Sixteenth Century Embroidery with Emblems. ByM.Jourdain 

The Spires of Rome. By J. Tavenor-Perry ....... 

The Life of a Dutch Artist. By Dr. W. Martin. VI — How the Painter Sold 
his Work ........... 

A Drawing by Rembrandt in the Collection of the Duke of Devonshire 
5\V//y O'Brien, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ....... 

A Neglected Point in the Early History of Enamel. By Edward Dillon 
A ^iadonna by Antonio da Solario and the Frescoes of SS. Severino e Sosio at 
Naples. By Dr. Ettore Modigliani ....... 

Some English Portraits by Carl Vogel von Vogelstein. By Dr. Hans W. Singer 
Editorial Articles : — 

Regent Quadrant ..... .... 

Our National Collections. The Whistler Memorial 

The Trend of the Art Market ....... 

The Progress of American Collecting ..... 

Notes on Various Works of Art : — 

A Sketch by Rubens ; The Picture at Chatsworth ascribed to John 
Van Eyck (W. H. J. W'cale) ; Recent Discoveries in Venice 
(Alethea Wiel) ; Charles Lotz (Dr. Kammerer) . . . -45 

The Miniature by CJentile Bellini, found in Constantinople (F. R. 
Martin) ; German Ironwork ; A Sketch by Rubens ; The Umbrian 
I'ixhibition at Perugi.-; (Milziade Magnini) ; The Bury St. 
Fdmunds Pageant ; Letter to the Editor (Dr. Wilhclm Schmidt) . 115 
k4 Shepherd and Two Nymphs, by Palma Vecchio ; A Wax Model 

attributed to Michelangelo. (C. J. H.) 188 

Guardi and Tiepolo (George A. Simonson) ; yl Mon Making ff'ine, 
by Chardin ; The Rebuilding of the Campanile of S. Mark's 
(.Methea Wicl) ; Master Hare, by T. Gainsborough . . . 247 
A Picture of the Tournai School (C. J. H.) 328 


























Notes on Various Works of Art (continued) : — 

The Proposed Turner Gallery. The British Museum Print Room 
T/je Abbey of S. Berlin, by R. P. Bonington ; Head of' the Horse whose 
Rider has overthrown Heliodorus: a fragment of a cartoon by Raphael 
(C. J. Holmes) ; The Revenge of Tomyris : a composition after the 



master of Flemalle (George 

Sobotka); C. N. Cochin's second 
' Traicte des manieres de 

revision of Abraham Bosse's 

(A. M. Hind) 

Art in America : — 

A Pastel by J. S. Copley 

Notes on the Widener Collection : — 

I — Frans Hals : The Lady with a %o-c 

n — A Portrait of Bianca Maria Sforza 

Cassone Fronts in American Collections : — 

Part IV 

Part V 

Spring Exhibitions ....... 

A Liberalized Academy ...... 

Recent Additions to the Collection of Mr. Henry C. Frick 
Current Events ....... 

Art in France. By R. E. D. 
Art in Germany. By H. W. S. 
Letters to the Editor : — 

August F. Jaccaci ...... 

G. T. Clough ; Frank Jewett Mather, jun . 

Sidney Colvin and Claude Phillips 

E. J. van Wisselingh ..... 

A. Van de Put ; A. J. Butler ; Gerald Parker Smith 


Art Books of the Month 
Recent Art Publications . 

. . 58 

. 129 

• 130 

. 131 

- 339 

• 199 

• 341 
Article I . 397 


55' 123, 193, 263, 335 
56, 124, 198, 260, 335, 404 




48, 118, 191, 249, 331, 392 

. 122, 258, 395 



Frontispiece: Young Man with Maiulolinc ; 

K T, ,,.- n .K a 

Tlic I ^n (>aiiiting : — 

PUii. • ind the Infant Bacchus ; by 

CM ' 5 

Hate II— I : I 1 .i|>crdp; by Wilham Nichol- 
ion. FircMclc ; by J. F. Shannon, A.R.A. 
(in the cxhibuion of the International 

Socictv) ^. .' 

Ilalc III— Pencil DrawinR: Head of a Girl; 
by A. K. J »in (in the exhibition i)f the 

Intertutif : \) " 

The Slip Dect : los of Chirk Castle :— 
llatc I '7 

n.'.r II 20 

1 en at Waib-NoHam. From the 

' -^Mit bv Mokusai (in the possession 
(■ \V. Ormsby Gore) ... 29 

The S»;i.un.<i Janina ' Eml>roidcrics : — 

Plate I — I. Curt.-iJn, probably Anatolian (in 
ll '. • '"' I rt Museum). 2. Oriental 

S ri;i aiitl Albert Museum). 

3. 1c:j". Miivli i-.mbroiclcry (in the Vic- 
toria and Ailnrrt Museum). 4. Portion of 
Ik>khara Curtain (in the Victoria and 

All^rt Museum) 35 

Plate II— 5. Kmbroidcry (in the collection of 
Miss Louis.1 F. I'csel). 6. Three Scarf ends 
(in the collection of Ur. Karo). 7. Two 
nieces of 'Janina' Embroidery (in the 
Victoria and All>crt Museum). 8. Cushion 
Cover from Skyros (in the |TOssession of 
the Old Orient, Athens). 9. Portion of a 
Valance (in the collection of Mr. G. 
Dickins). 10. Double Darning on Linen (in 
Ihe jvjsscssion of the Old Orient, Athens) . 38 
The IVHloKoncsand Early Works of Velazquez : — 
I. The Kitchen ; attributed to Velazquez (in 
the collection of Sir Frederick Cook. Hart.). 
a. The Fij^ht at the Fair ; attributed to 
Vcln/iinrr :\-.<\ I'acheco (in the collection of 
S 'inson) . . . . .41 

ASkc ,:— 

The Keconciliation of Henry of Navarre .in 1 
Henry III (from the sketch in the posess- 
sion of Mr. Frank Sabin) .... 44 
A Pastel Portrait bv J. S. Copley : — 

Pastel Portriit of Nancy Harrell . . .44 

A \V' r '!i a Frying ; by Chardin. . 64 

Some ' r Plite in the possession of L.'jrd 

M. .ly:. - 
PLite I — I. Welsh Harp ; beiKlif. 6^ inches. 
". Ewer for Rose-water I 2) ; height, 

J iiM lic<.. 4. Silvcr-gili i,.in Flagon 

I London, 1601-2. 5. Jacobean 



Ilalc 11— <!m. TankartI ; by Anthony Nelmc, 
UmjH I) (,h. Tankard, 16S3.4. 7. Montcith 
Howl ; piobibly by John Ix>ach, 1697.8. 

K41 rill', .1 T iI,' \i„,,.r <i\rM.n. »b. L.-ile 


9«-9- l^*- Late 
t Mirror. 9. 

i^<...i.M>, Sauceboats, 
Salvers and Castuis . . . 7J 


Plate III — 2. Rose-water Dish, diameter 19^ 
inches. 10. Eighteenth-century Candlesticks 75 
The Case for Modern Painting : — 

A Winter's Dawn ; by Alfred East,P.R.B.A. . 79 
Notes on an Early ' Persian ' Bowl and ' Rice- 
grain ' Wares : — 
1. Persian Bowl ; depth, 5-3 inches. 2. Side 
view of (i) ; height, 3 inches. 3. Fragment 
from Rhages. 4. Fragment from Fostat. 
5. Chinese Porcelain Bowl. 6. Gombroon 

Bowl 85 

London Leaded Steeples: — 

Plate I— I. Horham Hall. Tha.\ted. 2. Christ's 

Hospital, Abingdon. 3. Barnard's Inn Hall, 

London, now the Mercers' School . . 88 

Plate 11— 4. Turret Roof, Hampton Court. 

5. S. Benc't, Pauls Wharf, with S. Paul's 

Cathedial beyond 91 

Plate III — 6. S. Edmund, Lombard Street. 
7. S. Nicholas, Cole Abbey. 8. S. Philip, 
Birmingham. 9. National Gallery, London 94 
A Copy of Van Dyck by Gainsborough : — 

Charles I, by Gainsborough, after Van Dyck 
(in the possession of Messrs. Shepherd Bros.) 97 
A Portrait Bust of Agrippina .... 101 
A Crucifixion, by Konrat Witz of Basel (in the 

collection of the Rev. Lewis Gilbertson) . 105 

Professor Josef Strzygowski on the Throne of St. 
Ma.ximian at Ravenna, and on the Sidamara 
Sarcophagi : — 

Figure from the Sarcophagus in the collection 
of Sir Frederick Cook, Bart. . . .108 

An Early Catalan Master : — 

The Adoration of the Magi, by Lo fil de 
Mestre Rodrigo (lent to the National Gallery 
by the Victoria and Albert Museum) . . 108 
Notes on the Wiclener Collection : — 

Bianca Maria Sforza, by Ambrogio de Predis ; 
Lady with a Rose, by Frans Hals. (In the 
collection of .Mr. P. A. B. Widener) . -125 
Cassone Fronts in American Collections : — 
The Voyage of, Florentine School. 
Visit of the Queen of Slieba to Solomon, 
Florentine School. (Inthejarves collection, 
Yale University, U.S.A.) .... 128 
A Man with a Hawk ; by Henry Wyatt (in the 

collection of Mr. Eugene Glaenzer) . . 134 
The British School in the Louvre : — 

Plate 1 — Mr. and Mrs. Angerstein ; by Sir T. 

Lawrence (in the Louvre) .... 139 
Plate II— I. Master Hare ; by T. Gains- 
borough. 2. M.iry Palmer, Countess of 
Inchicjuin ; by Sir T. Lawrence (in the 

Louvre) 143 

Past E.xcavations at Herculaneum : — 

Plate I — Bronze bust of Dionysus from Hcr- 

cul.ineum (in the Naples Museum) . .145 
Plate 11 — Bronze bust of (?) Sajipho from 

Hcrculaiietim (in the Nai^les Museum) . 148 
Plate HI — Bronze horse from Herculaneum 

(in the Naples Museum) .... 151 
Plate IV — Bronze bust of Hcraclitus from 
Ilcrculaneuni (in the Naples .Museum). 154 


LIST OF FLATES— continued 


Plate V — Archaic Apollo ; bronze bust from 
Herculaneum (in the Naples Museum) . -157 
The Gold Medals of Abukir :— 
Medals of Alexander and Olympias (in the 
Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin) . . 165 
Dutch and Flemish Furniture : — 
Seventeenth-century Chairs (in the Rijks- 

museum, Amsterdam) 165 

The Origin of the Ancient Stained Glass in 
Canterbury Cathedral : — 
I. Ornament round the medallions in the 
central window to the north-west of the 
' Crown ' (Becket window). Presumed 
earliest example of mosaic diaper ground. 
2. Window at Sens. 3. East window, 
Canterbury ....... 177 

A New Book on the Pollaiuoli : — 

Madonna and Child ; by Piero Pollaiuolo (in 
the Strassburg Gallery) .... 180 

Two Nymphs and a Shepherd ; by Palma 
Vecchio (in the collection of Mr. Claude 

Phillips) i86 

A Wax Model attributed to Michelangelo (in the 

British Museum) 186 

Art in Germany : — 
Plate I — I. Sixteenth-century cup of Nurem- 
berg workmanship (in the possession of the 
City Council, Leipzig). 2. Sixteenth- 
century jewel (in the Museum of Applied 

Arts, Leipzig) 168 

Plate II — Silver-gilt salver by Elias Geyer, 
1610 (in the Green Vault, Dresden) . 195 

Evening on the Lake ; from the painting by 

Corot 202 

The Case for Modern Painting : — 

Mother and Child ; by A. Ambrose McEvoy 
(in the exhibition of the New English Art 

Club) 207 

Hans Wydyz the Elder : — 

Plate I — I. Adam and Eve; boxwood, about 
6 in. high (in the Historisches Museum, 
Basel). 2. Eve : side view ; about 6 in. high 
(in the Historisches Museum, Basel) . . 213 
Plate II— I. The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; 
boxwood, about 7|^in. high (in the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum, Berlin). 2. The Adora- 
tion ; A.D. 1505 ; wood, half life-size (in the 
cathedral of Freiburg in Breisgau) . . 216 
Plate III — I. Christ Crucified ; boxwood, Sin. 
high (in the Historisches Museum, Basel). 
2. Christ Blessing ; wood, half life-size (in 
the cathedral, Freiburg in Breisgau) . .219 
Portrait of an Unknown Man, by Bartolommeo 

Veneto (in the Borghese Gallery, Rome) . 227 
The Cottage ; by Frederick W. Watts ; hitherto 
attributed to Constable (from the painting 

in the Louvre) 230 

Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections : — 
Virgin and Child; Franco- Flemish school (in 
the collection of H.M, the King at Bucking- 
ham Palace) 233 


Nathaniel Bacon, Artist : — 

I. Sir Nathaniel Bacon ; by himself (in the 
collection of the carl of Verulam). 2. Sir 
Nathaniel Bacon ; by himself (in the col- 
lection of Mr. Bacon of Raveningham) . 237 
The Jiuni-Tenno of Takuma Choga : — 

I. Futen; by Takuma Choga. 2. Rasatsuten ; 
by Takuma Choga. 3. Nitten ; by Takuma 
Choga (in the collection of Professor R. 

Petrucci) 240 

A Man Making Wine; by Chardin (in the posses- 
sion of the university of Glasgow) . . 246 
Art in Germany : Drinking Vessel ; by Elias 

Geyer 261 

Landscape Study by Claude (in the University 

Galleries, Oxford) 266 

Claude :— 

Collotypes : — 

View of a Town (from the drawing in the 
University Galleries, Oxford) . . . 269 

Landscape Study (from the drawing in the 
University Galleries, Oxford) . . . 273 

Sunset (from the drawing in the University 

Galleries, Oxford) 277 

Half-tones : — 

Plate I — Study of Shipping (from the drawing 
in the British Museum) .... 281 

Plate II — Study of Trees and Hills (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 284 

Plate III — The Arch of Constantine (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 285 

Plate IV— Study of Sunlit Trees (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 288 

Plate V — A Garden at Sunset (from the draw- 
ing in the British Museum) .... 289 

Plate VI — A Windy Evening (from the draw- 
ing in the University Galleries, Oxford) . 289 

Plate VII— A Tree in the River at Tivoli (from 
the drawing in the British Museum) . . 292 

Plate VIII— A Road between High Banks 
(from the drawing in the British Museum) . 292 

Plate IX — Study of Rocks and Trees (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 293 

Plate X — Landscape Study (from the drawing 
in the University Galleries, Oxford) . . 296 

Plate XI — A Tower on the Coast (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 299 

Plate XII — View of Tivoli (from the drawing 
in the British Museum) 302 

Plate XIII— The Tiber above Rome (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 303 

Plate XIV — Nocturne (from the drawing in 
the British Museum) 306 

Plate XV — Rapid Siudy of Trees (from the 
drawing in the British Museum) . . . 307 

Plate X\'I— Landscape Composition (from the 
drawing in the collection of Mr. J. P. 
Heseltine, No. 30) 310 

Plate XVII — Landscape composition (from the 
drawing in the collection of Mr. J. P. 
Heseltine, No. 33). . . .311 

Plate XVIII— The Tower 01 B.b 1 (from the 
dr.iwing in the British Museum) -314 


LIST OF ?L\TES— con finue J 




(i:i the collcc- 
1 . , Hart.), a. The 

\ :: \ ; . I>v Alonso Cano 

, -r urn) . 

Ttic Vry:— 

Ttic Marchc»c > ■ by 

Van Dyck . „ . . ' "* 

Maw I', ntui D. ColiuKhi and Cu., and 
kicssrv M. Knocdicr and Cu.) . 
A Picture of the Tournai School : — 
TJic VifKin and St. John. Fragment of a 
Picture of ttic Touriiai Scho:>l (by pcrmis- 
c Governing Body of Christ Church, 




'cry with Emblems: — 
_;ing to Lord Falkland 
(in the Victoria and Albert Museum) . . 329 
Casione Fronts in American Collections : — 

I. The Garden of L<jve, Florentine Sciiool. 

a. The Tournament in the Piazza St. Croce, 

Florentine School (in the Jar\'es collection, 

Yale University, U.S.A.) . . . .338 

Nelly O'Brien; by Sir Joshua Reynolds (in the 

Wallace collection) 344 

The Life of a Dutch Artist :— 

Plate I — I. Painter and Connoisseur; by 
Frans \'an Mieris the elder (in the Dresden 
Gallery) 35^ 

FM.-IIC II— a. Interior of a picture gallery; by 
D.ivid Teniers the younger .... 359 

PLitc III— 3. Selling pictures in the market; 
detail from a picture by David Vinckboons 
(in the Brunswick Gallery). 4. Picture shops 
in a public builtling ; tict.iil from a picture 
by a Dutch master of circa 1610 (in the 
Wiirzburg Museum) 362 

Plate IV — 5. The Exclianj^e at Amsterdam, 
with a picture shop ; by Berckheyde (in the 
Muieum, Frankfort-on-Main) . . . 365 

Plate V— 6 and 7. Interiors of a bookseller's 
and art dealer's shop ; from dravvinj^s by 
S.ilomon de Br.ay, i6j8 (in the Print Koom, 
Amsterdam). 8. The Qu.ack Doctor, with 
a picture shop in the background (in the 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). 9. Piince 
Eugene of Savoy visiting the picture dealer, 
Jan Pielcrsz Zoomer, at Amsterdam ; from a 
sketch by P. van den Berge (in the Print 

Room, Amsterdam) 3^ 

A Drawing by Rembrandt in the Collection of the 

Duke of Devonshire 37^ 

A Matlonna by Antonio da Solario : — 

Virgin and Child, by Antonio da Sol.irio (in 

the Naples Gallery) 377 

Some English Portraits by Carl Vogel von 

Vogelstein : — 

I. Queen Victoria. 2. John Gibson. From 

drawings by Cirl Vogel von Vogelstein (in 

the Print Room, Dresden) .... 380 

The Abbey of S. Berlin, by R. P. Bonington (in 

the Art Gallery). . . . 385 
Head of the Horse whose Rider h.xs overthrown 
Ileliodorus ; a fragment of a cartoon by 
Raphael (in the University Galleries, Oxforcl) 385 
The Revenge of Tomyris : — 

I. Fifteenth-century copy of a composition 
attributed to the master of Flem.-iUe (in the 
Royal Gallery, Berlin). 2. Late sixteenth- 
century copy of the same composition (in 
the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna) . . 388 
Recent Additions to the collection of Mr. Henry 
C. Frick: — 
Plate I — Fishing boats entering Calais Har- 
bour ; by J. M. W. Turner (in the collection 

of Mr. Henry C. Frick) 399 

Plate II — Le Lac ; by Corot (in the collection of 

Mr. Henry C, Frick) 402 

Plate III — rhe Vill.age of Becquigny ; by 
Tlifcodore Rousseau (in the collection of 
Mr. Henry C. Frick) 405 





Jiutui ■ I til fi a iHi tti4iiitt< 1 1 in 

!ie clever ular IV' 

at oar tct 

M for use, noi t 


glass introduced a second 


HE brilliant portrait 
reproduced in photo- 
gravure ^ is that which 
created some stir in the 
of 1906 by 
the price of 
three thousand eight hundred guineas in a 
Dublin auction. After the sale it was sent 
to London, and within an hour from the 
time it was unpacked it had changed hands 
at a largely increased figure. Hardly a week. 
had elapsed when its second purchaser was 
induced to sell it in Paris by the offer of a 
still greater price, and since then it has 
found a fourth owner. The work, as the 
reproduction may indicate, is a brilliant 
example of the clever and popular Master 
of Haarlem, but its attractiveness cannot 
be judged by any reproduction in black 
and white, since its special characteristic 
is the richness and force of its colour. 
The sitter's cloak was of greyish violet, 
his sleeve crimson, the curtain behind 
olive green, while the mandoline, the 
orange and the brilliant green of the 

>We are indebted for the loan of the photograph to the 
courtesy of Messrs. Dowdeswell. 

a secona series of 
delightful contrasts, to which the effect of 
bright sunlight gave a new force. 

Colour, as a rule, was sparingly used by 
Hals in his portraits of single persons. 
Sometimes, indeed, he seems to work with 
a palette of black, white and yellow, as in 
Earl Spencer's magnificent portrait lately 
seen at Burlington House, employing red 
only when the sitter's complexion abso- 
lutely called for it. That he could use 
colour brilliantly when he chose, the great 
T)oelen groups at Haarlem testify, the 
earliest of the four having much of the 
suffused glow of Venetian painting, while 
the latest depends upon a more vivid and 
striking harmony of pale blue, strong deep 
brown and brilliant yellow. Yet it is 
not upon his power as a colourist that 
the master's reputation depends, but upon 
the wonderful swiftness and decision of 
his hand and the accuracy of his eye, 
which could arrest the momentary glance 
upon a sitter's features, and so catch those 
effects of vivacious personality in which 
he is unsurpassed even by Titian and Van 

Arthur Symons wrote to 
the following effect : ' The 



N a recent article Mr. Whatever the shortcomings of the exhibi- 
tion gallery, the critics have tried hard to 
leave no excuse for confusion or uncertainty 
in looking at the Old Masters. In the 
case of modern art, they have been of 
less service. Too ready to chat with 
Velazquez, they have been chary of having 
it out with the living painters. 

Yet, surely, it would be worth their 
while. To the student or amateur, modern 
art appears a hopeless tangle. He finds 
himself besieged by invitations to visit a 
hundred galleries, where a thousand artists 
are exhibiting pictures of infinite variety 
both in subject and manner. Much of the 

whole of the world's paint- 
2?i»jing, the works of to-day 
V — ^ and of all the centuries, is 
flung pell-mell at our feet : wc have to 
plunge into it head foremost. ... A 
picture gallery is always of the nature of 
a warehouse ; it is a conglomerate thing, 
meant for use, not for delight ; and to 
learn anything in it through the eyes is as 
difficult as to learn anything vital in a 
schoolroom.' That is perfectly true, so 
far as the works of to-day are concerned. 

The Burungton Uagazixi. No. 49, Vol. XI— April, 1907 






destiny. At the International, earnestness 
has no need to struggle : it is famous and 
well-fed, and it meets its fashionable visitors 
with the well-bred air of an equal who 
expects courteous recognition but would 
disdain patronage. 

Here and there, of course, we note a 
half-hearted member, who wishes to be 
independent but cannot quite get rid of 
the idea that it would be very nice to sell 
a picture, and that ever so Httle a com- 
promise with the popular idea of prettiness 
would not hurt his work, and might 
entice a purchaser. Mr. J. J. Shannon, 
for example, has not managed to rid 
himself of the taint of Burlington House. 
His oval picture of War (187) is an 
admirable piece of design, and the best 
piece of colour, perhaps, he has ever 
planned. The youthful Millais might have 
painted the subject so, but he would never 
have stooped to smooth and ' prettify ' 
the faces so lamentably. Mr. Shannon 
has ruined thereby his chance of producing 
a picture which would have outlived him. 
His other picture. Fireside (126), represents 
in some ways a more serious effort. In 
one or two figures its true character and 
vitality are sacrificed to prettiness, but 
there is once more a definite effort at 
design, and at design, perhaps, of a more 
complex order than that obtained in the 
War. The subject is well arranged, the 
handling clever, the colour pleasant. 
Why, then, does the work fail to satisfy 
permanently ? 

Is it not because in some curious way 
it is ' all-overish ' ? Nothing in par- 
ticular seems to have interested Mr. 
Shannon. The subject is well arranged, 
but as a pattern it is distracted by too 
many small glints of light on silky dresses 
and glittering ornaments. The colour is 
everywhere clever and pleasant, but strikes 
no definite note, as does the War. There 

The Qase for Modern Painting 

is just enough of portraiture in the two 
ladies on the left to make them suggestive 
of life, but the seated man and the girl in 
front are empty abstractions. We jump 
from one point of semi-interest to another, 
but find nothing to which we can hold 
with complete satisfaction. 

His namesake, Mr. C. H. Shannon, 
also sends two pictures. One of them, 
the Portrait of Mrs. Stephen (150), is 
admirable in design, in colour, in painting, 
and in sympathy with the character of the 
sitter. Compared with some other por- 
traits in the gallery, it may appear to lack 
vitality, but it has a taste and good- 
breeding that the others have not, while 
such fresh and vivid passages of still life 
as the flowers prove that the artist has 
stayed his hand from deliberate choice 
and not from any lack of accomplish- 

His large picture of The Golden Age 
(109) attempts much more, but actually 
achieves less, unless the attempt itself is 
allowed to count as achievement. It is a 
commonplace of criticism to accuse Mr. 
Shannon of imitating others — Watts, 
Titian, Van Dyck and Velazquez being the 
favourite standards of the critics. I 
suppose in this case they would add 
Giorgione to the list, for if poesie of this 
kind are painted at all, a reference to the 
inventor of them is natural. Yet here 
there is an effort to do more than 
Giorgione tried to do : to harmonise a 
larger group, to obtain a more austere and 
definite rhythm, to blend the deep, luscious 
colour of Venice with the sunlight of 
impressionism. Critics have found fault 
with the drawing of some of the figures, 
but against these few defects the excellence 
of the painting might well be set o'S. 
Then, if in Giorgione's Fetes-Champctres 
the characters are doing little, in Mr. 
Shannon's they are doing nothing. That 

The Qasc for Alodcrn Pain ti fig 

perhaps is the privilege of the Golden 
•\'^e, yet a picture is none the worse for a 
:^niHcant motive. The rhythm of the lines, 
again, is not quite successful ; the cutting 
of the hranchcs to fit the outline of the 
cliffs has an awkward look. What tells 
most against the picture, however, is the 
treatment of the sunlight. The sunspots 
arc realistic enough in tone and colour, 
but the shadowed spaces round them are 
not ; they arc picture colour, not nature 
colour. The result is inharmonious to the 
eye and unsatisfying to the intelligence. 

Mr. Shannon's powers were really better 
illustrated at the one-man show held just 
before the International Society opened its 
doors ; and in the Hermes with the Infant 
''Bacchus we sec him at his best. Here 
there is no unlucky compromise with 
realism. The whole subject is viewed as 
a splendid decorative panel, but decorative 
effect is not gained by any sacrifice of 
vigour, life or movement. The piece is 
academic in the best sense of the word ; 
that is to say, it has the unity, order and 
completeness that come of deliberate 
science, but vitality and character have 
not evaporated in the process of synthesis, 
nor even humour, for the vinous deter- 
mination on the face of the baby god is 
most felicitously rendered, and indicates 
that if Mr. Shannon chose to descend more 
frequently from his lofty pedestal, the 
charge of emptiness with which his detrac- 
tors answer his admirers' eulogies might be 
laughed out of court. No one denies that 
Mr. Shannon paints gorgeous, dignified 
and harmonious pictures, and when, as in 
this instance, he admits the element of 
racy, vigorous life, he produces what in 
any other age would have been called a 
masterpiece. I can imagine it, ever so 
delicately toned by time, hanging in the big 
Venetian room at Trafalgar Squarc,and quite 
holding its own even in that exalted society. 


Life and vitality, however, arc the fashion 
at present, and Mr. C. H. Shannon's paint- 
ing will have to wait probably several 
years for popular recognition. Mr. 
Nicholson and Mr. John have arrived 
at once. The large portrait of ^liss 
Alexander (123) by the former is a bold 
experiment in spacing which might well 
have been carried out a quarter of its 
present size. The 'Taper Cap (161) has a 
pleasant, whimsical humour, and is, so far 
as it goes, most excellently and directly 
painted. Yet once more the unpleasant 
feeling strikes one that any man so clever 
as Mr. Nicholson might do more with his 
talent. The Paper Cap is a clever and 
complete fragment of character study, but 
if it is the most important thing Mr. 
Nicholson had to exhibit, it is evident 
that his gifts of hand and eye, of design 
and colour and brushwork, are retained at 
the price of the strenuousncss of such 
artists as Mr. Shannon. Whistler paid 
heavily in the same coin for his refinement, 
so the speculation is admissible. 

If Mr. John's talent be taxed in a similar 
way it is at least a talent that can afibrd 
to pay taxes. Other men seem to find 
themselves — if they ever do — with pain and 
labour : Mr. John comes to his own at once 
— and a queer, wild domain it is. Like Mr. 
Nicholson, he indulges in portrait sketches 
in oil, and he seems to make them without 
deliberation or plan, as other men make 
hasty sketches on paper ; but when the 
thing is done, there is the person, as dread- 
fully alive and alert as Hogarth's Shrimp 
Girl. He has, too, a barbaric charm of 
colour, as the Washing Up (loi) shows, 
but his drawings keep ahead of his 

Of the two drawings in the South 
Room, No. 68, executed in red and black 
chalk, is the more outwardly attractive, and 
has that obvious skill in the rendering of 




the sheen of glossy hair and the subtler 
contours of the head and throat that we 
should expect from some accomplished 
Frenchman. The pencil-drawing No. 67, 
however, is the one which best stands the 
test of acquaintance ; indeed, there is 
something almost uncanny in its humanity, 
its savageness, its swiftness, its intensity. 
As a mere feat of rendering with the 
utmost economy of line the quality of a 
woman's hair, the modelling of a woman's 
face, and the expression of a woman's eyes 
and mouth, it amounts almost to jugglery ; 
but the impression conveyed of personality, 
almost alarmingly close and real, is without 
a parallel in modern work. Another 
exquisite pencil-drawing of the same kind 
was included in the exhibition of the 
Society of Twelve. In type as well as in 
treatment it recalled Leonardo, but in the 
present case that influence has been com- 
pletely absorbed and made part of Mr. 
John himself. Is there not a saying that 
a dragon, to come to his full strength, must 
swallow another dragon ? That is what 
Mr. John seems to have done. 

The £ase for Modern Painting 

The editor's conditions as to length for- 
bid my touching upon several interesting 
features of the exhibition — perhaps I may 
be allowed to return to them later — but I 
think the four artists I have chosen for 
study fairly represent four prominent 
groups of artists working in England at 
present. Mr. J. J. Shannon is one of the 
most accomplished members of a large 
group who try to combine those antipa- 
thetic elements — good art and popular 
success. Mr. C. H. Shannon belongs to 
the few for whom art counts for more even 
than life. Mr. Nicholson is, perhaps, 
the chief of the numerous body who have 
a talent for art and a keen eye for the life 
of to-day ; being thus assured of the sup- 
port both of painters and the public, they 
can take things easily, and so turn out 
much that is clever and lively, but little 
or nothing that is great. Most people 
would class Mr. John with Mr. Nicholson: 
it is possible, however, if his development 
continues, that posterity will place him, as 
all great draughtsmen have to be placed, in 
a class by himself. 



HE February number 
of The Burlington 
Magazine contained an 
interesting article on this 
subject, signed ' S. E.,' 
upon which I should 
like to say something, not so much in 
disagreement as in comment. ' S. E.' states 
the obvious fact that people of moderate 
means now buy fewer pictures than they 
used to buy ; and he thinks the reason is 
that they prefer to spend their money on 
other kinds of decoration and ornament, 
' on metal, glass, wall-papers, textiles, 
pottery,' etc. He also says that many 

rooms now are so covered with patterns 
that no picture could be properly seen in 
them ; and he goes on to point out that a 
good picture is really a finer kind of deco- 
ration than any frieze or wall-paper, since 
' it possesses far greater intricacy, variety 
and subtlety of design than any mechani- 
cally repeated pattern can possess,' to say 
nothing of its appeal to the imagination, 
its ' association with the great things of 
heaven and earth, which, whatever the 
sophists may say, does distinguish the 
world's great pictures from its clever ones.' 
Finally, he comes to the conclusion that 
' the effort to substitute inferior forms ot 

The ^ I Oil cm House a Nil the cMoclem Picture 

decoration for the highest form is likely 
to lead to a general lowering of the public 
taste, and to further difliculties for the 
unfortunate painter.' 

Now, this conclusion is the point which 
I wish to discuss ; but first of all I will say 
a word about the excessive use of patterns 
upon the walls of rooms, I agree that 
many people do not buy pictures now 
because they spend their money on other 
kinds of ornament, and very likely some 
of them prefer patterns of all kinds to 
pictures. But I do not think that those 
who use patterns excessively arc prevented 
by good taste from hanging pictures against 
their patterns; in the first place, because 
their excessive use of pattern proves that 
their taste is not good enough to be 
governed by such considerations, and in 
the second because the abuse of patterns 
was just as bad, if not worse, fifty or sixty 
years ago, when people bought pictures 
freely. But, further, there is now a strong 
reaction against patterns of all kinds, and 
many people prefer distempered walls and 
plain papers. The stencilled frieze begins 
to remind one of rart tiouveau ; stained 
glass is discredited ; and cretonne draperies 
are no longer indiscriminately employed to 
hide a multitude of sins. Yet even the 
people who prefer plain surfaces do not 
buy paintings to decorate them ; they 
rather buy china or glass ornaments, and 
if they have pictures at all, they choose 
etchings or lithographs. 

These ficts seem to prove that paintings 
arc little bought now, not because rooms 
are decorated so as to be unfit for their 
display — for nothing could have been more 
unfit for the display of pictures than the 
ordinary middle - Victorian room — but 
because people have ceased to care for 
paintings as a form of decoration. And 
the reason for the change of taste is, I 
believe, because the ordinary modern 

picture has no decorative qualities. It is 
true, of course, that the ordinary picture 
fifty years ago had no decorative qualities 
either ; but then no one looked for deco- 
rative qualities in anything, in wall-papers 
any more than in pictures ; no one then, 
I suppose, when he bought a picture, ever 
asked himself whether it would be an 
agreeable object on his walls. But since 
then the decorative sense has been slowly 
reviving, and it seems to grow stronger 
every year. The revival has produced 
many follies and a great deal of ugliness 
that seems to us now worse even than the 
ugliness that it superseded. Decorative 
art, like all other kinds of art, is subject to 
the incessant dangers of commercialism. 
Sound principles misunderstood and mis- 
applied to please mere whims of fishion 
produce results almost more infuriating 
than what is manufactured on no principle 
whatever. We must expect in these days 
that if a good thing is liked, a thousand 
bad imitations of it will appear at once. 
But the bad imitations prove that the 
goodness of the original is in some dim 
way recognized ; and even commercial 
' art ' products are attempts to imitate 
sound principles of design and a right use 
of materials, although the imitation usually 
ends in parody. 

The decorative revival does mean 
this : that people have begun to ask 
themselves wliether their ornaments, and 
even their objects of use, are beautiful 
in themselves. They no longer look for 
illusive representation of facts in wall- 
papers or carpets or china ; they only look 
for colours or patterns that please them ; 
and in that they are right, although they 
may often be pleased with the wrong 
things. But this habit of looking disin- 
terestedly at colours and patterns has also 
affected their judgment of pictures — in 
many cases, no doubt, quite unconsciously. 

The u^dodern House and the Modern Picture 

They are not so fond of illusive represen- 
tations of reality, even in pictures, as their 
fathers were, or of dramatic and sentimental 
excitements. Even in pictures they look 
for pleasing patterns and colours ; and they 
very seldom find them, for the ordinary 
picture has been but httle affected by the 
decorative revival, and very few painters 
ever even ask themselves whether their 
pictures would be pleasant objects on the 
walls of any room. I am not speaking 
now of the best painters, most of whom — 
in England, at any rate — are making a 
determined effort not to subordinate beauty 
of design and craftsmanship to the repre- 
sentation of fact : I am speaking of the 
great majority whose works one sees at the 
Academy and other ordinary exhibitions. 

These, if they have any aim beyond 
the imitation of reality, paint so that their 
pictures may not suffer in the violent 
competition of exhibitions. They design 
and colour a picture as if it were a poster; 
and so it is no more fit to hang in a room 
than a poster would be. Now, the ordinary 
second-rate painter who was a Florentine 
contemporary of Botticelli, or a Venetian 
contemporary of Titian, did his best to 
supply pictures that should be agreeable 
ornaments to a church or a room. He was 
not very good, perhaps, at the representa- 
tion of fact, but he knew how to make a 
pretty design and how to give his paint an 
agreeable texture. In fact, he supplied 
articles which were what his public wanted 
and could use, and therefore he found a 
ready market. The ordinary modern 
second-rate painter supplies articles which 
no one wants and no one can use, and 
therefore he does not find a ready 

This is not altogether his fault. We exact 
from pictures now so complete an illusion 
of reality that a painter of ordinary powers 
exhausts them all in producing the illusion, 

and has no energy left to make his picture 
beautiful. The result is that most modern 
pictures are painted entirely without joy 
and without purpose. They are 'done by 
hand,' but they have all the dullness of 
machine-made articles ; and the conse- 
quence is that they cannot compete even 
with machine-made decoration in which 
the designer has expressed some sense of 
beauty and some pleasure in his work. 
Therefore, for painters of ordinary powers 
there seem to be only two alternatives. 

The first is that they should do what 
' S. E.' says many of them have done 
already : give up painting and become 
craftsmen ; and this surely would be a 
natural and sensible course. Many men 
who have become painters from a sincere 
love of art are not gifted enough to excel 
in painting, but might do good work as 
craftsmen. A man who can only paint 
a very stupid picture might make a 
very intelligent piece of jewelry, for 
crafts of this kind are much less difficult 
than painting, and demand less intellectual 
power. In the great age of Italian art 
painting was a craft and the crafts were 
arts ; and only the most gifted craftsmen 
usually became painters. Now the cratts 
are not regarded as arts and painting is 
not regarded as a craft ; the consequence 
of which is that many men who might be 
good craftsmen are bad painters. A 
change from this state of things can only 
be fot- the better. 

The other alternative is that the second- 
rate painter should aim at a less complete 
illusion of reality, while trying to make his 
pictures more beautiful ; that is to say, 
that he should regard painting more as a 
craft. Now there are, of course, many 
difficulties and dangers about this course. 
There is the danger that his pictures may 
become empty and evasive. There is 
the difficulty of learning painting as a 


The Modern House and the Modern Picture 

craU when there is no one to teach it as a 

Still these difficulties and dangers 
might be surmounted in time. What 
is needed is that the painter shall get 
a new and a clearer aim ; that he shall 
think of his pictures as ornaments, not 
only as representations of reality. ' S. E.' 
says that a picture should be chosen or 
designed with reference to the room in 
which it is to hang. It cannot always be 
designed for a particular room, though 
that might be done far more often than it 
is ; but it can be designed, like a good 
piece of china, so that it will be a reason- 
able ornament to a reasonable room. And 
if the painter had this ornamental purpose 
always in his mind, he would surely find 
it easier to hit upon a principle of selection 
among the facts to be represented than he 
does at present. There can be no principle 
of selection without an object, and most 
pictures at present are painted without an 
object, and therefore upon no principle of 
selection. This is the real reason why the 
standard of illusion has become so exacting. 

People who do not know what they want 
to sec in a picture demand to sec every- 
thing. But now that we begin to know 
better what we want to see, we are growing 
less eager to see everything. Let the 
greatest artists show us all that they can ; 
let their designs be enriched with the 
fullest possible representation of reality. 
But let the lesser painters only give us what 
we n>av want to see in our rooms — and that 
is not a dull imitation of what we can see 
any day by looking out of window, but 
something that is at least a picture, with 
some beauty of design and colour and 

The fact is, not that people have given 
up buying pictures, but that they have 
begun to wish for pictures once again ; 
and since most modern pnintings arc not 
pictures at all, that is the reason why they 
will not buy them. When painters begin 
to produce pictures, they will begin to 
sell them ; and if the revival of decorative 
art induces them to paint pictures, it 
will do much good even to the art of 


^ BY M. L. SOLON c9^ 

I IK briiigiii)4 into light of a 
1 cm. likable set of huge dishes 
of co.irse pottery, exhumed 
from the precincts of an old 
Welsh castle wherein tliey 
liad been left imdisturbcd for 
iivertwo centuries, makes it 
opportune to review once 
more .ill h.1-. come to our knowledge concern- 
ing a still imperfectly studied period in the history 
uf English ceramics. 

In \>Si^ Chirk Castle, a mediaeval stronghold, 
had 1 the property of Sir Myddel- 

ton, whtj wa> fater to Ix; Lord Mayor of 

London. 1 o record the fact that all through the 
turmoil of the Revolution Sir Thomas had 
remained loyal to his king, will not be found 
>rrcle\'ant to our subject. Two days before the 
battle of Worcester, Charles II is said to have 
been his guest ; the bed in which he slept has 


been preserved up to this day. About ten years 
ago, on the recommendation of a visitor to the 
castle who had chanced to have a peep at some 
curious dishes scattered all over the place, I took a 
special journey to Chirk for the purpose of making 
a thorough examination of them all. They 
numbered fifteen at the time — I hear that two of the 
most important ones have since been accidentally 
destroyed. Some of them were standing on high 
shelves of the dark corridors of the castle ; but 
the majority had been fixed, with hea\'y iron 
cramps, against the white-washed walls of a small 
dairy, elegantly equipped for the gratification of the 
Arcadian tastes entertained by one of the ladies of 
the family. From the little v.ilue that seemed to 
have always been attached to these dishes, 1 could 
infer that no record been kept of any other 
pieces of the same kind which, now disappeared, 
might originally have ni.-ide part of this extra- 
ordinary set. What remains of it has, with two 



exceptions, lately passed — against very substantial 
consideration — into the hands of Mr. Charles J. 
Lomax, A.M.Inst.C.E., of Bolton (Lanes.). By his 
kind permission, I have been enabled to renew my 
acquaintance with these interesting specimens, and 
on the same occasion to inspect and admire many 
other choice specimens of the same period in the 
possession of this passionate collector of pre- 
VVedgwood English pottery. 

A descriptive list of the Chirk dishes must take 
precedence over the collateral consideration I will 
venture to present in connection with their manu- 
facture and the enigma of their presence in the 
place. They comprise the following subjects : — 

King Charles II in the tree. The head appears 
between the branches, and the trunk is flanked 
by the Lion and the Unicorn. Signed Thomas 
Toft (fig. I). 

Heraldic double-headed eagle. Dated 1705 and 
signed James Toft (fig. 2). 

Figure of a lady, holding a flower in each hand. 
Signed Ralph Simpson (fig. 3). 

Figure of a king, accompanied with the initials 
G. R., the G standing probably for Gulielmus. 
Signed Ralph Simpson (fig 4). 

Another figure of a king with the letters W. R., 
Wilhelmus rex. Also signed Ralph Simpson 

(fig 5)- 
A lion of highly conventional design. Signed 

Ralph Simpson (fig. 8). 

A grotesque face supported by an ornamentation 
of more than usually clumsy design, signed or 
inscribed John Osland. The presence of the 
monogram T. T., placed in the centre of the dish, 
might suggest a possible attribution to Thomas 

Two heads, with ornaments in the usual Toft 
style, on a small dish ; uninscribed. 

Finally : three dishes covered with elaborate 
slip designs ; without names or dates (figs. 6 and 7). 

Two more dishes, one with the figure of a 
Cavalier, signed Ralph Toft, and another with a 
king holding a shield, inscribed William Taylor, 
have remained at the castle. The above specimens, 
including the two others said to have been acci- 
dentally destroyed, bring their number to fifteen. 

All the foregoing examples differ only in the 
design from the pieces of the same order preserved 
in our museums. They are, likewise, formed of 
a coarse reddish earth, coated over on the inside 
with white clay of a finer quality. To this white 
ground a rich yellow tint has been imparted, 
after the firing, by the galena or sulphide of lead 
with which it has been thickly glazed. Red ochre 
and manganese ore, diluted w-ith water, served to 
trail on the surface quaint and often elaborate de- 
vices. Out of the small vessel of a specially contrived 
shape in which it was contained, the liquid, or slip, 
as it is called, was let to escape through the narrow 
aperture of a quill. In this way the deft hand of 

Slip T>ecorated T>ishes 

the operator could form thin and neat lines, broad 
patches or minute dots. This simple process, 
known as ' slip decoration,' may be said to repre- 
sent the art of pottery painting in its most primi- 
tive and rudimentary expression. It was practised 
long before the painting brush came into use; 
the coloured clays, employed in their natural state, 
constituted the sole available pigments. The 
prehistoric earthen vessels of Mycenae are boldly 
dashed over with ornamental strokes of red and 
brown clays. Improved by the Roman figulus, 
the slip process was then turned to greater advan- 
tage. To him is due the invention of the small 
hand-vessel, with a narrow quill fixed in the 
spout, from the use of which the English potter 
was, in after ages, to obtain such effective 

Considered as isolated efforts, and chiefly in 
the light of their decorative aspect, the slip 
decorative pieces produced in England towards 
the latter half of the seventeenth century are well 
worthy to engross the attention of the ceramic 
collector. Let us forget that the drawing of the 
figures could scarcely be more incorrect, and that 
the accompanying ornamentation is of a decidedly 
nondescript style ; if we bear in mind the unpro- 
pitious conditions under which the work was 
accomplished, we realise that it could scarcely 
have been othersvise. Moreover, while imparting 
to the design the captivating character of all the 
works of primesaiilt, these shortcomings take 
nothing away from our undefinable enjoyment of 
the subtle and yet powerful harmonies created by a 
happy combination of colours. The rough gem 
stands before us as a treat to the eye ; in its 
chromatic variegations rests its chief power of 
attraction. Obviously, the humble artizan who is 
responsible for these uncouth performances was 
entirely unacquainted with the ad\*ance that the fine 
arts were then making in his own countr\'. He knew 
nothing of the carvings, pictures and engravings 
already familiar to people of average education. 
His anomalous 'slip work' does not seem to 
have arisen from anything made before, nor 
was it to open the way to further improvements 
conducted in the same direction. Just as we see 
this particular style of slip decoration when it had 
assumed unprecedented pretensions in the earliest 
figured dishes, so do we find it at the moment 
w-hen it came abruptly to an end. It is strange to 
remark that, at that time, Van Dyck was painting 
his superb and life-like portraits of Charles I, 
and that engraved likenesses of kings and noble- 
men were beginning to be freely circulated. Yet 
the poor drudge of the village pot-works could 
devise no better expression of royal majesty tlian 
these quaint effigies evolved from his torpid imagi- 
nation. Why should we not mercifully take the 
design for what it stands for, and see in it the 
delineation of a graphic symbol, rather than an 


Slip T>ecoratcd T>ishes 

impotent attempt at rendering a realistic present- 
ment, whiclj was never intenHrH ? HowlK-it, it 
is evident that the ! i^rtd with 

such ambiti'ius en; , ', 'J" their 

appearance, sufficient admiration to suscitate to 
the maker a number of ser\-ile imitators. In the 
works of Thomas, Ralph and James Toft. William 
and George Taylor, Kalpli Simpson and others, 
wc notice the repetition of the same trellis border, 
stnngs of olive-shaped l>eads, and sprays of 
unrecognizable flowers, while the faces of the 
clumsy figures arc outlined in the same super- 
conventional manner. In short, the technical 
anrl ornamental treatment are so much alike in 
ev that, were it not for the \-ariety of 

n.i iribed on the rim of the dishes, we 

might take them all .is being the work of the same 
hand. Tof t— wlio has signed the greater 
number of examples— is, however, considered as 
the originator of this style. Successful 
as it had l->ccn, the practice of it does not seem to 
hi ■ \ for more than a few years. On the 

in; .n of more modern and refined processes, 

slip decoration was no longer employed for the 

E reduction of exceptional pieces. It continued to 
e, and is still used, however, in the manufacture 
of common crockery. 

We must now resume our examination of the 
Chirk Castle specimens. The presence of so many 
rough e.irthenware dishes among the select and 
costly appointments of the abode of a wealthy 
gentleman is not easily accounted for. How did it 
come to pass that these essentially plebeian platters 
found their way into this aristocratic place ? Unable 
to answer the question with the assistance of local 
tradition or the production of documental evi- 
dences, I will venture to present a few conjectures 
which — if not worth anything better — will at any 
rate afford scope for further discussion. 

It would be difficult to believe that one of the 
members of the Myddelton family had once been 
so fond of these incongruous ornaments as to have 
pi; ' the dishes at a distant place, and formed 

at :i of them in his own castle. On the 

other hand, wc may understand that the obscure 
craftsman of the neighlxiurhood who had sur- 
passed himself in this exceptional exhibition of his 
ability was more than fully alive to the value of 
thcbC would-be masterpieces. The notion that 
they were intended for presentation naturally 
offers itself to our mind. Assuming that some 
large pot-works — just as they are known to have 
existed all over the principality of Wales — were 
situated on the Chirk estate, we might take these 
dishes as having been the lawful tribute offered 
by the tenant to the landlord. In many ancient 
Ic 1 1 of a pot-works, a clause was inserted 

pi _ for the yearly presentation of some 

choice examples of the lessee's handicraft in 
addition to the payment of the rent. To find 

Thomas Toft a tenant of Sir Thomas Myddelton 
is, I confess, somewhat perplexing. We have 
l>een, so far, accustomed to associate his name 
with the slip ware of Burslem and Hanley. Toft is a 
patronymic common enough in the StafTordshire 
Potteries, where the family still counts many 
representatives. But the occasional migration of 
some bearer of the name into other localities has 
nothing to surprise us, when we remember the 
erratic proclivities of the old operative potter. It 
is not at all improbable, for instance, that one of 
the Tofts may have been at work at York towards 
the end of the seventeenth century. In the York 
museum is a Staffordshire tyg, inscribed Thomas 
Toft and ELISABETH POOT, a unique specimen. 
On another occasion I have reproduced a fine 
dish with a figure of the duke of York, excep- 
tionally signed Thomas Toft, in cursive letters, in 
the central part of the piece. A place in the city 
is still called Toft Green. 

A few points militate in favour of a local origin 
being ascribed to the Chirk dishes. Only in this 
curious set does the name of one James Toft 
appear in association with those of his namesakes 
Thomas and Ralph. This hoarding of the kins- 
men's works upon the spot suggests the probability 
of their having once worked together in the 
vicinity. By the subject of Charles in the tree, 
represented on one of the dishes, we are reminded 
of the long-tried loyalty of Sir Thomas Myddelton 
to his sovereign, and we are led to believe that this 
subject had been selected and treated with special 
care by the potter in order that, on being pre- 
sented to his noble patron, the gift should be all the 
more appreciated. A still more important fact 
comes to support the hypothesis of a Welsh 
manufacturer. It is that all — or nearly all — the 
slip dishes with trellis borders have been found 
in Wales. Perhaps the most remarkable among 
them is that preserved in the Chester Museum. 
It bears the royal arms with the motto : DiEV et 
MON DROI ; is inscribed: FlLEP Heves 1671 
Elesabath Heves, and signed : Thomas Toft. 

I have had occasion to inspect many heaps of 
fragments dug out from the site of old pot-works 
in the Potteries, and as far as I can recollect I 
have never seen a single instance of the trellis 
border. The larger part of the slip ware w:ls com- 
posed of fragments of dishes, either of dark brown 
ground decorated with traceries of yellow cl.iy 
(or of reversed effect) or of buff colour, the 
ground of which was in many cases impressed 
with an incised scheme of ornamentation, par- 
tially tilled in with red and brown clays. 

A theory has been submitted to me by which 
the Chirk dishes would h ive been brought over 
from the Potteries by the IJiddulph branch of the 
Myddelton family when these latter left StafTord- 
shire to take possession of Chirk Castle. I must 
say that the arguments 1 have unfolded above 


stand strongly against my accepting the 

Huge earthenware dishes, remarkable for an 
inordinate display of ostentatious decoration, are 
no longer made nor used ; the purposes they 
served in olden times have vanished from 
modern life. In all the ancient examples that 
come under our notice we recognize a decided 
pretension on the part of the maker at producing 
a work out of the common, the superior article, so 
to speak, ' that money cannot buy.' That they 
were, in most cases, intended as presentation 
pieces is clearly made manifest, even in the 
instances when an appropriate inscription does 
not exactly indicate the destination. Presented as 
a votive offering to some influential patron, they 
accompanied and supported a request for the 
granting of a special favour. More frequently, an 
extra dish of unwonted workmanship was the 
annual compliment paid by the pot-maker to some 
of his best customers in the retail trade, on the 
settlement of a profitable account. Exhibited in 
the centre of his shop-window, the show-piece 
stood so strikingly out from the bulk of domestic 
articles that it arrested the attention of the passer- 
by. The royal coat of arms, or the figure of the 
king, was the favourite motive of decoration. A 
represention of Adam and Eve in the Garden of 
Eden was a suitable present to be offered to a 
fruiterer and pottery dealer, the subject figuring in 
the arms of the company. This accounts, pre- 
sumably, for so many English Delft dishes being 
found painted with ' The Temptation.' A similar 
custom prevailed in France, at the same period, 
between manufacturers and merchants ; of this, 
inscribed pieces supply ample evidence. In the 
Rouen museum is a red and yellow dish bearing 
the following inscription : Chez Nicolas Foff's 
A Savignies. a Monsieur Sentier Marchant a 
Rouen, 1742. But for the French inscription, 
one might take the piece as being English. 

In the household of the old French faiencier, 
oval dishes of exceptional dimensions were 
made to celebrate some memorable event 
in the annals of the family, such as a marriage or 

Slip Uecorated Irishes 

the birth of a son and heir. I remember to have 
heard, many years ago, from some aged craftsmen, 
of the painted dish upon which they made their first 
appearance in public having been carefully carried 
in it and deposited triumphantly upon the 
table at the close of the christening banquet. 

The old chronicles of Germany record the 
particular purpose served by uncommonly large 
dishes on the occasion of the wedding of the rich 
as well as of the poor. Placed on a stand at the 
entrance of the festive hall, they offered an invit- 
ing receptacle in which each guest was expected 
to drop such trinket, jewel, sum of money or 
other gift as he meant to bestow upon the newly 
married couple. I do not know whether such a 
custom has ever existed in England, but I feel 
inclined to believe that, in some village churches, 
the earthen platter was often handed round as an 
alms dish. 

A full list of the various applications these 
essentially ornamental dishes may have been put 
to, is not to be attempted. I trust I have said 
enough to warrant the opinion that they were not, 
as a rule, manufactured as regular articles of trade. 
The value that their possessors seem to have 
always attached to these odd pieces has greatly 
contributed to their being preserved to us, when 
domestic vessels of the same period have almost 
completely disappeared. 

The passing of the Chirk dishes into the hands 
of Mr. C. J. Lomax has only come to increase 
a collection already rich in choice examples of 
slip decorated ware. Among the dishes it con- 
tained already I may mention the following : — 

A mermaid, signed Ralph Toft (fig. 9). 

A pelican ' in her piety,' signed Ralph Simpson 
(fig. 10). This latter has the usual trellis border. 

The same subject, unsigned ; with heads, alter- 
nating with the letters W R, on the border. 

To these should be added a number of brown 
dishes with yellow traceries of a later period. A 
four-handled tyg, dated 1636, and two slip 
decorated and inscribed posset cups, are worthy 
of special notice in the small group formed by the 
pieces of form. 

^ BY G. T. CLOUGH nk» 

I OR a private person to delegate 
his choice of a wife to a friend or 
'relative, must appear to a mind 
ruled by sentiment the height of 
ahsiu'dity; but in the opinion of 
I fifteenth-century Florentine it 
fwas a distinctly reasonable pro- 
iCLcding. And this vicarious 
suitorship, which commended itself as prudent to 
a resident citizen, became compulsory hi the case 

of an exile, who desired when he married to 
strengthen, by union with a fellow countrj-woman, 
the tics that bound him to his native country. 
Such was the position in which the future founder 
of the Strozzi Palace, Philip, and his luother 
Lorenzo Strozzi, found themselves, while sulJering 
in their youth at Naples from the animosity of the 
Medicean government, and depending upon their 
widowed mother for all their home news and the 
protection of their Florentine interests. With 


The Florentine Tewperament 

wliat cap;icity ami dcvulion Alixaiulia cliscluiigcd 
these duties, and what zeal she tlircw into the 

Crosecution, first of her daughttrs', and then of 
er sons', marriage negotiations is related for us in 
the seventy-two letters from her hand which wcowc 
to the care of Ces;irc Guasli. The preparation of a 
bride's new home among the Florentine fopolo 
grasso was, as we shall find in the course of this 
narnitive, tlic signal for a h(jst of commissions to 
her car\'ers and painters, of which the results have 
come down to us in bas-reliefs and cassonc panels; 
but the spirit in which the preliminary overtures 
tomatrimonv, here unfolded lor us, were conducted, 
bears a still closer relation to the held of aesthetics. 
In the prosiiic strain that we here find governing 
the transactions of the Strozzi family at the most 
romantic crisis of a man's or woman's career, we 
discover the source of the scientific and natural- 
istic direction, so strongly insisted upon by Mr. 
Ik-renson, which taken by some of Florence's 
most characteristic painters. The sternly practi- 
cal and business-like spirit which gave this nation 
of shopkeepers its early commercial pre-eminence, 
speeding its agents to the shores of the Levant, 
and planting its depots in PVancc and Spain, 
in Bruges and Ix)ndon, had, when it devoted 
itself to art, the defects inseparable from its 
virtues. To the predominance of this prosaic 
clement in the F'lorentinc character we may 
ascribe Uccello's perspective foreshortening and 
Pollajuolo's obtrusion of anatomy. Nor is it 
perhaps extrav.igant, to trace to the same influence 
the diversion of Ghirlandajo's achievement, from 
the field of epic distinction, to that of milder 
anticipation of the great Dutch portrait painters. 
Ale.x;indra's first letter, addressed to her son 
Pliilip at his relatives' bank in Naples, shows her 
to us with satisfaction at the engagement 
of her eldest daughter to Marco Parcnli, a rich 
silk merchant of Florence. Catharine's dowry is 
to lie i,ooo florins. The money had been lodged 
in two separate instalments during her childiiood 
in the State Dowry Fund, a characteristically 
Italian institution, combining chance with provi- 
dence, by which a parent gained a considerable 
increase on his investment, if his child livctl to the 
full term of a fi.\ed period, but was mulcted, if she 
died, of half his deposit. Unfortunately, the 
second moiety of Catharine's dowry would not 
fall due for another three years, so Alexandra is 
obliged, on behalf of the family, to advance the 
sum deficient, because, as she expresses it, ' the man 
who wants a wife always wants money,' and, pretty 
as Catli.irine is — the finest girl in Florence in the 
general opinion — she been unable to find any 
candidate for her hand who would marry her at 
once, and wait for the half of her dowry. There 
was no time to be lost, for Catharine sixteen, 
an age which Italian mothers looked upon as the 
threshold of hopeless spinsterhood ; so they must 


do the best they could. The riskiness of the 
family's pecuniary venture presented itself afresh 
two years later, when the young wife was expect- 
ing, with some natural anxiety, the arrival of her 
first baby, and we find Alexandra consulting her 
son as to the prudence of insuring his sister's life 
for the probable period of her confinement, lest, 
as she puts it, ' we should lose both property and 
person at one blow.' Mark, the husband, took a 
very sanguine view of his wife's prospects, and 
thought it a pity to throw away such a large sum 
as the 12 florins insurance would cost them, but 
Alexandra is disposed 'to make things quite 
certain,' and spend the money. Her view of the 
best course to be taken prevailed, but happily the 
event justified the husband's anticipations. To 
the merits of that husband everything that wc 
learn of his character bears witness. A greater 
match, as regards social position, than good Parenti 
could, Alexandra thinks, have been obtained if the 
family finances could have produced another 400 or 
500 florins of dowry, but hardly one that promised 
greater happiness to her daughter. Certainly, 
Mark was the most generous of bridegrooms. 
' Only say what you want,' he tells his intended, 
and if he objected to waiting three years for 
500 florins of the dowry, he spent more than 400 
upon her for the betrothal ceremony, in crimson 
silk robes of the finest quality from his own looms, 
in a chaplet of pearls and feathers, and two ropes 
of pearls for a head-dress. In the fitting of her 
new home he was equally lavish, Domenico 
Vencziano, Giuliano da Maiano, and a brother of 
Masaccio's, each having a share in the coffers and 
shrine that adorned it. 

The political cloud, that hung over the bride's 
family, made it advisable that the wedding cere- 
mony, judged by the Florentine standard, should 
be a quiet one ; but the items of the wedding 
breakfast, entered in Mark's journal, amount to 
466 lire, with an extra payment for trumpeters, 
lifers, and performers on the harp and flageolet. 
From the same authority we get particulars of the 
bride's dress, consisting of an upper and under 
robe of crimson velvet, which took 42 hraciia of 
material, costing 170 florins. Both robes were 
trimmed with gilt sequins, and were 'tailor made' 
by Andrea di Giovanni, who received the relatively 
small sum of 14 /m* and 10 soldi as his share of 
the expenditure. Upon her head the bride wore a 
chaplet of pc.icock's eye feathers, which was 
further aclorncd with six ounces of pearls and 
certain gilt ' IreiucLutti' — pendants that vibrated. 
If by the side of this dazzling figure we place the 
bridegroom, wearing a costume h.irdly less bizarre in 
its character, and group with them a throng of gaily 
dressed friends and relations, wc shall get a picture 
of Catharine's wedding procession as the painters 
of cissoni would give it us. Thirty-four years 
later — years for the Parenti couple of the 

greatest domestic felicity — Mark had to con- 
front these festive entries in his journal, with the 
record of the death of his wife, and her burial in 
the Florentine Duomo. ' May God receive her soul, 
he adds, ' as I have every reason to believe he will, 
in view of a life so noble in its kindliness, and a 
course of conduct so upright and attractive.' 

Catharine's younger sister, Lessandra, was the 
next of Alexandra's children whose marriage 
pressed for settlement, and here again she gives 
the money element the chief place in the discus- 
sion of an event so gravely affecting her daughter's 
happiness. Some delay occurred in the initiation 
of proceedings, owing to the prevalence of the 
plague in 1450, which drove all the better class of 
householders from the city, so that Alexandra 
had been unable to get her daughter, as she says, 
' out of her house,' and meet her son in Rome as 
soon as she expected ; but in December we learn 
that the business has been entrusted to Giovanni 
della Luna and Antonio Strozzi, and that Alex- 
andra is prepared to augment her daughter's 
dowry of 1,000 florins by 200 from her own 
pocket, if the merits of the candidate are such as 
to justify the expenditure. Alexandra's agents 
were fairly prompt in the discharge of their duties, 
for in April Philip is told that his sister had been 
engaged during the previous month to Giovanni 
Bonsi, a young man of good character and ability ; 
that the dowry is fixed at 1,000 florins; and that 
his mother is thoroughly satisfied with the 
arrangement. It was not in Bonsi's favour that 
he had six brothers, the patriarchal conditions of 
Italian domestic life making such a circumstance 
rather a serious consideration for a young girl 
entering a household ; so Alexandra is careful to 
explain that her daughter will be the head of a 
separate home of her own. The Florentine 
income-tax returns, however — those pathetically 
self-depreciative records, which furnish us with so 
much useful information on the domestic life of 
the Renaissance — give us some particulars about 
the Bonsi family which may account for the 
withdrawal of Alexandra's addition to,the amount 
of her daughter's dowry. From these we learn 
that Bonsi's age was thirty-seven — twenty years 
greater than that of his bride — and that he was 
saddled with a half-witted, illegitimate son of 
servile extraction. Certainly, from the point of 
view of worldly prosperity, Lessandra's marriage 
did not turn out a very successful one. When, 
fifteen years later, the Strozzi brothers formed a 
project of opening a wool business in Florence, 
of which Bonsi was to have the management, 
Alexandra is obliged to tell them that his debts 
are more than the 200 florins he confesses to 
owing; and that, with eight mouths to be filled, 
the family resources are so low, and the wife's 
stock of clothing so scanty, that she is obliged to 
sit half-dressed while mending her under-garments ; 

The Florentine Temperament 

so that, if he had the handling of money, there 
would be some danger of his proving a defaulter. 
That Bonsi's poverty, however serious, was not 
desperate, is to be inferred from the fact that part 
of his wife's dowry had been left in the State 
bank, and that, the value of the shares having risen 
considerably, he at one time proposed to sell them, 
with a view, should the stock fall, to a rc-purchase. 
This, his brother-in-law, Parenti, who in the ethics 
of finance seems to have had Ruskinian proclivi- 
ties, objected to as an immoral transaction ; so 
the question was referred to Philip at Naples for 
decision. It does not appear to have occurred to 
either of the parties that, on a financial point of 
this character, a banker could hardly be impartial. 
Having thus, for good or evil, settled her two 
daughters in homes of their own, Ale.xandra could 
devote all her energies to promoting the marriages of 
her exiled sons. This, however, she was to find a 
much more difficult matter, not only from the 
unwillingness of such fathers of families, as could 
give good dowries, to send their daughters out of 
the country ; but still more, owing to the reluc- 
tance of Philip and Lorenzo to sacrifice the free- 
dom of single life for the advantages of the most 
attractive companionship. Philip, to whose 
conversion to compliance in the matter Alexandra 
now chiefly directed her arguments, appears not to 
have been very happy in his experience of his 
friends' matrimonial relations, for he has to be 
told that the devil— /.c, the fair se.x— is not so black 
as he's painted, and that the world would soon come 
to an end, if mankind generally regarded the 
marriage tie with his trepidation. So a hunt over 
Florence for a wife for the exile by mother, sisters 
and brothers-in-law was instituted, and in March, 
1465, we hear that ' a number of girls have been 
examined, who possessed the requisite qualifica- 
tions, including the most desirable relationships.' 
The circumstances of none of these, however, 
proved sufficiently attractive to satisfy the family's 
requirements, only inferior specimens of Floren- 
tine maidenhood being prepared to go out to be 
the wife of an exile, and it is not till July that 
Alexandra is able to report that a certain Francesco 
Tanagli had made promising overtures to Parenti 
and that an interview had taken place, the details 
of which she gives to her son with her usual 
shrewdness of obser\'ation. ' He '—i.e., Tanagli— 
' had Mark with him to his house, and called the 
girl down in her petticoat for him to see ; offering 
at the same time to show her to me, as well as to 
Catharine, any day that might be convenient. 
Mark says she's good looking, and, as far as he could 
judge, a lady-like girl ; and we're told that she's 
sensible and capable, for she has a large household 
to manage, there being 12 children— 6 bo>-s and 6 
girls ; and from what I hear, she has the whole 
of the family on her shoulders, for the mother is 
always in the family way, and not good for much 

The Florentine Temperament 

at any time' ' Get your jewels ready,' she con- 
tinues, rather precipitately, 'and sec that they're 
fine enough, for a wife is found foryuu. A woman 
wlio is beautiful, and wife to Filippo Strozzi, must 
have hand>onic jewelry, if your reputation, which 
is so hij^h in other respects, is not to suffer.' Here 
Alexandra is a little premature. A year and a half 
were to p.iss, and much of Arno's water to run 
under the Ponte V'ecchio to the sea, before her 
desires were to be realized, and she w:is to see her 
son married to a charming and excellent young 
ladv, who was not ' la Ixiia Tanagii.' In the 
meantime, however, Alexandra's description of her 
son-in-law's interview with the young lady was 
supplemented by a long letter to Philip from 
Parenti himself, in which he tells him, that, having 
'examined all Florence,' and considered his require- 
ments upon the two theories of his remaining abroad, 
and the termination of his banishment, they had, 
owing to the singular scarcity of marriageable 
maidens, been obliged to reduce the eligible candi- 
dates to two: a daughter of Donato Adimari's, pos- 
sessing a dowry of 1,500 florins, which they feared 
would make her parents look higher than an exile for 
a husband ; and the Tanagii maiden, about whom 
their only fear was that the dowry might prove 
less than Philip would be ready to accept. He 
then proceeds to describe the young lady's height, 
relatively to that of his own wife, Catharine ; to 
praise the shapeliness of her form and the fineness 
of her skin ; and to say that her facial attractions, 
while not equal to those of two F"lorentine ladies 
of their acquaintance, whom he names, would 
quite bear comparison with those of Madonna 
Hyppolita, who had lately passed through 
Florence, on her way to Naples, to become the 
bride of the duke of Calabria. Surely Philip 
would be content if his bride were the equal of 
the wife of a king's son in beauty. He concludes 
with an appeal to Philip to give him the lowest 
figure he will accept as dowry, promising that his 
doing so shall not impair the writer's efforts to 
obtain the largest sum that can possibly be 
squeezed from the family. 

Parenti's account of Tanagli's daughter's merits 
had not, it appears, quite satisfied Alexandra, in 
spite of the confident tone of her letter, that the 
best possible wife was being secured for her son, 
for we find her going morning after morning to 
early mass at the Duomo, in the hope of seeing 
the Adunari girl who was in the habit of attending 
it. There, one morning, she comes upon an 
unknown maiden, whose personal attractions, as 
well as she could judge— for she admits that she 
stared the poor girl quite out of countenance — 
created a highly favourable impression. ' Though 
without any paint, and wearing low-heeled shoes, 
both face and stature were prepossessing. Her 
features were delicate, lier walk and general 
appearance that of a girl who w.ib wide 


awake, not hea\7 and sluggish.' When the 
owner of these personal ad\-antages proves to be, 
not the Adimari girl whom Alexandra had come 
to scrutinize, but her Tanagii rival, can we wonder 
Alexandra is convinced that Heaven is helping 
them in the search for a partner for Philip, and 
that in this cathedral beauty she has found her 
ideal daughter-in-law ? Letter follows letter to 
Naples during the weeks of August, extolling the 
merits of the young lady, who, in addition to her 
personal advantages, is said to have a dowry of 
1,000 florins, of which it is hoped the Council will 
not deny the payment to an exile. Philip, however, 
is determined not to be hurried at this crisis of his 
fortunes. One of his Neapolitan relatives had, 
against the advice of all his friends, married a 
madcap Florentine lady, and so spoiled her, by 
excessive admiration, that she brought disgrace 
upon herself and her husband. Alexandra does 
her best to dissipate the effect of this unfortunate 
precedent. ' A man,' she says, ' if he is a man, 
and does not let himself get blindly devoted to his 
wife, can always make her do her duty as a 
woman.' And she does not think this girl is a 
giddy girl, for she, Alexandra, has not only passed 
the house frequently herself, but also sent friends 
on the same errand, and they do not see her head 
fixed all day at the window, a clear proof of her 
sobriety of character. So if Philip will buy 
the jcwelrj', she will begin preparing the 
bride's outfit, whether it is to be made accord- 
ing to the Florentine or the Neapolitan fashions 
— only, of course, she thinks the former the 
prettier. Also, when he has a wife, he will 
want a slave girl to be her maid: either a 
Russian, a Circassian, or a native of Tartary. 
The Russians are the prettiest, but there is more 
work to be got out of a Tartar. 

But at this point of her letter, in comes Parenti 
with a blow to all their hopes. He has just seen 
Tanagii, who has spoken in a very frigid manner 
about the match, objecting that it was a serious 
matter to send his daughter such a long distance 
from Florence, and to a house that, in regard to 
privacy, was ' no better than an inn.' Either he is 
disgusted with the Strozzi family's procrastination, 
or he has some better offer under consideration. 
No need now, therefore, for either Alexandra or 
her son to think further about jewels or wedding 
outfit. Mark must give him any further informa- 
tion he may desire ; for she, poor lady, is at her 
last gasp of endurance, having worked so hard, 
and all to no purpose. Mark's only contribution 
towards Philip's consolation is the fatalist one, 
that marriages are made in heaven. If Philip's 
' marriai^e h;is not been made in heaven, it is 
absurd for them to worry about it ; if it has been 
so made, it will be sure to be accomplished.' 

Alexandra's despondency was not of long 
duration; though she vows she will only believe 

in her son's marriage, wlien she actually sees it 
celebrated. The Adimari girl is, she finds, known 
very favourably to her sister, and Tanagli p'ere is, 
it seems, more eager about the business than 
Mark thought him; but, at this point, matters tend 
to get complicated by the intrusion of Philip's 
only surviving brother, Lorenzo, as a candidate for 
matrimony. Philip, too, must have written show- 
ing greater resolution in the direction of compli- 
ance with his mother's wishes, for she writes to 
both brothers, congratulating them upon the 
decision they have come to ; believing it to be 
in accordance with God's will, and hoping 
that Philip especially 'will not make any more 
difficulties, nor spend more ink over the 
business.' Her idea is that Philip, who is 37, 
should have Tanagli's daughter, who is over 18, 
and his brother the Adimari girl, who is 14. They 
are, she adds, the prettiest girls they are likely to 
meet with, and possessing the strongest recom- 
mendations; but, having both of them been 
negotiated with for Philip, ' I don't know,' she 
says, ' whether they will be ready to change, and 
give the Adimari to you, Lorenzo.' Five weeks 
later we find the cards shuffled, and the Tanagli 
lady warmly recommended to Lorenzo, as not 
only beautiful herself, but likely to be the mother 
of beautiful children; while Adimari's daughter, 
whose interests are represented by a Canon 
Dieciaiuti, has been inspected and approved of 
from the windows of the house opposite her own 
for Philip. 

The slackness displayed by the Strozzi brothers 
in their response to their mother's solicitations must 
be ascribed, not only to the reasons mentioned 
above, and to the hesitation any prudent man 
would feel about binding himself irrevocably to 
companionship with a girl of whose personality 
he had only second-hand information, but to the 
hope ever present to their minds, under the 
fluctuating conditions of Florentine politics, that 
their banishment might any day come to an end, 
and they be able to prosecute their search for wives 
under more favourable conditions. Eager as their 
mother was to see them happily settled — so eager 
that she tells them she had gravely compromised 
her own and her relatives' future in purgatory by 
parsimony in masses, in order that she might have 
more money to leave to them and their children — 
she is prepared to give a certain amount of weight 
to this side of the question. There could be no 
doubt, she says, that the discord then prevailing in 
Florence exercised a most prejudicial effect upon 
the marriage market. And, so far as Lorenzo is 
concerned, she is disposed to think that the delay 
of a year or two might not be unadvisable ; not 
only on account of the reigning extravagance in 
female attire, which permits a girl to carry all her 
fortune upon her back in silk and jewelry, but 
because by that time the political aspect of afYairs 

The Florentine Temperament 

may have changed, and ' men's minds be at peace,' 
so that it will not be thought, as it now is, sheer 
waste of money to give a dowry to the wife of an 

The course of public events justified Alexandra's 
anticipations. Less than two years had passed 
from the date at which they were written, before 
the ban was taken off Philip and his brother, and 
we find Philip writing to his mother from Siena, 
one snowy day in November, that he would be 
with her the evening of the following Sunday, 
and hoping she will give him something better 
than sausages for supper. What course the mar- 
riage negotiations had taken in the meantime, and 
why that excellent young woman, whom we 
have known as Tanagli's daughter, failed to 
attract either of the brothers, are points as to 
which we learn nothing from Alexandra, for a 
regrettable hiatus of three years occurs in the docu- 
ments preserved for us ; and, when they resume 
their story, the future founder of the Strozzi 
Palace had been married more than a twelvemonth 
to the beautiful Fiammetta Adimari, and a baby, 
named Alphonso, after his godfather the king of 
Naples, was following his grandmother about the 
house 'like a chicken after a hen.' 

A letter of Fiammetta's, written in the second 
year of their union, to her husband at Naples, 
testifies to the amiability of the young wife, and 
to the autocracy exercised by Florentine mothers- 
in-law. In it she tells Philip that she had been 
' allowed ' by Alexandra to attend the second and 
fourth days' festivities of a friend's wedding, and 
caught a chill in consequence, for which she has 
had to send for the doctor. If Philip 'wants her 
to recover, he must tell her, when she may expect 
him to return, and see that it is not a fib, as hixs 
been the case on some former occasions.' 

How important an element, in the Florentine 
political game, were the new relationships formed 
by marriage, we see from a letter of Parenti's to 
Philip, congratulating him on the birth of a 
daughter, in which he tells lum not to feel any 
regret at the sex of the child, as a girl can be 
married sooner than a boy, and thus enable him 
to form advantageous political connections. 

With the marriage in 1470 of her son Lorenzo 
to Antonia Baroncelli, Alexandra's matrimonial 
projects came to an end, and, as if these had been 
not less her support than her life's mission, m the 
following year came her death and burial in Sta 
Maria Novella. She was thus prevented seeing 
more than the earliest of the numerous additions 
which, by his two wives, Philip made to the 
Strozzi family-tree, and, by a period of eighteen 
years, from being present at his foundation of the 
stately palace, which still stands as a monument 
of the wealth and pride of Florence's merchant 
princes. . . 

Both in the story of the marriage negotiations 


The Florentine Tewpernniefjt 

here described for us, and in the frequent 
references to family aflairs, not all to her 
credit, with which Alexandra's correspondence 
is largely concerned, we see the results of 
that shrewdly business-like and practical turn of 
character, wliich was a potent factor in Florence's 
public and domestic trans.ictions. The positif 
temper, which animated l>er statesmen, raised a 
small republic, which was not, like Venice, a sea 
power, and was markedly destitute of military 
c;ipacity, to a position almost of equality with the 
great powers of Europe ; but this attribute, which 
wiis so slnnuiative in tiie market and the council 
chamlxrr, proved a drag on the wheels when the 
realm of fancy was invaded. Its prosaic in- 
fluence, upon an important body of her painters, 
makes Florence an exception to Burckhardt's 

general commendation of the Renascentine 
painters as having 'the tact to follow external 
reality, not into every detail, but only so far as 
that the higher poetic truth might not suffer from 
it '; and the magnitude of her achievement viewed 
as a whole — second only to Greek sculpture in most 
authorities' estimation — justifies an examination, 
like that here attempted, of features in her social 
and intellectual condition that may have led to her 
partial failure. In making the attempt, 1 do not 
of course claim that the Florentines had a mono- 
poly among the inhabitants of the peninsula, 
either of the positif quality, or of the marriage 
system to which it gave emphasis ; but, looking 
for the probable cause of their lapse from idealism, 
1 find it in a preponderance of this particular 


LTHOUGH the subject of the 
print is one not uncommon in 
Japanese art — women fishing 
\nr tmuihi — it would be par- 
donable if the eye unac- 
customed to Japanese art gave 
it a very different significance. 

^^_^^^_ ,There is something archaic in 

llic lung curved prow of the boat ; there is a touch 
of romance in the misty sea dotted with islands — 
of adventure in the suddenness with wliicli the 
boat seems to shoot into the picture behind the 
jagged, weed-grown rocks — that leads the mind far 
away from Japan and its fisher-folk to the Aegean 
and its first explorers, to Ulysses and the Sirens, or 

' Where the echoing oars of Argo first 
' Slaillcd the uiiknuwn sea.' 

The print' belongs to the series of the Iliiudrcd 
Poems, a series published a year or two later than 
the Thirty-six Vines of Fuji — that is to say, about 
the year 1831, when the artist was more than 
seventy years of age. 

judging from internal evidence, we must place 
the lltimTrcd Poems among the latest of Hokusai's 
landscape dc-signs. In this series he seems to 
have tired of the grand simplicity which is the 
prevailing note of the Thirty-six Vicxvs of Fuji, and 
to have wished to shake himself free of the material 
limitations of subject matter which he had to face 
in designing the H'titerfills and the Ihiii^cs. In 
the Hundred Poems Hokusai could design just as 
he pleased, unfettered by any question of topo- 
graphical correctness, and he did not fail to take 
advantage of his liberty. 

The designs of the lluudred Poems are thus 
among the most pu/zling, complicated and attrac- 
tive in the whole of Hokusai's work. In them his 

' We arc indebted in the owner, the Hon. W. Orinjby Gore, 
(or permluion to reproduce it. 


invention has absolutely free scope, and his 
knowledge is ai its culminating point. Soon after 
their execution he was compelled to fly from Yedo 
to Uraga, owing to the misdoings of a grandson, 
and on his return in 1836 he found the city suffer- 
ing from a terrible famine, which reduced him to 
a pitiable state, accentuated in the following year 
by a fire which destroyed his house and his 
drawings. From these successive blows his art 
never quite recovered, and, though he displays 
magnificent power even so late as 1850, he has lost 
the range, if not the grandeur, of his former out- 
look upon nature. 

It needs a moment's thought before we recognize 
in this design of The Fishciivomen the same prin- 
ciples of construction as those seen in the Views 
of Fuji. The summit of our pyramidal mass is no 
longer the snow-capped crest of the great volcano, 
but tiie head of the topmost fisherwoman in the 
group on the right. The sweep of the largest 
wave accentuates the solidity of the group ; the 
struggling figures in the water below give it further 
support ; while the sense of motion is splendidly 
enhanced by the sharp curve of the boat topping 
the wave, and carrying the eye on to the smaller 
boat on the left and the group of islands stretching 
aw.iy into the sea beyond, which, with its level, 
restful expanse, serves as contrast to and relief 
from the intersecting curves of the swelling waves, 
pitching craft and fantastic rocks in front. The 
materials and the pictorial symbols of oriental art 
differ from ours, but its conceptions, even when 
they appear most fanciful and arbitrary, seem 
capable of reference to the same elementary 
principles of design as those which De Piles and 
Burnet deduce from the great European masters. 
All that Hokusai, perhaps, can claim is that he 
conceals his secret more adroitly. 

C. J. H. 


/•Vii/il /Ae- Culoiir !'• 



VERY student of 

the arts of 
arts owe to 

knows the 
debt which those 
\K lQixi3^\()7China and the Chinese; fresh 

\\ L//7J \^l Y^^ooiso{\\?irti\\\\^ys occuvYxng 
\M ris>// rK< I even where least suspected. 
In one department, that of 
I colour-prints, it is generally 
assumed, however, that the Japanese have been 
independent of the Continent. Writers on 
Japanese woodcuts allude to the existence of the 
art of colour-printing in China, but no study has 
been given to the Chinese examples, and very few 
have been noticed or recorded. Those who have 
made enquiries in China itself, find, I believe, at 
the present day the greatest difficulty in procuring 
or hearing of specimens. One might infer there- 
fore that the art was never pursued by the Chinese 
beyond the tentative and experimental stage. 
The examples of colour-woodcuts which are here 
described for the first time prove, however, that in 
the seventeenth century they had already developed 
the technical side of this art to its furthest point. 

Knowing that among the Sloane collections of 
drawings of natural history, costume, etc., now in 
the British Museum, were some from Oriental 
sources, and following up likely clues in the class- 
catalogues of the MSS. Department, 1 found 
several volumes containing Chinese drawings 
and colour-prints. Among the latter the most 
important are a set of twenty-nine woodcuts, 
measuring iijxi4jin. The subjects are either 
flowering sprays, boughs of fruit (mostly with 
birds or insects) or arrangements of flowers and 
fruit in baskets or porcelain vases. A few are of 
vases with flowers, grouped with books, scrolls, 
coral, etc. An examination of these prints shows 
that besides black, which is used for the outline 
block, and also to a slight extent in masses, no 
less than twenty-two colours have been employed.' 
Twelve colours were produced by one printing, 
viz. : Gamboge, an earth yellow, a blue, a grey, 
three different greens, a greenish primrose colour, 
a brown, a brownish purple, red lead, and the red 
produced from the safflower, familiar in Japanese 
prints as bcni ; while ten colours were produced 
by superimposed printings, viz. : Orange (red 
lead over gamboge), orange {beui over earth- 
yellow), crimson (brownish purple over beni), 
deep red {beni over beni), green (bkie over 
gamboge), green (light green over blue), purple 
(blue over beni), and purple (brown over blue); 
also green over black and purple over black. 
The colours are often gradated by skilful wiping 
of the block. In many of the prints elaborate 
ganffrage is used, the outlines of petals, etc., 

» Not all on one print, of course. For help in identifying the 
pigments, I am indebted to the special knowledge of Mr. S. 

being delicately embossed. This has produced 
bad creases in the paper, which is a kind of rice- 
pulp paper used in China for printing books, 
greatly inferior to the beautiful soft paper used 
by the Japanese print-makers. Much of the beauty 
of a Harunobu or Utamaro woodcut is due to the 
sympathetic quality of the paper, into the sub- 
stance of which the colours have sunk: but in 
these Chinese prints the paper, which is very thin, 
white and brittle, has not taken the colours kindly; 
and the untoned whiteness of it makes the beui, 
especially, look harsh and quite different from 
what it appears in Japanese examples. Apart 
from the question of paper, we are bound to 
acknowledge that these woodcuts show a complete 
mastery of the resources of colour-printing, such 
as we do not find in Japan till after 1765. These 
Chinese prints were brought home from the East 
by Kaempfer in 1692-3, and passed from his collec- 
tions to those of Sir Hans Sloane; they have been 
in the museum since its foundation, and are as 
fresh and clean as if printed yesterday. 

The question now arises : Why, if the Chinese 
had developed the art of colour-printing so far, 
did the Japanese at a later date begin again at the 
beginning, only reaching the multi-colour-print with 
Harunobu in 1765, through the various stages of 
hand-colouring, stencilling, etc. ? It seems 
incredible that this should have happened if the 
Chinese prints had been known in Japan. And 
yet it was in Japan that the prints in question were, 
in all probability, bought by Kaempfer, since he 
sailed to that country from Batavia and returned 
to the same port, not visiting China (so far as is 
known) at all ; and in the same volume in which 
the colour-prints were (they have now been trans- 
ferred to the Print Room) was a set of Japanese 
paintings from the same source. Moreover, we 
have tangible proof that Chinese colour-prints 
were known in Japan during the first half of the 
century. Anderson (' Japanese Woodcuts,' p. 8) 
mentions the fine Chinese album of birds and 
flowers, chiefly after Ming painters, dated 1701, 
in the collection of Mr. W. C. Alexander. Now 
copies from the subjects in this album were pub- 
lished by 0-c7ka Shunboku in two volumes, dated 
1746. Shunboku worked in Os;ika, and published 
albums as early as 1707, but I do not know what 
is his earliest work in colours ; the book in ques- 
tion was published in his old age. Through the 
kindness of Mr. Alexander, and of Mr. Arthur 
Morrison, who owns the 1746 edition of 
Shunboku's book (Mr. Alexander also has a later 
edition in three volumes), I have been able to 
compare these two specimens of colour-printing. 

The Chinese book is superior in technique, but 
the Japanese has suffered from changes in the 
pigments. The green tints were mostly produced 
by printing indigo over gamboge, and the indigo 

Qolour-Vrifjting />/ Qhina and yapan 

• I the foh;igc, etc., is now ot 
from yillow to grey ; and the same 
change probably accounts for the fading of purple 
to a warm brown. None the less, the colour- 
printing is both delicate and elaborate, and quite 
equal to that of the books of similar character by 
Kitao Mas:tvo^hi, who was not born till 1761. 

1' - to have proved that 

the >! in colour-printing 

dati-s irom 1743 or 174J at earliest. But, as 
Mr. Morristin argues, the book of Shunboku's in 
his posse'^^ion m.ikcs it very hard to believe that 
such a full development of the art could liave 
taken place in two or three years, and moreover 
•hat in this c.ise at any rate the Japanese 
11 took the Chinese for a model. Among 
readers of The BrKLiXGTO.v .Magazine may be 
some collectors who will bt able to bring forward 
further evidence : for instance, a book of 
Shunboku's d;ited earlier than 1746 and printed in 
colour*. It would be strange if this should be 
the ;iecimen in colour of the many books 

he 1 i. Japanese traditions all point to the 

beginning of the eighteenth century, rather than the 
middle, as the date of the first experiments; and in 
spite of Mr. Fenollosa's authority, this older view 
seems to be the better attested, as well as 
intrinsically the more probable. 

To return to China. Though so little appears 
to have survived in the way of colour-prints, I 
believe the real explanation of this is not their 
scarcity but their commonness. Everybody knows 
how rare are old English broadsides, which were 
produced for the same sort of public as colour- 
prints in the Ear East. What masses of Japanese 
prints would have perished but for the demand 
for them in Europe ! Now in an album in the 
Sloaiie collection I found a single large Chinese 
colour-print of the size and shape of the Japanese 
kakemono-ye. Though fine and effective — it is a 
print of a fish among weeds in water — it is 
obviously a cheap production, and doubtless only 
a specimen of what was produced in great pro- 
fusion. Not that I mean to maintain that China 
is likely to haveliad anything at all comparable with 
the school of colour-print artists which flourished 
so enormously in Japan. This art could never 
have had the same vitality in China, since there it 
was regarded simply as a means of reproducing 
paintings ; whereas the Ukiyo-y6 artists designed 
with the wood-block in view, and the co-operation 
of designer, engraver and printer produced results 
of unsurpassable beauty. But I wish to point 
out that in this, as in so many other points, 
China has been unduly neglected by students of 
Japanese art. 



HE task of classifying the 
Linbroideries found in the 
b-iicaars of Constantinople, 
Cairo and Athens would be 
t comparatively easy one, if 
it were possible to accept 
implicitly the word of the 
dealers as to the provenance 
oi tiRii speciiiHiis. This is, however, far from 
being the case, as they group together at least four 
or tive difierent varieties under the general name 
of Janina. If all the work that goes by this name 
diet indeed come from the capital of Epirus, then 
its women must assuredly go down to posterity as 
the most diligent of their se.x. The size of the 
group, its infinite v.iriety in colour, workmanship 
and design, make it a peculiarly interesting one to 
study, but its complexity adds greatly to the 
difficulty of sub-division. For the sake of clear- 
ness, it will be lu'st, therefore, to consider the 
x-arious details separately: to compare the points of 
resemblance, to trace the constructional lines on 
which the |iatlerns are built and to take note of 
colours and stitches, before we attempt to proceed 
to the di-' .--i ■! of their original locality. 

The 1 I'hs here reproduced are taken 

from speciaiLiia of so-called Janina, and demon- 


strate clearly the diversity of type included under 
this name. Fig. 4' is an exception, as it is part 
of a Bokhara curtain, and is included here to show 
what much of the Central Asiatic work is like, as 
it is highly probable that the work under discussion 
received suggestions as to colour, design and 
workmanship from Eastern sources, from 
Bokhara and from Persia. It will be noticed 
that the designs in all these examples have been 
drawn out upon the linen in the first instance, 
as their outlines are not determined by the web 
of the material. They have not the rectangular 
appearance of much of the work examined in the 
previous article, nor have they that solid effect 
produced by the use of very heavy silk. The 
silk is of a much finer quality, and the material 
upon which they are worked is also lighter in 
texture, as a general rule. Detail pattern within 
the larger piittern is to be seen in many cases. 
This is obtained by what is known as ' voiding ' ; 
see fig. I,' where the small flowers within the 
larger rounded ones and the markings on the 

'No. 966—1889. Victoria and Albert Museum. Portion of 
Dokhara curtain. Worked in crimson and d.irk hluc-grcen, 
some pale blues, pinks and yellows. Slitches, di.igonal 
couching and chain. 

* No. 59 — 1891. Victoria and Altiert Museum. Curtain in 
blue and red, surface darning, protxibly Anatolian. 

The so-called ' yanina ' Embroideries 

stem are the result of leaving plain or void 
the linen ground. The spots in fig. 8 'are the 
result of the same method. In some instances 
the pattern, instead of being left void, is filled 
in in another colour or colours — a treatment 
which, though apparently different, is in reality 
only an elaboration of the same idea. The flower 
centres in fig. 3 'would have been equally effective 
had they been voided. 

Figs. 6,' 7,^ 8, 9,' and 10" all show the same 
appreciation of the value of the outline of one 
mass within another ; whilst figs. 2^ 4, 7 and 8 
all emphasize the decorative use of the serrated 
line, directly opposed to an unbroken one. A 
device which is frequently employed is to discon- 
nect the different parts of the design. This makes 
the pattern look as if it had been prepared as a 
stencil, but instead of giving it a careless and 
unfinished appearance, it only renders the whole 
effect less hard and rigid. (See figs, i, 7, 8 and 10.) 

A very favourite form of design is the spray, 
which is repeated once or more, as may be 
required, either side by side along a line for a 
border (fig. 9), or in all directions for an 'all over' 
pattern (fig. 3), according to the projected purpose 
of the embroidery. This sprig or spray type is of 
three forms. One is seen in fig. 3 : it is 
nearly symmetrical ; flowers fill the four corners 
and the centre, and leaves occupy the three 
intermediate spaces, whilst the main stem fills 
the fourth lower space. The corners might 
possibly be occupied by large leaves, and 
flowers fill the alternate spaces, but in either 
case this disposition of two contrasting masses 
is always maintained. The second form of 
spray is shown in fig. 9 ; in it the large masses 
fill the centre and corners, and the idea of 
contrast is retained, but the stem, instead of 
being symmetrical and balanced, is curved and 
often very thin in proportion to the size of 
the flowers. The third variety is seen in fig. 6 

» Belonging to ' Old Orient, Athens,' from Skyros. Long 
cushion cover. Worked in double darning in crimson, yellow, 
pale blue and cinnamon. 

* No. 90—1897. Victoria and Albert Museum. Worked in 
very fine silk in close tent stitch in pile blues, pinks and greens. 

' Three pieces belonging to Dr. Karo. Originally worked as 
scarf ends, since employed as sleeves for the peasant women. 
All in double-darning and alike on both sides. Fine tinsel and 
gold is introduced. 

» No, 790—1896. Victoria and Albert Museum. Surface 
darning in red and blue, with some yellow and green, on a line 
open linen. Janina. 

No. 506 — 1877. Surface darning in several colours, red and 
blue predominating. Possibly portion of a cushion. Janina. 

' Belonging to Mr. G. Dickins. Portion of a valance worked 
in surface darning in reds and greens; outline in black. The 
narrow edging in white and colours is both characteristic and 

''Old Orient, Athens.' Crimson, vellow, pale blue, cinna- 
mon and pale green. Worked in double darning on linen, 
originally as border for a bed cover. 

•No. 263-1896. Victoria and Albert Museum. Hand- 
worked in red and blue and green and yellow in oriental 
stitch ; outline in black. 

in the second and third towel ends ; in this 
there is generally only one large flower or detail on 
a curved stem, and small leaves or flowers are 
placed along the stem. The small leaves are often 
worked in two colours alternately, as in the centre 
example of fig. 6. The predominant idea is still 
the contrast obtained by the use of large and small 
masses. When several sprays are repeated, it is a 
common practice to transpose the colours used. 
This gives the effect of a much bigger palette, for a 
blue flower being where a red one was, it is not 
immediately evident that the red was used for leaves 
in the previous spray, whereas now the leaves are 

A point that is noticeable in nearly all these 
embroideries is the high degree of convention- 
alization which has been arrived at, probably 
through many centuries of work, added to a strong 
love of traditional methods. The forms are taken 
from flowers and leaves, which they remotely 
resemble ; but from what flower or leaf is not 
immediately obvious, and often it is only after 
much consideration that one realizes what the 
original is likely to have been. The idea of growth 
is generally suggested, and in that they are logical, 
but otherwise any leaf form is used with any 
flower as long as it fulfils its decorative purpose." 

The construction seen in the narrow borders in 
figs. I and 2 — flower and leaf alternately on a 
continuous waved stem — occurs in a number of 
specimens, and the forms composing the borders 
are to be found in oriental work. The long o\-al 
leaf filled with detail is seen in the cone form 
prevalent in Indian and Persian work, whilst the 
variety open at the point like a tulip is reminiscent 
of Persian feeling and workmanship (figs. 7 and 8). 
The centre portion of the curtain in fig. i is 
designed on lines which follow a more or less 
regular curve ; a single flower or spray grows from 
each side of the stem alternately, but the main 
stem being dropped each time, the flowers appear 
to be arranged diagonally, to the great improve- 
ment of the design as a whole. 

Colour and stitch seem to some extent to be 
linked together, perhaps because certain dyes were 
procurable in the districts where certain stitches 
were in common vogue. There are two or even 
three distinct sets of colouring which pre\-ail. 
besides endless variations upon them. A usual 
one contains a verv clear fresh blue and a clear 
red in about equal'proportions, whilst pale green, 
pale cinnamon and biscuit colour are added m 
much smaller quantities. This combination of 
colours is often adopted for large hangings, such 

" In Salonika I examined a number of good specimens of 
so-called lanina. Some of them were evidently late work .ind 
showed easily distinguishable peas, etc They .ire the only 
instances 1 have seen where the Howers were frankly naiuTil- 
istic, and they certainly were not as effective as thise which 
were rigidly 

The so-called ^yatiifia'' Embroideries 

as curtains, bed covers, etc. (fig. i) ; for bands, as 
in the upper one in tig. 7 ; and constantly for the 
hcax-j' regular sprays on the towel and s;ish ends. 
The red and blue type of colouring is either 
worked with a surface darning stitch (fig. i and 
fig. 7), or with a stitch more solid in appearance, 
double-darning, which is alike on both sides. 
Fig. 2 shows an example of the strong-coloured 
class, for the colours are deeper in tone, and the 
greens are more marked. It is worked in oriental 
stitch, and a fine black silk has been used for the 
outline, which can be seen in some places. It is, 
however, diflicult to sec, as it h;is worn away 
through age, for it was probably dyed with vitriol, 
which, according to an old island dyer, rotted the 
silk. The design in fig. 2 fills an oblong shape, 
which is reversed so that the leaf curves alternately 
to the right and to the left. This shape and its 
reversal suggest that it might have been adapted 
from a tile design. A number of borders were 
constructed on these lines, and all are alike in that 
they show very little of the linen ground. They 
are usually in strong colours, with much green 
introduced, but unlike fig. 2 are worked in long, 
loose double-darning stitch (see stitch in fig. 5)," 
and they were, it is said, worked originally to 
decorate the ends of the women's aprons when 
peasant costume was more universally worn. 

Of the less vigorously coloured varieties perhaps 
the most characteristic is that known as ' fad ' 
Janina. Pigs. 8 and 10 are both of this type and 
arc in the usual fine double-darning stitch. The 
red in these is much softer and darker, a wine- 
coloured crimson, as compared with the real red 
of the first-named class ; with it a mustard yellow 
is used in about equal proportions, and in lesser 
quantities pale blue, cinnamon and black. This 
combination of colours is unusual and is easily 
recognized by the predominant yellow. The design 
is often a 'powdering' made up of elaborately- 
patterned birds, like those in fig. 10, and of cone- 
shaped ornaments like the flowers under the claws 
of the bird and those in fig. 8. 

Liist, there are the endless, many-luied, pale- 
coloured varieties into which silver and gold are 
often introduced (fig. 6). They are usually worked 
in some fine close stitch, which is alike on the 
face and on the reverse side. F"ig. 3 is worked in 
tent stitch, and sometimes double cross-stitch is 
used. Perhaps the most usual method of obtain- 
ing the close effect is the following, which, though 
it appears complicated on paper, in actual practice 
is exceedingly easy to manipulate. Small stitches 
are placed di.igonally, as if they were the upright 
hncs of a flight of steps, the silk on the wrong 
side pa-sing at right angles ; on the return the 
intermediate uncovered spaces are filled in, that is, 
the tread of the steps is completed ; the second 

" RclnnKini; to L. F. Pesel. Worked in many colours in loose 
double-darning and outline stitches. 


diagonal row is worked by passing the silk in and 
out from point to point of the zig-zag and back in 
the alternate spaces. We have now formed a 
series of triangles. Set corner to corner and alike 
on both sides, and by repeating these indefinitely 
the whole surface is covered and a diagonal ribbed 
effect is produced. 

There appear to be three ranges of colour in 
common use: the red and blue, the crimson and 
yellow, and the many coloured pale-shaded 
varieties; whilst there are three or four stitches 
generally employed with them, single surface 
darning, double-darning alike on both sides, and 
one or two forms of fine canvas stitch. The 
sub-division of the work into small groups accord- 
ing to design, stitches and colour is easy; but it is 
ditticult, even after four years' serious study of the 
subject in Greece, to assign each group to its 
particular locality. This is, perhaps, to be 
accounted for by the fact that some new examples 
are usually produced to disarrange all previous 
classification at the moment when most of the 
difficulties appear solved. Hoth fig. 5 and fig. 8 
were such perplexing examples. Fig. 8 is a 
specimen found on the island of Skyros, one of a 
collection of a dozen or more which is known to 
have belonged to an island family for over 200 
years (at least) and which was only now sold 
because of a bad harvest. It is identical in 
colouring and workmanship with fig. 10, which is 
certainly of the type most usually considered as 
Janina. Some of the other examples in the 
collection closely resemble the narrower strip in 
fig. 7, and many of them are strongly reminiscent 
of Persian work. As some good Persian and 
Rhodian plates were sold at the same time by this 
family, it seems almost certain that the motives in 
the embroideries were suggested by pottery. One 
specimen is clearly Rhodian needlework, and 
detail has evidently been added at a later date by 
the Skyros islander. 

Fig. 5 is one of five specimens which opened 
up a variety of new problems. They were brought 
in to a dealer in Athens, with the assurance that 
they were very old Janina, and yet they differ 
widely from the accepted type. This example was 
certainly worked under strong Turkish influence, 
as the Cyprus trees show. The same narrow 
border occurs on two of the others, whilst their 
centres are totally different, one being like the 
closely worked dark bands embroidered for aprons 
referred to above, while the other has large 
serrated peonies, which are absolutely unusual. 
Fig. 5 also closely resembles two examples in the 
South Kensington Museum, which are, on the 
other hand, like the work done in Turkish 
territory, or in the islands off the coast of Asia 
Minor. It is probable that the example repre- 
sented in fig. 5 was worked by Europeans, possibly 
Greeks, living in Turkish territory, and that fig. 2 











>^- -.¥^igi 


The so-called ' yanina ' Embroideries 

and similar pieces were worked by dwellers in 
some Balkan state, because the stitch is known 
in that district, as it occurs in Bulgarian em- 
broidery, in which the same leaf form is also to 
be found. 

Dr. Sarre in his Rehe in Klein Asicn gives some 
account of the embroidery he found in the 
interior, and the examples he shows are closely 
allied to what is found in Anatolia and in Turkey 
in Europe, the Balkans, and in parts of Greece. 
The work he saw was used for the same purposes : 
as curtains, bed covers, sash and towel ends. The 
use of the same stitches prevails, and the colourings 
are alike, as both the blue and red and the many 
hued pale varieties are found. The crimson and 
yellow 'fad' Janina and the very vigorous 
colouring of some of the northern examples are 
thus the only missing types. 

This leads to the following conclusions : That 
the big red and blue darned curtains, such as 
fig. I, were probably made on the mainland, 
where there would be the greatest wealth, and 

might go by the name of Anatolian ; that 
examples such as fig. 3 were also worked in 
Asia Minor, possibly as far south as S>Tia ; whilst 
smaller scarves, sashes and covers in the same 
style were copied also in the islands off the coast 
(fig. 6) and in Turkey. The very fine pieces with 
Cyprus trees and houses arc certainly Turkish, 
and were worked in all parts of the empire. 
Specimens such as fig. 2 and fig. 5 come from 
the northern portion of the empire, but were in 
all likelihood not worked by Turks. 

What is left to call Janina proper ? It becomes 
a very small amount compared with the original 
group. There remain the smaller red and blue 
single-darned examples worked as borders (figs. 7 
and 9) and table covers, the double-darned sash 
and towel ends, and the ' fad ' crimson and 
yellow work in the very close double-darning 
(figs. 8 and 10). Even this last may, on further 
examination, have to be taken away and given to 
Skyros, which would render ' true Janina ' a very 
rare and precious article. 



O those who are not familiar 
with ' Cosas de Espana ' — 
Spanish things and ways — 
this composition may seem 
to require an explanation of 
the apparently incongruous 
association of objects, animate 
and inanimate, brought to- 
gether in picturesque confusion. In reality the 
picture is supposed to represent an outhouse or 
ante-room to the kitchen of a country posada — open 
winter and summer to the outer air, the temporary 
place of deposit of water-jars, pitchers, metal 
cooking pots of all kinds, etc., the larder for the 
time being, and a free warren for domestic fowls 
and sometimes the tame goat or the pet merino 
sheep. Here again the favourite artifice of the 
painter is seen admirably illustrated by a vista of 
the kitchen beyond, with its cooking stove and 
open window with a woman looking out of it. 
Need it be said again that this recurrent motive, 
making its first appearance in the Martha and 
Mary and repeated in the present work, forms a 
connecting link with the crowning works of the 
immortal artist — Las Hilandcras and Las Mcninasf 
In all these compositions it is displayed as a 
pictorial artifice, intended to illustrate the grada- 
tion of atmospheric effect — the clothing of every 
object depicted with a surrounding atmosphere, 
gradated with infinite subtlety and truth to 
nature ; it is the aerial effect, d anibicntc of the 
Spanish writers, felt and understood but uncx- 

plainable and difficult to define in words. Perhaps 
there is only one other painter who has succeeded 
in expressing this supreme quality of art in the 
same degree, combined at the same time with 
perfect appreciation of the artificial rendering of 
light and shade— need it be said that artist was 
Rembrandt? Concerning this analogy, it seems 
to the writer rather strange that hitherto no one 
appears to have thought of "instituting a parallel 
between these two great contemporary luminaries 
of the world of art. 

Born within a year of each other, in different 
and widely separate countries, which moreover dur- 
ing their entire lives were agitated by a continuous 
warfare and religious discordance, it is not 
surprising that there is no evidence that the 
two painters ever knew anything of each other or 
even saw any of each other's productions. The 
analogies in their works are surely, then, all the 
more surprising. 

This picture may be considered as the culminat- 
ing work of the hcdcgon period of Velazquez (the 
direct analogv', in all technical respects, with the 
same characteristic features of the Beggar nith the 
Wine Bottle, previously described, stamps it with 
certainty as belonging to the same period) 
immediately antecedent to the remoral of the 
painter to Madrid. 


The strange chances of the s.ales by auction at 
Messrs. Christie's could not be better exemplified 
than by a recital of the circumstances of the s.ile 
of the picture last described and that now m 


Early Jl'^orks of Velazquez 

question. Both pictures saw the light in the sale 
of the collection of Mr. Reginald Cholmondelcy, 
of Condovcr Hall, Shropshire, on March 6th, 1897 ; 
but whereas the former work realised the respect- 
able price of ;^i,407, the latter w;is 'knocked 
down' for £i(i 15s. 6<1. only. The reason for 
this strange cliscrepancy, however, is obvious. It 
is that the first-named picture was truly described 
in the auction catalogue as 'by Velazquez,' 
whereas the latter work was simply described 
as of the ' Flenush school." 

In default of any information as to their 
previous history, an indication afforded by the 

[>rescnt picture shows, however, that it could not 
lave left Spain earlier than towards the end of the 
i8th or beginning of the 19th century, since the 
car\'ed and gilded frame in which it is placed is of 
a ch.iracteristic Spanish tyjie, evidently made for it 
in the country at the period mentioned. There 
can Ix- little doubt that lx)th pictures were brought 
to England during, or shortly after, the war, when 
they probably came at once into the possession of 
the Shropshire squire whose ancestral walls they 
for a time adorned. 

These two pictures are the largest known 
bcilfi^on pictures of the painter, and that they 
were painted nearly at the same time, perhaps 
contemporaneously, is obvious. There is, however, 
a qualihcation to be made ; in the present work 
there is unmist.akable evidence of the employment, 
in portions of the picture, of another and a 
weaker hand than that of the master himself. 
To this evidence reference will be made further 

Meanwhile it should be noted that there is in 
these pictures an obvious analogy, denoting an 
unquestionable acquaintance on the part of the 
artist with certain works of contemporary Flemish 
painters, notably of the two well-known and 
eminent still life and animal painters, Snyders and 
de Vos — and the cause is not far to seek. Philip 
III, during whose period the earlier works of 
Velazquez were e.xeculed, had been an especial 
patron of the two Flemish painters, and the royal 
palaces had l>een adorned with numerous pictures 
from their hands. 

Furthermore the taste for their works had 
become an established one amongst the wealthy 
Spanish nobility — their canvases of large dimen- 
s: ' nti.illy decorative in their nature, were 

■I ;it and probably less costly substitute for 

the tapestry hangings which had hitherto clothed 
the vast saloons and g.illeries of the Spanish 
nobility. Many such works, in fact, remain to 
this day where they were originally placed, in the 
royal pal.ices and great liouses of Spain. 

Vel.i/que/., however, although to some extent 
prompted by the production of these works, was a 
conscious and independent rival, not an imitator, of 
Uieir painters. In the present picture we see him, in 


fact, breaking entirely new ground. Here, for the 
first time, in addition to the splendid profusion of 
inanimate objects, introduced for purely decorative 
effect, we have, superadded and skilfully interwoven 
with the fundamental scheme of the work, a 
definite story of life-like human action, charac- 
terised by admirable dramatic effect and passionate 
expression. The young Spanish painter had im- 
proved upon his models. Vehizquez, in fact, was no 
imitator ; if he condescended to borrow from 
his contemporaries, the world at large was the 

It is reasonable to suppose that Velazquez, whose 
artistic horizon previous to his first visit to 
Madrid had been very limited, found a vastly 
augmented field of view opened to him when he 
saw the works of foreign masters, amongst whom 
were the Flemish boilcf^on painters, De Vos and 
Snyders, fellow subjects with himself of the crown 
of Spain. 

On this supposition it is clearly to be inferred 
that the kitchen picture at Richmond and the 
present work were the result of his visit to Madrid, 
and were commenced in Seville immediately after 
his return in 1622. They were probably the most 
elaborate and arduous undertakings which the 
painter had until then taken in hand. 

It has been said that the present work shows the 
co-operation of another and a weaker hand than 
that of the master himself. The feebly drawn, 
characterless and thinly painted central figure of 
the peace-maker, and several of the heads in the 
background, are so entirely unlike and so inferior 
in every respect to those in the rest of the compo- 
sition, as to render it certain that, although the 
master himself doubtless invented and drew them 
on the canvas, they must have been actually painted 
by another iiaiid. May not that hand have been 
that of Pacheco ? 

On the supposition, then, that the composition, 
originating in rivalry with the Flemish still life 
pictures which Velazquez had seen on his first visit 
to Madrid in 1622, was t.iken in hand immediately 
on his return to Seville, this great canvas may well 
have been unfinished when he was suddenly called 
to Madrid in the following year. 

It is needless to describe the picture — it tells its 
own story. A quarrel at a market or a fair has 
brought on one of those sudden tumults to which 
Spanish people arc subject. Fortunately in this 
rendering the ever-ready uavnjo makes no 
appearance, and there is nothing in it to detract 
from the humorous nature of the subject. 

As regards the admirable painting of the dead 
game, fruit, etc., it should again be pointed out 
that they were evidently painted by the same hand 
.as the corresponding details in the kitchen picture, 
and equally that the pots and pans in The luglit tit 
lite I'iiir and those in the SlruuiiJ picture aie the 
work of one and the same hand. 




Z V. 


- a 


'j r 


A LITTLE sketch in oil on panel which, by the 
courtesy of the owner, Mr. Frank Sabin, we are 
permitted to publish, should be of some interest 
to students of Rubens. It is obviously related to 
the famous series of paintings in the Louvre, 
executed to celebrate the marriage of Henri IV 
with Marie de' Medici, and may be regarded as a 
sketch for one of those compositions which was 
never carried out. The incident recorded is the 
reconciliation of Henry of Navarre with Henry 1 1 1 
after the assassination of Henry of Guise. The 
king of Navarre went to this meeting in full 
armour, as the sketch records, and behind the two 
monarchs rage figures symbolizing the hostility of 
the League, which just two month later was to 
result in the assassination of one of them, and 
thereby open the way to the kingdom of F"rance 
for the other. 

I HAVE read Mr. Marks's letter in your last num- 
ber with much interest and think he has cleared 
up the mystery. The enthronement of Saint 
Thomas and the inscription being on one panel, it 
would appear that they were either painted by the 
same person or that the inscription is painted over 
something else. It is quite clear that it was 
copied from that on the portrait No. 222 in the 
National Gallery and therefore when both paint- 
ings were either in Lord Arundel's possession or in 
that of the person from whom he acquired them. 
Lord Arundel had a mania for Anglicising pic- 
tures, e.g. the 7'cra e/figics of St. Thomas, and the 
so-called Departure of St. Ursula. He had also 
a cup which is described as the Cup of Saint 
Thomas, I think now at Corby Castle. It would 
be interesting to have a proof of its genuineness. 
But to return to the two Chatsworth paintings. 
Who can have painted them? I can only think of 
one person by whom they may possibly have been 
executed. Dirk Barentsz, alias Theodore Bernardi, 
of Amsterdam, who came to England in 15 19 and 
seems to have remained here. He worked for 
churches in Sussex and Hampshire. There is a 
series of panel pictures by him at Amberley Castle 
and other works at Boxgrove priory church and in 
the palace and cathedral, these last the most ambi- 
tious. It is now more than forty years ago since 
I saw them and therefore cannot give any opinion 
as to similarity of treatment, but it would certainly 
be interesting to ascertain whether they point to 
a common origin. W. H. J. \Ve.4LE. 

Ever since the fall of the Campanile of S. Mark's 
in Venice in 1902, the work of restoration both in 
private and public buildings has gone on steadily 
and quietly. Every one of the chief churches, S. 

Mark's itself ; SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; the Frari, 
and San Francesco della Vigna are in the hands 
of architects and masons, and some years must 
elapse ere they will be finished and free of 
scaffolding and other obstructions. The Ducal 
Palace is also undergoing a very thorough over- 
hauling, and in many a place interesting and 
unexpected discoveries are being made. In one 
direction a hidden window has revealed how the 
kitchen could be spied on, and any attempt to 
tamper with the Doge's food or poison him could 
be controlled by those who were careful for the 
safety of the head of the state. Another discovery, 
in the prisons, was that of a stone in the wall of 
one of the cells with a quantity of small holes all 
round and about it, which had been drilled by the 
luckless victim inside, who must have worked for 
years to obtain release. Did he ever gain it, we 
wonder ? And was it an act of grace, or the 
friendly hand of death which freed him in the 
end ? We shall probably never know, for all 
research to discover who this prisoner was has so 
far proved in vain. The most strange and inter- 
esting discovery, however, is one made in a room 
which is now part of the Museo Archeologico, but 
served as the bedroom of the Doges till the reign of 
Andrea Gritti in 1523. This room has a high alcove 
facing the windows, and under this alcove the bed 
always stood. Beyond the wall against which 
the bed was placed was a room set apart for the 
Doge's attendant, and it is in this room that only 
a few months ago two narrow staircases were 
found between these two rooms. These staircases 
led up to a narrow galleiy whence, on removing 
two panels in the alcove, the intruder could look 
down on the Doge and ascertain for himself that 
he was really in bed, and not either absent 
' without leave ' or engaged in transactions that 
might be considered nefarious. Tradition had 
long hinted at the existence of these staircases 
and the supervision said to have been exercised 
over Venice's ' Dux,' but not till last October, 
when the staircases were found, did tradition 
give place to certainty' and the legend become an 
established fact. Standing in the Doge's room, it 
is easy to see in the alcove which were the two 
movable panels, but the staircases have been walled 
up again and all trace of their existence, and of 
the suspicious distrust which was practised on their 
prince by Venetians of old, has been entirely swept 
away. Alethe.x Wiel. 


Dr. K.\mmerer, of Budapest, asks us to insert 
the following note : 

The 'Art .Affairs in Germany,' in the February 
number of The Blrlington M.\g.\zine, con- 
tained a reference to the ' Museum of Fine .Arts' 
at Budapest. This museum was founded as a 
millenary memorial of Hungary's existence and, .is 


U^tes on Various J forks of t4rt 

cvcrsthin^; rcl.itcd with it refers to Hungary and 
Hiirij^.iriaij ciukavoiirs in Hungarian art culture, 
it strikes mc as incorrect to see it mentioned in 
connection with the Austrian Emperor and the 
German Empire. 

This national foundation does not, however, 
exclude the recojjnition and appreciation of results 
and successes obtained atiroad ; moreover, their 
ol>servation is, in the interests of Hungarian art 
culture, one of its aims. Thus in the modern 
ct)llcction of the museum, foreign art, such as the 
English, French, German, Austrian, Dutch, Italian 
and Spanish paintings, are represented in greater 
numlxr than in any other collection in Europe. 
This is explained by the remote situation of 
Hungary and the endeavour to keep in touch 
with the art progress of the rest of Europe. 

For example, especial pains, and indeed great and 
extraordinary means, have been employed during 
the last years to secure worthy representation of 

English painters and graphical art. However, 
national sentiment demands honour for the 
native art of its own country, and above all for 
those who, by their own wish, remained with 
their art in the service of their country. 

Such a giant among artists was Charles Lotz, one 
of the greatest talents of his century. If he 
remained with his work — which consisted mostly 
of immovable frescoes — in his own country and 
made no effort for a more remunerative European 
estimation, that only entitles him to a higher degree 
of national appreciation, and worthy protection of 
his memory and art. Certain it is, however, that 
the analogy of the later purchase of the work with 
that of the famous Adolf Men/.el occured to no 
one. Meiizel with his historical direction was of 
influence upon his nation, whilst Lotz, rambling 
in the free groves of mythology and symbolism, 
never desired to bring forth and nourish feelings 
either chauvinistic or political. 



To the Editor o/The Burlington Magazine. 

Sir, — In his brief answer to the letter of Mr. 
Rickctts, published in the September issue of the 
HiKl.lNGTON, Mr. Mather pointed out an error of 
Mr. Kicketts's based upon your reproduction of 
the Van Eyck, Si. Ftuiicis Receiving the Stigmata, 
in the Johnson collection. To one who knows 
the picture, and values Mr. Ricketts's judgment, it 
is evident that the original is unknown to him. 
Photographing so finely finished a miniature 
work (14 X 12 centimetres) is an extremely difficult 
task, and, the photograph sent you being not quite 
successful, your reproduction could be little more 
than a diagram giving certain valuable facts, but 
misleading as to others, and inadequate to convey 
a sense of the quality of the work. Prom the 
Turin example, if only because of its larger size 
(28x33 centimetres), it was easier to get a good 
result, and Alinari's photograph is a model of 
what a black-and-white translation of an original 
in colour can be ; therefore, in so far as photo- 
graphy can do so, it furnishes an excellent basis 
of study. I doubt whether an examination of 
these two photographs would justify Mr. Ricketts's 
conclusions, but with the Alinari reproduction in 
hand, and the Johnson panel under my eye, I 
venture to think that were Mr. Ricketts in my he would give the very same reasons in 
avour of the Philadelphia example that he has 
given in favour of the Turin picture. While 
noting a most significant fact which has escaped 
him — that in the larger picture brother Leo has 
two right feet, the careless copyist having failed to 
observe that the friar's legs arc crossed, and to 



note the sole to the left foot in the original, the 
Johnson picture — a comparison of the feet of 
St. Francis is, for purely artistic reasons, as con- 
vincing evidence of the Turin example being a 
copy, and not a very good one. In it the hands 
of the Saint have become puggy and entirely 
lacking in the determinate, expressive drawing, 
the unmistakable Van Eyck air of the hands in 
the little picture, where the head of Francis, 
beautiful in colour, is drawn and modelled in a 
masterly way. Sir Martin Conway and Mr. 
Wealc, who know well both pictures, agree both 
with Mr. Fry and the writer that in the Johnson 
example this face is expressive and full of 
character.* It certainly has a grave, earnest in- 
dividuality which is entirely lacking in the enlarge- 
ment, where the folds of the drapery, the rocks, 
which in the small picture arc firmly eerits, vouliis, 
have lost their decision, their vitality and are tiioui 
and inexpressive. But, as Mr. Hymans has 
pointed out,' it is the distance which is admirable 
in the Johnson picture, and there most clearly 
does the Alinari photograph show the inferiority 
of the larger example. Who but Van Eyck could 
have realized in so beautiful and authoritative a 
manner the contrast of airy sunshine in the back- 
ground with the warm gold brown tone of the 
foreground, where a scene of enormous spiritual 
importance is taking place ? In one picture there 
is a subtle, perfect rendering of the conception ; in 

' ' The Turin r'*-''"^^ is most cerl.iinly .in enlargement of 
Mr. Johnson's panel. The Saint's (ace has less individuality, his 
left hand and feet are weaker, etc.'— Weale. 

'The admirable (ace 01 St. Francis is a countenance \-isibly 
inspired.' — Sir Marlin Conwav. 

» • Ga/ctlc del lleaiix-Arts,' 1888. Vol. xxxvii, p. 78, etc. 

Mr. John G. JohnsorPs Van Eyck 

the other heaviness and gaticherie, the earmarks of 
the copyist. In the way tiic planes are established, 
the sense of distance, the forms and outlines of 
the mountains, in the town big as a thumbnail, 
and which in spite of the minutest detail is a big 
thing holding together, in the ensemble as in the 
detail, the sense of exquisite quality which 
permeates the Johnson picture is absent from the 
Turin example. To find an equivalent to such 
delicacy of touch allied to such precision, to the 
luminosity, the grave beauty of this scene, one 
must go to the background of the Vierge an 
Donatenr in the Louvre, and to that of ih&Madonna 
with Saint Anne in the collection of Baron G. de 
Rothschild in Paris. Lastly there is no such 
spottiness in the original as Mr. Ricketts saw in 
the reproduction, but all students are familiar with 
photographs of the central panel of the Adoration 
of the Lamb showing a spottiness which does not 
exist in the original. 

When in the possession of Lord Heytesbury the 
small panel was seen by VVaagen and by Crowe, 
who both attributed it to Van Eyck.' It was 
exhibited at the British Institution in 1865 and in 
1886 at Burlington House, when Sir J.C. Robinson 
and Mr. Weale among others wrote at length 
about it in the Times. * But none of these 
writers have seen it in its present restored con- 
dition. The additions on the four sides having 
been removed, the panel, which was 24 X 16 
centimetres, is now 14 x 12, and the composition 
within the frame is as the artist intended it. The 
unhappy repaints have been (because most care- 
fully perhaps not entirely) removed, but the 
original work of the upper part of Leo's body and 
his head, which had been so coarsely repainted 
that even the outlines were lost, and of the head 
and face of St. Francis, which had been baUifies 
with brutal repaints, was found in excellent con- 
dition when these additions were removed. 

Is the Johnson example by Hubert or by Jan ? 
The Adornes will, so much cited, seems to me still 
equivocal, at least in the French translation Mr. 
Hymans gives of the old Flemish text : ' Je Itigue 
i chacune de mes filles, Marguerite et Louise, 
toutes deux religieuses. Tune au convent de 
Chartreuses pres de Bruges, I'autre a Saint Trond, 
un petit tableau representant Saint Francois 
dii au pinceau de Jan Van Eyck. . . .' Mr. 
Hymans was puzzled and wondered about the 

' Waagen 'Treasures.' London, J. Murray, 1854-7, Vol. iv, 

P- 389. 

Crowe in his revision of Kuglcr (London, J. Murray, 1S74, p. 67) 
says the picture ' is remarkable lor its solid .md delicate execution, 
the deyvth and fullness of its warm tone.' 

* The Atheiiaiim of J.muary yth, 1886, calls it 'a jewel which 
has found pKice within two feet of the Hoor, although even the 
place of honour would not be too good for its merits or its rarity.' 

Sir J. C. Robinson's letter is too long to be quoted, but to show 
how he valued the quality of the worl; it need only be said that 
if it should be found Van Eyck was not its author, it must, 
in his opinion, be given by acclaim to Antoiicllo d.» 

exact meaning' (was the reference to one or two 
pictures ?), until, hearing for the first time of the 
little picture, he went to see it in 1886 at London 
and came to the conclusion that the Heytesbury 
and the Turin were the two pictures named in 
the will. But the Turin example was labelled 
Flemish school until 1883, when the Adornes will 
brought attention to it, Knackfuss strongly 
doubts its authenticity, and Mr. Weale, who had 
seen and studied it before, but has examined it 
again and closely of late, wrote to the writer that 
it surely is a copy painted after Jan's death. The 
question is further complicated by the fact that 
the pictures could not have been painted for 
Adornes, who was only fifteen years old when 
the master died in 1440. Agreeing that the will 
meant two pictures, the lack of quality of the 
Turin enlargement and its evidence of gauche 
copying are after all decisive in precluding any 
possibility of its being Jan Van Eyck's handi- 
work. And but for the will, 1 doubt that the 
Johnson example should have been given to Jan, 
for it has a depth of feeling, a profound reccuille- 
inent which have been associated with Hubert, 
and Hubert alone. Sir Martin Conway concurs 
in that opinion. The fact that it was bought at 
Lisbon when Lord Heytesbury was ambassador 
to Portugal, and the presence of the palmetto 
(chamaerops hiiinilis), which is found below latitude 
43 and is common in Southern Spain and 
Portugal, made Sir Charles Robinson and Mr. 
Alfred Marks, among others, think it the work 
of Jan because of his having gone to Lisbon in 
1428 in company with Messirede Roubaix to paint 
the portrait of La Belle Portugalaise — Isabel of 
Portugal — the intended bride of his patron, Duke 
Philippe le Bon of Burgundy. While the ordon- 
nances given by Philippe on Jan's behalf tell, 
besides this mission to Portugal, of ' loingtains 
voiaiges,' of ' pelerinages ' and ' estrangeres 
marches,' we know of no documents proving 
that Hubert ever travelled. Yet the consensus 
of expert opinion is that other pictures in which 
the palmetto appears, the Three Marys of the Sir 
Francis Cook collection, the Fountain of the Living 
Waters known to us by its copy in the Prado, the 
panel in the Copenhagen Royal Gal lerj-, are his work 
and not that of Jan. Sir Martin Conway, who 
believes Hubert to have been a painter of mini.i- 
tures who took to painting pictures on panel in 
his newly invented or perfected method, thinks 
the Johnson picture an example of Hubert's 
miniature style applied to oil p.iinting. and there- 
fore a verv early work. In the town of the back- 
ground Mr. Hymans recognises Assisi, which is 
represented in the same way as on a plate in 
M. Plon's book* and in a painting of SI. Sebastian 

' Hy. Hym.ans in ' Bulletin dcs Commissions Ro>-aln d'.Art 
et d'.-VrchCologiede Belgique,' 1883. 
• 'St. Kr.incisd' Assisi,' J'aris, 18^5 p. 80. 

) 47 

Mr. John G. Johnson's ran Eyck 

by Niccolo Aliinno, iK-longing to the AbW Wolff, 
at Calcar. How did the artist get this view ? At 
any rate, the snowy Alps in the distance bear 
further proof that the work could not be that of a 
man who had spent his life in the Low Countries. 

Mr. Weale has also pointed out that in the 
Johnson example the Saint and Leo are repre- 
sented in the habits of the reformed Franciscans: 
brown for the choir brother, black for the lay 
brother,' and that the reformed Franciscans were 
not introduced into Flanders until the end of the 
fifteenth century. In the Turin picture both 
habits are grey, which may suggest that the 
original was painted south and that the copy was 

t xh it of \.eo was thought bvSir J. C. Robinson 

to be t!,. .lie habit ol a BUcktrur (TAr Timts, February 

I, 1886). 

executed in Flanders before the end of the fifteenth 
century, when the Franciscans there were Grey- 
friars. It is regrettable that its being on this side 
of the ocean makes it little likely that the best 
authorities will see it in its restored condition and 
solve the many and interesting problems it brings 
up.» August F. Jaccaci. 

• If is worth noting that the will of Anselm Adomes, Lord of 
Corlhing, which is dated February loth, 1476, after mentioning 
the legacy of the picture (or pictures) by Jan Van Eyck stated 
that on the shutters with which the picture was for were) 
provided there should be painted his portrait and that of his 
deceased wile, Marguerite Van der Bank. As Adornes was 
starlingon a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, it is therefore clear that 
the portraits could not be painted from life. Mr. Hymans thinks 
that they were painted by Memlinc. At any rate he has found 
the drawings of these portraits in the coUetiion of Count 
Thierry de Leinburg-Stirum. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts cited above 



Far Joseph Destree. Bru.xelles : G. V^n Oest. 
^'r- 75- 

This magnificent publication by the Keeper of the 
Roj'al Museum of Instructive and Decorative Art 
is a memorial of the remarkable exhibition held at 
Brussels in 1905. Such memorial exhibitions as 
this make it possible to collect together works of 
art which in no other circumstances could be seen 
or studied in connection with each other, as the 
example set by the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 
England has for many years conclusively shown. 
As was natural in Brussels, tapestries were the 
most striking feature of the exhibition, their im- 
portance being increased by loans from private 
collectors, not only in France and Belgium, but 
in England and America — South Kensington 
Museum, Lord Iveagh and Mr. Pierpont Morgan 
being prominent contributors. 

With a sense of method which is too often 
wanting in those who compose works of this kind, 
M. Destrde has arranged the tapestries in chrono- 
logical order, so that with the aid of his sumptuous 
publication we are enabled to follow the course of 
tapestry- weaving from the second half of the 
fifteenth to the eighteenth century. As the editor 
points out, it is to the inBuence of Hugo van der 
Goes rather than to that of Kogier van der 
Weyden we should look in connection with 
the authorship of the two early t.apestries lent by 
the Gobelins Factory. Among the most remark- 
able of the other e.arly pieces are the famous 
Rovaume des Cicux in Mr. Pierpont Morgan's 
collection and the Presentation of Jesus Christ in 
the possession of M. Martin Leroy,'-,botli showing 
an unusual delicacy of workmanship, as well as a 
certain refinement of type, which point to a French 
designer. We have to go to the series illustrating 


the histor>' of the Virgin, lent by Spain to the 
Paris Exhibition of 1900, to find anything of 
similar quality. Difficult problems are raised by 
the interesting piece in twenty-six panels, from 
the cathedral of Aix, which dates from the year 
151 1, and was once part of the decorations of 
the cathedral of Canterbury but was sold in Paris 
during the Commonwealth for the ridiculous price 
of twelve hundred crowns. Once more we find 
ourselves in agreement with the editor, who doubts 
the theory that the designer was Quentin Matsys : 
the attribution to the school of Brabant seems 
much more prudent. 

It is impossible to discuss in detail the 
remainder of the tapestries illustrated, more than 
thirty in number, though a word of praise must 
be given to the excellence of the plates, and 
especially to those which are reproduced in 
colour. The colour and quality of the old tapes- 
tries are not easy things to match, but those who 
fail to be pleased with the portion of the Baibsheba 
belonging to the city of Brussels, which is 
reproduced here, must indeed be hard to satisfy. 
The elaborate carved altarpieces of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries arc less attractive from an 
artistic point of view, although from their close 
relation to the painting of the period, as well as 
from the extraordinary skill displayed in their 
execution, they have an uncommon interest for 
students. In them we see the Flemish instinct 
for richness of ornament and wealth of detail 
running riot, until the result, with all its spirited 
observation and dramatic character, ceases almost 
to be sculpture at all. As typical examples of this 
transformation of sculpture into painting we may 
quote the panels representing the martyrdom of 
St. Adrien from the church of Boendael, Ixelles. 
Infinitely preferable as sculpture are the three 
noble figures which surmount the branches of the 
Pascal candlestick at I^au, which succeed in 
being at once simple and passionate. The candle- 

stick, which is of brass, was made in 1483 by 
Renier Van Thienen. 

Le Genre Satirique dans la Peinture Fla- 
MANDE. Par L. Maeterlinck. Deuxieme 
edition, revue, corrig^e et considerablement 
augraentce. Bruxelles : G. Van OesL Fr. 10. 
Whilst the title chosen for this pleasantly written 
if diffuse account of the lighter side of south 
Netherlandisii art was, doubtless, a convenient 
one, ' Les Genres Satiriques ' would have better 
described the conabination the author had in view, 
and would have avoided needless ambiguity in a 
language so expressive of artistic and critical 
nuances as the P^-ench. Here we have pure satire 
or caricature, the grotesque, and a large — an un- 
duly large — admixture of 'scenes de mcKurs,' their 
ingredients comic in very varying proportions. 
In spite of the similarity of the means employed, 
and their dependence for results upon the object of 
their application only, their combination for his- 
torical purposes seems to give an inflated presen- 
tation and a false perspective to each. In a treat- 
ment of the subjects ranging from the Romans 
to the nineteenth century, the objective seems ever 
changing, whilst the material studied, though 
testifying that the mediaeval Netherlander had an 
eye no less keen for the grotesque than his neigh- 
bours, does not very well prepare us for the 
extraordinary phenomena of Bosch and the 
Brueghels. One would be content to commence 
the tale but a little previous to them, or to make a 
selection of the items that really lead up to their 
appearance, and to cut the padding. And a 
tendency discernible it would have been well to 
guard against : the disposition to find the comic 
in what is not and never was intended to be 
comical or grotesque. In our view, there is 
absolutely no trace of either in the well-known 
miniature ' Le due de Berry a table ' (' Trcs Riches 
Hemes'), here illustrated, or in those chosen from 
the calendar of the same MS. It is true that in 
the former case M. Maeterlinck spies the ' note 
comique ' only in the toy dogs admitted by the 
duke among the dishes on his board, but the case 
is poorly presented that requires such witnesses. 
In connection with the Arnolfini and their picture, 
the author indeed avoids the pitfall of making the 
Luccan merchant and his lady employ John van 
Eyck to caricature them, though we are to infer 
that the painter did so unconsciously — or of what 
value is M. Maeterlinck's remark that the pair 
and their chattels form ' une page charmante de 
la vie familiale au moyen age, pleine d'observations 
amusantes faisant cerlaincmcnt songcr a nos 
inimitables peintres satiriques llamands ' ? On a 
point of mere accuracy, also, can both the Arnol- 
fini be described as ' venant d'ltalie ' ? 

To the occivsional nakedness of the land must, 
we suppose, be attributed the inclusion, upon 

T'he Art of the Netherlands 

very slight pretexts, of extraneous matter in both 
text and illustrations : Durer, Schongauer, Beham, 
etc., the reproductions after whom could well 
have been spared for larger-scale blocks of works 
really important to the argument. The fact that 
M. Maeterlinck's page measures 10 X 7 inches did 
not prevent the use, for plates, of blocks 3^ X 2i 
(pi. x), 4i X 3 (p!. xliv) and 2J X 4 (pi. li), the 
latter from a work in the Ghent Museum ! 

The author's method is the safest under the 
circumstances : descriptive and expository ; but 
his references leave one a little in doubt as to the 
scope and nature of his own researches. A ' Liste 
des Manuscrits consultes ' refers to works in four- 
teen libraries : seven in the Low Countries, five 
French, the British Museum and the Vatican ; 
but the Ypres Kuerbouc (p. 59) is omitted — and 
can it be that a journey to Italy has only re- 
vealed to him two works worth citation in that 
country ? 

The patronizing tone occasionally adopted with 
regard to savants of repute (' comme le dit fort 
bien Sir E. Maunde Thompson ') is amusing in 
a work which one cannot help regarding as 
largely a compilation. A. V. D. P. 

L'EcoLE Belge de Peintlre. 1830-1905. 

Par Camille Lemonnier. Bru.xelles: G. Van 

Oest. Fr. 20. 
The art of modern Belgium, at least in its niost 
striking manifestations, has made its reputation 
in Paris, and is thus commonly confounded with 
the art of France. That, at least, is the case with 
Belgian painting. Belgian sculptors have been 
more successful in retaining their nationality, not 
only where, as in the case of Lambeaux, we can 
trace something of the old full-blooded Flemish 
spirit, but where, as with Constantine Meunier, 
we meet with a gravity and austerity that have 
nothing in common with the general tradition of 
the race. The triumphs of the earlier painters of 
the century, such as Wappers and Gallait, were 
Belgian in character and were gained in Belgium, 
while in the succeeding age, that of Leys and De 
Brackeleer, the national character was even more 
strongly marked, so much so that these might 
fairly be called the representative Belgian m.isters 
of the century. Alfred Stevens was in reality the 
child of his adopted city, Paris. M. Camille 
Lcmonnicr's study of the gradual development of 
Belgian painting is a careful piece of writing, 
supplemented by a number of good reproductions, 
among which two — an example of Leys and the 
frontispiece after Stevens's L<« riii/f— tell with 
particular force. It is perhaps rather too crowded 
with names and facts for the purpose of the 
general reader, especially since many of the 
painters dealt with h.ive little historical interest, 
and none at all from the artistic point of view ; 
but it has the merit of being thorough, and 


The Art of the Netherlands 

thoroughness in books of such importance is more 
valuable than any generalizations, however facile. 

Fernand Khnopff. Par L. Dumont-Wilden. 

brusscis : G. Van Ocst. 
As the author points out, Khnopfl is an isolated 
phenomenon in the art of modern Belgium. 
While his contemporaries immerse themselves in 
the life of their age and country, he is a recluse; 
while they revel in tangible and material subjects, 
he muses in the world of allegory and suggestion. 
The text of this book is really less instructive than 
the excellent illustrations, for while it explains the 
painter's theory of himself, we have to trace the 
growth of his work almost entirely from the 
pictures. KhnopfT is not a popular artist : even in 
his own country he inspires, perhaps, more 
curiosity than affection. W'c might even doubt 
the sincerity of his work, did we not remember 
that, though he differs outwardly from his country- 
men, it is from his Belgian blood that he draws a 
certain preference for complete materialization, 
which, while it sets off his technical cleverness, is 
a drawb.ick when he tries to paint the invisible. 
Without models, as his dry-points prove, he be- 
comes amateurish and feeble ; when working from 
the model he is hard, precise and cold. His 
recollections of Tissot, Gustave Moreau, and of 
English ^^;ir<; painting of the eighties have not 
taught him what constitutes a really good picture, 
and he is satisfied with his work ; these seem to be 
the causes of his failure to reach the complete 
success which such a talent might attain under 
happier auspices. It is unfortunate that his excur- 
sions into landscape have not been more frequent, 
for it is in this field and in the portraiture of 
children that the various elements of his nature 
combine most harmoniously. 

Van Dyck. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O. London : 
G. Bell. 5s. net. 

This condensed version of Mr. Gust's monumen- 
t;il work on Van Dyck is one of the most 
satisfactory volumes lol Messrs. Bell's well-known 
series. It is hardly four years since Mr. Cust 
published another small book on Van Dyck, 
which is now, we believe, out of print ; but the 
fact need not be much regretted, for the present 
work is a great improvement upon the earlier one. 
In that the effort to compress great knowledge 
into a small compass was evident; in this the 
author works freely, as one who has his knowledge 
well in hand, and can estimate exactly how much 
the space allotted to him will contain without 
Ixing too tightly packed. If any fault could be 
immd it would be the book keeps almost too 
I lonely to its two central themes, Van Dyck's 
pci-.on;il history and his oil paintings, so that no 
space is left to discuss the followers and pupils 


with whom he is frequently confused, or to deal 
in any fullness with his etched work or his admir- 
able drawings. Nor would one or two illustrations 
of this side of his talent have been amiss, if only 
to act as relief to the long series of paintings. 


TABLEAtx Ink'dits ou Peu Connus. Tir^s dc 
Collections Franfaises. 56 Planches en 
Phototypie avec Notices et Index. Par 
Salomon Reinach. Paris: Ldvy. 
This is a book of no common interest. M. Salo- 
mon Reinach has done good service to the cause 
of art in many ways, and, though the origin of 
this handsome work must be traced to his great 
scheme for making a record of all existing pictures, 
the result is far from being a mere scrapbook. 
With but few exceptions, the fifty-six plates illus- 
trate paintings upon which criticism has not yet 
said the last word, the arguments for and against 
the attribution of each picture are carefully 
summed up in the editor's notes, while the plates 
are large enough and clear enough for those who 
do not know the originals to obtain a fair idea of 
them, and to form an opinion upon the points at 

The volume might thus almost be termed an 
introduction to modern expert criticism, and we 
have been particularly struck with the soundness 
of judgment displayed by the editor in deciding 
between the conflicting views of the authorities he 
quotes. There are but few cases in which we find 
it possible to question his conclusions, and it is 
only here and there that w-e can supplement even 
in the smallest degree his amazing range of know- 
ledge. In connection with the portrait of Bianca 
Maria Sforza (36) it may be mentioned that there 
is a much superior portrait of the same kind in 
the collection of Mr. P. A. Widener, of America, 
which is possibly identical with that which 
Dr. Bode studied eight years ago in the Lippmann 
Collection. There can be no shadow of doubt as 
to the authenticity of the Negro by Rembrandt at 
Hertford House, though it is far from being one 
of his more attractive works, and it bears no 
resemblance in handling to Plate 47, which we 
agree with M. Reinach in attributing to Dou. 
Perhaps the most difficult of all the problems set 
by M. Reinach is the authorship of M. Richten- 
berger's Portrait il'iin Miisicicii. The eyes are not 
drawn by a Venetian, nor are the hands drawn by 
a Florentine, and the suggestion of Cavazzola is 
one which without seeing the original it is dillicult 
to accept. To sum up, those who wish to get an 
idea of the men whom modern critics are inves- 
tigating, J.icob of Amsterdam, Jean Prevost, 
Cornelis Engelbrechtsen, Hieronymus Bosch, 
Bastiano Mainardi, Botticini, and the like, will find 

M. Reinach's book a storehouse of valuable 
documents and guesses. 

Gemalde Alter Meister, im Besitze seiner 
Majestat des deutschen Kaisers. Parts 
XIII-XVIIl. Berlin: R. Bong. Mks. 5 per 
This magnificent publication maintains the high 
standard with which it set out. To the fifteenth 
and sixteenth parts Dr. Bode contributes an 
essay on the Dutch School as represented in the 
Imperial collection, and this is followed by a 
discussion on the French School from the pen 
of the editor, Dr. Paul Seidel. It is, of course, in 
French pictures that these German collections 
are peculiarly strong, and the large photogravures 
do justice to the masterpieces of Watteau and 
his followers which they contain ; but the examples 
of the Flemish School are also of surpassing 
importance and interest to those who know how 
difficult it is to distinguish between the works 
of the group of powerful artists who worked 
round Van Dyck and Rubens. A fine portrait by 
Flinck, and a delightful Foiiiilain-nyiiiph by 
Cranach are among the other attractions of these 
instalments, whose all-round excellence we 
cannot praise too highly. 

Unveroffentlichte Gemalde Alter Meister 
Aus DEM Besitze des baykrischen Staates. 
Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Bassermann- 
jordan. I. Band. Die Schlossgalerie zu 
Aschaffenburg. Frankfurt : H. Keller. 

Dr. Jordan's purpose is to illustrate the pictures 
in Bavaria which deserve publishing but which 
hitherto have not been reproduced. The first 
instalment of his labours deals with the collection 
at Aschaffenburg, and in accordance with the 
editor's views it omits pictures, such as the 
Rembrandt, which are already well known, but 
devotes fifty plates to careful reproductions of 
specimens of minor masters of undoubted authen- 
ticity. Thus if we miss Rembrandt we find 
specimens of his forerunners: Elshcimer, Last- 
man and Pynas, and of his last pupil, Aart de 
Gelder, whose ten pictures illustrating the Passion 
are perhaps the most conspicuous feature of the 
portfolio. Several of the compositions are striking, 
but even the best of them show how wide in 
reality was the gulf that separated the master from 
the pupil. The specimen of Lastman is a very 
good one and proves that he was by no means the 
empty and incompetent performer that popular 
biography makes him out to have been. Among 
the most interesting of the early works is the fine 
Sloiiiit<< of SI. Slcf^hcii of the sciiool of Michael 
Pachers : a powerful and vigorous work which 
should be studied in connection with the two 
similar pictures at Augsburg. Examples of Albert 
Cuyp, Jordaens, Cornelis de Vos and some 

Qollections of T^ictures 

admirable specimens of Dutch landscape are the 
most interesting things among later paintings. 
Dr. Jordan has carried out his purpose excellently, 
and the next section of his work will be awaited 
with interest. 

Die Galerien Europas. Heften X— XIV. 

Leipzig : Seeman. Mks. 4. 
VVe have already praised the previous parts of 
this attempt at publishing a popular series in 
colour of the masterpieces in the great European 
galleries at a moderate price. There is no doubt 
that the three-colour process has passed the point 
at which its products were useless for purposes of 
study ; and, though in these reproductions the tone 
is still too yellow sometimes, the series ought to 
be most useful to students as a supplement to 
good photographs. The selection, too, is catholic, 
almost too catholic, perhaps, for popular success 
in England, where interest is concentrated on a 
few great names, and where masters of the second 
rank are unduly neglected. 

The Art of the Dresden Gallery. By 
Julia de Wolf Addison. London : G. Bell. 
Roman Picture Galleries. A Guide and Hand- 
book to all the Picture Galleries in the 
Eternal City. By Alice Robertson. London: 
G. Bell. 2S. net. 
The perfect handbook to any great galler>' will 
not be written till the chief critics have agreed 
upon some artistic Cowper-Temple compromise 
between their divergent doctrines. Pending 
that desirable consummation, a handbook must 
either be the statement of an individual judgment 
or a compilation of second-hand verdicts by 
other authorities. The book on the Dresden 
Gallery, in common with the other volumes of 
the series to which it belongs, follows the latter 
plan, and exhibits its inherent weakness. The 
Dresden Gallery covers so wide a field that even 
a thoroughly well-equipped writer would approach 
with diffidence the task of compiling a catalogue 
raisoiuie in narrative form. Our author, however, 
makes the attempt boldly, quoting with equal 
seriousness Morelli and F. P. Stearns, Bcrenson 
and G. B. Rose, and passing with obvious relief 
from stereotyped praises of Titian and Rembrandt 
to the expression of genuine liking for Munkacsy 
and Hoffman. The book is apparently of 
American extraction, and displaj-s all the width of 
reading and racy profusion of language which its 
origin suggests. Its popular character is em- 
phasized bv more than forty illustrations. 

Miss Robertson's catalogue of tiio ten chief 
Roman picture galleries is .»s Ci.>nci>c .»s tliat on 
Dresden is gossiping, while its handy size .and 
methodical arrangement have a very practical 


Collections of Pictures 

The briet criticisms on the pictures, in the author's 
words, 'eschew the tyranny of preat names,' 
indeed, they arc so independent as to make their 
originality re. * ' ' . Titian's Baptism in the 
Capitol, for . i< not allowed a single 

asterisk, and 1-. licsci 1 quite insignificant 

work as a whole': > ,..":> Oanac and the 

interesting portrait m the liorghese given to 
Giorgionc by Morelli fare no better, yet Pinturic- 
chio can win two asterisks and Perugino three. 
Nor . - lacking ; yet if the proofs of the 

next ^ read by some competent scholar, 

the excellent idea underlying the book would have 
a fair chance of success. 


The Plate ok the Diocese of Bangor. By E. 
Alfred Jones. London : Bemrose and Sons. 
1906. I OS. 6d. net. 
Important publications like the present are re- 
minders of how much remains to be learnt con- 
cerning the art history of our own country. The 
roc.irches of Mr. Alfred Jones have already con- 
tributed to the general knowledge, and the present 
work makes known a fine mazer bowl of the time of 
Edward IV, the existence of which in a remote 
church in Wales was unsuspected, and a superb 
L ilice dating from about 1 500, which has to 

1 to the forty or so now known. The only 

other chalice found in the principality is not only 
one of the finest in existence, the date about 1230, 
but it is inscribed with the artificer's name, 
Nichohis of Hereford, in the Irish fashion. Of 
the far less interesting ' fair chalices' of Elizabeth's 
rci.i^n, but twenty-eight are in use in the diocc*se, 
but within recognized limits these present consider- 
able variety. The silver for these was most 
frequently obtxiined by melting gothic chalices, 
with a charge of a few shillings per oz. for 
refashion. Some are especially interesting as 
bearing rare Chester marks. The earliest of these 
dates from 15^1 and the most usual makers' 
marks are the birds' heads and the initials T. L. 

Of far more interest is the plate made originally 
for secular use, but given to the church from time 
to time fors;icred use. Thus Mr. Jones discovered 
in the little church of Penmynrj'dd an example, 
dated 1570, of the rare gilt tazza-shaped drinking 
cups, which now fetch about ;^" 1,000 when brought 
to the hammer. A rarer and perhaps even more 
valuable gilt cup and cover is owned by the church 
at Llanbadrig. This, with its cover, forms an 
elongated, gadrooned or fluted in a primitive 
way by the application at intervals of vertical 
and tapering half-niund wiri-s. These extend half 
way up the Ixjwl, the ground between them Inking 
roughened by the short hyphen-like dashes so 
characteristic of early work, with an 
effect not unlike stretched knitting or drapery. 
Above is a band of the same with borders of trefoils 


and sprigs. The cover is similarly ornamented and 
surmounted by a rayed disc and turned finial, and 
the stem is balustered on a high foot. But for a 
somewhat similar uncovered cup in a church in 
Somersetshire this would be absolutely unique. 
Another elliptical cup on high baluster stem barely 
fails within the reign of Elizabeth, 1601, but has 
had a high steeple-crowned cover added ten years 
later. The Beddgelert chalice is the gift of the 
maker. Sir John Williams, goldsmith to the king, 
and is inscribed 'Donum Johannis Williams auri- 
ficis regis. 1610,' and engraved with a coat of arms 
and figures of the three Marj's. A number of secu- 
lar uncovered cups with bell-shaped bowls and 
balustered stems of the reigns of James I and 
Charles 1, occasionally with engraving, are in use 
in the diocese. The tendency to revert to pre- 
Reformation forms, so often seen under Archbishop 
Laud, is evidenced here by a chalice with gothic 
foot but with rather deeper bowl than the tradi- 

The oldest flagons in the diocese are of the 
Canette form, the best being at Bangor Cathedral, 
presented by Sir William Roberts in 1637. With 
these is a valuable secular salver of 1683, engraved 
in the Chinese taste, and presented by Viscount 

It would be to the interest of village churches 
to dispose of very valuable secular plate for the 
benefit of parish funds. It is too often kept in 
an unlocked vestry, or in the parsonage — some- 
times under the bed for safety — frequently still 
without its custodians being aware of its value, 
and therefore far from adequately insured. Some 
security should at the same time be given that rare 
specimens should not pass out of the country. 
There is probably a greater wealth of old silver 
in England than in any other country, Germany 
alone excepted, but under present conditions a 
student would spend the greater part of his 
life in endeavouring to see it. J. S. G. 

Urs Graf. Ein BeitragzurGeschichte der Gold- 
schmiedekunst im XVI lahrhundert. By 
Emil Major. Strassburg : Heitz. 15s. net. 
Graf was a talented roisterer who led his wild 
life and played his pranks with a zest ; and the 
exuberance, audacity and sensuality of his nature 
are reflected in his drawings, which belong, with 
those of the more finely gifted Nicolaus Manuel, 
to the most characteristic productions of the 
Swiss school. Artists of his generation wielded 
sword and dagger as readily as graver and pen, 
and he has left us vivid sketches of the rough 
camp life of the mercenaries on Italian campaigns. 
But the craft which he exercised first and foremost 
at Solothurn and Basle was that of the goldsmith. 
His work on metal has almost wholly perished 
and his 'monumentum aere perennius' is on 
paper, but Herr M.ijor has found considerable 

Plate and Goldsmith's IVork 

materials for reconstructing out of designs and 
nielli the characteristics of Graf's achievements 
as an engraver of daggers and scabbards, a maker 
of pendants and medallions, of reliquaries, mon- 
strances, chalices and drinking vessels, and as a 
cutter of dies for the coins of Basle, and of tools 
for decorating bookbindings. All this material, 
amply illustrated and analyzed, adds largely to 
what has already been written about Urs Graf, 
chiefly by His, as an engraver and designer of 
woodcuts. On this side of his activity also Herr 
Major, incidentally, throws new light, though he 
does not attempt a complete catalogue of his 
work in black-and-white. The principal new 
contribution is a careful account of the initials 
designed by Graf for the Basle printers, a subject 
neglected by His. The biography of the unruly 
artist is as complete as documents can make it ; we 
hear all about his love match with Sibylla von 
Brunn, his infidelities, his imprisonments for debt 
and brawling, and a love poem of his composition 
preserved in print. The monograph forms a valu- 
able addition to our knowledge of art at Basle 
before the outbreak of iconoclasm. C. D. 

The Edwardian Inventories for Huntingdon- 
shire. Edited by Mrs. S. C. Lomns from 
transcripts by T. Craib. Pp. .\xx., 58. 
Longmans. 1906. los. 

As Henry VIII had destroyed the monasteries 
and despoiled the cathedrals, when his son was in 
need of money his council naturally turned first 
to the chantries and then to the parish churches. 
The time of the latter having come, the pri\7 
council ordered ' that for as muche as the Kinge's 
Majestic had neede presently of a masse of money, 
therefore commissions shall be addressed into all 
the shires of England to take into the Kinge's 
handes suche churche plate as remaigneth to be 
emploied unto his highnes use.' An inventory was 
first to be made, together with a report of any 
sales which had already been effected and of any 
thefts of plate which might come to the know- 
ledge of the commissioners. The commissioners 
for Huntingdonshire made a good many reports 
of sales ; chalices, bells, and other things had 
been sold to provide money for various objects, 
such as repairing the ' dyke in the fen,' repairing 
the highway, making a pulpit, ' whittying and 
scripturing ' the church, ' glassing the windowes,' 
repairing the steeple. Sometimes the sale was 
made to find money for the poor, and twice 
it is recorded that the poor-box was broken into 
and the money taken. The commissioners noted 
what was left, and early in 1553 the greater part 
of it was sent to the Tower to be melted down, 
only bare necessaries being left to the churches. 
This is the second volume of inventories published 
by the Alcuin Club : the first, which contained 
those relating to Bedfordshire, was noticed in 

The Burlington Magazine for November, 1905. 
The club proposes to print and publish as soon 
as practicable all such inventories still e.visting ; 
when complete the series will certainly be of 
considerable value not only to the ecclesiologist 
but to the historian as well. And the volumes will 
not be without interest to the general reader, who 
will gather from them how great must have been 
the wealth of English churches in plate and 
textiles, and how thorough was the effort made to 
destroy all that savoured of the old religion. 

E. B. 

Reproductions from Illumin.ated Manuscripts 
in the British Museum. Series I. British 
Museum. 55. 
In the last three years Messrs. Berthaud, of Paris, 
have issued under the direction of Mr. Omont, of 
the Bibliotheque Xationale, a series of admirable 
portfolios of collotj-pes of mediae\'al MSS. which, 
being sold at a very moderate price, have had an 
instant success, and have done much to familiarize 
students with some of the masterpieces of ancient 
French art existing in Paris. Such an example 
was bound to be followed by the custodians of 
other great libraries, and as the public support has 
proved it to be a commercially sound undertaking 
it is to be hoped that all the great national collec- 
tions of Europe and others of less importance will 
by degrees be illustrated in this way. It is not too 
much to say that where illuminated manuscripts are 
concerned a page of illustration is worth ten 
pages of written description, and that a catalogue 
of such works aiming at completeness should 
contain at leiist one reproduction of every book 
described, if possible of the actual scale of the 

Dr. G. F. Warner, to whom students are already 
deeply indebted for the rearrangement, extension, 
and careful labelling of the illuminated manu- 
scripts exhibited at the British Museum, ra.aking 
the series for the first time an educational one of 
the utmost importance and an invaluable guide to a 
knowledge which cannot be acquired from text- 
books, has now followed the lead of his Parisian 
confrere by issuing a similar portfolio illustrating 
this well-chosen series. The visitor to the museum is 
thus enabled not only to examine the books in the 
cases but to buy for the verj- moderate price of 
five shillings fitU- reproductions of the pages that 
he has been studving, which fifty will shortly be 
followed by another fifty at the s;i'me price, whereby 
his memory of what he has seen will be kept 
fresh and his interest in the subject stimulated. 

If he be a serious student he will compare the 
reproductions with other reproductions and with 
books in other collections. Xos. VII and XIII 
will recall a Prudentius and a Book of Hours at 
Cambridge; Xo. XV is closely related to the 


e///7 Books of the SMo/it/i 

famous Marco Polo in the Bodleian; No. XXII is 
allicJ to two Ixioks at Vienna; No. XXXI is 
by the siime hand ;is the Vak-riiib Maximus of 
which reproductions have lately been issued 
under the auspices of Dr. Warner and Mr. Yates 
Thompson; No. XV HI closelv resembles the 
covenant of a later Doge of Venice that was 
illustrated in the catalogue of the Sneyd sale. 

As to the collotypes themselves thev must be 
pronounced a credit to all concernecf, the only 
drawb.itk Ix-ing one which Dr. Warner admits in 
his introductory note — i.e., the reduction of 
scale, which is in some cases considerable. The 
descriptions leave nothing to he desircd/and the 
only feature of the production which is open to 
criticism is the type selected for the letterpress. 
This type is ugly, and might with advantage be 
changed in the subsequent issues which Dr. 
W:u-ner promises us, and which are certain of a 
hearty welcome. S. C. C. 

Leonardo da Vinci. Thoughts on Art and Life. 
Translated by Maurice Baring. Boston : The 
Merrymount Press. |6oo. 
It is impossible not to compare this edition of 
Leonardo's writings with that recently produced 
by Mr. Edward McCurdy, although the aims of 
the two are quite distinct. Mr. McCurdy was 
largely interested in Leonardo's attitude towards 
science. Mr. Baring's book forms the first part 
of a series, 'The Humanists' Library,' the aim of 
which is to illustrate the culture of the Renais- 
sance. In Mr. McCurdy's book Leonardo 
appeared as a pioneer in physiology and optics 
and geology; in the Humanists' Library, he is 
in the company of Diirer and Erasmus, of Petrarch 
and Philip Sidney. 

The introduction by Mr. Lewis Einstein, the 
editor of the series, shows us Leonardo as an 
embodiment of the Renaissance attitude towards 
art and science, towards abstract speculation and 
practical life, and recognizes fully how much the 
uncertain political conditions of Italy had to do 
with narrowing or rendering abortive the results 
of the vivid energies then at work. The trans- 
lation is readable and appropriate in tone, but 
is rather less accurate and scholarly, where we 
have tested it, than was Mr. McCurdy's. The 
selection of extracts, too, is less complete than his, 
the text being based on a reccntly-pulilishcd Italian 
edition which covered the ground much less com- 
pletely than did the English translation. 

On the other hand, the book is admirably adapted 
for those who desire no more than a general 
acquaintance with Leonardo, and would like to 
have their memorial of him in the most perfect 
possible form. No praise can be too high for 
the printing, the paper, and the type— the 
almost perfect fount designed by Mr. Herbert 
Home, m which, so far as we remember, only one 


book hitherto been printed. The label on 
the back of the volume is the single feature of 
which we are dubious. 

Le CouvENT DE St. Jean A Munster dans les 
GrisoNS. Par Joseph Zemp, avec la collab- 
oration de Robert Durrer. Genex-a : Atar. 
This publication of the Societe Suisse des Monu- 
ments Historiques is of singular interest. The 
Convent of St. John is a foundation of the 
Carolingian epoch — legend, indeed, ascribes its 
foundation to Charlemagne himself — situated on 
the eastern border of Switzerland, on the old 
route over the Wormser Joch, which was once a 
rival of the Brenner. From the architectural 
standpoint alone the convent is of remarkable 
interest, but its importance as a specimen of 
Carolingian construction is enormously enhanced 
by the discovery of a series of fresco paintings 
contemporary with its foundation. These were 
seriously damaged by fire at the end of the 15th 
century, and were hidden and in part effaced by 
the rebuilding of the roof. The frescoes illustrate 
the history of David and Absalom, and display a 
curious mixture of styles, for in them we see the 
ornaments and conventions of Ravenna carried 
out with the ruder and more forcible touch of a 
northern workman. As an addition to the exist- 
ing documents bearing upon a most difficult yet 
cardinal period of Art history, the discovery 
cannot be over-estimated. 

Behind the Veil. Written by Ethel Roll 
Wheeler. Illustrated by Austin O. Spare. 
David Nutt. 6s. net. 
The little sketches that compose the letterpress of 
this book, most of them reprinted from the weekly 
reviews, are interesting enough in themselves; but 
they require an abler hand than that of Mr. Austin 
Spare to justify their appearance in the form of an 
illustrated book. It is possible that Mr. Spare may 
be capable of better things, and if so he would be 
well advised to attempt them : but Beardsley's robe 
is far too baggy for him. R. D. 

Drawings Illustrative of ' John Inglesant.' 
By Lady Jane Lindsay. London : Dickinsons, 
£2 12s. 6d. and ^^3 5s. 
To the ranks of distinguished women artists, 
which include such names as the Empress Fred- 
eric, the marchioness of Lome, the duchess of 
Rutland, Countess Gleichen and, in a past genera- 
tion, the Hon. Mrs. James and the Lady Diana 
Beauclerk, the name of Lady Jane Lindsay must 
now be added as one who has proved herself an 
illustrator of no mean capacity and considerable 
attainment. Women have usually been more 
fortunate in the purely derivative forms of art 
than in work which demands an original or 
creative talent, and in the present instance it is as a 
commentary on a famous novel that Lady Lindsay's 
drawings are to be judged most favourably. It 


seems, indeed, unlikely that Shorthouse him- 
self would have wished for a more enthusiastic 
or more sympathetic interpreter ; and, especially 
in her wash drawings, the artist has contrived just 
that atmosphere of romantic unreality which is so 
pleasant a feature in her original. It only remains 
to say that the plates, twenty-four in number, are 
all admirably produced. 


The latest of the Medici Prints is a reproduction 
of the charming Portrait of a Lady in the Poldi 
Pezzoli Museum, which after passing successively 
under the name of Piero della Francesca and 
Verrocchio is now, by the latest writer on the 
subject, given to Antonio Pollajuolo. As in the 
case of the previous plates, the reproduction is 
surprisingly good, a special word of praise being 
desen'ed by the quality of the blue background. It 
should prove the most popular of all the plates which 
Messrs. Chatto and Windus have issued so far. 

The Caxton Publishing Company are issuing a 
large mezzotint by Mr.T. Hamilton Crawford of the 
Rokeby Velazquez. It is a thoroughly sound and 
capable rendering of an exceedingly difficult sub- 
ject — a very slight lack of crispness in the draperies, 
and of modelling in the lower part of the Cupid's 
body and on the foot of the recumbent Venus 
being the only points in which it falls short of 
completely rendering the original. In common 
with all other modern mezzotints, the plate has a 
certain deadness of tone, which the great mezzo- 
tinters of the eighteenth century avoided by their 
freedom and decision of handling. Possibly the 
introduction of photogravure is responsible for this 
increase of caution, but we fancy that, if any 
modern mezzotinter had the pluck to throw photo- 
graphic ideals to the winds and work as an 
independent interpreter, he would not lack support. 

Messrs. Hanfstaengl send a hu'ge photograviue 
of Las Mciiiuai, a specimen of the eighty-four 
plates which will be included in their forthcoming 
publication on the Prado. The plate has most 
successfully avoided the heavy shadows to which 
the process is liable, and as each part of the 


OUNT POTOCKI has lent 
to the Louvre a portrait by 
'r^embrandt of the artist's 
brother. I have not yet been 
able to see the picture, but 1 
understand that it is a very fine 
.xample of the master's later 

_ ^period. It been placed in 

the new Salle Rembrandt at the end of the long gal- 
lery, where M. Leprieurhasarranged ononeside the 
paintings of Rembrandt himself and on the other 
fine works by his pupils. The excellent collection 

Art Books of the Month 

projected work will contain six of the plates for 
the sum of fifty shillings, they cannot be called 

From the same publishers we have received a 
specimen plate of a Greuze Album. The plate 
is pretty, and the process — photogravure printed 
in colour — not only demands a high degree 
of skill from the operators, but also suits Greuze 
better than it might suit a greater colourist. 

Foremost among the Catalogues of the month 
is that of Mediaeval and Later Manuscripts issued 
by Mr. Karl Hierseraann at the price of lo marks. 
The contents range from works of the tenth 
century to the manuscript of a sonata by Beeth- 
oven, and include a number of oriental specimens. 
The catalogue is illustrated by twenty-six 
plates. Three of the handsome sale catalogues 
of Messrs. F. Muller of Amsterdam illustrate the 
excellent modern pictures sold by their firm 
during March, among them an exquisite Sunset by 
Uaiibigny, apparently painted from Chateau 
Gaillard. Messrs. Gilhofer and Ranschberg of 
Vienna send their illustrated catalogue (3 
kronen) of the remaining works of Franz Gaul, 
including a very large collection of works on 
costume. The sale lasted from March 18-23. 
Mr. M. Nijhoff's new catalogue consists almost 
entirely of works dealing with the fine arts. 
A most careful list of corrections and addi- 
tions to the list of Chodowiecki's prints is 
issued by Mr. Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig at 
the price of 5 marks, and from the Gesellschaft zur 
Verbreitung klassischer Kunst of Berlin comes a 
most useful catalogue by Bruno Jacobi of photo- 
graphic reproductions of works by Rembrandt. 
The Board of Education have issued a well 
illustrated report on the National Competition 
for 1906 at the price of three shillings, while 
from .'\inerica we have received the Report 
of the Librarian of Congress, and the interesting 
illustrated Bulletinsof the Boston and Pennsyl\-ania 
Museums, the former containing reproductions of 
three magnificent screens by Korin. 


of works by Rembrandt which the Lountc 
possesses is now seen to much greater ad\-antage 
than was formerly the case. There is some hope 
that Count Potocki's picture m.iy find a perma- 
nent home in the great national collection. 

The annual report of the Soctfle lUs amis ilii 
Louvre, which is now ten years old, shows that 
the societv is still doing admirable work. It 
presented to the Louvre during last year, among 
other works of art. five statues which were 
formerly in the abbey of Maubuisson. Two of 
these are very fine examples of the fourteenth 

E S^ 

Art />/ Fnuicc 

century — the monumental cffi/iies of Charles IV 
and his queen Jeanne d'Evreux, by Jean dc Li^^c. 
There is also a charming fourteenth-century angel, 
a Virgin of the liftLcnth century (apparently one 
of the figures from a rood-loft), and a kneeling 
donor of the sixteenth century. The balance- 
sheet of the society shows that it was able to 
secure these very beautiful sculptures for the 
cMi i/ingly low price of 10,000 francs. They 
. t placed in the museum for the first time 
on February i5th, the day on which the Salle 
Kembrandt was opened. The society h;is now 2,347 
members, a net increase of 2 28over the previous year. 
In addition to the gifts of the society as a body, 
the Lou\Te was enriched during 1906 by a large 
number of gifts from individual members. The 
most imporUmt of these is, of course, the splendid 
collection which M. Moreau-Neiaton has pre- 
sented to the n.ition, which has been placed for 
want of space in the Pavilion de Marson, where 
the Musce des Arts dtcoratifs is housed. The 
Morcau-N'elaton collection contains 190 pictures, 
w.iter-colours and drawings, anti includes seven 
m.ignilicent Corots and very fine examples of 
Dil.icroix, Decamps, Manet, Monet, Sisley, 
I'lsaarro, Puvis de Chavannes, Carriere and 

The s.'ile of the first part of the Viau collection 
on March 4th showed that the painters of 
the impressionist school are more popular 
than ever, or at least more fashionable. Some 
of the prices were quite ridiculous, notably those 
of 19,000 and 14,200 francs paid respectively by 
the Prince de Wagram and the Marquise de 
Ganay for two pictures by Cezanne. The 
picture bought by the Marquise de Ganay {Paysage 

deli-) fetched 1,400 francs at the Choquet sale in 
1899, and that is about its reasonable \'alue. 
The prices paid for Kenoir also seem to me ab- 
surdly cxaggenited : La Tonnelle fetched no less 
than 26,000 francs, and Ingiinic 25,100. The 
l.itter was bought by Messrs. Bernheim, so no 
doubt the price was its market value. 

Daumier is in another category, and nobody 
was surprised that the Herlin Museum should have 
given 28,100 francs for Lc Draiiie. But it was very 
surprising that paintings by Monet and pastels by 
Degas fetched less the expert's valuation. 
The vagaries of the artistic public are always con- 
spicuous in the auction-room, and certainly 
commercial and artistic value did not coincide 
when the Fruits of Cezanne fetched a higher price 
than the Danseiiaes an foyer of Degas or Le% 
Glaiiom of Claude Monet. 

The group of thirty-two painters and sculptors 
who formerly called themselves the Soc/V/^ Nomrlle 
held their annual exhibition in the Galerie 
Georges I\tit during the last fortnight of March. 
As usual the exhibition was interesting, and con- 
tained a large proportion of good work. Mr. 
Sargent was represented by five pictures, and Mr. 
Jacques Blanche by no less than ten, including a 
most interesting portrait of Mr. Thomas Hardy, 
two brilliant portraits of Englishwomen and his 
portrait of Aubrey Beaidsley. M. Blanche is, 
perhaps, too much influenced nowadays by the 
English School of the eighteenth century, which 
contends with that of Whistler in his more recent 
paintings. I am not sure that he has improved on 
his earlier work. The quiet seascapes of Mr. 
Ulmann deserve notice ; their qualitv is excellent. 

R. E. D. 


At the lx;ginning of this year a Uhde exhibition 
was arranged in Munich by the Secession, which 
rendered a fairly exhaustive account of the life- 
work of this m;Lster, who stands now upon the 
threshold of his sixtieth year. Uhde acquired 
fame and his position in German art in Munich, 
which capital he settled in after his student's years. 
He is a Saxon by birth, and there lies perhaps 
more significance than one would at fust suppose 
ill the fact that this reformer of Biblical ii.iinting 
happens to be a son of the country in which thegreat 
religiousreformation took place almost five centuries 
ago. Strangely enough, Uhde's art met with more 
oppositi<m in the land of his birth than any- 
where else. It is only quite l.itely that the S.ixons 
liave Ix'gun to take pride in tlieir countryman. 
And now, although they have yielded precedence 
to the people of Munich, they have at least followed 
suit with a iiolable Uhde exhibition of their own 
held at Dresden during the past month. It may 
have been not quite as fine as the one at Munich, 


but it was by no means a mere repetition thereof, 
as it contained many works which had not been 
sent to Munich. 

The show gave a fairly good survey ol this 
remarkable artist's labour, though half a dozen at 
leiist of his most important canvases were missing. 
The development of Uhde's art appears strange 
enough when we see it thus spread out before us. 
It was only in his twenty-ninlh year that he took 
to painting seriously at all, abandoning a military 
career for it. One of the earlii-st paintings 
exhibited here, A Tititon Horseman (dated 1879), 
displays a wonderfully passionate coloration and 
energetic style that almost recall Daumier. He 
then became the scholar of Muiikacsy, and, while 
under him, quite sunk any individuality of his 
own in an imitation of his teacher's qualities. 
Then he revolted and fell in with the modern 
picin-air movement. There are some excellent 
Uhdes painted in the beginning of the eighties 
which will hold their own beside Bastien Lepage. 

Art in Germany 

He seems to have drifted with the stream, and 
gradually grew more flat, grey and uncom- 
promisingly /)/c/«-fl/r-j' in his tone values. 

But a sudden break came as he turned to 
religious art. The purely artistic issues of his style 
did not change at ftrst, but they scarcely attracted 
any notice alongside the sensationally novel 
manner of conception which his rendering of 
Gospel subjects betrayed. It was a wonderful 
inspiration, and one of the feats of art during the 
past century, suddenly to strip religious art of all 
archaeological trimmings and to present the soul 
and spirit of the New Testament in such a manner 
that eveiy one could at once grasp their essence : 
that no one need first adjust his or her powers of 
perception to an appreciation of historical truths. 
Paintings like Komm Hcvr Jesus (Berlin), The 
Last Supper (the first version), Jesus and the 
Apostles at Eiiinuius, The Seniioii on the Mount, Suffer 
the Little Children to Conic /(///d vI/l* (Leipzig), the 
two splendid versions of On the JVay to Betlilehcni 
(Munich), and the wonderful triptych of The 
Nativity (Dresden), especially as it appeared in its 
original form in 1888, with perhaps a few others, 
are extraordinary achievements and will, judgecl 
from many different points of view, never fail to 
keep the name of Uhde bright in the memory of 
all time. 

The inspiration, however, was not accompanied 
by an unlimited energy, a boundless capacity for 
subduing untractable themes. His attempts to 
'modernize' the story of Tobit and the Angel, 
of the Good Samaritan, of the Three Magi on 
their way to Bethlehem, and many others which 
he approached during the nineties, do not appear 
to me convincing or successful. Unless I am 
mistaken, Uhde himself must have felt somewhat 
the same way on the subject, for he has com- 
pletely abandoned religious painting. He turned 
first to portraits, then to open-air genre subjects 
in which he aims at an altogether different tech- 
nique and coloration from what he used to 
employ. Whatever our opinion on these depar- 
tures may be, it is scarcely doubtful that they will 
not play the important role in the history of 
German painting which Uhde's art during the 
eighties of the last century did. 

During March Leipzig harboured three impor- 
tant exhibitions: the black-and-white show of 
the Deutsche Kiinstlerbund, the Klinger exhibi- 
tion at the Kiinstverein in the Museumbuilding, 
and the exhibition of old Leipzig silversmith work 
and German sixteenth-century' tapestries at the 
Museum of Applied Arts. The staff of this latter 
establishment has been very successful of late in 
arranging exhibitions which throw a flood of 
light upon some branches of German art which 
have scarcely been looked into as yet. The por- 
celain exhibition which took place List year dis- 
closed the existence of a number of central German 

potteries of the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries which had been totally forgotten. It 
was a matter of surprise to students to see what 
an amount of good and interesting porcelain had 
been produced in factories whose names they had 
not even heard of. The present exhibition is 
scarcely of less interest, showing, as it does, to 
what high grade of perfection the art of the silver- 
smiths had been pushed at Leipzig, and supply- 
ing us '-with a number of artists' names, etc., 
heretofore unknown. I hope to be able to give 
a longer account of some of the most important 
features of the exhibition next month. 

To the director of the Buchgewerbe Museum at 
Leipzig is due much thanks for securing the black- 
and-white show of the Deutsche Kunstlerbund, 
and for the great care with which he arranged an 
effective and good display. During the nineties 
of the last centui-y an uncommonly large amount 
of superior black-and-white work was produced 
in Gerniiwiy. A notable degree of freshness was 
introduced through the circumstance of several 
important masters turning either to the etcher's or 
the lithographer's art, which they had hitherto 
neglected. After a while, however, their interest 
waned: they seem in many cases simply to have 
wanted to try their hand at the thing, and as soon 
as they found out what could be achieved with 
the needle, the knife and the lithographer's 
crayon, their curiosity was satisfied, as it were. 
Many of the important painters have all but given 
up black-and-white again, and the first years of the 
new century have not brought us as much new 
talent as we could have wished for. Taking 
everything into consideration, the present Leipzig 
exhibition contained rather more good work by 
new- men than was to be expected. I was particu- 
larly struck by some excellent, delicate black- 
line woodcuts by C. Weidemeyer of Worpswede, 
and by the very powerful colour-etchings of Olaf 
Lange, now living at Dachau, near Munich. 
Miss Emily Lengnick of Dresden sent a fine 
drawing of a misty day in London, and Miss 
Julie Wolfthorn of Berlin some exceedingly 
attractive drawings, a small portrait slightly remin- 
iscent of Boutet de Monvel's touch among them. 
Perhaps the best work among the younger artists 
consists of the woodcuts in colour, all of which 
are more or less dependent upon Japanese art 
and upon Orlik. Siegfried Berndt of Dresden 
should lie named in this connection.' Of course 
there is a lot of good work by the older men 
such as Baum, P. Behrens, Cissarz, O. Fischer, 
O. Grciner, C. Grethe, L. v., H. Hiibner. 
Kalckreuth, Kollwitz, Leistikow, Meyer-B.isel, 
Munch, Orlik, Pankok, Schlittgcn, SchmoU von 
Eisenwerth, A, Sohn-Kethcl, Strerael, H. Wolff, 

' I,. H. Jun.snickcl, of Vienna, prixluces some exlraordinar>- 
ilrawiiiys hviiieans ol a special teehniqucol hisown elaboration, 
which combines stencilling with brush-splutler work. 


Art in Germany 

etc., whose reputation has been established 
before now. 

The Klinger exhibition, arranged to celebrate 
thf .irtist's fiftieth birlhd.iy, \v;is held in rooms of 
the niuscuni, which dosscnscs all the most impor- 
tant sculptures by his hand, a great stock of 
splendid drawings, a complete set of his etchings, 
and the most painter-like, at least, of hiscanvxses, 
the l.'hcurc-hlcnc. Of paintings there were, be- 
sides the Vula belonging to the Dresden Gallery, 
all the dectir.itidns for the Villa Vogel now de- 
slroyed, and a numl>cr »)f more or less important 
sketches, with some of the small early works 
{Jhe Embassy, The litkk ll'all, etc.). The large 
pictures : The fiulfinienl of Paris, The Cniciftxion, 
and Chrisl in dlyinhus, would have rounded the 
show ofT completely, but could not be secured. 
The array of work thus displayed was imposing 
enough ; all the more, when one reflects that 

the artist, as sculptor and draughtsman certainly, 
is still at the height of his powers. 

The Royal Print Room at Berlin may probably 
lay claim to having the best collection of Goya's 
black-and-white work in the world now. I have 
already reported some time .ngo important Goya 
acquisitions there, and recently a collection 
formed long .ago has been secured, which con- 
tained old sets of some of the series of which it 
w;is supposed no prints earlier than those pulled 
for the San Fernando Academy existed. Of the 
seventeen lithographs by Goya, most of them 
excessively rare, Berlin now possesses all but five, 
among them Lefort 265, 274, 276, 277, and 
v. Ix»ga 277. Some further great rarities are The 
Flijiht into Egypt (I^fort 227), Man in a Sicing 
(Lefort 250), and the Blind Strect-Singcr (Lefort 


H. W. S. 


TlIK portrait reproduced in this numlicr (p. 44) is 
interesting ;is an example of Copley's work in pastel 
at the end of his American period, when he had 
attained as great a degree of technical skill as was 
possible without a more ample knowledge of art America could furnish. The pastel was made 
between the marriage of the sitter, Nancy Barrell, 
in 1764 and her death in 1771. (A family tradition 
says in 1768, when the lady was twenty-four.) 
Copley left America in 1774. Though simpler 
and less important than his elaborate full-length 
portraits in oil, the head shows how much the 
artist was able to le.arn in colonial Boston. He 
had known the works and may have received the 
advice uf men like Blackburn and Smyhert, but 
he must have acquired more from his stepfather 
Peter Pelham, who had been a fairly good mezzo- 
tint engraver in England and who continued to 
practise his art in Boston when occasion pre- 
sented. Copley himself produced a mezzotint plate 
when he sixteen, and the engraver's training 
shows in his feeling for laborious, accurate draw- 
ing ;is well .as in his black shadows and somewhat 
raw colour. Blackburn often has more grace of 
colour and composition, but Copley laboured 
unremittingly to draw his sitters exactly .as they 
stood before him. 

He thirty-seven when lie linally went 
abroad, and the long years of labour had had 
their reward. He painted portraits admirable 
in a certain bare sincerity. His style was not 
in the least like that of the English painters 
he was afterwards to .associate with. Even 
after he had settled in England, his sincerity 
and thoroughness of drawing long per- 
sisted, and arc personal to him. They vanished 


at last, when, thinking that he had discovered the 
medium of the Venetians, he painted much like 
the other successors of Reynolds. His best work 
was done soon after his arrival in England, when 
he had assimilated the graces that he saw about 
him, and yet had not lost his earlier merits. The 
heads in his Family Picture or even in the Death 
of Chattuini have a thoroughness and exactness of 
drawing greater than any contemporary English 
work, and comparable in a way with some of 
David's portraits. 

His drawings in coloured chalks, to use the 
accurate and descriptive term employed in the 
artist's day, are much rarer than his oil paintings, 
not only because he employed the medium 
less frequently, but also from their perishable 
nature. The good condition of the present 
example may be attributed to its having remained 
an honoured heirloom in the family for which 
it was originally painted. The portrait is on 
paper pasted on canvas, and the treatment shows 
a thorough knowledge of the medium. The 
]iastcl is well rubbed into the ground, and the 
finishing of the flesh is entirely with the stump. 
The lights of the eyes, the string of pearls, the 
lace pattern, and the lights in the dress are put in 
minutely with the point. The hair is particularly 
well done, carefully and accurately drawn with no 
flufliness or vagueness, and yet in spite of the 
complete rendering of detail forming a single 
effective mass of a pleasant dark brown. The 
shadows of the flesh, as in all the artist's 
portraits of the time, are too dark and bricky, 
though this is less disagreeable in the softness of 
a pastel than in oil. A slight trace of brickiness 
may even be detected in the rest of the face, the 
carmines, if there ever were any to give it softness, 

Art in America 

having long since faded ; but as a whole the flesh 
tones in the light are luminous and soft, and the 
general colour scheme is delightful. The back- 
ground is blue, the dress a delicate, warm grey 
with a blue gauze scarf fastened to the right 
shoulder, a bit of orange drapery showing at the 
right, and a blush rose fastened in the corsage. 
The blue is the same throughout, even the leaves 
of the rose being done with it— a rich, deep colour 
like indigo, with which the large masses of the 
dark brown hair, the luminous flesh and the warm 
grey dress form a simple but pleasing harmony. 

The drawing is like all Copley's drawing of his 
American period : serious, sincere and laborious, 
though the more facile medium makes it less dry 
and hard than in his paintings. Many of his 
contemporaries in England or France could have 
made a prettier picture from his sitter, but few 
would have so convinced us that his sitter was a 
charming person. The hair combed back shows 
a high, well-rounded forehead which promises 
intelligence, while the low corsage gives a glimpse 
of physical perfection also. The eyes look brightly 
from a delicate, mobile face, and there is a slight 
pout which is not marked enough to detract from 
the air of breeding and stateliness which is partly 
of the time but partly also of the sitter. 

It is pleasant to know by more than usually 
ample evidence that the lady corresponded to her 
portrait. Anna Pierce Barrell (known to her 
contemporaries as Nancy Barrell) was by birth 
and marriage connected with the best of the sturdy 
little colonial society whose views and deeds have 
influenced, in a way that they could not remotely 
imagine, the future of a continent. Her father, 
Joseph Pierce, a man of good family, was a noted 
physician of Portsmouth, N.H., who accompanied 
the Louisberg Expedition as chief surgeon. Her 
husband, Joseph Barrell, was a man even more 
prominent and typical of his time. He fairly 
represents the culmination of the cultured, dignified 
colonial life made possible by increased wealth, but 
destined to be destroyed or materially changed by 
the wave of democratic equality following our 
independence and the French Revolution. He 
was a wealthy merchant of the old, ample sort, 
more dignified even than his British prototype, 
for he had no nobility or gentry above him. 
Apart from his business his ideals were those of 
the English country gentleman. A certain historic 
importance attaches to him, since he with some 
others fitted out the ship Colnnibia which was sent 
round the Horn up the west coast to Puget Sound, 
where sealskins were bought and exchanged in 
China for tea. She was the first ship to carry the 
American flag around the globe, and the first to 
enter and navigate the Columbia River, to which 
she gave her name. From the landing at the 
mouth of the river in 1792 came the Lewis and 
Clarke expedition a dozen years later, and finally 

the claim by the United States to the possession 
of the whole North-west Territory.* 

Samuel I sham. 

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 
Philadelphia divides with the younger Carnegie 
Institute in Pittsburg the honour of holding the 
most important annual exhibition in the country. 
That just closed, the one hundred and second in 
its annals, was more largely retrospective than 
usual, and was remarkable for the greater import- 
ance of the figure pieces as compared with the 
landscapes, which, however, were freer from 
cleverness, more varied and individually expressive. 
A majority of them were the work of Pennsyl- 
vanians, and in Philadelphia the query arose : Is 
there a Philadelphia school of landscape painting ? 
As yet, the artistic ideals of the figure painter in 
this country seem incomplete — the questions of 
technical rendering, accurate drawing, colour 
which is true if not necessarily brilliant or beauti- 
ful, ;;kilful handling, etc., are still the important 
ones with him. He is not concerned with style, 
unity, with that higher composition which makes 
a picture the rounded and complete expression of 
an artistic idea. The foreign critic might well 
consider nearly all these figure pieces as careful 
studies for parts of important compositions. The 
feeling for Ic style or ior genre are equally lacking. 
The modern methods, in their evident want of 
every interest, excepting that of the eye, in the 
subject, in an apparent absence of the seriousness 
and studious care which mark the works of the old 
Dutch masters, tend to put the American paintings 
in a class apart. It seems as if, having taken up 
art, and having learned mostly in France that it is 
absolutely necessary to paint well, the artists have 
taken to ' painting,' to the exclusion of even.'thing 
else. Fortunately they have not confined them- 
selves to one method ; though, at present, there 
seems to be a general preference for those which 
are qualified as impressionistic, some of the high- 
est honours are reserved for artists who, like Mr. 
Dewing, are very far from following the painter of 
the Olvinpie. This catholicity is a hopeful sign. 

Rather curiously, the landscapists and the 
sculptors proceed on different lines from the 
figure painters. While the last strive to render 
their temporary model in the accidental corner 
with the adventitious porcelain jar and the casual 
Turkey rug ati pied de la leltir, tiie landscape men 
are not in the least concerned with the hard facts 
of botany and geology, nor so verj- much with 
those of atmosphere and light as they pretend. It 
is the storv told by the screen of trees across the 
middle distance, with the broken meadow in the 

» By virtue of the sterling qiialilies Mr. Isham has pointed 
out, the portrait lias authority ; it also i< humane and svmp.>thetic 
to a r.ire degree. But it seems to me Mr. Isham s judicious 
and authoritative appreciation leaves somethiMg to be said 
perhaps o( the very great .irlistic charm, the Ireshncss and 
morbuUzzj, of this ra'uable example.— A K. J. 


tArt ifi America 

foreground and the grey sky beyond, the snggcs- 
tion, the mood, the xspiration, the melancholy, 
that concern them ; quite unlike the others— the 
materialists — they arc pantheists, poets, dreamers. 
Likewise the sculptors — some of the younger ones, 
at le.Lst— have advanced so far that their civili/a- 
tion, under the not altogether wholesome influence 
of Kodin and Meunier, has reached the pessimistic, 
the decadent, stage. Even the animal sculptors 
portray, with much skill, the tragedies, and even 
the humour, of the situations in which their four- 
fiMited clients are supposed to find themselves. It 
might be s;iid that our figure p.iinters were the 
least intellectual of our artists. This holds good 
of the portrait painters — m whose case it is least 
excusiible. The temptation to make an arrange- 
ment of your sitter, to show the hniruia of your 
painting — .as in the sleeve of the gown of the Rev. 
kndicott Peabody, by Sargent, in this exhibition— 
or an ingenious affectation of an accessory — as in 
the tea-service of Miss Beauxs portrait of Mrs. 
John F. Lewis — this temptation overcomes the 
best of them. The fatal hold which a mannerism 
of any kind may take upon a good painter is well 
known. But few of these portraitists have fol- 
lowed Manet's advice to paint a portrait as you 
would a landscape — which means something else 
than what he meant— subordinating cveiything to 
the rendering of the expression, the sentiment, the 
char.icter of the central themes. There are ex- 
ceptions ; and one of them in Philadelphia that 
w;ls most welcome was Akkii Weir's extremely 
simple but nobly serious and competent portrait 
of his wife, standing in a white gown in a summer 
evening landscape. That of Joseph Wharton, by 
Julian Story, h;is sincerity of character, and so has 
Charles Hopkinson's honest group of two little 
girls sitting for their portraits and duly impressed 
with the seriousness of the situation. 

John La P'arge — who is, naturally, quite exempt 
from the qualiticationsset forth above — exhibited 
his familiar Viiit of Xicodcuiiis to Christ ; Mr. 
Dewing, also, a characteristic Lady li'ith a Lute ; 
and Mr. Philip Hale, a younger man, a graceful 
nude hgure, '///t' Spirit of Antique Art, in which 
something of liis theme had really informed his 
brush. Kenyon Cox, who is of the moderns, but 
not with them, sent his portrait of Maxfield 
Parrish, the artist, and a study of a wild goose. 
Miss Cassatt's two canvases indicated something 
of her later methods, in which is a tendency to 
greater suavity of expression and brusluvork, 
without the sacrifice of the virile qualities which 
distinguish her. Childe Hass;mi, also, apparently 
aware that the extreme methods are not necessarily 
unavoidable, attains the peculiar distinction of his 
compositions, his rendering of light and vibratory 
colour, with a minimum obtrusion of the pecu- 
liarities of techiiiipie. In the unacademic group, 
the two most prominent of the younger figure 


painters are Robert Henri and William J. 
Glackens, to whom the vivid and quite per- 
suading presentation of the object voulit — not 
without good drawing and close study of values 
and tones— is the main consideration. Most of 
the Academy's prizes were awarded in this group 
— the Hcatricc of W. Sergeant Kendall, a strong 
piece of painting, w;us purchased from the Temple 
Fund ; the Temple Gold Medal was awarded to 
Willard L. Metcalf for his charming Golden Screen 
of trees ; the Jennie Lesnan Gold Medal for the 
best landscape in the exhibition, to Ernest Lawson, 
for his River in Winter, very strong and full of 
air. Two of these awards went to young women 
— the Walter Lippincott Prize of I300 to Miss 
Marion Powers, for her young girl's Tea Party, 
and the Mary Smith Prize of lioo to Miss Mary 
Smyth Perkins, for her Herd of Cows. Special 
mention must be made of the landscapes of Joseph 
Davol, those of Edward W. Redfield, the two can- 
vases of Jerome Myers, and the characteristic ////J/j 
Cliff, Coast of Maine, by the veteran Winslow Homer. 
The great development of our architectural and 
monumental sculpture dates from the World's 
Fair of 1893. There, in the most typical of 
American cities, in dirty, smoky Chicago, beehive 
of feverish commercial activity, that had grown 
with extraordinary rapidity, w;is the ideal place 
for such a show. Side by side with its huddle of 
nakedly utilitarian buildings, with here and there 
attempts (some of them very good) at aesthetic 
refinement, which added an advertising value to 
business buildings and gave a distinctive note to 
private dwellings, there rose 'The White City,' the 
most magnificent as well as the most needed 
of object-lessons to our people. Pioneers and 
descendants of pioneers, settled in that great West 
and middle West which less than seventy, less 
than fifty, less than twenty years before had been 
the wilderness, and whose lives had been filled 
with the immediate problems of pioneering and 
industry, came to it with fresh, eager minds, and 
with deep reserves of spiritual and imaginative 
force. They received this lesson from the old 
civilizations of the Mediterranean not merely in 
the most enthusiastic spirit, but with a simple, an 
almost childlike reverence. The few who could 
judge had only admiration for this realization of 
classical beauty created in less than two years ; 
and, whatever its shortcomings, the people were 
as wise as the wisest in not seeing them. The 
compelling refinement, the harmony of ensemble 
and details, were to the American people a superb 
revelation, a dream made tangible. And the 
psychological mood helped the impression, so that 
it was and has remained le coup dc foudre, the 
event which opened to them a new world. It was 
an experience that had long been planned and 
looked forward to. They came prepared to 
appreciate and enjoy because of their intense pride 

Art in America 

in the Fair as Americans, because of the sacrifices 
the visit entailed for the majority ; perhaps to 
many of them it was not unHke what the visit to 
the circus is to children. At any rate, from the 
prosaic iiiilieu in which they were fighting the 
battle of life, from the wooden houses of the 
prairies, the ranches, the mines, the new settle- 
ments, they came to their own big Chicago, and 
there they entered a fairyland where everything 
was orderly, distinguished, wonderful. First of 
all, the charm of colour was indescribable ; on the 
beautiful sand, by the turquoise waters of the 
great lake and under the blue sky, the buildings 
rose in dazzling stateliness amidst the restful 
greenery of grass and trees, the brilliant sunshine 
emphasizing the white of the walls with transparent 
purple shadows. The gay notes of flowers and of 
the thousands of flags fluttering in the breeze 
helped the festive ensemble. The large, spacious 
walks of ideal cleanliness were thronged with 
people, who were in the same mood, with eyes, 
ears, mind drinking in the joy of it all. 

This great adventure (as Mr. James would say) 
of the American people has had an immense 
influence for good which was bound perforce to 
show weak points. After our fashion of practical 
people, having taken to heart tlie great lesson, 
we resolved to put our new knowledge to material 
account at once. One of the striking features of 
the Chicago Exposition had been the many 
examples of monumental statuary distributed 
over the buildings and grounds. The collection 
was improvised for the occasion, built of 
perishable stuff, suflicient, even very good, for its 
purpose, and it was invaluable in educating our 
people to the fact that the art of sculpture 
covered a larger field than that of statues of 
politicians and soldiers, to which it had been 
almost exclusively restricted in America. After 
the Exposition nothing has been easier for the 
architects than to get the necessary moneys 
appropriated from cities, states and Federal 
governments for the lavish use in our public 
buildings all over the country of architectural and 
monumental sculpture. That the demand for 
such imaginative and decorative works has been 
great may be inferred from the number of 
American sculptors foreign-born who have settled 
here since 1893. We have used this sort of 
sculpture in and out of place, and the result, 
as might have been anticipated and is now seen, 
is largely unsatisfactory. We have made the sad 
gain of much permanent sculpture which is of the 
same character as the improvisations of the 
Chicago World's Fair. That these heroic, colossal, 
historical impersonations which have been so 
much in demand require a rare temperament and 
a particular technical training this Pennsylvania 
Academy exhibition proved conclusively. The 
very men who failed in the big things show their 

unexpected qualifications for smaller work : 
figurines, busts, reliefs, etc. ; and the 134 pieces 
by American sculptors shown there form an 
interesting and promising exhibit. 

Among the many one-man exhibitions of the 
last two months that of Alden Weir showed that 
the artist was coming into his own, not merely in 
material matters like purchasers and medals, but 
in a more serene, assured and no less personal 
expression. His work had at all times commanded 
the respect of artists, but, a searcher always, he 
had oftentimes plunged into technical experiments 
which to the public unjustly seemed due to a 
desire to be eccentric and to do something new at 
any cost. If these experiments were not satisfac- 
tory they always contributed something of value 
to his equipment, and now to such excellent figure 
pieces as the Black Hat, the Grey Gown and the 
Green Bodice, with their pure and luminous colour 
not too much sophisticated with tonal effects, are 
added the recent landscapes, expressing with a 
sober simplicity the beauty and the mysterious 
grandeur of the aspects of nature that appeal to 
him above all, the characteristically green land- 
scape of our Eastern seaboard dozing in the 
heated atmosphere of summer days. 

Two veterans, Dwight Tryon and T. W. Dewing, 
whose pictures are never seen at the regular exhibi- 
tions, showed a number of their works together at 
the Montrose Gallery. The little figure pieces of 
Mr. Dewing prove him to be still faithful to his 
exquisite and sophisticated formula ; and the 
charm of the slender, shadowy, always silent 
sitters, the beauty of the general tonality, the dusky, 
not too transparent shadows and the unique air of 
aloofness and distinction continue to characterize 
the work of one of our most distinguished 
figure painters. Mr. Tryon's landscapes would 
have been seen to better advantage alone. In the 
small marines and landscapes exhibited, so subtle 
is his charm of colour, of suggestion, that any 
neighbour is disturbing. It is difficult, and not in 
the least necessary, to decide whether the painter 
has always bettered his previous work ; represen- 
tation of the mood of nature is so clearly though 
so softly expressed that we do not wishtoconsitler 
whether the wave in the middle distance is in 
the middle distance, whether the dark purple of 
the sea beach in the foreground is beautiful per se, 
etc. A small memorial exhibition of Twachtman's 
works at the Lotus Club makes one realise, some 
years having passed since the artist's death, that he. 
like his friend Th. Robinson, has an assured aiul 
very high place in American art. It would have 
been most interesting to compare side by side 
these Twachtmans with theTrj'ons : the ditTerence 
between the individualities of these landscape poets, 
the New England austerity and subdued sentiment 
of the one and (he radiant charm of tender, 
tremulous colour of the other. 


Art in ' 4 m erica 

So many circumslanco combine to oppose the 
disengagement of the artistic perception from the 
daily environment, the accidents of tunc and place, 
that the development of the taste of a community 
is pt-rforce of slow progress. It would seem, 
li IS if the ad\-;»ncc in the path of right 

.,[ ...n of art in America was made visible 

by such significant straws in the wind ;is the very 
general and lively interest in the exhibition at the 
Metropolitan Museum of such pictures as Manet's 
Le GuiUirisk, the three examples of Monet and 
the one of Piss;irro loaned by Mr. William Church 
<> ! rn. the .S//>v/ of Rembiaiidt loaned by Mr. 
liu.dore M. Davis, and the two superb Frans 
Hals portraits loaned by Mr. I. I'icrpont Morgan. 
The same holds true of'other large cities than .New 
York. And it is not that art is becoming the 
f.ishion, but that we have reached the st.ige of our 
national development when art is Iwginning to be 
a vital part of our intellectual and emotional life. 
Formerly an exhibition of such pictures would 
have appealed to but the special and restricted 
circle of collectors and art lovers ; at present the 
interest manifested is widely distributed, in fact it 
is common to all people of cultivation. As testi- 
fied by the intelligent work inaugurated in the 
schools of Boston, New York, etc., our conception 
of civic duty is growing to embrace the import- 
ance of the elevatingand relining inlluencc of art. 
Our civic pride is awakened by the development 
of our museums. As the Englishman is proud of 
the National Gallery, the Frenchman of the Louvre 
the German of the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, the 
New Yorker values the Metropolitan Museum, not 
only as an admir.d^le, but as a most necessary, in- 
strument of our civilization. The Bostonian has 
the same feeling, and he has had it longer ; and in 
Chicago, whose name seems associated in Europe 
only with what is ugly and coarse, a gallant little 
band of unselfish citizens, working quietly s<j;/i /(/»;- 
hours OH lioinf<elles, giving generously of their time 
as well as of their money, has succeeded in making 
of the Chicago Art Museum a powerful factor in 
the life of the population of our Middle States. 

Auction sales of pictures are full of human 
interest and eminently ht subjects for philosophical 
reflections, but to draw c<jnclusions from them as 
to general standards of taste and commercial 
values is obviously not quite safe. What may 
justly be said of the most important sale of the 
winter thus far, that of the Henry collection of 
Barbizon pictures in New York at the end of 

Ianuary, is that it strikingly showed the continued 
ligh consideration in which ex.miples of this school 
are held among some of our collectors. The prices 
were very liigh, and, in some instances, record ones, 
the thirty canv;ises bringing a total of ^352,800, 
which makes an average of nearly |i 2,000 each. 

Sen.itor W. A. Clark securetl one of the two 
Duprfci — Tiiiliglil, for 113,300 ; one of the four 


Rousseaus, Siinlii^lil, for ?2 1,600 ; and two of the 
seven Corots, The A'/jvr and The Glade, for |20,6oo 
and $24,000 respectively. Yet the best of the 
Corots, Manhs : Premieres /eiiilles — a little smaller 
example than the others, it is true, but of the 
rarest and most exquisite quality — sold for the 
lowest price, $7,000. Senator Clark, after bidding 
up to $63,000 for one of the two Troyons, Le 
Reloiir t'l III Ferine, allowed it to go for $65,000 to 
a New York dealer representing a Philadelphia 
hnancier, who thus made his sensational Jebiil in 
our Christie's, the American Art Association. This 
extraordinary price is, I believe, the highest ever 
paid for a picture in an American auction sale — 
the price of $66,000 paid for Meissonier's 
Friedland at the sale of the A. T. Stewart collec- 
tion in 1887 included also a water-colour portrait 
of the painter by himself. 

In contrast with the Henry sale was that of 
the pictures and studies of the late Eastman 
Johnson in February. The highest prices obtained 
were $810 each for the thoroughly good little 
genre, Embers, for which the artist had received a 
gold medal at the Buffalo Pan-American Exposi- 
tion, and for the crayon portrait of a famous 
national ligure, Mrs. Dolly Madison, the widow 
of our foiyth President, drawn in 1846 at her 
Washington residence, and possessing a particular 
historical value. The Metropolitan Museum se- 
cured one of the artist's versions of his well-known 
Corn Hnsking. So excellent an example as the 
Play me a Tune, well drawn, soundly painted and 
full of atmosphere — the rendering of the figure 
of the Nantucket wrecker standing listening behind 
the painter's wife at the piano, and of the crockery 
cupboard against the wall, worthy of a seventeenth 
century Dutch little master — brought only $275 ! 
The career of Eastman Johnson is a long and 
honourable one. Born in Maine in 1824, he 
commenced the practice of his art by drawing 
crayon portraits. Later, his forceful artistic 
temperament and sound lechnitpie manifested 
themselves as well in his robust, virile por- 
traits as in the best of his story-telling genre. 
His portraits remain as worthy presentations of 
our distinguished men in public affairs, literature, 
the arts ami business for a period of ne.irly sixty 
years. Both as an artist and a m.m he was one 
of the important figures of our world. And yet 
this good painter, with a distinctive American 
appeal in the choice »)f his genre subjects, with 
his long and honourable record as one of the 
upholders of the American school of portraiture, 
makes but a pitiful appe.iraiice when put to the 
test of an American auction room. However, such 
extreme judgments are inv.iriably reversed. That 
the Friedland would bring infinitely less now than 
it did in 1887 is certain, and there is no doubt that 
the work of Eastman Johnson will eventually 
secure proper appreciation in our auction rooms. 


HE int of the 

shop who are 

oppo^ ;r. Norman 

Shaw's most handsome 
and artistic for the 

rebuilding ot ^ nt 

pens up an old qu< of 

iplc which ought t have been 

sectied long ago. Of rccjiit years the 

■ ~ , , ■-..-. ... 


been in ^ 

es so 

obviously disastrous to art, t 


diet i ir of the n ■ 

art for 

art's j.:i<v^ ii.isbeen l?- ' 

1. It is. 

however, with son^ 

) that we 

venture to question tf e 

justice of 

that verdict. 

The experience oi 


that the greatest wor 


\\orld knows were not 


working with untran 

in to 

produce whatever their 


H" "■■'•e rather the re^u^^ 


ms of their art ■ 

imposed upon them fron: 

'' >s to speculate, for r 

tr.c ife w'^i-k of Mich' ' 

. c 

he-- r uer than it is 

. . . — to 

'' '.^rk when he pleased a!.d how he 

•d. We might indeed have mherited 

number of isolated pieces of 

^ut we should cc' ■''■ have 

1 ng of the Siitine t./ ^ The 

norc we think of it, the more must we 

be struck by the fact that the world's 

''"" ' :ks of art have been produced 

: .ho were compelled to conform 

) local needs and conditions, and often to 
'lie caprices of inartistic patrons. 

If we compare the works so prodiicetl 

with those produced under the influence 

•f the modcin idea, art for art's sake, the 

comparison cannot fail to be greatly to 

Tn BUKUMTOS MtiMOH*. No. ja, Vo(. Zl— M.iy, 1907 



t -^ cf 

^ - - - -:'t, 

tends to produce small easel pictures, 
c d in fancy but lacking 


p. --- - .. ., 

sight were less free ; ,c. 

The same comparison would apply to 
other forms of art in 

T • ' -I 

f i * ^ I- f^ -1 V n o , \ r^ r .- 1 K i 1 ^ . . r- . , . 

painting has gone so far that even the 
painters of easel pictures no longer feel 

b ' " '^rm with r' ' ,t 

^ .:h pictures .. . . . ,:ig 

in dwelling-houses ought to fulfil. 

Does not the much debated case ot the 
n ' 'ure of the Q ' 
p.-.-. .., the same ! 
seem to have an a; n 

which, as architecture pure and simple, is 
i but in the quest for 

c lowf- • - ■ ^ ■ ' ■ 

nt of :. ._ 

t, been made entirely 
' its destmed purpose. Now 

si nt, after 

which cvposej^. 

That the or 
aesthetic allv -.u- 
Nev ' ' ■ 

out .. . 

authorities should sc 
pplication of the P 


principle of open shop-lr 




T^gent Quadrant 

and combined wonderfully well, with 
handsome and imposing architecture, and 
there seems no reason whatever why the 
compromise which has been so successfully 
effected in one case should not be effected 
in another. 
The principal disadvantage of Mr. Norman 

Shaw's grand scheme is stated to be the 
restriction of window space and light by the 
slightly recessed windows, by the arching of 
their tops, and by the large area devoted to 
their numerous and massive rusticated piers. 
Now in Messrs. Waring's two of these 
defects are avoided, and the third is reduced 
to a minimum, by adopting the girder 
principle of construction, which it is mere 
pedantry to vituperate. Messrs. Waring's 
architect has done away with the arches, and 
has gained the whole height of the ground 
floor for his shop windows. 

Secondly, he has given his windows a 
very moderate degree of recession, so that 
their contents are brought into full light, 
and an uninterrupted view of them is 
possible from a short distance. Thirdly, he 
has not lost the appearance of stability by 
doing away altogether with the massive 
piers ; but by reducing their number, as the 
girder principle enabled him to do, by 
increasing their size and by bringing them 
into more definite relation with the main 
lines of the structure above, he has succeeded 
in retaining an effect of stability combined 
with an effect of lightness. 

To this arrangement only one objection 
from an aesthetic point of view seems 
possible, and that is that rigid horizontal and 
vertical lines on the ground floor are sub- 
stituted for the delightful effect of an arcaded 
front. In considering this objection, how- 
ever, two considerations must be borne in 
mind. First, that a building in the street is 
rarely or never seen in isolation, but has 
always in front of it the varied and shifting 
foreground of street traffic, which serves at 


once as a contrast and a screen to the lower 
part of any structure seen behind it. It is 
for this reason that the entirely dreadful 
shop-fronts of plate glass with concealed 
supports, which are beloved by bad archi- 
tects, do not annoy us more than they do 
when seen under normal conditions. It is 
not until we happen to pass when a street is 
nearly empty that they appear wholly in- 
adequate to sustain the ponderous erections 
above them, and convey that feeling of 
instability which it is almost the first 
function of true architecture to remove. 

Now the Quadrant actually adjoins the 
great focus of west-end traffic, so that there 
is no fear of its lower storeys being seen in 
isolation. Again, the rectilinear lines or 
the ground floor lose much of their stiffness 
if suitably decorated, and if their rigidity be 
connected and contrasted with a more fluent 
style in the upper part of the building. 
The circular windows, the arches and the 
luxuriant decoration of the upper part of 
the Waring building form a most effective 
contrast to the firmer lines below, and yet 
blend with them well owing to the skill 
with which the lines of the rusticated piers 
are carried up into the superstructure. 

We are driven to these conclusions with 
some regret. Mr. Norman Shaw's is per- 
haps the best attempt that has yet been 
made to design a great English street in 
a worthy manner. No praise can be 
excessive for the design in itself, yet it 
evidently does not fulfil the practical needs 
of the Quadrant. If it be forced upon 
the leaseholders, art may score a tem- 
porary triumph, but it will be at the cost 
of a reaction against good architecture 
on the part of business men which will 
make the task of beautifying London even 
more difficult than it is already. We trust 
that the Commissioners for Woods and 
Forests will not overlook this aspect of the 


HE Government is to be 
congratulated upon the 
statement made in Parlia- 
ment by Mr. Harcourt 
on April 8th that the 
spaces available for the 
extension of the National Gallery and of 
the Tate Gallery would not be occupied 
by other buildings. As The Burlington 
Magazine has frequently pointed out, any 
other decision would have been disastrous 
to the cause of art in England, because the 
mistake once made would have been irre- 
parable. Our congratulations are the more 
sincere because the temptation to subor- 
dinate the apparently unsubstantial interests 
of art to the obviously substantial 
interests of utilitarianism must always be 
strong. Anyone, however, who seriously 
considers the question cannot fail to sec 
that the material profit derived from national 
patronage of the arts is rapidly increas- 
ing with the increase of civilization. In 
coming to this decision, Mr. Harcourt 
has therefore not only done signal service to 
the intellectual needs of the country, but has 
done a very good stroke of business. 

The very pertinent questions asked in 
the House on April i8th by Mr. Middle- 
more and Mr. L. Jones as to giving the 
Trustees of the National Gallery the power 
to reconsider unsuitable pictures purchased 
out of the Chantrey Fund, and as to 
carrying out the recommendations of the 
Lords Committee of 1904, tend even more 
directly to the public advantage. Since 

in these cases none of the material objections 
can be urged which might have been 
urged against the reservation of land for 
public galleries, wc have no doubt the 
Government will show an equally wise 
sympathy towards them. That the 
Trustees of the National Gallery should be 
compelled to accept pictures which they 
consider unworthy of our great collection 
is an administrative anomaly that ought 
not to exist. 

We note with pleasure that the Director 
of the National Gallery is taking steps to 
emphasize the unique quality of our ex- 
amples of the work of Rubens by devoting 
a room almost entirely to them, and that 
the nation has been fortunate enough to re- 
ceive, among other recent gifts, a specimen 
of the work of Mr. Holman Hunt which 
will be, in the future, a far more worthy 
and characteristic record of him than the 
much discussed Lady of Shalott. 

As the Treasury grants for the purchase 
of works of art have grown more 
and more inadequate, the generosity 
of private subscribers and of private donors 
has steadily increased, and these separate 
efforts are being more and more unified 
by the National Art Collections Fund. 
At present the strength of the Fund has 
been somewhat lessened by the splendid 
activity which culminated in the purchase 
of the Rokcby Velazquez, but we hope 
the public will come forward at the Fund's 
annual meeting on April 25th and repair 
this honourable exhaustion. 


IT is fitting that themonu- 
jment to Whistler should be 
•executed by the greatest of 
.living sculptors, who suc- 

**^^yi iv ^'-w*-^^*^^^^ \\\m. as president of 
^T"" V ^^^ — t^thp International Society ; 
nor could a more suitable place be found 

for it than Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, where 
Whistler lived, worked and died. M. 
Rodin's sketch is already prepared, and 
indicates that the monument will take the 
form, not of a portrait, but of a large 
symbolic figure, with a relief or bust ot the 
artist upon the base. 


The Jr/iistler Memorial 

Now that controversies are over, and the 
achievements of the nineteenth century can 
be viewed in true perspective, we sec how 
great in rcahty was the service which 
Whistler rendered to the art of the world 
and how sound was the philosophy under- 
lying his wit. 

The cost of the Memorial is estimated 
at >r2,ooo, of which some two-thirds has 
already been promised ; and since the plan 
makes an appeal to the national pride of 

America, as well as to that of England, 
there should be no difficulty in obtaining 
the modest sum that remains to be sub- 
scribed. The idea of erecting replicas of 
the monument in America and Paris should 
the subscriptions admit of it, cannot be 
too highly commended in the case of one 
in whose fame three great nations may 
rightly claim a share.' 

' It may be added for the benefit of any who have not yet sent 
their subscriptions that the Hon. Secretaries of the Fund arc 
Mr. William Heinemann and Mr. Joseph Pennell. 



Wales suggesting it as the probable source 

MONG the artistic and 
historic treasures preserved 
at the ancient seat of the 
Mostyn family at Mostyn 
Hall, North Wales, not 
the least interesting and 
valuable is the collection of old English 
plate, which, though small, includes several 
choice specimens. 

Of the highest historic value, especially 
to Welsh archaeologists and historians, is 
the miniature silver harp with nine strings, 
6^ inches high (fig. i), which is defi- 
nitely known to have been in the possession 
of Lord Mostyn's predecessors since the 
reign of Elizabeth. This relic of the 
national Eisteddfod of Wales had been 
offered as a challenge prize at Caerwys in 
I 568, and the original charter of Elizabeth 
granting permission to hold this peculiarly 
Welsh festival at that little Flintshire 
town is still in possession of Lord Mostyn, 
the Mostyn family having enjoyed the 
right for centuries of retaining custody of 
the bardic chair and other relics and regalia 
of the national Eisteddfod. The harp 
has every appearance of provincial, ratiicr 
than of London, workmanship, and it 
may be that a Chester craftsman wrought 
it, the close proximity of that city to 


of origin. It bears neither marks nor 
inscription. The back of the harp, from 
the reeded band to the bottom, is of sub- 
sequent date and of different workmanship 
to the other parts, and would seem to 
have been added in the eighteenth century. 
Lord Mostyn is fortunate in the 
possession of a remarkably fine parcel-gilt 
rose-water dish and ewer of large size 
(figs. 2 and 3). The circular dish, 
igi inches in diameter, has a raised plat- 
form in the centre, upon which the ewer 
stands, decorated with two shaped, 
scrolled panels with grotesque masks and 
rosettes in relief, separated by two em- 
bossed pomegranates in circular strap-work 
frames, the spaces between being occupied 
by festoons of embossed fruit on a matted 
surface. The Mostyn-Gloddaeth arms, 
finely enamelled, in a fiuted frame, occupy 
the centre of the platform. The depression 
of the dish is engraved at intervals with 
eight plain strap-work ornaments, trefoil 
in form, filled with conventional ara- 
besques, similar arabesques appearing on 
the outer edges of these trefoil ornaments. 
The rim is embellisheil with four shaped 
panels witli grotesque masks and rosettes 
like those in the centre of the dish, with 

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s..\ii. , : r. MLVKR PLATE IN THE 


v. > 

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U. -I 

the addition, however, of short, indented 
lines on the panels. Wide double strap- 
work bands, filled with the arabesques 
common to Elizabethan plate, occupy 
the spaces between the panels. The edge 
of the rim is decorated with a narrow 
band of delicate foliage in slight relief. 
The companion ewer has a plain tapering 
body engraved around the centre with a 
double intersecting strap-work band, filled 
with arabesques, a small spray being 
engraved above and below each intersec- 
tion. The plain four-sided spout, which 
is engraved with plain strap-work, con- 
tinued from the body, but without the 
arabesques, has a covered heart-shape 
aperture at the top. The depressed 
domed cover is decorated with embossed 
masks in panels, pomegranates and fruit, 
as on the dish. It has, however, lost the 
print from the centre — doubtless enamelled 
with the arms. The borders of the cover, 
lip, and of the low plain foot are decorated 
with delicate foliage in slight relief, ex- 
actly like that on the edge of the dish. 
The back of the handle is divided into 
two concave sections by raised ribbing. 
The thumbpiece is composed of two plain 
balls on intertwining stems. Its dimen- 
sions are : Total height, 8j in. ; height of 
body, 6| in. ; diameter of mouth, 5 in. ; 
diameter of foot, 4| in. 

Both the dish and the ewer are stamped 
with three marks, a reversed impression of 
which is reproduced here, a lion's head 

crowned, turned to the left ; a small 

tM^% black-letter q in a plain square shield, 

£^ and a confused mark. The tradition 

.5^ handed down with these two pieces 

is that they were given to a member 
of the Mostyn family by Henry VII, when 
carl of Richmond, after his escape from 
Mostyn Hull. The general decoration, 
however, precludes the possibility of 
assigning so early a date to them. The 

Lord Mostyri^s Silver 

marks remain so far unidentified. It 
is with some hesitation that the theory is 
advanced by the writer that this fine dish 
and ewer were wrought in England by a 
foreign, perhaps a Flemish, silversmith, 
about 1530 to 1550. The ewer closely 
resembles in form the well-known English 
specimen of 1545-6 given by Archbishop 
Parker to Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge. The short foot of both these ewers 
gives way to a higher and more ornate stem 
and foot in the succeeding type of Eliza- 
bethan ewer, as may be seen in the one of 
1562-3 at Winchester College,^ and in that 
of 1 574-5 belonging to Lord Newton. 

Two fine examples of silver-gilt Eliza- 
bethan flagon-tankards (fig. 4) are 
included here. The tapering cylindrical 
bodies are entirely covered with engraved 
scroll foliage, rosettes and various flowers, 
and grotesque animals issuing from flowers. 
Though apparently exactly alike, the 
decoration is slightly different in arrange- 
ment and size, and in the form of the 
animals. The curved spreading bases, 
below the plain moulding, are engraved 
with plain strap-work ovals, separated trom 
the edges by a narrow band of ovals in 
relief, as on the lips, the edges being deco- 
rated with conventional ovolo work. A 
shield bearing the Mostyn-Gloddaeth 
arms is engraved in the front ot each 
flagon. The slightly domed covers, 
which are surmounted by reel-shape 
pedestals, ornamented with ovolo work, 
and crowned with plain knobs on cut-rayed 
tables, are engraved with similar designs 
to that on the bodies, and the edges have 
plain ovals in relief, as on the bases and 
lips. The hollow scrolled handles arc 
engraved with arabesques, and the thumb- 
pieces are formed of winged terminal 
figures. Total height, 13^ in. ; height of 

' Illustrntcd and described in THE BuiUSGTOX Macaxixe, 
Vol. II, rP- '51 ^(1 '5^- 


Lord Mostyti's Siher 

bodies, lo^ in.; diameter of mouths, 4 in. ; 
diameter of bases, 6 in. Both bear the 
London date-letter for 160 1-2, and the 
maker's mark, lA, in a plain shield. 

These flagons arc followed in point of 
date by two Jacobean gilt cups with 
' steeple ' covers. The body of the earliest 
(fig. 5^) is engraved with strap-work and 
tulips on a granulated surface, leaving the 
lip plain. The same scheme of decoration 
is repeated on the domed cover, which is 
surmounted by a plain circular platform 
with ovolo mouldings, supporting a 
pierced three-sided pyramid, with three 
scrolled dragon brackets, crowned by a 
figure of a warrior holding a plain shield, 
which is engraved with a crest — a lion 
rampant. The plain vase-shape stem is 
supported by three brackets, like those on 
the pyramid, and is joined to the cup and 
the base by ovolo collars between flat- 
rayed discs. The high foot, with ovolo 
mouldings at the edge, is engraved with 
acanthus leaves on a granulated surface. 
A large shield bearing the Mostyn- 
Gloddaeth arms is engraved in front. 
It is inscribed on the lip ' Poculum ex dono 
Robti Jones London Mercat Sci/sor 
illustrissima? domui de Mostyn et heredib® 
ipius mipptum, Anno 1610.' Total 
height, 20J in. ; height of cup, i 2 J in. ; 
diameter of mouth, 5 in. ; diameter of 
base, 4A in. London date-letter for 
1610-1 1. Maker's mark, TI, with a star 
below in a plain shield. 

The other cup (fig. 5/^) differs in the 
style of the decoration ; the bowl is em- 
bellished with three oval strap-work panels 
containing an embossed dolphin in each, two 
of the panels being separated by an embossed 
escallop shell with scrolls on a matted 
surface, and the other by a plain escutcheon. 
An embossed laurel band divides the panels 
from the fluted and scaled work along the 
lower part of the cup. The vase-shape 


stem, slightly engraved with vertical and 
wavy lines, is supported by three animal 
scroll brackets, and is joined to the cup 
and the base by ovolo collars between 
irregular knotted discs. The high foot is 
encircled by an engraved laurel band, the 
upper part being engraved with acanthus 
foliage and the lower with alternate flutings 
and scales on a matted surface, ovolo 
mouldings finishing the edges of the foot. 
The domed cover has three similar dolphin 
panels, each divided by an escallop, and it 
is surmounted by a low circular platform 
with ovolo mouldings, upon which rests a 
three-sided pyramid pierced with fleurs- 
de-lis, supported on three scrolled termi- 
nal figure brackets, and with three 
small scrolled brackets at the top. 
Total height, igjin. ; height of cup, 
\2\m.\ diameter of mouth, fin.; dia- 
meter of base, \\ in. 

An interval of fifty-six years separates 
this Jacobean cup from a piece of plate 
of Charles II period — namely, a large, 
plain, massive rose-water dish, with a wide 
rim, dated i 669-70, 23 inches in diameter. 

Lord Mostyn owns three good tankards: 
one of the year 1698-9 (fig. 6d), 
made by Anthony Nelmc, has a plain 
moulding around the lower part of the 
body, and a graduated beading applied to 
the shoulder of the handle, and another 
beading to the flat cover from the double- 
volute thumbpiece ; while the other (fig. 
tb)^ dating from 1683-4, has a plain 
cylindrical body and a flat cover. The 
third tankard, which is of the same form 
as the latter, but considerably smaller, is 
chiefly interesting from the fact that it 
was made in 1690-2 by Nathaniel Bullen 
of Chester. This is engraved with the 
arms of Savage of Cheshire. 

The magnificent ebony clock with 
parcel-gilt mounts made at a cost of 
>ri,5oo for William III by Thomas 


■4 t '1 

F 1 -r- 

1 .iy^m^'m T 

^^^^^^^^ % 



Tompion, inherited by the present owner 
from the earl of Romncy through the 
earls of Leicester, was exhibited by Lord 
Mostyn in London a few years ago, and is 
illustrated and fully described. - 

The fine Monteith bowl (fig. 7) 
has two bold lion mask handles and a 
removable rim. The body, which rests on 
a low gadrooned foot, is decorated with 
large plain panels formed of hollow scrolls, 
finished at the tops with chased acanthus 
leaves, the surface between being granu- 
lated ; garlands of tulips in slight relief 
suspend at intervals from the edge. The 
scalloped rim is embellished with 
cherubs' heads. A. rare feature of this 
bowl is the presence of a small plain 
circular cup with scrolled handle, and 
fitted with a hook for attaching to the 
rim, doubtless for use as a ladle. The 
bowl is engraved with the arms, crest and 
motto of the Vaughans of Corsygedol, 
Merionethshire. The diameter is 131 in., 
and the height 9 in. It bears the Lon- 
don date-leter for 1697-8, and the maker's 
mark Le, in a shaped cartouche, probably 
for John Leach. The maker's mark only 
appears on the little cup. 

The fluted silver toilet mirror, sur- 
mounted by a scrolled and foliated pane} 
I2jins. high (fig. Sa), dates from 1698-9 

"' Old Silver Work,' plate .xcii, ed. by J. Starkie Gardner, 1903. 

Lord Mostyn* s Silver 

and was made by Pierre Harache ; and the 
other toilet mirror with concave silver 
frame, scrolled at the top, and surmounted 
by an oval panel, loj in. high (fig. 8*^), 
though not marked, dates no doubt from 
the end of the seventeenth century. A 
large and massive two-handled cup and 
cover, with strap-work decoration, made 
by the well-known David Willaume in 
171 i-i 2, though not illustrated, is worthy 
of inclusion here. Among the later plate at 
Mostyn Hall, space will only permit of 
a brief mention. It includes a small 
plain bowl with two handles and a cover 
with three scrolled feet, 1 71 5-1 6 ; a 
pair of plain sauceboats with two handles 
and spouts, 1733-4; a hclmet-shapc 
cream-jug engraved with strap-work and 
foliage, circa 1730; a pair of small plain 
salvers, 6J inches square, 1739-40; and 
a set of three castors, embossed with foli- 
ated scrolls and twisted acanthus foliage, 
1742-3 — all illustrated in fig. 9. 

To these may be added a number of 
candlesticks (fig. 10), including a pair, 
plain and octagonal in form, of French 
origin, early eighteenth century (no. i); a 
set of four, richly decorated with foliage, 
scrolls and scales, the stem being embel- 
lished with four medallions of Roman 
emperors and empresses, 1749-50 (no. 5) ; 
and others of 1745-6, 1767-8, etc. 





HE two old-established usually looked for. Neither has in these 

days quite the reputation it once possessed. 
Yet the two arc constituted on such an 
entirely different basis that the causes of 
their decline cannot be quite the same. 

Experience shows that all art movements 
which have any success at all succeed most 
completely when they are young and 


societies which are now 
holding their spring ex- 
hibitions — the Royal 
Institute of Painters in 

Water Colours and the 

Society of British Artists — are not 
in which new and striking-genius is 

The £ase for Modern Pain ting 

c ithusiaitic, though their success is r.ircly 
recognized at the time by the public. Later, 
when the public has discovered the move- 
ment and begun to patronize it, its pioneers 
are old, and their followers have never quite 
the same strength and enthusiasm. The 
movement may have become popular, but 
it has contracted a mortal disease, and the 
length of its life is a matter of constitution 
and of accident. 

Let me make my meaning clear by one 
ortwoillustrations. The powerful tradition 
of Reynolds and Gainsborough had already 
lost its first vigour when it was popularized 
by the talented group of men who worked 
round Lawrence ; yet so strong was its 
constitution that it lived a degraded and 
fashionable life till it was killed by the 

The Preraphaelites themselves painted 
their best pictures in the first flush of their 
youth, when their name was anathema to 
the rest of the art world. By the time 
they had conquered prejudice their own 
work was on the down grade. The talent 
of Burne-Jones and Morris, great as it was, 
could not restore the lost excellence, while 
those who followed in the next generation 
hardly count at all. 

At the Royal Institute the main tradition 
purports to be that of the old-fashioned 
English water-colour school. Yet it is 
now more than a century since Girtin and 
the youthful Turner built up the main 
structure of the school on the foundation 
laid by Cozens ; and though the tradition 
was enriched later by the example of men 
like Cox, De Wint and Cotman, it has 
had its day. Those who continue to follow 
it can never be more than a faint echo of 
their predecessors. 

The figure painters suffer most because 
their predecessors were not of quite the 
same rank as the landscape painters, and so 
stand the process of dilution even worse 


than they. Here and there among the 
landscapes a clever touch or a fortunate 
subject gives an idea of freshness. The 
landscapes of Mr. Claude Hayes, for 
example, may b e only pleasant echoes of 
the work of stronger men, but taste in 
colour, simplicity of plan and cleanness ot 
touch give them an air of distinction, slight 
though they be. Mr. Arthur Severn and Mr. 
Ernest E. Briggs have chosen admirable 
mountain subjects (Nos. 194 and 41 5), each 
with a certain natural grandeur,which, if not 
emphasized by the method of rendering, is 
at least not eff^aced by it. These works, 
with Mr. Bernard Evans's Cannock Chase 
(40), are among the best things in the gallery. 
The younger members of the Institute, 
as is natural, are trained in a difl^erent and 
more modern school, in which the ideals 
of the Impressionists are not unknown. 
Yet, like their elders, they are not pioneers. 
They have got their knowledge second-hand, 
and their work has a similar lack of 
emphasis. Mr. W. W. Collins in a view of 
Lincoln (301) and Mr. R. B. Nisbct in a 
pretty little sketch (366) come nearer tosuc- 
cess than does Mr. Charles Dixon in his 
ambitious To"iver ^BrUge (356). Though 
the photographic cleverness of this last is 
wonderful, Mr. Dixon has not learned to 
omit unessential details and so has not made 
a picture. Last, one or two illustrators and 
poster designers introduce a spirited note. 
Mr. Hassall's large scene from the ' Pilgrim's 
Progress' (403) is the most striking of these 
exhibits, and fails only from an excess of 
literalness. Had the accessories, the benches 
and costumes, been treated more slightly, 
the heads would have told even better 
than they do, and the drawing might have 
kept the crispness proper to a drawing. 
Mr. Tom Browne understands his medium 
better. I may add that Mr. Caparne's 
landscape (442), chaotic as it is from lack 
of definite structure, strikes the eye quite 



pleasantly among so much that is careful, 
conscientious and tame. 

If the painters at the Institute mav be 
broadly divided into two groups, those at 
the R.B.A. must be divided into a dozen. 
The R.B.A. has always been catholic: at 
any rate, a society that has had Whistler, 
Wyke Bayliss and Mr. Alfred East as its 
presidents cannot be accused of fanaticism 
or narrowness. Indeed, we might ask 
why a society which does, in its way, try 
to keep abreast of the times does not enjoy 
a very much greater reputation. 

I fancy the answer must be that suc- 
cess in art comes to those who are ahead 
of their time, not to those abreast of it. 
As we have seen, it is always the first men 
in a new movement who count the most 
with posterity ; and perhaps the R.B.A. 
has sought new inspiration a little too late, 
except in the historic case of Whistler. 

In choosing Mr. Alfred East it has at least 
chosen a president who can paint a better 
picture than any of the members, which 
is no small subject for congratulation ; but 
to achieve complete salvation a society 
needs more than even that. It needs the 
preacher of a new gospel. 

Yet if Mr. East had painted many 
pictures like his Winter s 'Dawn (p. 79) 
he might almost be deemed such an 
evangelist. In that picture we have a 
solemn effect of nature knit into a coherent 
and impressive design, and rendered with 
the straightforward handling, and with 
more than the usual harmony of colour, 
that we expect from Mr. East. Faults, 
indeed, there may be. It is questionable 
whether the gleam of light on the snow 
is necessary to the design ; whether the 
tree and figure in the foreground answer 
quite happily to the sweeping curve of the 

The £ase for Modern Painting 

upper sky ; whether the actual paint is not 
thicker and less translucent than it need 
have been. But these are details. The 
fact remains that the picture is a notable 
effort at serious landscape painting made in 
a time when such efforts are almost 

Another winter scene (195), by Mr. 
Elmer Schofield also shows considerable 
force andgood planning; there iscvidenceof 
real feeling in the work of Mr. D. Murray 
Smith, though it would be infinitely better 
if he could omit yellow for a time from his 
palette. Mr. Elphinstone's Night (241) is 
well seen and spaced, if somewhat clumsily 
painted ; Mr. Wynford Dewhurst's colour 
in No. 226 is of unusual charm, and there 
is a large landscape by Mr. Tom Robertson 
(246) which on a twelfth of its present 
scale would be pleasant company. Among 
the other pictures those of Mr. Lewis G. 
Fry are the most interesting in their attempt 
to combine realism with bigness of design. 
Some convention such as sketching on a 
grey ground in the manner of Hogarth, 
where the ground is freely left to do duty 
for all minor gradations of tone, might 
enable the artist to master a few of the diffi- 
culties he at present tries to contend with. 
Mr. Foottet's peculiar woolly mannerism 
prevents a gift of original colour from telling 
as it might do on a smaller scale and with 
a happier technique. Even now he arrests 
the eye longer than do the rank and file of 
the exhibitors, who seem to have nothing 
of their own to say, and to say rather feebly 
the little they have borrowed. 

That, indeed, is the general fault of the 
Institute also. Both societies need over- 
hauling ; but the more elastic constitution 
of the R.B.A. seems to give it the better 
chance of effecting the purge. 

(T^o be contiuuca.) 



HE previous exhibitions :it 
the Guildhall have usually 
carried us hack to the past. 
The exhibition of Danish 
painting not only concen- 
trates our attention on the 
present, but does so in a 
curiously striking manner. 
Froiu tlic lUDincnt we enter the tirst room 
we are conscMnis of being in a strange yet 
familiar atmosphere, of being confronted with 
an art which differs from that of all the other 
artistic nations of Europe, with one partial excep- 
tion, in that the impress of PVance is not indelibly 
stamped upon it. Wc see of course here and 
there, especially in the room devoted to the earlier 
Danish m;isters, works which are based on French 
models, but these are few in number and of 
secondary importance. The bulk of the painting 
has a distinctive character which is like nothing 
but the Royal Academy of the eighties and 
nineties, or its .antithesis, the New English Art 
Club of to-d.iy. We can in fact at the Guildhall 
see ourselves, or part of ourselves, as in a mirror, 
flecked perhaps by some differences in racial char- 
acter and local conditions, but still giving a 
reflection that is faithful enough to be startling. 

At the beginning of our list it is true we hesitate 
for a moment before a most able work in the 
manner of Henner, and across the end of the 
room stretches one of those vast scenic pieces that 
were once produced on demand by every country 
in Europe ; yet, let us but imagine for a moment 
that the first gallery contains the work of exhibitors 
at the Royal Academy, and behold, we can put an 
English name to nearly every picture there. No. 
2 becomes an excellent Cope ; No. 5 is a Logs- 
d;iil ; No. 7 a Briton Riviere b:ised on the relief 
at the British Museum ; No. q a Herkomer ; No. 
10 is rather too good for a Calderon (is it also a 
Riviere?) ; No. 15 seems too good for any other 
Academician but Orchardson, yet the style is not 
quite his ; No. 16 is a Joseph Clark; No. 18 by 
an outsider ; No. 19 is a Gotch ; No. 20 a Kemp 
Welch ; No. 27 is a good early Dyce ; No. 29 an 
unusual and artistic Stanhope Forbes ; No. 30 is 
a Stacey Marks, at the transition from his Pre- 
raphaelite days ; No. 32 is F. R. Lee's master- 
piece ; No. 33 is rather a poor Hook ; No. 35 is 
a Vicat Cole ; No. 36 a Hacker ; No. 37 a Philip ; 
No. 38 a Farquharson ; and so on ad in/ntitiiin. 
Kroycr's excellent and artistic portrait (26) and 
the works of Paulsen are the re;il things which 
stand out from the rest as having something 
besides conscientiousness to recommend them. 
In the next gallery, however, Kroyer (whose large 
portrait group is admir.ibic of it kind) turns into 
Mr. St.mhope Forbes, and Prof. Tuxen into Mr. 
B.icon, while Baron Arild Rosenkran^, after 
toying with French religious art, is transformed in 
Gallery HI into Miss Eleanor Fortescuc Brickdale. 


Gallery IV is devoted to the older masters, and 
contains a number of hard and dry paintings, not 
a few positively bad ones, many that are interest- 
ing, and a few that are good. Pilo's portrait of 
Frederick V is a thing to laugh at. Jens Juel is 
rather more capable, and sometimes, as in Nos. 210 
and 219, has a singular resemblance to Romney's 
earlier style. Jensen's portrait of his mother 
(216) is another sound and accomplished picture 
in a rather dry manner. The same might be said 
of the Interior (235), by the short-lived Bend/, 
which, with all its minuteness, is not devoid of 
space and air. .An excellent study of the Theatre 
of Marcellus by Ernst Meyer (187), the hard, 
honest works of the pioneer Eckersberg, and the 
landscape by Lundbye (169), which might pass 
for an early Constable, are also worth notice. 

It is, however, in Gallery III that the pictures 
are hung which have attracted the greatest general 
interest. If we may continue our comparison 
with British work, the atmosphere in this gallery 
is that of the New English Art Club, or, rather, of 
a certain section of it. The little group which 
includes Mr. Rothenstein, Mr. Orpen, Mr. and 
Mrs. MacEvoy, and Mr. Shepherd has found 
inspiration in De Hooch and Vermcer of Delft. 
The group of Danish artists of which Paulsen, 
Holsoe and Hammershoi are the leaders has done 
exactly the same thing, and began doing it earlier. 

Of the three, Holsoe perhaps has the least 
individuality, yet such a thing as his Interior (118) 
would compare not unfavourably with the very 
best modern English work of the kind. 

Hammershoi is an artist of larger ambitions, 
with whom the passion for spacing amounts 
almost to a mania. A considerable portion of 
his exhibits, including his landscapes, should be 
termed studies or exercises in spacing rather than 
pictures, yet they are not always quite successful 
even as studies. Quiet and reticence are rare and 
delightful qualities in art, but, like everything else, 
they pall when they are too openly advertised, and 
Hammershoi advertises them consistently. One 
feels in the presence of such a work ;is the 
Sunbeam in CItristiansand that simplicity is 
become theatrical ; besides, the girl's head might 
have been better painted. Even the charming 
Open Doors seems only an exceedingly clever and 
original ' symphony in white' ;ifter such an intro- 
duction, and lacks the significance it might possess 
were it an isolated experiment by some artist who 
was not always content to work so. Hammershoi's 
technical powers are considerable, and though 
they just fall short of the complete accomplish- 
ment we expect from a painter of j^enre, they 
are yet enough to place him definitely among those 
whose names are renumbered, while his ostenta- 
tious modesty m.iy in.ike him as popular here as he 
is in Denm.irk. 

The two bedroom scenes by Paulsen (Nos. 115 
and 117) display a greater, if less striking, talent. 

Indeed, in the whole exhibition there are, perhaps, 
no pictures so complete and satisfying. The 
design in each is more subtle and complex than 
that of Hammershoi, the lighting not inferior, the 
technique infinitely more certain, learned and 
skilful. Such admirable qualities of substance, 
handling and sensitive colour would be hard to 
match in modern art, yet they are employed so un- 
obtrusively that they have been generally overlooked. 

The Painters of l^enmark 

The Danish Exhibition is thus a thing of no 
little interest and importance, but to English 
visitors the interest will be intensified by the 
curious parallelism with English art to which we 
have referred. In the latter period we 
have to admit that the Danes outstripped us, 
at least in point of priority. In the former we 
may have surpassed them j but the victory has 
proved a barren one. 


«A. BY R. L. HOBSON ct^ 


X view of the coming exhibition 
of Persian pottery at the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club, particular 
interest attaches to the little bowl 
acquired last year by the British 
Museum and now on view in 
^^^f^^table-case A in the Ceramic 
^ '•Gallery. It appeals to our atten- 
tion not merely by the refinement of its creamy 
white and semi-translucent ware, the unwonted 
restraint of the painted design and the airy grace 
of the ' rice-grain ' ornament, hut still more be- 
cause it opens up a number of half-solved problems 
and throws a slender but welcome ray into the 
twilight that obscures the early history of the 
pottery of the Near East. Its form and decora- 
tion are given in figs, i and 2 ; but a more 
intimate examination shows that it has the soft 
white friable body common to all the early Near- 
Eastern wares, and in no way differing from the 
potsherds found in the ruins of Rhages, in Persia, 
and Rakka, in Syria, and in the rubbish mounds 
of Fostat or Old Cairo. The alcaline glaze is 
clear and colourless, but age has subdued its 
glittering surface, giving it the texture of sugar- 
icing rather than glass : it has run to a considerable 
depth in the hollow of the bowl within, but seems 
to have shrunk away from the foot outside in con- 
gealed wrinkles. The walls are thin and slightly 
translucent, and end in a conical projection which 
is hidden by the foot-rim. The central decoration 
is outlined in brown and washed in with pure rich 
blue, both under the glaze, and the rim is edged 
with brown and dabs of blue ; while on the sides 
is a band of cable pattern outlined with the grav- 
ing tool and pierced with round holes which were 
afterwards tilled in with transparent ghize. 

This last feature, added to the translucency of 
the body, tempts one at first sight to class the liowl 
with a comparatively modern pottery known in 
England as Gombroon ware, to which we shall 
return later ; but the form, the brushwork and 
the colours used stamp it at once as a product 
of remoter times. Nor can it be ranked with 
the so-called Persian ' porcelain ' of the reign of 

Shah Abbas (1587-1628), from which it differs in 
everything except translucency. To what period, 
then, should we assign it ? The shape recalls the 
fragmentary bowls from Rhages and Fostat ; the 
technique is that of the enamelled blue bowl, its 
neighbour in the museum, which is certainly not 
later than the fourteenth century. The paste and 
the colours tell the same tale. The brown outlines 
and blue washes are a feature of the pottery found 
at Rakka, a city on the upper reaches of the 
Euphrates, which was destroyed by Khulagu Khan 
and his Mongol hordes on their march from 
Bagdad to Aleppo in 1259, the fate of Persian 
Rhages forty years before. The drawing of the 
hare recalls the animals painted in lustre on the 
thirteenth-century tiles from Veramin in Persia. 
On the other hand, the slight nature of the decora- 
tion is unusual on the wares of this time, and we 
miss the close floral patterns and crowded scrolls 
that usually surround the central subject. Their 
absence is, however, not surprising on such a 
piece as this, where the beauty of the translucent 
creamy ware would be lost beneath a weight of 
ornament. If a parallel is wanted, it can be found 
in the isolated birds and animals that relieve and 
at the same time enhance the fine ivory surface of 
the thirteenth-century Saracenic caskets in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Rakka, Rhages, Veramin — these names sum up 
almost all our knowledge of early Persian and 
Syrian wares, a slender total still, in spite of the 
undoubted progress made in recent years. Thirty- 
years ago all was vague and obscure beyond the 
sixteenth century. Since then excavation on the 
sites of these ancient cities has opened up fresh 
springs of information, carrying us back at least 
three centuries. Dated specimens, unfortunately, 
have seldom appeared, and none are earlier than 
.\.D. 1 217. They display, however, an art already 
mature, and one which cannot reasonably be 
supposed to lie either a mushroom growth or a 
momentary outburst of splendour. Logic demands 
that many of the linely potted, painted and lustred 
fragments from the ruins of Rhages, destroyed in 
1220, belong to vessels made and used m the 


Notes on an Early ' Persian ' Bowl 

previous century. But even conjecture lialts at this, 
as far as concerns Persia, at any rate, where the 
arts, revivinji after tlie destructive wave of Arab 
conquest, had scarcely jjained suflicient strength 
before the twelftli century to admit of any notable 
advance in the potter's craft. In Kyypt, however, 
it was otherwise, and we must look to Egypt for 
the j»erms of that ceramic skill which afterwards 
throve so conspicuously in Persian and Syrian 
soil. In the ha/aars of Old Cairo, as early as 
A.D. 104J, Nasir i Khusrau saw ' pottery of every 
kind, so fine and so translucent that one s:iw 
through the walls of a vessel the hand applied to 
the e.xterior. They made bowls, cups, dishes and 
other objects. They decorated them with colours 
recalling those of a stuff named bougalemoun, the 
tints of which x-aried according to the position in 
which a vessel was held.' ' Clearly a translucent 
ware painted in lustre. The testimony of Nasir i 
Khusrau cannot reasonably be questioned. His- 
torian, traveller and geographer, he is now regarded 
by competent authorities as identical with one of 
Persi.Vs greatest poets ; and when such a man 
states positively in plain prose what he saw at 
Cairo, we have no right to doubt his accuracy. 
As well disbelieve Lord Byron when he describes 
in his letters some striking object in Greece or 
Italy. We may then rest assured that the Old 
Cairene potters were able to make in the eleventh 
century a fine ware, translucent and lustred, and 
no doubt not less remarkable than the bowl now 
under discussion. Conversely it is improbable 
that Nasir i Khusrau had seen anything similar 
during his previous journeys through Persia and 
Syria ; otherwise he could hardly have failed to 
mention if. Twenty-si.x ye.ars after the Persian 
traveller's visit, Fostat and Old Cairo were given 
over to the flames by the victorious Giaour ; 
partially rebuilt, they were pillaged in 1250 by a 
Mameluke Sultan ; and since then the greater part 
of the site has been used as a dumping ground for 
the rubbish of the New Cairo. The successive 
strata of debris have been patiently searched by 
Dr. Fouquet, Henry Wallis and others ; and 
Dr. Fouquet, who has published an invaluable 
study of the pottery unearthed in his excavations, 
claims to have discovered one piece which could 
compare with Nasir i Khusrau's description. 
Two others of the same class seem to have 
re;»ched him from ' a certain place ' in Syria. 
More may yet be discovered, but even one 
fragment is a valuable witness to the truth of 
Nasir i Khusrau's words, and adds strength to the 
assumption that the art of making fine pottery in 
the middle ages, including translucent, lustred and, 
of course, painted wares, developed in Egypt and 
spread thence int<j Syria and Persia. 
That there exists a certain relationship between 

' Voyage de Nasir i Khasrau, translated from the Arabic by 
Ch. Scheler, p. 151. 


our bowl and the translucent ware of Old Cairo 
scarcely admits of doubt, but how distant and 
how direct is the descent are questions which 
cannot yet be s;itisfactorily answered. In the 
first place no trustworthy account of its discovery 
sur\'ives, and its reputed Persian origin rests only 
on the vague assertion of an oriental dealer. 
There is nothing in the paste, glaze, colours or 
style of decoration incompatible with either 
Persian, Syrian or Egyptian provenance. The 
' rice-grain ' band is equally inconclusive, as will 
be seen immediately, so that we must be content 
to regard it for the time being as an early example 
of what Polonius might have called Perso-Syro- 
Egyptian pottery, and an important link with 
those wonderful bowls which arrested the Persian 
traveller's attention in the eleventh century. 

But the interest of the bowl does not stop here. 
Unique as an almost perfect specimen of ' rice- 
grain ' ware at this early date, it bids fair to decide 
the origin of this exquisite decoration. The 
expression 'rice-grain,' inadequate as it is in many 
cases, is practically the only term we have to 
describe the ornament on the sides of the bowl. 
It may be defined as a transparent pattern in an 
opaque or semi-opaque body formed by cutting 
out small sections of the paste while it is still soft 
and plastic, and allowing the clear glaze to fill up 
the holes. The simplest and the most usual 
application of this process is in a kind of con- 
tinuous star pattern, the rays formed of pointed 
oval excisions which were likened by the P'rench 
to grains of rice, whence their name a gniiiis-ilc- 
n'z and our borrowed ' rice-grain.' In figs, i and 3, 
however, the excisions are circular, and in fig. 4 
they conform to the arabesque design. As a rule, a 
colourless glaze is employed, but from the earliest 
times the effect was varied by the admixture of 
some colouring oxide, as in fig. 4, where the glaze 
is stained with blue. On Chinese porcelain the 
' rice-grain ' process is used in various ways, on 
pure white ware, or in the midst of enamelled 
decoration where it may serve to light up the 
foliage, blossoms or fruit of a tree, or more happily 
still to glaze the windows of a house. The so- 
called Gombroon wares rely on it entirely for their 
fairy-like lightness. Like the Chinese, this latter class 
dates from the eighteenth century ; but it is only 
recently that the Japanese have succeeded in sub- 
duing their stubborn materi.ils to this subtle process 
which they now employ under the picturesque name 
of Hotaru-de or ' fire-fly style.' On European 
porcelain its charming possibilities were proved 
by a F"rench potter at the hist Paris Exhibition; 
but the inevitable cost of an art that demands so 
much skill and tnste prevents its being lightly 
adopted by our manufacturers. That the idea 
originated in the Near East and not in China is 
demonstrated by our bowl, though recent writers 
on oriental porcelain have been content to leave 




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Notes on an Early ' Persian ' Bovcl 

the question unck'ciclcci, following the inconclusive 
statement that appeared in the Pranks Catalogue 
of 1876. At that time indeed there was no 
evidence to warrant a decision; for although no 
Chinese example could be traced with any 
probability further back than the eighteenth 
century, it was equally impossible to assign an 
earlier date to Gombroon ware, the only Near- 
Eastern representative of the ' rice-grain ' class 
then known. All doubts, however, might have 
been dissipated a few years later had we realized 
the importance of such fragments as figs. 3 and 4, 
which were discovered at Rhages and Fostat. 
These two precious remnants of once lovely vessels 
have awaited for nearly twenty years in the British 
Museum the ccjming of their more fortunate 
contemporary, who now proudly affirms what 
they in their fragmentary state could barely hint. 
Meanwhile our increased knowledge of Chinese 
porcelain, so far from claiming a greater antiquity 
for the ' rice-grain ' wares of the Far East, tends to 
place their introduction in the reign of Ch'ien- 
lung (1736-1795) or at the earliest in that of 
Yung-cheng (1723-1735). Marked examples 
usually bear the date of the former emperor or 
that of his successor Chia-ch'ing (1796-1820). 
A typical specimen is shown in fig. 5, which has 
the unusually full inscription underneath — Chia- 
ch'ing san nien ssu yiieh chi jih Wang Sheng-kao 
chih (made by Wang Sheng-kao at the end of the 
fourth month of the third year of Chia-ch'ing). 
It illustrates the process as applied to true por- 
celain, showing the same effect of airy lightness as 
on the softer Persian material, with the addition of 
cleaner cutting and greater precision : a doubtful 
advantage from the aesthetic standpoint, and one 
which only serves to emphasize the artistic superi- 
ority of the deliciousiy soft and creamy, but no 
doubt less practical Persian ware. 

For purpose of comparison an example of Gom- 
broon ware is given in fig. 6, and it is time that 
some explanation was made of this term, which 
has been so freely used throughout. The particular 

pottery to which the epithet Gombroon has 
been consecrated by general u^age in England is a 
creamy white and highly translucent substance, 
described by Mr. Burton in his recent book on 
porcelain as a kind of ' artificial porcelain appar- 
ently made of pipeclay and glass.' It is undoubtedly 
a kindred material to fig. i, though its body is of 
closer grain and considerably harder. The decora- 
tion is invariably of the 'rice-grain ' order, some- 
times relieved by slight ornament in black over the 
glaze or underglaze blue. The few dated pieces 
known belong to the eighteenth century, and the 
manufacture seems to have lasted into the nine- 
teenth. No serious evidence has been adduced to 
show that it was made at the town of Gombroon, 
and the name, as in the case of Nanking china and 
Imari porcelain, is borrowed, no doubt, from the 
place of export. Gombroon is a port opposite 
Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf, where the English 
East India Company established a station about 
the year 1600, and wares of many kinds, including 
Chinese porcelain and Persian pottery, were 
shipped at this entrepot for our home markets. 
Writing in 1698, Martin Lister compares the 
porcelain of St. Cloud with ' the Gombroon ware, 
which is, indeed, little else than a total vitrification,' 
and Horace Walpole some sixty years later cata- 
logues among his china at Strawberry Hill 
' two bnsins of the most ancient Gombroon 
china, a present from Lord Vere, out of the 
collection of Lady Elizabeth Germaine.' The 
context of both these references implies something 
distinct from Chinese porcelain, and yet of a 
translucent and porcellaneous nature — conditions 
that would be perfectly satisfied by the so-called 
Persian porcelain of the Shah Abbas period, to 
which 1 have already alluded. It is, indeed, 
unlikely that either writer refers to what is now 
called Gombroon ware, and which we can only 
define as a charming product of some unascer- 
tained part of Persia, a remote but worthy 
descendant of the ' rice-grain ' pottery of Rhages 
and Old Cairo. 


HE leaded domes and 
lanterns of Wren's London 
churches are not only of 
great intrinsic interest, but 
have an important place in 
the development of the roof 
idea as applied to towers. 
The dome of simple curve is 
a frankly foreign element in English architecture, 
and became acclimatized only by slow stages. 
With the cupola of ogee curve it was different. The 
genius of native building accepted with enthu- 

siasm the ungeometrical and flowing line when 
it arrived by way of the ogee, in the first h.ilf of 
the fourteenth century. For a time it was supreme, 
and rioted freely and sometimes absurdly, but 
mostly in such decorative positions as were 
afforded by niches .iiid tombs. Hoix-lessly 
bad structurally, the ogee arch w;is rarely 
powerful enough in its attractiveness to t.ike 
other than a decorative place. In English 
mediaeval architecture at least, it never allected 
external roof lines until Perpendicuhu^ times, and 
then only in rather trivial ways. At King's 


L.o»dou headed Steeples 

College Chapel, C.iinhrid^^r, which was biiildin)^ 
from 1446 to 1540, the coiiki turrets linish with 
ogee finiaK, and these, and others like them, wiic 
the forerunners of the numerous ogce-rooftd 
turrets of the early Kenaiss;ince, such as those at 
Hampton Court and at Abbott's Hospital, 
Guildford. Even in the case of the example at 
King's College, however, there is obviously no 
intention seriously to employ curves in roof work. 
Such tinials are decorative trivialities, employed 
to finish rather unimportant elements, such as 
corner turrets. We have still no evidence of a 
desire to introduce curves into tlie crown of a 
tower. Where a tower was to be topped with a 
notable fe;»ture, a spire composed of straight 
lines in one combination or another was the 
only treatment (I except such towers as S. Giles, 
Edinburgh, and the Cathedral, Newcastle, where 
cur\ed flying buttresses uphold a spirelet, but these 
from their rarity can scarcely be regarded as 

The development of Perpendicular tower build- 
ing tended greatly to the elimination of the spire, as 
in the Somersetshire churches, where the wealth of 
pierced parapet and pinnacle took the spire's place. 

Had the provision of a stage above the tower 
proper remained an organic essential of the treat- 
ment of church towers, perhaps something in the 
nature of a great domed lantern would have been 
evolved in late Perpendicular times on the lines of 
the lead cupolas on the turrets of Hampton Court. 
As it is, we have to wait for the full tide of the 
Renaissance before the dome comes into its own, 
and to look to Sir Christopher Wren in particular 
for its noblest expression. 

The description ' lantern ' applied to such 
steeples as St. Bcne't, Paul's Wharf, deserves 
attention. The original purpose of a lantern is 
obviously to give light, and the notable lead lan- 
tern of Horham Hall, near Thaxted, Essex (fig. i), 
is the l^est possible example of this use. It is, in 
fact, a beautiful architectural expression of the 
same need as is scn-ed by the range of vertical roof 
lights in a modern billiard-room. At Horham 
Hall the provision of light is the first consideration, 
and the craft of the plumber is spent on emphasizing 
the window openings by vigorous vertical and 
cross lines rather than on beautifying the roof. 
Horham Hall was built at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, and there is nothing in the 
design of the lantern to contradict so early a date. 

At Christ's Hospital, Abingdon, Berks (lig. 2), 
the lights of the lantern were untouched by the 
plumber, who spent his energies on the ogee roof, 
with no little help from the smith on the vane. 

The hospital was founded in 1553, so the lan- 
tern, dated 1707, marks a period' of renewed ac- 
tivity. A pleasant feature of this Abingdon lantern 
is the placing of lead ornaments on the roof itself. 
About half way up, gilded crowns stand out and 


bre.ik the ogee outline, and are doubtless examples 
of many like decorative gaieties which have gone 
from other roofs with the passage of time and 
thoughtless repair. Abingdon is rich in lanterns, 
for theextiuisite m.iiket house built by Christopher 
Kempster, who worked under Wren at S. Paul's, 
has a lantern of great delicacy of detail. 

The leaded lantern of Barnard's Inn Hall, now 
the Mercers' School (lig. 3), is probably as perfect 
an example as can anywhere be found of the right 
adjustment of the elements of light-opening and 
roof. The point where the tip of the ogee joins 
the finial has been very clumsily repaired, but 
even with this blemish the composition is 
altogether delightful. It is complete plumber's 
work. There is no shirking of the technical 
difficulties involved in sheeting with lead the 
mullions of the lights (as at Abingdon, where the 
wood is left unprotected), and the proportion 
between the cusped openings and the sturdy 
mullions could not be bettered. 

This lantern, however, is purely an architectural 
feature. It does not light the hall, and may be 
regarded, therefore, as of the type of roof fleche, 
a beautiful example of which was illustrated in 
The Bi'RLiNGTON of August 1906. The ceiling 
of the hall is comparatively modern, and it may 
be that there was in the original ceiling an 
opening below the lantern, which would in that 
case have senxd to ventilate. The ' lantern ' idea 
is altogether absent from the exquisite lead turret 
roofs of Hampton Court (fig. 4). The richness of 
treatment there, the wealth of crocket and 
pinnacle and the great applied roses, make the 
roofs worthy successors of the most decorative of 
English lead spires, that of East Harliiig, Norfolk. 

The composition is simple and natural. The 
lower octagonal stage takes up the lines of the 
brick turret, and is surmounted by an ogee cupola. 
As in Barnard's Inn lantern, the feeling is wholly 
gothic, though the rather nondescript shape of the 
eight little finials gives an uncertain touch and 
indicates the arrival of new motives. The marked 
neglect by Wren of the decorative possibilities of 
ornamental leadwork cannot be more acutely 
recognized than by comparing the wealth of detail 
in the Hampton Court turrets with the sobriety of, 
say, the lantern of S. Bene't, Paul's Wharf. 

Fine detail there is at S. Bene't's, but it is in the 
wooden cornice mouldings. The leadwork is 
subsidiary and protective. In Wren's most orna- 
mented steeple, S. Edmund's, Lombard Street, the 
decorative urns arc apart from the structure. At 
Hampton Court the orn.mient is organic and has 
relation to the lines of the roof. 

Turning now to Wren's use of the dome in 
connection with the lanterns surmounting church 
towers, possibly his finest woik is at S. Bene't, 
Paul's Wharf. 

There is a peculiar interest attaching to this 

— f- 

('j) s. H 

(7) S. XKMOI.AS, Ciil.E AllllEY 


(■H) S. I'llll.ll-, IIIKMIXr.llAM 

(9) \ATI(iN,\l. tiM.I.KMV 
I liVliliV 


church, as Wren's i^ predecessor, Inigo Jones, 
was buried in the pre-P"ire church in 1651. Un- 
happily, his monument was destroyed when the 
church fell to the flames. The church was 
re-built by Wren in 1685, and, apart from the 
exquisite lead lantern, the whole building is a 
miracle of sane and simple art. The photograph 
(tig. 5) is of happy effect in showing the little lan- 
tern of S. Bene't against the bulk of S. Paul's. 
It is impossible, within the compass of this article, 
to do more than touch on this, the greatest of all 
English leaded domes. It is not, moreover, in the 
same category as the lanterns of the City churches, 
with which I now deal in completing my slight 
survey of Wren's leaded steeples. They all meet 
the same architectural need, of furnishing a suit- 
able crown to a square tower. At S. Paul's the 
plan below the dome is circular, and is altogether 
stti generis. 

1 have in earlier articles insisted on the texture 
value in lead roofing of the rolls, which make the 
junction between adjoining sheets of lead. At 
S. Paul's, Wren has emphasized this surface 
treatment by having the lead dressed over great 
moulded ribs. It is a purely constructed decora- 
tion, but of interest as suggesting the value which 
Wren attached to texture. 

When writing of domes, one cannot forbear 
reference to the greatest of all leaded domes, 
those of the Church of The Holy Wisdom at 
Constantinople, or avoid some comparison of the 
characters of Byzantine and Renaissance domes. 

Perhaps the outstanding features of Wren's 
more conscious art are the elaborate lanterns 
surmounting the domes proper, and the fact that 
where the dome is seen also from the inside, as at 
S. Paul's, the inner and outer lines do not agree, 
the inner line being, of course, to a much flatter 
curve. In the case of lanterned domes sur- 
mounting towers, as at S. Bene't's, this discrepancy 
does not arise, as the inside of the dome is not 
visible. It goes, however, to show that Wren's 
chief idea in S. Paul's dome was to create an 
architectural feature dominating London, and to 
establish a relationship between the cathedral and 
the steeples of the parish churches, ratlier than to 
provide a roof to the crossing. 

The dome and lantern of the destroyed 
of S. Bene't Fink bore a marked 


likeness to those of S. Bene't, Paul's Wharf, but 
with one notable difference. 

At S. Bene't F'ink the cupola was square on plan, 
wheras at Paul's Wharf we have a true dome, 
circular on plan. Wren here goes about his work 
in a straightforward way. There is no attempt to 
mask the change from square to round by corner 
v.ises or any like device which might have 
tempted a lesser man, and the steeple is by so 

London Leaded Steeples 

and demolished in 1844. 't stood on the south 
side of Threadneedle Street, where the late 
Mr. Peabody now sits in bronze. The cupola 
with lantern was a fine feature of one of Wren's 
most ingeniously planned churches. The site 
forbade a rectangular plan, so Wren turned it into 
a decagon and attached the tower to its western 
face. It will be noted that this lantern, though 
similar in design to that of S. Bene't, PaiJ's 
Wharf, is smaller in proportion to the cupola, and 
the cupola lights are less important. The illustra- 
tion (fig. 10) shows what London has lost in losing 
S. Bene't Fink. 

By way of comparison with Wren's treat- 
ment of leaded domes and lanterns, 1 illustrate 
Archer's tower of S. Philip, Birmingham (fig. 8). 

much the gainer in breadth and simplicity. 
S. Bene't Fink was rebuilt by Wren 





LiOfiiiou Leaded Steeples 

The tower proper is certainly the finest part of 
this spendid composition, but the dome is a very 
notable achievement. It m.iy be felt that the 
columns supporting the small cupola are a little 
attenuated and the balcony railing rather trivial 
in detail, but, taken altogether, the dome bears 
comparison with all but Wren's best work. The 
detail of Archer's Icadwork is full and careful. 
The columns supporting the cupola are cased in 
lead, which is heavily seamed at the joints. The 
capitals have elaborate acanthus leaves in gilt cast 
Icjid, and the b.ases are cast in rings and fitted 
round the columns. S. Philip's is altogether a 
notable church in a city not too notable for 
architectural beauty. 

The leaded dome of the National Gallery (fig. 9) 
is very different, but very interesting. Built as 
late as 1839 by Wilkins, the dry classic detail of 
the leadwork is almost as far removed from 
Wren's straightforward, rather thoughtless manner 
as from the luxuriant crocketting of the best 
mediaeval work. It shows an appreciation of the 
N'alue of pattern on bold curved surfaces, even if 
it fails altogether of an understanding of the right 
treatment of lead roofs. 

Finally, I return to the two Wren lanterns which 
defy classification perhaps more vigorously than 
any other of his church steeples. 

The lanterns of S. Nicholas, Cole Abbey, and 
S. Edmund, Lombard Street, may be grouped 
together by their likeness in curious outline. Ifhe 
former was re-built in 1677 and the latter in 1690. 
Both are very characteristic work, examples of 
Wren's wealth of invention. The lantern of 
S. Nicholas (fig. 7) has been a good deal abused 
and not altogether without reason. Wren's use of 

a railed balcony at S. Martin, Ludgate, was a 
bold stroke which is justified in the result. 
Hardly so much can be said for the like feature 
at S. Nicholas, Cole Abbey, and above it Wren 
seems to have lost himself in a kind of architec- 
tural marine store. At S. Edmund, Lombard 
Street (fig. 6), the lantern is coherent, if a little 
fretted by (he number of flaming urns. It is 
moreover of admirable proportion, the lantern 
with its louvrcd lights forming a satisfactory stage 
between the tower and the concave spire sur- 
mounting it. The word 'spire' in connection 
with S. Edmund sounds almost ridiculous. 
Perhaps in none of his steeples did Wren break 
away more violently from traditional treatment. 
It is unfortunate that S. Edmund is so little 
visible. It is only from St. Clement's Lane that it 
can be seen at all satisfactorily. PVom Lombard 
Street the steeple is hardly within sight, so narrow 
is the street and so lofty the tower. 

In closing this third article on London's leaded 
steeples, I may perhaps be allowed to be grateful 
to the Editor for giving me so much space for a 
too little studied branch of Wren's work. The 
stone steeples, such as S. Mary-le-bow and 
S. Bride, have been illustrated and described a 
thousand times, but of the leaded steeples there 
has been some neglect. I can only regret that 
it has not fallen to an abler and more experienced 
hand than mine to attempt to fill the gap, and to 
establish some kind of relationship between the 
lead steeples of the Renaissance and those of 
gnthic times.' 

' My thanks lor permission to reproduce illustrations ate due 
to Mr. W. Niven, F.S.A. (fig. lo), and to Mr. J. C. Brand (fig. 8) 
Fi?s. I to 4 are fron my collection of leadwork photographs 
taken by Mr. Galsworthy Davie. 

cA^ CHARDIN r*^ 

Ik the word sensation may be used in connection 
with any exhibition of the quality of that recently 
held at Whitechapel, then the revelation of the 
three paintings by Chardin, in the possession of 
the university of Glasgow, may be described by 
that term. The Woman uilh a Fiyiiiii Pan, which 
we reproduce in photogravure, was perhaps the 
most generally attractive of the three, but all 
possessed those qualities which make Chardin's 
name count for more and more as our know- 
ledge of painting grows. 

We are gr.idually recognizing that Chardin is 
one of the world's most perfect oil-painters. He 
uses the medium with an appreciation of its 
peculiar qualities as sensitive as that of Velazquez ; 
he knows exactly how much to say and stops 

when he has said it ; his outlook upon nature is 
at once broad and searching ; his sense of tone 
and atmosphere is infallible ; his taste in colour 
impeccable — and he blends all these gifts so 
happily that the Dutch masters seem petty in 
comparison, and the modern genre painters poor 
in quality or clumsy in touch. There is a curious 
resemblance to Millet in the subject chosen for 
illustration, both in the actual things represented 
and the spirit with which they are rendered, yet 
Chardin's simplicity differs from that of Millet in 
that it is more equ.ible. He looks on the world 
with a calm gaze, Millet with an eye that is im- 
passioned, perhaps even indignant. Millet may thus 
clutch us more vigorously, but it is the quiet firm- 
ness of Chardin that will hold our attention longest. 


The interesting version of Van Dyck's equestrian 
portrait of Charles I, which is one of the most 
striking features of Messrs. Shepherd's Spring Ex- 


hibition, is given by but not quite uni- 
versal consensus of authority to Gainsborough. 
That it is not by Van Dyck himself is tolerably 


c// Qopy of Van T>yck by Gainsborough 

clear from a comparison witli the famous picture of 
the subject in the National Gallery, and the less 
known preliminary version at Buckingham Palace. 
The treatment of the head is sufficient evidence 
againsttheauthorship of Van Dyck, apart from such 
details as the treatment of the foliage of the large 
tree on the right, or the smaller one in the middle 
distance to the left, and the excessive thinness of 
the pigment, which has not the peculiar richness 
of Van Dyck. 

Yet if we reject Van Dyck we have no real 
altern;itive but Gainsborough. None of Van 
Dyck's immediate followers had the lightness of 
hand this picture displays ; no subsequent artist 
except Gainsborough inherited so much of his 
style and sentiment. His admiration for Van 
Dyck is shown by his famous saying on his death- 
bed ; Reynolds in his Fourteenth Discourse 
expressly states that Gainshorf)ugh made copies 
after Van Dyck which bore a striking resemblance 
to the originals ; and his position at court as one 
of the favourite painters of George III would give 
him constant access to at least one of the two ver- 
sions of this famous picture by Van Dyck. At 
Hampton Court there isa vei"y fine copy by Gains- 
borough of a Rembrandt portrait ; a second turned 
up, if we are not mistaken, in a London sale-room 
some half-dozen years ago, and was evidently 
regarded as an original. A photograph of a copy 
of a third Rembrandt (No. 775 in the National 

Gallery), which was submitted to us in 1905, also 
appeared to be from Gainsborough's hand. The 
copies of Rubens and Teniers mentioned by Rey- 
nolds are no longer known, and Messrs. Shepherd's 
picture seems to be the single extant work which 
may be a copy after Van Dyck. 

Distinctive marks of Gainsborough's style may 
be noted in the transparent handling of the ex- 
tremities of the large trees, a handling which 
resembles water-colour in its fluidity, whereas the 
foliageof Van Dyck is laid in with firm flaky touches 
that recall the manner of Titian. The thistle in 
the right foreground has its e.xact analogy in the 
portrait of General Honeywood recently seen at 
Burlington House ; indeed the whole of the 
picture to the extreme right is absolutely in Gains- 
borough's manner, for here, owing to the altered 
shape of the canvas, he had to rely upon his own 
powers of invention to fill the added space. 
Countless other details might be adduced which 
point to the same conclusion, but to a painter the 
harmonies of turquoise and silver grey in the sky 
and the superb audacity of the lustrous bronze of 
the horse will be evidence enough that we have 
here the work of a supremely gifted and accom- 
plished colourist. The field of conjecture being 
thus limited, the style would point definitely 
to Gainsborough, and to Gainsborough alone, 
even if no collateral evidence were forthcom- 



HEN one thinks of por- 
traiture as practised by 
Greek and Roman artists, 
one's mind naturally turns 
to the life-size busts or 
statues in marble or 
iironze which occupy a 

large space in most col- 

and especially in the great galleries at 
Tlie habit of making representations of 
people on a small scale and in other 
; was probably already in vogue to a cer- 
tain extL-nt among the successors of Alexander, 
as ail outcome partly of the growing taste for^V/i/v 
in all its phases ; but it was left to the artists of 
the early Roman Empire to develop it more fully. 
The most familiar form is that of the small por- 
trait busts in onyx or chalcedony, usually from two 
to four inches high, which are sometimes att.iched 
to a circular disc of the same material, and which 
are usually considered to be [^luilinii- — that is, de- 
corations for horse trappingsor furniture, or similar 
purposes. Possibly the idea may liave grown out of 
the art of cameo-cutting. From the cameo in high 
relief to the pitalcra is but a step, and indeed the 

pluiliTii with its disc background is only an exag- 
gerated cameo. And so we find that in the Aug- 
ustan age, when the art of engraving portraits in 
cameo was at its zenith, small busts in precious 
stone are of not uncommon occurrence. 

A bust of this description has just been acquired 
for the British Museum, thanks to the generosity 
of a donor who wishes to remain anonymous ; 
it is figured in two views on page loi.' 

It is a portrait bust of a Roman lady of the 
first century A.D., car\-ed in plasma (root of 
emerald of a rich cool transparent green). 'The nose 
and both ears are slightly damagetl, but except for 
these minor abrasions, the entire surface is prolvibly 
as fresh now as it w;is on the day it finished. 
The neck is broken away at the shoulders, so that 
it cannot now be determined whether the head 
formed part of a full-length statuette. Probably it 
was carved as a bust, and may h.ive betn intended 
to staiul in a setting ol some other material, metal 
or ivi>ry, in which the drapery and shoulders were 
suggested : liiis probability is increased by the fact 
that the underside of the neck has been drilled to 

'T(>crenderin>;s of the full face and proiile are pholc»i:raphed 
from a cast in which the nose is cn^riincntally rcitorcJ. 



A Portrait Bust of Agrippina 

receive a dowel. Thf lobes of the ears liavc been 
pierced, probably for the attachment of gold 

Among all the sculptures of antiquity which 
challenge a comparison with it, this bust stands 
pre-eminent, not only for the consummate art 
which characterizes it, but in the exquisite beauty 
of its material. The use of plasma for gem- 
engraving was hardly known to the Greeks, and 
seem'^ to have come into vogue under the first Roman 
emperors ; but the gems which have come down 
to us in plasma are mostly small intaglios : I 
know of only one other example of a larger 
sculpture in this material, and that is a fragment 
in the collection of the late Mr. Wyndham Cook : 
this gives the forehead and eyes with part of the 
hair of a woman's head on an almost identical 
scale, which seems to be from a portrait of the 
same personage, but which is of very inferior 

The British Museum head was published in ' Le 
Musee," 1905, p. 192, as a representation of Livia. A 
comparison, however, with the coin types shows 
that neither the features nor the stvle of head-dress 
agrees with this interpretation, but that it must 
certainly be attributed to Agrippina, the wife of 
Germanicus. I have given the full-face and profile 
views of the hearl with nose restored, side by side 
with the portrait of Agrippina as she appears in a 
bronze coin in the British Museum struck by 
Caligula in her memory ; it can hardly, 1 think, 
be doubted that the two are identical, and that the 
similarity of the style points to the coin and bust 
being contemporary. 

The head may thus be claimed as belonging to the 
greatest age of portraiture, and is a portrait of the 
chief lady of her time. That it was in antiquity 
an object greatly prized is probable from the 
selection of the material and from the enrichment 
with earrings ; but most of all, from the nobility 
of the art. I know of no portrait of any age, of 
any material or size, which is more impressive for 
a certain quiet dignity and liugeness of style : 
idealized it is, no doubt ; but the breathing human 
form is there, and the living sentient force of 
character, with the emotions that moulded it, arc 
in a subtle way suggeste<l : pathos, loyalty, a 
modicum of ambition, perhaps, the habit of com- 
mand, and above all a distinction which is only 
enhanced by the exquisite material in which the 
bust is car\-ed. It is the work of a master-hand. 

These are the qualities which we should a priori 
have predicated for a portrait of Agrippina. Among 
all the historical personages of the early Roman 
Flmpire, she stands pre-eminent as the most pic- 
turesque and attractive personality of her sex : at 
a period when moral laxity in high places had 
become the mode, and the wives and daughters f)f 


Caesars were no longer above suspicion, the wife 
of Germanicus figures as a shining example of 
those virtues which had marked the Roman matron 
of a sterner age. Of her earlier life we know little, 
save that she was born about B.C. 14, the daughter 
of M. Agrippa and lulia, and thus claimed 
Augustus as her grandfather. After her marriage 
she accompanied her husband on his campaigns 
and seems to have been the devoted sharer of his 
fortunes in more than name : for there seems no 
reason to discredit the story that in his absence, 
after a disaster to the Roman arms, she restored 
order among (he panic-stricken and mutinous 
legions, and saved the command by sheer force of 
will. The rest of her story reads like a Greek 
tragedy : the hand of fate, or rather of Tiberius, 
was he;i\7 against her ; the loss of her husband 
(done to death as she thought at the instance of 
Julia) was followed by the death of her two sons ; 
and then, the miserable existence at Rome, poisoned 
by the atmosphere of cruelty, suspicion and intrigue 
which hung around the court of Tiberius ; and, 
last act of all, the imperial indictment for high 
treason, her banishment, and death by self-imposed 
starvation (A.D. 33). 

Tacitus says in the 'Annals' (v. 4) that when 
the charge was brought against her before the 
Senate, a popular demonstration was made before 
the Curia in her favour, and that the people carried 
elifigies of Agrippina and of her eldest siui. The 
episode is significant on the one hand of the 
popularity which was probably one of the causes 
of her downfall ; but it also shows that portraits 
of her made at this date may be looked for, in 
spile of the imperial disfavour. After Tiberius's 
death, when her son Caligula had assumed the 
purple, he brought her ashes from the island of 
her exile to Rome, and struck the coin here shown, 
which is inscribed on the reverse : MEMORI.AE 
AGI^IFPINAK. This again might have been 
(and probably was) an appropriate occasion for 
the execution of portraits of her ; it does not 
greatly matter to which of the two dates we assign 
our bust, for the difference in time is very small, 
and the features of Agrippina were probably well 
known. Indeed, it is strange to find among the 
marble busts which have come down to us how 
very few can be definitely assigned to her. The 
well-known bust in the Capitol is the only one 
which gives a really satisfactory resemblance to 
the coins ; and as a characteristic portrait it is not 
the equal of the plasma. 

' Ingens animi, et quae virilibus curis feminarum 
vitia exuerat ' : such is the half-grudging praise 
w'hich the historian bestows on Agrippina. In 
looking at the newly acquired masterpiece, we 
may well believe this was true, and yet be tempted 
to add a panegyric of a more positive kind. 



MUST in the first place make 
the confession that until the very 
interesting and unusual little 
panel here reproduced was 
shown to me by its owner, the 
Rev. Lewis Gilbertson, I had not 
*»"N^yi R^^tJ devoted any especial attention to 
St'^J y-^t^Hip few extant works of Konrat 

Witz, one ot the most individual German painters 
among those who worked in the first half of the 
fifteenth century, and as such to be ranked in 
merit and importance, though not by reason of 
any closer artistic bond, with the somewhat earlier 
Lukas Moser of Rottweil, with the contemporary 
Meister Francke of Hamburg, and as one of the 
immediate precursors of Stephan Lochner, the 
master of the unique Donibild of Cologne, several 
figures of male saints in which strongly suggest the 
influence of Konrat Witz. I knew, indeed, the ex- 
tensive series of panels by him in the Basel Museum, 
all of them belonging to a great retable now dis- 
membered ; I knew the curious Si. Mary Magdalene 
and St. Katharine in the gallery at Strassburg, and 
had re-made acquaintance with this work, so much 
more accomplished in technique than it looks at 
first sight, in the recent Dusseldorf Exhibition of 
Primitive German Art. I knew also, but had not 
for some years seen, the little Holy Family in a 
Church of the Naples gallery. In hazarding the 
ascription of this little panel to Konrat Witz, 
I rely chiefly, however, on the admirable series of 
articles devoted to the subject by Dr. Daniel 
Burckhardt of Basel. The most important of 
these is contained in a sumptuous and unfor- 
tunately very scarce work, the ' Festschrift zur 
Erinnerung an Basel's Eintntt in den Bund der 
Eidgenossen.' The full account and description 
that it gives of all works by Konrat Witz then (in 
1901) known to exist is completed by a series of 
excellent reproductions, which are luckily on a 
relatively large scale. The point of departure, the 
foundation, indeed, of Dr. Burckhardt's demonstra- 
tion, is the one work by Konrat Witz — putting aside 
certain recently discovered fragments of the Basel 
retable — that I have not yet seen, and unfortunately 
the one which is of the most crucial importance in 
connection with my present attribution. This is the 
altarpiece executed for the Chapel Notre-Dame des 
Macchabees, of Geneva, by the master, in 1444, 
as a commission from Franfois de Mies, nephew 
of Cardinal Jean de Brogny, two large and impor- 
tant wings belonging to which have survived, not 
unharmed by Calvinistic vandalism, and are now 
in the little-visited Musce d'Archeologie attached 
to the university of Geneva. 

One of these panels bears the inscription : 'hoc 
opus pinxit magister conradus sapientis (sic) de 
basilea MCCCCXLiiil '— ' this work was painted by 
Master Konrat Witz of Basel in 1444.' It is in 

this very year that I would place the Crucifixion 
here reproduced. In his 'Studien zur Geschichte 
der Altoberrheinischen Malerei' (' Jahrbuch der 
Koniglich Preuszischen Sammlungen,' 27"" Band, 
s. 179), Dr. Burckhardt, in introducing two hitherto 
unrecognized fragments of the Basel retable— an 
Angel of the Annnnciation a.nd -dn Ecclesia — gives 
new information of high importance with re- 
gard to the life and career of Konrat Wit^, and 
also as to his father, Hans Witz, whom he 
identifies with that ' Hance de Constance, paintre,' 
who in his early days had resided in France 
(at Nantes), and in 1424-25 had been in the 
service of the splendour-loving Philippe le Bon, 
duke of Burgundy, by whom in those years he 
had been sent on missions to Paris and Bruges. 
The essential dates of the two painters' lives are 
thus, for the first time, more or less precisely fixed, 
and the course of their development is, from extant 
works, at least indicated, though obviously many 
gaps remain to be filled up. Another contribution 
to the subject is the article 'Zu Konrat Witz,' 
written by Herr Robert Stiassny in the same 
'Jahrbuch' (27'*' Band, s. 285). This introduces 
yet another important fragment of the Basel 
retable, a Queen of Sheba before King Solomon, 
which is to be found in the rich collection of 
Count Hans Wilczek, at Schloss Kreuzenstein in 
Lower Austria. There may be other literature of 
importance on a subject with which German art 
and German connoisseurship is just now so much 
concerned, but, if so, I am not acquainted with it. 
The dimensions of the little Crucifixion now 
introduced by me are: height i3iin. by length 
10} in. (sight measure), or in decimal notation, 
height 0'34 by length 0"26. It is painted on 
panel in what is known as the old Flemish technique, 
that is in oils, on a tempera foundation painted upon 
a ground of white chalk or gesso. In a good many 
places, alas 1 the surface is defaced and this gesso 
ground is clearly visible. But the little p.anel has 
suffered no material restoration, and intheuninjured 
parts, which are fortunately many, the painting 
has an enamel-like consistency, an unimpaired 
freshness and brilliancy. It is the astonisiiingly 
vivid and realistic treatment of the landscape 
background, the in the first half of the fifteenth 
century hardly to be paralleled feeling for 
atmosphere and aerial perspective, which first led 
me to the idea that the Crucifi.vion might be by 
Konrat Witz. Had he not in the Sliniculotis 
Draught of Fishes of the Geneva altarpiece — as can 
be seen even in a photographic reproduction — 
shown himself a landscapist not more tii.ui equalled 
in truth :md finesse of observation, though 
in beauty and variety, by the brothers Van Eyck 
themselves? In hardly any other painting of this 
early date would it be possible to point to sucii 
graded colour and true perspective of cloud in .i 


A ^Qrucifixioti^ hy Kotirat JVin 

sunset sky, to such obser\'ation of light in its play 
upon the surfaces of water, to such accurate 
notation of rock-form, of tree and shrub, to so 
spirited a rendering of the intinitesimal figures 
grouped on the sward and under the trees, and of the 
boats which dot the lake both in the nearer and 
the farther distance. The toucli in the trees in our 
picture is identical with that to be noted in the 
Genera piece ; the rendering of rock-formation is 
identical with that in the less subtle and less well- 
preserved 67. Clirislof'lu-r, which forms part of the 
Hasci retable ; the same curious treatment of 
loose stones, pebbles and shrubs distinguishes both 
l.mdscapcs. These scarcely visible yet thoroughly 
understood and mouvcutentc groups of figures to 
which I have just referred are a feature of both — 
and are to be found nowhere else, so far as I am 
aware. Some difficulty may be felt at first in recon- 
ciling the types, the facial peculiarities, the draperies 
of the various figures with those in the accepted 
paintings of Konrat Witz ; but a nearer examination 
will, I think, aid the careful investigator to get 
over these. And then the accepted works of 
the Basel master are not so easy at first sight to 
reconcile with each other. 

The strange, mask-like faces, the curious hieratic 
gestures and attitudes of the figures which fill the 
panels of the Basel retable belong to an earlier 
period of Konrat Witz's practice, and only with 
some effort, with some good will, can be made to 
fit in with the conception of the painter formed 
from the Geneva panels. And again, the little Holy 
Family in a Church of the Naples gallery shows an 
elongated type of head in the Holy Women which 
accords better with the types in this Crucifixion 
than with those in the Basel and Geneva pictures. 
The kneeling figure in that panel of the Basel 
retable which, perpetuating an ancient legend, 
represents the centurion Antipater before Julius 
Caesar, bears a really startling resemblance, not- 
withstanding an entire divergence of motive, to 
the kneeling figure of the donor in our panel. 

Though the artistic idiosyncracy of the painter of 
the Crucifixion — whoever he may be — is of the 
strongest, and too definite to be wholly dominated 
by that of any predecessor or contemporary, he 
betrays unmistakable marks of certain influences — 
and of just those that the Konrat Witz evolved for 
us by Dr. Burckhardt might be expected to 
undergo. The tnisc-en-sc'cnc, and, indeed, the 
whole conception, will at once remind the student 
of the Van Eycks, and more perhaps of Hubert 
than of Jan. Unless I am greatly mistaken, there 
is here to be traced a strong reminiscence — to put 
the case as moderately as possible — of the little 
Crucifixion by Hubert Van Eyck (but not entirely 
from his hand) which is in the collection of Baron 
Franclietti, at Venice, and is reproduced in the 
' Jahrbuch der Kuniglich Preuszischen Samm- 
lungen ' (26'" Band, s. 113). The Virgin and St. 


John in Hubert's picture may well have suggested 
those, in feeling, and even in aspect, very similar 
figures in our Crucifixion. Still nearer is the 
crucified Christ, however, to the corresponding 
figure in the representation of the subject by the 
Mastcrof Flemallewhich isnowin the Kaiscr-Fried- 
rich Museum, at Berlin. And this master's name 
has often been mentioned of late in connection 
with that of Konrat Witz — especially in con- 
nection with liis Si. Mary Magdalene ami SI. Kath- 
arine at Strassburg, which has many technical 
peculiarities in common with the work of the 
strong, austere Fleming, who stands midway be- 
tween the Van Eycks — but nearer to Hubert 
than to Jan — and Van der Weyden. The resem- 
blance of Witz's Holy Family in a Church, at 
Naples, to the productions of Jan Van Eyck, and 
particularly to the 'Madonna of Ince-Hall,' has 
been pointed out l)oth by Dr. Burckhardt and 
Herr Stiassny. The painter of this Crucifixion is 
sometimes a master of facial expression, as in the 
exquisitely pathetic Christ, and the Holy Women 
who mourn with a quietude so touching ; but 
sometimes, as in the figure of the donor (so Eyck- 
like in pose and in the treatment of the splendid 
crimson robe), he falls back upon the mask-like 
treatment of face and features that so repels us at 
first in the Basel retable. The flesh-tints are in 
every case but one those very pallid ones, slightly 
heightened with a delicate carmine, to which Dr. 
Burckhardt has called attention, the face of the 
dead Christ being absolutely pallid and the head 
inclined sideways and forward, like a broken lily. 
The one element of the little picture which h;is 
no direct analogue in the German, or indeed in 
the specifically Flemish, art of the time is this 
group of the Holy Women, who stand finely 
draped and rhythmic in attitude at the foot of the 
Cross. The Virgin herself is rolled all in lucent 
azure, the ligiire to the left in citron yellow with 
white head-gear, that on the right in brilliant 
uncompromising scarlet, similarly relieved. This 
scarlet is indeed the one false chromatic note in 
what would otherwise be a beautiful harmony. 
It is not a Flemish or a German colour — nor are 
the draperies, indeed, P'Icmish or Teutonic in 
fold : the whole conception of this particular 
group has something alien about it. If we re- 
member, however, that Hans Witz, the father of 
Konrat, was that ' Hancc dc Constance' who, while 
in the service of the duke of liurgundy, must have 
become acquainted with the Italo-French or Italo- 
Burgundian art of such men — Netherlanders in 
origin, though not in training — as Melchior Broe- 
derlam and Jean Malouel (or Malwel), and may 
have known, moreover, that of the great Pol 
dc Limbourg and his brothers ; if we bear in 
mind that this 'Hance' w;is thus necessarily 
steeped in the traditions of the art practised 
in France and Burgundy in the first years of 

THE CklClUXluN, UY KliNKAf WIl/ ol UV^KL 


- 3 

z a 

J ui 

_ o 

A ^Qrucifixion^ by Konrat JVitz 

the fifteenth century, we shall, I think, under- 
stand. Konrat VVitz, too strong an individu- 
ahty to be a conscious eclectic, in the later 
sense of the word, is nevertheless — even as we 
thus have him, perhaps imperfectly, before us — 
perceived to be an ultra-sensitive, whom, on the one 
hand the art of the Van Eycks, and perhaps of their 
kinsman, the Master of Hemalle, but on the other 
the Italo-French modes as practised by the Nether- 
landers acclimatized in France, have affected. But 
for all that, he consults nature at first hand, and most 
lovingly^-coming nearer to her in some respects 
than any man of his time, and surprising in his 
naive and necessarily tentative way some of her 
most secret beauties. To find a parallel for this 
treatment of landscape in German painting, it is 
necessary to pass on until one comes, some sixty 
years later, to Albrecht Diirer — nay, to pass on 
beyond this mighty, unflinching realist to Altdorfer, 
whose landscape art has just this lyrical Stiinmiing 
that the greatest of German masters does not, in his 
treatment of nature, command. All along I have 
been assuming, although I cannot at present go 
beyond assumption, that we have in the beautiful 
lake scene which constitutes the background of 
the Cnicitixion a study from some inlet of the 

Lake of Geneva. It is on this ground, but also on 
that of the relative maturity of the technique 
generally, that I have put forward the year 1+44 — 
the year of Konrat Witz's residence at Gene\'a, 
and that of the great altarpiece of Notre-Dame des 
Macchab(;es — as the date of our picture. 

But according to Dr. Burckhardt, he resided 
between the years 141 2 and 1427 at Constance. 
Should it be proved that this lake-view gives the 
painter's immediate impression not of theCJenfersee 
but the Bodensee, wc should be compelled to put the 
date of the Crucifixion back some seventeen years at 
least, and it would then stand forth a still more 
remarLable product of primitive German art 
Taking into consideration the points of technical 
and other resemblance belween the landscape of 
the Crucifixion and that most remarkable one of 
the Miraculous Draught of Fishes at Gene\'a, I 
cannot believe that any such period of years 
divides them, or that the former panel belongs to 
the earlier phase of Konrat Witz's style. For all 
its primitive freshness and its delightful savour of 
the art that seeks itself as it ad\-ances, 1 cannot but 
believe that this is one of the last of the Basel 
master's works, painted at his zenith, as it is 
shown in the Geneva panels. 


I E\V mediaeval works of art are 
nnore justly admired than the 
'ivory throne of St. Maximian, 
preserved in the treasury of the 
cathedral at Ravenna. The 
^panels of the e.\terior are 
idorned with scenes from the 
(Uld and New Testaments, and 
altoicl a Ntnkiiif^ u-xample of narrative art. On the 
front of the throne the four evangelists are grouped 
in pairs to either side of John the Baptist, each 
figure being placed in a niche formed by two 
columns surmounted by an arch in shell form. 
Though the throne cannot be earlier than the 
sixth century A.D., the classic poses and the 
drapery of all five saints are evident reminiscences 
of a period when the human figure was the main 
problem that occupied sculptors. It is on these 
front figures, then, that Strzygowski has been 
shedding fresh light in a paper read on his behalf 
by the compiler of this note at a recent meeting 
of the Hellenic Society, and published in the .April 
numlx'r of the 'Journal of Hellenic Studies' (pp. 99- 

Strzygowski, the distinguished champion of 
Graeco-oriental influence in late antique and in 

mediaeval art, had already in his work on 
Mschatta' claimed the throne as the product of a 
Graeco-Syrian art centre like Seleukia, or more 
probably Antioch. But this was on the ground 
that the forms and the style of ornament presented 
marked analogies to Graeco-Sjxian art. He now 
goes a long way towards definitely establishing his 
theory by pointing out that the five saints arranged 
in three larger and two intermediate narrower 
niches are clearly connected with the five figures — 
similarly spaced and, moreover, disposed within 
similar shell niches — which form a constant feature 
in the decoration of the long side of certain 
Graeco-Asiatic sarcophagi known as the ' Sidaraara 
group ' from the provenance of the largest 
example.' These monuments range in date from 
the Antonine period (e.g., the ' marri.ige sarco- 
ph.agus ' in the PaI;izzo Kiccardi) to the third and 
fourth centuries. They are all rem.-irkable for 
their hca\7 architectural forms and luxuriant 
decoration. When Stfitygowski first drew attention 
to their importance in his book, ' Orient oder Rom , 

' In ' Jjhrbuch dcr KOniglich Preussiichen Kuiuliammlaoceo' 
for IQ04. 

•C<. ' Monuments Piof I.K. Plates x>ij-xix (with text by Th. 


T^rofessor yoscf Strzygowski 

(1901), he was mainly concerned in proving the 
oriental character of the ornament, where effect is 
no longer dependent on modelling and consequent 
diffused light and shadow, hut where the liorer 
has supplanted the chisel, so that modelling 
becomes of secondary importance, while the flat 
surfaces stand out in sharp contrasting colour 
against the deep black hollows. This Might and 
dark ' style Strzygowski believes originated in 
Mesopotamia, whence he also derives another 
characteristic feature of both sarcophagi and 
throne — namely, the shell-niche. This niche, so 
typical at a later date of the art of Islam, occurs 
neither in Greek nor Egyptian architecture, 
whereas ' the ancient soil of Mesopotamia is the 
original home of the brick wall divided on the 
outside by flat, on the inside by rounded, niches' 
— a style of wall construction which, ' translated 
into stone, lirst makes its appe.irancc in the great 
temple buildings and Xyinphaca of Syria and Asia 
Minor.' Presumably, therefore, it is to an art 
centre influenced by this region that we should 
refer the group of sarcophagi which developed the 
niche motive ;is its type, and monuments which, 
like the K.ivenna throne, retain this motive as late 
as the sixth century. 

So far Strzygowski had said little concerning 
the figures, which, though at times sufficiently 
powerful and vivid, were yet, on the majority of 
sarcophagi, executed in a summary and even 
coarse m.inner. Some two years ago, howe\'cr, I 
chanced, in the collection of Sir Frederick Cook 
at Kichmond, upon certain fragments of singular 
lx;auty which had evidently belonged to a 
Sidamara sarcophagus, though they surpassed all 
known examples both in style and technique. 
I at once communicated to Strzygowski the 
existence of these fragments, and by their help he 
now set himself to examine the statuary motives 
on this class of sarcophagi, and showed that, in 
opposition to the oriental character of the orna- 
ment, the figures betrayed a purely classic tradition 
deriving directly from PrrLxiteiean and even 
Pheidian models. The sarcophagi may be as late 
as the third or fourth century, yet, strangely 
enough, the prototypes of the figures are found 
neither in the Hellenistic art of the first century 
A.D., nor in the baroque ol Rhodes or of Pergamon, 
but mainly in the art of the fourth century B.C. 
Among the Richmond fragments are examples of 
the nude which come near to the Ucniics of 
Praxiteles, and draped figures which are closely 
akin to the Muses on the basis from Mantinea, 
to the 'mourning women' on the famous sarco- 
phagus found at Sidon, in Syria (Lcs Pkurcuscs), 
and to the lovely veiled figure at Dresden known 
as the Matron of llcrciilancuin. From these 
observ.itions Strzygowski concludes that the 
sarcophagi which thus exhibit u purely classic 
tradition alongside of a distinctly oriental system 

I 10 

of decoration have their origin neither in Greece 
nor in Rome, nor even in Ephesus or any other 
district of Western Asia Minor, but in the Graeco- 
Asiatic angle which lay nearest to Mesopotamia, 
and had Antioch as its art centre, from whence 
the closely cognate Ravenna throne must also 

Strzygowski also succeeds in explaining the 
remarkable arrangement of the figures within 
three niches and two narrower connecting inter- 
spaces, that obtains on both throne and sarcoph.igi. 
The clue to the arrangement he finds in the 
beautiful fragment of an ivory diptych, with the 
archangel Michael standing at the top of a flight 
of steps (British Museum). From the nature of 
its technique and ornament, it is easy to surmise 
that this ivory also has a Syrian origin ; in the 
treatment of the drapery it evinces points of 
contact with the throne of Maximian, while, like 
both throne and sarcophagi, it shows the typical 
arrangement of a single figure within a niche. 
But it also presents a new and unique feature in 
the six steps which lead up to the height of the 
bases of the columns. Now, as Strzygowski 
shows, the figure, if kept in the plane of the top 
step, would have been thrown back into 
shadow, and thus lost its significance ; or if pro- 
jecting forward, as actually happens, the lower 
part of the body would naturally recede 
towards the background. To obviate this diffi- 
culty, the sculptor has placed his figure with 
the feet covering three steps at a time, in a posture 
which is frankly impossible. Whence comes this 
unsuitable motive ? The solution of the problem 
Strzygowski finds in those Pompeian wall-paint- 
ings of the fourth style, which derive from the 
architecture of the Greek theatre, and in which 
the figures, placed within a doorway on a flight 
of steps, are imitated from actors on the stage. 
An analogy to this interpretation is afforded by 
that of Karl Holl,' who detected in the sculp- 
tured screen, or ikoitostasis of the orthodox church, 
a survival of the f^roskciiion or scaciiac froiis of the 
ancient theatre, and suggested, accordingly, that 
characteristic features of the Greek liturgy such as 
the €r<ro5o« are none other than the acts of the 
Hellenic drama. With the help of the Pompeian 
paintings, moreover, the architectural setting on 
sarcophagi and throne becomes clear. The three 
larger niches represent the actual doors of the 
stage wall, and the narrower niches the interspaces 
between the doors. 

It is naturally only in a great city that the 
motives of stage architecture could influence 
painting and sculpture, and in this fact Strzy- 
gowski finds a further proof of the Antiochene 
origin of his sarcophagi, of the throne, and also 
of the British Museum ivory, 'in which the 
motive of the theatre steps has been so strikingly 

* ' Archiv fiir Rcligionswissenschalt,' ix, p. 36J f. 

preserved.' F"or at Antioch we find united the 
various characteristics that manifestly influenced 
this whole series of monuments ; it was a brilliant 
and luxurious city where the drama would flourish 
and the theatres would be magnificent ; it was a 
Greek art centre and yet was in close contact 
with the further orient. 

Such are the main points in Strzygowski's thesis 
of an Antiochene school, represented by the 
Sidamara sarcophagi and by certain Christian 
ivories. One question, however, forced itself upon 
me as I translated or read his paper, and must 
have occurred, I think, to many who were present 
at the meeting. How, namely, does Strzygowski 
explain the existence, as late as the third or fourth 
century a.d., of a school of sculptors who ccjuld 
so refashion ancient classical types that Strzy- 
gowski himself, in the presence of the Richmond 
fragments, feels reminded, in one case, of a statue 
of Our Lady in the Annunciation of some gothic 
cathedral ; in another, of a figure on Or San 
Michele, or on Giotto's Campanile ; in yet a third, 
of a prophet conceived by some master of like 
power and originality to Donatello ? Strzygowski 
searches for the prototypes of these figures in a 
remote past, because, he says, such creations ' are 
incredit)le in the Roman period.' At the same 
time, so profound an art critic as Strzygowski 
need scarcely be reminded that, in any work of 
art, the type reproduced accounts only very 
partially for the total effect. He himself shows, 
in the present paper, that a classic model of 
supreme excellence like the original of the Million 
of Herctilaucuni can in the hands of artists less 
inspired than those of the Richmond sarcophagus, 
degenerate into mere caricature.* Copying at its 
best is only academic : its highest quality is 
accuracy; but the most skilful copyist's work even 
of Augustan or Hadrianic times certainly carries 
no suggestion of the spontaneous vitality of either 
a Giotto or a Donatello. 

Now Strzygowski, in opposition to Riegl or to 
♦'journal of Hellenic Studies,' 1907, p. io6. 

Professor jfosef Strzygowski 

Wickhoff, has formed so low an estimate of the 
creative power of the late antique that his brilliant 
theory of an old tradition of classic figure sculpture, 
surviving in the cultivated cities of Sjxia, seems 
inadequate to explain such phenomena as the 
Richmond figures, which, as he himself admits, 
are ' creations ' in the true sense of the word. 
Nay, even the persistence of a tradition of figure 
sculpture is incomprehensible if we are to accept 
Strzygowski's assertion, repeated in many books 
and articles, that Hellas and Hellenism succumb 
to the influence of the orient, whose progress is 
marked, according to him, by the disappearance 
of the figure in favour of mere ornament. Yet the 
Sidamara sarcophagi, the Rivenna throne, the 
ivory diptych with the archangel, are all e.xamples 
— ranging from the second to the sixth century 
A.D. — that show figure and ornament in dis- 
tinguished and even triumphant alliance. If the 
beautiful Richmond fragments induce Professor 
Strzygowski to think more highly of the creative 
ability of the period which he is himself daily 
re-discovering, it must be counted as not the least 
of their merits. 

Two side issues that arose in connection with 
the paper may be mentioned here. The existence 
of the beautiful but unknown fragments at Rich- 
mond show once more the unexplored and unsus- 
pected wealth of our English private collections, 
a point to which I ventured to draw attention in 
my introductory remarks. On the other hand. 
Miss Gertrude Bell, the distinguished Syrian 
traveller, in commenting on Strzygowski's theories, 
took occasion to point out that, in view of the 
growing recognition of Syriii as one of the most 
influential art centres of antiquity, England should 
now attempt to create an adequate Graeco-Syrian 
collection. At Berlin, for instance, in the Kaiser 
Kriedrich Museum, the admirable facade of 
Mschatta can be studied pnictically in its entirety, 
and Strzygowski's recent contributions alone show 
what an impulse this great typical monument has 
given to Graeco-oriental research in Germany. 


HE absence of early Spanish 
paintings from our national 
collection is in some measure 
compensated for by the exis- 
tence of two examples of the 
Valencian school among the 
treasures of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. 

The great altarpiece pur- 
chased in 1864, depicting the lAfc and Ma>t\tdom 
0/ St. Gt^orgc us pillion of Ara^on, is well known, 
doubtless, to most visitors to' the museum. The 
other painting, acquired in the following year, is an 
Adoiaiion of the .Uw;'/. signed ' Lo Fil de Mostre 

Rodrigo,' and is at present loaned to the National 
Gallery. Both works typify currents in the artistic 
production of the Mediterranean side of Spain in the 
fifteenth century : the ;Utarpiece, in m.ay be 
called thegothic style, reflects, as do also many paint- 
ings from the adjacent Catalonia, South German in- 
fluence, but in scenes of unp.iralleled and terrible 
intensity ; the Adoration, now reproduced for the 
first time,' is a complex presentment by a native 
temperament of non-Spanish elements — of a 

' Pl.ilc, r->Ke ">8- '" Kijno's ' Cjlalogue of the .\rt Objectj 
of Sp.inish I'roJuctioii in the S. Keiuinston Museum." l!'7l. the 
approximate aire of this work is nivcn 15511 8 in. in heichl. 
411. 104 in. in width. It is in oil upon panel. no« upon cmtm 
as is there sl.ited. 

I I I 

An Early Valencian blaster 

passably Netherlandish Madonna, of Italian Re- 
naissance ornament and edifices of divers styles 
and nationalities. 

The Holy Family is depicted before and to the 
left of a ruined buildinj; intentled to be of classical 
architecture. The Hlessi-d \'irgin, who bears the 
Infant Christ upon her rij;ht knee, is clad in a red 
dress and a voluminous pale fjreen mantle ; 
lieyond them Joseph leans upon his staff within 
a doorway. 1 he kiieelinji king wears a red tuiiic 
worked with various devices in f^old, over a robe of 
tl.irk j^reen brocade, with black sleeves, and the ends 
of his lonj^ 'false' sleeves of linen are tied 
together at the back. His companions stand 
upon the right of the picture ; the second 
king is in a dark golden rolie trimmed with ermine, 
a long red mantle and a hat of the same colour, 
within the brim of which a crown is fixed, and 
upon which there hangs a medal ; the third wears 
a kind of dalmatic of striped red and gold, worked 
with gold and sewn with pearls, and a fanciful, in which is set a cameo. The 
scene is watched from a staircase leading to the 
upper storey of the ruin by two youthful ligures. 
At the b.-ick, a semi-circular loggia with fluted 
cupola looks out upon an estuary with shipping, 
upon the further side of which, at the foot of a 
mountain, stands a walled city. Among the trees 
upon the near bank is a ruined tower, and nearer 
still is a troop of horsemen, one of whom carries a 
banner of St. George. At the extreme right of the 
picture a five-stf)ried circular structure stands 
upon some high ground ; on the left, in a hilly 
landscape, a stag is being hunted and a horseman 
crosses a bridge. 

The colour-scheme, though rich, is a subdued one ; 
the artist's realism is shown, not only in his choice 
of types, but in the rendering of shadows and 
effects of light and shade. In general effect the 
work is powerful and accomplished, though the 
drawing, of the hands more especially, leaves much 
to be desired. 

Extremely valuable when it is remembered how 

divided as to a Spanish attribution might be the 

verdict of connoisseurship, is the signature on the 

stone upon which the Madonna rests her feet. Of 

the painter that signed himself in Valencian dialect' 

' Lo Kil de Mestre kodrigo,' absolutely nothing is 

known. His artistic genesis can only be surmised 

from the internal evidence of the work itself, in 

the light of what is known of the Italian and 

Northern influences at work at Valencia in the 

late fifteenth century. It were rash, however, to 

insist upon such points as the introduction of 

' In the uae of the Caslil an form ' Kodrigo ' may lie the key 
lo Ihr arlist's eximction. 

cl.xssical architectural forms and antique reliefs 
side by side with Italian arabesque panels of the 
developed Renaissance, and with the pointed roofs, 
gables and the half-timbered structure seen through 
the loggia. Better evidence of the artist's acquaint- 
ance with the work of foreigners is his knowledge 
of the technique of oil-painting. In its arrangement 
the composition recalls a panel of the once splen- 
did alfarpiece of the Constable Pedro of Portugal 
(in the Nluseum of Antiquities at Barcelona), which 
dates from 1464-66.' From a comparison of the 
two works it appears probable that the ' Son of 
Master Roderick ' grouped his eight figures after 
those of the Barcelona picture. There the 
Madonna is upon the left, the kings face her on 
the right, and two small figures watch the scene 
from a door and a window high in the background. 
The only substantial alterations in the grouping are 
that St. Joseph stands behind the ^iadonna and 
that the ox, the ass and a horse are introduced into 
what is a somewhat narrower composition. 

Striking details of the work are the strongly 
marked types that do duty for the three kings. As, 
doubtless, they are portraits, one may be pardoned 
for suggesting an identification of perhaps the most 
individual of the three. The lineaments of the 
second king — he is seen three-quarter face — bear 
a strong resemblance to those of James II of 
Aragon (1458-79) in a portrait reproduced in 
Carderera y Solano's ' Iconografia Espanola.'* As, 
however, the date of this Adoration would appear 
to be circa 1500, the portrait, if of this monarch, 
would be a posthumous one. 

The history of the panel cannot be carried back 
earlierthan 1853. It is doubtless the work described 
by Passavant,' the property of an Italian ecclesiastic 
at Valencia ; he supposed the painter to have been 
son of the Master Rodrigo who in 1494-5 executed 
the lower range of choir-stalls, with carved panels 
depictingthe conquest of Granada, in the cathedral 
of Toledo. Carderera also appears to have been 
acquainted with a work or works of the artist and 
his father." 

'Reproduced in Sanpjre y Miguel's ' L03 Cu,itrocentis(as," ii. 58. 

*Vol. ii, pi. 4''>. This w.irk U in the possession of the ducal 
house of Villahcrmos.i at Madrid. 

*• Die Chi i-ittiche Kunsf in Spanion,' p. 85. 

• 'Discursos praticables del nobilisimo Arte de la Pintura.. . 
por Jusepc Marlincv,' pp. 5-6. i>W). The pissai;c in question 
(' of Lo FiIj de Mcstrc l<i>dri;j > and of his fa her there exists a 
valuable painting in which lirnier draiighlmanship and greater 
strtnglli of colour are .ipp.ireni, ') in hipdesslv garbled in Baron 
de Alcahali y do .Mosqucra's * Uiccionario biogralico dc V', ' pp. 28J-4, 1897. Carderera is there 
quoted to the effect that several previously mentioned anonymous 
works arc by Mestre Kodrigo. The truth would appear to be 
that the Utter, if a painter, has no artistic existence apart from impi ed by his son's appellation. 

I 12 




I \ V^ engraving here repro- 
duced forms the frontispiece 
of Prince Hoare's ' Inquiry 
into the Requisite Cultivation 
and Present State of the Arts 
of Design in England' (1806), 
a rare volume not in the 
British Museum, interesting 
in itself and doubly interesting as containing this 
unrecorded work of Blake after a design by his 
Antichrist of Art, Sir Joshua Reynolds. How 
Blake came to make this — his only and at first 
sight unaccountable — reproduction of a Reynolds, 
and to take his share in a volume which exalts 
Strange and WooUetf, Reynolds and the portrait 
painters — the very engravers and artists whrise style 
he abhorred— is an inquiry the answer to which 
throws some light on an obscure period of his 
life and the little-regarded friendships of those 

But first, considering the rarity of the book, a 
word as to its contents may not be out of place. 
It consists of three sections. Part I, 'Of the 
Advantages arising from the Culti\'atit)n of the 
Arts, and of the Methods most conducive to their 
Advancement,' deals with the 'influence of the 
Arts on the morals of a people ' ; Part 1 1 deals with 
the ' Establishment, Design, and Progress of the 
Royal Academy of Arts, and its Annual Exhibi- 
tions' ; Part III, 'Of the Powers of English 
Genius, conducive to Excellence in the Arts,' with 
the history of Art in England and its chief 
exponents in ii.iinting, sculpture, architectuic .uul 
engraving. REYNOLDS, as Hoare usually prints 

him, is hailed as the greatest European painter of 
his day ; Gainsborough is only ' placed above the 
common level of industrious talent' ; but perhaps 
the most interesting remark in the book is the 
statement that ' the F"rench are become collectors 
of English prints,' and, a little further on, that the 
'annual sum, amounting from fifty to a hundred 
thousand pounds,' formerly paid by English 
collectors for French engravings, has now been 
diverted to the works of English engravers. 

Turning to the problematical connection of the 
names of Blake and Reynolds, we find that from 
1 804- 1 809, as may be inferred from the almost 
complete cessation of engraved work, the former 
was busied with the designs for Blair's ' Grave,' 
and with most of those pictures which, in the 
latter year, formed the famous exhibition for 
which the Descriptive Catalogue was written. 

Between 1805 and 1817 no original engraving 
by him is known, and of hackwork in the shape 
of engravings after others' designs none is recorded 
by Mr. W. M. Rossetti between 1804 and 1809. 
The frontispiece, therefore, forms a link between 
the years in which he was believed to have laid 
aside the graver and that in which he again took 
it up. Why then, once more, should he have 
resumed it amid the pressure of other work in 
order to reproduce a picture by that artist whom, 
artistically speaking, he most hated ? The key ti> 
the problem lies in some sentences of Blake's 
letters to Hayley, which reveal the interesting fact 
that in 1804 Blake was in constant correspondence 
with the author of the book. Prince Hoare. The 
occasion of this intimacy is unknown, for none of 
their earlier letters have been preser\-ed ; perhaps 
they met at the Academy, where, as late as 1817, 
Blake was to be found drawing from the antique. 
Be this as it may, on February 23rd, 1804, we find 
him writing to Hayley: 'I inclose likewise the 
" Academical Correspondence " of Mr. Hoare the 
painter, whose note to me I also inclose. For I 
did but express to him my desire of sending you a 
copy of his work, and the day after I receivet.1 it, 
with the note expressing his pleasure in your wish 
to see it. You would he as much delighted with 
the man as I assure myself you will Ix' with his 
work.' The book referred to is Hoare's ' Extracts 
from a Correspondence with the Academies of 
X'ienna and St. Petersburg on the Cultivation of 
Painting, Sculpture and .Architecture,' published 
by him as Foreign Secretary to the Roral 
Academy in 1802 (his predecessor in that office, 
by the way, was no less a person than James 
Boswell). .-\ month or two later (.April 7th and 
27th) Blake, again writing to Hayley, gives stime 
details of a proposed scheme, '.is yet an entire 
secret between Mr. P. (Sir Richard' Phillips the 


I I 

Theory^ or the Graphic ^luse 

publisher '), Mr. H. and myself, for a new Review, 
which may be call'd a Defence of Literature 
a;;.iin5t those pests of the press, and a bulwark for 
j^iiiiiis, which shall, with your good assistance, 
disperse those rebellious spirits of En\7 and 
Malignity." The review never took shape, but 
when Hoare's new book was ready for the press 
the publisher was Richard Phillips, the engraver 
William Ulake. 

Hut no amount of friendly intercourse would 
h.ive induced Blake to engrave a work of Reynolds' 
for a IxHjk on art had he not thoroughly approved 
of the work in question. He must have recognized 
that the voice of the Foreign SecreLiry of the 
Royal Academy could be heard in the land when 
that of William Blake, Victor Igiiotiis, was 
inaudible, and so have been ready to do his part 
wlien Hoare declared before the world that art 
was not a toy in the hands of the great, but a 
living power, conferring honour on those who 
worked with and for her, instead of being 
honoured bv their patronage. In his attitude on 
this point indeed, Hoare deser\'es to be called the 
Ruskin of the Georgian era. His criticisms of 
contemporary .irt may be inadequate, his enthu- 
siasm for the Carracci raise a smile, but his claim 
to rank among those who in an age of blindness 
have eyes to see is expressed in the concluding 
sentences of the ' Inquiry,' a call to Englishmen to 
awake from their apathy and to be ' the first in the 
solemn restoration of the ARTS of DESIGN to the 
illustrious purposes they have, once in the world, 
achieved; by the public authorized direction of 
their powers to utility and social civilization ; by 
the dedication of them to national virtue and 

Turning to the frontispiece, 'sketched from the 
picture by Sir Joshua Reynolds on the ceiling of 
the Library of the Ropl Academy,' we find 
before us a somewhat difficult problem. The 
original picture, painted by Reynolds for the 
ceiling of the new Somerset House in 1779, was 
set in an frame, and considered the principal 
ornament of the rooms assigned to the Academy. 
An anonymous critic cited by Mr Graves 
('Catalogue of the Works of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds," Vol. iv, p. 1480 zz) describing the 
apartments in Somerset House, wrote of it : 
'The piece possesses a most beautiful light- 
ness, and the figure seems rather to hover on the 
air than to have any settled seat.' Theory, as the 
figure is here called, sits poised on airy clouds, 
clad in loose draperies of bluish white, and hold- 

'(!• her, and sheriff of London, 

an iir rist. He w-is, like BLilcc, a 

' :" .■ ' r scllinR P.iinc's 
n his principles, 

'- v. Inch m.iny dis- 

jlcd, wai a bulwark of the Radical 
I .tiire. Hi* subsequent acceptance of 

a Liii^lillti«>d and &liiicvalty arc difficult to reconcile with his 
previous career. 

ing in her right hand a scroll bearing the inscrip- 
tion ' Theory is the Knowledge of what is truly 
N.ATVRE,'' while her left supports her upturned 
head. When the Academy migrated first to the pre- 
sent National Gallery, afterwards to Burlington 
House, the picture, released from its o\-al frame, 
went with them, and down to the year 
1906, hung in the Diploma Gallery between Marco 
d'Oggiono's copy of the Lnst Supper and Poole's 
Wounded Fugitives, with Maclise's cartoon for the 
Battle of Waterloo and G. V. Watts's Death of Cain 
for near and most inappropriate neighbours. It 
has now been removed to the Council Room. 

Three smaller versions of the Theory are known, 
the whereabouts of which cannot now be traced, 
though it is much to be hoped that they may some 
day emerge from obscurity ; to these we shall return 
later. So far the history is plain enough, but with 
the engraving issued by J. Grozer in 1785, si.x 
years after the original was painted, dimculties 
arise.' Grozer represents it as it then was, let into 
an oval on the ceiling of Somerset House, but on 
the right arm of the figure appears a bracelet, 
and from her head a pair of compasses protrude 
like horns, while her scroll reads 'Theory of 

What was the authority for these changes ? 
Two explanations are possible : {a) that with the 
sanction of Sir Joshua the bracelet and compasses 
were introduced by the engraver for decorative 
reasons, while the inscription was shortened from 
motives of convenience ; (6) that he was working 
from one of the other replicas, which, as Mr. Graves 
has pointed out to me, were in Reynolds's studio 
at the time. On the whole it seems probable that 
Grozer was engraving from the actual ceiling, as 
the bracelet is absent in his first proof, and must 
therefore have been a deliberate addition, probably 
to break the long line of the right arm ; the com- 
passes, however, are present in the first as well as 
the final state, and to account for them is far from 
easy. They may, however, have appeared in one 
of the replicas, and have been incorporated with 
the more important version. 

One more puzzle reinains, namely, the three con- 
flicting titles of the picture, one of which was used 
during the artist's lifetime, the two last shortly 
after his death. The evidence for the three is as 
follows : — 

(i) Theory. 

{a) 1780, the anonymous writer of the 
' Description of the Apartments at 
Somerset House,' already cited. 
{b) 1785. Grozer's engraving, 

' Blake in his cngravinR has omitted all but the hrst word, ' 
obviously to do awav with the unsatisfactory effect of a crowded 
inscription in an outline drawing on a small scale. 

• The engraving by S. \V. Reynolds (i8jo) is a mere repro- 
duction of Grozer, and is therefore no independent authority for 
the bracelet and compasses, although, curiously^ enough, the 
title is altered to Dai^n. 


(c) 1796, when a replica was sold at Green- 
wood's as Theory of the Arts. (The same 
replica was sold at Christie's in 1868 as 
Theory of Painting.) 

(d) 1845. Catalogue of The British 
Institution, No. 163. 

(e) The apparently continuous tradition of 
the Royal Academy. 

(ii) Design. 

(a) A second replica sold at Greenwood's 

in 1796. 
(6) The engraving by S. VV. Reynolds, a 
small reproduction of the Grozer en- 
graving under an altered title. This 
name has been adopted by most modern 
writers on Reynolds, 
(iii) The Graphic Muse. 

1806, in the present volume. Prince 
Hoare was then Foreign Secretary of 
the Royal Academy and an enthusiastic 
admirer of Reynolds. 
Each of the engravings, it will be seen, gives the 
picture a different name ; and the frontispiece, the 
only one whose title is unsupported by other autho- 
rities, is likewise the only one true to the original in 
omitting the bracelet and compasses. Although a 
mere outline sketch, its greater dignity is due, first to 
that quality of line which was Blake's special gift, 
secondly to the absence of the oval in which the 
picture was then set, and in which it was otherwise 
engraved. In his attempt at restoring the shape, 
Blake proves that he had never seen the original 
apart from the oval frame, by making the picture 
look sqiiarer than is really the case ; the en- 
graving therefore does not represent the actual 
shape, only that which would be inferred from the 
misleading form of the oval. Another conse- 
quence is that Blake, not having seen- the clouds 
hidden under the frame, has filled in the corners 
with cloud-forms of his own, with breaks that 
suggest such depths beyond as appear in the pages 
of the America rather than the vague melting 
lines of the original. 

Technically, the lines of the engraving, broad in 
the shadows, finer in the lights, with a slight use 
of stippling for inner markings, recall a phnise 
applied by Burne-Jones to the works of Michel- 
angelo, ' he uses a pen as if it were a chisel,' and 
illustrate Blake's own description of his style in 
the Public Address prefixed to the engraving of 
the Canterbury Pilgrims, ' not smoofh'd up, and 

Theory^ or the Graphic Muse 

niggled, and poco-pen'd and all the beauties paled 
out, blurred and blotted ' in the style of Blake's 
artistic enemies, Strange and Woollett, ' but drawn 
with a firm and decided hand like Michael Angelo, 
Shakespeare, and Milton.' Blake's Graphic Muse 
suggests a nobler than Reynolds, and is sifter to 
the Sibyls of the Sistine rather than a frigid 
eighteenth century allegory. 

Hoare's ' Inquiry,' then, is a rare volume con- 
taining criticism sometimes worth reading, sug- 
gestions even now worth considering ; but its 
chief interest lies in its frontispiece, in the problem 
of the name and attributes of the oiiginal picture 
— above all, in the connection of the names of 
Blake and Reynolds. In 1804 we find Blake 
snatching a few moments from 'engraver's hurry, 
which is the worst and most unprofitable of all 
hurries,' to tell Hayley of his plans for a literary 
review to be conducted by Hoare and himself 
(with occasional help from Hayley, if the poet will 
be so good) in collaboration with the proposed 
publisher, Phillips. Two years later, when Blake 
had apparently laid aside the graver, and the 
project for a review has come to nothing, we find 
him engraving the frontispiece for a book written 
by Hoare and published by Phillips, which 
claimed for art with the voice of authority what 
Blake demanded in an imknown tongue, a highc-r 
place than she had yet attained in England. .And 
if Reynolds's Theory, graceful as she is, seems to 
us an unworthy embodiment of Hoare's appeal, 
we may recognize in the engraving an instance of 
Blake's readiness to give up personal prejudices in 
the cause of art, as well as an illustration of that 
creed which, in theory at least, Reynolds shared 
with him, a belief in the artistic supremacy of 

Note.— Tlirougli tlie kindness of Mr. Algernon Grave*. FS A., 
I ti.-\ve recently seen a new piece of evidence (the c ' :- 

ing reproduction of the 77i<rory) that the bracelet an.! 
whether due to the taste of J. W. Grozer, or adapt c 

of the sm.iUer replicas, were never present in the i 

the sketchbook of the painter Kdward Francis Bu: . . . :i 
of the author of ■ Evelina") once the property of the late Arch- 
deacon Burney, is a drawing of the Th^ry as it appeared on 
the ceiling of Somerset House ; against the drawing i~ written 
' Library, 1780.' As in the case of the engravini;^, the liciire 
has a squat and ungraceful look, too broad for it- ' ' ■ ' e 
to its position on the ceiling of the Library and il 

frame (not indicated by Burney) which cut off c 

cloud-setting of the original ; but the sketch, p«i« 
ous and .accurate even to the indic.ition o( the ;; 

inscription on the scroll, conveys a truer idc-i of il 

than any of the engravings, while its date gives il . -■ 

historical value. 



Last year' I communicated to this paper a short 
notice regarding a remarkably fine miniature by 

' See The BurusgtonMagazine, Vol. IX, page 14S 

Gentile Bellini, which I hid loiitul in Constan- 
tinople. If had . I Ttirkish inscription: 'Work of 
Ibii Muezzin who is a celebrate<:l m.ister among 
the Fr;inks.' I left it to the linguists to decipher 
these cryptic words, but I felt convinced th.^t 
sooner or later the correct reading would be 


^tcs on Various JTorks of z.4rt 

discovered and that it would confirm my opinion 
that it stood for Gentile Bellini. 

Dr. Sarrc of Berlin, who published an interesting 
article about the miniature in the A'. Preitssischer 
KumlsiJiniiiliiiig in Berlin, w;is at that time of a 
similar opinion. He has now published a short 
supplementary article in the last number of the 
same journal, the followin;^ extract from which 
is most interesting, ;is it actually proves that Ibn 
Nfuezzin stands (or and means Bellini. He writes 
as follows : — 

'A short time after the publication of my 
article, Professor Heinrich Brockhaus in Florence 
wrote to me saying that according to his opinion 
Ibn Mucz/in was no other than Gentile Bellini; 
the proof was in the following transcriptions : — 

Bellini = ibn bellin 


/iTt\Aa'=/ioiitffti' (muezzin) 

bellini=-ibn muezzin 

The Persian translation of Bellini (son of Bellin) 
into Ibn Bellin needs no comment. Regarding 
the second transcription, Professor Gardthausen 
of Leipzig (one of the greatest authorities on 
Greek epigraphy), to whom I communicated the 
suggestion of Dr. Brockhaus, has been kind 
enough to give me the following explanation : 
' The Greek at that time pronounced, just as now- 
a-days, the /3=v. I cannot say for certain how 
ancient this transcription is ; in any case it may 
lie supposed to date from the fifteenth or sixteenth 
century, .and that is what is of importance for our 
present purpose.' The word 'Bellin' could therefore 
not be written in Greek otherwise than as liViXXii: 
But the Greek letter t was at that time written in 
a form very much like the Greek v or the Latin w, 
and could easily have been misread as ov. The 
letters X ;ind C show also in our day a certain 
similarity which was still greater in the fifteenth 
century. Hence it was possible that the word 
fiTTiWiv could be read as /tovtffii' without any 

1 imagine the whole thing happened as follows: 
on the miniature there was an inscription in 
Greek letters, either on the back or somewhere on 
the margin, that it w;is a work of the celebrated 
Krankish master Bellini, or rather Ibn Bellin. 
This inscription threatened to disappear or to be 
cut away when, at the end of the sixteenth century, 
tlie owner cut down the edges and pasted it into 
an album. 

This man had no idea of the personality of 
Gentile Bellini or of his short stay in the Turkish 
aipital once, a hundred years before. Deceived by 
the prefix ' Ibn ' which suggested an oriental name, 
he read instead of /irtAAif the word out of his 
own language and familiar to him, /io>'«CC"', and 
thus on the small label which he put on instead of 
the old inscription, the famous Krankish master 


Bellini or Ibn Bellin became the mysterious Ibn 
Muezzin, i.e., the son of the prayer-caller. 

Thanks to the brilliant interpretation of the 
inscription made by Heinrich Brockhaus we have 
therefore now full proof of the former hypothesis. 
We possess in the charming miniature portrait of 
the young Turkish calligrapher an undoubted 
original of Gentile Bellini dating from the time of 
his visit to the court of the Sultan in the year 
1479-80.' F. R. Martin. 


The Fine Art Society may be congratulated on an 
unusual and attractive exhibition. The e.xplanatory 
note contributed by Mr. A. Wallace Rimington to 
the catalogue draws attention to a recent great 
awakening in Germany to the beauty of the 
national ironwork. It may fairly be said that no 
such awakening is needful in this country. Our 
museums, and notably South Kensington, have 
long been active in acquiring rich examples, but 
the bulk of the best of them are foreign. The 
exhibition is catholic and spread over a long 
period. The later Renaissance work is not very 
interesting or representative, but the mediaeval and 
early Renaissance locks, handles, hinges, etc., are 
a liberal education in the best work of the smith. 

The outstanding features of the work are the 
amount of tooling and engraving on the fiat surfaces 
and the general absence of punched ornament 
when compared with contemporary English work. 
There is also in the locks a greater application of 
pierced and repousse work to the face of the 
frames. The general impression one takes is that 
the German craftsman got a bigger effect for his 
labour than his English brother. 

The bulk of the collection consists of the smaller 
objects, but the larger things have peculiar beauty, 
notably some gratings. In one round-headed 
example a delightful effect is won by the inter- 
lacing of round rods curled and twisted in a sober, 
delicate fashion. There are also a few grilles made 
by piercing simple patterns in sheet iron, and the 
effect is helped by some engraving on the strap- 
work that remains. One that has been gilt and 
outlined in brown has a delightful appearance 
now that time has dimmed it. 

There is a great number of key escutcheons of 
all periods, and we are struck by the great size of 
some of them, in fact by their undue proportion 
to the .actual keyhole. 

Another marked difference from English work 
is the absence of handle roses such as we have at the 
Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick, where tracery work is 
cut in strong relief out of the thickness of the plate. 

Altogether the exhibition is a most \-aluable one 
for all interested in the metal-working crafts. 
We suppose it is too much to hope that it will 
be acquired by the South Kensington Museum. 
Probably it will fall to an American millionaire. 

H^/es on P^arious IVorks of Art 

Having once got it into England we shall regret 
if it goes out again. 

With reference to the sketch by Rubens in the 
possession of Mr. F"rank Sabin, which was repro- 
duced in the April number of Tm-: Bi,'KLiNf;TO\' 
Magazine, Mr. Claude Phillips points out that it 
is not connected with the famous series of paint- 
ings in the Louvre, but with a projected series 
represented the lijc of Henri IV which was never 
carried out, but for which similar sketches of 
other subjects e.xist at Hertford House. 


The works of art created by the Umbrian genius 
are now collected and exhibited in the Historic 
Palazzo de' Priori, where they find an asylum well 
adapted to their origin and their traditions. The 
response to tJiis admirable idea of certain eminent 
art lovers was universal, while the Pope, the 
Governor, and private collectors, both Italian and 
foreign, have sent and are continuing to send 
objects of artistic interest. From Assisi come 
tapestries, by special permission of the Pope, and 
the silver plate from San Francesco, which hitherto 
was difficult to see, since it was shut up in the 
cupboards of the sacristy, and has never before 
appeared in an exhibition. From Foligno come 
pictures by Alunno ; from Spello, together with 
other paintings, the marvellous Virgin which 
Pinturicchio painted in his youth ; from Monte- 
falco pictures by its painter Melanzio ; from 
Gualdo, by its painter Matteo ; from the republic 
of San Marino several pictures of the Umbrian 
school ; from Paris some precious pictures by 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo and by Perugino ; from 
Gubbio paintings and a tazza by Maestro Giorgio ; 
from Deruta other paintings by Alunno and a 
pavement of the year 1524, found some months 
ago, which from its originality and the skill spent 
on it is unique of its kind and constitutes the 
greatest attraction in the section of ceramics. 
From every other country town in Umbria, such 
as Rieti, Corciano, Spoleto, Terni, Narni, where 
the Renaissance artist wandered, leaving traces of 
his skill, come pictures by Bernardino di Mariotto, 
by Tiberio d'Assisi, liy Piero della Francesca and 
by others so that the whole of Umbrian art, from 
its beginning to its highest development, is amply 

Superb copes, damasks and brocades come from 
the churches, convents and monasteries, with 
specimens of lace and Perugian fabrics with tigures 
of animals, grifVms and other symbols, which have 
been found in priv.ite collections ;ind ought to 
restore to the Umbrian weavers a reputation 
unrecognized by many and by others under- 
estimated. 1 have not sp ice to speak of the arms, 
the medals, the seals and the coins of Todi, Gubbio, 

Spoleto and other towns, constituting the collection 
of Umbrian numismatics, which will hardly be 
brought together again. 

Interesting, too, is the show of gold and silver 
smiths' work, of bronzes and the splendid chalices 
of the twelfth century, the monstrances, and 
especially the silver crosses with chiselled and 
enamelled ornaments of the masterly design and 
delicate execution of the celebrated Giulio Danti 
and Roscietto, who are not at present as well 
known as their merit de-serves. Intaglios, coffers 
and sarcophagi of the fifth and sixth centuries 
form another section, and not less worthy of 
admiration are the illuminated books contributed 
by libraries, convents and Benedictine monasteries, 
once so numerous in Umbria. 

The exhibition has also a section devoted to 
modern artists, in which reproductions of antiques 
of value and artistic interest are shown in appro- 
priate surroundings, and the majolica factory which 
has existed in Deruta for the last five hundred 
years will decorate one of the finest rooms with a 
pavement. Milziade 

The British Committee of the 'Golden Fleece' 
Exhibition at Bruges, which is to open on 
June 15th, invite those who possess important 
objects or relics immediately connected with the 
Order or its members, and would be willing to 
lend them, to communicate with the hon. secretary 
at 47 Victoria Street. Portraits, especially when 
displaying the collar and badge of the Order, arc 
desirable, except in the case of Charles V and 
Philip II, of whom adequate represenUitions ha\-e 
already been secured. 

An exhibition of unusual interest will be held on 
June 5, 6, 7 and 8 in the gardens of Aubrey House, 
Campden Hill, by permission of Mr. William 
C. Alexander. The exhibits will comprise 
antique lace, embroidery, miniatures and other 
objects of artistic or historic v;due, and among 
the contributors and moving spirits will be Mrs. 
Herringham, Mr. George Salting, Lady La)-ard 
and Mr. Fitzhenry. The beautiful gardens of 
Aubrey House will be open to visitors, and there 
will be performances of maypole and morris 
dances during the exhibition. The hon. >ecretary 
is Miss R. F. .Alexander, and there is a strong 
committee, including Mr. W. G. Rawlinson and 
other well-known art lovers. 

It seems probable that the folk-play to be acted 
in the .Abbey Grounds, Bury St. Edmunds during 
the week from Monday, lulv 8th, to S.iturd.»v, July 
13th, will be the best that' Mr. Louis N. Parker 
h.i-i vi-t produced. As .it SherlHirne and W.irwick, 
the work ol preparation — the making of costumes 
.iiid properties, the designing of the scenes and all 
the other branches of the enormous activity 
necessary to produce a spectacle of this kind — has 


^tes ON Various Jf'^orks of Art 

been carried out by the people of Bury St. Edmunds 
itself, so that the pageant will be a genuine result 
of the working of the corporate spirit of the town. 
The scene of the play will be the ground of the 
ruined ablx-y where St. Edmund was buried. It 
is needless to say, pcrh.aps, that one of the most 
important episodes will be the martyrdom of St. 
Edmund by tlic Danes, and the discovery of his 
head in the forest miraculously guarded by a wolf. 
A later episode shows tiie translation of his body 
from I^)ndon back to the abbey and its burial 
with great pomp in the shrine. Episode IV will 
interest readers of Thomas Carlylc, as it deals with 
the Abbot Samson who is the central figure of his 
' Fast and Present" ; while later episodes carry the 
story to the dissolution of the abbey. Bury St. 
Edmunds being so close to London and possess- 
ing so many relics of its historic past, besides the 
attractions offered by the pageant, the attendance 
promises to be even greater than that at Sherborne 
or at Warwick ; and it may perhaps be pointed 
out that any artistic clTort which enlists in this 
manner the service of all classes, and is a direct 
expression of local patriotism, is worthy of the 
attention of all who believe that art was not 
intended only for the few. 


To Ihe Editor of The Burlington Magazink. 

Dear Sir,— In The Burlington Magazine 
Jan. 1907, p. 243f., Mr. Claude Phillips attributes 
with sagacious arguments the little Pifiiig Faun at 
Munich and the Tcmpcsla di Marc at Venice to 
Palma Vecchio. Please to remark that I, in the 
' l\epertorium fiir Kiinstwissenschaft,' 1900, p. 
394f., and (with illustrations) in the ' Monatsber- 
ichte fiir Kunstwissenschaft," Miinchen, 1902, p. 
426, have already expressed the same opinion. For 
the rest, it is perhaps not without interest to remark 
that Mimdler ascribed the F'aun not with all 
precision to Palma Vecchio ; his words are only : 
(he is) worthy of the youth of Tizian or Palma 
Vecchio, ' der jugend des Tizian oder Palma 
vecchio wiirdig.' Cf. ' Recensionen und Mittei- 
lungen iiber bildende Kunst,' Wien, 1865, p. 365. 

I have the honour to remain. Dear Sir, 
Yours truly, qr. WiLHELM SCHMIDT. 

[Mr. Claude Phillips wishes us to say that he was 
unacquainted with the two articles in question, but 
is glad to hud that he is in agreement with Dr. 



Alfred Stevens et Son CEuvke. Par Camillc 
Lemonnier. Suivi des Impressions sur la 
Peinture par Alfred Stevens. Brussels : G. 
Van Oest. bo francs. 

It must be nearly thirty years since M. Camille 
Ixmonnier first wrote of Alfred Stevens. Then 
Stevens seemed to be at the height of his fame ; 
now he is dead, and for the artists of to-day, though 
not for collectors, is hardly more than uiaj^iti 
nomitiis umbra. Stevens indeed might almost be 
said to have died with the Second Empire, although 
his success outlasted it for more than ten years 
and his life for more than thirty. It is with the 
toiletlis of the court of the Empress Eugenie that 
his name will be everlastingly associated, it was in 
her circle that his talent shone most genially, and 
it is for that reason perhaps that M. Lemonnier's 
magnificently illustrated book is a memorial rather 
than a biography. 

On the painter's early life and on those brilliant 
years Ix-fore Sedan our author writes with his 
accustomed e;use and sympathy, but when the 
period of trouble and disappointment sets in the 
record grows more imcertain, like the reputation 
of Stevens hiniself. Perhaps the sti>ry was not an 
easy one to tell in woids, yet none the less we are 
sorry that the opportunity for telling it was not 
taken. Whatever our ideals of painting, we have 
to adroit that Stevens was a consummate master of 


his craft, and in a memoir so splendidly produced 
as this, the story of his latter years might well have 
been told as clearly as is that of his youth and 
early manhood. The fine series of large reproduc- 
tions omits his later and weaker paintings with 
much better reason ; for we are thereby enabled 
to trace the painter's course from the beginning 
to the culminating point of his career, and are 
made possessors of the cream of his work. 

The ' impressions sur la Peinture,' a collection 
of scattered thoughts on art put together about the 
year 1886, is a document which resembles in many 
respects the utterances of Whistler. We find in 
both artists the same high concern for the 
independence and the technical perfection of their 
craft, the same disdain both for untrained 
naturalism and uninspired chissicism. ' II faut 
formuler esthetiquementet non imiter servilement.' 
' Bien que le soleil donne la vie a la couleur, il est 
brutal en picin midi et devient anticoloriste.' 
' En regardant la palette d'un peintre on sait a qui 
Ton a altaire.' 'II f.iut apprendre a voir comrne 
en musique on apprend a entendre.' ' J'aimerais 
micux avoir peint quatre vessies et mie palette 
commc Chardin que I'Entrec d'AIexandre a Baby- 
lone de Lebrun.' And lastly we may quote a 
sentence which sounds like a premonition of the 
writer's own fate : ' Si Ton pleure la niort prema- 
turee d'un peintre, il faut aussi quelquefois pleurer 
celui qui, pour son art, vit trop age.' 

C. J. H, 


Original Drawings ok the Dutch and 
Flemish School in the Print Room of 
THE State Room at Amsterdam. Parts 
9-10. London : Williams and Norgate. 
£1 15s. per part. 

These two parts complete Dr. Mocs's sumptuous 
publication, which should he invaluable as a work 
of reference to all collections containing Dutch 
and Flemish drawings. These last instalments 
are among the most interesting of all, for they 
contain specimen drawings by some of the most 
famous of the artists of the Netherlands — Gerard 
Terborch, Jan Steen, Paul Potter, Ferdinand Bol, 
Adriaen van Ostade, Snyders, and the elder 
Breughel — while the landscape painters are repre- 
sented by examples of VVynrmts and Hobbema. 
As in a previous part, Lcly appears as no unworthy 
successor to Van Dyck, his study of the robes of 
the Chancellor of the Garter having a largeness of 
style which many of the others lack. Among the 
portraitists Crispin de Passe, Jacob de Gheyn, 
J. Wiericz and B. W. Vaillant figure promi- 
nently, so that there is no lack of variety in the 
selection. What gives it peculiar value, however, 
is the extraordinary skill with which the facsimiles 
have been executed. For all practical purposes 
they are equal to the originals, whether the method 
imitated be chalk or pen-and-ink or water-colour, 
and we have still so much to learn in the critical 
study of the Dutch school that these reproductions 
of authentic specimens have a value quite apart 
from their intrinsic excellence. 

We wish someone would undertake the same 
patriotic task on behalf of our English draughts- 

PeruginO; By Edward Hutton. London: Duck- 
worth. 2S. net. 

Mr. Hutton makes no claim to completeness for 
his little essay on Perugino, but the subject is one 
to which his temper is naturally sympathetic, and 
the result, though it contains little that is novel, 
gives a fair picture of the artist both in his strength 
and his weakness. Mr. Ilutton's style is well 
adapted to convey that sense of vast height and 
recession, of airy tranquil space, to which Perugino 
owes most of liis charm; yet with all this 
sympathy, he is no blind admirer ; indeed, he 
perhaps slightly underrates Perugino's marked 
skill as a painter. Ruskin's liking for the cheerful 
burly Mich.iel in the Nation. il Gallery was no 
sentimental caprice, 


The Brasses of Fnc.i.and. liy Herbert W. 

Macklin, M..\. London : Metluien and Co. 

1907. 7s. 6d. net. 
So little that is new about monumental brasses 
has come to light since the Rev. H. H.iincs 

T^ra'Viing and Painting 

published the final edition of his work on the 
subject in 1861 that the fact of its being out of 
print is the only justification for the volume under 

It is an open secret that one of our best-known 
authorities has long been engaged upon a new 
edition of Haines, but until it sees the light, as we 
hope it soon will, students must be content with 
such a book as Mr. Macklin's. 

This is not Mr. Macklin's first essay in the field, 
since he published an elementary manual of 
monumental brasses seventeen years ago which is 
still in print. But the volume before us takes a 
wider view, and is based upon a different plan, 
by which the brasses are dealt with under particu- 
lar epochs styled Edwardian, Plantagenet, 
Lancastrian, Yorkist, Tudor and Elizabethan. It is 
doubtful what advantage is gained by such an 
arrangement, since neither the style of the 
memorial nor the changes of costume and armour 
correspond with such epochs. 

Apart from this the book is fairly well done, 
though somewhat unequal in places, and the 
ecclesiastical sections, as usual, are rather amateur- 
ish. Mr. Macklin is also hardly careful enough 
in his versions of the inscriptions, and the attempt 
to print them in a contracted form has produced 
a large crop of blunders. There is further no 
need in a book like this to wrestle with ' genouil- 
li6res,' 'coifs de mailles,' ' infulx ' and other like 
terms when simple English equivalents can be sub- 
stituted with advantage. 

The illustrations on the whole are excellent and 
well chosen, but we should have liked more done 
after the style of the Buslingthorpe and Trotton 
brasses, which show the slab as well. Sir John 
Dabernoun the elder deserves a better figure, while 
those on p. ^y from King's Sunborne are far too 

Pr.actical Wood Carving. By Eleanor Rowe. 
London : B. T. Batsford. 7s. 6d. net. 

The author's experience as manager of the School 
of Art Wood Carving at South Kensington, 
been of good service to her in the compilation of 
this admirable manual. The stress she lavs on 
the constructive element in woodwork is com- 
mendable, while the selection of examples leaves 
nothing to be desired in either \"ariety or aesthetic 
interest. Indeed if art could be taught at all by 
the means of books, it could be taught by such a 
book as this, in which experience .md common 
sense are inspired by good taste. It is natural, 
perhaps, in a work of this kind that speci.U atten- 
tion should be p.iid to the richer forms of ornament, 
rather th.m to those periods in which the carver 
restricted himself to designs b.ised upon the per- 
fect sp.acing of simple lines and gei^metricil forms 
in which the purely ornamental is rcducetl to a 
minimum. This apparently simple work ojiens 


Art Books of the Month 

up problems more complex than those witli which 
the average student is capable of dealing, and the 
author has doubtless done right m limiting herself 
to the side of the art of wood-carving from which 
it may be most;uitly and readily approached. 
It is a book ever>'onc interested in the subject 
ought to possess, and descr\-es a more extended 
notice than we have space to give. 

Stidien aus Klnst IND Geschichte. P'ricd- 
rich Schneider: zum siebzigsten Geburtstage 
gcwidmet von seinen Freunden und Verehr- 
ern. Freiburg im Breisgau : Herdersche 
Vcrlagshandlung. 50 m. 
The name of Friedrich Schneider is not so well 
known in England as in Germany. Few scholars 
and critics have had so much influence, both 
inspiriting and guiding, as the priest of Mainz, 
in honour of whose seventieth birthday this stout 
and handsome quarto has been compiled by more 
than fifty of of his friends and admirers. His 
writings have not achieved European notoriety, 
because, as Dr. Joseph Sauer points out in his 
introduction, Schneider's ideal is not the volume, 
but the newspaper article and the monograph; 
and his influence has been exerted by these means, 
by his written 'opinions' and conversation, 
and his personal force. Architecture, liturgiology, 
ecclesiology, archaeology and many other 
branches of learning have been his province, 
and the bibliography compiled by Erwin Hensler 
reveals a great v.iriety of subjects handled in 
a very large number of articles. The status 
and organization of modern art, moreover, have 
received his attention, and general topics have 
been handled by liim with breadth and wisdom. 
The contents of this volume of tributes are 
too varied to be even commented on in the 
space at our disposal. It must suffice to say that 
they deal with a great number of the studies 
fostered by the recipient of the volume, and arc 
mostly written by the leading scholars and con- 
noisseurs of Germany. 

Manl'ale d'Arte Decorativa. Antica e Mod- 
ERNA. Alfredo Melani. Milano : Hoepli. 
12 lire. 
This excellent and profusely illustrated little speci- 
men of Hoepli's Art Manuals has much to 
commend it to students of Italian art, for it sums 
up in a convenient form the history of decorative 
art so far as it is concerned with Italy from the 
pre-classical period right up to the present day. 
More than that it can hardly be said to do. 
The art of the East of all periods, the art of the 
Aegean on non-Italian shores and islands, and the 
art of Western and Northern Europe are touched 
upon but lightly, or not at all. On the other hand 
the Etruscans, the F^omans of the Empire, the 
lx)mbards, and the mixed civilization of Sicily 
receive proper attention ; and since the book covers 

so much ground which is comparatively speaking 
little known, we may pardon many omissions in 
fields w hich have already been traversed again and 
again by others. 

The Thames kkom Chei^sea to the Nore. 
Drawn in lithography by T. R. Way, with 
descriptive text by W. G. Bell. John Lane. 
It was laid down by one of Whistlers critics that 
the Thames is beautiful from Maidenhead to Kew, 
but not from Battersea to Sheerness ; and though 
much water has flowed under the bridges since 
Whistler began to study the river, they still suffer 
from a tendency of the modern artist, which, in the 
fluvial sense at any rate, is upward. Mr. Way's 
devotion to the Master has carried him far, and 
successfully, in the other direction, and he has 
published a series of thirty lithographs of the lower 
Thames, which is as admirable as it is refreshing. 
A dinner at Greenwich, a week-end in the powder 
magazine at Purfleet and several sunny afternoons 
at Gravesend and Rotherhithe are the sum of my 
own experiences down stream, but 1 doubt if there 
are many Londoners who are so widely travelled 
even as this, or the charms of the lower river would 
be much more talked about than they are. As it 
is, Mr. Way's pictures must come almost as a sur- 
prise — for even those views of the London that 
everybody knows have something in them that is 
not likely to be seen by every passer-by, though 
they are explicit enough not to bewilder, in his 
treatment of buildings and boats, indeed, and in 
scenes crowded with detail, Mr. Way seems a 
little too anxious, as it were, to get everything in. 
His view is too objective : and for this reason the 
earlier plates are not quite so happy as when he 
gets nearer the sea ; but this distinction is perhaps 
more obvious than real, and certainly does not 
detract from the value and charm of such a series 
as, amid the vast multitude of the three-colour 
plates of pastoral prettiness, is more than welcome. 
The Tower Bridge, it must be confessed, does 
not lend itself readily to artistic treatment, and 
iron steamboats are formidable objects at close 
quarters; but even with these Mr. Way copes very 
successfully, and bv the time we have got into such 
delectably smooth waters as are the foreground m 
The Estiuiry and The Lif<ht at the Nore, we feel 
that our journey has been all the more pleasant 
for not having missed any of it out. Of Chelsea, 
it is true, Mr. Way has given us nothing— perhaps 
in deference to Whistler, or because since W histlers 
time so much has been swept away and replaced by 
modern improvements. In this connexion the 
drawing by Whistler exhibited by the International 
Society is worth noticing, as it is a note of the 
Albert Bridge at Chelsea, in course of construction 
in 1 87 1, seen from beneath the famous old Batter- 
sea Bridge. R- ^• 


Costume : Fanciful, Historical and Thea- 
trical. Compiled by Mrs. Aria. Illustrated by 
Percy Anderson. Macmillan. ids. 6d. net. 

'Lacki.n'G the pen of the historian and the science 
of the psychologist, 1 have chosen the easier and 
more humble role of the gossip.' Though the 
reader will not find this touch of modesty till she 
reaches the last page but one of this book, she 
will have guessed the substance of the remark 
long before. Mrs. Aria's book is fanciful and thea- 
trical ; it is not historical or scientific. It adds 
nothing to the stock of knowledge on the subject 
of costume, and aims only at distributing in a 
chatty, sprightly, even an arch fashion, some scraps 
of that knowledge over a wider field. We can 
recommend it heartily to those who have fancy 
dress balls to go to and are not satisfied with the 
suggestions given about Christmas time in the 
fashion papers. Since the book aims at neither 
history nor science, there is no call to examine its 
accuracy. The fact that it is prettily printed in 
brown ink and illustrated with pretty drawings in 
wash or water-colour by Mr. Percy Anderson will 
outweigh with the readers for whom it is in- 
tended any possible misstatements in the te.xt or 
lack of references to authorities for the illustra- 

The Sign of the Cross in Western Litur- 
gies, by the Rev. Ernest Beresford-Cooke. 
Alcuin Club Tracts VI 1. London: Longmans. 
1907. Pp. iv, 32. IS. 6d. net. 

This is a quasi-theological treatise on the liturgi- 
cal use of the sign of the cross, notably in the 
Roman canon of the Mass. A detailed examina- 
tion of it would be unsuitable for these colums, and 
we must confine ourselves to saying that there is no 
apparent connection between the subject-matter 
of the pamphlet and the object for which the club 
exists, ' the promotion of the study of the history 
and use of the Book of the Common Prayer.' 
But it should prove interesting reading to the 
bishops, who, as a consequence of the letters 
of business issued to convocation by the Crown, 
are preparing rubrics for the regulation of An- 
glican ceremonial. E. B. 

RUBAIYAT OF Omar Khayvam. Translated by 
Edward FitzGcrald. Introduction by Joseph 
Jacobs. Designs by Frank Brangwyn, .A.K.A. 
Gibbings and Co. 6s. 

Mr. Bkangwvn's well-known sympathy with the 
orient might Ic.ul us to hope that in liini wo should 
find at last the ideal illustrator of Omar. But the 
volume before us shows that his vision is, after all, 
only one-sided. Like Kipling, he deals with tiie 
dazzle of the east, rather than with the static, per- 
fumed beauty that broods over the great Persian 
epic. The vigorously-coloured sketches which 

Art Books of the Mofith 

accompany the present edition might therefore 
appear to better advantage in some other con- 

Manchester Sketches. Frank L. Lambert 
Manchester Guardian. 2s. 6d. 

Mr. Lambert is, on the whole, happy in the 
choice of picturesque spots in Manchester which 
he has made for reproduction in this book of 
sketches. They certainly lose nothing at the 
hands of the artist, for these excellent drawings 
suggest an air of distinction and cleanliness 
which it could not truthfully be said is apparent 
in all these picturesque corners. The reproduc- 
tions are well done and on a good scale. L. D. 


Continental art sales during the past month 
have been of unusual importance if we may judge 
by the handsome illustrated catalogues we have 
received. The earliest in date is the Huybrechts 
collection, which was sold at the Salle Forst at 
Antwerp on the 8th and 9th of the month. The 
principal masters of the Belgian school were 
all represented, a fine example of Alfred Stevens 
being, perhaps, the most attractive work. There 
were also a number of specimens by Old Masters 
of the Dutch and Flemish schools. Messrs. 
Frederik Muller of Amsterdam have held three 
important sales, the first dealing with the objects 
of art in the Monchen collection, which included 
fine porcelain and several exquisite e.xamples of 
sculpture. The second sale was of a similar 
character, but dealt with works from many 
different pri\'ate sources, splendid pieces of orien- 
tal porcelain being a prominent feature. The 
third sale, lasting from April 30th to May 2nd, 
will be the most important of all, as it deals with 
the Old Masters in the Monchen, Bonne\-al and 
Hoogendijk collections. Specimens of L. Blondt-cl 
and other early masters, together with a numh>er of 
fine pictures of the Dutch school deserve speci.-U 
notice, but the examples are so numerous that we 
cannot particularize without being unfair. Messrs. 
William Morris send us a most attractive hand- 
book illustrating their fabrics, tapestries and 
furniture, together with interesting illustrations of 
houses and public buildings which they ha\-e de- 
corated, including StanmoreHaIl,South Kensington 
Museum, Lord Carlisle's house in Green, 
and St. James's Palace. The thirty-first .anrui-vl 
report of the Museum of Fine .Arts, Bost'Mi. trlU 
the same tale of progress as its prevL 
those who have t.iken the trouble t 
recently published handb>ook of the museum, 
which we noticed a few months ago, will recog- 
nize how important the collection liAS now 

1 .: I 


8pi«oelbefo (W.). Gc«:hichtc der AeRyptiJchen Kunst. 

(9X6) Leipzig (Hiiirich), 3 m. 88 pr-, illustrated, 
litsoz (A.). L'Arl Uvzanlin a lExposition dc Grotlaferrata. 

(iax8) Rome (DancM). 16 1. 196 pp illustrated. 
HANNOVF.K (E.). Dan.sche Kunst des ncun/clmten J.ihrhunderts. 

111X8) Leipzig iSccmannlM '"■ 168 pp., illu^lr.itecl. 
STEPHAS (E ). Sud,cckunsl. Hcit.:.«e zur Kunst des B.smarck- 
Archil^U und zur Irncschich.e dcr Kun.t uberhaupt. 
(11x7) Berlin (Kcimerl, 6 m. Illustrated. 
KALINKAfE.). Ucnkmalcr in Hul,;aricn. (:2X9 Vienna 
(Hflldcr). I'ubli,l,ed by the • U..lkankom,inssion o( the 
mperial Academy of Sciences. Illustrated. ..,.,„. 

BUkS-CHET (A.). Les enceintes roma.ncs de la Gaule. <-tudc sur 
loriKine d'un nombre dc villcs (ranvai^es. (loXO) 
Pari< rLeroux) Ktr. Illustrated. „ . ,. 

MAUCERt(E^|. Taor^mina. (..X») Bergamo (Istituto d'Arl. 

crafiche). 1. 5 Illustrated. . „ , 

LEP^iY (L.). Krakau. (10x7) LeiP'iS (Seemann). 3n>- 

•lleruhmteKunststalten,' 120 illustrations. 
Dehio (G.I. Handbucli dcr dcut.'ichen Kunsldenkmalcr. II. 
Nordostdeutschland. (7X51 Berlin (W.ismuth), 4.50 m. 
RAOOlL M) The Women Artists of Bologna. (9X6) London 
(Methuen), 7s. M. net. Contains : Catcnn.i dei \ igri, 
Properzi.V de' Rossi. L-ivinia Kontana, blisabctta Sirani. 

Gei»be"ko"(M.'). Die Munsterischen Wiedertaufer ""d A'^e- 
grever eine ikonograpt;isclie und numisniatische btudie. 
(10x6) Str.isburg(Heitz), 12m. IS plates. 

MElti (I). Die Werke des Mcd.ailleurs Hans ^rcl in Basel. 
1894-1906. (II X7) Zurich (Krcy). 6 pbtcs 

Majok(E 1 Urs Graf, tin Bcitrag zur Gcschichtc dcr Gold- 
^ch.niedekunst im' 16 Jahrhundert. (10X7) Sfasburg 

Ki)H "(p')^' ' Max Kilnger. (10x8) Leipzig (Breitkopf & Hartel), 

18m. Illustrated. .. ,• • u 

Burger (K ). Francesco Laurana, eine Studie zur ilalienischen 
Quattroccntoskulplur. (12x8) Strasburg (Hcilz). 20 m. 
•17 plates, . _ .. 

Ebenstkin (E.). Der Hofmaler Frans Luycx, cm Bcitrag zur 
Gcschichtc der Malcrei am ocsterreichischen Hofe 
(i6x u) Vienna (Tempsky) ; Leipzig (Kreytag). A part of 
the Austrian Imperial • Jahrbuch" ; 68 illustr.itions. 
Tacobsen (R.). Carcl Van Mander (1548-1606), dichter en 

proz.-ir.chriivcr. (10x6) Rotterdam (Brusse), 3.50 fl. 
Buri;er. (K.) Sludien zu MichtUngclo. (12x8) iatrasburg 

(Hcitz), 3 m. 6 pl.ilcs. . 

Calvert (A. K.). Murillo. A biography and appreciaUon. 

(8X5) London (Uine), 33. 6d. net. Illustnitcd. 
KSAHP (K.). Perugino. Ci"X7) Leipzig (Knackfuss), 4 m. 
no illustrations. 

Stikois (R.). a History of Architecture : Having special 
regard to the natural artistic results of construction and 
Ih.isc methods of design which arc the result of abstract 
thinking and of ihe pure sense of form. Vol. I, Antiquity. 
(10x7) New York (B.aker St Taylor Comp.any); London 
(Balsf..rd), 25s. net. Phototypes and proces-i illustrations. 
ErRARD (C) and GaVET (A.). L'Ait Byzantin. Vol. III. 
Ravenne ct Pomposc : San Vital ct I'abbaye des B6n6- 
diclins. ('8x12) Paris (Gaillard), Mofr. 
Gerola (G.), Monumeiiti veneti nell' Isola di Crcta. Vol. I. 
(14 X 10) Venice (Rosen), 60 I. In 2 parts. 670 pp. Illus- 
lialcd. . ,_ 

BOCSER (H.). Die Grundriss-Disposition der zwcischifligen 
Zentralbaulcn bis zur Mitte des IX Jahrhundcrts. Die 
Grunilriss-DispoBition der Aachcner Pfal/.kapcllc und ihrc 
Vi.rgangcr. (tox7) Strasburg (Heit/,), each 3 m. Illus- 
trated. „ .. . 
Miller (S.). De dom van firecht. (i.^Xi.t) Utrecht (Brciicr), 
25 II- 30 plates, including the sculptured details, monuments, 
old views of the cathcdial. etc., with text. 
Ml TIIER (K.). The History of Painting, from the fourth to the 
early nineteenth century. Translated from the German 
and edited, with annotations, by G. Kriehn. 2 vols. 
(9X6) Ix)ndon (Putnam), 21S. net. Illustrated. 
•Sizes iheightxwidtli) in inches. ( \ ) and Sciimidt-Degener (F.) Die grossherzogliche 
GcmUlde-Galerie im Augusteum zu Oldenburg. (21 X 16) 
Old.-iiburg(Oncken), 150 m. 41 plates. 

VKNTURI (L.) Le origini della pittura vencznna, 1300-1500. 
(10x7) Venice (Istituto vcncto dArti grafichc), 1. 30. 

Mr<5oz'(A I II Codice Purpurco di Rossano e il frammento 
sinopense. (19x15) Rome (Uanesi), 100 1. 21 plates. 16 

Ricc'i" (C )°" La Pinacoteca di Brera. (12x9) Bergamo 
(Istituto d'Arti grafichc). 50 fr- 263 illustrations. 

R0BERT.-0N (A.). Roman Picture Galleries : a guide and hand- 
book to all the picture galleries in the Eternal City. 
(7X4) London (Bell). . ui- j 

Furcv-Rav.sauu (M). Proces-vcrbaux des Asscmblecs du 
Inrv elu par les artistes txposanis au Salon de 1791 pour la 
distribution des prix d'encouragement. Public d'apres le 
m.anuscrit original. (9x16) Paris (Schcmit). 5 fr. 

Descriptive catalogue of Ihe portraits of naval commanderi, 
representations of actions, etc., exhibited m the 
Painted H ill, and at the Roy.-il Naval Museum. Greenwich. 
100 pp., 3d. 


Legrain (G ). Catalogue gOn ral des Antiquitcs Tgyptienncs du 
Musee du C.iire : Statues ft Statuettes dc Rois etdc par- 
ticuhcrs. Vol.1. (14x10) Leipzig (Hiersemann); London 
(QuarilchI, 70 fr. 

Billard (.M.). Les Tombcaux des Rois sous la Terrcur. 
(8X5). P.iris (Perrin). 3.50 fr. Illustmted. 

Catalogue raisonn6 dc la Collection Martin Le Roy. Fascicule 
III • Bronzes tt objets divers, par G. Migeon : Mobilier, 
par L. Metman. (17x12) Paris (printed for the owner). 

Birch t'vv.'^dc G.). The History of Scottish Seals. Vol. II. 

Ecclesiastical and Monastic Seals. (10x8) Stirling 

(Mackay), 12s. 6d. net. Illustr.itcd. 
Head (B.V.). Catalogue of the Greek Coinsof Phrygia. (9x6) 

London (British Museum). 53 plates. ^ , „ . ■ 

DOMANIG (K ). Die dcutsche Mcdaillc in Kunst und kulturhis- 

torischcr Hinsicht. (15x10) Vienna (Schroll). 63 m. 

871 phototype leproduclions. 

BoccHoT (H.). Bibliotheqiie Nation.ile. Departcmcnt des 

Kstampes. Pieces choisies dc Tecole franvaise. (18x13) 

Paris (Foulard). 100 photogravures. 
DeltfiliL). Lc Peintie Graveur lUustrO. Vol.11. Charles 

Meryon. (13x10) Paris (the Author, 22 Rue des Bons- 

Enfants), 14 fr. Illustrated. ..,:,». 

Etchings of William Strang, A.R.A. Introduction by I-. New- 
bolt. (12x9) Loudon (Ncwncs's ' Etchers ), 7s. bU. 

net. 48 plates. 

Stern (E. von). Das Museum dcr Kaiscrlich Odcssacr Gesell- 

schaft fur Gcschichtc und Altertumskunde. II . 

Theodosia und seine Kcr.amik. (14x11) Fi.inkfurt a.M. 

(Haer). Text in German and Russian. 10 plates. 
Stieda (W). Die keramische Industrie in Bavern wahrend 

des XVII. Jahrhundcrts. (12x8) Leipzig (Tcubner), 8 in. 

Dillon (E.). Glass. (10x7) London (Methuen's 'Connoisseurs 

lihrirv'^ 2sS net. Illustrated. 
c5>sJ;etov(eT Dutch and Flemish Furniture. (12X8) 

London (Hoddcr* Moughton). 42s. net. Illustr.ited. 
Burlhigton Vine Arts Club. Exhibition of English Embroidery 

c"ed prior to the middle of the sixteenth century. 

lilustnited (16x12) London (printed for the 

riiihi ?o plates, 10 in colour. 
Tones (E. A.) The Old Church Pl.atc of the Isle of Man. (11x8) 

I ondon (Bcmrose), los. 6d. net. I'l.itcs. „ .. . . 

Hrvus (1). Die liturgische Gewandnng im Occident und 

drieni nach Urspnmg und EntwickUing. Vcrwcnduiig und 

Symbolik. (11x7) Kreiburg im Breisgau (Herder). 30 m. 

vu.Kl'i'f (Rev H. W.). The Brasses of England. (9X3) 
{:I;ndoi, (Methuens < Antiquary's Books ), 7». 6d. net. 

r»vLo"s"DlGL) The Essentials of ^Esthetics in Music, 
Poct?y,* i'ainting. Sculpture and Architecture. (8X6) 
London (Murray), 101. 6d. net. 



Ferrari (F.). L'Orcficeria in Aquila. (rox6) Guardiagrele 

(Palmerio). i6 pp. 
Henning (K.)- Dcr tlclm von Baldenheim und die verwandten 

Helme des friihcn Mittclalters. (iix8) Strasburg (Trub- 

ner),6m. Illustrated. 
Official Catalogue of the Museum of Artillery in the Rotunda, 

Woolwich. 2f)2 pp. IS. 6d. 
Miinchener-Jahrbuch der bildcnden Kunst. Hcrausgegeben 

von L. von Buerkel. Vol. 1, 1906. (12X9) Munich 

(Callwey). Illustrated. 


ROMAM Picture Galleries. Alice Robertson. G. Be'l & 

Sons. 2s. net. 
The Brasses of England. Herbert \V. Macklin. Mcthuen 

& Co. 
Sir Edward Buhne-Jo.\es (second series). George Newnes, 

Ltd. 3s. 6d. net. 
Practical Wood Carving. Eleanor Rowe. B. T. Batsford. 

7s. 6d. net. 
A HisTOKY OF Tapestry. W. G. Thompson. Hoddjr & 

Stoughton. £2 2s. net. 
Die Galekien Eukopas. Lieferungs, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. 

E. A. Seemann. Leipzig. M.4e.ich. 
Pictures and their Value. Turner & Robinson, Eltham. 

6s. net. 
Glass. Edward Dillon, M.A. Methuen & Co. 25s. net. 
The Old Church Plate of the Isle of iMan. E. Alfred 

Jones. Bernrose & Sons, Ltd. los. 6d. net. 
Dutch and Flemish Furniture. Esther Singleton. Hodder 

& Stoughton. £z 2s. net. 
Venice. Beryl de Stilincourt and May Sturge Henderson. 

Illustrated by Reginald Barratt, A.R.W.S. London : Chatto 

& Windus. los. 6d. and i.i is. net. 
Manuale d'Artk Decorativa Antica e Mooerna. Alfredo 

Melani. Milano : Ulrico Hoepli. 12 lire. 
The History of Painting fko.m the Fourth to the Early 

Nineteenth Century. Two vols. Richard Muther, 

Ph.D. Translated from the German by George Krichn, 

Ph.D. London : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 2 vols. 
A Guide to the Paintings in tuf. Florentine Gallehies. 

Maud Cruttwell. London : J. M. Dent & Co. 3s. 6d net. 
Gemalde Alter Meister. 19, 20 and 21 Lieferungs. Berlin: 

Rich. Bong. 5 m. each. 

^n Booh of the Month 

Saint George, Champion of Christendom and Patros Saikt 
OF England. E. O. Gordon. London : Swan Sonncn- 
schcin & Co., Ltd. 21s. net. 

Reproductions from Illuminated Makuscrikts isf the 
British .Museum. Scries ii. 50 platei. British Maseam. 


La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosite (Paris). Onze Kanst. 
March and April (.Vtnsterdam). La Kas^egna Nazionale, 
March and April (Florence). L'Arte, Mirch and April 
(R)mel. Oie Kunst, .March and April (.Munich). M^jnals- 
berichte uber Kunstwis^enschaft und Kunsihandel (Munich). 
Gazette des Beaux-.Arts, .March and April (Paris). Bollctino 
d'Arte. March and April (Rome). Bulletin du Norddcut^cher 
Lloyd (Paris). The Fortnightly Review, March and April. 
The Albany Review. The Independent Review. The 
Nineteenth Century and After, March and April. The 
Contemporary Review, March and April. The Monthly 
Review, March and April. The Cra/lsmnn, March and 
April (.\'ew York). Fine Art Tiade Journal, March and 
April. Review of Reviews, March and April. The Kokka 
(Tokyo). Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum (Phila- 
delphia). The Studio. The Badminton Magazine. The 
Commonwealth. .Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin. Revue 
de I'Art Chretien (Parisl. Blatter fiir Gemaldekunde. 
Febru iry and Mjrch. Repcrtorium fur Kunslwisscnschaft 
(Berlin). Augusta Perusia, January-February' (Perugia). 

Nachlass Franz Gaui- Gilhofer 4 Ranschburg. Vienna. 
Nachtrage und Berichtigungen zu Daniel Chodowieckij. 

Samtliche Kupferstiche. VVilhclm Engelmann, Leipzig. 
Aquarelles, Collection T. Frederik .Muller & Cie, Amsterdam. 
Manusckipte des Mittelalters und spatereb Zeit. 

Katalog 330. Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 
Morris and Co. London and Merton Abtwy. Surrey. 
Collection d'Antiquites forme'e par M. Ioseph Moschen 

\ La Haye. Frederik Muller & Cie, Amsterdam. 
Antiquit^s et Objets d'Art dependant de plusicubs 

provenances et successions a Ghrosingue, La Hays, 

Amsterdam, Harlem, etc. Frederick MiiUer 4 Cie, 



BRILLIANTLY fine after- 
noon attracted a larger crowd 
than ever to the vcrnissage of 
the ' New Salon ' on April 13th; 
' it was difficult to see the pic- 
tures, but those who had been 
round before knew that the loss 
,was not verj' serious. Mediocrity 
is the nok- ol this year's show at the Beaux-Arts. 
1 do not say that there is nothing striking : that 
epithet is the appropriate one for the enormous 
canvas representing a wooden lady driving tandem 
two wooden horses painted purple in an impossible 
street with wooden trees of impossible colours, to 
which the jury has for some unaccountable reason 
devoted several square metres of wall-space. 
There are, too, many other examples of the ecole 
folic escaped from the Salon d'Automnc, and alas ! 
they too often rub shoulders with banality. It is 
to be hoped that the Societc des .Artistes Fran^'ais, 
which will open its doors to the public on the tirst 
of May, will (as was the case last year) make a 
better show than its rival. 
The sale of the collection of the late M. 

Charpentier, the well-known publisher, on .April 1 1 th 
showed the same advance in the prices of the 
Impressionist school and of Renoir in particul.-ir 
that was shown at the Viau sale last month. 
Indeed it made a 'record' for Renoir, whose 
picture La Famillc Charpentier was, after a long 
conflict, assigned to M. Durand-Ruel for 84,000 
francs. .As ten per cent, to be added to the 
prices at which the lots are knocked down, the 
actual price paid was £3,(iS^- '' i^* necessary to 
remember that the picture for which this princely 
sum was given is, by common consent, the finest 
that Renoir ever painted. There are mmours, 
alas ! that it will pass into a famous .American 
collection. Another picture by the s.ime .irtist, 
also one of his best, though smaller and less 
important, fetched the quite moderate price of 
14,050 francs. 

That old masters, particularly of the eighteenth 
centurv, have not suffered by the Impressionist 
competition is shown by a sale on April i6th of 
two pri\-ate collections containing nothing of the 
first rank and much very far below it, which 
realized (including the ten per cent, addition^ more 


Art in France 

than ;^i 2,000. But we shall have a better oppor- 
tunity of jiuli^injij how tlie eifjhteenth century 
stands on May i^tli, 14th and 15th, when the 
well-known collection of the late M. Mulbacher 
will come under the hammer. The great sale of 
the year, however, will be that of the collection 
and stock of M. Charles Sedelmeyer, who is 
retiring from business and intends, it is said, to 
sell everj'thing without reserve. This sale will 
take place in four instalments, each occupying 
three days. The sale of the pictures of the French 
and English schools will begin on May 16th ; that 
of the Dutch school of the seventeenth century on 
May 25th ; the Primitives will be dispersed on 
lune 3rd and following days; and on June 12th 

will begin the sale of the modern pictures and 
drawings. M. Sedelmeyer has, it is well known, 
a considerable number of pictures attributed to 
Constable, one of which he presented to the 
Louvre. The attribution of this picture, The 
W'iiiilntill, was discussed in the March number of 
Thk Burlington Magazine (Vol. X, page 342). 
One of the most interesting exhibitions now 
open in Paris is that of P'rcnch portraits anterior 
to the eighteenth century at the Bibliotht^que 
Nation.ile. It is an inverted sequel to the excellent 
exhibition of eighteenth-century portraits held last 
year. There are paintings, drawings and minia- 
tures ; and some portraits of PVench personages by 
foreign artists are included. 


DAY or two after I had 
despatched my last month's 
note on the new Goya prints 
in Berlin, there appeared an 
idmirable catalogue raisontic 
of the etched and lithographed 
work of Goya, written by Dr. 
J. Hofmannof Vienna. Collcc- 
tiii.-. ol Goya .ire well aware of the difficulties 
connected with the pursuit of their hobby. Not 
only is there a mass of exceedingly rare work to 
be considered : there are also a lot of forgeries, 
copies, and, above all, reprints. Many of Goya's 
prints scarcely exist in any shape but that of 
reprints, which were pulled long after the artist's 
death. These differ greatly in value, and Dr. 
Hofmann's book for the firstlime describes lucidly 
and cirefuliy not only all the 'states' (some of 
them never before recorded), but also the charac- 
teristic marks of all the different impressions or 
reprints of the 'sets,' down to those which the San 
Fernando Academy issues in our own day. There 
are also eighteen collotype facsimiles of unique 
and excessively rare proofs. 

The Dresden Gallery has added two interesting 
canvases by v. Uhde to its collection. The one is 
an early picture, painted during Uhde's first pkin- 
air period, and represents soldiers practising 
drumming. The other was painted only a few 
years ago and represents the painter's daughters 
playing with a dog in an arbour. At the same 
time three further paintings were purchased : one 
a landscape by liantzer, painted eight or ten years 
ago, when he was president of the ' Secession ' 
here, which h;is long ago died ; and two works by 
painters of the first half of the nineteenth century 
who are receiving considerable attention now in 
consequence of the Berlin Centenary Exhibition. 
One is a half-length of a female with a vase of 
flowers before her, and these are painted with an 
amount of love and studiousness not generally 
directed to still-life subjects in those times. The 


other is a charming landscape by Schnorr von 
Carolsfeld, painted at an early age in Vienna : the 
foreground is supposed to show the artist himself 
in company with several friends, Ludwig von 
Beethoven among them. The brush-work is hard 
and uninteresting, as was usual in those years, but 
the coloration and tonality of the picture are fascin- 
ating, as well as the straightforward, honest way 
of looking at nature, embodied here. 

The time of the great German print auctions is 
coming upon us. This year there will be four, 
as Mr. Helbing, of Munich, has likewise managed 
to secure a collection of more than ordinary 
interest for disposal. Everywhere there is an un- 
usual number of uncommon prints put up for sale, 
and this, rather than the presence of especially fine 
impressions, seems to characterize this year's 
auctions. At Helbing's there are some good 
Diirers and Rembrandts, a couple of excellent 
Claude Gelld-es in first state, and quite a number 
of rather rare Little Masters. Some of these are 
present in excellent impressions, but the v.alue of 
others is considerably impaired by their having 
been re-margined and restored, which, even when 
it has been done with such stupendous cleverness 
as in several cases is to be seen here, depreciates 
the value of a print in the eyes of many collectors. 

Messrs. Amslerand Ruthardt's (Berlin) catalogue 
offers a splendid selection for the general collector. 
Among the 'delicacies' I note two G. A. da Brescia 
(B. 21 and 68), Diirer's third ex-libris for J. Stabius, 
three first states and a trial proof of Claude Gellee, 
Filippo Lippi's Crucifixion (B. 15), no less than 
fourteen Isiahel van Meckcnem, Moretto's 
Calumny, Montagna's Virgin (B. 7), The 'Utile' 
Executioner by Prmcc Rupert, five Schongauers, 
a Burgkmair chiaroscuro {B. 40), an unusual lot 
of Van Dyck's ' iconography ' prints of works by 
the masters of PVencn portrait engraving, and 
of colour-prints by Ploos \-an Amstel. 

Mr. Boerncr's (Ixipzig) collection does not quite 
rival the one he sold hist year, but it is fairly select 





Art in Germany 

and embraces such excellent things as J. Amman's 
Coligny (A. 2), the Andrea-Mantegna Triumphal 
Procession 7villt tlie title and the columns, a fine 
Kiiiglil, Death and tlic Dn'il and an excellent set 
of the Life of Mary by Diirer, besides an imde- 
scribed woodcut, St. Jerome in his Cell, attributed to 
him, an undescribed Elsheimer, one of the rare 
Hirschvogel landscapes (B. 74), eleven Israhel van 
Meckenem, two very scarce Master S. and a scarce 
Master of St. Erasmus (possibly a copy !), some 
magnificent nielli (four by Peregrino da Cesena), 
four uncommonly good portraits by Rota, four 
Schongauer, an excellently preserved Xativity in 
the maniere criblec and a scarce Abel Stimmer 

It is some time since so many fine nielli have 
been put up for sale within a fortnight as now, 
for Mr. H. G.Gutekunst's (Stuttgart) catalogue also 
contains nine superior specimens. Gutekunst's 
sale perhaps still leads them all in the matter of 
interest and in the high quality of the prints 
oflered. This applies more particularly to the 
amount of German (and French ?) fifteenth-cen- 
tury work represented in his catalogue. I note 
further, the rare Sebald Beham (B. 76 and 151), 
J. Bink's Lansquenet (B. 78), Burgkmair's Celtes 
(Pass. 118), the exceedingly scarce chiaroscuro St. 
Thomas in four sheets after Corrcggio, Diirer's 
Triumphal Arch and Chariot and some further 
rare Diirer woodcuts, the Hirschvogel landscape 
(B. 63) and an undescribed Lautensack landscape, 
the rare Lucas van Leidens, B. 145, and woodcut 
B. 12, Mantegna's Bacchanal (B. 19), ten Israhel 

van Meckenem, two Schongauer, the Wenzel von 
Olrnutz copy after Durer (B. 50), etc. There is, 
besides, a second part, embracing modern work 
and books, in which there occur many rare proofs 
by Klinger and Stauffer Bern. 

A new museum building is being built at Munster 
(Westphalia) : the architect was Hermitnn Schadt- 
ler of Hanover. The east front is decorated with 
a statue of St. George on horseback by Lederer, 
the author of the fine Bismarck monument in 
Hamburg. One hall is furnished with stained 
glass windows by Melchior Lechter, a native of 
Munster, and Bruno Paul has decorated one of 
the rooms. 

The Museum of Applied Arts at Leipzig has 
received as a gift from Dr. Schulz his collection of 
Persian and Asiatic antiquities : the Persian minia> 
tures are said to be especially noteworthy ; 
further, from Dr. Mobius a number of Japanese 
bronzes; and from Dr. Hans Demiani the com- 
plete decorations and furniture of a Directoire 
room (1795), which had been preserved pretty 
intact up till now in one of the houses on the 
Bruhl, in Leipzig, the street in which Richard 
Wagner was born. 

The late Max Oppenheim, of Mayence, be- 
queathed his picture gallery, estimated at j^'j.^oo 
value, to this town, and a further ;^5,ooo for the 
purchase of old Netherlandish pictures. 

The ' Secession ' Gallery in Munich, mentioned 
some time back in these columns, has within the 
short period of its existence already acquired 
fifty-four paintings. H. W. S. 





At first glance the portrait of a woman with a 
rose, reproduced on page 125, might be taken for 
a Terburg of small dimensions ; more deliberate 
observation would show that it could only be a 
Hals of exceptional elegance and beauty, and on 
the scale of life. It would be hard, l' think, in 
the entire wnvre of the Haarlem master to find an 
example of equal suavity and distinction. A 
flavour of the pothouse and kitchen hangs about 
most of the portraits by Hals. He chose to see 
the patrician life about him rather in its robustness 
and broad geniality than in the refinement we 
divine from such painters as Vermeer, De Hooch 
or Terburg. At best he gives us a vision of a 
burgher world dressed obviously in its Sunday 
clothes, or travestied in the half-knightly livery of 
a guild. In the present case he seems to have 
been fascinated liy the charm of a thing seen, 
without, perhaps, realizing how foreign the subject 
was to his average mood. Nature, as Whistler 

justly observed, has ways of 'catching up.' 
Occasionally she will present even a realist with a 
composition ready made, challenging not his 
temperament, which on principle he holds in 
abeyance, but merely the skill of his recording 
hand. In some such manner, perhaps, we should 
explain this picture, which would otherwise seem 
a kind of miracle of elegance amid the m.asterly 
transcripts and caricatures of the great technician. 
Hals's chronology is still so imperfectly under- 
stood, and the dated Doelen pictures afford 
criteria so little applicable to smaller and pri\-ate 
work, that to fix a year for a portrait is a h.xzardous 
undertaking. In the present instance we may 
safely say that our picture belongs neither to his 
youth nor to iiis extreme old age. It evidently 
must have followed the Corporation picture of 
1633, for before that time he w;is simply incapable 
of such swift synthetic handling of the stuffs and 
laces In f.ict, all this work is so broad and sure 
that I am inclined to set the portrait at the time 
when his brartira w;is fully ilevelojHiI — ;is late, say, 
as the fifties. The sobriety of the modelling is 
that of conscious restr.iint, not of plodding 


Art in ^4mcrica 

deliberation. All the details are painted with a 
simplicity and maalria quite of his best. With 
practically no pigment but black and white, the 
artist achieves not only a {general effect of colour, 
but also an extraordinary denotation of textures 
and suggestion of local colour. In a certain 
restrained brilliancy it recalls the portrait of a 
Capt:iin at the Hermitage, which I know only from 
a photograph, and the superb pair of portraits, 
said to be that of the painter and his wife, in the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York. Without 
attempting a closer dating for a picture the 
criticism of which is yet to be made, any time not 
much earlier or later than 1650 seems probable. 
My own guess, based on such an extraordinary 
morccan as the foreshortened left cuff, would be 
the later decade. The picture was bought about 
a year ago by Mr. Widencr from Durand-Ruel. 
As to its provenance, nothing has been divulged. 

F. I. M. 


When a princess sat to an early Milanese portrait 
painter she might safely put aside the fear of 
flattery. Indeed, it would be hard to imagine a 
more impersonal inventory of Bianca Maria 
Sforza's features and favourite jewels than that 
which Arabrogio de Predis placed on this panel 
about the time of her marriage with the Emperor 
Maxamilian in 1493. But the portrait is not 
without a kind of hieratic charm. It looks forward 
curiously to the triumphs that Velazquez was to 
wring from the impossible accoutrements of Inter 

Erincesses of the Austrian connection. If one 
ad to choose a single profile to represent the e;irly 
Milanese school, one would not go far wrong in 
taking this, so competent is it in characterization, 
so minute and faithful in detail, so perfect in point 
of preservation. It is my sense of its exceptional 
interest that leads me to reproduce it here, altliough 
it is already known to professional students of 
Italian art through Dr. Bode's article ' Ein Bildniss 
der zweiten Gemahlin Kaiser Ma.xamilians, Bianca 
Maria Sforza, von Ambrogio da Predis ' (Jahrb. d. 
Preuss. Kunstsammlungen, vol. x, p. 71). This 
article was accompanied by an excellent photo- 
gravure. Dr. Bode there established the identity 
of the subject on the basis of a later drawing of 
Bianca by Ambrogio, in the Academy at Venice. 
The picture was at that time in Berlin, probably 
in the Lippman collection, where it certainly was 
at a later date. It is now one of the most valued 
possessions of Mr. P. A. B. Widener, Elkins Park, 
Pa. This sort of painting bears process reproduc- 
tion so well that no comment seems to be necessary 
except perhaps to note the eminently Milanese 
character of all the jewellery — similar 'table' 
stones in half barbaric setting appear in all the 
female portraits of the Sforza circle— and the 


family motto, ' Merito et tempore,' on the massive 
pendant that hangs from the fillet. Whoever is 
interested in this matter of the jewels, or indeed 
in the strange pre-nuptial and post-nuptial fate of 
Bianca, should consult Felice Calvi's excellent 
monograph ' Bianca Maria Sforza Visconti . . . e 
gli Ambasciadori di Lodovico il Moro,' Milan, 1888. 
There is an inventory of the young bride's jewels, 
including many strings of pearls, some of which 
we may see in this picture. Since none of the 
costlier pieces noted as wedding gifts appear in the 
picture, one may infer that it was painted before 
the wedding in November, 1493. It was on this 
occasion, it will be recalled, that the full-sized 
model of Leonardo da Vinci's equestrian statue of 
Francesco Sforza was set up under a triumphal 
arch. Lomazzo's description of the bride seems a 
little flattering, but is borne out by the sentiment 
of this girlish profile. He writes ' Yw dolcissima 
di ciera, di statua di corpo lunga, di viso ben 
formato e bella, negli altri lineamenti del corpo 
graziossima e ben proporzionata, ma gracili.' 

Through the kindness of Mr. Bernhard Beren- 
son I learn of another portrait of the young 
empress, in the collection of the Countess Arco- 
nati-Visconti at Paris.' It is in many respects a 
pendant to the Widener picture, and is persuasively 
attributed by Mr. Berenson to Bernadino dei 
Conti. The ascription will, I think, hardly be 
challenged. In fact, one rarely finds a portrait 
that proclaims its paternity so unequivocally. All 
profiles of this class have a strong technical re- 
semblance to one another, but this head displays 
a certain brusqueness in the chiaroscuro which 
we shall find again, I think, quite unmistakably 
in the kneeling figures of Lodovico Sforza and his 
wife, in the 13rera altarpiece. The picture was 
surely painted some years after Bianca's marriage, 
for the forms have all become larger and more 
matronly than in the girlish presentment by 
Ambrogio de Predis, and the whole effect is of 
maturity. 'Gracili' no one can call her any 
longer. To surmise at what time before her 
death in 15 10 this portrait was painted would be 
the merest guesswork. One may perhaps safely 
infer that at least five or six years must have 
elapsed since the wedding. It may not be amiss 
to recall that Bianca kept a painter in ordinary. 
In December, 1493, she writes about him to 
Lodovico II Moro, but unhappily calls him 
merely 'el nostro Pinctore' (Calvi, p. 49). If we 
had his name, however, we might be no nearer 
the painter of this profile, for Bianca's unpopular 
Italian following at Innsbruck was notoriously 
subject to change. I have not seen this picture, 
and so can only suggest that the pendant attached 
to the fillet seems to correspond to a ' gioello ' 

' This portrait has recently been reproduced in ' Tableaux 
incdit!> oil pcu connus ; tires des collections Kran^aiscs,' by 
Salomon Kcin.ich, I*.«ris : Levy, 1907. See THE Bl'RUNOTO.n 
Magazine, April, 1907, p. 50. 


in the bridal inventory — ' facto cum la divisa del 
faciolo ; cum uno balasso grande tavola, cum uno 
diamante grosso.a facete di sopra, et una perla 
grossa pendente.' One may note also the impresa 
of three laurel leaves in the upper right hand 
corner, the significance and date of which may 
possibly be known to some antiquarian reader of 
this magazine. F. J. M. 


The Voyage of Aeneas and the Building of 
Carthage :,The Visit of the Queen of Sheba 
TO Solomon— jARVEs Collection, Yale Uni- 
Besides the Diana and Aclacon by Jacopo del 
Sellaio which we have already reproduced, the 
Jarves^ collection at New Haven includes five 
important cassone pictures of the Florentineschool. 
Two of these are companion pieces — the scenes 
from Virgil's Aeneid— and of the others, one, the 
Garden of Love, attributed to Gentile da Fabriano, 
but obviously Florentine and from the atelier of 
some close follower of Massacio, is, while of rare 
iconographical and archaeological interest, not quite 
of first-rate artistic quality in its class. There remain 
the very fine and important Tournament in the 
Piazza S. Croce, the consideration of which we 
are compelled to postpone, although it should 
properly be of especial value to European students, 
and the Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, 
a more conventional example of less vivid histori- 
cal significance. We reproduce this work and one 
of the two Aeneid panels (page 128), and may say 
here that the Tournament (No. 45) belongs to the 
same school as the Aeneid pictures, and is, indeed, 
perhaps even an earlier example by the same hand, 
so that a description of the latter will serve to give 
an idea of the former.* 

The connoisseurship of the field and period to 
which our New Haven ij^noti belong is not easy. 
While essentially native, the industrial painting of 
the early and middle quattrocento in Florence 
seems to have some technical affiliation with tre- 
cento traditions of decoration. The little birth- 
plate with a date, 1428, in the Bryan (De Montor) 
collection, at the New York Historical Society, is 
a sort of Spincllesque transitional work, and an 
occasional motive from Verona or from miniature 
painting may creep into the minor examples at 
times. But the best examples are fundamentally 
of contemporary local inspiration and are frankly 
concrete, objective and representative in intention. 
Masaccio's Uranian ray becomes prismatic in 
passing through the parti-coloured minds of his 

• In the description of the cassone panels by Jacopo del 
Sellaio, in TiiK Huri.ington MAiiAziNE for December, 1906, the 
Jarves collection is misprinted as the ' James ' collection. 

* Photographs of the Jarves pictures may bo obtained from 
Mr. H. V. Randall, photographer, Hartford. Connecticut, I'.S A. 

y^rt in America 

subordinate followers. A wedding or a joust 
is enough to set the fancy free. No academic 
intellectual or consciously humanbtic problems 
disturb these idyllic improvisatori. They have an 
eye to the main ornamental chance, the mise en 
scene, : and they even surpass the classic and 
monumental masters in a panoramic and descrip- 
tive way, because their aim is lower. It is a 
narrow art but often extraordinarily beautiful. 

The more important painters of the time, in 
fact, do not help us much to classify or explain 
these unknown decorators. Even Uccello, whose 
naive naturalism and kaleidoscopic formulas 
obviously count for a good deal with his contem- 
poraries, does not explain overmuch. One can- 
not be sure of anything as belonging to his actual 
atelier, although his influence is frequent enough. 
There are other /od of stylistic initiative which are 
as yet obscure. I should say that three or four 
rather important masters in this field, of whom 
one is the painter of the Adimari-Ricasoli Xozze 
at Florence, while another has some relation to 
Neri di Bicci, and still another may be conjecturally 
inferred in Domenico Veneziano's technical region, 
remain to be discovered ; and the apprentices are 
legion. Pesellino is too sheer and classic a 
searcher after perfection to help us much in our 
classifications, and most of this work seems entirely 
independent of Lippi's influence. 

It is evident that the pair of chest-paintings at 
New Haven ascribed to Uccello and representing 
scenes from Virgil's Aeneid (43-44) arc by the 
artist who executed the chief embellishments of a 
pair of cassoni lent by the earl of Crawford to 
the Exhibition of Early Italian Art, held at London 
in the winter of 1893-94. 

Various mannerisms — the st^'le is distincdy a 
fixed and repetitive one — bring such works as 
Lord Crawford's Apollo and Daphne panels and 
the Virgilian pieces at Yale together. The dainty 
celestial personifications— apt translations of an 
Augustan attitude toward mythologj- — the types of 
old men, which seem clues to stylistic deri\-ation, 
but which baffle my connoisseurship, the long 
swinging stride of the figures, more in Domenico 
Veneziano's than in Uccello's vein, perhaps, and 
the treatment of the extremities, may be comp.u-ed. 
European students, no doubt, know much more 
work by this m;ister, and even who he is. One 
recalls the pair of cassoni in the Correr Museum 
at Venice, which are of rather Uccellesque 
character, but my notes are quite inadequate 
except to point out this art seems related in 
a deri\'ative way to a [iresumably earlier, more 
colouristic and distinctly finer group of pictures, 

' New G.illery, 104, 114. Other handj sc«m to have been 
cng.igcd on some of the pjncU. The mjrriJ);c scene oi 104. 
for inst.tnce, is to J.(cv)p^> del Sellaio in ttvle. T'- -' •"^\. 
ing but r.<thcr aniorphiuis nude tii;urcs on the ».i .re 

b.ickcd by the^lcd Nkics 01 Neri di Uicci and . . : . x- 
tional iiMstcrs. 


t//r/ /;; America 

the exact focus of inspiration for which is to mc 
as obscure as it is certainly independent of any of 
the classical masters. I have unfortunately not 
seen the superb h'onnding, of Carlhage of the 
Kestner Museum at Hanover, which seems a 
prototype of our version of this subject in the 
Jarvcs collection. We shall hope for an identifica- 
tion of some of the actual pictorial records in this 
style of painting — perhaps of that Tournament in 
which Loren/o bore a lance and for which 
Verrocchio designed the standards — before 
venturing upon further stylistic classifications. . 

The Vosafi_c of Aeneas at New Haven is a finely 
composect panorama of sea and landscape in which 
the Storm and the L;inding in Africa arc the chief 
incidents. The spirit of the piece is, of course, 
idyllic rather than truly epical, but the dullest eye 
must respond to the gorgeous spectacle of the 
shattered fleet. This bright visual staccato passage 
is admirably harmonized in the general scheme, 
and the background of the landing, with its 
mcdiae\-ally horrid cliffs, its ' long retreat ' of island 
cove, its definite rainbow and low sun behind the 
cypresses, will help to disprove the popular notion 
that the Florentine painters cared little for land- 

The secondary motives follow Virgil closely, 
except of course for the decorative licence of 
changing the sequence and the emphasis a little. 
The story begins with Juno's celestial spying of 
the fleet and her descent to Aeolus, who sits like a 
hermit of the Thebaid in his riven cave — a 
mordant bit of stencilling. The winds, conven- 
tional Ucccllcsque grisailles, and the rather 
Biccesque Neptune rebuking Eurus and Zeph- 
irus, a deiis ex iiiacliiita, do not detain us from the 
more moving accidents. In the exquisite ending 
appears Venus, below as huntress and above as 
veritable little lady goddess. Our artist contrives 
to suggest his characters and much of the atmo- 
sphere of the hexameters. It is fine illustration 
if not literal. 

The central theme of the companion picture is 
the plea of llioneus before Queen Dido in the 
Temple of Juno, with Aene;is and his faithful 
friend in the background, musing on the pictured 
taJe of Troy. The building of Carthage is treated 
as an accessory to this fine ceremonial piece. The 
hunting episode of the previous day introduces 
the panorama, and a foreground passage, smaller 
in scale than the rest, seems to represent the com- 
ing of Cupid in the disguise of Ascanius, who 
enters the temple at the left. The story ends with 
two minor motives, one the prefigured altac 
moeitia Romae ever present in the pictorial mind 
of Renaissance as of mediaeval Italy ; the other a 
banauet scene in the open, which the classical 
scholar will recognize, but which escapes my 
mythological memory. Are there swine or wolves 
in the background ? One must know the story 

to say." The juncture of the architecture and 
landscape in this picture, although not so splendid 
as in the example at Hanover, is masterly. 
What decorators these men are ! 

The execution of these pictures is not that of a 
creative pioneer in form ; it is mnemonic and 
derivative, but it is still professional, vivid and very 
refined. The colour, after all sorts of rough usage, 
retains the velvety, ' crumbly ' blush of the 
tempera. The general effect is a low-toned, dim 
and pearly cobweb-like subtlety of surface with 
dark bluish-greenish greys of sky and sea, with 
gleams of gold and the decorative repetitions and 
dappling of bright vermilion, a dash on every lip, 
and of pinks, and of assertive reds on the roofs. 
These tacltcs and the yellow lights and ver- 
milion shadows in the draperies are characteristic 
of a large number of cassoni of the style and 
period which are not reminiscent of Domenico 
Veneziano's more vibrant tonality but belong 
more to Uccello's technical milieu I should say. 
One recalls the Adimari-Ricasoli Xozzezi Florence ; 
but our master has not the attack or the large 
handling of such an artist. 

The Visit of the Queen of Sheha io Solomon (69) 
belongs to the same stylistic region as our Aeneid 
panels. 1 had once thought it by the same hand 
as those, and it is not far away and is of the same 
class, but of a less felicitous and infectious species. 
A detailed description is not necessary, as the 
composition is quite conventional. The general 
tone of the picture is a quiet grey, recalling the 
Domenico Vcncziano type of colour-scheme, but 
having no immediate connection with Domenico, 
or of course any of his draughtsmanship. Greenish 
blacks make up the darks with greenish sky and 
plenty of gold in the draperies, the wings of the 
cupids and the garlands. Pinks and vermilions 
warm a lovely harmony ; but this piece does not 
carry or intrigue as do the Aeneid pictures, nor 
has it any of the splendour of the Tournament. 
I have a note on the Juggler Performing, in the 
University Galleries at Oxford, as perhaps to be 
connected with this New Haven work. But the 
Oxford fragment is a far finer thing. 

1 may add for American students the note that 
the Metropolitan Museum has now adequate 
photographs of typical European cassoni of the 
fascinating time — the golden industrial age — to 
which our Jarves cx.unples belong. 1 am indebted 
to the curator of the Yale University Gallery for 
some technical suggestions, and may refer here to 
Mary Logan's valuable article on ' Compagno di 
Pesellino ' ' for an aperfu of certain decorative 
examples of the class which we have considered. 

\\\ R. 

'Surely llic scene rcprccn ted is that in wliicli lulus fuUils the 
prophecy hy his jesting remark ' Kn ! eliam intnsiis consumi- 
nius ! ' ; and thc° animals in the backfiround are the famous 
while sow with hrr (arrow o( nine ? — ICd. HuilinKlon. 

♦ ■Gazette des Beaux-Aru,' T. 26. July-Dec , 1901. 




;> has, by private collector mi?hr h' -v tn cr,n\nrtc 

nt, been with them in the h 

r\e so far, a victory by ' vv 

■■-'- ■' ■ ''X 


iic private collect -p 
in has immensely 

''•■■ • It 

the quality of a 

It < 


.-.,. .. ,it 

more a 

if not apparently in 
- .m 


»>c the 

)y an 
>f kec' 

th^ stick t)l 

.ther a , 
s could only be 

. ■- 1 J 1 1 [ ■ . 1 1. I 

r see clever men trying t 
indolence on the strcr 
n gained by early efforts, while 

!y incf - -r -ht be ' 

, i into , _ ..., where i. 

' not jostle and hamper their bcttcrcS. 
At present the acumen in these matter 
to lie pri 1 ■ ". with the dealers. 

, 'P'^ tition 

-.c is no dc. . . .it t' 
I the last few years, c. 
improved apparatus of n t 
creased facilities u.' 
chief dealers fir b*.; 
were in the past. K\"^\} u 

.1 an 
and ii 

J. let i 

ic ground of authenticity is rn 


^e at 








HE art season has, by 
common consent, been 
rather a dull one so far. 
The prevalent apathy 
may be ascribed to motor- 
cars or to bridge, to lack 
of Tariff Reform or to the South African 
war, as our tastes or politics suggest ; but 
the fact remains. Yet in such buying and 
selling as has taken place one or two 
symptoms have shown themselves that are 
of good augury for the future. 

In the sale-rooms, for example, there is 
more and more a tendency for prices to 
be ruled by the quality of a work of art 
rather than by the name it bears. A bad 
work by a famous artist fetches little, an 
attractive one by an unknown man may 
be the subject of keen competition ; and 
the underlying principle is now applied 
even to the work of living masters. It 
may seem unkind to beat an artist with 
the stick of his most felicitous productions. 
Yet that is what Time will do inexorably, 
when it sifts a man's best work from the 
mass ; and if our taste anticipates Time, it 
is not altogether a bad thing for the artist. 
If artists could only be sure that the 
public taste would discriminate at once 
between good work and bad, we should 
no longer see clever men trying to sell the 
fruits of indolence on the strength of a 
reputation gained by early efforts, while 
the really incompetent might be dis- 
couraged into private life, where they 
could not jostle and hamper their betters. 
At present the acumen in these matters 
seems to lie principally with the dealers. 
There is no doubt that the competition 
of the last few years, coupled with an 
improved apparatus of reference and in- 
creased facilities of travel, has made the 
chief dealers far better judges than they 
were in the past. Even ten years ago the 

The Burungton Uagazine. No. ji. Vol. XI— June, 1907 

private collector might hope to compete 
with them in the sale-room, and snatch 
a victory by superior knowledge. Now 
the position is fast being reversed, and the 
dealer has learnt his business so well that 
the private collector's chance of a bargain 
has immensely diminished. 

This is not wholly a disadvantage. It 
may make collecting less of a sport, but 
it certainly makes it more stable as a 
pursuit. In London, if not apparently in 
Paris, the days of the 'speculative pic- 
ture ' are numbered, and no honest man 
can regret the fact. Half the trouble 
that has been caused by the sale of 
dubious works of art has been caused 
by imperfect knowledge on the part of 
the seller. He bought as a speculation, 
and salved his uncertain conscience with 
that convenient phrase when he passed on 
the speculation to some one else, at a profit. 

Recently, knowledge has become so 
general that no one with a reputation to 
lose will touch the speculative picture at 
any price. Yet the collector can still 
indulge his sporting instincts, for the 
amicable contest which was once fought on 
the ground of authenticity is rapidly coming 
to be decided on the ground of taste. It 
the dealer underrates the charm or rarity 
of a work of art, the collector will still be 
able to get it cheaply. If the dealer over- 
rates them, he will find it left on his hands, 
or will have to sell it at a loss. 

The one serious feature of the situation 
is the extravagant prices which the finest 
things command. The man of moderate 
means has thus been frightened away from 
Old Masters, and nothing short of an utter 
collapse in prices will tempt him to return. 
His patronage, in flict, is being diverted. 
The enormous increase in the number, 
equipment and prosperity of furniture and 
bric-a-brac shops indicates one of the 

I ; 


The Trend of the Art ^larket 

channels into which business has been 
steadily flowing. The events of the past 
two years indicate that a second channel 
is fast widening — namely, that of modern 

This may seem fantastic to those who 
visit our large exhibitions, where not one 
picture in twenty finds a purchaser ; but 
large exhibitions tend more and more to 
make popular reputations for artists rather 
than bread and butter. The sales we 
refer to are chiefly of small things — metal 
work, jewellery, pottery, etchings, draw- 
ings, small bronzes, small pictures. They 
are effected at small exhibitions and one- 
man shows ; they benefit only a limited 
number of picked men, picked by the 
judgment of a dealer or by the obvious 
preference of the public, more usually by 
both working in combination. On these 
few picked men a number of modest 
collectors arc beginning to specialize, and 
the artists outside their ranks can hope 

only for casual patronage. Two exhibi- 
tions are often seen side by side in the 
same gallery ; that of the picked man is 
thickly dotted with red stars, while the 
next room may not record a single sale. 

In fact, the same process of selection is 
at work among the moderns as among the 
Old Masters, only its outward manifesta- 
tions are less obtrusive. Human vanity will 
continue to provide the portrait painter 
with a living, but the prospects of the 
rank and file of non-portraitists are not 
encouraging. The principle which selects 
the completely fit rejects utterly even the 
tolerably fit, and will do so even more 
ruthlessly when dealers and collectors 
learn to judge modern work as accurately 
as they now judge Old Masters. After all, 
it is only the fittest that really count ; 
the rest deserve our sympathy, but not 
our assistance, except in finding a trade 
that suits them better than that of the 
working artist. 





'ERHAPS on the whole the 
most popular of our Eng- 
lish painters in France is 
I Gainsborough. His bril- 
liancy and facility have 
always appealed strongly 
tu tlic taste ut the French. As far as 
technique is concerned he most nearly 
approached their own artists of the same 
period, and yet retained throughout his 
career a characteristically Fnglish tempera- 
ment. It is astonishing, then, that no 
portrait by him is to be found in the 
Louvre. Lack of funds and the high 
price now set upon a worthy example can 


certainly be urged to-day as a reason for 
the authorities not adding a master so 
desirable ; but it is to be hoped that one 
of the numerous collectors of the English 
school in France will one day repair the 
deficiency. A fine male portrait would 
worthily represent him, and this could be 
secured for a comparatively moderate sum. 
The only two pictures which bear his 
name in the catalogue are the landscapes 
in the La Caze collection. They each 
carry a label, however, only attributing 
them to Gainsborough. That they arc 
not by his hand can hardly be doubted by 
any one having even a superficial acquaint- 

The Tiritish School in the Louvre 

ance with the master. In the first place, the 
compositions are not his ; they are ill- 
balanced and academic, and are evidently 
the work of one who had not studied nature 
at first hand. 

Whatever may be the faults of Gains- 
borough as a landscape painter, a lack of 
acquaintance with nature cannot be urged 
against him. We know how from his 
youth his chief delight was to go out into 
the fields sketching every object which 
attracted his attention. The mannerisms 
which he acquired, and which are par- 
ticularly evinced in the pictures of the 
Ipswich and Bath periods, were due in no 
small measure to his study of Wynants. 
His trees are nobler than the Dutchman's 
and are built with a knowledge far surpass- 
ing his, but they are just as much founded 
on him as are the skies which float above 
them. There is always the impression 
in his works, however, that here was a 
man who was striving to see nature with 
his own eyes and would one day accom- 
plish great things. 

In these two pictures in the Louvre 
the trees are handled with a conventional 
formality of which he was incapable. 
Then, again, Gainsborough was never 
guilty of such lack of truth as the intrusion 
of the hill in the background of one of 
the pictures. This fact alone would be 
convincing evidence that the picture had 
not been painted from or even founded on 
nature. It represents an essentially pastoral 
country, and one in which it would be 
quite impossible for such a sharp hill to 
arise so suddenly. The sky is theatrical 
to a high degree, and bears no relation 
to the landscape. With such light and 
regularly disposed clouds, the dramatic 
effects of light and shadow we find here 
would be impossible. The two pictures 
are hung too high to venture a decided 
opinion as to their author, but the hand- 

ling strongly resembles that of Zuccharelli. 
They have many of his peculiarities of com- 
position, too, and these two facts lead one 
strongly to suspect him as their author. 

The name of Gainsborough's great 
contemporary, Reynolds, has until quite 
recently been absent from the Louvre, but 
two pictures are now hung with his name 
attached. T\\t SMaster Hare, which Baron 
Alphonse de Rothschild left to the French 
nation in 1905, is quite satisfactory in 
many respects. It is one of those charming 
studies of child life in which the first 
President reigned supreme. The painting 
of the head and hand leaves little to be 
desired, and if one could have wished for 
the dress to be more accurately drawn, 
there are many passages which amply 
compensate us for this deficiency. 

With regard to the other picture ascribed 
to Reynolds (Portrait of a LuiJyJ one can 
hardly speak so appreciatively. That this 
ill-drawn and vulgar picture has nothing to 
do with Reynolds can be seen at a glance. 
It is, moreover, covered with re-paints, and 
there are modern additions made here and 
there to the composition. I am inclined 
to look upon it as an early nineteenth- 
century or perhaps a late eighteenth-cen- 
tury portrait which has been worked 
upon in comparatively recent years. I 
arrive at this conclusion because the can- 
vas is undoubtedly of the period I have 
mentioned, and there are certain traces of 
old paint which could well be ot the same 
date as the canvas. The trees of the 
background are without any semblance of 
form, and are handled in the most amateurish 
fashion. The painting of both the arms 
and the face betrays the hand of a man who 
not only had no knowledge of Reynolds's 
methods, but was incompetent as an artist 

It is quite a pleasure to turn from this 
picture to the portrait o( Sir John Stanley. 


The British School in the Louvre 

Here we have a characteristic example 
of a good period of Romney. There is 
that sense of ease about the pose which 
the master knew well how to give. The 
figure is splendidly drawn, the foreshorten- 
ing is accurate, and the head is painted 
with energy and vigour. As an instance 
of Romncy's care in treating accessories — 
witness the chair and the book lying on 
the ground — this portrait will he hard to 

It is unfortunate tliat Rachurn is not 
worthily represented in the Louvre. The 
so-called ^T* or trait of an Old Sat/or, whilst 
remarkably clever and certainly of English 
origin, is not, in my opinion, from his 
hand. The peculiarly forcible but com- 
plicated treatment of the mouth and chin 
are in a manner quite foreign to Rachurn. 
I am at a loss to suggest a name for the 
picture. There are many points which 
resemble the work of Gilbert Stuart very 
closely, but I fail to recognize his hand in 
the hair and eyes. The other group, Mrs. 
Maconochk dmi ChiU, is probably the work 
of Rachurn, although many have not 
hesitated to doubt it. But it lacks all 
those qualities which have caused the 
reputation of Raeburn to rise so steadily 
among our British painters. It is very 
difficult to say what has happened to this 
picture ; parts of the background and the 
shadows are so dark that they cause the 
broadly treated faces and hands to stand 
out in a glaring manner from the canvas. 
I cannot call to recollection any other 
picture by him in which a similar effect 
can be observed, and it is probable there- 
fore that it has suffered some injury. But 
quite apart from this, the bad drawing 
nearly everywhere displayed in it gives 
quite an erroneous impression of Raeburn's 

Nor can Iloppner be said to fare much 
better. Certainly the better of the 


two pictures is the Countess of Oxford. 
This in many ways demonstrates the 
characteristic strength and weaknesses of 
a master who is to-day somewhat over- 
rated. The sweet, even sugary, treatment 
of the face shows ais once again how much 
happier Hoppner was in painting a woman 
than a man. But what a difference we 
observe betwixt his superficial sentiment- 
ality and the masculine vigour of Reynolds 
and Gainsborough! He has the trick of 
placing a passably good-looking woman 
in the most advantageous position for 
displaying her good points and hiding the 
bad, and he further knows how to suit 
the surroundings to the portrait. The 
Countess oj Oxford is an example of this : 
she is placed in a slightly leaning position, 
with a landscape background which throws 
the colour of her cheeks and hair into 
pleasing prominence. 

The other group of a lady and a child 
in a landscape has been doubted ; but I am 
still inclined to think that it is from the 
hand of the master. When one remembers 
the array of mediocre portraits which are 
to be found still in the possession of 
English families boasting a perfect and 
undisturbed pedigree from Hoppner, one 
learns not to judge all of his achievements 
by the highest standard; nevertheless the 
picture is of such poor quality and in 
such inditfercnt condition that it seems a 
pity it has crept into the Louvre. 

We can now turn to a master with 
whose representation we can be better 
satisfied. The French have always liked 
Lawrence. His dashing and brilliant hand- 
ling has had for them an immense fascination. 
He was, indeed, a great artist, and carried 
certain parts of technique further than any 
of our English portrait painters. In fact, 
he impresses one as a man whose atten- 
tion was riveted upon pyrotechnics and 
who lost sight of the fact that brush- 

IN Till-: lAllVKK 





, . H 
X _; 

- ;j 

a: :* 

The British School i?i the Louvre 

work is only the means to an end. Hence 
his portraits lack soul, and throughout his 
career he displays a diabolical and artificial 
cleverness bordering on the vicious. 

It is unfortunate for the reputation of 
our school that Lawrence should have 
obtained such a hold upon the esteem of 
French collectors. I think that by yield- 
ing to his fascination they have missed the 
very essence of those qualities for which 
our painters arc pre-eminent. But of 
Lawrence at his best we could not have 
a better example than the wonderful por- 
trait of ^Mr. John Julius <t4ngcr stein and 
his Wife. In brilliance it recalls in no small 
measure that most amazing of all Law- 
rence's pictures, reprehensible as it is in 
many points of technique, the full-length 
portrait of Miss Farren. There is a strong 
analogy of treatment in the hair of Mrs. 
Angerstein and that of Miss Farren, 
whilst the similarity of the painting of 
the dress is most marked. The head of 
Mr. Angerstein is a noble piece of painting, 
and contrasts strongly with the more 
delicate painting of that of his wife. 

Of the two latest arrivals of Lawrence, 
the portrait oi Mary 'Calmer is unquestion- 
ably the better, and has many passages 
which arc quite delicious. In hand- 
ling and posture it bears a strong re- 
semblance to the portrait of Mrs. Siddons 
in the National (iailery. There is the 
same liquidity of the eyes and vigorous 
painting of the cheeks and nose. Wc 
cannot therefore regret its entrance into 
the Louvre, as it well represents Lawrence 
at a time when he was not so artificial 
and mannered. The other portrait of a 
man is undoubtedly by him, but is not 
a picture of high quality. The Lord 
IVhitWorth in the long gallery has fallen 
into very bad state. It is, however, 
quite an ordinary example of Lawrence. 

Of the other English portraits, the so- 
called Brother and Sister is a pretty example 
of Sir William Beechcy, whilst the portrait 
of l^rincess Charlotte^ in spite of apparent 
re-painting of the head, is a fair specimen 
of the art of Allan Ramsay. 

The woman in white which the Louvre 
gives to Opie is a good picture, but I fail 
to trace the vigorous, even dramatic, hand- 
ling of the master. 

I had not space in my last month's article 
to finish the review of the landscapes. A 
composition representing the valley of a 
river with rocky banks and mountains in 
the distance is given to Richard Wilson. 
It is certainly founded upon him ; but in 
the first place, the trees in the foreground 
are painted with a minuteness foreign to 
Wilson, and the same may be said of the 
timid handling to be observed in the middle 
distance. Moreover, there is no intervening 
atmosphere betwixt the bank upon which 
we stand and theclilf in the middle distance. 
This is placed against the sky with crude- 
ness, and the untransparent water with its 
falsities of rcfiexion and of colour, together 
with a certain lack of knowledge in the 
drawing of the hills, are, in my opinion, 
conclusive proofs that this picture, though 
contemporary with him, cannot be from 
his hand. The Morland has, I am glad to 
say, now had the label removed from it, 
though it retains its place in the catalogue ; 
it is nothing more than a bad copy. 

It is a matter deeply to be regretted, not 
only by those French amateurs who know 
the English school so well, but by ourselves, 
who would like our Englishmen to hold 
their place worthily in the Louvre, that 
such examples should have crept in. We 
tccl sure that future i^pportunities will not 
be neglected, and that finally wc shall 
occupy our just place in the great French 



I RING the last six 
AT^ i)i__N\\ x 'iionths projects have been 
\/^ rN^ m \iiisciisscil in the Italian 
papers for further exca- 
vations at Ilcrculancum, 
»iR-arlv tlie whole of which 
city -still lies buried beneath the adjacent 
towns of Portici and Resina. 

It may be interesting at this moment 
to give a brief account of previous excava- 
tions, and of the unequalled treasures ot 
art which they reveal. 

At the eruption of a.d. 79, Hercu- 
laneum was overwhelmed by a torrent of 
liquid mud. Subsequent eruptions, of 
which the distinct strata are visible, have 
buried the city to a depth varying from 
60 to 100 feet beneath a solidified mass 
which frequently is as compact as marble. 
Excavations, which have been carried 
on intermittently from 1709 to 1876, have 
brought to light a theatre, a basilica and two 
curiae, two temples, a large country villa, an 
area of 300 by 150 perches at Resina with 
houses and streets ; and, probably marking 
the limits of the city, two sepulchres. 
The confusion in the records renders it 
probable that other temples and a forum 
mentioned are only rediscoveries of a 
portion of buildings which had been re- 
buried after excavation. We are led to 
conclude that Herculaneum was a long 
narrow city of medium size, built with 
its major axis parallel to the sea, and with 
its streets at right angles to each other. 
On its history, as a Greek colony, and 
then as a Roman colony, we cannot dwell 

Since we are able to explore about three- 
fourths of the ancient city of Pompeii, 
Herculaneum has not contributed much 
that is new to our knowledge of the 
architecture of the period. The works 
of art, however, which have been found, 

far surpass, in quality and quantity, any- 
thing found at i'ompeii. The majority of 
the works are in the National Museum at 
Naples. The number of bronze statues 
found is stated to be 128, of marble statues 
24. There are in addition nearly a hundred 
busts, and a large number of statuettes, 
vases, tripods and candelabra of graceful 
form, with the designs that were the 
inspiration of the Renaissance. 

Excavations were carried on by means of 
low narrow tunnels, on each side of which 
small areas were dug out, to prevent the rock 
collapsing. Under these circumstances any 
accurate knowledge of the plan of the build- 
ings is difficult to obtain. Further, excava- 
tions at first were carried on solely with a 
view to extricating works of art. Walls 
of buildings were ruthlessly pierced and 
stripped of marbles and frescoes; statues 
were removed, and all knowledge of their 
locality was lost : they were then freely 
' restored.' Even at a period when the 
engineers in charge made notes and plans of 
the discoveries, these were carelessly kept, 
and many have been lost. Moreover, the 
only part of Herculaneum which has not 
been reburicd is a portion of the theatre, 
and the houses at Resina. 

In 1709 and 171 3 the prince d'Elba^uf, 
general of the Austrian army, after sinking 
a shaft at Portici, came upon the back of a 
building, afterwards identified as the theatre 
of Herculaneum. Of the statues ami 
precious marbles extracted, several went 
out of the country. 

Excavations were resumed in the 
theatre in October 1738 and carried on 
till 1776, with intermissions, by engineers 
appointed by Charles III of Spain. First 
a portion of the outer wall was dis- 
covered, then a staircase and portions of 
the cavca, consisting of twenty-one tiers 
of seats, the upper three being divided by 



1'L.VTK I 


liUuSil. Ul>I Ol ( ) sMTIln m<-'.M lltHi-l i-ANtl M 

rLAT»v II 

Past Excavations at Herculaneum 

a corridor from the lower eighteen. Round 
the top of the seats ran a corridor with 
marble-covered pedestals for columns, 
suggesting that this corridor was a covered 
way. In 1742 to 1751 a small portion 
of the orchestra was discovered, paved with 
thick slabs oi giallo antico, and the front of 
the pulpitum. From 1762 to 1765 the 
scena^ portions of the caleea, and the outer 
wall were explored. 

The theatre was built of brick, and tufa 
stuccoed, and encrusted, within and without, 
with precious marbles. The outside was 
adorned with arches borne on pilasters : 
a marble cornice ran round it, and traces 
of colour were found. The seats and 
stairs were of lava. We have two printed 
plans left us out of some twenty made at 
the time. In general plan the building 
is not unlike other theatres known to us, 
and in the proportions of the orchestra and 
proscenium it is rather of the Roman than 
the Greek style. The theatre was of 
medium size, the total diameter measuring 
177 feet, the diameter of the orchestra 
29 feet.' 

It was richly adorned with statues in 
marble and bronze, which not only stood 
in niches outside and inside, but also 
crowned the outer wall, and stood on the 
wall surmounting the ca')>ea, and adorned 
the columned portico at the back of the 
theatre, and the various entrances. The 
force of the mud torrent overthrew and 
shattered the majority. We have remain- 
ing to us three marble statues wearing 
the toga, some half-dozen bronze statues 
of emperors and citizens, and some beauti- 
ful female figures, draped, many of them 
being portraits of the ladies of the house- 
hold of M. Nonius Balbus.' We have 
fragments of a superb gilt bronze chariot 
and horses, and half a dozen inscriptions. 

' The theatre at Ephesus has a diameter of 495 feet ; Ihc 
larye theatre at Pompeii, 202 feet. 
' Three of these statues are in Dresden Museum. 

After a descent of a hundred steps, and 
much groping along low-vaulted, damp, 
cold corridors by the glare of the torch- 
light, we can see all that has been 
excavated. Only a few fragments of 
white marble, a delicately sculptured piece 
of frieze, the acanthus leaves of some 
pilaster, stained green with the damp, still 
cling to the naked walls ; and the section 
of the tiers of seats, the portion of the 
scena, the orchestra entrance, all give the 
impression of being hewn out of the rock. 

About 600 feet S. W. of the theatre is the 
basilica, which measures 228 by 132 feet. 
It was discovered in 1 762. It is surrounded 
by a wall with forty-two engaged columns 
in all, and inside, and parallel, another row of 
columns, the two supporting the roof of a 
covered portico. The floor of the basilica 
is two feet lower than this raised walk. 
Along the shorter end are five entrances, 
adorned with pilasters, on the arch of 
which stood five equestrian statues, of 
which two only remain to us, the statues 
of M. Nonius Balbus, father and son. 

At the opposite end is a recess, where 
stood three marble statues : one of Ves- 
pasian in the middle, and two headless 
figures, seated in curule chairs on each 
side ; both are of great beauty. The 
two niches at each side of the recess 
were adorned with frescoes, Hercules \fitb 
Teiephus suckled by the Hiiul and Theseus 
Victor o'^er the Miiiiotaur, and contained 
two beautiful bronze statues, nine feet 
high, of Nero and Germanicus. 

At each side of the portico entrance 
stood great pedestals for statues, and on 
the half-columns, between each of the 
engaged columns of the wall, stood alter- 
nately a bronze and a marble statue. 
These have mostly perished. Many in- 
scriptions were also found here. The 
outside was covered in marble. The 
columns were of brick, covered with 


Past Kxcazatioris at Hcnulaneum 

stucco. The interior was painted in 
fresco ; most of this is now in Naples 

Quite near the basilica were two small 
buildings identified as curiae' or as temples. 
Let into the marblc-lincd inner walls of 
these curiae were bronze inscriptions with 
the names of magistrates of the city. 

In June 1750 excavations were begun 
in the west end of the garden of the 
' House (if the Papyri,' and were carried on 
to the year 1762. The 'House of the 
Papyri ' is a magnificent country villa of 
the late Republican period. The main 
axis lies parallel to the sea. The general 
plan is similar to houses of the same 
period in Pompeii, though on a larger 
scale, and with certain additions. We 
have the atrium, aloe, peristyle and tab- 
linum. There is a second peristyle to the 
right of the atrium, and rooms beyond 
this. There is an unusually large garden, 
measuring 310 feet by 104 feet, extending 
to the left of the villa, with a circular 
cxIxJra at the end, which had a beautiful 
marble floor. In the garden was a great 
pond, measuring 219 feet by 23I feet. 
Many of the floors in the villa were of 
coloured marbles or of mosaic. The fluted 
columns of the peristyle were of stuccoed 
brick. The water supply, judging by the 
many lead pipes and innumerable foun- 
tains, must have been abundant. 

House and garden were adorned with 
statues and busts. There were thirty 
bronze busts, sixteen bronze statues, fifteen 
marble busts and seven marble statues. 

Among these are some of the loveliest 
bronzes in Europe, including the Mer- 
cury in Repose, The Discoboli, The Drunken 
Faun, and five fine Doric figures generally 
kncnvn as The Dancers. Of the busts, 
some are lovely ideal heads, some realistic 
portraits. Here also were discovered the 

* Jorio, ' NoUic tugli icavi di ErcoLuio ' (Naples, 1837). 

rolls of papyri from which the villa takes 
its name. The greatest number were found 
in the room known as the library. This 
room was floored with marble, contained 
four inscribed busts, of Epicurus, Her- 
marchus, Zeno and Demosthenes, and many 
cases in inlaid wood for papyri. The rolls 
resembled lumps of charcoal, and many 
were thrown away as such. When some 
characters were observed on one of them, 
these carbonized rolls were discovered to 
be papyri. A monk. Father Piaggio, 
invented a machine for unrolling them, and 
for some 1 20 years scholars were busy in the 
work of deciphering and editing. Some 
original rolls, opened and unopened, exist 
in the Bodleian and in the British Museum. 
The results of so much labour are a little 
disappointing. Three-fourths of the library 
consist of the works of the third-rate 
Epicurean philosopher, Philodemus of 
Gadara. His pupil, and later his patron 
for thirty years, was Lucius Calpurnius 
Piso, whose daughter married Julius Caesar. 
It is mainly on the evidence of the rela- 
tions between these men' that Piso has 
been identified as the owner of the villa, 
and the house has frequently been called 
' the Villa of the Pisos.' The evidence, 
however, does not seem quite conclusive. 

In 1750 a building resembling a colum- 
barium, such as we see in Rome, was found 
toward the S.E. It was a vaulted room, 
entered by a staircase containing eight 
niches with the cinerary vases in their 
place. It belonged to the Nonia family, 
and was six feet long. 

In 1757, towards the S.W. of tlic 
basilica, a temple was discovered with a 
marble inscription, stating that it was 
restored by Vespasian to the Mother of 
the Gods. The vault was painted with 
stars on a white ground. The cella 
measured over fifty-one feet in length. In 

* Cicero, ' In Pisoncm ' and elsewhere. 



UM<»/t. Ill 'T '•> Ml HX' Lll' ■> 1 ■.■■■■ 

riJ»T* IV 

Past Excavations at Herculancum 

1759 a second temple was discovered 
quite near. Some beautiful bronze tri- 
pods, censers and candelabra were found 

The houses and streets which were ex- 
cavated at Resina (i 828-1 837) were only 
thirty-six feet beneath the surface. All the 
streets are narrow, except one, which 
measures sixteen feet across, and is paved 
with blocks of lava. Of the houses little 
remains but naked walls. The general 
plan resembles those at Pompeii. The 
floors were of coarse mosaic. The 
walls were nearly all painted in fresco, 
consisting usually of tiny medallions and 
friezes of cupids, beasts, birds, and 
flowers painted on a large monochrome 
panel, which was generally of the well- 
known ' Pompeian ' red, or a beautiful 
glazed black. 

In the well-known ' House of Argus ' 
were found busts of Diana and Apollo and 
some frescoes. Out of some 400 frescoes 
in Herculaneum, now in Naples Museum, 
only a dozen are life-size pictures, and 
these come from public buildings. 

The importance of the Herculaneum 
discoveries lies in the character and con- 
dition of the antique bronzes. Compared 
with some of these, the Marcus Aurciius 
of the Capitol is modern, the Boxer in the 
Baths of Diocletian a piece of brutal 
realism of a late period of Greek art, the 
exquisite bronzes of the Etruscan Museum 
in Florence mere fragments. We have 
nothing really comparable with them except 
the bronze horses of St. Mark's at Venice. 

Perhaps the most striking of these 
bronzes, in some respects, are the five 
aActresses or Dancers which were found in 
the southern portico of the garden of 
the House of the Papyri. They are 
certainly Greek, and possibly originals. 
The pose and balance of the figures 
are graceful; the Doric robes fall in 

straight, stiff folds, yet reveal the curves 
and lines of the form beneath : the variety 
and realism in the treatment of the 
hair is admirable, and if the enamel eyes 
that have been inserted scarcely add to the 
beauty they certainly enhance the life-like 
effect of the fine, stately figures. For sheer 
beauty, the so-called Head of Dionysus or 
Head of l^lato (p. 145) is unsurpassed. 
The expressive head might well be that of 
the greatest of the pre-Christian mystics, 
or of Dionysus, pondering over the 
mysteries known to the initiate, and 
revealed under the fierce symbolism of the 
Bacchic revels. The treatment of the 
beard and the abundant hair that seems to 
resist the gentle pressure of the broad 
fillet that binds it, the modelling of the 
cheek and brow and the delicate curves 
of the lips are a revelation in the art of 
bronze working. 

Passing over many life-like portrait- 
busts, we come to a series of ' ideal heads,' 
and under this category might well come 
several busts to which names have been 
applied without any foundation. They are 
all Greek in type ; they are all of ideal 
beauty ; they are all different in technique 
— in the treatment of the hair, in the 
proportions of the fice. They are all 
different in type — including the effeminate, 
oriental beauty of the so-called Ptolemy 
Soter, the inexpressive loveliness of the 
slightly heavy-jawed, low-browed, wide- 
eyed youth, the T)oryf>/jorus, and the 
Archaic Apollo {^. 157), whose significance 
almost makes us forget its beauty. The 
head, with its brooding eyes, with its 
extraordinary vitality expressed even in 
the wild locks that cluster about the neck, 
seems the one perfect expression ot the 
sun god, of the god of swift death, of 
the god who inspired the raving priestess 
on her tripod. This head was found in 
the garden of the House of the Papyri, 



Past Excavations at Ilcnulaficuni 

which possibly belonged, as \vc have seen, 
to Lucius Calpurnius Piso. On the coins 
of the Calpurnian family appears a de- 
vitalized and conventionalized version of 
this head. 

The marbles discovered in Hcrculaneum 
do not possess the unique interest ot the 
bronzes. The two ccjuestrian statues of 
Balbus, father and son, are interesting 
because, with the exception of the 
Marcus .lurc/ius, such statues are almost 
unknown till we come to the days of 
Donatello's great statue in Padua. 

Such discoveries in the past awaken 
keen anticipation as to the results of future 
excavations. The zeal and enterprise or 
the Italian government renders it possible 

that immediate excavations may be under- 
taken in Italy, and that Merculaneum is 
to be the spot selected. What treasures 
might not a second 'villa' yield.? In 
her buried ruins Italy holds the history of 
the ancient world : she was the inspiration 
of the middle ages : she was the foster- 
mother of the Renaissance ; and in this 
twentieth century all Europe is ready to 
sympathize with her in her arduous enter- 
prise, which may reveal fresh visions of 
beauty — may add, as it were, a few 
more letters to those unwritten words 
that shall spell for us some more of 
the secrets of history and archaeology. 
Such discoveries belong to no nation, and 
no time. 




S we saw last month, the 
Royal Institute has fallen 
upon evil times. The 
Koyal Society of Painters 
ill Water-Colours has been 
^inore fortunate. Among 
all London societies it is, perhaps, the most 
successful from the money point of view ; 
and its success, in many respects, is well 
merited, liy avoiding the temptation to 
become a large society, and to admit the 
work of ' outsiders,' the R.W.S. has suc- 
ceeded, year after year, in making its shows 
more select than any big exhibition could 
be, and has never become so narrow-minded 
as to exclude the talented innovator. The 
consequence is that the society represents 
the best water-colour art of several distinct 
periods, beginning with the delightful 
washed drawings of the veteran, Mr. 
William Callow, passing to the stippled 
work of the seventies and eighties, and 


ending with such ultra-moderns as Mr. 
Rackham, Mr. Cameron and Mr. Sargent. 

For this reason alone the exhibitions of 
the R.W.S. are worth visiting, because in 
them the student of water-colour can trace 
the whole development of the art from its 
classical period to the present day. How 
evenly public patronage is shared by the 
various schools is indicated by the fact that 
Mr. Rackham and Mr. Callow seem able 
to sell their drawings with equal facility. 
If decline is anywhere noticeable, it is in 
the case of the painters of the seventies and 

Thisdccline is not altogether undeserved, 
for the class of drawing which it affects is 
in reality much the same as that which is 
shown at the Institute, and is open to the 
same ol>iections. It is, indeed, nothing more 
than a faint echo of what has been done 
much better in a previous age, with a 
little sentimentality thrown in. The 







living tradition of the art of the water- 
colour is thus represented by Mr. Callow 
on the one side and by the moderns on 
the other. With Mr. Callow's work I 
need not deal at length, for there cannot 
be two opinions as to the charm of the 
fresh and simple workmanship. It is our 
one link with the age of Cotman, Cox and 
De Wint, of which Mr. Callow is the last 
survivor. Thus it possesses some qualities 
of which we have lost the secret, and it 
would seem as if its rediscovery would 
have to be left to another age. 

Nor is Mr. Sargent an easy master to 
follow. His certainty of eye and hand 
are personal gifts which could only be used 
by some one who was equally brilliant ; 
and not the least depressing features of 
modern exhibitions are the attempts made 
to work in Mr. Sargent's manner by 
painters who have not a tithe of his talent. 
Mr. Cameron and Mr. Rackham would 
be easier models to imitate, though few 
could claim the scientific breadth of the 
one or the elvish detail of the other. 

Mr. Rackham's work in particular 
seems to possess every quality that makes 
for permanence. The addition of a lively 
pen-line and a delicate brown tone to 
an arbitrary scheme of coloration makes 
his method practically' a new one, while 
his sense of colour contrast and colour 
harmony is not less acute than his eye for 
human grace and oddity alike. Few 
men living are so consistently delightful, 
hardly any are so truly prolific — that is to 
say, possess Mr. Rackham's capability for 
turning out composition after composition, 
each crammed with invention, and each 
quite different from the last. No living 
artist better deserves success, 

(To be 

The £ase for Modern T^ainting 

Mr. D. Y. Cameron's activities cover 
a much wider range of material, but are 
really narrower in scope. He is, perhaps, 
the first of our living etchers of landscape ; 
at least his prints command the widest 
market. His oil paintings are always 
among the best things of their kind 
at the exhibitions or the International 
Society, and his water-colours for 
some years have been very prominent 
features in Pall Mall East. In the present 
exhibition of the R.W.S. he is not seen 
quite at his best ; nevertheless his drawing 
is of such a scholarly breadth and boldness 
of plan as to separate it at once from the 
work of men who have never tried to 
'bring off' a grand and simple design. 
The colour experiments of Mr. Louis 
Davis and the excellent interior by Mr. 
H. S. Hopwood (205) were also 

Mr. Callow, Mr. Sargent and Mr. 
Rackham are, therefore, the three 
outstanding personalities, yet even 
without their help the R.W.S. would 
still be a strong body as societies go 

It possesses the almost unique merit of 
concentration, and is apparently free from 
the jealousies which mar the work of larger 
art groups. Hence it can be at once con- 
servative and liberal-minded ; indeed, less 
successful bodies would do well to consider 
the common-sense principles which under- 
lie its constitution. There is more 
in such principles than most people 


The constitution of the Royal Academy 
presents a much more difficult problem, and 
I must defer my notes upon its present 
exhibition till next month. 



cji^ MR. W ILM. 

O much interest is now 
It.ikcn in technical pro- 
i-csscs that no apology is 
needed for giving some 
.iccount of the practice of 
ftlic water colour artist 
\\a;> hnrn in the year 1811, who 
worked through the period when that art 
reached its culminating point, and still 
continues to ex hi hit. 

In the annual shows of the ' Old ' Water 
Colour Society the drawings of Mr. 
William Callow have been a remarkable 
feature for very many years. In the ficc 
of body colour and every device that the 
ingenuity of modern water colour artists 
has discovered to obtain greater power 
and force, these modest wash drawings 
have more than held their own, and even 
the brilliant mastery of men as great as 
Mr. Sargent cannot extinguish their more 
retiring dignity. 

Owing to Mr. Callow's great age (he 
will celebrate his ninety-sixth birthday 
this month) his account of his method 
was put into the form of answers to 
questions, which are reprinted literally. 

Do you use ordinary Whatman, or some 
other paper ? 

I have always used Whatman's paper 
for drawings, but Harding's for sketches, 
and absorbent paper for experiments only ; 
of late years Whatman's paper has not 
been so good. 

Do you prefer paper to be non-absor- 
bent or semi-absorbent ? 

I prefer hard paper, non-absorbent. 

Do you tone the paper either by stain- 
ing or washing with some colour ? 

Neither. No preparatory work what- 
ever ; I commence with the tint required. 

What palette do you work with ? 

My palette consists of Blues, Reds, 
Yellows, and Browns — viz., 


\M C.\LLOW r*^ 

Iiuiigo, French Blue, and Cobalt. 
Lake, Light Red, and Vermilion. 
King's Yellow, Gamboge, and 

Yellow Ochre. 
Burnt Sienna, Madder Brown, and 

Vandyke Brown. 
Sepia, Raw Umber, and Raw 

Have you iliscarded any colours as lack- 
ing in permanence ? 

No, I have strictly kept to those 

Do you use cake, moist, or tube colours? 

Moist colours in pans. 

Do you prefer the colours of any par- 
ticular maker ? 

I have always used Winsor and 
Newton's, and for teaching purposes a box 
was named akcr mc containing the colours 
I used in teaching. 

Do the modern colours differ from those 
of the same name used in your early 
career ? 

Yes, the modern colours are moist, 
while formerly they were hard and had to 
be rubbed previous to using ; it was a 
long process, but I think the colours were 
purer from the process of rubbing. 

Do you build up your drawings upon a 
monochrome foundation .? 

I have no knowledge of monochrome. 

Do you leave each wash to dry before 
adding the next, or do you work into the 
colour while wet ? 

After applying the first tint, my work 
is left to dry before applying the next. 

Do you wash your drawing with pure 
water between the application of each layer 
of colour, removing the moisture with 
blotting paper, or do you apply the second 
and subsequent washes when the paper is 
perfectly dry ? 

My drawing is washed with pure 
water between each tint, and allowed to 

The Water Qolour Method of Mr. JVilliam Qallow 

dry before the second and subsequent tints 
are put on ; no blotting paper ever being 

If you worlc dry, how do you avoid 
hard edges ? 

By softening w^ith brush and water. 
A flat brush is best for use in washing. 

Do you use any medium except plain 
water — such as gum ? 

No, nothing but clear water. 

Has your practice changed in recent 
years ? 

No, I have always throughout my 
career worked on the same principle. 

Did it differ materially in any point 
from that of Cox and De Wint } 

I have no knowledge of the methods 
used by Cox and De Wint, but feel sure 
the general principle was the same with 
most painters of that period — viz., washing 
and repetition of tints, by which method 
the solidity required was obtained. Other 
methods resorted to by early painters to 

obtain solidity and texture were rubbing 
with a damp cloth, and the use of a scraper 
to obtain the high lights ; a sponge was also 
used for the same purpose. Most of the 
high lights in the foreground were wiped 
out with a wet brush and handkerchief to 
obtain what was required for richer colour 
of foreground, such as leaves, trees, etc. 
Indiarubber was used for the same purpose. 
Much was done by this process to obtain 

The modern style of water-colour 
painting, and the change that has taken 
place in style and method, I attribute to the 
introduction of opaque or body colours. 
This was formerly against the rules of the 
R.W.C. Society, and I think Harding was 
the first to break through this rule. 

I am unable to give an unbiassed opinion 
of present-day methods, as owing to my 
great age and rapidly failing sight I have 
not visited London exhibitions for some 



ASH drawings — for, 
whetlier rightly or no, I 
have no interest in water 
colour ' painting ' — tlie 
attempt to reproduce in 
the medium of water 
colour something of tlie 
solid relief and actuality 
whicli are iiaUual lo oil painting — wash-drawing 
depends, I lielieve, more upon the quality of 
the paper than anything. And herein lies the 
supreme dilliculty for the modern draughtsman, 
that he cannot easily obtain a really" suitable 
paper, the modern water colour paper having 
been gradually ' improved ' so as to enable the 
artist to obtain all manner of effects except the 
essential one of the beauty of the pure transparent 
wash. Upon different papers the same colour will 
produce totally dissimilar effects of colour and 
tone. With a good paper it will lie with perfect 
evenness (no granulation), with perfect precision 
but without the least hardness of edge, and should 
tlierefore require no subsequent washing, which 
in my opinion is fatal to perfect quality. A paper 

of this kind is of course somewhat absorbent. It 
will not allow of wiping out or indeed any altera- 
tion, but it should not be spongy and soft; it should 
have a firm texture, and it should not be so absorbent 
that the tone of the wash alters materially in 
drying. It is true that some absorbent p.ipers 
which do dry lighter, or rather become suddenly 
dark when wetted, produce the most beautiful 
quality, but the artist's dilTiculties are thereby so 
much increased that few will be willing to risk 
the danger of frequent failure. 

The paper that Girtin used seems to me to have 
been as near to perfection for wash-drawing as 
anything that has been made. Soon after his 
time came the disastrous ' improvement ' of the 
' woven ' instead of the ' laid ' paper ; and artists 
like Turner, who were obsessed with a desire to 
exceed the limits of the wash drawing, to become 
painters in water-colour, pressed it into their 
service until the modern water-colour paper 
became universal. In conjunction with other 
artists I have endeavoured to get Girtin's paper 
copied by an experienced paper-maker. Our 
success has not been complete, but 1 believe the 


A Note Of] neater colotn' Tr(h/i(j//r 

papt-r which is sold l>y Mr. Percy Yoiinj^ is more 
.iincn.ihlc to l>c.ititikil \vash-dra\vinj» any 
other modern paper I have met witn. But in 
the meanwhile, until the real thinj^ is ajjain 
manufactured, the artist who is f.istidious alx)ut 
such thinjjs as the combination of atmospheric 
t|iiality and precision in his washes must have 
recourse to such old paper as he cxn lay hands 
on. In using this he will have to face many risks 
which the rej^ular practitioner will dislike. One 
sheet may dififer from another in quality, so that a 
treatment which succeeds perfectly with one will 
fail entirely with another ; a sheet m.iy develop 
under the wash hidden defects, sudden spots of 
;jre:iter or less ahstjrbency, foxin/^ and other 
implcLsant surprises ; but whenever he gets a 
jierfect sheet the artist will have his reward. 

It will of course be apparent that the kind of 
wash dniwing I have in view imposes upon the 
artist very rigid limitations in the so-called 
' rendering of ii.iture.' With the paper that gives 
the fuiest quality of w.ish, all alteration is out of 
the question: no wiped-out lights, not even a tint 
washed lighter, can be expected. The artist's 
formula must therefore Ix; very simple, very 
jirecise, and his treatment spontaneous and direct. 
He m.iy find it necess.iry to treat his theme in 
three distinct parts : to render it first as contour 
either in pen or pencil; then as chiaroscuro by 
working his shadows in neutral tints; and finally as 
colour. VoT anything like an impressionist treat- 
ment of the whole effect in one operation, the 
problem will become too difficult. 

IJiit I believe that the very limitations of such 
a method as I suggest make really in the direction 
of a more purely artistic vision, of one in which 
any crass naturalism is impossible, in which the 
selection of the significant and central facts is 
more deliberate and sure. 

W.iter-colour drawing is, I think, destined to 
play an increasing part in modern art, as wealth 
and the taste for art become more disseminated 
among l!ie middle classes, since the heaviness and 
material quality of our oil paintings lit with 
dilliciilty into the lighter and more delicate 
schemes of decoration possible to the semi- 
detached householder, who will never own large 
oak-panelled halls. Such a man, if he become a 
patron of painting at all, will soon find how 
difficult it is to decorate his house with oil paint- 
ings, in which pale colours and high keys are 
rarely successful, and will inevitably turn to water- 
colour. And if this happens, we may in time rid 
Kuropcan art of a certain redundancy of material 
which has for long f)bsessed it, and may get to 
learn from the art of China and Jap.m that there 
is more expression in line c.illigraphy than 
in elaborate realization of natural texture 
and completeness of effect. We might even 
learn once again, what Kurope h;is lorgotlen 
for five centuries, that a method of composition 
which is freed from the tyranny of perspective, 
and which obeys only the desire for complete 
expressiveness of the idea, is at once more free 
and more logical than that which we so inevitably 


MOXGST the many objects 
\^liieli have recently been found 
111 Kgypt, the gold coins and 
iiied.ils found near Abukir are 
specially worth notice. The 
iiill particulars of the finding 
' 'f this treasure have unfor- 
iiinately never come to light, 
h'l i; w.t iliM.M\i I, d by chance and secretly (lug 
up by native field labourers. Some time after 
there had lieen talk al)out a great number of 
Koman gold coins, ingots of gold and Greek gold 
medals having Ix-en found, thi-se objects suddenly 
appeared in the art-tr.ide in Paris. Syrian anil 
American dealers and a woman from the 
went singly to the art-dealers and the museums, 
and offered for sale eighteen exceptionally large 
gold medals (diameter 2 to 2^ inches), which were 
in a splendid state of prescrv.ition. They asked f.ibu- 
lous sums, and seemed to be in a great hurry. 
Through the mysteriouslxhaviour of these orientals 
and the excitement and haste with which they 


exhibited the objects, but most of all through some 
peculiarities in the technique as well :ls in the 
design of the gold medals, the art-dealers became 
suspicious ; the mcd.ils were thought to be clever 
imitations, and nobody was anxious to buy them. 

After a short time the medals were back in Egypt, 
with the exception of four, which h. id been offered 
for sale to the museum of Ikriin. Dr. Dressel, 
who has recently discussed these gold med.ils at 
length in the ' Abhandlungcn dcr Akademie der 
Wissenschaften,' recognized that they were un- 
doubtedly genuine, aiul he succeeded in acquiring 
them for the collection of coins in Berlin. 

The designs on these med.ils are connected with 
Alexander the (ii eat and his house. On the obverse 
of two of them Alexander's head is presented: on 
one with the royal diadem, on the other in his 
coat of mail and helmet, after the style of the 
coins of Lysimachus. On the reverse sides a 
goddess of victory is represented. She stands in 
a four-horse chariot, and holds in her left hand 
the branch of a palm-tree, in her right the reins. 

The goddess of victory on the second medal 
stands with her foot on a hehiiet, and is gazing at 
a shield richly ornamented with figures. Opposite 
to her is a trophy under which two prisoners are 
sitting : to the left a man with a beard, clothed 
after the manner of barbarians, with his hands in 
fetters ; to the right a woman, evidently in deep 
sorrow, wrapped in her cloak. 

These interesting and rich designs are obviously 
to be interpreted as a glorification of the conquest 
of Asia by Alexander the Great, hinted at by the 
figure characterized as a barbarian. A double-axe, 
the characteristic weapon of the Amazons, which 
is included in the trophy, indicates the victory 
over the war-like viragos who, according to the 
legend, still dwelt in Asia in the daj's of 

The third gold medal (fig. i) shows us quite a 
new and very remarkable likeness of Alexander. 
It is a half-length, full-face picture of the king, 
with long hair, standing up in the well-known way 
and falling upon his shoulders like a mane. In 
the treatise above referred to, Dr. Dressel says 
of this head of Alexander : ' There is no human 
likeness on the thousands of antique coins and 
engraved stones preserved to us which could be 
compared with this as regards the interpretation 
and the description of personality. There may be 
some artistically more perfect likenesses and some 
which distinguish themselves by their more keenly 
felt and more harmoniously executed characteriza- 
tion, but not one that could move us more deeply 
and make us realize more vividly the greatness 
and the importance of the personage represented.' 

It has been inferred from the shield and the 
spear that it may be Alexander fighting, yet this 
face, though expressing energy and noble bearing, 
hardly expresses the agitation of a fight, and we 
have in this portrait not Alexander fighting but 
Alexander the hero. 

On the reverse of this medal is represented 
again the goddess of victory with the trophy. 

The Gold Medals of Abukir 

The design on the fourth gold medal follows 
the likenesses of Alexander in a natural way. It 
is a charming female bust portrait of Olympias, 
the mother of the great king (fig. 2). On the 
re%'erse we see a Nereid borne through the waves 
by a sea-bull. This design is intimately connected 
with the likeness of Olympias on the obverse, for 
the mother of Alexander was descended from the 
Aeacides, who traced their descent back to the sea- 
goddess Thetis, and the Nereids belong to the 
suite of this goddess. 

The reverse of the next medal is also very 
interesting. The youthful Alexander, adorned 
with the royal diadem, sits on a bench. In a 
sleeveless cliiioti, the arms covered with bracelets, 
the goddess of victory sent by Miner\-a stands before 
him, handing weapons to him, as to the future 
conqueror of the world. She presents to the 
young hero the helmet, the mark of distinction of 
the commander, and beside her stands the big 
round shield, on which Achilles is represented, 
dragging Penthesilea behind him : Achilles with 
Penthesilea evidently hints at Alexander's task of 
subduing Asia by Hellenic culture. 

The designs on the other gold medals are also 
connected with Alexander and his house, so that 
we have before us a continuous series. By 
comparison with other coins it has been ascertained 
that these medals were originally prizes of victory, 
distributed at the Olympian games in Macedonia 
(a.d. 274) in remembrance of Alexander the Great. 
In all probability these prizes were gained by an 
Egyptian athlete, who took them back with him 
to his native land. Great numbers of these prize 
medals were distributed in ancient times, and that so 
few have come down to us is mainly owing to the 
fact that they were of gold and were melted down 
later. Besides the medals of Abukir only four 
other prize medals are known to us, three from a 
gold-find in Tarsus, and a smaller one, which is at 
present in Cambridge. All of these medals are of 
eminent scientific as well as artistic importance. 


most warmly congratulated 
on her latest book.' Her 
careful treatment is so well 
known that before we open 
the pages of ' Dutch and 
Flemish Furniture ' we 
have the comfortable assur- 
ance that we shall not find a heterogeneous jumble 
of facts and fiction collected at random from the 
most untrustworthy sources. The only possible fear 
is that Miss Singleton, like so many others, should 

I'Dutch and Flemish Furniture.' Hodder and Stoughton, 
42s. net. 

have traded on her reputation, and given us 
something which, though distinctly good, would 
fall below her own standard. There is, however, 
no such backsliding, but rather the reverse. After 
reading and re-reading the book I am impressed 
with the distinct advance made in style, interest 
and scientific treatment. No one with the faintest 
love for the subject can fail to be interested, and 
nobody of average intelligence can read the letter- 
press, comparing it with the illustrations, and fail 
to arrive at a knowledge of the different periods 
and the growth of styles. This comparison might 
certainly have been made somewhat more easy. 
There are two classes of illustrations, plates and 


l^utc/i lUiJ Flemish Furfiiturc 

figures, and the latter arc diOicult to find. The 
figures sometimes occur in pages by themselves, 
while at others they surround the object re- 
protluced in the plate. As lK)th pl.ites and tigures 
selduni fate their descriptions anil, nideed, are 
often widely reiuovetl from them, it would greatly 
facilitate tlie study of the b<H)k if the pages 
opposite which they may be found were given in 
the text, it would also In; well, for purposes of 
reference, if the page or pages in which the 
illustr.ition is mentioned were given either in the 
index or on the plate. I 'late XXVI I, for instance, 
whicli faces page 148, is merely mentioned in page 
152, but is fully discussetl on page 252. The 
index also omits the figures, except such of them 
as occur in the plates. The matter is so admirable 
that, in the future editions which I feel conlident 
will Ik- required, I shall hope to see my suggestion 

In this book there is a \';ist amount of the 
original research we have come to expect from 
Miss Singleton. ' In my attempt,' she tells us in 
her preface, ' to reconstruct Dutch and Flemish 
interiors of past days, I have consulted not only 
histories, memoirs, and books of travel, but wills 
and inventories as well.' This is no empty boast. 
There are p.iges and pages filled with such 
notes, and others teeming with the names and 
dates of the old workers. Yet no one need be 
afraid of dryness. Miss Singleton has the faculty 
of treating hersubject scientifically and exhaustively 
and yet making her book interesting reading. The 
long lists which occur every here and there arc 
necessities for the expert ; but there is no compul- 
sion on the ordinary reader to wade through them 
unless he feels so disposed. The historical portions, 
on the other hand, are not only integral parts of 
the subject, but are so brightly written that they 
can scarcely be passed over by any one. 

What seems to me the chief fault of the book is, 
after all, only a virtue exaggerated. It is impossible 
to succeed in any art work without enthusiasm. 
Miss Singleton has scored a success where another 
writer of equal knowledge might have failed 
through her possession of this quality. She is, 
however, occ;isionally inclined to be carried away 
by her subject and to forget that the effect of 
apprcxiation is heightened by sympathetic criticism. 
I cannot, for instance, understand how Miss 
Singleton, whose taste is indisputable, should say 
of a very childish design that it has 'directness 
and simplicity worthy of a liotticelli.' Nor can 
one quite follow her when she writes : 'Many an 
oliscurc monk put all that is beautiful and fanciful 
in his nature into the production of carvings in 
stone and wood that have never been surjiassed.' 
She is also inclinetl, naturally perhaps, 
to ' drag in ' America. In is otherwise (Jiie of 
the iK-st (if not the best) accounts of the causes 
which led to the Kenaissance bhe interpolates the 


statement 'America was shortly to be discovered, 
and before long exotic woods were to end the 
exclusive sway of walnut and oak.' For any one, like 
the present writer, who has a bad memory for dates, 
it is useful to connect the discovery of America 
with the early d.iys of the Renaissance ; but the 
one had ;is little to do with the other as the 
man in whose birthday it happens to occur affects 
an earthquake. Miss Singleton knows just as well 
as I can tell her that mahogany was not used, 
except in a scattered and experimental way, for 
over two centuries, nor s;ilinwood, the next most 
common, for nearly three. I must also take excep- 
tion to the statement that Grinling Gibbons was a 
Dutchman. He was born in London in 1648, and 
though he seems to have had some connection 
with Holland either by blood or early residence 
(his biographers vary on the point), his style was 
formed in England and is as purely English as it 
is possible for art to be. 

To imply, even by suggestion, that these careless 
statements are representative would be, to use 
Charles Reade's phr.isc, to employ the ' sham sample 
swindle.' They are merely instances of the very 
occasional l.ipscs from cultured criticism to special 

The general treatment and scheme of this book 
could scarcely be better or more lucid. It com- 
pletely justifies its title in that it is a liiilory, not 
merely a collection of finecxamples with descriptive 
notes. The illustrations arc not only good in 
themselves but evince great selective care. So 
typical are they a very creditable knowledge 
of the subject could be attained by merely studying 
the plates without reading one word of the letter- 
jiress. In plates III and IV we have the two chief 
phases of fifteenth-century decoration. The first 
is a Flemish ilnssoir which is covered from top to 
bottom with figures and scroll work carved in 
relief. It is a very magnificent piece of furniture, 
but somewhat unrestful to the eye. The credence 
on pLile IV from the Cluny Museum is, on the 
other hand, a very admirable specimen of the 
more reserved work of the times. Plate VIII is a 
sixteenth-century cabinet of the time when 
Flemish workmen adopted the Renaissance and 
followed its feeling with fidelity. This phase 
could scarcely be permanent. The style is loo 
cold and too unlike a home to suit northern 
nations, who are compelled to spend much of their 
time indoors, and tlie Flemish workmen very 
soon adapted the new ideas to the require- 
ments of their customers, of which the 
nriitoire from the Rijksmuseum (plate XV) is a 
fine ex.imple. In it we can sec the foundation 
of our Fnglish Tudor, which m.iny good judges 
consider our best period. This is a f.iir s.unple 
of what the tyro can learn by a few minutes of 
intelligent stiuiy. 

I would not be understood to dejireciafe the 




i"" ,>l-^^ 

inmsr*^ vrajjjffii'i 


IN THE MISKIM ol- Al'I'LIKI) AKFS, I.Kll'/ll. 


l>»' M UKVIIKKIi WiiMKMANHllll' 


l-I.ATK I 

T^utch and Flemish Furniture 

letterpress. For the sake of brevity I have, 
regarding these examples and their lesson, given 
my own views in my own words. I was certainly 
not compelled to do so by any weakness in the 
text. All of it is lucid, most of it is bright, and 
here and there it rises to the poetic. At other 
times a still more difficult thing is achieved in the 
combination of interest with condensation. 

' The plain box, or chest, was the origin of all 
the developments of mediaeval furniture. It had 
many uses ; it contained the treasures and valu- 
ables of the lord ; it was used as a packing-case or 
trunk for travelling ; with supports at the four 
corners and back, and arms added above, it served 
as a chair or settle w-ith a seat that could be lifted 
on hinges ; raised also on legs and supplied with a 
dais, it became a dressoir, credence, or sideboard ; 
chest-upon-chest, superimposed, developed into 
the annoire ; and, finally, supplied with a head 
and front rail and made comfortable with mattress 
or pillows, it served as a bed.' 

The chapter on the Burgundian period is par- 
ticularly interesting, the picture drawn of the 
magnificence of the courts of Philip the Good 
and Charles the Bold — most of it from con- 
temporary sources — being most impressive, while 
the effect of the art workers of Burgundy on other 
countries, especially on Spain, is well and clearly 

Considerable space is devoted to tapestries, with 
which the Low Countries supplied all Europe, 
even Italy. Italian patrons, however, did not 
appreciate the strongly realistic designs of the 
northern weavers, and usually supplied cartoons 
by Raphael or Romano, which, naturally, had a 
' great influence upon the Flemish tapestries.' 

I have seen it stated, though where I cannot at 
the moment remember, that the art of burning 
paintings into glass was first discovered and 
practised in Italy. The following quotation 
which Miss Singleton gives from Guicciardini 
(1567) would seem to settle the point : — 'They 
(the Flemings) invented the mode of burning them 
into glass, so as to be safe from the corrosion of 
water, wind, and even time . . . and the 
Flemings also invented the manner of making 
leaden casements.' Considerations of space prevent 
me from following Miss Singleton through her 
chapter on the Renaissance ; but I cannot 
forbear quoting another paragraph : — 

' In the second period of the Renaissance, the 
general effect is more severe and geometrical ; the 
projections are more restrained, and the general 
form of furniture more rectangular. The vertical 
lines are more conspicuous than the horizontal 
lines ; and columns with elongated shafts and 
delicate flutingsor grooves replace human figures 
that in the first period of the Renaissance act as 
uprights and supports.' 

Anyone with- taste and knowledge can look 

critically at a style, but it is a special gift to be 
able to classify one's knowledge. Miss Singleton's 
ability in this particular adds enormously to the 
value of her book, and saves it from becoming a 
mere catalogue of facts, which, but for such 
passages, it might easily have been. 

In treating of the seventeenth century Miss 
Singleton's professed purpose is to reconstruct the 
Dutch home, and in this she most certainly suc- 
ceeds. There is nothing with which real fault can 
be found as regards the ' scientific ' treatment of 
this portion, but it does not seem to me to 
be of quite the same high order in this par- 
ticular as the former parts. She is a little 
afraid, not of her subject or her knowledge of it, 
but of saying what has been said before, even 
though it might be novel to the majority of her 
readers. She makes it very clear that the style of 
the Decadence, brought by Rubens from Rome 
(and thereafter known by his name), affected Flem- 
ish painting, architecture and ornament, but she 
leaves the effect on furniture unconsidered. If 
any one knows what this was it is Miss Singleton ; 
and I confess that I should have been glad of 
more definite information on the subject. 

In her reconstruction of the Dutch home Miss 
Singleton, very rightly, makes considerable use of 
the pictures of the period. I have had occasion to 
mention in the pages of The Burlington Magazine 
the untrustworthiness of our English artists as re- 
gards current furniture design. "The Dutch 'Little 
Masters,' on the contrary, were almost painfully 
realistic in matters of fact. Moreover, the whole 
nation was (to use a northern phrase) ' house- 
proud,' and the combination of the two proclivities 
renders the paintings of the period actual and 
dependable evidence, while the reproductions 
add in no small degree to the artistic value of the 

Though I do not consider these chapters, from 
one point of view, to be quite up to Miss Single- 
ton's own highest standard, I can, as a student 
of English furniture, vouch for the fact that they 
are even more interesting, for in the seventeenth 
century our workmen copied Dutch models more 
closely than they did those of Flanders in the 
Tudor period. By kind permission of the 
publishers, Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton, I 
reproduce plate XXXI II (page 165), which shows 
three chairs from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, 
of which I give Miss Singleton's description. Of 
that on the left she says : ' Chairs of this fashion 
were extremely popular in the Low Countries 
and in England during the second half of the 
seventeenth century. In all probability, they 
originated in the Netherlands, and became familiar 
and favourites with the exiled Cavaliers between 
1640 and 1660 : and at the Restoration the style 
w-as imported into England.' The middle chair 
' belongs to the end of the seventeenth century . . . 



l^utch and Flemish FurNiture 

the propoitioiis of the scat, wliicli is stuffed aiul 
covered witli velvet, f;isteiied with sm.iU f)riiss naik, 
is quite modern.' That to tfje ri>»ht is ' a Dutch 
arm cliair ' of the !>;»mc form as a desijjn 
Riven from the ilesij»ns of Crispin dc P.isse about 
the middle of the century. 

Of Kn;{lish furniture at the end of the seven- 
teenth century Miss Simpleton justly says: 'At 
this jK-riod Enjjlish and Dutch tastes were identi- 
cal.' She is, by the way, the first, so far as my 
readinjj goes, to do more than merely mention 
Daniel M.irot, a French refugee brought over from 
Holland by William, whose style affected certain 
phases of Knglish furniture, particularly mirrors, 
for some time. 

Miss Singleton adds a chapter on the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries in Holland, which, 
though interesting, has little historical value. 
Tlie author has been careful throughout to mention 
every influence of Dutch and Flemish fiuniture 
art on Knglish workmen up to the time of Queen 
Anne. She frankly acknowledges such foreign 

influences on Dutch designs as the Italian 
and the French, and one fails to understand 
how, with her knowledge of English eighteenth- 
century design, its effect on the Dutch should 
be omitted. 

Towards the middle of the eighteenth century, 
and for some time after, Knglish furniture art 
came well to the front. Nowhere it more 
studied thin in Holland. I nee and Mayhew, 
and also the brothers, published their letter- 
press in French as well as Knglish, and there was 
a large continental sale for their books as well as 
those of Hepplewhite and Sheraton. Of Sheraton's 
' Drawing Book ' there was actually a reprint, 
while a French publication of i8lo is evidently 
b.ised on his later designs. 

There are, unfortunately for the collector, ship- 
loads of Dutch furniture on Hepplewhite and 
Sheraton lines. They are seldom, if ever, of the 
same excellence as their models ; but at least they 
are better than the Dutch cabinetmakers were, at 
the period, capable of originating. 

A J^U43<^ JVITH .A H^WK 

IIK admirable work which 
we reproduce as frontispiece 
to the present nimibcr is a 
striking instance of the diffi- 
culty which surrounds any 
critical study of the English 
school of painting. Here we 

have a picture which in spirit 

and .accomplislunent is of the highest degree of 
excellence, and only falls short of the work of the 
supreme masters of portraiture from lack of the 
gravity with which they invest their sitters. Yet this 
Man u'llU a Ihiwk is the work of a painter whose 
name will be unknown to ninety-nine out of a hun- 
dred of oiir readers, and who even in his own day but little reputation. Those who care to turn to 
Mr. Algernon Graves's monumental work will lind 
a list of Henry Wyatt's exhibits at the Royal 
Academy iK-tween the years i8i7 and 1838, and 
Hryan's Dictionary contains a short suniin iry of 
the few f.icts of his life which are recorded,' and 
mentions pictures by him at Chester, Gl.isgow and 
Manchester. In no other c.ises, however, with 
which we arc acquainted, does \Vyatt touch the 
level which he reaches in the Man u'illi a Ilaivk; 
indeed, but for the inscription on the back of the 
c^, the painting might well have passed for the 

' Henry Wyalt »•.« born .it Thickbroom, Lichfield, in 
I7<X. He ttudieil in the Ac.i<lemy nihooU and t>ccainc .liiiisUnl 
lo Ijwrcncc. In the yejr 1X17 helcll l»nd<iii.iiKl pr.iL'tiicd .in 
a |^>rlrait painter in Hirinin(;bain, l.iver|HH>l and M.inchc!>trr 
vuctc^Mvcly. l-rom 1825 lo 1HJ4, lie was agiln in l.ondi>n, 
leaving it fur l.caniingtoni n 1835. He died at I'rotwich in 11(40. 


work of Lawrence, nay, for one of his masterpieces. 
In the absence of any other identilication it is per- 
missible to suggest that this picture may be the same 
as that exhibited in the Academy of 1835 under 
the title of Vigilance, though the style is Uiat of a 
somewhat earlier date. 

Wy.itt worked in the studio of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence as assistant, and the importance of the 
assistance he rendered may be estimated by the 
f.ict that Sir Thomas paid him a sal.ary of ^^300 a 
year. This sum, and the skill displayed in this 
picture, warrant the assumption, not only that 
Wyatt had far more to do with Lawrence's por- 
traits than is commonly suspected, but also 
that there must have been numberless works from 
his hand which now p;iss under his master's 
name. Ever since the days of Lely, the Knglish 
school has been full of this anomaly of pupils 
who have done work which was in no way 
distinguishable from that of their masters, or 
actually superior to it ; and when some critic 
is born who will distinguish for us between the 
work of Lely and his various assist.ints, and decide 
who was the architect of the Houses of Parliament, 
he may, perhaps, hope also to distinguish the 
work of Sir Thomas Lawrence from that of Henry 
Wyatt. Till tlun Wyatt must remain what he 
was in his lifetime — magni nominis umbra.' 

' Since the .ilxivc was written, the excellent Potlrait of Miss 
Crfiilorrr has fetched J.Xj" francs in llie Sc<lehncyer sale, so 
perhaps Wy.ilt may s<x>n l>c rescued from the oblivion which 
has shrouded him su loni;. 

^ BY C. H. WYLDE ^ 

R. THOMSON has pro- 
duced a work' which will 
probably for many years 
hold the position of being 
the standard work in the 
English language on one of 
the oldest and most impor- 
.tant of the handicrafts 
practised by civilized man from the earliest 
ages. As the author states in his preface, 
' notwithstanding the keen and growing interest 
in tapestries and the fact that they constitute most 
precious acquisitions to the art collector, there has 
been hitherto no text-book of exclusively English 
production to explain them.' While Mr. Thomson 
has removed this reproach from his countrymen, 
he has at the same time brought together with 
immense pains and untiring research all the 
knowledge on the subject available in the 
numerous foreign works on tapestry, weaving 
them together with many new facts gleaned from 
a thorough scrutiny of the documents in our 
national archives and in private possession. 

The author commences his book with the 
assumption that the reader knows nothing at all 
about the subject, and, tracing the evolution of 
tapestry from the savage art of wattle-plaiting 
and basket weaving, initiates us into the simple 
technicalities of the tapestry craft, carefully 
explaining the mysteries of warp and woof with 
the help of two excellent diagrams. Having 
arrived at a clear understanding as to the nature 
and characteristics of his subject, he starts from 
the very infancy of the art, that is to say as far 
back as any evidence exists to show that it was a 
recognized and regularly practised handicraft. 
Dating from the period of the lake dwellings in 
Switzerland, a fragment of coarse flaxen material 
has been found proving the existence of the art 
of weaving at this early time in man's history, 
while complete dresses of the bronze age have 
been found at Troenhoi, in Jutland. Weaving, 
in fact, appears to have been an art quite as 
general in its distribution among the early races 
of mankind as pottery-making, for we iind it 
practised among people so widely separated 
as the ancient Egyptians, Peruvians, natives of 
Borneo, Greeks and Chinese — thus proving that, 
in the same way as pottery, it was a naturally 
evolved craft wherever man had emerged from 
the primitive state. 

Passing over the interesting sketch given by our 
author of the art of tapestry weaving during 
ancient times in Egypt, Greece, Rome, and the 
Near East, including the luxurious and magnificent 
period of the Saracens, we come to an interesting 

' A History of Tapestry from the earliest times until the 
present day. W. G. Thomson. Hodder and Stoughton. 
£2 28. net. 

and instructive chapter on the progress of the art 
in Western Europe through the early ages up to 
the fourteenth century, in which is shown the 
great share taken by the Church in the fostering and 
protection of the liberal arts during a period largely 
given over to war and rapine. When we consider 
the wealth and power attained by the ecclesiastical 
bodies during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
it is not to be wondered at that the best work was 
carried on under the shelter of the monasteries ; 
and it was not until the crusades had brought the 
nobility into familiar intercourse with the mag- 
nificence of the East, and inoculated the sovereigns 
and wealthy classes with a keen desire for an 
ostentatious display of costly hangings, that the 
craftsmen were provided with patronage sufficient 
to make them independent of the parent Church. 
This movement was largely responsible for the 
change of style from Romanesque to Gothic, and 
from the representation of sacred subjects to 

From early times tapestry hangings were in 
common use in England, and the hall, which 
always formed the principal room of the Anglo- 
Saxon house, was hung with tapestry called in the 
Anglo-Saxon tongue ' Wah hroegel ' or ' Wah 
rift,' that is ' wall clothing.' These are described 
in the seventh century as being of purple and 
other colours, and frequently enriched with figures 
and scenes from the histories of heroes. 

As might be expected, the productions of the 
looms of the Flemish town of Arras during the 
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
occupy a considerable amount of space in 
the book before us. Although Arras was 
thoroughly established as one of the principal 
seats of the industry in the thirteenth century, 
it was not till the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, when Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, 
took the cause of the tapestry weavers of the 
town under his own patronage, and by grants of 
money and liberal commissions encouraged the 
craft, that the tapestries of Arras became world 
famous. Philip not only furnished his magnificent 
castle and princely town residences with costly 
hangings, but had no scruple in submitting 
specimens as worthy of the acceptance of the 
mightiest of potentates. The inventory taken in 
1420, in the reign of John the Fearless, duke of 
Burgundy, and published by the Count de Laborde 
and by M. Alexandre Pinchart, is also included 
by Mr. Thomson, and affords us a very good idea 
of the extent and importance of the Arras factory 
at that period ; there is also a list taken from the 
register of the town, 1423- 1467, of the names of 
the craftsmen employed. 'The death of Charles 
the Bold, duke of Burgundy, in 1476, and the 
capture by Louis XI of Arras in 1477, brought 
about the ruin of that town, and although Charles 


The History of Tapestry 

VIII of France, in 1484, attempted to revive the 
industry by restorinj^ to Ihe town all the ancient 
rights anil priviit^'es, the destruction had been too 
thoroughly carried out lor the attempt to have any 
appreciable result. With the fall of Arras is 
marked the end of the first period in the history 
of European tapestry. Passing over to this 
country, we find that England in the early part 
of the fifteenth century, although by no means 
a great manufacturer of tapestries, was, owing 
to the enormous amount of booty seized during 
the French wars, probably better furnished with 
tapestries than any Continental power, probably 
the finest collection in the country being that of 
the king, Henry V, of which the inventory, 
taken after his death in 1422, is given by Mr. 
Thomson in full and forms an interesting and 
instructive document. We cannot pass over this 
period without a reference to the splendid tapestries 
in Hardwicke Hall belonging to the duke of Devon- 
shire, the finest examples of the fifteenth-century 
productions preserved in England. They are four 
Ml numl>er, and all deal with hunting subjects. 
We believe their restoration is due to the initiative 
of the late Mr. Arthur Strong ; two of this series are 
very eflectivcly reproduced in colour in the 
volume Ix'fore us. Comparing them with others 
of known Flemish origin, Mr. Thomson is 
probably correct in attributing them to Arras or 
Tournai manufacture of about the middle of the 
fifteenth century. 

The si.xteenth century is important in the history 
of tapestry as marking the great change in the 
style of the Brussels work introduced by Raphael's 
cartoons, the compositions becoming much more 
dramatic and pictorial where they had hitherto 
Ix-en crowded and formal, partaking in fact far 
more of the nature of pictures or frescoes than 
of hangings. Mr. Thomson marks his account 
of the history of tapestry manufacture during 
the seventeenth century with a very exhaustive 
tre-atise on the Mortlakc factory, besides a general 
description of other factories in England, in 
addition to a copy of the inventory of the sale of 

the royal collection of t.ipestrics, 1649-1653, an 
instructive list occupying forty-four p.iges. 

The most import. uit event on the continent 
during the same century was the establishment of 
the Gobelins factory in Paris, about 1662, by Louis 
XIV. This establishment appears to have taken a 
position in the art world as important as that 
attained by the Sevres porcelain factory in the 
eighteenth century. It employed, under the 
direction of Charles le IJnui, all the clUe of artistic 
France, and, like Sevres, had its first period of 
brilliancy, succeeded by a time of quiet and 
uneventful prosperity, alternating with periods of 

A very valuable chapter in Mr. Thomson's book 
is the last, which is devoted to a record of all the 
marks known to have been used by the tapestry 
makers of Europe since the regulation brought 
into force by the corporation of taf>issiers in 
Brussels in 1528, making it obligatory that every 
piece of more than six ells made in the town 
should be marked. This chapter alone makes the 
book indispensable to every collector antl student 
of tapestries. 

In concluding our remarks on this work we must 
express the opinion that Mr. Thomson has laid 
a deep debt of obligation upon the artistic and 
literary world for the laborious and careful work 
which he has produced. If any improvement were 
possible, we would suggest that a very useful addi- 
tion would have been a bibliography with the 
names of the books and authorities quoted in the 
fo(jtnotes ; a useful chajiter might also have been 
added on the technical distinctions and character- 
istics of the productions of the various periods 
and factories. The author, however, has thoroughly 
fulfilled his task, namely, to give a complete and 
clear history of tapestry manuhicture. He has been 
very ably seconded by the publishers, Messrs. 
Hodder and Stoughton, who have spared no 
expense in producing a sumptuous volume, which 
both by tiie clearness of the letterpress and the 
copious illustrations greatly enhances the value of 
the work. 



t)uiy.irei)l 1 
them about 


l\OM the resemblance existing 
l>ctween the windows at Canter- 
luiiy. Sens and Chartres, it has 
been concluded they are by the 
line hand. (Westlake, 'History 
■ I Design', vol. i. pp. 57, 108, 1 10.) 
\ccording to this theory, the 
windows in the choir at Canter- 
a date of about I220. This would place 
forty-five years after the date when the 

reconstruction of the choir was begun by William 
of Sens. It is, further, suggested that the whole 
work was done at Chartres or Sens, and sent to 
England, so that these windows are French thir- 
teenth century work placed merely at Canterbury. 
This is regarded as more probable than that a 
French artist came to England. 

That the glass at Canterbury, Sens and Chartres 
is by the same hand there is scarcely room for 
doubt. The analogies are too numerous. The 

Stained (jiass in Qanterbury Qathedral 

choice of subject, the setting out of the general 
design, the painting and drawing, the composi- 
tion of the ornament — all point to this conclusion. 
But were they made out of England and sent 
here ? and, if so, when were they made ? was 

certainly somewhat inferior — and the earliest thir- 
teenth century work, there is every reason to believe, 

Sketch of the Stiff Angular Drapery of the Earlier Work at Canterbury 

North Side. 

Second Window in the Western Part of Choir, 

there a central school at Sens or at Chartres 
whence large quantities were sent out and fixed at 
a distance ? Various points seem to preclude 
acquiescence, and though in these matters of 
craftsmanship of early times it is almost impossible 
to see clearly, it may be useful and interesting to 
put the matter again in the scales in view of fresh 
light which has been brought from later studies. 

The contrary view suggested is this : that the 
series began at Canterbury, was continued at Sens 
and concluded at Chartres ; the same artist and 
school working first at Canterbury, and then at 
the other places. Hence it follows that the glass 
is Anglo-French in origin — being executed in 
England, and beginning in date soon after the 
fire, 1 175. It would thus not only be English 
made, but be twelfth century work, and we shall 
see that it would fill a gap in the history of the 
art, and be a link supposed to be irreparably lost. 

Let us look at what remains at Chartres Cathedral. 
We have in the west front three immense win- 
dows of admittedly twelfth century work, of 
the same origin as that of S. Denis, and on 
the south side a panel of the same date in a sur- 
rounding of thirteenth century work (the whole 
known as ' La belle Verri^re '). This is all there 
is of that date, and a slight comparison with any 
of this and all the other windows, which are thir- 
teenth century, reveals a complete difference of style 
both in design and technique. The work in the 
choir is probably later than that of the nave — it is 

would be only a few years after the building of 
the nave after the fire in 1206. The glass in the 
nave, then, is of the earliest part of the thirteenth 
century and some half-century later than the win- 
dows in the west end. Hence there is a complete 
break in time ; and in style it is equally distinct. 
It is another thing, while we find there, after this, a 
continuous progression for some time. 

The question then arises : How can it be 
supposed that whereas we have no evidence that 

Early Type of Head at 
Canterbury. Second Win- 
dow in the Western Part of 
the Choir, North Side. 

Type of Head in 
East Window, 

they were working at glass from 1145 to 1200 at 
Chartres, there was so important a workshop there 


Stained CJ/ass /// Cnutcrbury Qathcdral IIh V woiiUI hiiiij; \vii)<in\v> l.irj^i- in si/e and 
very niimiTons so far over land and over sea 
to CanUrbury ? Further, it is quite impiissihle that 
there could have lx;cn a sudden jump from the 
twelfth century work to that of the thirteenth 
century as we see it at Chartrcs : clearly, then, 
there must have been some transitional work 
j<oinf» on eNcwhere. Hut it was not at Sens, so 
far as evidence existinj^ can enable us to judge ; 
for there the e:»rly windows are all of one kind. 
But while we iind no existing transitional work at 
Chartrcs and Sens, we shall sec that the work at 
Canterbury is transitional in every way. 

If we look at the earliest wuulows in the 
ablx.y of S. Uenis, near I*aris, of which some 
now in silii are known to have been made in 
1145, we Iind the glass to he of the same 
character as that at the west end at Chartres, 
as has long been recognized. This was 
executed at S. Denis, as Abbot Suger tells us. 
Therefore, there may have been other works 

TyiM; o( l)r.->pcry peculiar to 
the I-atcr Work o( Ciiitcr- 
bury. Lowest Medallinti of 
East Window. 

aflen\-ards made in this locility which would 
afford tlie necessary transition. S. Uenis is 
only a few miles from Paris, and tliere in 1162 
was commenced Notre-Dame, whose windows 
(now destroyed) must have been a con- 
tinuance of those at S. Denis, so that 
glass painting was in execution at Paris 
when the great fire at Canterbury 
destroyed the choir in 1175. 

The original Norman building of 
l^tnfranc, the first Norman archbishop 
of Canterbury, was built 1070-1077. 
I'ulled down by Anselm in io9<), if was 
rebuilt by the priors, Ernulf and Conrad, 
and was decorated with great mag- 
nificence, and consecrated in 1130. 
Kadmer s.iys 'he erected it so mag- 
nificenlly that nothing like it could 
Ik- seen in Kngl.ind, either for the 
brilliancy of its stained glass windows, the beauty 
of its marble pavement or the many coloured 
picturc-s.' The windows were, tlieii, anterior to 


the S. IX-nis work, .md as the m.irble pavement 
seems to point to a connexion with S. Keim of 
Reims, it may be that the glass also came from 
there. For it is at Reims that we find one of 
the few earliest records of stained glass (the 
windows for the cathedral, built from 969 to 
988). As Suger brought strangers to do his work 
at S. Denis, from the same part may have come 
wf)rkeis to Canterbury. 

None of these windows, however, remain, and all 
those extant are posterior to the lire in 1 175, which thirteen years after the commencement of 
the building of Notre-Dame at Paris. Already in 
1 180 a hoarding of planks was put across the 
choir at Canterbuiy and in it were glass windows. 
Would it not be reasonable to suppose that glass 
workers were brought from Paris to Canterbury — 
as they had been to S. Denis and to York ? This is 
in accordance with all that Theophilus would lead 
us to suppose was the usual practice, and he 
wrote, it is argued, at this very time. In 1179 
Trinity Chapel was commenced, and Becket's 
crown was completed in 11S4 — fourteen years 
after his death, when Canterbury had already 
become a renowned centre of pilgrimage. 

Here came crowds from all parts, bringing 
money they did not take back. The shrine was 
rich in gold and precious stones, many of 
enormous value. Louis V'll of PVance and 
Richard Co-uir de Lion were among other poten- 
tates who came there, and many must have 
presented gifts, as did Louis, king of France. 
Can it be supposed that for years and years, from 
1 1 84 till 1220, nothing was put in the windows, 
when four years after commencing to build they 
already had placed some in a temporary hoarding ? 
That the shrine with its gold and jewels was to be 
seen by candlelight behind hoardings forover thirty 
years, waiting till a school had been established at 
Chartres ? It is impossible ; and the more so as 
wc have no evidence that an important series of 

Sketch of Drapery at Ssni, dr.iwn in Flowing Lines similar to the Later 
Work at Canterbury. 

windows was ever made so far away, and a great 
deal to establish tlie contrary practice. 

We are led, then, to conclude that the windows 

Stained Qlass in (Canterbury Qathedral 

were made at Canterbury, and we may suppose 
that an artist came from Paris to make them, 
though he may have come from Reims or some 
other centre, for we know nothing. 
Nothing is known of glass-working at Sens 
until after the fire in 1185, which, as at 
Canterbury', destroyed the choir. Then we 
find the fine series now existing, which is 
certainly the same in origin as the work 
at Canterbury. May it not be supposed 
that the master at Canterbury left there 
for Sens, and that he started afresh there 
after the fire ? Facts and dates are 
such as to make us think this was the 
case ; and there is nothing to render it even im- 
probable. In which case, these windows are by 
him, executed soon after 1 185. Now, fifteen years 
after this date, in 1206, another manifestation of 
the same fire-fiend wrought havoc at Chartres, this 
time in the nave. But in fifteen years an able 
worker and assistants could have executed all we 
find at Sens ; so he may very well have left there 
to go to Chartres, as he had left Canterbury some 
years before. If he had first left France when 
twenty-three years of age he would have been 
about forty-five or fifty by this time and have 
reached a mature point in a long evolution of his 
work. Hence he would have been able at once 
on arriving at Chartres to execute works indi- 
cating the ripe experience we actually find there. 
He would before sixty have been able to produce 
the glorious masterpieces in the nave and north 
transept there, but not to do more. The choir 
windows would be by pupils, and this corre- 
sponds with a certain falling off observable. 
He would naturally go on with the exploits of St. 
Thomas both at Sens and at Chartres, if coming 
thence from Canterbur}' ; but can we imagine him 

A great objection against the idea of the work 
having been postponed at Canterbury is found in 
the fact that in 1204 the monks were chased away 

Foliage, Canterbury. 

Foliage, Sens. 

Ornament at Canterbury ; 

the same found at Sens. 

(Third window from the 

' Crown,' North Side). 

Border from Canterbury 
of the same type as that 
of Sens. 

beginning at Chartres the history of a Canterbury 
saint and going on with it afterwards at Canterbury 
itself ? 

from Canterbury ; the bishops had fled, and (he 
country was under interdict for five years. Can 
we imagine that after having been content with a 
makeshift ever since 1184, they would at or after 
such a time of upset, begin tilling the windows at 
Canterbury ? This would be a new miracle to 
record. But it was just at this time that the 
power of Philippe Auguste was rising ; while all 
was upset at Canterbury, at Chartres all was peace 
and prosperity, and the unknown 'master of Can- 
terbury ' would have been able to work there in 
quiet, and with abundant means and encourage- 

It may be suggested that such backward and 
forward intercourse between England and the 
continent would be unlikely : and so at any other 
time it might. But at the end of the twelfth century 
there was very little distinction between Island and 
Continent, owing to the wide supremacy of the 
kings of England in western Europe and the 
continual intercourse of ecclesiastical persons, who 
were equally at home on both sides of the water. 
Englishmen occupied prominent positions abroad, 
and Normans ruled in many a monastery through- 
out England. The very stone of Canterbury 
Cathedral was drawn from Caen. 

There is, then, no real objection from this 
source ; and lastly, we find in the technical exami- 
nation of the glass itself many reasons to establish 
the view we have been led to take. 

At this period, architecture and the allied arts 
were in a fluid condition. The 'Gothic'architecture 
was evolving out of the earlier Romanesque; or 
rather, in reality, local styles of work were slowly 
emerging out of ideas and traditions brought from 
an Eastern district. Nothing was more certain to 
happen than that stained glass, which may be said 
to be a luminous wall and so part of the architec- 
ture itself, should be profoundly modified also. 
We have pointed out elsewhere that glass painting 
arose out of enamelled work, and that its practice 
was dependent on the thick iron bars which gave 
it support, on which, as the point of departure, was 
based the whole scheme of design. At S. Denis 
these bars are crossed upwards and horizontally in 
straight line^, and circles and squares alternately 


Stained (jlass /// Qafitcrhury Qathcdral 

fill in the spaces bo furmcd, with little pieces of 
ornament in the corners ; while a broad border 
surrounds the whole. Now this is exactly what is 
found in the westernmost window in the choir, 
i.e. in the position wliich would Ik' the probable 
commencement of the series. It is, then, attaciied 
very closely to the S. Denis work by its scheme of 
jjeneral arranj^ement, but it is nevertheless differ- 
entiated therefrom by several of its elements. It 
is different as to its ornament, which is no longer 
Romanesque, but decidedly on the way to becoming 
naturalesque, albeit worked in the siime strict early 
technique pertaining to this epoch. The design 
of the little pieces of ornament filling in the 
spaci-s Ixrtween the squares and circles is special 
to the three works we are considering — being 
bunches of foliage although not naturally drawn 
leaves. It is different as to the figures, which 
arc partly like and partly unlike those of the 
S. Denis work. The timid archaic clr.'iwing 
and painting of the heads has disappeared along 
with the angular drapery. Hut the features 
are yet highly distinctive, and the drapery is yet stiff; 
both, like the ornament, are only on their way to 
bcc(jming naturalesque. There is, then, a decided 
advance on the earlier work found in France, 
and one may see also the change going on even at 
Canterbury. For if we compare the two western- 
most windows with those in the crown, we arc 
struck by two things : we feel that though they 
are the same work at bottom — no fresh commence- 
ment — yet they are not at the same stage. The 
work in the crown is drawn and painted diffcrcnlly 
and the heads are not so distinctive — fuller but freer 
— and the drapery has become looser nnd flowing, 
filling the spaces on the blue ground with greater 
ease. This difference in the details accompanies 
a difference of scheming ; for the iron bars are 
now bent, and the alternate squares and circles 
within straight bars are giving way to a more com- 
plex arrangement, while the ornamental design 
becomes more elaborate and flowing, tlunigh yet 
of the s;ime type of detail. 

It is, in fact, apparently as if, during a certain 
time, a few artists had gone on evolving their 
style in quiet labour — just ;is they would, indeed, 
were our view correct. It is possible that the 
original artist who started the scheme left the 
later windows to be completed by the others he 
had trained, an idea suggested by certain weak- 
nesses in the drawing of the window, weak- 
nesses which seem improbable from the hand of 
the designer of the wi-stern wiiulows, or those at 
Sens, which are superb in every way. But the 
Sens windows and those at Chartres are schemed 
on the lient bar system, and the bent bars are more 
elaborate even than at Canterbury. If we compare 
these windows with those, say,of LaSaiiile Chapelle 
at Paris (i i^io) we shall feel at once the fitrce of 
this movement. Here all the bars are bent elabo- 
rately, .md all the Romanesque element of design 


h-as ili^ippearcd. For the rinceaux have given place 
to mosaic grounds, the pearl borders to a line 
border. So what we have at Canterbury is half- 
way between S. Denis and La Sainte Chapelle. 

The mosjiic ground, which is so characteristic 
of the middle of the thirteenth century, is just found 
in one of the later windows at Canterbury, very 
modestly introduced. It is found again at Sens ; 
but at Chartres the grounds of half the windows 
are in riiiccaiix and half arc in mosaic. There is, 
then, no doubt about the evolution here. And 
if arose from the material itself : this form is 
distinctly a ^/</ss design easier to execute than the 
flowing lines of the rinceaux. And ;us the designers 
gaineci experience, this legitimate means of acceler- 
ating work would naturally be adopted. 

The last point we must mention is one of con- 
siderable importance. It will be noticed that 
all through the windows at Canterbury there are 
many inscriptions. These inscriptions are scratched 
out of black pigment on white or yellow, and in 
Lombardic letters. They run lotiutl the panels 
as well as across them, although in some cases 
ornamental bands similarly scratched out take their 
place round the panels. Now in the glass of S. 
Denis and Chalons-sur-Marnc this feature is very 
noticeable. It is equally char.acteristic of the 
Rhenish works in enamel executed where learning 
was cultivated. It is clear, then, that we have here a 
strong point of attachment to the tvJ/7/ts/ typcof glass, 
andthat these windowsare essentially twelfthcentury 
in spirit. F"or at Sens there is very much less of the 
inscription— while a peculiar crown-like design used 
to replace it is found pretty often, which design 
is found, so far as \vc are aware, nowhere else 
except at Canterbury and Salisbury. At Ch.irtres 
there is still less writing : it had ceased to be the 
fashion. At La Sainte Chapelle there is none. 

Such are the facts, which we may thus sum up. 
The glass at Canterbury is work executed in 
siln by an artist coming from France, who 
started working soon after 1173, beginning at the 
west part of the choir. He continued for some 
years, leaving for Sens soon after 1185, where he 
worked on the spot till he left for Chartres in 1206 
or soon after, at which place he died, leaving pupils 
to complete the numerous works done up to 1260. 
The 'style' so created is the PVench 'variety' 
created out of the earlier Romanesque work com- 
ing from an eastern direction to S. Denis, which 
variety afterwards spread to Rouen, Bourgcs, 
La Saint Chapelle and innumerable other places. 

' The unknown master of Canterbury' is one of 
the greatest artists of the middle .ages. It remains 
for further study to determine what was the origin 
of the Romanesque style in glass, out of which this 
subsequent development grew, from which also another growth to the South of Cliartres — 
to be arrested however, by the f.ivour shown to 
the C interlnny dep.u ture, which in the thirteenth 
century bec;uue the dominant French style. 

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l\ TMK sT«,\»>iUl'mi (iAI.I.F.KY 

A SKW lliMiK ON THK foLtAll'i'Ll 


on Antonio Pollaiuolo,' 
which would be more 
justly entitled 'Antonio 
;uid Piero Pollaiuolo,' as 
the younger brother is 
treated nearly as fully as 
,the elder, was preceded 
by her book on \'crrocchio. The mistaken view 
under which that book was written at once 
precludes a sound and independent judgment of 
the Pollaiuoli, who as artists are so closely akin 
to Verrocchio that they are often confounded 
with him. The existence of this new book is 
explained by one sentence in the preface — i.e., 
'But to one critic — Mr. Bernhard Berenson — I 
owe much.' 

All that can be attained througii diligence and 
care in this new book Miss Cruttwell has attained. 
Records and chronicles, etc., have been quoted 
with the utmost accuracy and thoroughness. 
Though it might have been more concise and is 
entirely lacking in individual criticism, the whole 
conception is simple and clear. Miss Cruttwell 
follows her master blindly except in a few minor 
points. It is only a modest attempt at inde- 
pendence to assert, for instance, that a coat-sleeve 
in some particular picture, and similar details, 
suggest the workmanship of Antonio. 

The circulation of such books, which are 
regarded by the public as the results of the latest 
scientific research, only impedes the progress of 
art history, since all their theories are enounced 
with an air of absolute infallibility. 

To begin with, the certainty with which the 
authoress divides the paintings between Antonio 
and his brother is not justifiable. We certainly 
know, from Antonio's own testimony, that 
Piero collaborated in two of the most important 
works. The Labours of Hercules for Lorenzo de ' 
Medici and the tombs of the Popes — that is, at the 
beginning and at the end of his artistic career. 
We also know that Piero had his own workshop, 
and received commissions for paintings, and even 
for sculpture, on his own account. 

The signed and authenticated pictures were either 
painted by Piero or in collaboration with him, 
and we must therefore rather ascribe the paintings 
known by tradition as Pollaiuolo to Piero, and 
attribute to Antonio only those pictures that differ 
from Piero's authentic works, such as the altar- 
piece at San Gimignano and the Virtues in the 
Uffizi. However, of these there are only the small 
picture of Apollo and Dapliite in London, the 
still smaller Labours of Hercules in the Uffizi, 
and perhaps also the little Da-iid in Berlin, 

'Antonio Pollaiuolo. By Maud Cruttwell. London: 
Duckworth and Co. ; New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 
73. 6d. net. 

which probably are sketches for pictures not 
completed, or carried out by Piero. 

It is hardly permissible for Miss Cruttwell to 
attribute whichever of the paintings pleases her 
best to Antonio and the rest to Piero. Even if the 
design and supervision of the workmanship of 
the two principal altarpieces in the Uffizi and the 
National Gallery are undoubtedly Antonio's, 
his brother Piero is the author of pictures 
such as the Ascension of St. Mary of Egvpt in 
Staggia, the great Madonna in the Strassburg 
Gallery (a painting hitherto unnoticed in art 
literature and of which we give a reproduction, 
p. 180) and the St. Sebastian in the Pitti Palace 
attributed to Barbari since the time of Morelli, 
who ascribed to this third-rate artist qualities of 
far greater and most diverse painters. 

Even a painting like the much injured landscape 
of The Rape of Deianira in Yale University, U.S.A. 
(formerly Jarves collection in Florence), seems to 
me, to judge by the shaky delineation of the figures 
and the sketchy landscape, only to be drawn by 
Antonio and carried out by Piero. Another pic- 
ture in American possession which is attributed 
by the authoress to Antonio — viz., the great fresco 
of St. Christopher in the Metropolitan Museum — is 
not of Florentine origin at all but of the Siennese- 
Umbrian school, as is shown by the landscape. 

Concerning the portraits known as Pollaiuolo's, 
Miss Cruttwell shows a deplorably deficient 
critical sense and a defective eye ; for though she is 
rightly able to assign to Piero the portraits in the 
Uffizi and the Hainauer collection, which conform 
both in drawing and colouring to his authenticated 
paintings, she is also able to attribute to a Pol- 
laiuolo (though Antonio) the portrait of the young 
wife of Giovanni de'Bardi in the Poldi-Pezzoli 
Museum, and another, the portrait of a lady in 
quite similar style in the Berlin Gallery, to Piero 
della Francesca. Morelli's pupils take too little 
count of colour, like their master. Instead of 
the oily pigments, the dull carnations and the deep 
colouring of the Pollaiuoli, we see here a bright- 
ness of carnation, light shadows, a freedom of 
style and a splendour of colour such as only 
Venice could transmit to Florence. Beyond 
doubt, Domenico Veneziano, the master of Piero 
della Francesca, is the painter of these delightful 
portraits, which, to judge by the costumes, must 
have been painted about 1450. 

Miss Cruttwell's criticism of the plastic art of 
the Pollaiuoli is particularly unfortunate. Here 
she had no master whom she could implicitly 
follow, for the Morelli school ignored plastic art. 
Thus Miss Cruttwell, as already shown in her book 
on Luca della Robbia, tries to effect a compromise 
between the most conflicting opinions ; she decries 
first one author and th^n his adversary, always 
with an air of infallible assurance and great 


A Ncvo Rook on the TolIa'iuoJi 

scientific pretention. So it i-. lure, wlicre l.ick o( 
authority leaves authenticity a m itter for dispute. 
The small bronzes now attributed bv all connois- 
seurs to Antonio PoUaiuolo have, in MissCruttwcU's 
opinion, little or no connexion with hini : tlie jjrand 
Hercnlti fifjiire of the Beit collection shows the 
style of Bandinelli, and the David in Naples is 
influenced by Michelangelo I The terr.icotta 
l\\iil of CliarUi Vlll of France in the HarjjcUo, a 
weak. possibly North Italian, 'fake,' is descrilxjd as 
decidedly Florentine, and eventually pronounced 
to be a forgery by H.istianini. In the Ihtst of a 
Youth, now usually named Picro di Lorenzo de' 
Me<lici, and one of the finest Florentine portrait 
busts of the last quarterof the fiffecnthcentury, most 
closely allied to Benedetto da Majano, the autho- 
ress discovers great incapacity and want of 
anatomical structure, and ascribes it to Piero 
Pollaiuolo. And what can one say to her 
proclaiming Lcon.ardo's grand composition 

7'ii/i'MSV to be the work of Antonio Pollaiuolo ! 
Similar objections may bu* raised agiinit the 
attribution of the dr.iwings to Antonio and Piero, 
in spite of their having been classified by the 
master of the authoress for all time. 

Without wishing to offend, I should like to be 
permitted to ask in the interest of our science, 
whether these numerous books and pamphlets, 
written by diUltanli of both sexes who wish to 
demonstrate their love of art, were not better left 
unwritten. It is true that in Germany also such 
books are not wanting ; above all, we have that 
popular literature bearing the name of Richard 
Muther which is well known and still esteemed 
by the English public — books in which people are 
amused by stories of the so-called perverted ways 
of artists, while art itself is treated with incredible 
superficiality and frivolity. Therefore it is not for 
me to complain of the literature on art produced 
in England. 




were not in 
believe will 

PON cataloguing the works of 
icse masters in the possession 
t the two Dresden collections 
Aith the two standard books by 
Mr. Goodwin and Mr. Whitman 
m hand, I soon collected a 
goodly lot of supplementary 
notes, which these gentlemen 
a position to furnish, and which 1 
prove of interest to amateurs, print- 
rooms and collectors. It is impossible to publish 
an absolutely complete and final c.italogue of any 
man's work, and if TiiK Hi K!.iNuro\ Magazink 
accepts as one of its m.iiiy praiseworthy aims 
the publication from time to time of such notes, 
preparatory or supplementary to the critical 
cat.alogues, it will doubtless make itself still more 
indispcns;ible to the art-loving public than it 
.already is. 

I should like to prefix just a few lines bearing 
ujxjn the subject of catalogues in a general w.iv. 
Both the above lists are arninged in chronolo- 
gicil order. Now, althougli the only f;iscinating 
way to become acquainted with an artist is to study 
his work chronologicilly, and although print- 
rooms arrange their collections in accordance with 
the lists or critical catalogues, still these latter 
should not be elaborated on the chronological b.isis. 
For criticil citalogues .ire finding lists, and there 
must be one hard and fast system that will apply to 
.all cases (such as the system that Heineken and 
B.artsch set up, but unfortunately did not always 
adhere to) which precludes the possibility of the 


order once established ever being deranged by 
.additions or interpolations. If ever a case proved 
cle.arly the in.advisability of setting up lists on a 
chronological b.asis, it is the present case of my 
additional notes to Mr. Whitman's catalogue of 
Valentine Green. I furnish a dozen or so of dates 
with which he was unacquainted, and which totally 
upset his catalogue. For example, Tlu- Roiiuiii 
Charily he ranges now as No. 280, ' Engraved by 
1793,' whereas it was published June 20th, 1785, 
and in a second edition of his book would have to 
receive the number 244. This is one instance out 
of a great number, and my additions alone will 
compel him totally to rearrange his catalogue 
against a second edition, liut it is a matter of 
great inconvenience to collectors, if they are 
suddenly compelled to quote a print, which they 
have become used to speak of as No. 280, under 
an altogether different number. Print-rooms 
would have to rearrange their sets after each new 

Now it is plain that a subject list cannot be 
deranged this way. 1 describe a I'isitalioit by 
Van der Werff witli which Mr. Whitman does not 
seem to h.ive been acquainted. In a second 
edition of a catalogue on the subject-plan, he 
would simply insert it after the \'isitation by 
Kubens, which he catalogues, giving the Wm der 
Werff print the number 263a, if the Kubens 
picture had the numlKr 263. 

Anyway, chronological lists are possible only in few cases. Most prints are undated, 
and who is going to write tjie chronoloj^ical 

Mezzotints by MacArdell and Valentine Green 

catalogue of the work of such men as Diirer and 
Rembrandt, each of whom has produced dozens 
of prints as to the date of which scarcely two men 
agree ? It would be of supreme interest if chrono- 
logical catalogues of such geniuses were possible, 
but is there any interest attached to the chronology 
of reproductive engravers like MacArdell or Green, 
whose work looks pretty much alike at the 
beginning and at the end of their career? 

If there is really not the least reason for coun- 
teracting the usefulness of a catalogue by 
arranging it chronologically in the case of mere 
reproductive engravers, there is — nowadays at 
least — no longer any reason even in the case of 
creative artists of prime importance. The complete 
work of such masters as Rembrandt and Diirer 
exists nowadays in the shape of perfect facsimile 
reproductions. This circumstance allows us to 
cater for both tastes, and there are print-rooms 
which to-day arrange their Rembrandt (etc.) 
originals according to the correct subject system, 
while a second set (facsimile reproductions) is 
arranged according to a chronological system — 
yes, even two sets according to two different 
authorities. I repeat : there are few artists of such 
importance that it would interest us at all to follow 
their development by the aid of a chronological 
arrangement. The whole business of cataloguing, 
however, must be suited to the great majority of 
cases and not to the few exceptions. 

There is, at the present moment, a special reason 
to urge the point. For it appears that a critical 
catalogue of Durer's woodcuts is preparing — a 
thing we are most painfully in need of. It would 
be extremely unfortunate if the excellent authority 
who is at work upon it should render his catalogue 
practically useless to those principally interested 
in it (the print-rooms and collectors) by adopting 
a chronological arrangement. Let him lay down 
his views on this part of the subject at the end of 
the book, by appending a list of the numbers simply 
arranged in accordance with his chronolog}'. 

In the following notes Pr. R. signifies Royal 
Print Room, Dresden ; Coll. Fr. Aug. II signifies 
Collection formed by H.M. King Frederick 
August II of Saxony. 

I— Anxotatioxs to Mr. Goodwix's Catalogue 
OP" MacArdell 

No. 9— T state : Witli date ' 1749 • after ' fecit ' (Pr. R.). 

II state : Date effaced. 

No. 1 1 — In the Pr. R. copy the word reads ' Constaple ' : traces 
of the price '2s.' in scratched letters are visible ; 
possibly this is an aI state ? 

No. 14 — II state : The engraver's name is partly erased. The 
name of the town reads ' Maldon.' The bit of 
waistcoat visible up at neck shows five buttons at I. 
and six buttonholes at r, sides. 

III state : Engraver's name reads ' Ja McArdell 
fecit ' ; name changed back (r) into ' Maiden ' ; four 
buttons to 1. and five buttonholes to r. 

No. 37— On the Coll. Fr. Aug. II copy ' I. McArdell' appears 
in engraved lettering. 

Xo. 42— III state: Address altered to ' Sold by F. Vivares, at 
the Golden Head Newport Street Leicester Fields.' 

No. 136 — lA state (intervening between Goodwin's I and II 
state) : 'Tho. Hudson Pinxt. Jas. McArdell Fecit." 
in engraved italics (Coll. Fr. Aug. II). 

II (or III ?) state : After the inscription ' Pr. is. 6d. 
in scratched lettering. 

No. 151 — III state : One must take exception to Mr. Goodwin's 
description of this state ; ' plate re-worked ' is no 
better information than none at all, only more 

No. 164 — Al state : Before price in scratched letters ; pos,sibly 
after the scratched lettering was effaced or worn 
off, then it would be Ia state. This can only be 
decided after comparing a first state with the 
Dresden copy. 

No. 186— On Coll. Pr. Aug. II copy the word reads ' Pientre ' ; 
if Mr. Goodwin's description of II state is accurate, 
this would accordingly be Ia state, before correction 
of this word into ' Peintre.' 

No. 204— The painting is, of course, not by Antonio Allegri, but 
by Furini, which should have been mentioned. 

III state: In engraved lettering 'Coregio pinxit 
J. McArdell fecit. Ghismonda. Boccaccio Giornata 
quarta. Novella I. Done from the Original in the 
Collection of Lady Schaub. Sold by Edwd. 
Fisher in Leicester Fields, & by Ryland & Bryer 
in Cornhill.' There is possibly still another state 
before Ryland and Bryer's address. 

No. 212 — Either Mr. Goodwin has overlooked the ' Js. Mc..\rdell 
Fecit. ' or there are three states : I before any inscrip- 
tion, II with inscription before engraver's name, 
and III with inscription and engraver's name. 

No. 214— III state: In engraved lettering, 'Rembrandt pinxt. 
J. McArdell fecit. Tobias with the Angel. From 
the Original in the Collection of Mr. Reynolds.' 

Xo. 215— I state: Inscription space not yet cleaned ; in scratched 
letters, ' Rembrandt pinxit J. M. Ardell fecit.' 

No. 217 — II state: Address changed into 'Sold by E. Fisher, 
Engraver, at the Golden head in Leicester Square, 
and by Ryland & Bryer, at the King's Arms in 
Cornhill, London.' 

Xo. 218 — II state: In engraved lettering, ' Skalken Pinxt. Js. 
Mc.irdel fecit Cupid and Psj-che Done from an 
Original in the Possession of Mr. Sangar.' 

No. 225— The title is ' Health ' (and not ' Lady with a Fan ') ; the 
plate has its distinct title just as Xo. 219 has. 

No. 230 — II state : Inscription engraved in lower border reads, 
' I Molenaar Pinxt. Js : McArdell Fecit. Sold at the 
Golden Head in Covent Garden (Pr. R. and Coll. Fr. 
Aug.).' There is not the slightest reason for doubting 
the authenticity of this print. 

Not catalogued by Goodwin— Romeo and Juliet, after Wilson — 
Juliet kneels over Romeo's body in front of the 
tomb, and turns back to Friar, who lights up her face 
with a lantern. To the left the moon appears half- 
hid behind clouds, and below it the dead twdy of 
Paris. On the right-hand side one sees a page with 
a torch, and trees. Engraved lettering, 'Jas. 
McArdell Fecit. Romeo and Juliet, Act V. Scene IV. 
Sold by Js. McArdell at the Golden Head in Covent 
Garden. Price 5s.' Plate 14? by 17} (subject 
13J by 17I). This is the first state of a plate which 
R. Houston re-worked, and which J. Ch. Smith 
describes rather inaccurately under No. 153 in his 
catalogue of Houston's mezzotints. On comparing 
a photograph of the Dresden proof with a copy of 
the Houston print for me, my friend Mr. Dodgson 
discovered that among Houston's changes there is 
the addition of a lamp under the arch in the centre. 
(Pr. R.) 

1 1— Axxot.\tioxs to Mr. Whitman's C.vtalogue 
OF Greex 
The Pr. R. possesses 56 of Green's mezzotints ; 
the Coll. Fr. Aug. II a superb collection of 117, em- 
bracing two that Mr. Whitman does not catalogue, 


Mezzotints by MacAnhll and Vale n tine Gncn 

and twcntv-six first states amonc these a majjnil'i- 
ccnt proof of the Lady Betty Delme. 

No. 35- I sLile : Inscriplion spare not vcl cleared ; in ncmlchcl 
Icttcf*. 'Calh. Read rint''- inihlish d hy I. 
H<iydcll Chcar^'«'c Keby. 17. 177J Val, Green 
fecit.' (Pr. H) 

No. 67 — Ia Btatc : The title it en^rnfol in open letterii, and .inns 
engraved ; all tlie rc»t is vrii/i /«•</, but the dale is 
alrr-irtv altered to ' M.irch J5th.' (Coll. Kr. Aug ) 

No. 87— > 1 plioii .III iWdeM.jl. (Coll. Kr. Au^.) 

No. »<>— : Ah directed to r., f.acinK slightly 

11 '; lir, rich (ur-triinmrd dress ; 

d iin I. shoulder iiiuliT r. arm. 

Slu, and places her r. upon 

iL I5|byii4. In scralchi-d letters, sp.acc not quite 
cleared, ■ E. V. Cal/e pinxit l*ublish"d Dc-c. 27th, 
1770 by J. Bovdell Cheapsidc. Val Green fecit.' 
l*robably a first state. (Pr. K. and Coll. Kr. AuR.) 

No. 104— On the Pr. K. copy the inscription at the cud reads 
' K.A.S." If .Mr. Whitman transcribes correctly, 
there would be accordingly a l\ state before alteration 
of K.A.S. into K.Sj\. 

So. loj — On I state, Kr. Aug. II copy, the inscription is in 
i<r,itcli(it not ckhot letters: possibly this is only a 
lapsus calami on p. 90, I. 17. 

N". 131— The Coll. Kr. Aug. 11 has p<issibly an intcrmcdi.ile 
sl;>te. ' L. K. AbNitt Pinxit,' ' Seipsum Sculpsit ' and 
the .nddress arc in italics, ' Valentine Green ' in 
capitals, filled in ; the date is written ' Oclr. iWh ; ' 

No. 165 — 1 slate : Hefore Title. Artists' names etc. and line of 
publication in scratched letters along lower border 
of subject. (Coll, Kr. Aug. and Pr. R.) 

No. 166— I state : Inscriplion engraved, "B. West pinxt. V.denlinc 
Green fecit Klislia restores to life the Shunamitcs 
Son. Done from the Original Picture by .Mr. West, in 
the possession of the Kight Honi> I^rd Gros- 
%'cnor. Sold by Ryland, Hrycr, & Co. at the Kings 
Arms, Cornhill. si/e of tfie picture 3ft. ^in. by 
4ft. Jin." (Coll. Kr. Aug. Il.l 
tl state: Plate retouched. Urypoint work in hair of 
woman and child. The stars on the cover of the 
lounge, nr)l.ably those near the child's knees, had a 
white spot in the centre in I state, but are now dark- 
ened and covered up. Names etc. in fine lettering 
(like Whitman I). 
Ill stale : Kull engraved inscription with capita's of 
title' filled in.' ' Painted by H. West, Historical painter 
to his .Majesty. Engraved by V. Green Engraver to 
his NLijesty and the Elector Palatine. Eli^lia Restores 
To Lite the Shunamile's Son Krom the Origin. il 
Picture in the Collection of the Right Honourable 
L<-)rd Grosvcnor. Published J.any. 1st. 177H by John 
Hoydell Engraver in Cheapsidc London.' (Pr. R ) 

No. 171 — I sliite : Inscription space not yet cleared ; 
in scratched letters ' \\. \Kc%X. pinxit. PuMish'd by 
I. Iloydcll, Chi-apsidc Jany. isl. 177a Val. Gretn 
fecit' (Coll. Kr. Aug.) — Alexander is sitting, as well 
xs directed, towards r. 

No, 174 — Ia state : Inscription space not yet cleared ; in 
scratched letters, ' Jos. Wright pinxit Publi-.h'd 
Dcccmr. iHlh. 177.;. by J. Boydell, Cheapsidc V. 
Green fecit ' ( 

No. 176— I stale : There appears to have been a slate with 
scr.iped lellermg. traces of whidi arc visible ujidcr 
the scratched lettering in II. 

II stale: With scratched lettering (Whitman I) and 
the title HANNIUAL scraped ui the centre below. 
(Pr. R.) 

III state: whole plate carefully relnachcd. On the 
left fof)t of the priest with the curvcil sl.iff there arc 
at each joint oi the Iocs with the foot two or three 
slight hori/ drv|>oinl lines. The inscription 
has become slightly indislincl, and the title 
HANNIBAL entirely obliterated by rerocking. 
(Coll Kr. Aug. II.) 

No. 177 — The words ' Mcl/olinto . ; . Majesty ' arc enclosed 

in br.ackets (Coll Kr. Aug II.) 
No. i;8— ■ B. West pinxit ' is scraped, the rest of inscription 

scratched. (Coll. Kr. Aug II.) 

No. 1/9—1 stale ' Before separate inscription plate. (Coll. Fr. 
Aug. II) 

No. 184— II (III i) state: Engraved inscription, title in capitals 
filUJ III 'Angelica Kauffmann pinxit. V. Green, 
Engraver in Metzotinto to his Majesty fecit. 
Madonna And Child. Krom an Original Picture 
painted by .Mrs. Angelica K.iuffman. I>>ndon : 
Printed for Robt. Saver ft J. Bennett, Printseilcrs, 
No. 53 ill Kleet Street ; as the Act directs, 20«h 
Deer. 1774.' (Pr. R. .and Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No. 189 — I st.ale : Inscription space not cleared ; scr.atchcd 
lettering ' Edwd Penny pinxit Professor of P.ainting 
to the Ro>-al Ac;ideniv V. Green Engraver in 
Mct/otinto to his Majeslv fecit Publised by 
R. Saver and I. Bennett Kleet Street March the 
J2ndi'775' ( 

No. 194 — I state : Inscription in siT;itclied and open letters, 
same as in II, except read 'V. Green' for 'Val: 
Green,' ' slung ' for ' Slung,' commas after ' Majesty,' 
' Bovdell ' and no comma ;ifter ' Picture.' (Coll. Kr. 
Aug.' II) 

No. 197 — I st;ite : Inscription in scratched and open letters on 
uncleared space; ' B. West, Historical Painter to his 
Majesty Pinxit Published by J : Boydell, Engraver 
in Cheapsidc, May 27th. 1776. V. Green, Engraver 
to his Majesty, and to the Elector Palatine, fecit ' 
then ■ Eraslratus . . . Grosvenor ' as in II stale, but 
publication line not repealed. (Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No, 198 — I stite : Inscription space not cleared; in scratched 
letters, 'Painted by G. Carter Publish'd by R. 
Saver & J. Bciinet, No. 53, Kleet Street, June 6th. 
:776. Engrav'd by V. Giecn, Engr. to his Majesty, 
& to the Elr. Palatine.' (Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No. 102— 1,\ stale : Willi inscripliiai lightly engraved. ' Painted 
by B. West. Historical P.iinter to his Majesty Pub- 
lish'd by J. Boydell. Engraver. Cheapsidc May 19th, 
1777 Engraved by V. Green. Engraver to his 
Majesty, & the Elector Palatine.' (and title engraved 
in open caps.). 'Daniel Interpreting To Belshatrar 
The Writing On The Wall.' (Pr. R. and Coll. Fr. 
Aug II.) 

No. 104— I state: Inscription space only partly cleared; in 
scratched and open letters, ' Sir P. Lely pinxit 
Engraved by V. Green, Engr.aver to his M.ajesty 
and to the Elector Palatine Pamela and Phyloclea. 
Sec Sidney's Arcadia Published Novr. 17th. 1777. 
by W. Shropshire, No. 158, New Bond Street.' 
II itate : Pl.ate badly relouched ; cleared and 
inscription engraved, ' Sir P. Lely pinxt. 

( Kngrav'd by V. Green, Engraver to his 
( Majesty, to the Elector Palatine. 
Pamela and Phyloclea. Here nor Treason ... I 
harlwur here. Sydney's Arcadia,' and same publi- 
cation line as in I stale, except that it is engraved. 
(Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No. 207— 111 state: Lettering engraved, ' Painted by B West 
Historical I'ainler to his Majesty Engr.aved by 
V. Green Engraver to his M ijcsty & the Elector 
Palatine. Kidelia and S|iiran/a. Published Novr. 
9th. 1778. by John Boydell, Engraver, in Cheapsidc.' 
(Pr. R.) Possibly this is a IV slate, and there is a 
III with ' Kidelia and Spiranza ' in open letters. 

No. 209— The Pr. R. possesses an impression of the sec-<ind 
pl.ite. There are >i/»<r men in the N>at. Kull en- 
graved inscriplion, ' P;iinted by John Singleton 
Copley, R.. A. Elect. Engrav'd by \ . Green, Me//o- 
tiiito Engraver to his Majesty, & lo the Elector ' 
A Youth Rescued From A (repeated in French) 

This Representation . . 

its Pursuit 

Engraved from the Original .... oliedicnt Servt:, 

V. Green. 
Publish'd May 31st,, 1779, by V. Green, No. 39. 
Newman Street, Oxford Street. Sc vend a I^indrcs , 
dies les Krcres Torre, Marchands d'Estamps.' 

No. 213 — I Hiate : Inscriplion sp.ace not cleared; in scratched 
letters, ' S. Gilpin pinxit Val. Gieeii (ccit.' (I'r. R.) 
II state: Kull engr;ivtd insciiption, 'S. Gilpin pinxt. 




Mezzotints by MacArdell and Valentine Green 

Pubd. by I. Wesson, in Litclifield Street Soho. V. 
Green fecit Gulliver addressing; the Houyhnhnms, 
supposing them to be Conjurors. See Gullivers 
Voys. p. 220. from the Original Picture, in the 
Possession ot John Wesson ' In both states Gulli- No. 230- 

ver's name appears in scraped letters on his box. 
No. 214 — Size of subject, 17J by 14. Helen, seated and directed 
towards 1., looks down at naked Cupid to r., who is 
pointing a dart at her left breast, and extends her 
hand towards Paris at 1. In background to r. a 
female attendant rests her hands on a vase. No. 231 — A 

I state: In scratched letters, 'Angelica Kauffmann pinxit 

V. Green Engraver in Metzotinto to his Majesty 
fecit. London, Publish'd by R. Sayer and J. Bennett 
No. 53 Fleet Street, as the Act directs, ist. October, 
1774.' (Coll. Fr. .\ug. II.) 

II state : Full engraved inscription, ' Angelina Kauff- 
mann pinxit. V. Green, Met/otinto Engraver to his 
Majesty, fecit. Paris and Helen Directing Cupid to 
inflame each others Heart with Love. Done from 
an Original Picture Painted by Mrs. Angela. Kauff- 
mann. London : Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, No. 234 — ' 
No. S3, Fleet Street, as the Act directs, ist Octor., 
177+.' (Pr.R.) 

No. 221 — Piter is directed towards 1. ; between h'm and Christ 
there is a woman pointing at P. and looking at 
Christ. A soldier's head is visible at extreme r. hand No. 237 — ' 

side, beside Christ. Subject, 19I by 20. Full en- 
graved inscription, ' Painted by B : West, Historical 
Painter to his Majesty Engrav'd by V : Green, 
Mezzotinto Engraver to his Majesty, & to the Elector 
Palatine Peter having denied Christ. St, Luke, 
Chap : 22, v : 61. From the Original Picture, in his 
Majesty's Possession. Publish'd May ist. 1780, by 
V.Green, No. 29, Newman Street, Oxford Street.' No. 239 — 

The plate accordingly should not be entered before 

No. 222 — Eli, semi-bald and white-haired, seated and directed to 

1., turns his head down to r., where Samuel, as a 

child, addresses him with uplifted r. hand. Censers, 

vases, etc., on altar to 1. ; the bases of 2 pillars 

■ appear to r. Monogram C T under crown below 

subject; 25J by 19J in. Full cngmved inscription. No. 241 — 

'Painted by J: Singleton Copley, R:A. Elect. En- 
grav'd by V„ Green, Mezzotinto Engraver to his 
M.ajesty, & to the Elector Palatine. Samuel No. 243— 

declareth to Eli the Judgements of God upon his 
House.' Follows reference to Tst Book Samuel, and 
dedication to the Elector Charles Theodore. ' Pub- 
lish'd Septr. 2ist, 1780, by V: Green, No. 29, Newman 
Street, Oxford Street.' (Pr. R.) There seems to 
have been a later state, with the following inscription No. 246— 

added to 1. below : ' Engraved From "The Original 
Picture, In The Possession Of Nicholas Ashton, 

No. 223 — ! state : The inscription in scratched letters, the title No. 247— 

in open capitals. Below it the Dedication to the 
King in two lines. Below this, also scratched, 
'Painted by B. West, Historical Painter to his 
Majesty, 1780 Publish'd May ist. 1781, by V. 
Green, No. 29 Newman Street, Oxford Street 
Engrav'd by V. Green, Mezzotinto Engraver to his No. 25S 

Majesty, and to the Elector Palatine. 1781 '. Further, 
in scratched letters, three lines, in lower r. hd. No. 262 

corner, ■ Engraved from the Original Picture the 
Altar Piece of the Caihedral of Winchester.' 
(Pr. R.) 
II s-tate : Plate retouched, and is now heavy and dark. 
The inscription in r. hd. corner all but obliterated. 
In publication line ' Green, No. 29,' altered to 
' Green & Son ' ; • London ' added alter ' Oxford 
Street.' (Coll. Fr. Aug. II.) 

No. 228— I slate : The dedication, names of ai lists, date of pub- 
lication and address in two long lines of scratched 
capitals extending across whole length of plate. 
II state: Above these two lines in scratched and 
scrcifcd capitals, 'Christ Blesses Little Children.' 
(Coll. Fr. Aug. II.) 

No. 229— II state: With engraved inscription, 'Painted . . . 
Elector Palatine—" like Patience . .. Grief," Shake- 


spear's Twelfth Night. Publish'd June 4th. 1783 by 
V. Green, No. 29, Newman Street, Oxford Street, & 
Sold by J. Brydon, No. 7, opposite Northumberland 
House Charing Cross London.' (Coll. Fr. .-^ug. II.) 

II (or III ?) state : With engraved lettering, the capitals 
of title being filled in. Below subject there is in 
centre the monogram T.C, under Crown, etc. 
The publication line reads ' , . . Brydon, Print- 
seller, No. 7, Charing Cross, opposite Northumber- 
land house, London.' (Coll. Fr. Aug. II.) 
little girl, sealed and directed to 1., looking front, 
dressed in white, leans her r. arm on a sarcophagus (?) 
to 1., and rests her head with sad expres-ion upon 
it. Her 1. hand on r. wrist ; white ribbon in hair. 
12J by 9J. In cngr.aved letters ' Painted by R, JI. 
Paye Engrav'd by V. Green, Mezzotinto Engraver 
to his Majesty & to the Elector Pal.atine. Child 
of Sorrow, Publish'd .\ugust 12th. 1783, by V. 
Green No. 29, Newman Street & Sold by J, Brydon 
Printseller, No. 7, Charing Cross, London.' (Coll, 
Fr. Aug. II.) 

The description reverses the order: St. John is the 
younger man running ahead of the other. 

II state; With full inscription engraved in it dies, the 
title in open capitals, and ' V. Green & Son ' in 
publication line. (Coll. Fr. .\ug II.) 

This is a companion piece to No. 234. The originals 
of both were ' Painted for the Great East Window 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.' Title in open 
capitals ' The Three Mary's Going To The 
Sepulchre.' I7i by 9^. Published ' June 4th, 1784.' 
Public .tion line, etc., same as No. 234, II state: 
Therefore the copy before me (Coll. Fr, .\ug. II) 
is probably also a II st;ite. 

There are probably three states. I ; Inscription in 
scratched letters and incomplete. II : Full engraved 
inscription, the tide in open capitals. Ill: Capitals 
filled in. This is the state both Dresden collections 
have. The plate looks worn and retouched. The 
publication linereads ' Publish'd Jany. 3tst„ 1784, by 

V. Green, No. 29 , & bold by J. 

Brydon . . . (etc.) ..." 

III state : Add under address ' Se vend chez les Freres 
Torre Marchandsd'Estampes' (unless Mr. Whitman 
has overlooked this in his description of II state). 

■Venus holds Cupid in her lap. 1 state : Full inscrip- 
tion in scratched and open letters, including "From the 
Original Picture in the Possession of Sir Abraham 
Hume, Bait.,' and closing wMth ' Se vend chez les 
Freres Torre, Marcliands d'Estampes, a Londre.' 
(Coll. Vr. Aug. II.) 

II state: Full inscription engraved 'Painted by J. 
Opie Engrav'd by . . . (etc.) ... A Winter's 
Tale.' The address is the same as in I state, but 
is engraved in italics. (Coll. Vx. .Aug. II.) 

II state : The same inscription as in I state, but 
engraved, and read ' and to' instead of ' & to ' and 
'Torre' instead of 'Torre.' The capitals are here 
filled in, and if there are impressions with open 
capitals, as is likelv, this would be a III state. 

(.') state ; The title in French and English is 
engraved in oficii capitals. (CjII. P"r. .Vug. II.) 

Inscription reads towards end, ' . . . . to His Majesty 
& the Elector Palatine.' 

II (?) state ; with engraved publication line, below, 
' Published January ist ; 1790, by V. & R. Green No. 
29 Newman Street, Oxford Street, London.' 

I cannot understand why ' The Visitation ' and the 
'Presentation in the Temple' are put off in a note 
and not descrilied, and as>igncd their distinct num- 
btr. Each of these subjects measures 35I by iij. 
The engraved title of the former runs ' Painted by ^. 
P. Rubens Engraved by V. Green Metzotinto En- 
graver to his 'Majesty & to the Elector Palatine' 
' The Visitation ' : of the latter the same, except title, 
which is 'The Pre;entatioii In The Temple.' On 
each plate, reference to original as on centre piece, 
and publication line as given above (11 state) for 
centre piece. (Coll. Fr. Aug. II.) 


Mezzotints by ^lacArdcIl lUiil J ^ a I entitle Green 

No. j6j— The orijjinal pninting is now No. 1166 in Ihc Old 
I'in.tkothck .tt Munich. 
II sUte : Full, eiiKr.ivcd inscription, with title in 
English .ind Krench in open capiLils. D.iie jllcrcd 
lo 'Published |uly l»t : i?');. by V. ft K. Grtcn, 
No: 14, rcrcySlrcrt. London ' (Ihul) 

No. 174 — Published Nov. ist, 1791. Kull cnjjr.ivcd inscription, 
' Tainted by Luc.« Giordano. EnKr.ivcd by V. 
Green Mer/otinto EnKravcr to His Majesty ft to the 
Elector Palatine. Christ Templed In The Desert, 
Jesus-Chri>t Tenic Lc Wscrt. In Monsr. : 
PiifaKc's CaLiloguc ol tlie Dusscldorf G.illcry, this 
Subject is No : 153 Published .N'ovr : i>t : 1792 by 
v. * R. Green Newman .street, Dmdon.' Titles 
in open letters : Monogram CT under crown, in the 
centre of inscription space. (In both Dresden coll.) 

No. 273 — Was not publi>heJ before 1796. The Original is now 
No. 81J in the Old I'inakothck at Munich. Kull 
cnj^vcd inscription, with the CT monogram in the 
middle .ind the titles in open letters: ' I'aintcd by 
Iord.iens. Engraved by V. Green Mc/zotinto 
Engraver to his Majesty ft to the Elector Palatine. 
The Sat)T And The Traveller, Lc Satyrc Et Lc 
Voyageur.' Dedication to Charles Thcixlorc in two 
lines, signed ' Kupert Green ' ; further ' In Monsr: 
Pigage's Catalogue of the Dusseldorf Gallery this 
Subject is No : Jo8. Published Jany : 1st : 1796 by 
Kupert Green No. 13, Uerncrs Street, London. 
(Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No J77— The original painting is now No. 727 in the Old 
Pinakothek at Munich. Kull engraved inscription 
with title in open letters, and Monogram CT under 
crown in centre : ' Painted by P. 1". Rubens. 
Engraved by V. Green, Me«otinto Engraver to his 
Majesty, ft the Elector Palatine Castor And Pollux 
Carrying Oft The D.iughters Of Leucippus. Castor 
Et Pollux Enlcvant Lcs Filles De Leucippc. In 
Monsr. Piagage's {sic .') Catalogue of the Dusseldorf 
Gallery, this subject is No. 244. Publi^shcd June 3rd ; 
1701, by V. & K. Green, Newman Street, London. 
2ij by 20.' (Coll. Kr. Aug. II.) 

No. 278 — The original painting, now ascribed to a pupil of 
Van Dyck, is No. 8(^ in the Old Pin.ikothek at 
Munich. Full engraved inscription, title in open 
letters, with monogram CT under crown in centre : 
' Painted by Anthony Vandyke Engraved by 
V. Green Mei/"tinto Engraver to his .Majesty ft t • 
the Elector Palatine Antiope, Sleeping, Surpri/ed 
By Jupiter In The Form Of A Satyr. Jupiter Sous 
I,a Forme D'un Satyre, Surprcnaiit Antiope 
Endormie.' Follows a long dedication to Charles 
Theodore signed by both Greens, and the note (as in 
No. 277) referring to Pigage's Catalogue, No. 22. 
Further 'Published J.iny : 2nd : 1792: by V. & K. 
Green Newman Street, I-ondon." 

No. 280 — Cimon, chained in a prison ccM, is scitcd directed to r. , 
and Lakc« Pero's breast. She is half kneeling 
towards I., and stands in the middle of the picture. 
Her infant lies with linger in mouth behind her. In 
the background a circular window through which 
two s<>ldiers look in upon the scene. 23} by 18 
Full engraved inscri. tion, tit'e in open letters 
' Painted by Chevr. A. Vanderwerff Engrav'd by 
V. Green Mcuotinto Engraver to his M.ije!>ty ft 
to the Elector Palatine. ' Koman Clurily. From 
the original i'iciurc in the Possession of Edmund 
Antrobus, Esqr. Publish'd June 20th, i7f<5, by V. 
Green ft Son No. 29, .\ Street, Oxford Street, 
London. Sc vend che/, lei Frercs Torre, Marchandi 
des Estampcs.' (In Ixilh coll.) 
No. 287 and aJt8— The inscriptions run, ' W. Marlow Pinxit. 
Published Fcbry. 20th. 1777, by J. Boydcll, Cheap- 
side. Engraved by V. Green and F. Jukes ' (whom 
Whitman does not mention here). ' View Near 
Klack Friers Bridge ' (and ' View Near Westminster 
Bridge '). ' From a Picture in the Possession of 
David Garrick, Esqr:' (Both Dresden coll.) 
^•'>- 317 — There is a cart with two horses near it at left-hand 
side of plate : a woman and a boy are near the fabric (ruin) to r. Engraved inscription 
runs, ' Drawn by B: Mayor. Engrav'd by V. Green, 
& F. Jukes. Wenlock-.Vbbey, Shropshire. An- 
tiquities, No: 6. Publish'd Octr: ifith: 1779, by 
V. Green . . . Oxford Street.' (Pr. R.) 
No. 318 — There is a man to be seen on a small wooden bridge ; 
three cows are being driven past the gate. Engraved 
inscription, ' Painted by M„ A. Kooker, A: Engrav'd 
by V. Green, ft F. Jukes St: Augustine's Gate, 
Cantcrburv. Antiquities, No: 5,' and publication 
line as in N j. 317. Il'r. K ) 
Not catalogued bv Whitman — 'The Visitation' after A. Van der 
Wcrff (now No. 454 in the Old Pinakothek at Munich). 
To the left and l)ehind, Zacharias and Elizabeth : to 
the right and in front, M.iry and Joseph. Mary wears 
a hat of plumes, shaped somewhat like a sunllower. 
23J by |6J. Full engraved inscription, English and 
French title in i>pen capitals, with monogr.iin C T 
under crown, just like No. 277, etc., the Pigagc 
catalogue No. having been 222. At end, ' Published 
M.irch isl: 1794 by V. & K. Green, No: 13, Berners 
Street London.' (Coll. Fr. Aug. II.) 
Not catalogued by Whitman — 'The .\scension.' after A. Van der 
Werff (now No. 457 in the Old I'inakothck at Munich). 
Christ, above, almost undraped, mounts to heaven 
towards r. Below there are the .-Vpostlcs. three of 
them standing to 1., the remainder, of whom the 
m.ijority kneel, tor. Companion piece to the List, with 
inscription corresponding in every detail lo the 
inscription on the ' Visitation,' the Pigage catalogue 
No. having been 234. {Ibiii.) 



By a remarkable coincidence the Keeper of the 
WalLicc Collection has just discovered a Venetian 
picture which bears the closest po-^siblc relation 
to the fine exainple of J.icopo P.ilina the Elder, 
in the possession of Mi-ssrs. Dowdeswi 11, which he 
described in the February miinb<.r of TllK 15i 
TON Magazine. A comparison of tin- lepiodiictinn 
of Mr. Claude Phillips's recent (ind with the photo- 
gravure of the Dowdcswell picture will at once 
indicate their conne.vion. Yet in some material 
points there is a pronounced iliffercncc. 

In Ihc first place the satle of Mr. Phillips's 


picture is smaller, the whole panel measuring 26J 
inches by 47 inches, while the figures in the 
Dowdcswell picture arc life size or nearly so. 
The handling, too, is more summary in the newly 
discovered work, so summary indeed that it h;is 
the appearance of a rapidly executed decorative 
panel, done almost nii premier cotif^ to fill up a 
space in some scheme of decoration by one iiiknt 
upon richness of general effect i.ither than upon 
finish or accuracy of detail. In the Dowdeswell 
picture P.ilma is careful to the verge of softness ; 
in that now reproduced he is careless and free 
almost to excess. Not only are the l.indscape and 
the sky swept in with broad succulent layers of 

rich colour, but the figures are treated with the 
same laxity of finish, so that we find passage after 
passage that will not stand close examination. 

On the other hand, the decorative force of Mr. 
Phillips's panel is wonderful. The tones through- 
out have Palnii's customary blend of coolness 
with glowing heat, and the painting being alia 
prima, they tell with the greatest possible force. 
This shows with singular effect in the landscape, 
which is lit up by a blaze of evening sunlight. 
The upright trunks when closely examined 
are no more than a glaze of transparent brown 
over the white ground. Seen at a little distance 
they assume just the fiery glow with which tree 
stems redden at sunset, a glow which is heightened 
by the golden green of the foliage behind them. 
The flash of light on the river bank is also 
delightfully rendered. 

The introduction of these sudden and unex- 
pected passages of naturalism recalls Giorgione, 
just as it is in Giorgione's latest works, the 
Giovanelli Tempest and the Louvre Fete Cliampeire, 
that we find the origin of the female figures. 

On the exact relation of the groups in this work 
to those well-known compositions it is needless to 
dwell. The reproduction sufficiently illustrates their 
close relationship. The figure of the shepherd, 
too, is purely Giorgionesque both in conception 
and colour. Yet the broad flat treatment of 
the planes, the quality of the flesh tints, and, 
more than all, the pale golden hair of the nymphs, 
exactly resembling that of TJie Three Sisters at 
Dresden, point to Palma almost conclusively. 
Cariani, the only other possible name that could 
be suggested, paints more thickly, his touch is more 
blunt, his sense of colour less personal. 

As Mr. Phillips pointed out in his previous 
article, the date of Giorgione's death compels us 
to regard the Dowdeswell picture as one painted 
after the year 1510. Mr. Phillips's work must also 
therefore be later than 15 10, yet it is earlier 
in date than Messrs. Dowdeswell's example. 
A comparison of the two pairs of nymphs 
will show that in every way the conception 
in the latter work is more fully thought out, the 
reminiscence of Giorgione is less direct, the pose of 
the figures is more studied, the draperies are more 
skilfully disposed to soften and relieve the flesh 
tones. Mr. Phillips's picture, in short, is not only 
the more hasty in execution, but the earlier in 

The defects and the beauty of this interesting 
panel are alike explained if we assume that it was 
executed in haste, as part of a decorative scheme, 
by the elder Palma shortly after the year 1510, 
when the memory of the last works of the dead 
Giorgione was still green, and that afterwards he 
revised and enlarged the two figures of the 
nymphs into Messrs. Dowdeswell's picture. 

C. J. H. 

Notes on Various Works of Art 


The Keeper of the Department of Mediaeval 
Antiquities at the British Museum has recently 
brought to light two small models of considerable 
interest. B Vth appear to be Florentine works of 
the sixteenth century ; indeed the larger of the 
two, an upright male torso, is so characteristic 
of the manner of Baccio Bandinelli that it may 
fairly be ascribed to him. The smaller model 
of wax, which we illustrate on approximately 
the scale of the original (p. 186), raises a more diffi- 
cult and important question. It recalls so clearly 
the great recumbent figures of the Medici tombs that 
we are compelled to ask whether it is derived from 
them, or whether it can be one of the preliminary 
studies for them from Michelangelo's own hand. 

The second hypothesis is the more daring, but 
there is something to be said in its favour. The 
model has obvious peculiarities, such as the imper- 
fection of the lower limbs and the vagueness of 
the upper portion of the trunk. For these 
peculiarities, however, we find almost exact parallels 
in the model for a Hercules and Caciis in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, and the resemblance 
is so close that both models may well be the work 
of the same hand. 

The model at the Museum differs] very consider- 
ably from the brooding figure oiTniliglit with which 
it may be connected.' The marble giant is built 
on a more heroic and massive scale, the muscular 
development being everywhere emphasized in the 
most forcible way, while the little wax figure has 
an almost Hellenic restraint and naturalness. Its 
very peculiarities and imperfections suggest 
inevitably that it is a study made directly from the 
living model, while in the Ticiliglit this personal 
human element is buried under the contours 
appropriate to a generic superhuman type. 

In asking ourselves how the difference may be 
explained, we are compelled to recognize that 
Michelangelo's studies from the life, whether in 
wax or on paper, are almost always naturalistic in 
the extreme. It is not until he comes to carry 
out the finished work that he gives free play to 
his imagination by emphasizing and accentuating 
those portions and planes of the figure which are 
essential for the expression of the particular ideal 
he has in mind. The process is one which M. 
Rodin has explained through the most eloquent 
of his biographers, and will, therefore, be familiar 
to all students of sculpture. 

Contemporary admirers of Michelangelo, how- 
ever, did not understand his secret. They built 
up their idea of human form upon the master's 
finished work, instead of going back to the natural 

' A certain resemblance to one of the magnificent unfinished 
figures of slaves intended for the tomb of Julius II, but which for 
many years adorned the grotto in the Boboli Gardens, will also 
be noticed. 


A irax Model attributed to Michelangelo 

forms on which lie founded (h;it work. TakiiiiJ 
the emphaiis and accent, wliich he u^cd for pur- 
poses of specific expression, as jjencral conditions 
of the j»rand style, they employed them indis- 
criminately in the place i>f nature. The result 
was the inllited mannerism in which tiie j4re.1t 
period of Italian sculpture came to an end, and it 
IS vain to seek amon>» these later artists for any 
sincere naturalism such as this study exhibits. 

The model at the Museum can thus hardly he a 
contemporary version of Michel.mfjclo's statue. 
Ha«l It iK-en so, it could not have failed to retain 
some liint of that statue's heroic development. 
Nor, considerinj; its style, can it be attributed to 
an earlier d.ite than iNtichelanjjelo's. The fact 
that it has been in the British Museum for many 
years' in company with a model that is obviously 
from the hand of Bandinelli tells equally strongly 

»The iiukUIs were purch.TiccI in 1859 from the Huon.irroli 
collection. That reproduced here will be found in t.nbic case F 
in the Mediaeval K<H)m. That in terra colta by Handinclli 
will be found in wall case 45 on the same side of the room, 
bearing Michelangelo's name. 



7o the Editor of TW. BlRLiNGTON MaG.\zine. 

Dear Sik, 

Permit nie to make two slight additions to 
my sketch of the Strozzi marriages in your April 
number. A reference to the Prussian Jahrbuch 
for 1902, courteously suggested by Dr. Warburg, 
contributor of an "article on the relations of 
Flemish and Florentine art, points to the identih- 
cation of mv Tanagli heroine with a Catarina 
Tanagli, whi'i in 1466 married Angelo Tain, a 
partner with Tomm;iso Portinari in the Bruges 
branch of the Medicean banking-house. The 
proximitv and prioritv of date of this marriage to 
that of Philip and Fiammetta Adimari helps to 
explain his f.iilure to win a bride so warmly 
praised by his mother. Further, I should like to 
strengthen my presentment of the unromantic 
nature of the Strozzi m.irriage negotiations by an 
incident drawn from a privately printed life of 
Filippo Strozzi, in which his son tells us that, 
when no longer suiTering from the restrictions of 
exile, he engaged iiimself to his second wife, a 
Florentine lady living in Milan, 'without ever 
seeing her, or having any other information about 
her' than the commendation of the F"lorentiiie 

G. T. Clolgh. 

against the theory of forgery. It must not be 
forgotten also that the naturalism underlying 
Michelangelo's art is a discovery of the last two 
decades, and that a forger or imitator, previous to 
tlie nineties, would certainly have imitated the more 
obvious and emphatic side of the master's style. 
Even tlie supposition that it is a copy of some 
other model by Michelangelo is hardly admissible, 
for certain passages, such as the tense muscles of 
the abdomen, are handled with the power and 
certainty of which only a great sculptor is capable. 
Of these qualities, and of the massive, rhythmic 
sweep of the figure, the reproduction gives no 
adequate idea, and those who are interested in 
the matter will do well to examine the original. 
Whether the whole group of models with which 
this piece may be associated is from Michel- 
angelo's hand must be left for those to decide who 
have made a more intimate study of the master. 
On this subject, as on that of the tempera panels 
in the National Gallery, criticism has not yet 
spoken finally. C J. H. 


To the Editor of The BiKLiXGTOX Magazi-ne. 
Deak Sik, 

In my notes on two Milanese portraits of 
Bianca Maria Sforza, in the May number, I made 
no attempt to cite the considerable literature on 
the subject. The catalogue of the Milanese 
exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 
1898 should certainly have been mentioned in 
connexion with the Wideiier portrait, as well as 
Dr. Seidlitz's article on Ambiogio de Predis in 
the Austrian Jatulutch last year. A correspondent 
informs me that the Arconati-Visconti portrait was 
reproduced in the Rasscgiia d'Arte of 1902, in Les 
Arts, in 1903, and discussed by Mr. HerlH;rt Cook 
in The BiKLiNGTON for 1904, p. 200. 

This note gives me an opportunity to return to 
the portrait of Carlo di Alessandro Pitti, in the 
Johnson collection, Philadelphia, which was 
published in this mag:izine last August. Mr. 
Herbert P. Home promptly attacked the date on 
the picture (1540), and 1 could only vouch for a 
correct reading of the inscription. Mr. Home 
brought cogent biographical reasons for rejecting 
this date (which was addetl later, possibly to make 
the picture pass for a Bronzino) in favour of one 
of 1580. A single visit to the portrait rooms of the 
UlTizi has converted me to Mr. Home's view, for 
the picture is palpably the work of F"ederigo 
Zuccheri. Fkank Jewett Mathek, JLN. 



Meisters Genialde im 196 



Gronau. Stuttgart and Leipzig: Deutsche 

Verlags-Anstalt. 6 marks. 

Herausgegeben von 


In his modest preface Dr. Gronau refers to the 
difficulties which surround the study of Correggio. 
In this volume of that invaluable series ' Klassiker 
del- Kiimt ' he may claim that he has done his 
utmost to remove them. A set of nearly two 
hundred plates arranged in chronological order 
by such a scholar is in itself something consider- 
able, while in his brief notes and in an excellent 
introduction Dr. Gronau places before the student 
of Correggio just the facts about the master's life 
and work that he ought to know. The notes, 
indeed, are so much up to date that they refer to 
an article published in The Burlington Mag.azine 
during the current year. 

Perhaps the most interesting question in con- 
nection with Correggio's life is that which touches 
Vasari's statement that Correggio never visited 
Rome. The more we study his work in compari- 
son with that of Raphael and Michelangelo the 
more does the conviction grow upon us that the 
gulf between his so-called Albiiica Madonna 
(c. 1518^ and the frescoes ot S.Giovanni Evangel- 
ista is inexplicable except on the theory that he had 
seen the work of the great Roman decorators at 
more than second-hand. The dome of the Chigi 
chapel in S. Maria del Popolo is in this connexion 
hardly less vivid evidence than the Sistine ceiling, 
and there is a gap in the Correggio documents 
between March 1518 and January 1519 which 
would allow time for the visit at which Dr. 
Gronau hints. The Camera di S. Paolo would 
then become the first essay by Correggio in the 
new manner after his return, a preparation for the 
grander effort made in the dark dome of S. Gio- 
vanni Evangelista, and its date would be I5i9and 
not 1518. 

The collection of early works attributed to 
Correggio is of particular interest, though on 
grounds of style we do not always agree with Dr. 
Gronau as to their order. The Uffizi picture is 
placed first of all, yet it is much more mature both 
in handling and feeling than several of the works 
placed after it, such as Nos. 2 and 7. Nos. 24 and 
26 also seem to be out of their true places. 

C. J. H. 

Florentine Galleries. By Maud Cruttwell. 

London : J. M. Dent and Co. 3s. 6d. net. 
A SHORT time ago we noticed two recent hand- 
books of great foreign galleries. We have now a 
third attempt to cater for this long-felt want, and 
may say at once that the latest book marks a 
distinct advance upon its predecessors. If the 
remaining volumes of Messrs. Dent's series ' The 
Art Collections of Europe ' reach the standard of 

the first one, they should be secure of steady 

The author of the book before us is well 
equipped in point of scholarship, the size is 
handy, the printing is good, the little illustrations 
are just what are wanted to keep the memory 
fresh, the book covers three of the most interest- 
ing galleries in the world, and the price is 
moderate. Even in matters of detail we have few 
faults to find. Miss Cruttwell is somewhat hard 
upon Vasari, for the tendency of recent scholar- 
ship has been to prove him more frequently right 
than earlier critics supposed. It would have been 
more correct, for instance, to describe his story 
about Leonardo painting the Angel in Verrocchio's 
Baptism as ' open to question ' rather than as 
' erroneous,' and we have noticed several other 
positive statements of the same kind, which in the 
present state of criticism cannot be regarded as 

The Edinburgh Parthenon and the Scottish 
National Gallery. An Appeal to the Scottish 
People. By William Mitchell, S.S.C. Edition 
de luxe. A. and C. Black, and Bernard 

This is a reissue in a handsome quarto of the 
letters written by Mr. Mitchell to the Edinburgh 
Evening Xcics in August 1906 and issued in book 
form in December last, when it was distributed far 
and wide by means of a pecuniary vote by the 
Corporation of Edinburgh. The question with 
which it deals was shelved for all practical purposes 
for the moment by the passing of the National 
Galleries (Scotland) .Act of December 1906, which, 
as our readers will remember, took away the con- 
trol of the Scottish National Gallery from the old 
Board of Manufactures, to give it to a body of 
seven trustees appointed by the Secretary of State 
for Scotland, settling also incidentally the question 
of the housing of the pictures in the possession 
of the Scottish nation. The proposal, therefore, 
made by Mr. Mitchell, and ardently backed by 
Mr. Sydney Humphries, was not destined to be 
adopted, in spite of their strenuous efforts ; but it 
is well that the volume before us should be issued, 
partly because it is in itself a thing of beauty, 
partly as a reminder that a large and influential 
party of the Scottish people consider with some 
justice that they have been unfairly treated in the 
matter by Parliament and the executive. Both the 
financial history of the 'Equivalent' and the sad 
tale of the National Monument as it stands — un- 
finished and forlorn — are outside our scope; the 
reader of Mr. Mitchell's pamphlet will find them 
clearly stated there. The important and interesting 
point is: What do Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Humphries, 
and their supporters propose to do with this record 
of embittered international feeling and surrendered 
endeavour of the days of the Regency? Briefly, they 


Art Books of the Month 

puiposc to remove its stijjina and devote it to a 
iKitir cause by making it tlie Nati<)nal Gallery of 
Scotland. The complete plans drawn out hy Mr. 
Henry K. Kerr, A.K.I.U.A., and published in their 
original and amended forms in the book before us, 
prove that the practical side of the question has 
bci-n fully considered. Completed and titled out, 
theNational Monument will look likethe P.irfhcnon 
in its prime, and will contain ii\zf^ feet of hneal 
hanging, well lighted from top anil sides, and 
having room also for side-lighted galleries for 
sculpture. The addition, at the south-east corner 
of the Parthenon, of the Hall of Music for which 
the Lite Mr. Usher left a sum of ;^'50,ooo, and of 
a small gallery at the north-east corner, are in- 
cluded in the measurements given above ; and Mr. 
Kerr's plans leave no doubt that the wluile scheme 
would provide a prospect worthy of the unique site 
offered by the Calton Hill. 

Venice. By Beryl de Sclincourt and May Sturge 
Henderson. Illustrated by Reginald Barratt, 
A.R.W.S. Pp. viii, 185. C'hatto and Windus, 
1(^7. I OS. 6d. net. 

This is not a guidebook, though in tlic two 
chapters headed ' Venetian Waterways ' the 
authors suggest an itinerary by which the visitor 
to Venice may see the more notable sights in the 
most commodious way. Another chapter is 
devoted to the minor islands of the lagoon, and 
a fourth to the artists of the Venetian Renaissance 
— men 'endowed with a profound understanding 
and divination of human character.' These are 
the chapters more especially devoted to the 
tourist : in the remaining ones the authors 
endeavour to lay bare the soul of Venice, and the 
attempt is crowned with a not inconsiderable 
measure of success. It is perfectly true that the 
great Venetians were giants, and that the histcjry 
of Venetian greatness is the history of men who 
strenuously devoted themselves to the mastery of 
life's laws. No less is it true that ' the greatness of 
Venice coincident with the greatness of her 
trade.' This perhaps is what make^ the history of 
Venice so f.iscinating to Engli>hmen. It has 
lx:en s;iid that the Knglish are a nation of shop- 
keepers : again and again the Venetian chroniclers 
reminded their compatriots that the foundation of 
the glories of Venice was her commerce, and that 
they too were ' a nation of shopkeepers.' Like 
England ag.iin, Venice was accused of egoism, of 
bemg and calculating. Not that her 
methods, any more than those of England, were 
tinged more deeply with selfishness than those of 
her neighbours : her singularity lay in the skill 
with which she wielded weapons everywhere in 
use. These points are elaborated by Mrs. de 
Selincourt and Mrs. Henderson, and there is 
much to be learnt from their thoughtful work, 


which may be studied with advantage not only by 
those about to visit Venice but also by those to 
whom Venice and her history are not unknown. 
The pictures are quite pretty, and more atmo- 
spheric than most things of the kind. E. B. 

Poems by Wordsworth. Selected, with an 
Introduction, by Stopford A. Brooke. Illus- 
trated by Edmund H. New. Methucn. 

O.NE aspect at least of Wordsworth's genius has 
found an illustrator ex.ictly adapted to it. The 
sober sincerity of such drawings as that of Mr. 
New might perhaps be expected to do justice to 
such subjects as Rydal Mount and the unpretentious 
architecture of Gnismere and Hawkshead, the 
garden subjects, too, might well come within the 
scope of his talent ; but the mountain scenery of 
the Lake District would seem to call for the art of 
the painter, for evanescent tones and impalpable 
transitions. Mr. New, however, has faced these 
dilliculties, and h;is emerged from the struggle 
triumphant. The two views looking up the 
Easel. lie Valley, and that of Stone Arthur from 
Grasmere, have just that blend of pastoral quiet 
with mountain grandeur which is characteristic 
of Wordsworth's country, while the stormy 
panorama from Tarn Hows looking towards the 
Langdale Pikes comes near to achieving still 
more. The volume is well printed, and makes 
altogether a most ple;ising edition. 

English Furniture Designers of the 
Eighteenth Century. By Constance 
Simon. London : Batsford. 15s. net. 

Two years ago (May, 1905) we spoke at some 
length of the original research on which this 
book was founded. We need not therefore repeat 
our commendatit)n when the volume is reissued 
by another publisher, but m.ay add that, besides 
being handsome and accurate, it is now distinctly 


RuNSTGESCHiciiTLiciiE MuN'ocKAriiiiuS VI. Andrcas Aul>crt. 
Lcipzij; : Karl W. Hicrscin.inii. M. 36. 

Krench FuRNiri'RE. Andie S.iglio. George NcwnM, Ltd. 
^i. 6d. net. 

The Laxdscapes of G. F. Watts. George Ncwnes. Ltd. 
3s. 6d. net. 

The EoiNiaRGH I'artiiknos' and ti'E Scottish Naticsal 
Gallery. Willi.\in MiUlicll, S.S.C. A. & C. Black, and 

Hern:ird \1u:irilLli. 

The History of Modern Painting. Four vols. Rictuu'd 
Mulhcr, rii.D. J. M. Dent * Co. /3 3s. net. 

Curregcio. Giorg Gronau. Verl.)gs-Ansl.-ill. Stultgart and 
Leipzig. M.6. 

Poems iiy Williau Wordsworth. Selected, with an intro- 
duction, hy St'ipford A. lirixike. Illustt.'ited by Edmund 
H. New. Melliuen 4 C). 7^, Od. net. 

Sir William IIkechey, R.A. W. Huberts. Duckworth A Co. 
7s. 6il. net. 

Books l^ceived 

Roman ScutPTrRE. Mr?. Arlhiir Strong, LL.D. Diickwoith 

& Co. los. net. 
The Colouk or London. W. J. Loftie, F.S A. Illustrated by 

Yoshio Markino. Chatto & Windus. 20s. net. 
A Series of Twelve Delft Pl.\tks Illustkatixg the 

Tobacco Ixdustky. Presented by |. H. Kit/.-Henry to the 

Victoria and Albert Museum. Wyinan & Sons. 
The Frescoes i.\ the Chapel at Eton College. Montague 

Rhodes James, LL.D. Spottiswoode & Co. 7s. 6d. 
Raphael in Ko.\ie. Mrs. Henry Ady. Seeley & Co. 2s. net. 
Axtoine Watteau. Claude Phillips. Seeley & Co. 2s. net. 
The Society or Artists and the Free Society. Algernon 

Graves, F.S. .A. George Bell & Sons. £t, 3s. net. 
Michelangelo. Dcs Meisters Werke in 166 Abbildungen. Frit^ 

Knapp. Verlags-Anstalt. Stuttgart and Leipzig. M. 6. 
Titian. Des Meisters Gemalde in 260 Abbildungen. Oskar 

Fischel. Verlags-.Anstalt. Stuttgart and Leipzig. ISI. 6. 
DiJRER. Des Meisters Gemalde Kupferstiche und Holzschnitte. 

Valentin Scherer. Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart and Leipzig. 

M. 10. 
Die Bildende Kunst der Gegknwart. Joseph Strzygowski. 

Quelle & Mener, Leipzig. M. 4. 

The Quarterly Review. The Edinburgh Review. The Bad- 
minton. The Nineteenth Century and After. The Fort- 
nightly Review. The Contemporary Review. The National 
Review. The Albany Review. The Monthly Review. 
The Rapid. The Review of Reviews. The Fine Art 
Trade Journal. The Commonwealth. Museum of Fine 
Arts Bulletin (Boston). The Craftsman (New York). La 
Rassegna Nazionale (Florence). Kokka (Tokyo). Bollettino 
d'Arte (Rome). La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosite 
(Paris). Bulletin du Norddeutscher Lloyd (Paris). Onze 
Kunst (Amsterdam). Die Kunst (Munich). 

Tableaux Anciens d6pendantdes Collections [os. Monchen 

A La Have. Frederik Muller & Cie, Amsterdam. 
MusiK : Kirch engesang, Weltliche Musik, Alts Seltene 

MusiK Wekke, Autograi'Hen Wagner, Mozart. Katalog 

121. Ludwig Rosenthal, Miinchen. 
Livres rares et curieux. Catalogue 79. Loescher & Co., 




The pleasure that all Englishmen must feel at the 
increased appreciation in France of the British 
school is mingled with regret that so many of the 
English pictures in French collections are quite 
unworthy of the great names attached to them. 
This was the case with many of the English pic- 
tures in the collection of M. Charles Sedelmeyer, 
which were sold in Paris on the i6th and 17th of 
May and realized, with the additional ten per cent., 

;^73,46o, an average of ;4'437 ^O'" ^'^^ ^^^ ''^^^• 
This must be considered a high average in view of 
the quality of the collection as a whole. It is 
worthy of note that, although the principal London 
dealers were represented at the sale, only about 
half a dozen lots were knocked down to English 
buyers. It is also reported in Paris that a certain 
number of pictures were bought in. 

It was the general opinion of the English 
dealers and collectors present at the Sedelmeyer 
sale that the English pictures fetched on an 
average at least double the amount that they 
would have fetched at Christie's ; and they showed 
the courage of their convictions by abstaining 
from purchasing. A considerable number of the 
pictures went to Germany, but the highest price at 
the sale was paid by a French dealer who bought 
the portrait of Miss Tiglie by Romney for ;^"7,ooo ; 
it is a good picture, but it would hardly have 
fetched more than ;^5,ooo at Christie's. A Belgian 
private collector paid the equally excessive price 
of £s<l-° for the portrait of Mrs. Jcuncs Moiitcith 
by Raeburn. These were two of the best pictures 
in the collection ; the prices paid for some of the 
others, though actually less, were relatively far 
higher, and some of them positively ludicrous. 
There have been few sales at which the average 
prices so far exceeded the reasonable value of the 
pictures. Several of the French pictures in the 

collection also fetched high prices, but these were 
more reasonable. 

There were, of course, some good things among 
the 168 pictures ; perhaps the finest of all was the 
portrait of Mrs. Pattison by Raeburn (124), an 
elderly lady in a white dress seated in a landscape. 
The handling of this stately picture is remarkably 
strong ; and, although one knows Raeburns of even 
finer quality, it is sufficiently characteristic to be 
well worth the 123,200 frs. paid for it (the price in 
all cases is given with the additional ten per cent). 
The Portrait of Mrs. fames Montcitli, a young and 
attractive woman, was rather dear at 143,000 frs., 
but is, nevertheless, a good example of Raeburn's 
art. Of the six other pictures to which Raeburn's 
name was attached, one is certainly by him, the 
Portrait of an Old Man (122), which fetched only 
2,145 f''S- O'l the other hand, for the unattractive 
Colonel Ramsay and his Wife (123), exhibited at 
Burlington House in 1895, someone paid no less 
than 117,700 frs., or at least it was knocked down 
at that price. 

By far the best of the twelve pictures assigned 
to Romney was the portrait of Miss Tiglic (145) ; 
outside the wonderful portraits of Lady Hamilton, 
this is perhaps as good a Romney as could be 
found ; it was sold for 176,000 frs. Cnpid and 
Psyche (156), a fair example of Romney as a 
painter of classical subjects, fetched the very 
low price of 5,170 frs., and Lady Hamilton as 
Ariadne{iY^), which must be accepted as authentic, 
40,700 frs., a high price considering its bad 
condition. The portrait of Miss Fagnani (after- 
wards Lady Hertford) as a child (150) is also an 
authentic work of the master ; it sold for 35,200 
frs. Another picture which can safely be 
given to Romney , the Portrait of Joint Danes 
(151), fetched only 2,200 frs., but it is unpleas- 
ing and in bad condition. Of the seven others, 
the so-called Portrait of the Artist's Brother (155), 


Art in France 

sdIcI lor i,J^5 li-»., would M-fin to he a woik of 
Wright of IJfiliy ; tlic Poilnnl lyj Miyi (ioic (147), 
which fetched 57,200 francs, cannot fiavc been 
painted less than twenty years after Komney's 
deatli ; and Duphiiis tuiil Chloc (153) is an even 
later picture, hut it fetched only 1,650 frs. 

Of the six portr.iits assijjned to Gainsborough 
only two, tlie Porlraii of Miss Hooiic (70) and the 
Poilniil of n Man (6«j, can Ix; said to he at all 
representative, but both were very much over- 
cleaned ; tlie former fetched 48,100 frs., and the 
latter 1,025 frs. On the other hand the so- 
ailled Porlitiil of a Piiiiiiss lioytil (09) was sold or 
bt)uj^ht in at 47,300 frs., although it was the 
most strikin;^ example of the way in which j^reat 
names are taken in vain. It may he a youthful 
work of Gainsborough Dupont, and is certainly 
wortli less than the Poilniil of Miss Ed/^nr (72), 
catalojiueil only as ' attributed ' and sold for 825 
frs., but quite possibly a work of the master's 
Ipswich period, though in bad condition. The 
two landscapes cataloj^ued under Gainsborou-^h's 
name (74 and 75) fetched only 1,760 frs. and 
3,025 frs. respectively, and were certainly not 
worth more. The former was the older and the 
Ix-tter of the two, the latter appeared to be a good 
example of Barker. 

There were eight portraits catalogued under 
Hoppner's name, of which the best by a long way that of Miss Raiiic (86), certainly an authentic 
work and a fairly good one; it fetched 112,200 
frs. No. 88, which fetched 12,760 frs., may 
be the work of Hoppner, but is not a portrait of 
Mrs. Jonliiii. The portrait of Mis. Home, for- 
merly in Lord Grimthorpe's collection, was dear at 
85,800 frs.; it may be the work of lloppner, 
but, if so, it is a poor example. Of the others the 
less said the lx;tter ; they fetched prices varying 
from 2,750 to 11,000 frs. 

Among the ten pictures given to Lawrence in 
the dialogue one of the best jiortraits in the 
collection, the large group representing CliaiUs 
liiniiy and his luo Dniifllitcrs (97), which, although 
it is over-cleaned in parts, gives a very fair idea 
of Lawrence's powers, though not at his best. It 
W.IS sold for 121,000 frs. One other may be 
an authentic work by I>;iwrence, the portrait of 
Miss liruiniiiil (98), which fetched 7,810 frs., a 
low price. The astonishing price of 29,810 frs. 
was paid for a picture called The Countess of 
Diirnlcy (loi), the attribulion of which to Uiwrence 
was at any rate courageous. The portraits of 
Caroline Pry ,ind Miss Croiker(i)() and 100) were 
dear even at 5,940 and 8,800 frs., since they are 
copies of well-known originals and should not 
have iK-en descrilxd in the dialogue ;is a ' sketch ' 
and a ' replica.' Nor can it lie said that the live 
other pictures in this group, which were soUl at 
prices ranging from 1,595 to 6,930 frs., were at all 


The >ixteen pictures which ln)re the name of 
Keynolds were nearly all in bad condition, but 
there were three of undoubted authenticity : the 
portrait of Loitt Mnl^rave as a child (130), 16,830 
frs. ; the Pi>»7»'<j»7 o/<» iV</H (133), 7,040 frs.; and 
the portrait of General Stringer Lawrenee (141), 
the best of this group, which fetched only 3,080 
frs. — ;m extremely low price, although the picture 
is by no means hr?.t-rate. Two other pictures 
went cheaply, namely, the Porlraii of Ihe Marquis 
ofGraiihy (140), 5,610 frs., and the Yoniif^ Woiiian 
tcilh a Mii/f (137), 4,180 frs. ; the latter, however, 
was i]uite ruined by restoration. It is difhcult to 
understand how the name of Reynolds became 
attachetl to the portrait of Mrs. Schindlerin (129), 
an excellent copy, apparently by the Rev. William 
Peters, of the picture painted for the duke of 
Dorset and engraved by J. R. Smith, which is, or 
was imlil lately, in the colleofion of I^)rd Sack- 
ville at Kiiole. The Seclelm<-yer copy is certainly 
not worth 66,000 frs., the price paid for it, and 
should not have been described in the catalogue 
.IS the picture engraved by Smith. The sketch for 
the Yoiilh of Hercules in the Hermitage (143) is, 
.iccordingto the catalogue, accepted by Sir Walter 
Armstrong, but it is at least doubtful, and is not, in 
om- opinion, wdrth more than the 2,090 frs. paid ft)r 
it. The remaining nine pictures were liberally paid 
for at prices ranging from 792 to 19,800 frs., the 
latter price being given for a portrait of a child, 
Laily .\laiy Soinersel (139), which is so completely 
repainted that it is impossible to say what it may 
once h.ive been. 

01 the pictures by minor artists a genuine study 
by Ktty (64) fetched only 220 frs., while two 
others, certainly not from his brush (65 and 66), 
fetched 550 and 891 frs. respectively. Two 
tels erroneously attributed to Russell (157 and 158) 
brought 5,500 and 7,590 frs., and were very dear at 
those prices. A good example of Wyatt, Por- 
tniit of Miss Grealore.v (168), was knocked down at 
3,850 Irs. 

The works by landscape painters ought 
to have been the most important part of 
the collection, since they included no less than 
fourteen pictures catalogueil under the name of 
Hnnington and thirty-one catalogued under that 
of Constable. It is, therefore, with regret that we 
are obliged to to say that not a single one of these 
cm be said with certainty to be the work of 
Honington, and only one can be certainly given to 
Constable — Xo. 24, one of Ihe numerous sketches 
for the fi7<7ic Farm in the National Gallery, which 
fetched (if it was sold) 7,810 frs. The ugly 
incompetent C///7(/ icilh a Goat (36) might possibly 
he a very early production of the artist. It is 
impossible to conjecture the reasons which led to 
the attribution to Constable of such productions 
as The UoallniiUler's l'ri;(/(32), the Vale of Deilham 
(34) or tlie Farm (38), which bear no resemblance 


- z 

Art in France 

to his work and are not even imitations of it. 
Yet No. 34, a quite worthless picture, was bought 
by a purchaser with a Scottish name for 13,750 
frs. The other three mentioned fetched much 
lower prices, only 2,420 frs. being given for No. 
32 in spite of the doubtless accurate statement in 
the catalogue that it was formerly in the collection 
of Mr. Eustace Constable, grandson of the 
painter, who inherited it from his aunt. What 
can one say of the superficial and (in spite of its 
studied freedom) laboured picture. The Valley of ihc 
Stoiir (23), or the Banks of tit e Si our {22), which 
were knocked down at the astonishing prices 
respectively of 32,450 and 35,200 frs. ? The other 
pictures of this group all fetched prices which 
would have been ridiculously small had their 
attribution to Constable been at all plausible, but 
which were in fact in many cases excessive. 

Of the pictures ascribed to Bonington the best 
was a view of Caen (11), one of that large group 
of clever English landscapes which it is difticult 
to attribute to any particular artist ; it comes as 
near to the work of William Havell as any other. 
It fetched 3,135 frs. The Chateau cle Falaisc 
(13), sold for 2,750 frs., is interesting since it 
shows us F. W. Watts, who usually imitated 
Constable, working in the manner of Bonington. 
His characteristic handling of trees is to be seen 
both in those above the bridge and in the group 
on the left of the composition ; the figure in red 
hanging over the bridge is also typical. The 
Return of the Fishing-boat (12) may be by T. M. 
Richardson, but is certainly not by Bonington, 
and the signature is not genuine ; it fetched 
5,280 frs. The interiors (6-10) are by artists 
working at the time and under the influence of 
such men as Newton, Egg and C. R. Leslie : one 
might be b}' Newton himself. These five fetched 
quite low prices, from 1,012 to 2,970 frs., and they 
are not worth more. A picture catalogued as by 
Turner, The Lake of Thnn (161), does not need 
discussion ; it was dear at 7,480 frs. 

M. Sedelmeyer has the distinction of being one 
of the very few French collectors owning pictures 
of the Norwich school, of which he has one or 
two interesting examples. The Stark (160), which 
was sold at the low price of 3,410 frs., is a good 
example of the transition between that artist's 
Norwich and Windsor periods, and the picture by 
Joseph Stannard (159) is interesting as the work 
of a master little known even in England ; it 
fetched only 1,155 ^i"^- On the other hand, 
the picture catalogued under the name of George 
Vincent (162) and sold for 1,925 frs. has nothing 
to do with him ; and No. 57, ascribed to John Sell 
Cotman (called 'James ' in the catalogue), is cer- 
tainly not by him and is probably from the brush 
of Joy of Yarmouth — it was, however, not dear 
at 330 frs. The large landscape ascribed to John 
Crome (58), which fetched only 3,135 frs., is 

obviously a copy of a picture by Philips de Koninck, 
but there are certain points in the technique very 
like Crome, and we incline to the opinion that it 
is one of the numerous copies that he made of 
the Dutch masters. The canvas ascribed to ' the ' 
younger Crome (59) and sold for 506 frs. can 
hardly be by one of Crome's sons ; it is apparently 
the work of an amateur, probably a pupil of the 
elder Crome. 

The collection contained two excellent and 
luminous little landscapes by Morland : a view of 
Freshwater Bay (116), sold for the very low price 
of 880 frs., and The Skaters (109J, which fetched 
4,950 frs. One other of the nine works ascribed 
to Morland is certainly genuine, the Dog and 
Pheasant (117), which was fairly cheap at 1,771 frs. 
The Woodcniter's Repose (112), which fetched 
1,870 frs., is a characteristic work of J. R. Bigg. 

1 o sum up, the Sedelmeyer sale has been an 
example of the truth of M. Thiebault-Sisson's 
recent remark in the Temps that much remains to 
be learned about that English school in France. 
And with all due respect to the eminent critic, his 
own article on the Sedelmeyer collection was no 
less striking an example. 

English and French pictures of the eighteenth 
century fetched high prices in the Muhlhacher 
sale. The Muhlbacher collection contained seven 
examples of Fragonard,sorae of which were of very 
fine quality. A charming little picture. La resistance 
inntile, only 10 inches by 13 inches, fetched no 
less than 62,100 frs., which, with the additional ten 
per cent., comes to about ^"2,750. Another picture, 
slightly larger, Dites done, s'il vons plait, was sold 
for about ^1,070 ; and a portrait of a young 
man, 18 inches by 14 inches, for £1,770. A little 
Watteau, 12 inches by 8 inches, changed hands 
at £1,336, and many of the pictures by Boilly, 
Mme. Guiard and Mme. Vigee-Lebrun fetched 
high prices. 

The second part of the Sedelmeyer sale, held 
on May 25th, 27th and 28th, included 219 pictures 
by Dutch masters of the seventeenth century. 

A very beautiful and important landscape by 
Daubigny, La Moisson, has just been placed in the 
Louvre in the large gallery devoted to modern 
French art. It cannot strictly be called a new 
acquisition, as it has been the property of the State 
for more than half a century. The picture was 
painted in 1851 and exhibited in the Salon of the 
following year, whence it was acquired by the 
State. Probably because Daubigny was not con- 
sidered at that time an artist of sufficient importance 
to be represented in a national museum, the 
picture was hung in a room of the Ministry of 
Justice in the Place Vendome, where it remained 
until the other day in an extremely neglected 
condition. Its rescue is due to the initiative of 
M. Clemenceau, who, since he became Prime 
Minister, has made it his business to rout out 


Art iti France 

works of ait lium tin- curniTs t)f Govcriimfiil 
oflici's and tnin>ftT them to more suitable homes. 
He h;is also succeeded in placing in the Musi-e 
des Arts Decoratifs some remarkalMy fine pieces 
of cijjhtecnth century furniture from the same 
Ministry-, includinj^ the famous table of Choiseul. 
La Moissoii, w Inch w is in a very dirty condition, 
has been carefully cleaned, and now makes a 
superb pendant to Uaubigny's beautiful Piiiilciiif>s, 
painted a few years later. 

It cannot Iv said that the salon t)f the Societe 
des Artistes Kran<,\iis reaches a hij^her level than 
that of the Societe Xationalc. Even the sculpture, 

though as usual it is biaiitifully ananged, fails to 
rise above mediocrity, and there is nothing which 
stands out as of striking merit. Perhaps the best 
picture in the exhibition is the portrait by M. 
Alexis Vollon of a typical I^arisian woman, which 
is a brilliant piece of work in a somewhat different 
style from that which M. Vollon usually gives us. 
There are several enormous canvases of a more 
or less blood-curdling description ; one of these, 
Lc PUihstnl, has considerable artistic merit and is 
certainly a good piece t)f painting, but it is hard 
to conjecture the purpose for which it is destined. 

R. E. D. 


V would really seem at times 
ill, it art is the only interest alive 
111 the world to-day. At any rate 
ilic manner in which continually 
iRW devices arc planned for 
^reading art and making it 
)^^^^y\ Nj^^Z^i*^-'*^'" f'e home of multitudes, if 
xyT'^J \ L^,.,,t of every man, is surprising. 
One ot the llc^l plans is the sending out of loan 
exhibitions by the big museums. The Dresden 
Gallery was one of the lirst in Germany to engage 
in this, and its loans were not limited to a few 
provincial museums throughout Saxony. Old 
paintings of a decorative character have been sent 
to schools, town halls and other public buildings, 
where they can be seen by thousands who else 
would probablv st.iiul a slight chance of becoming 
acquainted with old art. In my private opinion, 
even though nearly 250 pictures have thus been 
sent out of the gallery, still more might be done 
in this direction. Some of the Dutch painters of 
the seventeenth century are represented at Dresden 
by fifty and sixty works, half of which could well 
l>e sp.ired for a year at a time, and might help to 
give pleasure and spread culture with more effect 
than they do now. The g.illery at Stuttgart has 
just begun to adopt the system of loan exhibits of 
this kind in Wiirtlemberg. 

A gentlem.m by the name of Robert Erdmann 
recentlv proposed a plan by which an astonishing 
dissc-mination of art could be attained. Starting 
from tlic sound considenition that one needs 
leisure and quiet to enjoy art, he says wc rarely 
have these in museums or exhibition rooms ; we 
h.ive them le.illy nowhere but in our own homes. 
We get pianos and typewriters on hire — why not 
paintings on hire ? Many a man who cannot 
afford to be a jiatron on account of the smallness 
of his income, could in this way manage to 
beautify his home ; he could make his selections 
at the exhibitions, the dealers' galleries or even 
the artists' studios. A lot t)f work which now lies 
aliout unsold without bringing its originator any 
profit would at least give him a return of interest. 


As almost all of our paintings are no longer house- 
bound — that is to say, painted for special sur- 
roundings, ;is they were in the days of the 
Renaissance — there could not even be any 
acsthetical objections raised. 

One of the new fine hotels near the Brandcn- 
burger Thor at Berlin has commissioned some 
artists of first standing to do cert.iin etchings, 
engravings and lithographs for the place. These 
are to be used instead of the ordinary chromo or 
photographic horror, for the decoration of the 
rooms ; and, what is more, the plates, etc., become 
the exclusive property of the hotel company, 
which will pull only the number of proofs they 
need for their own est.iblishnient, no more. When 
hotel companies begin to patronize art in such a 
higli-haiuled fashion, the milleiiniiim has come 

The student-corporations at the universities 
constitute a decided feature in the social life of 
Germany. Many of them are very large and wealthy, 
and possess grand club-houses at Heidelberg, 
Bonn, etc. It seems that they arc not to be spared 
cither : art is coming upon tliem, too. A body of 
artists and art-historians, former university men, h;is 
concluded that there is a great field for the art 
worker here, as the student is in daily need of 
numerous specialities, which are ugly and tawdry 
now, but which might be gotten up with taste and 
a view to art culture. So the student-corpora- 
tions will be acsthcticized next. Men of such 
reputation as Piizaurck, the director of the 
Stuttgart Arts and Crafts Museum, Lichtwark of 
H.imburg, and artists like Carlos Grethe, Emil 
Orlik, H. I'.mkok, Riemcrschmid, etc., are on the 

The bestowal of the rank of professor upon 
W. liter Leistikow in Berlin is another sign, 
indicating that the emperor's opinions on modern 
art are gradually changing to more favourable 
ones. Leistikow has for many years been almost 
more tyjiically a representative of the Berlin 
Secessionist movement than Lieberin.imi himself. 
He has painted a number of wonderful landscapes, 

Art in Germany 

choosing his subjects from the surroundings of 
the capital, and fin ding beauty and poetry, where 
heretofore no one seemed inclined even to search 
for anything of the sort. Originally his handling 
was boldly decorative, and even now that his 
style has mellowed considerably, his work retains 
its distinctively personal note. We rejoice at the 
distinction as having been bestowed upon an 
artist so worthy of it, and as a proof of the better 
feeling which the Prussian government now 
entertains towards the younger school. 

At Bremen an open-air museum is planned, 
such as have been already opened in various 
Scandinavian towns. An epitome of the local 
culture and art from the earliest down to the present 
days isto be offered in a park dotted with old peasant 
houses, etc. The Austrian government has pur- 
chased for the ' Modern Art Gallery ' at Vienna : 
Cottet, Mass in Brittany ; Evenepoel, Rtiiiniing 
from Work ; and M. Liebermann, House at Edam. 
Two new acquisitions of the museum at Stuttgart 
are: L. v. Hofmanns, At the Seashore, and an 
Interior by Robert Breyer. 

The exhibition at the Museum of Applied Arts 
in Leipzig, mentioned in these columns two months 
ago, has made famous the names of at least two 
craftsmen, the tapestry-weaver Seger Bombeck 

and the silversmith Elias Geyer, who up till now 
are hardly mentioned in handbooks. We are 
able to reproduce (pp. i68 and 195) some of 
the work of Geyer, who became master silver- 
smith at Leipzig in 1589. As many as 120 of 
his cin-fs d'cvuvre were collected, many of which, 
beside their aesthetical value, were interesting 
from the workmanship point of view. The 
magnificent gilt salver here reproduced, for 
example, is richly chased, with the horses, masks 
and parts of the animals soldered on. An all but 
complete set of the medals and coins of Hans 
Reinhart was also on view. Other silversmiths, 
whose work has been identified by the help of this 
exhil:)ition are : F. Finsinger, P. G. and H. H. 
Haussmann, A. Kauxdorf, J. and Sebald Krump- 
holz, B. and M. Lauch, E. Osterholtt, J. Pauly, 
J. Peissler, etc. The large and important tapestries 
by Seger Bombeck, who lived at Leipzig from 
about 1540 to 1560, were a revelation, inasmuch 
as little else but the work of Flemish and French 
establishments of this date has come to light so far. 
Another Leipzig tapestry worker of the sixteenth 
century appeared in the person of Egidius 
Wagner ; and many further specimens from East 
and South German workshops were likewise 
exhibited. H. W. S. 


Of the two important annual spring exhibitions 
held in New York that of the Ten Painters at the 
Montross Gallery, mucii the smaller of the two, was 
the more interesting. Its smallness (twenty-nine 
can\^ses) was one of its great advantages ; but 
that this was not a conclusive advantage is shown 
by the fact that a representative canvas, the Old 
Church at Lyme, by Childe Hassam, one of the Ten, 
appeared among the most important of the Spring 
Academy exhibition, and was there strikingly 
impressive in its soft brilliancy of colour. It is 
doubtless true that, while a Corot or a Cazin would 
still maintain its superiority amongst the array of 
pictures of a Salon, the difficulties attending the 
just appreciation of such a picture in such 
surroundings, the sufficient separation of it from 
such a milien, the real seeing of it there, would be 
greatly increased. There were pictures, difficult 
to take cognizance of, on the crowded walls of the 
Academy exhibition which would have compelled 
and retained the attention if placed in choice 
company in a room of moderate size, against a 
quiet delicate background and with sufficient space 
around them. The question therefore is not at all 
of the wisdom of the merger of the Society of 
American Artists with the Academy so much as of 
the wisdom of the Salon kind as against the 
individual, or very small, exhibition of paintings. 

Generally speaking, the figure work at the 
Academy was reminiscent of the tendencies and 

technical methods of the European schools, 
particularly the French ; and the familiar imitations 
of Mr. Sargent were not lacking. The personal 
note, when found, was rarely forceful, nor was it 
often expressed in adequate term.s. There was 
more attention than achievement ; the ii pen pris, 
the merely clever, the sometimes accidental and 
superficially happy results, were generally accepted 
as quite satisfactory. On the other hand, there 
also was a total absence of the vulgar, ugly and 
degenerate eccentricities which abound in many 
modern continental exhibitions. The landscapes 
were better than the figure pieces — more attractive, 
more personal, and in conception and in ex- 
pression they had a distinctly American character. 
The elegiac mood pervaded many of the low-toned 
grey and brown harmonies — thin, yet agreeable to 
the eye. But there was much serious work, by 
men of power who are seeking to express their 
individual preferences in a manner of their own. 
Such dignified canvases as Ben Foster's Interior 
of a Pine Grove, painted soberly, of great richness 
of tone and colour, and with a grave, dramatic and 
poetical quality ; as Childe Hassam's old Church, 
already referred to ; and as Ballard Williams's The 
Gorge, were among the best of these. The newer 
men: Mr. Redfield, Mr. Lawson, Mr. Rosen- 
showing in their work more force than charm — 
challenged the spectator's eye with their mosaic of 
positive brush strokes, demanding of him if this 


Jlrt in America 

be not as tnithfiil ami inspiring a rendering as that 
of the Uteral painters who try to match closely 
every tone, colour and form in the subject before 

Mr. Mctcalf's work of late years displays both 
ardour and vers.itility. His views of the quasi- 
Greek portico of his l>oarding-house in an old 
viilagi.* of Mass;ichusctts, seen in the soft splendours 
of a ' May night,' was one of the noteworthy 
can\-ases of tlie Kxhibilion of the Ten, and has 
iK-en purchased by the Corcoran Clalleryof Wash- 
ington. It had a charm quite other but no less pcr- 
su.isive than that of its neighbours from tiie brush 
of Childe Hass.nn, and it was as happily conceived 
and executed. With charm, the landscapes of 
Alden Weir had a deeper thoughtfulness, and made 
a more serious, moving and lasting impression. 
Edmund Tarbell's uiihnished -Vtu' Kii!<ltiiiil Interior 
is a^V///v of rare simplicity, with that thoroughly 
good painter's Tuie feeling for the ' envelope,' the 
atmosphere, the distribution of light, which makes 
one think of Vermeerof Delft. And in this collec- 
tion of moderns, of younger men seeking to better 
the methods taught in the old schools, it was appa- 
rently the mission of Joseph De Camp to demon- 
strate that there is no reason why new wine 
should not be put in old bottles. Notwithstanding 
the advantage of being seen in the small exhibition, 
Mr. Reid's contribution told of little else than 
facile superficiality. Those of the new member 
of the Ten, Mr. Chase, striking his usual eclectic 
note, stopping short of being, and seemingly of 
wanting to be, real things, jarred with their 

At the Academy, the sculpture was conlined to 
small piecc-s — much of the work being that of 
young women, who even capture prizes from the 
men at important competitions (the ollicial one 
recently held for the bronze doors of the chapel 
of the Naval Academy at Annapolis was won by 
Miss Evelyn li. Longman). In the bronze 
statuettes one found not unfrequently displayed 
the minor qualities— delic.icy of imagination, 
grace, careful modelling, and thoroughness of 
knowledge which is not dependent upon finish 
and detail for fullness of expression. 

Of the many smaller exhibitions, that of the 
portraits of Miss Ellen Emmet, should be noted. 
in them the young artist displayed a sureness of 
vision and vigour of rendering, most marked 
perhaps — in the men's portraits — in those of Mr, 
St. Gaudens, Colonel Dupont and Admiral Cowles. 
Her gifts, particularly her grasp of character, are 
uncommon, but her colour, with a tendency to 
brickiness, is conventional — certainly not dis- 
tinguished. Mr. Henry Golden Dearth's land- 
scapes — nocturnes and iuminiius twilights —at the 
Oehme Rooms, showed vaiiety of range, breadth 
of style and research for beauty and truthfulness 
of tone. 

We are precluded from giving even a catalogue 
of exhibitions outside of New S'ork, as it would 
well nigh fill the pages of the magazine. Of these 
the most important was perhaps that of water- 
colours in I'hiladelphi.i, with some live hundred 
widely different works of our representative men 
and of such foreigners as Rene Menard, Lucien 
Simon, Gaston Latouche and Alexander Robinson. 
Mr. Wilton I^ockwood had some twenty of his 
portraits shown in an e.xhibiticjn of his own at 
Providence, R.I. By conscientiously subordinating 
all his brilliancies of colour, like a distracting 
briivtira of rendering, Mr. Lockwood with his ex- 
cellent technical ability succeeds in presenting the 
type and character of his sitter in the quietest, most 
persuasive of manners. He seems — iv (/«/' nest 
pas coniinnn nowadays — to \tc concerned with the 
personality of his sitter rather than iiululging in 
some fads for his own personal amusement and 
benefit — at the expense of his sitter. . r,- i 

The new exhibition arranged by the Print 
Department of the New York Public Library in 
the Lower Hall of the Lenox Library building is 
composed of book-plates and other engravings by 
Edwin Davis French. Mr. Kiench, wIk) died last 
summer, was originally an engraver on silver. In 
1894 he turned his attention to the engraving of 
book-plates, and thereafter practiailly devoted him- 
self to it. In the dozen years left him he 
executed 284 book-plates, as well ;is a number of 
other engravings, including a series of views for 
the Society of Iconoplules, title-pages for 'Andre's 
|ournar ami 'Lamb's Letters,' issued by the 
liibliophile Society (Boston), and illustrations for 
books. The Library possesses most of his works, 
the collection having been begun by the late S. P. 
Avery, continued by Mr. French, ami still further 
added to by others. This colkction well illus- 
trates the line ipialities of Mr. French's art, and 
the calm beauty of decorative line that charac- 
terizes his designs. Paul Lemperly's catalogue of 
his book-plates, issued as early as 1899, was 
continued in manuscript for the Library by Mr. 
French himself. This volume has also l>een 
placed on exhibition, with some portraits which 
throw light on the personal side of this able 

The exhibition of American work in the print 
galleries on the floor above has already resulted 
in 'some additions to the Library's collection. 
Etchings by S. F. W. Mielatz (iiiduding that of 
the Poe cottage), A. Koopm.m ami Charles H. 
Miller, wood engravings by Timothy Cole (proofs 
of the 'Spanish Painters' series, recently com- 
pleted in the Century), examples of modern 
wood engraving gathered by T. D. Sugdeii, book- 
plates by W. F. Hopson, and photographs of 
recent sculpture by J. Scott Hartley, are among 
these recent gifts. 


( III /n '"J '■/' ''"'' -ftl^'f 
/V,-„. //ir y/iii,i/i,iii /•?/ fyorrrt 

)F A 


ake stock of t 

terprise ' 

1. In 

ns made by the gre 

rons which from tim 

, there 

..■..- .., -upe, Asi.. . 

not always of the fi' 

Ives, but pes 

portance in the aj: 

_ ,,. atofCi 

re enthusiastically stuti 
.erica ; certainly nowhere 
I by such C( ■ 
'»■■■. The ivj:.... 
e to us from A 
cate how very consider 
)n of treasures of this '^ 

1 with '- '• ^ "" 

•i and 

ihe monumental w- 
pictures in Amt 
-, to which th 
have been cc... ... 

three years, and of \ 
cnt is now on the 
proves that in tnc 
..-:..;.., ■^ •-■■•r-ican 




.in art 

. lire 





he first 
cise of 

than their museums have been 
:er of archaeology and oriental 

Vrf fhoiiv^h wc may envy America the 

masterpieces which would 

be an attraction to any great gallery in 



Europe, we need not regard her p, 
with too much alarm. Now and then, as 
• of the Rokeby Velazquez, a 
■^ ■'' unique in*^— - "r- come 
r for e two 

ompelled to engage in 
competition. Yet so far as 
- :rned, the works of the 
-- , such as Titian and 

Ni chelangelo, are, with very few excep- 
tions, contained in European galleries, from 
they are never likely to pass ; and may be said of the great bulk of 
'vnrk of the no less rare primitive 
When we come to later painting, 
and pr .Ueries of Europe 

. . K. 

™ugh. Nor in the 
igy can America 

'' '.t of r • 

Reynolds or < 
department r 
cvi- ■ 

to : i^ean mu., 

already h' .■ the chief relics of 

ancient art, and recen - ion has placed 

limits on the A archaeological 

treasure-trove m ire. 

There would . e seem to be no 

reason for fearing American competition 
on public grounds, although there can be 

no doubt that it bears ha^'' - 

private collectors. At the : 
contents of English houses are still so im- 
perfectly known that from time to time 

mai .. L .. , .^.. ...-.^... ..- . -■ 

If our a.: i can but organize and 

husband our resources to meet these great 
occasions, we may be content to see a fair 
share r '' ■ - '-- ••-— -^ • •-••■• ^^ • ^ ■'■■-:•- 
ol the ! 

astic patronage they owe their eii 
money value. 

"pn BUKUXGIOK HAOUtir*. No. ft. Vol XI— Julj, 1937 


H E progress of collecting 
in America is so com- 
monly regarded as a 
danger to collecting in 
Europe that it is not 
amiss from time to time 
to take stock of the results that the wealth 
and enterprise of America have actually 
attained. In addition to the huge acquisi- 
tions made by the great American art 
patrons which from time to time feature 
in the newspapers, there has been a steady 
outflow from Europe, Asia and Africa of 
objects, not always of the first importance 
in themselves, but possessing a distinct 
importance in the aggregate. Nowhere, 
perhaps, are European and Egyptian 
archaeology and the art of China and Japan 
more enthusiastically studied than in 
America ; certainly nowhere is their study 
backed by such corporate and private 
generosity. The handbooks and bulletins 
which come to us from American museums 
indicate how very considerable the accu- 
mulation of treasures of this kind is becom- 
ing, and with how much energy it is being 
arranged and classified. On the other 
hand, the monumental work upon the 
capital pictures in American private col- 
lections, to which the principal scholars of 
Europe have been contributing for the last 
two or three years, and of which the first 
instalment is now on the eve of publi- 
cation, proves that in the case of 
European painting American private 
collectors have been no less conspicuously 
successful than their museums have been 
in the matter of archaeology and oriental 

Yet, though we may envy America the 
possession of masterpieces which would 
be an attraction to any great gallery in 

Europe, we need not regard her progress 
with too much alarm. Now and then, as 
in the case of the Rokeby Velazquez, a 
work of art of unique interest may come 
into the market for which the two 
hemispheres are compelled to engage in 
friendly competition. Yet so far as 
painting is concerned, the works of the 
supreme Italians, such as Titian and 
Michelangelo, are, with very few excep- 
tions, contained in European galleries, from 
which they are never likely to pass ; and 
the same may be said of the great bulk of 
the work of the no less rare primitive 
masters. When we come to later painting, 
the public and private galleries of Europe 
have still at least a sufficiency of examples 
of men like Rembrandt or Van Dyck, or 
Reynolds or Gainsborough. Nor in the 
department of archaeology can America 
ever hope, even with the best of fortune, 
to surpass Europe, European museums 
already hold securely the chief relics of 
ancient art, and recent legislation has placed 
limits on the exportation of archaeological 
treasure-trove in the future. 

There would therefore seem to be no 
reason for fearing American competition 
on public grounds, although there can be 
no doubt that it bears hardly upon our 
private collectors. At the same time, the 
contents of English houses are still so im- 
perfectly known that from time to time 
masterpieces will inevitably come into the 
market which England ought to retain. 
If our authorities can but organize and 
husband our resources to meet these great 
occasions, we may be content to see a fair 
share of our treasures pass into the keeping 
of the friendly competitor to whose enthusi- 
astic patronage they owe their enhanced 
money value. 

TBB BDHLINGTON UAGAZINB, No. 52, Vol. XI— July, 1907 






I I.W'K now tried to review 
the tciuieiicies and prospects 
of the leading art societies 
in England, with the excep- 
tion of two. But those 
two, the Royal Academy 
and tlic New English Art Club, are 
among the most important ofall. Nothing 
could be more diametrically opposed than 
their respective constitutions, ideals, 
and worldly circumstances. The Royal 
Academy owns a historic tradition 
beginning with the great founders of 
the English School, a palace in Picca- 
dilly, a large invested capital, and a social 
reputation which, if steadily decreasing, is 
still considerable. The New English Art 
Club is more than a century younger; 
not one Londoner in a hundred could 
point the way to its humble gallery in 
Dering Yard; though its reputation with 
the critics stands high, it is practically 
unknown to the general public, and, even 
if its fortune has been far greater than 
appearances suggest, it cannot possess the 
accumulated wealth of an old corporation 
like the Royal Academy. 

The two Societies differ no less widely 
in their constitutions. Turn to the Hrst 
page of the Royal Academy Catalogue 
and you will see its principalities and 
powers arrayed in all their glory. Yet 
many of the names, including those of all 
the Associates, count for nothing in matters 
of government. The whole of the power 
of the Academy lies vested in the President 
and Council, and against their decision 
even the unanimous protest of the remain- 
ing members (not to mention the Asso- 
ciates) would be impotent. The Council 
is made up of members who serve in 
rotation, and nearly all are advanced in 

years ; so the Royal Academy is not only 
an oligarchy but an oligarchy of old men. 
The New English Art Club, on the 
other hand, is a democracy of the most 
uncompromising kind. Everything and 
everybody seems to be dependent upon 
popular election — that is to say, by out- 
siders as well as members. I wonder if 
any other art society in the world gives 
the casual exhibitor a voice in the conduct 
of its affairs.'' The abstract of the Club's 
constitution, as given in its catalogue, 
does not say on what principle the Hon. 
Secretary is elected, unless he be elected 
annually with the rest of the E^xecutive 
Committee, but no one else in the Club 
seems to hold any kind of permanent 
office. There is no President, only a 
Committee and a Selecting Jury: the one 
elected annually by the members, the 
other by the whole body of exhibitors at 
the previous exhibition. A comparison 
with two or three old catalogues proves 
tliis election to be no farce, for the names 
are different each year, and the old con- 
stantly vanish to make room for the young. 
Constitutions so diametrically opposed 
cannot be expected to produce the same 
results. The splendid quarters and imposing 
array of the Academicians are admirably 
adapted to attract the public; their age and 
experience are equally adapted to the social 
and business side of art. Year after year 
they are able to give sumptuous banquets 
and crowded receptions, as well as to fill 
their galleries with visitors, while at the 
same time, in such matters as the Chantrey 
Trust, they have proved themselves strong 
enough even to defy Parliament. No 
other institution in Engl.unicouUl, 1 believe, 
have defended such a diflicult case with 
absolute impunity. 


Yet the weight of years which gives 
the President and the Council experience 
in managing Parliament and the public is 
a serious disadvantage when they have to 
deal with art. Few men, even among the 
greatest, have retained their faculty of 
painting in old age ; fewer still, perhaps, 
have retained breadth of judgment enough 
to be fair to their juniors. The ruling 
powers at Burlington House are thus for 
the most part painters whose day has long 
been over, and in their attitude to the 
work, of younger generations they are, 
with all the goodwill in the world, 
constantly found to be at fault. The con- 
tinued dissatisfaction over -the Chantrey 
purchases is a case in point, while the 
former failing is very clearly marked in 
the present exhibition at Burlington 
House. There, with the exception of the 
ubiquitous Mr. Sargent and a single portrait 
by Mr. Orchardson, the forty Academicians 
contribute nothing that is noticeable, all 
the good work being admittedly either by 
outsiders or by the younger Associates. 

It is, indeed, evident that the present 
constitution of the Academy does not 
make sufficient provision for the infusion 
of younger blood into its counsels. The 
mere fact that a painter and critic such as 
Mr. Clausen has no longer any official post, 
and is not entitled to make his voice 
heard in the deliberations of the Council, 
speaks for itself. Yet the Academy could 
hardly have pursued a career which, on 
the whole, has been distinctly successful, 
had it not possessed sources of strength 
which go far to counterbalance the heavy 
disadvantages imposed upon it by the fact 
that its constitution is out of date. 

To begin with, its established prestige 
gives it a certain momentum which no 
constitutional hindrances can check at 
once. Then, it opens its doors to outsiders ; 
and the magnificent galleries at its disposal, 

The Qase for Modern T^ainting 

coupled with the fact that it hangs pictures 
two and three deep, enable it to exhibit a 
larger number of works than any other 
English society. It also is wide in its 
scope, for it includes many other arts 
besides oil-painting. Sculpture, water- 
colour drawing, etching, engraving and 
architectural design can all be received, 
with the result that the Academy attracts 
to itself the greatest possible variety of 
contributors. The case of architecture is 
specially notable. The Academy is the 
single body which caters for architects, so it 
receives year after year the majority of 
the good designs that are made in the 
country — and the architectural room, in 
consequence, is always one of the best 
features of the show. The enormous 
number of exhibits accepted in other 
departments, together with the weakness 
of the selecting body to which we have 
alluded, tends to make the main portion 
of the exhibition a miscellaneous aggre- 
gate, rather than a collection of well- 
chosen works. Also the competition on 
the crowded walls makes every painter try 
to outshine his neighbour, with disastrous 
results on the general tone and colour of 
the pictures exhibited. 

These two defects, quite apart from the 
arbitrary and often unsympathetic ruling 
to which they are subjected, year after 
year tend to drive conscientious artists to 
attach themselves to smaller societies. 
Yet the miscellaneous character of the 
show, its comprehensiveness, and even its 
gaudy colouring, make it specially attrac- 
tive to the general public, who like to get 
plenty to look at for their money ; and, 
without presuming to prophesy, I believe 
that in a few years the income of nine 
Royal Academicians out of ten will be 
derived from entrance fees and catalogues 
and not from bona fide sales. 

The New English Art Club with its 


The £ase for Modern Paiutin^ 

democratic constitution has not this 
dc-mocratic patronage. Dependent upon 
the popular control of the young, it tends 
year after year to give prominence to artists 
who are making their reputations, but 
who, as soon as they have made them, pass 
on to the honours and titles which await 
them in grander societies. Two or three 
notable figures, it is true, remain unshaken 
pillars of the Club year after year, but round 
them moves a constantly changing group 
of clever young men, whose attachment to 
the institution seems less devoted. So 
the New English Art Club is dominated 
by men who arc engaged in making their 
reputations : the Academy by men whose 
reputations are a matter of ancient history. 
Novelty, however, is not beloved of the 
British public, and the consequence is 
that the New English Art Club never 
inspires quite the same confidence in the 
public that they derive from older — and, 
may I say, stodgier? — institutions. 

Yet in what might be termed an 
aggregate of brilliant experiments there 
is always some work to be seen which 
will grow more Amious with time. And, 
therefore, although the public docs not visit 
the New English Art Club, the collectors 
do, and it has the reputation in its small 
way of being one of the best galleries for 
selling in all London. A large proportion 
of the members, though young men, are 
people who have made a certain name for 
themselves in one way or another, so that 
the outsider who gets a picture accepted 
is sure of hanging in good company. 

while, if rejected, he has the consolation 
of being rejected by artists whose work, in 
one way or another, he is bound to respect. 
Nor is the Club narrow in its tastes, if 
I may judge by the present exhibition, 
where works by impressionists pure and 
simple hang cheek by jowl with the very 
latest thing in the manner of the old 
masters. This return to the methods of 
a bygone age is perhaps the most 
significant feature in modern English 
exhibitions. Time after time, the New 
English Art Club has been the forerunner 
of movements which have afterwards be- 
come the general fashion. Indeed, its com- 
parative lack of success as compared with 
more conventional institutions is probably 
due to the fact that it is always several 
years in advance of its time. It anticipates 
movement after movement ; but before 
time has been allowed for each movement 
to be accepted and made successful, it has 
passed on to some fresh innovation. If 
this supposition be true, we may expect 
in a few years to see in other exhibitions 
a revival of traditional methods of drawing 
and painting, such as that which is now 
foreshadowed by the little exhibition in 
Dering Yard. 

[ Uy the courtesy of the artist, ^[r. A. A. McEvoy, wc are 
en iblcd to reproduce .in example of the cl.iss of p.tintiog at the 
New English Art Club to which our contributor refers. It will 
be seen at once in this Mother iiin/ Cliilii the .irtisfs aim has 
been to combine something of a modern feeling for light and 
air with the scientific technique of the great genre painters of 
Holhnd. Other exanples of this interesting form of art will 
be remembered by those who happened to see Mr. McEvoy's 
recent exhibition at the galleries of Meisrs. C.irfax. The 
method employed offers a singular combin.ition of advantage*, 
sinceit enables the painter to get much of the vibrant qu.ility of 
light obtained by the lmpressioni>ts without losing the power 
of delic.ite and sensitive manipulation of the brush on which 
all grcit painting in the past has depended. — Ed.] 









HE stately but mouldering 
brick towers which were once 
the campanili of mediaeval 
Rome have never received 
from architects or archaeo- 
logists the attention which, 
for their beauty and their 
associations, they have de- 
ser\-ed. But painters have always appreciated 
them as valuable accessories to their compositions ; 
and they may be foimd, like notes of emphasis, in 
the landscapes of the 
Poussins, of Claude, and 
of many others. They are 
but modern as compared 
with the venerable ruins 
among which they stand, 
but ancient as compared 
with the rococo palaces 
and 'gimcrack churches 
of Gesu ' with which they 
are, perforce, too often 
incongruously associated ; 
and they have now to be 
sought for behind the 
screens of huge and 
commonplace edifices, a 
mere Parisian veneer, with 
which the new streets 
of Rome are bordered, 
where lie hidden the sole 
relics of an age not only 
long past but long for- 

Much obscurity hangs 
over both the origin and 
the date of these towers ; 
and, although not the 
immediate subject of this 
article, it is necessary to 
know something of their 
history properly to appre- 
ciate the peculiarities of their decorations. Their 
erection has been usually assigned to the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries ; but their origin and 
sova^ of the existing remains undoubtedly belong 
to a much earlier period. Their fate was, in 
many respects, paralleled by the more modern 
case of the towers of Auvergne and Velay, which 
were destroyed or dismantled by the revolutionary 
agents at the close of the eighteenth century, and 
in the former half of the nineteenth century were 
gradually restored to their original conditions. 
Cattaneo ' says that he is unable to trace in any 
detail of the campanili evidence of their erection 

1 ' L'Architecture en Italie,' par Raphael Cattaneo. Traduc- 
tion par M. le Monier. 



before the eleventh century ; but it 'must be 
remembered that, with the exception of the surface 
decorations, they are built entirely of materials 
from the ruins of older buildings, ancient bricks 
and ancient marble, and that there is nothing but 
the workmanship itself to give a clue to the date 
when the work was done. So far as the mere 
brickwork is concerned there is nothing either in 
the walling itself or in the arrangement of the 
cornices to distinguish it from the work of later 
imperial times; and the same sort of walling is 

found in the ' Casa di 
Crescenzio,' which is the 
oldest private building of 
the middle ages erected 
in Rome," and was built 
certainly not later than 
the eleventh century.' The 
classical character of the 
design of these towers, 
so symmetrical in their 
proportions and arrange- 
ments, is such as can 
scarcely have been the 
product of so late an age 
as that commonly as- 
signed to them. Towers 
for use and ornament 
were common in imperial 
times, and that their 
form was closely akin to 
that of the mediaeval 
campanili is shown by the 
model of one on a 
stucco relief recendy 
discovered among the 
ruins in the Farnesina 
gardens on the banks of 
the Tiber.* But besides 
the support of analogy, 
there are, not only direct 
documentary evidence, 
but actual remains, which go to prove the 
erection of such buildings at a very early date. 
Pope Stephen II, about 755, built a bell-tower 
to the atrium of the basilica of S. Peter, which 
he is stated to have overlayed with gold and 
silver ; and a tower was built to S. Maria in 
Cosmedin by Adrian I about 780.' Withm 
an upper stage of the tower of S. Prassede 
are the remains of some archaic paintmgs 
contemporary with and representing some events 

2 ' History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages,' by Fer- 
dinand Gregorovius. 

^ For ornamental details of this building see Serous d Agin- 
court. ' Histoire de I'Art par les Monume:its.' 

* • Pagan and Christian Rjm;,' by Rjdolfo Lanciani. 

' Gregorovius. 



^decorations of the T^man Qawpamli 

which occurred diirinjj the pontificate of I*:isclial I, 
alxjiit 820, which point to the erection of tlic 
tower itself at some previous date.* Tliesc 
examples are quite sufficient to show that, what- 
ever may be the date of the towers now standinj,', 
the custom of building such towers begins at 
least as early as the eighth century-. There 
arc, undoubtedly, definite records of the building 
of campanili at much later dates, many if not 
most of which may have been restorations, as in 
the case of y\uvergne. Thus the church of S. 
M.iria in Trastevere, to the bell-tower of which wc 
shall have again particularly to refer, seems to 
have l>een entirely rebuilt by Pope Innocent 11 
about 1 140. 

It has been assumed, perhaps too hastily, that 
even if towers earlier than the twelfth century did 
once exist, they had perished in the disorders of 
the troublous times of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, and more particularly in the devastations 
attributed to the Normans and Saracens under 
Koliert Guiscard. But the dilapidation of two 
centuries on buildings so simple and so solid could 
not be very considerable, and the mischief wrought 
by Guiscard's raid on the monuments of the city 
may have been much exaggerated. When he 
entered Rome by the Flaminian Gate on the 28th 
May 1084, his aim was to rescue the Pope as 
quickly ;is possible from his captivity in S. Angelo, 
and, this done, he forced his way through a hostile 
population, avoiding as far as possiiilc ail large 
buildings from which he miglit be attacked, across 
the Campus Martius, through the Via Lata, skirting 
along the cast side of the imperial fora and the 
Coliseum, to the Lateran Palace by liic Via Caeli- 


montana. During this difficult march his troops 
were too much occupied in their own preservation 
to do more wilful damage than was caused by the 
fires which broke out along their line of progress ; 
and it was only when, three days afterwards, the 
citizens rose and attacked them in the Lateran 
that, in retaliation, any delinile destruction was 
attempted, liut even then this conliiK-d to 
the comp.ualively sni ill .ire.i which l.iy within easy 
re.ich of Gmscard's he.idquarters. The portion ol 

the Caelian lying iKMween the I^ileran and the 
Coliseum, along the Caput Africae, at time 
thickly populated, burnt, and with it the ancient 
churchc-sof S. Clementeand SS. QiiattroCoronali; 
and the whole city was given up to pillage. But 
tile armed bands which r.iided the churches, and 
carried o(T as many captives for slavery as they 
could, were too intent, in the short of time 
at their dispos;il, on acquiring their spoil, to waste 
their energies on the destruction of bricks and 
mortar. Within three weeks of their entry they 
retired .again across the Campagna ; and it is 
impossible to believe that in that short time the 
N'ormans of Guiscard wrought the havoc done by 
the landsknechts of PVundsberg in the nine months' 
sack with which Charles V closed the history of 
mediaeval Rome. 

These campanili may be roughly described as 

•'Lc dnc naove di Cjinnid >2lio,' by 
Ctncellicri ; also ' L« Chicsc di Rjini, by Mariano 

Frances JO 



'all alike,' although in the number of their storeys, 
the proportions of their p.arts or the grouping of 
their openings each tower differs from the rest. 
But the characteristic features of their squareness, 
the arrangement of their stages, and the rich and 
boldly projecting cornices which crown each 
storey, make them a type of tower unknown in the 
romanesque architecture of Italy outside Rome 
or its immediate precincts. They were built at 
first solely for the purposes of utility, and such 
slight decorative features as they possess, such as 
the cornices and window openings, were the result 
of the adaptation by their builders of the modes 
of construction they found in the ruined edifices 
around them. The objects for which they were 
built were two-fold ; first to form a stronghold for 
the protection of the treasure of the church in the 
times of disorder which so frequently disturbed 
the city, and, second, to provide a suitable place 
for hanging the church bells. From an early date, 
however, some attempt at embellishment, beyond 
the constructional decoration of the cornices, was 
m ule, as is implied in the dcscrijition of the ovcr- 
l.iynig ol the bell-tower of S. I'eter's with gold 
and silver ; but whatever the iiatuie of this e.irly 
ornament.ition may have been, no remains of it 
liave survived to tiiis d.iy. The remains of deco- 
ration which still form part of the existing cam- 
panili are mainly constructional, as but few portions 


^Decorations of the Roman Qampanili 

of the plating with which they were, in part at 
least, encrusted still adhere to their crumbling 
walls. The structural marble decorations consist 
of the little corbels forming the principal part 

roundels of majolica ; of these the latter appear 
not only to have been the first to be used but to 
have continued in use until the period when 
mediaeval gave place to Renaissance architecture. 




of the cornices, which were once used in a 
similar way in the brick cornices of the later 
imperial buildings, and may still be seen on the 
remains of the Thermae of Diocletian ; and of 
the columns placed between the window open- 
ings of the upper stages. These latter were of 
white marble taken from the ruins of ancient 
buildings, and selected mainly for their decorative 
effect. Thus we find that Leo IV used a little 
column on which was a Greek inscription to 
Serapis for the adornment of a window in the 
campanile of S. Peter's ; ' and the fluted shafts in 
the tower of S. Maria in Cosmedin and the spirally 
decorated shafts of those of S. Giovanni Laterano 
are similar examples of such use. 

The niches which appear on a few of the towers 
must also be classed with the constructional 
oramentation, since they are also formed of 
ancient marble corbels and shafts. They were 
intended as protections or shrines, not for statues 
as is generally supposed, since there is neither 
ledge nor corbel on which a figure could be placed, 
but for pictures, painted or in mosaic, of the 
Blessed Virgin. These niches are found on the 
towers of SS. Giovanni e Paolo (fig. i), S. Croce 
in Gerusalemme (fig. 2), S. Maria in Trastevere 
(fig. 3), and S. Francesca Romana, once 
S. Maria Nuova (fig. 4), which has two. 
The paintings and mosaics have all disappeared 
from them except from that of S. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, where in a niche of a peculiar form is a 
much faded mosaic of the Madonna and Child 
dating perhaps from the time of Eugenius 111. 

Of the applied or encrusted decorations there 
are two kinds, the one consisting of discs or slabs 
of marble or porphyry, and the other of hacini or 

'• Gregorovius. 

When first the idea of employing such a mode of 
decoration sprang into existence cannot be deter- 
mined, but the suggestion made by Fortnum* that 
it was due to the use of inlaid stones and enamelled 
discs in goldsmiths' work seems borne out by the 
overlaying of S. Peter's bell-tower with silver and 
gold. The use of bacini as a decoration seems to 
have occurred first at Pisa in the eleventh century, 
or perhaps still earlier at Pesaro, where pottery 
works were being carried on in the time of 
Theodoric.^ There is nothing to show when first 
they were placed on the Roman campanili, but it 
seems pretty clear from the evidence of the 
buildings themselves that they were an after- 
thought, since no place was formed constructively 
to receive them on the face of the walls ; and where 
they have been let into the brickwork it has only 



been roughly cut away to form a sinking, as in the 
case of the disc under the niche on the tower of 

8 ' A Descriptive Catalogue of the Majolica, etc., at South 
Kensington,' C. D. E. Fortnum. 
9 ' Archaeologia,' XLII. Notes on bacini. 

21 I 

T^ccoratiotis of the T^wati Qawpariili 

SS. Gioxiuini c Paolo. These haciui arc of two 
sorts ; the carher in point of date arc mch as those 
on the towers of S. Francef'Ca kcmana and 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which are cnamclkd dishts 
of v.tiying dtsif^ns, and the later ones arc merely 
roundels of ^la/ed tirra cotia, frequently set 
in riii{;s of f^l;i/ed britkwoik, as at S. Maria 
Maj^giore. The four examples whicli we illus- 
trate of the former class (figs. 5 to 8) seem 
to lie covered with a lead glaze and tinted 
yellow, brown and green in flow colours not un- 
like some late productions of the Wedgwood 
factories. The ctTect of them in the sunlight is 
most brilliant ; but the metallic iridescence which 
they show seems to be due to the decomposition 
of the glaze which has taken place in the lapse of 
years. They do not appear to have been specially 
made for the positions they occupy, e.xcept perhaps 
in the case of one dish, of which we give an illus- 
tration (fig. 5), which shows in a pattern of 
indigo on an apple-green ground the sword and 
crown of martyrdom symbolic of the saints on 
whose church it appears. The later roundels are 
slightly hollowed discs generally glazed in a green 
colour, set sometimes in a ring of plain brickwork 
as at S. Croce in Gerusalemme and SS. Kufina e 
Seconda, and would seem to be of the same date 
as the restored or rebuilt towers to which they are 
attached. Those on the tall bell-tower of S. Maria 
Maggiore (fig. 9), which is of late date and differs 
from the normal type of Koman campanili, are 

properly set into the brickwork, much of which is 
coloured and glazed, and evidently formed part of 
the original construction of the tower. 

Sometimes in association with the haciui, but 
more generally by themselves, thin slabs of marble 
and porphyry were empU)yed as an encrusted 
ornament. The supply of such material in Rome 
was practically inexhaustible, and early in the 
eleventh century a school of marble masons sprang 
up in the city who developed the mosaic art till 
it came to perfection in the hands of Vassilectus 
and the Cosimati. These slabs were of various 
shapes, such as circular and oblong, and some- 
times in the form of crosses, formed perhaps as 
the material in hand permitted, and they seem to 
have been affixed to the towers without much 
regard for symmetry. Generally they are merely 
placed on the face of the brickwork, but frequently 
the edges were guarded by a projecting rim of 
tiles as shown by the porphyry cross on S. Fran- 
cesca Romana, of which we give an illustration 
(fig. 10). 

When complete, these decorations of marble 
and m.'ijolica must have presented a happy and 
even brilliant effect. IJut they are now fast dis- 
appearing ; and though, as in the case of S. 
Pudenziana (fig. 11), some attempts have been 
made to replace the marbles, most of the towers 
present but a forlorn appearance, scarred with the 
patches and empty settings from whence their 
ornaments have fallen. 


X the Historisches Museum at 
I '..iscl there is a gem of German 
iiiDdelling on a small scale, a 
little boxwood group of Adam 
ciiul Jive (plate 1), from the 
Ainerbach collection. 
l^<tJ The (iguies — each about 6 in. 
j^^^^Q :i height* — both stand on small 

l)lotk>., the surlace of which is made by means of 
fine incisions to give the impression of gr.iss. 
Upon each of these little grass plots, between the 
feet of the figures, is inscribed a letter — in the 
case of Adam an H and in that of Eve a W — 
without doubt the initials of the artist. These 
small blocks .ire set in a larger block of lime wood, 
which is treated as broken-up, rocky ground. 
Above, on the left, a tree trunk is introduced. 
it is ch.iracterized distinctly, by, irregularly 
car\'ed grooves, as an upward climbing growth. 
The trunk is forked at .ibout the height of Adam's 
neck. The serpent's head' lies over this fork, its 

' Tran»Uletl by I-. I. Armstrong. 

* Ad.un li 6 ill. Iiigli ; Eve in 5t in. Iiich. 

> MiC licad (4 llic ser|>cnt is broken olf. 

body hanging perpendicularly, so that the skin 
takes on fine cross folds. 

Hehiiul the back of Adam, Eve has reached for 
the apple. She holds it grasped in her outstretched 
right hand, whilst she stands firmly planted on the 
right side of the pedestal, almost full face, with the 
upper part of her body bent back, and inclines her 
charming little head, with its wonderful softly 
waving masses of hair, to the left towards Adam, 
and smiles at him. She rests her left hand on her 

Adam, too, stands firmly planted on both feet, 
but the artist given tension to his figure by 
placing his left foot at right angles to his right. 
The forward bend of his body incre;uses this 
tension, which reaches its full expression in the 
turn of his head sideways towards Eve. His right 
hand hangs down, holding an apple, while the 
raised left* hand emphasizes the passionate words 
which liis open mouth seems to whisper. 

* The left arm has l)ccn broken at the elbow, .ind mended 
later, rouj-lily though corrcilly. The finger-tips of Ihc h.ii.dare 
broken off. They probably held an apple, something like the 
Eve ol MciL 





-■ -J 
:? X 

2 S 

> ? 

Q 5 

TIIK MAUrVK.l.JM OF ST. shll V>1 IAN. UoWVuul). AUOl. T 71 INCIILS UK. II 



Every one will admit that the group is a German 
work, dating from the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. Every one, too, on seeing the group, 
will be involuntarily reminded of the boxwood 
statuettes of Adam and Eve by Konrad Meit of 
Worms at Gotha. 

Both artists show a reckless naturalism and a 
similar keenness in the observation and represen- 
tation of nature.^ Both omit the fig-leaves, 
although it was customary to give them in the 
current art of the period. Our master copies the 
female model exactly as it appeared before him, in 
the easiest possible attitude, with the feet at right 
angles to each other, and the upper part of the 
body bent backward, an attitude common in the 
art of that time. 

In the male model he does not even slur over a 
defect, the projecting joint of one of the toes of 
the left foot — the signature, as it were, of a per- 
fectly faithful imitation of the model. 

Otherwise, however, the two masters are utterly 
different. Even in their choice of models, they 
show an interest in opposite kinds of figures. 
Meit likes a fleshy figure with fat legs, broad hips, 
narrow shoulders, round head, and soft curves in 
the movements of the joints. Our master chooses 
a spare, muscular body ; he makes the joints stand 
out, and throws the limbs into abrupt, angular 
positions. Even though in his modelling of Eve 
he betrays a delicate sense of the lustre ofthe skin, 
what attracts him above all else as a factor in 
expression is the play of the muscles beneath the 
skin, which in Meit are covered by a layer of 

It is, however, in their composition that their 
different temperaments are fully revealed. Meit 
carves two quiet figures, loosely connected by 
gentle gestures, giving in spite of their small- 
ness an impression of size, and carried out in the 
modelling with wonderful velvety softness. Our 
master makes his figures formal and not nearly so 
finished in their modelling ; but genuine passion 
combines them into a single group. At the same 
time he shows, like Meit, a great sense of beauty, a 
thing as a rule not often united with the impulse 
to expression and with reckless naturalism. This 
is shown even in the curly head of Adam, but 
above all in the charming little head of Eve, with 
the coiffure not to be found in the German plastic 
art of that period (plate i). Parted in the 
middle, the hair falls down the back in a soft, 
only slightly waved mass, from both sides of the 
temples, covering the upper part of the ears. At 
the top of the brow a ribbon is placed round the 
head, fastened at the back by a fourfold twist, 
above which part of the hair is taken up and waves 
upwards in a lightly curling mass, ennobling the 
outline of the head, while below it the hair falls in 

"Reproduced in the ' Jahrbuch d. K. Preuss Kunstsammlung,' 
1901 (p. viii), considered by Bode to date from 1510. 

Hans JVydyz the Elder 

two parted masses down tiie back, towards the left, 
following the movement of the head. 

If Meit's treatment of the body and his velvety 
modelling declare him a genuine native of the 
Lower Rhine, the characteristics described above 
point to the Upper Rhine as the home of our 

Since so small a boxwood group is very fragile, 
and since also it belonged to the Amerbach col- 
lection, we may safely assume that it was made at 
Basel. A lucky chance led also to the interpre- 
tation of the initials H.W. 

In the cathedral of Freiburg in Breisgau, a few 
hours from Basel, there stands on the left as one 
enters the choir a carved altar with the Adoration 
of the Three Kings in half life-size modelling in 
the round (plate 2). In the middle, in front 
of the manger, sits the Madonna on a bench. 
She holds out the naked Child towards the old 
king, who is kneeling on the ground on the right, 
whilst from the left the second king approaches, 
with a dachshund at his feet. Behind the group 
stands Joseph, who is balanced by the young 
Moorish prince on the extreme right. The hair 
and flesh are coloured after nature, and the 
garments are gilded. 

The movement of the bodies, especially that of 
the king on the left; the turn of the heads, especially 
that of Joseph ; the lovely face of the Madonna, 
and the treatment of the ground,? all remind one 
immediately of the Adam and Eve group. An 
inscription high up on the right of the manger 
proved the connexion. It runs : ' 1505 I O H. 
WYDYZ,' the H and the W being carved exactly 
as in the Adam and Eve. Further investigation 
elicited the fact that the altar comes from the chapel 
of the Baslerhof near the Kaiserstrasse at Freiburg 
in Breisgau.*^ The Basel chapter had bought this 
house in 1590 from the Sturzel family, and had 
settled in it with the property which the Basel 
Council had not confiscated and which had not 
been destroyed by the iconoclasts. Thus this 
altar of Hans Wydyz has also a special historical 
value as one of the few works which were not the 
victims of the Basel iconoclasm. 

Beneath the signature of Wydyz is written : 
' Verg. d 105 Dom. Glaenz. 1823,' that is : 'gilded 
by T. D. Glaenz.' The process, however, did not 
stop at gilding only, but implies thorough 
restoration. The background is certainly new ; 
but the most important thing, the group of the 
Adoration, and the artist's inscriptions are without 
doubt quite intact. 
The baldacchino which overarches the Adoration 

8 The assumption that the altar comes from Basel is strength- 
ened by the wings, entirely decayed, which are in the charge 
of the custodian of the cathedral. Outside on the left, Peter ; 
on the right, Paul ; inside on the left, the Emperor Henry, with 
a good picture of the Basler Munster, the Pfalz, and the Rhine 
enlivened by ships ; on the right, St. Pantalus. The painting, 
or the painting-over in the manner of Bock is dated i6oi. 


Hiuis nyjjz the Elder 

is crowned by three wooden figures, Chrisl 
helween Mary and John. I reproduce the figure 
of Christ (plate 3), not on account of its 
artistic quahty, but because it permits a small, 
nobly formed crucifix in the B;iscl historical 
museum, also from the Amcrbach colltclion, to 
be ascribed to Hans Wydy/. The ri->en Christ, 
with both hands lifted iil benediction, has the 
s:ime type of face, the same treatment of the liair, 
as the kings in the Adoration. 

The treatment of the body shows a striking 
resemblance to that of the Adam (plate i) ; the 
feet, the shape of the knees, the three horizontal 
folds on the belly, and the chest formation are the 
same, though the Christ is more roughly shaped, 
larger, and meant to be looked at from below. At 
any rate, the Christ is also the work of Wydyz. If 
we now compare this figure with our Christ 
Crncilud (plate 3), we may ascribe this also to 
Wydyz. Both shcnv the same type of face, the 
same straight, longish nose, the same shaped 
beard, the same treatment of the hair, the same 
crown of thorns. Similarities are also shown in 
the loin cloth with frilled border. The prominent 
chest, the belly and the knees are modelled quite 
differently because of the entirely different move- 
ment, the strained hanging position. Perhaps, 
too, the Crucifi.\ is a rather more mature work. 
In any case, it belongs to the noblest small scale 
sculptures of the time. The figure gains still 
further interest from the two unfinished pieces 
from the same hand and the same origin, which 
throw a new light on the creation of a small 
sculpture of this kind, and give pleasure to every 
artist and lover of art (plate 3). 

These three works of Wydyz— the Adoration, 
the Adam and Eve, and the Christ Crucified — 
belong to the same plane of development. The 
Adoration is of 1505, the .Idain and Eve more or 
less contemporary with it, the Christ Crucified 
probably a little later. These works surely origi- 
natedat Basel. It isprobableth.atseveralotherworks 
of Wydyz were destroyed by the iconoclasts. In 
the State archives, where Dr. Kudolf Wackern.igel 
was so kind as to make inquiries, no further trace 
oi Wydyz was to be found. Up to the present I 
hare not been able to determine any artistic 
conne-vion with Hans Weidiz of Strasburg, the 
so-called Petrarch master. For that reason I call 
the Wydyz who was working at Basel in 1505 
Hans Wydyz the Elder. 

A later work, showing a much more mature 
style, can be pointed out in the almost equally 
large bo.xwood group of the Martyrdom of St. 
Seoastian'' (plate 2) in the Kaiser Kriedrich 
Museum at Berlin. 

In the middle of a low pedestal, which is treated 
as rocky ground of slaty cleavage, stands Sebastian 

'> Bought in 1904 as the work o( a Ratitbon master, com- 
puted to <l.ite from 15J5. 


(71 inches h'gh), bound to a tree trunk. On the 
left is an archer (6 inches high), a Czech with a 
bald skull and a long moustache, wearing a leather 
collar and a long undergarment with hanging 
sleeves ; on the right a warrior (6 inches high) in 
a coat of mail and puffed and slashed doublet 
sleeves, with his plumed hat on his back. Both 
wear broad-toed (bull-nose) shoes. 

The movement of the group begins on the left, 
in the archer. The artist has represented him 
after the string has been loosed and the arrow has 
flown. He still holds his hand level with his 
right shoulder ; his two fingers still remain just as 
they were when they let the string fly. He still 
holds his left arm stiffly stretched out, but his 
fingers have gripped the bow more tightly to meet 
the shock of the loosened string ; and now that 
the arrow h:is been shot, head and shoulders have 
fallen back into full face instead of profile. An 
echo of this is found in the billowing folds of the 
long garment. The Czech, like a born archer, has 
fulfilled his function in a cool, matter-of-fact way, 
and the slightly fluttering hanging sleeves give a 
certain grandezza to the movement. 

His arrow has pierced the neck of Sebastian. 
Shuddering with pain, the martyr turns his head 
up and away from his tormentor with a wild jerk 
which tosses his long hair upwards. He plants 
his left foot firmly on the ground and strives to 
raise the upper part of his body. But he is tightly 
pinioned, and in poignant contrast to the impotent 
straining upward of the body, the voluminous loin 
cloth glides freely in manifold twists down to the 
ground on the right. 

On the right stands the warrior, full face, with his 
head only turned towards Sebastian. His playfully 
raised hand seems to emphasize his words of 
mockery. He is a figure of slight importance in the 
execution, chosen only to balance that of 
the archer ; yet a subtle choice, for as regards the 
general impression both the side figures are of 
equal value, with their free, lively outline making 
a striking contrast to the bound form of the 

A comparison of the .idam and the Sebastian 
indicates that the B.isel and Berlin groups are 
from the same hand. Both show the satiie type 
of head, both in the form of the skull and in details 
such as the chin, the mouth, the nose, the setting 
of the eye, and the curly hair. Both show the 
same build of body, the s.une emphasis of the 
muscles, the same impulse to movement and the 
same turn of the neck. 

The same hand is further fully indicated by 
details which could hardly be found represented 
with such similarity even in artists of the same 
school and the same temperament : the treatment 
of the curls radiating from the crown, the forma- 
tion of the nipples, the carefully executed hairs 
which in the figure of Sebastian are visible even 


~ o 

3 »1 


above the loin cloth, tlie laborious imitation of 
the veins in hand and leg, and last, the fine parallel 
cross-folds of the skin, produced at knee and heel 
by the straining of the leg. 

The Sebastian, of course, is a much more mature 
work. Both the leg which supports the body and 
that which is bent backward are definitely modelled 
throughout. The movement of the body betrays 
the study of Italian works of art. The modelling 
is much richer, although subordinated to the 
general movement. 

If we place the Basel group at 1505, the Sebastian 
probably dates from about twenty years later. A 
more definite date cannot be assigned it in the 
present conditions of our scanty knowledge of 
German plastic art of the sixteenth century. 
Similar costumes are found until the close of the 

Related to the Sebastian is the Crucifixion 
(this was already recognized on the occasion of 
the Dusseldorf Exhibition in 1902') ; the slightly 
bronzed boxwood group of Christ Bctivecn the 
Thieves, owned by Herr W. Clemens of Munich 
(reproduced in the 'Zeitschrift fur christliche 
Kunst,' 1902, p. 373), and the figures of Mary and 
John, owned by Frau Reichenheim of Berlin (re- 
produced in ' Renaissance Ausstellung,' Berlin, 
1898, p. 62). As in the Sebastian, the principal 
figure, that of Christ (7 in. high), is larger than the 
side figures of the thieves (6 in. high) ; the model- 
ling of the body is of similar development ; the 
treatment of the hair, the formation of the nipples 
and of the parallel folds in the skin is just the 
same. The crosses of the thieves should be 
placed slanting towards the cross of Christ, not 
' Friedlander and Voege kindly called my attention to this. 

Ha/^s Wydyz the Elder 

as shown in the reproduction, in a parallel line. 
Only thus is value given to the painfully agitated 
bodies of the thieves in full contrast to the Christ, 
whose quiet solemnity is strikingly impressive : 
His nobly shaped head droops, for His sufferings 
are over. 

The style of both of these late works of Hans 
Wydyzthe Elder, particularly in the freely fluttering 
robes, is so absolutely that of Central Bavaria" that 
we may safely place his later activity there. 

We have now tried to arrange in order a few 
works of the till now unknown Hans Wydyz the 
Elder. The Adam and Eve and the Sebastian, 
up till now the known masterpieces of the 
earlier and later period of Wydyz, we have en- 
deavoured to make especially familiar to the 
reader by means of detailed description, in the 
hope that this essay may incite collectors and 
directors of museums to search amongst their 
treasures for further works of Hans Wydyz the 

These small boxwood groups, which were pro- 
bably made for the pure pleasure of the artist and 
not to order, often reveal a capacity for 
expression, a nobility of conception, and a beauty 
of form, joined to a quality of modelling which 
we rarely find in the same perfection in large 
works. This small scale modelling belongs to 
the most beautiful and original creations of 
German art. 

' Compare the saints of the Frauenkirche at Munich 
Chiistopher, Kasso and George in wood, painted about 1540 
(Reproduced in ' Kunstdenkmale des Konigreichs Bayern ' 
Vol. I, Plate 142, Munich ' Jahrbuch dcr tjildenden Kunst,' 
I, page 124), and the Lamentation over Christ by Hans 
Leinberger, (Munich ' Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst ' I, page 
n6). The figures by Lorg Hering in Eichstatt also show the 
same swirling drapery. 

^ BY A. J. BUTLER, D.Litt. cK> 


array of choice pieces. 

HE collection of Persian, 
Rhodian and Damascus ware 
at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club is probably the finest 
of its kind ever got together 
from private sources. One 
feels the exhibition to be a 
place rather for enthusiasm 
so sumptuous and splendid 



variety of colour, design and technique. But the 
monotony with which most of the objects are 
labelled ' thirteenth century ' or ' sixteenth century ' 
suggests some historical problems to which criti- 
cism may well be directed ; and I propose here, 
after a short notice of particular specimens, to 
deal, however imperfectly, with some of those 
questions which students in this branch of art are 
bound to raise — questions mainly concerning the 

origin of the various types exhibited and the dates 
at which the several manufactures flourished. 

Mr. Read, in his able and lucid introduction to 
the catalogue, shows how far the study of the 
subject has advanced, and how much remains to 
be accomplished. Dated pieces on which to base 
a chronology of the art are lamentably few, and 
where this is the case the temptation to generalize 
from them is great. Broadly speaking, the cata- 
logue classifies early Persian tiles and vessels as 
thirteenth century, later Persian as seventeenth 
century, and Rhodian and Damascus ware as 
sixteenth century. So great is Mr. Read's authority 
that to differ from him is a presumption which 
nothing but a real desire to further inquiry can 
extenuate. But it seems hard to believe, for 
example, that the two albarelli (Nos. 6 and 10 in 
Case A) are of the same date as Nos. i and 4, 
from which they differ in body, in glaze, in style, 


Egypt a fid the Qaam'u Art of the Nearer East 

in tone — indeed, in almost even*' 
is the evidence for puttinjj tliese pieces alike in the 
thirteenth centur)' ? Would it not be s;ifcr to pnt 
Nos. 6 and lo down as sixteenth century, and 
Nos. I and 4 as eleventh or twelfth century — the 
turquoise glaze and still-black ornament recalling 
the early pottery of Fustat ? Again, is it quite 
certain that the brilliant ruby lustre shown in D 9 
is as late as seventeenth century, when there appears 
to lie very little lustre, except the familiar copper 
lustre, inanyof the Persian ware here dated between 
the thirteenth and the seventeenth centuries ? 
The jug C 8 proves by inscription that ordinary 
Persian lustred ware was made in the thirteenth 
century ; Frame \o. 7, probably rightly assigned 
to the fourteenth century, shows a lustre of finer 
quality, but less brilliant than the ruby lustre ; and 
yet in Frame No. 5 a panel of tiles, showing in 
drawing and lustre alike the utmost degradation 
of the art, is called sixteenth century. Such a 
sequence of dates is surely difficult to follow. 

Of the Kutahian ware one specimen is dated 
1510 and gives the rule for the chronology of the 
rest. Kutahian differs from the Damascus ware 
mainly in its avoidance of all colours but blue. 
Among the Damascus work in Case H the mosque 
lamp. No. 2, seems strangely called ' Rhodian six- 
teenth century,' when it has none of the char.icter- 
istic sealing-wax red of Khodian, and looks like 
seventeenth-century work of Damascus, whence 
indeed it came. So the Frames Nos. 17 and 18 
arc impartially labelled sixteenth century, while in 
fact both are clearly decadent work — bad alike in 
drawing and in colouring, and probably two 
centuries later. Indeed, these two pieces are so 
poor that they can h.ive no niisoii d'etre in the 
exhibition, unless they are meant by contrast of 
style and date to illustrate the decline of the art 
from its supposed sixteenth century meridian. 
The is indeed remarkable : for nothing 
could 1k" finer than the l.irge Damascus bowls 
over C;ises I to K, and the superb arr.iy of dishes, 
mainly lent by Mr. (loclman, within the cases. 
These may all with confidence be assigned to the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century ; but when one 
comes to Case L and finds that the two jugs and 
dish (Nos. 6, 7, 8), with their designs painted in 
black under a brilliant turquoise glaze, are equally 
assigned to the sixteenth century, one may fairly 
a^ik whether any comparison with dated pieces of 
the ordinary Damascus style and colouring can 
justify the assignment to the same period of ware 
so totally dissimilar and so strongly impressed 
with a much more ancient tradition. 

Similarly in the Rhodian section — by no means 
the least fascinating in this wonderful collection — 
itisdisappointingto find that every piece of Rlioili.ui 
ware is classed as sixteenth century, with the 
solitary exception of No. 4, Case S, which is put 
down as seventeenth centiury, and which by its 


exceedingly poor quality might be considerably 
later. No doubt the dilficulty of dating these 
specimens is very great. Literary evidence on the 
subject there is none : and the general l.ibel of 
'sixteenth century' stands only in virtue of the two 
facts that some few Rhodian jugs are mounted in 
silver which bears an Elizabethan hall-mark, and 
that the general style and artistic excellence of the 
work assign it to the s.ame period as the dated 
D.un.ascus work. Thus the conventional date of 
Rhodian ware hangs upon a somewhat slender 
thread ; but that the name is rightly given need no 
longer be questioned. Kilns certainly existed at 
Lindus, in Rhodes ; and 1 can confirm the state- 
ment that the late I'rofessor Middleton had visited 
the spot, and had found there fragments and wasters 
clearly proving the manufacture of Rhodian ware 
on that site. But this beautiful art cannot have 
arisen in sudden splendour in the sixteenth century. 
It must have had definite artistic antecedents, were 
they only known ; and it is verj' improbable that 
it was confined by the limits of that short period 
to which its products are commonly assigned. 

But these detailed criticisms and pious — or 
perhap.s impious— opinions cannot be said to 
advance matters much. It remains to be seen 
whether something can be put forward a little 
more constructive, a little more tending to 
correlate the varit)us forms of ceramic art in which 
the genius of Muslim craftsmen found expression. 
Historical documents bearing on the subject are, 
as Mr. Henry Wallis said in reference to the 
previous Burlington P'ine Arts Club exhibition, 
almost entirely wanting ; but I think Mr. Read's 
statement, that the last twenty ye.irs have added 
nothing to our knowledge in this respect, may be 
somewhat qualitied. If no new dociuiients have 
been discovered, some of the authorities have at 
least been made more accessible to research : and 
a certain amount of fresh evidence — scanty and 
sometimes dim, yet substantial, evidence — is 
available. It is true that this evidence relates 
mainly to a section of oriental pottery scarcely 
represented in this exhibition — viz., pottery with 
a provenance definitely Egyptian. Indeed, it is 
quite curious how little Egyptian influence is 
recognized either in the introduction to the 
catalogue or in the classification of specimens. 
But 1 venture to the clue to much that is 
called and Syri.m and Moorish is to l>e 
found ultimately in Egypt — that, in fact, t^gypt 
was the centre from which there spread over the 
Nearer East the art of decor.ating faience, first with 
beautiful coloured gl.azes and enamels, and then 
with brilliant changing lustre, and the art of deco- 
r.iting w.ill surf.iccs with glazed and painted tiles. 

No argument is needed to prove for many 
centuries before our era the potters of Ancient 
Egypt adorned their wares with glazes and 
enamels of great beauty and varied colour. Our 

Egypt and the Qe ramie Art of the Nearer East 

museums teem with specimens, some of which 
have scarcely suffered at all from time. The 
oxides of copper, iron, cobalt and manganese were 
in familiar use for making colours, among which 
blues and greens of many charming shades are 
most in evidence. Now, it is a long way from 1500 
or 2000 B.C. to 1500 A.D., and something more 
than a resemblance between the ancient Egyptian 
coloured glazes and those of Damascus must be 
proved to establish any real connexion between 
them. Well, it can be shown that there is the 
most extraordinary likeness also in some of the 
designs. I have already referred to the fine and 
rare specimens in Case L, Xos. 6, 7, and 8, with 
their turquoise blue glaze and black ornamenta- 
tion. These might almost have been made in 
Eg\'pt three thousand years before the ' sixteenth 
century.' But there is an even more remarkable 
coincidence as regards design. In Case H,No. 5, 
may be seen a very beautiful jug which, though 
coloured in purely Damascus style, has the ground 
covered by a pattern of scale-work in black varied 
w'ith formal rosettes. That this mode of decoration 
comes by direct tradition from Pharaonic potters 
is beyond doubt : precisely the same combination 
of scale-work and rosettes occurs in twentieth 
dynasty blue ware, of which an example found at 
Abydos in Egypt may be seen in the Ashmolean 

So with the wall-tiles which have come to be 
known as Damascan. Their prototype was the 
enamelled earthenware plaques or slabs used 
under the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties in 
Eg}'pt for wall decoration. Those found at the 
palace of Rameses III were slightly modelled in 
relief and covered with coloured enamel ; or the 
ground was covered with various bits of enamel 
pieced together and fused in the fire ; or, again, 
the tiles were coated with white slip, then painted 
in colours and glazed over. How long the use of 
wall-tiles continued in Ancient Egypt we do not 
know — probably until it was driven out in favour 
of coloured marbles in the Ptolemaic and Roman 
period, by the opus sectile and opus Alcxaitdriniitn 
which lasted long into the Muslim times. But 
though the fashion changed, there is not the 
smallest reason for thinking that the art of enamel- 
ling faience in colours with beautiful glazes de- 
cayed or perished. On the contrar\', skill in 
pottery and glasswork developed, and in Roman 
times attained to great perfection. The myrrhine 
vases of Egypt were famous, and the delicacy of 
the glass enamels then made is matchless — for 
instance, the glass plaques, resembling miniature 
tiles, and showing inlay of the finest workmanship 
in gold and colours, which have been found at 
Bahnasah. But the record of the existence of glass- 
works and of their fame in Roman times is, as the 
Arabs say, ' independent of mention ' : it is historic. 

Nor can it be thought for a moment that when 

the Arab conquest came, all the traditional arts of 
Egypt were swept away. The country was cut off 
from the Roman Empire, and the conquerors were 
neither literary nor artistic by training. But while 
it is certain that the Arabs brought no arts into 
Egypt, it is no less certain that the ordinary 
skilled crafts of the country went on as before. 
Moreover, the Arabs not only encouraged the fine 
arts, but also by slowly absorbing into their own 
life and religion most of the industrial classes, and 
by educating their own innate artistic sense, they 
developed a method and style of their own, and 
attained a pre-eminence in some branches of art to 
which this exhibition is witness. 

There was, then, a continuous historic evolution 
of art in Egypt from Pharaonic times to the middle 
ages. It is true that for some few centuries after 
the conquest no Arab records were written, or 
none have been preser\'ed, which can be quoted 
in direct reference to ceramic art ; but the works 
of Walid, of Mansur, the founder of Baghdad, of 
Harun al Rashid, Mamun, Tuliin, and Khamara- 
wiyah, contain a sufficient history of artistic 
progress in the eighth and ninth centuries — a 
witness carried on by the mosques of Al Azhar 
and Hakim in Cairo into the tenth century-. In 
the eleventh century we have the strongest docu- 
mentary evidence that the arts — in particular 
textiles and ceramics — had attained a splendour 
in Egypt unrivalled elsewhere. It is therefore 
certain that there was no gap or break in the 
artistic history of Egypt : that from Pharaonic art 
to Ptolemaic, from Ptolemaic to Roman, and from 
Roman to Mohammedan, the chain is complete. 

This brings us, then, to the well-known diar>' of 
the Persian traveller Nasir-i-Khusrau, who visited 
Old Cairo or Fustat in 1047 ^■^- Both Mr. Read, 
in his introduction, and Mr. Hobson, in a recent 
article in this magazine, have referred to the 
passage in which the diar\- mentions the singularly 
advanced and beautiful faience made in Fustat 
at that date ; but, although Mr. Hobson more 
justly appreciates the significance of the passage, 
I think its full importance has not yet been 
recognized. What Nasir-i-Khusrau says is that he 
saw made in Cairo (I use the term for convenience) 
pottery of every kmd, ' so fine and diaphanous 
that through the vessel may be seen the hand that 
holds it.' All sorts of vessels, he repeats, were 
made of this ware — bowls, cups, dishes, etc. In 
this description Mr. Read does see reason for 
tracing the origin of the translucent 'rice-grain' 
ware of Persia to Egypt ; it is, however, difficult 
to believe that Nasir-i-Khusrau refers only to 
that very special type, though it happens to be 
the only one surviving which corresponds to the 
description. But Mr. Read does not proceed 
with the quotation from the diary, which goes on 
to say that the potters decorated their ware with 
iridescent lustre which resembled the shot silk 


Egypt and tJic Qcrawic Art of the Nearer East 

fabric called hiiktilimtin, which changed hue as 
the light fell on the surface. This is a statement 
of transcendent interest. Nasir-i-Khusrau was a 
most cultir.ited person, as his diary shows — he 
even took a part of his library with him to Cairo — 
and in particular he had a keen eye to artistic 
beauty or rarity. More than this, he had at le;ist 
a fair knowledge of oriental faience — i.e., knew 
not only the ware of Persia and Syria, but also 
that of China. The proof is that, speaking of 
a very beautiful marble vase which he saw at 
Caesaica, he likens it to ' Chinese porcelain.' 
Now, in all his travels he had seen nothing like 
this lustre decoration. To describe it, indeed, he 
has recourse to a comparison with a unique 
Ep'ptian te.xtilc called biikaliiniiii or ' chameleon 
fabric,' as one might say. Of this fabric he himself 
writes : ' At Tinnis and nowhere else in the world 
they m.ike the stuff called bitkiiliiniiii, the colour 
of which changes every hour of the day ; it is 
exported to countries of the cast and of the west.'* 
If at Tinnis, too, that the Sultan's looms 
produced a linen so fine that ' it is neither given 
nor sold,' and the ruler of Persia had an agent 
waiting there for years prepared to buy a complete 
robe at the price of ;^io,ooo, but in vain. 1 may 
add that the diary further states that the fine 
woollen stuffs worn in Persia are made in Upper 
Egypt ; and at Siut Xasir-i-Khusrau describes a 
piece of such stuff as ' finer than anything in 
Persia, as fine as silk' ;' and finally he alleges that 
if he were to tell of the general wealth and 
splendour of life in Cairo he would not be believed 
in Persia. 

Here, then, is the clearest admission by a Persian 
eye-witness not merely of the supremacy of the 
textile and ceramic arts in Egypt in the eleventh 
century, but of the manufacture of most beautiful 
products by processes elsewhere unknown. If 
such testimony can be rejected, no evidence is of 
any value ; if it is not rejected, then it follows that 
the art of painting in lustre had its origin in 
Egypt, and not in Persia, and that, at whatever 

teriod it beg.m, it had reached to great perfection 
efore the middle of the eleventh centurj', but had 
not then spread northward to Syria or westward 
to Kairuan, to which N;isir-i-khusrau's travels 
extended. It is, however, highly probable that the 
art was introduced into Persia m the late eleventh 
or early twelfth century — possibly workers were 
sent from Old Cairo even before the great fire 
which caused its first destruction. And it is 
curious to note that the painting and 
figure painting which often differentiates 
Persian from Egypti.ui design in pottery was 
certainly found ni Cairene art at the time of 
N;isir-i-Khusrau's visit ; for, speaking ot the 

' ' Nasir-i-Khtifiraii,' tr. C. Stlicfir, p. III. Tiniils was a town 
upon an isl.-iiid in what it now Lake Mcnulch. 



golden throne of the Sultan, he saj-s that it was 
adorned 'with hunting scenes, men galloping 
horses, and finely written inscriptions' — just, in 
fact, in what would now be called the Persian 
manner. The truth is that up to the eleventh 
century the Muslims of Egypt had not that dislike 
of portraying human and animal figures which 
they afterwards displayed. But, granted that 
painting in lustre spread from Cairo to Persia, 
it is equally certain that it spread westward to 
Spain. In both countries it produced results 
of very varied beauty. That the Persian 
lustre was of many types is proved by this 
exhibition : for although the coppery lustre of the 
well-known star-shaped tiles is the most familiar 
kind, yet Nasir-i-Khusrau's hiikaliinun is irresistibly 
recalled by the ' nitense blue and ruby lustre' of 
the vases in Case F, No. 10, and D, No. 9 — vases 
which I have already said seem dated much too 
late as ' seventeenth century.' But precisely the 
same variations are found in Moorish lustre work. 
For although there is a predominant type of lustre, 
not unlike the Persian, in the well-known Hispano- 
Moresque ware, and this type has a somewhat 
monotonous sameness, yet there is also a less 
known type of lustre with the most beautiful 
bronze-green, ruby, purple and gold hues — again 
recalling bukaliiiniii. I do not know of any 
Spanish vases or vessels lustred with this varied 
brilliance ; but such colours may be seen in all 
their richness on the walls of the Casa de Pilatos at 
Seville — a Moorish building dated about 1600 A.D. 
— and a few similar tiles are in the Second Mihrab 
of the mosque of Cordova dated to the thirteenth 
century. Thus the art which flourished in Egypt 
in the eleventh century was well established both 
in Spain and in Persia by the thirteenth. 

So much for lustre work. Coming now to wall 
tiles, it is not less but more easy to show that this 
form of architectural decoration, which was of 
ancient use in Egypt, spread outwards through 
Syria. For it can be proved conclusively that 
wall-liles were manufactured in Cairo in the 
eleventh century and were thence exported when 
required for work in Palestine. When Mukadd.asi 
was at Jerusalem in the tenth century, the famous 
Dome of the Rock was intact, and it is doubtful 
whether any tile-work existed in it. He says: 
' The walls of the mosque for twice the height of 
a man are faced with variegated marbles, and 
above this up to the ceiling are mosaics in gold 
and various colours, showing trees and towns and 
inscriptions all exquisitely worked.' In 1016 A.D. 
the Dome fell in owing to an earthquake, and the 
Fatimite Khalif of Cairo had it rebuilt, the work 
(.iking five years — 1022 to 1027. This fact is 
recorded by (wo inscriptions, one of which is 
on ithe tile-work and, though mutilated, still 
plainly retains the date A. II. 418, or 1027 A.D. 
The lettering is yellow on the dark-green ground 

Egypt and the Qeramk Art of the Nearer East 

of the enamelled tiles.* The same earthquake 
overthrew part of the Aksa mosque adjoining 
on the Haram area, and this damage also was 
repaired by the same Khalif, Adh Dhahir, at the 
same time. Now Ali of Herat, who visited the 
place in 1 173, gives this Aksa inscription in full. 
Though not on tiles, but ' done all over with 
mosaics of gold,' it expressly records that the 
work was executed by ' Abdullah, son of Hasan, 
the decorator, native of Cairo.' * It can scarcely 
be questioned that the same decorator super- 
intended the tile-work done at the same time 
under order from the same Khalif. Here, then, we 
get both tile-work and mosaics ordered by the 
Sultan from Eg}-pt and executed by a Cairene artist. 
This was twenty years before Nasir's visit to Cairo. 
But apparently Xasir himself alludes to the tile- 
work at the Dome of the Rock when he says that 
the wall of the dome above the pillars is ' deco- 
rated with an art so marvellous that there are few 
things like it ' — which would seem to show that 
he had not seen the same work in Persia. More- 
over Nasir-i-Khusrau, speaking of another part of 
the Haram area, says : ' Both gateway and halls 
are adorned with coloured enamels set in plaster, 
worked into patterns so beautiful that the eye 
becomes dazzled in contemplating them. Over 
the gateway is an inscription set in the enamels 
giving the titles of the Sultan (who is the Fatimite 
Khalif) of Egypt.' ' The word here used for 
enamels is mina, which conclusively proves that 
mosaics are not in question, and that what Nasir 
saw was exceedingly beautiful tile decoration, also 
done by Adh Dhahir. He also speaks later of 
the ' mighty dome ornamented with enamel work,' 
and adds that ' the great Mihrab is ornamented 
with enamel work.' * That tiles were made in 
Egypt early in the eleventh century, that they 
were of such beauty as to form a worthy embellish- 
ment of the most splendid buildings in the 
Muslim world, and that they were novel to the 
Persian traveller, needs no further proof. 

Rather more than a century later Idrisi, writing 
in 1 154, says that the mosque at Damascus is 
adorned ' with all varieties of gold mosaic work, 
enamelled tiles and polished marble,'' and though 
the Arabic word iiiahkuk is doubtfully rendered 
by ' enamelled,' the whole expression is clear. 
Makrizi tells us that in 1261 A.D., when the Sultan 
of Egypt, Az Zahir, was again repairing the Dome 
of the Rock, ' he sent workmen and materials from 
Cairo' ;' and the Blue Dome of Damascus, which 
he also records^ as repaired in 1292, probably 

2 ' Palestine under the Moslems,' by G. Le Strange (1890), 

P- 125- 
* Id., p. 102. 

' Palestine Pilgrim Text Society, vol. iv., p. 29-30. 
° Id., p. 37. 

' ' Palestine under the Moslems,' pp. 239-240. 
' ' Histoire des Sultans Mamlouks,' par E, Quatrfemetre, t. i, 
p. 140. 
•Id., t. ii, p. 140. 

derived its name from a covering of blue enamelled 
tiles. On the minarets of the old mosque at the 
citadel in Cairo may to this day be seen remains 
of a similar covering of green tiles, encircled by 
an inscription in white lettering on a band of blue 
tiles — work of the same period, or, more precisely, 
dated 13 18 A.D. 

From this time onward examples might be 
multiplied ; but I have given enough for my 
purpose, which was to show that tile-work as we 
know it arose in Egypt, and that first the use and 
then the manufacture of tiles passed to Syria on 
the one side and to Spain on the other. In 
regard to Persia the case is not so clear. 
The tenth-century writer Mukaddasi, speaking of 
the mosque at Samarra on the Tigris above 
Baghdad says that the walls were covered with 
enamelled tiles {mina)}" This is strong evidence, 
and if it can stand alone, which is doubtful, it may 
point rather to an independent origin for tile-work 
in Persia than to a connexion with Egypt — perhaps 
to the suri-ival of ancient Assyrian traditions. But 
I know of no other literary evidence for this 
Persian work before the thirteenth century. At 
that epoch every kind of ceramic art flourished in 
Persia. Both Mr. Read and Mr. Hobson limit 
our knowledge of the factories to Rakkah, Rhages 
(or Ray) and Varamin : but far the most important 
of all was at Kashan in Jibal. Here, says Yakut, were 
made the beautiful green bowls" which were 
exported widely : moreover the tiles called mina 
by Mukaddasi became known at least by the 
thirteenth century as Kashani. The green dome 
over the tomb of Turkhan Khatun at Kirman, 
dated by an inscription 1242, was covered with 
these tiles : Ibn Batutah speaks of tiles (Kashani 
work) at Mashhad Ali in Irak in 1326 and at 
Tabriz in 1330, and says that the mosque and college 
at Mashhad in Khurasan had walls covered with 
Kashani}- In Syria, Tyre was important even 
in the twelfth century for the manufacture, as 
Idrisi says, of those ' long-necked vases of 
glass and pottery ' which are too freely called 

Systematic research — and far more is now 
possible than has ev'er been made — may determine 
more fully the relation of Persian to Egyptian 
tile-work both in its earlier and in its later stages. 
I can only claim to have shown some results of 

'" Mr. Le Strange, in a passage dealing with the mosque of 
Xishapur at Khurasan, quotes Mukaddasi as saying that ' golden 
tiles' were used to adorn the main building. But on turning to 
the original Arabic text I find nothing to justify this expres- 
sion. The Arabic merely says that in the middle of the court- 
yard was ' a golden house,' or more strictly a ' gilded ' building. 
As far as I am aware, then, there is but the one single instance 
from Mukaddasi to establish the use of tiles in Persia in the 
tenth century. 

" Nos. 6, 7, 8, in Case L, may be examples of this ware ; or 
possibly they come from Fustat. 

1- See ' Lands of the Eastern Caliphate," by G. Le Strange, 
1905. PP- 385. 55. 20p, 306, 307, 309, and 7S. 


Egypt and the Qc ramie Art of the Nearer East 

a ha>(y examination of llic written authorities. 
At any rate it savours of a strange irony that the 
part played by Ej;ypt in the history of the so- 
called Persian and Damascan ware is so 
ill rccojjnized. For if my ciuKlusions are sound, 
the ceramic art of the Nearer Kast (inciiid- 
inj» Persia for at least one of its main depart- 
ments) had its originating source and centre 
in Kgypt : there the art of making tine 
porcelain arose, the art of enamelling in lustrous 
colours, and the art of emlH.'llishing wall-surfaces 

with glazed and painted tiles. These arts, 
moreover, attained to such splendour at the 
[beginning of the eleventh century in Eg>-pt that 
they must have been practised there for genera- 
tions before, and must go back — in the forms now 
familiar — to at least the tenth century. Even 
then, if the nomenclature of this faience requires 
no change, the whole scheme of dating may well 
be reconsidered, and in particular the attri- 
bution of so many specimens to the sixteenth 
century seems open to question. 


I \ E example of the art of 
Corot which we are permitted 
to reproduce by the courtesy 
of Messrs. Obach and Co. as 
the frontispieceof this number 
represents that master in his 
most intimate and delightful 
mood. It was formerly in the 
f.imous collection ol Lord Leighton, who, it will 
be remembered, was also the owner of the four 
exquisite decorative panels by Corot which are 
now among the treasures of Lady Wantage. Corot 
resembles Claude, from whom he learnt so much, 
in more than one respect. Those to whom the 
oil paintings of Claude seem conventional and 
tedious will .always experience a shock of surprise 
when they make the acquaintance of his drawings 
and sketches, for there Claude appears, not only as 
the pioneer of classical landscape, but as the fore- 
runner of Constable, Turner and the Impres- 
sionists. The difference between the more 
ambitious compositions of Corot and his smaller 
studies is of the same kind, if not perhaps of the 
same degree. Masterly though the more important 
paintings of Corot may be. they are seldom free 
from just that hint of effort, of reliance upon 
traditional methods of arrangement, which makes 

them scholarly rather than fresh. Freshness, on 
the other hand, is the prevalent note in Corot's 
smaller studies, and among them this Evening 
on llie Lake deserves a high place. Nothing 
can be more delightful than the simplicity 
of the piece. It is the kind of scene which 
all of us must have seen a hundred times, but 
the charm of which few of us could hope to 
render with any degree of success. Every- 
thing depends upon the felicitous concurrence 
of the tones and m.asses, which we should con- 
sider mere good fortune did we not know how 
sound and scientilic was the practice on which 
Corot's facility founded ; and upon the 
lightness of Iiand and certainty of vision which 
could lay in the large mass of soft mysterious 
shadow without hesitation, and could then create 
behind it this expanse of luminous air and 
shimmering water. The problem may appear a 
simple one to those who are accustomed to 
discuss or to experiment with the complexities of 
figure painting, but if the landscape painter were 
called upon to defend his art, apparently so easy, 
he could at least point out that hardly half 
a dozen masters in Europe have succeeded 
in painting landscape perfectly. Corot is one of 
the fortunate few. 


1 1 E picture which we repro- 
duce in this number is one of 
no little interest to students 
of English landscape. For 
many years it has hung in 
the Louvre as a typical ex- 
imple of the work of John 
Constable, and as such has 
been copied by many painters of the P'rench 
school. We remember seeing some years ago at 
Christie's an excellent version of this picture 
which appeared to us to be from the hand of the 
great Daiibigny, whose general colour and tone 
the work so nearly resembles. As Mr. P. M. 
Turner pointed out in the March number of TllE 
UURLINGTON MAGAZINE, the attribution to Con- 


stable can no longer be sustained. There can be 

no doubt whatever that the picture is a good 

example of an English artist of much interior 

power, who followed closely in Constable's 

footsteps, and was from 1821 to 1860 a constant 

exhibitor at the Academy. The list of his 

seventy-seven exhibits can be consulted in Mr. 

Graves's catalogue. Even in England the pictures 

of Frederick W. Watts are still mistaken for 

those of Constable,' but any one who chooses to 

make a close examination of one or two works by 

the lesser artist ought never to be mistaken as to 

' During llic l.isl few weeks .it six works by Watts 
have ;ip(>e ired in llic Londuii sile-rooin>. 0( these one wjs 
laticlled ' Uld Cromc '; a second, .1 Lir^c .tnd impurtani work, 
was sold as a ConMable, two more tiad (oriJed sit;natures vl 
Constable, while only two were rii;htly described. 

\:-,<V> .:-'<;:J>>r>^V 



the difference between thera. The colour and 
general tone of the two artists are often deceptively 
alike, but when seen closely the work of Watts 
will be found to be smaller in touch, harder in 
edge, and more patchy than that of Constable, 
whose work has always a certain liquidity and 
' fatness ' of pigment retained from the days when 
he used to copy Reynolds and Hoppner. Watts 

The Cottage,' by F. W, JVatts 

paints in oil as if it were water colour : his paint 
has but little substance and is poor and cold in 
qualit}\ Constable, by working on a foundation 
of brown monochrome, retains a certain warmth 
of tone even when the colours he uses are cool, 
so that there is a fundamental difference between 
the two painters which any one accustomed to 
looking at pictures should at once recognize. 


ARTOLOMIO mezo Venizian 
e mezo Cremonese,' as he 
describes himself on his 
earliest known picture, is a 
somewhat shadowy figure. 
We know almost nothing of 
his life, and nothing more of 
his art than we can gather 
from the tew pictures attributed to or signed by 
him. We may guess that he was born about the 
year 1480, and was trained in Venice. We know 
that he was working for Lucrezia Borgia at 
Ferrara between the years 1506 and 1508, that he 
had some connexion with Cremona, and in later 
life with Milan, while the portrait of Ludovico 
Martinengo in the National Gallery proves that 
he was still painting in the year 1530. Had he 
always or often attained to the level of the fine 
picture in the Corsini Gallery which we reproduce, 
Bartolommeo Veneto would rank among the finest 
portrait painters of his time. It is not without 
significance that the picture long bore the name 
of Holbein. There is a strong northern element 
in the painter's work, not only in the minute 

precision of the detail, the separate hairs being 
firmly painted like fine spun wire, but in the 
translucent glow of his pigment, as well as in the 
quaintness of conception seen in his most 
characteristic efforts, and the love of intricate, 
glittering jewellery which he constantly displays. 
His sitters have an air of alert refinement which is 
not readily forgotten ; and in these days, when 
painters without a tithe of his skill and insight are 
liberally treated in print, it is curious that both in 
the National Gallery catalogue and in the new 
edition of Bryan's Dictionary, Bartolommeo Veneto 
should be so inadequately dealt with. The little 
note by F. Hermanin prefixed to this plate in 
Messrs. Seemann's popular publication, ' Die 
Galerien Europas,'* will be found far more 
informing, while the reproduction itself is the best 
proof of how in his fortunate moments Bartolom- 
meo Veneto combined delicate craftsmanship, 
glowing colour and sympathy with the finer 
shades of human character, as only the masters of 
portrait painting have combined them. 

' ' Die Galerien Europas." 200 Farben reproduktion in 25 
Heften. Heft XIII. (Leipzig: Seemann, 4 marks.) 



MONG the smaller paintings 
acquired by H.R.H. Prince 
Albert with the Oettingen- 
Wallerstein collection is an 
interesting little picture of The 
Virgin and Child, or the Divine 
Mother. The Virgin is seen to 
below the waist attired in a 
bright blue mantle, which is wrapped round her 
body and covers her arms. Her long fair hair is 
brushed back off the forehead and falls from the 
crown of the head in long wavy locks over the 
shoulders. Her face is wide, and she looks down 
with a slight smile and with hea\-y drooping eye- 

' For previous articles see vol. v, pp. 7, 349, 517 ; vol. vi, 
pp. 104, 204, 353, 470; vol. vii. p. 377; vol. ix, p. 71. (April, 
July, September, November, December, 1904 ; February, March 
August, 1905 ; May, 1906.) 

lids upon the Infant Christ. The Child is held by 
His Mother in her arms, partially wrapped in the 
blue mantle, which is open at the bosom, showing 
a white vest, through which appears the Virgin's 
left breast. The Child grasps this, but turns His 
head before taking nourishment. 

This little picture is painted in tempera on the 
finest canvas, almost like silk. The background 
is gold, covered with reddish brown spots, and be- 
hind the Virgin's head issue flames painted in gold. 
The whole is inserted in a painted frame inscribed 
in large Gothic characters with votive inscriptions to 
the Virgin, that round the sides of the frame being 
written in black : Ave Regina Celorum ave 
MUNDO Lux EST ORTA, while on the lower edge of 
the frame is an inscription in three lines of the same 
character written in red. The dimensions of the 


Notes on Pictures in the Royal Qol lections 

little painting are 14^ inches high by 10 inches wide 
within the frame. 

The style of painting and the material on which 
it is painted suggest some connexion with the early 
paintings of Albrecht Uurer. The features of the 
Virgin, the downcast eyes and the general propor- 
tions of the head, show some aflinity to Diirer, and 
this is also the case with the careful treatment of 
the hair, which has some resemblance to that in 
Diirer's portrait of the Furkgc-riii. The artist seems 
to have been conscious of his inability to draw 
hands, and to have concealed them with intention 
in the folds of the blue draper)'. 

Three repetitions of this actual subject are 
known : that now at liuckingliam Palace, one in 
the Louvre at I'aris, and a third in the National 
Museum at Munich. All are practically identical, 
even to the Gothic inscriptions on the painted 
frames. The Munich painting is stated to have 
come from the convent of Altomunster, near 

It has been suggested by Dr. Max Friedliinder 
that these paintings are taken from some miracle- 
working painting of The I'ir^in tiiul Child in Ger- 
many, of which many copieswere made for pilgrims. 
This, however, seems less probable in view of the 
fact that another painting, representing The 
VirHiii and Child between SI. Barbara and St. 
Catherine, painted in the same material on the 
s.mie fine Inien and with a similar frame bearing 
an inscription in similar Gothic characters, is to be 
found in the Collection Carrand now in the Museo 
Nazionale of the liargello in Florence. In this 
picture, which is there attributed to the Netherland- 
ish school, the figure of the Virgin is from the same 
model as that in the three pictures mentioned 
above, but the female saints show from their head- 
dresses the costume of the Lower Khenish school 
of about 1500. It would seem, therefore, to be in 
this direction that the authorship of these inter- 
esting paintings is likely to be determined. 

Another solution is, however, possible. In the 
Musee de Picardie at Amiens there has recently 
l>een arranged a series of interesting paintings of 
the early part of the fifteenth century, belonging 
to the Confratvrnity of Notre-Dame du Huy 
d'Amiens. The history of this confraternity 
affords an interesting page in the histoi^ of 
painting, especially in of the French or 
Flemish painters in the north of France. This 
confraternity, like others in the same neighbour- 
hood, was of great antiquity. As early as 1452 the 
archives of the confraternity show that a painting commissioned annually for the mystery at 

the solemn feast of the Puy, or the Purification, 
and added on the following Day to 
those already hanging in the cathedral at Amiens. 
In 1517, when Frant;ois I and his mother. Queen 
Louise of Savoy, visited Amiens, the paintings 
amounted to forty-eight, and they were suspended 
on one of the pillars of the cathedral, known as the 
Pilier Rouge. Owing to the interest shown by the 
queen-mother, the paintings then existing were 
copied in f^risaille by a painter of Amiens called 
Jacques Platel, fora manuscript, which is preserved 
m the HibliothC-que Nationale. During the 
seventeenth century, owing to the great number 
of the paintings, some had to be removed, 
and finally in 1723 the whole collection was 
removed from the cathedral, stime paintings being 
distributed among churches in the neighbourhood, 
but many destroyed. Of this collection, which 
must have been of the greatest interest and im- 
portance, only a few fragments survive, which 
have now been brought together in the Nlusee de 
Picardie. A glance at these paintings is sufficient 
to show that, although they belong to a definite 
school at Amiens, represented about 15O8 by 
Firmin Lebel and in 1600 bv Mathieu Prieur, the 
principal paintings preserved at Amiens belong to 
the early part of the sixteenth century, and to a 
painter, or painters, deriving from that school or 
workshop, at Dinant or Liege, which is generally 
connected with the name of Herri met de Hies. 
The style of composition and other details show a 
local influence of their own, but the types, 
costumes and the introduction of portraiture 
point to the Bles origin. Among these types, 
moreover, are to be found those of the Virgin and 
the female saints, which are seen in the pictures 
referred to above. 

Without going so far as to attribute the paintings 
at Buckingham Palace, the Louvre, Munich and 
Florence to some painter of the Amiens 
school, it may be suggested that they are due to 
some confraternity on the borders of Fr.uice and 
Flanders, to that of Notre Dame du Puy 
d'Amiens, and that the few specimens which have 
been preserved are but the remnants of a series 
not unlike those now in the Musee de Picardie at 

It is to be regretted that up to the present no 
photographs can be obtained of the paintings at 
Amiens other than those of two modern copies 
made by Crauk ; a full description, however, of 
the pictuies will lie found in the catalogue of the 
Musc-e de I'icardie, from which the above informa- 
tion is derived. 







^ BY C. J. HOLMES cA, 

T is usually assumed that 
Michelangelo learned the tech- 
nique of painting in the studio 
of Ghirlandajo. Yet neither 
Vasari nor Condivi is conclusive 
evidence on this point. Both 
^T^^ ^s£i?\''*y stress on Michelangelo's 
fr<y V T^ extraordinary precocity in draiv- 
iiig and in copying prints ; but the mere fact that 
he entered Ghirlandajo's studio in April, 1488, at 
the age of fourteen, and went away in the following 
year with Granacci to work in the Medici Gardens, 
shows how brief was his apprenticeship. During 
the remainder of his first residence in Florence we 
have no word that he followed any other profession 
than that of a sculptor, and no record of his having 
done any painting whatever. The copying of 
Masaccio's frescoes in the Carmine, mentioned 
by Vasari, is described on first-hand authority in 
Cellini's autobiography as making diiuviiigs. After 
the death of his patron Lorenzo in 1492, Michel- 
angelo continued in the service of his successor, 
Piero, till he was frightened by the extraordinary 
dream of his friend Cardiere, and fled from 
Florence in 1494. Michelangelo was now just 
twenty, and, with the exception of the year passed 
as a boy with Ghirlandajo, the whole of his 
working life had been spent in the study of 
sculpture, first under Bertoldo, the pupil of 
Donatello, then in connexion with the antique 
as it was understood by the brilliant group of 
scholars at the court of Lorenzo, lastly in its 
relation to anatomy, which he studied with his 
friend the prior of S. Spirito. 

His flight led him to Bologna, thence to Venice, 
and then back again to Bologna, almost certainly 
passing through Ferrara and Padua on the way. 
In Bologna he remained a year, executing the 
small statues of St. Petronius, St. Proculus[?], and 
the kneeling angel in S. Domenico, and reading 
the Tuscan poets to his protector, Aldrovandi. He 
returned to Florence some time in the year 1495, 
and then, after making the Sleeping- Cupid, went to 
Rome (June, 1496), where he produced the Bacchus. 
and the Pietd in St. Peter's. 

Now the Holy Family in the National Gallery, 
if it be by Michelangelo at all, is clearly earlier in 
date than these last-named works, yet it is hard to 
see at first sight when it can have been executed. 
Comparison with the interesting tondo of the 
same subject in the Vienna Academy reveals a 
curious similarity in certain points. In both we 
find the same small, feeble hands, the same elegant 
prolongation of the wrist and forearm, a similar 
pose of the head in the figure of the Madonna, a 
similar treatment ot the hair, and the skin thrown 
over the limbs of St. John ; indeed, this latter 
figure in the tondo is, with all its weakness, 
curiously Michelangelesque in style. Yet the 

tondo cannot be classed for a moment with 
Michelangelo's work ; it is clearly the production 
of a minor artist of the Ferrarese school.' 

Our Holy Family, on the other hand, with all its 
imperfections, is clearly connected with Michel- 
angelo. The sculpturesque grouping and model- 
ling are his, the austere pose of the figures is his, the 
St. John in particular is a masterly invention not un- 
worthy of his best time. The children with thick 
ankles and tiny feet will be found again in the relief 
of the Madonna in the Casa Buonarroti. The angels' 
heads, both in feature and in the treatment of the 
hair, resemble the angel carved in S. Domenico, and 
still more the vSt. Proculus. This saint indeed has 
the same broad face, straight eyebrows and short 
nose that we might expect Michelangelo himself to 
have had in youth, and that we find in the 
Madonna and two angels of the National Gallery 
picture. The saint's carved draperies fall from his 
girdle just as do the painted ones in the angel on 
the right of the picture ; the saint's legs correspond 
exactly in outline and type with those indicated 
in terra verde but unfinished on the left of the 
picture. If the saint be by Michelangelo, then the 
picture too must have been designed by him, and 
at about the same time — for neither before nor after 
do we meet with this peculiar type in his work. 

Our Holy Family, then, would seem to have been 
designed about the time of Michelangelo's stay at 
Bologna in 1494-5, but how do we find it 
connected with the work of the Ferrarese master 
who painted the Vienna tondo, and exhibiting 
many of the same mannerisms and weaknesses ? 
We have here to take refuge in hypothesis. 

The Ferrarese masters had been great favourites 
in Bologna, as the gallery and churches still show, 
but their master-work was the painting of the 
Garganelli chapel in S. Pietro, begun in 1480 by 
Francesco Cossa and completed after his death by 
Ercole Roberti. These frescoes, fragments of 
which survived till after 1820, are specially men- 
tioned by Pietro Lami in his ' Graticola di Bologna ' 
as having excited the admiration of Michelangelo 
to such an extent that he termed them (evidently 
on his second visit to Bologna) ' a little Rome.' 
Now, though Cossa was dead and Ercole Roberti 
had returned to F'errara, it is easily conceivable that 
minor painters of their following, whose works still 
adorn Bologna, remained in the city, and that 
Michelangelo during his stay with Aldrovandi 
studied painting with one of them. 

If we assume this we shall at once understand 

'The peculiarities of the desi,:;n and treatment suggest a pupil 
of Cosimo Tura. The drapery awkwardly disposed behind the 
Virgin's head is found again in Tura's picture of Charity in the 
Poldi-Pezzoli Museum ; the slender, bony fore.arm, and the head 
of the Virgin with its high forehead and prominent cheekbones 
are also characteristic of Tura. Tura does not appear to have 
worked in Bologna ; but one of his assistants may well have 
joined Cossa or Roberti when they were painting there. 


Where did ^iicJuIafiodo Learn to T^airit P 


the mannerism of the hands and arms, and the 
poor style of execution,' which detract from the 
square monumental design, austere non-Floren- 
tine types and colour, and sculpturesque 
modelling of the National Gallery Holy Family ; 
while in the Vienna tondo we can see the F"er- 
rarcse painter vainly attempting to assimilate some 
of the genius of his young P'lorcntine pupil. 

The kneeling figure in the left corner of The 
Etitombnutit shows the same type of head, and 
exactly the same peculiarities in the forearm and 
hand that we have noticed in the Holy Family ; the 
peculiar purple of the draperies, too, is Ferrarcsc, 
not P'lorentine. We may therefore presume that this 
picture was also begun at Bologna. Possibly his im- 
perfect success in handling the brush may have been 
among the causes contributing to Michelangelo's 
belief that he w:is wasting time at Bologna, though 
it would appcarthat he carried theunfinished panels 
with him when he returned to Florence in 1495. 

The Madonna of the Holy Family, softened and 
beautified by more gracious ideals than those of 
Ferrara, reappears in the marble statue in Notre 
Dame at Bruges ; but the unsatisfactory picture is 
never finished. The Enlombiiinit,on theotherhand, 
is continued under the influence of Mantegna's 
print of the subject, from which the pose of the 
figure on the right (the type of the head still 
recalling Ferrara) and the bands confining the 
drapery seem to be borrowed. They recur again 
in the Field of St. Peter's, with which the dead body 
may also be compared, though in the painting it still 
retains a hint of the affected elongation of the 
Ferrarese, which is quite different from the terrible 
realistic elongation of such later works of Michel- 
angelo as the marble groups in the Rondanini 
Palace and the Duomo at Florence. The magni. 
ficent figure of the IxMrer on the left of the Eiu 
lombment recalls Mantegna too, but the poise of the 

' The diminutive hands in the National Gallery pictures are so 
unlike Michelangelo's usu.1l Ireatmeiil of the hand .is to 
the supposition lliat his Kcrrarese companion may have helped 
in the actual preparation of the cartoons, and perhaps even 
worked on the panels. 

head and the muscular development arc a prelude 
to the cartoon of Pisa, while the powerful forearm 
finds an exact par.allel in the Uffizi tondo, as does 
the head of Joseph of Arimathea. It would seem, 
then, as if Michelangelo may have tried to continue 
the /;;//c'i;//»»;;r»i/ after his return to Florence, some- 
where about the year 1500, but gave up the attempt 
— perhaps in disgust at the initial faults of the 
design, which he was unable to overcome. 

Possibly a careful search at Bologna would reveal 
morelinksof the very imperfect chain of connexion 
with that city on which I have ventured to speculate. 
Those who have a more detailed knowledge of the 
Ferrarese school and of Mantegna may note 
further points of contact between them and 
Michelangelo, and will at least excuse the 
hypothesis being put forward.' Although the 
panels in the National Gallery have licen vaguely 
connected with the n.mics of Granacci, Bugiardini 
and Pontormo, no definite works by these masters 
ever seem to have been cited which can claim to 
make these attributions more than a theorj'. No 
quite satisfactory alternative has in fact been sug- 
gested, and there seems no positive argument against 
the idea that Michelangelo experimented in 
painting during his stay at Bologna, except that 
VasariandCondivi are silent. Asthe works referred 
to are all reproduced in the volume on 
Michelangelo in the cheap and handy series, 
' Klassiker dcr Kunst,' it would be superfluous to 
reproduce them again, especially since their 
reproduction might give a look of finality to what 
is after all a mere suggestion. Possibly some 
more fortunately situated student will succeed in 
identifying the Vienna tondo with the works of 
one of the minor P^errarese artists which are still 
extant in Bologna. If so, we might be one step 
nearer to the solution of the problem of 
Michelangelo's first attempt at painting. 

' I do not know whether the attribution of the S. Proculus 
statue to Michelangelo is universally .icccpted, but whether 
that be the case or not, its correspondence wilh the National 
Gallery Holy Family seems unquestionable, and the connexion 
of the picture with Michelangelo's st.iy at Bologna in no way 


M )I\ a long time there has been 
H,oll^,iderablc uncertainty as to 
'who, exactly, was Nathaniel 
M.icon the artist. As far back 
.1^ 1826 a writer in the 'Gentle- 
kinan's Mag.ozine' practically 
/ck-.ired the matter up ; but ;is 
>tlie recognized modern authori- 
ties, such iis Redgrave's ' Dictionary of Artists,' 
Bryan's ' Dictionary of Painters and Kngravers ' 
(1903) and the' Dictionary of National Biography' 
(1903) all give contradictory accounts of him, I 


think it is well that the question of his identity 
should, if possible, be settled once and for all. 

On my recently becoming engaged in making a 
list of Norfolk portraits (in emulation of my friend 
Mr. Farrer's forthcoming work on * Suffolk 
Portraits'), one of the first series of f.miily pictures 
which came to my notice was the interesting 
Bacon portraits. In endeavouring to identify one 
of these — Sir Xathanicl Hacon, by hiinself, but 
ivhicli Sir Nathaniel it w;is uncertain — I turned to 
the books of reference above mentioned, only to 
find 'confusion worse confounded,' as any one 

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who cares to refer to the different biographies 
there given will at once see. 

Let me first of all set down, in order, the three 
Nathaniel Bacons who have been confused. They 


1. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, K.B., of Stiffkey, Nor- 
folk, second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord 
Keeper, and, therefore, one of the elder half- 
brothers of the great Sir Francis Bacon. He was 
born in (?) 1547, became an 'Ancient' of Gray's 
Inn in 1576, was knighted in 1604 and died in 
1622. He was buried at Stiffkey, where is his 

2. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, K.B., of Culford, 
Suffolk (nephew of the above), youngest surviving 
son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, premier baronet 
(brother of the above). He was born in (?) 1583, 
was knighted in 1625, and died in 1627. His 
monument is at Culford, hut the registers do not 
show that he was buried there. 

3. Nathaniel Bacon, third son of Robert 
Bacon of Great Ryburgh, Norfolk (second son of 
the first baronet and himself afterwards third 
baronet). He was born in (?) 1603, and admitted 
to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1621. 
He took his M.A. degree in 1628, and in the same 
year was instituted, by his father, to the rectory of 
Great Ryburgh. He may possibly have died in 
1647, «is in that year his successor was appointed, 
but I have not looked this up. Here, then, we 
have an uncle, nephew and great-nephew all 
mistaken for one another ! I think most of the 
confusion has been caused by Horace Walpole, 
in his 'Anecdotes of Painting in England,' where, 
although he speaks of Sir Nathaniel as ' of Cul- 
ford,' he calls him the half-brother of Sir Francis, 
and a painter of Elizabeth's reign. This (but for 
his place of residence) would be quite right if he 
were the first Sir Nathaniel ; but there is not one 
tittle of evidence to show that Sir Nathaniel of 
Stiffkey ever put pencil to paper or brush to 
canvas. The third Nathaniel Bacon on my list, 
rector of Great Ryburgh, may be dismissed on 
the same negative evidence. He no doubt 
' flourished,' as the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy' has it, circa 1640 ; but he seems to have 
remained a quiet country parson. One point 
about him specially to be remarked, and to which 
I shall refer later, is that he was never knighted. 

I now come to the second Sir Nathaniel Bacon, 
and he, I take it, is the one whom every one who 
has written about the painter really intends 
to specify ; though the similarity of name, 
of period and, in two cases, of title, has led 
them astray. He was (according to the Davy 
MSS.) born in 1585, and knighted at Whitehall— 
at the coronation of Charles I, as his uncle was at 
that of James L He married Jane, daughter of 
Hercules Meutys, Esq., and widow of Sir William 
Cornwallis of Brome, and, as shown by the letters 

Nathaniel Bacon^ Artist 

of Sir Thomas Meutys to Lady Bacon (' Corre- 
spondence of Jane Lady Cornwallis'), he died of 
a decline, sometime between June 22 and July 2 
(probably July i), 1627. That he was an artist 
his monument' with car\-ed palette and brushes — 
but without age or date — in Culford church 
testifies ; but the fact that, on it, so little mention 
is made of his genius has caused some to imagine 
that he was not the artist. One finds, however, that 
he was always being consulted in her art purchases 
by that talented and beautiful ' connoisseuse,' 
Lucy countess of Bedford, the great friend of his 
wife. His brother - artist and contemporary, 
Edward Norgate, also speaks of his art and 
colouring in the highest terms, and dilates on a 
peculiar shade of pink which he invented and 
used. Again, in his letters in the aforementioned 
series, there are frequent references to his 
requirements as to ' masticott ' and colours. 

1 have at present seen four pictures attributed 
to Sir Nathaniel Bacon — 

1. An oval portrait, head and shoulders of him- 
self, in the possession of Mr. Bacon of Ravening- 
ham. This is the picture which originally 
led me to make inquiries. 

2. A very tine full-length of himself in the 
possession of the earl of Verulam, at Gorhambury. 
This is the one from which the engraving in 
Horace Walpole's ' Anecdotes ' is taken. 

3. A head of a lady, said to be his mother, at 

4. A large picture called The Cook Maid, repre- 
senting a woman with iish, etc., also at Gorham- 

The portrait called The Artist's Mother is 
inferior to the rest, whoever may have painted 
it. The two of himself, which, so far as 
one can tell, have not been compared for 
nearly three hundred years, are undoubtedly 
of the same man— a man of about thirty to thirty- 
five, with fine artistic face, long fair hair, pointed 
beard and moustache— and by the same hand. 
The dress in both is in the style prevalent about 
1620, and the tradition in both families is that the 
painting is of ' Sir Nathaniel Bacon by himself.' 
They cannot be portraits of the first Sir Nathaniel, 
as he died, an old man, in 1622 ; they cannot 
represent the Reverend Nathaniel, as he would 
have been but a boy at that period. If, then, they 
are of a Nathaniel Bacon, which there is no sort 
of reason to doubt, he can only be Sir Nathaniel 
of Culford. 

About the fourth picture, The Cook Maid, there 
is no uncertainty whatever. It is particularly 
named in an inventory- of pictures and other 
goods made at Culford in 1659, as being by ' Sir 

>This monument, by Thomas SUnton, was set up by his 
widow, iomc yars .ifter his death, although m the ' Letters it 
would appear that it was begun shortly after event occurred. 

2 In the possession of the carl of Verulam. 


Nathaniel RacoN^ Artist 

Nathaniel Bacon,' and, most important of all, it is 
iiiupicstionably hy the s;ime artist as the other 
two, liic similarity in the paintinj; of the hair and 
skin beinj^ very marked. The evidence, therefore, 
seems to me conclusively to prove : 

{<i) That Nathaniel Hacon, artist, had the title of 
'Sir.' This, apart from questions of a^e, disposes 
of the claims of the man who took his M.A. in 
1628, and who look Holy Orders in the s;imc year. 

(/>) That the artist was not more than middle- 

aped in (about) 1620. This does away with the 
pretensions of a man who died, aged about 75, in 

There now remains but Sir Nathaniel Bacon, 
K.B., of Cuiford, the man who died in 1627 afied 
44. His CJ)nteinporaries and his monument 
vouch for his artistic talents, and, if the evidence 
of the pictures I liave cited is accepted, he was a 
very jjood painter indeed — I had almost said a 
grciil one. 


I IK J.ip.mese paintinj^s now 
111 niy possession, of which 
this article treats, date from 
the end of the twelfth century. 
l'"or very many years they 
were preserved in the temple 
of Kiu/.oji, one of the oldest 
relij^ious foundations of the 
province iTTlv.iy.i. At the dawn of the Mciji era, 
the temple wius reduced to poverty by the sudden 
suppression of the dues and j^ifts which con- 
stituted its wealth, and was compelled to sell its 
treasures one by one ; and thus it was that this 
unique series was set free to cross the ocean. 
Nowad.iys, when the Japanese Government has 
had inventories drawn up, and passed laws pro- 
hibiting the sale out of the country of the works 
of art placed under its protection, it would be very 
difhcult to abstract from under its vigilant eye so 
leading an example of national art. 

The series had been in the temple of Kiuzoji 
ever since the thirteenth century, and tr.idition 
points to them ;is the work of Takuma Clioga. 
This master, who bore the title of Hoin, the most 
exalted attainable by the artists of the Mikado's 
court, died in the early years of the thirteenth 
century (1201 or 1204). liuddhist paintings were 
never signed in the ancient art of Japan, and in 
that age of faith a painter would have considered 
it a grievous sin of pride to afli.x his mark to the 
awful images of the gods. The works of those 
distant ages, therefore, must be judged by analysis 
and tr.ulition. The origin of the twelve kakemono 
under notice leaves no doubt of their attribution ; 
and on their style I will content myself with quot- 
ing the opinion of Mr. Nakamura, formerly 
director of the Tokio Museum, who examined 
them some twenty years ago. ' judging from his 
style,' he writes, 'any connoisseur will perhaps 
agree to this tradition at once. We call the atten- 
tion of the inspector to the beauties of all the 
lines and colourings. Keally the traces of bnislies 
in the draperies of the deities are almost undis- 
cernable, and the grandeur produced by the 
> Tr.instatcd by H.uulJ Child. 

colouring materials of high value and glistening 
gold are admirable. We saw several sets of 
twelve Devas beforehand, but none so fine as this. 
Moreover, most of them were incomplete in num- 
ber, while this one has no single scroll missing. 
For the above reasons we consider this set of 
paintings a rare treasure in the Japanese art 

The school of Takuma was founded hy Takuma 
Tamcnari in the eleventh century, in the reign 
of the seventy-second emperor. At the out- 
set it w;is nothing more than a branch of 
the school of Kose Kanaoka, which had pre- 
ceded it ; but Takuma Choga, or Shyauga, 
was destined to create the style which charac- 
terized it thenceforth. He flourished at the 
beginning of the Kamakura era, which in 
1 186. Affected by the new influences at work, he 
substituted for the ancient principles of the school 
of Kanat)ka the vigorous and brilliant manner 
which he drew from the Chinese art of the Soung. 
Takuma Clioga marks the apogee of a school, and 
the relatively perfect preservation of the paintings 
under notice renders it possible to form an accu- 
rate opinion of its quality. They represent the 
twelve 'Tens' : Yemiiiaten, who corresponds with 
the demon king of death ; Fi'iten (the Sanskrit 
Vasu) ; Nitten (Sury.i) ; Boiiten (Brahma) ; Getten 
(Soma, Candra) ; Chiteii (IVitluvi) ; Kasetsuten 
(Nairrita) ; Taishakuten (India) ; Suiten (Varuna) ; 
Kwaten (Agni) ; Bishamonten (Vai5ra\'ana) ; and 
Ishanaten (Civa). 

The profound fervour of Buddhistic art, which 
by the expression of religious abstraction and 
ecstasy succeeded in rendering the loftiest and 
deepest emotions of the human race, is affected 
in these paintings by the element of realism 
introduced by the new conditions. The rigidity 
of the conventional and hieratic figures of the 
school of Kanaoka has disappeared. In its place 
we have a slender elegance and voluptuous grace 
in the flowing curves of the bodies of the 
benevolent boddhisatvas ; sudden and violent 
movement in those of the demons ; countenances 
calm or terrible, rapt in a mystic dream or deeply 


The yiuni-Tenno of Takuma Qhoga 

marked with violent passion — all showing, in 
exquisite colour which is in itself a dream of 
more than human beauty, how far art had thrown 
off the dominion of the ancient formulas and how 
much new power it had won. 

To the exceptional artistic value of these paint- 
ings must be added an archaeological value of the 
highest importance. Among the twelve boddhis- 
atvas represented, some correspond to old and 
forgotten forms. They approach very closely to 
the earliest periods of Buddhist teaching, and, 
together with the Hindoo character of the symbols 
they hold, they preserve the foreign type of face 
and that exquisite delicacy which seem to result 
from Greek influences anterior to the art of 

Gandhara. These Buddhist figures, like those 
from their birth-place, as yet unmodified by the 
accretion of magic which in Thibet, for instance, 
is productive of so much obscurity, deserve to be 
studied from the different points of view of 
religious history and of the effects of Indo-Euro- 
pean influence on Japanese art of the early periods. 
In these paintings, therefore, we have not only a 
unique work of the master who won the highest 
artistic honours at the Imperial court and was the 
first great founder of a school after Kanaoka ; 
we have precise evidence of one step in a moving 
story. Side by side with the subtle beauty of the 
figures we can divine the age-long ripening, the 
nobility and the complexity of the spirit of man. 


I BOUT the middle of the six- 
teenth century several beautiful 
)okbindings were made for 
Diane de Poitiers, Grande 
iSeneschale de Normandie and 
Duchesse de Valentinois. On 
these bindings appear several 
.book stamps which were made 
for Henri II, king of France, and these stamps 
appear to have been lent to the duchess by the 
king as a mark of royal favour. Several of the 
royal books were also lent or given to her. 

Diane was almost twenty years older than the 
king, a lady of great ability, distinguished parentage, 
and a notable patron of the Arts. Her historical 
position has been properly defined by De Thou 
and Brantome, but gossip has treated her more 

Henri, as dauphin, adopted as his impress — 
such personal devices were then in full fashion — 
a crowned crescent with the motto Donee totiim 
iiiipleat orbein, a device and motto in every way 
suitable to an heir to a throne. This crescent 
naturally suggested the Huntress Diana, with her 
other emblems of bows, arrows and quivers, all of 
which appear in bindings made for the king, 
on most of which the centre ornament is the 
royal coat-of-arms of France enclosed within a 
border of unstrung bows and having the crescent 
below it. 

In 1550, on Henri's triumphal entry into Rouen, 
the crescent badge was worn on the coats of the 
royal footmen and on the state trappers of the 
horses, and on various flags were ' civissaiits, chiffres 
et dei'iees dit Roi.' In 1575 Catherine, then a widow, 
caused crescents, quivers, bows and arrows to be 
painted on the stained glass windows of the Sainte 
Chapelle at Vincennes, set up by her in memory 
of her husband. 

But besides all these devices there were others 

of more personal application in the form of 
cyphers containing initials. 

Leonard Limousin, a celebrated portrait enamel- 
ler, made two portraits which touch particularly 
on the present inquiry ; the first of these represents 
the dauphiness, Catherine, and the other the 
dauphin Henri on horseback. 

In 1540 Henri married Catherine de Medicis, a 
lady of high lineage and fond of magnificence 
of all sorts. Her portrait shows her in a rich 
dress with embroidered borders on 
the bodice and sleeves ; the borders 
are ornamented with repetitions of 
the cypher H.D.C. This 1 interpret 
as meaning H[enri] D[auphin] et 
C[atherine]. Catherine's jewelled 
necklace is, moreover, composed of links fashioned 
into the same cypher. 

The arrangement of the letters in this cypher 
is, however, not quite happy: the levels of the tops 
of the D and the C do not range well ; so I suggest 
that the royal designer broke the cypher up into 
two other symmetrical ones, each of which 
retained the H, namely, 
one showing H with 
two D's, and the other 
H with two C's. The 
1 retention of the HD 
^—^ cypher by the king 
after his accession to the throne would be justified 
by the accident that his number, Deu.x, began 
with the same letter. It is the existence of this D 
that puzzles bibliophiles, and many of them 
consider that it stands for Diane. 

As I have shown, a D appears prominently on 
the dress of the dauphiness, conjoined with her 
own initial as well as that of her husband. Is it 
at all likely that a young bride would brook the 
inclusion of the initial of any other lady in such 
intimate fashion ? Certainly not ; and if the 


The Rook (Cyphers of Henri II 

presence of the D can be otherwise justified, I 
should feel strongly inclined to accept such justi- 
fication, if possible. 

At various times kinjjs have given away their 
books, and even allowed their book stamps to be 
copied, liut there is no instance in which a king's 
royal monogram has been combined with that of 
any lady but his queen, and I do not sec that it is 
necessary to conclude that this was done in the 
case of Uiane de Poitiers. 

No doubt Diane saw that the accident of 
Henri's adoption of the crescent for his badge 
tilted in admirably with her own name, and she 
used on her bindings and houses not only the 
crescent, but bows, quivers and arrows as well. 
Not only this, but the initial cyphers were also 
pressed into her service, and she even had a stamp 
cut showing a crowned H, in imitation of one 
used by the king. 

After Henri's death in 1559, Diane lived at the 
Chateau d'Anet, designed for her by the royal 
architect, Fhilibert de I'Orme, and her books in 
the library there were freely ornamented with the 
stamps I have just discussed, e.xcept that of Queen 
Catherine. The centres, however, of the bindings 
made for Diane never bear the royal coat-of-arms 

of France, but have instead of it her name, 
' Dianna,' her coat-of-arms, Br^zd-Maulevrier, or 

Diane liked black and white, and many of her 
bindings are in white leather. Her crescents were 
coloured black or white, and her bows were 
sometimes strung and sometimes unstrung. 
Henri II's bows were always unstrung. 

No doulit Diane did her best to appropriate 
the royal devices as her own, and the stamps she 
had cut for herself are as near the royal ones in 
^-7__^r— 7 design as possible. One of these, 
zl 7^7-\^k "i" ^ crossed by two crescents, is 
1 / \ I very like that made for Catherine 
the queen, but the ends of the 
crescents are without the serif. 
The two D's for Diane also seem 
intended to imitate the cypher of 
the H and the two D's. 

If Diane wished to have her 
cyphers confused with those of 
the king and queen, she was re- 
markably successful, as the con- 
fusion continues to the present day. I hope that 
the suggestion I have offered may do something 
to clear it up. 


BY W. H. J. WEALE c^ 

► AMES DARI<:T, the subject of 
la newly published memoir,' and 
' Roger de la Pasture were fellow 
pupils of Robert Campin, a 
native of Hainault, probably of 
Valenciennes, who settled in 
I Tournay about 1406 and 
quickly made a reputation for 
himseli, Tiot only securing a large number of 
commissions from private persons but becoming 
practically painter in ordinary of the municipality. 
It is not known where he received his art training, 
but there seems to be some probability that it was 
at Maastricht, as he had taken for his wife Elisabeth 
of Stockhem, a village on the left bank of the 
Maas within a short distance of Maaseyck ; but 
this is a mere conjecture. The superiority of his 
art or of his technique must have been quickly 
recognized, as although there were several master 
painters of repute established in the city he seems 
to have been very soon looked t)n as the master to 
whom the designing, if not the execution, of all 
art work should be entrusted. M. Houtart enum- 
erates a number of works executed by him in and 
after 1406, including paintings, the gilding and 
polychroming of statues and carved work, and the 
furnishing of designs, ' putrons,' to sculptors, gold- 
smiths, brass-founders and tapestry weavers. It 

I ■Jacques Darel, Peinlrc Tournaisicn du XV* Siecle.' Maurice 
Houtart. 45 pp. Touriiai ; Castcrman. lyo'- 

seems that the designing of all art work of any 
importance was as a rule entrusted to a master 

From 1423 to 1428 Campin tilled several offices 
in the gild and became possessed of a considerable 
fortune. In 1432 he lost the services of his two 
apprentices, to whom no doubt the high reputation 
of his studio was in some measure due. After 
their departure Campin seems to have been chieHy 
engaged in designing work, the execution of 
which was carried out by others. He died 26th 
April, 1444. I have given in this m.agazine (Vol. I, 
pp. 202 and 207) my reasons for thinking that two 
pictures in the Prado gallery may possibly be by 
him. Panel paintings of the Tournay school were 
often of large dimensions ; this no doubt was due 
to their authors having been much employed in 
designing tapestries and in painting on linen — 
Campin, for instance, designed a series of scenes 
in the life of Saint Peter which covered 68 ells of 
linen cloth. 

The oldest of the gild registers gives (he names 
of four apprentices of Campin, as to the first of 
whom nothing further is known ; the second is 
Rogelet de la Pasture, who commenced his 
apprenticeship 5th March, 1427, and the third 
jacquelotte Daret, who began his, five weeks later, 
12th April, 1427. It is certain that between 1406 
and 1427 Campin must have had a good many 
apprentices. At Tournay before a painter could 



MAN M.11.1..1. '.'.IM., IIV UHKI.IS 


yames T)aret 

obtain the grade of master he had to serve an 
apprenticeship of not less than four years. Not only 
that, but, during Campin's time at least, those who 
were admitted to apprenticeship had previously 
gone through a long period of instruction. In 
many other towns, as for example at Bruges, 
where the craft was originally composed of mere 
decorators, raw youths were admitted as appren- 
tices, and the obligatory term of service was only 
two years. 

The Darets were an artistic family. In the 
period 1397 to 1498, we find among the members 
of the family two cabinet makers and wood 
carvers, three sculptors and four painters. James 
Daret, born c. 1403, was the eldest son of John, 
who was, like his father, a wood carver. At 
Tournay males attained their majority at the age 
of fifteen, and so in April, 1418, we find James 
Daret lodging and boarding with master Campin 
and working at his craft. In 1418 he received the 
tonsure, which proves that he could read and had 
some knowledge of Latin and of religious and 
secular history. Many craftsmen of the more 
artistic industries became clerics in order to escape 
being subject to the jurisdiction of lay tribunals. 
On 6th July, 1426, Daret went to Aachen, to the 
exposition of the great relics which then as now 
attracted a vast number of pilgrims every seventh 
year. He had been living and working with 
Campin during at least nine years when he com- 
menced, on 12th April, 1427, his four years of official 
apprenticeship. Until the completion of these he 
was not at liberty to work for any one but his 
own master. Immediately after his admission as 
master, iSth October, 1432, he was chosen to be 
provost of the gild. On 8th January, 1433, he 
received his half-brother, Daniel Daret, as his 
apprentice ; this Daniel was not admitted as 
master until loth February, 1441. Up to that date 

James Daret had not received a single commission 
from the municipality, nor, so far as we know, 
from any of the churches in the town. He there- 
fore removed to Arras, where he was employed by 
the abbot of Saint Vedast to design and afterwards 
to gild brass lecterns and other articles of furniture 
for the abbey church. He also designed a 
tapestry of the Resurrection for the same prelate, 
and was the chief designer and painter of the 
entremets at the famous banquet of the Pheasant, 
at Lille, in February, 1454. He continued to 
dwell at Arras until 1460, when he returned to 
Tournay. On 28th March, 1468, he went off to 
Bruges, taking with him a number of other 
painters, at whose head he worked for seventy- 
eight days at the decorations for the wedding of 
Charles the Rash and Margaret of York. After 
the 12th of July we lose sight of James Daret, 
of whom no trace is found at Tournay — neither 
will, nor mention of works nor of heirs. His half- 
brother and pupil, Daniel Daret, succeeded John 
van Eyck as the official painter of Philip III, 
duke of Burgundy. 

Besides the up-to-date narrative of all that is 
known of James Daret, this careful and pleasantly 
written memoir will be found to contain a good 
deal of information as to Roger and other art 
craftsmen of Tournay, making it a valuable con- 
tribution to the history of the school. Until quite 
recently all early Tournay pictures were assigned 
positively to Roger when not attributed to one of 
the van Eycks ; now they are with equal assurance 
given to Campin or to one of the Darets under 
their own name or the absurd title of master of 
Fl^malle, though doubtless some of these paintings 
were really executed by Master Henry le Chien 
(1413-1429), or by some other one of the three 
dozen painters admitted as free masters before 


Of the three superb examples of Chardin recently 
lent to the Whitechapel exhibition by the univer- 
sity of Glasgow, that which we here reproduce, 
A Man Making Wine, must, in its original con- 
dition, have been the most remarkable in colour. 
The surface is now badly cracked, a defect which 
our photograph reproduces only too accurately, 
but even in its present imperfect state the picture 
could not fail to attract attention. Conceived, as 
are the majority of Chardin's works, in a scheme 
of warm, luminous grey, upon which the white 
dress of the figure and the lustrous black of the 
botde tell as the extremes of light and darkness, 
and which is varied still further by the warmer 
tones of the jugs and of the tub, the picture is, 
as it were, made almost startling by the intro- 
duction of the cans on the right painted in a 

superb vermilion. Not even Velazquez has 
invented a bolder contrast, and even he could not 
have enveloped it more successfully in perfect 
harmony of tone. Pictures such as this, at once 
tender, scientific and daring, make us long for 
the day when modern processes of colour repro- 
duction will enable these masterpieces to be placed 
within the reach of their humbler admirers. 


So little is known concerning the Venetian 
eighteenth-century masters that the most insignifi- 
cant incident in their lives appears to be worth 
recording. It is because no information whatso- 
ever has been forthcoming as to the personal 
relations subsisting between Francesco Guardi and 
Giambattista Tiepolo, who became his brother-in- 
law by marrying Cecilia Guardi, that the inscription 


Notes oti Various JVorks of Art 

on a drawing by Ticpolo which has recently come 
to li|^ht will, we venture to think, be welcome to the 
student. Thoui^h it does not enlif^hten us .is to 
the effect of this family alliance on the intercourse 
iK'twecn the two painters, it would seem to allow the 
inference tliat Ticpolo was intimately acquainted 
with a kinsman of Francesco. 

As we are not here concerned with the intrinsic 
merits of the drawinj^ in question (which, we may 
incidentally remark, comes from the collection of 
a Spanish artist, Kaimondo de Madrazo, and is 
now the property of an American lady, Miss S. C. 
Hewitt, of New York), but with its value as a 
document, it will suftice to point out that it is a 
spirited composition representing an allegorical 
subject, and a good example of Tiepolo's finished 
sepia drawings heightened with white. 

As we learn from the inscription in the left-hand 
lop corner of the drawing, which runs as follows : 
lUSEPIMXO GUARD!,' Giuseppe Guardi 
CJuseppino' is the colloquial diminutive of 
'Giuseppe') received the drawing as a present 
from Ticpolo himself. Its inscription may have 
been added to it byway of guarantee of its autlien- 
ticity when the owner parted with it, or because 
he felt proud of possessing a work by his distin- 
guished relative. As we find the name of Giuseppe 
Guardi only once in the genealogical tree of the 
Guardi, it represents presumably the recipient of 
the drawing. According .to the tree, Giuseppe 
issued, like Francesco Guardi, from the Mastellina 
branch of the family, and was a contemporary of 
the famous landscape painter's father (Uomenico). 
Thus the inscription gives us a glimpse of Tiepolo's 
friendly relations with an older kinsman of his 

It is difficult to conceive that Tiepolo did not 
also come into contact with, or at least e.xercise an 
influence over, Francesco Guardi, as he was a 
rising artist when he married Cecilia, and sixteen 
years older than her brother. Until Guardi 
attained his artistic majority, Venice remained the 
headquarters of Tiepolo's activity. Cecilia did not 
accompany her husband to foreign courts when 
he left Venice. That she continued to live on 
good terms with her brother to the end of her 
days we may infer from the fact that she 
bequeathed a small legacy to him in her will, 
which was framed two years only before her death. 

George A. Simonso.v. 


0\ the 14th of this month, just five years ago, the 
great campanile of S.Mark's, at Venice, collapsed ; 
and artists, architects and engineers are still 

wrangling over its rebuilding. Many serious in- 
terruptions have checked the work, the worst of 
these occiuring some three years ago, when the 
weight of the rising tower placed a strain on the 
foundations which they were not able to bear, and 
they began immediately to subside. This diffi- 
culty w:is, however, overcome after an infinity of 
labour, and the foiuidations were relaid with 
a care and nicety brought about by failure 
and experience. The question as to the impos- 
sibility of the belfry presenting exactly the same 
appearance as its predecessor had done is largely 
occupying the artistic world in Venice, and letters 
and articles appear constantly in the papers to 
insist that the bricks shall be made to look old, the 
marble weather-stained, and make other demands 
which it will be impossible to satisfy. An angry 
dispute raged for some time as to placing the 
tower on three or five steps. The old campanile, 
it is well known, stood originally on five, but in 
the course of ages two of these steps had sunk 
below the level of the piazza, and the question 
arose as to how many were to be used to-day. 
It was ultimately decreed that the original plan 
must be adhered to, and the supporters of the five- 
step plan won the day. Another check occurred 
last winter when the quality of the bricks used for 
the construction of the tower was called in doubt, 
and again the work was suspended. The com- 
mittee appointed to decide on so momentous a 
matter met in Rome to talk things over, and till 
judgment was pronounced all was at a stand-still 
in Venice. After much valuable time had been 
lost in this way it was discovered that the bricks 
were of the right kind after all, and work was 
resumed. It is now progressing steadily, and the 
tower, standing on the five steps, has reached, at 
its highest point, a height of ten feet. The actual 
brickwork in the interior differs in many ways 
from what was in the old tower, but no objection 
can be raised to a form of construction which 
makes for solidity and stability, and which it is 
hoped will guard for ever against any likelihood 
of another disiister. The mode of ascending will 
be as formerly : an inclined plane gradually 
ing up the ft)ur sides of the tower, and making 
the process of ascent easy to every one. Three 
or four years are talked of as necessary for the 
completion of the work — provided that no delays 
or accidents interfere with its progress. 

Aletuea Wiel. 

The portrait of Master Hare on p. 356 of The 
Burlington ^L\GAZI^'E for June erroneously 
attributed in the inscription to Gainsborough. It 
is, of course, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, as mentioned 
in Mr. P. M. Turner's article. 



To {he Editor of The Burlixgton Magazine. 
Sir, — May we be allowed to suggest that the 
tone taken by your distinguished contributor, Dr. 
Bode, in his review of Miss Cruttwell's book on the 
Pollaiuoli in your June number, is not one which 
is customary on this side of the North Sea, nor 
one which it seems desirable to encourage in your 
columns ? Why must Berlin criticism continue 
to exhibit so morbid a sensibility in all contro- 
versies wherein it discerns or suspects the influence 
either of the late Senatore Morelli or of Mr. 
Berenson ? On several of the points in debate 
independent inquirers may very possibly be 
more inclined to agree with Dr. Bode than with 
Miss Cruttwell ; but that lady is a serious and a 
competent student, and her opinions are entitled 
to be received with courtesy. When Dr. Bode, 
perhaps not wholly without cause, complains of 
her for enouncing them ' with an air of infallible 
assurance and great scientific pretension,' we 
cannot but be moved to ask, ' but with what air 
does he himself contradict them ? ' There is no 
infallibility in these matters : not even Dr. Bode's 
immense services in the expansion and organization 
of the Berlin galleries, nor his brilliant activity in 
many fields of criticism, can justify him in 
assuming the pontifical tone which he condemns 
in others. We all make mistakes ; a majority 
of students, Continental and American as well as 

British, believe that neither of Dr. Bode's two 
bugbears above mentioned ever made mistakes so 
great, on a question of Italian art, as Dr. Bode 
himself made when he gave the name of Leonardo 
to the Resurrection at Berlin, or when he main- 
tained the Donna Velaia of the Pitti to be the 
work of a Bolognese. Our study — to which the 
name science is too freely given — is a very 
difficult one ; its results are seldom capable of 
absolute or experimental verification in the 
manner of the true sciences, but depend for their 
final acceptance on the gradually won assent of 
an international body of students. We can only 
do our best with such inborn faculties and 
acquired training as we may possess ; can we not 
avoid, whatever our nationality, or domicile, or 
position, the dogmatic and dictatorial denuncia- 
tion of each other's works and views ? 

Sidney Colvin. 

Claude Phillips. 

[We need not say that we have good reason 
to desire courtesy in critical discussions, if only 
because it relieves us from the responsibilities of a 
censorship which we have hardly ever found it 
necessary to exercise, and which, if exercised often, 
would impair the reputation of The Burlington 
Magazine as a medium open impartially to all 
competent authorities, whatever their opinions. — 



L'Art Mosan depuis l'introduction du 
Christianisme jusqu'a la fin du XVII 1* 
siecle. Jules Helbig. Public . . . par les 
soins de Joseph Brassinne. Tome I. 
Bruxelles: G. Van Oest & Cie. 1906. 50 fr. 
(subscription price 40 fr.) the two volumes. 

It is hardly a generation ago that 'Mosan Art' 
was an unknown term in the vocabulary of art 
criticism. With the claims of Rhenish art on one 
side and Flemish art on the other, perhaps there 
seemed little room for an intermediate art of the 
Valley of the Meuse. In recent years quite a 
literature has sprung up about the art of this dis- 
trict, which by reason of its Walloon population 
really stands essentially separate from the neigh- 
bouring countries inhabited by Flemings and 
Germans ; and to that literature M. Jules Helbig 
was a substantial contributor. It was fitting that 
one who bore his part in the pioneer work of investi- 
gation should undertake, in the evening of his 
life, the pleasant task of gathering together the 
fruits of his own and his fellow-labourers' toil, 
and it is to be regretted that he did not live to see 
the completion of what he regarded as the crown 
of his life's work. 

It must be admitted that the book in which the 
results of many inquiries are thus summed up 
suffers from a lack of organization and arrange- 
ment, a defect which may well be attributed to 
the want of the author's super\-ision during the 
later stages of its preparation. Of the section 
dealing with goldsmiths' work M. Helbig did not 
live to complete even the manuscript, and it has 
been finished by another hand. This is the more to 
be regretted in that the goldsmiths' craft flourished 
in the Meuse valley with exceptional luxuriance. 
Those who were fortunate enough to see the exhibi- 
tion at Bruges in 1902 are not likely to forget the 
masterpieces of the thirteenth-century monastic 
goldsmith, Hugo of Oignies, works of unsurpassed 
beauty and richness. At Liege, three years later, 
several of these again figured, supported by a whole 
series of splendid enamelled reliquaries of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, among them the glorious 
cofTer-reliquary of Staveloo, saved from the hands 
of the restorer some years since by the efforts 
of Mr. Weale. The enamels of the school of 
Godefroid de Claire of Huy, elucidated recently 
by Messrs. Von Falke and Frauberger in their 
monumental work ' Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten des 
Mittelalters,' rank with the finest productions of 
the world-famous enamellers of Cologne and 


Books on Art History 

While its goldsmiths and enaraellers thus held 
their own against those of any country in Europe, 
in the craft of the latten-worker the Valley of the 
Meuse enjoyed an unrivalled supremacy. The 
little town of Dinant gave its name to the whole 
class of works in brass or lattcn — lecterns, fonts, 
candlesticks, ewers, buckets and the rest — wiiich 
the commerce of the Middle Ages distributed 
through north-western Europe from their centre 
of production on the Meuse, and which are still 
familiarly known among antiquaries under the 
name of Dinanderie. 

These arts of the goldsmith and metalworker 
were indeed in a very special sense arts of the 
country. Their history offers a rich field for the 
patriotic historian of the arts, and the regret 
naturally arises that M. Helbig was unable to 
devote a fuller and more systematic treatment to 
those characteristic branches of his subject. 

However the case for architecture may stand — 
and the author has not made out a very con- 
vincing account of it — for a Mosan school of 
sculpture there is a good deal to be said. The 
diptych of P'lavius Anastasius, formerly at Liege, 
and now divided between South Kensington and 
Berlin, is avowedly included and figured in a full- 
page plate merely as a possible source of influence. 
The ivory plaque at Liege representing Christ's 
three acts of raising the dead is marked by much 
the same character as Carlovingian sculpture else- 
where, and it is not until the ivory plaque of 
Bishop Xotger (972-1008) and the noble Viag,c 
lie Doin Rupert are reached that the rudiments 
appear of a style which seems to lead up to the 
reliefs of the wonderful brass font of S. Bartho- 
lomew's at Liege. Passing to the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, we find a whole group of 
sculptors from the Meuse valley, among whom 
the names survive of Pepin of Huy and Hcnne- 
quin of Liege, carrying the art and fame of their 
native land into France and Klanders. 

The latter part of the volume is mainly devoted 
to a sketch of the Mosan painters and their work, 
headed, on the strength of their birthplace, by the 
brothers Van Eyck, though with an admission 
that by reason of their migration they exercised 
no immediate influence on the art of their own 
country. Patinir and Bles, though in the same 
way they quitted their birthplace for a more 
promising field, stand more truly for Mosan 
painting, a school which deserves special honour 
for its early recognition of the importance of 

Such a book as this does not profess to offer 
new discoveries. It sets forth a general view of 
the subject, obviously warmed and inspired by its 
author's love for the honour of his native country. 
Perhaps this enthusiasm made it hard for him to 
sec that it would have been well to lay firm and 
solid the foundations of his work by analysing and 


defining the qualities of the art he is dealing with. 
In spite of his belief that 'I'art n'est que la 
manifestation du genie et de I'esprit d'une nation,' 
and his declaration that he so regarded the art he 
was dealing with, the impression left on the mind 
after reading his book can hardly be said to be 
that of a clear and coherent body of art-work 
expressing a definite national character. 

The present volume carries the subject down to 
the beginning of the sixteenth century ; the 
completing volume, announced to appear this 
year, is to finish the account to the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

It only remains to be said that the book is 
liberally provided with illustrations made from 
admirable photographs, which yet, by being 
placed with persistent disregard to tlie te.xt they 
are supposed to illustrate, serve rather to 
exasperate the reader's temper than to help his 

H. P. M. 

Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. Von A. 
Springer. 1 : Das Ai.terti'M. Achte Auflagc 
bearbcitct von A. Michaelis. Leipzig : Seeman. 
1907. y marks. 
Thk rapid progress of discovery in the fields of 
ancient art has made it necessary to issue a fresh 
edition of Springer's ' Handbook of the History of 
Art ' (completely remodelled since the death of its 
originator) every three years since 1895 — a proof 
of the demand for such literature in Germany, and 
of the thoroughness with which it is kept up to 
date. The eighth edition of the first volume 
('Ancient Art'), which lies before us, is, like the 
four preceding ones, the work of the veteran Prof. 
Michaelis, of Strassburg. With its range from 
prehistoric times to the end of the Roman world, 
its completeness and detail, its 900 illustrations, 
and, we should add, its price, it may be said to be 
without a rival. Certainly we have nothing like it 
to show in English. A book like this is not a 
dictionary of antiquities ; it is a continuous history 
of the development of art, with the unity of view 
and presentment which results from the work of a 
single mind. The difficulty is to preserve a sense 
of proportion, while not omitting any information 
which the intelligent reader or student might look 
for. In these respects the book seems to have 
attained a very high level of success. Greek art, 
as is natural from its intrinsic importance, takes up 
more than half the vt)lume; but sections, adequate 
for the purpose in view, are devoted to the art of 
prehistoric times, and to that of the countries — 
Egypt, Assyria, Persia, etc. — which were in touch 
with the Greek world and influenced its artistic 
developm -nt, while at the other end of the scale a 
complete treatment is accorded to the art of Italy 
and of the Koman Empire, in which Hellenism 
found a new sphere of existence and wider modes 

of expression. Everywhere what is essential for 
the history of art is insisted upon, as against purely 
archaeological aspects. One of the most important 
and interesting sections illustrating this point of 
view js the account of the Hellenistic civilization, 
in which, under the successors of Alexander, new 
artistic forms were developed which later had 
great influence and found a world-wide scope in 
the Roman Empire. We may add that the plan 
of the book includes the history of architecture. 

Where the field is so vast, selection is all-impor- 
tant ; and it might not be difficult for a captious 
critic to ask why this monument or that theory 
was not mentioned. But a handbook of this 
kind, intended to lay the achieved results of the 
subject before the student or general reader, is 
not the place for every recent theory still waiting, 
perhaps, to stand the test of time. Thus we find 
no allusion to Strzygowski's theories about the 
art of Asia Minor, too recent for inclusion in an 
authoritative manual. On the other hand, the 
influence of Wickhoff's 'illusionism' in Roman 
art is to be traced in the account of the sculpture 
of the Flavian period. Generally speaking, as 
we might expect, the book is extremely well kept 
up to date. The new discoveries in Crete, and 
the whole subject of Aegean art which had its 
centre there, are adequately described, considering 
our still imperfect knowledge. Delphi, again, 
which under the French excavations has provided 
so many fresh examples of Greek art from nearly 
every period, figures largely in these pages. We 
notice, too, that Furtwangler's reconstruction of 
the pediments of the temple at Aegina has been 
utilized. If we must mention one correction, 
we think that Mr. Stuart Jones's demonstration 
that the Borghese reliefs from the so-called Arch 
of Claudius really belong to a monument of 
Trajan (' Papers of the British School at Rome,' 
iii. 215) ought to have been appropriated. The 
illustrations, among which are twelve coloured 
plates, are excellent, and include (as we might 
expect from the author of ' Ancient Marbles in 
Great Britain ') some of the little-known specimens 
in English collections, such as the beautiful 
Theseus at Ince-Blundell and the Lansdowne 
Hercules. An appendix containing a bibliography 
of the subject is promised shortly. G. M'N. R. 

The Society of Artists of Great Britain, 
1760-1791. The Free Society of Artists, 
1761-1783. By Algernon Graves, F.S.A. 
London : G. Bell and Sons, and Algernon 
Graves. £2, 3s. net. 

In this volume Mr. Algernon Graves deals with 
the two art societies formed in England previous 
to the foundation of the Royal Academy, and 
eventually crushed out of existence by it. The 
dates of the first exhibition of each of tlie societies 
given on the title page and elsewhere through the 

Books on Art History 

book should, from the strict historical point of 
view, be transposed. Both societies originated in 
the exhibition held under the auspices of the 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manu- 
factures and Commerce in 1760. The Society of 
Artists was a secession of the more important 
contributors, who held a separate exhibition of 
their own in 1761. The Free Society, being the 
section which remained true to the place and 
methods of the 1760 show, has thus the sounder 
title to corporate seniority, as Mr. Graves himself 
admits in a note. 

The volume is the most interesting of all Mr. 
Graves's catalogues, for in it we see the British 
school in its infancy. Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
Hogarth, Romney and many other distinguished 
artists up to the year 1769, when the competition 
of the newly founded Royal Academy begins to 
tell, exhibit in company with artists in hair and 
needlework, and young ladies from boarding 
schools. It is interesting to note that Reynolds's 
Lord Ligonicr and Captain Oriiie hung side by side 
in the exhibition of 1761, as they do once more in 
the National Gallery. We wonder how the mis- 
prints in the quotation from Catullus which 
follows crept into the catalogue : Reynolds was 
not the man to quote incorrectly. This catalogue, 
by the way, has a preface by Johnson, in which 
is given an explanation of the charge for admission 
and of a system of sale by auction of works 
not disposed of during the exhibition — a system 
which did not survive the first experiment. 

A glance over the contents reveals many inte- 
resting names : Captain Baillie exhibits his prints 
after and in the manner of the Dutch masters, 
including his restoration of the Hundred Guilder 
Plate ; Basire is a frequent contributor ; the once 
famous Pompeo Batoni sends a portrait from 
Rome. When we come to the name of Robert 
Chrone we wonder whether Mr. Graves should 
not have identified him with Crone, who exhibited 
two landscapes in the same year, and whose name 
was also Robert. He is remembered only because 
his drawings are occasionally confused with those 
of John Crome, and, judging from the Academy 
catalogues, he must have produced a considerable 
number of them. The lists of works by H. D. 
Hamilton (not to be confounded with the better- 
known Gavin Hamilton) and by Joseph Highmore 
recall two men whose portraits not infrequently 
pass for Hogarth's, just as the landscapes of 
William Hodges pass for those of his master, 
Wilson. The Chevalier Manini's titles are some- 
times equivocal — e.g., Britannia encouraging the 
Arts — Raphael and Michelangelo in the back- 
ground; so is that of 'Master Oppey's' first 
exhibit, A Boy's Head — an instance 0/ genius, 
not having ever seen a picture. Another good 
portrait painter. Penny ; the clever, unclerical 
Peters; Robert Edge Pine, with his theatrical 


Books on Art History 

portraits ; and the group of artists with the engaging 
name of Pingo ; Russell the pastellist ; and the cider 
Runciman, who in liisday w;is a personage among 
Scottish painters, arc also noticeable figures — but 
tlic occurrence of James Ward in the book comes 
as a surprise, since that line animal painter con- 
tinued to exhibit at the Royal Academy till the 
year 1855. 

The volume has provided us with so much enter- 
tainment that our minds have been too frequently 
diverted from serious study. These notes in con- 
sequence arc much scantier than they ought to be. 
Such a series of entries as that under the heading 
' Anonymous ' is a continuous temptation to 
intellectual v.agrancy. It opens with 'a model of 
a candle-stick ' ; a few lines lower down ' a Gentle- 
man ' identified by Horace Walpole as ' Nesbit ' 
shows ' Head of St. Paul, in crayons, a first 
attempt.' Shade of good Sir Edward Poynter ! ' A 
basket of fruit (in wax) ' ; 'An historical picture, 
in needle work ' ; ' Two frames of sketches by a 
child seven years old ' ; 'A flower pot, in raised 
paper' ; ' A festoon of (lowers, cut in cork ' ; 'A 
landscape in needle work, with luunan hair'; 
' Three drawings made upon board with a hot 
iron ' ; ' Three small landscapes in oil, the trees 
and shrubs made in seaweed, a new invention ' ; 
'A vase of flowers made with shells'; are fair 
samples of these miscelkmeous exhibits. Six 
mini.itures arc exhibited by ' a servant,' while 
children, schoolboys and schoolgirls figure largely 
among the contributors. Some of the entries are 
puzzling. What, for instance, does 'A frame with 
five small landscapes and artificial Mochas' imply ? 
The note at the end of a contributor's entries 
for the year 1790 is pcrhajis the significant 
sentence of all : 'N.B. — Enquire for particulars 
at the Bar,' Hi viotiis auiiiwniin ! 

The Histoky ok Modern Painting. liy 
Richard Muthcr. New and Revised Edition. 
4 vols. J. M. Dent and Co. ^^3 3s. net. 

Dr. Miitmer's work is already well known and 
appreciated as it deserves to be. To follow with ;uiy- 
tliing like c<)m|ileteness the tortuous course of the 
development of modern painting, with its endless 
twists and ramifications, was a remarkable feat ; to 
do so without a constant bias of personal and racial 
prejudice was still more remarkable. Not that 
the book was faultless. On certain movements 
and periods it was incomplete ; with others it dealt 
far too diffusely, while as a whole its rhetorical 
tone made it rather ponderous reading. The illus- 
trations were numerous, but not alw.iys well 
chosen ; were for the most part small, and were 
frequently made from indifferent engr.ivings 
in-.tead of from the original pictures. The three 
volumes of the English edition were too thick for 
comfortable handling; and had not an attractive 

look. I ts worst defect, however, was a tendency to 
gushing over-statement, due to reliance upon pre- 
conceived theories rather than upon ascertained 
facts. This made the book rather useful to those 
who already possessed knowledge than trust- 
worthy for those who did not. 

The new edition remedies many of these defects. 
Hy dividing the work into four volumes and bind- 
ing it more tactfully, the publishers have made it 
handy and attractive. The illustrations are greatly 
improved. A few of the old engravings are 
omitted, but many new ones are added, includinga 
handsome proportion of coloured plates ; and even 
where the old subjects still appear new and larger 
blocks have frequently been used. Crome is still 
' represented ' by one small engraving made from 
a poor etching of a picture by another Norwich 
painter ; the one specimen of Charles P'urse has no 
connexion with the work by which his name will 
live ; a print by Toyokuni is still described as by 
an ' Unknown Master ' ; and other faults of the 
same kind still remain uncorrected — but on the 
whole the illustrations have benefited enormously 
by the revision. 

The text has not been so drastically overhauled. 
Examination, indeed, shows that it has been rigor- 
ously pruned, many pages of rather windy criticism 
having been omitted ; so that there is no small 
gain in point of conciseness. But when we come 
to see how the author deals with the new shoots 
that have been added to the tree of art during the 
twelve years that have elapsed since the first edition 
was issued, we must confcNS to some disappointment. 
That revision should imply revision of judgment 
was perhaps too much to expect, but to hope that 
it would imply a fuller treatment of the more 
significant aspects of contemporary art was not 
unreasonable. That hope, however, has not been 
fulfilled. When we read that 'Robert Macbeth is 
now the most superior reproductive etcher in 
England,' we do not know whether to wonder 
more at the statement or the grammar. An 
additional chapter by some competent authority 
would have added considerably to the value of 
the book, and so far as English buyers are con- 
cerned, would have been a prudent extravagance. 
Considering the very large number of excellent 
art monographs published both here and abroad 
during the same period, the bibliography also 
can only be termed incomplete, and the fault is 
the more inexcusable because a few hoius spent 
upon the catalogue of the National Art Library in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum would have sup- 
plied the titles of a hundred books and articles 
which embody more recent knowledge than those 
included in Dr. Muther's list. Yet in spile of all 
these defects, the new edition is a great imjirove- 
ment upon its predecessor. The edges of so 
voluminous a book ought certainly to nave been 


Books on Art History 

The History of Painting. By Richard 

Mother, Ph.D. Tr.inslated by George Kriehn, 

Ph.D. In two volumes. New York and 

London : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

In these two handsomely produced vokimes Dr. 

Richard Muther essays to cover the history of 

painting from the fourth to the nineteenth century. 

He approaches his study from the psychological 

standpoint, treating each artist as representative 

of the temper of his period — a method which at 

least has the merit of making connexion and 

grouping much easier than they are if each artist 

be studied only as a separate personality. 

Some of the disadvantages of such a form of 
treatment were made evident in the author's better- 
known work on modern painters : the necessity 
of compressing every artist into the exact form 
which in theory he ought to occupy, thereby 
eliminating the whole element of personal prefer- 
ence, and the tendency to make much of common- 
place persons who follow the general drift of 
popular feelmg. Such men have no real bearing 
on the progress of art, and deserve no place in its 
history. The psychological analysis of an age, 
too, is apt to be a wordy business, and therefore is, 
to those to whom words come easily, a temptation 
to be discursive and gushing. 

In the work before us Dr. Mather's scale is 
smaller, so that there is little room for discussion 
of minor masters, but he has not escaped the 
other perils we have indicated. He is fond of 
strong contrasts, and to obtain them he constantly 
abuses one age in order that his praise of the next 
may have due force. 

Those who know the glowing mosaics of S. 
Prassede or the radiant decoration of S. Apollinare 
Nuovo will hardly believe their eyes when they 
read : ' Stony cold and icy is the heart of these 
things, ... a stony Gorgon looks down upon the 
world.' Countless instances of such reckless 
exaggeration might be quoted. But the inflated 
language of the book is a small defect compared 
with its inaccuracy. 

To refer everywhere to Fra Angelico as ' Fiesole ' 
is as silly as to suggest that Giotto ' endeavours to 
attain the effect of faded Gobelins.' But the 
errors in the facts of history and criticism are so 
numerous that all the author's vulgar mannerisms 
pale before them — even when to support his 
'psychological' theory he states that Filippo 
Lippi's Cora»a//oH 0/ //ic Yiygin 'rivals the beauty 
of a harem.' 

He repeats the long-discredited legend that 
Domenico Veneziano was murdered by Andrea da 
Castagno ; he is not aware that the famous 
triptych of Hugo van der Goes is now in the 
Uffizi. But when, as an example of Filippino's 
exact imitation of Botticelli, he quotes the altar- 
piece in the Badia, it is clear that he is entirely 
unfitted to discuss the subject he is talking about, 

and that the book needs no serious criticism. 
Nor is the author more happy when he approaches 
the period with which his name is commonly 
associated. A first glance reveals the statement 
that ' Goya is no painter ' ; a second, that in none 
of Reynolds's male portraits 'does one encounter 
an affable smile or finely cut nostrils.' Such 
verdicts speak for themselves. In his work on 
Modern Painting Dr. Muther had the excuse of 
doing something which had not previously been 
attempted. In the present instance that excuse is 
lacking, and we cannot recommend his book as 
being in any way serviceable to any one. 


The Alhambra, being a brief record of the 
Arabian Conquest of the Peninsula with a 
particular account of the Mohammedan 
Architecture and Decoration. Second edition. 
By A. F. Calvert. London : John Lane. 
New York : John Lane Co. 42s. net. 

As was the case with Mr. Calvert's ' Moorish 
Remains in Spain,' a perusal of the present volume 
raises doubts as to the existence of a class of 
reader to whom it can be of use. According to 
the preface, the writer's aim was to compile an 
' illustrated souvenir.' From a popular stand- 
point — a very popular one — he has, perhaps, 
succeeded. But we imagine that people fresh 
from the scenes he describes, who have probably 
consumed a more than proper allowance of 
printed rhapsody, would prefer a really adequate 
commentary upon the Alhambra, a more critical 
spirit on the part of a cicerone, and, above all, 
appreciations less utterly Irvingesque. One 
searches these pages in vain for a statement of 
the place Granada occupies in the history of 
Mohammedan architecture, or for any evidence 
of architectural erudition. The author would 
probably be surprised to hear that howeter high 
the Alhambra ranks ornamentally, its architectural 
value is, absolutely, that of decadent over-elabora- 
tion. But, apparently, the only frame of mind 
in which tlie subject can be fittingly approached, 
is that induced by Washington Irving. The 
question is : Would any continental WTiter of similar 
pretensions to Mr. Calvert's treat the subject thus, 
in the present year of grace ? We think not. 
Mr. Calvert's text (his only 'two trustworthy 
authorities ' upon the Moors in Spain are Gayan- 
gos and Dozy) is eked out with Ford (' As to 
Queen Isabella, Ford is loud in her praise'), 
Irving (Aimcz-i'Oiis la uioiitanlc, on en a mis 
partoiit ?) and other famous authorities (' For the 
true character of Ferdinand consult Shakespeare, 
who understood all things'). The character of 
the information Mr. Calvert supplies, when left to 


Books on ^Architecture 

himself, could not be better illustrated than by 
that he f»ives concerning the owner of the Gene- 
ralife, * the Marquis of Campotejar, of theGrimaldi 
Gentili family, better known as Pallavicini of 
Genoa. . . . The founder of the Grimaidi family 
was one Cidi Aya, a Moorish prince,' etc. And the 
Alhambray<irrDis still ' probably from the Balearic 
Isles.' The author's command of terms is very pecu- 
liar. His vocabulary includes ' Moresco-Spaniards,' 
'Granadian,' ' AziiU-jo tiles'; andelsewhere the per- 
plexity of choice between Arabian and ' Moresco ' 
IS visibly great. 

The book is lavishly illustrated — largely from 
Murphy's 'Arabian Antiquities of Spain,' the 
' Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana,' draw- 
ings by |. K. Lewis, Owen Jones's great work on 
the Alhambra and his ' Grammar of Ornament.' 
The extent of Mr. Calvert's Ixirrowings can be 
estimated from the fact that eighty coloured plates, 
mainly after Owen Jones, are quite lost among 
the multitude of illustrations in black-and-white. 
Whilst a certain number of the latter are from 
photographs, far too many are reproductions of 
comparatively unimportant old views ; some of 
these being duplicates of those illustrated from 
photographs. It would have been well if Mr. 
Calvert had appended to each borrowed illustra- 
tion the source from which it was drawn, if only 
for reference purposes, as in many cases reduction 
in scale has rendered them valueless. 

A. V. D. P. 

Essentials in Architecture. An Analysis of the 
Principles and Qualities to be looked for in 
Buildings. By John Belcher, A.R.A. London: 
Batsford. 5s. net. 

The 'Seven Lamps of Architecture' attempted to 
do for a former age what this book aims at doing 
for our own, namely, to give a clear idea of the 
general principles underlying all good buildings. 
Kuskin's arguments and examples all tended to 
the glorification of Gothic. Time and experiment 
have proved the limitations of that glorious art, 
and in Mr. Belcher's book the great majority of 
the seventy-four excellent illustrations are drawn 
from the Renaissance. The buildings of this 
period, in spite of Ruskin's denunciations, have 
proved themselves well suited to our public and 
private needs, and if Mr. Belcher's book meets 
with the success it deserves, it should have a 
sensible influence for good in teaching the 
principles on which the majority of the structures 
rising around us are, or should be, designed. All 
that freedom from prejudice and simple writing, 
accompanied by a profusion of good illustrations, 
can do, Mr. Belcher done ; and though a 
logician might not pxss his analysis of the subject, 
the book is one that ought to be read by every one 
who has the slightest interest in good building. 


Old Chi'rch Plate of the Isle ok Man. 
By E. Alfred Jones. Bemrose and Sons. 
1907. IDS. 6d. net. 

In remote Isle of Man, the land of runes and 
kists and cromlechs, we might expect to find, if 
anywhere, remains of the arts of bygone ages. In 
the matter of church plate, however, the island 
produces nothing of older date than Henry VIII, 
and even of this age nothing exists e.xcept a solitary 
chalice of 1521 and a paten somewhat later. The 
quest for portable antiquities throughout its 
numerous churches is no less illusive than in 
other islands to the north, including Iceland, the 
glamour of its sagas notwithstanding. Yet more 
surprising is the absence of Reformation chalices, 
only one solitary cup dating back to the sixteenth 
century. This is not a chalice, but a domestic 
beaker of 1591, by a London maker using for 
mark T. S. over a double-headed eagle displayed, 
engraved with the usual Holbeinesque border, and 
in use at Kirk German. A beaker of Dutch make 
is of early seventeenth-century date, presented to 
S. Paul's Church in Ramsey in 1747. Beakers of 
later date are used in other churches, as in 
Scotland. Cups with beaker-shaped bowls on 
balustered stems are represented by one at Kirk 
German, by a London maker using a hound sejant 
for mark, 1650. It is associated with a fine 
Commonwealth flagon, the oldest in the island. 
Another chalice of the time of Charles I is at 
Kirk Conchan, formed of the ordinary truncated 
conical bowl on a balustered stem. 

Of domestic plate the chief objects are a small 
Charles II tankard, 1675, at Kirk Braddon, and a 
few pieces, of no especial interest, bequeathed in 
early Victorian years. The best is a two-handled 
cup and cover of Dublin make, circa 1725, weighing 
just under 48 oz., in S. Mary's Chapel, Castletown. 

So much for the church plate of Manxland, 
an island with its own parliament, the House of 
Keys, and forming the diocese of Sodor and Man. 
Only one piece, a beaker, appears to be of Manx 

Mr. E. Alfred Jones has chanced upon, with 
perhaps some self-denial, one of the less interesting 
districts, while the church plate of many of the 
richest English counties remains, still inviting 
description at the hands of competent recorders. 
To judge by the church plate of Wilts., there must 
be treasure indeed to be brought to light in Hants, 
Sussex, Devon and Cornwall, Somerset, the home 
counties, the west coast, the east co;ist, the mid- 
lands and the north. L<5cal societies who publish 
journals, the clergy, or local residents could 
perform the task at far less cost and with less 
lalx)ur than a stranger from a distance, but they 
do not. An indefatigable investigator and worker 
like Mr. Jones appears and accomplishes the task 

Books on Furniture^ Plate^ ^c. 

while others are thinking about it. May others 
hke him appear, for until the church plate of 
England is as adequately known as that of 
Scotland, no real history of old English plate 
j.S. G. 

can be forthcoming 

Common Greek Coins. Vol. I. The Coinage of 
Athens, Corinth, Aegina, Boeotian League, 
Alexander the Great, Achaean League and 
Lycian League. By the Rev. A. VV. Hands. 
Spink and Son. Pp. 170. 5s. net. 

This little book is a reprint of articles which 
have appeared in a well-known coin dealer's 
circular. Its object is to interest modest collectors 
(and there are more modest collectors of coins 
than of anything else except, perhaps, stamps) in 
Greek coins. Every one who has any knowledge 
of ancient art and archaeology will admit that the 
object is a laudable one. Mr. Hands writes with 
great enthusiasm for his subject, and this to some 
extent compensates for his lack of scholarship. 
The book is an uncritical jumble of old and new, 
true and untrue, information put in a quaintly 
old-fashioned way. We have no doubt that it will 
interest a class of collectors who are not reached 
by books of a more scholarly or methodical kind. 

French Furniture. By Andre Saglio. G. Newnes. 
7s. 6d. net. 

By approaching his complicated subject from the 
historical standpoint the author has contrived to 
weave his facts into a connected narrative, and so 
has produced a good popular introduction to the 
study of French furniture. We have noticed a 
few small slips and misprints, and we think more 
attention might have been given to the furniture 
of the Empire, which is condemned in too 
sweeping fashion ; but the chief fault we have 
to find is that the text does not give references to 
the illustrations. These number nearly sixty, and 
are admirable in their way, but the book would have 
been more useful to beginners had they been more 
closely connected with the letterpress, and if some 
attempt had been made to date the specimens ap- 
proximately. The volume includes an index and a 
short bibliography, and has the additional merit 
of being well printed and prettily bound. 

Glass, China, Silver. By Frans Coenen. Lon- 
don : T. Werner Laurie. 6s. net. 

We have read this collection of illustrated essays 
reprinted from the Onzc Knnst with some interest. 
They show a decided appreciation of the objects 
described, and though, as the preface states, they 
may serve as a kind of advertisement for the Willet 
collection, they are well worth reading by British 
collectors of glass, china and plate. 


TiziAN. Des Meisters Gemalde in 230 Abbildun- 
gen. Dr. Oskar Fischel. M. 6. 

DuRER. Des Meisters Gemalde, Kupfersticheund 
Holzschnitte in 447 Abbildungen. Dr. Valentin 
Scherer. M. 10. 

Michelangelo. Des Meisters Werke in 
166 Abbildungen. Fritz Knapp. M. 6. 
Klassiker Der Kunst. Deutsche Verlags- 
Anstalt, Stuttgart und Leipzig. 
This excellent series does very well what Eng- 
lish books of the same kind have hitherto done 
very badly or not at all. Each volume presents 
in a compact form reproductions of the whole of 
the work of a great master, prefaced by a short 
introduction and completed by brief notes. Each 
reproduction is of fair size, is well printed and is 
set in its proper chronological place. The series, 
in fact, is admirably adapted to the need both of 
students who desire completeness, and of the 
general lover of art who likes plenty of illus- 
trations. The volumes before us, covering as they 
do the work of three of the world's greatest 
masters, open up so many problems to the critic 
that it is impossible in a short notice to touch 
upon even the most salient of them. We may 
not always comprehend the standard which 
in the case of Titian is too high for the Madonna 
and Child with the Magdalen in the Hermitage 
and yet is not too high for a good many things 
here included among his genuine works, such as 
the Adoration of the Shepherds in the Pitti, or the 
Mater Dolorosa of the Prado ; or which in the case of 
Diirer places Sir Frederic Cook's marvellous^r/'irtiV/tf 
on a level with things that are hardly even imitations 
of Durer. Yet to have all Diirer's paintings, en- 
gravings and wood-cuts in a single volume is a boon 
which makes minute criticism an ungrateful task. 
In the volume on Michelangelo, too, we notice 
that the Deposition in the National Gallery is 
placed among the doubtful works, a concession 
to modern depreciatory gossip which should not 
have been made except upon far better evidence 
than any which has hitherto been produced. To 
suppose that it was the work of Pontorrao from 
a design made by Michelangelo in late life is 
surely far more difficult than to regard it as an 
early work of the master himself, midway between 
the St. Proculns at Bologna and the Utifizi tondo. 
The problem, however, is too complex for 
discussion here ; we can only once more 
commend the book which suggested it. 

The Landscapes of George Frederick Watts. 

Introduction by Walter Bayes. Newnes. 

3s. 6d. net. 
We have found fault with some of the previous 
volumes of Messrs. Newnes's scries for a certain 


Books on Painting and Drawing 

want of thoroughness in carrying out an essentially 
praiseworthy idea. The selection of plates has not 
always been adequate, their arrangement has often 
been haphazard where order was eminently desir- 
able, and the introductions have not infrequently 
lieen superficial. In the present instance, the 
arrangement of the plates is still haph.azard, and 
the scries of eighteen subjects rather smaller than 
admirers of Watts could have wished. The intro- 
duction is an ingenious piece of criticism which 
more than redeems these material defects. Mr. 
Bayes is not blind to the technical failings of 
much of Watts's later painting : to the fumbling 
touches of dry colour which encourage constant 
revision, and to the dominance of an indolent 
lyric note which overwhelms the braver and more 
strenuous expression of his early days. In the 
search for absolute justice the case has even been 
pressed too far. To sketch landscape is compara- 
tively easy ; to make great pictures out of landscape 
is supremely difficult, especially in these days, when 
the habit of scientific vision has robbed the painter 
of many of the convenient abbreviations possible 
in a less photographically minded age. Watts at 
least succeeded in painting noble landscapes, and 
it is by his results that we must judge his methods. 
In most of his landscapes the technique seems 
adequate and well adapted to the matter in hand, 
and no technique need be more than that. To 
judge Watts by the technique of Whistler or Turner 
(each supreme in his own field) is to be as rash as 
Ruskin was in the case of Whistler, or as unjust as 
every critic of note was to Turner's most brilliant 
phase of oil painting for nearly a century. In the 
house of fame there are just so many technical 
methods as there are fine artists. 

Sir Edward Burne-Jones. Second Series. 
Newnes's Art Library. London: Newnes. 
3s. 6d. net. 

This second series of reproduction from Burne- 
Jones contains an appreciation by \L Arscnc 
Alexandre (who, if he wrote in French, has not 
been very well treated by his translator) and 
forty-eight half-tone plates, including the eleven 
scenes in the S/or)' o/0//'/;t-KS and the Pygmalion 
series of four, besides the frontispiece, which is a 
photogravure of the Vcspcrtiim Qiiics. Kecent 
exhibitions of pictures have helped to show that 
Burne-Jones's colour is unable to hold its own 
against that of robuster painters; while it scircely 
needed the exhibition of his drawings at the 
Leicester Galleries to prove the merits of his 
design and draughtsmanship. In losing his colour, 
therefore, as we lose it in such reproductions as 
these, we lose less than would be the case with 
many other artists, and his design may be 
profitably studied in the plates before us. The 
resemblance to Watts must strike the eye at once, 
especially in such plates ;u> that of the Luna (page 


15) or The Ganltn Poisoned in the Orfluns set 
(page 39). The influence of Watts on Burne- 
Jones is an interesting study that lias not, perhaps, 
received due attention. 

Antoine Watteau. By Claude Phillips. Seeley. 

2S. net. 
Raphael in Rome. By Mrs. Henry Ady. Seeley. 

2s. net. 
These two little books are the latest additions to 
the pretty series of ' Miniature Portfolio Mono- 
graphs.' Both books have been revised by their 
authors, and a glance at Mr. Claude Phillips's 
monograph will show with how much care the 
new edition has been brought up to date. Mrs. 
Ady covers ground which critics have recently 
avoided on a scale which does not admit of much 
attention being given to details, yet we note that 
the drawing reproduced on p. 127 is described as 
belonging to the end of Raphael's Roman period, 
while its style definitely points to the beginning of it. 
A good many other small points might be criticized ; 
but, while lacking the assured authority of Mr. 
Phillips's study, it is in its degree a sound and 
careful piece of work, 


Ven'ice : Its Individual Growth, from the 
Earliest Beginnings to Fall of the 
Republic. By Pompeo Molmenti. Translated 
by Horatio Brown. The Middle Ages. In 
two parts, pp. 223, 237. London : Murray. 
1906. 2 IS. net. 

This work is a translation of the first volume 
of Mr. Molmenti's 'Storia di Venezia,' which was 
reviewed at length in The Burlington Magazine 
for November, 1905. We then said that the new 
history would be a necessary possession for all 
students of Venice and her arts ; to this opinion 
we adhere, and therefore welcome Mr. Brown's 
translation, which will place it within the reach 
of many who labour under the disad\'antage of 
not reading Italian. The translator knows Ven- 
ice : he has lived there for many years past, has 
calendared its archives for the British Govern- 
ment, and has written not a little himself on the 
history and customs of the Venetians. As would 
be expected, the translation is on the whole 
excellent, but there is one slip which we should 
hardly have looked for from one who knows 
Venice so well. On page 215 of the first part 
Mr. Brown says that ' Maundy Thursday was 
kept in commemoration of the victory of Venice 
over Ulric Patriarch of Aquileia': the day so kept 
was diovdl't ^rasso, and ^ovedl grasso is the last 
Thursday before Lent, not the last Thursday in 
Lent. Two or three other small points struck 
us in going through these volumes. The head of the 
old chapter of S. Mark's was the piimicetiui : Mr. 

Brown Englishes this ' the dean, the primicerio.' 
This seems to imply that ' dean ' is so commonly 
the title of the head of a chapter that any other 
is abnormal, which is very far from being the 
case. Again, while he wisely translates chiesa 
arcipretale as ' parish church ' (ii, 79), for some 
reason or other he speaks of the diiomo of 
Aquileia, and the ciiwmo of Torcello — ditomo is a 
word which seems to have a fascination for foreign 
writers on Italy. Mr. Brown has added no notes 
of his own, but in one place we think he 
should have done so. Mr. Molmenti says (i, 221) 
that ' Venice numbered among her guests ... the 
archbishop of Westminster, uncle of Henry V of 
England (1418).' Of course the prelate in ques- 
tion was Cardinal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, 
and the translator would have done well had he 
added a note correcting the author. The illustra- 
tions are numerous, but are only a selection from 
those in the original volume; they are apparently 
printed on art paper which has afterward been 
coated with, of necessity, a loss of definition, which, 
however, for ordinary readers is more than made 
up for by increase in beauty. Comparing the two 
editions, we may sum them up by saying that the 
translation will be used for pleasure, the original 
for study. 


The Colour of London, Historic, Personal 
AND Local. By W. J. Loftie, F.S.A. 
Illustrated by Yoshio Markino. With an 
Introduction by M. H. Spielmann, F.S.A., and 
an Essay by the Artist. Chatto and Windus. 
20s. net. 
This volume reproduces in colour a selection from 
the drawings of Mr. Markino lately on view at the 
Clifford Gallery. Mr. Markino is a Japanese who 
has spent ten years in London, has attended 
English art schools, and has achieved a style in 
which Western methods are superimposed upon 
Japanese vision with a unique and very agreeable 
result. Mr. Markino's drawing is his weakest 
point ; which is not surprising when we learn 
from his naive little essay that he is almost 
entirely self-taught ; and it is, naturally, in the 
drawing of architecture that he most conspicu- 
ously fails. W'\s In Westminster Abbey (p. 182) is 
injured, also, by an inevitable lack of familiarity 
with the spirit of the place. It is not, therefore, 
in the buildings of London that he succeeds best ; 
but, as the title of the book implies, in the represen- 
tation of its colour. He understands thoroughly 
the advantage of the vague background provided 
by the atmosphere of London, and his love of it 
leads him so far as to declare that December is 
his favourite month. The most effective and 
charming of all these delightful things are the 
scenes in autumn and winter. Against the 
dim background Mr. Markino throws touches of 

Art Books of the Month 

red and gold and mauve which melt away into 
it with admirable softness and mystery ; and his 
method of wash drawing is perfectly adapted to 
the diffusion of light in such night scenes as 
The Alhambra (p. 20), The Porch of the Carlton 
Hotel (p. 74). He can, on occasion, produce the 
full effect of a bright sunshine ; and that he 
has a sense of humour is clear not only 
from his view of the Albert Memorial— which 
omits all except the steps— but also from some 
of his studies of low life in our streets. Mr. 
Loftie's text is full of interesting matter ; but his 
English is not quite so good as Mr. Markino's. 

The Oxford Historical Pageant : June 27- 
July 3, 1907. Book of Words, with Illus- 
trations. Oxford : for the Pageant Committee. 
1907. 2S. 
Pageants are not as a rule productive of much 
that is valuable either in literature or art ; but this 
volume alone would except the Oxford Pageant 
from any such stricture. Its contents and format 
make it worth at least double the price asked. Of 
the literary matter it is sufficient here to say that 
among the contents are a poem by Mr. Robert 
Bridges and a short and characteristic essay by 
Mr. Quiller-Couch ; that the scenes of the Pageant, 
from St. Frideswide to James II and the Fellows 
of Magdalen, are written, mainly in verse, by Mr. 
Laurence Housman, Mr. Laurence Binyon, Pro- 
fessor Oman, Mr. Godley, Professor Raleigh, Mr. 
Stanley Weyman, Miss Wordsworth and Mr. J. B. 
Fagan ; and that its notes and text give something 
like a brief history of education in Oxford. The 
volume is a quarto of 136 pages, and is printed by 
Mr. Horace Hart with the ancient types {circa 
1677) of Bishop Fell, with appropriate — and, we 
suspect, contemporaneous^4iead and tail pieces. 
The full-page illustrations number thirty-five, and 
cannot fail to appeal to the antiquarian. Eigh- 
teenth century numbers of the Oxford Almanack 
furnish not a few ; but even more interesting are 
those reproduced from the views made by Bere- 
block in 1566 for Queen Elizabeth's visit to 
Oxford, and Agas's bird's-eye view of 1578. 
Manuscripts, drawings and engravings, in the 
Bodleian and elsewhere, are the sources of many 
more ; and the reproductions taken from the illus- 
trated catalogues of the Oxford Historical Portraits 
exhibitions include the Jesus College Elizabeth, 
Bower's Charles I at All Souls, the Bodleian 
Laud, and the Prince Rupert, by J. M. Wright, 
at Magdalen. 

The Land in the Mountains (Tyrol). By 
W. A. Baillie-Grohman. Simpkin, Marshall, 
Hamilton, Kent and Co., Ltd. 1 2s. 6d. net. 
Mr. Baillie-Grohman is equally well known as 
a writer and as a sportsman, as the pages of THE 
Burlington Magazine have frequently shown. 


^rt Tiooks of the Month 

As might l^ expected, his bt)()k on the Tyrol is a 
thoroughly readable study of the history of the 
country, with special reference to his own pic- 
turesque home. It is illustrated with an admir able 
series of photographs of scenery, castles, people and 
furniture, the latter including a numlKr of remark- 
able specimens of fifteenth century work in wood 
and metal. The lx)ok is very well written, and 
will interest even those who arc not familiarly 
acquainted with the wonderful country it describes. 

RiQL'ET A LA HOL'H'E. (Deux versions d'un 
conte de ma mirre Loye.) Eragny Press, 
The Brook, Hammersmith, W. 25s. net. 

We have frequently called attention to the beauty 
of the Eragny Press publications, so that we 
need only chronicle the appearance of this dainty 
little volume in order to recommend it to our 
readers. The two versions of the folk-tale present 
an amusing contrast ; the second, from a seven- 
teenth-century MS., investing it with the galbntry 
of a later .ige, while that of Perrault is in a more 
primitive vein. The two coloured woodcuts with 
which it is embellished are among the happiest of 
Mr. Pissarro's conceptions, and as usual the book 
is a model of fine typography. A prospectus 
inserted in our copy makes the interesting 

announcement that Mr. and Mrs. Pissarro are 
prepared to issue some son^s by Herrick, 
I^ivelace and others, with origmal settings by 
Henry Lawes, if sutticient support is assured them 
in such a tiifticult and expensive production. 
The price of the paper copies will not exceed (^z, 
and all who are interested and wish to subscribe 
should communicate with the Secretary of the 
Eragny Press, The Brook, Hammersmith, W. 

Pictures AND THEIR Value. Turner and Rob- 
inson. Eltham. 6s. net. 
In some respects this record of auction prices 
during the season of 1905 and 1906 represents an 
advance upon other works of reference of the 
kind we have received. It is not quite free from 
misprints, but here and there it does show a certain 
attempt at discrimination in that the entries are 
occasionally annotated. The addition of the 
names of the purchasers, where possible, would 
have increased its future value as a work of refer- 

The price of the volume on Correggio by Dr. 
Georg Gronau in the series of ' Klassiker der Kunst ' 
(Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt), reviewed in The 
Burlington Magazine for June, is 7 marks, not 6 

as stated at the head of the review. 



llluMrirrle Geschichte dcs Kuiistgcwcrbcs: hernuigegebcn in 
Verbindunn mil W. Bcliiickc, M, Drcgcr, O. von Talkc, 
J. Fiilncsics, O. Ktimmcl, E. I'ernice, und G. Sw.irzcnski, 
von G. Uhnert. P:irt I. (HX?) Berlin (Oldcnbourg), 
8 parts, each 4 m.2j. Copiously illustrated, some plates in 

MicHci. A.). Histoire de I'Art depuls Ics premiers temps 
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(Colin). 15 fr. 

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0. M. Uallon ; 2<;o pp. and over 200 illuslrationo. 
STRzyriowsKl (J.). Die bildcndc Kunst der Cegcnwarl. tin 

UUchlcin (Or jedcrmann. (9 x 6) Leipzig (^utllc & Meyer), 
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3 Vols., maps and plans. 
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TtowKH (H. K.). The Book of C-tpri. (9x5) Naples (Prass), 

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(Ccderquist), 10s. 100 illustrations. 

Gravrs (A.). The Society o( Artists o( Great Britain, 1760-1791. 
The Kree Society of Artists, 1761-1783. A complete dic- 
tionary of contributors and their work from the foundation 
of the Societies 101791. (UXH) London (Ikll ; Graves), 
63s. net. 

'Sizes (height X width) in in..i)e4. 

Baldrv (A. L.). Royal Scottish Academy. Edited by C. Hulme. 

(12x9) I^ndon ('Studio' Spring number). 40 plates. 
Stkals (K.) and Dknt (R. K.). John Baskervillc, a memoir. 

(12x9) London (Chatto & Windus), 21s. net. 14 plates. 
Rouerts (W.). Sir W. Bccchey, R.A. (8x6) London (Duck- 
worth). 7s. 6d. net. Plates. 
Rt'scoNi (A J.). Sandro Botticelli. (11x7) Bcrgams (Istituto 

d'Arti graliche), 7 I. 142 illustrations. 
Gkon'au (G.). Correggio, dcs Meisters G^m.'ilde in 196 Ahbil- 

dungen. (10x7) Stuttgait, Leipzig (Deutsche Verlags- 
Anstalt), 7 m. 
Calvert (A. P.). Murillo, a biography and appreci.ition. (8x5) 

London, New York (Ume), 3s. 6d. net. Pbtes. 'The 

Spanish Scries.' 
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Ral'cii (C). Die Trauts. Studien und Beilriige zur Ge;chichte 

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Abendschfin (A). The Secret of the Old Masters. (7x5) 

I^ndon f.lppleton), 4s. 6d. net. 
Fkizzosi (G.). Lc Gallcric dell' Accadcmia Carrara in Bergamo. 

(11 xK) Bergamo (Islilutod'Arti gr.itiche), I. 6.50. Illustrated. 
The George A. Hearn Gift to the Melrop<ilitan Museum of Art, 

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Meister aus dcm Bcsiize dcs baycrischen St.utes. I . Kgl. 

Schloss zu Aschaffcnburg. (20x15) Frankfuit-a.-M. 

(Keller). 50 photolvpe plates and text. 
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edition. (7x5) Vienna (llolzhausen), Lci|irig (Hierie- 

mann), lus. aoo illustrations. 



Oppolzer (Baron E. von). Katalog einer Kunstsammlung. 

Unter Mitwirkung der Herren E. Flechsig, C. Hofstede 

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Bearbeitet uiid herausgegeben vom Kesitzcr. (14x12) 

Munich (Helbing). 15 in. 33 plates, etc. 
RiCHTER (J. P.). A descriptive catalogue of Old Ma-sters of the 

Italian school, belonging to H. W. Cannon, Esq., Villa 

Doccia, Kiesole. (8x5) Florence (Seebei). 2 plates. 
JACOBSKM (E.). Sienesische Meister des Trecento in der 

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Ai'BERT (A.). Die malerische Dekoration der San Francesco 

Kirche in Assisi : ein Beifrag zur Losung der Cimabue 

Frage. (10x7) Leipzig (Hiersemann), 36 m. 69 plates. 
MUTHER (R.). The History of Modern Painting. Revised 

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James (M. R.). The Frescoes in the Chapel at Eton College. 

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(Oestcrheld), 18 m. 45 plates (9X 12). 


Edgar (C. C). Catalogue general des Antiquites egyptiennes 
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(14X10) London (Quaritch). 43 plates. 

Newberry (P. E.). Catalogue general des Antiquites egyptiennes 
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London (Constable), 52 francs. 22 plates. 

Strong (Mrs. A). Roman Sculpture. (8x6) London (Duck- 
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Fellows (G.). Arms, armour, and alabaster round Nottingham. 
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BoRGER (H.). Grabdenkmaler im Maingebiet von Anfang des 
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Leipzig (Hiersemann), 12 m. 28 plates. 

DiBELius (F.). Die Bernwardstiir zu Hildesheim. (10x7) 
Strasburg (Heitz), 8 m. 16 plates. 

Bode (W). The Italian Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance. 
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Hortulus Animae. Cod. Bibl. Pal. Vindob. 2706, The Garden 
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JuRiE (B. von). Spitzen und ihrer Charakteristik. (10x7) 
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at a lx)uncl in the 
this kind of work. 

HE Siiermondt Museum at 
Aix-la-Chapellc lias ever since 
its foundation cultivated the 
collection of old (Jernun 
\vootl-car\-ing as a speciality. 
The recent acquisition of the 
wood-carvinji cf)llection of 
the late Richard Moest, wlio 
resided at Colof^ne, places it 
foremost position as regards 
Moest had brought together 
about 600 carvings illustrating all ph;ises of the 
art from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries down 
to the beginning of the nineteenth, the majority 
being altars and statues or statuettes taken from 
alt-irs. Besides that, he owned over f^fty pieces of 
genuine Gothic and Renaissance furniture, and 
nearly a thousand various fragments, panels and 
other pieces of decorative carving, which supple- 
mented the main collection. 

The ducal collection of art and antiquities at 
the c-istle in Coburg is one of the most important 
in Germany, among those not depending upon 
public means for their acquisitions. It is, how- 
ever, known to very few specialists and not at all 
to the general public. Coburg does not lie on 
one of the main lines of traflic, and even when 
one has decided to devote a day or two to touching 
upon Coburg, the treasures up there in the castle 
are not easy of access, being in the nature of a big 
pri\'ate collection. During the summer months 
of this year a great part of the collections is 
going to be publicly exhibited in the rooms of the 
Coburger Kunstverein, down in the town, and 
thus many people will have at least an easy chance 
of seeing them. Perhaps the most important 
feature is the contents of the Print Room, including 
\'aluable drawings by the foremost masters of the 
German Renaissance, and many incunabula of 
the art of engraving on copper in Germany. The 
armoury is also important. The strong pointof the 
picture galleries is the portrait collection, covering 
the periods from Cranach down to Graff. In 
accordance with the universal character of such 
' kunstkammern '— as which the Coburg collec- 
tion was started — there are miniatures, stained 
gl.-iss, old furniture, Gothic and Renaiss;ince sculp- 
tures in stone and wood, tapestries, etc. 

The late Councillor Keddig left his art collec- 
tions to the town of Stettin, besides a large sum of 
money to start and run a municipal fine art museum 
with. The frequent recurrence oi such bequests 
is a most pleading sign of the spirit of our age. 
Yet one cannot help putting the question to one- 
self from time to time : what are these numerous 

institutions going to be filled with, considering 
how rapidly the market for good and genuine old 
:irt is being exhausted, unless they limit themselves 
to the purchase of modern work ? 

Your P.iris correspondent, in discussing the 
Sedclmcyer sales, has again drawn attention to the 
fact that the English school of painting, in spite 
of all the enthusiasm there is for it, is still little 
understood upon the continent. His remarks 
apply to Germany as well .as they do to France, as 
appears from the very fact that, according to his 
account, many of the overpaid and doubtful Sedel- 
meyer paintings went to Germany. During the 
past six months a somewhat similar collection of 
English eighteenth century paintings has been on 
an exhibition tour through the principal towns of 
Germany. The standard, 1 should say, does not 
nearly come up to that of the Sedelmeyer stock, 
and many of these attributions to masters of the 
first rank, like Reynolds, Romney, Gainsborough, 
Constable, Turner, Morland, etc., are palpably 
unconvincing even to those who have only a very 
genenil knowledge of the school. If more were 
really known, of course, such an exhibition would 
not be acceptable even to the genend public. As 
it is, collectors and museums have apparently not 
been incautious enough to suppose that here was 
a special chance of acquiring a masterpiece ; for 
the collection seems to h.ive remained entire or, at 
least, almost unbroken to this day. It would 
indeed be strange if England had allowed such a 
collection as this purports to be to pass quietly 
out of its reach without as much as taking notice 
of it. 

The newly founded King-Albert Museum at 
Chemnitz, Saxony's industrial metropolis, has 
received a collection of modern paintings as an 
anonymous gift. 

Hans Thoma has presented one of his early 
works, Fighliiig Lads (painted 1872), to the museum 
of Karlsruhe, besides an unusually austere Cnici- 
fixion by Ludwig Schmid-Reutte, who cultivates 
an archaic style of painting. Two further paintings 
by Thoma, The Evciiing^tar and Dink, are likewise 
among the new acquisitions of the same museum. 
We reproduce a very fine example of early 
seventeenth century German silversmiths' work — 
a drinking vessel made by Elias Geyer in 1608- 
1610, now in the Green Vault, Dresden. Other 
examples of this cniftsman's work were reproduced 
in the June number of this magazine. The recent 
exhibition of applied arts in Leipzig, where no 
less than 120 of his mtsterpieces were collected, 
has served to bring Elias Geyer's name into the 
prominence it deser\es, H. W. S. 





'NE of the most interesting 
exhibitions of the Paris season 
has been reserved for its close : 
1 the exhibition of the works of 
IChardin and Fragonard at the 
Georges Petit galleries, which 
► was opened by the President of 
|the Republic on June lo, and 
will remain open until July 12. The exhibition is 
due to the initiative of M. Armand Dayot, the well- 
known editor of ' L'Art et Les Artistes,' and has 
been organized by an influential committee of 
museum directors, amateurs and artists, with Baron 
Henri de Rothschild as chairman and M. Dujardin- 
Be.iumetz, the Assistant-Minister of Fine Arts, as 
honorary president. The profits are to be devoted 
to the fund for erecting a monument to Chardin 
and to charitable purposes. They should be con- 
siderable, for up to the present the exhibition 
rooms have been daily so crowded that it is 
difficult to get a glimpse of the pictures. 

The arrangement of the pictures is not all that 
could be desired ; only aesthetic effect has been 
considered, and there is no attempt at chrono- 
logical or any other classification. The fact that 
the paintings are all in one large hall no doubt 
made classification difficult without considerable 
sacrifice of the general aesthetic effect ; but the 
works of the two artists might at least have been 
separated instead of being mixed up together in 
inextricable confusion. This mistake, as it seems 
to the present writer, in the arrangement does 
not, however, prevent the exhibition from being 
profoundly interesting and extremely attractive. 
Without being an exhaustive display of the 
work of either painter — that would be almost 
impossible — it is quite sufficiently representative 
to give material for a comparative estimate of their 
respective achievement. It establishes beyond 
question — if there were any question about the 
matter — the superiority of the earlier master ; and 
this is saying much, for, in face of some of the 
paintings here, it is impossible to contest the claim 
of Fragonard to be called a great artist. But 
Chardin appears as among the greatest, one of 
those who belong to no country and no period, 
while Fragonard is essentially of his own country 
and his own epoch. 

The paintings of Chardin number seventy-two, 
and there are also three pastels by him as well as 
eight drawings of different kinds, a miniature, and 
a box decorated with exquisite miniatures which 
is lent by Mr. Pierpont Morgan. Baron Henri 
de Rothschild sends no less than twenty-seven 
pictures and a drawing, and this is by no means 
the whole of his wonderful collection of Chardin's 
works. Naturally among so large a number 
there is some inequality of merit, but the Roths- 
child exhibit includes some of the finest examples 
in the room. The four genre pictures from the 
Liechtenstein collection are unsurpassed by any 

others ; their quality is exquisite, and it is hard to 
choose between them. The three lent by the 
German Emperor are less attractive ; two of them 
in particular, La Pouivoyetise and La Ratissetise de 
Navels, are not of the finest quality. Two very 
fine pictures from the collection of Madame Emile 
Trepard, Lejennc Homme an Violon and L'Enfant 
an Toton, have been bought by the Louvre for 
^14,000; we hope to reproduce them before long 
in The Burlington Magazine. M. Leprieur is 
to be congratulated on his acquisition of two 
examples worthy to take their place among the 
best of those which the Louvre already possesses. 
The exhibition contains a replica of L'Enfant an 
Toton (No. 70), much inferior in quality. There is 
not space to deal in detail with the many beautiful 
examples of still life ; those lent by Baron Henri 
de Rothschild, M. Francois Flamengand M. Alexis 
Vollon are perhaps specially admirable. But the 
standard of the exhibition as a whole is a very 
high one. Among the drawings a word of special 
mention is due to the wonderful pastel portrait of 
Chardin by himself belonging to M. Leon Michel- 

The seventy paintings by Fragonard do not 
show so high a level of excellence as those of 
Chardin for the simple reason that Fragonard was 
far more unequal. Among them are many pot- 
boilers of the kind that Fragonard produced by 
the score to decorate the boudoirs of demi-mon- 
daines, a purpose for which they are admirably 
fitted. But side by side with these trifles are 
works of art possessing other qualities besides the 
extraordinary cleverness which Fragonard shows 
in his lightest moments. The Bank of France 
has lent thesuperb Fete de Saint-Clond which we can 
here compare with the smaller version of the same 
subject formerly in the collection of the late M. Gold- 
schmidt and now in that of his son-in-law, Count 
Andre Pastre, who also lendsthe portrait of Diderot. 
These two latter pictures were reproduced in The 
Burlington Magazine in 1903 (vol. iii, pp. 287 
and 291). A drawing for the picture of the Bank 
of France, which belongs to Sir James Knowles, 
has also been reproduced in The Burlington 
(vol. viii, pp. 379). Madame Buret's Portrait of 
Fragonard's Sister has the qualities of a Rubens, 
and so has the Amanls heurcttx belonging to Mr. 
Pierpont Morgan, one of the most exquisite 
pictures in the exhibition, but likely, one would 
imagine, to shock profoundly the American public 
should it ever cross the Atlantic. Among other 
paintings deserving special mention are Lcs 
Dindons, lent by M. Charley ; Lajenne Mire, lent by 
Madame Levert ; Le Cache-cache, lent by M. Armand 
Mame ; La Toilette de Venus, lent by M. Leon 
Michel-Levy ; and Le Billet doux, lent by ABL 
Kraemer and Wildenstein. The last was exhibited 
in London last year. M. Henri Cain lends a 
most beautiful oil sketch, Les Naiades, for the 
picture in the Louvre. There are also sixty-five 


Art in France 

drawings by Fragonard, some of very fine quality, 
and several miniatures. The great majority of tlic 
works of both painters exhibited are from French 
collections ; the only foreigners who lend pictures 
are the German Emperor, the prince of Liechten- 
stein, and Mr. Pierpont Slorgan ; one or two of 
the miniatures come from England. 

The sale of the collection of the late M. Chappey, 
the well-known Paris dealer, shows that fine works 
of art, even if bought at high prices, arc not a bad 
investment. M. Chappey was notoriously a bad 
buyer in the sense that he was inclined to pay 
more than was wise for one who wishes to sell 
again. But he was a real connoisseur, and the 
result of the sale is a tribute to his taste and judg- 
ment. It will be remembered that, at his death, 
he was regarded as insolvent, his debts amounting 
to about ;^Ji 20,000, but the sale h;is produced a 
total of ;^i68,ooo. The result h;is been received 
with s;itisfaction by the many friends of a man 
whose comparative failure in business was due to 
the possession of a true artistic temperament and 
of scruples :is to sharp practice from which some 
of his successful competitors are free. It is 
worthy of note that on the whole the objects of 
the Gothic and Henaissance periods sold better 
than those of the eighteenth century. Is this the 
beginning of a healthy reaction ? The collection 
was mainly composed of ohjcis d'art. 

The Sedelmeyer sale has at last reached its 
conclusion, and the final instalment, which included 
drawings and modern pictures, gave rise to an 
interestmg incident. On June 11, the day before 
the sale began, the ' New York Herald ' published an 
article by its critic, M. Georges Bal, on the attri- 
butions of certain pictures of the French school. 
M. Hal, who is one of the ablest and most inde- 
pendent art critics in Paris, expressed astonishment 
that some of these pictures should be included in 
the sale at all, and pointed out that among the 
works attributed in the catalogue to Corot, Diaz 
and Daubigny (among others) were pictures which 
could by no possibility have come from the 
brushes of those artists. M. Sedelmeyer defended 
his attributions in the same paper on the following 
day, and before the sale began the auctioneer 
stated, in reply to a question put to him, that 
M. Sedelmeyer would guarantee the pictures as 
the work of the painters under whose names they 
were sold. When, however, the pictures men- 
tioned by M. were put up, they were offered 
only as ' attributed ' to Corot, etc., and fetched 
merely nominal prices. 

The incident has caused considerable sensation 
in artistic circles. In this particular case the 
expert no doubt corrected the attributions ; but 
the Sedelmeyer sale as a whole has led people to ask 
whether the system of having an expert at French 
auctions (of works of art) is really a protection to 
the public. Apart from the possibility of undue 
influence by the vendor, as to which no suggestion 
is made in the present case, what single expert 
could possibly be competent to deal with all the 
schools represented in the Sedelmeyer sale ? The 
readers of The Buklington Magazine have 
heard something about the representation of the 
English school. Not one of the attributions of 
the catalogue was corrected by the expert, who 
passed as a genuine Gainsborough, for instance, 
the Portrait oj n Priiicc'ss, which fetched nearly 
^'2,000 — a picture which nobody with the smallest 
knowledge of Gainsborough's work could possibly 
have attributed to him. In such circumstances 
can it be said that the expert is a help to the 
buyers ? The English system, in which the buyer 
backs his own opinion, and the auctioneer takes 
no responsibility, would seem to be more satis- 
factory. What has been said in The Burlington 
about attributions in the English school is true to 
some degree of the whole sale. Some of the 
pictures attributed to Van Dyck, for instance, could 
not possibly be accepted as the work of that 
master or of any great master. Yet they were 
passed as Van Dycks by the expert. He cannot be 
severely blamed : who is omniscient ? But the 
mischief is that the buyer is apt to think that he 
has a certain guarantee. 

The French law, I believe, makes an expert in 
some degree responsible for his attributions, but 
the point is rarely, if ever, tested : I have not heard 
of a case. And it would be very hard on an expert 
to be held personally responsible for mistakes 
which every one must make at times. He would 
hardly dare to accept any attribution at all. It 
would be more reasonable to permit the purchaser 
to recover the money from the vendor, should the 
expert's attribution be clearly proved to be mis- 
taken. For all 1 know, the French law may 
enable that to be done. But it is at least an open 
question whether it would not behest to do away 
with the expert altogether unless the system can 
be drastically reformed. By the way, it is 
reported here that the two pictures attributed to 
Constable in the Sedelmeyer collection, the I'allcy 
of titc Sloiir and the Banks of the Stoiir (see page 
197 anil), were bought for an English collector 1 

K. E. D. 




N spite of all the attacks 
of critics, in spite of all 
the development of high 
flavour and emphasis of 
romantic landscape, which 
might well have spoilt 
us for his cool simplicity, Claude still 
lives, not, indeed, as one of the gods 
of the sale-room, but in the hearts of con- 
templative and undemonstrative people. 
This is surely an interesting and encourag- 
ing fact. It means that a very purely 
artistic and poetical appeal stills finds its 
response in the absence of all subsidiary 
interests and attractions. The appeal is, 
indeed, a very limited one, touching only 
certain highly self-conscious and sophisti- 
cated moods, but it is, within its limits, so 
sincere and so poignant that Claude's very 
failings become, as it were, an essential 
part of its expression. These failings are, 
indeed, so many and so obvious that it is 
not to be wondered at if, now and again, 
they blind even a sensitive nature like 
Raskin's to the fundamental beauty and 
grandeur of Claude's revelation. But we 
must be careful not to count as failings 
qualities which are essential to the parti- 
cular kind of beauty that Claude envisages, 
though, to be quite frank, it is sometimes 
hard to make up one's mind whether a 
particular characteristic is a lucky defect 
or a calculated negation. Take, for 
instance, the peculiar gaucherie of his 
articulations. Claude knows less, perhaps, 
than any considerable landscape painter — 
less than the most mediocre of modern 
landscapists — how to lead from one object 
to another. His foregrounds are covered 
with clumsily arranged leaves which have 
no organic growth, and which, as often 
as not, lie on the ground instead of spring- 
ing from it. His trees frequently isolate 
themselves helplessly from their parent 

The tL-RLiNGTOX .NUgazixe. So. 53. Vul, XI— August, 1907 


soil. In particular, when he wants a 
repoussoir in the foreground at either 
end of his composition he has recourse to 
a clumsily constructed old bare trunk, 
which has little more meaning than a 
stage property. Even in his composition 
there are naivetes which may or may 
not be intentional : sometimes they have 
the happiest effect, at others they seem 
not childlike but childish. Such, for 
instance, is his frequent habit of dividing 
spaces equally, both vertically and horizon- 
tally, either placing his horizontal line 
half-way up the picture, or a principal 
building on the central vertical line. At 
times this seems the last word of a highly 
subtilized simplicity, of an artifice which 
conceals itself ; at others one cannot be 
sure it is not due to incapacity. There 
is, in fact, a real excuse for Ruskin's 
exaggerated paradox that Claude's drawings 
look like the work of a child of ten. 
There is a whole world of beauty which 
one must not look for at all in Claude. 
All that beauty of the sudden and unex- 
pected revelation of an unsuspected truth 
which the Gothic and Early Renaissance 
art provides is absent from Claude. As 
the eye follows his line it is nowhere 
arrested by a sense of surprise at its 
representative power, nor by that peculiar 
thrill which comes from the communi- 
cation of some vital creative force in the 
artist. Compare, for instance, Claude's 
drawing of mountains, which he knew 
and studied constantly, with Rembrandt's. 
Rembrandt had probably never seen 
mountains, but he obtained a more intimate 
understanding by the light of his inner 
vision than Claude could ever attain to by 
familiarity and study. We need not go 
to Claude's figures, where he is notoriously 
feeble and superficially Raphaelesquc, to 
find how weak was his hold upon character 



in whatever object he set himself to 
interpret. In the British Museum there 
is a most careful and elaborate study of 
the rocky shores of a stream. Claude has 
even attempted here to render the contorted 
stratification of the river-bed, but without 
any of that intimate imaginative grasp of 
the tension and stress which underlie the 
appearance which Turner could give in a 
tew hurried scratches. No one, we mav 
surmise, ever loved trees more deeply than 
Claude, and we know that he prided 
himself on his careful observation of the 
difference of their specific characters ; and 
yet he will articulate their branches in 
tlie most haphazard, perfunctory manner. 
There is nothing in all Claude's innumer- 
able drawings which reveals the inner life 
of the tree itself, its aspirations towards 
air and light, its struggle with gravitation 
and wind, as one little drawing by Leonardo 
da Vinci. 

All these defects might pass more easily 
in a turbulent romanticist, hurrying pell mell 
to get expressed some moving and dramatic 
scene, careless of details so long as the 
main movement were ascertained, but there 
is none of this fire in Claude. It is with 
slow ponderation and deliberate care that he 
places before us his perfunctory and 
generalized statements, finishing and polish- 
ing them with relentless assiduity, and 
not infrequently giving us details that we 
do not desire and which add nothing but 
platituiie to the too prolix statement. 

All this and much more the admirer 
of Claude will be wise to concede to the 
adversary, and if the latter ask wherein the 
beauty of a Claude lies he may with more 
justice than in any other case fall back on 
the reply of one of Du Maurier's aesthetes, 
' in the picture.' For there is assuredly a 
kind of beauty which is not only 
compatible with these defects but perhaps 
in some degree depends on them. We 


know and recognize it well enough in 
literature. To take a random instance. 
Racine makes Titus say in 'Berenice': ' De 
mon aimable erreur je suis dcsabusc.' This 
may be a dull, weak and colourless mode of 
expression, but if he had said with Shake- 
speare, ' Now old desiredoth inhisdeath-bed 
lie, and young affection gapes to be his 
heir,' we should feel that it would 
destroy the particular kind of even and 
unaccented harmony at which Racine 
aimed. Robert Bridges, in his essay on 
Keats, very aptly describes for literature 
the kind of beauty which we find in 
Shakespeare : ' the power of concentrating 
all the far-reaching resources of language on 
one point, so that a single and apparently 
effortless expression rejoices the aesthetic 
imagination at the moment when it is 
most expectant and exacting.' That, 
ceteris paribus, applies admirably to certain 
kinds of design. It corresponds to the 
nervous touch of a Pollajuolo or a 
Rembrandt. But Claude's line is almost 
nerveless and dull. Even when it is most 
rapid and free it never surprises us by any in- 
timate revelation of character, any summary 
indications of the central truth. But it has 
a certain inexpressive beauty of its own. 
It is never elegant, never florid, and, above 
all, never has any ostentation of cleverness. 
The beauty of Claude's work is not to be 
sought primarily in his drawing : it is 
not a beauty of expressive parts but 
the beauty of a whole. It corresponds in 
fact to the poetry of his century — to Milton 
or Racine. It is in the cumulative eflect 
of the perfect co-ordination of parts none 
of which is by itself capable of absorbing 
our attention or fascinating our imagina- 
tion that the power of a picture by Claude 
lies. It is the unitv and not the content 
that affects us. There is, of course, content, 
but the content is only adequate to its 
purpose and never claims our attention on 

fiT.Tki' - 




its own account. The objects he presents 
to us have no claim on him but as parts 
of a scheme. They have no Hfe and pur- 
pose of their own, and for that very reason 
it is right that they should be stated in 
vague and general terms. Particularization 
would spoil the almost literary effect of 
his presentment. He wishes a tree to 
convey to the eye only what the word 
'tree' might suggest at once to the inner 
vision. We think first of the mass of 
waving shade held up against the brilliance 
of the sky, and this, even with all his detailed 
elaboration, is about where Claude, whether 
by good fortune or design, leaves us. It 
is the same with his rocks, his water, his 
animals. They are all made for the mental 
imagery of the contemplative wanderer, 
not of the acute and ardent observer. But 
where Claude is supreme is in the mar- 
vellous invention with which he combines 
and recombines these abstract symbols so 
as to arouse in us more purely than nature 
herself can the mood of pastoral delight. 
That Claude was deeply influenced by 
Virgil one would naturally suppose from 
his antiquarian classicism, and a drawing 
in the British Museum shows that he had 
the idea of illustrating the Aeneid. In 
any case his pictures translate into the 
language of painting much of the senti- 
ment of Virgil's Eclogues, and that with 
a purity and grace that rival his original. 
In his landscapes Meliboeus always leaves 
his goats to repose with Daphnis under 
the murmuring shade, waiting till his 
herds come of themselves to drink at the 
ford, or in sadder moods of passionless 
regret one hears the last murmurs of the 
lament for Gallus as the well-pastured 
goats turn homewards beneath the evening 

Claude is the most ardent worshipper 
that ever was of the genius loci. Of his 
landscapes one always feels that ' some god 


is in this place.' Never, it is true, one of 
the greater gods : no mysterious and fear- 
ful Pan, no soul-stirring Bacchus or all- 
embracing Demeter; scarcely, though he 
tried more than once deliberately to 
invoke them, Apollo and the Muses, but 
some mild local deity, the inhabitant of a 
rustic shrine whose presence only heightens 
the glamour of the scene. 

It is the sincerity of this worship, and 
the purity and directness of its expression, 
which makes the lover of landscape turn 
with such constant affection to Claude, 
and the chief means by which he com- 
municates it is the unity and perfection 
of his general design ; it is not by form 
considered in itself, but by the planning 
of his tone divisions, that he appeals, and 
here, at least, he is a past master. This 
splendid architecture of the tone masses 
is, indeed, the really great quality in his 
pictures ; its perfection and solidity are 
what enables them to bear the weight of 
so meticulous and, to our minds, tiresome 
an elaboration of detail without loss of 
unity, and enables us even to accept the 
enamelled hardness and tightness of his 
surface. But many people of to-dav, 
accustomed to our more elliptical and 
quick-witted modes of expression, are so 
impatient of these qualities that they can 
only appreciate Claude's greatness through 
the medium of his drawings, where the 
general skeleton of the design is seen 
without its adornments, and in a medium 
which he used with perfect ease and 
undeniable beauty. Thus to reject the 
pictures is, I think, an error, because it 
was only when a design had been exposed 
to constant correction and purification that 
Claude got out of it its utmost expressive- 
ness, and his improvisations steadilv grow 
under his critical revision to their full 
perfection. But in the drawings, at all 
events, Claude's great powers of design 



arc readily seen, and the study of the 
drawings has this advantage also, that 
through them we come to know of a 
Claude whose existence we could never 
have suspected by examining only his 
finished pictures. 

In speaking of the drawings it is well 
to recognize that they fall into different 
classes with different purposes and aims. 
We need not, for instance, here consider 
tlie records of finished compositions in the 
' Liber Veritatis.' There remain designs for 
paintings in all stages of completeness, from 
the first suggestive idea to the finished 
cartoon and the drawings from nature. 
It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to remark 
that it would have been quite foreign to 
Claude's conception of his art to have 
painted a picture from nature. He, him- 
self, clearly distinguished sharply between 
his studies and his compositions. His 
studies, therefore, were not incipient 
pictures, but exercises done for his own 
pleasure or for the fertility they gave to 
his subsequent invention, and they have 
the unchecked spontaneity and freedom of 
hand that one would expect in such un- 
reflecting work. These studies again fall 
into two groups : first, studies of detail, 
generally of foliage or of tree forms, and 
occasionally of rocks and flowers ; and 
secondly, studies of general effects. Of 
the studies of detail I have already said 
something. They have the charm of an 
easy and distinguished calligraphy, and of 
a refined selection of the decorative possi- 
bilities of the things seen, but without 
any of that penetrating investigation of 
the vital nature of the thing seen which 
gives its chief beauty to the best work of 
this kind. 

It is, indeed, in the second group of 
studies from nature that we come from 
time to time upon motives that startle and 
surprise us. Wc find in these a sus- 

ceptibility to natural charms which, in 
its width of range and freedom from 
the traditional limitations of the art of 
landscape, is most remarkable. Here 
we find not only Claude the prim seven- 
teenth-century classic, but Claude the 
romanticist, anticipating the chief ideas 
of Corot's later development', and Claude 
the impressionist, anticipating Whistler 
and the discovery of Chinese landscape, 
as, for instance, in the marvellous 
(iper^u of a mist effect, which we reproduce 
(plate xiv)-. Or, again, in a view which is 
quite diff"erent from any of these, but 
quite as remote from the Claude of the 
oil-paintings, in the great view of the 
Tiber (Plate xiii), a masterpiece of hurried, 
almost unconscious planning of bold 
contrasts of transparent gloom and 
dazzling light on water and plain. This, 
indeed, is so modern in manner that one 
might mistake it at first glance for a 
water-colour drawing by Mr. Steer. 

The impression one gets from looking 
through a collection of Claude's drawings 
like that at the British Museum is of a 
man without any keen feeling for objects 
in themselves, but si;igularly open to im- 
pressions of general effects in nature, 
watching always for the shifting patterns 
of foliage and sky to arrange themselves 
in some beautifully significant pattern and 
choosing it with fine and critical taste. 
But at the same time he was a man with 
vigorous ideas of the laws of design and 
the necessity of perfectly realized unity, 
and to this I suppose one must ascribe the 
curious contrast between the narrow limits 
of his work in oil as compared with the 
wide range, the freedom and the profound 
originality of his work as a draughtsman. 

'As, (or instance, in :i wonderful dr.iwiiij;, On the Biinks ef 
the Tiber, in Mr. Hcscllinc's collection. 

'■•It is not impossihlc Cl.uide got the hint for such a 
Irc.ilincnt .i» this (rom the iinprcssionisi efforts of Graico- p.iintcrs. he studied such works wc know from 
.1 copy of one by h ni in the British Museum. 





Among all these innumerable effects which 
his ready susceptibility led him to record 
he tound but a few which were capable of 
being reduced to that logical and mathema- 
tical formula which he demanded 
before complete realization could be 
tolerated. In his drawings he composes 
sometimes with strong diagonal lines 
{Ripa Qraihie, pi. i), sometimes with 
free and unstable balance. In his pictures 
he has recourse to a regular system of 
polarity, balancing his masses carefully on 
either side of the centre, sometimes even 
framing it in like a theatrical scene with 
two repoussoirs pushed in on either side. 
One must suppose, then, that he approached 
the composition of his pictures with a 
certain timidity, that he felt that safety 
when working on a large scale could only 
be secured by a certain recognized type 
of structure, so that out of all the various 
moods of nature to which his sensitive 
spirit answered only one lent itself to com- 
plete expression. One wishes at times 
that he had tried more. There is in the 
British Museum a half-effaced drawing on 
blue paper, an idea for treating the Noli 
me tangre which, had he worked it out, 
would have added to his complete 
mastery of bucolic landscape a masterpiece 
of what one may call tragic landscape. 
It is true that here, as elsewhere, the figures 
are in themselves totally inadequate, but 
they suggested an unusual and intense key 
to the landscape. On the outskirts of a 

dimly suggested wood, the figures meet 
and hold converse ; to the right the mound 
of Calvary glimmers pale and ghost-like 
against the night sky, while over the 
distant city the first pink flush of dawn 
begins. It is an intensely poetical con- 
ception. Claude has here created a 
landscape in harmony with deeper, more 
mystical aspirations than elsewhere, and, 
had he given free rein to his sensibilities, 
we should look to him even more than 
we do now as the greatest inventor of the 
motives of pure landscape. As it is, the 
only ideas to which he gave complete 
though constantly varied expression are 
those of pastoral repose. 

Claude's view of landscape is false to 
nature in that it is entirely anthropocentric. 
His trees exist for pleasant shade ; his 
peasants to give us the illusion of pastoral 
life, not to toil for a living. His world 
is not to be lived in, onlv to be looked at 
in a mood of pleasing melancholy or suave 
reverie. It is, therefore, as true to one 
aspect of human desire as it is false to the 
facts of life. It may be admitted that this 
is not the finest kind of art — it is the art 
of a self-centred and refined luxury which 
looks on nature as a garden to its own 
pleasure-house — but few will deny its 
genial and moderating charm, and few of us 
live so strenuously as never to feel a 
sense of nostalgia for that Saturnian 
reign to which Virgil and Claude can 
waft us. 


HE present series of sketches 
and studies by Claude serves 
a double purpose. In the first 
place it will illustrate in some 
measure the course of Claude's 
development from early man- 
hood to old age. Incidentally, 

too, it illustrates the remarkable 

manner in which Claude anticipated the landscape 
work of almost all the masters of the art who 

succeeded him. Commenting on the drawings, it 
is easy to discuss these two aspects of the master's 
art at the same time ; indeed, by so doing, we are 
materially aided in gaining a clear idea of the 
course of his progress. 

The history of art as a whole bears a singular 
relation to the development of great individual 
artists. The great artist has his primitive period, in 
which his work is stiff and precise, just as painting 
itself was stif? and precise almost to the close of 

^tes on the T>rau:ings "Reproduced 

the fifteenth century. He then enters upon the 
period in which liis works are, perhaps, most 
perfect, wlien the precision of his youth is tem- 
pered willi the freedom of perfected skill. An 
analogous stage is reached by every school of art 
in its maturity. Last, as the artist approaches 
old age, his work, if he be a great man, becomes 
emancipated from all current rules and theories 
of conception and technique. His composition 
Ix-comes unrestrained, his handling more loose. 
A similar character will be found in all schools 
of painting that h.ive passed their period of full 
strength. The painters who have not originality 
copy their predecessors ; tliose who have origin- 
ality express themselves with more fluency but 
with less sliarpness of vision. 

The sketches of Claude are of the utmost variety, 
and, as we have seen, seem to anticipate from 
time to time the qualities obtained by many of 
his successors. We shall not, therefore, be far 
wrong, perhaps, if we conclude that their relative 
chronoU)gical order is analogous to that of the 
dates at which the respective artists whom he 
resembles lived and worked, and to conclude that 
a drawing resembling a work of Gainsborough is 
later than one which resembles the work of 
Poussin ; and that a drawing which recalls the 
Impressionists of the nineteenth century comes 
later still. Such dated sketches as we possess on 
the whole bear out this assumption, though it 
must always be remembered that the assumption 
applies only to sketches and studies from nature. 
Claude the sketcher is, in fact, a different person 
from Claude the designer t)f classical compositions; 
and the principle which guides us in dating the 
former class of work is not applicable to the latter." 

That the first sketch of shipping represents 
Claude's style at the very opening of his career in 
Rome is indicated, not only by a certain tentative 
quality in the workmanship, but also by external 
evidence. Among not the least interesting draw- 
ings in Mr. Heseltine's splendid collection are 
certain pages of blue paper from one of Claude's 
early sketch-books, and on the back of one of 
them (No. 3) is a study of a boat, the deck covered 
with the sailors and awning, and with the inscrip- 
tion ' Etude faite a Ripa Grande.' The coincidence, 
both of the subject and of the inscription, with 
the drawing in the British Museum, together with 
the resemblance to his countrj'man Callot which 
we notice in the figures, makes it clear that we 
have here an example of Claude's earliest style. 
Those who know his history will remember how 
largely marine subjects figured during the first 
portion of his career, so that on all grounds we 
may assume that this drawing represents his 

■ To those who wish to m.ike a more detailed study of Cl.iudc 
the liltic biography by Mr. Edward Dillon, published in Messrs. 
Methucn's half-crown scries, can be hcirtily recommended. 


powers at the time he settled in Rome, after his 
Waiuh-riiilin; that is to say, about the year 1630. 
We do iiot, of course, sec here the same mastery 
of aerial perspective which we find in the latter 
drawings ; the contr.ast be-tween the boats, the 
buildings and the sky behind them is too forced ; 
yet already we may trace that feeling for effects of 
misty sunlight which Claude afterwards developed. 

The next study is one of those sketches to which 
a reproduction cannot do full justice. The trees 
arc sketched in a reddish-brown pigment which 
conveys by itself the impression of strong illumi- 
nation, while in the background one or two touches 
of cooler grey give the hills by contr:ist a tone of 
rich purple. This device, by which an effect of 
rich colour is suggested without the use of colour, 
is one that we often find in Claude's work. He 
will make his drawing in some warm tone of 
brown, and then delicately work over the distance 
in black and white, gaining from the play of the 
cool tone with the warm one a richness and sub- 
tlety comparable with that of an elaborate oil 
painting. A similar effect is occasionally found 
in the sketches of other great masters, but it was 
used most consistently perhaps by Gainsborough, 
whose landscape studies almost always convey 
the sense of fine colour without the use of a single 
positive hue. 

The third drawing is a thing of special interest 
in the study of Claude. Not only m.-iy it be 
taken as an example of his studies of the ruins of 
Rome which were the foundation of the classical 
architecture introduced into his mythological 
jiictures, not only is it an admirable example of 
his art, but it is also interesting in relation to his 
accuracy as a topographical draughtsman. It is 
evident that the building on the right of the 
drawing is the arch of Constantine, its base heaped 
with grass-grown rubbish on which sheep are 
grazing. When we look at the distance, however, 
we begin to find ourselves in a difficulty. The 
buildings on the hill to the left m.iy, by some 
stretch of the imagination, be taken to represent 
the temple of Venus and Rome, and the basilica 
of Constantine ; but the houses which, as we 
know from other contemporary evidence, sur- 
rounded them in Claude's day are all obliterated, 
and, instead of the centre of a still populous 
Rome, we are presented with a scene of utter 
desolation. That the interval Ix-tween the fore- 
ground and the middle distance should be filled 
by a pool of water is another concession to the 
demands of the picturesque. As all who know 
Rome will recognize, its place in the Rome of 
reality is occupied by the slope which leads up to 
the arch of Titus. At the foot of that slope nearest 
to the arch of Constantine lie the remains of the 
fountain of the Meta Sudans, while on the far side 

.o:^? -1 


!l\[otes on the ^Drawings "^produced 

of the slope the basihca of Constantine overlooks 
the forum where, some thirty or forty feet below 
the Renaissance level of the ground, modern 
archaeological enterprise has discovered traces of 
the pool round which the earliest settlements on 
the site of Rome were built. Claude's drawing, 
therefore, cannot be regarded as in any way an 
accurate representation of Rome as it was in his 
day ; it is merely an improvisation on a Roman 
theme, an essay on the desolation of Italy, rather 
than a view of a real place. In the precision of 
the pen-work and the care with which the details 
of the arch of Constantine are interpreted, we 
recognize some survival from the manner of his 
earliest time, in which he relied almost entirely 
upon careful work with the pen. In this drawing, 
however, the dryness of this early manner is 
mitigated by masterly use of the brush, so that 
the outlines of the distance are blended by delicate 
tones with the paper on which they are drawn, 
while the wiry harshness of the stronger pen lines 
in the foreground is modified by lavish use of 
wet colour so skilfully varied in quality that it is 
everywhere transparent and luminous, 


Having said thus much as to the degree of accu- 
racy we may expect from Claude as a topographer, 
it would be rash to speak too positively as to the 
place depicted in the next sketch. The varied 
species of the trees perhaps indicate rather the 
neighbourhood of a city and of gardens, but even 
then we have no means of deciding the locality. 
We must content ourselves with noticing how 
clear and fresh is the impression of sunlight con- 
veyed, how direct and simple the method of ex- 
pression, how free from all the then prevalent 
notions of manipulating nature. It is, indeed, 
just the sort of study that might have been made 
by some good English artist in the early part of 
the nineteenth century, except that the articula- 
tion of the boughs is not observed as a modern 
master would observe it. 


In the olive garden represented in the following 
drawing we are brought face to face with nature 
in a more serious mood. This is one of the 
sketches in which Claude has worked in black 
and white on the top of a drawing made in brown, 
producing that impression of rich sober colour 
to which we have previously referred, but thereby 
making the effect something which the camera 
cannot reproduce. Nevertheless, the engraving 
may give some idea of the beauty of this sketch. 
It is a cloudy evening, but a burst of sunlight has 
broken through the clouds and has for a moment 
turned to splendour a scene of no great intrinsic 
attraction. It is with the name of Rubens and 
with the stormy days of autumn that we associate 

these sudden splendours rather than with the spirit 
of Claude and the tranquil sky of Italy. 


The little sketch which forms part of the collec- 
tion of drawings in the Oxford University Galleries 
conveys the same impression, blended. It is true, 
with a more tempestuous wind and a wider horizon. 
In connexion with this study, it may not be amiss 
to mention the four drawings at Oxford which 
are reproduced in facsimile. Of these, the two 
views of towns are perhaps the earliest in date. 
Both exhibit in perfection the qualities on which 
Claude's mastery of landscape is based, his feeling 
for the modelling of the ground, his love of 
winding lines which lead the eye insensibly yet 
with infinite variety from the foreground into the 
distance, that preference for country once popu- 
lated by man but now almost deserted which is 
the keynote of so much of his most intimate work. 
As with Piranesi, the figures who move in the 
landscapes of Claude are rarely contemporary 
with the buildings around them. Like Claude 
himself, they are but spectators of the ruins of 
former grandeur, they seem to lead only a butter- 
fly existence under its shadow. It will be 
noticed how in these drawings the touch of 
Claude has become more free ; the pen line is 
no longer hard and crisp but is delicately blurred 
either by working on paper already damped, or 
by a subsequent softening with the brush. This 
quality is specially noticeable in the romantic 
study of a woodland glade where an opening 
reveals to us an expanse of calm water bounded 
far away by a low range of hills over which the 
sun is setting. Here (as in Xo. XVI) three-quarters 
of the composition are only a framework for an 
exquisite passage of distance. We may note how 
careful the artist has been to subdue the incisive- 
ness of his pen stroke by blurring it ever}-\vhere in 
the shadows, so that no importunate detail may 
distract our eyes from the passage he desires to 
emphasize. The treatment, in fact, is really the 
same as that employed in the fourth drawing, 
where a shadowed watercourse flows out into a 
quiet lake : a sketch in which both brush and 
chalk are used together to produce strength of 
tone and soft play of light without the intrusion 
of any sharp lines to detract from the effect of 
misty evening light under which the scene is 


If we now turn to the next illustration, a study 
of a tree fallen into a river, made during one of 
Claude's excursions to Tivoli, we shall notice how 
the general mass and sweep of the foliage, 
together with the forms of the landscape in tlie 
background, are blocked out with loose strokes of 
the brush, but the portion of the subject which 
the artist was most keenly bent on recording, the 
bough trailing in the water, is drawn with the 


?\[otes ON the T>ra\jojfigs T^produccd 

pen, vigorously yet with an eye for detail and 
structure which Claude does not always show. 


In this study we see an increaiscd complexity of 
method. The subject seems first to have heeii 
faintly indicated with the brush, then to have 
Ix-eii carried out in black chalk, and finally 
once more strenjjthened with a few vigorous 
tt)uches of wet colour. It is thus analogous to the 
landscape studies of (jainsborougli in method as 
well as in feeling and execution. Indeed, it 
resembles Gainsborough so closely in its tech- 
nique that it might well pass for a study by him, 
although a student who is intimately acquainted 
with {jainsborougli would probably find it 
dil^icult to give the drawing a date, since the 
close reliance upon nature which underlies it is 
found only in (jainsborough's early work, while 
the e-xquisite freedom of touch and breadth of 
style which it displays were achieved by him only 
in middle life, when he had few or no oppor- 
tunities of working in the open air. The drawing 
cannot claim to be a complete composition, or to 
Ih; a thing of extraordinary beauty, yet it is the 
work of a master in that it expresses perfectly the 
things it sets out to express, the mysterious charm 
of a road running deep between tree-clad banks, a 
charm obtained by that elimination of unnecessary 
detail which is the hall-mark of all good crafts- 


If the drawing of the hollow road might be 
comp.ired with Gainsborough, this sepia sketch 
of rocks and trees might with equal justice be 
compared with the works of the English water- 
colourists of the early of the nineteenth 
century. It exhibits just the same facile, confident 
use of the medium, just the same perception of the 
obvious relations of sunshine and shadow. Per- 
haps it might be charged with the same defect, 
namely a cert.iin materialism of attitude which is 
content with a clever record of some casual effect, and does not attempt to be more 
than clever. Had Gainsborough or Rembrandt 
approached such a subject, he would infallibly 
have endowed it with some new tpiality of air or 
distance or mystery which wcjuld make the rocks 
aeul trees symbols of something much more than 
they actually are, woukl have envek)ped them in 
the atmosphere of a wider and more significant 
universe, and we should forget that there was such 
a thing as skilful manipulation of wet colour in our 
delight at the profound sensiition with which the 
dr.iwing inspired us. This materialism is not 
uncommon in Claude's work, and goes far to ex- 
plain the faults of his pictures. It is evident that 
he w;us by nature a man of profound feeling, but 
his feeling was superior to his char.icter. When 
his inspiration was uninten upted he couki be .1 
fine emotional artist, but his nuiul was not 


strong enough to resist the allurements of facile 
success, the criticism of a less gifted friend, or the 
tastes of a patron. Men of great independence of 
mind, like Rembrandt, constantly make mistakes, 
but they do so deliberately, as an inventor may 
sometimes waste his time in following up a false 
scent. The failings of Claude cannot be assigned 
to any such honourable cause. 


In the sketch which follows, we see Claude 
working untrammelled, with a good taste and pro- 
fundity that are almost worthy of Rembrandt. 
The slightly conventional silhouette of the foliage 
to the left is the one passage in which we can still 
recognize his limitations, but the suggestion of 
the great wall rising on the right and screening all 
but a glimpse of the sunlit hills in the distance 
has a boldness and massiveness that are rare in the 
landscape design of any country or of any period. 
Translated into solid paint, it would need the 
genius of a Rembrandt to match the play of 
broken tones and reflected lights which make 
this sketch a little masterpiece of chiaroscuro. It 
is, indeed, in company with the work of Rem- 
brandt that it deserves to be studied. 


If dignity was the keynote of the previous 
drawing, then the keynote of the present one is 
romance. The famous picture of TUc EiiclianlcJ 
Ctistlc in the Wantage collection is Claude's 
supreme achievement as a painter in oil, and in 
itself is sufticient to place him among the great 
creative landscape artists. Vet such a drawing ;is 
that before us, if small things may be compared 
with great, may fitly be compared with the 
Wantage picture. Here Claude transports us 
into an ideal Italy — not the Italy of wide plains, 
white walls and quiet sunshine that we find in 
his paintings, as in those of his great follower, 
Corot, but an Italy which we might hope to 
discover even now, in some remote district from 
which the stirr and stress of active life have long 
passed away. We feel that if we could but leave 
railways and all other means of conveyance far 
behind, and follow the less travelled stretches of 
the Italian coast line, we might in some fortunate 
moment come across just such a quiet little bay, 
with just such jutting clilTs, with just such a little 
mouldering tower on the far headland, and with 
just such an uncertain sky brooding over it all. A 
few of the felicitous little studies by Gu.ardi of islets 
forgotten among the Venetian lagoons touch the 
same lonely note. The best landscape painters 
of Holland try for it, but with infrequent success. 
It is, in fact, one of the few veins of landscape 
sentiment which might still be explored with 


In this broadly executed sketch of Tivoli, we see 
Claude once more anticipating the style of later 

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%(otes on the drawings l^produced 

masters. On this occasion the analogy is with 
Girtin and dome, in whose art we see the same 
large, solemn view of nature expressed with the 
same force and simplicity of means. One cannot 
help feeling a regret that Claude should not have 
attempted to carry out in the more solid and 
substantial medium of oil some of these broad 
conceptions which he realized so completely in 
water-colour. Whatever our admiration for his 
skill as an oil painter, we cannot help recognizing 
that his brush-work is somewhat petty, that his 
masses are too frequently broken up, too consis- 
tently fretted with small details, so that it is only on 
rare occasions, as in the superb Acis and Galatea 
at Dresden, that we find him dealing with large 
things in a large way ; and, even there, the fashion 
of the day or the imperfection of his taste admits 
the introduction of importunate little figures in 
the foreground. These figures, it is true, are said 
to have been re-painted with additions by another 
hand, but the mere fact of their being introduced 
at all shows that the artist was not strong enough, 
as Crome and Girtin were, to throw aside con- 
vention, and to leave the great solitudes of nature 
to tell their own story. 


These three studies introduce us to an even more 
advanced stage in the history of art. Something 
in this marvellous bird's-eye prospect may remind 
us of Rembrandt ; something, perhaps, of the 
spreading plains which Turner loved to paint ; but 
the style is that of a generation later even than 
Turner. When Ruskin uttered his famous de- 
nunciations of Claude in ' Modern Painters,' he 
joined with them abuse of what he termed ' blott- 
esque landscape.' Little, 1 think, could he foresee 
that the loose style of workmanship which he then 
condemned would, before the end of his life, be 
the generally accepted manner of artistic sketching, 
and that this seemingly incoherent method of 
expression would be found more decorative and 
infinitely more suggestive than the minute state- 
ment of details that he practised and preached. 
In the house of art there are many mansions, and 
we are being compelled to recognize more and 
more that we may without inconsistency visit 
them all. Yet it is remarkable that it should have 
been reserved for Claude to anticipate so com- 
pletely a style of technical work and a form of 
artistic vision which the other landscape painters 
of Europe did not reach till two hundred and 
fifty years after his death. 

Still more definitely impressionistic is the next 
study, in which the charm of misty moonlight is 
enlivened and contrasted with artificial illumina- 
tion. It is a sketch which could be hung in a 
show of modern English or continental work 
under the name of half a dozen artists one can re- 
member, without the spectator guessing for a 

moment that the drawing was two centuries old 
and more. 

The sketch of a woodland glade with a vague 
country scene beyond it is equally modern, and if 
we did not know from its place in the British 
Museum and its history that it was a work by 
Claude, we might pardonably recognize in it a 
sketch by Mr. Sargent or Mr. Wilson Steer. 
Indeed, it is the existence of sketches such as this 
that makes Claude such a difficult figure to under- 
stand. How was it that a man who could see 
nature so independently, and learn to report his 
impressions so boldly, did not, as a painter, show 
a trace of this boldness ? We can only attribute 
the failure to lack of character. Nevertheless, in 
judging his achievement as a whole, the extra- 
ordinary gifts displayed in his sketches cannot be 
set on one side, and if we count them, we are almost 
compelled to admit that Claude's natural disposi- 
tion for landscape was not inferior to the reputation 
he once held in Europe. 


The three large drawings which follow indicate 
the use which Claude made of the detached studies 
from nature which we have been considering. 
Nos. XVI and XVII are both in Mr. Heseltme's 
collection, and are reproduced here by his kind 
permission. The collection at the British 
Museum is far larger, but contains a good deal 
that is not of the first importance. Mr. Hesel- 
tine's collection, on the other hand, is a collection 
of picked examples, covering the whole period of 
Claude's career, and including some of his very 
earliest known drawings, but especially strong in 
the work of his mature period (1660- 1665), when 
his art was at his best. The first drawing we have 
to consider. No. XVI, is of singular majesty in the 
disposition of its masses, but we cannot help feel- 
ing that these solemn trees and rolling foreground 
which occupy so much of the picture's space are, 
as in the Oxford drawing already mentioned, only 
a framework for the exquisite glimpse of the dis- 
tance which they permit us to see — a quiet sheet 
of water, bordered by low hills beyond which 
sunlit mountains rise sheer into the evening sky. 
The abrupt forms of these mountains suggest the 
Dolomites rather than the softer ouUines of the 
mountains that look down on the Roman Cam- 
pagna. Here indeed, as m many other passages 
in Claude's work, we must recognize how largely 
he was influenced by the work of other artists, 
and how skilfully he assimilated the hints of 
novel scenery which they gave to him. 

The next drawing, too (XVII), has nothing speci- 
fically Italian about it. The movement and nature 
of the cloud forms, the moisture with which the 
air is laden, and the group of castellated ruins on 
the right to which the whole composition sweeps 
upwards, are so definitely northern in character 
that we are once more reminded of the art of 


!^(ote5 oti the ^raivirigs Reproduced 

GainsborouKli. Again, as in Gainsborough's work, 
wc find Claude gcttini; a suggestion of actual 
colour by working in bhick and wluti; on the lop 
of a drawing executed in brown. As in the earlier 
drawings where this practice was noticed, the 
effect is one of singular richness, so that, although 
the actual tones before us arc no more than grey 
and brown, the mind is instinctively compelled 
to ct>lour the composition with the rich tones of 
sunset in which the similar compositions of 
Rubens and Gainsborough arc enveloped. To 
the artist of to-day such drawings may not always 
appeal strongly, since the eye may be repelled by 
much that is formal and conventional in the build- 
ing up of the compuisition,and by the generalization 
of natural forms which made Ruskin so angry. 
Yet there is a place for art that has no relation to 
photographic appearances, just as there is a 
literature which has nothing to do with the 
statement of facts such as may be found in the 
daily paper ; and those who have still sufficient 
imagination to appreciate a literature which is not 
a literature of facts (if, indeed, journalism can be 
so termed) may also be able to enjoy the beauty 
and romance of these drawings of Claude, and to 
make allowance for their artifice. 


In the last subject reproduced no such allow- 
ance at all is necessary. In this sketch for a 
composition representing apparently the Tower 
of Babel we are dealing with a world which is 
entirely a world of the imagination. To this 
place of cloud-capped towers and gorgeous 
palaces we need not apply the tests of common 
realism any more than we apply them to 
Prospero'b island, but can abandon ourselves to 

sheer delight in the prospect of wide plains and 
giant architecture which stretches before us. The 
artist will note the skill with which the eye is led 
away across the level country to the huge erection 
that rises literally into the sky, will admire the 
subtlety with which the vast height and massive 
bulk of the towering buildings on the right are 
suggested, and will perhaps regret that Claude did 
not carry out this stupendous conception in paint. 
Yet we may wonder whether the realization of 
such an idea is possible in paint; whether the 
artist was not wise to leave it as a suggestion. In 
painting even the most skilful artist is to some 
extent subject to accidents of material, to the 
necessity of representing positively much at which 
a sketch needs only to hint, if we remember 
how few paintings of a highly im.iginative nature 
can be termed unqualified successes, we may 
recognize that Claude was perhaps right in 
leaving this idea in the form of a sketch, where 
the imagination of the spectator, if attuned to the 
subject, would inevitably supply all that was 
required to complete the picture, without the 
help of any of those importunate details which, 
when materialized in an oil painting, are apt to 
distract the attention and weaken the design. 

Once more, the analogy with the work of 
certain northern artists will not fail to strike those 
who are conversant with the history of landscape, 
but in this case, as in that to which we previously 
referred, this exotic element is so blended and 
fused with the breadth of view and stability of 
construction that are characteristic of all good 
Italian work that we can accept it without the 
reservations which we are compelled to make 
before the imaginative landscapes of Flanders 
and Germany. C. J. H. 






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NDOUBTEDLY (lie com- 
Iniittee have chosen the right 
Imoment for the present exhi- 
jbition of objects connected 
'with the history of the Golden 
Fleece. Now that Bruges pos- 
1 sesses a direct waterway to the 

sea, those who appreciate the 

innate shrewdness and enterprise of the Flemings 
can alone foresee how far the town will go 
towards recovering her past repute as a centre of 
commercial activity. It is therefore very fitting, 
after a long period of relative stagnation, that 
Bruges should pause to cast a retrospective glance 
at her old greatness before shaking off the old- 
world habit that has long constituted her chief 

The story goes that the Order of the Golden 
Fleece owes its origin to the ironical comments of 
the Burgundian nobles on the ' auburn ' tresses — 
' Toison d'Or,' some learned wag had dubbed it — 
of their prince's lady-love, Maria von Crombrugge 
— ' Fore Heaven ! Sirs,' quoth Duke Philip the 
Good, ' I will make of this same golden fleece a 
badge of such high honour as the best of you that 
mock now shall think it glory enough to wear'; 
and, as in the kindred case of the Garter, from a 
thoughtless jest at a lady's expense sprang into 
existence a great and puissant order of knight- 
hood which to this day numbers kings amongst 
its proudest members. Less romantic but more 
convincing is the view that by the institution of 
the Golden Fleece its founder intended to com- 
memorate the prosperity of Flemish commerce 
and especially of the woollen industry of which 
Bruges was the headquarters. Whether one in- 
cline to the first account, to the second, or to a 
third version according to which the duke's 
motive was to honour his bride, the essential fact 
remains that on February loth, 1429, the new 
Order was solemnly inaugurated with great pomp 
and ceremony. At the first installation the num- 
ber of knights created was twenty-four in all ; 
amongst whom we find such illustrious names as 
Croy, Lannoy, la Trimouille and Commines. 
The Toison d'Or was formally placed under the 
patronage of Our Lady and of St. Andrew. 
The latter saint was peculiarly identified with the 
Order, and his anniversary was the principal feast 
in its calendar. A St. Andrew's cross ragnly, be 
it mentioned, was one of the badges of the house 
of Burgundy. The requisite qualifications were 
of a very severe standard ; none but men of the 
highest quality, spotless integrity and rigid honour 
were eligible. The slightest taint spelt rejection, 
and personal courage was put at such a premium 
that discretion was forbidden to temper valour 
under any circumstances. The consequence was 
that the flower of European chivalry vied w:ith 

kings and princes in seeking admission to the 
ranks of the Toison d'Or.' 

Ot English monarchs Edward IV, Henry VII 
and Henry VIII were enrolled upon its registcr.- 
Kings of PVance, Castille, Hungary and Poland, 
prmces of Orange, dukes of Bavaria, of Saxony 
and a host of other rulers have been of its number. 
The tale of its members is the enumeration of all 
that was noblest and most famous in Spain, Ger- 
many, Austria, Hungary and the Netherlands 
throughout a period extending over centuries. 
After the fall of the power of Burgundy and the 
union of its reigning house with that of Hapsburg, 
the hereditary headship of the Order passed over 
to Austria. From Charles V onward the Toison 
d'Or was divided into two branches, the Austrian 
and the Spanish ; the sovereigns of both countries 
enjoying equally the dignity of Grand Master.^ 

The privileges of membership were in keeping 
with the difficulties of admission, and the official 
proceedings of the Order were characterized by 
unusual splendour.* The exhibition now on view 
in the Maison du Gouverneur leaves us in no doubt 
on this point at least. Much there is which has 
little or no direct relation to the object of the 
collection. In fact the words ' Exposition de la 
Toison d'Or ' have been interpreted in a more than 
catholic manner. We have, however, splendid 
examples of the habits and insignia of the knights 
gathered from a variety of sources. The habit of 
the Order has remained the same from the date of 
its birth to the present day. It consists of a 
close gown or habit shirt of red velvet with close- 
sleeves, generally plain. Over this is worn a semi- 
circular mantle of crimson velvet embroidered in 
gold and lined with white satin, fastened upon 
the right shoulder. Along the extreme edge runs 
the motto of the Toison d'Or in gold : 
' Je lay emprins.' '■• Beyond this is a broad 
band of embroidery which bears at intervals 
the Fleece supported by the Burgundian linked 
fusils or fire-steels. This embroidery often varies 
a little in detail. Thus we sometimes find the 

' An order, named ' Ordre des Trois Toison d'Or,' was pro- 
claimed by Napoleon at Schoenbrunn in 1810 with much pomp 
and circumstance. For eligibility princes of the blood must 
have undergone their ' baptism of tire,' and ministers have held 
oflices for ten consecutive years. Only two nominations were 
ever made, and the order, though never revoked, gradually 
lapsed into oblivion. 

-King Edward VII and the dufce of Devonshire are the only 
actual English knights, to the best of my knowledge. 

^ Spain teems always to have been the preponderant authority. 

■* The knights of the Fleece were judicially answerable to 
their own chapter only, and all had a voice in its elections. A 
quaint privilege was the daily ,i;rant of two measures of wine 
and ten linrds' worth of bread. 

'The motto of Philippe le Bon, which was also that of this 
order, is 'Aultre n'auray tant que je vive.' 'Plus oultrc' 
(Charles V) and ' Plus en seray' (Philip II) are also found on 
the robes. To the collar of fusih and firestones was att.ached 
the vaoV.0" Ayite ferit quam flamma micet," and to the pendent 
lamb or fleece the device " Pretiuni von vile lahnrtim." 


Bruges and the Go/dcN Fleece 

cross-st.ivcs /<»^;i/v of liiiimiiuly intidcliicccl. The 
liotxl or clitifkroii, wliicli i> in piicicipU- the s.imc 
as the 'hitincfiir of the (j.iitci ioIkvs, in.itclics tlic 
chiak, and also h;us j^old cniliroidcry at the end of 
the folded cocks-comb or conutlc. The emperor 
of Austria lias lent a complete habit of the Order 
of the eighteenth centur)', which varies principally 
from the accepted shape in havinj; the roinidUt or 
stuffed roll which usually is the foundation of the 
hood replaced in tliis instance by a sort of 
embroidered smoking cap.' Also the motto is 
worked upon a narrow border of white satin. 
Comparison of a number of pictures and illumi- 
nations on view at this exhibition shows a certain 
variety in the minor details, so slight, however, as 
to escape a casual eye. Tlie collar of the Order 
was formed of pairs of linked fusils, alternating 
with blue enamelled flints having gold flames 
issuant. Sometimes the flint is absent altogether 
or represented by a jewel. In front hangs the 
Golden Fleece suspended by the middle with 
head and legs pendant. A number of examples 
of this collar have been gathered together, but all 
of them are more modern and less massive than 
the old collar is shown to have been. The insignia 
of the Spanish and Belgian kings are of this 
numl>er. The collar of the latter is rather on the 
'pretty 'side of things, and the /;/s/7s have been 
elaborated almost out of recognition. In this, as 
in all the actual collars shown, the flint, or pierrc 
it fcH, is of blue black enamel irregularly mottled 
with white. An informal collar attributed to 
King Charles II of Spain is of plaited white silk, 
the centre portion entirely covered with tiny 
square brilliants and supporting the pendant, also 
filled in with brilliants, the head and legs above 
being of plain gold and hanging from a blue 
flint with red enamelled flames. The large pen- 
dant belonging to Alfonso XIII is a mere mass of 
diamonds ; 'golden ' it cannot be called. 

No smgle class of object shown is more re- 
m.irkable than the armour section, of which the 
most important pieces have been sent by the 
monarchs of Austria and Spain. Every single 
piece in this section is of such superlative quality 
that no room is left for criticism, but only for 
admiration. There is a child's suit, made — says 
the inscription, which I venture to question — for 
Philip I of Castille. ' Apart from this being 
apparently valued more highly than any other in 
the collection, viz : at ^80,000, it is in every 
single detail of the most rare and extraordinary 
character. It has long fluted skirts or baus 
— like the suit in the Tower given to Henry 
VIII by Maximilian I. These and the body 

• Wiile apologiiing f.,r »o flippant a term, I can think of none 
more devrripluc. 

' The whole character of lhi< ^uit indicates a period not 
earlier than 1510-15:0. II iithe armour of a boy of about eleven 
to thirteen yexct, and Philip the Fair died in 1 joC. L'f Av) next 


.»nd shuulder-pl.iles are decorated with broad 
b.iiuls of black .md gold tracery. The f>tuililroiis 
are similarly decorated, but of a most unusual 
type, being made exactly like very short wide sleeves. 
The bnissiirts iiiislies and toe-caps are modelled 
in imitation of the puffs and slashes characterizing 
the civil fashion of the day. The whole impression 
aimed at is that of a puffed suit of the Maximilian 
epoch, worn beneath a long-skirted short-sleeved 
jerkin. The gauntlets have no cuffs, but appar- 
ently are in one with the viiiiibrnci: and are fluted 
across the back of the fist. This is a harness of 
German make. Such imitations of civil modes 
are comparatively rare in extant suits. Of the 
fluted steel bases another fine instance is in Vienna, 
while of puffed and fluted harnesses there is one 
in the Wallace Collection (formerly at Goodrich 
Court) two in Paris and two very fine ones in 
Vienna.' It is curious to compare the Madrid suit 
attributed to Philip I of Castille, from the Armeria 
Keal, Madrid, with the child's suit already men- 
tioned as ascribed to the same monarch. It is 
not a full ' hosting harness,' the leg-armour being 
absent, if such portions ever existed. This, a 
harness made for a grown inan, fully agrees with 
the date assigned to it. The whole character is 
late Gothic, and it is undoubtedly inuch the earliest 
piece of armour on exhibition. In former times 
it must have been more imposing than at present, 
as it has been richly decorated with gilt and en- 
graved bands. Now however the gilding has been 
for the most part worn off and even the engraving 
has suffered severely, perhaps as the result of in- 
judicious cleaning. It has a narrow placate or 
' piece (U reiifort' to the breast. In this connex- 
ion it is interesting to note a piece of plate shown 
in the central case'-" in this room. This piece is of 
most unusual form, although its shape leaves little 
doubt as to its purpose. It obviously was in- 
tended as a strengthening piece to the breast, but 
while such pieces generally follow the lines of the 
cuir.iss, the present one is merely an oblong strip 
of steel moulded to lit the underlying armour. 
The most curious feature of Philip I's harness — 
to return to our subject — is the chapel. This has 
a turned-up brim of two plates curving out- 
w.ird at the top. The crown itself is qiiadiilobeil, 
and the effect very much that of the civil 
lx>nnet in vogue towards 1500. The Vienna 
suit, be it remarketl, lacks the customary 
thickly cabled edges. One of the small 
plates exhibited with this armour (and of 
the fifteenth century) has the full collar of 
the Order engraved on the breast. This en- 
graved collar is also present on the exquisite 
armour of Nicholas III of Salm-Neuberg (d. 1550) 

•The wlinle of the armour here compared with the so-called 
'Philip the Fair' suit dates about i5io-2(i. Tlie Tower suit 
date' from ijtg; the two Viennese examples from 1311 and 
1S15 (atK>ut). 

•Lent by II M The King. 


of Charles V (attributed to Colman of Augsburg 
anno 1521), of Ferdinand I (d. 1564), and upon 
a complete suit of late sixteenth-century date 
of splendid workmanship, but unattributed. It is 
seen to even greater advantage on the gorget of a 
senii-open headpiece which belonged to Charles \'. 
This is a helmet of curious fashion : the skull 
is modelled and gilt to represent a head 
of hair, whilst the beaver in like manner 
is decorated with a full beard and mous- 
tachios. The general appearance recalls certain 
Japanese helmets. The crossed staves of Burgundy 
are used to decorate a fine suit made for Philip 1 1 
which also shows an extra detachable frame to 
secure the panache. Combined with fusils they 
decorate the breast and back of a fifteenth-century 
child's demi-suit from St. Petersburg. The 
armour, alia Roiiiaiia, of Charles V is, perhaps, 
the best-known suit lent by Spain. It is, of 
course, an aninirc dc parade, intended for 
show in triumphal processions rather than actual 
practical use. The whole is of biutty steel, 
relieved with gold, and consists of a cuirass 
moulded in imitation of the classic lorica, and 
furnished with lambrequins at the arm-holes and 
waist, a shirt of mail, an open casque and openwork 
buskins, all of metal. On the left shoulder-blade, 
in gold, is inscribed : ' B (artolommeo) ; C (ampi) ;' 
and on the right : ' F (ecit).' The date assigned 
it is 1541, but I understand the actual curator of 
the Armeria Real, Seiior Florit, is against its 
attribution to Charles V. A curious detail is that 
the top of breast and back is modelled to represent 
a square decoUetage, filled in with mail. The 
casque is a bnrgonct modelled on pseudo-classic 
lines and encircled by a golden laurel wreath. 
1 The buskins have the toes slightly indicated, 
and fasten by means of their own elasticity and 
buttons on the outer side. 

The war-harness of Charles V (ascribed to 
' Colman '" of Augsburg, anno 1521), apart from 
the Fleece engraved on it, is ver>' interesting. It 
may, possibly, have formerly had palettes, for the 
front view of the paiildroits resembles the type 
known in German as Spaii^rdls, that is to say, they 
lack the broad flanges overlapping the breast. 
At the back, however, they are very complete, 
and the right hand one has an extra articulation. 
This, probably, indicates that this piece has been 
broken and the damage made good by cutting 
away the damaged portion and adding a splint. 
The greaves only cover the outside of the leg and 
end in a \-andvked fringe of mail. There are 
no solerets. The iasscts are continuous with the 
fald and there is a prominent cod-piece. 

Other objects worth notice in the cases are a 
number of knives attributed to Philip le Bon, 

i"I presume this to be Coloman Helmschmied (1470-1532). He 
was son to Loren^ Helmschmied, armourer to Maximilian I (died 
1516.) and father to Desiderius, who worked for the Austrian and 
Spanish Courts about 1550. 

'Bruges and the Golden Fleece 

some fine ' serving knives,' and a set of three 
falcons' hoods, for hawking, in gilt leather. AH 
these objects are displayed in the great hall, 
where is also a most interesting and precious col- 
lection of MS. works relating to the Toison d'Or, 
including Guillaume P'illastre's history of the 
Order (Bibliotheque Royale) and Georges Chas- 
telain's life of James de Lalaing (lent by the 
present Count de Lalaing). A most curious and 
rare book lent by the king of Spain is a complete 
series of water-colour drawings of the armour 
formerly belonging to Charles V. It shows every 
detail and variety of body defence then in use." 
A similar album exists in England, and has been 
described by Viscount Dillon in a paper entitled 
'An Elizabethan Armourer's Album,' which 
appeared in 'The Archaeological Journal.' This 
is a record of the work of one Jacob Topf, a 
German, who was the leading armourer in this 
country' at the close of the sixteenth centurj'. He 
was the master of William Pickering, the only 
English armourer of any note. This MS. has 
been invaluable in enabling one to attribute 
certain existing suits {e.g., that of Sir Christopher 
Hatton) to their original owners with absolute 
certainty. The Spanish exhibit is superior in 
execution to Topf's book, and moreover shows 
interesting examples of military undersvear. Thus 
on the page exposed are a variety of arming 
boots variously reinforced with pieces of mail 
and laced up the small of the leg. In some 
cases toe-caps of plate are attached. One of 
the most striking things displayed in this 
room is a herald's tabard in silk and velvet, 
outlined in gold and beautifully worked. It 
has been lent by the Austrian emperor, and 
the original design which hangs opposite to it 
has been lent by the king of Spain. The latter 
is cut to pattern and drawn the exact size of 
the actual garment. In the absence of any 
definite information, '- I am driven by the 
heraldry and general fashion to supposing this to 
have belonged to a royal herald either of Charles V 
or Philip II — probably the former. In the 
original design the heraldic colours are frankly 
treated for what they are. Thus gules is expressed 
by vermilion, azure by a sky-blue, or by a strong 
yellow which may be gamboge, or puree. In the 
actual garment however the red is a deep crimson 
velvet, and the blue a velvet of a deep sapphire 
tone. The purple velvet is so deep as to appear 
black at first sight. The or is expressed by a deep 
gold-coloured silk, and the argent and sable por- 
tions are also of silk. The \-arious divisions of 
the field are separated by a line of black and 

" On the page opened is a drawing of the t>earded helmet 
dei^cribed above. 

'- The absence of any catalogue up to date and the fact that 
half the exhibits are unlabelled render it difticult to describe 
many of Ihem as satisfactorily as might be wished. 

Eruocs anil the Golden Fleece 

gold braid and the delails uutlincd in gold. 
Neither of these two peculiarities is indicated in 
the design. The sleeves, inst&id of being as usual 
sciu.ue flaps, arc semicircles attached to the body 
of the tabard by their whole diameter and this 
shape has considerably cramped the designer in 
repeatmg the charges on them. The arms 
quartered are those of Castille, Leon, Burgundy 
and Austria, and in the centre is a small scutcheon 
with the arms of, which would seem to 
point at Is.ibel of Portugal, queen to Charles V. 
Mention of this reminds one of two fine copes 
which in the lower hall, both from 
Tourn.ii Cathedral ; one, of cut velvet, known 
as ' Mante.ui dc Charles V,' of very curious 
effect, the pile being deep crimson and the 
foundation pale gold. The second cope is 
that of Guillaume Fillastre, bishop of Tournai 
and chancellor of the Order (in the fifteenth 
cenlurv), whose portrait is seen in his own 
MS. history alre.idy alluded to. This is of 
crimson velvet embroidered with semi-circular 
rows of stags' heads, the antlers enclosing a G, — 
his initial. There are also two line dalmatics of 
silver damask. To return to the upper floor, 
there is to be seen a magnificent set of four 
tapestries (king of Spain) representing the Tunis 
expedition of Charles V, in which the various 
occurrences incidental to such a campaign are 
remarkably well shown. We have, first, the 
military transport work, the naked shaven galley- 
slaves ; second, an engagement between the 
Moorish cavali7 and the entrenched Spaniards ; 
third the Moorish chief making his peace 
with Charles V. In this picture we have a 
most wonderful presentment of camp life ; the 
Spaniards are seen shooting and fishing, attend- 
ing ito their laundry, and engaged in even 
more intimate business. Outside the camp, 
however, and in the water lie decomposed 

Fourth, Charles V 

corpses of men and dogs, 
reviews his c.ivalry. " 

Of peculiar interest is the series of prize collars 
given to the winner in the popinjay shooting 
matches. The finest, perhaps, of these is ascribed 
to Charles V and comes from Xivelles." It is 
mounted on red velvet and consists of open work 
silver-gilt plates in relief. The arms of Austria 
crowned arc in the centre with the usual chain of 
//«if7s underneath, and on either side is a female 
figure, an abbess and a reading maiden. The 
usual little silver-gilt popinjay is attached. This 
is one of some half-do/.en specimens. 

The turning lathe of Maximilian I is a rare and 
remarkable exhibit by a private collector. It is 
curiously carved with armorial devices and retains 
traces of painting ; the exact working is not quite 
apparent. Near it is a curious MS. illuminated roll" 
showing the ceremony of initiation of the Golden 
Fleece, viz., first, the Accolade ; second, the Pro- 
gress to the Church ; third, the Prayer of the 
Postulants; fourth, the Investiture of the Insignia ; 
fifth, the Thank-offering ; sixth, the Return Pro- 
cession ; seventh, the Banquet. 

On the paintings, medallions and sculptures, I 
do not propose to dwell. The few pictures of 
special artistic interest are in no way associated 
with the history of the Fleece ; the rest are merely 
portraits of personages connected with the Order 
and of no interest except as a record of mem- 
bers. Tilborch's Procession of the Golden FUece 
shows us the habits combined with costumes of 
about 1670, and the portraits of knights belonging 
to the Croy family (twenty-five in all) illustrate 
the important part played by this house in the 
annals of Toison d'Or. 

'■' Many of the knights wear the Jii.v.i or cut diagonally 
so as to leave one shoulder uncovered, like the Creek Hutut. 

"At Nivtiles our own Charles II, while on his wanderinsi 
is reported to have carried off such a trophy. 

» Unlabclled. ? Temp. Rudolf II. 



► OKTY years ago there was 
^remaining in its original place 
fin a remote convent of nuns 
in Spain a great altar-piece, 
I substantially an early work of 
\\'ela/quez, yet undescribcd .ind, 
Jindecd, entirely unknown. 
•ftf-^^^^^.,^',,^^ I he writer, by a fortunate 
chance, discovered the picture at that time ; if he 
had not done so, prol^ably all knowledge nf it 
and its history would have been lost to the art 
world. Whether or nut the picture is still in it- 

pi. ice Is uncertain ; peril. tps this notice may bring 
enlightenment. He is now, though late in the 


day, taking steps to that end. It is noi, however, 
for the first time he has moved in the matter, 
for, on February 15th, 1890, a letter from him 
was published in the 'Times' respecting it, and he 
thinks that the matter cannot be more fitly brought 
In the notice of the rc.iders of Tllli Bi KLINGION 
Magazink than by the reprinting of that 'Times' 
letter in its columns. 

• To Ihc Editor of the " Times." 

' Philip IV's .ill-powcrliil luiiusler, the 
Conde IJuijue Ulivaie/, in Ihc time of his 
greatness, founded a convent of nuns at 


Loeches, a little out-of-the-way 'pueblo' on 
his property some twenty miles from Madrid. 
Here he erected a stately church and con- 
ventual building^, and endowed the establish- 
ment with a series of grand pictures by 
Rubens, and with tapestry hangings and 
other costly works of art. 

' During' the French war the Rubens 
pictures were sold by the nuns, and two of 
them found their way to this country. They 
are the well-known great pictures now at 
Grosvenor House. 

' Finally, Loeches was the burial place of 
the great minister. The establishment is, or 
was some twenty-five years ago when I visited 
it, still kept up, but' the nuns, twenty-three 
in number, were struggling for existence in 
a chronic state of great poverty. It then 
occurred to them, or, rather, to a noble lady 
of Madrid, their patroness and protector, to 
ascertain if the convent still contained any 
works of art by the sale of which money 
could be raised. Amongst other reputed 
treasures a series of tapestries from Ratfaelle's 
cartoons were known to be still there. Ap- 
plication was thereupon made to the English 
Government, through the Spanish ambassador 
in London, to ascertain if these tapestries 
could be purchased for the Kensington 
Museum. As I, at the time, happened to be 
in Spain in my capacity as superintendent 
of the museum, in research of objects of art, 
I was directed to proceed to Loeches and 
report. I found that the convent was one 
in which the rule of strict 'clausura' prevailed, 
I'.f., in which the nuns never went outside the 
convent walls, and into which no male person 
was allowed to enter. By special dispensation, 
however, from the principal of the Dominican 
order, the Patriarch 'de las Indias' in Madrid, 
an exception was made in my favour 

'The place is situated in one of the most 
barren and forbidding districts in the province 
of Madrid, in a treeless, waterless tcrrciio 
salitroso, and accessible only by rough and 
intricate bridle-paths. Although not more 
than five or six leagues from Madrid it took 
me the best part of two days' riding to get 
there. On my arrival at the village I was met 
by the parish priest and the doctor, both of 
whom were anxious that I should take them 
with me into the nunnery, where they had 
never been allowed to penetrate beyond the 
precincts of the grated ' locutorio ' and the 
church. The doctor informed me that he 
was anxious to make a sanitary inspection, for 
there were always three or four nuns ill with 
low fever, entirely owing to the antique 
insanitary status and depressing gloom of the 
place. My representations, however, were 

Early Works of Velazquez 

quite in vain. Neither the priest nor the 
doctor were allowed to accompany me. 

' It was the afternoon of a cold, grey Xov- 
ember day, and as I entered the convent the 
darkness visible of the cheerless interior, and 
a general impression of the leaden sameness 
of cloister life, seemed almost to annihilate 
times and seasons ; so powerful, indeed, was 
the feeling that, for the moment, it would 
scarcely have seemed wonderful if the Conde 
Duque himself had appe;ired in his black 
doublet and golilia. The first picture was, 
indeed, a striking one. Two very old ladies 
stood before me, both wearing long black 
veils which covered them from head to foot, 
entirely concealing both features and figure. 
One of them addressed me in a low melan- 
choly voice as if an echo from the tomb itself ; 
this was the lady abbess. The nun behind 
her carried a bell in her hand which, as I 
accompanied the pair, she rang from time to 

' Orders had been given that I was to be 
allowed to enter every nun's cell even, to 
ascertain if anything of value might be hang- 
ing on the walls, and the bell-ringing was 
to warn the inmates to evacuate their rooms. 
Slight flutterings and shufflings could, in 
consequence, be heard as we advanced in 
the almost complete darkness of the corridor 
into which the cells opened. An inspection 
of a few of the cells, however, revealed 
nothing of any value, and I did not investi- 
gate the rest. In the church I found the 
great Rubens pictures had been replaced 
by copies hastily made in Madrid at the 
period when they were sent away. These, 
of course, were of no value, nor were the 
Raffaelle cartoon tapestries of any great 
importance, for they were inferior Spanish 
copies evidendy made in the time of Olivarez 
from earlier examples, and so not suitable for 
acquisition for South Kensington. What has 
since become of them I know not. 

' One important discovery alone rewarded 
my visit, and it is this which I hope will be 
thought to justify, so many years afterwards, the 
infliction of this recital on the readers of the 
" Times." In the stately chapter-house, which 
had evidently not undergone the slightest 
change since the time of its erection and 
furnishing forth, I found an altar, over which 
hung a large picture, some ten or twelve feet 
high, representing the Crucifixion — a single 
figure of our Saviour on the Cross, on a plain 
dark background. Although there was but 
little light to see it by, I thought at the first 
glance that I recognized in it the work of 
Alonso Cano, but a further inspection seemed 
to tell of Velazquez. There seemed, in fact, 


Early J^orks of P^elazquez 

to be some analogy in style witli tlic famoii> 
Chrislo dc Itti Hoiijiii in tlic Madrid Galiti y. 

'When I said to the abbess: " It seems to 
mcthatwc liavc here a work of AlonsoCano," 
slic promptly replied, " Si y non, Scfior. You 
arc botli right and wrong. Our records tell 
Us that this picture was given to us by our 
founder, the Condc Duque, for wliom it was 
painted by his master, King Fiiilip himself, 
expressly for the place it now occupies ; but," 
she added, " wc further know that it was a 
copy by the king from an original by Alonso 
L'an'o, and that it was afterwards rc-touchcd 
and hnished by Vela/que/." 

• I think it extremely likely that the picture 
is still in its place at Loechcs, though I know 
not what may have happened to the lone 
community in all these years. At the time 
I refer to, lx.'nevolent Madrid ladies went there 
occasionally, and a few young girls were taken 
in for education, such ;is it was, but connois- 
seurs and picture buyers can scarcely even 
vet, I think, have got as far as I^jeches. 

'If this picture is still iii silti, and any rich 
and benevolent amateur were so inclined, it 
would jirobably be a work of mercy, and 
certainly a gain to the art world, to purchase 
it from the nuns and present it to the Madrid 
Gallery, where it ought to be. 

' My visit, though to my great regret it was 
infructuous, was an event in the lives of these 
poor women, and on taking leave of the 
l.idy abbess she said that she had ordered the 
nuns to pray for my safe journey home, and 
to sing a hymn in the coro alio of the church. 
It was not with dry eyes that 1 sat in the 
waning daylight, alone in the vast empty 
church, listening to their voices, and 1 cannot 
even now recall the occurrence unmoved.' 

It will, I think, be considered that the account 
given by the aged abbess of Loeches, who must 
long ago have found her last resting-place in the 
conventual cemetery, should be verilied. Her 
positive statement, that the f.ict of the co-t)peration 
of King Philip IV and the two painters in the 
production of the w(jrk in question was on record 
in the archives of the convent, was made to me .is 
a matter of her personal knowledge. The docu- 
ments in question, if they existed then, are 
doubtless .-.till ext.uit. Need it be said that Spain 
owes it to the art world to cause research tor tlicm 
to l)e m.ide ? 

In the meantime wc le.irn from sevcnlccnth and 
eighteenth century Sjianish writers that the three 
successive IMiilips, kings of Spain, were 
' iificioiuuloi' — art connoisseurs and amateur 
p.iinlerb actu.illy | the art. Doubtless 
the niDst was nude of the etlorts, but the 
fact itself is sulliciently certified. 

Next as to the possible co-operation of Alonso 
Cano and Velazquez with the fourth Philip. The 
answer is that it is not only possible but highly 

Vela/.quez and Cano were almost of the same 
age, both had been scholars together with Pacheco 
in Seville, and furthermore, both of them had been 
called up to M.idrid by the king at the same time 


Alonso Cano was both a painter and a sculptor. 
His fame rests perhaps mainly on' his eminence in 
the latter art, but his pictures, although few in 
number and exclusively of religious subjects, 
display him in that class of art, at the highest 
level of his time and country. Cano's works in 
sculpture are, however, those by which he is Iwst 
known. These are carvings in wood painted m 
liftlike colours, ' Esto/atlos '—a speciality of Spain, 
inherited from mediaeval times, but which in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, at the hands 
of Montancs, Juan de juni and Cano, was carried to 
a point of supreme excellence. This art, however, 
can be adequately seen only in the land of its 

It is more than likely that a painted wood figure 
of the Cnicijicil Christ by Cano. rather than a 
picture, was the model from which the king 
made his greatly enlarged copy on the Loechcs 
canvas. In that case a drawing from the airving 
would be made on an enlarged scale from it and 
put upon the canvas by one or other of his artist 
assistants. The after painting from that model 
would be a task doubtless within the competence 
of the royal artist. Not so however the final com- 
pletion of the work, in which the writer c;ui 
certify that there was no appearance of amateur 

' This f.ict, whicli seems to liave escaped the allen- 
liiiii of recent writers, rests ncvertlicless on contemporary 
evidence of iiidubitablc authority— that of juscppc Martinet, 
who was intimate wilh both painters (■•ee Martinez ' Discur>os 
I'racticos,' etc., pp. 116-7). That work, puhhslicd for the first 
lime from the manuscript by Don Valentin Cardercra, contains 
other vahiable information of which other writers on Vela/iiuci 
seem liithcito to liavc taken htlle note. The writer had the 
advantage of personal intercourse and friendship wilh Don 
V.ilenlin Cardei era during more than one visit to Madrid, in the 
years preceding the death of that eminent and most estimable 
inan in the early sixties. Don Valentin told the present writer, 
amongst other interesting information, that he did not think 
that the picture of the expulsion of the Moriscoshad been burnt in 
the lire in I7.;4. and thai it was a tr.idition in Madrid that it 
was taken away by General Setwstiani during the French 
occupation of Madiid ; if so, the canvas was doubtless cut 
from the stretching frame and rolled up for exportation to 
France, and it may well Ix that it came to an end in the rout at 

Is it, however, possible that the lost m.isterpiecc is still repos- 
ing in some one of the M.idiid i'alacc store-rooms .unongst 
the iiumlH-rlcss rolls of precious tapestry which seldom or 
never sec the light ? To the wiitcr's own knowledge, and in 
his own lime, stranger and more unlooked-for discoveries of 
lost works of art have been made in royal palaces nearer home. 

What agiin has liccomc ol ihe coni|Hling pictures of the 
llircc Italian paiiileri ? Can llirv, too. have pen lied in the 
holiicausl ol i;34' II seems at least rcinaikable llial not <ine 
of those works should have ever been described ui indeed 
heard ul in any way since the days ol Ihcir pruduitiun. 


; a 



>,f MKSSK.S. P. >^l' " l"IS»'m AM) to, \MJ MKSSKS. M. KXl'K.IM.KK AM) Ul. 

iiu.uArii m ii.iiMi->i"N 



weakness or uncertainty. In this will doubtless 
be found revealed the iiand of tlie great master 

Although it is upwards of forty years since the 
writer saw this picture, the impression it left on 
his mind is still vivid. It is coupled with that of 
another work by which he is reminded of it, the 
Christ at the Coliiiiiii of the National Gallery. To 
his mind that beautiful and much-discussed 
picture has more in it of Cano than of Velazquez. 

The art writers of Spain have as yet scarcely 
gone beyond the well-known sources of informa- 
tion about their great art hero, but Velazquez, the 
important court official, must have been the 
subject of endless official notices and documents. 
The archives of Simancas, in all probability, still 
include many unnoted records touching the 
doings of the great painter. If so, even the most 
seemingly trivial notice might afford a key to 
much that we would fain know more about. The 
archives of Loeches might, in like manner, prove 
to be a mine of information concerning the 
relations of the great painter to his patron Olivarez. 
The illustrations of Alonso Cano's works now 
given will be acceptable to art lovers who have 

Early JVorks of Velazquez 

nut yet seen his works in Spain. The great artist 
is most imperfectly represented in the Prado 
Gallery ; more adequate illustration is only to 
be found in the churches and convents of Malaga 
and Granada. His works in painted wood 
sculpture are perhaps better known, liut here 
again so little critical account has been taken of 
this branch of Spanish art that literally almost 
every painted wooden figure is set down as the 
work of Alonso Cano. Needless to say it is the 
more necessary to discriminate. 

The magnificent altar-piece now illustrated is 
one of the chief treasures of the Spanish section 
of Sir Frederick Cook's collection at Richmond. 
The bald-headed old man on the right is reputed 
to be a portrait of the painter. If this composi- 
tion be compared with that of Velazquez's 
picture of the same subject, it will, the writer 
thinks, be evident that it was the inspiring source 
of the latter work. The fine pen and bistre draw- 
ing by Cano of a similar composition will illustrate 
the ready facility and hand power of the great 
master. The drawing was formerly in the writer's 
collection, then in the Malcolm collection, and is 
now in the British Museum. 

cA^ BY LIONEL CUST, M.V.O, F.S.A. c9^ 

a lucky man, but no visitor to the 
National Gallery during the last 
few weeks will grudge him his 

good fortune, for by rearrang- 
ing the works of the Dutch 
.and Flemish painters he has 

' achieved a notable success. If 

it was difficult to realize before that the nation had 
in its possession paintings by Rubens of the 
highest quality and interest, it has perhaps been a 
revelation to many people that England of all 
countries was most lamentably deficient in really 
adequate paintings by Van Dyck, the painter 
who has dominated, and to some extent does 
still dominate, the English School of painting 
from the date of his arrival here in 1632. 
Jordaens, the third of the great Antwerp trio, is 
hardly represented at all. The career of Van Dyck 
may, as is well known, be divided into four 
periods : the early youth and adolescence under 
Rubens at Antwerp ; the glorious, almost 
heroic, period at Genoa and elsewhere in Italy 
under the inspiration of Titian ; the triumphant 
rivalry with his master, Rubens, at Antwerp ; and 
finally the shimmering glitter and elegance of the 
courtier-painter to the king of England. No 
one of these periods was satisfactorily represented 
at the National Gallery. The splendid portrait of 
Cornelis Van der Geest illustrates, but does not 

comprehend, the early development of Van Dyck ; 
the second period, the greatest perhaps of all, was 
not represented by a single example ; the third only 
by a portrait-group of but second-rate interest — as 
compared with the portraits of this period to be seen 
at Munich, Dresden or the Louvre ; while the 
English period, in which the English nation may 
be supposed to take some pride, is only represented 
by the large and rather empty painting of Charles I 
on horseback, which in reality cannot compare in 
interest as a painting with the smaller and earlier 
version of the same composition in the royal collec- 
tion at Buckingham Palace. The religious side of 
Van Dyck's art, one full of peculiar interest and 
importance, has beeiy as it would seem, 
deliberately neglected and set aside. 

The trustees have now removed a reproach by 
the fortunate acquisition of one of the portraits of 
the Cattaneo family at Genoa, which have been 
lately so much discussed in the press. The 
history of these portraits, and their rape from 
Genoa, will possibly become a landmark in 
the history of art. A few years ago, hearing of the 
existence of these portraits, I sought admission at 
the old palace of the Cattaneo family by the church 
of the Annunziata at Genoa. The Genoese nobles 
are a proud race, and not easily accessible, but 
admission was readily granted to me in my official 
capacity. Ascending the lengthy flight of stairs, 
which are so familiar an object in Italian palaces. 

'The Ne"^ Van l^\ck 'ni the ^t ion a I Gallery 

I was iisliered into a series of rooms, and for a 
nioniciit ^tnf»d sprll-hoiind. From every wall, as 
it seiiiicd, Van Dvck looked down, and on one 
there stood and j^a/ed at inc a haiij^lity dame, over 
whose head a negro-pa^eheld a scarlet parasol. Ail, 
however, spoke of dust and iiejllect, and when 1 
left the palace, it was with a feelinj^ of rej^ret that 
snch treasures of paintinj^ should he left to moulder 
on the walls, unseen, unknown except to very few, 
a slur upon the surpassing j^enius of Van Dyck, 
throuj^h whose brush the >^reat Genoese families 
have become famous. The subsequent history of 
the Cuttaneo Van Dycks is now well known. It is 
possible to svmpa'thize most deeply with the 
Italian Government in their wish to preserve and 
retain in their own country the treasures of paint- 
inj^ to which that country j^ave birth. It is im- 
possible, however, to avoid feelinjj satisfaction 
that some of these treasures have been saved from 
the decay which was slowly threatening their 
very existence. 

One of these portraits of the Cattanco family 
will now lind a perm.uKiit home in the National 
Gallery, that of the M irchese Giovanni liattista 
Cattaneo, a half-length. This is a superb piece 
of painting, and if there still lingered any doubt 
in some minds as to the claim of \'an Dyck to 
rank among the great painters of the world, with 
Velazquez, to whom this painting is much akin, 
with Rembrandt, with Kubens or with Titian, tiiis 
portrait will go far towards dispelling such a doubt. 
It may be added that the price of the portrait was 
in the circumstances very moderate. Should the 
history of the Cattaneo Van Dycks ever be known 
in its entirety, it will be seen that the well- 
known firm of Paul and Dominic Colnaghi and 
Co. have acted throughout as true lovers of art, 
in addition to the generosity with which the 
firm has come to the assistance of the trustees 
of the National Gallery in order to enable this 
important acquisition to be made for the national 



T has been supposed that during 
the Klizabethan period English 
secular embroidery branched off 
into a peculiar style, exhibiting 
fancies or conceits which stand 
in some relationship to the con- 
y^P^^ceilsof contemporary poetry. Of 
jJi^Qthis embroidery so little actual 
trace remains that, in confirmation of the theory, 
we have to appeal to the evidence of portraits 
like that of Queen Elizabeth (attributed to 
Zucchero), in which the underskirt is embroidered 
with a curious medley of conceits based on plant, 
animal and bird forms, or to the portrait of the 
same queen at Hatlield House, where the robe 
is embroidered all over with human eyes and 
ears, emblematical of the royal vigilance and 
wisdom. Another tendency of the day was re- 
produced in Elizabethan needlework — the interest 
in emblem-books and emblematical devices. 
No extant piece of embroidery except the black- 
work jacket tieloTiging to Lord Falkland (which 
1 will notice later) come^ quite under this descrip- 
tion of embroidery, and it is interesting to find 
in a work bv Henry Green (1870) called 'Shake- 
speare and the Eniblem Writers : an exposition 
of their similarities of thought and expression,' 
an account of a piece of embroidery, in which the 
motifs are taken from the emblem-writers of the 
period, or invented in consonance with the prin- 
ciples of emblem-making set forth in those works. 
' An acquaintance with that literature,' writes 
Mr. Green, 'may be regarded as more spread 
abroad and increased when Emblem-hooks became 

the sources of ornamentation for articles of house- 
hold furniture, and for the embellishment of 
country mansions. A remarkable instance is sup- 
plied from "The History of Scotland," edition, 
London, 1655, " Bv \Villiam Drummond of 
Hathornden.'' It is in a letter " To his ivortliy friend 
Master Benjamin Johnson," dated July i, 1619, 
respecting some needle-work by Mary Queen of 
Scots, and shows how intimately she was acquainted 
with several of the Emblem-books of her day, or 
had herself attained the art of making devices. . . . 
Drummond thus writes — 

'• 1 have been curious to find out for you, the 
Impn-suus and Emblemes on a Bed of State 
wrought and embroidered all with gold and silk 
by the late Queen Miiiy, mother to our sacred 
Soveraign, which will embbelish greatly some 
pages of your Book, and is worthy your remem- 
brance ; the lirst is the Loadstone turning towards 
the pole, the word her Majesties name turned 
on an Anagram, Maiiti Shunt, sa vcitii, m'attiie, 
which is not much infcriour to I'eiilns armata. 
This hath reference to a Crucilix, before which 
with all her Royall Ornaments she is humbled 
on her knees most lively, with the word uudiqiic ; 
an hiipitisa of Mary of Lorniiit, her Mother, 
a /VnY/ii.v in flames,' the word en vta I'm i<it uion 
cowmcmemeiil. The Impressa of an Apple Tree 
growing in a Thorn, the word Per '.iiuuUi creiitt. 
The linf>re<:sa of Henry the second the l-'renili Kin^, 
a Creisant, the word. Donee totiini tinpleal orheni. 
The Inipressa of King Fnineis the first, a Sula- 
mamler crowned in the midst of Flames, the word, 
Siitrino et e.\tingi\ 'Ihe linpre<sti of Godfrey of 


Bnllogne, an arrow passing throw three Birds, the 
word, Dederit tie viain Casitsi'C Deitsve. That of 
Mercuriiis charming Argos with his hundred eyes, 
expressed by his Cadiicens, two Flutes, and a Pea- 
cock, the word, Eloqttinm tot Iiiiuiiia clausit. Two 
Women upon the Wheels of Fortune, the one 
holding a Lance, the other a Cornucopia ; which 
Itnpressa seemeth to glaunce at Queen Elizabeth 
and her self, the word, Fortttnae Coinites. The 
Impres^a of the Cardinal of Lonaiii, her Uncle, a 
Pyramide overgrown with /j'v, the vulgar word, 
Te stante virebo ; a Ship with her Mast broken and 
fallen in the Sea, the word, Xiiiiqiiain nisi rectum. 
This is for her self and her Son, a Big Lyon and a 
young Whelp beside her, the word, tiiium qiiidem, 
sed Leoneu. An embleme of a Lyon taken in a 
Net, and Hares wantonly passing over him, the 
word, Et Icpores devicto insultant Leone. Canunoincl 
m a garden, the word, Fnictus calcata dat amplos. 
A Palm Tree, the word, Ponderibiis virtus initata 
resistit. A Bird in a Cage, and a Haivk flying 
above, with the word, il mal nie premcet me spavenla 
Peggio. A Triangle with a Sun in the middle of a 
Circle, the word, Trino non convenit orbis. A 
Porcupine amongst Sea Rocks, the word Ke 
volutelur. The Imprcssa of King Henry the eight, 
a Portculles, the word altera securitas. The 
Imprcssa of the Duke of Savoy, the annunciation 
of the Virgin Mary, the word Fortitudo ejus 
Rhodum tenuii. He had kept the Isle of Rhodes. 
Flourishes of Arms, as Helms, Launces, Corslets, 
Pikes, Muskets, Canons . . . the word Dabit Deus 
his qiioqne finem. A Tree planted in a Church- 
yard environed with dead men's bones, the word, 
Pietas revocabit ctb orco. Ecclipses of the Sun and 
the Moon, the word, Ipsa sibi lumen quod invidet 
nuferi ; glauncing, as may appear at Queen Eliza- 
beth. Brennos Ballances a sword cast in to weigh 
Gold, the word. Quid nisi Victis dolor f A Vine 
tree watred with Wine, which instead to make 
it spring and grow, maketh it fade, the word, Mea 
sic utihi prosunt. A wheel rolled from a Mountain 
in the Sea, Plena di dolor voda de Spereuza. 
Which appeareth to be her own, and it should be 
Precipitio senza speranza. A heap of Wings and 
Feathers dispersed, the word, Magnatum Vicinitas. 
A Trophie upon a Tree, with Mytres, Crowns, 
Hats, Masks, Swords, Books, and a Woman with 
a Vail about her eyes or muffled, pointing to some 
about her, with this word Ut casus dederit. Three 
Crowns, two opposite, and another above in the 
Sea, the word, Alianique inoratur. The Sun in 
an Ecclipse, the word, Medio occidet Die. 

' " I omit the arms of Scotland, England, and 
France severally by themselves, and all quartered 
in many places of this Bed. The workmanship 
is curiously done, and above ail value, and 
truely it may be of this Piece said, Materiam 
superabat opus." ' 

The bed Drummond describes is perhaps that 

Sixteenth Qentury Embroidery 

described as ' vncomplete, sewit be his Maiesties 
mother, of gold, silver, and silk,' which in September, 
1616, was ordered to be sent from Holyrood to 
England' ' thair to be mendit and prouidit with 
furnitour answerable ' ; and then sent back to 
Holyrood. It is apparently the ' bedd wrought 
with needleworke of silke, silver and golde, with 
divers devices and armes, not throughlye finished,' 
found in the queen's apartments after her death, 
and bequeathed to her son. King James, by her.- 

Several of these emblems are to be found in 
Whitney, several in Paradin's ' Devises heroiques," 
and several in ' Dialogue des Devises d'armes et 
d'amours,' de S. Paulo Jovio, etc., 4to, A Lyon, 
1561. In the latter book are to be found the 
Emblems of Francis I, the Salamander (to signify 
that he was glowing with passions of love), and of 
Henry II. 

It may be noticed that Samuel Daniel's rule 
that 'the mot or posie of an impresa may not 
exceede three words ' (although a little license was 
allowed in the case of Dum, Nee, Et, Non, In, 
Per, etc.) was not kept by Queen Mary. 

It may appear almost impossible, even on a 
bed of state, to work twenty-nuie emblems and 
the arms of Scotland, England and France, 
' severally by themselves and all quartered in 
many places of the bed ' — but a ' curious and 
very antient oak' bed, much gilt and ornamented, 
probably of equal antiquity, was, as late as 181 1, 
existing at Hinckley in Leicestershire, ^ on which 
the same number ' of emblematical devices, and 
Latin mottoes in capital letters conspicuously 
introduced ' had found space. Twenty-nine 
emblems with their mottos are given, among 
others Two dogs barking at the shadow from the 
moon, the word, Rniiipentuiilia Codri ; A dis- 
played hand with awls under the nails, the word, 
Heu cadit in quenquam tantuin scelus ," An 
ostrich with a horseshoe in the beak,* the word 
spiritus durissima coquit ; A cross-bow at full 
stretch, the word Ingenio superai Vires. A hand 
playing with a serpent, the word, Ouis contra 
nos"? The tree of Life springing from the cross 
on an altar, the word, Sola vivit in illo; An inverted 
tulip suspended, the word, spe illectat inani : A 
tortoise walking in a bed of roses, the word, inter 
spinas calceatus. 

A piece of Spanish work illustrated in Lady 
Marion Alford's history of embroidery as belong- 
ing to Louisa, marchioness of Waterford, repre- 
sents ostriches holding iron in their beaks, turkeys 
and eagles. 

I'Registrum Secret! Concilii Acta,' 1615-1617, fol. 63. MS. 

Register House. m » •• 

- ' Lettres de Marie Stuart ' (ed. Prince Labanoff), t. vii. 
^See 'Gentleman's Magazine,' vol Ixxxi, pt. 2, p. 416. 

Nov. i8n. ... . J • 

* An ostrich with an horseshoe in its beak is represented in 

Giovio's ' Sent. Imprese,' ed. 1561, p. nS. and in Camerarius 

' Emb ' ed. 1595, p. 19. 


Sixteefith Qeutury Kwhroidery 

Samuel Daniel, the poet wlio wrote in 1585 a 
preface to a translation of P.iolo Giovio, note's 
that black and white were quite suflicicnf for an 
imprtsa, and even, it would appear from his rather 
obscure statement, preferable. The impresas in 
the emblem-books would be naturally copied in 
black silk upon a ground of a white material — 
in (he 'black work," or 'Spanish work' of Tudor 

The jacket or tunic of 'black work ' belonging 
to Lord F'alkland has already been mentioned, 
and is of interest as the only known surviving 
specimen of this class of emblem-work. The 
embroidery is in black silk on linen, and besides 
the characteristic floral work of this pcriorl there 
area lumiber of devices. Such is a rendering of 
a plate in Whitney's ' Emblems '* which represents 
a very small fish which has leaped out of the sea 
in order to avoid a large dolphin-like fish, while 
above hover two large crested birds representing 
the cormorant and seamew. The title of the 
plate is — 

' Iniuriis, infirmitas subiecfa,' 

and the verse below runs — 

The mightie fishc, devoures the little frie. 
If in the deepe, they venture for to staie. 
If vp they swimme, newe foes with watchinge 

The camoraunte, and Seamewe, for their 

praie : 
Betweene these two, the frie is still destroi'de, 
Ah feeble state, on euerie side anoi'de. 

• ' A choice of Emblems and olhcr Devises," by Geoffrey 
Whitne>-, Leyden, 15S6. 

Other devices are : — A man of Herculean type 
astride a crocodile, holding a writhing serpent 
in each hand; Actaeon * being devoured by his 
hounds ; Bacchus beating a drum ;' a stag," 
pierced by an arrow, another pursued by a hound, 
' a Pelican in her piety, prancing horses, a camel, 
an elephant, a seahorse, monkeys, squirrels, birds 
and fishes.' Three of these devices, it will be 
noted, appear in Whitney's ' Emblems," though they 
are somewhat simplified by the embroiderer. 
The jacket, which is said to have belonged to 
Queen Eliz.ibcth, was given by William IV to the 
Viscountess Falkland, wife of the tenth viscount. 
As the author of ' The History and Antiquities 
of Hawstcd and Hardwick, in the County of 
SufTolk,' remarks in a description of the employ- 
ment of emblems in adorning a closet for the la^t 
Lady Drury, ' They mark the taste of an age that 
delighted in quaint wit, and laboured conceits of 
a thousand kinds,' and since so many emblems 
were gathered to adorn Queen Mary of Scots' bed, 
a 'very ancient oak wooden bed in Leicestershire,' 
and 'a lady's closet' in Suffolk, and also a linen 
tunic belonging to Queen Elizabeth, the supposi- 
tion is most reasonable that the knowledge of them 
pervaded the cultivated society of England and 
Scotland during the Elizabethan period. 

'S.imhucus in his ' Emblems ' (cd. 1564, p. 1281 .ind Whitney 
after him make use of this same wodcul, only with a different 
border. Actacn is also illustrated in Aneau's ' Pitta Poesis,' 
and in Alciatus, • Emb.'52, ed. 1551. 

' A very ' plump Bacchus,' beating a dru'n is figured in 
Alciitus, (cd. Antwerp, 1581, p. 11 j). This also appears in 
Wliilncy's ' Enib. ,' cd. 1586, p. 187. 

" The sta;^ pierced by an arrow appears in Giovio and 
Symeoni's 'Sent. Impresc' ed. i.sfn. In Paradin's ' Dev. He. 
ed. 1562, f. 168. In Camcrarius (cd. 1595) ' Emb.' 69, p. 71. 


Among the many interesting, if often damaged, 
pictures which decorate the libiary of Christ 
Church, Oxford, the fragment which we reproduce 
is not the least curious. The manuscript catalogue 
states that it is a fragment of a large picture that 
was almost destroyed by fire in a palace at Genoa, 
and the picture is labelled ' By Bellmi or Mantegna." 
The work is executed in tempera on linen, and 
the heads are three-quarter life size. The original 
painting must thus have been of considerable size. 
The background is apparently gold, the face of 
St. John is of a rather dark coppery led, the face 
and hands of the Viigin paler and cookr in tone. 
St. John is diessed in a robe of dull or.mge, varied 
by what appears to be d.irk green, which has 
turned .ilmost as black as the hood of the 
Madonna. The painting has been so much 
patched, e.g., on the hands, that the original forms 
are not easy to trace, and the whole is covered 
with a thick coat of varnish. 


An examination of the picture indicates almost 
conclusively that the work is not Italian but 
Fleinish in character, and Mr. W. H. j.imesWealc, 
to whom a photograph was submitted, has sug- 
gested that it is a work of the school of Tournai. 
The painters of that school were accustomed to 
paint in tempera on linen on a considerable scale, 
especially in connexion with the preparation of 
designs for tapestry weaving, and it is therefore 
possible that the work of which this Christ Church 
fragment once formed a part was sent from 
Tournai to Genoa for that purpose. The remark- 
able delicacy of the workrtiatiship and the large- 
ness of the design point to one of the greater 
masters of that school ; and it is in the hope that 
some of our readers m.iy be able to throw further 
light upon this interesting work we are 
permitted to rejiroduce it by the governing body 
of Christ Church. It may at serve as an 
additional document in the </i)S5/c/ of that shadowy 
personage, Rogicr de la Pasture. C. j. H. 




■ -J 

^^^^^Kr^^^3f^^^ T^^^ 











'^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 








H^k ^^ '^^^^^^1 

















At the moment of going to press, we have not 
time to do more than refer briefly to the letter 
from the Director of the National Portrait Gallery 
which was publi^,hed in the 'Times' of Julv 19th, 
but we feel bound to say that the case could not 
have been stated more clearly and sensibly than 
has been done by Mr. Lionel Cust. We quite 
agree with him that the legal opinion quoted is 
difficult to understand, and even if it should prove 
to be the present law of the land, it should not be 
a permanent hindrance to a much-needed re- 
arrangement. We are strongly disposed to think 
that the removal of Turner's pictures and drawings 
from Trafalgar Square and their housing in an 
appropriate gallery at Millbank under some such 
comprehensive description as the Turner Gallery 
not only best fulfils the responsibility which the 
nation incurred when it accepted Turner's magni- 
ficent bequest, but also relieves the National 

!}(otcs on Various Jl^orks of Art 

Gallery itself from the overcrowding whicH we all 
deplore, and which cannot fail to become worse 
as years go by, however much the existing accom- 
modation may be increased. It would have to be 
more than doubled for the proper display of its 
present contents, let alone the acquisitions of the 
future, and to make a temporary arrangement now 
would be embarrassing that future at the cost of a 
little present trouble. It is only natural that the 
Trustees should wish to proceed cautiously in a 
matter which raises so many difficult questions. 
At the same time, Mr. Gust's arguments appear so 
moderate and so logical that we have no doubt 
that they will obtain the practical support which 
they deserve. 

We are informed by the Keeper of the Department 
of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum that 
the Print Room will be closed to students and 
visitors for four weeks from August i8th. 



To the Editor of The BuRLiNGTOX Magazine 

Dear Sir, — At the desire of Mr. Matthijs 

Maris, I venture to ask your permission to state 

that he cannot accept responsibility for two of the 


pictures reproduced in the summer number of the 
' Studio,' namely : No. 9 A Study, No. 30 The 'Sisters 
— I am. Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, 

E. J. VAN' Wisselixgh. 

July 16, 1907. 


Quelques points obscurs de la vie des 

freres VAX Eyck. Joseph Coenen. 27 pp. 

Lidge. 1907. 
This is a reprint of three articles published in 
Leoditnit, a local magazine often containing 
interesting notices relating to the history of the 
old episcopal principalit}'. The author's intention 
to try and clear up obscure points in the history 
of the van Eycks is praiseworthy, and had he not 
reissued these articles as a pamphlet I should have 
confined myself to a few reflections on some of 
the points in a communication to the same 
magazine. But now I feel bound to say that, far 
from clearing up any point, he has put forth fresh 
misstatements which 1 have little doubt will meet 
with acceptance and find their way into bio- 
graphies and dictionaries, just as the statement that 
the fabric rolls of Cambray Cathedral contain 
the proof that John van Eyck was working in that 
city in 1422, published in 1878 by the late 
M. Houdoy, has been accepted and is still be- 
lieved by many. His book was reviewed by me in 
the ' Academy ' (21 June 1879), and I there showed 
that there was no excuse for this misstatement, for 
the entry in the fabric roll is of a payment to 
' loanni de Yeke, pictori.' This, in M. Houdoy's 

opinion, was a lapsus adami of the careless cleric 
who made the entry ; but the careless person was 
M. Houdoy, who, had he troubled to look 
through the accounts of the following years, 
would have found payments to John de Yeke 
for painting three red Calvary crosses on the out- 
side of the cathedral walls propter iiiDiuindicias qtiae 
ibi fiebant (a common practice in the ages of faith, 
the modern French substitute for which is Defense 
de . . .) while van Eyck was busily employed week 
after week without intermission in decorating the 
palace at the Hague. Now although I have 
repeated my refutation in various reviews of books 
in both English and foreign journals it still 
reappears, and in the present pamphlet (p. 13) the 
identity' of John de Yeke and John van Eyck is 
said to have never been contested, at least not to 
the writer's knowledge. 

It is to another discovery of equal value, the 
real name of John van Eyck (not Cone as imagined 
by the late M. Bouchot), that I wish to draw 
attention in the hope that I may stop its diffusion. 
Many years ago the late M. Carton, who 
pretended that the van Eycks were natives of 
Bruges, asserted that van Eyck was in the 
fifteenth century a family name of frequent 
occurrence in the town. In my Notes on John 
van Eyck published in 1861 I affirmed that he 

'Books otj T^aifititJg 

and Ills brother Lambert were the only persons 
bearing that name that 1 had come across in the 
archives of the town. 1 appended a hst of all the 
persons bearing somewhat similar names who 
had bought the freedom of the town between 1416 
and 1450. Amongst these was one John Tegghe, 
born at Maaseyck, in the land of Liege, who 
on 9th September, 1433, became a free burgher 
by purchase. He was charged 10 1. ; nineteen 
of the other twenty paid much less. M. Coenen 
from this entry drew the inference that Tegghe 
must have been a rich man, and, as it was not 
at all likely that two natives of such a small town 
as Maaseyck bearing the same christian name 
should have settled at Bruges at this time, he con- 
cluded that Tegghe was the real family name of 
van Eyck, who must in 1433 have become a rich 
man. The premisses on which these conclusions 
are based are imaginary. The sum charged for 
the freedom of the town was not based on the 
fortune but on the birthplace of the applicant. 
Natives of Flanders had only to pay 3 1., all others 
10 1. The reason why Hubert is mentioned as 
'e Eyck' in the inscription on the frame of the 
polyptych and not ' de Eyck ' is because if ' de ' had 
been written the last syllable of Hubertus would 
have been long, and the line would not scan : — 
Pictor Hu|bertils 6| Eyck quo] nemo re|pertus. 
May we hope that John Tegghe will not reappear 
in any future work ? 

\V. H. J.W. 

SiK William Beechey, R.A. By W. Roberts. 
London : Duckworth. 7s. 6d. net. 

Therk was need for such a book as this. The 
ever-increasing favour with which the great 
British portrait painters are received by collectors 
has reacted upon their less well-remembered col- 
leagues, so that Beechey is once more a name 
that picture buyers have to remember. 

In his preface Mr. Roberts tells us that his work 
was originally planned as a catalogue raiiontxe, and 
that form in all essentials it still retains. In the 
case of Beechey the form is appropriate. He was 
not one of those great inventors whose progress 
has to l>e traced by the internal evidence of their 
pictures, and whose artistic development is a 
fascinating and often baffling pursuit for the critic. 
He is rather one of those who are clever enough 
to assimilate much of the taste and talent which 
are in the air around him, and to adapt them 
to the needs of the day. 

Any elaborate criticism of such men is impos- 
sible as well as unnecessary, and in restricting 
himself to a catalogue of Beechey's exhibits Mr. 
Rolx;rts has taken the right course. He has also 
done his work well. The book is a mass of com- 
pressed and accurate information, and though the 
existence of the Beechey account books, which 
arc printed in the volume, may have lightened 

Mr. Roberts's task, the amassing of facts about the 
portraits Beechey painted in a busy and success- 
ful career of more than sixty years must have 
entailed a vast amount of labour. Certain points 
he has failed to clear up — such as the mystery 
surrounding Beechey's first wife, and here and 
there the reader will notice small matters where 
additional information might have been desirable ; 
but the book as a whole is wonderfully thorough, 
and, if compressed almost to dryness, and therefore 
less attractive to the general reader than some 
other volumes of the series, it is made all the more 
useful as a work of reference to the serious 
student. Beyond one or two minor slips such as 
Martin /?. Shee (p. 69) we have noticed no 

A glance at the illustrations indicates that 
Beechey's work was more various in design than 
we are sometimes apt to think. Reynolds, Law- 
rence, Hoppner, Raeburn, all seem to have been 
carefully studied, yet when we look at Beechey's 
pictures they have for the most part a uniform 
character in the painting which makes them easily 

His pigment is thinner and less rich than that of 
Reynolds, his touch has not the splendid glitter 
of Lawrence, his aims are less forcible than those 
of Hoppner and Raeburn. An urbane eclecticism, 
coupled with a certain ruddiness and smoothness 
in the flesh tones, distinguishes his portraits, which 
are usually soundly coloured, if never the work of 
a born colourist. It is impossible that Beechey 
can ever be ranked by artists among the great 
portrait painters, and improbable that he will 
be so by collectors ; yet to this latter class at 
least this careful and handy record will be indis- 

Gemalde alter Meister. Parts 20-24. Price 
5 marks each. Richard Bong, Berlin. 

With the issue of the last five instalments this 
sumptuous publication is completed. In reviewing 
the previous numbers we have drawn attention to 
the exceptional value of the book, both on account 
of the thoroughness and authority of the letter- 
press and the scale and beauty of the illustrations. 
It is, of course, to students of the French school 
of the eighteenth century that the work makes the 
most direct appeal. Although examples of the 
school of the Netherlands and of Italy are not 
wanting, the main strength of the Imperial 
collection lies in its cx.imples of W.itteau, Lancref, 
Pater and the brilliant painters around them. 
Antoine Pcsne, for example, figures prominently 
in the mstalment before us. Indeed, so complete 
is the representation of these French masters, so 
ample is the scale on which their works are 
reproduced, that anyone wishing to study them 
will find this publication, if not indispensable, at 
least an invaluable work of reference. Even 

however, where the French school is so splendidly 
illustrated, it would be unfair not to give a few 
words of nolice to the admirable examples of 
Rubens and Cranach, and a certain number of 
detached pictures of the Italian and other schools, 
such as that tine portrait of Cardinal Antonio 
Pallovicino illustrated on page 80, and attributed 
to an unknown Venetian master of the latter half 
of the sixteenth century. It is a portrait of 
singular sensitiveness, dignity and beauty, and we 
cannot help suggesting tentatively the name of 
Lorenzo Lotto in connection with its authorship. 
There is, at least, something of Lotto's manner ui 
the level flakes of cloud and level expanse of 
landscape seen through the open window before 
which the Cardinal sits, as well as in the subdued 
modelling of the cape and slightly timid, yet 
sensitive, treatment of the face. The price of the 
whole work contrasts very favourably indeed with 
that of most large works published in England, 
since the pubUshers give no less than seventy-two 
magnificent photogravures and 128 illustrations 
of the text in return for the £6 which is the cost 
of the twent)'-four parts, while the letterpress has 
the authority of such great names as those of Dr. 
Paul Seidel, Dr. Friedlander, and Dr, Bode. 

NoT.\BLE Pictures ix Rome. By Edith Har- 
wood. London : J. M. Dent andCo. 4s. 6d. net. 
Though well produced and well intentioned this 
book cannot be unreser\'edly recommended. To 
give any fair account of the paintings in Rome 
demands extensive knowledge of all schools of 
art, and (since repainting is so ubiquitous) some 
technical experience, but most of all it demands 
sympathy with the spirit of Rome during the 
Renaissance. These qualifications Miss Harwood 
cannot claim to possess, though she has evidently 
worked at her subject, and done her best to supply 
deficiencies by liberal citations from other authors. 
A writer who ' has to confess unutterable boredom' 
when studying the stanze of the Vatican, if not 
actually unfit, is at least not properly equipped to 
study Roman painting, and though she quotes 
two or three pages from Pater about Raphael, her 
account of his masterpieces is not thereby made 
into a good one. Indeed there are many points 
open to criticism apart from the constant misspell- 
ing of proper names, and such evidence of care- 
lessness as the Farnesina headline, which is con- 
tinued from p. 247 to p. 253, though the account 
of the frescoes there (which omits all mention of 
Sodoma's masterpiece) occupies less than a page. 
To make matters worse there is no index. 


MODERNE KuLTUR. By Dr. E. Heyck and others. 

Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 15 marks. 

This handsome work, the sub-title of which is 

' A Manual of Culture and Good Taste,' is written 

Booh on T^ainting 

to meet the obvious need of the general public for 
a comprehensive account of the past causes and 
present effects of artistic culture in practical life, 
and to recommend means whereby still more 
satisfactory results may be obtained in the future. 
Karl Scheffler discourses upon the aesthetic 
endeavours of the present day, the connexion 
between life and culture, artis'tic training, and 
upon style and taste in living. Foreign influences, 
French, English, American and Japanese, are 
embraced by \V. Fred ; ' Music ' is entrusted to 
Karl Storck '; the ' Collecting Hobby ' to Georg 
Lehnert. This brief list of the contents of the 
first volume alone indicates the varied scope of 
the work, the modest object of which is to sum- 
marize and e.xamine the processes and results of 
the modern impulse towards artistic culture from 
an historical, aesthetic and cosmopolitan point of 
view. To show what that culture is, there are 
nearly eighty eloquent reproductions of the most 
modern German architecture, decoration and 
handicraft. The second volume will appear in 
the autumn, and will contain sections on ' Person- 
ality and its Circle ' by Frau Marie Diers ; ' Society 
and Sociability ' by \V. Fred ; ' The relation of the 
Individual to the Community ' by E. Heyck ; 
' Appearance ' by W. Fred ; ' Eating and Drinking ' 
by \V. Fred and E. Heyck (theaesthetic importance 
of this subject is not commonly recognized outside 
Germany) ; 'Travelling' by E. Heyck; ' Reading 
and Books' by H. Hesse; The 'Theatre' by K. 
Scheffler, and other articles. We shall look for- 
ward to its appearance. 

Tor6kors.\gi Levelei. Zagoni Mikes Kelemen. 
Budapest. 1906. 

The well-known Franklin Tarsulat, of Budapest, 
has published this handsome edition of ' The 
Turkish Letters ' of Clement Mikes, and some of 
the most esteemed Hungarian authors have written 
elucidatory introductions for it. The text of the 
famous ' Letters ' is from the original manuscript, 
and the drawings which illustrate it are the skilled 
handiwork of Elias Edvi. Little as these ' Letters ' 
are known in Great Britain, Hungarians justly 
regard them as their chief literary relic of the 
eighteenth century. Their author, Clement Mikes, 
was a Sekeley nobleman who accompanied his 
unfortunate prince, Francis Rakoczy the Second, 
through all his wanderings and, finally, settled 
down with him at Rodosto, on the Sea of Marmora, 
where the Ottoman government gave them shelter. 
Francis, his son, and all his retainers died in exile 
— Mikes, the last, surviving until 1761. 

To occupy his mind during his many years of 
exile, Mikes wrote the ' Letters ' which are the 
raison d'etre of this volume. Presumedly, they 
were sent to his elder sister, but the book in which 
the so-called ' copies ' are preserved is deemed to 
be the original work and to be really the writer's 

c//r/ 'Book^s of the ^iotith 

diary. These ' Letters ' contain most .inuisiiig 
gossip about llie exiles' everyday life, as well as 
interesting anecdotes and valuable liistorical matter. 
The prose is fluent and idiomatic, but as it was 
written wliilst the Magyar speech was still in a 
transitorv state, there are gianiniatical variations 
in it from the language as now spoken. It would 
be foreign to our purpose to enlarge further upon 
the te.xt of this work, but we desire to call atten- 
tion to the merit of the water-colour drawings by 
Mr. Edvi depicting the various scenes connected 
with the c.ueer of .Mikes, as e.xpl.iintd in his 
'Turkish Letters.' The facsimiles with which 
the boi)k is illustrated deserve special praise, not 
only for the exactness with which they reproduce 
the" touch and texture of the originals, but for the 
unusu.d taste with which they are printed and 
mounted. J. H. 1. 

New College, Oxford. Engraved by Emery 
Walker from a pen-drawing by Edmund 
Holt New. Ryman and Co., Oxford. One 
guinea net. 
This admirably produced plate seeks to revive 
the method used in David Loggan's Oxoiila 
llliistnila and many other old prints, by giving a 
bird's eye view of the college and its grounds as 
they would appear from an imaginary elevation 
to the west. A comparison between Mr. New's 
work and the engraving on which it is based, pub- 
lished ill 1675, shows that the modern draughts- 
man is fully the equal of his predecessor. The 
general design very cleverly combines a pictorial 
treatment with the sense of an architectural 
pen-drawing, and though we miss something of 
the severe academic spirit of the older work, there 
can be nothing but praise lor the atmosphere and 
grace which the artist has contrived to retain in 
what might have been so easily a merely formal 
record of facts. 

Kecollections of a Himokist Crave and 
Gay. By Arthur Willi.un a ikckett. Lon- 
don : Pitman and Sons. 12s. Od. net. 

At the climax of a long and varied journalistic 
career .Mr. a Beckett did his best work as assistant 
editor to Sir Francis Burnaiid on I'liiuli. In the 
volume before us he once more plays second, 
loiigo iiitin-allo, to his chief. His book is a humble 
imitation of a more interesting work, the reminis- 
cences of Sir Francis liim-.elf. Wiiatever Sir 
Francis has done, Mr. a Beckett appears to have 
done not so well ; and it is perhaps a necessary 
disadvantage that he should have to insist as he 
does on his claim to be considered a humorist. 
A few good stories do little to lighten the tedium 
of a dull book. And when Mr. a Beckett owned 
so many ' dear and v.ilued ' friends, why 
should du Maurier be fobbed off with ' ray poor 

Saint George : Champion of Christendom and 
Patron Saint of England. By E. O. Gordon. 
London : Swan Sonnenschein. 21s. net. 

Every reader of Gibbon knows the passage on 
Saint George — one of the most deadly in all the 
work of that master of prose. And even while 
enjoying its exquisite turn, it would be well to take 
up Mr. Gordon's book, and study the real St. 
George from a different point of view. For the life 
of the S.iint Mr. Gordon's chief authorities are, of 
course, the ' Encomia ' recorded in contemporary 
Coptic Texts, which he has studied in Dr. Wallis 
Budge's translations, and of which he makes good 
use. Subsequent chapters concern the commemo- 
ration of the Saint in liturgies and nation.-jl 
institutions ; the celebrated knights of St. George 
from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, and 
St. George in art, customs and tniditions. It was 
high time that the matter presented by Mr. Gordon 
should be collected and rendered accessible. The 
volume covers an immense amount of ground, 
including, as it does, such dilferent subjects as the 
formation of the Round Table by Arthur under 
the patronage of St. George, and that of the Order 
of the Garter, with a selection from the multifa- 
rious lore attached to each, the Dragon of Wantley, 
and the execution of Charles 1 ; but the nature of 
his main object demanded this variety, and his book 
loses none of its historical value by its pleasant 
discursiveness. Mr. Gordon's bent of mind is all 
towards belief in legend, but his judgment is 
clear, and his sympathetic treatment of England's 
patron Saint should serve to remove a large amount 
of current ignorance and error. The book is full 
of interesting illustrations, most of them reproduced 
from rare sources, and the binding, in raised cloth, 
is a transcript of a sixteenth century panel-stamped 
binding, and an excellent example of the work of 
Messrs. Leighton, Son and Hodge. 


Dfk I'ksfruxc kks Udnal'stiles (Kunstficscliichllklie Mono- 

Kr;i|iliien, VII). I H marks. Hicisemaiin, Lcip/ g. 
Chahlks E. Uawsox : His Book of Book Pi.atfs. By 

Charles E. Dawson. Olio SlIiuIzc & Co., Edinburgh. 

"js. ncl. 
GFMAi.Dg ALTKR Meutfr (J2, 23. ^4 Licfcrung). Richard 

Bong, Berlin. 3 marks e.ich. 
Old EsuLisii FeRNixeKE. By G. Owen Wheeler. L. UfcoU 

Gill. 7s. 6cl. net. 
IJIF Galeries EiKOPAS (14, 13, 16, 17. 18 Liclerung). Seemann, 

I.eip/it;. .1 marks cacli. 
BtKY ST. EiiMUNUS, By Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley. MA., 

Lilt.U. Elliot Slock, is. 6d. net. 


OxIord and C.iinbridi'c Review. Expert. Collecting. Crafts- Ninelcenlh Century and Alter. Art Journal. National 
Review. Eortnintitly Review. Albany Review. Contem- 
porary Review. Connoisicur. Fine Ait Trade Journal 
Rapid. Review of Reviews. Conimonwealili. Studio. 
Gazelle des Beaux-Arts. Chronique <les Arts et de la 
Cuiiosite. Revue IllusU.e. Die Kiiii-.l (Munich). Augusli 
I'erusia (PeruKia). La Rasscfina Na/ionalc (Florence). 
Holleltino DArte (Rome). Museum ol Fine Arts Bullelio 
(Boston). Kokka (Tokio). On/e Kunst (Amsterdam). 



MENTIONED last month that 
the Louvre had purchased from 
Madame Emile Trepard two 
fine pictures by Chardin, Le 
Jcune Hoiuine an Violon and 
\L'ciif(iiit tilt Toion, which were 
k^^2i^shown at the recent exhibition at 

jii^^the Georges Petit Galleries. The 

latter picture is a portrait of the son of a banker and 
jeweller called Godefroy, who was a personal 
friend of the painter, and it was exhibited under 
the title of Portrait du fits dc M. Godefrov, joaiUicr, 
in the Salon of 1738. Some of the Parisian papers 
have been casting doubts on the authenticity of this 
picture on the authority of a Dr. Liebreich, who 
is said to be well known in Germany as an eye- 
specialist, but has not been hitherto known as an 
art critic. Dr. Liebreich declares that the other 
version of L'eiifaut an Teton, which belongs to a 
well-known Parisian collector and is No 70 in the 
catalogue of the recent Exhibition, is the original 
picture and that the picture bought by the Louvre 
is a copy executed in the nineteenth century. If 
this be true, the copyist was as great an artist as 
Chardin, for there is no question that, as I said 
last month, the Louvre picture is greatly superior 
in quality to the other, although the latter is 
apparently also the work of Chardin. But the 
arguments by which Dr. Liebreich supports his 
views are not worthy of serious attention, and it is 
plain that he has not even accurately observed the 
•Louvre picture, since he cites in support of his 
contention certain marks which have no existence 
save in his own imagination and which he alleges 
to have been copied from the other. 

On aesthetic grounds alone one can say 
'without hesitation that the Louvre picture is 
not only the original work of Chardin, but a 
very fine one, and that the other version is 

the replica. But, aesthetic considerations apart, 
the external evidence is conclusive. The 
original picture was, as I have already said, 
exhibited in 1738 ; the picture alleged by Dr. 
Liebreich to be the original is dated 1741. More- 
over, the picture now in the Louvre, which is 
signed but not dated, has come down to Mme. 
Trepard by transmission from ^L Godefroy him- 
self, whose portrait it is. He died at a very 
advanced age in 181 3, and bequeathed the 
picture, together with other property now in 
Mme. Trt'pard's possession, to a cousin from 
whom Mme. Trepard is directly descended. It 
is hardly possible that the owner of the replica 
painted in 1741 can share the opinion of Dr. 
Liebreich, since I am told on the best possible 
authority that he himself tried some years ago to 
buy both the pictures which have recently been 
added to the Louvre from the relative of 
Mme. Trepard who then possessed them. It 
would not, perhaps, be worth while to pay so 
much attention to this matter, were it not for the 
fact that a certain scandal-mongering section of 
the Paris press has made use of the incident in 
order to make a most unjustifiable attack on the 
administration of the Louvre. 

It will amuse the readers of The Bl'RLIXGTON' 
Magazine to hear that Dr. Liebreich claims to 
be quite infallible in regard to the technique of 
pictures. He has, it would seem, arrived at his 
infallible method by buying the works of Italian 
masters (or what he believes to be such), dissect- 
ing them to see ' how it is done,' and then re- 
painting them 'equal to new.' It is certainly an 
original training for an art critic, and one can 
only hope that the corpora on which Dr. Liebreich 
made his experiments were of the suitable quality. 

R. E. D. 


CARCELY any picture has 
j puzzled connoisseurs as much 
[as the admirable full-length 
portrait of the Florentine cap- 
tain, Alessandro del Borro, in 
the Kaiser-P'riedrich Museum 
Va\. Berlin. It was bought 1873 
las a Ribera, and was at once 
re-named Velazquez, as one of whose mostexcellent 
works it passed for years, until a somewhat closer 
attention to the coloration disclosed that it could 
never have been painted by the great Spaniard. 
Luca Giordano was suggested, but only with half 
a breath, because the portrait seems far superior to 
anything else by this master with which we are 
acquainted. The unusual dash and brilliancy of 
the picture then allowed Tiepolo and Tiberio 
Tinelli to be thought of. Now Mr. Tor Hedberg 
has proposed in a Swedish magazine a new 

candidate for the honour of having painted this 
portrait, in the person of Pieter Francoys (Fran- 
choys) of Malines (1606-1654), who in his best 
works imitates and nearly approaches Van Djxk's 
most passionate style. The ascription to a cis-Alpine 
artist is, on the 'face of it, rather startling, but 
Hedberg adduces specimens of Francoys' craft at 
Brussels, Cologne, Dresden, Frankfort, etc., to 
support his hypothesis, in which he discovers 
various similarities of treatment. Among these 
the little portrait sketch at Dresden must be the 
weakest prop for his theory, for it, to be sure, 
looks very unlike what we would expect of the 
painter of del Borro. 

The ' Schweizerische Kunstverein ' in its annual 
meeting at Lucerne has decided to unite, if pos- 
sible, the two important Swiss fine art events, the 
' Salon,' which takes place every two years, and 
the ' Turnus,' the annual circulating fine art 


Art in Germany 

exhibition. The Turniis this year shows the usual 
preponderance of landscape work, and a slight 
faiiing-ofT of snow scenes, which is to be lamented, 
as, naturally, the peculiar problems of snow 
scenery, yielding so readily to fine artistic present- 
ment, arc a legitimate speciality of Swiss painters. 
There is also a falhng-off of the strained, would-be 
intellectual, style of work, and this is fortunate. 
Among the younger generation in Switzerland, as 
elsewhere in (>ernian-spcaking countries, the 
tendency to produce confused allegories and deem 
them deeply philosophic had gradually developed 
into a disease. If the aims of the 'Scluvei/erische 
Kunstvercin ' can be realized, much good may 
come of it for Swiss art and artists. At present 
there is too much energy lost in instituting local 
exhibitions which cannot signify anything to 
anybody outside of the town where they occur, 
and do not offer a sufficient foil to the genuine 
talent that may be struggling to rise to the surface 
by means of them. A union of management at 
least of all these small functions with the 'Turnus' 
and the ' Salon ' must prove bcncticial. 

The ' Schwei/.erische Vereinigung fiir Heimath- 
schutz,' a society whose aim is to baulk the clever 
speculators in their attempts at disfiguring the 
natural beauties of Switzerland with mercenary 
projects, has scored various successes. It is 
owing to its intervention that no concession was 
granted for the building of an inclined railway 
up to the Tell Chapel on Lake Lucerne, and, at 
present, an attempt is being made to put a spoke 
in the wheel of the Matterhorn railway project. 

The historical gallery at Budapest has been 
reopened after having been closed to the public 
for almost twelve years. It is now housed in the 
former premises of the Hungarian National Gal- 
lery in the Academy buildings. The director, 
von Kammcrer, has rearranged the collections, 
to which numerous additions have been made 
during the space of time that they were not on 

An important museum building is to be erected 
at Cassel, which is to be devoted to the history 
and art of the province of Hessia. 

Owing to dissatisfaction with the turn that 
various art affairs have been taking of late, 
the Bavarian (jovcriuncnt has instituted serious 
changes in the management of all questions per- 
taining to art. So far these alterations do not by 
any means seem full of promise, for instead of 
picking out experts and specialists, who are 
responsible for what they do, and t<i whom in 
consequence as much freedom as possible should 
be accorded, no end of boards of trustees and 
committees have been appointed, with power to 
counteract the decisions which the several directors 
and presidents of the museums, galleries, .ica- 
dcmics, etc., may come to. I n fact such committees 
arc hereafter to have a voice even in the appoint- 


ment of men to vacant places on the museum 
staffs. It will not be long before such schemes 
prove themselves unsatisfactory. The tendency 
of modern museum practice is to pick your man 
carefully, and let him work on unhindered, not to 
hamper him at all with a supervisory committee, 
which of course is composed of amateurs. What 
harm committees can do has been sufficiently 
proved by many museums during the middle of 
the nineteenth century, and is proved to this day 
at some minor institutions. For one thing, if the 
single, individual director makes mistakes, they 
will all be in one direction, and the next genera- 
tion ran easily remedy them hs relegating his bad 
acquisitions to the store-room. But the many- 
minded committee makes mistakes in all directions, 
and the traces of these errors of judgment are not 
so easily eliminated. 

New frescoes have been discovered in the 
Maurice chapel of the St. Sebaldus church at 
Nuremberg. Karl Gebhardt has pronounced 
them to be by the same hand as the Holy Family 
in possession of the Przibram family at Vienna 
and claims to have discovered the name of the 
painter, one Weinschroter, who flourished towards 
the end of the fourteenth century at Nuremberg. 
Heretofore the Przibram picture, an important 
work in the history of early German painting, was 
not definitely claimed for Nuremberg. 

The museum at Heidelberg is to be enriched 
by the gift of 141 old Netherlandish paintings, 
belonging to the collection of the late Mr. Posselt. 
A separate wing is to be annexed to the building 
to receive them. 

Among the recent acquisitions of the museum 
at Magdeburg figures one of Menzcl's most inter- 
esting works, his so-called Caisel Carlooit. This 
large drawing representing the Entry of Duchess 
Marie u-ith her three-year-old son in Sfarbiirg, was 
executed at Cassel during the winter of 1847 and 
spring of 1848 for the Kunstverein there, by which 
it was bespoken. Menzel bought it back in 1866, 
thereby giving rise to the report that he himself 
did not think much of it and wished to hide it 
from the public. In a letter of the 17th November, 
1882, Menzel rather indignantly denies the truth 
of this report. He says that, rctinning to Cassel 
eighteen years later, he found the huge cartoon, 
for want of better accommodation, skied in a dark 
hall of the library at Cassel, begrimed and dirtv, 
and so he bought it back in order to give it another 
chance to become publicly known, not in order to 
withdraw it from the public notice. It figured at 
the big Menzel exhibition in IQ05, and now has 
found a resting place in one of our most enter- 
prising civic museums. 

A charming and refined portrait of a Countess 
Bose, paintecl in 1780 In' Joh. V. A. Tischbein, 
has just been bequeatiied to the Dresden Gallery, 
which already possesses an excellent but smaller 





portrait by his hand. Works of this class prove 
that German art at the close of the eighteenth 
centur>', if not quite on an equal standing with 
French and English, was not at all contemptible 
by the side of them. 

There is a German adage, ' It's water that they 
cook with everywhere,' which comes to mind, 
a propos of a recent legal verdict. Generally 
speaking, our views on the subject of the nude, 
etc., in art are quite sane and apt to be looked 
upon with en\7 by the cultured of countries where 
prudishness is more likely to pass for virtue than 
here. Recently, however, the prosecuting attorney- 
general at Breslau had a dealer up for exhibiting 
and selling picture postcards, printed in colours, 
and reproducing the two Judgments of Paris, by 
Rubens and Van dcr Werff, in the Dresden 
Gallery. The man was fined, too ! and sentence 
was passed that the cards, the plates to produce 
them with, etc., should be confiscated. It is a 
wonder that the Breslau police staff did not sen- 
tence the original paintings to destruction also. 

That important creation of Dr. Carl Jacobsen, 
the \y Carlsberg Glyptothek at Copenhagen, has 
just bought Max Klinger's latest work of sculpture, 
the Diana. The Ny Carlsberg Museum, famous 
for having brought together a surprising number 
of excellent genuine antiques, when one considers 
how young the institution is, has hitherto lold 
French and Danish productions among its modern 
acquisitions, but this is the first work by a living 
German sculptor it has bought. Klinger may well 
feel pleasure at the distinction thus conferred 
upon his work, in view of the reputation for dis- 
cernment and taste which Dr. Jacobsen has so well 
earned for himself in matters of sculpture. 

The well-known author of the New York 
Harbour Pharos (the goddess of Liberty), the 
late sculptor, Frederick August Bartholdi, was an 
Alsatian by birth. In spite of his Teutonic 
ancestry, as betrayed by his Christian names, he 
sided with the French and became after 1871 a 
rabid anti-German Chauvinist. Fortunately this 
hatred is not to extend beyond the grave, 
Bartholdi's widow has just presented Kolmar, 

Art in Qermany 

the sculptor's birthplace, with the works found in 
his studio at his death, with a house to be 
converted into a museum, and with a capital 
of _£"io,ooo. 

One of the most interesting acquisitions that 
any of our museums can boast of has lately fallen 
as a gift to the lot of the Goethe Museum at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. Goethe gives a most 
lively description in the third volume of his 
'Wahrheit und Dichtung ' of the French occupa- 
tion of I-'rankfort in 1759, and of the Lieutenant 
Comte Thoranc, who was at the head of the 
PVench, and was quartered in Goethe's house. 
Thoranc was a great lover of paintings. Scarcely 
arrived at Frankfort, Goethe says he ordered all 
the local painters of repute to come and show him 
their work. He bought many pictures, and 
bespoke many more for his house at Grasse