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Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 
Illustrated &" Published Monthly 


January to June 191 8 

LONDON -^'^ 









[References to stctioin which recur monthly are given at the end of this table.) 


Ford Madox Brown watercolours recently acquired for the nation. By 
Robert Ross ....•••••••• 

Matthew Maris. By Paul Buschmann 

For conclusion see . [February) 73 

Early textiles from Damietta. By A. F, Kendrick 

The late Stanley William Littlejohn. By Laurence Binyon and Sir Sidney Colvin 

Recent acquisitions by the British Museum and the National Gallery 

Memories of Degas. By George Moore ....... 

For conclusion see ..... . - {February) 63 

Uncommissioned art, reflections at the Alpine Club. By D. S. MacColl . 
Pietro dcgli Ingannati. By Tancred Borenius ...... 









A picture by Pietro Cavallini. By Osvald Siren .... 
Another drawing of the "Life of S. Benedict". By Campbell Dodgson 
Drawings at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. By Roger Fry 
Memories of Degas [conclusion). By George Moore 

The Reichenau crosier. By H. P. Mitchell 

Matthew Maris [conclusion). By Paul Buschmann .... 




On a composition by Gauguin. By Roger Fry 
Swedish and English Fonts. By Johnny Roosval . 
Illustrated books of Japan — IL By Major J. J. O'Brien Sexton 
A portrait by Van Dyck. By Lionel Cust. . . . . 

What arc Canions ? By F. M. Kelly 

Studies in Peruvian textiles. By Cyril G. E. Bunt . 

Milanese bobbin-lace with hunting scenes. By P. G. Trendell . 




I 02 

1 02 
1 12 


Notes on pictures in the Royal collections — XL. By Lionel Cust . 
The bacini of S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. By Gaetano Ballardini 
Alexander the Great's " Celestial Journey " By R. S. Loomis 

For conclusion see ....... [May) 177 

More textiles from Egyptian cemeteries. By A. F. Kendrick .... 

An old representation of Theodoric. By Giuseppe Gerola . . . . 

Loudin's [alias " Lowris ") china house, Bristol. By William Pountney 

For conclusion see ...... .[May) 175 

Symbolic animals of Perugia and Spoleto. By Milton Garver . . , , 



T 27 



CONTENTS OF VOL. "^^^^.W— continued 


Notes on the Museo Nazionale of Florence — VI. By Giacomo de Nicola . .169 

For VII see {June) 218 

Loudin's {alias " Lowris ") china house, Bristol (conclusion). By William Pountney 175 

Alexander the Great's " Celestial Journey " (conclusion) . By R. S. Loomis. . 177 

The mosaic pavement of Shellal, near Gaza. By Capt. Martin S. Briggs . -185 

Two " Little Masters " of Limoges enamelling. By H. P. Mitchell . . .190 

A cassonc-panel by Cosimo Roselli(?). By Roger Fry . . . • .201 


Recent acquisitions for public collections — 

I— A dish by Christian Van Vianen. By W. W. Watts . 
II — Two English tapestries. By A, F. Kendrick. .... 
Notes on the Museo Nazionale of Florence — VII. By Giacomo de Nicola 

William McTaggart. By D. S. MacColl 

English furniture of the cabriole period (1700- 1760). By H. Avray Tipping 
A Dutch sketch-book of 1650. By Campbell Dodgson .... 





Reviews (monthly^ except June) . . . . . . 33, 75 1 17, 160, 201 

Monthly Chronicle : — 

The Kaufmann Sale (T. B.). The Slade Professorship, University College 
(M. A.). The Modern Loan Exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery (R. S.). 
Flower Pieces by Roger Fry, Carfax and Co. (R. S.) . {January) 35 

The British Museum, the Natural History Museum and the Air Board 
(Editors). The Red Cross and S. John of Jerusalem in England 
(Editors). The Museum of Fine Arts, Worcester, Mass, (Editors). 
The New English Art Club (Z.). Woodcuts by Timothy Cole 
(Greatorex Galleries) (R. S.). Mr. Eric Gill (M. A.) . (February) jj 

The sale of Degas's collection (Roger Fry). William Blake, the Linnell 
collection (Archibald G. B. Russell, Rouge Croix). The Oppenheim 
sale. Salvage. The registration of works of art in occupied countrie« 
(More Adey). The Mestrovic Committee. Obituary . {March) 118 

The Trustees of the National Gallery (M. A.). William Morris Com- 
memoration (A. v.). The FitzwiUiam Museum, Cambridge (R. R.). 
The Church Crafts League (V. H.). Andrade's Chinese pottery 
(M. A.). Pictures of War, by C. R. W. Nevinson, at the Leicester 
Galleries (R. S.). Exhibition of Ancient Ecclesiastical Art, Gusta- 
vianum, Stockholm (M. A.) ..... . (April) 163 

The Stations of the Cross in Westminster Cathedral (R. S.). Christie's and 
the Red Cross (Editors). The Oppenheim sale (X.). Judge William 
Evans's collection of contemporary pictures (R. S.). Water-colour 
paintings by Alfred W, Rich at Walker's Galleries (R. S.) . {May) 204 

CONTENTS OF VOL. Y.yiY.W-- continued 

MONTHLY SECTIONS {contd.)— page 

The Lincoln statue (Roger Fry). Art by weight (Z.). The Gumprecht sale 

(X.). Henri Gaiidier-Brzeska, at the Leicester Galleries (R. S.) {June) 240 
Letters : — 

Cezanne (Ralph Curtis). Sir Charles Holroyd's etchings (C. A. M. Barlow) 

{January) 3 8 
"The Rcichenau Crosier" (H. P. Mitchell). " Eglomise" (Sir Charles A. Cook, 
K.C.B.). The date of a picture by Borgognone (Rev. P. M. Barnard) 

(March) I 2 1 
The Capocci tabernacle (Eugenie Strong). The Bartolini-Salimbeni Race 

of the Palio (Editors) ....... {June) 244 

Auctions {Monthly) 39,81,122,166,206,245 

Periodicals .... Italian {January) 39 Japanese {March) 122 
Publications Received {Monthly) 42, 82, 124, 166, 206, 246 




Ford Madox Brown. Water colours recently 

acquired for the nation, both from Coltart 

coll. — I — Kiiiii Reui's Honeymoon 
II — The Wniiiig Lesson ..... 
Drawing by Mathijs Maris; Souvenir d' Amsterdam 
Fourth and fifth c. textiles fr m Damietta (V.-A. 

Mus.). — I — Hangtnfi willi tapestry ornament, 

5th c, 5' 2" X 3' 6' (m. 1-57 X i'o6) 
II — Hangtnjlu;ith woollen Emltroidery, 4th-5thc. 

a portion with details on larger scale ; whole 

5' 2' X 3' 6' (M. I 57 X 106) 
" Fresco " on copper by William Blake, and 

restoration by the late S. W. Littlejohn ; The 

Agony in the Garden 

Drawings by Degas belonging to the late Sir 

William Eden, Bart. — I — The Dancer, pastel 
II — Fan, DtJHSfHSt.';, watercolour ; Les Blanchis- 

setises, pastel 

Pictures by Pietro degli Ingannati, inscribed 

" PETRVS DE iNGAN.ATis p" — [a] — The Virgin 

and Saints (Kgl. Gall., Berlin); [b] Portrait 

of Unknoii'n Man (Nat. Gall., Ireland) . 


Paintings by Pietro Cavallini. — I — Virgin and 
Child, panel (Mr. Otto H. Kahn). 
11 — Figures 0/ Apostles and an Angel, details of 
the frescoes (S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome) 

S. Benedict visiting his Sister, S. Scholastica. Pen 
drawing by the Benedict-master, recently 
discovered ; the gth of the series " Scenes 
from the Life of S. Benedict " . . 

Drawings exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club, winter 1917-18. — I — Apotheosis of 
Sapoleon. pencil and watercolour wash, by 
J. A. D. Ingres (Vicomte d'Arcy). 








II — Pencil drawing of seated woman, inscribed 
"Flore a I'hotel de Ville i 10", signed 
" Corot " (Mr. J, P. Heseltine) . . . 56 

III — Stiulv of nude woman in black and white 
chalk, ascr. to Titian (?), perhaps by Gior- 
gione(?) (Mr. W. Bateson) . . . -57 

IV — Hoses and the Burning Bush, pen, sepia 
and india-ink wash drawing, by Rembrandt 
('Mr. Henry Oppenheimer) . . . .60 
The Reichenau crosier (V.-A. Mus.). — I — The 

Crosier (both sides) 67 

II — Details of the knop, with rubbing of the 

inscription . • 70 

Drawings, (a) Apollo, pen-and-ink, by A. Diirer ; 
(b) Female figure holding a vase, black and 
red chalk, by Lodovico Carracci . . 80 


" Que sommes-nous ? D'oii 2'enons-nous ? Oil allons- 

noits?" by Thomas Gauguin . . .84 

Scandinavian and English fonts. — I — Scandina- 
vian, [a, c, u, f] the font of Ottravad, and 
[r] the font of Giillstad, both in Vastergot- 
land, Sweden ; [e] the font of Tobjerg, 
Jutland, Denmark ...... 8g 

II — Scandinavian, Sweden, the fonts of [g] 
Skorstorp, VastergiJtLind ; [k] Martebo, 
Gotland ; Denmark [l] the font of Tikjob ; 
England [h] the fonts of Pyecombe, Sussex, 
[jj South Brent, Somerset; [m] Beverley 
Minster, Yorks. 92 

Utamaro's "Insect Book ". — I — Pink poppies, with 
a dragon-fly and two white butterflies, vol. i, 
PI. IV, p. 4 97 

LIST OF VLATES—conttmed 

MARCH (contd.) page 
II — A grey and while snake pursuing a yellow 
lizard among plants with small blue flowers, 
vol. ii, PI. X, p. 3 100 

Portrait of an unknown m.m, inscribed "^tatis 
SUAE 46, OCTOBRE ANNO 1631"; by Van Dy.k 
(Capt, E. G. Spencer-Churchill, M.C.) . . 103 

Canions, as illustrated in [a] " Emblemata Saecu- 
laria", print, 15Q6, by J.T. and J. I. De Bry ; 
[b] Elder son of Sir Percyval Hart, 1575, 
painting by (?) C. Ketel (Sir W. Hart Dyke, 
Bart.); [c] Sir Jerome Bowes, painting, 
1583, by M. Gheeraedts (E. of Suffolk) . 107 

Milanese bobbin-lace with hunting scenes (V-A. 
Mus., gift of Mr. Louis Clarke).— I— First 

half of 17th century 113 

II— Late 17th century 116 


Diana and Acta:cn, unfinished sketch by Thos. 

Gainsborough (H.M. the King) . . .126 

Dishes until recently embedded in the Campanile, 
S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (R. Mus. Naz., 
Ravenna).— I — The masonry of the Cam- 
panile with the dishes, a bacino and a 
scodella, embedded in it . . . 13' 

II— [c] Hispano-Moresque bacini from North 
Italy (Kunstgevv. Mus., Berlin) ; [d] The 
bacino and scodella of the Campanile . . 134 

Eastern examples from the iconography of 
Alexander the Great's celestial journey.— I — 
[a] I2lh c. German embroidery (S. Patro- 
clus's Ch., Soest ); [\i\ Panel of a Byzantine 
ivory casket (Grsshoz. Landesmus., Darm- 
stadt) ; [c] Detail of enamelled bowl from 
W.Asia made for Mawud (1114-1144); [d] 
Stone carving from the Peribleptos, Mistra ; 
[e] Greek, marble rtlief on N. side, S. Maijc's, 
Venice; [f] Persian miniature " Kai Ka'us " 
(Mr. Robert Rossj ; [g] Russian carving 
(S. Demetrius's Ch., Vladimir) ; [h] Detail 
of mosaic pavement, laid by Pantaleone, a 
Greek, in 1165 (Ouanto Caih.) . . .137 

Textiles fiom Egyptian cemeteries. — I — [a] 
Kerchief, 5th c, 19" x Sf, given by Stephen 
Gaselee, Esq., C.b.e. ; [b] Panel of a 5th c. 
tunic, 6|" X 7", and [c] Panel of a yd or /^th c. 
tunic, 6J" X 7f", both given by Major H. G. 
Gayer Anderson (V'.-A. Mus.) . . .142 
11 — [d] Portions of pattern round the neck of 
a 6th c. tunic from a larger fragment, 
1 1 1" X 131', given by Sir Wm. Lawrence, 
Bart. (V.-A. Mus.); [eJ Portions of pattern 
elsewhere on same tunic (I. Sassoon) . . 143 

Ancient representations of Theodoric the Goth. 
[a] Interview between Pope S. John and 
Theodoric, Giottesqne fresco (Ch. of S. Maria 
Porto Fuori, Ravenna) ; [b] Two marble slabs 
in relief '■ Theodoric and his horse falling 
before S. Hilams" (Ch. of S. EUero de 

Galcata) • -148 

Loudin's {alias " Lowris") china house, Bristol. — 
I — Sauceboais in Bristol soft paste porcelain 
[a] one of a pair decorated in gold (bchreiber 
coll., No. 871) ; [b] one marked " Bristol!" in 

relief (V-A. Mus. No. 3151-IQ01); [c] one 
embossed white (Brit. Mus.,viii, 1) ; [d] One^ 
of a pair of bluish white porcelain figures (63' 
high, marked " Bristol 1750 " in raised 
cliaracters (purchased by A. A. Ainor at 
TrapnellSale 1912, No. 70). . . -153 
Symbolic animals carved on the W. Fronts of [a] 
S. Costanzo's Ch., Perugia and [b] S. Pietro's, 
Spoleto ^56 


I— Cassone with front illustrating Boccaccio's 
ninety-ninth " Novella", S.d idin and Messer 
Torello d'Istria (Bargello, Florence) . . 168 
II — The three scenes on a larger scale . . 171 

Loudin's {alias " Lowris ") china house, Bristol 
— II — Sauceboats in Bristol soft paste porce- 
lain 174 

Western examples from the iconography of 
Alexander the Great. — II — [j] Misericord, 
Whalley Church, Lanes. ; [k] Tympanum, 
Charney Bassett Church, Berks. ; [l] 12th c. 
Rhenish enamel; [m] iT,th c. Ratisbon textile; 
[n] Carved slab, front of Duomo, Borgo-San- 
Donnino; [o] Tournay tapestry (Palazzo 
Doria, Rome) ; [p] Misericord, Cartmel 
Priory, Lanes. ; [q] Misericord, S. Mary's, 

Darlington 180 

111— Misericords : [r] Wells Cathedral; [s] 
Beverley Minster; [t] Chester Cathedral; 
[u] Lincoln Cathedral; [w, y] Gloucester 
Cathedral 181 

Mosaic pavement found at Shellal, near Gaza; 

from sketches by Capt. Martin S. Briggs . 187 

Limoges enamels. — I — [a] Mars and Venus dis- 
covered by the Gods {V.-A. Mus., Salting); [b] 
Combat of Cavalry (M. Albert Lehmann, 
Paris) ; [c] Hercules and Deianira with the 
Centaur, Nessus (V.-A., Mus., Salting) ; [d] 
Sacrifice of a Lamb (V.-A., Mus., Otto Beit); 
[e] Sacrifice of a Bull (Mr. Otto Beit) . 191 

II — [f] Combat of Horsemen and Foot-Soldiers, 
gi isaille, signed M P (Louvre, Gatteaux) ; 
[g] Martyrdom of S. Lawrence, from Marcan- 
tonio after Baccio Bandinelli, signed M p 
(V.-A. Mus., Salting); [h] Virgin and Child 
with SS. Elizabeth and John the Baptist, 
from Marcantonio, Vierge an Palmier, after 
Raphael, grisaille (V.-A. Mus.); [j] Adoration 
of the Magi (Dutuit coll., Paris) . . . 194 
III — [k] Vierge au Palmier, engraving, Marc- 
antonio (V.-A. Mus., Dyce); [l] Martyrdom 
of S. Lawrence, engraving, Marcantonio 
(V.-A. Mus., Dyce) ; [m] Christ among the 
Doctors grisaille, stamped PL crowned (V.-A. 
Mas.) ; [n] Via Crucis, grisaille, signed Pi, 
stamped three times pl crowned (Pierpont 
Morgan Coll.) I95 

[a] The Combat of Amor and Caslitas, generally 
asciibed to Cosimo Riselli (Nat. Gal.); [d] 
Oroup of female figures, here ascribed to 
Cosimo Roselh (Mr. W. B. Chamberlin) . 200 

LIST OF Vhh.TE^— continued 


Hale by Christian van Vianen of Utiecht and his 
iDllowcrs. — I — Silver dish, inscribed " C. d. 
Vtanen fecit, 1633" (V.-A. Mus. gift of Sir 
John F. Ramsdcii, Bart.) . . . .208 

II — [b] Silver lazza and interior of bowl, -igned 
'•A. de Viana, fc. a° lOiS " (Mr. R. E. 
Brandt) ; (c) Silver-gill salt cellar, c. 1660 
(Royal Coll., Tower of London). . 212 

III — [dj Silver porringer, with cover, London, 
1O68 (Mr. C. J.Jacuson); [e] Silver-gilt cup, 
temp Charles II (Goldsmilhs Co.); Silver-gilt 
cup, 1666 (Grocers' Co.) .... 

English Tapestry, floral design and ornament, Giiis 
[a] of Lady Weriiher, [bJ of Mr. Oito Beit 
(V.A. Mus.) 

Floreniine cassone-f runts, Procession of the Palii, 

S. John's Eve. — 1 — Left hand side of front . 

II — Right hand side ot front .... 




111 — [c] The whole c<issone (Bargello, Flo- 
rence) ; [d] Race of the Palio, S. John's Day, 
from a drawing by Andrea da Varrazzano 
(Soc. Colombaria, Florence) .... 224 

English furniture of the cubriole period (Mr. 
Percivai Griffiths).— I — [a] Writing-desk on 
stand, walnut, c. 1710; [b] Small writing- 
bureau with legs, walnut, c 1710-15 . . 229 
II — [cj Writing-bureau, with drawers below, 
m.ihogany, 1740-50 ; [d] Bureau -dressing- 
table, c. 1750 232 

Drawings from a Dutch sketch-book of 1650 here 
identified as the work of Van Goycii. — I — 
Two leaves of shipping; A memorandum ; A leaf 

described, " Bomuiel" 235 

II — The Church, at Tiel; Cleef; Two undescribed 
leaves ........ 238 

Three views of Mr. George Gray Barnard's 

Colossal statue of Abraham Lincoln . . 241 




T. \V. ARNOLD, c.i.E. 




SIR C. A. M. BARLOW, K.B E., m.p 












C. G. E. BL'XT, PTE., 1ST-5TH 




A. S. G. BUTLER, Lieut., r.a. 









K. A. C. CRESWELL, capt., 



LIEUT., R.N'.V.R. 

MILTON GARVER, lieut. u.s a. 


A. M. HIXD, O.B.E., CAPT., A.S.C. 










ROGER S. LOOM IS, v.SA. army 

D. S. MacCOLL 

SIR C. H. READ, v.p.s.a. 
A. G. B. RUSSELL, rouge 

HENRY TOXKS, f.r.c.s. 
R. C. WITT, c.B.E. 





|T the Coltart sale in Liverpool on 
October 30th last the National Gallery 
acquired two brilliant little water 

• colours by Ford Madox Brown. They 

^are a valuable addition to the national 

collection, and particularly to the Pre-Raphaelite 
section at the Tate Gallery, which, at Mr. Aitken's 
initiative already rivals, if it does not surpass, 
Birmingham in pictures and drawings of this 
school, so far as quality is concerned. The use 
of tempera not having been revived when the Pre- 
Raphaelites were at their zenith, the mixed 
medium of water and body colour (which they 
treated with some temerity) allowed for happier 
expression of their genius and ideas, and lent itself 
by its limitations to their archaistic design and 
primitive love of pure flat colour. Millais, of 
course, is the exception ; though Madox Brown, 
more various than his younger associates, em- 
ployed, it must be remembered, the more sophis- 
ticated vehicle with significant success at dififerent 
times, seeming, however, less Pre-Raphaelite when 
he did so, owing doubtless to his foreign training. 
Of all great artists in the 19th century Madox 
Brown enjoyed less than anyone else the insult 
of popularity. He was never the centre of a 
mystic cult, like Rossetti. He was ignored by 
Ruskin. The Broad Church clergy, though con- 
stant in feeding Hoi man Hunt's Scapegoat with 
honest doubt, as it hung in steel engraving over 
the mantelpiece, hardly knew Madox Brown's 
name. The High Churchmen, too, affected Hunt, 
until, suspecting The Light of the World of heresy, 
they drugged their conscience with Burne Jones 
and Morris dossals, thereby attracting the aesthetes 
to their ornate offices. They began with 
Madox Brown windows occasionally, but always 
lapsed into Burne Jones, who, they remembered, 
was intended to be a curate. Critics apolo- 
gised for Madox Brown ; he was not pretty 
enough, and beauty with a large B banished him 
from Brompton. He did not even live in Chelsea. 
Yet this sturdy old atheist was far more medii-eval 
and religious in an objective sense than any of 
the P.R.B.'s or their successors. He was a real 
Goth, and, as King Rene's Honeymoon proves, 
realised the intrinsic value of Gothic design, 
raore,perhaps,than Rossetti, the greater Latin inno- 
vator, from whom he caught the flame relatively 
late in life. Now, either because he rejected con- 
temporary ideals of beauty, or because Whistler 
called him the successor of Hogarth, he is respected 
by the fiercer artists of to-day. It is interesting to 

be able to congratulate the Melbourne and Sydney 
galleries on the superbexamples they secured before 
Madox Brown became a fashionable old master. 

King Rene' s Honeymoon, io\ in. by 6| in., signed 
MFB/64, thoroughly Rossettian in motive, was 
originally invented for a panel on the well known 
cabinet designed by John P. Seddon, the architect, 
in 1861, and executed by the newly formed firm of 
Morris Marshall Faulkner & Co., now belonging 
to Mrs. Birch. The panel shows variations ; the 
diaper background being the work of Morris. 
The Coltart drawing, exhibited several times, 
notably at the Grafton Galleries, 1897, in a collec- 
tion of the painter's works, is generally considered 
the finest of several replicas : one version belongs 
to Mr. W. H. Wood. A cartoon executed for 
Morris & Co. was in the Trist sale at Christies 
1892. Another formerly belonging to Frederic 
Shields is at the Birmingham Gallery. The king 
wears a crimson robe with sleeves lined grey-blue. 
The crowns embroidered on the right shoulder 
represent the kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, Cyprus, 
and Jerusalem. He has red-brown hair. The 
orphrey is pink with a fringe of bells. The orna- 
ments and crowns are of gold. The dress of the 
Queen, Jeanne de Laval, is greenish-grey, powdered 
with orange disks, and is trimmed with fur. The 
inscription on the architectural plan at her feet 
reads : — 

Veci le Chastel dn Roy Rene. 
The reproduction renders more detailed description 
unnecessary. In writing of this picture Madox 
Brown declared that it represented twilight. But 
there is a cheerful and primitive disregard of any 
such phenomenon. 

The Writing Lesson, signed M. F. B., 9 in. by 8 in. 
The little girl wears a green dress and a white 
frill ; the ribbon round her neck is of black 
velvet, from which hangs a circular red stone ; 
the apple is green. Her hair is black ; the 
background is green-grey. The head cut on the 
desk bears the word Mary and the initials C. H. 
This drawing was contributed by the artist to 
a sale organised in 1863 for the Lancashire 
strikers. 1 1 should be noted that the child's sharply 
modelled face is very typical of the Pre-Raphaelites; 
the model has been carefully chosen and is strongly 
differentiated from the mid-Victorian concept of 
what a little girl ought to look like, so familiar in 
Academy pictures and picture books of the period. 
Madox Brown excelled in painting children, avoid- 
ing the mawkish sentiment of Watts and the later 

txi BtBLiNoioN Magazine, No. 178. Vol. XXXII— January, 1918. 


I FEW years before Matthew Maris was 
(horn, Balzac, in his "Chef-d'oeuvre 
linconiui ", told the strange story of an 
lid painter, highly esteemed by his 
Lcontemporaries, but never satisfied 
with hini--clf and full of contempt for his earher 
works. For many vears tliis artist had been 
engaged on the completion of what he considered 
his masterpiece, but nobody was ever admitted to 
see if. At last two young painters were introduced 
into his jealously secluded studio— but the master- 
piece proved to be an amazing confusion of 
colours and lines ; only in a corner of the canvas 
the wonderfully painted foot of a woman had 
escaped the process of slow destruction, which 
had been all the painter's work for his later years. 
Aware at last of his failure, the master died the 
same night after having burnt all his pictures. 

There is something' of this story in Matthew 
Maris's Hfe. Exceptionally gifted and of a rare 
precocity, he completed almost the whole and 
perhaps the best of his works during the first half 
of his existence. As so many great artists, he was 
truly a born painter and seems to have acquired 
in no time and without much pains the full com- 
mand of his technique. Equipped as he was, 
the painter could easily have started what is termed 
a brilliant career .... if only he had consented 
to comply with the prevailing taste, if only he had 
submitted to the supercilious criticism of certain 
dealers, if only he had, in one word, been better 
" (it " for the modern struggle for life. But 
Matthew Maris was not. He could not live in 
the cage in which society expects an artist to sing 
for food like a rare bird — not even in a golden 
cage ; and instead of singing, he flung himseli 
desperately against the bars. He wanted to be let 
alone with his work, he wanted to paint without 
an eye to money. And moreover, he considered 
it a crime to sell his pictures to a stranger for vile 
gold. But however humbly he may have lived, 
with similar conceptions life is impossible in our 
society, and painful conflicts were unavoidable. 
His high-spirited and hypersensitive nature pro- 
foundly resented them, and when, at last, recogni- 
tion came, the public and the dealers who sought 
to approach him, found him " an intractable man ", 
This is one of the clues which may help us to 
understand this wonderful existence. Another 
one is the sharp sense of self-criticism, and the 
strong artistic conscience of the artist. These 
gifts may be invaluable, but if developed to a 
morbid degree they would become fatal to any 
artistic production. This, unfortunately, proved 
to be very much the case with Matthew Maris. 

* This article, by Dr. Paul Buschmann, editor of our Belgian 
conteniporar>-, Oiizc Kumt, was written at the beginning of 
October, but publication has been delayed for want of space. — 

He emphatically disavowed even his most 
accomplished works, which our admiration ranks 
amongst the summits of modern art ; he called 
them "pot-boilers" and "suicides", and even- 
tually pretended that he was not a painter at all. 
He was never satisfied with his pictures, and he 
never considered them to be finished. He bitterly 
regretted all his life that hard necessities had com- 
pelled him at one time to part with any of his 

It is really not surprising that a painter's career 
started under such auspices should, in the opinion 
of our selfish and materialistic world, turn out 
very much to be a failure. Newspapers, which 
had never cared for the master as long as he was 
alive, complacently commented on his death 
under more or less sensational headings. They 
did so, not because they could have any real sym- 
pathy for the work of a great artist who had gone, 
but because an artist whose works fetched record 
prices at public auctions had died in obscurity 
in some out-of-the-way corner of the metropolis. 
A welcome topic for "copy" ! The rustle. of the 
bank-notes paid at Christie's for his early canvases 
fascinated the press — not the magic of the artist's 
art. And the contrast between the luxury and 
adulation in which the artist might easily have 
lived, if he had only been more " reasonable ", 
and his proud simplicity and solitude exasperated 
the journalist, as it utterly disturbed all common 
notions on contentment and happiness. 

Certainly, we may regret that an artist of such 
exceptional merits never succeeded to his own 
satisfaction in expressing his supreme conceptions, 
and purposely withheld from us what he con- 
sidered unworthy of himself, although we might 
still have received it with the deepest gratitude — 
but we have to take him as he was, and as he 
consciously chose to be. We should then recog- 
nise in him, not a genial outcast, not a wreck of 
our society, but a hero, who had sustained all his 
life a hard struggle against the whole world and 
against himself — and died unbeaten. 

On what authority could we pretend to decide 
whether his achievements satisfied his conscience 
and ambition ? He found that they did not, and 
we must accept his judgment. I know from the 
best source that some of the pictures he so 
jealously kept for himself were once finished to 
the highest standard of perfection and he pro- 
mised they could be taken away the next day ; 
yet the next day they were utterly obliterated ; 
the artist's vision, materialised for a moment on 
the canvas, had vanished in the vain pursuance of 
his fata morgana. We may for ourselves and 
for the world bitterly deplore this merciless 
destruction — but we are no judges in the terrible 
strife which no doubt was fought in the deepest 
of the artist's conscience. 





Matthew Maris 

If we consider the final outcome of his efforts 
to be negative in a certain sense — it is so because 
he imposed harder laws upon himself than any 
other contemporary artist whom we know of. 
We may despise him, and assert that he 
foolishly aimed at something over aeviie — beyond 
human scope, but if this be right we, for our part, 
cannot help admiring the butterfly that flew 
towards the sun and burnt its gorgeous wings. 

Matthew Maris had it within his power to ac- 
quire wealth and position ; he could have moved 
as a prominent figure in the highest circles. 
But this would have imposed upon him some 
compromise with his artistic conscience, some 
concession to a world he hated and disdained — 
he withstood all temptations and vanquished the 
almighty Dollar. There is grandeur in this atti- 
tude, which reminds us of the noblest characters 
in history. The frail, old man, who required 
only so small a heap of earth for his last abode, 
laught us a strong, moral lesson. It has, per- 
haps, not been heard in the roar of the world's 
contest — but it will not be lost, and it will speak 
to those who are not deafened by greed and 

Whatever Matthew Maris's opinions may have 
been on his own pictures — they no longer belong 
to him, but to posterity. And if he has been un- 
just towards himself, it is our duty to pay him the 
humble tribute of our admiration, to study his 
works and to determine their proper place in the 
history of art. This is not a task I would venture 
to undertake in these few lines. Some of his 
more competent countrymen have been engaged 
for years on this work, and no doubt we shall, 
before long, see further results of their investiga- 
tions.' I would merely endeavour to draw a 
rapid outline of the painter's evolution, supple- 
menting at the same time the biographical notes 
already given in Mr. C. J. Holmes's penetrating 
study on Matthew Maris's landscapes. ^ 

Matthew Maris was born at The Hague on the 
17th August 1839, as the second son of humble 
parents. As pointed out already, he was sur- 
prisingly precocious. He entered the Academy 
of his native town as a boy of 13, and some of 
his prize-drawings are preserved there. When 
still a pupil of the Academy, he was admitted to 
the studio of the marine painter Louis Meyer, a 

' A series of biographical articles on M. Maris, by P. Haver- 
korn van Rijsewijk, will be published in Ome Ktinst, 1918. 
' The Burlington Magazine, March 1907, P- 348. 

reputation at the time, and eventually painted 
figures in his master's pictures. In 1855 an 
allowance of Queen Sophie enabled him to com- 
plete his studies at the Antwerp Academy ; he 
returned to The Hague in 1858. The works of 
this early period, executed either at The Hague orat 
Antwerp, include numerous copies in colour or in 
black-and-white from contemporary pictures, be- 
sides some anecdotic subjects, and are hardly of 
any interest to us. But they include also many 
studies from life and landscapes, revealing a keen 
sense of reality and painted with a truly as- 
tounding ease and mastership of technique. The 
number of these studies, mostly preserved in 
Holland, is much larger than is generally known, 
and I would not attempt to enumerate them ; I 
shall only mention one of the most surprising 
achievements of that time, a full length study of 
a Negro Boy (1856), which appeared at a sale at 
Amsterdam, 31st October, 1916. 

The proceeds of copying historical portraits 
allowed the brothers James and Matthew, in 
1861, to undertake a long journey to the Rhine, 
the Black Forest, Switzerland and France. This 
proved to be a decisive factor in Matthew's artistic 
development, not merely on account of the 
Allgemeinc deutsche iind historische Kiinst-Aiisstel- 
Itiiig they are supposed to have visited at Cologne, 
but chiefly for the romantic scenery which in- 
delibly impressed the younger of the two brothers. 
This memorable journey, which ran back to The 
Hague over Dijon, Fontainebleau and Paris, 
awakened the romanticism which was asleep in 
Matthew's inmost soul, and which was to remain 
one of the prominent features of all his further 
work. In the pictures of that period and of the 
subsequent years, spent at The Hague, conflicting 
tendencies may easily be detected. The quick 
realism of the artist's early days offered him a 
sound basis to build upon, but henceforth he 
aimed at some higher scope, of which he was not 
yet fully conscious. Occasionally, a somewhat 
trivial sentim.entality, borrowed from the contem- 
porary German school, prevails in his figurative 
compositions. Elsewhere he expresses himself 
more freely as in his phantasies on Lausanne, or 
preludes to his later views of towns as in the 
Back Premises, belonging to Jhr. J. R. H. 
Neervoort van de Poll. In his Christening at 
Lausaiin^ a perfect harmony between the various 
tendencies of that period was realised. 
(To be continued.) 

'Belonging to Mr. J. Volcker, Eefde, and different from 
other pictures with a similar title. 


iLMOST all the stuffs belonging to 
the earlier centuries of the Christian 
[era hitherto found in the Egyptian 
' burying-grounds have come from 
.Upper Egypt, between Cairo and the 
first cataract. The nature of the soil of the Delta 
was not conducive to the preservation of buried 
textiles, although the district supported a thriving 
population. It was, however, a brilliant idea of 
French archseologists to try the neighbourhood 
of Damietta, and the results fully justified the 
experiment. The town lies on the more eastern 
of the two arms of the Nile, about 7 miles from 
its mouth. Here M. Albert Gayet, whose work at 
Antinoe is so well known, conducted some ex- 
cavations in the winter of 1898-9. Numbers of 
the textiles he unearthed were shown at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1900. 

Two textiles of the first importance which have 
just passed into the collections of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum tally so exactly with items in M. 
Gayet's catalogue' that there can be no doubt 
about their provenance. One has been generously 
given by Messrs. Restall, Brown and Clennell. 
The other has been acquired from the interest of 
a fund bequeathed to the Museum some years ago 
by the late Mr. Francis Reubell Bryan. The site 
of M. Gayet's operations was the village of Shaikh 
Shata, lying on a sandy promontory on Lake 
Manzala, 2 miles to the east of Damietta. The 
shaikh who was buried there, and gave his name 
to the place, was a renegade Copt who joined the 
Arabs when they invaded and conquered Egypt. 
The locality obtruded into the light of history 
once more when Damietta became the focus of 
the operations of the Crusaders in Egypt. M. 
Gayet holds the view that the Crusaders' burying- 
ground was on the site previously used by Byzan- 
tines and Arabs, being the only suitable spot in 
the district, and he refers to the difficulties en- 
countered in discriminating the burials of the 
successive periods. He even hints that the crypt 
in which the two stuffs illustrated [Plate, I and II] 
were found may possibly have belonged to a 
chapel erected in the middle of the Christians' 
camp. But there can be no question of Crusaders 
here. Such stuffs would not have been trans- 
ported across Europe by the invading armies, and 
what the Egyptian stuffs of that time were like is 
illustrated by dated examples in various collec- 
tions, notably that of the Victoria and Albert 
Museum.^ On the other hand these two pieces 
are only differentiated by their completeness 
and their striking character from stuffs found 
in other parts of the country. In material, tech- 

' Exposition Universellc de 1900. he Costume en Egyptc 
(Paris, 1900), pp. 68 foil., 228, 229. 

''See A. K. Guest in Roy. Asiatic Soc, kipxW, 190b, 
pp. 387 foil. 

nique and ornamental motives they are matched 
by numerous fragments from the various localities 
in Upper Egypt. A question which has often 
been asked before comes pertinently to the mind 
on the first glance at these two remarkable stuffs. 
Had the wrappings of the dead in Egypt pre- 
viously served as garments for the living ? We 
have only to look at the wax portraits, the sculp- 
tured Coptic tombstones or (let us say) the 
ceremonial mosaics of Justinian and Theodora at 
Ravenna, to see that the principal garments worn 
in those days were a sleeved tunic and over that 
a cloak or mantle. Custom determined somewhat 
closely the form and ornamentation of the tunic. 
The mantle appears to have been susceptible of 
more individual treatment in both respects. There 
can be no doubt about the tunics found in the 
graves having been worn by the living. They are 
of good materials and workmanship, often thread- 
bare and frayed, and sometimes darned. In re- 
gard to the outer wrappings there is more scope 
for speculation. One of the finest stuffs ever un- 
earthed in Egypt — the blue-dyed hanging with the 
story of Semele and Bacchus in the Louvre, was 
found by M. Gayet at Antinoe, twisted into a rope 
and wound round the neck of a mummy to fill 
the depression between the head and shoulders. 
It seems quite unsuitable for a garment. So it is 
here. The markings on the stuff with the two 
great pilasters show that its last office was to en- 
velop a mummy. Such decoration would be 
clumsy on a mantle to be thrown over the 
shoulders. For a curtain it would be more in- 
telligible, and the fact that four were found toge- 
ther lends support to the view that they were in- 
tended for that purpose — whether to hang be- 
tween the columns of a ciborium over an altar, as 
suggested by M. Gayet, or to screen doorways it is 
difficult to say. The notion of strength suggested 
by columns and pilasters is so obvious that such 
features were often used as decorative motives. 
They may be seen in early art inlaid in mosaic, 
flanking the openings of screens or on the side- 
posts of doorways. Whether it was a happy idea 
to transfer the pilasters from the door-posts to the 
curtain itself may be open to question, but the 
aim of the designer seems perfectly clear. Not so 
clear is the purport of the heads in medallions 
above the columns. Are they intended as symbols, 
as portraits, or merely as decoration ? Skilfully 
woven busts of pagan deities and portraits are 
seen on other stuffs from Egypt in the museum, 
and there are instances where small heads in 
medallions are introduced with such prodigality 
that the intention can only have been decorative. 
A peculiarity of the hanging here described is the 
deliberate avoidance of balance in colour and 
ornamental detail. The pilaster on the left is in 
purple wool, the details being picked out in 




1m|;TI"X "I Fl XNi.lV 


I'LAli; II 

undyed linen thread. The other pilaster offers a 
striking contrast. The base is in red, blue, pink 
and yellow on a ground partly yellow and partly 
pale blue. The shaft is in the same colours, with 
the addition of green wool and plain linen, the 
ground being purple with a red edging. The capital 
is pale blue with scattered yellow foliage. The 
medallions above are in yellow with a red border, 
the heads being rendered in strong purple outline 
filled in with pink and touches of red. The row of 
detached blossoms down the middle of the hang- 
ing is in red, yellow and green. The ornamenta- 
tion throughout is inwoven by the tapestry process, 
on warps provided by the horizontal threads of 
the linen ground. This hanging in some degree 
challenges the unique place hitherto accorded to 
a remarkable hanging, preserved in a fragmentary 

state, in the 
? y y y j j y y Berlin Museum. 
That hanging 
was formerly in 
the possession 
of Herr Graf of 
Vienna, and is 
stated to have 
been found in 
the Fayiim dis- 
trict. The sketch 
here repro- 
duced' [Figure] 
is a conjectural 
restoration by 
Dr. H. Swoboda, 
of the hanging, 
of which the 
left-hand por- 
tion only (in a 
decayed state) is 


FROM EGYPT IN THE KGL. MUSEUM, ■l'- n O U g fl r C- 

uERLiN mains to show 

that the struc- 
ture of the design was based on an arrange- 
ment of two pilasters supporting a semi-circular 
arch. The materials and technique are the 
same as in the hanging under considera- 
tion. Three loops still remaining along the top 
edge reveal the use to which this panel was put. 
The strings at the side were probably used to tie 
back the lower part of the hanging in the manner 
exemplified in early mosaics* and reliefs. The 
two hangings have somewhat similar decorative 
features, and they must belong approximately to 

* From Romische Quartalschrift, vi. (Rome, 1892), p. 105 
and PI. VI. The nature of the ornament originally occupying 
the lunette is very uncertain. 

Early Textiles from Damietta 

the same period. The 5th century seems the 
most probable date. The severity and simplicity 
of the one pilaster contrasted with the riot in 
colour and ornamental detail of the other, are a 
warning to all who attempt chronological classifi- 
cations of fragments from the burying grounds. 
Had these two pilasters not been found in one 
piece they would have been a veritable pitfall to 
the cataloguer. Even the architectural form is 
varied ; the stepped base of the purple pilaster is 
replaced in the other by one shaped as an inverted 
capital. Enough of the three other hangings 
remains to show that the apparent lack of balance 
was corrected when the four were used together. 
Two had the purple column on the left-hand side 
and two on the right. Two had both medallions 
on a yellow ground, and two had one on green 
and one on yellow. In one instance the green 
medallion was on the left, and in the other on the 

The second piece [Plate II] acquired out of 
the Bryan Fund was found in the same burial- 
place. The technique is quite different, the orna- 
ment having been worked in coloured wools with 
the needle on the finished linen web. This method 
of embroidery, almost universal to-day, was com-- 
paratively rare in the time when tapestry-working 
was commonly practised. The piece is by far the 
most important example of its class in the Museum, 
and it claims a place in the front rank among all . 
embroideries which have come down to us from 
western antiquity. The hanging is not quite 
complete, but the border of vine-stems growing 
alternately from vases and baskets [Plate II, b] 
marks the limit at the top. This border belongs 
to an earlier tradition of ornament than the 
freely designed trees and scattered roses covering 
the main portion of the hanging [Plate II, c]. 
The trees are in dark blue, yellow, pink and 
three tones of green. For the roses, red is 
added. The border has all the above colours 
with the addition of a light purple in the 
vases and baskets. A linen fragment from 
Akhmim in the Victoria and Albert Museum is 
embroidered in similar tones of wool with a 
jewelled cross having a bird on either side, en- 
closed by a wreath of foliage. Both that and the 
hanging from Shata may be ascribed to the 
4th-5th century. At a later date silk replaces 
wool for the embroidery, and actual scenes from 
the gospels are more commonly to be found than 
mere Christian symbolism. 

■* The easiest to refer to in this connection are the mosaics in 
S. Vitale and the church of S. Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna. 
See also a Christian sarcophagus in the Lateran, No. 174 
(Oriens Christianus. New Series i, 191 1). 




'HE last number of The Bitilingtoit 
Mci^azi)ic contained a brief note of 
the'fact tliat this uniquely gifted crafts- 
man and valuable public servant, the 
,^^____^^ head of the repairing and restoring 
workshop in the Department of Prints and Dra\y- 
ings at the British Museum, had been killed in 
action in France on the 23rd of September 
last. It is fitting that a fuller tribute should be 
paid to his memory and to the character of the 
services by which some of the chief treasures 
uf that department have been permanently 
rescued from past and made safe against future 

Mr. Littlejohn was born in 1876, his father bemg 
by profession an engraver, attached to the staff 
of the well known firm of Layton & Co. After 
serving an apprenticeship with the same firm he 
led for nearly ten years a life of varied and roving 
experience, trying many trades, travelling in many 
parts of the world, and acquiring in the course of 
his adventures a surprising range of technical 
insight and practical attainment. A settled life 
began for him again with his appointment in 1904 
to the staff of the Museum mounting department, 
of which he became the head in 1908. After the 
outbreak of the great war he was bent with 
patriotic enthusiasm on serving his country in 
some active capacity, and early in 1917 obtained 
a commission in the Royal Engineers,with a view 
to being employed on special work in which his 
inventive and mechanical gifts would have scope. 
After some months of training he was transferred 
to the R.G.A., and on the eighth day after reaching 
the front was standing in his battery in conversa- 
tion with his major when a fragment of a shell 
exploding close by struck him on the head and 
killed him instantaneously. He had been married 
a short time before. 

Though his official career was comparatively 
short, Mr. Littlejohn had done brilliant work for 
the Museum, and had won high reputation abroad 
as well as in England. In his own line he had 
no rival anywhere. Gifted with an eager curiosity 
and an extraordinary quickness in picking up 
knowledge and above all in applying it, he was 
never content till he had mastered all that he 
could learn about any trade or business that came 
in his way. He had an instinctive genius for 
materials, their nature and capabilities. Pigments 
and paper ; silk ; textile fabrics of all kinds ; 
precious stones ; furs ; metals and woods ; plants 
and herbs ; — these were all in turn objects of his 
penetrating study. He had a surprising store of 
information as to how things were made, and how 
counterfeited. On the scientific side, though 
without any systematic training, he had a working 
knowledge of chemistry as applied to the study of 
pigments and materials, acquired during years 


when he worked as a process-engraver, and was 
an able mechanician. These interests and ac- 
quirements served him in good stead in the 
mounters' room of the Print Department. He 
always insisted on the necessity of finding out 
the precise causes (actually very various) of the 
stains, spots, or discolourations which are met 
with in old prints and drawings and of treating 
each special case accordingly. He studied the 
inks, papers, pigments, etc., in use at different 
periods and in different countries, no less than the 
chemical changes brought about by time and 
atmosphere, or careless usage. Where colours 
had changed or faded, his object was to restore 
by chemical means, without touching the surface, 
what the atmosphere had deteriorated or taken 
away ; and to this end devised an apparatus by 
which a fume was directed on the particular 
colour which had suffered. It was thus sometimes 
found possible to bring back colour which had 
apparently vanished entirely. His work on the 
great series of Tintoretto sketches in tempera on 
paper, acquired in 1907 from Brazil, and anciently 
the property of D. Haro e Guzman, nephew of 
the great statesman, involved the removal of succes- 
sive layers of varnish which had been passed over 
the surface in later years with the intention of 
brightening and preserving the colours, but with 
the actual effect of blackening and three parts 
obliterating them. The result was a triumph of 
genuine restoration without the addition of a 
single retouch to the original work. 

Even more remarkable was Mr. Littlejohn's 
work on paintings by Blake, many of which, being 
painted in various experimental methods, had 
completely lost their original aspect. The unique 
colour-print. Glad Day, in the Print Room reveals, 
as now restored, subtleties of radiant and gorgeous 
colour, which in its former state would never have 
been suspected. In his private time Mr. Littlejohn 
undertook similar work of restoration for some of 
the famous Blakes in Mr. Graham Robertson's 
collection, with extraordinary success. An illus- 
tration is given of one of these before and after 
restoration [Plate]. 

During the last ten years Mr. Littlejohn became 
increasingly interested in Oriental painting. With a 
native curiosityabout and sympathy with Far-East- 
ern things, he was quick to take advantage, for the 
sake of Museum work, of the visit to England of 
some of the best wood-engravers, colour-printers, 
and mounters in Japan, at the time of the Japanese 
exhibition at Shepherd's Bush in 1910. An ex- 
hibition of Chinese and Japanese paintings was 
held at the Museum the same year, Mr. Littlejohn 
set himself to master the Japanese methods of 
mounting and secrets of repairing, and was 
probably the first European to learn how to mount 
a painting as a Kakemono. 

h.. -^/■.-^'-'-:, 


The late Stanley JVilliam Littlejohn 

The wonderful collection of silk paintings which 
had recently been brought from Chinese Turkestan 
by Sir Aurel Stein and housed in the Museum 
needed the greatest care and skill for their proper 
preservation and presentment : and for this work 
Mr. Littlejohn's knowledge and resource proved 
invaluable. The paintings were in crumpled 
fragments crushed together, sometimes separated 
in different bundles, and sometimes a mass of 
brittle fragments. It was characteristic of Mr. 
Littlejohn that he should now take up the study 
of Buddhism and Buddhist symbolism and icono- 
graphy, without some acquaintance with which it 
would indeed have been difficult to piece the frag- 
ments together. He devised a method of backing 
the paintings with a neutral-tinted silk and mount- 
ing them on light stretchers, which has proved 
admirable in every way. The dirty, crumpled 
bundles as they were when they first arrived have 
become paintings glowing with fine colour, and 
though no repairing or retouching has been done 
to the original silk the elTect of the mutilation 
they have suffered is quite unobtrusive to the eye. 
Critical visitors from abroad were warm in their 
praise of this work. A paper on Silk read by Mr. 
Littlejohn to the China Society testified to the 
e.xtent of his researches into the history of this 

fabric, though he had little gift for putting his 
knowledge into literary shape. He compiled a 
mass of valuable information on Oriental pigments, 
and collected a small library of out-of-the-way 
books on Chinese materia medlca, Eastern plants, 
and kindred subjects, from which he derived use- 
ful clues ; he also possessed specimens of the 
actual pigments. C3ne of his last occupations 
before joining the Army was to write some notes 
on the origin of the Chinese and Japanese con- 
ventions of kakemono-mounting and their develop- 
ment from the decoration of the temple-banners, 
in which the Stein Collection is so rich. The 
details were worked out with great care, and the 
theory advanced was convincing. He had also 
prepared materials for a book on the preservation, 
cleaning and repairing of prints and drawings. 
Mr. Littlejohn had the defects of a versatile and 
enthusiastic temperament, always eager to attack 
fresh problems and apt to be over-sanguine as to 
the time that fresh undertakings would involve, 
and to make promises and assurances in advance 
of the e.xecution. But he was a devoted and irre- 
placeable public servant, caring intensely for the 
credit and interests of the Museum as a national 
institution ; his nature was generous and open, and 
he was as ready to teach as to learn. 


N pursuance of the plan inaugurated 

last year, we give our readers a brief 

account of some of the more interest- 

^,^ing artistic accessions to the British 

i=S Museum during the year 1917. 

The only outstanding accessions to the Depart- 
ment of Greek and Roman Antiquities were 
derived from the sale of the Hope collection, at 
Deepdene. By far the most important is the 
Orestes vase (lot 134). This is a red figured bell- 
shaped crater 22 inches high, in the rich later 
style of the South Italian vase painters. The vase 
has been often reproduced, since the original 
publications (Millin, Mon. ant. inedits I, pi. .xxi.x ; 
MillinandDubois-Maisonneuve, II,pls. Ixvii.lxviii), 
but the first and all subsequent drawings have 
been in reverse, much to the detriment of the 
design. Orestes is seen kneeling at the Delphic 
omphalos, the conical stone decorated with woollen 
fillets, which was supposed to mark the central 
spot of the earth's surface. Immediately behind 
him is the Delphic tripod. He has been pursued 
hither by the snaked Furies, from whose threats 
he is protected by Apollo and Athena. The shade 
of Clytaemnestra, demanding vengeance, and the 
figure of Pylades, the faithful friend of Orestes, 
complete the picture. 
The vase is notable for the vigour of the figures, 

very inadequately represented in the published 
drawings, and the wealth of accessory detail, such 
as the rich costume of Athena, and the theatrical 
equipment of the Furies. It is executed in black 
on the red ground with a free use of purple, and 
with white masses, shaded with the black glaze 
thinned to yellow. It has never been broken,''and 
has not been retouched, and is one of the most 
striking examples of its kind. The original 
possessor was the Comte de Parol, who formed his 
collection at Naples in the time of Sir William 
Hamilton. He was reduced to poverty by the 
Revolution, and sold the Orestes vase to Thomas 
Hope in the first decade of the 19th century. At 
the auction in July the vase fell to a foreign 
bidder, and as the result of subsequent negotia- 
tions it was purchased in December by the 
Trustees of the British Museum. A liberal contri- 
bution from the National Art-Collections Fund 
greatly assisted the purchase. 

Next may be mentioned a vase with the subject 
of the anodos or ascent of Dionysos (lot 76). This 
is also a bell-shaped crater, with red figures, 
13 inches high. The design is of more interest to 
the student of mythology than to the artist, as the 
drawing is mediocre. Dionysos is seen coming 
up from a rocky hole in the ground bordered with 
shrubs. He is greeted by a flying figure of 


Recent Acquisitions by British Museum and National Gallery 

Victory, and received by a band of Maenads and 
Satyrs. There is an obvious parallelism between 
the re-ascent of the wine-god from the earth and 
the better known ascent of Demefer the corn- 
goddess. This vase is believed to be the only 
published representation of the former subject. 
It originally given in Tischbein's Vaics I, 
pi. 32, and most recently in Miss Jane Harrison's 
"Themis ", p. 422. 

The third Hope vase represents the subject of 
the arrival of Apollo at Delphi from the land of 
the Hyperboreans (lot 98). It is a bell-shaped 
red-figure crater, 12^ inches high. The god is 
mounted on a swan, which is about to alight by 
the Delphic palm, where he is received by a Satyr 
and two Maenads. The subject is rare and 
interesting. See Tischbein's " Vases ", II, pi. 12. 

From the same sale lot 94, purchased and pre- 
sented by Mr. George Durlacher, come five pieces. 
Two of these are kylikes (diam. 81 inches) which 
were evidently originally produced as a pair, and 
have never been separated. On the outer surfaces 
they have geometric patterns, chequers, rays, etc., 
of an altogether unusual type for kylix decoration. 
In one instance, a black-figure goat is drawn 
beneath the two handles. Each has an internal 
medallion design with a pair of red figures. 
Another kyli.x from the same gift (diam. 7J inches) 
gives Theseus and the Minotaur (see Tischbein's 
" Vases ", I, pi. 25). 

A cast of a new fragment of the Parthenon 
frieze has been presented by the Museum of the 
Louvre, to which the original has lately been 
given by Mile, de la Coulouche. The head appears 
to be that of a standing figure half turned to the 
right, and may be conjecturally attributed to the 
magistrate of the East side of the frieze, No. 52. 

The acquisitions of the Department of Prints 
and Drawings during 1917 were not very nu- 
merous, with the exception of an unusually 
important gift received in December, which must 
be reserved for separate notice. 

The chief drawings of the foreign schools are 
three presented by Mr. H. Oppenheimer, Mr. F. A. 
White and Mr. C. Dodgson respectively through 
the National Art-Collections F'und : PhaUhon 
(Uinandiiig the Chariot of the Sun, by G. B. 
Tiepolo ; Noah's Sacrifice on leaviu<^ the Ark, a 
fine brush drawing in red by G. B. Castiglione ; 
and Coriolamis receiving the Roman Matrons, by 
Claes Cornclisz. Moyaert, an artist by whom 
the Department has hitherto possessed no draw- 
ings. Minor drawings (all presented) are a study 
by Carlo Dolci for the picture known as Die 
Aiifrichtigkcit in the Vienna gallery (No. 374), and 
specimens of F. Lemoyne, C. Parrocel (a drawing 
engraved by Le B:i?, in L'Ecole deCavaletie, 17^3), 
J. G. Wille (still life), Gustave Boulanger, and 
Gustave Dor6. The eighteenth-century German 
school is represented by two good walercolours 


by the etcher A. C. Dies of the tomb of Caecilia 
Metella and a companion subject (1788). The 
chief drawing of the English school is a water- 
colour portrait by Gainsborough of Anne (Dun- 
combe), Countess of Radnor, given by Mr. 
Harland-Peck. Modern drawings include a water- 
colour, dated 1861, by W. E. Frost, R.A., two 
drawings of soldiers by E. H. Kennington, three 
of Miss E. M. Henderson's remarkable charcoal 
studies of animals, presented by the Contemporary 
Art Society, and Mr. L. Raven- Hill's fine Punch 
drawing, "Held" (Verdun, published May 3rst, 
I9i6),the gift of Mr. A. E.Anderson. Mr. Pennell 
has generously presented 108 drawings of English 
Munition Works, the originals of the lithographs 
which have been much exhibited. 

Among Engravings, the most important are a 
small selection of rare early prints from the Pem- 
broke sale, including the only known specimen 
with full signature of Lot and his daughters by the 
15th century Cologne Master P.W. ; Aristotle and 
Phyllis, an equally rare example of Wenzel von 
Olmiitz, specimens of Melchior Lorch and of 
several rare " Little Masters ", and a Madonna 
(P. 32) by Giov. Ant. da Brescia. A Life of 
S. Norbert (35 plates, Antwerp, n.d.) by Cornelius 
Galle, and a number of scarce ornament prints, 
including good specimens of P. Birkenhultz, 

A. Collaert, G. de la Quewellerie, D. Mignot, 

B. Zan, and several copies of P. Flindt, may also 
be mentioned ; these came from an album of 
prints for the use of goldsmiths, bound early in 
the 17th centurj^ which also contained a number 
of drawings of similar subjects, including designs 
for knives and plate made, apparently, for Henry, 
Prince of Wales. Robert White's " New Booke 
of Variety of Compartments", 1671 (12 plates), is 
another acquisition of the same class. 

Several Woodcuts of great rarity were bought 
at the Pembroke Sale, including the Aldegrever 
published in this magazine (xiii, 219 — see also 
XVI, 348), the only known specimen of a chiaro- 
scuro by Schaufelein, a splendid Warriot in 
chiaroscuro after Pordenone, David playing the 
harp before Saul, also in chiaroscuro, by F. Floris 
and rare cuts by H. S. Beham, Jacob Cornelisz, 
and Cornells Teunissen. Two very rare and un- 
described early Dutch woodcuts of soldiers came 
from another source, and four of L. Beck's Saints 
of the House of Austria were given by Mr. 
A. G. W. Murray. 

Gifts of Etchings have not been so numerous 
as usual. Turner's etching of the Water Mill 
(R. 37) ir the Liber Siudiorum has been given by 
Mr. A. A. Allan, M.P., and the Vallce de Chamouni 
(1780) is a good specimen of the hand-coloured 
work of the German etcher Carl Hackert, hitherto 
unrepresented. A trial proof of L. Flameng's 
La Source, after Ingres, touched and annotated 
by painter and engraver, has been given by Mr. 

Recent Acquisitions by British Museum and National Gallery 

A. D. Anderson. Modern etchings include the 
six dry-points done by Mr. J. McBey at the 
Front early in the year, three landscapes by 
Mr. C. S. Cheston, and five specimens of Miss D. 
Woollard's skilful etchings of trees. Mr. J. F. 
Badeley has given his fine original engraving 
Lucifer, and the American etcher, Mr. Frank W. 
Benson, has generously presented twenty-two of 
his excellent dry-points, chiefly of wild fowl on the 
wing or swimming. Lithographs include four 
rare examples of Fantin-Latour, the three newly 
published works of Mr. Charles Shannon, and 
specimens of the work of Mr. Walter Sickert and 
Miss Sylvia Gosse. A complete set of the litho- 
graphs exhibited in the summer by the Fine Art 
Society under the title of " The Ends and the 
Means ", has been promised to the Department. 

Among the acquisitions of the Sub-Department 
of Oriental Prints and Drawings, two or three 
pieces deserve a mention. These are two large 
makimono, printed in colours from wood-blocks, 
of the present Emperor of Japan's coronation 
procession (presented by the artist, Mr. Sanjiro 
Urushibara), and a European Soldier, a painting 
by Shiba Kokan, who was noted for his introduc- 
tion of European style into Japanese painting 
(presented by J. Spier, Esq.). 

Gifts to the Department of British and Mediaeval 
Antiquities have not been numerous during the 
year, but among them are some of more than 
common interest, particularly in the Chinese sec- 
tion. First of these comes the gift from Messrs. 
Hampton, of Pall Mall, of a number of stone slabs 
and carvings evidently from Northern China. AH 
students of early Chinese art are familiar with the 
works of Monsieur Ed. Chavannes on the early 
sculptures of Northern China, from the Han 
dynasty onwards. While the eye of desire might 
be directed at such monuments, many of them 
weighing a ton or more, it was hardly to be 
expected that examples should come to this 
country. Here the une.xpected has happened, 
and, thanks to the energy of Messrs. Hampton, two 
'tif the grave slabs, 9 feet long by 3 in height, such 
as Chavannes figures in his " Sculpture sur Pierre 
en Chine" are now in the British Museum. The 
designs are in faint outline representing dances 
and ceremonial performances of the style of the 
slabs from Hiao T'ang Chan shown in Chavannes' 
pi. XXXVII et seqq. In due course it is hoped that 
a detailed account of these may be given in the 
Magazine. One difficulty is present in that the 
surface of the more interesting of the two is so 
smoothed by the passage of water and mud, due 
to the inundations to which they have been subject 
in the course of centuries, that a photograph gives 
but a faint image of the elaborate designs. In 
addition to these slabs, Messrs. Hampton's gift 
includes a life-size figure of a sitting tiger, which 
may well be of the T'ang dynasty, and a number 

of architectural fragments, some of which bear 
dates of the Sung period. 

The series of Gandhara sculptures has been 
enriched, again from an unexpected quarter, by the 
appearance among the classical remains at the 
Deepdene sale of a group of characteristic ex- 
amples. If these belong to the same period of 
collecting as the rest of the contents of Deepdene, 
they must be about the earliest examples of 
Graeco-Indian art to come to England. With the 
help of the National Art-Collections Fund and of 
Mr. G. Eumorfopoulos a good selection was ob- 
tained for the Museum, chief among them being 
a colossal head of a Bodhisat, an unusually good 
example of the suave dignity characteristic of the 
best of the Gandhara types. 

Another notable accession is the fine Ming 
pottery figure described by Mr. Hobson in the 
December number of the Magazine. To Mr. 
Hobson's description there is nothing to add. 

In a widely different category comes the bequest 
by Lady Reade of a handsome Elizabethan silver- 
mounted jug, of the pottery known as "tiger 
ware". The mounts are of English work with 
the London hall mark of 1592. With this Lady 
Reade bequeathed also a fine silver covered cup 
of typical English work of the year 1683. 

In the Department of Coins and Medals, the 
most important acquisition, from the artistic 
standpoint, is perhaps a particularly brilliant speci- 
men of the silver four-drachm piece of Seleucus I, 
king of Syria (312-280 B.C.), which has been pre- 
sented by Sir Evelyn Grant Duff. The types are 
those introduced by Alexander the Great: the head 
of young Heracles wearing the lion's skin, and the 
seated figure of Zeus holding his eagle. But the 
inscription and the minor adjuncts in the field of 
the reverse show that the coin was struck after 
306 B.C. in the king's eastern dominions, and 
probably at Babylon ; and it is interesting to 
observe in this specimen, which is almost as fresh 
as when it was first struck, that the features of 
Zeus, minute as they are, are distinctly Oriental in 
type. The beautiful coinage of a contemporary 
of Seleucus, Lysimachus, king of Thrace (323-281 
B.C.), is also represented by two mint-fresh gold 
staters from a small hoard which was found 
somewhere in Macedonia. 

Among mediaeval acquisitions, mention is due 
to a specimen of the gold " Parisis " of Philip VI 
of France. The king is represented seated on a 
dais, holding sceptre and hand of justice, his feet 
on two couchant lions — a pretty example of French 
engraver's art of the mid- 14th century. Of the 
extremely few medals produced by Germany during 
the present war, which have any sort of artistic 
quality, one is a piece cast in iron by Lowental, 
with a wistful portrait of General von Kluck. The 
reverse, rather finely designed and'modelled, shows 
an eagle,'perched on a gun emplacement and gazing 


Recent Acquisitions by British Museum and National Gallery 

at the buildings of Paris, which rise, unattainable, 
in the distance. The sentiment, oddly enough, 
is appropriate to a French rather than to a German 
work ; and it is difficult to understand why the 
German authorities have allowed this medal to go 
out of their country. 

Gallery dl'RIXG 1917. — Five pictures have 
been bequeathed : No. 3162, one of the Angels, 
belonging to the large altar - piece of The 
Virgin ami Child n'ith Saints, by Francesco 
Pesellino (see The Biiiiingtoii Magazine, Vol. 
XVI, p. 125), by the late Countess Brownlow ; 
No. 3163, Floiver Piece, by J. van Huysum, by the 
late Dr. Wilkes; Nos. 3225, 3226, 3227, Flower 
Piece, by P. T. van Brussel, Frnit and Game, by 
G. J. J. van Os, and Florentine Xoblenian, by 
J. Sustermans, all by the late Mr. VV. W. Ashton, 
and lent bv the trustees to his widow during her 

lifetime. Four pictures have been presented : 
No. 3134, Battle Piece, by Hendrik Verschuring, 
by Mr. A. Sargent, and the other two through 
the National Art Collections Fund, No. 3163, 
Sacrifice of Isaac, by G. B. Piazzetta (see The 
Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxx, p. 114), by Mr. 
Robert C.Witt; No. 3164, Cathedral Inferior, by B. 
van Bassen, by Mr. F. E. White ; and No. 3272, 
The Marquess of Tweeddale, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
by Mr. George Leon. Four pictures have been 
purchased : out of the Temple West Fund, 
No. 3214, The Philosopher, by Rembrandt (see 
The Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxxi, p. 170) ; out 
of the Clarke Fund, No. 3215, Holy Family, by 
J. Jordaens ; out of the Mackerell Fund, No. 3216, 
Incredulity of S. Thomas, by Guercino ; and out of 
the Temple-West Fund, No. 3230, the second 
Angel, the fellow to the one bequeathed by Coun- 
tess Brownlow, from Capt. Lord Somers (see 
The Burlington Magazine, Vol. xvi, p. 125). 


[N his lifetime legends began to gather 
/about him, and the legend that has 
'attained the greatest currency is that 
) Degas was an old curmudgeon who 
i hated his kind and kept his studio 
door locked. As early as"76— it was about that 
time I made his acquaintance in the Nouvelle 
Athenes — I heard him described as harsh and 
intractable, but I could not see that he was either, 
and wondered why people should speak of him 
with bated breath, as if in terror, for indeed he 
seemed the type and epitome of a French gentle- 
man, as I conceived it to be. He was courteous 
to all who knew him, entered into conversation 
with all who asked to be introduced to him, and 
invited those who seemed interested in his painting 
to his studio. Why then the legend ? Degas 
put himself forward as an old curmudgeon, 
and as it is always easier to believe than to 
observe he became one in popular imagination; 
and by degrees this very courteous and kind 
gentleman, loving his kindred and finding happi- 
ness in society, became moulded and fashioned 
by the words he had uttered casually, without 
foreseeing that sooner or later he would have to 
live up to them. He said that he would never 
speak to a man who wrote about him in the 
newspapers. He described journalists as pests. 
" The artist ", he said, " must live apart, and his 
private life remain unknown". The power of 
speech is greater within than without and in the 
end every man falls a victim to his words. 

Said 1 to him once : " How are your works 
to become known ? " He answered, " I've never 
heard of anyone buying a picture because it was 


spoken about in a newspaper : a man buys a 
picture because he likes it or because somebody 
told him to buy it ". It may be that I have quoted 
these words of Degas before ; they may be in the 
article to be laid before the readers of The Bur- 
lington, but if they are I have repeated myself, a 
licence that must be allowed to everybody on 

And now I bring to my telling a fact that is 
testification of the truth of what I have said 
regarding Degas's natural character and how his 
artificial character came into being. I forgot 
Degas's warning that he would never speak to 
anyone who wrote about him, and went to Paris, 
forgetful that Degas and his opinions were in 
" Confessions of a Young Man ". I called one 
morning at his studio in the rue Fontaine. He 
pulled the string at the foot of the spiral staircase. 
I went up and found Degas reading amid his 
lithographic presses my book in a French trans- 
lation. And for a moment I stood like one frozen ; 
but Degas was amiable — highly pleased expresses 
his mood — with all I had said of him — so 
pleased, indeed, that he took me out to breakfast 
and entertained me, as he never failed to do, with 
wit and wisdom till late in the afternoon. He 
spoke of my book to the crowd his personality 
collected about him ; he had passages off by 
heart ; and encouraged by his enjoyment 1 began 
to meditate an article on Degas, untroubled by any 
fear of an interruption in our intimacy. His dis- 
like of notoriety is purely an imaginary one, I said 
to myself. So it was, and the article might have 
proved as acceptable to Degas as the book had 
done if somebody had not unfortunately told me 





that Degas's brother had lost a great deal of money 
in Mexico, and that Degas had proved himself a 
great brother on that occasion, saving his brother 
from bankruptcy. 

As the article happened to be one of my best 
articles (it could not be else since it was 
written out of a very complete knowledge of the 
subject and with enthusiasm and love) it attracted 
attention in France, and Degas found himself in 
a dilemma. He had given out to the world that 
he would never speak to anybody who related his 
private life in an article. He either had to allow 
that he was not a man of his word or he had to 
break with a friend, one who I have reason to 
believe was a dear friend. Mine was a flagrant 
instance. I counted on the help of Ludovic 
Halevy, but despite all Halcvy could do and 
Madame Halevy to bring us together he persisted 
in his determination .not to see me, till he fell' 
under the power of remembrance, and sent me 
word that he would be glad to see me when I came 
to Paris again. But it is difficult to renew a friend- 
ship that was as close as ours after several 3'ears ; 
I did not feel that it could be renewed, and never 
saw Degas again. 

The last news I heard of him came through 
Monsieur Lafond, the Curator of the National 
Museum, at Pau. Monsieur Lafond wrote to me 
asking me in which book he would find my 
article on Degas, and I sent him "Impressions 
and Opinions," and a correspondence followed 
the sending of this book, and a phrase of this 
kind occurs in his last letter to me : " Degas lives 
alone and almost blind, seeing nobody, without 
any kind of occupation ". The letter fell from 
my hands and I fell to thinking of the old man of 
genius hearing of his pictures selling for thousands 
and unable to see them, sitting thinking, weary of 
his life. 

Into this solitude a certain French nobleman, 
the Playboy of Paris, the inspiration of Huysman's 
Des Esseintes.the hero of "A Rebours," succeeded 
jit last in clambering through an unguarded 
loophole and reaching Degas. "Why, Monsieur 
Degas," he asked, " do you remain always at 
Montmartre ; why not let me take you to the 
Faubourg St. Germain ? " The answer he got 

was : " Monsieur le comte de , leave me upon 

my dunghill " — a quip that seems to me as worthy 
of quotation as any in the huge dish of Degas's 
table talk that Mr. Walter Sickert laid before the 
readers of Tlie Burlington Magazine in a recent 
number. However this may be, it will help to 
make clear a point that Mr. Walter Sickert had in 
mind when he was compiling his list of quips. 
He seems to have felt that any criticism written at 
the present time about Degas's work could not be 
else than a languid repetition of things that have 
been said and re-said for the last ten or a dozen 
years. 'Since we must write about Degas, Mr. 

Memories of Degas 

Waller Sickert thinks that our memories are more 
valuable than our thoughts. We are at agreement 
in this, but an article written twenty years ago 
with enthusiasm and love, when Degas was a 
nightly speaker in the Nouvelle Athenes, may be 
acceptable ; it will certainly be more palatable 
than anything I could write now. And that is why 
1 pressed il upon the editor of The Biiiliiigion, 
saying : " why print a new article that must be 
bad instead of a good one that is unknown to the 
large majority of your readers ? The few that 
have read it probably preserve a pleasant memory 
of it, and will be glad to read it again ". 

One evening, after a large dinner party, given in honour 
of the pubhcation of " L'CEuvre ", when most of the guests 
had gone, and the company consisted of Ics intimes de la 
maison, a discussion arose as to whether Claude Lantier was 
or was not a man of talent. Madame Charpentier, by dint 
of much provocative asseveration that he was undis- 
tinguished by hardly any shred of the talent which made 
Manet a painter for painters, forced Emile Zola to take up 
the cudgels and defend his hero. Seeing that all were 
siding with Madame Charpentier, Zola plunged like a bull 
into the thick of the fray, and did not hesitate to affirm 
that he had gifted Claude Lantier with infinitely higher 
qualities than those which nature had bestowed upon 
Edouard Manet. This statement was received in mute 
anger by those present, all of whom had been personal 
friends and warm admirers of Manet's genius, and cared 
little to hear any word of disparagement spoken of their 
dead friend. It must be observed that M. Zola intended 
no disparagement of M. Manet, but he was concerned to 
defend the theory of his book— namely, that no painter 
working in the modern movement had achieved a result 
proportionate to that which had been achieved by at least 
tliree or four writers working in the same movement, in- 
spired by the same ideas, animated by the same aestheticism. 
And, in reply to one who was anxiously urging Degas' claim 
to the highe'st consideration, he said, " I cannot accept a 
man who shuts himself up all his life to draw a ballet-girl 
as ranking co-equal in dignity and power with Flaubert, 
Daudet, and Goncourt ". 

Some four, or perhaps five, years after, one morning in 
May, a friend tried the door of Degas' studio. It is always 
strictly fastened, and when shaken vigorously a voice calls 
from some loophole ; if the visitor be an intimate friend, 
a string is pulled and he is .allowed to stumble his way up 
the cork-screw staircase into the studio. There are neither 
Turkey carpets nor Japanese screens, nor indeed any of 
those signs %vhereby we know the dwelling of the modern 
artist, bnlv at the further end, where the artist works, is 
tliere daylight. In perennial gloom and dust the vast can- 
vases of his youth are piled up in formidable barricades. 
Great wheels belonging to lithograpliic presses— litho- 
graphy was for a time one of Degas' avocations— suggest a 
printing-office. There is much decaying sculpture— 
dancing-girls modelled in red wax, some dressed in muslin 
skirts, strange dolls— dolls if you will, but dolls modelled 
by a man of genius. 

On that day in May Degas was especially anxious for 
breakfast, and he only permitted his visitor to glance at the 
work in progress, and hurried him away to meal with him 
—but not in the cafe ; Degas has lately relinquished his 
cafe, and breakfasts at home, in an apartment in the Rue 
Pigallf, overlooking a courtyard full of fiowering chestnut- 
trees. , , 

As they entered the apartment the eye of the visitor was 
caught by a faint drawing in red chalk, placed upon a side- 
board ; he went straight to it, Degas said, " Ah ! look at 
it, I bought it only a few days ago ; it is a drawing of a 


Memories of Degas 

female hand by Ingres ; look at tliose finger-nails, see how 
they are indicated. That's my idea of genius, a man who 
finds a hand so lovelv, so wonderful, so difficult to render, 
that he will shut himself up all his life, content to do 
nothing else but indicate finger-nails''. 

The collocation of these remarks by Zola and Degas — 
two men of genius, working in the same age, floating in 
the same stream of tendency, altliough in diverging 
currents— cannot fail to move those who are interested in 
the problem of artistic life. Perhaps never before did 
chance allow a mutual friend to snatch out of the oblivion 
of conversation two such complete expressions of artistic 
sensibility ; the document is sufficient, and from it a 
novelist should be able to construct two living souls. Two 
types of mind are there in essence ; two poles of art are 
brought into the clearest apprehension, and the insolvable 
problem, whether it be better to strive for almost every- 
thing, or for almost nothing, stares the reader in the face ; 
we sec Zola attempting to grasp the universe, and Degas 
following the vein of gold, following it unerringly, preserv- 
ing it scrupulously from running into slate. The whole of 
Degas' life is in the phrase spoken while showing his 
visUor the drawing in red chalk by Ingres. For no man's 
practice ever accorded more nearly with his theory than 
Degas'. He has shut himself up all his life to draw again 
and again, in a hundred different combinations, only 
slightly varied, those few aspects of life which his nature 
led him to consider artistically, and for which his genius 
alone holds the artistic formuhc. 

Maupassant says in his preface to Flaubert's letters to Geo. 
Sand : — " Xearly always an artist hides a secret ambition, 
foreign to art. Often it is glory that we follow, the radiating 
glory that places us, living, in apotheosis, frenzies minds, 
forces hands to applaud, and captures women's hearts . . . 
Others follow money, whether for itself, or the satisfaction 
that it gives — luxuries of life and the delicacies of the table. 

'• Gustave Flaubert loved letters in so absolute a fashion 
that, in his soul, filled with this love, no other ambition 
could find a place ". 

With the single substitution of the word ''painting" for 
■letters", this might be written with perfect truth of 
1 )egas. To those who want to write about him he says. 
'■ Leave me alone ; you didn't come here to count how 
many shirts I have in my wardrobe ? " " Xo, but your art. 
1 want to write about it." •' My art, what do you want to 
s.ay about it :- Do you think you can explain the merits of 
a picture to those who do not see them? Dites ? . . . 
I can find the best and clearest words to explain my 
meaning, and I have spoken to the most intelligent people 

about art. and they have not understood — to B , for 

instance ; but among people who understand words are 
not necessary, you sa}-— humph, he, ha, and everything has 
been said. My opinion has always been the same. I think 
that literature has only done harm to art. You puff out 
the artist with vanity, you inculcate the taste for notoriety, 
and that is all ; you do not advance public taste by one 
jot . . . Notwithstanding all your scribbling it never was 
in a worse state than it is at present. . . . Dites ? \ ou do 
not even help us to sell our pictures. A man buys a picture 
not because he read an article in a newspaper, but because 
a friend, who he thinks knows something about pictures, 
told him it would be worth twice as much ten years hence 
as it is worth to-da)-. . . . Dites ? " 

In tliesedays. when people live with the view to reading 
their names in the paper, such austerity must appear to 
many like affectation ; let such people undeceive tliem- 
selvcs. Never was man more sincere ; when Degas speaks 
thus he speaks the very essence of his being. But perhaps 
even more ditlicult than the acceptation of this fact will be 
found the association of such sentiments with a sweet 
genial nature, untouched with misanthropy or personal 
cynicism. Dijgas is only really cynical in his art, and 
although irony is an essential part of him, it finds expression 
in a kindly consciousness of the little weaknesses of human 


nature when directed against those he loves. For instance, 
when he is in company with any one who knew Manet, his 
confrere and compeer in realistic pictorial art, and the 
friend of his life, he loves to allude to those little childish- 
nesses of disposition which make Manet's memory a well- 
beloved, even a sacred thing. 

" Do you remember," Degas said, as he hurried his friend 
along the Rue Pigalle, " how he used to turn on me when 
1 wouldn't send my pictures to the Salon ? He would say, 
' You, Degas, you are above the level of the sea, but for my 
)iart, if I get into an omnibus and some one doesn't say : 
'■ M. Manet, how arc you, where are you going r " I am 
disappointed, for I know then that I am not famous.' " 
Manet's vanity, which a strange boyishness of disposition 
rendered attractive and engaging, is clearW one of Degas' 
happiest memories, but all the meanness of la vk dc parade, 
so persistently sought by Mr. Whistler, is bitterly dis- 
pleasing to him. Speaking to Mr. Whistler, he said, 
" My dear friend, you conduct yourself in life just as if you 
had no talent at all." Again speaking of the same person, 
and at the time when he was having numerous photographs 
taken, Degas said, "You cannot talk to him; he throws 
his cloak around him — and goes off to the photographer." 

A dozen, a hundred other instances, all more or less 
illustrative of the trait so dominant and decisive in Degas, 
which leads him to despise all that vain clamour which 
many artists are apt to consider essential, and without 
which they are inclined to deem themselves unjustly 
treated or misunderstood, might be cited. One more will, 
however, suffice. Speaking to a young man hungering for 
drawing-room successes, he says, ani with that jog of the 

elbow so familiar in him, "Jeune M , dans mon temps 

on n'arrivait pas, dites ? '' And what softens this austerity, 
and not only makes it bearable bu most w'insome and 
engaging, is tiie conviction which his manner instils of the 
very real truth, of the unimpeachab'CUo?s of the wisdom 
which he expresses by the general conduct of his life and 
by phrases pregnant with meaning. Nor is it ever the 
black wisdom of the pessimist which says there is no worth 
in anything but death, but the deeper wisdom, born it is 
true of pessimism, but tempered in tlie needs of li:c, which 
says : " Expend not your strength in vain struggling in the 
illusive world, which tempts you out of }-ourseIf ; success 
and failure lie within and not without you ; know yourself, 
and seek to bring yourself into harmony with the Will 
from which you cannot escape, but with which you m.iy 
bring yourself into obedience, and so obtain peace." 

In accordance with this philosophy. Degas thinks as little 
of Turkey carpets and Japanese screens as of newspaper 
applause, and is unconcerned to paint his walls lemon 
yellow ; he puts his restheticism upon his canvases, and 
leaves time to tint the fading whitewash with golden tints. 
They are naked of ornament, except a few cliefs-d'auvre 
whic 1 he will not part with, a few portraits, a few pictures 
painted in his youth. Looking at Sciiiirainis Biiildii\^ the 
Walls of Bubvlon, Manet used to sa)', " Why don't you 
exhibit it, ccla fera de la varictc dans voire ivuvre ? " There 
is a picture of some Spartan youths wrestling which Gerome 
once ventured to criticise ; Degas answered, "Je suppose 
que ce n'est pas assez turc pour vous, Gerome ? " Not in 
his dress nor in his manner will you note anything glaringly 
distinctive, but for those who know him the suit of pepper- 
and-salt and the blue necktie tied round a loose collar are 
full of liiin. For tliose who know him the round shoulders, 
the rolling gait, and the bright, hearty, essentially manly 
voice are brimmed with individuality ; but tlie casual visitor 
of the Cafe de la Rochefoucauld would have to be more 
than usually endowed with the critical sense to discern 
that Degas was not an ordinary man. To pass through the 
world unobserved by those who cannot understand him — 
that is, by the crowd — and to create all the while an art so 
astonishingly new and so personal that it will defy imitator, 
competitor, or rival, seems to be liis ambition, if so gross 
a term can be used without falsifying the conception of his 

character. For Degas seems without desire of present or 
future notoriety. If he could create his future as he has 
created his present, his future would be found to be no 
more than a continuation of his present. As he has in life 
resolutely separated himself from all possibility of praise, 
except from those who undcr.^t.and idm, he would probably, 
if he could, defend himself against all those noisy and post- 
humous honours which came to the share of J. F. Millet; 
and there can be but little doubt that he desires not at all 
to be sold by picture-dealers for fabulous prices, but rather 
to have a quiet nook in a public g.'illcry where the few 
would come to study. However this may be, it is certain 
tliat to-day his one wish is to escape the attention of the 
crowd. He often says his only desire is to have eye-siglit 
to work ten hours a day. But he neither condemns nor 
condones the tartcs and the occupations of others; he is 
merely satislied that, so far as he is concerned, all the world 
has for giving is untroubled leisure to pursue the art he 
has so laboriously invented. For this end he has for many 
years consistently refused to exhibit in the Salon ; now he 
declines altogetlier to show his pictures publicly. 



>MOXG the many unlooked for tilings 
^wliich the War has brought about one 
is the direct employment of artists by 
fthe Slate. In pre-war times I more 
(than once wrote upon the text that 
the State's duty towards living artists is not so much 
their " encouragement " by purchase of casual 
productions at e.xhibitions as their employment 
on work that is definitely wanted, in memorial 
and decoration, for public buildings. A signal 
occasion for memorial work has arisen, a great 
" subject " is provided, and some of our most 
capable men are now at work. Many artists 
indeed have been absorbed in the humble if 
useful processes of camouflage, some, hke Messrs. 
DerwentWood and Tonks, have applied their skill 
in the fine tasks of facial surgery, but Messrs. 
Muirhead Bone, Dodd, Orpen, Kennington, 
Rothenstein and others already hold commisj^ions 
vfor illustrative records, and now the Canadian 
Government has stepped in with a scheme for 
great commemorative pictures, and has enlisted 
among its band of painters one of our chief 
unemployed talents, that of Mr. Augustus John. 

If such action is the right one for the State, 
and a promising lead for the municipality and 
private patron, how wholesome and invigorating 
for the artist himself ! To be trained to produce, 
and then to loiter in the market-place without 
task prescribed or commission given has been the 
unhappy condition of the modern. Genius 
may here and there produce great things on its 
solitary initiative; but genius itself suffers from 
the vagueness, the absence of stimulus, of definite 
demand, of stringent conditions. Witness 
G. F. Watts among his allegories. The mere 
promise (so little fulfilled) of public employment in 

Memories of Degas 

In old times, after a long day spent in his studio, he 
would come to the Nouvelle Athenes late in the evening, 
about ten o'clock. There he was sure of meeting Manet, 
Pissaro and Duranty, and with books and cigarettes the 
time passed in agreeable ajstheticisms. Pissaro dreamy 
and vague ; Manet loud, declamatory, and eager for medals 
and decorations ; Degas sharp, deep, more profound, 
scornfully sarcastic ; Duranty clear-headed, dry, full of 
repressed disappointment. But about the time of Manet's 
death the centre of art shifted from the Nouvelle Athenes 
to the Cafe de la Rochefoucauld. Degas followed it. He 
was seen there every evening, and every morning he break- 
fasted ihere — every year looming up greater and more 
brilliant in the admiration of the young men. Latterly 
Degas has abandoned cafe life. He dines wi h Ludovic 
Halevv and a few friends whom he has known all his life ; 
he goes to the opera or the circus to draw and find new 
motives for pictures. Speaking to a landscape-painter at 
the Cirque Fernando, he said, " A vous il faut la vie na- 
turelle, a moi la vie factice." 

(To he continued.) 

the mid-igth century helped to determine a great 
outburst of English art, on the one side Stevens 
and Watts, on the other Madox Brown and the 
Pre-Raphaehtes. The end of the century saw our 
artists hugging their "freedom", poor things, 
boasting that they produced only to please them- 
selves, only to be comprehended by themselves, 
even; and "art" tended to be a private and 
incommunicable toy, almost a private vice; for 
"idiocy", it should be remembered, is the Greek 
for perfectly private activity. As Mallarme had 
carried verse a long way towards the bounds of 
the inane, so Picasso, emptying a representative art 
of the representative image and of communicable 
meaning, aspired to design in vacuo, and paid the 
price in designs that are in every sense insignificant. 

If my argument appear to be fanciful let 
me bring it to the test. Of artists now in 
their prime, no men are more obviously gifted 
than Mr. Epstein and Mr. John, so gifted that 
in an .age of happier occupation and tradition 
they would by this time have to their credit a 
solid achievement of public work in sculpture 
and painting. Actually the solid part of their 
achievement is almost entirely portraiture, the 
one branch of those arts still regulated by com- 
missions, "jobs" executed on the demand of a 
customer. On the other side, in Mr. Epstein's 
case, are productions like the "Venus", in which 
" design " has eaten up what subject there 
originally was and deformed itself in the process ; 
the' thing has ceased to be sculpture without be- 
coming architecture. Whereas when Mr. Epstein 
had a commission for the building in the Strand, 
whatever element of whim the infrequent com- 
mission betrayed, a balance between subject and 
design, sculpture and architecture, was maintained. 

Mr. John's case is different. He makes eccentric 


Uncomynisuoned Art 

experiments, but has less persistence ; he needs 
goading into action. He is apt to take the line of 
least resistance and to turn out quantities of little 
panel studies, in which a lesser artist might take 
some pride, but which are very small change for a 
great talent. He varies this with half-hearted 
projects for big pictures, like the Galiciaii Gipsies 
in the present exhibition. His most solid per- 
formance in this line, '/"//<' Miiiiipi'is, is salvage 
from a commission given him bj' Hugh Lane for 
the decoration of his house. 

What is more, these two tendencies, the vain 
pursuit of "design-in-itself " on the one hand, the 
dissipation of energy on the other, with pleasant 
but absent-minded boiling of the gipsy pot, have 
their effect in the long run on portraiture also. 
There was a crucial case in Mr. Epstein's exhibi- 
tion. His Mnii ivitli the Tin Hat was an admirable 
man, modelled with the force and keen character 
of many other portrait heads ; it was also a tin 
hat ; but the hat was merely an exterior object 
clapped on ; it was not modelled ivith the head: 
design was taking holiday with Venus. In Mr. 
John's exhibition not ail the heads have engaged 
his full powers ; the habit of the short sprint in the 
panels tells here in a thoughtlessness about scale 
and disposition that makes middling pictures of 
some very vivid likenesses ; or there is a surrender 


MOXG the numerous following of 
'Giovanni Bellini there is one artist of 
Isome interest who hitherto has been 
'but very little known — namely the one 
Jwhose name stands at the head of the 
present article. The recent discovery of a signed 
picture by this master affords a suitable opportunity 
of reviewing what has up to inow been known 
about him and somewhat adding to the information 
concerning him. 

Although Pietro degli I ngannati appears to have 
been in the habit of signing his pictures, and until 
the fall of the Venetian Republic many of them 
doubtless were to be seen in Venetian palaces, he 
is passed over by all the early Venetian writers on 
art — Ridolfi and Boschini in the 17th century as 
well as Zanetti in the i8th. A signed example of 
his art having been acquired by the Berlin Museum 
in 1821, this period of oblivion came to an end ; 
and after passing references had been made to 
him by various writers (c.^., Kugler and VVaagen) 
he was first discussed at some length by Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle in their " History of Painting in 
North Italy" (1871).' Two signed pictures by 
Pietro degli Ingannati were known to Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle : one, the above mentioned picture at 
Berlin, and the other in the Gatterburg-Morosini 
' Original edition, 1, 291 si/. ; 1912 edition, I, 298. 


short of conclusion ; the sitter is allowed to escape 
from the wrestle without a blessing. 

All this may sound peevish and ungrateful, but 
it is not either of those splendid gifts I am quarrel- 
ling with ; it is the conditions of their production 
that make for sterility and dissipation. And I 
should not say so much if I were not stirred by 
the hope that his tardy employment may exact 
from Mr. John the full measure of his powers, and 
that Mr. Epstein may model many more army 
types till the time comes for larger memorials. 
What the pressure of an absorbing subject may 
mean for a more modest talent has been illustrated 
by Mr. Kennington's Kciisiiigloiis at Laveutic, with 
its element of Pre-Raphaelite intensity. And this 
work should point the way for many others who 
will be engaged in memorial work. Our painters 
and sculptors are few of them great poets, but it 
is the custom to attempt in memorials a key 
that only high poetry admits : let them be satisfied 
with the more attainable pitch of portrait-history. 

Meantime I would not be unjust to the occasion 
of these remarks. There are things at the Alpine 
Club worthy of the author of The Smiling Woman 
and the Liverpool portraits that began with 
Professor Mackay ; one of them, the child's portrait, 
Robin, would hold its own in the neighbourhood 
of Rembrandt. 

Collection in Venice (since sold by auction in 
1894). Struck by the oddness of his surname and 
by the resemblance of his style, as seen in the 
Berlin picture, to that of Francesco Bissolo, 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle put forward an ingenious 
theoi'y — that Pietro degli Ingannati and Francesco 
Bissolo were one and the same person, and further, 
that " Pietro-of-those-that-were-taken-in " had 
prided himself on that nickname from his success- 
ful " imitation of the Bellinesque and Giorgion- 
esque manner ". Although they do not say so, 
one of the reasons which led Crowe and Caval- 
caselle to believe in the identity of Bissolo and 
Pietro degli Ingannati was doubtless that Lanzi 
refers to Bissolo as "Pier Francesco Bissolo"- ; but 
from records discovered by Dr. Ludwig^ it has been 
abundantly clear for some lime that the identifica- 
tion of Francesco Bissolo and I-'ietro degli In- 
gannati cannot be upheld. Not only is Bissolo 
never called Pietro in any document or signature, 
but the names of Bissolo and his supposed altci 
ego both appear in the list of members of the 
Venetian Painters' Guild, drawn up in 1530. 
Various other documents relating to Pietro degli 

-Lanzi (L.), Storin pittorica delta Italia, 4th ed. (Florence, 
1822), III, 39, 

•'See " Archivalische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Venezia- 
nischen Malerei ", in the Berlin Jahrbiicli, xxvi, supplement, 
p. 102 sq. 



Ingannati were also found by Ludwig : the earliest, 
a signature as witness to a will, dating from 1529 ; 
another similar document, dating from 1543 ; and a 
valuation, made jointly in 1547 by Pietro degli In- 
gannati and Giampietro Silvio of three pictures 
which Francesco Torbido had painted in the Scuola 
della Trinita at Venice. Seeing that Pietro signs 
himself "degli Ingannati" in legal and official 
documents, it would evidently be mistaken to 
attribute to his surname the significance hinted at 
by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. To the information 
about Pietro degli Ingannati given by Ludwig may 
be added that he was still living in 1548 ; this is 
proved by the date of a picture by him, which 
appeared at Christie's at the sale of the collection 
of Mr. D. P. Sellar, on March 17th, 1894. I give 
the entry in the sale catalogue as it stands : 
137. THE MADOXXA with the Infant Saviour in her lap, 
attended by St. Joseph, St. John and St. Catherine. 
Sillied and dated 154S. 

Although both the Gatterburg-Morosini ' and 
the Sellar dispersals took place within quite 
" historic " times, I have yet been unable to 
ascertain the present whereabouts of these two 
authenticated examples.'' Of the style of the latter 
I know nothing, and of the former only what 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle say — that it represents the 
Madonna and Child with the Baptist and a female 
saint (wood, half-lengths) ; that the picture is 
signed " Petrus de Ingannatis p." ; and that it is of 
a later style than the Berlin picture, being " more 
in the manner of Girolamo da Santa Croce ". 
The only clue to Pietro degli Ingannati's artistic 
personality has thus for some time been the 
picture which came to Berlin with the great Solly 
collection, and now hangs in the Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum (No. 41). The picture (which measures 
68 by 100 cm.) represents the Virgin and Child 
surrounded by S. John the Baptist, an un- 
identified female saint, the Magdalen and S. 
Nicholas of Tolentino''; on the ledge in front is 
the signature, in capitals, petrvs-de'INGANATis 
^P- [Plate, a]. The composition is a typical 
Bellinesque Sacia Conversazione, and the principal 
group echoes a design which is a commonplace 
in the school of Giovanni Bellini ; in the facial 
types and the tenderness and luminosity of the 
general tonality the picture is doubUess strongly 
reminiscent of the works of Francesco Bissolo, 
although there can be no question of any absolute 
identity of style with that of Bissolo. 

With this picture in one's mind, a new and 
unsuspected aspect of Pietro degli Ingannati's 

Pietro degli Ingannati 

work is revealed by a portrait, to which my atten- 
tion was drawn by Mr. Thomas Bodkin, of Dublin, 
to whose kind offices I am also indebted for the 
photograph from which the accompanying repro- 
duction is made [Plate, b]. The picture, which 
is now in the possession of Mr. P. Kelly, of 
Dublin, shows the half-length of a man of about 
thirty, with hair and beard of a sandy brown, seen 
in front of a marble niche, and leaning his right 
arm against a ledge, which bears the signature, 
again in capitals : 

■ ?• 
He is dressed in a black doublet, under which the 
strongly contrasted white of his shirt and deep red 
silk sleeves become visible. The drawing of the 
eyes, the nose and the mouth still distinctly 
reminds one of the Berlin picture ; but in the 
pose and expression of the figure, and the richness 
and vigour of the general tonality, the artist's 
adoption of the principles of style of the Venetian 
Cinquecento is clearly seen ; and but for the signa- 
ture one would probably have looked for the artist 
somewhere in the direction of Bernardino Licino, 
of whose essays in the Giorgionesque manner 
there is indeed not a little to remind us here. 

Of the history of the picture nothing is known 
for certain beyond the fact that it was formerly in 
the possession of the D'Arcy family of VVelfort, 
Kilkerrin, Co. Galway. On the back is a very 
coarse inscription which apparently reads : "This 
belonged to the Doge of Venice." It so happens 
that in an inventory of the pictures in the Palazzo 
Rezzonico at Venice, drawn up on September 22nd, 
1682, there exists the following entry which has 
not been referred to by those who have up to now 
written on Pietro degli Ingannati : — 

Un simile in tavola ritratto di Pietro dell' Ingannati con 
sua cornice d' albeo.' 

But in the absence of any more detailed evidence 
it would doubtless be rash to do more than suggest 
the possibility that the portrait in Dublin may be 
the one formerly belonging to the Rezzonico 

The Dublin portrait widens in a remarkable 
manner the field for a reconstruction of the artistic 
personality of Pietro degli Ingannati'; and we may 
perhaps expect that, as in the cases, say, of Giovanni 
Francesco da Rimini and Baldassare d' Este, 
once a beginning has been made, the number of 
hitherto anonymous or misnamed works which 
can be restored to him will increase before very 

^ Dr. Ludwig, and following him the Berlin catalogue, are 
mistaken in stating that the Manfrin collection in Venice 
formerly contained a picture by Pietro degli Ingannati. 

''The Gatterburg-Morosini picture was sold for 8,000 francs 
(see a note by Dr. Bode in Rcpcitoiinm fur Knu%t~d'issenschaft, 
XVII, 246) ; the Sellar picture for £13 13s. to " Partington". 

* Not S. Anthony of Padua, as stated in the Berlin catalogue. 

"Levi (C. A.), Le Collezioni Veneziane (Venice, 1900), 11, 76. 

* I find that various ascriptions to Pietro degli Ingannati, 
which I am unable to verify, are put forward by Waagen 
(Treasures, ii. 59, iii- 82, 237, iv. 115) ; and that Mr. Berenson 
(Venetian Painting in America. 1916, p. 262) referring to a 
Madonna with the Magdalen, tlie Baptist and two Donors in 
the Jarves Collection, New Haven, suggests that it may have 
"affinities with Petrus de Inganatis". 



Thk .Metropumtan Mlsklm of Art. Catalogue of the col- 
lection of pottery, porcelain and faience ; by Garrett Chat- 
FIELU Pier, xxii + 425 pp., 44 pi. ; New York, 2s. 2d. 
A catalogue of the entire collection of pottery 
in the Metropolitan Museum at New York should 
be a noteworthy addition to the literature of 
ceramic?. Being of comparatively recent growth 
the collection cannot of course compare in size or 
comprehensiveness with those of the great 
national museums of Europe ; nevertheless the 
production of a catalogue with nearly 3,000 entries 
covering a wide range of date and provenance is 
an undertaking of which the successful accom- 
plishinent would be no small achievement. To 
those already familiar enough with ceramic 
history to be in a position to read with critical 
discrimination, Mr, Pier's work certainly can 
be of service as a detailed record of one of the 
chief public collections of pottery in America. 
The Metropolitan Museum is numerically strong 
in specimens of Chinese porcelain, which form 
about one-third of the ceramic collection ; of 
these however more than half belong to the Yung 
Cheng and later periods, and are consequently but 
indifferent exponents of the mastery in this art of 
a nation whose potters have been second to none. 
The catalogue includes only six pieces earlier in 
date than the Ming dynasty, none of them very 
remarkable. The Japanese series is also large and 
comprehensive, and bears comparison with that 
of any public museum in Europe, althougli it is 
far inferior both in numbers and representative 
character to the Morse Collection in the Boston 
Museum. The Near Eastern section appears to 
have been the object of special attention and in- 
cludes several pieces of real distinction. Note- 
worthy in particular are a dish from Rakka with 
radial panels, a beautiful bowl with two figures 
seated by a cypress (stated in the text to be from 
Sultanabad though the illustration of it bears the 
title " Rhages "), and the tilevvork garden picture 
from Ispahan of the time of Shah Abbas I similar 
to that in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Amongst the Hispano-Moresque ware also are 
many fine specimens ; the large bowl with a diaper 
of bryony flowers of which an illustration is 
given is a conspicuously beautiful example of a 
ware which, at its best, has never been surpassed 
for decorative value. Though it is not so stated, 
the reigns of the kings of Aragon are chosen as 
the periods for dating the earlier Valencian ware, 
until the year 1500 is named somewhat arbitrarily 
and misleadingly, for the close of a term begin- 
iimg with the succession of of Sicily in 
1479. To the same period are assigned certain 
pieces which must surely have been made con- 
siderably later, as for instance some of the dishes 
with embossed gadroon or acanthus borders ; this 
style continued in a decadent form well into the 
17th century, witness two dated dishes at South 
Kensington. An orange-tub with the arms of the 
second IJon Jolin of .\iistria in tiic same museum 

shows that the decoration with birds among 
flowers in ruby-coloured lustre fas on No. 1999 in 
Mr. Pier's catalogue) should be referred to the 
middle or second half of the 17th century. The 
section of Italian maiolica is weak and contains 
apparently only two pieces of first importance, a 
plate from the Gonzaga-Este service painted by 
Nicola Pellipario and another from the Castellani 
Collection with the subject of the death of Achilles 
in which, to judge from the illustration, we may 
recognise the hand of the same master or of an- 
other closely imitating his manner. The series of 
iSth and 19th century European wares is very un- 
even. There is a pair of vases with genre subjects 
after Moreau lejeune which would hold their own 
in the most splendid collections of Sevres porcelain. 
A fine vase of Wedgwood's blue jasper ware from 
the Sanderson Collection described at somewhat 
disproportionate length, may also be mentioned. 
As has be.en said, the catalogue will be useful to 
students as a record of the pottery in the New York 
Museum. It cannot be said that it will be of 
equal value to ordinary visitors to the inuseum, 
equipped with little or no special knowledge of 
the subject. In fact the catalogue is so full of 
errors and pitfalls that such readers are likely to 
be confused rather than illuminated by it. We 
find for instance the expression "coarse blue- 
white paste" used of pieces to which the impurity 
of the glaze gives an outward appearance of this 
colour. The heading " Lung or Wan period " can 
mean little to those unfamiliar with Chinese 
history. On pp. 55, 56 for no apparent reason 
three Ch'ien Lung pieces are thrown m under the 
heading " K'ang Hsi period ". The list of contents 
refers to " Japan and Korea " as the section occupy- 
ing pp. 211 — 238, though we search there in vain 
for a single Corean specimen. No. 2065 is de- 
scribed as a mosque-larap with a black glaze on 
which an inscription is picked out : the black is 
doubtless a pigment with which the white slip sur- 
face is covered before the application of a clear 
siliceous glaze. Two tiles (No. 2093) are described 
as " from Brussa, Damascus ". What can even the 
sf)ecialist make of No. 2103, a dish described as 
follows: " Mezza majolica. Grayish bod}', interior 
enamelled with the design of a fish surrounded by 
floral sprays and cross hatchings. About inner rim 
is a border of diamond shaped designs separated 
by broad bands, the whole design being in tur- 
quoise blue and purplish black enamels. Exterior 
and foot glazed a thin opaque brown." It is indeed 
tiine to banish from the vocabulary of ceramics the 
term "mezza majolica", invented by Passeri and 
applied by him, in ignorance of their true nature, to 
two entirely different types of ware. Its use by 
later writers has led to much confusion, and we 
find Mr. Pier employing it of lead-glazed ijrfra/^m/t) 
ware (No. 2099, etc.), of the tin-enamelled lustred 
ware of Deruta (No. 2099, etc.), and in No. 2093 of 
Meaven knows what. From the heading " Diruta 



(Pesaro)" on p. 317 it appears that Mr. Pier still 
accepts the generally discredited claim of Passeri 
that lustred maiolica was made at Pesaro. The 
Delft wares are grouped under the names of 
their potters, each followed by a date which is that 
of enrolment in the Guild of St. Luke ; there is 
nothing to explain this to the layman, who will 
probably assume the date to be that of the manu- 
facture of the respective items. On p. 375 we find 
four specimens of porcelain marked " R. g." 
ascribed to Regensburg ; Mr. Pier is evidently 
not familiar with the monograph on Thuringian 
porcelain by Graul and Kurzwelly, or even with 
the Franks Catalogue of Continental Porcelain, and 
we find the explanation of this error when we note 
in the bibliography that the edition of Chaffers, 
cited therein — a work full of perils to the inexpert — 
is that of 1870. A tortoise shell-glazed VVhieldon tea- 
pot shown in an illustration (No. 2610) is described 
in the text as having an " agate glaze ", whereas the 
term " agate " was used in Staffordshire only of a 
variegated body, not of a surface colouring. 
Most astonishing of all the vagaries of this un- 
conventional catalogue is the ase of the heading 
" Rococo " to cover all European wares from St. 
Cloud and the earliest Meissen porcelain to Sevres 
of the Republic, First Empire and Restoration, 
Biedermeier style Vienna, the most classically in- 
tentioned Wedgwood, and the pate-sur-pate of 
the late Mr. Solon. The work abounds in minor 
blunders which cannot all be condoned as printer's 
errors. For correction in future impressions it 
is only fair to name " Goodman Collection " and 
"Abarello" in the bibliography, " Oude Kirk" 
(No. 489), " Hotel " for " Hotel " (1364), " sprout " 
(1931), "Fountain Collection" (2111, 2113), 
"Westerwal" (2189), "Shreiber"(2265), " Vinoro" 
(2268), " Rouenaise style" (2475), "Veilsdorp" 
(2484), " Weseley " for " Wegeli " (2490), " Fiirs- 
lisch Fuldaish " (2507), " De Klaw " (2538), 
" Hochst " (p. 373), " Chelsea, Derbyshire, 
England " (plate facing p. 394). This list might 
easily be lengthened, but enough has been said to 
show that the catalogue is in need of searching 
revision. Future issues will, it may be hoped, 
contain a larger number of illustrations, chosen 
on less haphazard lines than those of the present 
edition ; copious illustrations are more helpful 
than the most detailed catalogued descriptions. .X. 


The Kaufmann Sale.— One of the most re- 
markable private collections on the Continent was 
undoubtedly the one formed by the late Herr 
Richard von Kaufmann of Berlin. The section 
of Old Masters was especially strong in Nether- 
landish and German primitives (no 17th-century 
Dutch or Flemish pictures being in fact included 
in the collection) and comprised also a number 
of fine Italian pigtures. The collection was sold 
by auction early in December, very high prices 

Lively Recollections; by the Rev. John Shearme, M..\- 
Hon. Canon of Winchester. (Lane.) js. n. 

The recollections — not all of them being " lively " 
— of Canon Shearme make good, easy reading. 
One claim to the interest of readers of The Burling- 
ton Magazine Vies in Canon Shearme's acquaintance 
with G. E. Street, R..'\., who designed and built at 
his own expense the church at Holmbury St. Mary, 
Surrey, of which parish Canon Shearme was the 
first incuinbent. Another lies in the account of a 
dinner of " Strattonians", or natives of Stratton in 
Cornwall, at which Mr. John Lane proposed the 
health of " the Director of the National Portrait 
Gallery, the Editor of The Burlington Magazine, 
the Publishing Manager of the Vale Press, the 
Slade Professor of Fine Arts at Oxford, as well as 
an artist who is one of our finest landscape 
painters ". All five were present. Were the 
banquet to take place to-day, there would be a 
sixth, the Director of the National Gallery ; for all 
five were in one skin — that (our readers will have 
guessed it) of Mr. C. J. Holmes. H. H. c. 

The Silver Chain : a Satire on Convention ; by William Blake 
Richmond. (Cecil Palmer & Hayward.) 6s. 

Fiction, as fiction, is not criticized in The 
Burlington Magazine ; and we need not ask here 
how far Sir William Richmond has succeeded in 
writing a good novel. Enough that this promising 
young author has done very well for a beginner, 
and that, as his experience ripens, he may do 
better still in years to come. His satire on con- 
vention is not very deadly. Harder and shrewder 
blows than this have been dealt to the Puritans of 
England, the wealthy Protestant Nonconformists, 
with their ugly homes, ugly manners and ugly 
lives. Sir William attacks them less effectively 
by showing how ugly they are than by showing 
how much beauty there is elsewhere. When he 
takes us to Italy, to the Sabine hills, to Rome ; 
when he shows us the Italian shepherds' life in 
their capanna, a wedding-feast in a hill-town, a 
hunt after robbers in Sicily, the bodily and spiritual 
loveliness of a Sabine girl ; then by revealing 
beauty he condemns ugliness. At the Trattoria, 
too, and elsewhere, there is good strenuous talk 
about painting, which "tosses" the subject, as 
Bacon would say, though it may bring nothing 
new to the discussion. u u r 

being generally realized and bringing the sum-total 
to the large figure of close upon twelve million 
marks. Among the pictures, the top price was 
realized by Nicolas Froment's Raising of Lazarus, 
which brought 390,000 marks {i.e., with parity 
of exchange, about :^i9,5oo) ; next followed a 
fine Roger van der Weyden portrait (340,000 
marks) and Brueghel's Pays de Cocagne (310,000 
marks). We give below, on the authority of 
the " Berliner Tagebhitt ", an account of the 


A MoNth/y Chronicle 

prices (in marks) realized by all the pictures 
as well as by some of the sculptures and 
ohjeh d'ati. The attributions are those of the 
sale catalogue, and a few comments on some of 
the pictures are added in brackets. 

No. I. Taddeo Gaddi, Polyp/ych (from the Veidura collection, 
I'alermol. 40,500. 

Xo. 2. Florentine school. 14th century, Pialdla, 1,700. 

Xo. 3. Florentine school, 14th century, Caftiire of Christ. 

No. 4. Lorenzo Monaco, S. J<iomc, 24,000. 
; No. 5- Lorenzo Monaco, The Xulh-ily, 22,500. 

No. 6. Nicola di Segna, The Wilivily, 20,000. 

No. 7- Lippo Memmi, Mailoinni, 62,000. 

No. 8. Berna da Siena, Cnuifixioii, 29,000. 

\o. 9. Pietro Lorenzetti, The Wilii'ity. 25,000. 

No. 10. Sienese school. Fragments of Allarpiece, 10,000. 

.Xo. 12. Francesco di Vannuccio, Reliquary, 23,500. 

No. 13. Sienese school, 14th century, Processioiinl Cjoss, 

Xo. 14. Italian school (Venetian ?), I4tli century. The Agony 
in the Garden, 12,000. 

No. 15. Italian school, 14th century, Crneifixion, 3,500. 

No. i5. Italian school, 14th century, I'olyptych, 5,500. 

Xo. 17. Italian school, 14th century, Polyptyeh, 40,500. 

No. 18. Florentine school, 15th century [at one time assigned 
to Masaccio], The Marriage of llie Virgin. 28,000. 

No. 19. Botticelli, 7»rf///;. 110,000. 

Xo. 20. Botticelli, Ma lonna, 78,000. 

No. 21. The " Paris " Master (1470), Diana Bathing, 24,500. 

No. 22. Florentine school, r. 1500, The Adoration of tin- 
Infant Christ, 11,500. 

No. 23. Pierodi Cosimo, The Myth ofPromethens, 48,500. 

No. 24. Florentine school, c. 1500, S.S. Peter, Bernard. 
Dominic, 3,800. 

No. 25. Matteo di Giovanni, Madonna, 21,000. 

No. 26. Guido Cozzarelli, Madonna, 15,000. 

Nos. 27, 28. Giovanni di Paolo, Tivo predella panels (Saints in 
shipwreck — Robing of a monastic saint), 42,000. 

Xo. 29. Giovanni di Paolo, The Adoration of the Magi, 50,000. 

Xo. 30. Sienese school, I5tli cen'.ury, Coro»a//i)/; o///ii; Virgin, 

Xo. 31. Antoniazzo Romano, Madonna, 16,000. 

No. 32. Domenico Panetti, The Virgin and Child enthroned 
with four Saints (signed), 25,000. 

No. 33. Lazzaro Grimaldi (of Ferrara), The Virgin and Child 
enthroned -j}ith four Saints (signed), io,ooo. 

No. 34. " Ercole Grandi ", Madonna, 20,000. 

Xo. 35. Garofalo, The Circumcision, 8,000. 

.Xos. 36-40. Innocenzo da Imola, Five predella pictures (from 
the church of S. Isaiah, Bologna), 6,600. 

Xo. 41. Lauro PadowMio, Predella u.ith the Drusiana legend, 

No. 42. Carlo Crivelli [more probably by Benvenuio di Gio- 
vanni], Two youths before a crucifix, 38,500. 

No. 43. Central Italian Master, Legend of a female saint, 

No. 44. Venetian school, c, 1440, Madonna, 32,000. 

No. 45. Venetian school, early 15th century, The Annuncia- 
tion, 10,500. 

No. 46. Giorgio Schiavone, Madonna, 42.000. 

No. 47. Venetian school, Mad nna, 30,000. 

No. 48. Giovanni Martini, SS. Peter, John Evangelist and 
Paul, 32,500. 

Xo. 49. Italian school, 15th century, Crncifi.vion, 15,000. 

Xo. 50. North Italian school, c. 1480, S. John the Baptist, 

No. 51. Marco Zoppo, S. Jerome, 27,000. 

No. 52. Venetian school. Two men in modish dress, 15,500. 

No. 53. Giovanni Mansueti, Apollo and Neptune, 21,000. 

No. 54- North Italian school, dated 1523 [close to Bartolomeo 
Montagna], Madonna, 33,000. 

No. 55. Veronese school, c. 1500, A Knight, 2,700. 

No. 56. Giorgione [the attribution to this master very ques- 
tionable, but an interesting piece in the manner of Giorgionel. 
Allegory of Chastity, 34,000. 


Xo. 57. Lotto, Portrait of a Goldsmith. 77,000 (bou,e;hl by 
Herr Koch, a jeweller of Frankfort). 

No. 58. Basaiti [in reality Lotto], S. Jerome, 13.000. 

No. 59 Sebastiano dal Piombo [incorrect ascription ; formerly 
in the Malmesbiiry collection, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
" .Xorth Italy ". 1912, iii, 252), Portrait of Titian, 22,000. 

No. 60. Tintoretto, Portrait of Ottavio di Strada (formerly at 
Blenheim), dated 1547, 230,000 [a superb work]. 

Xo. 61. Tintoretto, Portrait of a Procurator. 68,ono. 

Xo. 62. Bassano, Portrait of a Man. 30,000. 

No. 63. Moretto, Portrait of M. A. Savelli. 200,000. 

Xo. 64. F. Bcccaruzzi[a characteristic specimen], F(;//-/i;//^/'/ 
of a gentleman, 50,000. 

No. 65. \UV\:in schoo]. Portrait of PopeGregory XIII. 1,850. 

X'o. 66. Russo-Greck school, /ftoH, 2.750. 

No. 67. Roger van der VWyden, Portrait of a Man (bust ; 
32 by 26 cm.), 340,000, 

No. 63. Flemish school. Madonna. 80,000. 

No. 69. Memling, Christ, 72,000. 

No. 70. Memling, Madonna, 135,000. 

No. 71. Master of the Ursula Legend, S. Anne, the Virgin and 
Christ, 26,500, 

Nos. 72 and 73. Albert Bouts, Two wings of an altarpncc. jc//// 
portraits of the donors, 46,000. 

No. 74- Albert Bouts, Head of Christ, 13,500. 

No. 75. Albert Bouts, S. Jerome, 18,500. 

Nos. 76 and 77. Gerard David, SS. John the Baptist and 
Francis (wings of an altarpiece), 105,000. 

Xo. 78. Gerard David, The Nativity, 200,000. 

Xo. 79. Gerard David, Picta, 70,000. 

Xo. 80. Adriaen Ysenbrandt, Triptych, 76,000. 

Xo. 8i. South Flemish school, Madjuna, 24,000. 

No. 82. South Flemish school, A S tint. 10,500. 

No. 83. Coliin de Coter, The Grieving Magdalen, 93,ooo. 

No. 84. South Flemish school, Busti of Christ and the Virgin. 

No. 85. Joos van C\eve, Portrait of the artist (iS by 27 cm.). 

No. 86. Joos van Cleve, S. /eromt-, 10,200. 

No. 87. Joos van Cleve, Madonna, 53,000. 

Nos. 88 and 89. Joos van Cleve, Pair of Portraits, 32,500. 

No. 90. Joachim Patinir, Triptych, ThcRest on the Flight into 
Egypt and Two Saints, 70,000. 

No. 91. Mabuse, Male Por.rait, 63,0:10. 

No. 92. Mabuse, Madonna, 59,000. 

No. 93. South Flemish school. Triptych, 46,000. 

No. 94. South Flemish school, S.Francis, 5,Soo. 

No, 95. South Flemish school. The Last Supper, 31,50". 

No. 96. South Flemish school, The .Magdalen, 22,500. 

No. 97. Herri met dc Bles, Landscape with S. Christopher, 

.Xo. 98. Patinir, Landscape with an Allegory of Vanity. 

No. 99. Netherlandish school (dated 1546), Landscape with 
vilUige, 10,800. 

No. 100. Netherlandish school, c. 1540, Portrait of a Young 
Lady, 80,000. 

No. loi. Pieter Brueghel, Lc Pays de Cocagne, 310,000. 

No. 102. Xetherlandish school, Male portrait. 15,000. 

No. 103. M. Coffermans, The Agony in the Garden, 8,200. 

No. 104. M. Coffermans, The Capture of Christ, 10,200. 

No. 105. M. Coffermans, The Resurrection, 6,000. 

No. 106. Gcertgen tot St. Jans, The Nativity [a night scene 
of exquisite quality ; 3^ by 26 cm.], 205,000. 

No. 107. Master of the " Virgo inter Virgines ", The Nativity, 
9 1, 000. 

No. roS. Jerome Bosch, The Mockini of Christ, 105,000. 

No. 109. Dutch school, <:. 1500, The Root of Jesse, 31,000. 

No. no. Joest van Calcar, The Nativity, 80,000. 

Nos. Ill and 112. ]anMosiaeTt,Pair ojfportraitgroups.^q.ioo. 

No. 113. Jacob Cornelisz van Amsterdam, The Magdalen, 

No. 114. Jacob Cornelisz van Amsterdam, Adoration of the 
Magi, 64,100. 

No. 115. Dirkjacobsz, Male portrait (from the Doetsch col 
lection), 101,000. 

No. 116. C. Engelbrechtsen, The Crucifixion, 24,200. 

No. 117. Lucas van Leyden, Madonna, 14.0,00c. 

No. ii8. Dutch school, Male portrait, 2,100. 
No. iig. Nicolas Froment, The Raising of Lazarus, 390,000. 
Nos. 120 and 121. Master of S. ^gidius, Two wings of an. 
altarpiece, 43,000. 

No. 122. French school, c. 1500, Triptych, 20,500. 
No. 123. French school. Portrait of a young man, 11,000. 
No.' 124. French school, Portrait of a young man, 12,000. 
No. 125. Spanish school, c. 1480, SS. Paui and James tin- 
Greater, i7,5°°- 

No. 126. Bohemian school, c. 1380, The Crucifixion, 58,000. 
No. 127. Bohemian school, c. 1420, Two panels from an 
altarpiece, 32,000. 

No. 128. Stephen Lochner, S. John the Evangelist and the 
Magdalen, 63,000, 

No. 129. Westphalian school, S. Anne, the Virgin and Christ, 

No. 132. Master of S. Bartholomew, The Baptism of Christ, 
No. 133. Master of S.Bartholomew, S. James, 35.°°°- 
No. 134. Barthel Bruyn, The Baptism of Christ, 74,o°o- 
No. 135. Barthel Bruyn, Portrait of a woman, 162,000. 
No. 136. Barthel Bruyn, Portrait of a young man, 24,500. 
No. 137. Barthel Bruyn, Portrait of a woman with her 
daughter, 61,000. 

No. 138. School of Cologne, Portrait of a woman, 7,500. 
No. 139. Hans Schuchlin, C/ins/ can^iH^ the Cross, 17,500. 
No. 140. South German school. The Annunciation, 3,000. 
No. 141. Hans Holbein the Elder, Madonna, 41,000. 
No. 142. Hans Holbein the Elder, Madonna, 36,800. 
No. 143. Hans Holbein the Elder, The Martyrdom of S. Bar- 
tholomew, 32,000. 

No. 144. Daniel Hopier, F, ur small panels from an altarpiece. 

No. 145. Bernh.-ird Strigel, Madonna, 65,000. 
No. 146. Suabian Master, Portrait of a young man, 48,000. 
No. 147. Georg Breu, Madonna, 27,560. 
No. 149-152. H.L. Schaufelein, Four panels from an altarpiece. 

No. 153. H. L. Schaufelein, Christ taking leave of the Marys, 

No. 154. H. L. Schaufelein, Scene from the story of Ginevra 
Degli Almieri, 23,500. 

No. 155. Georg Pencz, A Knight with his Squire [based upon 
a composition by Giorgione or Titian], 8,500. 

No. 156. The Master of Messkirch, S. Werner, 46,000. 
No. 157. The Master H.R., Portrait of Dr. G. Haiier. 8,500. 
No. 158. South German school. Martyrdom of S. Catherine. 

No. 159. Wolf Huber, Chi ist taking leave of His Mother, 

No. 160. Lucas Crannch, The Nativity, 34,800. 
No. 161 and 1O2, Lucas Cranach, Portraits of Martin Lnlhci 
and Ills wife, lO-|,ooo. 

No. 163. Lucas Cranach, Triptych. 32,500. 
No. 164. Lucas Cr.uiach, Male portrait, 76,000. 
'' Among the sculptures the principal piece (Xo. 
275) was a Statue of an Angel, in marble, by 
Piero di Giovanni Tedesco, from the doorway 
of the Florence Duomo, bought by Herr C. von 
Weinberg for 116,000 marks. Other n<jlablc 
prices were ; — 

No. 180. Peter Vischer, Madonna, bronze. 60,000 (Rosen- 
baum, Frankfort). 

No. 224. Paduan school, c. 1500, She-wolf, bronze, 80.000 
(Langaard, Christiania). 

No. 228. Sansovino, Neptune, bronze, 71,500 (Dr. von 
Pannwitz, Berlin). 

No. 235. Andiron, bronze, i6th century, 80,000. 
No. 252. School of Cologne, 15th century. Madonna, bronze, 
35,000 (Rosenbaum). 

No. 179. South German school, 15th century. Madonna 
Enthroned, 60,500. 

Nos. 213 and 214. Riccio, Satyrs, bronze, 51.500: (Langaard). 
No. 215. Riccio, Decorative bottle, bronze, 68,000 (Dr. Bottag). 
Nos. 233 and 234. Venetian school, c. 1575, Figures carrying 
mussels, bronze, 28,000. 

j^ Monthly Chronicle 

Nos. 237 and 238. Two Inkstands, bronze, Venice, 16th cen- 
tury, 38,000 and 30,000. 

No. 251. Bavarian school, 15th century. Madonna, bronze, 
25,000 (Heilbronner, Berlin). 

No. 253. Flemish school, c. 1575, Hercules, bronze, 29,000. 

No. 259. Venetian school, c. 1500, Two Statues of boys, marble. 

No. 276. Italian school, 15th century, Madonna, 42,000 
(Cramer. Cassel). 

No. 280. Robbia, i6th century. Two Angel Candelabra , 26,000. 

No. 278. Florentine school, 14th century. Angel standing, 
marble, 116,000 (a Frankfort collector). 

No. 286. Italian school, T5th century, Terra-cotta bust, 50,100. 

No. 309. German school, 15th century. Christ carrying the 
Cross, 29,000 (Rosenbaum). 

No, 319. German school, i6th century. Two small Angel 
Candelabra, wood, 30,500 (Kaiser Friedrich Museum). 

No. 323. Rhenish school, 15th century, Madonna, 34,500. 

No. 333. Small Augsburg House-altar, c. 1500, 35,000 

Nos. 371 and 372. Rhenish school. Two wooden figures, 

Nos. 373 and 374. Antwerp school, 15th century. Two pieces 
of sculpture, 33,500 (Bohler). 

Nos. 383 and 384. Two Gothic choir stall sides, 41,000. 

Further important items were : — 
A Florentine Angel Candelabrum in clay, 49,000 ; a Carlo- 
vingian Reliquary, 97,000 ; a Limoges 13th century Ostensory, 
(14,000 (Reiling, Mainzl ; a Syrian Mosque lamp, 34,000 (Drey, 
Munich) ; two Spanish armchairs, i8th century, 34,000 and 
40,000 ; a Brabant tapestry with story of Danae, 81,000 ; a 
Flemish Gobelin, with the Rape of Europa, 68,000 ; a Persian 
carpet, 92,000. The prices of the woodcarvings generally 
ranged from 10,000 to 40,000 marks. T- B. 

The New Slade Professor.— At a meeting 
on 19 December the Senate of the University of 
London elected Mr. Henry Tonks, f.r.c.s., to the 
Slade Chair of Fine Art at University College, 
in succession to Professor Frederick Brown, who 
has resigned after holding the Chair since 1892. 
Mr. Tonks's career is specially interesting. He 
was educated at Clifton College and the London 
Hospital Medical School, qualified as a medical 
man and became a Fellow of the Royal College of 
Surgeons in 1888. He obtained a high reputation 
as a demonstrator and teacher in anatomy. His 
artistic instincts asserted themselves, and he 
decided on a career as an artist and as a teacher 
of art, taking his training at the Westminster 
School of Art, under Professor Brown. Since 
1893 Mr. Tonks has been very closely associated 
with Professor Brown in his work at the Slade 
School, and the co-operation of the two men 
has led to the remarkable and distinctive success 
of that School ; indeed Mr. Tonks is recognised 
as one of the most stimulating teachers of Art 
in this country. Under his influence his pupils 
do not become lesser Tonkses, but are developed 
to the highest degree which their individual 
powers are capable of reaching. Besides the 
names of pupils who immediately occur to the 
memory, such as Augustus John, William Orpen 
and Ambrose McEvoy, there are many highly 
accomplished artists in the most diverse styles 
who owe their accomplishment to the combined 
stimulus of Professors Tonks's and Brown's 


A Monthly Chronicle 

teaching. Mr. Tonks has also been in close asso- 
ciation with the New English Art Club almost 
since its foundation. His own contributions to 
Art have been considerable, and he is represented 
in the National Gallery of British Art by the 
pastel portraits of M. and Mme. Rodin, a portrait 
of himself, The Girl zcith a Parrot, and the Study 
of a Girl. 

Mr. Tonks has served during the War in the 
Royal Army Medical Corps. He has utilised for 
the'service "of the world in a remarkable way his 
combination of medical and artistic faculties. 
After experiences in hospitals immediately behind 
the French and Italian Fronts and many months' 
voluntary' work at Aldershot,he has been concerned 
in starting a Hospital for Facial Injuries, and isnow 
associated with the Queen's Hospital at Sidcup, 
which is entirely devoted to this purpose. While at 
Aldershot and later he made a series of drawings 
and models in connexion with the work of facial 
restoration, which scarcely another man possessed 
at once the strength of mind, the medical know- 
ledge and the sureness of technique to make. This 
series has now been placed in the Royal College of 
Surgeons, and has already been noticed in these 

In the work of the Slade School during the 
second term of this session, which begins on 
7 January 1918, Professor Tonks will be assisted 
for the time being by his predecessor, Professor 
Brown, and by Mr. P. Wilson Steer. That 
Professor Tonks and Professor Brown should be 
working together again with reversed precedence 
is striking evidence of the single-mindedness of 
both, and of their unity of purpose. The work of 
the Sculpture Department will continue to be in 
the hands of Professor Havard Thomas. M. A. 

The Modern Lo.a.n Exhibition at the 
Grosvenor G.\llery. — This exhibition — apart 
from a small section of French pictures including 
examples of Degas, Monticelli, T. H. Rousseau, 
Millet, Corot, Anquetin, etc. — suggests to a great 
degree the atmosphere of the New English Art 
Club, where most of the artists have figured at one 
time or another. The most prominent individual 
performance, on account of its size and the great 
ability of its execution, is Mr. Glyn Philpot's La 
Zarzarrosa. But the honours of the exhibition 
will fall to Mr. McEvoy's series of portraits. 
Here, too, there is great executive ability, but of a 
more subtle kind, and if the real value of the 



Sir, — All those who admire the etched works 
of the late Sir Charles Holroyd, and in particular 
his bsautifiil plates of Italian towns and English 
landscapes, will appreciate Mr. Campbell Dodg- 


artist's own personality is sometimes rather sub- 
merged allowances may be made for the difficulties 
of fashionable portraiture. " Fashionable portrait 
painting", with its implied associations of artistic 
snobbery and chocolate-box ideals, has become a 
term of reproach. Mr. McEvoy survives the ordeal 
better than most. He has great command over his 
material, without that mechanical dexterity which 
distinguishes the true portrait-manufacturer. All 
the appar.atus of flattering illumination and brilliant 
broken colour is adroitly made use of in his pre- 
sentment of pretty women and pretty clothes, and 
if these pictures and drawings end rather in 
generalisation than in the intimacy of the best 
portraiture, they are always saved by nervous 
draughtsmanship and a feeling for gradation from 
the commonplace of Mr. Sargent's water-colour 
portrait (No. 143). 

Mr. Steer is represented by a group of paintings 
and drawings which show several aspects and 
periods of his art. The Marine (No. 2) is a 
particularly admirable example. There are also 
numerous works by Professor Henry Tonks, Mrs. 
Swynnerton and Sig. Mancini (who is as unsatisfy- 
ing as ever, but in these surroundings is free from 
that air of intrusion which so ill becomes him in 
the Lane Collection). Three early drawings of 
slum types form an interesting genesis of Mr. 
Epstein. Specimens of the more mature achieve- 
ment of the late J. D. Innes might advantageously 
have been added to the few drawings of his which 
are exhibited. Mr. Max Beerbohm's intensely 
amusing drawings form a class apart. The 
qualities one looks for in him are in every case 
fully present, but he seems to be developing a 
new scheme of colour. 

Flowerpieces by Roger Fry ; Carfax and 

Co. In a notice of Mr. Fry's exhibition his 

position as an Editor of this magazine prevents 
criticism in detail. But it is not exceeding a 
reasonable limit to characterise these twenty 
paintings as serious and thoughtful work, full of 
a feeling for the possible dignity of this branch 
of still-life, and showing appreciation for colour, 
growth, and pictorial structure, expressed without 
the tedium of over-literal representation. The 
larger pictures are perhaps the best ; in particular 
Irises, Poinsetiia, and Lily. The last named has 
been purchased by the Contemporary Art Society, 
and will, it is hoped, find a permanent place in a 
public gallery. R. s. 

son's short note in your issue of last month. 
Mr. Dodgson gives the number of his etchings as 
" nearly 300 ". May I say that only a few weeks 
before his death Sir Charles kindly sent me, in 
order to settle a question as to one of his etchings. 

Letters^ etc. 

liis own private MS. list of his etched works, 
which gives the number as 281. Sir Charles very 
kindly allowed me to make a typewritten copy of 
this catalogue, which has been bound and placed 
in our library here. The list gives full titles and 
measurements, and we shall be happy to allow 
use to be made of it for reference at any time. 
Yours faithfully, 

C. A. M. Barlow 
(Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge). 
i8th December, 1917. 


Gentlemex, — If you can kindly spare the 
space, I am pleased that Mr. Hugh Blaker, by his 
superior reproofs, gives me, on the subject of 
C&anne, a second innings. Most people know 
that good bad-drawing by inspired primitives, 
also Greco, and others, is immeasurably more 
estimable than the bad good-drawing of many 
of our modern art-schools. We all agree that 
mere photographic accuracy, with nothing more, 
produces but cold, pseudo art. It needs no 
messenger from . . . somewhere in England, to 
fell us that ! People of taste delight in pictorial 
poetry rather than in pictorial reporting. " II faut 
se servir de la Nature comme d'un vocabulairc ", 
said Besnard. But is it not essential for an artist 
of any value to feel and execute a line of beauty 
rather than an ignobly ugly form ? In your August 
number Mr. Roger Fry told us of Cezanne's 
damning admission " the coiitoiir escapes me ". Yet 
he, not Mr. Fry ! had the coarse audacity to petu- 
lantly exclaim "Ingres m'em" . . . cambronne ! 
Monsieur Vollard patiently posed 115 times for 

his portrait ;by "the master not excetlcd by Manet", 
when it was abandoned, because the artist was 
only satisfied with the shirt-front. Granted that 
poor Cezanne was, as a youth, taught how to spell 
in art, that only aggravates his later solecisms. 
It is as though an Eton boy, in middle-life, should 
drop all his //s in the House of Commons ! Mr. 
Blaker's suggestion of " wilful distortion ", to 
palliate the shocking shortcomings of Cezanne, 
is partially explained by his candid little boom for 
his forthcoming biography of the hero ! — 
Mais, aIors,vous etes orfevre. Monsieur Josse ! 
Yours faithfully, 

Ralph Curtis. 

An Inquiry. — A correspondent makes the 
following inquiry, which we are glad to insert : — 
Can any of your readers help ine to trace the present 
whereabouts of the spurs worn by King William III at the 
Battle of the Boyne, which were given by Earl Harcourt 
in 1777 to Horace Walpole, and sold at the Strawberry 
Hill sale in 1842 for £13 2s. 6d. to Thomas, of No. 2 
Bond St. ?— H. 

Answers can be sent to the Manager, ed. 

In reference to a general notice, in Vol. xxx., 
p. 249, of publications issued by the Medici 
Society, Ltd., Mr. Lee Warner, of that society, 
protests that the term "Medici Print" is applied 
by his society only to colour-collotypes labelled 
"Medici Print", and that the process prints are 
not called by his society " Medici Prints ". 

Erratum. — Vol. xxx, p. 250, in 2nd col., 1. 20, 
for "26th day of November", read 17th. — Sir 
Charles Holroyd died on 17th November, 1917. 


SoTHEBV. Wilkinson" and Houge will sell 30, 31 Jan. and 
I Feb. 527 lots of Autograph Letters and Historical MSS„ the 
properties of Mrs. Colman, the late Mr. George Denholm, Mrs. 
Warre Cornish, Mrs. Cameron and other owners unnamed. The 
collection of Mrs. Colman, who is the great-granddaughter of 
John Piozzi, includes more than 200 letters between Mrs. Thrale 

(Mnie. Piozzi) and Dr. Johnson. Mrs. Warre Cornish's property is 
chiefly interesting for the correspondence of well known modern 
men of letters, Thackeray, Swinburne. Robert Browning, etc. ; 
Mrs. Cameron's consists chietiy of political correspondence. The 
catalogue (as.) is illustrated with reproductions of Dr. Johnson's 
correspondence and a copy of verses by him. 



IsTRUZiONE, Anno X. 

Fasc. i-ii. Jan.-Feb., 1916. — Dr. DE Nicola writes on recent 
acquisitions of the Museo Nazionale, Florence. Only important 
works are mentioned, exclusive of the Martelli S. Giovannino 
by Donatello (already discussed in the " BoIIettino " for August 
1913) and the Madoiiiui and Child from Domenico Gagini's 
workshop dealt with in the " Pagine d'Arte", 1914, No. 8. 
One of the most interesting objects discussed is a fotuio relief by 
lienedetto da Rovezzano, which is certainly another fragment 
01 the tomb of San Giovanni Gualberto. It represents Leo IX, 
to whom S. Giovanni Gualberto presents two lay brothers, and 
refers to a miracle on the occ.ision of the Pope's visit to the 
Badia of Passignano, of which S. Giov. was then abbot. Dr. 
De Nicola publishes a few new documents from the Vallom- 
brosan archives in the Archivio di Stafo, Florence, showing that 
the first payments for the tomb were made in July 1505, and 
the final one in May 1513. and the names of three assistants 
are given, Benedetto de Michele, Bartolomco, and Filippo. all 

of whom it is diflicult now to identify. These dates correct 
Vasari, who dated the commencement of the work, 1515. 
Milanesi had already conjectured that this was probably a 
mistake for 1505. Among other works discussed are : Venetian 
and Emilian sculptures of the early 15th century ; two terra 
cotta heads, fragments of Giambologna's original study for his 
Virtue overcoming Vice and a number of small bronzes and 
plaquettes. — Dr. Pitini deals with frescoes by Pietro Novelli in 
the chapel of the Villa Valdina, between P'lavia and Bagherra 
(Sicily). Some of these paintings, being in very bad condition, 
have been transferred to canvas and removed into the villa, but 
others are still on the walls of the chapel and are fairly well 
preserved. They afford another proof that Novelli's sojourn 
here must have been of some duration. — Dr. Vincenzo Kuffo 
writes on " La Galleria Ruffo nel secolo XVII in Messina, con 
lettere di Pittori ed altri documenti inediti ". Under thi* 
modest title are published a series of articles (continued through- 
out the year 1916) which form a notable contribution to the hiitory 
of art in general and contain a mass of interesting data well 


Italian Periodicals 

worthy of close study. In this first article a detailed history 
of the Ruffo family is given and an account of the palace and 
it^ pictorial decoration. It was erected in the Regio Campo 
iiella Marina at Messina between 1644 and 1646, in which year 
Don Antonio Ruffo (the founder, with his brother Abate Flavio, 
of the Ruffo gallery) was already established there, and the palace, 
with its rapidly developing collections of pictures, medals, gold- 
smith's work, tapestries, and other works of art, soon became 
the rendezvous of all that was best in the literary, artistic, and 
musical world of Messina and continued to be so up to 17-5 
and later. Inventories and account books show that by 1649 a 
large number of pictures had already been acquired, including 
one by Van Dyck, bought at Palermo and probably painted 
when the master was there c. 1624 ; a panel portrait by Titian ; 
pictures by A. da Salerno, Stomcr, Poussin, Jordaens, A. Breugcl, 
etc., as well as works of the early German and Netherlandish 
schools, to cite only a few of those inventoried. Another in- 
ventory of 1678 spe.iks of tapestries — with mythological subjects 
from designs by Rubens — which were valued at a much higher 
ligurethan any of the pictures, when, on the death of Don Antonio, 
they passed into the possession of his son Don Placido ; eventually 
all trace of them was lost. The inventories have been 
carefully collated, together with information, gathered from 
letters of artists and from other sources, concerning the 
pictures in the collection, so that p.ainters, subjects and sizes of 
pictures can be seen at a glance. The first instalment of letters 
(of 1649) is published at the end of this article, and includes 
the names of P. da Cortona, Ribera, Artemisia Gentileschi and 
M. Stanzioni ; all contain interesting references to pictures 
produced by them for Antonio Ruffo, and to other works. The 
concluding letters, also of 1649, are from Guercino. — In the 
Cronaca, under "Scavi di Roma c del Lazio", are given the 
results of excavations in these regions between 1909 and 

March-April. — Dr. Pariben'i deals with accessions to the 
Museo Xazionale Romano, among them a fine head discovered 
in 1914 and acquired for a very small sum ; he has now identified 
it as one of the "conquered Provinces" from the temple of 
Neptune, and suggests that it may be one of the four which in 
the i6th century were in the portico of the Pantheon and 
disappeared later. — Dr. Giglioli publishes the frescoes of a 
tabernacle near the church of Maiano (Fiesole), which he ascribes 
to Giov. Battista Utili, a painter of Faenza of the first half of the 
i6th century, whose artistic personality was first defined by 
Dr. Corrado Ricci. These frescoes were formerly ascribed to 
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio and then to Pocetti. Dr. Giglioli bases his 
attribution on their likeness to the works of Utili, reproduced by 
Dr. Ricci. — Dr. P.iCE continues his " Ricognizioni archeologiche 
nclle Sporadi", a chronicle of the excavations begun in 1913 in 
the neighbourhood of lalysus, one of the most ancient cities of 
Rhodes. — Continuation of the Ruffo Gallery. This instal- 
ment contains numerous letters from Guercino and Benedetto 
Gennari, with a large number of extremely useful notes by Dr, 
Ruffo. In one of Gennaris letters mention is made of the death 
of his uncle, Guercino, on December 22nd, 1666. A list of pic- 
tures identified from these letters follows ; ten by Guercino, 
three of which were not actually in the Ruffo collection ; 
one by Giov. Andrea Sirani, and others by Cignani, Guido Reni, 
and Franceschini, which are identified from other sources as 
having been purchased by one of Don Antonio's agents in Bo- 
logna. In letters of 1654-1661 reference is made to three half- 
lengths by Rembrandt executed for the collection. — Under 
Cron.\ca, excavations and discoveries at Velletri, on the Via 
Lata, and at Vicovaro, arc discussed. 

May-June. — Dr. Pacchioni reproduces two circular frescoes in 
the atrium of S. .Andrea at Mantua, which lie considers, with 
Prof. A. Venturi, to be early works of Correggio. They were 
mentioned in old guide-books, but in the early 19th century 
were concealed by modern paintings which have now been 
removed. These londi were first ascribed to Correggio by 
Donesmondi in his history of Mantua (1612) and their damaged 
condition (judging from the reproductions) would seem to render 
any definite expression of opinion hazardous. Dr. Pacchioni, 
however, champions their authenticity and attempts to draw 
analogies between them and the Clirtsl taking leave of his Mother 
(Benson collection), the Madonna of S. Francis (Dresden 
Gallery), and other beautiful early works by Correggio. Tlie 
illustrations in no way confirm these analogies, and questionable 

also, it seems to me, is the attribution to Correggio (first put 
forward by Prof. Venturi and reiterated here) of the votive fresco 
oi Ihe Madonna and Child with Saints in the Modena Gallery, 
which is also claimed as an early work. — Dr. Mauceri contri- 
butes a note on Stefano Giordano, a painter of Messina of the 
middle of the l6th century, and Dr. Maiuri writes on the 
restoration of the Albergo della lingua d'ltalia at Rhodes, which 
after the siege of 1522 shared the fate of other beautiful 
palaces in the historic street of the Knights of Rhodes — they 
were sold to private individuals. Rottiers in his " Monuments 
de Rhodes" (1826) has left a drawing of the facade and a brief 
description of the building as it then was. It was built (or at 
all events completely restored) in 1519 by Del Caretto, Grand 
master of the Order. An earlier building must have existed 
there, however, as Roberto da Sanseverino is known to have 
enjoyed hospitality there on his journey to the Holy Land in 
1458. Since the Italian occupation of the island in 1912, the 
building has been admirably restored by the military authorities 
in collaboration with the Ufticio di Sovraintendenza dei monu- 
menti del Dodecanneso. — The Ruffo Gallery. Many interest- 
ing details (contained in letters of 1662) concerning the pictures 
by Rembrandt commissioned by Don Antonio, and an auto- 
graph letter from the painter, reproduced in facsimile. One of 
these pictures, Aristotle, was ordered in 1654, and in 1660 Don 
Antonio ordered the Cosniogr:ipher from Guercino as a pendant 
to Rembrandt's picture, but later he appears to have thought 
better of it and ordered two more from Rembrandt. Alexander 
and Homer. From the correspondence it appears however 
that Ruffo was dissatisfied with these pictures, and one was 
returned to Rembrandt to be improved upon and finished. A 
letter from Giuseppe de Rosis (1663) contains a note by Salvator 
Rosa of pictures in his own possession by Correggio, Lotto, 
Titian (portrait of a Farnese), and Diirer (portrait of a man dated 
1506). Then follow letters from Abraham Breugel, written from 
Rome in 1665, with references to paintings by Poussin, Claude 
Lorrain, and many other well known masters, with all of whom 
he was on intimate terms. Breugel refers also to his own 
pictures, one of which, a flower-piece dated 1665, he says he is 
sending to Signora Alfonsina, the wife of Don .'\ntonio. The 
Gallery contained also eight other flowei -pieces by him and 
several landscapes. Breugel seems to have been very active 
in acquiring pictures for the Ruffo collection and despatching 
them to Sicily. In his letters he makes numerous references 
to the excellence as a painter of Francesco Neve of Antweip, 
who was working in Rome and whom he ranks above Maratti, 
and to a certain Giov. Domenico, "the best pupil of Claude 
Lorrain ", whom the writer of these articles has been unable to 
idcntifv. — In the Cronaca, the damage done by fire to the 
cathedral of .\ndria is chronicled. — Discoveries and excavations 
at Bologna and in the Emilia are discussed by Dr. Ghirardixi, 
and under " Sovrintendenza Archeologica dell' Etruria" Dr. 
Galli chronicles accessions to the archaeological museum at 
Florence (which forms one institute with the " Soprintendenza 
d'Etruria") and excavations in the neighbourhood of Volterra, 
Cortona, Arezzo, and elsewhere in Tuscany. 

Ju!y-.\ugust. — Dr. FiLiPPiN'l writes on the frescoes of the 
Bolognini chapel in S. Petronio, Bologna. The former attribu- 
tions to Buffalmacco and Vitale have been abandoned for 
chronological reasons, and others have been rejected as purely 
arbitrary. Venturi's suggestion that they show some affinity 
with signed works by Jacopo di Paolo is thought by Dr. Filip- 
pini to be more acceptable. In the matricoia of 1410, the date 
when these frescoes were executed, Jacopo and Cristoforo di 
Giacomo (1370-1420) were the only Bolognese artists dignified 
with the title of " Maestro ". Jacopo was also a carver and the 
fine carved allarpiece of this chapel is probably his work ; the 
affinity between it and the frescoes was already noted by Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle. By the second artist mentioned, Cristoforo 
di Giacomo Benintendi, there is a signed work in the gallery at 
Ferrara and there is no doubt that he painted at Mezzaratta ; a 
MS. which deals with the restoration of those frescoes in 1578, 
proves that those on the right were painted by Cristoforo in 
1380. Dr. Filippini inclines to think that the Bolognini frescoes 
were the work of these two painters, the best being by Jacopo 
di Paolo. — Dr. Cantalamessa ascribes to Giov. Batt. Ticpolo a 
small picture in tempera in the Galleria di Arte antica, Rome. 
The artist, he admits, is not known to have worked in this 
medium, nevertheless after oassinp in review all the known 


Italian Periodicals 

followers and imitators of the master he concludes that if not 
by Giov. Battista himself, it must be a good work by his son 
Gian Domenico. It cannot be said that the illustration confirms 
this opinion. On the contrary it produces the impression of a 
modern work in spite of Dr. Cantalamessa's assurance that 
competent judges have certified the painting to be old. — Dr. 
Ferri restores to Baroccio six drawings in the Uifizi ascribed 
to Fr. Vanni and hitherto unpublished ; he also identifies as by 
Baroccio a drawing in the Magherini Graziani coll. which has 
recently come into the possession of the Dept. of drawings in 
the Ufhzi. — Mgr. Bl-^SIOTTI reproduces the so-called Madonna 
di S. Luca of S. Maria Maggiore. Rome, which had never been 
seen until some years ago when Mgr. Wilpert obtained per- 
mission from the Pope to study it. In 1904 it was exhibited for 
a brief period in the Sala dell' .Archivio Liberiana at the Vatican, 
and was then photographed and reproduced in colour. Mgr. 
Biasiotti believes this Odigitria of S. M. Maggiore (the official 
representation of the Madonna in Rome), to be the copy of a 
full-length figure of earlier date and surmises that the compo- 
sition contained other figures. It probably occupied a prominent 
position in the semi-dome of the Apse. Prior to the destruction 
(for some reason unknown) of this composition the copy must 
have been made in order to preserve the composition of the 
central figure. Before being placed in the chapel erected for it 
by Pope Paul III, this ihidonnn was enclosed in a tabernacle, a 
drawing of which is preserved in Abate de' Angelis' book 
dealing with the Basilica in 1621. — The Ruffo Gallery. 
Letters from JIattia Preti, the Neapolitan painter. In one, 
written from Malta in 1661, he describes two half-lengths by 
'I itian, which eventually came into the Ruffo collection ; and the 
Rembrandt pictures, already mentioned, are again referred to. 
•Another very interesting letter of October, 1662, from Malta, 
speaks of the two half-lengths by Titian, S. George and a Youth 
lioldiiig a lute and gloves, as among that master's best works, 
Both were in the Treasury of the Knights of Malta. The 
pictures arrived at Messina in December 1662, but apparently 
Don Antonio, who was considered a good connoisseur, was by 
no means satisfied with them. Preti, writing again in March 
1663, reaffirms his belief in their authenticity. The corre- 
spondence in this number is of special interest botli for the 
copious and detailed references to pictures under discussion 
(though four only were eventually acquired for the gallery) and 
for Preti's estimate of many contemporary artists. At the same 
time as he was obviously dealing in pictures and acting as 
Ruffo's agent, his attributions and appreciations of works of art 
and painters must be accepted with reserve. — In Cronaca Dr. 
Ricci chronicles various gifts to the State, i.e. (i) the collections 
and library of Prince P'abrizio Ruffo di Motta Bagnara in May 
1915, which are to be incorporated with his former munificent 
gift to the Museo S. Martino at Naples ; the collections include 
much valuable china. Oriental, Meissen and Capodimonte ; 
(2) The palace in Via de' Benci, Florence, with all its collections 
and contents, bequeathed by Mr. Herbert Home ; (3) The Ca' 
d'Oro at Venice presented by Baron Franchetti together with 
his magnificent collections of paintings. — Dr. Cristofani repro- 
duces a fresco in the oratory of S. Benardino at Spello, which 
had been entirely masked by late repainting in oil. This has 
now been removed and the fresco is considered to be a charac- 
teristic example of Pintoricchio. The date 1503 inscribed upon 
it was an addition of the restorer and Dr. Cristofani conjectures 
that the fresco must have been painted before 1501 ; in 1503 
Pintoricchio was fully employed in the library at Siena and 
moreover in June 1502 had bound himself to undertake no 
work outside the Cathedral library either in Siena or elsewhere. 
Dr. Cristofani believes that Pintoricchio used the same cartoon 
which he had made some twenty years earlier for the picture 
of S. Maria Maggiore. — Dr. Galli continues his account of 
archaeological discoveries and accessions to museums, and covers 
a wide field (Sovrintendenza archasologica dell' Etruria). 

Sept.-Oct. — Dr. Frizzoni writes on the mosaics in the ceiling 
of the chapel of S. Elena in S. Croce in Gerusalemme, which he 
thinks were inspired byMelozzo da Forli and which are usually, 
but of course erroneously, ascribed to Baldassare Peruzzi. The 
distinguished critic's arguments are not wholly convincing ; 
these compositions seem altogether lacking in the virile strength 
and energy of Melozzo's work, or even of that of his immediate 
followers. The S. Peter of the Vatican Grottoes, here brought 
forward for comparison with the S. Peter of the mosaics and as 

proving its authenticity, comes much nearer to Melozzo himself, 
though many good judges do not admit that it is by him. The 
chronological difficulty created by the presence of Cardinal 
Carv.ajal (Cardinal of S. Croce in the early 16th century) 
kneeling at the feet of S. Helena is got over by assuming that 
he was not the donor of the mosaics, as usually believed, but 
only had them restored, probably by Baldassare Peruzzi ; this 
would explain their present attribution to the master. Dr. 
Frizzoni, in order to make his theory of a personal share by 
Melozzo in these mosaics possible, would ascribe their origin to 
a period prior to 1484, in which year Melozzo quitted Rome for 
ever. — Dr. Del Vita publishes some interesting notices, dis- 
covered by him in the archives at Arezzo, concerning the family 
of Piero della Francesca and more especially his mother. Doubts 
had been cast upon V.isari's statement that her name was Fran- 
cesca, and later writers have thought that Piero should more 
properly be stj'led de' Franccschi. Dr. del Vita proves that the 
name cited by Vasari was correct. Francesca was the daughter 
of Angelo Cenci of Arezzo and married, as his second wife, 
Benedetto of Borgo San Sepolcro, their son being the painter 
Piero, and both he and his brother Antonio called themselves 
after their mother " della Francesca ". Benedetto died soon 
after 1465 and she probably then returned to Arezzo, where she 
married a second husband, Andrea di Bernardo Grifoni. — Dr. 
U.MBERT0 Gnoli writes on an altarpiece by Bartolomeo Caporali, 
painted for Castiglione del Lago in 1487. Mariotti, writing of 
it in 1788, st.ites that in 1774 it had been removed from its place 
by the priest of the church, who broke up the altarpiece, framing 
each of the panels of which it was composed, and hangmg them 
in his house. Three of these panels are now in the gallery at 
Perugia, and Dr. Gnoli has had the good fortune to discover two 
others in the gallery at Udine. This was the only signed work 
known, by Caporali, "the Nestor of Perugian painters ", whose 
name appears in the guild books as early as 1442. — Dr. Canta- 
lamessa reproduces three pictures in the Borghese Gallery for 
which he suggests the names of Mansueti, Carpaccio, and il 
Greco. — Dr. Frati writes on pictures painted for the Marchese 
d'Ormea and for Carlo Emanuele III, by Bolognese painters of 
the 18th century, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, and others. The facts 
are gathered from the correspondence of the Marchese d'Ormea 
with Paolo Salani, abbot of S. Michele in Bosco, Bologna, who 
had entertained Carlo Emanuele between August 24th and 28th 
1742, the latter being accompanied on that occasion by the Grand 
Chancellor Carlo Ferrero, Marchese d'Ormea. The letters date 
from the autumn of that year. — Ruffo Gallery. Continuation of 
the correspondence of Mattco Preti. The list of pictures acquired 
through him is given ; in addition to the two works by Titian we 
have one picture by Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese respectively, 
one by Petrazzini, who was more or less of an amateur, and two 
by Preti himself. A letter from one of Don Antonio's agents, 
written in 1664 from Naples, refers to Luca Giordano's clever 
imitations of pictures by Titian and P. Veronese, numbers of 
which were in the hands of dealers who had done a remarkably 
good trade in them, though at the date of this letter their fraudu- 
lent practices had been exposed. Further correspondence in 
this number includes letters by Giacinto Brandi, Ciro Ferri and 
Carlo Maratli (as he always signs himself and not Marattn), 
they date from 1671-1673 and are mostly written from Rome. 
The gallery of Don Antonio, who in 1672 became Principe della 
Scaletta, had been increased by several bequests and in addition 
to other lists Dr. Ruffo gives us at the end of this number a 
complete catalogue of the pictures, 364 in all, including 100 
which were set apart as entailed property and are here marked 
with an asterisk ; among them are two by Palma, six by Polidoro 
da Caravaggio, those by Titian and Rembrandt already referred 
to, one by Diirer and many more. — Under Cronaca the damage 
done at Venice by enemy aircraft and at Rimini by earthquake 
is chronicled. — Dr. Galli concludes his record of archaeological 
research (Sovr. dell' Etruria), and Dr, Orsi writes on what had 
been accomplished up to 191 6 in Calabria. 

Nov.-Dec. — Count Carlo Gamba writes fully on Baron 
Franchetti's magnificent gift to the State of the Ca' d'Oro built 
for Marino Contarini, who personally directed the work with 
the assistance and advice of Marco d'Amodeo and the Milanese 
sculptor Matteo Raverti. It was begun in 1421 and finished in 
1435 and was decorated by the celebrated artists Giovanni and 
Bartolomeo Bon with a host of assistants. The beautiful well- 
head in red Verona marble made by Bartolomeo in 1427 was 


Italian Periodicals 

discovered by Baron Kranclictii as it was about to b: sent out 
of the country and has been placed in its original position in the 
cartile ; the whole building i ; being restored with the utmost 
care and judgment. At the lime when this article was written, 
only the chapel had been coaipleted but the scheme for the 
housing of the collection of pictures was developing. The col- 
lection, which was still in the Pal.azzo at S. Vidal, is of the 
highest interest and, whenever the Ca' d'Oro is ready to receive 
it, will he a revelation to most people. It contains many well- 
known mas:crpicces such as Mantegna's S. Sebtistian from the 
Scarpa collection, a picture ordered by Vincenzo Gonzaga but 
still in the masters studio at the time of his death and seen by 
the " Anonimo " in 1523 in the collection of Pietro Bembo ; a 
Venus by Pier di Cosimo, and another bearing the signature of 
Titian, a replica of the Venus in the Hermitage though some 
restorer has removed tlie mirror and thecupids holding it and has 
replaced 'hem with a curtain and various accessories, it may be 
the picture mentioned by Ridolli as painted for Niccolo Crasso ; 
a FlagcUalion by Signorelli ; many interesting examples of the 
Florentine school and of the school of tlie Emilia, and among 
Venetian pictures, in which the collection is particularly rich, a 
beautiful Madonna by Giambono, a most interesting Christ 
taking leave of his Mother and S. Jolin, probably by Jacopo de 
Barbari (the Virgin unfortunately modernised by repainting); 
works by Bcllinesque painters, by the pseudo-Boccaccino now 
recognized as Agostino da Lodi, by Rocco Marconi, B. Licinio, 
and many more, and among non-It,alians, a superb portrait by 
Van Dyck of a member of the Brignole family, a masterpiece 
which is already widely known. — Dr. Savignoni writes on the 
collection of Greek vases in the Villa Giulia, an introductory 
note to his fortlicoming catalogue of this highly important col- 
lection.— Rukfo Gallery. After the death of Don Antonio the 
collection remained for some time intact but after 1693 the 
history of its gradual dispersal begins, by 1710 it had apparently 
been reduced to l65 pictures, and though later on the death of 
members of the family it received considerable accessions they 
could not compare in importance with those of the earlier col- 
lection. Dr. Kuffo traces the history of the gallery through all 
its intricacies and vicissitudes in the i8th century and later. In 

1821 the Principe della Scaletta removed it to Naples and 
eventually to the Villa Gazzi, where the collection is said to have 
been destroyed by fire, but it is quite uncertain how many of the 
pictures were actually removed thither, and there is no doubt 
that many had been sold from the collection at different times 
In his closing chapter Dr. Ruffo makes a very interesting attempt 
to identify some of the pictures in different galleries. A few 
which were ceded to the Spanish viceroy in 1696 may eventually 
come to light in Sp.ain ; the Andrea da Salerno was certainly 
in the museum at Messina before the earthquake of 1908, and a 
.Mucius Scaevola there, attributed to Gherardo delle Notte, is 
undoubtedly identical with the picture of this subject by Alonso 
Rodriguez (the celebrated painter of Messina, 1578-1648) in the 
Ruffo gallery ; other identifications are suggested in Rome, 
Florence, Naples, and elsewhere. This study, the writer tells 
us, was begun with the idea of re-constructing the Kuffo gallery 
as it was in the 17th century on the evidence of documents. 
leaving to others the task of following up clues bearing cm the 
pictures ; eventually however circumstances obliged him in 
some instances to follow up the clues himself, though a great 
deal still remains to be dealt with. In any case, as he observes, 
the publication of so many letters of seicento painters and the 
detailed enumeration of so large a number of pictures may 
prove a useful contribution to the history of art, a view which 
may be heartily endorsed and it is to be hoped that so useful an 
epitome, invaluable for reference, may be re-issued in a more 
convenient form. — In the Cronaca Dr. Mauceri chronicles the 
lirst work of restoration on pictures of the National Museum at 
Messina, some of which were found to he in a deplorable con- 
dition. After the earthquake the Soprintendenza di monumenti 
di Palermo simply collected everything that could be found 
from churches and other buildings, storing all in their depots. 
Only by degrees has some sifting of this vast material been 
possible and the restoration of the paintings has now become a 
matter of extreme urgency. — The archaeological note by Dr. 
Orsi deals with excavations in the neighbourhood of Catania 
and Syracuse ; the province of Messina has been aggregated to 
the Soprintendenza of Syracuse. Accessions to museums 
between 1909 and 1916 have been considerable. J- 


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numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Chatto and Windus, III St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 

The Lyrical Poems and Translations of Shelley ; ed. C. H. 
Herford; xxvi-(-48o pp. ("Florence Press Type"); 
12s. 6d. n. 
The Complete Press, West Norwood, S.E. 

Oldham (Roger). The A rt of Englishmen and other Writings ; 
128 pp., illust, : privately printed, 2s. Od. n. 
" Country Life", Ltd., by authority of the Admiralty. 

DoDD (Francis). Admirals of the British Navy, portraits in 
colours, with introduction and biographical notes; Pt. i ; 
5S. n. 

The remainder of this series will be ^ntered, as the parts 
appear, under " Occasional Serials". 
Thf. Western Front; 100 drawings by Muirhead Bone 
(ind 5 parts bound together), 15s. 
Harv.\rd, U.S.A., University Press (Humphrey Milford). 
Siren (Osvald). Giotto and some of .his Followers ; 
trans, by Fred. Schenck ; Vol. I, x + 285 pp.. Vol. II, 220, PI. 
and list ; £2 los. n. 
P. N. VAN Kami'EN et fils, AiTisterdam. 
Lv(iT (Frits). I.e Portrait-miniature, illustre far la collection 
de S.M. la Reine des Pays-bas ; 108 pp., 14 colour, 41 
b.-and-w. tig.; x.p. 
James Maclehose and Sons, Glasgow, 

Caw (Jas. L.). William McTaggart, R.S.A. : a bibliography 
and an appreciation ; Xiv-f302 pp., 51 Pl. ; 25s. n. 
SoTHEBV, Wilkinson and Hodge (privately printed for). 

HOBSON (G. D.), Partner in the Firm. Notes on the 
History of Sotheby's ; brochure, 42 pp., lo PI., including 
2 original etchings ; not for sale. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1 Adelphi Terrace, W.C. 

Hayden (Arthur). Chats on Old Clocks ; a practical guide for 
the collector ; 302 pp., 81 illust. ; 6s. n. 

PERIODICALS — Weekly. — American Architect, 2184— 
American Art News — Architect — Country Life — Illustrated 
London News. 

Fortnightly. — Art in America, v. 6 — L'Arte, xx, 4+5 — 
Boston, U.S.A., Museum of Fine Arts, Bulletin — Bulletin of 
the Alliance Fran^aise, No. 75 — Carnet des Artistes, 19' 7, 
19 — Rcvista General (Madrid), i, 2— Veil i Nou (Barcelona), 
III, 52. 

Monthly. — Art World (New York), Nov. — Colour — Connois- 
seur — Fine Art Trade Journal — Journal of Imperial Arts 
League 30 — Kokka, 328 — Les Arts, 163 — New York, Metro- 
politan Museum, Bulletin xil, 12— Onze Kunst, xvi, 11 — Oude 
Kunst (Haarlem), III, 2. 

Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland Museum of Art, Bulletin 
(10 a year), iv, 7 — Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Bulletin 
(y a year), vi, 9. 

Quarterly. — Felix Ravenna, 25 — Gazette des Beaux .\rts, 692 
— Muskegon, Mich., Hackley Art GiiUery, Esthetics, 11 — 
Oud Holland, xxxv, 3 — Pennsylvania Museum, Bulletin, 59 — 
Print Collectors' Quarterly — Quarterly Review, 453. 

Occasionally. — Journal of Indian Art and Industry, xvi, 136. 

Trade Lists.— B. T Batsford, Ltd., 94 High Holborn, W.C. 
.4 Catalogue of illustrated books on Houses and Gardens, 
Decorations, .Art. and Building Science ; and New and Forth- 
coming Books, Autumn, 1917 — Norstedts S'yheter (Stockholm), 
Nr. II — Mr. John Lane's .■liiliniin List, 19 17. 




HE large Madonna here repro- 
duced, which now belongs to Mr. 
Otto Kahn, was brought to New 
York a few years ago. The picture 
had been bought in the old church 
at Calaliorra near Miranda, and was put up at a 
public sale in New York. Somehow none of the 
New York collectors or dealers at that time seems 
to have grasped the artistic and historical im- 
portance of the work ; the bidding was very slow, 
and the original purchaser retained his treasure. 
When I came to New York about a year later the 
picture was in the hands of a well known dealer, 
still covered with the dust of ages and attributed 
to Cimabue. For anyone acquainted with early 
Tuscan art it was, however, easy to see that the 
picture was not by Cimabue nor by any other 
Florentine painter contemporary with him. After 
a close study of the problem which this remarkable 
picture presented, I reached a definite conclusion 
that it was the work of Pietro Cavallini, and pre- 
sented my reasons for that ascription in a brochure 
which was privately printed in only half a dozen 
copies, and thus never reached students or 
amateurs abroad. Considering the unusual im- 
portance of this picture, TIic Buiiin^lon Maga::inc 
now publishes it, together with a short statement 
of my reasons for assigning it to Cavallini. It is 
indeed one of the fundamental pieces of early 
Italian painting which should be known by every 
student who wants to understand the art out of 
which Giotto gradually emerged. 

As the picture is illustrated little description is 
needed beyond a few notes on the colour. The 
throne on which the Virgin is seated is of inlaid 
woodwork and is slightly turned towards her left. 
The small half figures in the medallions on either 
side of the Virgin's head, each holding a globe 
and sceptre, represent angels. The colour is rich 
and deep. The Virgin wears a dark blue mantle 
over a deep violet gown, the Child a robe of 
cinnabar red. Both garments are heightened with 
golden lines and stripes. The cushion on the 
seat of the throne is also a cinnabar red, the floor 
is green. The tunicles of the angels are dark 
brown with pearl-embroidered stoles ; the back- 
ground of the medallions is red. The large haloes 
are ornamented with a conventionalised classic 
leaf pattern, and the brown wooden throne is 
inlaid with ornaments in lighter tone. 

The traditional attribution to Cimabue is by no 
means surprising. Every one who has given a 
certain amount of attention to early Italian art 
will agree that this is a picture of Cimabue's period, 
that is to say, the last quarter of the 13th century. 
A comparison with Cimabue's well known 
Madonnas in the Academy at Florence and in the 
Louvre, establishes, however, beyond doubt that 
the famous Florentine was not the painter of the 

present Madonna. Cimabue's style is harder, the 
proportions of his figures are more elongated, his 
types are taller with large aquiline noses and 
strong mouths, his mantles are drawn tightly in 
sharply creased folds about the tall bodies. The 
proportions of the present Madonna are in every 
way more harmonious ; she is broader of build, 
her type is rounder, and the whole design has a 
massiveness which is entirely foreign to Cimabue's 
art or to that of any other contemporaneous 
Tuscan master, including Duccio and the other 
Sienese of the end of the 13th century. This 
impression is partly due to the broad, sweeping 
folds of the mantle, which float in long curves 
over the upper part of the figure and fall in heavy 
masses over the knees. It is a mode of draping 
that suggests quite another origin than either the 
gentle rippling of the folds that we may observe 
in Duccio's draperies or the severe and angular 
character of Cimabue's. The style is neither Gothic 
nor Byzantine in the stricter sense of those terms. 
It is classic, and inspired by the draping of the 
togas on Roman statues. We can hardly be 
mistaken if we also ascribe the unusually good 
proportions and harmonious design of the whole 
figure to the influence of antique Roman sculp- 

Who then was the master who at the end of the 
i3ih century embodied so much of that influence 
in his works ? So far as our present knov;ledge 
goes, there was only one painter who did this : 
Pietro Cavallini — "// maestro dottissiino et nobilis- 
sinio ", to quote Lorenzo Ghiberti, who at the end 
of the 14th century admired Cavallini's works in 
Rome. Happily enough we are also in a position 
to control this general conclusion by comparing 
the Madonna with authenticated paintings by 
Cavallini in Rome. The frescoes by Cavallini in 
S. Cecilia in Trastevere of which Ghiberti speaks, 
were rediscovered in 1901, and though they are 
in a fragmentary and far from satisfactory state of 
preservation they still reveal to us a definite and 
individual style. The parts that still survive are 
the Christ and the apostles [Plate II] of a Last 
Jndgnicnt and some fragmentary scenes from the 
History oj Jacob. These paintings have for historical 
reasons been dated about 1293. In these designs, 
and particularly in The .ipostles, the influence of 
classic sculpture is evident. The types of the 
figures and the draping of their heavy mantles 
follow closely late Roman statues, and they stand 
out in strong relief in a way unusual in Italian art 
before Giotto. Somewhat less sculpturesque are 
the angels who surround the central figure of 
Christ. If we compare some of these angels, 
particularly those beside the Baptist, with the 
Virgin and the two angels in our picture, we find 
that they show exactly the same types. Their 
faces are comparatively well rounded, the noses 

The Boblisgiom MiOiZiKE, No. 178. Vul. XXXII — i'tbruaiy lUlS. 


A Picture by Pietro Cavallini 

are only slightly aquiline, the eyes are large, and 
the mouths are' remarkably small. Furthermore, 
we find that in both cases ihty wear the same 
embroidered stoles, and that their wings are drawn 
exactly on the same pattern. If we allow some- 
thing "for diffciences of size, technique and pre- 
seryation, we must admit that the essential features 
correspond so closely that tliey fully w.-.rrant the 
conclusion that the figures were designed by the 
same arlist. The Madonna shows a somewliat 
milder and more Byzantine version of the same 
type; na'urallv si e stands a little closer to old 
Byzantine models for this standard subject. On 
the other hand her mantle falls in the same broad 
lines of classical drapery as those of the Apostles, 
and her right hand corresponds exactly to that of 
S. John who holds a ctip before him. Another 
morphological detail of importance is the ear of 
the Child, which is of the same shape as S. John's 
ear, and distinctly different from the ears of 
Cimabue's figures. 

The only other works by Cavallini, hitherto 
known, are these frescoes in S. Cecilia in Traste- 
verc, and the mosaics in S. Pvlaria in Trastc- 
vere— works which by reason of a difference of 
technique and scale are not well fitted for com- 
parison with a finely executed panel picture of 
moderate size, such as Mr. Otto Kahn's Madonna. 
It is therefore of all the greater importance to 
grasp the painter's essential feeling for form and 
the basic features of his classic mode of draping. 
They distinguish his works from the creations of 
contemporary masters in Florence and Siena or 
at other centres of Tuscan art. When we recognise 
them in a painting of this epoch we can be sure 
that it is closely connected with Cavallini. And 
when, besides that, the quality of the painting is 


HE identity of the "Benedict-Master," 
as he was called for short, used to be 
one of the most debated problems 
imong students of early German art 
_ in the decade before the war. I have 

given a brief bibliography of the chief writings 
on the subject in the publication of the Vasari 
Society for igio-ii (Vl, 28), and need hardly repeat 
it here ; so far as I know, nothing definitely bear- 
ing on it has appeared since then. The master 
takes his provisional name from a scries of pen 
and ink drawings ilhislraiing the Life of S. Benedict, 
which are widely scattered about Europe. Of tlie 
eight hitherto known, Berlin, Brunswick (Blasius 
collection), Darmstadt, Munich, Paris and Vienna 
possess or.e apiece, while the P.ritisli Museum lias 
t.vo, one of which was acquired so recently as 
1910, and was published soon after by the Vasari 
Society. Four of these drawings are washed with 


of the very highest, when it is a masterpiece of 
design and decorative beauty, like the present 
Maclcnna, wc have good reason to believe that it 
was executed by the master himself and not by 
some unknown follower. Here everything pro- 
claims a great master's touch — the hand of a 
painter who knew the Byzantines as well as the 
remains of Roman art. The principal morpho- 
logical details also connect it more closely with 
Cavallini's frescoes than with any other work of 
that time. But in some respects the Madonna 
seems a little more archaic in style than the 
specimens of Cavallini's art that survive in Rome ; 
this inclines us to think that it was executed at an 
earlier date than those frescoes. 

We know from a contemporary document that 
Cavallini was already active in Rome in 1273, and 
it IS also interesting to note that Cimabue is 
mentioned in a Roman document of the previous 
year. The two great masters pro'oably met in the 
Eternal City, which was at that time the greatest 
art-centre of Italy. But the lines of their evolution 
diverged, as can be seen, for instance, in Assisi, 
where they probably worked simultaneously a few 
years later. There is a basic difference in con- 
ception between the creations of these masters — 
Cimabue is more dramatic, Cavallini more epic — 
and their figures are designed with a different 
aim in view. 

The extraordinary importance of the present 
Madonna as a work by Cavallini need hardly be 
dwelt upon. It is, as far as we know, the only 
panel picture by the great Roman master which 
as yet has come to light. Its dignified beauty and 
largeness of style justify indeed Ghiberti's epithets 
of praise when he speaks of Cavallini as the 
" nobilissinto niacslro." 


water colour ; the rest are uncoloured. All, except 
the Albertina drawing, have an arehed opening on 
one side or the other, either drawn in outline, or 
filled in round the edges, as seen in the Vasari 
Society reproduction, with a vine-stem serving as 
frame to the opening ; the shape is always the same. 
The purpose of this reserved space is explained by 
the presence, in two cases (at Darmstacit and the 
Louvre) of the arms of two Nuremberg families. 
All the spaces were evidently intended for a similar 
purpose. In all probability the series represents 
the designs for a set of glass-paintings in the 
church of some Benedictine abbey not far from 
Nuremberg, contributed by donors belonging to 
the patrician families of that city. 

But if the destination of the designs remains a 
a matter of conjecture, so does their authorship. 
Hausmann, who was the first comparatively 
modern writer to venture an attribution, ascribed 





^ j gjj WWfc^<'"'^^^^«WMt<^ ^ 


•■TMK visit of S. P.F.NEDICT to his sister, S. SCHOLASTICA; drawing in UROWNISH INK BY THE BENEDICT-MASTER; 
24 X l8 CM. 


Another Drawing of the Life of S, Benedict 

the Brunswick drawing to Diirer, under whose 
name the Darmstadt drawing had been published 
in 1 814 in one of Preslel's etched facsimiles. More 
recent critics, in the present century, h.ive can- 
vassed the claims of Schiiufelein, Wolf Traut and 
Hans von Kulmbach, but none of these attri- 
butions has met with acceptance. Slill less has 
Dr. R<)ttiiiger's attempt to prove that the drawings 
are by the Strassburg artist, Hans Wechtlin, during 
a period in his chequered career in which, before 
and after several surprising transformations, he is 
alleged to have worked at Nuremberg in Diirer's 
circle. In Diirer's circle, at any rate, these draw- 
ings must have originated very early in the i6th 
century, and for want of any convincing proof 
that they are by any of the artists whom we know, 
a personality has been constructed, known 
variously as the Bcncdiktmeisfcr or the Brlgitten- 
nieisicr (from the Revelations of S. Bridget, 1500), 
to whom these and certain other drawings, a large 
number of woodcuts, and some pictures, including 
the Seven SorroivsofMary at Dresden, are attributed. 
A reaction has set in. The Dresden cycle has been 
reclaimed for Diirer by Dr. Pauli. I have heard 
that one of the most eminent authorities at Berlin 
believes that the lengthy series of small woodcuts 
which I ascribed to the Benedict-Master in the 
eleventh publication of the Graphische Gescllschaft 
is really by Diirer. Perhaps when the dust of 
controversy has settled and we look at the out- 
standing works of the group with clearer eyes, 
undistracted by attributions of now discarded 
rubbish, we may all recant our doubts, and agree 
that the missing name is " Diirer" after all. 

A ninth drawing of the series, hitherto quite 
unknown, was sold at Sotheby's on November 2nd, 
1917 (Lot .-",53), and passed shortly afterwards into 
a private collection in London. It is drawn in 
brownish ink, has no water-mark, and measures 
24 by 18 cm. The subject, to be found, like all 
the others of the series, in the life of S. Benedict 
in the Golden Legend, is tb.e visit of the sainted 
abbot to his sister, S. Scholaslica. The story is 
told as follows in Caxton's version' : " It happed 
an other day that saynt benet vvente to visite hys 
syster named sco!as.tica, and as they satte atte 
table she prayd her brother that he wold abyde 
there al that nyght, but he in no wyse wold 
graunte her and sayd he myght not \ye out of hys 
cloyster. And whan she sawe that he wold not 

' KcImscoU Press edition, p. 431. 

graunte to her to abyde she enclyned her heed and 
made her prayers to our lord, & anon it began to 
thondre and to lyghtne, and the ayer to wexe 
derk whyche to fore was fayr and clere, and a 
grete ray'n fyl down so that for nothyng he myght 
departe. And lyke as she wepte wyth l;er eyen 
right so forthwyth the rayne and storme cam, & 
thenne she lyft up her heed. Thenne saynt benet 
said to his suster, Almyghty god forgyve you that 
ye haue don, for ye have letted me that I may not 
departe hens. And she said, Fayr brother god is 
more curtoys than ye be, for ye wold not accepte 
my prayer, but god' hath herd me, now goo yf ye 
may. And thenne saynt lienet abode there all the 
nyghte, spekyng of god bytwene hvm and hys 
suster wythout slepyng, til they were bothe eased." 
The life of S. Scholastica, in the additions to 
Jacobus de Voragine', not translated by Caxton, 
tells the same story at considerably greater length, 
but adds nothing essential to it. We are there told, 
however, that S. Scholastica came to visit her 
brother once a year, and that he came out to meet 
her at a place not far outside the gale of his cnvn 
monastery. We hear, moreover, of his being 
accompanied by some of his disciples, and the 
author dwells at length on the fact that the flood 
of tears which S. Scholastica shed upon the table 
had a mysterious attraction for the torrent of rain 
that burst at the same instant from a clear sky. 
Nothing in the legend explains the action of 
S. Benedict, who appears to be blessing a beaker 
which he holds in his hand. The attendant monk 
and nun, who take no share in the religious dis- 
course of the two saints, cover their hands with 
their sleeves to keep off the damp and chilly even- 
ing air. The monk does not disguise his opinion 
that the entertainment has lasted long enough, 
and the nun is going to sleep. The bearer of 
S. Benedict's pastoral staff is watchful, but cross. 
The remnants of supper are scanty. 

This is the only drawing of the series in which 
women appear, except in the scene where S. Bene- 
dict rolls in thistles to subdue the lust of the 
fleshl The monks, however, are decidedly more 
interesting than the nuns, and the heads both of 
S. Benedict and his neighbour are excellendy 
drawn and full of character. 

" p. 8S5 in T. Graesse's edition, Leipzig, 1850. 

Mf a drawing ever turns up illustrating the furtlier escapade 
of the priest Florentius, we shall have bitter opportunities of 
studying the artist's knowledge of the female form. 


HE Burlington Fine Arts Club have 
arranged a most interesting collection 
of drawings by dtad masters. Aban- 
doning the club's usual method of 
taking a particular period or country, 

the committee have this time allowed their choice 
to range over many periods and countries, ex- 
cluding only living artists, and admitting one so 
recently dead as Degas. This variety of material 
naturally stimulates one to hazard some general 


Drawings at the Eurliria^tofj Fine Arts Club 

speculations on the nature of drawing as an art. 
" H. T.", who writes the preface to the catalogue, 
already points the way in this direction by some 
obiter dicta. He points out that the essence of 
drawing is not the line, but its content. He says : 
A single line may mean nothing beyond a line ; addanother 
alongside and both disappear, and we are aware only of the 
contents, and a form is expressed. The beauty of a line is 
in its result, in the form which it helps to bring into being. 
Here the author has undoubtedly pointed out the 
most essential quality of good drawing. I should 
dispute rather by way of excessive caution his first 
statement, " A single line may mean nothing 
beyond a line ", since a line is always at its least 
the record of a gesture, indicating a good deal 
about its maker's personality, his tastes and even 
probably the period when he lived ; but I entirely 
agree that the main point is always the effect of 
two lines to evoke the idea of a certain volume 
having a certain form. When " H. T." adds that 
" Draughtsmen know this, but writers on art do 
not seem to ", he seems to be too sweeping. Even 
so bad a writer on art as Pliny had picked up the 
idea from a Greek art critic, for in describing the 
drawing of Parrhasios he says ; — ' 

Hy the admission of artists he was supreme in contour. 

This is the last subtlety of painting ; for to paint the main 

body and centres of objects is indeed something of an 

achievement, but one in which many have been f.imous, but 

to paint the edges of bodies and express the disappearing 

planes is rare in the history of art. For the contour must 

go round itself and so end that it promises other things 

behind and shows that which it hides. 

This is an admirable account, since it gives the 

clue to the distinction between descriptive drawing 

and drawing in which the contour does not arrest 

the form, but creates plastic relief of the whole 

enclosed volume. Now, this plastic drawing can 

never be attained by a mere description of the 

edges of objects. Such a description, however 

exact, can at the utmost do no more than recall 

vividly the original object ; it cannot enable the 

spectator to realize its plastic volume more clearly 

than the original object would. Now, when we 

look at a really good drawing we do get a much 

more vivid sense of a plastic volume than we get 

from actual objects. 

Unfortunately this is a very severe test to apply, 
and would, I think, relegate to an inferior class the 
vast majority of drawings, even of those in the pre- 
sent exhibition. The vast majority of drawings 
even by the celebrated masters do appeal mainly by 
other more subsidiary qualities, by the brightness 

' I have had to paraphrase this passage, but add the original. 
Whether my paraphrase is correct in detail or not, I think there 
can be little doubt about the general meaning. 

Plin., Nat. Hist., x.\xv, 67; " Parrhasius . . . confessione 
artificum in liniis extremis palmam adeptus. Hasc est picturse 
sumina sublimitas ; corpora cnim pingere et media rerum est 
quidem magni operis. sed in quo mulli gloriam tulerint. E.xtrcma 
corporum faccre et desinentis picturae modum includere rarum 
in successu artis invenitur. Ambire enim debet se extremitas 
ipsa, et sic desinere ut promittat alia post se ostendatque 
etiam quae occultat ". 

A further note on this passage is added on page 81. 


of their descriptive power, and by the elegance 
and facility of their execution. There is an un- 
doubted pleasure in the contemplation of mere 
skill, and there are few ways of demonstrating 
sheer skill of hand more convincingly than the 
drawing of a complex series of curves with perfect 
exactitude and great rapidity. And when the 
curves thus brilliantly drawn describe vividly 
some object in life towards which we have pleas- 
ing associations we get a complex pleasure which 
is only too likely to be regarded as an aesthetic 
experience when in fact it is nothing of the kind. 

The author of the preface has quite clearly seen 
that this element of brilliance in the execution of 
the line does frequently come into play, and he 
considers this calligraphic quality to be always a 
sign, of a lowered assthetic purpose, citing Tiepolo 
quite rightly as a great master of such qualities. 
And he quite rightly points out that with the 
deliberate pursuit of calligraphy there is always a 
tendency to substitute type forms for individual 
forms. On the other hand, all good drawing also 
tends to create types, since a type results from the 
synthetic unity of the design. The real question 
here would seem to be the fulness or emptiness 
of the type created, and it would be fair to say 
that the calligraphic draughtsman accepted most 
readily an empty type. For instance, one would 
have to admit that Ingres created a type, and 
repeated it as much as Tiepolo, only Ingres con- 
tinually generated his type of form upon actual 
material, whereas Tiepolo tended merely to repeat 
his without enriching it with fresh material. 

The exhibition has been to some extent arranged 
around Ingres, and as many of his drawings as 
possible have been collected. Ingres has long 
been accepted in the schools as par excellence the 
great modern master of drawing. His great saying, 
" Le dessin c'est la probite de I' art", has indeed 
become a watchword of the schools and an excuse 
for indulgence in a great deal of gratuitous and 
misplaced moral feeling. It has led to the display 
of all kinds of pedagogic folly. Art is a passion 
or it is nothing. It is certainly a very bad moral 
gymnasium. It is useless to try to make a kind of 
moral parallel bars out of the art of drawing. You 
will certainly spoil the drawing, and it is doubtful 
if you will get the morals. Drawing is a passion 
to the draughtsman just as much as colour is to 
the colourist, and the draughtsman has no reason 
to feel moral superiority because of the nature of 
his passion. He is fortunate to have it, and there 
is an end of the matter. Ingres himself had the 
passion for draughtsmanship very intensely, 
though perhaps one would scarcely guess it from 
the specimens shown in this exhibition. These 
unfortunately are, with few exceptions, taken from 
that large class of drawings which he did as a 
young man in Rome. He was already married, 
and was poor. He was engaged on some of his 

'apotheosis of napoleon ", I'ENCIL AND WATER COLOUR WASH, BY J. A. D. INGRES; 16^" X Ij' (lE VICOMTE DARlV) 







a p. 

Drawings at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 

biggest and most important compositions, on 
which he was determined to spare no pains or 
labour ; consequently he found himself forced to 
earn his living by doing these brilliant and 
minutely accurate portraits of the aristocratic 
tourists and their families, who happened to pass 
through Rome. These drawings bear the unmis- 
takable mark of their origins. They are commis- 
sions, and they are done to satisfy the sitter. 
Anything like serious research for form is out of 
the question ; there is little here but Ingres's 
extreme facility and a certain negative good taste. 
The details of costume had to be observed even 
at the cost of missing the continuity of rhythm, so 
that we often find a really well-drawn head and 
features which are not organically connected with 
anything else in the drawing. No. 54, however, 
rises to a much higher level, and is clearly more 
inspired than the majority ; but probably the only 
drawing here which shows Ingres's more serious 
powers is the tight, elaborate and rather repel lant 
study for the Apotheosis of Napoleon, which is a 
splendid discovery of composition within a round 
[Plate I]. But the real fact is, I believe, that 
Ingres's power as a draughtsman hardly ever 
comes out fully in his drawings ; one must turn 
to his paintings to see how great and sincere a 
researcher he was. In his drawings he was too 
much preoccupied with the perfect description of 
facts ; when he came to the painting he began 
that endless process of readjustment and balance 
of contours which make him so great and original 
a designer. If one places his drawings and studies 
from the nude for, say, his Venus Anadyomeiie 
beside the photograph of the picture one gets 
some idea of the tireless and passionate research 
for the exact correspondence of the contours on 
either side of the figure which Ingres undertook. 
He throws over one by one all the brilliant nota- 
tions of natural form in the studies, and arrives 
bit by bit at an intensely abstract and simplified 
statement of the general relations. But though 
,the new statement is emptied of its factual con- 
tent, it has now become far more compact, far 
more intense in its plasticity. Here and there 
among Ingres's innumerable drawings one may 
find a nude study in which already this process of 
elimination and balance has taken place, but the 
examples are rare, and if one would understand 
why Ingres is one of the great masters of design, 
one must face the slightly repellent quality of 
his oil paintings rather than allow oneself to 
be seduced by the elegance and ease of his draw- 

It would, I think, be possible to show that very 
few great designers have attained to full expression 
in line. I suspect, indeed, that the whole tradi- 
tion of art in Europe has been against such 
complete expression since about the end of the 
15th century. If we compare the great master- 

pieces of pure drawing such as the drawings of 
figures on Persian pots of the 12th and 13th 
centuries, and the few remaining examples of 
drawings by the Italian primitives of the 14th and 
early 15th centuries, with the vast mass of Euro- 
pean drawings subsequent to that date, we see, I 
think, the contrast of aims and purpose of the two 
groups. Somewhere about the time of Filippino 
Lippi there was formulated an idea of drawing 
which has more or less held the field ever since in 
art schools. 

As most drawing has centred in the human 
figure we may describe it in relation to that, the 
more so that this view of drawing undoubtedlv 
came in with the study of anatomy. The general 
principle is that there are certain cardinal facts 
about the figure, or points of cardinal importance 
in the rendering of structure — the artist is trained 
to observe these with special care, since they be- 
come the points de repere for his drawing. And 
since they are thus specially observed they are 
noted with a special accent. When once the 
artist has learned to grasp the relations of these 
points de repere firmly he learns also to pass from 
one to the other with great ease and rapidity, not 
to say with a certain indifference as to what 
happens in the passage. By this method the 
essentials of structure and movement of a figure 
are accurately given and the whole statement can 
be made with that easy facility and rapidity of line 
which gives a peculiar pleasure. Such drawing 
has the merit of being at once structurally accurate 
and more or less calligraphically pleasing. The 
most admired masters, such as Vandyke, W'atteau, 
even to some extent Rubens, all exhibit the charac- 
teristics of such a conception. Now in the earlier 
kind of drawing there were no recognized points 
de repere, no particular moments of emphasis, the 
line was so drawn that at every point its relation 
to the opposed contour was equally close, the 
tension so to speak was always across the line and 
not along its direction. The essential thing was 
the position of the line, not its quality, so that 
there was the less inclination to aim at that easy 
rapidity which marks the later draughtsmanship. 
Essentially, then, this earlier drawing was less 
descriptive and more purely evocative of form. 
It may well be that the demands made upon the 
artist by the closer study of nature brought in by 
the Renaissance became an almost insuperable 
barrier to artists in the attempt to find any such 
completely synthetic vision of form as lay to hand 
for their predecessors. We see for instance in 
Albert Diirer's Beetle (No. i) an example of 
purely descriptive and analytic drawing with no 
attempt at inner coherence of form. On the other 
hand, of course, all the great formalists made de- 
liberate efforts to come through the complex of 
phenomena to some abstract synthesis. Fra 
Bartolomeo and Raphael clearly made such 


Drawings at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 

abstraction a matter of deliberate study,- but as I 
have pointed out in the case of Ingres, the obses- 
sion of fact lias generally forced the artist to such 
a long series of experiments towards the final 
synthetic form that it is only in the finished pic- 
ture that it emerges fully. 

On the other hand, some modern mnsters have 
also found their way through, more or less com- 
pletely, and from this point of view few drawings 
in the exhibition arc as remarkable as the drawing 
of a seated woman by Corot (No. 3) [Plate II]. 
Here one supposes it may be a kind of naivete of 
vision rather than the exhaustive process of an 
Ingres, that has led Corot to this vividly realised 
plasticity of form. I find the essentials of good 
drawing more completely realised here than in 
almost any other drawing in the exhibition, and 
yet how little of a professional draughtsman Corot 
was. It is hard to speak here of Degas's works as 
drawings. With one exception they are pastels of 
essentiallv paintings, but they are of great beauty 
and show him victorious over his own formidable 
cleverness, his unrivalled but dangerous power of 
witty notation. 

At the opposite pole to Corot's drawing with its 
splendid revelation of plastic significance we must 
put INIenzel with his fussy preoccupation with un- 
digested fact. It is hard indeed to see quite how 
Menzel's drawings found their way into this good 
company, except perhaps as drunken helots, for 
they are conspicuously devoid of any ^esthetic 
quality whatever. They are without any rhythmic 
unity, without any glimmering of a sense of style, 
and style though it be as cheap as Rowlandson's is 
still victorious over sheer misinformed literalness. 
Somev.'here between Menzel and Corot we must 
place Charles Keane, and I fear, in spite of the 
rather exaggerated claims made for him in the 
preface, he is nearer to jMenzel, though even so, 
liow much better ! The early MilLiis drawing is of 
course an astounding attempt by a man of pro- 
digious gift and no sensibility to pretend that he 
had the latter. It is a pity there are no Hossettis 
here to show the authentic inspiration of which 
this is the echo. 

liut to return to the Old Masters, theie is a 
drawing of the Venetian school (No. 90) [Plate 
III], tentatively given to Titian, which seems to 
me to be very noteworthy, and to have a quality 
of plastic unity extremely rare among Venetian 
artists, who in fact hardly ever rose to the Floren- 
tine conception of design. They were generally 
satisfied — and in this Titian was hardly an ex- 
ception — with a more ornamental and decorative 
view of design. Now the one Venetian Master of 
the full renaissance who had this power was 
Giorgione. Considering the extreme rarity of his 

^ See No. 62 where, so far as possible, all the forms are 
reduced to a common measure by interpreting Ihem all in 
terms of an elongated ovoid. 


works — that, in fact, hardly any certain drawings 
by him exist —it is of course rash to suggest that 
this drawing is by him, but I confess that I am 
templed to put forward that view, however ten- 
tatively. It certainly has the peculiar blur.t and 
almost naive simplification and directness in its 
form that we find in Giorgione's works — 'a sitii- 
plicity which is so conspicuously absent from 
Titian. In anv case it seems to me a quite ex- 
ceptional work among later Venetian drawings, and 
to have qualities which some artists scarcely even 
so much as envisaged.^ 

I come now to the Rembrandts, of which there 
are several good examples. Rembrandt always 
intrigues one by the multiplicity and diversity of 
his gifts and the struggle between his profound 
imaginative insight and his excessive talents. The 
fact is, I believe that Rembrandt was never a 
linealist, that he never had the conception of 
contour clearly present to him. He was too 
intensely and too inveterately a painter and a 
chiaroscurist. The last thing he saw was a contour, 
and more than anything else it eluded his vision. 
His vision was in fact so intensely fixed on the 
interplay of planes, their modulation into one 
another, and on the balance of directions, that with 
him the drawn line has a quite peculiar and 
personal meaning. It is used first to indicate 
directions of stress and movement, as, for instance, 
a str.iight line will be dashed down to indicate, 
not the contour of a limb, but its direction, tlie 
line along which stress of action takes place. He 
seems almost to dread the contour, to prefer to 
make strokes either inside or outside of it, and to 
trust to the imagination to discover its where- 
abouts, anything rather than a final definite state- 
ment which would arrest the interplay of places. 
The line is also used to suggest very vaguely and 
tentatively the division of planes ; but almost 
always when he comes to use wash on top of the 
line his washes go across the lines, so that here too 
one can hardly say the line indicates the division 
so much as the approximate position of a plane, 
A masterpiece of this extraordinarily suggestive 
use of line is the Moses niid the Biiniiiiii Bush (Xo. 
45 [Plate IV], in which the faintest, most 
vaporous washes build up a complete vision of 
the play of light and shade, the space construc- 
tion of the whole scene, and no less, the volume, 
mass and inertia of movement of the figure and 
the animals. The suggestion here of all the 
elements of design in a great finished picture is 
completely achieved with an almost miraculous 
economy of means. 

The Poussin near by (No. 47) is disappointing. 
Poussin, too, was an artist whose great qualities 
as a designer only emerge in the finished work. 

' Since writing tlie above I hear from the owner, Mr. Bate- 
son, that Mr. Binyon has already made this snggestion, which 
emboldens me all the more to repeat it here. 

Drawings at 


Of the two Claudes one (No. 20) is an extremely 
charming drawing done with unusual care and 
mastery ; the other (No. 37) is a serious and 
laboured work with almost all the qualities of 
Claude's oil paintings. It is hard to speak of it 
even as a drawing, for here as in his finished 
pictures nothing seems to count but the placing 
of the units within the rectangle of the frame. 
What these units are, how clumsily rendered, or 
how redundant of useless detail doesn't matter ; 
they are, after all, only the raw material of his 
wonderful spacial architecture. 

In conclusion I would suggest that the art of 
pure contour is comparatively rare in modern art. 
For what I should cite as great and convincing 
examples of that art I would ask the reader to 
turn to the " ]\I organ Byzantine Enamels" {B\ir- 
lingioii Magazine, Vol. xxi, pp. 3, 65, 127, 219, 
290), the " Manafi-i-Heiwan " {Buiiiiiglon Maga- 
zine, Vol. XXIII, pp. 224, 261), and to Vignier, 
" Persian Pottery " {Burlington Magazine, Vol. 
XXV, p. 211), while other examples might be found 
among Byzantine and Carolingian miniaturists. 

Now, this art depends upon a peculiarly syn- 
thetic vision and a peculiar system of distortion. 

t/ie Burlington Fine Arts Club 

without which the outline would arrest the move- 
ment of planes too definitely. There indeed is 
the whole crux of the art of line drawing ; the 
line generates a volume, but it also too definitely 
arrests the planes : that is why in some great 
modern artists, as we saw in the case of I'Jem- 
brandt, there is a peculiar kind of dread of the 
aclual contour. It is felt by those who are sensi- 
tive to the interplay and movement of planes that 
the line must in some way, by its quality or its 
position, or by breaks or repetitions, avoid arrest- 
ing the imagination by too positive a statement. 
It was almost a peculiarity of the early art that I 
have cited to be able to express a form in a quite 
complete, evenly drawn contour without this 
terrible negative effect of the line. I say almost a 
peculiarit}', because I think a few quite modern 
artists, such as Matisse and perhaps .Aiodigliani, 
have recovered such a power, but in the great 
mass of post Renaissance drawing the art ot the 
pure contour in line has broken down, and the 
essential qualities even of the great linealists are 
only to be seen fully in their paintings ; the 
drawn line itself has had to take on other 

MEMORIES OF DEGAS (conclusion) 

ROM the quotations scattered in the forc- 
I going paragraphs the reader has probably 
gathered tliat Degas is not deficient in verbal 
wit. Mr. Whistler has in tliis line some 
jrcpatation, but in sarcasm he is to Uegas 
' what Theodore Hook was to Swift, and when 
Degas is present Mr. Whistler's conversation is dis- 
tinguished by " brilliant flushes of silence ". Speaking of 
him one day, Degas said, "Out, il est venu me voir". 
" Well, what did he s-ay to you ? " " Kien, il a f.iit quelqucs 
coups de meche, voila tout ". One day, in the Nouvelle 
Athenes, a young man spoke to him of how well Manet 
knew how to take criticism. "Oui, oui, Manet est tres 
Farisien, il comprend la plaisanterie " (" Yes, Manet is a 
true Parisian, he knows how to lake a joke"). Speaking 
of Besnard's plagiarisms, " Oui. oui, Wvoe avec nospropres 
files''. Speaking of B.istien-Lep.ige's picture, La raolte 
dc> pommcs ile t^rres, " C'est le Bouguercau du niouvement 
moderne " ; and of Roll's picture of Work, " II y a ciuquanle 
figures, mais je ne vois pas la foulc ; on fait une fouie avec 
cinq ct non pas avec cinquante" ("There are lift)' liQures, 
but I sec no crowd ; you can make a crowd with five 
figures, not with fifty "). At a dinner at Bougival he said, 
looking at some large trees masked in shadow, "llow 
beautiful they would be if Corot had painted them ! " And 
speaking of Besnard's effort to attain lightness of treat- 
ment, he said, " C'est un homme qui veui danser avec des 
semelles de plomb"C'He is a man who tries to dance 
with leaden soles"). 

Of Degas's family history it is difficult to obtain any 
information. Degas is the last person of whom inquiry 
could be made. He would at once smell an article, and lie 
nips such projects as a terrier nips rats. Tlie unfortunate 
interlocutor would meet with tliis answ- r, " I didn't know 
that you were a reporter in disguise ; if I had, I shouldn't 
have received you ". It is rumoured, however, that he is a 
man of some private fortune, and a story is in circulation 

that he sacrificed the greater part of his income to save 
his brother, who had lost everything by imprudent specu- 
lation in .-\mcrican securities. But what concerns us is his 
artistic not his family history. 

Degas was a pupil of Ingres, and any mention of this 
always pleases him, for he looks upon Ingres as the first 
star in the firmament of French art. And, indeed. Degas 
is the only one who ever reflected, even dimly, anj'thing of 
the genius of the great master. Tlic likeness to Ingres 
whicti some affect to see in l^'landrin's work is entirely 
superficial, but in the Scmifamis Duildiitg the Walls of 
Babylon and in the Sparlaii Yoiillis there is a strange fair 
likeness to the master, mixed with another beauty, still 
latent, but ready for afllorescencc, even as the beauty of 
the mother floats evanescent upon the face of the daughter 
hardly pubescent yet. But if Degas took from Ingres that 
method of drawing which may be defined as drawing by 
the character in contradistinction to that of drawing by the 
masses, he applied the method dii'f i;rent!y and developed it 
in a dilfcrent direction. Degas bears the same relation to 
Ingres as Bret Harte does to Dickens. In Bret Harte and 
in Dickens the method is obviously the same when you go 
to its root, but the subject-matter is so different that ttic 
method is in all outward characteristics transformed, and 
no complaint of want of originality of treatment is for a 
moment tenable. So it is_ with Degas; at the root his 
drawing is as classical as Ingres's, but by changing the 
subject-matter from antiquity to the boards of the opera- 
house, and taking curiosity for leading characteristic, he 
has created an art cognate and co-equal with Goncourt's, 
rising sometimes to the height of a page by Balzac. Witli 
marvellous perception he follows every curve and charac- 
teristic irregularity, writing the very soul of his model upon 
his canvas. He will paint portraits only of those whom he 
knows intimately, for it is part of his method only to pamt 
his sitter in that environment which is habitual to her or 
him. With stagey curtains, balustrades, and conventional 


Memories of Degas 

poses, he will have nothing to do. He will watch the 
bitter until he learns all her or his tricks of expression and 
movement, and then will reproduce all of them and with 
such exactitude and sympatlietic insight that the very 
inner life of the man is laid bare. Mr. Whistler, whose 
short-sightedness allows him to see none of these beauties 
in nature, has declared that all such excellencies are literary 
and not pictorial, and the fact that he was born in Baltimore 
has led him to contradict all that the natural sciences have 
said on racial tendencies and hereditary faculties. But 
there are some who still believe that the Ten o Clock has 
not altogether overthrown science and history, and covered 
with ridicule all art that does not limit itself to a harmony 
in a couple of tints. And that Degas may render more 
fervidly all the characteristics that race, heredity and mode 
of life have endowed his sitter with, he makes numerous 
drawings and paints from them ; but he never paints 
direct from life. And as he sought new subject-matter, he 
sought for new means by which he might reproduce his 
subject in an original and novel manner. At one time he 
renounced oil painting entirely, and would only work in 
pastel or distemper. Then, again, it was water-colour 
painting, and sometimes in the same picture he would 
abandon one mediu.n for another. There are examples 
extant of pictures begun in water colour, continued in 
gouache, and afterwards completed in oils ; and if the 
picture be examined carefully it will be found that the 
finishing hand has been given with pen and ink. Degas 
has worked upon his lithographs, introducing a number of 
new figures into the picture by means of pastel. He has 
done beautiful sculpture, but not content with taking a 
ballet-girl for subject, has declined to model the skirt, and 
had one made by the nearest milliner. In all dangerous 
ways and perilous straits he has sought to shipwreck his 
genius ; but genius knows no shipwreck, and triumphs in 
spite of obstacles. \ot even Wagner has tested more 
thoroughly than Degas the invincibility of genius. 

If led to speak on the marvellous personality of his art. 
Degas will say, "It is strange, for I assure you no art was 
ever less spontaneous than mine. What I do is the result 
of reflection and study of the great masters ; of inspira- 
tion, spontaneity, temperament — temperament is the word 
— I know nothing. When people talk about temperament 
it always seems to mc like the strong man in the fair, who 
straddles his legs and asks someone to step up on the palm 
of his hand ''. Again, in reply to an assurance that he of 
all men now working, whether with pen or pencil, is surest 
of the future, he will say, "It is very difficult to be great 
as the old masters were great. In the great ages you were 
great or you did not exist at all, but in these days every- 
thing conspires to support the feeble ". 

Artists will understand the almost superhuman genius it 
recjuires to take subject-matter that has never received 
artistic treatment before, and bring it at once within the 
sacred pale. Baudelaire was the only poet who ever did 
this ; Degas is the only painter. Of all impossible tilings 
in this world to treat artistically the ballet-girl seemed the 
most impossilile, but Degas accomplished that feat. He 
has done so many dancers and so often repeated himself 
that it is diflicult to specify any particular one. But one 
picture rises up in my mind— perliaps it is the finest of all. 
It represents two girls practising at the rail ; one is strain- 
ing forward, lifting her leg into tortuous position — her 
back is turned, and the miraculous drawing of that bent 
back ! The other is seen in prohle — the pose is probably 
less arduous, and she stands, not ungracefully, her left leg 
thrown behind her, resting upon the rail. The arrange- 
ment of the picture is most unacademical ; tlic figures are 
half-way up the canvas, and the great space of bare floor 
is balanced by the watering-pot. This picture is probably 
an early one. It was natural to begin with dancers at rest ; 
those wild flights of dancers— the premiere danseusc 
springing amid the coryphees down to the footlights, her 
thin arms raised, the vivid glare of the limelight revealing 


every characteristic contour of face and neck — must have 
been a la'er development. The philosophy of this art is 
in Dsgas's own words, " La danscuse n'est qu'un pretexte 
pour le dessin". Dancers fiy out of the picture, a single 
leg crosses the foreground. The premiere danseuse 
stands on tiptoe, supported by the coryphees, or she rests 
on one knee, the light upon her bosom, her arms leaned 
back, the curtain all the while falling. As he has done with 
the ballet, so lie has done with the race-course. A race- 
horse walks past a white post which cuts his head in taain. 

The violation of all the principles of composition is the 
work of the first fool that chooses to make the c:iricature 
of art his career, but, like Wagner, Degas is poss-ssed of 
such intuitive knowledge of the qualities inherent in the 
various elements that nature presents that he is enabled, 
after having disintegrated, to re-integrate them, and with 
surety of ever finding a new and more elegant synthesis. 
After the dancers came the washerwoman. It is one thing 
to paint washerwomen amid decorative shadows, as Teniers 
would have done, and another thing to draw washerwomen 
yawning over the ironing-table in sharp outline upon a 
dark background. But perhaps the most astonishing revo- 
lution of all vVas the introduction of the shop-window into 
art. Think of a large plate-glass window, full of bonnets, 
a girl leaning forward to gather one ! Think of the 
monstrous and wholly unbearable thing any other painter 
would have contrived from such a subject ; and then 
imagine a dim, strange picture, the subject of which is 
hardly at first clear ; a strangely contrived composition, 
full of the dim, sweet, sad poetry of female work. For are 
not those bonnets the signs and symbols of long hours of 
weariness and dejection ? and the woman that gathers 
them, iron-handed fashion has moulded and set her seal 
upon. See the fat woman trying on the bonnet before the 
pier-glass, the shop women around her. How the lives of 
those poor women are epitomized and depicted in a 
gesture ! Years of servility and obeisance to customers, all 
the life of the fashionable woman's shop is there. Degas 
says, " Les artistes sont tellement presses \ ct que nous 
faisons bien notre affaire avec les clioses qu'ils ont 
oubliees" ("Artists are always in sucli a hurry, and we 
find all that we want in what they have left behind "). 

But perhaps the most astonishing of all Degas's innova- 
tions are his studies of the nude. Tlic nude has become 
wcU-nigh incapable of artistic treatment. Even the more 
naive arc beginning to see that the well-known nymph 
exhibiting her beauty by the borders of a stream can be 
endured no longer. Let the artist strive as he will, he will 
not escape the conventional ; he is running an impossible 
race. Broad harmonies of colour are hardly to be thought 
of ; the gracious mystery of human emotion is out of all 
question — he must rely on whatever measure of elegant 
drawing he can include in his delineation of arms, neck, 
and thigh ; and who in sheer beauty has a new word to 
say ? Since Gainsborough and Ingres, all have failed to 
infuse new life into the worn-out theme. But cynicism 
was the great means of eloquence of the Middle .\ges; and 
with cynicism Degas has again rendered the nude an 
artistic possibility. Three coarse women, middle-aged 
and deformed by toil, are perhaps the most wonderful. 
One sponges herself in a tin bath ; another passes a rougli 
nightdress over her lumpj' shoulders, and the touching 
ugliness of this poor human creature goes straight to the 
heart. Then follows a long series conceived in the same 
spirit. A woman who has stepped out of a bath examines 
her arm. Degas says, '• La bete humaine qui s'occupc 
d'elle-niemc ; une chatte qui sc leche ". Yes, it is the 
portrayal of the animal-life of the human being, the animal 
conscious of nothing but itself. "Hitherto", Degas says, 
as he shows his visitor three large peasant women plunging 
into a river, not to bathe, but to wash or cool themselves 
(one drags a dog in after her), " the nude has always been 
represented in poses which presuppose an audience, but 
these women of mine are honest, simple folk, unconcerned 

Memories of Degas 

by any other interests than those involved in their physical 
condition. Here is another ; she is washing her feet. It 
is as if you looked through a keyhole ". 

But the reader will probably be glad to hear of the 
pictures which the most completely represent tlie talent of 
the man. Degas might allow the word "represent" to 
pass, he certainly would object to the word " epitomise ", 
for, as we have seen, one of his restheticisms is that the 
artist should not attempt any concentrated expression of 
his talent, but should persistently reiterate his thought 
twenty, fifty, yes, a hundred different views of the same 
phase of life. Speaking of Zola, who holds an exactly 
opposite theory, Degas savs : " II me fait I'effet d'un geant 
qui travaille le Bottin ". But no man's work is in exact 
accord with his theory, and the height and depth of Degas's 
talent is seen very well in the I.ei;on de Danse, in M. Faure's 
collection, and perhaps still better in the Leion de Danse in 
M. Blanche's collection. In tlie latter picture a spiral 
staircase ascends through the room, cutting the picture at 
about two-thirds of its length. In the small space on the 
left, dancers are seen descending from the dressing-rooms, 
their legs and only their legs seen between the slender 
banisters. On the right, dancers advance in line, balancing 
themselves, their thin arms outstretched, the dancing- 
master standing high up in the picture by the furthest 
window. Through the cheap tawdry lace curtains a mean 
dusty daylight flows, neutralizing the whiteness of the skirts 
and the brightness of the hose. It is the very atmosphere 
of the opera. The artificial life of the dancing-class on a 
dull afternoon. On the right, in the foreground, a group 
of dancers balances the composition. A dancer sits on a 
straw chair, her feet turned out, her shoulders covered by 
a green shawl ; and by her, a little behind her, stands an 
old woman settling her daughter's sash. 

In this picture there is a certain analogy between Degas 
and Watteau, the grace and lightness and air of fete remind 
us of Watteau, the exquisite care displayed in the execu- 
tion reminds us of the Dutchmen. But if Degas resembles 
Watteau in his earlier pictures of the dancing-classes at 
the opera he recalls the manner and the genius of Holbein 
in his portraits, and nowhere more strikingly than in his 
portrait of his father listening to Pagano the celebrated 
Italian singer and guitarist. The musician sits in the 
foreground singing out of the picture. Upon the black 
clothes the yellow instrument is drawn sharply. The square 
jaws, the prominent nostrils, the large eyes, in a word, all 
the racial characteristics of the southern singer, are set 
down with that incisive, that merciless force which is 
Holbein. The execution is neither light nor free ; it is, 
however, in exact harmony with the intention, and inten- 
tion and execution are hard, dry, complete. At the back 
(he old melomaniac sits on the piano-stool, his elbow on 
his knee, his chin on his hand, the eyelid sinks on the eye, 


'HE 14th century is notable in the 
history of enameUing for the develop- 
ment of what is perhaps the most 
beautiful of all the processes of that 
art. Known by the French names of 
" basse-taille " or "translucide sur relief", and the 
English equivalent of translucent enamelling on 
relief, the method consists in first modelling the 
decoration in low relief in the metal plaque with 
graving tools, then filling up and covering the 
surface so worked with translucent enamels of the 

the mouth is slightly open. Is he not drinking the old 
Italian air even as a flower drinks the dew ? 

Another great portrait is Degas' portrait of Manet, but 
so entirely unlike is it to any other man's art that it would 
be vain to attempt any description of it. It shows Manet 
thrown on a white sofa in an attitude strangely habitual to 
him. Those who knew Manet well cannot look without 
pain upon this picture ; it is something more than a like- 
ness, it is as if you saw the man's ghost. Other portraits 
remind you of certain Spanish painters, the portrait of 
Mile. Malot for instance ; and in his studies of the nude 
there is a frankness which seems borrowed from the earlier 
Italians. Degas' art is as he says himself based upon a 
profound knowledge of the great masters. He has under- 
stood them as none but a great painter could understand 
them, and according to therequirements of thesubject in hand 
he has taken from them all something of their technique. 

The following anecdote will give an idea of Degas' love 
of the great masters. In 1840, Degas set up his easel in the 
Louvre and spent a year copying Poussin's linpe of tlie 
Sabiiies. The copy is as fine as the original. 

Degas now occupies the most enviable position an artist 
can attain. He is always the theme ol conversation when 
artists meet, and if the highest honour is to obtain the 
admiration of your fellow-workers, that honour has been 
bestowed on Degas as it has been bestowed upon none 
other. His pictures are bought principally by artists, and 
when not by them by their immediate entourage. So it was 
before with Courbet, Millet, and Corot ; and so all artists 
and connoisseurs believe it will be with Degas. Within 
the last few years his prices have gone up fifty per cent. ; 
ten years hence they will have gone up a hundred per 
cent., and that is as certain as that the sun will rise to- 
morrow. That any work of his will be sold for twenty 
thousand pounds is not probable ; the downcast eye full of 
bashful sentiment so popular with the uneducated does 
not exist in Degas ; but it is certain that young artists of 
to-day value his work far higher than Millet's. He is, in 
truth, their god, and his influence is visible in a great deal 
of the work here and in France that strives to be most 
modern. But it must be admitted that the infl lence is a 
pernicious one. Some have calumniated Degas' art 
flagrantly and abominably, dragging his genius through 
every gutter, over every dunghill of low commonplace ; 
others have tried to assimilate it honourably and reveren- 
tially, but without much success. True genius has no 
inheritors. Tennyson's parable of the gardener who once 
owned a unique flower, the like of which did not exist upon 
earth, until the wind carried the seeds far and wide, does 
not hold good in the instance of Degas. The winds, it is 
true, have carried the seeds into other gardens, but none 
has flourished except in native soil, and the best result 
the thieves have obtained is a scanty hybrid blossom 
devoid alike of scent and hue. 

desired colours, and finally grinding and polishing 
them to a fiat surface. The varying depth of 
enamel lying in the hollows of the modelled sur- 
face of the metal (generally silver but sometimes 
gold) produces a variety of tone by which the most 
delicate effects of light and shade may be expressed, 
and the goldsmith's art is provided with a medium 
for the rendering of form and colour far more 
subtle and refined than the earlier cloisonne and 
champlev6 methods afforded. 

The most complete examples of translucent 


The Rekhenau Qrosier 

enamels are obviously those, like the subject of 
this article, in which enamelling is applied to both 
subject and ground. But in many instances, and 
even in some of the finest, such as the gold St. 
Agnes Cup in the British Museum,' only the sub- 
jects are enamelled, the ground being left in metal 
and sometimes treated with engraving. In others 
again the process is reversed, and the figures or 
other subjects of decoration are reserved in the 
metal and simply engraved, while the surrounding 
ground is enamelled. The latter may be " powd- 
ered " with flowers reserved in the metal,= or more 
usually are enriched with an engraved pattern to 
show through the translucent colours. This 
effect was anticipated by the Anglo-Saxon and 
other Teutonic goldsmiths beneath their garnet 
and glass inlays, and actually in enamel work by 
the goldsmiths of the Carolingian period in such 
examples of cloisonne enamelling as the Milan 
altar-covering, where the metal base is worked with 
engraving (giiillochc).' Sometimes, however, even 
this enrichment is omitted from translucent 
enamelling of the 14th century, and nothing 
further is aimed at than a pleasing play of light 
due to the irregularities of the chiselled surface 
seen through the enamel. These plain grounds 
are often found in Italian examples, more north- 
erly craftsmen preferring the diapered grounds 
probably suggested by the quarries of Gothic 
stained glass windows. 

The main varieties described may be regarded 
as belonging to different stages of development. 
The earlier stage is represented by those pieces 
in which only the ground is enamelled, a method 
in direct sequence from the practice of opaque 
champlev6 enamelling on copper.'' The full 
development is seen in the enamelling of both 
ground and subject, and a later stage is some- 
times considered to have been reached where the 
enamelling is restricted to the subject, leaving the 
ground in metal. But these distinctions must 
not be too rigidly applied. Finally, it should 
be remarked that work in which modelling of 
the surface to be enamelled plays Ino part, even 
though executed with translucent colours on silver 
or gold, cannot properly claim the term of basse- 
taillc or enamelling on relief, but is technically no 
more than a variety of champleve enamelling. 
And it is precisely from this variety of work that 
translucent enamelling on relief, as might be ex- 
pected, seems to have been developed. It may 
be added that, after having run its course in the 
14th and 15th centuries, it was to this, differently 
applied, that it returned in the i6th and ijth.^ 

' Described by Sir C. H. Read, and reproduced in colour in 
Vetusta Moniimcnta, vii, 1904- 

' As in the plaques on the base of the Jeanne d'Evreux Viigiii 
in the Louvre (Lahartc, Hist, cles Arts Iiidiislrnis, Album, II, 
pi. cxn), where, as is usual, the engraved lines of the inner 
drawing of the figures are emphasized with enamel tilling. 

' Molinier, VEmnilleric, p. 65. 

* Molinier, op. cit., p. 201. 


That the method did not arise suddenly and 
without a long course of development is natural 
and obvious. Translucent colours had, of course, 
been in use for centuries in cloisonnd enamelling, 
usually on gold, but that process had very 
generally given place to champleve enamelling in 
opaque colours on copper before the appearance 
of translucent enamelling on relief. Yet here 
and there, even as early as the 12th century, 
isolated examples of translucent enamelling in 
the champlev6 method are met with. A small 
casket of this date in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is enamelled on copper with medallions 
in which the ground is alternately of a sapphire 
blue and a rich green, both perfectly translucent. 
The well known pair of semicircular plaques of 
the 12th century with the figure of Bishop Henry 
of Blois, in the British Museum,'^ include among 
their colours a semi-translucent crimson purple. 
Certain Limoges enamels of the following century, 
such as a reliquary in the Salting Collection at 
South Kensington," and another belonging to 
Shipley Church, Sussex,* at present lent to the 
same Museum, have details in a beautiful trans- 
lucent enamel varying from dark indigo to a 
bluish grey. A semi-translucent brownish purple 
is also found in Limoges work o( the same class. 
These, however, are all on copper. 

It is in the opening years of the 13th cen- 
tury (1205) that we meet with a real advance 
towards the practice of translucent enamelling on 
silver, in the Shrine of Notre-Dame at Tournay, 
the latest recorded work of Nicholas of Verdun. 
Here the panels of foliage and symbols of the 
evangelists are executed on silver with grounds of 
blue and slightly translucent green enameP — a 
highly significant innovation at the close of its 
author's career, definitely foreshadowing the prac- 
tice which was destined to supplant the method of 
opaque champlev6 enamelling on copper of which 
he had been so great a master." 

During the latter part of the 13th century the 
method of translucent enamelling on silver was 
in practice at any rate in Italy," and during the 
14th century it may be said to have been in 

' A notable Italian example of the i6th century is the altar- 
cross attributed to Valerio Belli, at South Kensington. {Tlie 
Biiiiiiigt'jii Afngiiziiie, IX, pl^lc at p. 1:29.) The Gemmingen Cup, 
a gold covered beaker in the Pierpont Morgan collection, is a 
dated (161 o) German specimen of the following century. (G. C. 
Williamson, Catalogue of the . • . Jewels, etc., 1910, pi. lv.) 

'' A. W. Franks in Arclictological Journal, X, 1853, p. 9. 

' From the Heckscher Collection, Sale Catalogue, 1898, lot 
182, plate. 

* Col. engr. in E. Cartwright, The Parochial Topography of the 
Rape of Bramber, 1830, p. 304. 

" See Cloquet in Revue cte I' Art Chretien, XLII, 1892, p. 308, 
col. pi. vni-x. 

'" In a small detail of the same work, the clasp of the Virgin's 
girdle, both green and blue translucent enamels are used, an 
experiment suggested, in Cloquet's opinion, by a small medal- 
lion of Byzantine cloisonne enamel applied as a brooch on the 
breast of the figure. Ibnl., p. 325, pi. vill. 

" Fnr examples see I.abarlc, Hist, ihs Arts Iiuluslrich, iv, 
pp. II ff. 






general use throughout western Europe. Where- 
ever goldsmiths of sufficient skill were at work at 
this period, there no doubt the current method 
of imparting colour effect to their work was in use. 
The opinion formerly in vogue that its practice 
was restricted to particular centres 'S no longer 
tenable. A melancholy result of such an opinion 
was the fictitious importance given to Montpellier 
by antiquaries of the last century, since shown to 
rest on the misreading of a single word in an in- 
scription.''^ And an excessive, though less un- 
deserved, prominence has in recent years been 
given to Siena, enamels of this class, not always 
even of Italian origin, having been described in- 
discriminately as Sienese. It is true that the 
eminence of Sienese goldsmiths in such work is 
established both by examples of the most important 
kind and by documents." But there is plenty of 
evidence also to prove that they enjoyed no 
monopoly in this direction." 

Equally unsound appears to be the view of 
those writers who would seem to exclude England 
from the general artistic activity of western 
Europe in regard to enamelling in the Middle 
Ages, or who at least demand evidence in support 
of the English origin of historical pieces in 
England which they would hardly think necessary 
for such pieces in another country. Even disre- 
garding the inherent improbability of such an ex- 
clusion of England, a country which excelled 
generally in the arts of the period, the more closely 
the facts are studied the more they are found to 
establish the contrary of such a theory. The 
attribution to Italy of such a piece of work as the 
Wykeham crosier,'^ appears to me not only to set 
aside probabilities of the strongest kind, but to 
ignore the characteristic quality and definitely 
English features of the work. And the same 
statement holds good of the suggestion of a foreign 
origin for such examples as the Lynn Cup'^ and 
the Bruce Horn." Yet the English origin of 
these examples is sometimes either discredited or 
put forward as hardly credible." 

'- Moliiiier, I'Emaillcrk, p. 203 ; VOrfeveiie, p. 212. 

1' Labarte, I.e. 

" In the sale catalogue of one of the principal collections of 
medieval art sold in recent years a reliquary decorated with 
translucent enamel was duly described as Sienese, in deference 
to the prevailing fashion, in spite of its strongly marked Spanish 
character and a Spanish hall-mark. Enough Spanish examples 
of translucent enamelling exist to make such an attribution 

" See below. Photogravures with a paper by Sir \V. H. St. John 
Hope in Archwologia, LX, pi. XLV, XLVI ; also in C. J. Jackson, 
History of English Plate, I, pi. at pp. 114, iiS. 

'^ Photogravure in Jackson, op. cil., pi. at p. 112; col. engr. 
in Shaw and Meyrick, Specimens of Ancient Furniture, pl.LXVli. 

" Engraved with details in Archcrlogia, HI, 1786, pi. vi ; see 
also A. W. Franks, Vitreous Art (in J. B. Waring's A ;-, Treasures 
of the U.K., 1858), pp. 27, 28 ; Jackson, op. cit., 11, figs. 811-817. 

'* Even by Mr. Dalton in the Introduction to his Catalogue of 
the McClean Bequest, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, which 
contains the best historical sketch of enamelling yet written in 

T^e Reichenau Qrosier 

Most of the chief monuments of this branch of 
enamelling have been published more or less 
adequately, many of them long since, and the sub- 
ject of this article is no exception. But it seems 
to deserve further publication both to elucidate 
its history and also to give the advantage of photo- 
graphic illustration to what is the most important 
example of this branch of the art in the national 
collection at South Kensington." 

It appears to have been first published by Cahier,-" 
.who gives a rather inadequate wood-cut of it and 
discusses the first part of the inscription which it 
bears. A closer examination would have doubt- 
less enabled him to see that this " defaced inscrip- 
tion " {inscription friiste) is only partially disfigured 
and is still quite legible, even in the last hne. 
Labarte*' describes and illustrates it in a coloured 
plate, and with him the statement of its having 
belonged to an abbot of Basle appears to have 
originated. It figured as lot 199 in the Soltykoff 
Sale Catalogue.^^ More recently it has attracted 
the attention of Dr. v. Falke" who refers to it as 
" der Baseler Bischofstab," no doubt on the 
strength of Labarte's indication. Finally Liier and 
Creutz in their history of metalwork** add particu- 
larity to the identification of locality by speaking 
of it as having come from the cathedral treasure 
of Basle. There is, however, no mention of such 
a crosier in the Basle treasure, either in the inven- 
tory of 151T, or in that made in 1835 shortly 
before its dispersal."^ It may now be stated that the 
association of the crosier with an abbot of Basle 
appears to rest upon nothing but a misapprehension, 
possibly due to a misreading of the inscription. 

The crosier-head (the staff is lost) is made of 
copper gilt, the flat surfaces set with plates of 
silver engraved and enamelled in translucent 
colours — blue of two shades, green, purple, crim- 
son, and brown, with touches of opaque "sealing- 
wax " scarlet.-^ As may be seen from the illustration 
[Plate I] the six-sided shaft, with moulded base 

'^ The plaque of the Virgin and Child in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, No. 224 — 1874, illustrated and described in 
enthusiastic terms by Schniitgen (Zeitschr.fiir christl. Kunst,\u, 
1894), and also figured by v. Falke and Frauberger (Deutsche 
Schmelzarbeiten des Uittclalters, fig. 50) and styled by them 
" das grossziigigste Beispiel des gotischen Reliefemails ", might 
be considered to occupy this position, but it appears to me to be 
one of the remarkable forgeries executed sixty years ago by 
Gabriel Hermeling of Cologne. The enamels of two triptychs 
by this modern master in the same Museum (Xos. 4684-1S59 
and 7148-1860), both based on the Woiff-Metternich shrine 
formerly at Gracht (v. Falke p. 120, pi. 113), and more recently 
in the Pierpont Morgan collection at New York, are proof of his 
skill in this class of work. They were first exposed in a com- 
munication by Dr. F. Bock. 

™ Melanges d'Archcologie, IV, 1856, p. 240. 

^' Histoire des Arts Industriels, 1864, Album, I, pi. 51. 

^ Paris, i86r. " Tres-bel ouvrage de la Suisse allemande ". 

^' Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten, pp. 120, 121. 

'"■ Gesckichte der Metallkunst, u, 238. 

^ Both printed by C. Burckhardt in Mitthcil. der Gesellschaft 
fiir vatcrl. Alterth., ix, x, 1862-7. 

** Total height 20J inches (52 cm.). No. 7950—1862 in the 
Museum register. 


The Reichenau Qrosier 

at the junction with the staff, carries a knop of 
architectural form with six faces, each surmounted 
by a gabled canopy between pinnacled buttresses. 
F"rom the top of this rises the crook, outlined by 
crockets on the outer ridge and supported on the 
inner side by an angel's figure (the wings losi) 
with a kneeling monk below. In the crook a 
mitred abbot kneels before the Virgin and Child. 
Such a disposition of figures in the design is by 
no means unusual in crosiers of this period. 
Following on a remark by Cahier," attention has 
been drawn to the similarity of examples so 
widely separated as those at Cologne, at Citta di 
Castello, William of Wykeham's at Oxford, and 
the present specimen, and it has been suggested 
that all of them must have emanated from the 
same country, Italy.^ But the most characteristic 
feature, the angel supporting the crook, is found 
not only in goldsmiths' work, but also in French 
crosiers in ivory of the same date. Moreover, in 
spite of their general similarity, when the drawing 
and design of their enamels are closely compared 
it becomes apparent that these are widely different 
in style, reflecting the national characteristics of 
the art of their several countries. It seems more 
satisfactory, therefore, to regard the type as one 
common to Western Europe in the 14th century, 
a product of Gothic art everywhere.-' 

From the enameller's point of view the knop 
is the centre of interest. The six faces are 
occupied by figure-subjects engraved in low 
relief and richly enamelled in translucent colours, 
admirable examples of the basse-taille method. 
The faces and hands and certain details are, 
however, reserved in the metal and their en- 
graved lines simply filled in with enamel. The 
figures, placed each under a cusped arch on 
a ground of rich blue showing an engraved 
diaper through, irresistibly recall similar designs 
in the stained glass of the 14th century. The 
drawing of the robes is full of beauty and the 
colours are pure and brilliant. They represent : — 
the Virgin and Child enthroned, the Three Magi 
with their gifts, S. Mary Magdalen with the pot 
of ointment, and a bishop wearing chasuble and 
mitre and holding his crosier as he gives the 
benediction [Plate II]. The knop is finished 
above and below by bevelled surfaces enamelled 
respectively with finials on a " masoned " ground 
and with a series of wreaths reserved in silver on 
grounds of blue and green counterchanged. 

The history of this excellent piece of work is 

"" Lot. cit. 

" See the excellent sketch of the subject byj. J. Marqutt de 
Vassclotin Michel's Histoiie de I'Art, u, p. 986. 

^ For the W'ykcham crosier see above, Xote 15. The Cologne 
example is fifjured in Lindner, Dcr Dom zii Kiilii, pi. 45 ; that at 
Citta di Castello in Erculti, Ouficcrie etc . . . in Oivicto, 
1898, pi. T,. The inscription on the one which is the subject 
of this article exhibits a peculiarity of lettering in the As which 
might provide evidence of locality. 


given by the inscription engraved on a silver ring, 
originally enamelled, which encircles the base of 
the shaft. [Plate II, from a rubbing. The last 
line is a good deal defaced and does not come out 
clearly.] It reads : — •A-DMCCC-L-rFCVs-EBAC 
ls-lste/ » dno-eb'-d''bradis-abbe-non-psidnte/- 

i.e. Anno douiini MCCCLi fachis est baculns isie 
domino EbcrJiardo dc Brandis abbalc non prctsi- 
dcnte domino Xicholao dc Gntcnbcig tlicsnurario 
ibidem Augia Majorcpei convenlnm (or capitnlnm). 
From this it appears that the crosier was made 
by order of the convent (or chapter) in 135 1, 
when Everard von Brandis was non-resident 
abbot'" and Nicholas von Guttenberg treasurer 
at Augia Major, i.e. Reichenau. 

The Benedictme abbey of Reichenau, known 
both as Augia Major and Augia Dives, situated on 
an island in the lower portion (Untersee) of Lake 
Constance, was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
and SS. Peter and Paul. Its first abbot St. 
Pirminius (724-727), bishop "in Meltis", was held 
in high and deserved veneration there. From 
the 9th to the nth century it was the scene of a 
splendid intellectual and artistic activity, famous 
for its schools of miniature-painting and gold- 
smiths' work, for its scholarship, music, and wall- 
paintings, and of such wealth as to acquire the 
name of Augia Dives, the rich islet, Reichenau.^' 
But a long course of prosperity and honour seem 
to have led to a not unfamiliar result. The reign 
of a great building abbot, Diethelm von Casteln 
(1306-1343), followed by that of another who at 
the least may be described as recklessly imprudent, 
Eberhard von Brandis (1343-1379), brought the 
fortunes of the house to the ground."- In the 

^ Cahier says " qui ne residait pas ", I.e. 

"' A notice of the abbey and its remains is printed in F. X. 
Kraus, Ktmstdciikmiller dcs Grosshcrzogthnins Baden, 18S7, i, 
pp. 325 ff. A popular account will be found in Westermanns 
Monahhefte, cii, 1907, p. 476. The documentary history is dealt 
with bv K. Brandi, Qiiellen tind FoiscliiDigen ziir Gcscliiclilc dcr 
Abtci Rciclicnan. 1890-3. The goldsmiths' work is treated by 
Liier und Creutz, Gescliichle der Mctnllkunsl, 11, pp. 116 ff. 
Drawings of some of the works still in the treasure of the abbey- 
church are to be found in J. Marmor, Kuizer Gcschichte der 
Knchlichen Baiiien und deien K'nnslsclultze aiif der Insel 
Reiclienan, 1873. A critical examination of them, with views 
from photographs, is given by J. ]. Marquet de Vasselot in 
Revue .ircUcologiquc, 1901 . 

^- The motives which may be assumed to have prompted 
Abbot Eberhard to destroy the legal documents (Riidel und 
Salhiidter. deeds and registers of rents or dues) of the abbey 
fully justify the terms in which the chronicler Oheim denounces 
him. (See Brandi, p. 127.) A few years later Abbot Wernher 
von Kosneg (1385-1402) was reduced to such poverty tliat he 
could no longer maintain a table for himself, but daily repaired 
for meals to the priest of Niederzcll. Before the end of tlie 
century we catch sight of tlie same unfortunate abbot detected 
in an attempt to raise funds by the sale of some of the 
treasures of the monasleiy, and especially the shrine of 
S. Mark, to the Venetians. Under Friedrich von Wartcnberg 
(abbot 1427-1453) the fortunes of the house revived for a time, 
but a century later it ceased to be an independent abbey and 
was incorporated in the sec of Constance under tlie admini- 
stration of a prior. 

latter's time the name of Niclaus von Guttenberg 
appears as " custor " (ctistos, treasurer). 

This history elucidates the significance of the 
subjects and the identity of the persons represented 
on the crosier. The Virgin enthroned with the 
holy child finds her place on the enamels of the 
knop as patroness of the abbey. Mary Magdalen 
and the Magi, with their costly gifts, may perhaps 
stand as examples to the convent, which thought 
fit to endow their house with such an ornament as 
the crosier. The prelate who stands giving the 
blessing can hardly be any but Pirminius, the 
venerated missionary bishop and first abbot of 
the house. The abbot kneeling before the Virgin 
and Child in the crook is the unworthy Everard 
von Brandis, and the monk below must be the 
treasurer Nicholas von Guttenberg. 

Such is the crosier of Reichenau, an admirable 
piece of Gothic art and an important dated ex- 
ample of translucent enamelling. 

As regards the locality of its production it is 
impossible to be precise. At that date (1351) it 
must not be regarded as the work of a monastic 
craftsman, though there seems no reason why it 
should not have been made by a goldsmith of 

MATTHEW MARIS (conclusion) 

ATTHEW MARIS left his birth- 
place definitively in 1869 and went 
to Paris. Soon after his arrival 
I there he met a young countryman, 
.then being trained for the art trade, 
the late Mr. E. J. van Wisselingh, whose subse- 
quent vole as a promoter of modern Dutch and 
French painting can hardly be overrated. The 
friendship then developed between them, and so 
whole-heartedly continued by Van Wisselingh's 
widow until the artist's very last hour, meant more 
for him than a comfort and a moral support 
throughout the trials of his long life. 

Matthew Maris was thirty when he settled in 
Paris. He had then attained his full maturity, and 
during the next few years produced the paintings 
which are now most generally admired and eagerly 
searched for. And whatever our final opinion 
may be on these works as compared to those of 
later years, it can hardly be disputed that he 
realised here a harmony, an equilibrium between 
substance and spirit, such as he did not always 
maintain in a later stage. He seems, at that time, 
to liave been absorbed in compositions telling 
some fairy tale, with a single figure, mostly a girl, 
in an attire and a decor where mediaeval reminis- 
cences are still alive. We can imagine, to some 
extent that these subjects irritated the master in 
his later years. They reminded him of his days 
of darkest distress, when he painted them for a 

The Reichenau Qrosier 

Augsburg, or another of the famous centres of 
South German craftsmanship, lodged in the 
monastery for the purpose of supervision. Dr. v. 
Falke, accepting its supposed Basle origin, uses 
it to support the argument for a Basle school of 
translucent enamelling, but that provenance is now 
seen to be fallacious. The facial types of the 
enamels have some affinity with those of the 
Wolff-Metternich shrine from Gracht'" of which 
unfortunately the early history appears to be un- 
known. But the grouping and determination of 
locality of examples of translucent enamelling on 
the basis of style is a problem which has not yet 
been taken in hand. It is, however, an under- 
taking which the publication of photographic 
representations of leading examples will make 
possible at no distant date, and to this the present 
study may be regarded as a contribution. 

'•* See Note 19. Reichenau was in the diocese of Constance, 
and it would be tempting to see a Hkeness between the enamels 
of the crosier and those of the 14th-century chalice in the Signia- 
ringen Museum, which has a history of possession by a bishop of 
Constance as early as the 17th century (v. Falke, p. 120, 
pl. Ill, 112 ; iinely rendered in colours in Hefner-Alteneck, 
Die Kiiiist-Kaiiiiiicr . . . tics Fursten C. A. van Hohenzollcrn- 
Sigiiiaritigcii, pl. i3-i5). But the enamels of the latter are in a 
bolder style of drawing. 

mere alms, aware that the buyers were rather 
attracted by their outward and accessory charm 
than by their intrinsic picturesque merits. These 
merits, in spite of the artist's bitter denial, will 
resist, we are sure, the depreciation which 
threatens a large portion of the once celebrated 
productions of our time. What does it matter 
whether he painted a girl with flowers and butter- 
flies, or a kitchen-maid ? It matters lioiv he 
painted it ; and then, the poetry is not in the 
subject, but in the poet. No more than the 
painter himself do we care a bit for the wholesale 
" attractiveness " of a picture, but if beyond and 
above this we discover the rarest qualities both of 
sentiment and realization, we shall rank that picture 
amongst the most perfect productions of all times. 
Take the Enfant Couchce. Of course it would 
appeal even to the least educated eye, and might 
on this account be disregarded by some conceited 
super-critic. But he would be a poor judge if he 
would not be struck by its deep harmony of colour 
and line if he would fail to discriminate how 
masterly the movement of this young body is 
rendered, how life vibrates in these tender 
limbs, if he would not undergo a charm 
equalled only by the most delicate Florentine 
marbles. Yet there is more given here than any 
sculpture could express : the glance of the eyes, a 
poem in itself, that detaches us from all material 


Matthew Maris 

It is instructive, in this respect, to compare this 
picture with Butterflies, which, at first, looks merely 
like a variant. But we find a great difference in its 
meaning ; the girl may be a few years older, and 
the expression of her e^'es brings us altogether in 
another world. This is no longer the inconscious 
dream of an innocent child ; there is something 
strangely disquieting in this look ; the girl is still 
a child, but it seems as if a vision had suddenly 
come over her, an anticipation of the future, 
frightening and irresistible at once. For a 
moment the child has the gaze of a woman who 
knows all the weal and woe of life. Matthew Maris 
shared with a few of the greatest artists that 
power to summarize a world of thoughts and 
feelings in a fugitive expression that passes like a 
cloud on a sunny sky. 

This appreciation of the pictures of this group 
could be even more strikingly illustrated with 
the Kitchen-maids, apparently quite every-day 
subjects, where, however, the painter dispensed 
such ineffable treasures of emotion. But the 
limits of this article would not allow me to enter 
into further developments, and I pass to the land- 
scapes and views of towns of the same period. In 
these works the painter reaches, perhaps, an even 
higher degree in the hierarchy of art. He becomes, 
if I may say so, more subjective, more aloft from 
reality, which he takes merely as a theme for 
variations on his intimate thoughts. Between us 
and the town or the landscape he represents, he 
spins the subtle veils of his emotion, and with- 
out any artifice, with the simplest, plainest means 
he raises us to an immaterial world where we 
may linger delightfully for hours. To find equiva- 
lents for his Soimenir d'Anisterdaui, Outskirts of a 
Town, The Four Mills, etc., we have to look at the 
background of the Mona Lisa or of the Chancelicr 

One is tempted to ask, with a deep melancholy, 
what would have happened if the artist, at that 
time, had found the recognition and the en- 
couragement he so fully deserved. Instead of 
this, profound deceptions seem to have wrought 
fatal devastations in his soul. In 1877 Daniel 
Cottier induced Maris to come over to London, 
where he lived ever afterwards. So far as I know, 
there is not much left of the patterns for stained 
glass windows he is said to have made at that 
time. One of the first important works we meet 
with after his removal is his paraphrase, in etching, 
of Millet's Sciiietir, finished in the early eighties, 
after elaborate preparations. From that time on- 
wards it becomes more and more difficult to discern 
anything like a chronological order amongst his 
productions ; he kept them on the easel for 
years, repeating the same subject either with 
the brush, the pencil or the needle, and if he 
happened to finish any works at all, they were 
eventually those which he had most recently 

started. The only clue we can follow is his 
progressive detachment from reality. Obviously 
the painter no longer worked from any sub- 
stantial model, be it a landscape or a figure, but 
only from the visions he had gathered in his mind 
during the first half of his life. He lived entirely 
in the realm of his dreams and vanishing remem- 
brances, and the equilibrium between matter and 
spirit, which I referred to above, tended more and 
more towards disquietude of mind. 

I shall not venture to say whether this tendency 
was beneficial or detrimental to his art. We have 
glorious examples of artists whose misfortunes 
and subsequent isolation had a beneficial effect, and 
raised them to higher and higher summits. We 
only need to think of Rembrandt's later years. 
But Rembrandt dominated and chastened his 
grief ; with Matthew Maris morbid resentments 
and regrets seem still to roam in the darkening 
shadows of his distances, and often we have the 
impression that the artist fell into the darkest dis- 
couragement after having strained too much the 
possibilities of pictorial art. 

The final judgment must be left to future gene- 
rations, and we have to accept with gratitude the 
gifts which the master bestowed upon us in the 
latter part of his life. During all that time he con- 
fined himself to a few very simple "subjects", but 
these allowed him to disclose wonderful domains 
of art, scarcely apprehended by any predecessor. 
Apart from a few imaginary landscapes, he again 
and again painted a young, loving couple, and 
even more frequently a single figure, mostly a 
head, emerging from mysterious twilight. One 
particular physiognomy seems to have haunted his 
mind as a remembrance full of charm and sorrow. 
Sometimes it appears as a mere child, elsewhere as a 
girl, and again as a woman — but ever with a smile 
that defies any possible description. It is fascinat- 
ing and at the same time bewildering to a supreme 
degree. It is like some superhuman being, some 
spirit that has passed the arcana of death, and 
knows the mystery of life, and yet these sensual 
lips breathe and languish for love. It is a sphin.x, 
the sphinx of Matthew Maris's existence, and of all 
human life. . . . 

Here, I would say, the painter has reached the 
extreme limits of his art ; his media of expression 
have become a negation ; colour, in the usual 
sense, has nearly vanished ; forms have melted 
away into vague adumbration ; the atmosphere 
isj no longer lit by the sun or the stars, but 
glows strangely with a magic phosphorescence of 
its own. The artist's sensations belong to the. 
musical rather than to the visual world ; no fixed 
image seems to be able to retain the impalpable 
movements and emotions of the artist's inmost soul 
which he was striving to exteriorize. And therefore 
it wants some initiation to approach the works of 
that period ; they would hardly appeal to any super- 


Matthew Maris 

ficial spectator and certainly not to anyone im- 
pressed with commonplace conceptions and preju- 
dices on pictorial art ; but they will irresistibly 
fascinate and charm those who are not bound by 
the limits of material perception, those who are 
more sensible to fancy and poetry than to any- 
thing else in the world, and are capable and willing 
to accept in its supreme consequences the wonder- 
ful art of the most sensitive painter that has been. 

Matthew Maris passed away quietly on the 22nd 
August 1917, in that simple but decent little flat 
in Westbourne Square, where he lived happily 
the last years of his life, just as he wished to live, 
away from the world and its worries. He proved 
by his will to whom his lifelong gratitude was 
due. He now reposes for ever in the old Hamp- 
stead churchyard, a spot he loved for its 
quietude. . . . 

Before this freshly dug grave one could not 
attempt to determine definitively Matthew Maris's 
role and position in modern art. But we may 
safely say that its importance can hardly be ex- 
aggerated. " He was one of the links between 
the Barbizon painters and the new Romantics ", 
wrote " M. E. S." in " The Times "of August 25th. 
"... All around him was the turmoil of modern 
industrialism, but he kept quiet because in his ears 
there was a whisper of the Middle Ages. And the 
whisper was not an echo of the dead past, but a 
prophecy of the future. He felt that the world 
would turn back from much of its modernism to 
something more akin to the mediaeval point of view. 
His genius foretold a new mood in the mind of 
man . . . ". Matthew Maris stood quite apart from 
his brothers, from his countrymen, from everybody 
else. There is hardly any example of an artist 
so independently developed to such a rare degree 
of individuality. Nearly the whole movement of 
impressionism passed close by him, leaving him 
untouched. He remained a romantic all his 
life ; and nowadays that modern impressionism 
seems to have ended in a ciil-clc-sac, his true signi- 
ficance will perhaps be more readily appreciated 
by the coming generation than it would have been 
possible a couple of decades ago. He is one of 
those rare and exotic flowers which suddenly grow 
up in the painfully neat and orderly garden of 


The Collegiate Church of Ottery S. Mary ... by 

John Neale Dalton, Canon of Windsor, xxiv + 310 pp., 

27 illust. ; Cambridge (Univ. Press), 25s. n. 

All persons acquainted with the beautiful 

church of Ottery S. Mary, near Sidmouth, in 

Devonshire, will understand readily why so learned 

a student of Church history as Canon J. N. Dalton 

should have devoted twenty years ot study and 

research to the history of this church. There 

are special circumstances connected with this 

Dutch art ; nobody knows where they come from, 
and they rather exasperate the wise gardeners — 
at least during their lifetime — even if they call 
themselves Rembrandt or Hercules Seghers, not 
to mention more recent names. . . . But as 
time goes on they prove to be the very charm of 
the garden, at least for anyone who believes that 
art is nothing without the touch of genius. James 
Maris, from a very early day, recognized Matthew's 
genial superiority, and we readily accept the elder 
brother's prophetic judgment, which will, no 
doubt, become the judgment of posterity. 

Very divergent influences and similarities — both 
artistic and literary — have been discovered in 
M. Maris's works, but after all the influence of 
German romantists only seems to be unmistakable, 
as far as his earlier pictures are concerned. I 
doubt, however, whether any reference has yet 
been made to another influence, or rather a 
spiritual filiation with one of the greatest artists 
of the last century, who seems to have been some- 
what forgotten of late, if not misunderstood — I 
mean Henry Leys. 

When Matthew Maris studied in Antwerp, in 
1855-58, Leys was just evolving the style of his 
later years to which we owe such a wonderful 
series of works and had secured already a world- 
wide reputation. Leys never actually formed pupils, 
but he profoundly impressed contemporary art 
in Belgium and abroad. Alma-Tadema borrowed 
from him what we may call the outer features of 
painting, but failed to retain anything of the 
master's deeper emotions — and so did a fastidious 
crowd of successors and imitators. But Matthew 
Maris was not only impressed by Leys's sumptuous 
colours and his unsurpassed skill as a draughts- 
man — as is obvious, for instance, in the Enfant 
Coiichee, The Kitchen Maid, The Flouer, etc. — but he 
actually lived in the same world of thoughts, he 
eagerly respired the same atmosphere of dream 
which will for ever remain Leys's paramount charm. 
These two great souls were wonderfully akin, 
however different their ultimate fate may have 
been, and I hold that Matthew Maris gathered 
impressions here which lasted for the rest of his 
life. A closer study of this relationship would be 
an attractive chapter in the history of modern art. 

history which render it of interest to a Canon of 
the College of S. George at Windsor Castle. The 
sumptuous volume now before us, a fine specimen 
of English book-production which is in itself a 
credit to the Cambridge University Press, is one 
long tribute to the memory of John Grandisson, 
Bishop of Exeter from 1328 to 1369, founder 
during this episcopate of the Collegiate Church 
of S. Mary at Ottery. Although the College of 



Ottery was dissolved in 1545 by King Henry Vlil 
and a large part of its endowments transferred to 
the College of S. George at Windsor, it is Bishop 
Grandisson whose spirit still pervades this great 
church, in which the Bishop's effigy looks 
down from the central boss in the vaulting of the 
nave. Canon Dalton points out many associations 
in their early history between the collegiate 
foundations at Ottery and at Windsor. Bishop 
Grandisson's sister Katlierine, wife of William de 
Montacute, first Earl of Salisbury, was the lady 
whose name is usually connected with the story 
of the founding of the Order of the Garter by 
King Edward ill ; it is interesting to note that 
Canon Dalton, who has special opportunities for 
knowledge of the early history of this Order, 
evidently inclines to a support of this tradition, 
although modern historians are disposed to attri- 
bute the honour of this anecdote to Joan, the 
Fair Maid of Kent, the betrothed wife of Katherine 
Grandisson's son, the second Earl of Salisbury. 
The special limitations of The Burlington Magazine 
prohibit any detailed criticism or analysis of the 
main matter of this interesting book, the " Ordi- 
nacio et Statuta" of this collegiate church, edited 
for the first time from manuscripts at Exeter and 
Winchester. Canon Dalton's learned exposition 
of these statutes will be indispensable for reference 
by all historians of the Church of England, 
especially for the copious and erudite notes ac- 
companying each statute, from which we could 
single out for special mention that on the 
the costume of the clergy, which is a valuable 
contribution in itself to the history of this interest- 
ing subject and deserves a special notice. Apart 
from its architectural interest the church of 
S. Mary at Ottery has suffered so many vicissitudes 
that its interest to historians and students of art 
has become somewhat fragmentary. Canon Dalton 
has evidently been conscious of his own preference 
for the study of documents than for architecture 
and other branches of the Fine Arts. He is con- 
tent to give a lucid history of the church, relying 
on the admirable illustrations which accompany 
his text. It is notorious that this famous church 
was erected by Bishop Grandisson on the model 
of his episcopal church at Exeter, or rather super- 
imposed on the foundations of the church built 
by Bishop Bronescombe in 1259, some portions of 
which were absorbed into Bishop Grandisson's new 
church, which was transformed from a parish into 
a collegiate church. Canon Dalton is a safe guide 
through all the history of this change, and he 
justly remarks that this church is unsurpassed 
among other churches of its size for the majestic 
austerity of its design and the admirable sim- 
plicity of its construction. W^e should like to 
take our readers on a circuit of the exterior, 
pointing out the special details of interest, such 
as the two tfansept towers, as at Exeter; the 


lancet windows, without tracery or hood- 
moulding; the Lady Chapel, as an addition to 
the original plan ; the consecration crosses, the 
heraldry, and other matters, all fully described by 
the author. His first great departure from the 
simplicity of the design was due to the north aisle 
added by the great lady, Cecily Lady Bonville, 
wife successively of Thomas Grey, Marquess of 
Dorset, and Henry Stafford, Earl of Wilteshire. 
This lady, who died in 1530, was, as Canon Dalton 
points out, with her direct issue closely related to 
three reigning kings of England and four queens. 
She was present at the inauguration in 1476 
of the Chapel of St. George at Windsor Castle, 
and it is not surprising to find that the aisle added 
by her to the church at Ottery is in the same style 
as that used for the chapel at Windsor. At the 
dissolution of the college in 1567 the buildings 
fell into the destructive hands of the Protector 
Somerset, but it was reserved for much later genera- 
tions to destroy or deface much which remained 
of the pristine beauty of the interior. Canon 
Dalton deals rather too tenderly with the injuries 
done to this church by the removal of the rood 
screen, the further mutilation of the reredos in the 
name of restoration, and the remodelling of the 
south transept by the late Lord Coleridge in 1850. 
It is no excuse for this last act that the work in 
itself is good and deserving of praise ; a glance at 
the view of this restoration as shown on Plate xiii 
is sufficient to convince anyone of the inappro- 
priateness of design and decoration intruded here 
on this particular church. Although this church 
has always been of such importance, the monu- 
ments and works of ecclesiastical art are not 
numerous or of surpassing interest. It is evident 
that Bishop Grandisson was a true lover of the 
fine arts from the two beautiful ivory carvings, 
which have been preserved and are reproduced 
in this volume : a diptych, of which half is in the 
British Museum and half in the Louvre, and a 
triptych also in the British Museum. The Lady 
Chapel with its minstrel gallery is of special in- 
terest. It may be noted that the lectern in the 
Lady Chapel, shown in Plate xxii, is in the form 
of a sea-bird and not an eagle, and was therefore 
probably the work of some local carver. We 
congratulate Canon Dalton on the completion of 
this admirable work, which cannot fail to interest 
even the unlearned reader. 

Etchings and Drypoints ; by Frank W. Benson. An illus- 
trated and descriptive catalogue ; by Adam E. M. Paff, 
Boston and New York (Houghton Mifflin Co.). $io. 
Mr. Benson's etchings, we believe, were un- 
known in England before the appearance of this 
handsome monograph, which follows the example 
of M. Moreau-N^laton's catalogue of Manet, M. 
Loys Delteil's Peintre-Gravciir IlliisUc, and several 
other modern works of this class in reproducing 
every etching by the artist with whom it deals on 


a sufficiently large scale to give a fair idea of the 
merits of the work. The catalogue also contains a 
characteristic original etching, beautifully printed. 
The favourable impression produced by study of 
the illustrations has been confirmed by acquaint- 
ance with a representative selection of the etchings 
themselves, which Mr. Benson has recently been 
so good as to present to the British Museum. He 
has a true vocation to the craft of etching, and 
possesses, especially, a peculiar talent for depicting 
wild bird life. A large proportion of his plates 
deals with such subjects as ducks and geese, 
whistlers, old squaws, and other wildfowl, on the 
wing or in the water. Some of them challenge 
a comparison with Bracquemond, which they 
hardly sustain if the same high finish is demanded 
as we justly admire in the work of the recently 
deceased doyen of French etchers. But it would 
be hard to name another etcher of birds who 
could be put in the same class, though one or two 
modern German artists have specialised with sue- 


The British Museum, the Natural History 
Museum and the Air Board. — The recent 
proposal to appropriate the British or the Natural 
History Museum for the use of the Air Service 
was unknown to any of the staff of The Biir- 
lingioii Magazine until the January number was 
in the press ; and the project had been already 
discussed and abandoned before that number 
appeared. We therefore now take this first oppor- 
tunity of stating that our editorial staff took 
every means within its power to defeat the project 
from the first moment that it was suggested. It 
is now a matter of common knowledge that the 
scheme was opposed from the first by experienced 
officials of the Air Service ; that the Director and 
Trustees of the Museum did their duty boldly in 
defending the national property ; that they were 
supported throughout by Ministers of State open 
to the wider and more statesmanlike view ; and 
that the Cabinet immediately interfered when 
tiie facts were accurately placed before it. To the 
numerous writers who protested from all points of 
view in the daily press, and thus strengthened the 
hands of the objectors, and to those further- 
sighted Ministers, high praise and gratitude are 
due from all those whose views The Burlington 
Magazine endeavours to represent and express. For 
let us consider what the appropriation of either 
museum by the Air Service meant. Some of 
the national art institutions have been entirely, 
and others partially, devoted to other national 
work, without any serious objection being raised 
so long as proper precautions were taken, be- 
cause those buildings, being used for purely 
civil purposes, have not hitherto become objects 
on which it seems worth the enemy's while to 

cess in ducks. Certain of Mr. Benson's dry-points, 
such as Geese alighting (No. 92), The Mirror 
(No. 94), or Ducks (No. 95), have a beauty of their 
own that is unlike Bracquemond's work and 
frankly modern, without breaking away violently 
from good 19th century traditions. Another group 
of Mr. Benson's etchings, portraits of women, 
studies of bathers, and the like, betrays the in- 
fluence of Zorn, and is not so entirely satisfactory 
as the etchings of birds. Mr. Benson has taken 
to etching comparatively late in life. Born in 
1862, he made his name as a painter, and never 
etched, apart from an early experiment at the age 
of twenty, until 1912. A hundred plates recorded 
in this catalogue are the work of the last 
iive years. The book itself, compiled by Mr. 
Adam Paff, one of the staff of the Boston 
Museum, deserves the highest praise, and meets 
every demand that can be made of such a 
work in respect of clearness and accuracy in 
detail. C. D. 

waste explosives. The institutions are in no greater 
danger from the air than they were before. But 
ifthe late project had been realised, the museums 
would have become legitimate objects of attack, 
according to the very principles of civilised war- 
fare to which the Allies have constantly appealed. 
The project ignored the imminent jeopardy of 
treasures which are, directly or indirectly, in- 
valuable to the whole people of this great empire 
whether in war or in peace, and from which every 
individual benefits. Yet it respected the interests 
of private commercial companies whose dividends 
might suffer if their property were temporarily 
appropriated. How strong this element was in 
determining the selection has been divulged by 
the unconvincing excuses and explanations offered, 
since the project was defeated, by the sectional 
press which represents those interests. But there is 
a wider objection than tender scruples for the 
private investor. It is we, above all other peoples, 
who proclaim our readiness to shed our last drop of 
blood, and spend the last penny of our wealth, in 
order to establish for ever, all over the world, a 
sane and tolerant civilisation, and to destroy a 
military and a territorial tyranny. What a figure for 
derision we should have made in the eyes of our 
acutely intellectual Allies in Europe and Asia, and 
of the free people of the United States, who fight 
beside us in the same cause, if the mainsprings of 
the arts of peace in England, and now of intellec- 
tual activity in the art of war, had been converted 
into tempting and legitimate targets for hostile 
aircraft. For we now know that this ill considered 
proposal was based on a glaringly inaccurate 
estimate of the cubic space required by the Air 
Board. In view of the hotels still available and 


A Monthly Qhronicle 

the large number of mansions out of commission, 
the pretext for requisitioning museums was too 
flimsy. The Editors. 

Red Cross and S. John of Jerusalem in 
England.— The Editors of this Magazine are 
clad to comply witli the request of members of 
tlie indefatigable Committee for Silver, Jewellery 
and Enamels concerned with the annual sales 
held at Christie's for the support of these societies, 
to call attention to a display of some of the more 
important gifts of plate, jewellery, and enamel, ni 
the windows of 112 Regent Street, lent by the 
Goldsmiths' and Silversmiths' Company. This 
year's sale will be held at Christie's during the 
f-pring, at a date not yet fixed, and will, as before, 
include all objects of art, as well as those within the 
scope of the Silver Committee. It will the Editors 
are informed, not fall short of the standard of 
quality reached in previous years. The EDITORS. 

The Museum ok Fine Arts, Worcester, 
Mass.— We congratulate Mr. Raymond L. Wyer, 
the late energetic director of the Hackley Gallery, 
of Muskegon, and editor of "Esthetics", his 
organ during his directorship of that minor col- 
lection, on his appointment as director of the 
Worcester Museum of Fine Arts, Mass. We 
believe that Mr. Wyer, who vt-as back in England 
for some months during 1915, is still the only 
Englishman directing an art gallery in the United 
States, and the Worcester Museum, from its 
handsome endowment, will give him an excellent 
opportunity for the exercise of his energy and 
discretion. He made a very good impression as 
regards his capacity for such work during his last 
stay in England. The Editors. 

The New English Art Club.— The winter 
exhibition is a very sober one. Circumstances 
connected with the war may account for the 
absence of some exhibitors who are habitually 
prominent, and there are no important pictures of 
the kind that from size or singularity at once 
challenge the attention. Indeed, the followers of 
more revolutionary creeds, who are now disposed 
to look upon the New English Art Club as a 
succiirsalc of the Royal Academy, may be fortified 
in their opinion by a hasty glance round these 
walls. The qualities of the pictures are of the 
undemonstrative kind. There is even, as it were, 
a sort of family likeness among them, for those 
who come predisposed to fmd monotony, and it is 
true that some of the secondary exhibitors pursue 
the ea^y downward path of repetition without any 
fresh creative impulse or interest. But these 
generalities do not affect tfie value of the exhibi- 
tion's better side. Professor Tonks's pastels, in 
particular, the two portraits of men, have a quite 
remarkable vitality, and are subtle in draughts- 


manship and characterization. The medium, a 
difficult one, which has rarely been well handled 
in England, is here expressively used, and the 
artist worthily continues the sequence of sound 
tradition that extends from Chardin and La Tour 
to Degas. There arc good examples of Mr. Steer 
and Mr. McEvoy, neither of whom, however, 
excels his past peifoimance. 

It is interesting to compare Mr. W. Rothep- 
stein's S/or/;;— authoritative and thorough, with 
its solid structuial qualities and its completeness 
of vision— with Mr. Collins Baker's treatment of 
a similar subject. West Bay. The latter, with its 
greater insistence on linear design, is successful, 
too, in its way, but lacks the weight and grasp of 
the other. To exaggerate a little, the feeling for 
solidity is apparent only in the sky, which is 
\\ ithout the variation natural to even the heaviest 
thunder-cloud. Perhaps this objection might be 
made in some degree against Mr. Rothenstein's 
sky, but the balance of parts within the whole 
picture is with him so much more perfect that this 
is not noticed. Mr. Collins Baker has a vision 
similar to that of Mr. C. J. Holmes, whose land- 
scapes are occasionally over-synthetized, an insis- 
tence on design leading to formlessness and 
emphatic contours containing nothing. Not so, 
however, in his Wlwriisiiic and Siwii'-slioivcis on 
Malliam Moor, nor in Hai liiigdoii, AiitiiDin, \\h\ch 
are among the best things Mr. Holmes has done. 
Mr. Lucien Pis?arro continues to paint English 
landscape with that special feeling which always 
places his pictures among the most genuine 
things in these exhibitions. Mr. Francis Dodd is 
developing, in a series of admirable charcoal 
drawings, his aptitude for the genial interpretation 
of middle-class domesticity. There is something 
of Charles Keene in these drawings (which has 
probably been said before): a rare intimacy, with- 
out any false sentiment, attained by very direct 
means. Mrs. Swynnerton's work is disappointing. 
The two portrait heads suggest the decadence of 
Millais. The picture by Mr. Archibald Wells has 
a pleasing callow freshness and promise. There 
is at least no doubt about the personal quality of 
its inspiration, which by comparison makes many 
more accomplished paintings seem dull. M. 
Marcel Jeffery's w-ork, which is new to these 
surroundings, is accomplished without dullness, 
though perhaps his command over colour is not 
here seen at its best. His compatriot, M. Lton de 
Smet, has two characteristic pictures in which 
apparently riotous colour is ably controlled. 
Miss Nina Hamnett's portrait, powerfully com- 
posed, has not quite her usual keenness of per- 
ception. Mr. Meninsky and Mr. Wheatley show 
some sound drawings, and the technique of etching 
continues to be exploited with understanding by 
Mr. P'rancis Unwin and Mr. C. S. Cheston. 

The memorial exhibition of pictures and draw- 




ings by the late Captain Gerard Chowne, which 
occupies one of the smaller rooms, is not tho- 
roughly representative of him. It seems ill-advised 
to have included the numerous slight water-colour 
sketches done on active service, since they can do 
little to enhance his reputation as an artist. For 
those who know the altogether higher standard of 
some of his work— for instance, the After Lunch of 
igio — there will be a feeling of disappointment 
at the false impression of his talent conveyed by 
the collecting together of his least noteworthy 
productions. Z. 

Woodcuts by Timothy Cole (Greatorex 
Galleries). — .'\maleurs of reproductive engrav- 
ings will be interested in this collection of thirty- 
five examples of the work of the late Timothy Cole. 
The specimens exhibited are all interpretations of 
paintings of the British school of the i8th and 
early 19th centuries. The engraver usually en- 
tered very fully into the spirit of the masters of 
his predilection, and a personal feeling removes 
his work to some extent beyond mere reproduction 
to the sphere of translation. So much may be 
said in defence of what may be looked upon as 
an anachronistic and futile talent. His technical 
skill and his ability to obtain the precise quality 
he wished are unquestionable, but even the quality 
is not always appropriate to woodcutting, suggest- 
ing rather in some cases the Victorian steel- 
engraving, or, in the case of Constable's Waterloo 
Bridge, the mezzotints of Lucas. Considerable 
use is made of the white line, and the peculiar 
floating, filmy appearance obtained is frequently 
well fitted to the theme he is handling. But no 
matter how beautiful the engraving may be, one 
cannot always have faith in the rendering of a 
secondary personality, and most lovers of painting 
will cling to their own impressions even if con- 
veyed by merely mechanical reproductions. 
No. 3, Mouscliold Heiitli, seems to have missed the 
dignity of Crome. Turner's Frosty Morning (very 
difficult to translate into black and white) and 
Cicero's Villa by Richard Wilson, are nearer the 
spirit of the originals ; but here also there is an 
elusive foreign atmosphere which I can momen- 
tarily connect only with Gray's "Elegy" and the 
etchings of F. L. Griggs. Nevertheless, Timothy 
Cole's patient and almost perfect craftsmanship, 
his sincere and unflagging enthusiasm, will always 
meet with the respect they deserve. R. S. 

Mr. Eric Gill. — We have pleasure in stating 

^ Monthly Chronicle 

that Mr. Gill proposes to hold an exhibition of 
some of his work in the Alpine Club Gallery 
during March. We think that architects, sculptors 
and artists of all kinds will approve of our giving 
this somewhat unusual notice, for Mr. Gill deserves 
and we believe has their sympathy. Westminster 
Cathedral has itself been almost unanimously 
regarded by architects throughout the world as 
the most important ecclesiastical building erected 
during living memory; and Mr. Gill's 67(;//a;;s of 
the Cross and Capt. Von Anrep's mosaic are the 
only decorations in the building which have not 
been generally and severely condemned by artists. 
Mr. Eric Gill's quixotic offer, made in times of 
peace, to provide these remarkable Stations at an 
inordinately low price, has inevitably resulted in 
serious loss during times of war, and all who are 
interested in the fabric of Westminster Cathedral 
will desire to mitigate those losses in any way 
they can. M. A. 

Addendum. — The version by Philemon Hol- 
land* of the difficult passage quoted by Mr. Roger 
P'ry, on p. 52, may interest readers of his article. 

[P.irasius] Hee woon the prise and praise from tliem 
all in making up the poiirfile and extenuilies of his linea- 
ments, which is the principal] point and hardest matter be- 
longing to the whole art : For to draw forth the bodily 
proportions of things, to hach also, yea and to till within, 
requireth (I confesse) much labour and good workcmanship; 
but many have been excellent in that behalfe : marie to 
pourfiU well, that is to say, to make the extremities of any 
part, to marke duly the divisions of parcels, and to give 
every one their just compasse and measure, is exceeding 
difficult, and few when they come to the doing of it, have 
beene found to attaine unto that felicitie. For the utmost 
edge of a worke must fall round upon it sclfe, and so knit 
up in the end, as if it shaddowed somwhat behind, and 
yet shewed that which it seemeth to hide. In this so curious 
and inexplicable a point, .4»»//£o»»s and Xcnoaatcs both, 
who wrote as touching this art, have given him the honour 
of the best : not onely confessing his singular gift therein 
but also commending him for it. 

* The Historic of the HV/'W, Commonly called The Katvrnll 
Historic of C. Plinivs Sccviidvs. Translated into English hy 
Philemon Holland, Doctor in Physickc. London. Printed by 
Adam Islip. iGoi. 

Notice. — We have received too late for publi- 
cation a letter from Mr. Julian Sampson protesting 
against the disfigurement of Harrinton House, 
Craigs Court [see Mr. Sampson's former Letter, 
fi.i1/., June 1905, vol. VII, p. 248], by the addition 
of a yellow brick story and the removal of the 
balustrade. Since Mr. Sampson's protest is too 
pressing to be postponed, we hope that he will 
publish it in the daily press. The Editors. 


SoTHEBY, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell after Easter the 
collection of drawings by Old Masters, belonging to Sir 
Edward Poynter, Bart., P.R..4. Unusual interest attaches to 
the sale of this collection, for it is surely one of the most 
choice "cabinets" in private possession in England, and in 
addition to the artistic excellence of the contents has a special 

appeal to students and collectors through the long and dis- 
tinguished pedigrees of so many of the drawings composing it. 
The Italian Section is both the most extensive and the most 
representative ; among the earlier drawings we may single out 
for mention the Gronps of Ecclesiastics by Vittore Carpaccio, 
published not long ago in this Magazine together with the 



Female Saiiil bv Bartolomco Montagii.i [sec The Burlington 
Mac>i:ine, Vol. xxix., r- 27". '•l^']; a Sketch pr a Compjsttton,\n 
red chalk, bv Corrcggio ; a sheet with S/».f(« ofTwott&iires by 
Kilippiiio I-irri ; a Study Jor a Boar Pis by Pisaiiello ; a Group 
of Nudes by Luca SignorcUi, rrcsumably a study for a group 
of Demons' in one of the Orvieto frescoes ; a Destgii for a 
Decoraliou by Giovanni da TJdine ; while among the later 
It ilian drawings stands out the supremely beautiful black and 
red chalk drawing of \Uc Head ami Arms of a Female Figure 
holding a vase, by Lodovico Carracci [Plate, »], apparently a 
study for the Bacchante with a Tamburine in the fresco of the 
Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne in the PaUuzo Farncse in 
Komc. Among the French drawings, attention is attracted 
by a remarkably tine series of Claude drawings ; and the 
German drawings include three examples of Albert Durer, 
foremost among them the marvellous pen and-ink drawing of 
Apollo [Plate, a] which shows all the firmness and delicacy 
of Diircr's draughtsmanship at its best. Specimens of the great 
Dutch and Flemish masters form also part of the collection ; 
mention should specially be made of an exquisite, free and 
fluent first study bv Rubens for the picture of himself, Helene 
Fourment and 'their eldest child, formerly at Blenheim, and 
now in the Alphonse de Rothschild collection in Paris ; while 
the mastery of Rembrandt's stroke and the pathos and intensity 
of his scnti'mcnt are admirably seen in a Subject from the Story 
of Job or Tohit. T. B. 

Christie, Manson and Woods will sell on 15 March 
Hie collection of the painter John Linnell, sen., for his 
present representatives. The chief feature of the sale is the 
Linnell collection of the works of William Blake made by 
John Linnell during Blake's lifetime and immediately after his 
death. The sale opens with some 50 pictures by John Linnell, 
including a portrait of Blake. These will be followed by some 
20 works by old masters and others more recently deceased, 
and a death mask of Blake. Among the old masters are a few 
of considerable interest, such as a good imitation with varia- 
tions of the Adam and Eve at Vienna now ascribed to Hugo 
van der Goes, a genuine early Netherlands portrait reminiscent 
of Van der Weydcn, and a Crucifixion with small scenes from 
the Passion, which recalls the Northern French side of that 
eclectic school of Rhenish work which was in vogue at Hamburg 
and in the Scandinavian countries. The Linnell Blakes consist 

mainly of long series of designs in watercolour or pencil. There 
are no " frescoes " nor other paintings, nor apparently any of the 
large andimportant "printed drawings," such as the well known 
yebiichad,i€itar\dix\A Elijah, and the unique Hecate and Lantech 
and his Two Wives. The largest of the series of drawings are the 
designs in colour for the " Divine Comedy ", nearly 100 in num- 
ber. These are the best known, as a selection of them was includ- 
ed at Burlington House in the Winter Exhibition of 1893 and 4, 
and another selection in the Tate Blake Exhibition arranged 
by Mr. Charles Aitken in 1913. Seven of the Dante designs 
have been published, and some of the plates are now offered 
for sale. A certain number of the other Linnell Blakes were 
exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1876 and at the 
Tate Gallery. The other series consist of 21 colour-drawings 
representing the designs of the famous "Book of Job" ; 12 
colour-designs for " Paradise Regained " ; 20 drawings (or 
Phillips's " Pastorals ", on a larger scale than the woodcuts ; 
and a large number of the Visionary Heads in pencil. Among 
the isolated prints, some of them washed with colour are a 
frontispiece and headpiece of "The Daughters of Albion ', a title- 
page of ''Europe" ; the Man at a Forge : another design for 
" Europe " ; another for the book " Arise, O Rintrah " ; and a set 
of selected impressions of the plates for Young's "Complaint" 
and " Night Thoughts ". Among the " Books " are " Songs of 
Innocence", 1794; " Songs of Experience ", 1789; "Marriage 
of Heaven and Hell"; "French Revolution", Bk. i, 1791 ; 
"America'', 1793 (unique) ; "Jerusalem", 1804; "Song of 
Liberty"; "Sibylline Leaves"; "There is No Natural 
Religion" ; 11 sheets of the original MS. of " Genesis" ; and 
the original MS. of " Vala ". It is to be hoped that much of 
this work by the most characteristically English genius among 
artists in the whole history of the nation, and an English lyric 
poet of the first eminence, will not be allowed to leave this 
country. It will be eagerly sought for in the United States and 
throughout the Scandinavian countries, Austria :rtid Germany, 
and every effort should be made to save the bulk of it. Though 
some irritation has been caused by the comparative inaccessi- 
bility of the Linnell collection owing to strict testamentary 
depositions, it must be remembered that the present owners are 
now taking a considerable pecuniary risk by offering the Dante 
drawings and all the large series complete, without dividing 
them ; and are thus preserving the author's original plan, to the 
best of their power. M. a. 


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KNitiHT (A. Charles). Cordwaincr Hard m the City of 
London, its History and Topography; 11 1 pp., 10 illust. ; 

4S. 6d. n. 
Heauley BROS., Ltd., Kingsway House, W.C. 

Stawell (F. Mellian). The Price of Freedom, an anthology 
for all nations, . . . vith reproductions of famous paintings 
and sculptures ; 165 pp., 24 t*'- : 3s- 6d. n. 
New Vokk, Metropolitan Mvseum of Art. 

K'ICHTER (Gisela, M. A.). Handbook of the Classual Collection ; 
XXIV + 276 pp., 159 illust. ; N.r. 
Privately PRINTED. 
Sherman (Fred. Fairchild). Landscape and Figure I ainttrs 
of America ; 71 pp., 29 illust. 

Pamphlets Reports, etc.— Catalogue of a loan exhibition 
of Ancient Chinese and Jade Objects from the collection 
formed by Charles Lang Freer and given by him to the 
Nation compiled by F. W. Goskin, Chicago (Art Institute)— 
Donatcllo and Michclo/.zo in an unpublished -.cork of Collabo- 
ration a crilic:il study on some Ponatellian Madonnas, by 
Albert Seralini (privately printed)— /-o Chie.-.a ,l.l Santo Sepol- 
cro in Gerusalcmmc. dessertaiionc letta alia Pontificia Acca- 
demia Romana di Archcologia dal socio ordinario G. Tcrcsio 
Kivoira, 3° Kov. 1916- 


Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — Architect- 
Country Life — Illustrated London News. 
P'ORTNIGHTLY. — Bulletin of the Alliance Fran(,aise. 
Monthly.— Art World (N'cw York),— Colour — Connoisseur — 

Fine Art Trade Journal— Journal of the Imperial Arts League 

— Kokka, 329, 330, 331— On/e Kunst, XVl, 12. 
Bi-monthly. — .^rt in America, vi, i — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 

of P'ine Arts, Bulletin, 91, 92. 
Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Museum of Art, Bulletin 

(10 a year), iv, 8, 9 — Minneapolis, Institute of P'ine Arts, 

Bulletin (9 a year). VI, 10. 
Quarterly, — Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, 

XXV, 3 — Gazette dcs Beaux Arts, 693 — Print Collectors' 

Quarterly, vii, 4 — Quarterly Review. 
Annually.— Institut d'Esludis Catalans ; Anuari mcmxiii-xiv, 

Any V, Parts i, 2 (Palau de la Deputacio, Barcelona). 
Occasionally.— S/or/Vi dell'arte (//d/;(i»<i): PietroToesca fasc. 

25 jf. 26, pp. 433-480 ; 2d. (Unione Typographica, Turin) — 
Il'fl)- draicings by Miiirhcad Bone, large format, Pl. iv, 

los. 6d. 11. 

Trade Lists.— Norstcdts Xyhetcr (Stockholm), 1917. Nr. 12— 
Maggs bros., 109 Strand, W.C, Catalogue 3O3, The Drama 
and Music. 


HE greatest and certainly the pro- 
foundest artists are those who arrive 
at a vision so universaHsed that they 
become almost indifferent to what 
material lies to their hand. One kind 
of object, one type of human being, serves as well 
as another ; whatever is presented to their eyes 
becomes the springboard for their leap into 
infinity. But Gauguin was not one of these. He 
needed for his inspiration a certain kind of life, a 
certain type of natural forms. He had passionate 
tastes and preferences, and in these he was original 
— to some extent his pictures express these views 
about life, and to that extent at least they have a 
literary content. They are not purely expressions 
of feelings about form, but also even, if indirectly, 
about life. It is pretty clear for instance that in 
finding his way out of European civilisation into 
the primitive life of Tahiti, Gauguin was finding 
himself. And it was not only Tahitian civilisation 
that revealed Gauguin to himself, it was also 
Tahitian art. So that Gauguin became the first 
of the many modern artists who have since found 
the best part of their inspiration in the art of so- 
called savages. The extraordinary thing is that 
this intensely self - conscious and intellectual 
Frenchman did manage to create an art which 
fused perfectly the naivete of savage art with the 
most accomplished European tradition. Gauguin 
was never naive ; the wonder is that an artist so 
sophisticated, so nearly an academic (in the best 
sense of the word) did manage this feat without 
becoming affected or acquiring a false naivete. 

The picture here reproduced is one of the most 
important and the most ambitious he ever at- 
tempted. It is said to be a symbolical expression 
of his own life. The very fact that he found in 
such a symbolic presentation the inspiration for 
a great design shows how much even in his 

painting he remained a critic of life. Gauguin's 
Noa Noa proves how readily a literary form of 
expression came to him, how much of a poet he 
was as well as a painter, so that one need not 
wonder at finding him towards the end of his life 
trying also to make his extraordinary powers of 
design serve the same ends. Fortunately he 
never forgot the limitations of pictorial art, so that 
in the great composition here in question we are 
really not in the least concerned with the meaning 
of the symbolism. I must in fact confess that I 
have never even tried to discover in what way it 
expresses Gauguin's life, unless indeed that one 
would suppose his whole life to have been occupied 
with Tahitian idols and Tahitian women, which 
was certainly not the case. Nor do I imagine that 
one's pleasure in the picture would anyway be 
heightened by an elucidation of the symbolism. 
That indeed was Gauguin's own affair — it led him 
to this splendid co-ordination of forms, and in 
that it served all its purpose. It remains like 
Giorgione's Tempest, a magnificent design the 
origin of which was symbolical, but the effect of 
which on the spectator is purely and quite 
satisfyingly pictorial. It is a work which sum- 
marises the whole development of Gauguin's art, 
his learned simplification and amplification of 
form, his intricate and yet lucid rhythmic design 
— which is here called upon to hold together a 
whole panorama — his development of flat, scarcely 
varied, masses of colour in frank opposition and 
yet harmonised by a peculiar subtlety of tone and 
a splendid lacquer-like quality of the surface. In 
all of these personal characteristics it would be 
hard to say whether he had learned more from 
his native Latin tradition or from Polynesian 
handicrafts and sculpture, so perfectly are the 
characteristics of each fused by the fire of Gauguin's 
imaginative spirit. 


T is well known that in Viking days 
Sweden possessed a distinctive national 
style of ornament. At the beginning 
of the nth century Christianity was 
introduced into Sweden, and with it 
arrived the artistic impulses of the countries from 
which the missionaries came. These countries 
were Germany and England ; with the latter 
indeed Sweden had maintained her connections 
since the Viking period. Missionary work pro- 
ceeded slowly, and it was only by gradual stages in 
the course of the nth and 12th centuries that 
episcopal sees connected with Germany or England 

* Translated for Dr. Roosval by Rev. J. H. S winstead, Chaplain 
of the British Legation, Stockholm. 

were organised. The 12th and 13th centuries 
also saw missions sent to Sweden from the great 
monastic orders in Europe, with new standards of 
art in their train, those from France being espe- 
cially strong. We do not, however, exhaust thus 
all the foreign currents that affect the earlier 
mediaeval Christianity of Sweden. A marked 
importance, added to that of France, Germany 
and England, attaches to oriental and Italian 
influence. To this I shall briefly recur at the 
end of the present article. 

The objects on which the earliest of these foreign 
influences may be detected most plainly are bap- 
tismal fonts which have been preserved in quite 
large numbers through the ages chiefly on account 

The Boblin-»ios MieiziNE, No. 180, Tol. IlIU— M«rcli 191S. 

Swedish and English Fonts 

of the strength of their form and of their material 
—stone. They also yield striking evidence of the 
rapidity with which 
^--^-r ^ivf^vrr ^ii.ii'i fg^^S'^'^ borrowed elements 
^^li(UM?flSTr-ri — nw^^'''^^'TTTJ^'^'' assimilated and 
l^^^^r^^^ ']/''■!/ ^^i'^ coalesced with the 
l,f\ ^Z^H^ 1^ ^^ older national 

^^^ forms, known to 
ll&'Ji''' iiie '-^^ us from jewels and 
^'^P 'vrt / runestones, thereby 
"^ •->- 5 .' . ■ evolving a fresh 
Christian style en- 
tirely Swedish. I 
will now cite some 
significant e x- 

amples of Swedish 
fonts to show their 
affinity with Eng- 
lish examples. 

These are pre- 
eminently met with 
in the district of 
Viistergodand. This 
its position 
uncertam whether Viister- 


seems natural enough considering 
facing west 

It is 

with leaden fonts in England. The S-shaped 
spray on the font of Hang^losa [FiG. 2] recurs 
on the Tidenham font^ ; the decoration second 
from the left is found at Pyecombe [Plate 11, h]. 
The dragon coil on the third panel from the right 
is Swedish in theme as may be seen by com- 
paring it with the runestones. The lettering ot 
the inscription has correspondences in Scandin- 
avia during the first half of the 12th century. 
The font of Ottravad [PLATE 1, A, c, D, P] has 
roughly drawn figures on rectangular panels, 
including a representation of the artist himself 
chiselling a block [f], a sculpture which curiously 
enough George Stephen in his day interpreted as 
Tor with his hammer.' The interpretation was 
rejected by Hans Hildebrand, in "Manadsbladet", 
the monthly bulletin of the Academy of Fine 
Arts, History and Antiquities.* In point of fact 
Stephen's conjecture was far from unreasonable. 
Many indubitable indications of heathen concep- 
tions are illustrated in the earliest Christian art of 
Sweden. The crucified figure is surrounded with 
foliation, and sunk rhombic designs ; these find 
parallels in the chapel of Durham Castle and other 
English buildings.^ The usual cylindrical type in 


gotland was converted by English or German 
agents, or by both, but it is quite certain that 
about HOC and the first half of the following 
century ecclesiastical influence from England 
was powerful. At that time bishops of the 
diocese of Skara, metropolitans of Viistergot- 
land, bore English names, and Englishmen were 
missionaries in the contiguous district. We assign 
to this date the earliest baptismal vessels of the 
province. They may be arranged in three groups : 
cylindrical, quadrilateral, and chalice-shaped. 

The cylinders are often undecorated, e.g., at 
Gosslunda, a copy of which is in the Swedish 
church inventory', at Rada, Ova, etc. Where 
ornamentation is found it points so often and so 
manifestly to English art of the Norman period 
that one seems justified in tracing the descent of 
all cylindrical fonts in Viistergotland to English 
influence, e.g. Manstad [FiG. i] with its dentated 
friezes ; and Hangelosa, which may be compared 

England shows a variation with bulging sides, as 
at Little Billing [FiG. 3]. This outline, too, 
occurs in Viister- 
gotland, e.g., in 
the Eriksberg 
font [Fig. 4] 
now preserved 
in the Nordiska 
Museum, Stock- 
holm. The font 
of Little BiUing 
is dated in 
England as of 
William the 
period. But 1 
do not venture 
to claim an 


■ Sveriges kyrkor, edited by Curman and Roosval, Vaster- 
gStland, by Ernst Fischer, I, 122. 


' Reproduced in Bond's Fonts and Font Covers, p. 81. 

• Stephen, Thiinor the thunderer, carved on Scandinavian 
font. *No. Ill, 42- ,, _,. , .^ 

° Reproduced by Prior and Gardner, Medictval figure 
sculpture, p. 147. 

earlier date than iioo for any stone font in Sweden. 
This shape is most interesting in a few decorated 
examples, where zigzags and dragons give the 
impression, if the analogy be not too audacious, 
of Chinese Chou bronzes set in stone, e.g., the font 
from Ving [FiG. 5], now in the Historical Museum. 
From Ringkarleby [FiG. 6], also in the Historical 

Museum, is an- 
other like it, in 
which the excel- 
1 e n 1 1 y drawn 
ornament at i on 
recalls certain 
Norman tym- 
pana in England. 
Another variant 
of the cylinder 
narrowing down- 
wards is to be 
met at Skorstorp ^ 
[Plate ii, g], to 
which parallels in 
England are found at Stanton and North Newbald.' 
The cylinder-form survived to the end of the 12th 
century, when it was entirely superseded by 
the chalice-shaped type. The latest cylinder 
font I have hitherto discovered is at Harje- 
vad ; the figures and arcading there agree with 
a school which in other respects appears in 
chalice shape, dated beyond question at the 



end of the 12th century. In fonts of this type 
the low cylindrical bowl terminates in an inverted 
truncated cone. This may be called the eastern 
chalice type, as depending upon the influence of 
eastern Sweden. 
The quadrilateral form is still more nationally 

Swedish and English Fonts 

English than the cylindrical, although a very 
favourite form on the other side of the North Sea 
also. In Sweden, it is chiefly to be found in the 
district of Bohuslan, e.g., the font from Norum 
[Fig. 7], now in the National Museum ; it is signed 
by the sculptor Sven, and possesses an especially 
interesting human figure, which seems probably 
to represent a man, with bound hands, treading 
on a curious triangular object, and surrounded by 
snakes which . 

r e s e m b 1 e m . 
plaited- work. 
This is doubt- 
less Gunnar in 
the serpents' 
cave playing 
a harp with 
his feet and by 
this melody 
checking the 
deadly attack 
of the ser- 
pents. This interpretation must be considered 
decisive owing to the authoritative dictum of 
the literary historian, Henrik Schiick. It is 
credible that the illustration of the saga has 
been symbolically presented in the same manner 
as Orpheus playing to the beasts, in the cata- 
comb-paintings. Gunnar is indeed one of 
the characters in the story of the Seven Kings, 
but the episode of the serpent-cavern occurs only 
in the older, the English, and not in the later, the 
German, version. By reason of its friable material, 
viz. potstone, and the depth of its hollow, the 
font is damaged. The whole bottom is loose ; the 


^ See Hildebrand, Dopfuntar, fig. 24. 

' Reproduced by Bond, op. cit., p. 2i8jand p. 42 


base, which may have been restored from similar 
examples preserved in the museum at Gdteborg, is 
quadrilateral and protrudes below the bowl. Otiier 
fonts of the quadrilateral group exist within the 
limits of Vastergotland, e.g. the one from Rodene 
church, now in the Historical Museum, Stockholm, 
[Fig. 8], of which the structure recalls familiar 
Norman types, e.g. at Winchester, while in the 
decoration it is allied to the rune stones of the 



Svcedish and English Fonts 

nth century in Sweden. As it is impossible to 
dwell on the numerous other quadrilateral speci- 
mens with their interesting figure designs, I must 
confine myself to indicating the two extreme limits 
in examples which show the existence of the type. 
Those executed by Sven, after the Rodene type, 
constitute the oldest known ; their decoration har- 
monises with rune stones of the nth century, and 

in that respect 

they do not fol- 
low the orna- 
ment of the 
Anglo - Norman 
style. About the 
year iioo may 
be "assigned for 
the rune inscrip- 
tions, but not 
earlier. The 
latest are the 
handiwork of another noted master, Andreas, who 
belongs to the latter end of the 12th century, for 
many of his fonts are of the same type of chalice 
form, in which the low cylindrical bowl terminates 
in a truncated cone inverted. These in Western 
Sweden cannot be older than the end of the X2th 
century. By exception, Andreas uses once only a 
quadrilateral bowl, at Gallstad [Plate I,b]. That 
is the farthest limit of quadrilateral fonts in Vaster- 
gdtland. Let us now pass to the third of the 
types, which originated from England. 

The chalice- 
form with hemi- 
spherical bowl I 
name " the western 
chalice type", since 
it is quite distinct 
from the type with 
the low cylindrical 
bowl already de- 
scribed. The 
western chalice 
type is represented 
in England by in- 
stances like the 
font at Chaddesley 
Corbet [FiG. 9], 
cic. The type has 
produced a prolific family in Sodermanland as 
at Frustuna [FiG. 10], and Skee [FiG. 11], 
but is less common in Vasterg5tland. The ma- 
jority of the Swedish examples, being hewn from 
hard granite, are somewhat simplified or even 
entirely without ornament. Still there are some 
more richly decorated, even with dragons of great 
size coiled round the bowl, as at Chaddesley 
Corbet. This monumental decoration is how- 
ever, first and foremost, the peculiarity of a large 
group of Danish fonts which opens a most notable 
chapter in the history of sculpture during the 12th 



century, hitherto practically unknown outside 
Denmark. Of this class is the font of Tobjerg in 
Jylland [Plate I, e]. These fonts are undoubtedly 


English by descent, but surpass their parentage 
in artistic quality. Although not represented by 
examples so magnificently decorated as the 


Danish, this shape never ceased in Sweden 
during the middle ages. When the chalice form 
with cylindrical bowl from East Sweden began 

to influence the rest of the western types at the 
end of the 12th century, this one proved so essen- 
tially related that it prolonged its existence, 
though with slight modifications; one example, 
as late as the beginning of the i6th century, 
closely akin to the fonts of Chaddesley Corbet 
survives in the National Historical Museum. It 
came from the neighbourhood of Stockholm, 
but from which parish is not now known fFiG. 12]. 
Contemporaneously with the development of the 
types now described, there flourished, as has been 
already hinted, an extraordinarily rich form of 
stone sculpture in East Sweden and more especi- 
ally in the extreme east, on the island of Gotland. 
Not only were the bowls of these fonts supplied 
with the whole circumference in relief, but similar 
fonts were even exported to other Swedish pro- 
vinces, to Denmark and North Germany, and 
sculptures executed for church facades of these 
countries. This art of Gotland is in part the 
product of the remarkably high culture of the 
island since heathen times, but it is fostered 
besides by certain foreign elements — Oriental 
and Italian — to which I have already alluded. 
Gotland was an important halting-place for 
traders between Europe and Asia and thus re- 
ceived the impress of art both from West Asia 
and Byzantium. But not only so ; theGotlanders 
were artistically active in Skane, where the cathedral 
of Lund was erected in the first half of the 12th 
century, largely under guidance from Italy, or 
more precisely, Lombardy. By this means, too, 
rich new impulses worked on Swedish art, and 
were all the more easily assimilated because 
Lombardic ornament is essentially akin both to 
old Norman and West Asiatic art. Such notable 

currents enriched 
the flow of art 
both in eastern 
and southern 

Genuine Got- 
land fonts are 
chalice shaped in 
outline, and they 
abound with 
figures in relief, 
mostly accom- 
panied by arcad- 
ing. Their popu- 
larity was so great 
Sweden that 
schools arose in 
many parts imitat- 
ing them. One 
example is the font at Vattlosa [FiG. 13]. Never- 
theless, these Gotlandesque arcadings do contain 
elements of English iconography. As has been 
already said, the preponderance in West Sweden 


Swedish and English Fonts 

of types founded on English style ceases with 
these, temporarily, only to return with greater 
vigour in the 13th century. 

About 1230 the abundance of figures in the 
fonts of Gotland 
declined, until we 
find fonts without 
any figures. Their 
bowls are embel- 
lished with sprays 
of vegetation or 
else the modelling 
of their surface 
consists of pro- 
truding folds re- 
sembling a scallop 
shell, this being 
the only orna- 
ment. Both of 
these forms appear 
to have an Eng- 
lish origin, and fig. 13 — vattlosa, vastergotland 
seeing that they 

are not confined to England, but preponderate 
over all the mainland of Sweden and in Denmark, 
it is manifest that English influence — repressed 
awhile by the brilliance of the east Swedish school 
— once more resumed its sway. The new depar- 
ture was foreshadowed as early as the 12th century. 
Save the type previously mentioned as doubtlessly 
in affinity with Chaddesley Corbet, traceable in 
Vastergotland and Sodermanland, we have the 
dominating Skane type of the 12th century con- 
firmed by the name of the sculptor. Marten. The 
parallel between South Brent, Somerset [PLATE 
II, j], and Felestad [m] and Vestra Stro [FiG. 14], 
the two last reproduced after Tynell's " SkSnes 
medeltida dopfuntar ", is so clear that any doubt 
of their relationship is scarcely possible. But the 

r\ 71 



affinities of Skane are in many cases intensified to a 
far greater elaboration in that ornament which was 
derived from the smelting house of Lund cathedral. 
The school of plant-decoration previously men- 


Swedish and English Fonts 

tioned became highly embellished under the 
Lombardic influence. The ornament in the group 
belonging to the latter half of the 12th century is 
geometric rather than vegetable. In the 13th 
century we find none but vegetable motives, and 
then Vastergotland was the centre of the type. In 
Husaby [FiG. 15, 16] there is a preeminent speci- 
men. The font of Studham, Bedford [FlG. 17], 
may be compared with it. At this point I cannot 

historic interest. The utility of Purbeck marble 
is familiar industrially for details of architecture, 
and pre-eminently for shafts of columns. 

Similarly an industrial craft arose in Gotland in 
a red spotted marble not utilised previously ; it 
was employed partly for details of architecture and 
more particularly for fonts. Blue-grey limestone 
also came into use, and the actual preference of the 
material asserted itself by the polished roundness 


refrain from mentioning a brilliant example of 
fonts showing the trend under discussion, which 
was imported direct from England to Scandinavia. 
In Tikjob church, in North Jylland, there is a font 
basin [Plate II, l], exquisitely carved, unique 
in Denmark, of which the origin has never been 
elucidated ; but its form is such that it obviously 
belongs to the same English school which 
fashioned the fonts at Great Kimble and Ayles- 
bury, both in Buckinghamshire. 

The other chief group of the 13th century, decor- 
ated with fluting resembling scallop shells, centres 
in Gotland. The similarities which appear in the 
font-bowls of Martebo and Beverley [Plate II, 
K, m] are decisive in favour of an Anglo-Swedish 
connection in this respect : the quatrefoil plan of 
the Beverley font is quite common in the Gotland 
group in question. The architectural form of its 
shaft has also its counterpart in Sweden, e.g., in 
Gudmundra, Anger- 

English condi- 
tions are reflected 
from another point 
of view by the 
mussel - bowl group 
of Gotland. From 
the end of the 12th 
century a lively in- 
dustry in stone carv- 
ing had developed 
at Purbeck, Dorset- 
shire ; this was re- 
presented in the 
following century by 
the extensive expor- 
tation of quadri- 
lateral fonts of Pur- 
beck marble, which must have been attractive in 
their day by reason of the shining polish of the 
material. Though a product of industry rather 
than art, this nevertheless furnishes a detail of 


of its surface. Just as Purbeck had export-routes 
round the coasts of England, so the mussel- 
bowls of Gotland had theirs on the shores of 
the Baltic. 

Baptismal art in mediaeval Sweden is unusually 
rich, and may be compared advantageously with 
the same art in England, though England is cer- 
tainly much favoured in this respect. This fact is, 
however, not illustrated in the present article, 
which exemplifies only a small section of the subject 
in Sweden, but if emerges more clearly from a 
study of stone sculpture in East Sweden and 
especially in Gotland, where during the 12th cen- 
tury the artist of Gotland remoulded his older 
traditions with the impressions which he received 
from Germany, and through Italy or Russia from 
the East, and compounded of the two a develop- 
ment of remarkable interest. 

liotc. — In this article sources have not been 
quoted for those details which are well known to 
Swedish students, but possibly unfamiliar to some 
readers of The Burlington Magazine. I there- 
fore make the following general reference to the 
latest works on the subject, where the reader 
may also obtain information concerning earlier 
literature : — 

HiLDEBRAND (Hans), Sveriges Medeltid in, 
Stockholm, iSgS-iQoOj^p. 478 ff. 

Tynell (Lars), Skancs medeltida dopfuntar, 
Stockholm, 1913. 

CURMAN (Sigurd), RoosvAL (Johnny), Ed., 
Sveriges Kyrkor, Konsihistoriskt inventariiun. From 

ROOSVAL (Johnny). Papers on (i) Svensk 
Konsthisloria, Ed., Axel Romdahl and Johnny 
Roosval, Stockholm, 1913 ; (2) Utstcillningen av 
dldre kyrklig konst, Strengniis, 1910; (3) Siudier, 
Ed. Curman, Roosval and Af Ugglas ; (4) Utstdll- 
itingcn av dldre kyrklig konst i Hernosand, 1912 ; 
Stiidier, Ed., Johnny Roosval ; (5) Ostergotland, 
Ed. Alice Trolle, Stockholm, 1916 ; (6) Dopfuntar 
i Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm, 1917. 




jMONGST the books illustrated by 
.Ukiyoye artists that have come down 
Ito us, those of Kitagawa Utamaro rank 
• very high, not only on account of 
Jtheir rare artistic qualities but also by 
reason of their variety of subject. From bevies 
of beautiful women to charming landscapes ; from 
birds, shells and insects to the secrets of the chamber 
we have a panorama of art, which no other artist 
except Hokusai — and he in quite a different 
manner — has produced. Utamaro studied his sub- 
jects to such good effect that one is lost in 
admiration of the accuracy with which he depicted 
them. In none of his books is this more apparent 
than in those now under consideration. Here 
we have, condensed into 36 plates, as truthful a 
rendering of the beauties of entomology, con- 
chology and ornithology, as is to be found in 
similar books of any nation. The surroundings 
in which the artist has placed his creatures are no 
less marvellous than are their natural poses. We 
detect not only the genius of a master artist but 
also the acute perception of a born naturalist. It 
is hard to persuade those who are unacquainted 
with the technical process by means of which 
these masterpieces were produced that they are 
not original water colours, so deftly has the printer 
expressed the artist's designs. 

De Goncourt and Kurth in their books on 
Utamaro, Buret in his catalogue of the Biblio- 
th^que Nationale of Paris, and the compilers of 
the sale catalogues of various collections have 
afforded us a glimpse into the nature of these 
books. Still, it is only a glimpse. Such questions 
as are of vital interest to collectors, as for 
example how to distinguish the f^rst editions, 
they have, with the exception of Kurth, ignored. 
The latter, however, has been guilty of several 
errors of description, with the result that we have 
been misled rather than guided on some of the 
most important points. 

The following notes apply in general to all 
books : 

1. The date on which a book was published is 
generally found on a page at the end, upon which 
also appear the name of the artist, the name and 
address of the publisher, and sometimes that of the 
engraver. The name of the printer is rarely given. 

2. The date of the first edition of a work is 
often repeated in subsequent editions, so that we 
are led to believe ourselves to be the possessors of 
the original edition, whereas we only have a later 
edition printed from the more or less worn-out 
blocks that were used for the first edition. Copies 
were frequently issued some twenty years or more 
after the original. Hence it is important to care- 
fully note the points which characterize the first 
edition of a book. The detailed description of 

each book mentioned in this series refers to the 
original issue, remarks being added to show how 
later editions differ from the original. 

3. As regards the dating of books, it should be 
borne in mind that the Japanese seasons (old 
style) differed from ours in that the first three 
months of the year were styled Spring (Haru), 
the second three Summer (Hatsu), the third three 
Autumn (AkiJ, and the last three Winter (Fuyu). 
Moreover the ist, 2nd, 3rd months, etc., do not 
necessarily correspond to our Jan., Feb., Mar., 
etc. In fact they rarely do so correspond. 

4. Owing to lack of space, I have reluctantly 
decided to exclude translations of the Kioka 
and Hokku poems which accompany the book 

THE INSECT BOOK.— General description. 
Title : " Yehon Mushi Erabi, A picture book of 
selected insects", 2 vols., each 10^ in. by 7A in., 
in colours, gauffrage, and mica. Author of pre- 
face : Yadoya Meshimori. Author of postscript: 
Toriyama Sekiyen. Designer: Kitagawa Utamaro. 
Publisher : Tsutaya Jusaburo of Tori Abura cho. 
Engraver : Toisso, who is not mentioned as is 
usual at the end of the book, but is referred to by 
Sekiyen in his postscript. Date of publication : 
first month of the year Tsuchi-no-E Saru, 
Temmei era (February, 1788). The postscript is 
dated the winter of 1787. Covers : light brown 
basket-pattern paper, on which are light and dark 
brown geometrically drawn conventional flowers. 
Affixed to the front covers of each volume is a 
white label with a geometrical design, splashed 
with silver, on which is inscribed the title, 
Utamaro gwa (painted), and Jo or Ge, meaning 
first or last volume respectively. 

Translation of the Preface.— On this the night of the 
14th of the 8th month, I have persuaded some friends of 
mine with a nice turn of wit to assemble at a shop hard by 
Ryogoku, northwards in the direction of the Yoshiwara 
in order that we may listen to the chirpings of the insects 
in the fields. We spread out our mats on the banks of 
the Sumida River and try, each according to our several 
tastes, to place a right value upon the songs of the insects. 
Purposely we have banned both women and wine, thereby 
incurring the scorn of the bystanders, who take us for a 
set of stingy fellows wishing to enjoy their banquet alone. 
Mingling with the songs of the insects comes the chanting 
of the Sutras from a certain temple. How full of pathos 
and how reminiscent of that ancestral hall built by the 
celebrated Kuenshi ! People ridicule us, dubbing us seekers 
of second-hand goods at the morning market. Not wishing 
to pass the hours in idleness, we follow in the footsteps of 
the renowned Choshushi by imitating his insect poem 
competitions. We sing, moreover, humorous love-ditties. 
So the night speeds on. As no proprietor owns the river, 
the mountain breezes or the moon, and as there are here 
no land-levying taxes, we agree that the Insects themselves 
are the masters of our banquet laid on carpets spread on 
the grass. And now it is time to quit the spot, turning our 
faces towards the place where the dew lies heaviest, l gh ! 
how like a House of Mourning with its 360 Buddhist 
priests ! Written by Yadoya Meshimori." 

' The author compares the dulness of the picnic at which 
women and wine had been banned to a House of Mourning in 
which is only audible the lugubrious requiem of 360 monks. 


Illustrated Books of Japan 

Detailed description of Vol. I. — Three pages of 
preface followed by eight plates, each being 
divided in half and each half being within a 
double-lined frame. The pages are numbered 
on their inner margins between each half plate. 
On each plate are two poems of a humorous 
character supposed to be sung in most cases by 
the insects depicted and are signed by well known 
comic poets of the time, amongst whom is the 
artist Ippitsusai Buncho, under the pseudonym 
of Tsuburi Hikari or Shiny Pate in allusion to 
his baldness. 

Vol. I, PI. i, p. I.— On the right half, a 
reddish-brown hairy caterpillar with pink stripes 
(Ke-mushi, lit. hair insect. Larva of the Lepidop- 
tera) is crawling upwards with body arched 
along the stem of a green plant, with white flowers 
edged pink. Those parts of the stem on which 
the pro-legs of the larva are resting are touched 
with Chinese white to represent the glutinous 
excretion from its glands. On the left are three 
greyish-black wasps (Hachi), two of which are 
clinging to a light grey coloured nest that hangs 
from the plant, whilst the third is flying below. 
This plate is remarkable for the lifelike character 
of the laborious progress of the caterpillar and the 
buzzing movement of the wasps. 

PI. ii, p. 2. — A grasshopper (Umaoi-mushi, 
Locusta plantaris), with yellow body and brown 
back, is feeling its way along a blade of grass, 
while a brown centipede (Nukabe) wriggles up a 
stem of a plant tipped with lilac and yellow-white 
blooms. The colouring and drawing of the 
flowering plant are very line. 

PI. iii, p. 3. — A large greyish-purple bamboo 
shoot extends almost across the plate. A mole- 
cricket (Kera. Gryllotalpa) is crawling along the 
foreground. An earwig(Hasami-mushi, Forficula 
sp.), with black back striated white and with 
brown underparts, is poised on the shoot with tail 
uplifted. Behind the shoot, and rearing its bloom 
upwards, is the stem of a pinkish-white flower 
tipped with a bud just opening and disclosing the 
red within. The treatment of the opening bud is 
masterly, while the whole picture set against a 
faint yellow ground is one of great charm. 

PI. iv, p. 4 [Plate, a]. — A beautiful arrange- 
ment of poppies in various shades of pink are 
rearing their heads upwards against a pale yellow 
ground. On the right half a large dragonfly 
(Tomboj hovers over a drooping poppy bud. Its 
wings are outstretched and its legs dangle as if 
about to descend on to the stem. On the left 
side, a white butterfly (Cho) with folded wings 
has settled on a poppy, whilst its mate in white, 
shaded light brown, is flying downwards as if to 
join the first. The wings of the insects glisten 
with mica. The beautiful colouring of the poppy 
blooms and their pale green foliage are marvels of 
flower painting. The sheen on the wings of the 


insects is a masterpiece of printing. Wonderful 
too is the delicate network of veins in the wings 
of the dragonfly. Gauffrage lightly apjjlied 
enhances the beauty of the flowers and buds. 
The whole plate is suffused with bright sunshine. 

PI. V, p. 5.— A white caterpillar (Imo-mishi) 
lies with extended body along the stalk of a taro- 
plant, whilst a light brown horsefly (Abu) with 
uplifted wings is about to settle on a leaf at the 
base of the same plant. The corrugations of the 
caterpillar's body are expressed in gauffrage 
without outline, the eyes and pro-legs being in 

PI. vi, p. 6. — A night scene. On a gray wash 
ground, a pale gray cricket (Malsu-mushi, Calyp- 
totryphus marmoratus) is voraciously feeding on 
the flower of a grass plant. Three fireflies (Hotaru), 
two crawling upwards along the stem and blade 
of the plants, a third flying downwards light up 
the darkness of the night with the glow from their 
posterior phosphorescent organs, whilst the red 
patch on the thorax of two of them is clearly 
visible. The nearest blades of grass .are deep 
black, those in rear becoming gradually lighter as 
they approach the illumined zone. The artist has 
here succeeded in reproducing with astonishing 
realism a scene of nature most difficult to delineate. 

PI. vii, p.7. — A praying-mantis (Toro. M. religi- 
osa) is patiently waiting on a small yellow melon 
wiih its fore limbs pawing the air in readiness to 
seize any insect that may come within its reach, 
whilst its head is turned in an expectant manner 
towards the right. A small green grasshopper 
(Batta) crawls along an elongated pod of the soya 
bean plant. The attitude of the Mantis is truly 

PI. viii, p. 8.— Against a pearl gray ground, a 
cicada (Higurashi), with gray wings mottled black 
and white and light green head, crawls up the 
leaf of an Indian maize. A spider (Kumo) in two 
shades of dove colour is on another blade busily 
spinning its web, the white meshes of which are 
faintly visible above the insect. A pale yellow 
maize projects from its sheath. This fine plate is 
noticeable for the way in which gauffrage without 
outline is applied to represent the grains of the 
"cob" of the maize. The last page is blank 
without any frame. 

Vol. II. Reverse of page i is blank without a 

PL ix, p. I.— On the right half of the plate, 
supported in position by bamboo rods painted 
white or j'ellow, are several pinks and two violet 
flowers of the genus ptatycodon grandiflorum. 
Crawling up the white bamboo is an insect that 
infests rice fields (Inago, Locusta sp.). On the 
left half of the plate a red dragonfly (Aka-tombo) 
has just alighted on the end of one of the yellow 
bamboos. The wings of both insects sparkle 
with mica, which is also sparsely sprinkled on 


•»%^ -^jy 

^ "^ -Co >^ 


; ^ i. 


the violet flowers and their foHage producing the 
effect of dew. 

PI. X, p. 2 [Plate, b].— Uncoiling itself from 
around a plant with small blue flowers is a gray 
and white snake (Hebi) with protruding tongue 
preparing to pursue a yellow lizard (Tokage) 
mottled blown, that has halted in its flight and 
is gazing back over its left shoulder at its pursuer 
as if mesmerised. The bodies of both reptiles are 
resplendent with mica. A fine picture, full of 
movement and admirably balanced. 

PI. xi, p. 3.— A helmet-beetle (Kabuto-mushi, 
Xylotrupes dichotomus), standing on the leaf of a 
flowering plant, is gazing upwards in the direction 
of a basket-worm (Mino-mushi) suspended from 
a branch laden with small yellow and pink flowers 
(Lespedeza). The black body of the beetle reflects 
a metallic lustre. 

PI. xii, p. 4.— Crawling downwards from the 
top of a deep purple egg-plant (Solanum melon- 
gena) is a kind of noisy-cricket (Kutsuwa-mushi). 
A light grayish-pink coloured snail (Katatsumuri) 
is making its way upwards along the leaf of a 
flowering Zingiber Mioga. The facial expression of 
the cricket is noteworthy. 

PI. xiii, p. 5. — A green cricket with yellow wings 
and pinkish abdomen is progressing sideways along 
the stem of a snake-melon plant rich with two 
golden flowers and two elongated fruits. On one of 
the latter is a cicada (Semi) with gray body and 
silvery wings, the delicate veins of which show 
red and through which the body itself is clearly 
visible. The foliage in different shades of green, 
the sheen from the wings and legs of the cricket 
expressed by mica, the transparency of the wings 
of the cicada, and the slight gauffrage of the 
golden blooms all combine to form a very beautiful 

PI. xiv, p. 6.— A black cricket (Korogi) is just 
disappearing behind a leaf of the Begonia evan- 
siana, the posterior portion of its body only being 
seen. A pink earth-worm (Mimizu) winds its 
■way in and out among the lower stalks of the 

PI. XV, p. 7.— Beneath the surface of a clear 
pond partly overgrown with a species of Lotus 
(Hasu, Nelumbium speciosum) a large male frog 
(Kairu) is swimming towards its mate, who is 
squatting on a small leaf, hidden, as she thinks, 
under a huge leaf, and quite unconscious of the 
fact that the reflection of her image in the water 
below has revealed her lurking place. On the 
same leaf is a golden-insect beetle (Kogane mushi, 
Mimeta Gaschkevitchi). The distorted-reflection 
in the water of the female frog is admirably 
expressed, whilst the bustling excitement of the 
male is drawn with much humour. 

On the right of the next page, which is 
unnumbered and is reproduced in Kurth's book, 
is a notice of three projected works on birds, 

Illustrated Books of Japan 

beasts and fishes, to be illustrated by Kitagawa 
Utamaro and compiled by Yadoya Meshimori. 
It also contains the date of the present work and 
the name and address of the publisher, together 
with an announcement to the effect that the afore- 
mentioned books would shortly be published and 
that the subjects for the poems would be given 
out by the publisher, who requests people to 
kindly compose suitable Love poems and send 
them in to him. On the left side of the page and 
continued on its reverse is Toriyama Sekyen's 
postscript, a translation of which is as follows : — 
Postscript.— To form pictures of living things in the 
mind and then to transfer them to the brush is the true art 
of Painting. My pupil Utamaro, in depicting the life of 
these insects, has produced "pictures from the heart". 
I recollect how Uta-shi (also pronounced Uta-ko) in his 
childhood acquired the habit of observing the most minute 
details of living creatures; and I used to notice how ab- 
sorbed he would become when playing during the autumn 
in the garden with a Dragonfly tied to the end of a thread 
or with a Cricket held in his hand. Oftentimes have I had 
to reprimand him, being fearful lest he might take their 
lives. In presenting us with these tokens of his mature 
talent, his brush has become famous. He has despoiled the 
Pearl-insect (Tama-mushi, Chrysochroa elegans) of its 
sheen, thereby causing Ancient Painting to stagger, against 
which too he has turned the fragile weapons of the 
Praying Mantis. He has employed the burrowing powers 
of the Earth-worm in order to grope, together with the 
larvse of the mosquito, into the dark profundities of Nature, 
being lighted on his path by the glow of the Fireflies. 

I have been asked to find out, in conjunction with the 
members of the comic poem competition, the first thread 
which will solve the entanglement of this Spider's Web 
and so unravel the origin of these things which the skilful 
knife of Toisso has engraved on the cherry tree. Hence I 
have written this. 

(Signed) Toriyama Sekiyen. 

(Sealed) Toriyama Toyofusa. 
In the winter of the Goat Year, in the 7th year of the 
Temmei era (=1787). 

The last page contains a list of books already 
published by Tsutaya. This important page which 
is not mentioned by Kurth is only to be found 
in the earliest issue of the first edition. It con- 
tains the titles and a brief description of ten books 
(four of these being without illustrations are 
omitted) : — 

1. Temmei Shinkei Hyakunin-isshu, Kokon Kioka 
Fukuro, " a new series of 100 poets of Temmei era ; a 
sackful of ancient and modern comic poems". One vol., 
in colours, enclosed in a case. 

2. Temmei Shinkei Gojunin-isshu, Azuma-buri Kioka 
Bunko, " a new series of 50 poets of Temmei era ; a book- 
case of comic poems in the style of Azuma". One vol., 
in colours. 

3. Yehon Musha waraji, "a picture book of the 
straw sandals of warriors ". Two large vols., in colours, 
illustrated by Kitao Shigemasa. 

4. Yehon Kotoba no Hana, " a picture book of the 
language of flowers". Two vols., illustrated by Kitagawa 

5. Yehon Sujiya Kama, "a picture book of the kettles 
of Sujiya ". Two vols., illustrated by Kitagawa Utamaro. 

6. Yehon Momochidori, "a picture book of birds" 
(lit : a group of little seabirds). Three vols., illustrated by 
Kitao Shigemasa. 

Following this list is the name and address of 
the publisher. Of the above books, numbers i 


Illustrated Books of Japan 

and 2 are illustrated by Kitao Masanobu, and were 
published in 1786. No. 4 was published in 1787. 
No. 5, as far as is known, has not come down to 
us. It is described as containing illustrations of 
warriors and landscapes, to which comic poems 
are attached. Sujiya is a bridge situated near the 
N'ihonbashi, and was a fashionable resort. This 
book and Xos. 3 and 6 were obviously published 
before 1788, but the exact dates have not yet been 

A 2nd edition of the " Insect Book" appeared, 
according to the Gillot catalogue (Paris, 1904), in 
one vol., with 18 illustrations, in 1821. We are 
not told what are the subjects of the additional 
plates. A 3rd edition in 2 vols., in colours, mica 


iMONG the fine paintings collected by 
[the second Lord Northwick, which 
jstill remain at Northwick House near 
tBlockley in the possession of Capt. 
, ,1 F. G. Spencer-Churchill, there is a fine 
portrait by Van Dyck, which was purchased 
originally as a portrait of the famous Earl of 
Strafford. The portrait obviously does not re- 
present Strafford or any Englishman, but one of 
Van Dyck's contemporaries at Antwerp. This 
portrait has recently had its disfiguring varnishes 
and repaints removed by Mr. Tanner at Birming- 


[Stubbe's "Anatomy of .Abuses," 15S3 : "The other sort [of 
French hose] contayneth neither length, breadth nor sidenes 
(being not past a quarter of a yarde side) wherof some be 
paned, cut and drawne out with costly ornaments with canions 
annexed reaching beneath their knees", 

"... cantons or canons . . . were not tags or tubes at the 
ends of the ribands or laces, as Mr. Strutt has conjectured, but 
one or more rolls terminating the breeches below the knee as 
a common French dictionary would have told him." — Planche : 
"British Costume", 1846 edition. 

Ibid. Introduction, p. xiii : " It is extraordinary to observe 
the implicit confidence with which the most egregrious mis- 
lakes have been copied by one writer after another, apparently 
without the propriety, however, having once occurred to them of 
referring to the original authorities".] 

• HE late J. R. Planche spoke only too 
truly, and the universal acceptance to 
this day of his explanation of this 
very term— " canions" — is a capital 
instance of how even writers of de- 
served repute in their own line are content, 
without further enquiry, to copy the dictum of a 
supposed expert in another. His own rather dis- 

' Thus Planches fallacy has been perpetuated by Fairholt, 
Furnivall, \V. W. Greg, Skeat the Oxford Dictionary, the Con- 
cise English Dictionary, the Century Dictionary, the Encyclo- 
paedic Dictionary, the Standard Dictionary and many more, 
an array sufficiently formidable to give me pause. 

and gauffrage, and with the plates in the same order 
as in the first edition, was published by Nishimura 
Yohachi in 1823. It is a pretty book, but the col- 
ouring less delicate than in the original edition ; 
whilst the 14th plate has a pink-wash ground. 
A 4th edition, entitled Mushi-rui Gwafu, " pictures 
of the insect family ", i vol. in colours, was pub- 
lished in Tokio in 1892, and is signed Utamaro. 

As we close the " Insect Book" we share to the 
full Sekiyen's enthusiasm for his pupil's work, and 
echo his admiration of the consummate skill of 
the engraver Toisso. We also recognise the deft 
manipulation of the unknown printer who has 
left us one of the world's masterpieces of colour 


ham, when an original inscription came to light : 
Actntis Slice 46 Piiino Ociobre, Anno 16^1. 
This inscription is in accordance with the painting 
itself, which is an exceedingly fine example of 
Van Dyck's work at Antwerp, just before he was 
persuaded to remove to London. It is difficult to 
identify the portraits of this period, when the 
subjects do not appear in Van Dyck's famous 
Iconographie. Possibly the publication of the 
portrait here may lead to identification hereafter. 
The portrait speaks for itself, and calls for no 

dainful reference to Strutt's tentative suggestion 
is hardly warranted, for though the latter un- 
doubtedly missed the point, he was yet nearer the 
root-sense of the word than his critic. " A 
common French dictionary " is anyhow but 
doubtful authority for the explanation of i6th 
century French nomenclature, and not the sort of 
evidence one might fairly expect from a stickler 
for " the propriety of referring to original au- 
thorities". Moreover I have yet to find the French 
dictionary, common or uncommon, that lends any 
support to Planche's pronouncement; nor has any 
class of French writer, so far as I know, connected 
the term "canons" (Anglic6 "canions") with 
"rolls terminating the breeches below the knee". 
Most of them, indeed, still under the glamour of 
the Grand Si'ccle, revert to meanings current under 
Louis XIV, and ignore altogether the original ap- 
plication of the word in the i6th century.* What- 
ever one's general estimate may be of Boyer and 
Napoleon Laudais — whom Planch^ quotes as his 

'Even the Larousse is not free from this "classical" 
obsession. La Grande Encyclopidie (s. v. Canon) is an honour- 
able exception. 




witnesses — neither of them (i) can claim to be 
authoritative for the i6th century, nor (2) so 
much as hints at these "one or more rolls, etc."' 
Nares, being in doubt upon this same point, shows 
praiseworthy caution.* 

I would submit at the outset that these "canions 
of breeches ", whatever they may have been, figure 

FIG. I. 1589. VACELLIO : 


Fig. I. circ. 1595 ? 


far too obtrusively in Elizabethan-Jacobean texts 
to denote so relatively insignificant a feature of 
contemporary apparel as the " rolls " to which 
Planchd has lent undue prominence.' Accordingly 

' These rolls below the knee are not specially characteristic 
of the Elizabethan or Jacobean periods ; but they are pir contra 
a marked feature of the " landsknecht " fashions so generally 
popular c. 1510.40, and the "Glossary" to Fairholt's work 
alludes to them s. v. " Bulwarks " on the strength of a line from 
VVynkyn de Worde. The rolls delineated in Planche's article on 
"Canions" in vol I of his "Cyclopedia" are almost certainly the 
rolled tops of the stockings. The two anonymous French paint- 
ings — Les Noces de Joyeuse 3nd Bell a la com- de Henri III — in 
the Louvre show them agreeing in texture and colour with the 
stockings, the breeches being mostly of a different tint, corrobo- 
rating therein the remarks in H. Estienne's " Deux Dialogues " 
1578. Moreover "bas a rouUer " occur in several French 
accounts, etc., of the i6th century. See also Fig. i,B, where one 
stocking-top, unrolled, hangs down over the garter like a 

* I quote from Halliwell and Wrights edition (1905) of the 
"Glossary", but believe this item to conform to the original : 
" Canions — Thus defined in Kersey's Dictionary ' Cannions — 
boot-hose tops ; an old fashioned ornament for the legs '. That 
is to say a particular addition to the breeches". 

Ed Phillips' "New World of Words" (ed. 1679 — Addenda) 
has, by the way, " Cannions (French : Canons — Gk : v-irfpKyrjfiLtSes) 
a sort of Boothose-tops ". 

' Not that one would deny the occasional appearance of a 
small roll or other ornamental border to the knee-breeches as to 
the canions themselves, e.g., portrait of James I as a child, 1574 
(Nat. Port. Gall.) or the figure of George Gascoigne presenting 
his Hemetes the Heremyte to Queen Elizabeth, 1575-6 (Brit. Mus. 
M.S. Royal 18 A xlviii). Cf. the "pickadils" at the knee in 
Frobisher portrait, 1577 (Bodleian), in plate to my " Shake- 
sperian Dress Notes — I " {The Burlington Magazine, June 1916). 

^^af are ^^ Canions''.^ 

let us see whether, in the light of more or less 
contemporary allusions, we can gather any definite 
notion of what the term does denote ; having done 
which, we may further e.xamine whether contem- 
porary delineations of costume offer any obvious 
feature that fits in with these impressions. 

1° The earliest English forms of the word" all 
betray the n (=ny) of the parent Spanish canon = 
a tube or pipe, and hence, by extension, any object 
more or less tubular in form. Minsheu's "Ductor 
in Linguas", 1617, says s.v. "cannions of breeches" i' 
. . . G [allice] canons ; on les app'ele ainsi pour ce 
qu'ils sont aitciinenient semblables aiix canons d'ai-- 
iillerie, because they are like cannons of Artillerie 
or Cannes or pots ". He, like other lexicographers, 
English, French and Italian, of the Spanish tongue 
at this date, gives as synonymous " muslos de cal- 
9as" (literally = " thighs of hose", a phrase, by the 
way, actually used in an account of the Lord High 
Treasurer of Scotland for February 1547-48). In 
1598 Florio renders the Italian ginochielli as 
"canions for the knees", i.e., coverings for the 
knees, as indeed they commonly were, and the 
same word denotes the knee-cops of an armour.* 
Quicherat, Thiers, Enlart re "genouill^res". 

With the Spanish miislo cf. the Italian cosciale 
= "a covering for the thigh of any kind, either 
armour or apparel".' This word (as also coscioni) 
Antoine Oudin explains as " canons de chausses ". 
Vecellio's figure of "a Burgundian noble" wearing 

• As canion, canyon, cannion, caneyane. See the Oxford 
Dictionary. The word survives in the " Grand Canyon " of 
Arizona. French : canons [rfe chausses'\. Spanish : caiiones, 
mnslos [de calfas'l, (aragnelles. Italian : cannoni, cosciali, giiioc- 
chielli. Cf. dictionaries of Cotgrave, R. Percyval, Minsheu, 
Cesar and Antoine Oudin, Vittori Florio (and Torriano's edition 
of same, 1659, but based on the Delia Cruscan Vocabolario and 
Florio's unpublished notes), Covarrubias, etc. 

'The Century Dictionary, s.v. "canions" is guilty of 
singular disingenuousness ; for, having repeated the Plan- 
cheian fallacy, it adds, in apparent support, " Minsheu — 1617" 1 
Minsheu's Spanish Dictionaric, 1599, renders " Caiion — The 
great bones in the arms and legs, a quille, the barrelle of 
any gunne, the cannions of breeches. Also a cannon or great 
piece of ordnance ", And the Novisimo Diccionario de la 
Lengua Castcllana. published under the auspices of the Spanish 
Academy in 1868, has "Caiion (en los vestidos) — la parte que 
por su figura o doblez imita de algun modo al cafion, como 
son las mangas, los pliegos de los vestidos " and quotes, from 
P. A. de Alarcon " Usaba [Clavijo] en todo tiempo recias botas 
negras de alto cafion". Cf. the modern German " Kanonen " 
used of the high-topped boots of university students. 

' Quicherat defines the " canions " as a kind of "genouillere ", 
intermediate between the short, puffed breeches and the stock- 
ings, and is followed by MM. Ad. Thiers (s. v. " Canon " in " La 
Grande Encyclopedic ") and Enlart (" Manuel d'ArcheoIogie 
fran?aise — III " Le Costume" 1916). Unfortunately none of 
them adduces contemporary evidence. While the real erudition 
and conscientiousness of the first-named make one reluctant to 
believe that he committed himself to any unfounded theory, it 
looks as if the other two writers had taken his conclusion on 
trust. Their view is substantially my own, but it should be ob- 
served (a) that the " canions " were not an independent article 
but an adjunct of the breeches proper and (fe) were commonly 
of materials other than lingerie. See quotations below. 

' Cf. s. v. Cosciale the Delia Cruscan " Vocabolario" of 1612, 
and Antoine Oudin's " Recherches italiennes et franijoises ". 


iVJiat are " C anions^' ? 

' ' bracoui ili vclltito ad opera, CON ALCUNM COSCIA- 
is unequivocal testimony as to the nature of these 

2° "Canions" seem to be always associated 
with wide breeches of the " trunk-hose " class— sc. 
"French" or "round" hose, generally " paned " 

or "gally-gascoynes", an impression definitely 

confirmed by Covarrubias y Horozco.'" As in 
Spanish f/iiisloa de cal(pas = crt;7o»7fs and in Italian 
cosciali, giiiocchielli = caiiiioui, so in English we 
meet with scalijigs, scabiloniaiis, scaviloues, as 
apparent synonyms of canions. To me at least the 
texts appear to point directly to this conclusion." 

Ergo what we have to look for in contemporary 
illustrations of dress is an article {a) tubular in 
structure, (fc) appended to shortish wide breeches, 
(c) covering the lower thigh and knee.'- With 
these postulates before us we are immediately 
reminded of a very characteristic feature of mas- 
culine costume which makes its appearance in 
contemporary art just about the date when canions 
begin to be noticed by writers. This is a fashion 
of close, sheath-like continuations attached to the 
short trunks and encasing the lower thighs and 

" " Tesoro de lar lengua Castellana o Espanola" 1611, which 
defines " Canones " as " los [caiiones] q se pega en los cal?as 
sueltas ". Philibert Monefs " Invantairc " etc., 1635, translates 
" chausses a canons— Utraria femoralia ". 
" Account of Sir Philip Sidney at Oxford, August 1566. 
" Item, for [ sarcejnette to make [Mr. PhiHpp a pai]re 

of skalinge [hose because of cer]taine mericgalles ..." 

" Itm, for a lace to drawe his skalinge hose together benethe 

1577. Holinshed(sub anno 1571) — " galeygascoyne breeches 
all of Crymson satyn ... he put off his nether stockes and so 
barefoot and barelegged save hys sylk scavilones to the anckles ". 
Cf. this and the preceding quotation with Note 13. 

1570. MS. letter at Corp. Christi, Camb., censures the 
"regents" Niolls and Browne for wearing". . . great galli- 
gaskins and barrelled hoocs stuffed with horse tayles ; with 
skabilonians and knitt netherstockes". 

1377. " Great bumbasted breches, skalinges, or scabulonious 
clokes and gownes after the laie fashion ", quoted in ]. Raine 
"Vestments". "Scabulonious", if correct, looks like an dira| 
Xe7o^«i'oi', but I suspect an erroneous transcription, and venture 
to submit as an emended reading "... breches, skalinges or 
scabulonions, clokes and gownes ..." 

See also in "Henslowe Papers" (ed. \V. \V. Greg) an inven- 
tory of apparel of the year 1598, in the hand of Edward Alleyn, 
where, under the subheading " Frenchose " occur "Gould 
payns with black stript scalings of canish ", "red payns for a 
boy w' yelo scalins" and a number of similar entries. 
" 1572. Accounts of court of Charles IX : 
"... chausses d'estamct gris couppees au genoil, faictes a 
bandes a I'Espagnole . . . avec canons et pochettes ". 

1570. Ibid. "4 aulnes vellours noir pour faire . . . chausses 
a la parguesse . . . et petitz canons de tafetas noir ". 

15S5. J. Higins " Nomenclator " Subligar — L. Superior 
bracharum pars pudenda et femora obtegens — G. Brayes — A. 
Slops or breeches without canions or nether stocks. 

1593. Inventory of Hector Wooddrington in Surtees' Durham 
Willi — "j pair Frenchhose with crimosen saltan carryons" 

1598. Henslowe " Diary " ". . a payer of paned hose . . . 
drawn out with cloth of silver and canyons to the same ". 

" a payer of Rownd hosse of payns of sylke layd with sylver 
lace and caneyanes of clothe of sylver". 

161 1. Cotgravc "chausses a queue de merlus — round 
breeches with strait canions ..." 

I 06 

knees (like the "legs" of our knee-breeches)." 
They appear to have come into vogue, when, in 
the course of the i6th century, the breeches and 
stockings, heretofore permanently united,'* tended 
increasingly to be divorced. Quicherat's statement 
— their ostensible purpose was to fill up any 
hiatus between the two — seems well enough 
founded.'^ They varied in length both upward 
and downward, ascending as the breeches were 
curtailed. The stockings are depicted as drawn 
up and secured indifferently outside [Plate, a, 
(a)] or inside (Figs, i and 2B) the canions. In 
the 8o's and early 90's of the i6th century, 
when the breeches proper often shrank to a 
mere padded (and mostly paned) roll about the 
hips they ascended till 
they usurped the lion's 
share of the covering of 
the upper limb ; hence 
their later identification 
with the breeches.'" 
These canions or scal- 
ings or scabilonians (as 
I venture to call them) 
are of constant recur- 
rence in paintings, 
prints, elc, circa 1570- 
1620. They are shown 
of plain stuff in the left 
wing of the Hart family 
triptych, 1575 (LiiUing- p,q ^ turberville ; "book 
stone) [Plate, b], the of hawkeng", paned trunk 
portrait of Sir \V. hose, (a) with continuous long 

i> 1 -^u J tA„-, stockings, (b) with canions (b) 

Kaleigh and son, 1602 ^^^ ^^^^^^ stockings. 

(Wickham Court) the 

full-length portrait of Essex, c. 1595 (Woburn). 

Ffichly brocaded or embroidered examples are 

" Their nearest modern analogues perhaps are the close- 
laced or buttoned " extensions " of modern riding and sporting 

" See Fig. 2, a. The Mcmoircs of Marshal de Vieilleville, 
by his secretary Carloix, mentions troops cutting off their 
netherstocks preparatory to fording a stream — "Car en ce 
temps la [viz. : in 1552] toutes sortes de gens, . . . portoient 
dcs chausses entiercs, le haut tenant au bas ..." 

1557. Com pies royniix of Julian de Bourdeville " Pour 
demye aulne de serge noire de FIcurence pour faire ung bas 
long pour servir a un hault [de chausses] de veloux. Cf. other 
quotations illustrating the point in " Shakespearian Dress- 
Notes " {The Burlington Magazine, June 1916). An anonymous 
Netherlandish print of late ibth century in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale shows a number of females fighting over a pair of 
trunkhose [Plate, a], with stockings attached, and a similar 
pair figures in the painting of the Saint Bartholomew Massacre, 
by F. Dubois (Silvius — d. 1584) in the Musee Arlaud at Lau- 
sanne. Their aspect when not actually in wear is rarely illustrated 
[Plate, a (h)l. 

" It is significant in the Henslowe papers and " Diary" that 
in the few cases where the " French", " round" or " paned" 
hose are not furnished with "canions" (or "scalings") they 
arc coupled with long stockings. 

" As e.g. in Middleton's " More Dissemblers besides Women " 
we find " 'Tis pity thou wast ever hred to be thrust through a 
pair of canions " ; or again in K'. Richmond's prefatory verses 
to Coryate's " Crudities — " For nought fears he backbiters' nips 
in doublet or in canions " ; with which compare frontispiece of 
that work. 


I II I I \ 

(bI the elder son of SIR PEKCYVAL 
(detail) by C. KETEL (?) (SIR \V. HART 



JVhat are " Canions''\^ 

depicted in the portraits of Sir C. Hatton, c. 1580 
(Ditchley), Sir J. Bowes, 1583 (Charlton Park) 
[Plate, c]. Specimens of the "cut" (or "slashed") 
variety are seen in Hilliard's full-length miniature 
of Sir C. Hatton in Chancellor's robes, 1577 
(Salting bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum), 
and in the three-quarter portrait of Sir H. Lee 
with his dog, Bevis, c. 1595 (Ditchley). Cf also 
Plate, a (a) "J'en passe et des iiieillcuys "." 

About the middle of the 17th century we seem 
to have substituted the French form "canons" 
for its Hispaniolate original ; but by that date the 

" A single instance occurs in the illustrations to S. Didier's 
Traite de Vespce seule, 1573. Better examples are seen in 
Turberville's two works on hunting and hawking (both of 1575) 
(Fig. ■2). Kig. 3, from Pluvinel, is the only illustration known 
to me of breeches and canions not actu.illy in wear, Though 
the first edition of Pluvinel appeared 1623, the author died in 
1620 and the note in one plate ("le Roy age de 16 ans") shows 
the date of execution to be about 1616-17. 

word applies to a variety 
of adjuncts to costume, 
of which comprehensive 
definitions will be found 
in the dictionaries of 
Richelet (1678-80) and 
Fureti^re (1690).'* 

[P.S. — The growing 
interest of late years in 
English portraiture be- 
tween Holbein and Van 
Dyclc may perhaps 
justify the lengthy an- 
notation of this short 

'" It would seem as if among tailors some recollection of the 
original meaning of " canions " survived to the end of the 17111 
century ; for Furetiere (1690) says they used the term " canons " 
to indicate " . . . les deux tuyaux de chausses ou Ton met les 




ANY authors who have written of 
the textiles of Old Peru mention 
that the Peruvians practised a method 
' of weaving in " three-ply ". In most 
.cases this statement is probably made 
on the authority of some previous writer, and no 
care has been taken to verify its truth. I think 
that it must have been Squier who first made the 
assertion, and subsequent writers have copied him, 
scarcely understanding what " three-ply " means as 
a weaving term. In the nature of things one cannot 
bring exhaustive negative evidence against the con- 
tention, but it is, to say the least, doubtful. There 
is no such fabric in any of the collections I have 
studied, including those at Bloomsbury and South 
Kensington. I cannot say what there may be in 
continental or American museums or in private 
hands, but I feel sure that, if examined, these 
collections, although they will yield interesting 
e.vamples of " two-ply " or double-cloth weaves, 
will be found to contain no true "three-ply" 

It would perhaps have been unnecessary to deal 
with this question at length were it not that even 
Dr. Uhle, one of the foremost authorities on 
Peruvian works, in his fine monograph on Pacha- 
camac has mentioned these three-ply cloths, and 
moreover has given weavers' drafts of three of the 
pieces in question. To those unfamiliar with the 
technique of weaving this may well be held to 
settle the question. Coming as it does from so 
eminent an authority it would indeed have been 
conclusive were it not that these diagrams do not 
really illustrate three-ply weaves. They appear 
rather to be diagrams of double-faced cloths, and 

even at that are unsatisfactory. Only an examin- 
ation of the actual stuffs or more comprehensive 
drafts prepared by a practical weaver from actual 
analysis of the weaves could settle the matter. 
Dr. Uhle's reference in the same work to a modern 
fabric of a like nature from Bolivia (illustrated in 
" Kultur and Industrie", II. pi. 14) would appear 
rather to support than invalidate my contention, 
although here again it is impossible to tell 
definitely from the coloured lithograph. 

Three-ply cloth is built up of three distinct 
webs, and necessitates three warps and three wefts. 
In like manner two-ply or double-cloth weaves 
are composed of two distinct webs with two warps 
and two wefts. Moreover in such weaves the 
portions which are plain unfigured tabby are sus- 
ceptible of being separated one from the other 
and if cut through an instrument such as a paper- 
knife may be passed between the webs. 

Even if the Peruvians should prove to have 
been unacquainted with the method of weaving 
in three-ply, we must accord full credit to their 
inventive genius in that they carried double-cloth 
weaving to a remarkable state of perfection. When 
we consider their cultural position of complete 
isolation from what we consider the civilized 
world, the achievement is surprising. It speaks 
volumes for their ingenuity and ability. I venture 
to think that if ever it is found possible to assign 
definite dates to the non-Incan textiles it will be 
found that these weavers of the ancient New 
World invented the process of weaving double 
cloth almost, if not quite, as early as their brother 
weavers of the Old World. No tissues of a like 
technique are known among the products of the 
Eastern hemisphere of earlier date than the 12th 


Studies in Peruvian Textiles 

century, and the very latest of Incan weaves cannot 
be much later than the end of the 15th. 

In considering the technique of these interesting 
fabrics it will be useful to take as an example one 
of the less complicated pieces [P'iG. i], the original 
of which, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
is from a small piece of non-lncan fabric, found 
in the graves near Lima. It is a panel of blue and 

white cotton divided into rectangles, in each of 
which is an animal with a big head, staring eyes, 
and a curved tail. The colours are reciprocal, 
that is, where blue appears on one side it is white 
on the reverse, and vice versn. The warps were 
laid upon the warp-beam in pairs, two white and 
two blue alternately, as may be seen at the top 
edge. Where the two colours separate to form 
the panels, the number of threads and picks being 
halved, the ground appears as a somewhat loosely 
woven tabby. The design is produced by the 
interchange of the webs, the warp and weft of one 
ply rising as the other falls. A horizontal section 
at the line A is shown in the following diagram 
[Fig. 2, a] The dots and circles represent the 
warps in the two colours cut through, while the 
lines and dashes represent two throws of weft in 


each colour. In like manner the next diagram 
[2, b] is a vertical section along line B. The 
dots and circles in this case stand for the severed 
wefts, while the lines and dashes indicate the two 
white and two blue adjacent warps. It will readily 
be seen from these sections that the two webs are 
quite distinct except at the points of intersection. 

All of the fabrics illustrated are built in this 
way, the structure being characteristic of all 

true double-cloth weaves. Although it may not 
be so readily apparent to the lay mind as to 
one familiar with the possibilities and limitations 
of the hand-loom, it is a fact that to evolve a cloth 
of this structure on a primitive loom would be a 
task of some difficulty. We have here quite a 
different problem from that which faced the 
weavers of even the finest of Peruvian tapestries. 
Great ingenuity and perseverance were the out- 
standing needs in the case of the tapestry work 
but in the technique there were no complications. 
In the case of the weaves we are describing how- 
ever there are exceptional difficulties to be over- 
come. All the ordinary weaves met with in 
ancient Peruvian textiles could be accomplished 
on quite a primitive loom, consisting of little more 
than a framework upon which to warp the threads 
and several heaids or heddle-sticks. To construct 
successfully a double-cloth such as we are con- 
sidering would 
be practicable, 
however, only 
with very small 
designs and geo- 
metric repeats if 
such a loom 
were employed. 
It would there- 
fore seem cer- 
tain that the 
weavers of old 
Peru were fami- 
liar with the 
principle of the 
draw-loom, and 
this not only be- 
fore the Spanish 
conquest but 
even prior to the 
Incan domina- 
tion. It is not 
of course con- p,e ^ 
tended that their 

looms were in any sense draw-looms in the 
modern conception of the term, but the draw- 
loom principle was certainly applied in a rudi- 
mentary form. We are forced to this conclusion 
because the only other possible way of accomplish- 
ing the task would be by the employment of a 
multiplicity of heddles, which would involve such 
congestion as to make the machine practically 
unworkable. It is this remarkable technical 
consideration which lends so much interest to 
these double-cloth weaves. They enable us to 
appreciate to some extent the exceptional skill of 
these old weavers who in pre-Columbian times 
had already mastered the difficult art of weaving 
as they had mastered pottery making and gold- 
smiths' work. 
As in the case of the pre-Incan piece already 


Studies in Peruvian Textiles 

FIG. 4 

mentioned, so with the two pieces illustrated in 
Figures 3 and 4, the pattern is produced by the 
interchange of the webs. The technique is pre- 
cisely similar. But there is a marked improvement 
in the closeness of the work and the successful 

handling of the 
design. Figure 
3 is worked out 
in dark brown 
and b u ff - 
coloured wools 
of fine quality — 
probably alpaca. 
Figure 4 is in a 
coarser thread, 
perhaps Llama 
wool, not so 
pliable to the 
touch and more 
rusty in colour. 
Quite apart from 
the fact that the 
piece illustrated 
in Figure i is 
by no means so 
finely woven as 
these others, it is 
obvious that it must be ascribed to an earlier date. 
It is quite clearly a product of the coast before 
the Incan influence had become manifest. Figures 
3 and 4 on the other hand are of Incan age, although 
possibly woven by weavers of the coastal districts. 
The Incas were always awake to the value of good 
craftsmanship, often moving weavers and metal- 
workers of conquered tribes to Cuzco, their 
capital, that they there might work for the Inca's 

With regard to the age of these interesting 
cloths we cannot dogmatise. We know that all 
three pieces were secured from graves in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lima. That is all unfortunately. 
The Lima (Lurin) valley, and the neighbouring 
valleys of Pachacamac, Rimac and others, came 
under the Incan sway during the reign of the Inca 
Pachakutij (1340-1400) and it was probably not 
much more than ten years before the close of 
Pachakutij's reign that Cuismancu, chief of the 
tribes inhabiting those valleys, diplomatically 
capitulated to the Inca and became his ally. Thus 
it would seem quite safe, and not far wrong, to 
assign the two later pieces to the 15th century, 
while the earlier piece [Fig. i] is most probably 
of late 14th century date. More than this we 
cannot at present say. Other pieces of double- 
cloth weave similar to the later fabrics are to be 
seen in the British Museum, one of which has 
been illustrated by Mr. T. A. Joyce in his " South 
American Antiquities ". These are much of the 
same age as these later specimens in the South 
Kensington collection. 

But in Figure 5 we give a sketch of a stuff which, 
if its history is correctly stated, is perhaps the 
earliest known example of double-cloth weaving 
from Peru. It is in the collection of Mr. J. Guthrie 
Reid of Queen's Gate, S.W., and comes from 
Nasca. It is moreover believed to have been 
secured from one of the graves from which the 
same owner's fine collection of Nasca style pots 
was obtained. Of course there is the element of 
doubt inseparable from non-scientific excavation, 
but an examination of the fabric and the whole 
"feeling" of the piece leads me to think it may 
quite possibly be of this period. It is certainly of 
non-Incan workmanship, and most probably con- 
siderably older than the piece Figure i, for the 
period of the Nasca-type pottery preceded the 
later pre-Incan age to which Figure i is ascribed. 
In fact it is one of the earliest cultural periods of 
Peru. This piece was described in a London 
weekly publication as "tapestry " and was referred 
to the Incan period. It is of course neither the 
one nor the other. 

In conclusion a word or two may be said of the 
decorative features of the cloths here illustrated. 
The quaint animal appearing in the first has been 
said to represent the puma. But a close study of 
the animal in its many variations both in the 
tapestries and on the pottery leads one to recog- 
nise it as the wild mountain cat— an animal sacred 
in old Peru, particularly in the neighbourhood of 
lake Titicaca. In fact the lake is said to derive 
its name from this animal— 1/7/ qaqa, the rock of 
the mountain cat. The same animal appears also 
in Figure i, a somewhat severe but pleasing design 
in which two cats in reversed positions are set 

within panels formed of interlocking scrolls. 
Figure 4 has a pat- ^_, 

tern resembling to ^^' 

some extent the 

motives found on 

some of the Chan- 
cay vases. Between 

diagonal bands of 

diamonds are set 

conventio na 1 is e d 

male figures, the 

symbol of some 

sacred idea which is 

at present unknown. 

Figure 5 has the 

familiar " stepped 

pedestal " — the sym- 

bol of the "Great 

Spirit of the Earth " 

— Pachacamaj. 

But it is the technique of these weaves 

that is of outstanding interest. The more one 

thinks of it the more astonishing it seems. For 

here we have a highly technical achievement 

appearing as the result of isolated development in 

I I 1 

Studies in Peruvian Textiles 

a comparatively small and savage culture-centre 
at the time unknown to the civilised world. It 
would be diflicuit to find a more striking instance 

of parallel development, in any craft, in circum- 
stances which preclude all possibility of a common 
origin for the process. 


TALY shares with the Low Countries 
Ithe distinction for the earliest eminence 
in lace-making. The craft did not flour- 
sh in France until a later date under 
I Louis XIV, who acted upon the advice 
of his minister Colbert, and Italian needlepoint lace 
was copied, primarily under the tuition of workers 
brought from that country. While it may in 
general terms be claimed that the palm for needle- 
point lace belongs to Italy, and for bobbin lace to 
the Low Countries, it must not be forgotten that 
fine needlepoint was produced in Flanders, and to 
a still greater degree line bobbin lace in Italy. 
Venice was the home of needlepoint, and Milan 
soon took the lead in bobbin lace, a variety which 
she made peculiarly her own. The majority of 
bobbin laces have simple decorative motives of 
repeating floral character, but examples exist where 
a more ambitious scheme was worked out. We 
think of the coverlet in the Cinquantenaire Museum 
at Brussels,' in which an allegorical figure of 
Love is surrounded liy the Archdukes Albert and 
Isabella, King Philip II and others, with the 
shields of Brabant, Spain, England, Austria and 
PVance, sacred subjects and monograms, motives 
taken from the Ommegang of Brussels, angelic 
musicians, and a vandyked border representing 
Roman Emperors and the Sibyls. This is believed 
to have been a gift from the lace-makers of 
Brussels to the Archdukes Albert and Isabella on 
the occasion of their marriage in 1599. 

The Brussels coverlet will always be regarded 
as a classical example of the employment of 
bobbin lace for pictorial ends, but the narrative 
purpose is too conspicuous. The arrangement is 
that of a chessboard, and the full-length figures in 
the wide border give a restless effect. The 
decorative parts are mere shapeless curves, and 
the whole piece is rather a tour ile Jorce than a 
work of art. A very different result is attained in 
the larger of the two loobbin-lace panels which 
liave been lately given to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum by Mr. Louis Clarke [Plate 1]. Here 
we see that Italian genius has given a real decora- 
tive value to the subject. Cupid with bow and 
arrow, huntsmen holding spears, hounds in 
leash, stags, lions and dogs are there, but blended 
into the bold and symmetrical floral pattern, so as 
to form part of it and to make an agreealile relief 
to the foliage. Naturalism is here carried far 
enough, but not too far. If it were a tapestiy or 

' E. V'aii Ovcrloop, Uite Dcnicllc tic linixcllcs dc 1599. 

painting we should expect to see both men and 
animals in a wooded landscape with all the 
natural features represented. This would be too 
elaborate a scheme for lace-workers to reproduce, 
and the graceful well-balanced scrolls adapt them- 
selves more to the convention of their craft and 
make a sufficient and admirable setting. This 
panel is a fine example of the earlier kind of North 
Italian bobbin lace, which was joined by bars or 
briiles of twisted threads, or was so designed that 
even these slight connections were unnecessary. 

The smaller panel forming part of Mr. Clarke's 
gift [Plate II, b] shows the later development of 
this lace towards the end of the 17th century. 
Huntsmen with hounds are here introduced less 
conspicuously into the design, and in addition a 
double-headed eagle appears at the bottom of the 

Signora Ricci illustrates a similar panel, which 
has representations of sirens as well as eagles 
amongst the curving stems.' It belongs to the 
Milanese group, but the authoress suggests that it 
may have been actually made at Vienna. It does 
not, however, seem necessary to seek for an 
heraldic significance whenever we find a double- 
headed eagle used as a decorative motive. It is 
true that there occur such examples as the im- 
portant Flemish cover of 17th century bobbin 
lace in the collection of the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, which is said to have belonged to King 
Philip IV of Spain (1605-1665), and in which 
crowned eagles appear, as well as the collar of 
the Order of the Golden Fleece. The eagles on 
that specimen and the sirens on Signora Ricci's 
panel remind us that both are common motives 
upon the richly coloured embroideries from Crete 
of the 17th and i8th centuries. This may be 
accounted for by the influence of Italian art in 
the Greek Islands during the centuries following 
the fall of Constantinople. 

The thickly plaited ground of diamond-shaped 
mesh shown in Plate II is a feature introduced 
in the later part of the 17th century, and very 
commonly seen from that time on Italian and 
Femish laces. The technique, however, varies ; in 
Italy the patterns were made separately and the 
mesh was worked round afterwards, whilst in 
Flanders the lace was usually worked in one piece. 
These two fine panels of lace form a handsome 
addition to the Museum collection. 

- Elisa Ricci, Antlche Tiiiiv Italiaite. Trhic a Fiisclli. Milano. 
Fig. 9- 

I 12 

URM HilF OF I-TH LENTlI-i j X i 





Bench Ends in English Churches ; by J. Charles Cox, LL.D. 
vii + 2o8 pp., 164 illust. (Oxford University Press), 7s. 6d. n. 
The chief merit of this work lies in its clear and 
excellent photographs of mediaeval English wood 
carving. The lettter-press consists mainly of brief 
accounts of bench-ends and pews arranged in cata- 
logue form according to counties. There is much 
interesting information, as might be expected from 
so distinguished an antiquary as Dr. Cox, though 
there are too many slips, mistakes and misprints 
for the work of a scholar, which suggests haste in 
final compilation or revision — not in collection nor 
observation, the work of many years. Dr. Cox is 
an antiquary pat excellence, to whom antiquity and 
archaeology are of the first and last importance. 
Thus alone can we account for a serious omission 
in his work. There is no chapter, scarcely even a 
paragraph, on the art of medijeval wood-carving, 
nor on the peculiar genius and originality of 
English wood-carvers, and the remarkable skill 
of local carpenters. Nor is there any attempt to 
classify styles of work, nor explain sources of in- 
spiration. For instance, numerous examples are 
given of carvings of weird beasts, but nothing is 
said of the influence of the pseudo-religious 
Bestiaries in producing zoomorphic ornament. 
There is a strong individuality in the art of the 
English wood-carver, added to a powerful real- 
isation of the most startling and unexpected con- 
ception of design. The carver was himself a true 
artist, who worked with a free and robust hand, 
producing work grand in its depth and boldness 
of outline and detail, and well proportioned in its 
beauty of symmetry. There was nothing insigni- 
ficant or finical in the development and execution 
of his idea and motive. He was often a man of 
grotesque and delightful humour, who took his 
illustrations freely from the daily life or current 
whimsicalities of his age. But withal there was 
a deep underlying reverence — reverence for his 
art and reverence for his church. His power was 
shown equally in carving the emblems of the 
Passion, or, in cutting out of a solid post, the 
figure of a hyena grinning in a mirror, or in 
carving grotesque monkeys, with inimitable ex- 
pression clinging to a poppy-head together with 
the fine portrait of a mitred ecclesiastic, as on a 
very fine bench-end in Winchester Cathedral. By 
a natural instinct he understood that the true value 
of decoration is to add to the effect of the funda- 
mental form to be adorned, and that ornament must 
be held in subordination and subjection to the 
primary idea, and not treated as a mere encrusta- 
tion on an object. So also should archaeology 
be subordinated to art. At the same time Dr. 
Cox's book will prove a useful work of reference 
and illustration for those who study the beautiful 
art of mediaeval carving. But the student will 
have to make his own index of objects, and classi- 
fication of style and work. The subjects illus- 
trated are of amazing variation and diversity. A 
few examples must suffice : The Annunciation, 

Resurrection, Ascension, Saints, Angels, a religious 
procession, the Seasons, a Sword Dancer and Jester, 
A Pedlar, Man Playing Bag-pipes, Monks and 
Soldiers, Castle Gateway, Heraldic Designs, A Black- 
smith and Bellows, Mermaids, Beasts, Owls and 
Monkeys, Windmills, and a Ship in a Storm. This 
last splendid piece of carving is on a bench end 
at East Budleigh, Devon. Dr. Cox gives no 
credence " to the oft-repeated tales as to the carved 
seating in the West of England being the work of 
itinerant gangs of Flemish craftsmen. Contrari- 
wise, there is an abundance of evidence that it is 
strictly English and local ". But, unfortunately, 
the antiquary does not think it worth while to give 
any, though he adds, somewhat lamely, that " it 
may readily be admitted that arabesque designs or 
other Renaissance patterns, which frequently occur 
in the neighbourhood of the once celebrated port 
of Bideford, though executed by natives, came 
from over the seas." The author's omissions are 
the more surprising, seeing that he gives a Biblio- 
graphy in which are mentioned books on the art 
of wood-carving, detail and ornament, and eccle- 
siastical woodwork. P. A. M. s. 
L'Obra d'Isidre Nonell ; Proleg de Eugeni d'Ors ; Bio- 
grafia de Alexandre Plana ; Estudis de Francesc Pujols, 
Ramon Raventos, Raimon Casellas, Francesc Vayreda, Joan 
Sacs, Joaquin Kolch i Torres, i Roma Jori ; 173 pp., l5 illust. 
(" La Revista ") Barcelona, 3 Pess. 
The newer generation of Catalan artists looks 
upon Nonell as an apostle, and certain of his 
compatriots — Alexandre Plana, Francesc Pujols, 
Casellas, Vayreda, Joan Sacs, etc. — have combined 
to pay their tribute of respect and admiration in 
the volume under review. In Paris, which has 
welcomed so many Spanish painters, from 
Zuloaga and Sorolla to Picasso, Nonell is natur- 
ally better known than in England. He 
exhibited annually at the Independants towards 
the close of his short life, and had aroused 
interest by exhibitions of his works at Le Bare 
de Bouteville, and Volland galleries. From the 
outset of his career, at a time when his native 
Barcelona was an unsympathetic milieu, his 
general tendency along the lines of certain 
modern French movements was clearly indicated. 
Subsequent short visits to Paris confirmed him in 
the path chosen, but his admiration for Daumier, 
Forain, and the Japanese, and later of C6zanne, 
left him master of his own personality. If the 
amplitude of his forms, the forcible simplifications 
of his drawings, and his capacity for caricature 
irresistibly recall Daumier, his cretins and gypsies 
are all his own, such as he saw them. His 
biographer reveals Nonell's curious interest (" la 
volupte de la repulsion ", as a French critic says 
of him) in the lamentable and degraded types of 
humanity he discovered in the meaner streets 
of Barcelona and Montmartre, or among the 
idiots and deformities of Caldes de Buhi. 
In his painting the simplification of form 
is sometimes pushed to an extreme, and the 
search for colour and quality is more and more 



intense towards the close of his career. Preserved 
by the loyal support of his family from the struggle 
for life, he pursued his way with entire single- 
mindedness and devotion, clear and instinctive 
in his intelligence, and little concerned with 
theories and aesthetics. But as Cezanne was 
ambitious of being hung in the Salon, so Nonell 
desired the appreciation of the public, and was 

naively gratified when at the age of 36 his 
exhibition in Barcelona proved a complete 
success. After this he worked with renewed 
vigour, and produced some of his best pictures 
in the brief interval before his death in 191 1. 
The dozen or more illustrations give some small 
indication of the nature and variety of the artist's 


The Sale of Degas's Collection. — On 
March 26 and 27 will be held by Georges Petits 
the sale of pictures belonging to the late Edgar 
Degas. We have received the illustrated catalogue 
of this sale from Messrs. Lair Dubreuil, and it 
merits special notice. Most collections reflect, of 
course, in some way the characters of the men 
who formed them, but the selections made by the 
ordinary rich man who takes up collecting are 
generally formed by many conflicting desires. 
Here, on the contrary, there are only two motives 
apparent ; one, friendly personal feeling towards 
artists whom Degas knew, and this accounts for 
certain secondary works ; and two, Degas's insati- 
able and pure love of the highest artistic quality. 
This passion was in Degas so clear-sighted and 
discriminating that he was able to recognise 
quality under any aspect of style, and willing to 
accept it under the most diverse forms. 

A mere list of some of the names which figure 
in the catalogue will show at once what an un- 
familiar kind of collection this is — and it must be 
remembered that it is a small collection made by 
a relatively poor man, and not at all on the princely 
scale of the American financiers. I begin with 
the old masters — Cuyp, El Greco, Perronneau — 
then in the 19th century a number of Ingres, both 
paintings and drawings, Delacroix, Corot, Daumier, 
Manet, Pissarro, Sisley, Renoir, Cezanne, Gauguin, 
Van Goch. 

When one reflects that there are only 93 paint- 
ings, this is a surprising list. One may safely say 
that only an artist of rare critical power could 
have disregarded so completely the catchwords 
of the schools and the quarrels of contemporary 
critics as to comprehend in his collection Per- 
roneau, Gauguin and Van Goch. 

But even more surprising than the wide sym- 
pathies and penetrating judgment which the list 
of names reveals is the actual quality of the 
pictures ; in speaking of these 1 must go mainly 
by the illustrations in the catalogue, as my personal 
recollection of Degas's pictures depends on a 
single visit paid a good many years ago, a visit 
occupied mainly in the study of Degas's own 


works. In so many cases Degas has chosen 
pictures which, though rarely important or ambi- 
tious works, reveal the fundamental qualities of 
the painters at their purest and highest. There 
are, of course, more striking El Grecos than 
Degas's S. Ildefoiiso ivritiitg under the Dictaiion 0) 
tJie Virgin, but few which reveal more startlingly 
his singular powers of design. 

Corot, 1 am sure, never did anything more 
austerely planned or more architecturally con- 
structed than his Pont de Limay. The portrait of 
Baron de Schwiter throws for me an entirely new 
light on Delacroix's genius. 1 confess I found it 
hard to understand the enthusiasm of almost all 
great French painters for Delacroix, but this 
portrait makes me suspect that underlying what 
appears to us the tiresome romantic rhetoric of 
Delacroix's designs there must be the same 
qualities which are here manifest enough. 

The Ingres are all of the fresh and most un- 
compromising kind, whilst his collection of 
Ingres's drawings is almost impeccable. 

Manet, too, comes out in almost a new light in 
his Depart du bateau a vapeiir, and at the best of 
his more familiar moods in the Portrait of M. X. 

It seems a pity that the French nation is not 
able to keep together in the Louvre this magni- 
ficent collection, a collection chosen with a dis- 
crimination that no board of museum directors 
can ever hope to rival. Roger Fry. 

William Blake : The Linn ell Collection. 
— The sale of the Linnell collection of works by 
William Blake which is to take place at Christie's 
on the 15th of this month, will be an event of 
outstanding interest in English art-records. The 
collection embraces nearly the whole of Blake's 
work of his latest, and probably from the point of 
view of imaginative content, his greatest period. 
The designs for Dante which form its central 
feature, in spite of the presence of dull and uncom- 
pleted passages to be expected in so long a scries, 
must, taken as a whole, be counted as richer in 
invention and more splendid in execution than 
any other group of his drawings. They are besides 

in astonishingly brilliant condition. The question 
of the destiny of this wonderful series, which 
ranks among the most precious of our national 
creative assets, is one that gives cause for serious 
anxiety. It is sincerely to be hoped that the 
occasion may be met by private generosity, as it 
is unlikely that any public funds will be available ; 
and that the whole series may be retained for one 
of the national collections. A second series of high, 
if less vital, interest, is the duplicate set of designs 
for the " Job " which was made by Blake for Linnell. 
Although some symptoms of boredom are 
apparent in the execution of these replicas and 
their condition leaves something to be desired, 
they are drawings of great value. I would place 
however on a higher artistic level the reduced 
pencil drawings made by Blake for the purposes 
of his engravings, which are also contained 
in the collection. Slight and rough as they 
are, these are executed with incomparable 
delicacy and beauty. The small original designs 
for the woodcuts in Thornton's " Virgil " are also 
of rare beauty. The illustrations of " Paradise Re- 
gained", if in some ways less captivating than their 
companions for " L'Allegro", " II Penseroso" and 
"Comus", include several notable drawings. The 
Creation of Eve, of which several smaller versions 
exist, and The Wise and Foolish Virgins, of which 
a duplicate was exhibited at the Tate Gallery, are 
both of them admirable in characteristic qualities 
of invention. Other items of interest in the sale 
catalogue are a unique copy of the printed 
" French Revolution ", the original MS. of the 
poem, " Vala ", a fragment of an illuminated MS. 
of " Genesis ", and several prints of great rarity. 
A. G. B. Russell, Rouge Croix. 

The Oppenheim Sale. — We have learnt from 
the American, and later from the English 
press, that the sale of the Oppenheim col- 
lection, postponed from the autumn of 1914, 
is to take place in Berlin during March. The 
collection is now probably the finest private 
collection in the world, and the merits and 
values of a large proportion of it are fixed by 
universal consent. We have also learnt from the 
same sources that the German Emperor invites 
the concurrence of enemy-purchasers by the 
medium of neutral agents. This is a surprising 
lapse from the principles of the higher finance of 
which the further sighted allied politicians will 
no doubt permit their subjects to take advantage. 
For much of the Oppenheim collection possesses 
the financial quality of gold, and is subject to no 
further fluctuation in value than the metal. One 
would have supposed that, if the Emperor William 
possessed that satanic power and intelligence with 
which he has been credited by the press, he would 
not have invited the export of this pictorial and 
glyptic gold from Germany. Before he issued 

^ Monthly Chronicle 

his invitation, he would have consulted an 
authority at his elbow of universal reputation, 
Dr. Wilhelm von Bode. But perhaps he did, so 
that the gold of the collection will be retained 
in Germany by outbidding, and only Floras be 
allowed to emigrate. Patriotic Americans should 
therefore be cautious how they dally with Flora 
or she may melt in their arms ; for they have the 
intelligence and will probably have facilities for 
acquiring from this great collection, and for storing 
what they buy in Sweden, Holland or Switzerland, 
and it is to be hoped that what they store will be 
gold and not wax. 

Salvage. — Our contemporaries, both daily and 
weekly, have published accounts of the labours 
accomplished by the Italian Government, through 
the military, the civic, and the fine arts authorities, 
working in co-operation with the population, in 
removing works of art from their sites in Northern 
Italy, in many instances within range of the 
enemies' outposts. The most notable example is 
the removal under the greatest difficulties of the 
enormous mass of the CoUeoni equestrian statue 
from Venice. Dr. Ardouino Colasanti gives an 
excellent account of it, in detail, in the "Tri- 
buna " for February 6th. We wish that we had 
space to reproduce that graphic and precise de- 
scription. But the most remarkable point to be 
observed in Dr. Colasanti's article is the co- 
operation of all the branches of the Italian 
executive in this national work. We have hitherto 
purposely abstained from demanding from our 
authorities more than they were constitutionally 
able to perform, but the fact that imminent 
danger to the British Museum was averted only 
by popular outcry forces us to ask pertinent 
questions. Now that, as a distinguished general, 
Lord Dundonald, has said, we are " well on in 
the fourth year of the war", and that "the victory 
that is essential to our very existence is as much, 
if not more, in doubt than in 1914", we ask when 
the various divisions of the executive will begin 
to act in concert, as our Italian Allies have acted 
for the sake of their works of art in the face of 
a powerful invading army ? When will soldiers, 
civil officials, and the public be permitted to co- 
operate in the salvage of works of art in London 
which are the heritage of mankind ? The Par- 
thenon friezes have only been rescued by violent 
public outcry from being once again set up as 
a target for cannon. Stringent inquiries should 
at once be made whether the room at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, called the Sheepshanks 
Gallery, has been made so liable to fire by the 
piercing of large windows on a formerly blank 
wall, as to endanger the safety of the whole build- 
ing if any fire broke out in the adjoining mews. 
And again what has been done to preserve the 
Raphael cartoons ? At least, those individuals who 


A Monthly Chronicle 

have lent valuable works to the Museum have the 
right to inquire into the truth of this not incredible 
report ; and also to ascertain whether the London 
Fire Brigade continues to hold itself responsible 
for the safety of the building since these unneces- 
sary alterations for the inconvenient offices into 
which a part of the Board of Education has been 

The Registr.^1 ion of Works ok Art in 
Occupied Countries. — We learn the following 
interesting items of news from the German Wolff 
Agency and the "Informations Beiges", 2 Feb., 

The German Wolff states that : — 

Althougli the Higher German Comm.nnd did all in its- 
power during the march through Belgium to collect the art 
treasures of the occupied territories and preserve them 
from destruction, the German science of art-history is about 
to draw up an inventory of the great art-treasures of the 
occupied territories, of which photographs will be taken to 
promote the study of art in the future. A Wurtemburg 
amateur of the arts, HerrLudwig Laiblen.has given 20,000 
marks for this object, but thai will scarcely cover the initial 
expenses. The German Emperor has also given 35,000 
marks for the same purpose. A plan has been drawn up by 
German savants and directors of German museums. Operat- 
ing from four centres, Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent and Liege, 
German kunstforschers will take artistic photographs of 
Belgium. A special library already exists at Bonn for the 
liter.iture of Belgian art, and the photographs which exist 
in Belgium, but are dispersed, will be collected and taken 
to Bonn. 

The " Informations Beiges" replies that : — 

The Germans should have shown this zeal for artistic 
conservation before they set fire to Louvain, Dinant, Ther- 
monde and Ypres and looted the bronzes, brasses and other 
works of art. At any rate we may expect the appearance of 
these photographs in volumes in the style of " Die Kloster- 
bauten der Zisternienzer in Belgien ", the shameless com- 
pilation of Belgian authors which does not, however, 
acquit them of artistic negligence ; or perhaps in the style 
of the recent book by Dr. Joseph Sauer, Professor of the 
University of Kreiburg-in-Breisgau, who enunciates seriously 
that the Germans have not attacked cathedrals, churches 
and works of art except for imperious strategical reasons, 
and not out of pure vandalism as the French, and still more 
the English, have done. 

These two statements suggest the hope that no 
" artistic negligence " has been or will be shown 
by the British Government in preserving and 
registering the artistic objects of the far larger 
areas occupied by our troops, and that efforts such 
as we now learn have been made by individual 
Germans and Belgians apparently " embosch^s " to 
assist that Government in the work of preservation 
will not be discouraged here. There are plenty of 
both officers and men, in Palestine, Mesopotamia 
and the less explored frontiers of Egypt, well able 
to use initial discrimination in registering works 
of art and to preserve them when found. Nor 
ought any objects of primitive Negro art which 
German kunstforschers have missed, to be over- 
looked by our troops in the occupied portions — 
now almost the whole— of German Africa. Several 
of the popular books on the African campaign by 
those who took part in it show excellent faculties 

for general observation, and the writers' faculties 
should be utilised in that direction. Moreover, 
we already owe much knowledge of Negro art to 
the independent action of intelligent officials 
before the war. More Adey. 

The Mestrovic Committee. — We are asked 
to state that — " The Committee formed to obtain 
a characteristic example of the work of Ivan 
Mestrovid for a public collection, has decided 
to apply the amount already subscribed, viz., 
;^350, towards the purchase of the relief in 
wood, Descent from the Cross* (size 5 ft. 5 in. by 
3 ft. 7 in.). It is hoped that some heroic group 
in the round, like the Mother and Child, originally 
thought of, may be secured in happier times. To 
complete the purchase of the relief, a sum of ;^2oo 
is still required, and the Committee appeals with 
confidence to those who have been moved by the 
measureless sacrifice of the Serbian race and the 
tragic expression given to it in the art of the 
Serbian sculptor. The example chosen is a fitting 
symbol of the first, and would, it is believed, be 
welcomed among our national treasures as repre- 
senting one remarkable side of Mestrovic's art. 
Contributions should be sent to the honorary 
secretary, Ernest H. R. Collings, 18 Ravenslea 
Road, Wandsworth Common, London, S.W.12 ". 

* This is a different design from The Depositioti published in 
The Burlington Magazine. Vol. xxvii, p. 207, and apparently a 
finer work. The appeal sent out by the Committee gives a 

Obituary. — We have to record with regret the 
recent death of three men very well known to artists 
and to amateurs and collectors of works of art — 
His Honour Judge William Evans, Mr. Alfred de 
Rothschild, and Mr. Lockett Agnew. The death 
of Judge Evans is a loss to the whole cominunity, 
for he was an admirable County Court Judge, 
sound in his law, and of an equitable and inde- 
pendent mind. He was a very genial and dis- 
criminating patron of contemporary art, and was, 
with Mrs. Evans who shared his taste, a constant 
visitor at all exhibitions, galleries, and sales where 
works of contemporary painting or drawing 
were exhibited. He and Mrs. Evans collected a 
large number of works which show contemporary 
art in England at its best. 

Mr. Alfred de Rothschild's social good qualities 
and private liberalities have already been chronicled 
at length in the daily press. His fine Watteaus 
are well known, and he established a reputation 
for knowledge of all kinds of 18th-century French 
art, but his taste was confined within narrow limits. 
In spite of the interest which he took in the 
two public institutions of which he was long a 
trustee, the National Gallery and Hertford House, 
it cannot be claimed that his exercise of those 
offices benefited the collections to any great 


Mr. Lockett Agnew was a man of immense 
energy, and greatly increased the family business 
of Thomas Agnew and Sons, of which he has been 
the head and moving spirit for a good many years. 
Lockett Agnew has become, indeed, the type 
of the successful picture-dealer all over the world, 
largely owing to his masterful temperament, and 
few can boast that they ever got the better of him 
in matters of business. But he was also a man of 
humour, who expected to receive a blow when 
he gave one. Though he had no special con- 
nection with this Magazine, he seemed rather to like 
its independent spirit, for he was ready to inform 



Gentlemen,— Perhaps you will allow me to 
supplement the illustrations of the Reichenau 
crosier in your last issue with two or three par- 
ticulars which are not apparent in them. The 
pinnacles of the buttresses of the knop originally 
had finials which must have added something to 
the grace of the design ; all of them are broken 
off and lost. The napkin (siidariitm) with which 
the crosier was grasped hung from the lower part 
of the knop, and every alternate buttress is pierced 
for the cord to suspend it. The loss of most of 
the enamel from the shaft below shows where it 
was held. The stones in raised settings which 
adorn the crook, alternating with gilt rosettes, are 
alternately sapphires and colourless crystals, some 
of both in paste and several lost. 

Yours faithfully, 

20th February, 1918. H. P. MITCHELL. 


Gentlemen,— The following notes on a 
word omitted from most dictionaries may, I 
hope, be of interest to your readers. The term 
" eglomise " has given some trouble to connoisseurs 
owing to the fact that it has been used to desig- 
nate two different forms of art, one of which was 
invented in the i8th century and the other prac- 
tised as early as 1500. The word was first used 
for the 18th-century process, and was subse- 
quently employed to denote the somewhat analo- 
gous process of two centuries earlier. Stated 
briefly, the 18th-century eglomise consisted in 
painting ornamental designs for "surrounds" on 
the back of glass for pictures, so as to be seen 
through the plate : the 16th-century process was 
enamelling, or painting, or gilding applied for a 
similar result to glass vessels of various sorts — a 
process which may have been introduced into 
Europe from the East. 

The derivation of the word Eglomise has 
puzzled many and is very curious. In Mr. Albert 
Hartshorne's " Old English Glasses " (Edward 
Arnold, 1897), p. 78, there is a note — 

y^ Monthly Chronicle 

the Editors of any masterpieces which passed 
through his hands, to give them opportunities for 
careful examination and independent judgment, 
and if they desired to reproduce fine pictures, to 
give them every facility for doing so. He also 
greatly assisted the Magazine by providing it with 
admirable photographs. The Magazine is much 
indebted to his good-humoured help, for a very 
large number of important works passed through 
the Agnew galleries while Mr. Lockett Agnew was 
head of that firm. Apart from the vigorous con- 
duct of his business, he was an active Justice of the 
Peace and took a lively interest in politics and sport. 

An account of the process and the derivation of ttie 
strange name are given by Victor Gay— Glossaire Archeo- 
logique, 1887, vol. I. 

It appears from this Glossaire (only one volume 
of which was published) that the word, eglomis6, 
comes from the name of the inventor, M. Glomy, 
who was a Parisian picture-framer in the i8th 

La specialite de Glomy consistait a encadrer le verre de 
filets peints et dores sur le verre lui-meme, a I'envers. 

The process was very successful, and — 

on disait glomiser ou eglomiser un dessin, una estampe, 
c'est-a-dire I'encadrer sous verre a la fa?on de Glomy. 

In 1825 M. Carrand, of Lyons, having to describe 
for the purposes of a catalogue some " mediaeval" 
glasses painted and gilded on the inside used the 
word eglomise, which had come to be employed 
to designate a rather similar process, which he did 
not know was quite modern. The word then 
came into general use. The Italians have adopted 
it and naturalised it as "agglomizzato ". 

This information is given in a long quotation 
from an article by M. Edmond Bonnaffe, in the 
"Chronique des Arts" of 12 April 1884. 

It appears further that the Germans call the 
process "eglomisieren " ; see Brockhaus's " Kon- 
versations-Lexikon", and Meyer's " Konversations- 
Lexikon", vol. 5— eglomise (Hinterglasmalerei). 

The addition of the initial "6" to "glomiser" 
is evidently either for the sake of euphony or by 
analogy to a great number of words such as 
ebaitcher, eborgiier, ebranler, etc., where the " e " is 
a mere prefix to baiiche, borgiie, branlcr, etc., and 
is so described by Littre. 

Fine specimens of eglomise were included in 
the John Edward Taylor Collection of works of 
art sold at Christie's in July 1912, lot 85 being a 
portable altar composed of two plaques of 
eglomise, Italian, circa 1500, and lot 199 a bowl 
with polychrome decoration painted on the under- 
side, Italian, early i6th century. 
I am. Gentlemen, 

Yours faithfully, 

Charles Cook. 




Gentlemen,— In the Crespi Collection at Milan, 
before its dispersal, there was a Holy Family by 
Ambrogio da Fossano called Borgognone. It is 
not described in Venturi's " La Galleria Crespi in 
Milano", published in 1900, and was presumably 
acquired after that date. It has been photographed 
by Anderson (No. 3430), and a good reproduction 
is given in the Sale Catalogue (Paris, Galerie 
Georges Petit, 1914). It is mentioned by Mr. 
Berenson, "North Italian Painters", 1907, p. 174, 
as Holv Family icitli Angels, and by Dr. Tancred 
Borenius in a note to his edition of Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, " History of Painting in North 
Italy ", vol. ii (191 2), p. 374, again with "Angels " 
in the plural number. An examination of the 
reproduction shows that only one of the two 
figures kneeling behind the Bambino is an angel, 
the figure nearest to the Madonna being a boy of 
about 8 years old. It is obvious that if this boy 
can be identified the picture can be dated within 
a year or two. The Bambino holds in his left hand 
a scroll directed towards His Mother, on which 
are the words "dilecta mater pete qvid vis". 
The Madonna's hands are joined in prayer and 
from between the finger-tips issues another scroll, 
which ends close to the head of the boy kneeling 
beside her ; on it are the words "domine salvvm 
FAC POPVLVM ISTVM ". Now istiim should mean 
"the person or thing pointed out", and there is 
no " people " in the picture. Evidently the Ma- 
donna's prayer is offered on behalf of the boy, 
and I venture to suggest that popiiliim may be due 
to a restorer, and that paivitlum is what the artist 
painted. The letters of /i(7/)n/?(;« are rather spread 


SoTHbBY, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell (rom 8 to u April 
the whole of the late Mr. H. B. Wheatley's large and fine 
library ; on the 8th and gth. English, French, Italian, Spanish, 
German and Netherlands bookbindings from the 15th century 
to the present time ; on the loth, books concerning Dryden and 
Shakespeare ; on the nth, books on London and on biblio- 
graphy, autograph letters and book-plates; and on the i^th, 


The Kokka (Tokyo, monthly, Jan. 1916— July 1917. N'os. 
308 — 326) continues its admirable work. Publications such as 
this, the "Shimbi Taikwan ", and the " Geien Shinsho", with 
their excellent rcproduction.s and notes and comments by 
Japanese critics, .ire of the greatest possible value to Western 
students of Oriental art. The schools of landscape of China 
and Japan arc well represented in the present series. First in 
date, probably, are the two pictures (Plates 1 and il. No. 32i) 
ascribed to Jen Yiieh-shan or some master of the close of the 
Yuan period (Jen Yiieh-shan is also credited with the picture of 
a horse in No. 323, a development of the Han-kan model). 
These landscapes are beautiful in their tempered realism and 
mature mastery, and have those qualities of poetry and romance 
combmed with observation of nature which we associate with 
the best Chinese landscape. The liamboo Grove (Plate III, 
No. 308) of the late Yuan or early Ming dynasty — at all events 
not later than 1391 — shares these qualities to the full. Plate III, 
No. 316, assigned to the early Ming dynasty, is interesting as 
showing the close 'relation between the Chinese and Japanese 


out, while those of parvtilnm would occupy the 
space correctly. If this interpretation of the 
meaning of the picture is correct, the boy is 
evidently some one of importance. I believe him 
to be the child-Duke of Milan, Giovanni Galeazzo 
Maria Sforza. According to the chronicle written 
by Donatus Bossius, printed at Milan in 1492, and 
dedicated to the same duke, he was born on the 
20th June 1469, succeeded his father 26th December 
1476, and formally entered on his dukedom, "in 
maiori templo ducatum iniit", the 24th April 1478. 
Bossius records further that the plague raged at 
Milan in 1477, and that according to the public 
records 1,565 persons in the city died of it. This 
may well have been the occasion for the painting 
of a votive picture for the safety of the infant 
duke. This date suits very well with what is 
known of Borgognone's Hfe. In Thieme and 
Becker's " Allgemeines Lexicon ", vol. iv, (1910), 
pp. 358 ff., it is stated that according to Zappa the 
earliest known picture by Borgognone is the 
Madonna with eight Saints and Angels, in the 
Ambrosiana at Milan, and that he ascribes it to 
1480. In the year 1481 the artist is styled Magister 
in the matriculation book of the Milanese 
Universita dei Pittori, so that he must have attained 
soiTie celebrity before that date. If my suggestion 
is right, that the Crespi Holy Family was painted 
in 1477, when the duke was eight years old, it 
is the earliest known picture of Borgognone's 
to which a reasonably approximate date can be 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Yours faithfully, 

P. M. Barnard. 
10 Dudley Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

early English books, matter relating to Pepys, and miscel- 
laneous works. The catalogue, well illustrated with a colour 
frontispiece and many half-tone prints of bindings, is priced 4s. 
—The sale of Sir Edward Poynter's collection of drawings by 
old masters, already noticed here [Feb., p. 81], is now fixed for 
24 and 25 April. There is a fully illustrated catalogue, priced 
2s. 6d. 

schools. Approximately contemporary are the two landscapes 
ascribed to Shiibun, one (Plate v. No. 311). so far as we can tell 
from the reproduction, of minor importance, the other (Plate 11, 
No. 313) a masterly and individual performance. Another work 
of the mid-Ashikaga period in the Shiibun tradition is ascribed 
to Gakuo. The work of Shubun's great pupil, Sesshii, is well 
shown in Plate 11, No. 310, and there is in this number an inte- 
resting paper on the artist's travels in China in 1467-9. Plate v. 
No. 319, is a close imitation of his style by Unkei. 

Examples of middle and later Ming are Plate v. No. 318 
{Vic-d'hifi a Waterfall, by Chung Li) and Plate ill. No. 310, by 
Wang Men. Plate vi, No. 3°9, by Li Shi-Ta, has great charm, 
and this artist's qualities are also illustrated in the fine autumnal 
landscape (Plate iv, No. 317) painted in i6t8 and looked upon 
as one of his masterpieces (see " Geien Shinsho", Feb. 1916. 
for another reproduction of this picture). Something of the 
same typical arrangement of rock, torrent and tree is seen in 
PLate VI, No. 314, by Chang Jui-tu, dated 1631 ; Plate v, 
No. 303, Hermitage in a Plum Grove, by Wu Tan (early Ch'ing); 

and Plate iv, No. 313, by Tao Chi, 1669. Plate vi, No. 318, 
Forest in Autumn, by Liu Wei (early Ch'ing), with its solitary 
figure wandering among the fallen leaves, is excellent in its 
refined and subtle sentiment. Landscapes by Li Yin (Plate viii, 
No. 319) and Wang Hsueh-hao (Plate v, No. 3i6) complete a 
representative group of Ch'ing masters. 

We have examples of the fully developed landscape of the 
Kamakura period in the backgrounds of the two very fine 
scrolls illustrated in Nos. 322 land 324, the first of which, the 
"Shinzei" scroll of the Heiji-monogatari, is of the same series 
as the well-known makimono at Boston, and by the same hand. 
Among later Japanese work may be noted a fine snow-piece 
on a great scale by Okyo Maruyama (Plate lii. No. 313), and a 
view on the Tokaido by Hiroshige (Plate vm, No. 311), superior 
m virtue of its spontaneity and freshness to the woodcut done 
from it. Of less appeal to the average Western mind is the 
development of certain Japanese schools of the early 19th 
century, less illustrative and more subjective than some of 
their contemporaries, and laying more stress on the calligraphic 
side of their art. [See the interesting series of articles : 
Subjectivism in Chinese Painting of the T'ang and Sung 
Periods" (No. 313), dealing with the relation between calli- 
graphy and painting, their gradual unification through the 
T ang to the Sung dynasty, and the evidences of subjectivism 
in the growth of landscape painting ; " Painting and Calli- 
graphy " (Nos. 320-321), in which the subject is pursued as far 
as the Post-Impressionists and Kandinsky ; and "Japanese 
Calligraphy" (No. 326)— a brief historical account.] A frequent 
recurrence to Ming and early Ch'ing models challenges un- 
favourable comparison with their prototypes. Viewing a 
Waterfall, by Soyu (Plate v, No. 317) appears at a disadvantage 
beside the Chinese version of the same theme in Plate v, 
No. 318. Other cases are the Horaisan (Plate VI, No. 319). by 
Sohei (1830) ; Landscape (Plate v. No. 322), by Buncho Tani 
(Buncho is illustrated again in No. 326); Plate vi, No. 321, by 
Hanko Okada (1842) ; and Plate vii, No. 325, by Baiitsu (1846). 
On the other hand, if less profound than the Chinese, the 
Japanese genius excels in such work as the dramatic battle- 
scenes in No. 319 (Plates i, 11, in) by Yoshishige Yano of the 
early Tokugawa period, or the wonderful illustrations of the 
Heiji-monogatari already referred to. Very spirited, too are 
the dragon (Plate vi, No. 312) and tiger (Plate vii, No. 312], by 
Tannyu Kano (see also No. 321 for other examples of this 
artist), Korin is represented by The Yora Cascade (Plate i 
No. 312) and a fan p.ainting (Plate I, No. 315), characteristic of 
one aspect of his work in their buoyant mastery. Koryilsai 
displays the qualities made familiar by his prints in the painting, 
Plate VI, No. 317. Okyo Maryuma, in addition to the landscape 
mentioned above, has examples of his fine draughtsmanship in 
the bird and flower-piece (Plate 11, No. 308), and in the portrait 
of a legendary courtesan of Eguchi (No. 318) ; the same clear- 
cut, if in this case somewhat arid, stvle being evidenced in the 
peacocks by his pupil, Tessan Mori (Plates vi-vii. No. 316) 
Another exercise in the peacock genre by Soken Yamaguchi 
(Plate I, No. 311) gains preference probably through the beauty 
- of the colour reproduction. Of equal merit is the Spring Fields 
of Hoitsu (Plate vi. No. 323), but the Cotton-flowers byMoonliglif, 
by a later member of the Mori family, Ippo, seems to be a 
decline into banality, though the accompanying note claims that 
it IS " strikingly profound and suggestive ". We have con- 
siderable material for contrasting the sober and very com- 
pletely carried out brush technique of most of these painters 
(carried out, certainly, in almost every case, with little loss of 
alertness or vitality— for instance, in the minutely executed 
towls of-Jakuchu Ito in No. 313), with the rapid and synthetic 
method of others, both Chinese and Japanese. The Cormorant 
of Musashi Miyamoto (Plate i. No. 318) successfully disregards 
the unessential ; the drawing by Kwazan (Plate vii. No. 311) 
perhaps less successfully ; while, to revert to the work of the 
Yuan dynasty, we have an incisive drawing of a Sage by 
Indra (Plate vi. No. 310), The Priest Fcng-kan (Plate vi 
No. 324), and ,4 Priest Mending his Clotlies [Plate in. No. 114)! 
in which the economy of means is carried very far. Skilful' 
brush technique is a feature of the drawings by Goshun 
(Plate VII, No. 324). 

The Plum-Blossom (Plate v, No. 325), the bird-and-flower 
piece by Wang Li-pen (Plate viii, No. 314— second half of 
14th century) with its obvious intensity and mastery, and the 

Japanese Periodical 

sensitive and beautiful drawing of Liu Chi's Lotus (Plate vi. 
No. 315— Ming) make manyof the Japanese works already men- 
tioned seem dry and materialistic. Interesting examples of more 
modern Chinese bird-and-flower pieces, which had a direct 
influence on Japanese art, are the works of Ch'en Nan-p'in (1748) 
reproduced in No, 326. It is needless to insist on the superiority 
of Chinese art in its great periods, but in the field of portraiture 
too, such works as The Priest P'u Yiiig (Plate 11, No. 318—" the 
most representative of all priest-portraits produced in the Yiian 
dynasty ") must be almost supreme. As in many Chinese land- 
scapes we seem to find points of contact with European artists, 
it may be with Dijrer's water-colours, or Claude, or Alexander 
Cozens, so here we are reminded of Holbein. The portrait of 
a priest by Shui (Plate i. No. 317), fine as it is, is not of the same 
class ; nor is the portrait of a Lama, a specimen of the Tibetan 
manner, showing a mixture of Indian and Chinese conventions 
Plate II, No. 311). The Arhats from theTokaiann Monastery at 
Kyoto (Plates iil-iv. No. 31 1— Yuan) may almost be classed with 
the realistic portrait school, and a similar affinity exists in the 
Reishojo " of the late Ashikaga painter Keihitsusai— probably 
inspired by a Sung painting. The Portrait of a Lama (above) 
IS one of the treasures unearthed by Colonel Kosloft" : another 
of the Kara-Khoto discoveries (Plate ili. No. 312) represents the 
deity Shaka, and is conjectured to be of the late Sung period It 
IS important among the rich harvest of works found in recent 
years m Central Asia. Plates vni No. 316 and viii No. 319 give 
some more specimens brought back by the Japanese expedition 
of 1904— a series of fragments of wall paintings in all proba- 
bility of the beginning or middle of the T'ang period, and of the 
greatest as documents. A series of articles deals with 
the inter-relation of Tibetan and Chinese art (No. 311) and with 
Indian influences (Nos. 316-17) shown in earlv vvorks such as 
the mural paintings of the Horyilji Temple, Yamato, some of 
which are reproduced in No. 315. The similarity in external 
form to the Ajnnta frescoes is clearly pointed out in the descrip- 
tion of these early paintings, which are of great value in spite 
of partial restoration in the Kamakura period. A Persian orioin 
IS assigned to some of their decorative detail. Buddhist art^is 
further illustrated in the fine Sung picture of the divinity Mayura 
(Plate III, No. 309) ; in the most important Senju-Kwannou 
(Plate III, No. 321— late Sung or early Yiian) ; the mid-Kama- 
kura masterpiece of Jizo-Bosatsu (Plate 11, No. 317) ; the early 
Kamakura Fudo divinity with boy attendants (Plate iv, No. 318)- 
the Fujiwara Damichi-Kinrin (Plate vm, No. 324) preserved iti 
the Daigoji Temple, whose treasures are enumerated in an 
article in this number ; the Fugen-Bosatsu (Plate iv. No 319) 
' genuinely Japanese with a slight admixture of Chinese 
influence of the Sung dynasty " ; the Amida triad (plates i-ii, 
No. 316), nth or 12th century, probably from a T'ang original • 
the portion of a scroll of about the 13th century in No. 313 • the 
13th century Sunde-avalokitesvara (Plate i, No. 326) •' the 
Kumano Mandara of about the latter half of the 14th century 
(Plate IV, No. 310) ; and the Bezaiten, probably late Kamakura 
(Plates i-ii. No. 314), impressive and rich in colour. 

Nos. 323-4-5 contain a valuable selection, which it is to be 
hoped may be added to, from M. Victor Golubew's photographs 
of the Ajanta frescoes. The article dealing with them is a little 
out of touch with European opinion, and it is surely an injustice 
to Ignore the labours of Lady Herringham. 

Specimens of 7th century sculptures from Shan-tung are 
reproduced in Nos. 308 and 313. Plate vii, No. 317, shows a 
wooden figure of Ryumyo, probably 9th-ioth century, simple 
and dignified, and of e.xcellent workmanship ; and in Plate vm. 
No. 322, we have a fine wooden image of Aizenmyowo pre- 
sumably of the Kamakura period. 

The applied arts are represented by a series of Chinese bronze 
mirrors, from the Han dynasty onward (Nos. 320-1, 324-5) • by 
a bronze wine-vessel of the Han dynasty (No. 318), and by three 
early Kamakura lacquered cases (Nos. 309, 314, 317). 

Among literary contrihutions not already noted' are -—(I) 
"Art encouragement under the Sung dynasty" (No 308) in 
which some account is given of the great collections of 'the 
Emperor Hui-tsung, of his own paintings, some of which have 
survived, and of the status of artists at this period- (II) 
■Japanese Architecture" (No. 312), an essay on timber' con- 
struction, with diagrams; (III) "The Influence of Western 
Prints on Japanese Art ", which points out that engravings were 
the chief source of occidental influence from the suppression of 


Japanese Periodical 

Christianity in Japan to the close of the i8th century (No. 314), 
in which connection see the curious landscape in oils (No. 322) 
by Jogen Arakl. 

The foregoing precis gives an indication of the varied and 
interesting nature of the " Kokka ", but it should be emphasised 
that the beauty of the colour-reproduction adds enormously to 
its value. It is not too much to say that we have nothing in 
Europe to equal these "chromoxylouraphs " in their own line. 
Colour-reproduction has made great strides amongst us, and 
certain processes are very successful ; but the appearance of Ihe 
best of these processes in a magazine of moderate price is a 
phenomenon we expect in vain. We find in expensive books 
reproductions by the three-colour process, less satisfactory as 
reproductions, and with the unpleasant quality inseparable from 
the use of clay papers (this quality, of course, occurs equally in 
all half-tone work, which is in most ways inferior to collotype). 
We doubt if any artist wlio works habitually for reproduction by 
this process^ is ever satisfied with "three-colour". Certainly 
he despairs of anything equalling the Japanese work. How 
far this is unavoidable is a question. The Japanese have 
behind them the tradition of their great schools of colour-prints; 
they have supreme skill in engraving on wood ; their papers 
are of beautiful quality and lone, and closely resemble the 
materials used in their drawings ; their inks (we believe) are not 
mi.\ed with oil as ours are, and gain in purity. In short the 
Japanese is an artist-craftsman working with the exactitude of 
a machine, but intelligently interpreting rather than mechani- 
cally reproducing. Whether he would be as successful in 
reproducing a modern oil-painting is open to doubt. Colour- 
prints from wood-blocks seem in no way suited to that end. 
But he would probably adapt himself to some process like 
chromo-collotypc (some of the prints in the "Kokka" are 
" chromoxylograph with collotype applied"). We do not 
mean to imply that artist-craft>men do not exist among us. 
They do, and are perfectly well known, but the pressure of the 
commercial system demands ease and cheapness rather than 
quality. No one, however, will question the wisdom of the 
British Museum authorities in employing Japanese craftsmen to 
reproduce the Ku K'ai-Chih Roll. 

No. 320 has unfortunately never reached this country, but it is 
hoped that a fresh supply may be procured. 

Addendum : Nos. 327-331, August-December, 1917. 

No. 327 contains, in addition to the usual descriptive text, a 
chromoxylograph (remarkably successful as a colour reproduc- 
tion) of an example of the richly ornamented papers used by 
the fastidious in China and Japan from the loth-i 2th century ; 

a series of collotypes of badly damaged wall-paintings recently 
discovered in ancient Korean tombs : and reproductions of the 
Butsugen Mandara in the Jinkoin Temple, Kyoto (Heian 
period), of a landscape of Fuji by Tannyu Kano, Lao-tzu 
passing the barrier by Ch'en Hsien (Ming), Shigoiwri remon- 
strating 7C'ith his father by Tametaka Okada, and a Summer 
Landscape by Chikuden Tanomura. 

No. 328 contains reproductions (the one in colour again a 
notable success) of the admirable masterpieces of the bird-and- 
flower painter, Lii Chi (Ming), the third of which, representing 
pheasants in a ravine, is unusually powerful in design ; also of 
the Fugen Bosatsu from the Daigo-ji Temple, of a painting. 
Filial Piety, attributed to Sun Chun-tse (Yiian), and examples of 
the work of Naonobu Kano (brother of Tannyu) and Hanko 
Okada. No. 329 contains a further portion of the Shinzei scroll 
of the Hciji-monogalari (reproduced in colours) ; a portrait of a 
Japanese priest of the early i_4th century, a dignified specimen 
of its kind ; a section of the Tohokuin-uta-awase scroll, probably 
of the early 14th century; CroK'S on a pUim-tree, attributed to 
Unkoku-Togan ; a Landsape by Chan Ching-fC-ng ; and speci- 
mens of lacquer work attributed to Koami (1410-1478). 

No. 330 has The Pai Tree by Wang Wei-lieh (later Ming- 
reproduced in colours) ; a fine Portrait of Sanetoki Kanazau'a 
(13th century) ; Arhats crossing the Sea by Taiga lke{d. 1776) ; 
portions of a 14th century scroll of Chigo Kwannon ; and an 
interesting Chinese bronze statuette of Miroku, of the epoch of 
the Six Dynasties. Among the literary contents is an article on 
The Renaissance Attitude in Japanese Art in which current 
aspirations similar to those of the so-called Calcutta School are 
sympathetically treated. The small reproductions suggest that 
the new school may have an interesting future. 

No. 331 contains two wings of a triptych by Shoe! Kano; 
a painting of conjoined divinities excavated at Kara Khoja ; a 
Pictorial Scroll of the Shui-kotoku-den ; a landscape attributed 
to Shubun, and probably of his school ; and two more 
examples of Okyo Maruyama. Literary contributions include 
an article on Primitive Art in Japan. R .8. 

[No. 332, which has arrived while these pages are going 
through the press, contains a truly admirable xylograph in 
colour and gold of a gilded, bronze lien, belonging to Baron 
Kitchizaemon Sumitomo, of Osaka. The names of the wood- 
engraver, M. Yoshihira, and of the colour-printer, T. Tamura, 
deserve to be recorded. The text tells us that the lien, sup- 
posed to be a vessel intended to hold incense or perfumery, 
though resembling a work of the Han dynasty, cannot be dated 
later than the Six Dynasties. — Eu.] 


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Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — Architect — 

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Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Franijaise, 78 — Veil i 

Nou, III, 54. IV. 60. 
Monthly.— Art World (New York), — Colour— Connoisseur — 

Fine Art Trade Journal — Journal of the Imperial Arts League 

— Kokka, 331, 332 — Les Arts, 164 — New York, Metropolitan 

Museum, xili, i — Onze Kunst, xvil, 2. 
Bl-MONTHLY. — Art in America, vi, i — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 

of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 92. 
Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Museum of Art, Bulletin 

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(9 a year), vil, i. 
Quarterly. — Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, 

XXV, 3— Gazette des Beaux Arts, 693— Oud-Holland, xxx%', 4 


— Pennsylvania Museum, Bulletin, 60 — Print Collectors' Quar- 
terly, VII, 4 — Quarterly Review. 

Annually. — Institut d'Estudis Catalans ; Anuari mcmxih-xiv, 
Any V, Part 2 (Patau de la Deputacio, Barcelona) — The Year's 
Art, 1918 (Hutchinson and Co.) 7s. 6d. n. 

Occasionally. — Church Crafts League, list of articles and 
craftsmen ; illust. (League Office, Church House, Dean's 
Yard, Westminster — Cleveland Museum of Art, Catalogue 
[raisonne] of the Collection of Paintings presented by Mrs. 
Liberty E. Holden ; drawn up by Stella Rubinstein ; 46 pp., 
20 illust. — The Game, an occasional Magazine, ii, i — Man- 
chester, Jolin Rylands Library, Bulletin, iv, 2 — S. Louis, City 
Art Museum ; Exhibition of Lithographs of War Work; Exhi- 
bition of Paintings by Old Masters and Gobelin Tapestries. 

Trade Llsts.^ — John Long's New Books, Spring 1918 (12-14 
Norris St., Haymarket, S.W.) — Messrs. Methuen's illustrated 
list of announcements of forthcoming books for the first half of 
the year 191S (36 Essex St., W.C. 2)— Norstcdts Xyheter 
(Stockholm), 1918, Nr. i — Schulman (J.), Numismatiste, 
Keizersgracht 448, Amsterdam. Cat. LXV, "La Guerre 
Europeenue," 1914-1916. Medailles, Monuaies, Papiers- 
monnaie ; 156 pp., illust., and 10 PI. 





immortal painter, died at Schomberg 
House, Pall Mall, on August 2, 1788, 
at the age of sixty-one. He was at 
the height of his artistic powers, and 
had secured the patronage of royalty, the nobility, 
and the wealthy gentry of England to an extent 
which should have enabled him to amass a 
substantial fortune ; yet this incomparable artist 
left his widow and his unmarried daughter very 
ill provided for, and almost in straitened circum- 
stances. Like all artists who have been struck 
down by death in the midst of active employment, 
Gainsborough left many paintings in his studio 
in various stages of incompletion. His favourite 
nephew, Gainsborough Dupont, who had resided 
for some years with his uncle as his principal 
assistant, was deputed by his uncle's will to 
complete as far as possible the commissions which 
Gainsborough had actually in hand. In the year 
following the painter's death an exhibition was 
held in his studio of the paintings, finished and 
unfinished, which remained, including many of 
his landscapes, for these had not secured the 
appreciation by fashionable society which has 
been in later days accorded to them. Gains- 
borough Dupont continued to carry on his 
uncle's practice, residing in Fitzroy Street, until 
his own death on January 20, 1797. Mrs. Gains- 
borough survived him until December 17, 1798 ; 
but after her nephew's death his executors sent 
for sale to Christie's the paintings by Gainsborough 
which belonged to Mrs. Gainsborough and to 
Gainsborough Dupont, as well as the latter artist's 
own remaining works, with the copperplates and 
prints in stock of his own engraving. This sale 
took place on April 10, 1797. 

Although it had been known already that such 
a sale had taken place, and that certain unfinished 
paintings by Gainsborough had been bought from 
the painter's widow by George, Prince of Wales, 
and placed in Carlton House, the actual details of 
this sale have been recently published for the first 
time by Mr. M. H. Spielmann in the Fifth Annual 
of the Walpole Society for 1915-1917. From the 
sale-catalogue there printed it now appears that 
the unfinished paintings in the royal collection 
were purchased at this sale, and that among the 
certified paintings by Gainsborough himself, which 
belonged to Mrs. Gainsborough, there was one of 
Diana and Actaon, purchased by one Hammond 
for the ridiculous sum of £2 3s. 

For a hundred years and more the Diana and 
Actcton remained practically unnoticed and treated 
of little account in the loyal collection at Windsor 
Castle, until the accession of King Edward VII, 
when it was, as it were, rediscovered, brought to 

Thi Bdbiinoton MaoiziNE, No. 181. Yol. XXXII— April 1918. 

notice, and its surpassing merits and peculiar 
artistic interest recognised. If was first brought 
to notice and reproduced by Sir Walter Arm- 
strong in his book on "Thomas Gainsborough 
and his Place in Art ", and it was selected for 
reproduction in the present writer's work on "The 
Royal Collections at Buckingham Palace and 
Windsor Castle ", published for King Edward VII 
by the Fine Arts Publishing Company in 1906. 
Not long ago this painting was removed from 
Windsor Castle to Buckingham Palace, and it 
has at the present moment been included in a 
selection of important paintings of the British 
school which have been lent by H.M. the King 
for public exhibition in the Victoria Art Gallery 
at Bath. An opportunity is therefore now offered 
to art lovers of studying this remarkable and 
fascinating production of the painter's creative 

To the ordinary mind any unfinished painting 
remains little more than a fragment, and at first 
sight of less value, than a work of art must possess 
when carried to completion. In such a work as 
the Diana and AcfcTon the true lover and student 
of art will offer up sincere thanks to the good 
fortune which arrested the painter's hand at this 
particular moment of execution, There are 
moments in the history of a work of art at which 
the genius of the artist seems to be at its zenith of 
inspiration, and when one longs to hear the words 
of Faust about the fleeting moment of content and 
happiness which, in spite of Mephistopheles, he 
was able to grasp : — 

Verweile doch, du bist so schon, 
and to feel that such an evanescent glimpse of 
beauty could be arrested and secured for all time. 
We see something of the same fascination in the 
unfinished portrait of Romney by himself in the 
National Portrait Gallery, much also in the un- 
finished paintings by J. M. W. Turner, R.A. 
Furthermore, in the same gallery at Bath it is 
to-day possible to study the effects and defects of 
over-elaborate completion in the famous painting 
by Lord Leighton of Cimahne's Madonna carried 
in Procession, which also forms part of the King's 
loan to the city of Bath. In this great composition 
the poetry and movement of the painter's original 
vision has been overlaid by the elaboration of 
details, until the whole design has become little 
more than a series of detached motives linked 
together by a rather slender thread of interest. 
In the Diana and Actceon the painter's vision has 
been that of the true poet, a Sophocles, a Shelley, 
or a Wordsworth. Diana and her nymphs are in 
their simple nudity, true visions of the super- 
human or fairy life which may still be supposed to 
exist in inviolate woodland secrecy. Action, 
even in this slight sketch, is the creature of earth 
which has intruded on these mysteries, and is 


Notes oti Pictures in the Royal Collections 

punished accordingly. The landscape, which is 
peculiarly Gainsborough's own, flutters and 
shimmers with pearly notes of musical har- 
monies. We feel as if we ourselves were intruding 
like Acta;on, and not, as in the case of Leighton's 
Ciiimbiu; as if we had paid for a seat to see a 
magnificent tableau vivant. 

The Diana and Acitxoii has an additional inte- 
rest in being perhaps the only known instance in 
which Gainsborough tried his hand at painting 
the nude. The subject naturally calls up memo- 
ries of the glorious rendering of the same subject 
by Titian at Bridgewater House. How differently, 
however, do the two painters approach their sub- 
ject. Titian finds in each nude body a fresh 
opportunity of showing his skill in the painting of 
healthy human life in its most alluring form. The 
goddess and her nymphs glory in their nudity, 
and Actason starts back dazzled by the intoxicating 
vision that he has beheld. In Gainsborough's 
painting the goddess and her nymphs are shy, 
like frightened deer, and have evidently never 
been disturbed by mortal eye before. Actaeon is 
held to his place by the vision of such beauty, and 
Diana seems to expostulate with him for his 
violation of their privacy, though the impenitent 
mortal seems disinclined to obey her, heedless of 
the punishment which is overtaking him, and of 
which indications are already apparent. 

Titian's treatment of the Diana and Acta-on 
may perhaps be looked upon as the highest 
achievement of academic training, when to con- 
summate knowledge derived from study of the 
human model and perfected by continuous and 
successful practice, there has been added the deep 
passion of a fervid and poetic Southern tempera- 
ment. Gainsborough, on the other hand, was 
one of the least academic of painters, and at a time, 
moreover, when the academic influence of Italy 

and France was strongly in the ascendant. 
Gainsborough had no yearnings like Reynolds 
and Romney in the direction of Raphael and 
Michelangelo, still less in that of Luca Giordano 
or any other skilful practitioner. The only painter 
to whom Gainsborough acknowledged his debt 
throughout life was Van Dyck, and much simi- 
larity can be traced in the temperaments of the 
two artists. Van Dyck, however, derived imme- 
diately from Rubens, whereas Gainsborough in 
early life owed little to any master's influence, 
perhaps most of all to Gravelot, and through him 
to that phase of the French school which had 
found its expression in Watteau. Had Watteau 
tried to depict Diana and Acta;on he would 
perhaps have come nearer to Gainsborough in 
his conception than to Titian. Both Gains- 
borough and Watteau seem shy in their handling 
of the nude, as if they were conscious of the 
respect due to a woman's modesty. With some- 
what similar feelings both Van Dyck and 
Velazquez seem to approach the nude, at a 
moment when Titian would exult and Rubens 
would revel in the sheer pleasure of their task. 

It is a pleasure to be able to note the point at 
which Gainsborough laid down his brush, and to 
surmise that he felt himself unable to add any- 
thing more to his own satisfaction. It is still 
more consoling to think that this painting escaped 
completion at the hands of Gainsborough Dupont, 
and that it passed so soon into the collection of 
so appreciative a connoisseur as George, Prince 
of Wales, who, in spite of other failings, was 
throughout life a student, lover and patron of the 
fine arts. The name of Gainsborough is one 
which will always be connected with the city of 
Bath, and it is fitting that it should be at Bath 
that this particular painting should be placed for 
the first time on public exhibition. 


,VERYONE knows that the basilica of 

S. Apollinare Nuovo, at Ravenna, was 

IP ^t]\1)/ built by King Theodoric, as is re- 

\n r^</A( corded by the historian Agnello, when 

Ihe cites the " ccclesiam Saudi Martini 
qiiaiii Tlicdciicus rex fnndavit, quae vocalnr caelum 
atireum ". And beside the church there was erected, 
about the nth century, the tall cylindrical cam- 
panile with which, in its decorative aspects, I have 
already dealt elsewhere." 

The explosion of the bomb, dropped from an 
Austrian aeroplane on 12 February 1915, directly 
ruined the upper left portion of the facade of the 

• Translated from the Italian by A. Van de Put. 

* G. Ballardini, Le ceramiche del campanile di Saiit' Apolli- 
nare nuovo in Ravenna \ in Felix Ravenna, 1911, i, 4. 


basilica; caused other very grave injuries to the 
front ; and damaged the upper part of the cam- 
panile, so that it became necessary to embark upon 
a vast scheme of restoration.- 

The work in question afforded me an oppor- 
tunity of re-examining at close quarters the cam- 
panile's ceramic decoration, some account of 
which, it seemed, might interest readers of The 
Burlington Magazine [Plate I]. The three top 
stories only of the tower bear, or rather bore, bacini 
(or majolica dishes), and the entire decorative series 
faced towards the south-east. It would appear that 
they were originally five in number, and were placed 

'S. Muratori, Bombardamcnto del 12 fcbbraio 1915 ; op. cit, 
1916, 21. Also G. Gerola, La facciala di S. Apollinare Nuovo 
nttravcrso i secoli, ihirl., Suppl. 2, 1916. 

The Bacini of S. ApoUinare Nuovo^ Ravenna 

above the arches of the two- or three-light open- 
ings or windows, i.e., two over those of the lower 
triple-light opening and one over the arches of the 
double-light just below. That they were dissimilar 
in shape is to be inferred, not only from the re- 
maining two, but also from the impressions or 
traces left by the backs of the other three, in the 
mortar m which they were embedded. Their 
arrangement can however be discerned by an 
observer at the street level, as follows : in the 
upper row, a dish and a scodella ; in the middle 
one, a scodella and a dish ; in the lower row, a 
dish. The two examples formerly upon the top 
story have different ceramic bodies ; the sub- 
stance of the dish in this respect being redder than 
the substance of the scodella. 

The dish is painted with conventionalised foliage 
of stalks and leaves, disposed crosswise and radiat- 
ing from the centre [Plate II B, (i)] ; one notices: 
(a) that the venations of the leaves are spiraloid, 
"reserved" or, rather, incised (graffite) upon the 
ground ; (b) that empty spaces are charged with 
pairs of small dashes or other touches ; (c) that 
the ornaments are painted in reddish gold or pale 
copper metallic lustre upon a warm, milky white 
ground ; (d) that the enamel ground is stanniferous ; 
it has the delicacy of colour of tin enamel, its 
polish and thickness. 

The scodella [D (2)] has a plumbeous, or lead 
glaze ; (a) the glaze has radically deteriorated 
through atmospheric agency, so that iridescence 
appears in places. I hasten to lay stress upon the 
purely accidental nature of this iridescence, due to 
decomposition in the plumbeous constituent of the 
surface ; the coloured lucence of the bacino is, 
on the other hand, intentional (metallic lustre) ; 
(6) the scodella exhibits worse states of preserva- 
tion than the bacino; this is perhaps explicable by 
the fact that its metallic envelope is less resistent 
than that of the dish ; (c) it is decorated with two 
green bands, disposed symmetrically in two con- 
cave parallel archings on four sides of the cavity, 
and enclosing a broad cruciform area ; {d) the 
colour is obtained from oxide of copper ; the 
whitish coating, which is rather crackled, is not 
unaffected by the colour of the clay beneath. 

The plate measures 24 cm. in diameter, with 
a major depth of 4 cm. ; the scodella, 20 cm. 
in diameter ; its major depth is 74, and its thick- 
ness 5, mm. 

As to the setting of the bacini m the Campanile, 
the following points may be observed : {a) that the 
brickwork courses around those in situ, as well as 
the spaces left by fallen bacini, are in regular 
alignment with those of the surrounding wall 
itself ; (6) that in places from which they have 
fallen — corresponding to the maximum depth of 
the cavity or sinking (a depth contained by the 
slope of bacino or scodella) — the backing is visible ; 
(c) that the courses of brick were laid round the 

bed of the dish, for which space had been reserved 
in construction, so that one brick extends from 
beneath another, down to the point of contact 
with the bed itself, from which they rise until the 
normal coursing is reached ; {d) that the mortar 
containing the impression of the backs is of the 
same quality as that of the beds of the brickwork, 
inside as well as outside the tower, that is, mixed 
with gravel and small stones ; (e) that, as regards 
the top two-light opening, a portion of the foot of 
the bacino (or scodella with widish brim) remains 
fixed in its bed, which being circular, shows within 
and around it, mortar of the same quality. From 
these considerations I inferred that the ceramic 
decoration was coeval with the tower ; and, there- 
fore, was not an embellishment introduced later. 
A direct inspection of the monument, which I 
carried out upon the exterior, from the scaffolding 
erected by the li. Sopraintendenza del Monuinenti, 
has shown that if this inference be correct, it is 
so, as regards the portion of wall holding the 
pottery. In fact, the explosion, causing a series of 
displacements in the mass of the structure, has 
brought to light quite clearly that, at a period 
subsequent to the date when the Campanile was 
constructed — yet a sufficiently early one — its outer 
wall was much restored, and exactly in a triangular 
or conical area extending from the top down to 
the third row of openings : the said area of 
restoration faces due south-east and contains the 
ceramic ornaments. Examination of the two wall 
structures, i.e., of the original one and of the 
old restoration; examination of the mortars and 
of the pebbles, etc., they contain ; of the bricks ; 
of their courses ; and of the manner of working, 
convinces me that a broad pointed streak of later 
construction has been inserted, wedge-like, into the 
mass of the Campanile. This wedge of restoration 
can, upon data afforded by a comparison with 
contemporary local edifices, be assigned to the 
Romanesque period ; there is consequently nothing 
remarkable about the Romanesque architect's 
obedience to the fashion of the moment in de- 
corating what he had built with the ornaments 
then applied to religious edifices. 

Examination of the scodella in situ reveals 
nothing very striking. It is, in fact, lead-glazed, 
green pottery with six dark coloured double zones 
placed in concave archings so as to form a curved 
square, or as we have said, a broad cruciform area 
The central depression is en- 
circled by a garland of running 
conventionalised ornament, 
simple enough in itself, but in 
which orientalising suggestions 
might be discovered [FiG.]. 

The bacino, on the other hand, 
incrusted over the point of con- 
tact of the two left-hand arches of 
the upper three-light opening [d (i)], belongs to 


The Bacini of S. Apollinare Nuovo^ Ravenna 

a well known type which I do not hesitate 
to denominate " Mussulman " or " Saracenic " ; a 
sufficiently comprehensive term referring it to a 
date posterior to the epoch of the Mohammedan 
conquest of Persia, Syria and Egypt in the second 
half of the 7th century. Its classification can be 
carried further even, and we may say at once that 
the style is Hispano-Moresque — due reserve 
being entered as to the bearing of the term. The 
type, which can be gathered quite clearly from 
[Plate II, u] placts this beyond doubt, both in the 
symmetrical disposition of the ornament ; in the 
conventional form of the motif; in the dispositioa 
of the volutes and fillings, in the shape of the 
graffiti, as in enamel, colour and lustre. 

The Spanish Moors were not of course alone in 
the application of metallic lustre to ceramics ; for 
the whole wide belt of Saracen dominion, from 
Egypt to Persia, and from North Africa to Spain, 
produced wares of that kind. Leaving aside the 
discussions upon possible Byzantine influences, in 
the vague terms of Heraclius andTheophilus, and 
those relating to Egyptian derivation, it is to be 
noted that some would see in the ceramic type in 
question a non-Persian production, although of 
Persian origin, yet however essentially Saracenic 
on the grounds either of the use of enamel or 
of metallic lustre. If it be merely traditional and 
in no sense proved that lustre flourished originally 
in Mesopotamia and notably at Bagdad in the 
9th century ; it is nevertheless certain that the 
most recent excavations at Rakka in the Euphrates 
valley, and upon the sites of other ruined cities in 
Syria and Persia attest the antiquity of this tech- 
nical process. Rhages, Sultanieh and Veramin in 
North Persia have yielded noteworthy specimens, 
the more interesting because dated (1217 and later), 
which, already impregnated by Mongol character- 
istics, witness to the currents that proceeded, more 
specially under Ghengis Khan, from the Far East 
in the early i ith century. Certainly at the fall of the 
Bagdad Califate, which is one of the great historical 
events of the Nearer East, the process of decorat- 
ing earthenware with metallic lustre was at its 
apogee ; yet still earlier, Nassiri-Khosrau, the 
nth century Persian traveller, found it at Misr (at 
the spot where Cairo arose later), and marvelled 
thereat as a thing unknown ; and the excavations 
of Fostat (old Cairo, destroyed circa 1163) and at 
Kiis, near Luxor, have yielded fragments of 
Fatimite bowls with a bright ruby pigment or 
with gold lustre on a white enamel, which is 
declared to be stanniferous. These bowls were 
attributed by Fouquet and others (whether with 
absolute certainty I am unable to say) to the 10th 
and nth centuries. On the other hand, the 
researches of Mar^ais have shown us the pottery, 
likewise lustred, of Hammadite Barbary drawn 
from the Qal'a of the Beni Hammad, indicating, 
according to the same authority, one stage of the 


current which travelled from Mesopotamia or 
Persia along the southern shore of the Medi- 
terranean basin, afterwards crossing to Spain, 
while the various Saracen tribes, in successive 
invasions from Irak and the Hejaz, from Egypt 
and from Syria, overcoming each other in turn, 
changed their habitat under pressure from their 
neighbours. But if all this is to be accounted to 
the Mussulmans of the East and of Africa, the role 
of Spain is also an instructive one. Already in 
the loth century the potters of Andalusia can 
boast of oriental decorative motives, as the dis- 
coveries of Don R. Velazquez Bosco at Medina 
Azzahra and Alamiriya and the great palace of 
Abderrahman 111 (commenced in 936-7, destroyed 
at the beginning of the nth century) have deter- 
mined ; at Toledo in the mid-nth century, 
according to documents recently brought to light, 
gold-lustred pottery was made. Edrisi, in a work 
terminated in 1154, cites the golden vases of 
Calatayud as exported afar ; the Moors of Xativa 
are in 1238 guaranteed in their craft by the 
Christian conqueror upon a payment in respect 
of each kiln ; in the same century the golden ware 
of Malaga in Southern Andalusia is mentioned 
by Ibn Said and in the 14th by Ibn Batuta, and 
the Alhambra, to which ceramic art contributes so 
extensively, is begun in 1273. 

This rapid sketch was perhaps necessary for 
the recapitulation of some leading dates in the 
history of Mussulman ceramics, with special 
reference to lustre. From them one sees that 
Spain took its place early in the art, so rapidly did 
the tide set from east to west. From Spain in 
particular, also, was Upper Italy invaded and its 
"golden" products became a boon so much in 
request, that later on in the height of the 15th and 
i6th centuries, great Italian families ordered of the 
Spanish fabriques dishes with their own arms. 
There is, then, nothing very remarkable in some 
dishes being brought to Ravenna in the 13th 
century for the decoration of the basilica which 
had been known as cacliun aiireimi. I say " some 
dishes," because, as I have explained, the bacini 
of the campanile were five in number : i.e., three 
dishes and two scodcltc. To-day there remain one 
dish and one scodclla ; the others, two plates and 
a scodclla, are wanting. 

In the Kunstgewerbe-Museum in Berlin are 
exhibited two gold lustred plaques or bacini from 
the Lessing collection, which had been acquired 
at Rome in 1884 at theCastellani sale. Now these 
the Castellani declared they had seen incrusted in 
a church in Upper Italy. That S. Apollinare of 
Ravenna was the church in question cannot be 
affirmed, but neither can it be excluded as an 
impossibility : it is sufficient to compare our bacino 
with one of the two in Berlin [Plate II, c (r)] 
in order to establish the striking similarity 
between them. I will merely remark that the 


I lilil II IN IT 


The Bacini of S. Apollinare Nuovo^ Ravenna 

bacino now in Berlin is decorated with a quadruple 
inscription wanting to the Ravenna example ; but 
this adds as little as it detracts from the very close 
relationship which exists between two works of 
art, as refined as they are harmonious and chastely 
simple in their ornamentation. 

In confirming my previous identification of 
the type of the Ravenna pottery as Hispano- 
Moresque, I find myself differing from Migeon, 
who assigns them to the Syro-Egyptian art of 
Egypt, that is Fatimite of the 12th century; as 
from the late Henry Wallis, who was mclined 
rather to believe that the Berlin bacini. were 
Persian. I am however in agreement with the com- 
munications made to me by Dr. v. Falke, with Sir 
H. Read and other connoisseurs. I admit that 
dogmatism in the matter is impossible, because the 
Ravenna bacino's resemblance to either variety of 
the great ornamental family to which the term 
Saracenic is applied, appears too inevitable in 
itself, confronted as we are by artistic styles 
descended from the same stock and slowly trans- 
formed at various stages according to place and 
time. But I should like to say at once that the 
attribution to "Hispano-Moresque" type need not 
be held surprising if one circumstance only is 
considered : that we are too accustomed to use 
the term for those ornamental varieties only which, 
of more general manufacture, afterwards flourished 
in the 15th and i6th centuries, and it requires a 
certain mental effort to "back-date" the classifica- 
tion. It is nevertheless certain that the whole of 
Hispano-Moreseque production, in the fulness of 
its content, can be grasped with one distinction 
only, as follows : — 

(I) Cordovan and Toledan 

The Hermitage vase 
Palermo vase 
Stockholm vase 
Alhambra vase 
New York vase-neck 
Madrid fragments 

(a) Group of Arab preva 
lence, i.e., Mesopotamian 
Syrian (erstwhile " Damas- 
cene "), Egypto - Saracenic 
personified, later, in the type' 
which can be designated, 
in the 14th century, as of 

Berlin bacini 
\ Ravenna bacino 
I Tiling of the Cuarto Real 
de Santo Domingo. Granada. 
Tazza with name " Malaga " 
in Arabic (Sarre coll.). 
(3)V Tiling of Abu-1-Hajjaj 
(i4o6,'o7) now in Osma 
I collection, which forms the 
I nexus with subsequent de- 
• velopments. 

(6) Group of Spanish prevalence, typified in the name Valencia, 

which attains its later phases in the 15th and i6th centuries ; etc. 

We assign the Ravenna bacino to the first group. 

Showing unmistakable, close, Saracenic influence 

it yet, both in the peculiar method of its decora- 
tion, in the technical quality of its paste, enamel, 
lustre and tone, approximates to and confounds 
itself with the orientalising productions of Spain. 

Another observation ; in speaking of these types 
and in contrasting them with those termed more 
properly Saracenic (Syro-Egyptian, Mesopotamian, 
Persian, Berber, etc.), their technical character- 
istic has not always been accurately differentiated : 
i.e., whether all be true maiolica (tin enamel) ; 
or, whether this latter be predominant, if not 
entirely so, as regards the Spanish potteries ; the 
others employing instead a silico-alkaline glaze. 
This point seems to me of great importance and it 
will form the subject of technical inquiry, stylistic 
data alone being insufficient. The Saracenic East 
worked, in fact, upon a body of which the major 
constituent is siliceous, rendered plastic by rather 
less than three parts of clay to six of alkali, which 
requires an equally high siliceous percentage for 
the glaze. The body of stanniferous pottery is, 
on the other hand, perceptibly different ; it is less 
siliceous and more alkaline, so that the tin enamel 
is wonderfully adherent and takes the reddish 
tinge of the paste. According to Deck, moreover, 
the Spanish colorants consist of sulphuric amal- 
gams of copper, silver and iron, and so far, even 
they also, differ from the oriental ones. 

One word more. But a few months ago the 
pottery remaining upon the campanile of Sant' 
Apollinare Nuovo could not be examined by the 
student because it was incrusted at some scores 
of metres of height, inaccessible to the naked eye, 
and only visible from the interior of the tower by 
means of a combination of mirrors. The Austrian 
bomb necessitated the erection, on the outside 
of the campanile, of a platform from which the 
bacini were within an arm's length. Alas ! The 
explosion has covered their surfaces with a fine 
network of cracks, thus determining the/?. Soprin- 
tendenza dei Momunenti of Ravenna to act upon 
my fervently spoken advice : that the two works 
of art should be taken down from the place 
whence they were destined, more or less quickly, 
to disappear, together with the block of mortar 
that holds them and which, being detached, would 
no longer serve to support the campanile's roof. 

In Plate II, d, we have, then, these fine and 
authentically original pieces, now among the 
treasures of the Museo Nazionale at Ravenna 
and, I think, unique in the world. For once 
Mars has done Minerva a service, . . . but, at 
what a cost ! 




'HE legend of a hero who embarked 
on the back of some monstrous bird, 
or contrived a cage or basket in which, 
borne up by winged creatures, he might 
voyage through the air, and after a 
survey of the heavenly regions was obliged to 
descend to earth, is of very ancient origin. It has 
branches in almost every literature, appearing in 
the pages of "The Arabian Nights," in the legend 
of Bellerophon, in Dante's " Purgatory," and in a 
matchless, humorous passage of Chaucer's " House 
of Fame". A study of the ramifications of the 
legend after it was attached to Alexander the Great 
would be of the highest interest ; relating how it 
sprang out of the cradle of the East, mated with 
this great hero, ran a romantic career through the 
unscrupulous imaginations of Western Europe, was 
condemned with scowling brows by homilists and 
theologians, lived on despite this clerical anathema, 
enjoying the approval of the laity, till with the 
renaissance the plague of historical scepticism 
caused its quietus as a living tradition. Neverthe- 
less, although references to literary testimony will 
illuminate the path which I shall follow in this 
paper, yet that path will lie, in the main, among 
the artistic representations of Alexander's Celestial 
Journey, which present a no less fascinating field. 
This subject I hope to treat more comprehensively 
than has been done hitherto ; yet were it not for 
the many previous discussions of archaeologists, to 
which I refer in the footnotes, this study would 
not have been possible. 

In what form was this story first told of Alexander 
the Great ? It will not be found in that earliest 
body of romantic Alexander tradition which goes 
by the name of Pseudo-Callisthenes (though it is 
interpolated in two 15th and a 16th-century manu- 
script), nor in the 4th-century version of Julius 
Valerius. For several centuries, then, the figure 
of the great conqueror had been attracting to itself 
the marvellous tales of the East before that of the 
Celestial Journey fastened itself upon him. The 
first witness to the association of this episode with 
Alexander is a gth-century abecedary poem in Latin. 
The stanzas beginning F and H speak of Alex- 
ander's determination to make an ascent in a 
basket of rushes borne up by gryphons, of the fear 
that overtook him in the heavens, of his prayer to 
return, and of the founding of a city on the spot 
where he descended.' We next find the story 
related in the "Historia de Proeliis" of the Arch- 
presbyter Leo, who wrote at Naples between 951 
and 969. It runs : 

• [Professor R. S. Loomis was on the point of joining the 
U.S.A. army when he last communicated with us, but we arc 
not yet able to give him his proper military rank. — Ed.] 

' Bcricht dcr Sachsischen Gescllscliaft dcr Wissenschnjten, 
phil. hist. <•/.. 1877. rr- 67. 69- 

" I took counsel with my friends how I might fashion such 
a machine that I might ascend the heavens and see if they 
be the heavens which we behold. I made ready a machine 
wherein I might sit, and I caught gryphons and bound them 
with chains, and set before them rods and meat on the 
tops thereof, and they began to ascend to heaven. Never- 
theless, the divine power overshadowed and cast them 
down to the earth in a meadow more than ten days 
journey from my army, and I suffered no hurt, even in 
the iron throne. I rose to such a height that the earth 
seemed like a threshing floor below me. The sea, more- 
over, seemed to me like a serpent writhed about it, and with 
great peril I was reunited to my soldiers ".'" 
This account was soon expanded and formed the 
basis for the many versions of the French, Ger- 
man, Italian, Spanish, and English romances of 

At the same time apparently that the episode 
was attaining a vogue in the West as one of the 
exploits of Alexander, it was being related in a 
similar form by Oriental writers of other heroes. 
F"or the following references I am indebted to 
Budge and Pavlovskij. The Arabian chronicler 
Tabaii and the Persian poet Firdusi, both writing 
in the loth century, attribute to one of the mythical 
Persian kings, Kai Ka'us, a celestial journey." The 
latter's account runs to the effect that at the sug- 
gestion of a deinon the king was persuaded to 
extend his dominions and to ascend to the sky. 
Four eagles were attached to his throne, and, as 
in the case of Alexander, were lured upward by 
two lances baited with meat.* Wearying at length, 
however, they began to flutter downwards, and 
Kai Ka'us was precipitated to the earth, alive but 
stung with remorse for his impious ambition. For 
a time he lived a penitent in the wood where he 
had fallen, but was at last restored to his throne 
and regained the favour of heaven. We see that, 
as in the case of Bellerophon's ascent to heaven 
on the winged steed, the story of Kai Ka'us's at- 
tempt is regarded as an instance of sinful pride. 
The same interpretation of the story is found in an 
Arabian tradition told of Nimrod, who after a 
disastrous essay to reach heaven by building the 
tower of Babel, made an ascent in a chest borne 
by four huge birds, only to fall upon a mountain 
with such force that it shook with the impact.^ 

The tradition concerning Kai Ka'us is much 
older than the version of Firdusi, since it is the 
subject of a reference in the "Zend Avesta ".* This 
story must have been influenced by that of the 
Babylonian hero Etanna, which is preserved on a 
cuneiform inscription made for the Royal Library 

- The original version of Leo, as preserved in the Bamberg 
MS., is published by F. Pdster, Der Alexaiuierroiiian lics Aichi- 
fircsbylcrs Leo. Quotation from p. 26. Other versions that 
liavc been published as Leo's make considerable amplifications. 

'■> Chroiiiqiic dc Tabari, tr. H. Zotenberg, I, p. 465. F. Spiegel, 
Eranischc Altcrthumskunde, I, p. 595- 

* [A Persian version is illustrated [Plate, I, f] which has 
not been seen by the author, who is therefore not responsible 
for its inclusion. — Ed.] 

'• E. A. Wallis Budge, Life and Exploits oj Alexander, p. 33. 

* Sacred Books of the East, xxiil, pp. ■2.\t. 242. ". l- 








Alexander the Great's Qelestial Journey 

at Nineveh between 668 and 626 B.C.' In this 
version of the legend it seems that Etanna wished 
to ascend to the highest heaven, and an eagle said 
to him : "Rejoice, my friend, and let me carry 
thee to heaven. Lay thy breast on my breast, thy 
hands on my pinions, and let my side be as thy 
side." When the eagle had soared upwards for 
two hours with Etanna clasping him, he showed the 
hero the great ocean which surrounded the world, 
and the earth's surface, which appeared like a 
mountain projecting from it. After another two 
hours the eagle showed him that the ocean clasped 
the land like a girdle, and after the third two hours 
they saw that the sea had become like a little pool 
of water. They finally rest at the door of the gods 
Anu, Ea, and Bel. After a gap in the text the 
eagle and Etanna appear soaring to the abode of 
the goddess Ishtar. Presently the eagle's strength 
seems to fail, and down he falls till at length 
Etanna is dashed to pieces on the earth. Wallis 
Budge, from whom I quote this account, adds : 

"There is little doubt tliat the story was also fastened on 
to Gilgamish, a famous Accadinn and Assyrian hero : . . 
in fact, it seems as if we had here one of the stories with 
which men amused themselves in a primitive period. . . . 
Given a brave, fearless soldier, marching with an army 
through a certain country for conquest and pleasure, it 
seems that the same stories must be told of his progress and 
exploits, whether he be Etanna, Gilgamish, Nimrod, or 
Alexander. With the advance of time the first tolerably 
accurate description of his life will be first distorted and 
then enlarged, and when he has become a mere memory his 
name will be made a peg on which to hang stories, legends, 
and myths".' 

Having, then, traced back to its origin in the 
cloudland of oriental myth the story of Alexander's 
Celestial Journey, let me turn to the main subject 
of this paper, the remarkable vogue of this motif 
and its wide diffusion, isolated from the other 
incidents of the Alexander legend, throughout 
mediaeval art. Since the first published identifica- 
tion of the subject in a bas-relief on the exterior 
of S. Mark's by Julien Durand in 1865, archaeolo- 
gists have added gradually other examples to our 
knowledge, so that at present I can point to 
'twenty-nine unmistakable illustrations of this sub- 
ject extant outside of illuminated manuscripts. 
From Mesopotamia to the English West Country, 
and from Otranto in the heel of Italy to Remagen 
on the Rhine the design of the crowned Alexander 
flanked by his gryphon team seems to have caught 
the fancy of mediaeval craftsmen. In the case of 
most of these illustrations it is not easy to date 
them with precision, and in enumerating them I 
shall follow only roughly a chronological order. 

In view of the fact that we find the legend of 
Kai Ka'iis and his ascent flourishing in Persia 
between the 3rd and loth centuries, it is almost 
certain that the episode was illustrated in con- 
temporary Persian art. Yet though illuminated 

manuscripts of Firdusi's "Shah Nameh " of the 
i6th or 17th centuries usually contain an illustration 
of the episode, no portrayal dating from the period 
in question is known to me. Yet the symmetrical 
placing of the gryphons in all the earlier illus- 
trations which we are presently to examine may 
have been influenced by the very common oriental 
motif of tree worship, in which two animals, 
frequently gryphons, stand on each side of a 
conventionalised tree." Moreover, a king standing 
between two gryphons appears on a pre-Christian 
Persian seal." Accordingly, while no direct evi- 
dence is available, the motif of the gryphon flight 
probably began to take shape under the influence 
of these familiar designs. 

Since the legend of the Celestial Journey, trans- 
ferred from Kai Kaus to Alexander, reappears in 
the Qth-century Latin poem, we must conclude that 
the literary tradition had passed from Persia to the 
Latin speaking West through the territories where 
the romantic tales of Alexander were still in the 
process of formation. Such a track would lead us 
through the Byzantine Empire. It is natural 
enough, then, that we should find the earliest 
artistic treatments of the episode Byzantine in 
provenance or treatment. 

In Greece itself two crude sculptures occur, one 
at the monastery of Dochiariu on Mt. Athos," the 
other in the monastery of the Peribleptos at Mistra. 
The latter [Plate I, d], according to Strzygowski, 
shows in the arabesque lines and other details traces 
of Moslem influence, such as were at work in 
Greece about the year 1000.*^ The vehicle here 
seems to be the basket referred to in the Latin 
abecedary poem. The relief on the north elevation 
of S. Mark's [e], which, as I have noted, was the 
starting point for the discussion of Alexander's 
Celestial Journey in art, is of Greek marble,'^ and 
without question is one of the spoils brought by 
the Venetians from other lands for the decoration 
of their cathedral. Although the date of the 
carving, on the authority of M. Bertaux, is as early 
as the loth century," we see already signs of that 
corruption through misunderstanding which is the 
lot of every traditional motif in art. Alexander 
is represented as standing in a quadriga, a 
vehicle chosen by the artist apparently on his 
own initiative, without regard for its unfitness 
for a skyward course. It is most interesting 
to see how this first corruption has led another 
craftsman, who was ignorant of the story, into 
other perversions of the motif. The carver of a 

' E. A. W. Budge, 0/). cit., p. .xxxviii. 
' Ihid., pp. xl, xliii. 

^ Seesselberg, Fn'ihmittelalterliclie Kiiiist cies Geimanischen 
Volkes, figs. 1 8a, 31, 32. 

'" O. von Falke, Geschichte iter Seidenweberei, I, fig. 132. 

" Figured by Strzygowski, Ainida, p. 352. 

'2 Ibid., p. 352. 

'" Boito and Scott, Basilica of St. Mark's, p. 537. A case for 
the Oriental, not Byzantine, derivation of this carving has been 
made in Zeitschrift Jiir christliche Kitiist, xxiv, p. 307. 

" E. Bertaux, V Art dans Vltalie Ueridionale, I, p. 490. 


Alexander the Great" s Qelestial Journey 

Byzantine ivory casket'-' has introduced on one of 
the panels [b] a design much like that of the S. 
Mark's relief, with the addition of certain features 
from tlie design of a victorious chariot driver. 
This mingling will be at once apparent if one com- 
pares the panel with an Alexandrian textile fabric 
of the 7th-century figured by Migeon, Les Arts dii 
Tissii, p. 17. In the panel the king with his tiara, 
the chariot and the gryphons appear as in the 
Venice relief, though the gryphons no longer have 
any appetite, for a ball and a sceptre ending in 
a beast's head have taken the place of the baited 
spears in the hero's hands. And here the chariot 
has suggested the introduction of the genii of 
victory which flutter round the chariot in the Alex- 
andrian textile design. 

I have noted that according to the original 
Persian legend of Kai Kaus he was borne up by 
eagles. We have seen that when the adventure 
was attributed to Alexander, the common tradition 
transformed the eagles into gryphons, and Western 
versions of the Alexander romance uniformly 
preserve the gryphons. But Eastern traditions 
concerning Alexander's Celestial Journey, notably 
that preserved in the Ethiopian version of the 
Pseudo-Callisthenes'^ and that which was added 
in certain late MSS. of the Pseudo-Callisthenes 
itself/' describe him as carried by two huge birds, 
and these birds are also found in two illus- 
trations of the episode. The first is a Byzantine 
embroidery, dating probably from about the year 
1000, and strangely preserved since it was made up 
as a part of a triumphal banner by the people of 
Wurzburg in 1266, and has been in the possession 
of the Historical Society of the town for a number 
of years." This textile, although of so early a date, 
appears to be a corruption of an earlier design, for 
Ale.xander bears two sceptres in his hands, and the 
two eagles seem to have merged into a sort of aqui- 
line Siamese twin. The birds appear also on a 
12th-century embroidery of German workmanship 
[a] preserved in S. Patroclus's Church, at Soest." 

With this one exception all the illustrations I 
have so far mentioned seem to have had their 
origin in the late Byzantine Empire. Let us now 
begin to trace the spreading of the motif outward 
from that centre. One of the most interesting 
illustrations [e] is that on an enamelled bowl from 

" Preserved in the Grossherzogliches Landesmuseum, 
Darmstadt. Described by Graeven in Bonner Jahrbi'icher, vol. 
108/9, p. 266. 

'^ E. A. \V. Budge, op. cit., pp. 277 11. 

" Pseudo-Callisthenes, ed. Meuscl, p. 767. 

" Described in Hefner - Altcneck, ed. 2, I, p. 17. Figured 
ibid., pi. 29, and in K. G. Stephani, Altcstc Deutsche Wohnban, 
II, p. 662. 

' Described in Zeilsclirift fur ChrisUichc k'innl. 1902, p 

Western Asia.-' An Arabic inscription (not shown 
in the reproduction) indicates that it was made 
for Mawud, one of the petty princes whom the 
conquests of the Seljukian Turks established in 
Syria and Mesopotamia. This Mawud reigned 
between 11 14 and 1144. The design, in which 
the wheels of the quadriga appear as meaningless 
flower-like circles at some distance from Alexander 
and the gryphons, is certainly based on the Byzan- 
tine tradition represented by the S. Mark's relief. 
But Strzygowski believes that the artist came from 
Persia or Transoxania, and Migeon recognizes in 
his work the influence of Chinese technique.'' 
The motif seems to have spread, as was natural, 
also up into Russia, and appears on a carving at the 
Church of S. Demetrius, Vladimir [G],'"and on a 
gold diadem in the Collection Khanenko at Kieff. '^ 
Of these I have been able to learn nothing. 

If we turn westward from our centre at By- 
zantium, we find at the Cathedral of Otranto, in 
the heel of Italy, the subject forming part of a 
huge design in the mosaic pavement covering the 
nave [h].^^ Significantly enough the records tell 
us that the pavement was laid down in 1165 by a 
Greek artist, Pantaleone, and the style is still 
markedly Byzantine. The king is seated on a stool 
placed on the backs of two gryphons, but that the 
artist knew his subject is clear from the legend, 
." ALEXANDER ", over the king's head. At San Do- 
menico, Narni,-^and at the Cathedral of Borgo San 
Donnino the Celestial Journey is carved on the 
fa^ade.^ In the year 1303 the inventory of Anagni 
Cathedral records : " Item j dalmatica de samito 
viridi cum paraturis in fimbriis historia Alexandri 
elevati per grifos in aerem".'''' An Italian poem of 
the 14th century, the " Iiitelligenzia," in describing 
an imaginary chamber adorned with mural paint- 
ings of subjects from the romances, says that there 
was portrayed in good colours and cunning shapes 
how Alexander was carried into the air by the 
gryphons, and how he surveyed all regions.*' 
(To be continued.) 

^ Preserved at Ferdinandeum, Innsbriick. Described in 
Strzygowski, v4iH/rfrt, p. 353, and in Monatshefts filr Kunstwis- 
scnschiift, 1909, p. 234. 

-' Strzygowski, Amidii. p. 353. Monatshtjte fiir Knnstu'isseu- 
srlinfl. 1909, p. 235. 

-'- Byzantinisclie Zeilsclirift, 1893, II, p. 400, and Freibnrgcr 
Miinsteibli'iltcr, II, [The example here given is from the 
Byzantinischc Zcitscltrilt, to which the author had not access. — 

^'' Collection Khanenko, Croix ct Images, 1899-1900. ^poque 
Slave, 1902, pi. xxvii. 

'" Described by Garufi in Stitdi Mcdicvali, 1906/7, II, p. 507. 

-']. R. Rahn, Geschichte der bildenden Kiinste in der Schweiz, 
p. 218, H.3. 

'"Porter, Lombard Architecture, IV, pi. XXIX, fig. 3. [This 
example is so much more Western than Eastern in treatment 
that it will be illustrated in the continuation. — Ed.] 

'-"^ Annates Archc'ologiqucs, xvill, p. z6. 

-' Intcltigcnzia, ed. Gellrich, st. 216. 



O all interested in our artistic patri- 
mony, the unobtrusive generosity of 
private benefactors, who have again 
and again come forward to rescue for 

the national collections works of art 

thrust into the market by the European upheaval, 
must for a long time be a matter of the liveliest 
satisfaction and graiitude. The value of a pur- 
chase-grant, small though the sum may be when 
set against the opportunities for using it to the 
public advantage, is never more evident than when 
it is not available. 

One small section of our national collections — 
the stuffs from the Egyptian burying-grounds— 
may be taken as an illustration. Three collections 
of these stuffs, each including specimens which it 
seemed essential to secure for the nation, have 
been offered for sale in London within the past 
nine months. 

From the first of these a few selected pieces, 
given by several donors, were illustrated in The 
Burlington Magazine last July.' A few weeks after 
the appearance of that collection another, smaller 
in number, but of no less interest, came into 
view. Two important pieces obtained from this 
collection were illustrated in a subsequent number 
of The Burlington Magazine? A third example, 
since acquired from the same source, is now 
illustrated [PLATE I, a]. It is given by Mr. Stephen 
Gaselee, who is not for the first time a donor, and 
who has with no less generosity placed his 
learning at the disposal of the museum. Its 
interest is two-fold, due in the first instance to 
the unusual design and technique, and once more 
to the use to which it was put. It is a piece of 
linen, moderately fine, with an interwoven pattern 
of straight, narrow stripes in small close loops of 
pink wool. A remarkable example of this 
weaving, given by Sir William Lawrence, has 
already been reproduced.' In that instance the 
loops covered the ground as well, for warmth ; 
here they form the pattern only. The straight 
pink stripes, oddly recalling the stuffs of the 
period of Louis XVI, are very remarkable in an 
early textile. It would be no easy matter to 
assign a date to this example by itself, but taking 
the whole group of these looped stuffs together, it 
is evident that they belong to the Grseco-Roman 
period. Typical designs are classical figures, 
dolphins, roses, heart-shaped petals and the like, 
ranging in date from the 3rd to the 5th century.* 
Two small pleats in the middle of one side have 
warped the stuff to a bowed shape. This suggests 
that it was worn on the head, as seen in the 

' Vol. xxxi, p. 13. 

* Vol. x.xxii (Jan. 1918), p. 10. 

' Burl. Mag., xx.xi (July 1917), PI- I, D. 

* Examples were found by M. Gayet at Antinoe in a grave 
containing documents dated A.D. 454, 455 and 456 (E. Guimet, 
Portraits d' Antinoe, p. u). 

illustration, and if we may identify it with No. 509 
in M. Gayet's catalogue,' we have the excavator's 
confirmation of this theory, and the clue to its 
provenance as well. The village of Durunkah lies 
a short distance south of Asyut, on the edge of the 

The third collection was that of Field-Marshal 
Lord Grenfell, dispersed at Sotheby's last No- 
vember. From it was obtained a specimen 
selected by Sir William Lawrence as his gift to the 
museum. This panel is taken from a tunic, just 
below the neck-opening, and a portion of it is 
illustrated in Plate II, d. The ornamentation 
preserves the tradition of Graeco- Roman times 
in a modified form. The small diagram here 
reproduced was made with the help of some 
other fragments of 
the same garment 
(the property of Mr 
I. Sassoon) included 
in the sale, and repro- 
duced in the same 
Plate [E].The shoul- 
der-bands have been 
so far curtailed that 
they do not reach 
even to the waist. 
The usual roundels 
on the shoulders and 
near the lower edge 
still appear. The 
broad band with 
upturned ends along the bottom is a feature 
adopted apparently about the 5th century; it 
is not seen in tunics of the earliest style. By 
the 6th century, the probable date of our 
example, it had become common. In later 
Coptic times the tendency was to replace it by a 
deep border right round, but it survived in cere- 
monial robes elsewhere for several centuries. It 
is seen on the tunics worn by Justinian and his 
Empress in the mosaics of S. Vitale at Ravenna, 
and we find it in an elaborated form as late as the 
12th century." It is not by this feature alone that 
the tunic betrays its late origin. The earlier 
garments are of linen, with woollen tapestry orna- 
ments. Here the tapestry method is employed 
throughout, and the material is entirely wool. 
The striking colour scheme betrays the growing 
influence of the East. The tunic is bright red ; 
the ornaments are in deep blue, with an outer 
uncoloured edge, and an inner apple-green ground. 


• Dronkah. Fragment de coiffure de femine, etoffe chenillcc 
(Paris Ex., 1900, Le Costume en Egypte). 

' E.g. Emperor Henry II (1002-24), ilium. Gospels at Munich 
(Bei.«sel, Evang., fig. 58) ; Byzantine emperor of :ith cent, on 
the grave-cloth of Bishop Giinther (d. 1064) 'Cahier and 
Martin, Melanges II, PI. xxxiv and p. 256, Bamberger Dom- 
schatz, PI. 10) ; King Roger of Sicily (d. 1154), mosaic in the 
Martorana, Palermo (Kutschmann, Meisterwerke, PI. 3). 

More Textiles from Egyptian Cemeteries 

On the last is seen a succession of horsemen in 
polychrome. These bring to the mind the hunting 
subjects often rendered with so much spirit in the 
earlier stuffs ; but here the horsemen are in the 
attitude of the Coptic saints, who, when mounted 
as they so often are, seem to ignore the natural rela- 
tion between horse and rider. The horsemen hold 
both hands above their heads.' In execution the 
weaver has relied on the colour, and to that he has 
been content to sacrifice definition of outlme. The 
tunic is recorded to have been found at Akhmim. 
The last two illustrations [Plate I, B, c] represent 
panels from tunics of the Graeco-Koman period, 
given, with others, by Major K. G. Gayer-Anderson. 
They are of tapestry, woven in the customary 
purple wool and undyed linen. Their provenance 
is not recorded, but they are probably from 
Akhmim. The first [b] represents the bust of a 
woman, an essay in monochrome full of vitality. 
The artist was probably content with that, not 
aiming at portraiture. We read of portraits on 
garments as early as the 4th century, and many 
existing stuffs from Egypt show figures obviously 
so intended. Others incline togeiire or to subjects 
of mythological import, but very many treat the 

' Some of the figures appear to be riding on Tritons or other 


jONTEMPORAf^Y representations of 

'King Theodoric must certainly have 

been numerous, even though he 

* seldom ventured to stamp his own 

leffigy on the coinage. Unfortunately 

no portrait of him has come down to our times,' 
except the fine gold coin discovered some years 
ago by the Commendatore F. Gnecchi of Milan.' 
With this exception he seems generally to have 
confined himself to camouflaging with his own 
features an image intended for someone else.' 
Procopius fells us of the Theodorician statue 
at Rome destroyed by Rustician,' and of the 
mosaic with the figure of the king in the forum of 
Naples.' Jordanes notices the portrait of the king 

• [As it has not been possible to submit proofs to the author, 
Dr. Gerola must not be held responsibk for verbal variations in 
the translated text, nor for inaccurate references in the foot- 
notes. — Ed.] 

' Friedlander, Die Miinzen der Ost^.'ten, Berlin, 1844. 

» F. Gnecchi, Appuiiti di nttmismatica romana, xxxiv, 
Uedaglioue d'oro di Teodorico re, in Rivisla itahana di iiumis- 
matica. ann. viii, fasc. 2, Milano, 1895. tav iii— and \V. Wroth, 
Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals Ostrogoths, etc., in the 
British iiuseiim, 191 1, frontispiece. 

» This seems to have been the case with the statue at Ravenna 
which was originally intended to represent the Emperor Zeiio. 

• Procopius, Dc bcllo goihico, iii, 20. 

• Ibid. I, 24. — Cf. E. Muntz. Notes siir lis mosalques chriiieyints 
de I' Italic, vi, in Revtis archcologiqiie, serie iii, t. I, Paris, 1B85, 
p. 27. 

human figure merely as a decorative motive, as in 
this case, though not always so successfully. The 
border is in keeping with the middle panel, biJt 
the varying direction of the warps shows that it 
does not actually belong to it.' It is either from 
the shoulder-band or the cuffs. The panel may 
be attributed to the 5th century. 

The other panel [c] is the earlier of the two in 
style, and may even be as early as the first half of 
the 4th century, as it is not unlike a panel of that 
period found by Prof. Petrie at Hawarah'. These 
interlaced patterns call to the mind the favourite 
motives of Muhammadan art, but we are quite right 
in resisting the temptation, into which writers have 
occasionally fallen, to associate the two chrono- 
logically. Interlacings in many beautiful forms 
were common in Egypt long before the arrival of 
the Arabs, and it is quite likely that this outstanding 
feature of their art was picked up there. 

Such are the problems which go far to explain 
the attractiveness of these stuffs from Egypt. 
They belong to a time of momentous change, 
which witnessed the end of the antique and the 
rise of the modern world. 

» A panel in the museum (No. 1280 — 1888) with a toilet scene 
has its own border, of the same design as this. 
9 Hawara (18S9), PI. xviii. 


at Constantinople' and Agnelltis testifies to the 
mosaic in the royal palace of Pavia,' and to the 
statue 'and incised figures existing in the king's 
palace at Ravenna." Also, the common opinion is 
that the figure of the king represented during the 
very middle of his residence at Ravenna among the 
mosaics of S. Apollinare Nuovo was obliterated 
on the "reconciliation" of the church to the 
Catholic archbishops in the time of Justinian." 
Nor, certainly, will these examples exhaust the 
series. On the death of the powerful monarch, as 
is well known to everyone, legend was not slow to 
take possession of his "gesta", and Theodorician 

• Jordanes. De rebus gelicis, 57- 

' Agnellus, Libcr ponlificalis, 94. 

» Ibid. The statue was taken by Charlem.igne to Aix la 
Chapelle in 801. — Cf Walafridus, Versus de imagine tetrici ; 
also C. P. Bock, Die Reitcrstatue des Ostgothen k'Onigs 
Theodorich vor dem Pallastc Karl des grossen in Aachen, in 
Jahrh. des Vereins von Altertumsfreundcn in Rheinlande. \o\. 
V and 1, Bonn, 1844 and nSyi ; H. Grimm, Das Rciterstand- 
bild des Theoderich zu Aachen, Berlin, 1869 ; G. Dehio, in 
Jahrb. fur Kunstwisscnschaft, vol. v, Leipzig, 187.:, p. 176 
W. Schmidt, ibid., vol. vi, 1873, p.l seq. 

» Agnellus, op. cit., 94- 

" J. Kurth, Di Mosaiken von Ravenna, 'i.lnnche.n, 1912, p. 
179 seq. ; but with much exaggeration ! Another small figure 
of Theodoric was probably represented also in the tympanum 
of that reproduction of the palace of Theodoric in the in 
which Agnellus bears witness that it appeared in the original 



-! \r'.>. s. Hii.ARis wnii riiiM'iMiKit anh hk miii;sk lAi.i.iXii iim ni;i- tiik saixt", iith or 

■-- X 54 AXD 84 X 61 CM, (clRRCll OF >, EI.LhKci liF (,AL1;ATAI 


An Old Representation of 7hecdorjc 

iconography passed very quickly out of the his- 
torical into the legendary field. Among mediaeval 
representations very different from each other," 
the Fuida" and Veronese" designs, and the has 
reliefs of the front of S. Zeno in Verona^* are cele- 
brated. Ravenna also possesses a trecentesque 
fresco of her ancient king, painted by a follower of 
Giotto, in the north absidal chapel of the suburban 
church of S. Maria in Porto Fuori, represer'ting 
Theodoric in the act of disputing with Pope 
John I, whom he afterwards threw into prison " 
[Plate, a]. 

But if this is very little known, entirely unknown 
is a bas relief at S. Ellero (S. Hilarus) di Galeata, 
which, while it represents a new episode of the 
Theodorician legend, acquires by its antiquity 
alone an interest scarcely decreased by its rudeness 
as a work of art. The author of the " Life of 
S. Hilarus", the supposed monk Paulus, relates 
how King Theodoric, desiring to construct a 
palace on the banks of the Bidente, not far from 
Galeata, in what is now Romagna-toscana, imposed 
an odious tribute of forced labour on the inhabitants 
of the district in order to finish the fabric of the 
new edifice. Having been informed that S. Hilarus, 
who had founded his cenobium on those moun- 
tains, refused to obey these injunctions, he sent a 
squadron of soldiers to take him prisoner, but they 
wandered through the mountains for two whole 
days without being able to find the saint's dwelling. 
Theodoric, enraged, mounted his own horse, but 
as they approached the monastery, the animal, as 
if terrified by the vision of an angel, refused to 
move forward and finally threw his rider, both 
man and horse remaining fixed to the spot. 
Theodoric, comprehending that the action was 
miraculous, sent to call the holy hermit and 
implored his forgiveness. From that day forward, 
inflamed with veneration for the place, he heaped 
favours upon the monastery.'* Whatever truth 
there may be in all this story it is not of a kind 
that can be easily established. Although the author 
of the "Life" declares that he is a contemporary 
and disciple of S. Hilarus, who mu-,t have died 
in 558, and critics are not wanting to give 

" Beyond the middle ages the finest of all is the famout 
bronze statue of the tomb of Maximilian in the Court Church at 
Innsbruck (D. von Schonherr, Geschiclite des Grabrmils Kaisers 
Maximilian I. in Jahrh. der Kunstsamml. dcr Bsterr. Kaistr- 
hatiscs, vol. xi, Wien, 1890, tav. xxix. 

'* Moniimeiita Germanice his orica, auctorum antiquissi- 
morum, vol. Xii, Berlin, 1894. 

'• G. Pfeilschifter, Theoderich der Grosse, Mainz, 1910, fig. 26. 

" A whole bibliography on the argument is in existence. 
Among the most recent additions to it are : L. Simeoni, S. Zena 
di Verona, Verona, 1909 ; A. Moschetti, Per la Caccia di Theo- 
dorico siilla facciata del S.Zeno di Verona, in Melanges offertt a 
Emil Picot, Paris, 191 3. 

" Cf. A. Brach, Giottos Schule in der Romagna, Strassburg, 
1902, p. 9. 

" Acta Sanctorum, maii. Vol. iii, Venetiis, 1738, p. 474. An 
epitome in G. M. Brocchi, Vita de' santi e beati Fiorenttni, vol. 
ii, Firenze, 1752, p. 116. 

credence to this assertion," I cannot believe that 
the " Life " is of much earlier provenance than 
the 9th or loth century, to which period belongs 
the oldest codex which contains it." Also, the 
story of Theodoric has loo much resemblance to 
the misadventure of the prophet Balaam with the 
ass, and moreover is too discordant with the king's 
overbearing character to bear the appearance of 
veracity.'* But that is a question into which I 
am not called upon to enter more deeply.** 

On the street which leads from Galeata to the 
old church of S. Ellero (S. Hilarus), just before 
it reaches the sanctuary, we find a tabernacle in 
masonry of very simple form and quite recent 
date.^' The back of this shrine is formed of two 
marble slabs, one measuring 82 by 54 cm., and 
the other 84 by 61 ; on the faces of the slabs is 
represented the miraculous scene [Plate, a], and 
on their backs is an incised inscription of which 
the end is wanting. On the left stands S. Hilarus, 
rigid and contorted, holding the abbot's crozier in 
one hand and displaying the book of the rule with 
the other ; his head is surrounded by the nimbus. 
He is assisted by a comparatively minute and 
puffy cherub, represented in profile, the usual 
angel so often referred to in the " Life " of the 
saint. The figure of Theodoric is sculptured in 

" Cf. the note presented by F. Lanzoni on 3 May 191 4 to 
the Deput.izione di Storia Patria of Bologna [Alti e memorie 
dtlla R. Dcpntazione di storia patria p:r Is Romagne, sene iv, 
vol. iv, fasc. 4-5, Bologna, 1914, p. 510). We await the publica- 
tion in ftlix Ravenna of this interesting disquisition, vvliich the 
writer has courteously allowed me to consult in manuscript. 

" That is to say, MS. Tangense 29 of the Biblioteca 
Nazionale of Rome. 

" 1 do not mean by this to deny that the legend has any real 
found.-ition. The fact remains that they were recently dis- 
covered not far from Galeata, and on the t)anks of the river, at 
Saetta {on the Caselli property), in front of a building (perhaps 
thermal) which local popular tradition calls the palace of 
Theodoric. (Cf. J. B. Morgagni, Opuscula miscellanea, vol. in, 
Venetiis, 1763, p. 31 seq.) Nor indeed is this improbable, 
when we think of the many edifices constructed by the Gothic 
king, and above all of the works accredited to him on the 
aqueduct of Ravenna, which was in fact derived from the 
Bidente (Cf. A. Zannoni, Scoferta dtll' aqiitdotto di Trajano, 
Ravenna, 1886 ; A. Santarelli, in Notizie degli scavt di antichitii, 
Roma, 1882, p. 41). 

™ We all know well that legends of this sort are scarcely 
ever without some basis in fact. I cite a typical instance con- 
cerning this same S. Hilarus. Among the various sculptures 
still preserved in the church dedicated to him is a very rough 
Madonna whose Bambino is so contorted that it looks as if it 
had been twisted hind before. This feature is common enough 
in the productions of Romance art. Among the most typical 
examples are the lambs of the 13th-century sarcophagus of a 
bishop at Como, whose heads are turned the wrong way round. 
But tfiis reminds us of another legend in honour of S. Hilarus, 
" Times out of mind has the holy man, adjured by a weeping 
mother, come to offer before him her tender infant, born with 
its face turned backwards, when at the sign of the cross from 
the holy abbot, did the infant appear in her arms restored to its 
proper shape and smiling ". (G. Sangiorgi, Vita di SanV Ilaro 
abate di Galeata, Faenza, 1792, p. 79. 

" I here publicly thank my friend Dr. Enrico Tradclla, and 
the Arciprete of S. Ellero, Dom Giuseppe Andreani, my friend 
for having served me as a most intelligent guide, and the 
Arciprete for having in every way facilitated my study of the 
little antique. 


An Old Representation of Theodoric 

higher relief but is rather more weather-beaten. 
Boih the horse and the king are curled up in the 
process of prostrating themselves before the saint. 
The horse is bending his haunches in order to 
genuflect. The coarse, beardless head of the king 
just emerges in profile out of the background ; 
one would say, so far as a fragment of his crown 
enables one to judge, that it is ornamented with 
the lotus flower. He stills holds the loosened 
reins in his hands and wears a long tunic, while 
the end of the mantle which envelopes his 
shoulders and a large part of his left arm flies 
awav to the right. From his girdle hangs what 
may be a small purse. The saddle rests on a 
double saddle-cloth. 

But this feature, the miraculous genuflexion of an 
animal, is a common motive in mediaeval icono- 

The inscription on the reverse is mutilated 
[Fig.], the end of it being lost.'^ It runs: 

Tunc cum rex Theodericus sedebat [i.e. "condebat"] 

palatium iuxta fluincii Bidentcm, Galigate partibus, et illuc 

cogebat ire inultos operarios, quidam sibi detulere quemdam 

Dei famulum ibi proxiinum habere suum habitaculum, qui 

parere dignatur \i.c. " dedignatur " or better " dedigna- 

retur"] preceptis regalibus. Ipse autem rex Theodericus, 

ut audivit, ira magna repletus, rapidissimo cursu in equum 

ascendit ; et in ipso furore, dum voluisset ad Dei hominem 

properare . . ." 

This contains an epitome of the legend ; we do 

not know whether it may correspond with some 

version'perhaps^more^ancient'thanjhe one of the 


G/IT6 P/iRTIB'6TllLYc 



CVR5VIME avvflscejvi 


As we see, the sculpture does not precisely 
follow the legend, as it is known to us through the 
" Life " by Paulus, but combines two episodes of 
the story in one scene. In the legend the horse, 
terrified by the angel, lurches forward and falls 
motionless to the ground, and the king afterwards 
prostrates himself before the saint." The sculp- 
ture represents, in one scene, the horse kneeling 
and the king bowing himself upon the horse. 

" More recent representations of the legend are naturally not 
wanting. I record, for example, a little I7th-rentury marble 
bas-relief, of the worst kind of workmanship, given not long 
ago to the Museo Nazionale of Ravenna. It came from Galeata 
and represents Theodoric and his squire kneeling before 
S. Hilarus, with soldiers and horses in the background. 









" Life ", or whether it may have been composed 
for this particular purpose. At any rate its con- 
nection with Paulus's text appears evident, if we 
only compare the last lines of the epigraph with 
the corresponding passage of the biography : — 

Audito hoc, rex Theodoricus, ira magna repletus, rapidis- 
simo cursu in equum ascendit, et in ipso furore, dum 
voluisset ad hominem Dei properare . . . 

'" Sangiorgio, the author quoted above, asserts that remains 
of an inscription, perhaps a continuation of the narrative, were 
legible on tht front of the marble : . . . . RENERIO .... qvod' 

MILITE . . . VIRODEDIT ' DOMINO ' GRATIAS' (pp. dt., p. 66). But 

nothing is visible on our two slabs, nor do any other inscriptions 
seem ever to have existed on them. 

^ Published, but not always accurately, by Sangiorgio, op. 
ctt, p. 66, and reprinted by G. Andreani, Vita lU Sant' Ellero, 
Rocia S. Casciano, 1871, pp. 45 seq. 

An Old Representation of Theodori. 

As to the period of the writing itself, the form 
of certain letters, E, M, C, Q, the contractions of 
Q for "qui" and P for " per", and other paleo- 
graphic characteristics, carry us back to the period 
of the nth and 12th centuries. We are brought 
to a similar conclusion by an examination 
of the style of the bas-relief, in which if the 
figure of S. Hilarus represents one of the clumsy 
degenerations of barbaric art in its decadent 
period, in the representation of Theodoric, the 
inevitable rudeness of rural art has been used 

as a mere medium for expressing the new idealism 
of contemporary Romance. But however rude 
and inexpert the work may be, it must be 
acknowledged that we have to-day special reasons 
for regarding with favour the ingenuous chisel of 
the unknown stoneworker of the Tusco-romagnian 
Appennines who desired to perpetuate in marble 
the figure of the truculent Teutonic monarch, 
forced to humble himself before the little Latin 
Brother whom he had thought that he had the 
power to override unjustly. 


HE location of the pottery in which 
porcelain was first made at Bristol is 
a mystery which ceramic students 
have sought to solve ever since atten- 
tion was drawn to the subject by 
Dr. Pucocke's " Letters " on his " Travels through 
England ". After many years' search it has been 
my good fortune to rediscover this lost site. 

Dr. Pococke's letters were published by the 
Camden Society in 1888. They are referred to in 
the preface of the book thus : — 

The original letters of Dr. Pococke describing the 
particular travels, now printed for the first time, are not 
known to exist ; the manuscript volumes contain tran- 
scripts of the original only, evidently made with a view to 
publication, as they bear the marks of careful revision by 
the traveller's own hand. 

Dr. Pococke was born in 1704, at Southampton, 
and educated in his native town and at Corpus 
Christi, Oxford, and was successively Bishop of 
Meath and Ossory during 1750 and later years. 
Two of his letters referring to the subject of 
Bristol porcelain were cited by Hugh Owen in a 
fly-leaf, numbered 15,* inserted presumably after 
the appearance of the Camden publication, at 
p. 15 in some extant copies of his " Two Centuries 
of Ceramic Art in Bristol ". In the first of these 
letters dated "Tavestock in Devonshire 13 Oct. 
1750" is the following reference : — 

We went nine miles to the South near as far as Lizard 
Point, to see the Soapy Rock, which is a little opening in 
the cliff, where a rivlet runs over a vein of Soapy-rock into 
the sea, the lode or vein running along the bottom of the 
valley ; it is about four feet wide, most of it is mixed with 
red, like the terra lemnia, and the stone or walls on 
each side are of the same colour, and they find some of it 
hard and unfit for use even in the vein ; there are white 
patches in it, which is mostly valued for making porcelane, 
and they get five pounds a ton for it, for the manufacture of 
porcelane, now carrying on at Bristol, there being much 
trouble in separating the white from the red ; but they have 
received instructions lately not to be so exact in separating 
it, probably on their not being able to afford it at that price. 
There is a narrow vein of green earth near it, and about 
twenty yards west a small vein of white, which seemed to 
me not to be of so soapy a nature. It feels like soap, and 
being so dear it must be much better than pipe clay ; there is 
a vein of something of the like nature at the Lizard Point. 
The second letter on the subject is dated 
" Bristol, Nov. 2 1750 ", and reads as follows : — 

I went to see a manufacture lately established here, by 
one of the principal of the manufacture at Limehouse 
which failed. It is at a glasshouse, and is called Lowris (?) 
china house. They have two sorts of ware, one called 
stone china, which has a yellow cast, both in the ware and 
the glazing, that I suppose is made of pipe clay and 
calcined flint. The other they call old china; this is 
whiter, and I suppose this is made of calcined flint and the 
soapy rock at Lizard Point which 'tis known they use. 
'1 his is painted blue, and some is white, like the old china 
of a yellowish cast ; another kind is white with a bluish 
cast, and both are called fine ornamental white china. 
They make very beautiful white sauce boats, adorned with 
reliefs of festoons, which sell for sixteen shillings a pair. 
The name " Louris " occurs in the second letter, 
and in the printed text is marked with a query. I 
have examined the original transcription and find 
that there is no doubt the transcriber could not 
read the exact letters of the name written by Dr. 
Pococke. The word looks much more like 
Low'ns with a blot between the w and the n. 
The n might easily be taken for ri. Soon after I 
had seen this transcription I made a search for 
any glass or china makers whose names com- 
menced with Low... or Lou., and found in an 
old Bristol newspaper the following advertise- 
ment appearing in 1745 : — 

To be sold by Auction on Thursday the 27th day Instant 
at Four in the Afternoon at the Bush Tavern in Corn 
Street for the remainder of a term of Fourty Years, granted 
by the Dean and Chapter of Bristol, whereof twenty eight 
years are to come, under a yearly Chief Kent of 30s., a 
messuage in Redcliff Street known by the sign of the 
Glass House, consisting of several tenements lately in 
possession of William Lowdin, and extends from Redcliff 
Street to Redcliff Backs with all manner of conveniences. 

For particulars enquire of Mr. HoUister, baker in Broad 

Street, where as also at the Bush Tavern, conditions of 

Sale may be seen. 

As I could find no other name of a potter or 

glass maker at all resembling the name as given 

by the transcriber, or even beginning with the 

letter L in the Burgess Books or Apprentice 

Registers in the Council House, Bristol, we can 

only conclude that Lowdin's Glass House was the 

place referred to by Dr. Pococke. I then searched 

through the papers belonging to the Dean and 

Chapter of Bristol, with the kmd assistance of the 

late Mr. E. T. Morgan, lay-clerk at the Cathederal, 

and found that the same premises and kiln had 


Loudin^s (a lias ^' Lowns^"*) China House ^ Bristol 

been used as a pottery, and a lease of the same 
had been granted by the Dean and Chapter to 
Edward Crosse, a potter, as early as March 2nd 
1667. The papers of 1745 show that Lowdin's 
lease for 40 years from 1733 was sold to John 
Tandy, a brewer, who surrendered it, and the 
premises were then re-leased to James Lavis, a 
mason, and John Tandy, and divided, Davis taking 
the kiln or cone, etc. 

The next question is, what ware was made at 
Lowdin's Glass House. According to Dr. Pococke 
a ware : 

called Stone-China, which has a yellow cast both in the 
ware and the glazing. 
This agrees with the description of a ware which 
was made during the whole of the i8th century at 
all the principal potteries in Bristol, shards of 
which have been found on all the pottery sites 
excavated, as also in the old outer moat of the 
City which was gradually filled in with town 
refuse between 1710 and 1750, and also around 
the sites of many old houses since demolished. 
The ware consists of a hard delft-like body, 
coloured and glazed on the inside only in dishes, 
but all over the in- and out-sides of stock-pots, 
which latter were generally made with three small 
feet and a hollow handle, like that of a warming- 
pan. The glaze and the colour of the dishes 
stopped within \ of an inch of the rims, which 
were notched to give a key to the pasty-cover of 
the contents. The pans or dishes seem, from the 
charred outsides, to have been pushed along the 
hearthstone, into the hot embers of the fire, for 
the cooking process to take place. In shape they 
were mostly round, and 14 or 15 ins. in diameter, 
but later they were made oblong or square. The 
glaze, which was of a yellow cast, covered a coat- 
ing of light yellow colour with brown lines thereon 
running parallel along the dish. Sometimes the 
colouring was reversed, the ground of dark brown 
and the lines yellow. Some good whole samples 
are in the Bristol Museum. 

The porcelain made was of two kinds of paste, 
one quite soft with a creamy glaze, the other, con- 
taining streatite, relatively hard, with a thin bluish 
glaze, resembling the earliest Worcester porcelain. 
Sauce boats of both types are known bearing the 
mark " Bristol " or " Bristoll " in relief ; examples 
are to be found in the British Museum (viii, i) 

[Plate I, c], and in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (N'o. 3151-1901 and Shreiber collec- 
tion, No. 87) [Fl.\te I, A, b]. The resemblance 
in form between specimens of the softer of 
the two types of paste and certain sauce boats 
made at the Bow factory is probably to be 
explained by the fact that both were copied from 
silver articles of an earlier date. The plaster 
mould would be easily obtained from silver plate 
without any damage to the silver. There is no 
doubt that one of the moulds, at all events, 
became the property of Champion, and that he 
produced sauce boats from it, but that was in 
hard paste. The " Guide to English Porcelain in 
the British Museum" gives a description of one 
in that collection in a footnote, p. 117. Several 
pieces from these porcelain works were in the late 
Mr. Alfred Trapnell's collection sold in 1912 (see 
Nos. 66 to 69 in the sale catalogue) [Plate I, d]. 
In the same catalogue, No. 70,' is : — 

A pair of bluish white Chinese Porcelain figures, in hard 
paste, covered with a clear, brilliant alkaline glaze. Thii 
extraordinary pair of figures, not beautiful but most interest- 
ing on account of their being made with " hard paste ", 
have the word " Bristol 1750 " in raised letters and figures 
round the base — b\ inches high. 
The Rev. A. W. Oxford, M.A., M.D., who wrote 
the preface to this catalogue, adds a note to lot 70 
which says : — 

These figures were probably the result of an experiment, 

as all other known pieces from the Louris factory in soft 

paste were sold at Christie's a few years ago for a mere 

trifle ; and it was not till the purchaser waslied them that 

he discovered the inscription. 

It is, however, almost certainly an error to class 

these figures as "hard paste" — i.e., true kaolinic 

porcelain, such as was made later by Champion. 

This was pointed out by M. L. Solon in his 

" History of Old English Porcelain ", 1903, p. 178, 

PI. 58, where they were criticised as follows : — 

The exceptionally dry and unvitrifiable nature of the 
body — evidently an experiment — would scarcely allow the 
term "soft paste" to be applied to these abnormal figures; 
it does not follow, however, that they are real hard 

Without further evidence, therefore, it cannot be 
maintained that any kaolinic porcelain was ever 
made at Loudin's works. 

(To be continued.) 

' [We are greatly obliged to A. Amor, 31 S. James's Street, for 
the use of ttie photograph from which the block was made ; 
Mr. Amor purchased the lot at the Trapnell sale, and has since 
sold it.— Ed.] 


"OW many, among the numerous 
[travellers in Europe, notice the large 
; iiarl that animals plav in the decoration 
)( the medieval churches? And when 
^it is noticed that, apart from the 
fantastic g.irgoyles of the Gothic churches, such 
decoration is used, it is rarely observed that many 


of such animals had, in their origin, a symbolic 
meaning and are not merely so much decorative 

• [Professor Garvcr being now a Lieutenant in the United 
States Army has not been able to pass the proofs of this .irlicle, 
but as it has been long withheld from publication by extreme 
pressure on our space, it seemed preferable to print it svithout 
the author's final corrections. — Ed.] 



Symbolic Animals of Perugia and Spoleto 

ornament. To show the twofold nature of this 
decoration and to describe the facades of two 
Umbrian churches is the object of this paper.' 

To understand the symboHsm of decoration in 
Christian art we must go back to the very begin- 
ing of this art, or rather to the oldest remains we 
have left, the frescoes in the Catacombs. That 
the symbolism used in the Catacombs was current 
throughout the Church we learn from literary 
sources and we may be safe in assuming that the 
art of the Catacombs was the art of the Church. 
Much of the earliest art was derived directly from 
Roman pagan decorations and was used merely 
for a decorative purpose and, as the art of the 
Catacombs had mainly a commemorative basis, 
such pagan subjects as Orpheus, the peacock, and 
the phoenix, already used in classic art, as sepul- 
chral symbols, were adopted by the Christians. 
Other subjects also became popular as it was pos- 
sible to attach to them a Christian symbolism, and 
Christian art, in becoming symbolical, was simply 
a reflection of Christian faith and Christian 

In the mosaics of S. Costanza in Rome we 
see birds, fishes and beasts used in a purely 
decorative way with no symbolism attached, but 
early in the frescoes of the Catacombs we find 
the dove, representing the Holy Spirit; the peacock, 
of which the flesh was thought to be incorruptible, 
and which thus became a symbol of immortality ; 
the fish, the mystic symbol of Christ ; the stag drink- 
ing from a stream, the Fountain of life ; and birds, 
fruits and flowers representing Paradise. Some 
of these symbols, such as the fish, disappeared 
altogether when the need of secrecy was no longer 
felt by the Christians, but others remained, such 
as birds and vines, and in particular certain 
decorative forms. One of the most common of 
these was the arrangement of two animals or birds 
facing each other on either side of a vase, and 
drinking from it, or often two birds pecking at a 
fruit. The vessel has usually been interpreted 
^s the Eucharist and there is especial significance in 
placing on either side of it the immortal peacock, 
or the sheep to illustrate the command, " Feed my 
sheep", or John x. 9, " I am the door : by me if 
any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in 
and out, and find pasture ". The dove, a symbol 
of the soul, is also used thus, as well as other 
animals and birds, and later we find them facing 
not only a vessel but sometimes the cross. This 
arrangement however was not original with the 
Christians, for animals confronted have been used 

' These two churches S. Costanzo in Perugia and S. Pietro 
in Spoleto, have not been described in detail so far as I have 
been able to discover. Male in his Relieious Art in France 
makes no mention of them. Von der Gabelentz in Di Kirchliche 
Kunst ini Mittelalter mentions various groups from S. Pietro, in 
his lists of similar sculptures, without describ ng them. A. Ven- 
turi, Storia deU'Arte Italtana, HI, goo-903 similarly cites groups 
from S. Pietro. 

from the time of the famous lion gate at Mycenae 
and in Assyrian architecture, and survive to-day in 
many coats of arms as the lion and unicorn of 
Great Britain. 

We now come to the first of the two fafades 
which I wish to describe, that of S. Costanzo in 
Perugia, the church of the second Bishop of 
Perugia, martyred in the 2nd century [Plate a]. 
The present church dates from the 12th and 13th 
centuries and is noteworthy as the only example of 
Romanesque architecture in the city. On the pedi- 
ment at the top of the building is the figure of Our 
Lord surrounded by an aureole, from the foot of 
which spring branches of the vine. This motif, we 
have seen, dates from the earliest Catacomb fres- 
coes, and even from the pagan frescoes and mosaics, 
and was used as a symbol of the church, the vme 
often springing from a vessel which symbolises 
the Eucharist : " I am the vine, ye are the branches ". 
Below this figure is a round window, in the centre 
of which is the Lamb representing Christ and 
around the window are the symbols of the four 
Evangelists, the Eagle (John), Angel (Matthew), 
Ox (Luke), and Lion (Mark). Lower down, on 
either side of the porch, are four panels with the 
Cross as the central theme, on either side of which 
are lions, griffins, and doves grouped as they are 
frequently found in the decoration of the Cata- 
combs. These need not have had any especial 
symbolism to the designer, being merely a 
reproduction of a long consecrated form ; but with 
the change from the usual vessel between the 
animals to the Cross he may have intended to 
represent the act of adoration or the protection 
afforded by the Cross to the meek as well as to the 
strong. The introduction of the griffin,* which is 
not found in earlier Christian decoration, merely 
reflects the influence of the builders of Lombardy, 
where some of the Romanesque churches run wild 
with all manner of animals ; many of them mere 
grotesques with no especial significance. 

Around the door^'ay the sculptures represent 
somewhat the same ideas as those expressed above. 
On the lintel again Christ is seated in a halo 
surrounded by the four symbols of the Evangelists, 
each with an open book. On the jambs is arunning 
scroll with animals among the leaves, a pattern 
often found about mediaeval church doors, which 
strongly recalls the mosaics of S. Costanza in Rome 
and frescoes in the Catacombs, where birds and 
animals amid trees and flowers symbolised 
Paradise. In the uppermost circle on the left are 
two birds, in the position very common in the 
Catacombs, drinking from a vase which here 
strongly suggests the chalice of the Church, while 

' However, the griffin and lion may be connected with the 
griffin on the Palazzo Publico and the griffin and the lion on the 
public fountain at Perugia, where they are the ensigns of the 
town and the Guelphs respectively. In the mediaeval art of 
Umbria various animals are used with a political significance, 
and the same idea is found in Dante. 


Symbolic Ariitnah of Perugia and Spoleto 

below these is a single bird and still lower others 
feeding on fruit and the vine. It is interesting to 
compare here a sentence from the " Confessions " 
of S. Augustine, IX. 3 : — 

Xow lays he not his ear to his mouth, but his spiritual 
mouth unto Thy fountain, and drinketh as much as he can 
receive, wisdom in proportion to his thirst, endlessly happy. 

niE EN GEn, drink in God, is a part of some of 
the epitaphs found in the Catacombs. On this same 
jamb, at the bottom, are curious animals tearing one 
another, and J. \V. and A. M. Cruickshank in their 
"Umbrian Towns" see in this, man in his unre- 
generate state, a prey to evil passions, in contrast 
with the birds above dwelling in peace among 
the branches, significant of the joys of those who 
live in harmony with the divine ruling. This may 
have been in the sculptor's mind, but it seems to 
me' that the upper part is merely a reminiscence 
of the earlier symbolism and conventional 
ornament, while the animals in the lower part 
show again the Lombardic influence of grotesques 
and strange combinations and curious inventions 
of imaginary animals. On the right jamb is a 
running design* of leaves with a small seated 
human figure, a bird pecking, a lion-like animal 
and a griffin. The joining of the stones about 
the doorway is very uneven and the irregularities 
so apparent that one may easily believe that all 
these stones were not originally part of the doorway 
as first built. However the unity of the symbolism 
is not destroyed by this, and as we have seen 
descends from the early Church. 

However, when we turn to the interesting fa9ade 
of S. Pietro in Spoleto there is found quite a new 
element in its decorative sculpture. This church 
was the cathedral until 1067, and was restored 
after its destruction in 1329 ; the reliefs are 
probably of the 12th century [Plate, b]. The 
fa9ade is divided into three horizontal bands, in the 
topmost of which are two panels with two calves 
standing sideways and possibly symbolical of 
sacrifice. Above these are two angels swinging 
censers. In the middle band is a round window 
with the symbols of the four Evangelists grouped 
around it, as was noticed in Perugia. But when 
we reach the third and lowest section of the 
fatade we find most beautiful and interesting work 
evidently belonging to two periods, the carving 
about the door being most delicate and with a 
Byzantine feeling, while the rest is much plainer 
and less carefully executed. 

• Cf. Arthur Kingsley Porter, Lombard Architecture, New 
Haven, 1917 ; vol. 1, p. 216. Mr. Porter thinks that much non- 
sense has been written on the interpretation of what is plainly 
nothing more than grotesque ornament, and quotes the celebrated 
passage from S. Bernard on the subject ; S. Bernard, Apologia 
ad Gutllelmtim. XII, 29, ed. Migne, Pat. Lat. CLXXXII, 9»5- 

* On the jambs of the Duomo at Spello is found the vine with 
birds in the branches, and on the lintel arc animals pursuing one 
another, somewhat like the sculptures on S. Michele in Pavia 
and the hunting scenes on the church of S. Nicola at Bari and 
the cathedral at Angouleme, 


The jambs and lintel of the door have the usual 
running scroll of foliage formerly symbolical of 
Paradise, but this time without any birds pecking 
at the fruit. On either side of this scroll are two 
strips of seven panels with arcades of delicately 
carved colonnettes, the flat spaces between which 
on one side are filled in with decorative rosettes, 
while on the other side some are left blank or 
have conventionalised designs of plants, and two 
are occupied with an eagle and a rampant lion. 
Above the colonnettes on either side is a relief of 
a peacock, earlier symbolical of immortality, 
pecking at a bunch of grapes. At the bottom is 
a genre scene of a man driving a yoke of oxen, 
while a dog jumps barking before them. If the 
artist had any symbolism in mind here, it may 
have been to portray the results of the fall of our 
first parents. " In the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat bread, till thou return unto the ground " 
(Gen. 3, 19). Thus far the trend of the symbolism 
resembles that of the doorway in Perugia and is 
all related to that descended from the Cata- 
combs. But we must keep clearly in mind that, 
while it is so related, most of the ornament at 
Perugia, and thus far on the doorway at Spoleto, 
has become by this time merely decorative 
and must not be confused with the ornament which 
I am about to describe. The origin of this latter 
was much nearer to the builders, showing a new 
source of inspiration and containing a directness 
of allusion which by this time had been lost in 
the conventionalised forms already noted. Between 
the second and third panels of colonnettes is 
introduced a scene which dififers from those 
already mentioned, and marks the transition to 
the remainder of the doorway. This is a stag 
with a serpent in its mouth. To be sure, the stag 
is found in the catacomb frescoes, but always, as 
far as I know, drinking at a stream, " as the hart 
panteth after the water brooks" (Ps. 42, i), while 
here we find a new source of inspiration, namely, 
the " Bestiary ". In the Greek and Latin " Physio- 
logus" and the Romance bestiaries the stag is the 
enemy of the snake or dragon, and, after eating 
him, runs to a fountain and drinks, thus making 
himself young and shedding his antlers. In the 
words of the bestiary, so must we have recourse 
to the fountain of life — that is, Christ— and so 
regenerate ourselves. Thus we have, on both 
jambs of the door, scenes representing sin, the 
yoked o.xen ; redemption, the stag ; and immor- 
tality, the incorruptible peacock. 

On either side of these panels are two series of 
five scenes each, of which the topmost two do not 
concern us especially. On the right is portrayed 
the washing of Peter's feet by Christ, and the 
calling of Peter and Andrew, who are in a boat 
with Christ beckoning to them from the shore. 
On the left the two panels show the death of the 
righteous man and the sinner. However, the three 

Symbolic Animals of Perugia and Spoleto 

lower scenes on each side again make use of tlie 
bestiary or fable material, as we found above in 
the case of the stag. The first one on the left 
shows a lion with both feet caught in the cleft of 
a log with a man standing over the log and hold- 
ing in his hands an axe. 

This I take to be a variant of the ungrateful 
animal group of stories. An Italian fable in tcrza 
riina of the 15th century is the oldest written 
version now known that has the lion as the 
principal character.^ In this fable the lion, while 
playing with a wedge in a log, accidentally gets 
his paw caught. A man, happening to pass, helps 
the lion to release himself, whereupon the lion 
wishes to eat him. The man objects to this, and 
three animals are called upon to decide the ques- 
tion. A dog and a horse decide against the man, 
but a fox wishes to see the lion in his original 
predicament before deciding. When his paw is 
again fastened in the tree, the fox tells him that 
lie can stay there as a reward for his action to the 
man who befriended him. Our panel, however, 
follows more closely, I think, a fable "given in a 
Latin manuscript dated 1322. A lion meets an 
ass and a horse, who say that they have been mal- 
treated by their master, the man. The lion finds 
the man cutting logs and asks him his name, to 
which the man replies "mulier vocas". The lion 
wishes to know where is this beast called " homo ", 
and the man says that he will bring him if the lion 
helps him with the logs. While doing so the man 
pulls out a wedge and the lion's paw is caught. 
The man's wife then pours boiling water over the 
lion and he escapes, leaving his paws in the log. 
He later returns with a number of lions, and the 
man, in fright, climbs a tree and drives them away 
by shouting " aqnain calithiin". I take this to be 
the story illustrated, because the man is repre- 
sented holding an axe as though he had just been 
working on the log, while in the Italian version he 
is just a chance passer-by.^ The date of the Latin 
story also more nearly corresponds to that of the 
church, which is either late 12th or early 13th cen- 
tury. This type of tale is used possibly to show 
the superiority of man over the demon, for while 
the lion in the Bible and the bestiaries is the king 

' Kenneth McKenzie, An Italian Fable, Its Sofiixcs and its 
History, Modern Philology, I, 497. i904- McKenzie thinks that 
there is no difficulty in believing that the lion was already 
present in oral versions in India and mentions ungrateful animal 
stories in the Disciplina Clcricalis, 12th century, the Extrava- 
gaiites and the Panchatantra. The version with the lion may have 
come to Italy and been current in popular tradition long before 
it was written down in the form we now know it. 

" iVIcKenzie, op. cit., p. 520. 

' This idea of an animal caught in a log is widely spread (cf. 
McKenzie, op. cit.). It is interesting to note that this story is 
found as late as Uncle Remus. In Nights with Uncle Remus, 
chapter 7, Mr. Lion hunts for Mr. Man, the lion is caught in pre- 
cisely the same way as in the Latin version ; in another story 
of Uncle Remus, Brother Wolf gets in a warm place, where Brer 
Rabbit's wife pours boiling water on the wolf, is seen the aquam 
enlidam of the Latin tale. 

of beasts and is most noble, still he is also used as 
a symbol of the Prince of Darkness: "Be sober, be 
vigilant ; because your adversary the devil, as a 
roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he 
may devour ", i Peter, v, 8 ; " He (the wicked) 
lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den ", Ps. x, 9. 

The two lower panels are more closely related 
to the bestiary. The first of these shows a man 
on his knees in an attitude of supplication before a 
lion ; the second, a man lying on the ground with 
a lion gnawing at his head. These qualities of the 
lion are found in various writers from Pliny and 
Solinus down to the bestiaries of Richard de 
P'ournival and the Italian versions.' The Italian 
manuscript, Paris, says that when the lion has 
eaten and someone passes before him and does not 
look him in the face, he lets him go on and does 
him no harm ; but if the man looks at him, he 
falls on the man and does him all the harm he 
can. And in addition, if the lion is in a wood 
and a man passes before him and sees him, if he 
bows humbly to him, the lion will do him no harm 
at all. So, says the Italian text, if we put our 
understanding in wordly things, we will have 
tribulations and adversity, while if we ask mercy 
and pity of God he will pardon us our sins, as 
does the lion to the humble men. 

On the other side of the door comes first the 
hungry fox lying on his back counterfeiting death, 
while two unsuspecting birds are beginning to 
peck at him. This trick of the fox who, when 
hungry, thus provides himself with food, is found 
in all the bestiaries, where the fox typifies the 
Devil who deceives the human race, entangling it 
in sin and finally dragging it down to hell. It is 
also a symbol of the deceitful man of the world 
and the trickery of the fox is too well known from 
the animal fables to need further comment. 

The next scene well illustrates the fable of 
Marie de France," where the wolf tries to learn 
his letters, but can say only three or four when 
his mind reverts to sheep as his nature gets the 
upper hand of him. In this panel is seen the wolf 
wearing a scholar's hood and holding an open 
book in his paws. But his head is not turned 
toward the book ; instead he is looking back at 
a ram which, evidently aware of his danger, seems 
to be trying to escape as fast as he can. That 
this panel portrays this particular story is made 
clearer by a relief in a passage connecting the 
choir and south transept in Freiburg cathedral 
in Germany and dating from the first half of the 
12th century. Here the wolf is not only shown 
with his book and looking over his shoulder at a 
lamb, but also the monk teacher seated on a stool 
is portrayed, together with the three letters A, B, 

' M. S. Garver, K. McKenzie, // Bestiario toscano secondo. la 
lezione dei codici di Parigi etdi Roma, Studj romanzi, viil, Roma 

' Ell. Karl Warnke, Halle, 189'?. p- 271, No. Si. 


Symbolic Animals of Perugia and Spoleto 

C, which the wolf has learned, placed above the 
picture." In connection with this a second group 
is shown where the wolf has the lamb in his paws 
and is being chastised by the monk with his rod. 
For the remaining panel I have found no 
satisfactory explanation. Here is shown a lion 
with one of his paws on the tail of a griffin who 
has his head turned back with a resentful expression 
on his face and his long tail wrapped around the 
lion's body, judging from the five other scenes 
which are all taken from the bestiary or fables, 
one would expect this picture to have a similar 
source, but such I have so far been unable to 
find." On either side of the lunettes over the 
side doors and above the central door are decorative 
figures of birds, and very battered lions flank each 
doorway as is so common at the entrances to 
Italian churches. The last bit of decoration is a 
small plaque above the left door which represents 

'° For other representations of this same subject at Parma, 
Ferrara and Verona, cf. Porter, op. cii., i. 33 9. 

" Might this have a poHtical signilicance, as was suggested 
for the griffin at Perugia ? 

a winged figure, probably S. Micha?l, thrusting a 
long lance through a dragon. 

While on many churches one finds animals in 
conventional decorative arrangement originating 
in the symbolism which descends from the Cata- 
combs, as well as stray bits of natural history taken 
from the bestiary or fables, I know of no church 
which presents such a complete system of allusive 
ornament as is found on S. Pietro of Spoleto. It 
makes one almost believe that the sculptor was 
illustrating some bestiary manuscript which he had 
recently read, as one frequently finds collections 
of fables appended to the usual bestiary chapters. 
S. Pietro is pre-eminent among churches using 
animals as decoration in that the stories can be 
traced to definite literary sources and their 
symbolism can still be read by those acquainted 
with mediaeval tales, whereas in most other cases 
the animals have degenerated into mere con- 
ventionalised grotesques or owe their origin to 
the inspiration of the Catacomb frescoes and the 
early Church, as illustrated by S. Costanzo at 


The Golden Days of the Early English Church, from 


Sir Henry H. Howorth, k.c.i.e., etc. ; 3 vols., cxciv + 384, 

vi + 517, viii + 443 pp., ilhist., maps, tables and appendices. 

(John Murray) each vol. 12s. 

The famous period from the arrival of Arch- 
bishop Theodore of Tarsus (A.D.669) to the death 
of the Venerable Bede is well styled by the author 
of this voluminous u oik " the Golden Days of 
the Early English Church ". It was a time when 
all that was best in Art and Literature, and, we 
may add, in social and political life, was focussed 
in the work of the Church. It was an age of 
fervid enthusiasm, and Sir Henry Howorth, in his 
vivid narrative, reflects the spirit of the age. If a 
little impetuous, a trifle precipitate at times (there 
are some curious mistakes suggestive of breath- 
lessness), the author may be excused, in the face 
of his strenuous work and most painstaking ex- 
ploration in this interesting field of history. He 
has produced a valuable work of reference, not 
only to the history of the period, but to the writings 
of some of its greatest historians, from which 
copious extracts are taken. Complete biographies 
are given of the religious leaders of the age, and 
many sidelights are thrown on their social and 
political influence. Nor is the remarkable eccle- 
siastical art of this early age neglected. And it is 
interesting to notice that Sir Henry Howorth 
holds the view that this art generally is not Anglo- 
Saxon, as some writers have averred, but that it is 
to be traced chiefly to Irish sources. This is 
especially the case in the North of England, 
where the influence of the Irish Church was long 
felt. In fact, it is impossible to study the remains 


of this Christian period in Scotland and Northern 
England apart from those in Ireland— whether of 
illuminated manuscripts, of metal work, of sculp- 
ture, of building and architecture. Ireland is the 
furthest point in Europe reached by the great 
migration westward, and the first wave of culture 
did not break upon the Irish shores for centuries 
after it had left its original source. Hence, in 
Ireland, where they last existed, we find the most 
marked traces of those elements which are com- 
mon to all peoples in the development of their 
primaeval arts. The art of the scribe was carried 
to a wonderful perfection in Ireland, as may be 
seen in the lettering of illuminated pages of the 
Psalters and Gospel Books. The lettering resem- 
bles that of the oldest Lombardic and Gothic 
manuscripts. The linear designs include the 
divergent spiral or trumpet pattern, the Triquetra, 
and interlaced bands and knot work. The natural 
forms of foliage and animals are treated conven- 
tionally. From Ireland this art spread to lona, 
Melrose and Lindisfarne, and though it was in no 
characteristic Teutonic, it came to be misnamed 
Anglo-Saxon in England. But in regard to 
sculptured art there is considerable difference of 
opinion. It has generally been considered that 
the crosses of Ruthwell and Bewcastle were nth- 
century monuments, and that the figures were 
similar to those on the Irish High Crosses. But 
Sir Henry Howorth agrees with Sir Martin 
Conway and Mr. Dalton that they are late 7th or 
early 8th century. He tells us further that he 
arrived at the independent opinion that the art 
of these crosses came from Egypt and Syria. 


Then he cites Professor Lethaby in The Burlington 
Magazine (xxi, 146) : " I am entirely satisfied that 
the Ruthwell cross is a yth-century monument, 
and I believe that its art types were derived from 
Coptic sources ". Though there is much to be 
said for each contention, the evidence for the 7th- 
century date can hardly be considered quite con- 
clusive. Nor should it be forgotten that if the 
crosses were set up in the nth century, the 
sculptor may have been influenced by the icono- 
graphical scheme of the Byzantine " Painter's 
Guide". Also it may be noted that the fine art of 
the Ruthwell cross is a great advance from the 
crude drawing and lettering in the yth-century 
coffin of S. Cuthbert. But the Hartlepool slab- 
incised crosses are, as Sir Henry Howorth says, 
" of the second half of the 7th century, and un- 
mistakably of Irish origin and due to the mission 
of S. Aidan. Of these crosses there are several 
good illustrations. A very full account is given 
of the opening of S. Cuthbert's grave in 1827, but 
it is surprising that Sir Henry Howorth is not 
aware of the last examination of the grave in the 
time of Dean Kitchin, nor of Dr. Plunimer's 
interesting monograph on the remains. It is more 
surprising to find the Celtic scroll pattern on S. 
Cuthbert's portable altar described as "pretty 
patterns of Anglian interlacements of a continuous 
line ". The architecture of the period covers 
many pages in these volumes. It would have been 
a much more convenient arrangement if a separate 
volume had been assigned to art, literature and 
architecture as distinct from history and biography. 
And it might have saved some slips and mistakes. 
For example, in the introduction Sir Henry 
Howorth makes the unjustified statement that the 
"Churches of the Irish Monks were almost entirely 
of wood ". No doubt some of the first mission 
structures were of wood and wattles, as in 
Adamnan's description of lona. But the Celts 
were pre-eminently builders in stone from an 
early age, as may be seen in the beehive monas- 
ieries, and in the little oblong churches and 
oratories of stone, whose design came from the 
east. In any case the buildings in the period from 
Theodore to Bede were in general of stone. The 
more important Saxon churches and remains in 
England are described at some length, and of the 
most mteresting there are some good illustrations 
and ground plans. In many instances lengthy 
extracts are given of the views of noted antiquaries. 
At the end of the third volume there are five very 
long appendices. These are learned and exhaustive 
discussions on i. The Royal and High-born Nuns, 
which includes the Rule of S. Caesarius ; 11, Arch- 
bishop Theodore's Penitential, of which a transla- 
tion is given; III, The Poems attributed to Caedmon, 
more especially the " Dream of the Holy Rood ", 
of which a fragment is found in runes on the 
Ruthwell Cross, and the whole in a manuscript 

at Vercelli ; iv, The Northern Memorial Crosses ; 
and V, The Codex Amitianus of the Bible, which 
is now in the Mediceo - Ambrosian Library at 
Florence. The date assigned to this MS. is the 
8th century. There are three good illustrations 
from the MS., one, an interesting example of the 
crude drawing of the monks, depicts Ezra writing, 
seated on a stool in front of a large open cupboard, 
with shelves containing manuscripts. The age of 
Theodore and Bede witnessed for England the 
dawn of art and literature, intimately bound up 
with the religious and political life of the nation. 
It is a period which amply repays careful study 
and research. In writing its history Sir Henry 
Howorth has evidently laboured long and earnestly, 
and for these elaborate volumes students will owe 
him a debt of gratitude. p. a. m. s. 

On Collecting Japanese Colour-prints, being .in introduc- 
tion to the study and collection of the colour-prints of the 
Ukiyoye school of Japan, illustrated by examples from the 
author's collection ; .\ii-H24 pp., 18 pi, ; (Kegan Paul) 6s. n. 
In the preface to his volume entitled "On Col- 
lecting Japanese Colour-prints", Mr. Basil Stewart 
informs us that he wrote it "mainly to assist the 
amateur who is starting a collection for the first 
time, or the person who, while not actually a 
collector, is sufficiently interested to read about 
the subject, yet finds the more exhaustive and 
advanced works thereon somewhat beyond him ". 
On page 14 he further states that his " experience 
is that, amongst non-collectors, the impression 
prevails that the collecting of Japanese prints is an 
expensive hobby, and many would-be collectors 
are consequently afraid to indulge their artistic 
tastes therein. To remove this conception is one 
of the objects of this volume ". With these aims 
in view, the author has divided his work into six 
categories, dealing with technique : the formation 
of a collection ; forgeries, imitations and re- 
prints; some of the artists and the subjects they 
portrayed ; and Japanese chronology as applied 
to the dating of prints. All these points are 
doubtless of considerable interest to those for 
whom the book has been written. A frontispiece 
in colours of a print by that rare artist, Choensai 
Yeishin, is followed by 32 reproductions of prints 
by Tuyokuni I, Utamaro I and II, Yeishi, Choki, 
Yeizan, Kiyomine, Yeisen, Hokusai, Hokuju, 
Gakutei, Hiroshige, Kuniyoshi, Kuniyasu, Sada- 
masu, Yanagavva Shigenobu and Sugakudo. With 
the exception of the frontispiece, the signatures 
and marks on the other illustrations have been 
transcribed by small reference numbers on the 
margins with a key below — a happy idea which 
should be of much assistance to the novice. 
Although I do not agree with all that Mr. Stewart 
has written, yet I consider that upon the whole 
he has within his self-imposed limits produced a 
useful litde volume, which will doubtless be appre- 
ciated by those for whom it is intended. He has, 
however, made some unfortunate errors which 



not only detract from the value of the book, but 
which are unpardonable in a work intended as a 
guide to the uninitiated. Seemingly the author 
has, like so many previous writers on the subject, 
little or no acquaintance with the Japanese 
written language, else he could not have made 
the following mistakes. Referring to a seal 
which he correctly reads as " Kiwame ", he 
writes : — 

It was originally intended as a kind of hall-mark, and 
reads " Kiwame", meaning " perfect ", and was affixed by 
the publisher himself to prints only of a certain merit. It 
has no connection with the censor ; but as the art of the 
colour-printer fell into decay towards the middle of the last 
century it became customary to put it on every print issued, 
so that it eventually lost its significance as a mark of a good 
This is entirely wrong. As a matter of fact this 
seal has nothing whatever to do with the quality 
of the print. It is an official seal of inspec- 
tion or approval, and is referred to in the old 
records of legislative measures adopted by the 
Bakafu in regard to prints under the name of 
" Kyoka no kenin ", or " Seal of inspection or 
approval". Again, on Plate No. 5 the publisher's 
seal is given as that of Tsutaya Jusaburo, whereas 
it is that of Tsutaya Kichizo— a very different 
man. On page 119, in referring to a seal on 
Plate 26, the reading is given as " Tempo Tiger 7 
—that is, seventh month, Tiger year, in the 
Tempo period=i842". In reality there is no 
mention of the Tempo period in this seal, which 
is shown by the 7th intercalary month embodied 
therein to be equivalent to the Tiger year of 1854, 
and not to that of 1842. On page 117, in referring 
to Plate 18, the author remarks that it is " seal- 
dated Sheep year, without any indication of the 
period, and may be either 1847 or 1859". There 
is no doubt that the latter date is correct, and 
this is the date ascribed in brackets on the plate 
itself. This seal reads " Sheep 10 examined ", and 
the fact that it is incorporated with the Aratame 
character leaves no doubt as to the date. Had 
the Aratame been in a separate seal, the date 
would have been 1847. 1 hope that, should 
a second edition of the book be issued, the 
author will correct these and other obvious errors 
of minor importance. J. J. 0"B. sexton. 

The Path ok the Modern' Kcssian Stage and Other 
Essays; by Alexander Bakshy ; xxiii + 236 pp., 12 illust. ; 
(Cecil Palmer and Hayward) 7s. 6d. n. 
In England few writers on aesthetics deem the 
stage worthy of their notice ; and on this account, 
if on no other, Mr. Bakshy's book demands atten- 
tion from those interested in the stage. They 
will not be surprised to learn that Mr. Bakshy 
has very little to say about the modern English 
stage. Mr. Gordon Craig is the only modern 
English theatrical artist whom he mentions, and for 
Mr. Gordon Craig the English stage has, charac- 
teristically, " had no use ". Vov all that, when the 
war is over, and Mr. Granville Barker takes off 


his spurs, theories of stage-production will be 
again discussed and problems attempted ; and 
perhaps the aims will be a little clearer and the 
understanding of them a little sounder for a 
knowledge of Mr. Bakshy's book. In his account 
of the development of the Russian stage and yet 
more in his essay on " Living Space and the 
Theatre ", Mr. Bakshy attempts to analyse theatri- 
cal art from the point of view of the relation of 
the stage to the audience. " Art as art exists 
only for the beholder, whether he be the artist or 
the spectator, which is tantamount to saying that 
the work of art ceases to be ' of art ' as soon as 
it is no longer felt as distinct from, and opposed 
to, the personality of the man who comes in 
contact with it". The various degrees of this 
opposition are the subject of his thoughts. The 
basis is the broad distinction between presentation 
and representation. Presentation means that the 
work of art " operates by the voice of its own 
material". It is a stage-play. Representation 
means that the work is offered as an illusion of 
an entirely different world ; that is, as if the thing 
shown had an existence separate from that of the 
spectator, and independent of his relation to it. 
According to Mr. Bakshy, the very form of the 
work of art is determined by the degree of this 
opposition. In presentation the work has no 
separate existence ; and, obviously, its relation to 
the spectator is much closer than in the case of 
representation, when some sort of, as it were, arti- 
ficial continuity has to be set up to unite audience 
and play. Mr. Bakshy's development of his ideas, 
the principles or illustrations which he draws 
from optics and many other sources, and his 
analysis of theatrical art on the lines of its relation 
to the spectator, are not to be epitomised. His 
progress leads him to some daring and extraordi- 
narily interesting criticism of well-worn subjects : 
the Greek tragedy, the mediaeval miracles, the 
Elizabethan theatre (in discussing this he gaily 
bowls over the hallowed image of the Elizabethan 
audience's "imagination ") and Reinhardt's "sub- 
stitution of make-belief emotionalism for the 
religious actuality characteristic of the true theatre 
of action ". Everything that he writes is fresh and 
vigorous ; although owing to its form the book is 
rather a cupboard-full of lively and suggestive 
thoughts than an ordered exposition. A single, 
fully developed work by Mr. Bakshy on the 
aesthetics of the theatre should be well worth 
writing and reading. At least, it might revive in 
some jaded and disappointed minds the idea 
that the theatre is, after all, worth taking seriously. 

H. H. c. 
Metropolitan Museum of New York, 
Ceramic Catalogue.— Owing to some mistake 
in distribution which cannot now be accounted 
for, we reviewed in January as the current cata- 
logue of pottery, porcelain and faience belonging 


o the Metropolitan Museum, New York, a cata- 
ogue which had ceased to be circulated some 
ime before we received it for review in April 1917. 
The Direction of the Metropolitan Museum is 
therefore not only free from all responsibility for 
the catalogue reviewed, but had already criticised 
it more efficaciously than our reviewer by ceasing 
to circulate it. Editors. 

Errata. — The descriptions on page 105 are, 

owing to an accident, unintelligible, and should 
read as follows : — 

Fig. I, A— 1589. Vicellio, " Habiti, etc.". 
(i) " Usano bracone di velluto ad opera, con 
alcuni coscialetti ". (2) " Chi gli cuoprono le 
genocchie, e calzano calzete ". (3) " Fatte all' aco 
di seta torta ..." 

Fig. I, B— arc. 1595 ? "Adam van Oort in- 
ventor, Gielis van Breen, sculptor, Conradus 
Goltzi e.xcudebat". 


The Trustees of the National Gallery. — 
The appointment of the Earl of Crawford as a 
Trustee of the National Gallery is ineproachable. 
Rather than dwell on his evident qualifications, 
one is more inclined to congratulate the Treasury 
for having found time to enlist his services on 
behalf of the national institution in which we are 
all deeply interested. By appointing a critic and 
student of the arts — let alone the owner of an 
exceptionally fine collection — the Treasury en- 
courages hopes that the new basis of selection on 
which e.xperts in art-history, in criticism, in values, 
and in the practice of painting, but not in 
politics, were chosen as Trustees for the Tale 
Gallery, will remain in similar appointments for 
the National Gallery, where such expert knowledge 
is even more necessary. We may hope that the 
old idea of the National Gallery benefiting in 
some unexplained way from a Trustee's wealth 
or political prominence, has disappeared for good. 
Few of the Trustees eminent in finance or 
politics had much knowledge of pictures or their 
values to offer for a Director's assistance, and it 
is curious how few of the most generous bene- 
factors to the Gallery by gift or bequest ever 
held the office of a Trustee. Lord Crawford's 
appointment also encourages the particular hope 
that since the value of historical knowledge and 
fine taste in the arts has been recognised in his 
case, it will also be recognised where it is com- 
bined with the actual practice of the arts, in the 
case of a collector, student, author and artist so 
accomplished as Mr. Charles Ricketts, as soon as 
another vacancy among the Trustees occurs. Mr. 
Ricketts's advice is in constant request concerning 
the acquisition of works of art in the public 
interest, and his qualifications for office have 
long been recognised by officials usually con- 
sulted by the First Lords of the Treasury in 
making art appointments. No one, therefore, of 
Mr. Ricketts's experience and activity, would be 
more likely to prove a valuable and welcome 
colleague to fellow - connoisseurs, like Lord 
Crawford. More Adey. 

William Morris Commemoration.— Whether 
the present time is altogether a favourable one for a 

propaganda of Morris's ideals and art-handicrafts 
is perhaps a moot question. Nevertheless a 
number of votaries (unfortunately without a 
sufficient announcement beforehand to the general 
public) recently organised a Morris celebration 
under the auspices of the London Rambling Club 
at Ashburton Hall in Red Lion Square. The 
locality was associated with the Morris movement 
from its earliest years ; for it was at No. 17 in the 
same square that Morris and his circle established 
the headquarters of the newly founded firm of 
M(;rris and Company. 

The celebration, which took place from 12th 
to 19th February, was of two-fold character. It 
consisted of an exhibition of specimens of Morris's 
designs and handiwork ; and also of a series of 
evening lectures by well-known authorities, e.g. 
Professors W. R. Lethaby and J. W. Mackail, 
Messrs. Bernard Shaw and Halsey Ricardo. The 
programme included songs, recitals and readings 
from Morris's writings. On account of the limited 
space available the exhibition was necessarily a 
small one, but it proved amply sufficient to illus- 
trate the untiring energy of the man who wore 
himself into a premature grave through sheer 
hard work. The objects shown ranged from the 
first beginnings of his art, when Morris had not 
yet shaken himself free from the conventional 
project of becoming a picture painter, as distinct 
from a decorative artist. He was still strongly 
influenced by the neo-mediasvalism (of which D. G. 
Rossetti was the most prominent representative) 
when in 1858 he produced his one oil-painting, 
depicting his wife in the guise of Guinevere. The 
effort was not a conspicuous success, and Morris 
thenceforward wisely forsook easel-painting for 
applied decoration. Among the latest designs and 
one to which a peculiarly pathetic interest attaches, 
is Morris's own drawing, dated 1896, for the leather 
binding of his splendid Kelmscott edition of 

If it is not too soon after his death to attain a 
true perspective of the nature and merits of 
Morris's work, it may at any rate be observed that 
he was at his best when he was most himself and 
least successful when his work was most deriva- 
tive, not to say imitative. For Morris was, after all, 


A Monthly Chronicle 

though he would probably have been the last 
to admit it — really modern of moderns. He 
himself was far too strenuous and responsive to 
the forward movements of his time to allow him- 
self to retire into a " lordly pleasure-house " of his 
own or of the past, aloof from the life and 
impulses of his contemporaries. He would needs 
share with the humblest and the most obscure the 
keen delight which he himself felt in labour — 
labour dignified by art and beauty. It was this 
which drove him into the ranks of social reformers 
and made him pronounce for Socialism, as he 
understood it. Hammersmith, where he made his 
London home and where he died, is justly proud 
of its distinguished citizen, and a number of im- 
portant exhibits was contributed by the Hammer- 
smith Public Library, including a goodly volume of 
cuttings of reviews and a great variety of notices 
from the press concerning Morris's life and work. 
As a practical outcome it is proposed to estab- 
lish a guild or fellowship, having for its general 
object the extending of the knowledge of Morris's 
life work and ideals. As a means of carrying this 
purpose into effect it is proposed (i) to form a 
library of William Morris's books, and of other 
books relating thereto {e.g. the great mythologies, 
mediaeval history, art and literature, social ques- 
tions, etc.) ; (2) to meet periodically for the study 
and discussion of Morris's writ;ngs and ideas, 
literary, artistic and social, and to hold occasional 
exhibitions of special aspects of his work ; (3) to 
encourage the practice of handicraft, the develop- 
ment of taste in the domestic arts, and the attain- 
ment of the ideal of pleasure in labour ; and (4) 
to arrange visits to places of interest in connection 
svith William Morris. Aymer Vallance. 

The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. — The 
excellent annual bulletin* records that the number 
of gifts has far exceeded that of any previous year. 
That this is largely due to the energy, persistence 
and, let us add, the great personal popularity of 
Mr. Sydney Cockerell there can be no manner 
of doubt. Disagreeable directors and fractious 
keepers of museums and galleries, however learned 
they may be, have done more harm to their various 
institutions than any amount of criticism. Much, 
too, is often lost to a city or the nation by churlish- 
ness which has been known to conceal ignorance 
and indifference. We learn with particular pleasure 
that Cambridge has been enriched by Greek vases 
of high quality, some of them being obtained at 
the Hope sale by the generous assistance of the 
National Art Collections Fund, private benefactors 
and the Friends of the Fitzwilliam, that excellent 
society to which all Cambridge men ought to sub- 
scribe. The importance of fine examples of Greek 
art in a University town cannot be exaggerated. 

• The Si.vlv-nhilli Aiiiitial Report of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
Syndicate pi'tlie 1^17 ; C;iiiibri<l,^c (lliuvcrsity Press), 1 9' 8. 


Too many scholars are indifferent to an aspect 
of Greek genius hardly less important than the 
brilliant literature which survives, and of much 
greater importance than the political history or 
topography, often matters of mere speculation. 
Medi;evalism is not likely to suffer neglect from 
Mr. Sydney Cockerell, who has done so much 
and will do more in the future to develop what 
should be the indispensable section of every English 
museum in any originally mediaeval town. The 
modern side is always a difficulty ; trivial objects 
of ephemeral interest or no value whatever are 
always pressed on reluctant curators. It would be 
an exaggeration to say that the Fitzwilliam report 
is entirely free from items it would be invidious to 
mention ; but they are more than balanced by 
others of permanent worth, such as Mr. T. H. 
Riches's gift of a Maris and Harpignies ; Mr. Alec 
Martin's gift of a drawing by Augustus John, and 
some entrancing Pre-Raphaelite works. R. R. 

The Church Crafts League. — During the 
second half of February some members of the 
Church Crafts League held an exhibition of their 
work in Old Cavendish Street. The object of 
the League is to devote the highest artistic talent 
available to the highest purposes. It makes this 
its object in view of the unfortunate fact that 
the furniture and fittings of sundry church in- 
teriors have too long been abandoned to the com- 
mercial enterprise of the ecclesiastical upholsterer. 
The exhibition took place in the premises of the 
London school of weaving, where visitors were 
enabled to see the actual process of weaving which 
the League is wont to employ in producing its 
exquisite fabrics. Not least among the qualities 
requisite in materials for church hangings and 
vestments, particularly for the latter, is flexibility; 
and in this respect the League is doing excellent 
work — not least in the production of metallic 
fabrics. Cloth of gold, or " lama ", much used in 
continental vestments, is rich enough in texture, 
but yet is of its nature too rigid to admit ot 
graceful folds. The cloth of gold and the cloth 
of silver (or rather aluminium — for silver cannot 
be relied on not to blacken when exposed to the 
atmosphere) woven under the auspices of the 
League leave nothing to be desired in softness 
and delicacy. Other charming efifects are pro- 
duced by the use of flax, which, especially in 
combinations of shot colours, has all the gloss and 
brilliance of silk, and yet has the advantage of 
being much less costly. For the rest one cannot 
help remarking how difficult a task it is — perhaps 
more so in ecclesiastical than in any other branch 
of design — to steer a middle course between the 
bizarre and eccentric on the one hand and the 
merely trivial and commonplace on the other 
hand. What Professor Selwyn Image says of 
the late cliairuim of the League, his friend 

Thomas Stirling Lee, may be applied in a 
measure to a wider circle among the members. 
" I do not pretend that Lee's decorative sense was 
quite on a level with his imaginative vision and 
his craftsman's skill. . . . Well, there are artists 
and artists. . . . Our friend's true and beautiful 
art on " the " formally inventive side of it left 
something to be desired." It behoves his suc- 
cessors and brethren in the League to supply what 
was lacking in him, so that when their work 
comes to be compared with that of others in the 
profession with whom they have entered into 
competition, it may not be found to incur the 
reproach of amateurism, but may attain in fulfil- 
ment to the standard of the lofty ideal which they 
have made their aim and object. V. H. 

Andrade's Chinese Pottery (8 Duke Street, 
S. James's). — Mr. Andrade is exhibiting a nice 
collection of Chinese glazed pottery, particularly 
interesting to amateurs of roof tiles, of which he 
has more than two dozen e.xamples. This sort 
of Chinese attached decoration is the kind most 
suitable for detached ornaments on account of its 
varied and attractive design. Besides roof-tiles, 
Mr. Andrade exhibits a good many pieces of 
ancient make, or fine form, or both combined, 
for without examining each piece in detail — and 
even then without long experience — there is the 
usual difficulty in assigning the correct date. 
Chinese pottery is almost always archaistic, so 
that a given piece has often been made much 
later than its form would suggest. The first 
object that catches the eye is the Sealed Warrior 
(No. 36), measuring on its pedestal 27 in. high, a 
successful achievement of the potter's art on a 
large scale rather than an object of beauty. With 
it are two rather smaller figures, well suited to 
attend the warrior, though not necessarily made 
to accompany that particular specimen. A piece 
which can be confidently stated to have been 
made in the later T'ang period is an especially 
well-modelled saddled horse with a bob-tail, in 
shades of pale green and brown. As fine in form, 
but more fantastic, are (No. 22) a large Buddhist 
Saddled and Caparisoned Elephant, 14^ in. high, 
shaded with pale green, bearing on its back a 
cusped knob resembling a taper-holder ; and a 
Feng-hitan Bird, in raw siena and green. Both are 
quite perfect, and of what is called "Ming" in 
design, though made later than the close of that 
period. There is also (No. 30) a large 12-lobed 
Vase, 17 in. high, with 6 knobs on the lip, of tine 
form, fairly early in design and probably in 
make, with a beautiful rich green glaze. A warrior 
horseman in rocky surroundings, under a con- 
torted pine tree, is "amusing" as an elaborate, 
bright-coloured ornament, but is evidently late in 

Mr. Andrade will also show anyone who is 

^ Monthly Chronicle 

interested the gold torque, in an excellent state of 
preservation, which was found not long ago in 
Cornwall. As these torques are all much alike, 
and most national collections already possess 
specimens, Mr. Andrade's should be acquired — 
and probably could be acquired without difficulty 
— -for a local collection which has not yet got 
one. M.A. 

Pictures of War, by C. R. W. Nevinson, 
AT THE Leicester Galleries. — More than any 
other artist who has exhibited war-pictures in 
England, Mr. Nevinson has, in my opinion, a 
dramatic sense of his subject, and has been 
inspired by unfamiliar aspects of human activity 
to the production of work which should have 
a permanent interest. There are no laborious 
studies or preparations for these pictures, but 
an impression is nearly always forcibly and 
directly conveyed by means of his acute power 
of visualisation. Those who have experienced 
the conditions depicted, and who are concerned 
with truth of impression rather than with the 
myopic accumulation of facts, commonly agree 
as to the vivid realism of Mr. Nevinson's 
record. His real interest in movement has led 
him to paint not only armies on the march and 
aeroplanes doing "stunts ", but, in other exhibi- 
tions, the action of waves, of crowds, and of trees 
in the wind. To some extent this interest explains 
his sympathy, at one time more marked, with the 
"dynamism" of Marinetti's circle; but he finds 
equal dramatic opportunity in the stillness of 
night or of deserted battlefields. This estimate of 
him implies an uncommon talent as an illustrator, 
which may not coincide with his account of 
himself in the preface to the catalogue of this 
exhibition. He claims to be "merely interested 
in plastic form " ; nevertheless, the thing repre- 
sented and the story told are not without import- 
ance for him, and it is not derogatory to say so. 
Mr. Nevinson will not resent a comparison with 
Daumier, who also was " interested in plastic 
form " ; yet the spirit of the Rne Transnonain, for 
instance, which is largely illustrative, has much 
in common with some of these war-pictures. 
Their author disclaims any literary or journalistic 
intention, but tried by the standards of those 
who find Van Gogh or Boccioni literary, and 
Marinetti a pronounced journalistic type, Mr. 
Nevinson must be found at least equally so. 
Perhaps this is unimportant, since pictures stand 
or fall on their merits. One does not judge 
Courbet as an artist by his own fanfarionades, 
and controversial questions need not interfere 
with our enjoyment of such paintings as the 
Group of Soldiers, Spiral Descent, and the Road to 
Bapaume. A word should be added in praise 
of Mr. Nevinson's frank and expressive use of 
lithography. R. S. 


A Monthly Chronicle 

Exhibition of Ancient Ecclesiastical Art, 
Dr. Roosval, is superintending this exhibition, 
which is being held from 23 March to 20 May. 
One of the chief attractions is both Roman and 
Gothic textiles and the permanent collection 
of vestments belonging to the treasury of Upsala 
Cathedral. There is also much carved eccle- 

siastical furniture in stone and wood from the 
earliest times to the elaborate baroque escutcheons 
of the i8th century, with ornaments in metal of 
all periods. Since visitors will now be restricted 
by necessity, it is to be hoped that a good illu>^- 
trated catalogue will be published, for the benefit 
of those who would like to be present if they 
could get to Sweden. M. A. 


SoTHEBY, Wilkinson and Hodge will sell 15, 16-19 April the 
second portion of the famous Alfred Morrison Collection of 
autograph letters. The letters throughout are of the highest 
importance for collectors. Thereare several from famous artists, 
some of which are important in the history of the Fine Arts, 
notably a letter from Titian to the Emperor Charles V, referring 
to the portrait of the late Empress, two from Rembrandt to 
Constantine Huygens, also pictures painted for the Prince of 
Orange, one from Perugino to Isabella d'Este about a picture 
wliich he is painting from her, and one from Jean Perreal to 
Margaret of Austria. Others from Rubens, Reynolds, Romney, 
Poussin, Giulio Romano, Salvator Rosa, are interesting for 
their contents. Tlie price of the illustrated catalogue is 5s. 

Galerie Georges Petii, 8 rue de Seze, Paris. — On 3 May 
will be sold the late vicomte De Curel's collection of Modern 
Pictures, containing (No. 1-20) works by Corot, Courbet, 
Daubigny, Decamps, Diaz, Charles Jacque, Jonkind, Meissonier, 
Michels, Monet, Gustave Moreau, Regnault, Rousseau, Roybet, 
Troyon and Ziem : (No. 20-23) w'"i a water colour each by 

Detaillc ; Eugene Lami, and a pastel by Troyon ; Old Masters 
Pictures (Nos. 24-55) by Boilly, Boucher, Chardin, Danloux 
David, Desportes, Duplessis, Van Dyck, Fragonard, Greuze, 
Largilliere, Nattier, Netscher, Oudry, Pater, Vigee-Lebrun, 
Watteau and Wouverman ; and Pastels (Nos. 56 and 57) by 
Perroneau ; with Objch d'Art (No. 58, 59) andTapisteries (Nos. 
61, 62) Gobelins and (Nos. 62, 63) Aubusson. (No. 14) (Edipe 
ct Ic Sphinx may be noticed as the work of a master seldom on 
the market, and represented very sparsely, if at all, in England, 
Gustave Moreau ; No. 3, Bergere lisant seems a fine example of 
Corot's portrait studies, and No. 11 L' Amateur de Peinturc, an 
attractive Meissonier, at least to those who value that master 
high. No. 54 Le Coiiteiirdc Fleiirdte is a quiet little Watteau 
with two figures, pleasing even in the reproduction, which does 
not seem to do it justice. The time for elaborately illustrated 
sale catalogues is passed, and they must not be expected. The 
present one is very copiously illustrated, but it is only fair to the 
pictures to point out the illustrations by no means flatter 


Publicatioin cannot be included here unless lliey have been delivered be/ore the tf>th of the previous month. Prices must 
bestatcd. Publications not coining within the scope of this Majiazine will not be acknoK'ledgcd here unless the prices are stated. 

Serial Publications uill for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods of their publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Author (printed by Unwin Bros., Ltd., Gresham Press). 
Catalogue of the Miniatures and Portraits in Plumbago or 
Pencil belonging to Francis and Minnie IVellesley ; 2ii pp, 
[A very well produced catalogue of probably the largest 
collection of plumbago drawings in existence.] 
Author (translator), F. F. Sherman, New York. 

Evans (Nellie Seelye), translator from the Spanish. Frincisco 
de Zurbardn, his epoch, his life and his 'icorks by Jose 
Cascales y Mui'ioz; xxiii 4- iS^ipp., 62 illust. ; $10.00. 
Boston, U.S.A., Museum ok Fine Arts (Houghton Mifflin). 
Oilman (Bcnj. Ives). Museum Ideals of Purpose and Method ; 
XXII + 434 PP-. illust. $3.00. 
Constable and Co. 
Valentini (Enzo), trans, by Fernanda Bellachioma. Letters 
and Drawings of Enzo Valentini, conte di Laviano, Italian 
volunteer and soldier ; vi + i68 pp., 9 PI. 5s. n. 
"Country Life", 20 Tavistock St., W.C. 

Nevinson (C. R. W ). British Artists at the Front, Part i, 
with introductions by Campbell Dodgson and C. E. Montague 
(continuation of "The Western Front "). 5s. n. 

[The first set of very good colour reproductions, to be 
followed by Part 11, from drawings by Sir John Lavery] 
FiFlEi.D, 13 Cliffords Inn, E.C.4. 

KiDDiER (Wm.). The Oracle of Colour, by the author of " The 
Profanity of Paint ". 2s. n. 
Seeley, Service and Co., 38 Great Russell St., W.C. 

Rich (Alf. W.). Water Colour Painting. 256 pp., 67 illust. 
("New Art Library"). 7s. 6d. n. 
Skeffington and Son, Ltd., 34 Southampton St., W.C. 

RiCKARD (W. Lloyd). The Cult of Old Paintings and the 
Romney Case, with a forcK'ord by Sir Edw. J. Poynter, Bart. ; 
195 PP- '^ !'•• ^s. n. 
Williams and Norgate, 14 Henrietta St., W.C.2. 

The Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified of S. Gregory the 
Dialogist, the Greek text with a rendering in English; 188 pp. 


[The 5th uniform volume of the liturgy of the Orthodox 
Church according to the use of the Orthodox Greek Church 
in London. These convenient little volumes, intended for 
devotional use, and apart from their very high literary 
beauty, should be useful in determining the subjects and 
inscriptions of Byzantine and Orthodox Greek art.] 

Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — Architect — 
Country Life — Illustrated London News. 

Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Fran9aise, 78 — Veil i 
Nou, IV, 61, 62. 

Monthly.— Art World (New York) Mar. — Colour — Connoisseur 
—Fine Art Trade Journal— Journal of the Imperial Arts League 
— Kokka, 332 — Lcs Arts, 164 — New York, Metropolitan 
Museum, Xlli, 2, 3— Onze Kunst, xvii, 2, 3. 

Bi-monthly. — Art in America, vi, 2 — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 
of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 93 — L'Arte, xxi, i. 

Other Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Museum of Art, Bulletin 
(10 ,7 year), V, i — Minneapolis, Institute of Fine Arts, Bulletin 
(9 a year), vil, 2. 

Quarterly.— Boletin de la Sociedad Espaiiolade Excursiones, 
XXV, 3 — Gazette des Beaux Arts, 693 — Oud-Holland, xxxv, 4 
—Pennsylvania Museum, Bulletin, 60— Print Collectors' Quar- 
terly, VII. 4— Quarterly Review — Worcester, Mass., Art Mu- 
seum Bulletin VIII, 4. 

OccMi]oyALL\.— Generals of the British Ariny,portraits in colours 
by Francis Dodd. Part 2 ("Country Life"). 5s. n.—War 
Drawings by Muirhead Bone, edition de luxe, from the col- 
lection presented to the British Museum by His Majesty's 
Government ; Part 5 (Country Life, Ltd.). los. 6d. n. 

Trade Lists. — Maggs Bros. Earlv printed Books, MSS., stamped 
Bindings, No. 364 ; illust. (109 Strand, W.C.)— Norstedts 
Xyhetcr (Stockholm) 1918, No. 2— Duckworth and Co. A 
catalogue of the books published, 3 Henrietta St., W.C.2, 



DO not wish to depreciate in any way 

the recent work on cassoni by Dr. 

Schubring,' who has brought together 
l^^^from every piibHc and private collection 
^=^nearly nine hundred examples, and 
illustrated many of them sumptuously, but it must 
be confessed that the work is in many respects 
immature. If the scope is to include not only 
cassoni da nozze but deschi da parfo, spallicve, and 
the various other decorative furniture in civil and 
religious use, Dr. Schubring's list could be increased 
by several hundreds. We at once notice, for 
example, that he omits the Virtues of the Uffizi 
which Pollaiuolo ai\d Botticelli painted on the 
spalliera of the Sala della Merchatantia.- Moreover, 
if the attributions were submitted to a critical 
revision many would have to be changed. But 
the greatest defect is Schubring's indifference to 
heraldic research, and his weakness in identifying 
the subjects. And yet these are the two primary 
questions of his theme. Certainly as regards the 
coats -of -arms in the most frequent examples, 
marriage-chests, besides often giving us the year 
in which they were executed, may lead us to the 
school which produced them, and in some cases 
to the artist, and in others, to the subject." In the 
subject often lies the whole importance of the 
cassone. Beside histories, legends, romances, and 
allegories ; Greek, Roman, and mediaeval ; sacred 
and profane; are unfolded in these chests, the 
principal events of contemporary families and 
cities. Thus the whole life of the time, both 
private and public, is placed before our know- 
ledge in the most visible forms. This knowledge 
would therefore have become perfect if we had 
cultivated the taste of collocating with the 
graphic illustration the contemporary written 
account which corresponds to it. A cassone, for 
e.xample, represents a tournament in the Piazza di 
Santa Croce,* and we have beside it the minutest 
description of a tournament in which Giuliano de' 
Medici took part.' Here we have a banquet, 
either Dido and Eneas, or Esther and Ahasuerus, 
or Nastagio degli Onesti, and there, a full com- 
mentary, the account of the banquet given by 
Benedetto Salutati at Naples in 1476.^ Again we 
have a marriage procession, as in the celebrated 

' Paul Schubring. Cassoni, Leipzig, Hiersemann, 1915. 

- Aiwnimo Gaddiaiw, ediz. C. v. Fabriczy, 1893, p. 56. 

' Schubring publishes the precious workshop book in which 
the associates, Marco del Buono and Apollonio di Giovanni, 
note the cassoni which they painted between 1446 and 1463 
for Florentine families which they name. It is very difficult to 
e.xplain why not a single one of these 170 cassoni remains, 
according to the results reached by Schubring, But in order to 
verify this conclusion it is necessary to begin to identify the 
coats-of-arms of existing Florentine cassoni. 

* Schubring, op. cit., Kat. No. 140. 

' A part of it is printed by Mazzatinti, Inventari dei Maito- 
scritti delle Biblioteche d'ltalia, vol. XI, pp. 27-29. 

" Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS. CI. xxv, 574, c. log-iio. 

The BrEiINOioN, No. 182. Vol. XXXII— May, 1918. 

spalliera in the Accademia in Florence, and as a 
sequel to it, " L'Informazione delle Nozze" of 
Lorenzo il Magnifico with Orsini, drawn up very 
accur.itely by Cosimo Bartoli, one of the organ- 
isers of the festival.' 

I hope, therefore, that Professor Mather, who 
has been occupied for years with the same theme, 
instead of finding Dr, Schubring's book an 
obstacle to publication, will rather find it an 
incentive, for a second book on cassoni will 
be none too much. 


The cassone of the Museo Nazionale reproduced 
here [Plate I], was explained for the first time 
by Schubring, to whom it appeared quite plainly to 
illustrate the story of Mattabruna.* That story, 
which is current all over the world, was well known 
in Italy also, both in the literature which relates it, 
above all in the " Sacre Rappresentazioni ", where 
it is referred to S. Uliva and S. Stella ;' and by 
frequent representations on the cofanetti of the 
Embriachi which depict it, and more completely 
on one of the ivory tablets of the same workshop 
formerly in the Certosa of Pavia and now in the 
Pierpont Morgan collection." But not one of the 
essential or secondary features of the legend has 
the least coincidence with the scenes represented 
on our Bargello cassone. Indeed Dr. Schubring's 
description has no connection whatever with 
what he intends to describe. For instance, the 
third scene [PL.A.TE II], in which a cavalier is 
evidently represented parting from his own people, 
is described thus : " Dionigia flies with her sons to 
Rome to the Pope, and there finds miraculously 
her husband, and the sons find their father". 

On the contrary, the scenes of our cassone really 
belong to the story of Saladin as it is told by 
Boccaccio in the last but one of his "Novelle". 
Boccaccio relates, more or less as follows, how : — 
Saladin, lord of Babylon, having learned that the 
Christians were preparing for a new Crusade, decided to 
betake himself to the West in order to prospect, and "under 
the semblance of going on a pilgrimage, with two of his 
greatest and wisest men and three servants only, set out on 
his journey in the disguise of a merchant ". And when 
Saladin and his men had passed through many provinces 
it chanced that while going from Milan to Pavia they met 
with a gentleman whose name was Messer Torello d'Istria, 
of Pavia. . . . And when Torello saw them, perceiving tliat 
they were gentlemen and strangers, he desired to do them 
honour. And he entertained them cordially in his country- 
house. The next day Torello, having conducted the three 
strangers to Pavia, received them with great state in his 
house and presented them to his wife, " who, being a very 
beautiful woman . . . and attired in rich garments, accom- 
panied by two young sons . . . came to meet them and 
saluted them very pleasantly ". And having learned from 
them whence they came and whither they were going, 

' li id. c. 108-108V. 

* Pp. 5 4. 95, 222-3 (No- 18). Tav. III. 

* A. D'Ancona, Sacre Rappresentazioni. vol. Ill, p. 235 e seq. 

'° T. v. Schlosser, Die Werkstatt der Embriachi in Venedig, in 
Wiener Jalirbiich, vol. xx, pp. 265-7, Tav. xxxvil. 


Notes on the Museo Nazionale of Florence 

said " Then I see that my feminine counsel will be useful, 
and therefore I pray you ... not to refuse . . . this little 
gift which 1 will have brought for you" ; . . . And having 
had brought for each two changes of apparel ... she 
said: "Take these; . . . considering that you are far 
distant from your own wives, and the length of the journey 
that you have made and have yet to make . . . these might 
be v.iluable to you ". The day after, Saladin and his men left 
the house of Torello. Meanwhile, the time of the Crusade 
being now come, Torello also was forced to depart. On 
taking leave of his wife he desired a promise from her : that 
she should not marry again until one year, one month and 
one dav had passed after the day of his departure. The 
l.ady said : " I will obey you faithfully in that which yo'.i ask 
of me." . . . having ended these words . . . she embraced 
Messer Torello, weeping, and drawing from her finger a 
ring, gave it to him, saying: " If it chance that I die before 
I see you again, remember me when you look upon this 
ring." And he, having taken the ring, mounted his horse. 
The passages taken from Boccaccio might serve 
word for word as a description of the three scenes 
of the cassone. There is no doubt, then, on the 
identification of the subject. In the first scene 
Torello receives Saladin and his two companions 
at his house in the country [b] ; in the second 
the three travellers, whose oriental character is 
in this scene even better indicated by their cos- 
tumes and the arrangement of their hair, receive 
from Torello's wife, accompanied by her two 
little sons and a serving-maid, the gift of the 
clothes [c] ; in the third scene Torello departs 
for the Holy Land and receives from his wife 
the ring which is to remind him of their love [d]. 
The novella of the " Decameron " does not end 
with this episode ; Torello having been made 
prisoner is carried to Alexandria, where he is soon 
recognised by Saladin. Mindful of the welcome 
which he had received at Pavia, Saladin covers 
him with honours, and by means of a necro- 
mancer in his court procures his miraculous 
return to Pavia. There, the time fixed by the 
promise being passed, the wife of Torello is about 
to contract a second marriage against her will. 
Torello secretly obtains an invitation to the 
marriage-feast, and by means of the ring recalls 
himself to his wife's remembrance and secures 
his happy reunion with her. This second part of 
the novella was evidently represented in a second 
cassone by three of the most salient episodes, per- 
haps the capture of Torello, his recognition by 
Saladin, and his recognition by his wife. For 
it was almost always two cassoni that the bride 
presented with the dowery. There is often, 
therefore, a single story divided between the two 
chests. The cassone with the second part of the 
novella of Torello, the sequel to the cassone of the 
Museo Nazionale, is perhaps destroyed, or perhaps 
remains unrecognised in some private collection. 

However, there exists in the Castello di Vin- 
cigliata near Florence a cassone that, by the 
identical decoration in pastiglia round the painted 
incidents, and not repeated anywhere else, may 
perhaps be referred to the same workshop, and 
certainly to the same school as ours. Now whereas 
on the Bargello cassone the two coats-of-arms have 
entirely disappeared, in the Vincigliata cassone the 
sinister coat, that is to say, the husband's, is clearly 
visible and can be identified as the coat of the 

The presence of the Alessandri coat is almost 
sufficient to indicate a Florentine origin in any 
cassone ; and this is confirmed in the cassone of 
the Bargello by its provenance from the Hospital 
of Santa Maria Nuova, and also by the style, 
which is certainly the style of a secondary Floren- 
tine painter working between the end of the 14th 
and the beginning of the 15th century within the 
circle of the group headed by Lorenzo di Niccolo 
and Niccolo di Pietro Gerini. 

The novella of Saladin and Messer Torello had 
had many ramifications in the mediaeval world. 
Doubts might therefore arise whether the painter 
might not have used some other source instead 
of the " Decameron ". But apart from the 
" Decameron " being, for a Florentine particularly, 
the most direct source, we know well that none of 
the other versions of the novella repeats exactly 
the account of Boccaccio.'^ On the other hand, 
we have seen above h' )W literally faithful the painter 
of the cassone is to Boccaccio. Hitherto no pic- 
torial representation from the " Decameron " of 
this time has been known. On cassoni and spalliere 
the Boccacciesque novelle of Griselda and of 
Nastagio degli Onesti appear frequently, but only 
from the beginning of the second half of the 
15th century. 

The subject of the Saladin story was par- 
ticularly appropriate to a marriage-chest. Indeed 
no more beautiful example of gentleness of soul 
and conjugal fidelity could be offered to the nevyly 
married than Messer Torello d'Istria and his wife 
— so cordial in their hospitality to the unknown 
travellers to their house, so tender in the act 
of farewell, so mindful of one another during 
their forced separation, and so joyful when the 
miraculous return permitted their reunion. 
{Jo he coiitiiiiicd.) 

" Schubring calls it (p. 223, No. 21) the arms of the Arte 
della Lana ! 

" P. Rajna, La novella boccaccesca del Saladiiio c di ilcsser 
TorcUo, in Romauia,\ol. vi [1877], p. 359-368. 



'HE following are some of "the 
Proprietors' " advertisements. From 
them it will be seen that the names 
J of the individual proprietors are in 
all cases omitted. Benjamin Lund, 
whose name does appear, was a brass founder 
and stay maker ; his works, and also his dwelling- 
house, were both in the parish of SS. Philip and 
Jacob, and a lease dated 1768 shows that his 
brass works and buildings that had been erected 
by him long before that date were part of the 
present "Hooper's Glasshouse", the business 
premises of Messrs. Powell and f^icketts, glass 
merchants, Cheese Lane, in that parish. On 
February 3rd, 1728, Benjamin Lund, of Bristol, 
merchant, and Francis Hawksbee, of London, 
took out a patent for manufacturing copper, 
extracting silver from same, making brass to be 
cast into plates, etc., and a new way of mixing 
copper with calamy and charcoal, and making 
thereof brass without pans or pots. 

Benjamin Lund acted as " the Proprietors' " 
agent, and may have subscribed to their fund, but 
in business he never was either a practical glass- 
maker or a potter. 

He was, however, a Quaker, and was married 
24.10.1719, at the Friends' Meeting House, Bristol, 
to Christobel, d. of Robert Ingram, of London, 
the wedding being witnessed, and the register 
signed, by some of the Champions of the genera- 
tion before that of Richard Champion, the famous 
Bristol porcelain maker, and by many of the 
Harford, Lloyd and Scandrett families. From 
this it may be assumed that Richard Champion 
was not unacquainted with the operations at 
" The Glasshouse ". The advertisements given 
below are in order of date as they appeared. 

In November and December 1750 and July 
1751 the following advertisement appeared many 
times in a Bristol paper: — 

Whereas for some Time past Attempts have been made 
in this City, to Introduce a Manufactory in Imitation of 
Cliiiia Ware, and the Proprietors having brought the said 
Undertaking to a considerable Degree of Perfection, are 
determin'd to extend their Works and Sales of Ware, as 
soon as proper Hands can either be procured or instructed 
in the several Branches of the said Business : they therefore 
give this Notice, That if the Parents, or Guardians of any 
young Lads above the age of Fourteen are inclined that 
they shall learn the Art of Pottery, as practised in Stafford- 
shire, and will find them Lodging and all Necessaries 
during the Term of Apprenticeship, no Money will be 
required for learning them in the best Manner, and in 
particular Children of either Sex, not under the above Age, 
may be learned to draw and paint by Persons appointed 
for that Purpose, that they may be qualify'd to paint the 
said Ware, either in the India or Roman Taste,^ whereby 
they may acquire a genteel Subsistance. 

The Consideration expected for such Instruction, being 
the Perquisite of the Painters, it is left to them and the 
Persons to agree. 

89- Any person that is inclin'd to purchase a six or four 
leaved Screen , or to have one or more made to any particular 
Height or Dimensions may be directed where to apply by 
Mr. Lund, on St. Philip's Plain, who also can inform them 
concerning the above Particulars.^ 

Bristol, July 20, 1751. 

This is to give Notice, That the Ware made in this City 
for some Time past, in Imitation of Foreign China, is now 
Sold at the Proprietor's Warehouse in Castle Green, at the 
end near Castle-Gate, where constant attendance is given 
during Day Light. The lowest price will be mark'd on 
each piece of Ware according as it is more or less Perfect, 
witliout Abatement, unless to Wholesale Dealers, for present 
Money, who shall be allow'd a Discount on any Parcel of 
Ware they may Purchase above the Value of Forty Shillings, 
that will make it their Interest to deal for this Ware. 

For the future no Ware will be Sold at the Place where 
it is Manufactured ; nor will any Person be admitted to 
enter there without Leave from the Proprietors. 

Bristol, January 18, 1752. 

This is to give Notice that during the Time of the Fair, 
The Ware made in this City in Imitation of Foreign Porce- 
lain or China and Sold at the Proprietors Warehouse in 
Castle Green, will be Sold .at their Warehouse next the Bell 
Inn in Temple Street ; with a Sortment of enamell'd Ware 
and Toys. The lowest Price will be marked on each Piece 
according to the Sort, as it is more or less perfect, without 

N.B. — Good Allowance will be made to Wholesale 
Dealers ; and the imperfect Ware made on their first 
Experiments will be sold very cheap. 

The above was repeated on 25 January, with 
this footnote in addition. 

BS"" At the same place is to be Sold four Screens, three of 
them in the India taste with six leaves. 

As the first of these three advertisements, in 
November 1750, says that "for some time past 
Attempts have been made in this City" to introduce 
the manufacture of porcelain ; and as Dr. Pococke 
in his letters of October and November of the same 
year refers to the purchase of the Cornish clay and 
the manufacture of porcelain in Bristol before the 
dates of his letters, it is only reasonable to suppose 
that the manufactory was in existence for some 
time before that year, say as early as 1746, 
especially as the imperfect experimental pieces 
are spoken of which must have been made by " the 
Proprietors " long before " the Undertaking " was 
brought to " a considerable degree of perfection " ; 
moreover, much time must have been occupied in 
making a stock large enough to warrant a con- 
siderable advertisement, and the setting up of one 
permanent, and one temporary, w.arehouse. Also, 
when William Cookworthy and his discovery of 
Cornish clay and Growan stone are considered in 
connection with these experiments, and when we 
remember that as early as 1745 he was writing of 
samples of clay which he had seen from " the 

' The reference to " India or Roman taste " is interesting. By 
the former is undoubtedly meant the Chinese style, which is the 
usual manner of painted decoration, both in blue and in colours, 
on the pieces marked " Bristol! ", as in saucebo.ats illustrated in 
Plate II. The Roman taste may refer to such decoration as 
the more or less classical gilt festoons on the sauce-boats in 

the Schreiber collection ; cf. Plate I, a, c,p. 153. Parallels are to 
be found in the " India Plants" mentioned amongst the decora- 
tions used at Chelsea in the catalogue of the second year's auction 
sale of productions of that factory (1755), and in the "indianische 
Blumen " and " deutsche Blumen " of early Meissen porcelain. 
'■^ The italics of the original are reproduced here. 


Loudiri^s (alias ^^ Lowris^'' ) China House ^ Bristol 

Back of Virginia ",^ it seems only reasonable to 
conclude that Cookworthy had made his dis- 
coveries in Cornwall just before "the Pro- 
prietors" took these works, say 1745, and, that 
he joined with, and became one of, " the Pro- 
prietors " from the very first. 

There is a curious feature in these advertise- 
ments which seems to require explanation, that is, 
the careful suppression in all of them of the names 
of "the Proprietors". From this it may be con- 
cluded that there was special need of secrecy in 
their operations, an assumption which is borne out 
by the advertisement of July 1751, announcing 
that for the future no Ware will be sold at the 
place where it is manufactured ; nor will any 
person be permitted to enter there without leave 
from "the Proprietors". Jealousy of a rival firm 
was doubtless the reason for this secrecy, and the 
quarter in which one at least of the rivals may be 
looked for, is suggested by the discovery I have 
made that an uncle of Edward Heylyn, co-patentee 
with Thomas Frye in 1744 for the porcelain made 
at Bow, was a prominent brass and copper mer- 
chant at Bristol. This uncle, John Heylyn by 
name, was born at Turnham Green, Middlesex, 
30th June, 1712. He married Elizabeth Stantow 
of Lonbridge, Warwickshire, at Siston Church, 
22 November, 1760. She was probably his second 
wife. He died, the newspapers say, " very sudden " 
28 August 1766, and his Will left all his library 
of books and his private papers in a bureau to the 
Bristol City Library. The books are in the City 
Library, and in the index to same is the coroner's 
jury's finding that John Heyling had shot himself. 
The Bureau and papers have entirely disappeared, 
but his Will is in the Bristol Museum and Art 
Gallery. The Will directs where he shall be 
buried, within S Stephen's Church, Bristol, and a 
mural tablet indicates the spot. These papers 
might have helped with some items of the history 
of the Bow pottery, for the Uncle seems to have 
advanced money in his lifetime to the nephew. 
1 may here recall the fact that, like Cookworthy, 
the Bow potters were experimenting with American 
clay — the so-called " unaker " from Carolina — 
and that one of them, Thomas Frye, took out a 
second patent for the manulacture of porcelain in 
17^0, rather more than a year before the date of 
the advertisement to which I have drawn special 
attention. It may then be assumed that fear of 
the competition of the Bow factory was a reason 
for the observance of secrecy at "the china-house." 
The next and most important question is : Who 
were "The I'roprietors " ? and as yet no docu- 
mentary evidence of any sort helps us to find a 
conclusive answer. The warehouse in Castle 
Giecn, "at the end near Castle Gate", was no 
doubt the same as that used by Champion in later 
years. Thomas Frank, the potter, was a Quaker ; 

*See J. Prideuux, Rdia of William Cookworthy, 1S53, p. 12. 


he had been married, twice, at the Friends' 
Meeting House. He had been apprenticed to 
Edward Ward, 8 August 1689, who was then 
the proprietor of both the Brislington and the 
Temple Back potteries ; he would be about 14 
years old when apprenticed, and in 1745 would 
he about 70. After he retired from his pottery 
in Kedcliff (almost adjoining Loudin's glass- 
house) in favour of his son Richard, he lived 
near Castle Gate, in the parish of SS. Philip and 
Jacob, and also near the Castle Green warehouse. 
Is it not probable that he would be one of those 
interested in his friend Cookworthy's pottery 
experiments, and would he not most likely have 
a hnancial interest therein ? They were both 
Quakers, and Cookworthy was a noted preacher 
of that sect, and made periodical visits to Bristol 
in his religious capacity. 

The only other potters doing good business 
at this time were Joseph Flower, of Redcliff, a 
pupil of T. Frank, 1736, whose excellent delft 
ware and very artistic decoration are so well 
known ; P'rank's son, Richard, who seems to have 
been enlarging his output of the commoner but 
more saleable delft ware, pasty dishes and red 
ware ; and Thomas Cantle, of the Temple Back 
Pottery, Water Lane. Cantle was born in Bed- 
minster in 1697, and apprenticed to " Henry 
Hohbs, pot maker, and Hanna his wife " in 1711, 
at the Limekiln Lane Pottery, Bristol, where he 
remained till he became proprietor in 1741, soon 
after which date he bought the Temple Back 
Pottery business, and removed there, taking the 
connection of the Limekiln Lane pot-house with 
him. Limekiln Lane ceasing to be a pottery from 
that time. Cantle must have been a very energetic 
and businesslike man. The Limekiln Lane 
apprentices were all transferred to him on the 
death of the former proprietor, as were also some 
apprentices at Temple Back. In all he had no 
less than seventeen apprentices, of whom fifteen 
were with him between 1746 and 1753, the 
probable dates of the Loudin china works' exis- 
tence. Of these the following are a few who 
became noted potters in later years : — 

Samuel Davis, apprenticed to Cantle 15 Aug. 1746 
Philip James, ,, „ „ 7 Jan. 1746 

John Brittan, „ „ „ 2 „ 1749 (this was 

the noted potter who became Champion's foreman, He 
was son of Meshak Brittan, of Devizes, Wilts, and the 
Wiltshire Society in Bristol paid £10 to Cantle with the 

Richard Frank, apprenticed to his father in 
1726, had one pupil apprenticed to him, namely 
William Chatterton (brother of the poet), in 1741, 
whereas his father had sixteen between 1698 and 
1736, among whom were Joseph Flower, five Tay- 
lors (some of whom btcaine noted painters on tiles, 
etc.), and his son Richard. From this list it seems 
likely that only Thomas Frank or Thomas Cantle 
may have been amongst "the Proprietors" as 

Loudin's (alias ^^Lowris'') China House ^ Bristol 

master-potters. Amongst the apprentices who may 
have joined them would be the three brothers 
Taylor, Thomas, Joseph and Hugh, and the delft 
decorator John Niglett, as nothing is known of 
them after 1750. Nothing further is known as to 
the potter from Limehouse, who, according to 
Dr. Pococke, "established " the china manufacture 
at Loudin's glasshouse, but it must be assumed 
that he also was included amongst the number of 
" the Proprietors ". 

The following advertisement shows where "the 
Proprietors" went and what they became. 

Bristol, July 24 [and August i] 1752. 
Whereas the Proprietors of the Manufactory for making 
Ware in this City, in Imitation of Foreign China, are now 
united with the Worcester Porcelain Company, where for 
the future the whole Business will be carried on; therefore 
the said Proprietors are determin'd to Sell their Remaining 
Stock of Ware, very cheap at their Warehouse in Castle 
Green till the whole is disposed off. 

The lowest price will be mark'd on each Piece of Ware 

according as it is more or less perfect, without Abatement, 

unless to Wholesale Dealers, for Ready Money only, who 

shall be allowed a Discount on any P.arcel of Goods they 

may purchase above the Value of Forty Shilling, that will 

make it their Interest to Deal for this Ware. 

B9"There will be a small Parcel of Foreign China, consisting 

of Dishes, PIates,01d China Jars, &c., to be Sold at same place. 

In January 1755 the ware was again advertised 

to be sold from same warehouse, showing that 

some stock still remained, but no name appears to 

the advertisement ; but in January 1757 : 

"Robert Carpenter {Agent for The Worcester Porcelain 
Company)" says he has removed "from the Warehouse in 
Castle Green, to the Key opposite the Drawbridge, having 
a new Assortment," &c., &c., will be sold "on the Key and 
at his shop in Temple Street, six doors below the Cross on 
the left hand side during the Time of the Fair ". 

The wording of these advertisements is so much 
like those published by the Proprietors previously, 
that they are probably composed by the same 
person, but it must be remembered also that 
Robert Carpenter may have been a new agent who 
simply copied the old form of advertisement. 

The only advertisement or notice as yet found 

dealing with American porcelain is (in November 
1764, amongst the London News in a Bristol 
paper) the following: 

This week some pieces of Porcelain manufactured in 
Georgia, was imported : the Materials appear to be good, 
hut the workmanship is far from being admired. 
Unfortunately the site of Loudin's Glass House 
cannot be excavated ; it became a dock over 
100 years ago, and has for many years been 
the property of a railway company, and all traces 
of the works and of the ground upon which they 
stood have long since disappeared. To discover 
the sort of porcelain made in the various trials 
which are almost certain to have been made 
between 1753 and the starting of Wm. Cook- 
worthy's Plymouth factory, it is suggested that 
the sites of glasshouses should be excavated. 

Glasshouse heat was required, and the potteries 
were only provided with kilns generally built of 
the local "penant" stone. Two of these penant 
stone kilns are still standing on an old pottery 
site at Crew's Hole, S. George's, Bristol. 
In 1743 is advertised — 

One of the finest Fire Stone Quarries in England . . . 
[The Stone] is proper for all chimneys whatever particu- 
larly for Glass Houses, Sugar Houses, Ovens and all other 
Places where great and lasting fires are kept. 
N.B.— The Quarry lies between Mrs. Hart's house [Stoke] 
and Sea Mill Dock. 

This brief collection of notes and comments 
will be dealt with at greater length in a book 
shortly to be published, entitled " The Old Potters 
and Potteries of Bristol and Brislington ". In 
this book I propose giving the history of each 
pottery and the results of excavations which I 
have been conducting on the sites of seven 
potteries in or near Bristol, and one at Wincan- 
ton. I shall be greatly obliged for any corrections 
or suggestions, in addition to those which I have 
already secured from Mr. Bernard Rackham, so 
that the book may be as accurate and complete 
as possible. 



t^:AN WHILE the motif had crossed 

the great barrier of the Alps, and 

ve find it early scattered along the highway of the Rhine. On the 

'ortal of the church at Remagen one 

of the must grotes-iue treatments is found [FiG. i]. 
Alexander, a little mannikin seated in a bowl, 
stretches out his short arms to liold two rods 
baited with puppies; two creatures with bodies 
like weasels and wings like insects are emulating 
the feat of liftmg one's self by one's bootstraps 
by crawling up the ropes by which they are 
supporting the bowl. At Freiburg cathedral a ^g. i.-port..l of the church at remagen 


Alexander the Great's Celestial Journey 

capital shows Alexander sitting in a basket swung 
from the necks of two gryphons and holding 
rods, on which the bodies of two small animals 
are spitted.-^ A capital at Bale cathedral repeats 
the subject, though the inevitable corruption of 
the rods into sceptres has taken place [FiG. 2]. 
Of Rlienish workmanship, too, is an enamel of 


the middle of the 12th century [Plate II, l], 
which is singular in representing Alexander in 
profile, drawn along in a wheeled chariot by a 
grvphi)n team.'" It shows a characteristic Teuton 
touch in the long, pink sausage used to lure the 
gryphons onward. In the German museums are 
preserved at least two native textiles depicting the 
subject: one at the Kunstgewerbe Museum, Berlin; 
the other at the Gewebesammlung, Crefeld, a 
woven silk of Ratisbon workmanship, belonging 
to the 13th century [Plate II, m]. 

The fact that France affords no clear illustration 
of Alexander's adventure in the skies is strange 
and hard to explain. Only a sculpture at Le Mans 
cathedral, bearing a remote resemblance to the 
Freiburg capital, may be a derivative from that 
source." In view of this dearth, it is surprising 
to find across the Channel carvings of the Celestial 
Journey of various dates and widely scattered. At 
the little church of Charney Bassett in Berkshire^^ 
a tympanum of the second half of the 12th cen- 
tury shows the king seated between two amiable 
gryphons [PLATE II, k] ; but the absence of the 
vehicle and the rods, and the intrusion of other 
features give evidence of corruption. This cor- 
ruption is due to the influence of a vari.ition 
on the Sacred Tree motif, an example of which 
may be seen in an illumination in a book of 

5" Figured F. X. Kraus, Christliche Kunsl, II, I, p. 402. 
Described in Freibiirgcr Mi'insterbUtlter, II. 

* In 1897 it W.1S owned by Lord Llangattock. 

" Cahier and Martin, Xoiivcaux Mdlanges d'Archhhgie, I, 
Curiosiids mystericii.r, p. 171. 

^ C. E. Keyser. Norman Tympana, p. 70. 

hours made at Limoges. Here two lions place 
their forepaws against the trunk and bite at the 

In marked contrast to the rough workmanship 
of the Norman tympanum is the delicate carving 
on a misericord of about 1330 at Wells cathedral 
[Plate II1,k].'' This piece is imbued with a feeling 
whicli renders it not unworthy of a place in a 
building which bears on its front tiie finest series of 
sculptured figures in England. Unfortunately in 
this case, as in several others that follow, the shaft 
of the spear has been broken. Gloucester cathedral, 
not far away, affords two misericords of this 
subject, which are to be dated about 1345.'^ In 
one [\v] Alexander stands in a basket formed of 
many coils, and carries two boars' heads on the 
tips of his spears. In the other [y] he sits on a 
throne attached by chains to the necks of the 
gryphons, and offers them as bait the two shanks 
of some hoofed animal. At Lincoln [u] 
about 1370 and at Chester [1] about 1390^^ the 
subject was again carved on the misericords of 
the respective cathedrals. At Curtmel Priory 
church in Lancashire a striking variation is 
to be seen on a misericord diting from the 
close of the 14th century [Plate II, p]. Here 
sits a crowned figure with a hideous face, 
wearing as his only garment a tippet over the 
shoulders. His hands and feet are clawed, and in 
his left hand he grasps a short mace. Beside him 
two dragons crouch. In view of the interpretation 
which presently we shall see was put upon the 
episode, this treatment is significant. The Dar- 
lington misericord [q], to be dated about 1430, 
comes next in order, and exhibits Alexander sitting 
huddled between two handsomely collared 
gryphons and holding two sceptres. In the 
slightly later misericord from Whalley, Lanca- 
shire [j], we have a return to the baited spears 
and also to some likeness of the basket. The last 
of this series of misericords was carved about 
1445, and is preserved at S. Mary's church, Beverley, 
Yorkshire [s]. In it we note the recurrence 
of the sceptres and the introduction of two extra 
dragons. While it is impossible to trace any 
connexion between these carvings, yet it is note- 
worthy that the motif seems to rise in the south- 
west and to move, with occasional deviations and 
retirements, toward the north-east, and that the 
three northernmost examples, at Cartmel [p], 
Darlington [q], and Beverley [s], all display the 
perverted treatment of the baited spears. 

In a fine series of tapestries illustrating the 
romance of Alexander, made at Tournai about 1450 
and now adorning the Palazzo Doria at Rome, the 

» A. Michel. Hisloirc dc VArt, I, 2, p. 885. 

'■'* For the dates of the misericords I am indebted to F. Bond's 
work on that subject, Misericords, pp. 226 f. 

" Figured by F. Bond, op. cit, p. 80, upper figure. Tlie lower 
figure on the same page depicts a modern work. 

'^ Figured ibid., pp. 78, 79. 


i$%^# ^ 

Alexander the Great's Celestial Journey 

episode of the Celestial Journey occurs [Plate II, 
o]. Above the magnificent cage of wrought 
ironwork in which Alexander is seated, God the 
Father appears in clouds, mournfully deprecating 
Alexander's presumption. A glance at the T5th- 
century illumination reproduced in The Biiiiiiigton 
Magazine, VI, p. 395, demonstrates that the tapestry 
designer was inspired, not by the independent 
artistic tradition which we have been tracing, but 
by the illuminators of manuscripts of the Alex- 
ander romance. A woodcut of the first half of 
the i6th century by Schaiifelein, kept at the 
British Museum, seems also independent and is 
characterized by freshness and spirit.^' 

After this survey, the question inevitably arises : 
how came it that to this one episode out of a 
whole cycle such marked favour was shown by 
the mediaeval craftsman ? Why was it so often 
used in the decoration of sacred buildings ? Did 
some recondite significance lurk beneath the hard 
surface of enamel or mosaic, the smooth texture 
of silk, or the rough modelling of wood or stone ? 
Now it is clear that in certain cases such as the 
Doria palace tapestry [o] and the imaginary painted 
room of the " Intelligenzia ", where the scene is 
found among many others from the same romance, 
it was introduced without thought of any interest 
other than the strangeness and ingenuity of the 
mode of ascent. Likewise in the enamelled bowl 
of Mawud [c]and the Schaiifelein woodcut, whose 
designers would not have been in touch with the 
mediaeval ecclesiastical tradition, no symbolical 
meaning was probably attached to the figure. 

Let us turn, then, to the examples from eccle- 
siastical art. Have we any reason to suppose that 
Alexander's Celestial Journey stood for some good 
or evil experience, or typified some good or evil 
personage ? The most telling piece of evidence 
in favour of a good interpretation is the em- 
broidery at Soest [a], which, together with another 
embroidery of the Agnus Dei in exactly the same 
style, forms a cushion for relics. It is hardly 
conceivable that for this use or for the decoration 
of an ecclesiastical vestment such as that men- 

" Figured Biiiiington Mcigiizine, vi, p. 400. I have not in- 
cluded several carvings cited by various authors as illustrations 
of the Celestial Journey, since to my mind it seems rash to 
assume that a man placed between two monsters is necessarily 
a corruption of that particular motif. The following seem to 
me examples of rash identifications : at Urcel cited by Martin, 
Nouveanx Melanges d'Arcluvlcgie, Cniiosites Myskrieiix ; at 
Kouen cited by F. X. Kraus, Christliche Kiinst, II, i, p. 403 ; at 
Pavia and at Parma cited by Boito and Scott, Basilica of St. 
Mark's, p. 542 ; at Bitonto cited by Gabelentz, Mittdalterliche 
Plastik in Venedig, p. 127. The third misericord at Gloucester 
cathedral described by Meissner in Arcliiv fiir Nciicrcn Sprachcn, 
Lxvni, p. 184, as showing the gryphons whispering temptation 
in Alexander's ear is a modern work, probably suggested by the 
similar misericord at Chester. Meissner's whole theory of 
such a scene, distinct from the scene of the actual flight, has 
no authority in literature and has no other basis in art than 
this modern carving. The citation of a mosaic at Taranto by 
O. M. Dalton, Ivory Carvings in the British Museum, pp, 75 f., 
is probably an error for Otranto. 

tioned in the Anagni inventory, a symbol of evil 
would have been deliberately chosen. Evidence, 
however, of a convincing sort" that any general 
and authoritative tradition set a favourable inter- 
pretation on Alexander's exploit, is lacking. To 
be sure, certain early Ethiopian romances of 
Alexander paint his career as that of an exemplary 
and somewhat ascetic Christian, but they seem to 
have had no influence upon Western tradition. 
The highly interesting quotation from the " Cy 
Nous Dit" given by Julien Durand seems at first 
sight to put an end to the discussion, since it 
shows that the author of a fairly well known 
mediaeval book regarded Alexander as displaying 
a laudable curiosity to know concerning heavenly 
things. Translated the quotation runs thus : 

Certain histories say that at the time of Mardocheus 
reigned Alexander, the which Alexander caused himself to 
be borne into the air in a chair with four gryphons, and 
turned a piece of flesh upon a lance whithersoever he 
wished to go, for they were anhungered ... So may we 
learn it behoves us all to aim and desire to have ever- 
lastingly the beauty of the heaven, even as Alexander put 
himself in such peril to behold the earth and the sea.^" 

But an examination of the book shows that the 
compiler, selecting popular motifs from art, arbi- 
trarily without any general sanction placed upon 
each any moral that would fit. While, therefore, 
some such moral as he gives may have obtained 
for the Soest embroidery [a] and the Anagni 
dalmatic, yet we cannot regard him as the mouth- 
piece of the prevailing mediaeval tradition, a 
tradition which, as we have seen, was particularly 
weak in France. 

On the other hand, there is testimony from early 
times that Alexander, the hero of popular romance, 
was looked upon with grave disapprobation by the 
scholarly, and especially the clerical world. He 
presents in this respect a striking resemblance to 
Dietrich of Bern, who at the same time was idolised 
by the world of German chivalry and consigned 
to hell by monkish historians. In the 3rd century 
Dion Cassius wrote that in the reign of Helioga- 
balus there appeared on the banks of the Danube 
a demon resembling Alexander, who with a 
company of bacchic revellers passed through 
Thrace, receiving divine honours, and finally dis- 
appeared after a sacrifice offered to him.'" Valerius 
Maximus, who had much authority in the Middle 
Ages, spoke after this fashion : 

The valor and good fortune of King Alexander resulted 
in three very manifest stages of insolence. In contempt of 
Philip, he assumed Juppiter Ammon for his father ; in 
weariness of the manners and dress of Maccdon, he took 
to himself Persian clothing and customs ; and despising 
mortal estate, he imitated that of a god.'"' 

The character for pride borne by Alexander among 
mediaeval moralists is attested by the fact that in the 
Middle English "Alphabet of Tales", translated 

"' Annates Archeologiques, xxv, p. 150. 

'^ Dion Cassius, Annates, Bk. LXXIX, ch. 18. 

*" Valerius Maximus, Bk. IX, ch. v, Ext. I. 

Alexander the Great* s Celestial Journey 

from ^tienne de Besanpn, Alexander is the 
chosen example of Ambitio and Superbia.*' 

Since Alexander enjoyed such a reputation, and 
since the accounts ot the Celestial Journey fre- 
quently hint that his ascent was terminated by the 
divine displeasure, was it not natural that the 
attempt to reach the heavens should have been 
regarded, as it was in the cases of Kai Ka'Cis and 
Nimrod, as an act of impious audacity ? Now 
have we any warrant for believing that such was 
the mediaeval interpretation ? Goldschmidt has 
called attention to some lines accompanying an 
illumination of the Celestial Journey in a manu- 
script of I'Judolf von Ems' " Weltchronik ", which 
furnish the warrant needed." They may be 
translated as follows ; 

Alexander, whither wilt thou ? Thou hast verily no good 

intent. Wilt thou strive against the Godhead ? Thou wilt 

suiter for it. N'o one enters heaven save he can deserve it. 

Such an altitude is indicated also in the Otranto 

mosaic [h]. The pavement of which it forms a part 

covers the nave, and the general design consists 

of two huge trees on the backs of two elephants. 

One, apparently, is the Tree of Good and enfolds 

in its branches men and animals symbolic of the 

virtues ; the other is the Tree of Evil, and among 

its branches are the impious king and his 


It had been noticed, furthermore, by Father 
Cahier that at Bale cathedral the capital that is 
carved on one side with the Celestial Journey [FiG. 
2] is decorated on the others with the Fall and Ex- 
pulsion of Adam and Eve. Was a connection pos- 
sible and what was that connection ? Father Cahier 
suggested that the presumption of the first man 
was typified or paralleled by the pride of Alexander. 
But I believe that an obscure passage from a 12th- 
century writer gives us our best clue to a complete 
interpretation : namely, that the pride and fall, 
not of Adam, but of the Devil is here typified in 
the Celestial Journey. The Venerable Godfrey, 
Abbot of Admont, in his " Homili?e in Scrip- 
turam" in commenting on the first chapter of the 
" Macchabees" first explains that by the name 
Alexander we are to understand not unfittingly 
the dragon, the old serpent, who is called the 
Devil or Satan.^^ Again later, commenting on the 
words "egressus de terra Cethim", he ejaculates: 
Cethim means fear. He departed, alas, from fear when, 
despising the fear of God, he was exalted to such arrogance 
of mind that he chose to be under his own rather than 
God's dominion, saying in his heart, " I will set my throne 
in the North, I will be like the Most High". 
We learn further that Darius stands for our father 
Adam. Finally, summing up the whole, Godfrey 
says : 

Alexander after leaving the land of Cethim. tliat is, the 
Evil Angel after falling from heaven, slew this King Uarius 
when out of envy he persuaded him to eat the forbidden 
apple, and by this means cast him down miserably to death. 

" Early English Text Society, O.S., vol. H6/7, Nos. 49. 737- 

*2 A. Goldschmidt, Albani Psalter, p. 72. 

*-■' Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 174, p. 1130. 


It scarcely seems to me possible that the 
venerable hoinilist should have struggled to foist 
such an awkward interpretation on the verse 
unless he had been accustomed to associate 
Alexander the Great with the rebellion and fall 
of Lucifer. The Bale capital [FiG. 2] tends to show 
that the particular episode of the Celestial Journey 
was a special point of resemblance. The identifi- 
cation of Alexander with the devil is con finned by 
the Cartmel misericord [p], which depicts the king 
with the monstrous features proper to Satan, We 
may then say with some assurance that although in 
sorne exceptional cases the Celestial Journey was 
understood as a type of laudable striving heaven- 
ward, the authoritative tradition of the Church, 
stated by Rudolf von Ems and the Venerable 
Godfrey, and reflected in the Otranto mosaic [h], 
the Bale capital, and the Cartmel misericord, 
found in the episode an instance of overweening 
pride, and even a type of Lucifer's supreme attempt 
against the throne of God," The question natu- 
rally arises : how did such a motif perpetuate itself 
and pass from town to town, from country to 
country, across mountains and seas? Soiiietimes, 
doubtless, the artist saw the motif at one place, 
then travelled on and reproduced it at another. 
But we may imagine that more often it was the 
design itself that travelled to the artist. Carved 
on a casket, or woven in a web, it followed the 
great merchant routes westward and northward, 
to delight the eye not only of noble dame or 
wealthy burgess but also of the craftsmen in their 
employ. Probably, too, the craftsmen themselves 
compiled and passed around sketch-books of stock 
designs, somewhat like that of ViUard de Honne- 
court, though of a humbler variety. Sometimes 
the design would stand unexplained, mysterious, 
with the result that the copy inade from it would 
show manifest distortions; sometimes the single 
word Alexander would give the clue to an artist 
who was well versed in his romances; sometimes, 
perhaps, the figure would be explained as a symbol 
of pride; sometimes, as a type of Satan, he would 
be depicted with the paws and face of a monster; 
sometimes, in association with the Temptation and 
Fall of Adam, the scene would be expounded 
at length as an allegory of Lucifer's impious 
ambition to sit upon the throne of the Most High. 
With the design before him, one craftsman would 
follow the lines with the skill of a master, another 
with a bungling stroke : one would emphasise the 
moral, another would have appreciation for 
nothing but the symmetry of the design. 

Mucli may yet be added to our knowledge of 
the history of this episode, and the day has yet to 
come when we can point to a passage which 

** Meissner's identification of Alexander with Antichrist in 
Archiv fur Ncucicn Spraclien, LWlii, p. 185, is not there sup- 
ported by a shred of evidence, and no facts in confirmation of 
it have come to my notice. 

Alexander the Great* s Celestial Journey 

explicitly states that Alexander's Celestial Journey 
was a type of the rebellion of Lucifer. Yet I 
think we are in a position to say that the episode is 
an excellent example of the changes, minglings, 
misunderstandings, interpretations, which aUure 
and baffle and still allure us in the study of 
medieval literature and art. 

[The carved tablet on the front of the Duomo, 
Borgo-San-Donino, is illustrated here [Plate II, 
n] from a photograph kindly supplied by Mr. 
Arthur Kingsley Porter, the author of the sump- 
tuous work " Lombard Architecture ". He records 
the local designation of the figure, " Berta che 

filava", Vol. II, p. 191, where he gives the legend 
of Berta, but, as Professor R. S. Loomis and 
Sir Martin Conway have independently observed, 
the tablet evidently represents Alexander's Celestial 
Journey, and not Berta. We also, with the 
author, have to thank Mr. G. C. Druce, F.S.A., for 
the use of many photographs besides those of the 
misericords, which have allowed reproduction on 
a larger scale, and for much advice and research; 
and Mr. A. F. Kendrick, Keeper of the Department 
of Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum, for 
valuable suggestions and additional references. — 

there was entirely unofficial. When I first saw 
the pavement, on June ist or 2nd, it was nearly 
all uncovered, but on comparing my own 
drawings with those made by the Australians, 
I find that parts of it must have been either 
broken up or wantonly removed during the few 
days before I first saw it. According to the 
earlier drawings, the two peacocks, to be seen at 
the bottom of the pavement in the Plate, were 
both complete, and the inscription below them 
was decipherable for nine lines instead of the two 
which appear in my drawing. The latter fact 


'ORTIONS of the pavement reproduced 

^here from drawings have already been 
,uiblished in the illustrated press from 
photographs, but its curious situation 

Ion the top of a conical hill made a 
complete photograph of the whole floor quite out 
of the question. This very interesting relic was 
found during military operations near the end of 
May 1917. It lay at a point about 13 miles south 
of Gaza, close to the Wadi el-Ghuzze, or Wadi of 
Gaza, a few miles north of a line drawn from 
Khan Yunus to Beersheba, in southern Palestine, 
at a place called Shellal, which must have been 
always important as a crossing of the Wadi and as 
the site of an excellent spring of water. The Wadi, 
at this part of its course, is a wide and desolate 
channel, covered with stones which were awkward 
for both infantry and cavalry. In the summer a 
blinding glare is reflected from its white bed, and 
clouds of dust sweep through it nearly all day. 
At the time when this discovery was made I was 
living in a dug-out in a small gully about a mile 
north of Shellal, and was working every day at 
the water-supply at Shellal and Hiseia. It was 
thus possible to make the drawings reproduced 
here, but conditions prevented me from complet- 
ing them for several months. 

The mosaic was first found by an Australian 
officer who was examining the summit of the hill on 
which it lay [see FiG.]. This hill, though of no great 
elevation, commands the Shellal crossing, and the 
Turks, who had occupied it up to a few weeks 
before, had dug a trench round the summit and 
made a machine gun enplacement there. In so 
doing they had revealed a portion of the pavement 
which had previously been covered by clay and 
debris, and they must have considerably damaged 
the remains. When the mosaic was discovered 
by our troops, the work of superintending the 
excavation was undertaken by the Rev. \V. Mait- 
land Woods, C.F., a chaplain attached to the 
Anzac Division. Arrangements were made for 
drawings to be prepared, and my own sketching 


Reduced from a print, No. 3'3, printed by the Survey of 
Egypt, 1917 (983), from a drawing by the author, June igi?- 
The mosaic pavement was found on the summit of the hill X. 

is corroborated by a photograph, and another 
photograph taken early in the proceedings seems 
to indicate that the small central panel over this 
inscription contained a representation of the head 
of Christ, as the XP symbol was apparently 
included. However, by coming on the scene 
rather late, I was able to witness the uncovering 
of hitherto unknown parts of the mosaic and thus 
to embody the elaborate border in my drawings. 

The work of removing the mosaic was com- 
menced just after I arrived and lasted for two or 
three weeks, the chaplain taking charge. It was 
carefully and skilfully done. The whole pave- 
ment was divided into squares by white chalk- 


The Mosaic Pavement of Shellal^ near Gaza 

lines, one circle of the central portion being 
included in each square. The longer inscription 
formed a large section by itself. A piece of canvas 
was glued on the face of the mosaic, after the latter 
had been carefully swept free from dust, and when 
the canvas was d'ry the cement and concrete be- 
neath were slowly removed with a sharp knife. 
This substratum consisted of, firstly, a thin layer of 
white cement, apparently composed of lime and 
ash, and below that a bed of concrete, formed 
with large white rounded pebbles from the Wadi, 
many of them 6 inches long. When the substra- 
tum had been removed, square by square, each 
square of mosaic was carefully lifted, and placed 
on a bed of freshly made plaster-of-paris in a 
shallow deal case. These cases were finally re- 
moved to Cairo on June 20th. When last I 
heard of them the question of their ultimate 
resting-place had not been decided. 

The operations of clearing the mosaic and 
removing it were carried out under considerable 
difficulties, though not within range of enemy 
guns as a journalist characteristically hinted ! 
Aeroplanes certainly hovered over our heads every 
day, but the thousands of horses and camels at the 
neighbouring water-troughs would have tempted 
Iheir bombs more than half-a-dozen archeological 
workmen on the little hill. The chief drawback 
was the almost incessant cloud of dust which 
blew all the debris over the pavement as fast as it 
could be cleared. This obliterated the rich 
colouring as well as the outline of the design and 
at times made drawing almost impossible. 

This mosaic pavement is undoubtedly a valuable 
find. The composition is both spirited and 
delicate, the technique is superb. Historically it 
should be considered as an important addition to 
the remains of a somewhat obscure period, A 
copy of the inscription at the top of the illustration 
was submitted to Mr. A. H. Smith of ihe British 
Museum, who translated the portion of it still 
existing as follows : 

-t- (Sign of tlie Cross). This temple witli spacious 

(? foundations) was built by our most holy (bishop or similar 

title) and most pious George — in the year 622 according to 

— (: the year of Gaza'). 

According to an interviewer writing in "The 

Egyptian Gazette" for the 22nd of September, 

1917, the chaplain suggests that this fragmentary 

inscription might be amplified thus : — 

+ And so lie contributed generously to the building of 
this church here ; he who was the most saintly of us all 
and the most beloved of God, George was his name, and 
the (building was) erected in the 622nd year after (the 
Roman foundation of tlie city of Gaza'). 
The same writer states that the chaplain adds 
that :— 

Under this inscription were discovered the bones of the 
Saint, lying feet to cast and arms crossed on chest. These, 
about 1400 years old, crumbled at the touch. The right 
forearm had been broken and set . . . Such bones as 
would bear very careful handling were reverently placed 

' The year 622 in the era of Gaza is equivalent to 561-2 a.d. 

in a casket, but this had to be done when the high wind 
of the afternoon had died down. 
The discoverers of the mosaic have thus sought 
to identify this George of Shellal with S. George 
of Cappadocia, the patron saint of England, for 
which there is of course no evidence nor even pro- 
bability. The suggestion naturally aroused a good 
deal of criticism and a not very edifying duel of 
letters in the Egyptian press. However the news- 
papers seized on S. George as an excellent oppor- 
tunity for attractive headlines, and views of the 
mosaic are sold in Cairo bearing the assertive 
legend " Anzac S. George Mosaic, Palestine ? " An 
anonymous critic, whose opinion, as I have since 
learned,' is of value, writing previously in " The 
Illustrated London News" for i8lh August 1917, 
had made the following remarks to which he has 
now kindly enabled me to add : — 

The temptation to identify the "God-fearing George" 
with the patron saint of England should be steadily re- 
sisted. His place in the inscription is secondary ; he is 
mentioned not as a great person but as an ordinary man ; 
he is probably one who, by purse or by profession, con- 
tributed to the erection of the local church. 
The same cautious writer now adds : — 

Not only is there, so far as my nescience goes, no evidence 
that the interred (if there was only one skeleton) was a 
saint, and not a sinner seeking spiritual aid by burial in a 
holy place, but there is nothing definitely to prove that tlic 
bones are those of ii/iy George. The inscription has nothing 
to do with the remains, at any rale directly ; it simply refers 
to the building of the church, and to hvo persons concerned 
in its erection. People were often buried under mosaic 
pavements ; a donor very likely would be. All this does 
not detract from the great interest of the discovery ; it 
is sufficient to itself and does not need adventitious claims. 
The general character of the design is not at all 
unusual in Southern Palestine, and was common 
from the 4th to the 7th century a.d. On parallel 
examples I quote again the writer in "The Illus- 
trated London News ", with some additions from 
the same pen : — 

A close parallel to the present pavement was discovered 
in 1894, near the Damascus Gate, at Jerusalem. In that 
case, however, all the creatures represented are birds ; there 
also is seen the rather amusing birdcage with its diminutive 
occupants, .\nother parallel is the well-known mosaic brought 
by Renan from Kasr Hiram, and now in the Louvre at Paris. 
Mosaic pavements of tliis kind, mostly with animal orna- 
ment, were m.ade in great numbers in all the countries of 
the South and East Mediterranean littoral ; tlie people of 
Syria-Palestine were fond of them, and the town of Madeba, 
N.E. of the Dead Sea, has proved especially rich in remains. 
.\ taste for this form of luxury probably spread into Sinai, 
where, in such places as Abda and Esbcita, more mosaics 
should ultimately be found. 

I have myself seen photographs of a mosaic 
found at Um Jerrar (the Gcvav of the Old Testa- 
ment) between Shellal and Gaza, since I left 
Palestine. It is much smaller and less refined in 
detail than the Shellal example, but it resembles 
the latter in having many naturalistic figures of 
aniinals introduced into the design. Remains 
of a mosaic pavement were said to have been 
discovered near Sheikh Zuweid while I was there 
with my Division in February 191 7, but I was 
unable to see them and my informant said that 
nothing of importance was visible. 

ITVZ'f'T^ !%'"'"' ;'\rf-'-n'' "^^'-'^"^'■-■^'^ ■■''^^-•^' SKETCHES MADE ON THE ipoT; JUNETgly, BY CAPT, MARTIN S Br^KoT Uh,^;;;;:;!^ 

scah. „,s reproduced. § /;/. to llif Joof). printed by the survey of Egypt 1917 (983). (All rights resencd] uMoob. (.^//'/^..u/;;.,;. 



The Mosaic Pavement of Shellal^ near Gaza 

The principal features of the design of the 
Shellal mosaic may be clearly seen on the Plate 
reproduced. But something should be said in 
regard to the colours and the materials employed. 
The cubes of marble used almost throughout 
are remarkably small and closely jointed. The 
principal colours are white, black, various shades 
of grey and various shades of red. These colours 
are very skilfully graded, so that the change from 
white to grey is imperceptible. These delicate 
shades were completely lost under the film of fine 
dust that continually obscured them, and even 
when washed over wiih water they were not 
easily distinguishable. The flowing scrolls of 
vine-stem that surround the circular panels are 
in various reds, the tint being midway between 
crimson and brick-red. Red is also extensively 
used in the elaborate sivastika or fret-border that 
encloses the design, but the reproduction of the 
drawmg does not do justice to the ingenious effect 
of perfection that is produced in this part of 
the pavement. The animals are depicted in 
different combinations of the colours already 
mentioned. An exception is met with in the 
representation of the two peacocks in the lower 
panels. The plumage of these birds is drawn 
with great spirit and shows considerable richness 
of colouring. Besides a certain amount of yellow 
and brown marble mosaic, not found elsewhere 
in the design, another material is used in these two 
figures, apparently malachite, having a smooth 
surface highly polished, and for the most part a 
brilliant green, though a darker hue is also found. 

The symbolism of the various beasts and birds 
represented in the numerous panels is probably 
capable of interpretation by those learned in such 
matters. There seems to be no doubt that the 
central iiiolif is the Vine, springing from a chalice 
in the middle panel of the lowest row, and if my 
supposition — that a head of Christ appeared 
beneath the chalice, enclosed in one of the small 
panels of the fret-border — is correct, then this 
assumption is justified. The peacock symbolises 
immortality, and many of the other figures have a 
place in the curious half-mythological, half- 
religious zoology of the period. Strangest of all 
are the two objects represented in the two upper 
panels of the fret-border, apparently the two 
halves of a fish. But, to quote once more the 
writer in "The Illustrated London News" : — 

It is not .idvisable to press the symbolism too far ; at the 
date at which the pavement was laid artists were wont to 
graft on the symbolic stem details intended merely for 
decorative effect. 

In addition to the actual mosaic of the pavement, 
there were two other relics of the building. The 
first was a trace of a threshold or a " surround " 
on the north side, and of what must have been a 
"surround " on the east side. Both of these were 
of slightly yellowish marble or limestone. These 
may well have formed part of a marble margin 

round the mosaic. On the other hand, there was 
evidence at the west end, in the shape of fragments 
of vertical marble skirting, that the mosaic border 
ran right up to the wall. Finally, the inscription 
at the west end must have projected outwards, 
beyond this skirting, when it was complete. The 
natural conclusion is that this western inscription 
slab projected as a threshold into the recess of a 
western entrance door or porch. 

The second relic, which, like the marble slabs, 
does not appear to have attracted the eye of our 
amateur archaeologists was a dainaged Doric 
capital of white marble or limestone. The abacus 
measured i ft. lo in. or i ft. ii in. square and 
about 2i in. deep. Beneath it was an ovolo about 
i^ in. deep andzjin. projection. The shaft of 
the column must have been about i ft. 6 in. in 
diameter. This capital was lying at the foot of 
the slope of rubbish on the south side of the little 
hill, amid every sort of debris and thousands ot 
small cubes of mosaic. Some of this debris must 
have been flung over the edge of the summit by 
the Turks when digging, but it appears that the 
whole of the south-east corner of the pavement 
must have slipped down as constant erosion wore 
away the mass of the hill on which it was built. 
All the clay cliffs round the Wadi are eaten into 
fantastic shapes by some sort of natural agency, 
apparently the action of water and frost rather 
than the blowing sand that has modelled the 
bold escarpments of the Libyan oases. 

The site chosen for erecting this little church, 
with its wonderful mosaic floor, is a strange one, 
in a wild and lonely gorge. The neighbourhood 
of the Shellal and Hiseia wells, and of a road 
across the Wadi that many travellers must have 
taken as they went from ligypt towards Jerusalem 
may have been the cause. As they reached the 
fissured cliffs that form the banks of the Wadi 
they would gaze at this little sanctuary perched on 
its prominent mound. 

So far as I am aware, this is the only outstand- 
ing relic of antiquity that has been found by our 
army in its long journey of 150 miles from the 
Suez Canal to Gaza, though at Pelusium, Phelusiat, 
El Arish, and Khan Yunus there are remains of 
various old buildings. But now that Palestine is 
rapidly coming under British control, one wonders 
what will be the fate of any other " finds ", whether 
they will be removed, and, if so, whither ? What 
city and what museum is to have such art treasures 
as this mosaic from Shellal?* 

p I cannot refrain from expressing the hope that the cases 
of mosaic will either be preserved as near their original locality 
as possible, for instance in the Cairo Museum ; or that, if they 
are removed overseas it will be to Australia, where they will not 
only be a unique relic of antiquity, but a memorial of the highest 
national import. They were saved by Australian enterprise 
and intelligence, and they will represent how much Australia has 
done to save the whole English-speaking race. Though there is 
no evidence whatever that 'the pavement has even the remotest 
connection with S. George, Australia has very strong claims to 
possess it. — Ed.] 



iMONG the fine artists who worked in 
grisaille enamelHiigat Limoges during 
Ithe middle third of the i6th centurj' 
'are two whose works, though small in 
[size, have an artistic quality of an 
exceptionally high order. The names of both are 
unknown, and the productions of one of them, 
unsigned even by initials or stamp, can only be 
identified by the indications of style and method. 
The purpose of this paper is to bring together 
for comparison a group of the works of each of 
these artists with a view to establishing their 

The pieces in the unsigned group are dis- 
tinguished by a style remarkable for its vivacity 
and lightness of touch, and by the cloudlike 
quality of its filmy whites, which have the appear- 
ance of being floated in a watery consistency on 
the lustrous black ground. The artist has a 
preference for nude figures, nipped in at the waist 
and knees, their action somewhat exaggerated, and 
their claw-like hands dramatically expressive. His 
work is full of action and spirit, tingling with 
enthusiasm for the myths and motives of classical 
antiquity. He seems to have specially occupied 
himself with little oblong plaques, suitable for 
mounting on the sides of small caskets. 

The accompanying reproductions of the follow- 
ing five pieces will illustrate his style better than 
any analysis, and make detailed descriptions 
unnecessary : — 

1. Hercules and Deimiira with the centaur 
Kessus [Plate I, c]. Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 914—1855). 5-8 cm. by 4-5 cm. 

2. Mars and Venus discovered hx the Gods 
[Plate I, a], Victoria and Albert Museum 
(Salting Bequest, No. C. 2400 — 1910). 8-4 cm. by 
4"5cm. From the De Lafaulotte Collection (Sale 
Catalogue, Paris, 1886, lot 9, "Attribute a Kip ")• 
[Illustrated in The Burlington Magazine, xx, 1911, 
p. 85.] 

3. A Combat 0/ Cavalry; m the foreground a 
river-god [Plate I, b]. M. Albert Lehmann, 
Paris. 77 cm. by 4-3 cm. From the Spitzer 
Collection (Sale Catalogue, Paris, 1893, lot 450, 
pi. XVII, "Jean III Penicaud "). Illustrated in 
" La Collection Spitzer " (Popelin and Molinier, 
" Les j^maux Pcints", II, p. 30, No. 34, "Jean HI 
Penicaud"). [PlateI,b.]> 

4. A Sacrifice of a Lamb [Pl.atE I, d]. Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum (presented by Mr. Otto 
Beit, No. C. 149 — 1917). 9 cm. by 5 cm. Given 
to the Red Cross Sale (Christie's, March 191 7, 
lot 995) by Mr. A. G. W. Murray, who obtained it 
from a dealer at Brighton. 

5. A Sacrifice of a Bull [PLATE I, e] ; on the 
left a young man seated, in a pose borrowed from 

' I have to thank M. Albert Lehmann for kindly providing 
this photograph, and for his permission to reproduce it. 



the Resting Mercury, holding a figure of Victory. 
Mr. Otto Beit. 6"9 cm. by 4'2 cm.^ 

Details such as the hair of Venus in No. 2, and 
the figure of Victory in No. 5, are sometimes put 
in in gold. The reverses are coated with clear 
flux. In No. 4 a pale bluish tinge is perceptible 
on the altar and on the ground ; the white is in 
tangible relief, and apparently overheated and 
bubbled in the firing. No. 5 is of exceptionally 
beautiful quality in the gradation of shading, which 
largely disappears in the photograph. The artist's 
method is, of course, to a certain extent par 
enlevage — that is, by the removal of the super- 
imposed vVhite allowing the black ground to show 
through where required ; but he seems to have 
relied to an unusual degree (see especially Nos. i 
and 2) on a judicious reserving of the ground, 
much in the manner of modern water-colour 
painting, touching in his subject with such dexterity 
as to avoid very largely the necessity for enlevage, 
and it is greatly to this, I think, that the unusual 
freshness and charm of his work are due. 

More than one suggestion, as the quotations 
above show, lias been made as to the identity of 
this fine artist, one writer attributing his works to 
" Kip" and others to " Jean III P6nicaud ". As 
to the first suggestion, it is disproved by the most 
casual comparison with the very distinctive; work 
of the artist who goes by the name of " Kip ", but 
whom I have shown grounds for regarding as 
Jean Poilleve.* 

As regards " Jean III Penicaud ", it is necessary 
to say that, though the existence of such an 
enameller has been most freely assumed in the 
past, it has never yet been established, and it is 
purely a matter of conjecture to assign any par- 
ticular work to that name. Still, whether his name 
were Jean Penicaud the third or something else, 
the individuality of the artist who goes by that 
title is clear enough, and his style has been 
characterised by De Laborde ' with his customary 
acuteness, though for once he seems somewhat 
to overrate the artistic value of his work. However 
admirable this may be in effective contrasts of 
chiaroscuro, it is often poor enough in drawing. 
He used the same stamp as Jean II — that is, the 
well-known crowned P L monogram of the 
Penicaud family. A characteristic specimen of 
his work is here shown for comparison. 

" I have to thank Mr. Otto Beit for kindly allowing the repro- 
duction of this piece. 

2 Burlington Magazine, Xiv, 1909, p. 278, with illustrations of 
several pieces. 

* Xotice dcs Eniaux, etc., 1857, p. 161. A good analysis of 
his style is also given by L. Bourdery, Xotice soiiiiiitiirc siir Ics 
Enianx pcints de IJmoges, 1890, p. 8, The present attitude 
towards "Jean III Penicaud" is shown in M. Marquet de 
Vasselot's recent catalogue of the Louvre collection [Catalogue 
Sommaire, 1914), where his name disappears altogether, and 
the works formerly attributed to him are distributed under other 
headings, mainly under " Ecolc de Jean II Penicaud", 


■J 3 



>■ r; 

a a 

< i 

Two ^^ Little Masters'''* of Limoges Enamelling 

6. Christ among the Doctors [Plate III, m]. 
Circular. Grisaille, with touches of gold, the 
flesh slightly tinted. Reverse stamped with the 
Penicaud mark, P L crowned, and coated with 
clear flux. Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 790 
— 1877). Diam. io-8 cm. 

The summary handling, and figure-drawing 
sketchy and poor in quality, though combined 
with an almost Rembrandtesque mastery of effect, 
mark the work as the production of an artist of a 
different kind of talent from that of the enameller 
we are considering. His productions are, more- 
over, evidently slightly later in date, and these 
considerations sufficiently dispose of the sugges- 
tion of identity. 

Since, then, we are unable to attach a name 
of even dubious reality to the author of our first 
group, and are unprovided with a signature even 
of initials, I venture to suggest that he may be 
known for purposes of reference most con- 
veniently from his most characteristic piece as 
the artist of the Mars and Venus plaque of the 
Salting Collection. 

For our second group we are happily provided 
with a signature of initials, M P in monogram, 
varied in one instance as jj- The works of this 
enameller are remarkable for their minute and 
laborious finish, in marked contrast with the fresh, 
rapid, and decisive touch of the other artist. He 
exercised himself on more ambitious subjects, 
after works by the great masters of painting, in 
a method of carefully elaborated outlines and 
modelling par ciilevage. His figures are remark- 
able for their beauty of drawing, and the excep- 
tional softness of his gradations of tone is some- 
times enhanced by the use of a grey ground or 
by overspreading the completed grisaille with a 
transparent film of pearly grey, a practice entirely 
at variance with the sharp contrasts of the former 
enameller. Equally striking is the difference of 
sentiment between the two artists. The following 
pieces will, I think, amply illustrate these points 
of difference. 

7. The Martyrdom of S. Lawrence [Plate II, g]. 
From an engraving by Marcantonio after Baccio 
Bandinelli (Bartsch, 104). Signed M P in 
monogram. Victoria and Albert Museum (Salting 
Bequest, No. C. 2401 — 1910). S'l cm. by 6'5 cm. 
From the De Lafaulotte Collection (Sale Cata- 
logue, Paris, 1886, lot 8), and previously in the 
Louis Fould Collection. Illustrated in Burlington 
Magazine, xx, 19x1, p. 85, A greatly reduced 
photograph of Marcantonio's large engraving is 
given on Plate III, l (from the example in the 
Dyce Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum, 
No. 1022), and shows with what general fidelity, 
though with much softening of the action, the 
enameller followed his model on a miniature scale. 

8. A Combat of horsemen and foot -soldiers 
[Plate II, f]. Circular; grisaille. Signed M P in 

monogram. Musee du Louvre (Gatteaux Bequest. 
J. J. Marquet de Vasselot, "Catalogue Sommaire," 
1914, No. 501). Diam. 85 cm. A work of 
extraordinary beauty. 

Another piece with the same signature, a ]'irgin 
and Child, is noted by Darcel,* as having been 
exhibited by M. Guersent at Evreux in 1864, 
but I have not succeeded in tracing its present 

As regards these. No. 7 is in a bluish grey tint 
of grisadle, 8 is on a grey ground. The reverse 
of both is clear flux.* In discussing the second of 
these pieces M. DarceP refers to an Adoration of 
the Shepherds {Magi) then in possession of the Duke 
of Hamilton, which he considers to be by the 
same hand, though signed rather differently, the 
P being above the M. This piece was shown at 
South Kensington in 1862, when it was described 
by Sir A. W. Franks ^ as " very exquisitely painted 
in grisaille on a black ground " and compared by 
him with another plaque of " the same subject, 
and by the same artist, but unsigned," then in 
Colonel Meyrick's collection at Goodrich Court 
These two very similar Adoratio)is have both found 
their way to Paris and are now in the collection of 
Baron Edouard de Rothschild, and in the Dutuit 
Collection, respectively.' The Meyrick (Dutuit) 
plaque has an additional figure on the right, and 
there are certain other modifications of design ; 
but substantially it is the same as the Hamilton 
piece, and apparently distinguished by the same 
extraordinary beauty of workmanship and exquisite 
gradation of tone. It is here shown for com- 
parison with 7 and 8. 

9. The Adoration of the Magi [Plate II, j]. 
Grisaille. Dutuit (formerly Meyrick and Spitzer) 
Collection. 15 cm. by 8.9 cm. (For references and 
attributions see foot-note 9.) 

It seems to me impossible to accept the attribu- 
tion of this to Jean 1 1 Penicaud, but the suggestion 
has been endorsed by so mar.y competent judges 

5 Notice desEinan.w etc., 1867, p. 115. 

^ The patches on the upper part of 8 are no doubt due to the 
injur>' it suffered in the fire at M. Gatteaux's house in 1870 (see 
G. Duplessis in Gmetle dcs Beatix-Arts, 2nd series, iv, 1870, 

P- 342). 

' Gazette des Beaux-Arts.xix, 1S65, p. 530. 

8 Special Loan Exhibition Catalogue, p. 151, No. 1686. 

' The former is shown in a poor woodcut in the Illustrated 
Catalogue of the Hamilton Palace Collection, i882,No.973. The 
Meyrick (Dutuit) plaque is illustrated in the Sale Catalogue of 
the Spitzer Collection, 1893, No. 429, pi. xvii ; in La Collection 
Spitzer (Popelin and Molinier, Les Emaux Feints, 11, pi. ni) ; in 
G. Cain, La Collection Dutuit, pi. 51. with a notice by Gaston 
Migeon — in all of which it is ascribed to Jean II Penicaud ; and 
in Froehner and others. La Collection Dutuit, pi. 43, with a 
notice by J. J. Marquet de Vasselot, who attributes it to the 
artist M P of the circular plaque 8. 

A third example of the same design is in the McClean 
Bequest at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (O. M. Dalton, 
Catalogue, 1912, No. 64, pi. xxi), but by a later (even perhaps 
quite recent) and very inferior hand. For the fullest informa- 
tion about these pieces and their present ownership I am 
indebted to M. Marquet de Vasselot. 


Two " Little Masters of Limoges Enamelling 

that it will not be unfitting to illustrate for com- 
parison a good example of the work of this 
celebrated master, the more so as it will also 
provide an interesting contrast with the work of 
the so-called "Jean 111 Penicaud " shown beside it. 
II. The Road to Calvary [Plate III, n]. 
Grisaille, with touches of gold, the flesh slightly 
tinted. Signed P I (Penicaud Junior), and 
stamped on the back three times with the Pd-nicaud 
mark, P L crowned. Pierpont Morgan Collection. 
Diam. 12 cm. From the Mannheim Collection 
(Molinier, Sale Catalogue, Paris, 1898, lot 158). 

Seen thus in comparison it is obvious enough 
that Jean II P(^nicaud's well executed but dry and 
academic work, marked by a mannerism of thick- 
legged figures and heroic profiles, is really far 
removed from such a graceful and delicate pro- 
duction as our Xo. 9.'" 

There seems no reason to doubt that M. Marquet 
de Vasselot is right in attributing the latter to the 
artist of 7 and 8. Both the technical quality of 
the work, and also the drawing of heads of men 
and horses, furnish a lest of comparison which 
appears conclusive. As has already been remarked 
M. Darcel similarly identified the Hamilton (Roth- 
schild) example as the work of this artist (see 
above); and Franks's view that the Hamilton 
and Meyrick plaques are by the same hand thus 
receives corroboration. 

Another piece by the same master, but unsigned, 
may, I think, be recognised in a small rectangular 
plaque of the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

10. The Virgin and Child with S. Elizabeth and 
John the Baptist [PL.4TE II, h]. The group is a 
variant of thai in Marcantonio's engraving of the 
Vieige an Palmier (Barlsch, 62), after Raphael. 
Grisaille, overspread with a film of grey. Victoria 
and Albert Museum (Xo. 4247-1857). 67 cm. 
square. (Marcantonio's print is shown in 
Plate III, k, reduced from the example in the 
Dyce Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Xo. 102 1.)" 

In this piece the same exceptional softness of 

"One of the leading " documentary" pieces of Jean II Peni- 
caud is illustrated in The Burlington Magazine, xx, p. 85. Other 
ftiie examples will be found in the illustmted catalogue of the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of Enamels, 1897, P's- 


" p. Kristeller (*. f'niissischcn Kiinslsainnilungeii, Jahibiich, 
xxviii, 1907, p. 220), following a remark by C. Ruland in his 
Catalogue of the Kaphacl Collection at Windsor (p. 72), con- 
siders this print to represent a preliminary design by Raphael 
for the Madonna del divino anioic at Naples, which is obviously 
a variation of the same composition. It seems probable that the 
enamel, in which the group corresponds much more closely 
with the print, represents a work by liaphacl intermediate 
between the two. It is hardly likely that an enameller, espe- 
cially one who followed the S. Lawrence engraving so labori- 
ously, working from the Marcantonio Vierge au Palmier, would 
have so completely altered the background, still less that he 
would have invented the playful touch of the lamb on the back 
of the young S. John, a touch which seems to me very charac- 
teristic of Raphael's gmccful fancy. My thanks are due to 
ilr. Campbell Dodgson for his help in regard to this print. 


tone is the most marked characteristic, and the 
beauty of the figure-drawing in an identical manner 
is very striking. 

The group of pieces thus constituted (7 to 10) 
is sufficient to establish the character of M P"s 
work. The difference of style between this artist 
and the author of our first group is as apparent in 
sentiment as in technique. Compare, for instance, 
the horses' heads in Xos. 3 and 8. In the former 
they are almost grotesque in their animation, with 
raised nostrils, jaws opened for attack, and pro- 
truding eye-sockets. By the side of these, M P's 
horses are indeed very tame circus chargers. With 
what charming composure, too, M P's soldiers, 
mounted and unmounted, engage in mortal 
combat, and how gracefully S. Lawrence con- 
sents to die at the hands of his gentlemanly 
executioners. Compare this with the animation 
and entirely ill-bred emphasis with which the 
other artist's plebeian gods express their sense of 
scandal at the proceedings of .Mars and Venus. 
As much by the psychological as by the technical 
test their work stands apart in two groups, even 
allowing for the use of designs by different masters 
as models and in spite of the intermediate quality 
of a highly finished piece like 5. 

What name is concealed by the initials M P or 
P M remains undiscovered. The transposition 
of the initials suggests precisely a signature varying 
between a French and a Latin form, as we find in 
Jean II Pdnicaud's practice. It maybe presumed 
from his method that he probably belonged to 
the atelier of Jean II Penicaud, at least for some 
part of his career. Franks'- even, like Labarte," 
supposed him to be a member of that family, and 
suggested that the signature ^ might stand for 
" Penicaudi manu ". But when it is remembered 
how carefully the Penicauds differentiated them- 
selves by their signatures, it seems hardly likely 
that one member of the family would have arro- 
gated to himself the name Penicaud without some 
sign of his individuality. There is unfortunately 
no record of a Penicaud bearing a Christian name 
with M for its initial. 

Two further points remain to be considered ; 
the first in regard to a small grisaille medallion in 
the Louvre, attributed by Darcel " to the same 
artist as the pieces signed M P. It represents a 
combat of soldiers, and is signed on the back 
with the initials "M-I' in gold, and thus seems as if 
it might help to elucidate the artist's identity. 
M. Marquet de V^asselot, who has been so kind as 
to make a careful comparison of this piece side by 
side with M P's circular plaque (8), has furnished me 
with a description of the results, and a convincing 
opinion that the two are really quite distinct in 
style and evidently the work of different masters. 

'- Loc. cit. 

" Histoire des Arts Induitricls, IV, p, 94. 

" Xoticc des Emaiix, No. 218, p. 115. 

Two " Little Masters " of Limoges Enamelling 

Finally it has to be considered whether M P 
can be identified with the contemporary master 
who signed his works M D Pape, M Pape, 
M D P P, cic}" A comparison shows these 
works to be'executed in a somewhat uninteresting 
and formal manner in which hatched shading is 

" Darccl, Koike, p. 257- A good example of his work is 
fi^'ured in the Illustrated Catalogue of the Burlington Fine Arts 
Chib. Exhibition of Enamels, 1897, pis. LVii, i.viii. 

conspicuous, a style more nearly related to the 
manner of Pierre Reymond than to one showing 
the tenderness of feeling and refined variety of 
tones displayed by M P. 

We must be content, therefore, to know the 
artist of our second group, assuredly one of the 
very finest of the Limoges masters, by the initials 
M P, until the discovery of some fresh evidence 
may make his name known. 



iT the Linnell sale at Christie's there 
appeared a small picture attributed to 
I the school of Botticelli and described 
'as S. Vvsnla and her Virgins. By the 

Lkind permission of Mr. W. B. Cham- 

berlin, the present owner, this is here reproduced 
[Plate]. There is, as far as I can see, no reason 
to suppose that the central figure of this group is 
S. Ursula, or that the small group of women which 
surrounds her is intended to stand for the eleven 
thousand, who, though never represented quite 
literally by the old masters, generally make a rather 
more imposing bevy than we see here. Nor is 
the attribution to the school of Botticelli more 
fortunate. The picture is by no means a master- 
piece ; but among the minor works of a peculiarly 
fortunate period of Florentine art it counts because 
of a certain naive grace and lyric charm. The land- 
scape at once strikes one as peculiar. It seems, 
indeed, more typical of an English park with its 
rolling downs and clumps of beech wood than of 
any country within reach of Florence. Such 
verdant and luxurious landscapes are rarely found 
in the backgrounds of Florentine pictures; but we 
have a curiously similar example in a little picture 
in the National Gallery representing the conflict 
between Love and Chastity, which is there 
ascribed (safely enough) to the Tuscan school. 
This picture is here reproduced [Plate], and it 
will be seen that the landscape backgrounds of 
the two correspond so exactly that one might 
suppose them to have formed separate panels of a 
single compound picture. Now it happens that 
the Love and Chastity of the National Gallery is 
one panel out of a series painted for a cassone. 
The long centre panel, a Triumph of Chastity, is in 
the Gallery at Turin. The National Gallery pic- 
ture formed one end and the panel of the other 
end is missing. At first sight I was so much 


Metropolitan Museum of Art. Handbook of the Classical 
Collection; by Gisela M. A. Richter ; pp. xxxiv + 276, 
159 illust.: New York, 1917. 
This volume follows hard on the catalogues of 

the Cesnola collection and of the ancient bronzes 

struck by the likeness between the picture at the 
Linnell Sale and the Love and Chastity that I 
hoped this might prove to be the lost third panel. 
The dimensions,' however, put this out of the 
question. There can, however, be little doubt 
that Mr. Chamberlin's panel was painted by the 
same artist at about the same period of his career, 
and in all probability for a similar purpose, namely, 
the decoration of a cassone. I am inclined to 
guess, even, that this cassone also was decorated 
with the same subject of the Triumph of Chastity 
(a favourite one for such objects), and that the 
group of virgins are attendants on Chastity awaiting 
the arrival of her triumphal progress, which would 
have filled the long centre panel. Now the 
National Gallery and Turin pictures have long 
been recognised by students as the work of 
Cosimo Roselli, and 1 think there can be little 
doubt that he is the author of the Linnell picture. 
It is true that Cosimo Roselli is generally known 
for his exceedingly dull and laborious com- 
positions on a large scale. In those of the Sistine 
Chapel in particular he shows his incapacity to 
keep up with the standard of his fellow artists. 
Vasari says of him, "Although he was not for his 
time a remarkable or excellent painter, he yet 
produced sound works (ragionevoli)". His works 
were certainly never freakish or odd, in short he 
was a dull capable fellow. But even such an 
artist could catch at moments some gleam of the 
imaginative fervour of his day, and in the little 
panel of the National Gallery, to which we may 
now add Mr. Chamberlin's picture, we see not so 
much the plodding journeyman Cosimo as the 
inspiration of that happy moment in Florentine 


The dimensions are as follows 
Love and Cliastity 
Mr. Chamberlin's picture 

12" X gl* 

which have already been reviewed in these 
columns. It is, like them, admirably printed, 
and the half-tone illustrations are of the first 
quality. The authorities of the Metropolitan 



Museum have grouped their collections accorduig 
to periods, with the exception that the large 
marble sculpture, for reasons that can well be 
understood, has all been placed together in the 
Central Hall. They have also, in the case of the 
Prehistoric period, for reasons equally obvious, 
supplemented their few original pieces with re- 
productions of important objects from other 
collections. The collections, as a whole, are 
very representative, and tliis handbook is com- 
piled with so much knowledge, skill and taste 
that it may be heartily recommended as giving an 
admirable outline of the development of Greek 
and Roman art. We notice one curious omission ; 
in an arrangement in which chronological group- 
ing is a chief feature it is nothing less than 
astonishing to find that the Ward collection of 
Greek coins, which the Metropolitan Museum is 
known to possess, is entirely ignored. Yet no 
kind of antiquities lends itself so well to chrono- 
logical arrangement, or illustrates so well and so 
continuously the development of art from the 
7th century onwards. The omission to make use 
of this instrument of education is the more 
remarkable because a catalogue of the Ward 
collection is in print, as the writer of this notice 
has the best of reasons for knowing. Will 
archaeologists never get over their nervousness 
about numismatics 'i Let us hope that in the 
next edition of her "Handbook" Miss Richter 
will have done so. In such an edition the mis- 
prints on p. 185 {Alno for Alfno) and p. 222 {tan 
for lau) should be corrected. An interesting 
further point arises with regard to the relief 
mentioned in the latter passage. Miss Richter 
gives the names in the inscription as AISIiiPATH 
lIAXAeHXAIi", noting the omission of the first T 
in the former name. If the first vowel is really 
I and not Y, one would like to be certain whether 
the inscription is as early as the relief (which is 
undoubtedly genuine). The mistake of I for Y is 
more likely to be made by a modern Greek t'lan 
by an Athenian of the 4th century B.C. G. F. II. 

FRANXESCO MaLAGCZZI VALIilil. La Curte di Lodovico il 
MoRO. Gli Artisti Loml\irdi ; xl + 368 pp., 489 lllus., 
16 tav. Milan : Hocpli ; L28. 

H.aving already dealt with the two greatest 
artists of the court of Ludovico, the writer, Count 
Valeri, enters in this third volume upon the work of 
the Lombard masters of that period. He then goes 
on to point out that the sculptors of the period at 
Milan are here intentionally omitted because 
they had been touched on to some extent in 
speaking of Bramante, since their activities 
were mainly concerned witli the Certosa di Pavia, 
and lastly — as the writer frankly admits— because 
they had already been treated by him in his richly 
illustrated work upon G. A. Amadeo, sculptor and 
architect, published in 1902. In speaking of paint- 
ing in this volume special attention has been 
given to portrait art, which was largely practised 

at the court of the Sforza. His first chapter, " I 
Ritrattisti ", includes that interesting master, Am- 
brogio de Predis, as well as Bernardino de' Conti, 
Gianpetrino, Boltraftio and Salaino, and the nu- 
merous profile portraits, which the two first-named 
of these painters especially produced, are richly 
and completely illustrated. The e.xquisite female 
portrait of the .^mbrosiana, also in profile, the 
headdres-i broidered with pearls, which has been 
attributed to Leonardo himself, is here reproduced 
both from the original and from a very inferior 
copy in the Salting collection, and is given defi- 
nitely to the painter De Predis. As to who was the 
sitter for this lovely portrait the conclusion given 
here is that she must remain unknown, The 
author rejects the theory which would make her 
either Beatrice d'Esteor Bianca Maria Sforza, and 
compares this picture with the female portrait in 
Lord Roden's collection at Tullymore Park in 
Ireland, "erroneously held by Cook to be that of 
Cecilia Gallerani," which he asserts to be evidently 
the work of De Predis, to whom also belong a 
very interesting series of male portraits, the finest 
of which, painted very strongly under Leonardo's 
direct influence, is The Musician of the Ambrosiana. 
We have to remember, as this writer very justly 
points out, that this later period of the Sforza 
dynasty, though extremely rich in art creation, 
was followed by terrible political and social con- 
vulsions, which disintegrated and scattered the 
work thus created ; hence the difficulty of tracing 
them, so that under these conditions great credit 
is due to the author for the fine and representative 
collection of miniatures which are reproduced in 
this volume. A very notable work, which is 
illustrated among these, is the famous " Book of 
Hours " of Duchess Bona di Savoia," which has 
no A- found a home in the British Museum, and of 
which several reproductions are given here; while 
another masterpiece of the miniaturists' art, con- 
nected quite as closely with the Sforza dynasty, is 
the "Life of Francesco Sforza" (1491) in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, in which the 
portraits are of great historic il interest, the borders 
lovely in design, and the type of that fine, clear 
Roman type which belongs to the Italian in- 
cunabula of this great period in the printer's art. 
The succeeding chapter (ill) deals with the 
masters in wood carving, a branch of art which 
flourished at this period, and often possessed really 
high qualities of sculpture, as in the Piefa of the 
Chiesa del Sasso above Locarno and the coloured 
Cnicifixion in wood of the Monastery of the 
Sacromonte above Varese. In the last chapter (iv) 
the goldsmith's art is fully treated, including the 
chiselled silver work of the great processional 
crosses and the " niello " and enamel work in 
which the Museo Poldo-Pezzoli is so rich, 
and the yet more elaborate tabernacles in 
silver-gilt, a fine example of which from this 


period is in the Musee du Louvre ; and in a 
work which is especially devoted to the Sforza 
dynasty, the medallion portraits of members of 
that house come appropriately at the conclusion. 
In the last — and final — volume of this valuable 
series, which is yet to appear, we are promised 
some account of the art industries, of what we 
should now probably call " Arts and Crafts," under 
the Sforza Dukes at Milan, as well as of her writers, 
poets, and musicians. S. B. 

Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Ancient Chinese 
Paintings, Scui-rrrREs and Jade Objects from the Col- 
lection formed by Charles Lang Freer ; compiled by F. W. 
GoOKiN ; 53 pp., 9 illust. (Art Institute of Cliicago, 1917.) 
The first item in Mr. Gookin's excellent catalogue 
will have for most students of Chinese painting 
by far the greatest interest. The Lo Shen roll 
(attributed to Ku K'ai-chih) has, it is true, been 
reproduced in the " Kokka ", but on a much re- 
duced scale. One wishes that Mr. Gookin had 
given a full-size reproduction of some detail in it. 
As this catalogue embodies much useful infor- 
mation and is likely to be used for reference, I 
venture to suggest certain small corrections : 

No. 12. Wang Wei's name in Japanese is 
O-Makitsu or O-i, but never " Omakitsu Oi ". 

No. 14. Chung-lang is not a title, but was Chou 
Fang's "literary name". The common title 
" Lang-chung " is written with slightly different 

No. 49. The artist here called Kou Lung, 
" concerning whom no' information is available ", 
must surely be the well-known 12th-century 
Academician Kou Lung-shuang (written with the 
characters " Hook- Dragon-Lively "). 

No. 52. " No information concerning Su Han- 
ch'en is available". The usual type of biography 
will be found in the " Precious Mirror of Paint- 
ing" (T'u-hui Pao-chien)and other standard works. 
No. 58. Why is Yiian Ch'ien called Yiian 
Tsing two lines lower down ? 

No. 64 (9). " Mu-lin, a great collector ". Evi- 
dently Hsiang Mo-lin is intended. In the index, 
by a combined misspelling and misprint, he is 
called " Mu-ein ". 

Mr. Gookin promises us transliteration accord- 
ing to the Giles system, but does not consistently 
fulfil his promise, while his Chinese collaborator 
is apparently transliterating the Shanghai dialect, 
with confusing results. Accuracy could have been 
secured if Mr. Ma had been asked to look up the 
characters in Giles's Dictionary. A. w. 

Johannes Bosboom, door G. H. Marius en W. Martin; 

xi + 164 pp., 80 illust. ; The Hague (Martinus Nijhoff), 20 

guilders ; cloth 22.50 guilders [not francs as previously stated 

in error]. 

Johannes Bosboom was the senior of that 
pleiad of artists who brought about the brilliant 
renaissance of Dutch painting in the second half 
of the 19th century. The anniversary of his 
birth (18 1 7) was celebrated last year with 
memorial exhibitions at The Hague and 


Amsterdam, and the present book is a further and 
worthy tribute to his genius. Bosboom primarily 
distinguished himself from his contemporaries 
by the choice of his subjects; he specialised as 
a painter of church-interiors, and even when 
he eventually departed from this theme and 
represented some old town hall or a rustic interior, 
he was attracted in the first instance by the 
constructive features of the room — and never 
sought the anecdotic or sentimental note, which 
Israels or Neuhuys never failed to strike in their 
compositions. The figures remained a mere 
accessory to his scenes, especially in his later 
years, and in this respect he was an unmistakable 
successor to the Dutch church-painters of the 17th 
century ; and I venture to say that he outpassed 
most of them in true comprehension of the 
architectural masses of a cathedral, with their 
wonderful spell of light and shadow, as well as in 
fluency of elocution. Bosboom also deserves our 
attention as one of the pioneers of the water- 
colour technique he practised even at a time 
when this process was utterly disregarded in his 
country and he found himself compelled to 
translate his water-colours into oils to make them at 
all saleable. No doubt Bosboom will forever rank 
amongst the most accomplished aquarellists of 
our time. It is gratifying that the honour of 
an exhaustive monograph such as is generally 
reserved for " old masters " has been for once 
given to a contemporary artist of these merits. 
The authors of the book are well known 
in England ; Mile. Marius, whose " Dutch Paint- 
ing in the 19th Century" has been translated into 
English, and Prof. W. Martin, Director of the 
Royal Gallery, The Hague, a contributor to this 
Magazine. The work includes an Introduction 
and ten chapters, each dealing with a particular 
period of the painter's life. As the relation of 
events proceeds, the artist's evolution is outlined 
and his pictures are described and commented. 
This plan did not well allow a visible delimitation 
of each author's share in the common work, 
but we may imagine that Mile. Marius is mainly 
responsible for the aesthetic comments and the 
characterisation of Bosboom's personality, and 
Prof. Martin for the historical facts and for the 
chronological catalogue of the artist's works 
which concludes the book and indeed was the 
necessary foundation of the whole. As it is, 
the book is a sound piece of historical and critical 
work, equally remote from the dilettantism which 
is too readily indulged in where contemporary 
art is concerned, and from pedantry, which is so 
often the opposite professional fault. The pro- 
duction too deserves nothing but praise. The 
book is handsomely printed in old-face Dutch 
type, on smooth hand-made paper; the illustrations 
— even those in the text — are in phototype 
and photogravure ; and, as most of Bosboom's 
works are admirably suited for reproduction in 



black or brown, the whole presents an exceedingly 
pleasant and distinguished character. P. B. 

Die Hohenvollern D<mmerl-ng: Eine Welt-tragodee (The 

Twilight of the Hohen'zollerns : A World Tragedy) ; 

12 illust. hy Gi.YN Philpot. With titles and publishers' 

note (Cecil Palmer & Hayward) ; London, New York and 

Toronto. 5s. 

The purpose of the book is to compare the 
tremendous story of "The Niblungs Ring" with 
the drama now being played by the nations in 
their deliberate intent to smash the Prussian grasp 
at world-power. The libretto is in German and 
English, and for the English version acknowledg- 
ment is made to Mr. Frederick Jameson and his 
publishers, Messrs. Schott and Co., of Great Marl- 
borough Street, London, only small liberties with 
Wagner's text being required to make clear the 
intention of Mr. Glyn Phiipot's twelve full-page 


The St.\tions of the Cross in West- 
minster — These sculptures have 
now been completed and placed in position, and 
with their completion it becomes more evident 
that in this case the choice of an artist has been 
uncommonly apt. Mr. Eric Gill is well fitted 
for the task by his capabilities, his sentiment and 
aspirations, and his fourteen important reliefs are 
entirely worthy of Bentley's building. A brief 
glance at some other portions of the decoration 
in the interior of the cathedral, or at the indifferent 
sculpture which degrades the outside of the main 
door, should at least make Mr. Gill's critics thank- 
ful that he has saved us from further trivialities of 
a like nature. His inspiration is at its highest, 
rising with the nature of his theme, in No. XII 
{Jesus dies upon the Cross) and in No. XIV (Tlic 
Entombiiieni). The last closes the series most 
fittingly with its rhythmic repetition of lines and 
slow, stately movement. Both are dignified ex- 
pressions of the earnest feeling which underlies 
the whole work. Mr. Gill has considerable 
power in the handling of a restricted number of 
figures and the concentration of large and simple 
forms. Ingenious and varied use is made of the 
lines of the Cross in combination with the human 
form, the shafts of weapons, the curves of arches, 
etc., and where lettering invades the composition 
it is always with perfect decorative propriety. 
Gold and colour are employed with restraint, in 
such a way as not to interfere with the play of 
light and shadow on the surfaces of the stone. 
This question of lighting has evidently been 
carefully studied. In No. VIII, which receives 
no direct light, the effect of flattened linear 
design is still satisfactory ; and here the marble 
casing, which as yet has been applied to only one 
of the brick piers on which the Stations are 
placed, will ultimately make this position more 
luminous. Elsewhere the discreet use of a claw 
tool varies the pleasant quality of the Hopton- 
wood stone. Technically, Mr. Gill is an excellent 


drawings. The titles of these indicate that the 
likeness between the phases in the famous operas 
and the ghastly pages of the war's history is a 
fairly close one. " German Ambition Grasps at the 
Dominion of the World ", " Pan-Germanism Falls 
Exulting into the Arms of Prussian Militarism", 
"The Three Norns Sever the Rope of the German 
Empire on the Jagged Rock of Destiny", "The 
Fire of Retribution Consumes with Tongues of 
Flame the Bodies of Prussian Militarism and 
Pan -Germanism" — such are the legends under four 
of Mr. Phiipot's furious and curious pictures, and 
he has contrived by an archaic parsimony in detail 
and emphatic masses of contra>ted light and shade 
to suggest the brutality of German efforts and the 
bestiality of German ideals. The drawings form 
a trenchant indictment. s. s. s. 

carver, with a strong sense of his material and 
much experience of stone-cutting. The craftsman 
spirit, which has driven some other artists into a 
false medi^evalism, fortunately results in his work 
in entire modernity. He represents his own 
period, and where he seems to approach the 
archaistic it is in consequence of his personal 
endeavour after form, and of certain tendencies of 
to-day which are more strongly developed on the 
Continent. He is one of the few British sculptors 
who would be taken seriously by cosmopolitan 
critics. Certain deficiencies may prevent him 
being placed at once in the very first rank, but it 
is to be hoped that he will be given further worthy 
opportunities of proving his powers. Weaknesses 
and mannerisms will probably disappear with 
greater growth. A minor objection may be made 
to his partiality for attitudes involving a hyper- 
extension of the lower leg, a position which the 
normally constructed man falls into with difficulty 
and avoids for its discomfort. As already men- 
tioned, Mr. Gill is exhibiting cartoons for his 
Slaiioiis of the Cross, and other works, at the Alpine 
Club, from the 6th to the 14th of May. R. S. 

Christie's and the Red Cross. — We record 
our admiration for the self-sacrificing services 
rendered to the Red Cross, now for the fourth time, 
by the firai of Messrs. Christie, Manson and Woods. 
The use of the firm's galleries has been four times 
entirely devoted for periods varying from a 
fortnight to sixteen days, to the exclusion of 
all other business, at the most favourable season 
of the year, with the result that sums of _^''5o,ooo, 
^52,000, ;^"82,ooo and ;^i5i,ooo, making a solid 
i;335>oo°> h^\'e been obtained for the Red Cross 
by means of the firm's generosity. But with this 
sacrifice by the firm we must not forget the 
enormous amount of extra labour devoted by the 
very greatly depleted staff, and especially by 
Mr. Lancelot Hannen and Mr. Alec Martin, who, 
.IS we understand, were occupied often until late 

at night for many weeks before the sales in sorting 
and cataloguing the very varied collections of 
gifts offered for sale. Ed. 

The Oppenheim Sale. — The series of great 
art sales in Germany continues. In our January 
number reference was made to the Von Kauf- 
mann dispersal ; and this has been followed by 
the sale of the cjUection of the late Baron Albert 
Oppenheim of Cologne. As our readers will 
remember, this sale was originally fixed for Octo- 
ber 1914, and the gem of the collection, the Legend 
of S. Eloi, by Petrus Christus, was discussed at 
length in the issue of Tlie Burlington Magazine for 
September thut year ; but the war intervening, the 
sale was put off and did not take place until March 
this year. The Oppenheim collection was a 
much smaller one than that formed by Dr. von 
Kaufmann, and was besides, with one possible 
exception, limited to works of the Dutch and 
Flemish schools. As could be expected, the Petrus 
Christus fetched the biggest price, viz., 800,000 
marks, or with parity of exchange ^^40,000. This is 
of course an enormous price for a work which is 
after all by one of the mmor artists of the period; 
but otherwise the prices realised, although high, 
can for the most part hardly be called exorbitant, 
as may be seen from the following list (prices in 
marks): — 

Ambrosius Benson, Pi);7rin7s(j/<r il/i(// II ;/./ ii Woniiui . 94.5°° 

>i.BeTchcm,Tli,- Hiilf ht'foic the Iiii: 

Picter dc Bloot, Ki//i7^c /' fs^/i'.i/ 16,500 

Bartlioloniaeus Bruyn, Tico (tViigs of an AUinfurc ... 34,000 

Gonzales Coques, F<i;;;/7y G;-o»/> 35.°°° 

Atibert Quyp, JtaliiVi Paslonil Sifiif 35.-°° 

Gcnrd Dd\id, The Virgil! and Child 82,500 

A.van Dyck, Portrait ojFiaiis Hah 

A. van DycU, Portrait of Martin Kyckacrt 20,100 

Jau Fyt, Still Life 13,5°° 

Aert dc Gelder, .1/ii/e Poi7;<i/7 26,500 

Vrdins WaU, Female Portrait 230,000 

Frans Hats, L.7»g//n(g C//;W 186,000 

Vram HiXi. Laughing Child ... 79,000 

J. D. dc Heem, SW/ L;/i; 23,5oo 

^l. Hohhami, Village among Trees 171,000 

^l. Hohheiwi, The Water Mill 150,000 

P. de Hoocti, A Mother with her Children (dated 1058) 450,000 
Jan van Kessel, The Bleaching Ground near Haarlem 

(signed) ... 70,100 

T. de Keyser, Portraits of a Man and a JVoinaii ... 2o6,oco 

Quentin Matsys, Rest on the Flight into Egyfl 9J,oco 

Qaentin Mdtsys, The Money Changers 44,000 

A. van der Neer, II7»/t-r Sa-i/f 101,000 

A. van der Neer, r/ie forge- 65,000 

Caspar Netsclier, Pt)r/m(7 u/ 17 t/i;/i/ 27,000 

A. v:in Oslzde, Boors Drinking 27,000 

P. Potter , P/gs 1/7 17 Storm ... 70,000 

Rembrandt, Head of a Young Uirl (dating from the 

fifties; a fine example) 193,000 

Rubens, Landscape 53,ooo 

Rubens, The Victory of Concord over Discord (bl;etcli for 

ttie Wliiteliatl Ceiling) 162,000 

Rubens, 7"/7c C/7i7nD< 0/ Sk/7 53,000 

J. V. Ruysdael, 7"/i(; .JZ/cy p/ Bci7c7/(-.< 66,000 

F. Snyders, Still Life 58,000 

J. Steen, The Temptation 60,000 

D. Teniers, r/«; ^cc/icrs 41,000 

v. Tamtrs, Tuo Beggars 16,500 

G. Tcrburg, A Lady and a Cavalier Drinking 175,000 

A Monthly Chronicle 

Velasquez (probably by a P'tcming working in Spain), 

Portrait of a Spanish Prince 45. 100 

Verspronck, Fe;!ii7/e Por/;i7(7 44,000 

J. Victor, Game 15.000 

Emanuel de Witte, Church Interior 18,500 


Judge William Evans's Collection of Con- 
temporary Pictures.— The interesting collection 
of pictures which was formed by the late Judge 
Evans is to be exhibited in his memory at the 
Goupil Gallery during May. It consists principally 
of works by living British artists, and might serve 
in some ways as a model to patrons of modern 
art. Many of the pictures were acquired by a 
wise discrimination before their authors arrived 
at maturity, and in general the promise of these 
early works is still steadily being fulfilled. In 
other cases where an artist is represented by his 
mature accomplishment it may confidently be 
expected that his reputation will increase. Col- 
lectors such as Judge Evans perform a public 
service by the encouragement of ill-recognised 
talent. If there are few absolute masterpieces 
among his possessions, there is compensation in 
the special interest which accompanies youthful 
work, and in the opportunity afforded for piquant 
comparisons between the art of to-day and the art 
of twelve or fifteen years ago. Here and there 
disquieting reflections may be suggested. There 
are evidences of the curse which has hung heavy 
on British art, of brilliant promise being succeeded 
by a more meretricious brilliance, and of the 
intense struggle for expression giving way to 
sleight-of-hand and mental inactivity. But we 
find enthusiastic effort sustained and ripened in 
the Sirolliiig Players and Birdcage of Professor 
Tonks, which, with their high degree of mastery 
and beauty, must ultimately win far wider recog- 
nition. As yet only a relatively small section of 
art-lovers does full justice to this distinguished 
artist ; and the fashion of the moment is unfavour- 
able to him. An admn-able specimen of his too 
rarely exhibited drawings is also in this collection. 
One of the most arresting pictures is the large 
early portrait of an Italian girl by Mr. John, with 
obvious defects but astonishing potentialities in 
its determined searching out of form and character. 
Several drawings, and a curious pastel, record 
other almost forgotten phases of his development. 
His disciple for a brief period, Mr. Henry Lamb, 
is well represented by paintings and drawings. 
It will be interesting to follow Mr. Lamb's course 
now that his appointment as official artist in 
Mesopotamia has broken into the years of artistic 
sterility occasioned by his generous work in war- 
hospitals. Mr. Ernest Cole, another artist whose 
drawings attracted considerable attention some 
years ago, and who at the outset was preoccupied 
with the accidents rather than the essentials of the 
old masters, nowadays seems likely to avoid as a 


A Monthly Chronicle 

sculptor the pitfalls which beset him as a youthful 
draughtsman. There are works by Mr. Steer, 
whose large canvas of 1889, with its traces of 
contemporary Parisian influences, will come as a 
surprise to many : well-chosen pictures by Mr. 
Walter Sukert, exhibiting several sides of his com- 
plex personality : ^'tv/zv-picces by Mr. Orpen and 
Mr. McEvoy : many good Conders : and examples 
of Messrs. Charles Shannon, W. \V. Russell, 
Rickctts, Pryde, Glyn Philpot, W. Strang, Connard, 
Bone, Ferguson, Peppercorn, Maresco Pearce, 
V. H. Shepherd, the late Spencer Gore, Oilman, 
Gcrtler and Sheringham. Among British artists 
of an older generation is Alfred Stevens, whose 
sanguine study rises somewhat above his usual 
degree of passionless excellence. R. S. 

Water-colocr Paintings by Ai.frkd W. 
Rich at Walker's Galleries.— Mr. Rich's 
work, in the present case as in the series of 
exhibitions formerly held by him at the Alpine 

Club, gains by being collected together. In 
nearly a hundred drawings one can appreciate 
the great variety of his moods, and his outlook is 
much wider than is sometimes supposed by those 
who see only occasional examples at other galleries. 
He is recognised as a leading exponent of the 
best traditions of tlie English water-colour school: 
it is not so genLially recognised how within the 
bounds of the traditional his own personality is 
developed and disclosed. His technique is so 
under control as to be used instinctively and 
without effort in the notation of his impressions 
('/■//t,' Lasl Gleam of Siunci, A Gleam ofSttn on tlie 
Docvns, Snow on the Doans, etc.). It is in these 
rather than in more elaborate works, with their 
tendency to over-formal composition, that Mr. 
Rich's real strength lies. A characteristic which 
makes itself felt throughout is the peculiarly 
national quality of his sentiment — the outcome of 
a genuine love and understanding of English 
landscape. R. S. 


Georgi;s Petit, Galeric 8 rue dc Seze, Paris. — The first sale 
of Ihe Pictures, Pastels and Drawings by Degas will be held 
on 6, 7, 8 May (Me. Lair-Dubreuil and Me. Edmond Petit). We 
received the very fully illustrated catalogue, without descriptions, 
which more than 300 plates render unnecessary, too late to 
notice further than by a mere mention of this highly important 
sale. The illustrated catalogue will no doubt be widely distri- 
buted in Loudon, but it can be seen at the office of The Bmtiitgtoii 
Mngaziiie il desired. 

SoTHEBV, Wilkinson' axd Hodge will sell 7. 8, 9 May the 
collection of Engravings belonging to Lady Lucas. On the 7th 
will be sold Caricatures, Sporting, Topographic. il and Fancy 
Prints and Engravings by Bartolozzi, after Gainsborough, Nor- 
land and Reynolds ; on the 8th, the remainder of the Prints 
after Reynolds, those after Romney, other Portraits and Naval 
Battles;' and on the 9th Military Battles, Historical subjects. 
Mezzotints, Prints in line and stipple and those of the French 
school. The catalogue, illustrated with 9 plates, costs 2s, 6d. 

The same firm will sell, 28, 29, 30 May, the late Lord North- 
wick's collection of Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters, 

On the 28th will be sold Early Italian Schools (illustrated No. 6 
Anonymous; 38, G. A. da Brescia ; 67, Nicoletto da Modena; 
and 77, Christofano Robetta) ; Early German, Flemish and other 
masters (illustrated. Anonymous, 15th c. ; and 148, Lucas Cra- 
nach) ; on the 29th Prints of and by Diirer, by Lucas van Leyden, 
Israhel van Mackenem, Georg Pencz and others ; and on the 30th 
Etchings by Rembrandt (illust. No. 327, Eccc Homo) ; Mezzotints 
after Rembrandt (illust. No. 387 The Syndics, 389 Prince 
Rupert (';)); Prints by the Master MZ; and Early Woodcuts 
by various masters. The illustrated catalogue costs 2s. 6d. 

The same firm will sell, 3, 4,5 June, Books, MSS. and Auto- 
graph Letters belonging to various owners — the late Mr, John 
Linnell, Mrs. Wright Boycott, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Herbert Cherm- 
side, the late Col. Alex. Ewing, the late Mr. Theodore Watts- 
Dunton, Mrs. Gooch, Lieut. Lord Vernon, R.N., Capt. E. G. 
Spencer-Churchill, Miss Mary Boyle, Mr. T. P. Aston, Mr. 
A. L. Stephen and others. Among the lots are autograph 
MSS. of Byron, Early Arabic and Persian MSS., French, 
Italian and Spanish MSS., and autograph letters by English 
authors. The illustrated catalogue costs is. 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered before the i6th of the previous month. Prices must 
bcstated. Publications not conunn within the scope of this Magazine will not he acknowledged here unless the prices are stated. 

Serial Publications will/or the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods oftlieir publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received leill be entered, in order thai foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

[The few new books received are held over until the June 

Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — .Architect — 

Country Life — Illustrated London News. 
Fortnightly. — Bulletin of the Alliance Fran?aise, 79 — Veil i 

Nou, IV. 62, 63, 66. 
Monthly.— Art World (New York) Mar- — Colour— Connoisseur 

— F'ine Art Trade Journ:d — Journal of the Imperial Arts League, 

32— Kokka, 333 + 4 — Lcs Arts, 164— New East, i, 1— New 

Vork, Metropolitan Museum, xili, 3 — Onze Kunst, xvil, 4. 
Bi-MONTilLY. — Art in America, vi, 2 — Boston, U.S.A., Museum 

of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 93 — LArtc, xxi, i. 
Othek Monthly Periods. — Cleveland, Museum of Art, Bulletin 

(10 a year), v, 2-t-3 — Minneapolis, Institute of Fine Arts, 

Bulletin (9« year), vir, 2. 

Quarterly. — Boletin de la Sociedad Espailola de Excursiones, 
XXV, 4 — F'elix Ravenna, 26 — Gazette des Beaux Arts, 694 — 
Oud-Holland, xxxv, 4 — Pennsylvania Museum, Bulletin, 60 — 
Print Collectors' Quarterly, vii, 4 — Quarterly Review — Town 
Planning Review, viii, 3 + 4 — Worcester, Mass., Art Museum 
Bulletin, viii, 4. 

Annually. — Washington, U.S.A., Annual Report of the United 
States National Museum for the year ending June 30, 1916 — 
Ziircher Kunstgesellschaft, Jahresbcricht 1917. illust. 

Occasionally. — Ziircher Kunsthaus, Ausstellung Ferdinand 
Hodler, 14 June-Aug. 191 7, 32 Taf., 3te Ausgs. 

Trade Lists. — Craddock and Barnard, 10 Dudley Road, Tun- 
bridge Wells. Illustrated Catalogue of Engravings by Old 
and Modern Masters, and a few Pictures — Duckworth and 
Co. A catalogue of the books published, 3 Henrietta St., 
W.C.2— Mr. Murray's Quarterly List, Ap. 1918, 50A Albe- 
marle St., W.I— Norstedts A'^/t/c;- (Stockholm), 1918, No. 3. 


SILVKK lllSM. INm^KMSKU n\ l;\i„K v^ U ■ \ l.lIRn KcTl ■ 10 ' 33 , l.KM.TH i^j. 





'HROUGH the generosity of Sir John 

F. Ramsden, Bart., the Victoria and 

Albert Museum has been enriched 

ith a piece of silversmith's work 

which, however freakish in design, 

illustrates a style of work in vogue for a time in 
Holland during the earlier part of the 17th century, 
and not without its effect upon the English crafts- 
men. From the illustration [Plate I] it will be 
seen that the object, a shallow dish or bowl of 
irregular oval form, about 19 in. by 14, represents 
a pool of water in which dolphins are swimming. 
The high rim of the object is formed by two 
dolphins, their heads joined together, and with a 
single mouth from which a cascade of water 
tumbles into the pool. The tails of these dolphins 
merge into an indeterminate piece of ornament. 
The whole piece has been hammered from a 
single sheet of silver, and much dexterity is shown 
in the skilful manner in which the sheet has been 
turned to shape the dolphins which form the rim. 
On the back of the dish is engraved " C • d • Vianen 
fecit • 16 -35 ". 

Christian van Vianen was one of a family of 
silversmiths at Utrecht, the most celebrated being 
his father, Adam van Vianen, born in 1570. The 
Dutch silversmiths of the end of the i6th century 
produced work of as high excellence, both in 
design and execution, as any in Europe, and 
Adam van Vianen was in no way inferior to any 
of them. A tazza of his in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum exhibits all the delicacy and 
refinement of workmanship usually associated 
with the finest productions of the Netherlandish 
craftsmen. Yet it is to him that we owe the 
introduction of a kind of " Art nouveau " move- 
ment in silversmiths' work, the reflection of which 
is seen in this piece by Christian. It is impossible 
to conjecture from what source came the inspira- 
tion for these capricious productions, in which 
the predominant features were heads of monsters 
and ogres, hideous masks, shapeless ornament, 
indefinable forms where every projection became 
a grotesque mask, and all sense of stability seemed 
to be lost sight of. Here and there one seems to 
recognise a faint resemblance to the lines of the 
human ear, but in the main the fantastic and 
baroque ornament baffles definition. These 
characteristic features are seen in a tazza belong- 
ing to R. E. Brandt, Esq., signed " A • DE • viana • 
rE-a° 1618" [Plate II, b]. The bowl, in- 
cluding the two human figures, is hammered with 
skilful dexterity from a single sheet of silver. 

From a technical point of view the execution 
of these pieces is astonishingly clever, and suggests 

THE BnauNOtos Mieizixs, No. 183. Vol. XXXII— Jun*. 1918. 

that the efforts of the craftsman were concentrated 
in producing an object not so much a thing of 
beauty as an exhibition of his manipulative ability. 
We find Christian in England early in 1637, 
when the choice fell upon him to make certain 
altar-plate for S. George's Chapel, Windsor ; it 
was completed in June of that year. Elias 
Ashmole, in "The Institution, Laws and 
Ceremonies of the most Noble Order of the 
Garter", published in 1672, enumerates : — 

Two little Candlestick?., chased and gilt, for IVax Candles; 
two Chalices, with four Patens ; two great Candlesticks neat, 
for Tapers; tivo little Basons ; one great Bason [weighing 
in all just over 1220 ounces]. The Workman made choice 
of, was one Christian van Vianan of Utrect, a man excel- 
lently skill'd in chasing of Plate ; and to give him due praise 
in tfiis undertaking, he discovered a rare ingenuity and 
happy fancy, as the skilful did judge while the Plate was in 
being, and the design of each piece yet to be seen (among 
the present soveraign's rare collection of Draughts and 
Sketches) can sufficiently manifest. 

Additional plate was executed by him for the 
chapel during the following two years, so that 
ultimately there were seventeen pieces, weighing 
3,580 ounces, for which he was paid the sum of 
^1,564 6s. We learn that all these pieces were of 
silver gilt and decorated with " Scripture Histories 
rarely well designed and chased ". We can only 
dimly conjecture what these pieces were like, for 
unfortunately they were seized by the Parliamen- 
tarians within five years of their production, and 
in all probability melted down. But the "Scrip- 
ture Histories rarely well designed and chased" 
recall the wonderful ewer and dish made by 
Adam van Vianen in 1614, and now in the pos- 
session of the city of Amsterdam. Both pieces are 
minutely repousse in fine and sometimes almost 
imperceptible relief, with battle scenes from the 
war of independence of the United Provinces of 
the Low Countries, and the scenes are divided by 
the characteristic baroque ornament.' In any 
case we may be quite sure that the " capricious " 
ornamentation first devised by Adam was not 
omitted in Christian's work. 

That he felt considerable pride in this new style 
is evidenced by the fact that in 1650 Christian 
published a book of designs by his father with 
the title " MoDELLES Artificiels, De divers 
Vaisseaux d'argent, et autres oeuvres capricieuzes, 
Inventees et desseign^es du renomm^ S' Adam 
DE Viane ; le plus part d'iceux battus d'une pi^ce 
d'argent, tres utiles a tous Amateurs de I'Art, mis 
en lumiere par son fils Christien DE Viane a 
Uytrecht, et gravez en cuivre par Theodore de 
Quessel ".* 

' Illustrated in A. Pit. — HetGoud-en Zilverwerk in lut Neder- 
landsch Museum te Amsterdam. 

' Two of the three parts of an original copy of this work may 
be consulted in the Department of Engraving, Illustration and 
Design at the Victoria and Albert Museum. A reprint of the 
work was published by Martinus Nijhoff at The Hague in 1892. 


Recent Acquisitions for Public Collections 

Nor was Christian the only member of the 
family to adopt this style. Another relative, 
Paul van Vianen, produced in 1610 the fine gold 
cup formerly belonging to the late Prince 
Frederick of the Netherlands, the bowl bearing 
in relief the story of Diana and Actseon ; the foot 
is decorated with the characteristic baroque 
ornament. Similar work also appears on the 
base of a figure of Atlas in the Trippenhuis, 
Amsterdam, and on an ewer and two salvers 
belonging to the trustees of the Popta Hospital at 
Marssum, a village near Leeuwarden, in Friesland.' 

The influence of this Utrecht group of silver- 
smiths was felt to some extent in Germany, and, 
which is of greater interest to us, in England. 
Originality of idea and design, which was so 
marked a feature of the work of mediaeval crafts- 
men in this country, was not so apparent in the 
Renaissance and subsequent periods. The silver- 
smith was content rather to draw his inspiration 
from outside sources, though we must admit that 
he developed these ideas along his own lines. The 
weird novelty of the Utrecht designs presented 
considerable fascination, and it is perhaps owing 
to the publication of Christian's book in 1650 that 
we find several London silversmiths adapting this 
strange decoration to their English vessels. The 
ten years which succeeded the Restoration of 
Charles II were busy times for the craftsmen, and 
not least for the silversmiths, who were called 
upon to provide regalia and suitable plate for the 
coronation of that monarch. Prominent among 
the royal plate in the Tower of London is the 
great silver-gilt wine-fountain, surmounted by a 
figure of Cleopatra, bought of Sir Robert Vyner, 
the King's goldsmith, and presented to Charles II 

^ Reproductions of all these pieces may be seen in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. 


lECENT experiences in the saleroom 
I shew that the dealer in works of art 
Jcannot afford to let English tapestries 
)pass as he was prone to do a few years 
iago. And for two reasons : step by 
step we are learning to know what English tapes- 
tries were like ; and in equal measure we are 
learning generally to like things English. The 
latter reason finds a partial explanation in the 
natural desire to rehabilitate the interiors of old 
houses up and down the country more or less as 
they were in the past. But this is not all. We 
have become of late years more willing to be 
honest about what we like ; we are tired of liking 
to order. There was a certain fitness in the 
spontaneous, and often naive, outlook of the 

by the borough of Plymouth ; the smaller cavities 
of the bowl, as well as the borders which divide 
the larger cavities, might almost have been taken 
direct from Adam van Vianen's designs. Several 
of the royal salt-cellars bear the same style of 
ornamentation [PLATE II, c] ; and two large 
tankards have bacchanalian scenes set in borders 
of similar work. Although the figure-subjects 
on the tankards bear the Hamburg hall-mark, 
Mr. Alfred Jones is of opinion that the borders 
which enclose them are English work.* The 
Utrecht style is also clearly traceable on the two 
standing cups which are here illustrated by per- 
mission of the respective companies to which they 
belong ; the one replacing an earlier piece given 
to the Goldsmiths' Company by Richard Hanbury 
in 1608, and the other bearing the London hall- 
mark for 1666, the gift of John Sanders to the 
Grocers' Company [Pl.ate III, E, k]. The 
Clothworkers' Company possesses a cylindrical 
standing salt-cellar of earlier form presented by 
Daniel Waldo in 1660, with ornamentation clearly 
of the Utrecht school. But probably the gro- 
tesqiieness of the style is most prominently 
exhibited in the porringer and cover bearing the 
London hall-mark for 1668, the property of 
C. J. Jackson, Esq. [Plate III, e]. Other 
English pieces are known, dating from the same 
period,^^ but the attraction of the style for the 
craftsmen of this country seems to have died out 
before the end of the 17th century. 

* See E. Alfred Jones— JAs old Royal Plate in the Tower of 
London, pp. 31, 33. 

' A fine silver-gilt rose-water dish of 1660 is illustrated by 
E. Alfred ]one=,— Catalogue of the Collection of Old Plate of 
Leopold de Rothschild, Esquire, PI. nil. 

[Our thanks are due to the gentlemen named and to the 
Goldsmiths' and Grocers' Companies for permission to publish 
the pieces illustrated. — Ed.] 

general run of artists and craftsmen throughout 
the country, and it is natural that sympathy with 
a past not lacking in expression and honest 
purpose, should eventually reassert itself. William 
Hazlitt writes somewhere about " refining the 
sense of beauty to agony ", a process which in the 
end too often leads to the loss of the substance 
while grasping at the shadow. The English 
tapestry-panel which attracted some attention in 
the Red Cross Sale at Christie's, to which it was 
contributed by Lord Leconfield, is now introduced 
to a wider circle, and it is most gratifying to think 
that by Lady Wernher's generosity [Plate, a] it 
has become a national possession. In the galleries 
of the Victoria and Albert Museum it will be a 
lasting memorial of her activities at the sale. The 
panel is a fine one, and our appreciation of it will not 
be dimmed by the reflection that it may be safely 
claimed as English. Is it the work of " I. Morris ", 


(B; silver TAZZA. NICNI.II ■ A ' 111- VIANA ' VV. ' ao IblS -, HKKIHT 5^' lMI< >^- l- 

(11' IN 1 1 I'P ■]( 'i|- 

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(d) silver PORRlNi.KK'. « 11 H oiVl R, I.dNDoN, II 68, >U li.l 

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Recent Acquisitions for Public Qollections 

whose name was woven into the border of the 
tapestries from Perrystone Court sold at Christie's 
in July 1916 ? We must confess that in design it 
has the semblance of Dutch art filtered through 
French rococo. But so had the Perrystone panels, 
and there is a good number of others of the same 
type in the country. Two well-known mansions, 
one in Rutland and the other in Worcestershire, 
have complete sets. There is also a set from 
a house in Cumberland, and another in the north 
of Ireland. In conjunction with these must be 
remembered the panel from an English house given 
to the Victoria and Albert Museum by Messrs. 
Duveen Brothers in 1901, and sundry odd panels 
which have appeared in the market from time to 

It is by no means a foregone conclusion that 
all these, including Lady Wernher's panel, are 
from the same atelier. Tapestry- weavers [at all 
times have been in the habit of copying one 
another's work. But it is interesting to recall 
Mr. MacColl's suggested identification of the 
craftsman whose name was woven into the 
tapestries from Perrystone Court with Joshua 
Morris, " upholsterer and tapestry worker ", who 
was sued by Hogarth in 1727 for payment for a 
tapestry design drawn by the latter, but not 
approved by Morris.' In his defence Morris 
claimed that he employed some of the finest 
hands in Europe in working tapestry, who were 
most of them foreigners, and had worked abroad 
as well as in England.^ This statement throws 
light on the conditions of tapestry-weaving at the 
time in the country. Incidentally it provides a 
plausible explanation for the foreign element in 
the design of such panels as Lady Wernher's, and 
accounts for the obvious break with the later 
tradition of the Mortlake factory (then recently 
closed), where most English tapestry-weavers at 
the time had probably served their apprenticeship. 
The colouring of Lady Wernher's panel is re- 
markably decorative. The flowers and birds are 
in their natural colours, gay, k'aried and delicately 
shaded. The scroll work is mostly in gold colour 
shaded into brown and relieved by touches of 
strong red and blue. The background on which 
the vase is set is a pale grey, with a slight tone 

' Burlington Magazine, Oct. 1917. 

^ Biographical Anecdotes of ]Villiani Hogarth, by J. Nichols, 
1785. PP- 24-5. 

of brown. The coittrefond beyond is now greenish- 
blue, but the back of the tapestry shows that it was 
originally a full-toned green. 

The small panel contributed to the same sale 
by Mrs. Welldon and acquired for presentation 
to the museum by Mr. Otto Beit [Plate, b] is of 
no less interest in its way.' It may be safely 
classed as English and of approximately the same 
date as Lady Wernher's. At first sight the affinity 
of the two panels is not very obvious, but there are 
links of evidence bringing them into line. The 
well-known tapestry settee in Earl Brownlow's 
possession at Belton House* provides the chief 
argument. The flowers upon this, represented in 
two stone vases, are very similar in treatment to 
those on Mr, Beit's panel, but they are supported 
and enclosed by structural scrollwork in the 
manner of Lady Wernher's panel. The English 
origin of Earl Brownlow's tapestry is placed 
beyond doubt by the name "Bradshaw " woven 
into it. As before stated,' we know very little 
about this weaver who worked in London, 
but can he have been the William Bradshaw 
called on behalf of the defendant in the 
Hogarth-Morris suit ? And could Bradshaw 
himself have been one of those "finest hands 
in Europe " whom Morris claimed to have 
in his employment ? If this surmise is correct, 
the appearance of two different names, Morris 
and Bradshaw, on two very similar tapestries 
is explained. But there is no real need to 
theorise ; the facts give us all we want to 
establish the English origin both of Lady 
Wernher's and Mr. Beit's panels. The latter is 
on a russet ground which has toned down on the 
front to a shade consonant with the lacquered 
furniture with which it was probably meant to 
harmonise. The scrollwork border is in yellow 
shaded to brown with touches of red. Other 
examples like Mr. Beit's are on chairs at Belton 
House, and in the possession of Mr. Frank 
Green, and in a screen which has been for some 
years on loan from Lieut.-Col. Croft Lyons in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. But Mr. Beit's 
yields to none of these in skilful workmanship 
and fine preservation. 

' It was mounted in a carved pole-screen to which it did not 
originally belong. 

* Art Journal, Oct. 1911, p. 325- 
° Btirl. Mag., April, I9i7' 




TILL more Florentine is the second 
of the two cassoni which came from 
the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova 
to the Museo Nazionale [Plates]. 
It illustrates, in fact, the Feast of 
S. John, the commemoration which during many 
centuries has inspired the populace of Florence 
with the most enthusiasm. An event of this kind, 
well adapted to sumptuous ornament in paint- 
ing, could not — one would suppose — fail to be 
illustrated on cassoni and spalliere, on which are 
so often represented contemporary events of any 
importance, such as the tournaments of Santa 
Croce, the entry of Charles viii,' and others. Yet, 
so far as is known to us, a Florentine painter 
recorded only this once, on this cassone, the annual 
festival of the Patron to which artists contributed 
much by their art. Poets, historians and men 
of letters, on the other hand, are never tired of 
celebrating it. The chroniclers, with Villani at 
their head, are already writing of it in the 14th 
centur3\ At the beginning of the 15th, Goro Dati 
interrupts his " Istoria di Firenze" in order to 
make room for a full description of the festival. 
Zanobi Pierini writes a long canzone upon it, in 
1407. A Greek who had been present at the 
celebration of 1439 is moved to hand down to us 
his admiration. In 1475 the goldsmith, Piero 
Cennini writes of it in detail to his friend Perrino 
d'Amelia. Matteo Palmieri describes it in his 
" History"and Filippo Rinuccini in his "Records". 
It is only in the i6th century that the long series 
of historians,' beginning with Giovanni Cambi, 
regard the festival more retrospectively according 
to the phases through which it passed. 

Yet no written account is so rich in detail, so 
precise or so effective, as the illustration of the 
cassone. The festival which it presents to us is 
the one celebrated during the first decades of 
1400. That is clear from the style of the painting, 
which approaches R ossello di Jacopo Franchi's. 
* [Since it has not been practicable to submit final proofs to 
the author. Dr. Giacomo de Nicola must not be held responsible 
for clerical errors. — En.] 

' But the picture by Granacci now in the Uffizi is not meant, 
according to the intention of the patron who commissioned it, 
so much to celebrate an event exceptional for the city as a date 
memorable in the history of Charles vill, for he chose as the 
fellow subject, Tlu- Entry of CUarUsvm into Rome. This results 
from an unpublished document, to which it seems opportune to 
refer here. In the Invcntario dc^li Og,ctti del Gnardarolm dc 
Medici kept in Rome between 1571 and 1588 is entered under 
the year 1571 : " Dua Quadri Antichi dipinti in tauola ct in uno 
Dipinto la uia largha di fir^"' quando il Re di francia fccc 
lentrata c ncl altro quando entro trionfante in Roma hinghi br. 
6 c alti br. 4 con ornamenti di noce manolalici di fir^e m. 
Parugio Giadonati disse auerli auuti da m. Lutoz/o Nasi a di 2 
di luglio 1539" (Firciizc,Aich. di Stato, Invent, di Giiardaroba, 
No. 79, c. 45)- 

"By the last, Girolamo Mancini {Rivista d'Artc, 1909, pp. 
185-227), are cited almost all the sources to which I refer here. 


One particular, the isolation of the porphyry 
columns from the church of S. John, establishes 
a tcniiimis ante qiicm, for it is known that they 
were not built into the sides of the doorway until 
1429.'' But the certainty of the date of the 
matrimonial alliance between the two families 
whose coats-of-arms appear between the tondi of 
The Virtues that are near the corners of the cassone 
fixes 1416 or 1417 as the e.xact date of its execu- 
tion. The coats are, on the sinister side, the 
husband's, Fini, azure, a lion's head between 
three stars of eight points, or ; and on the dexter 
side, the wife's, Aldobrandini, azure, a band 
between two lilies, or ;* both families being 
resident in the quarter of Santa Maria Novella. 
Now the Florentine genealogists record that in 
1417 or 1418 Tommaso di Berto Fini married 
Giana di Filippo Aldobrandini,' and among the 
various matrimonial alliances which can be traced 
between the two families" this is the only one 
that coincides with the time in which the style 
of painting places the cassone. 

The appearance of the Piazza del Duomo in the 
first half of the quattrocento was not as it is at 
present, and the decorator of the cassone restores 
it for us with great fidelity.' The front of the 
Duomo had the surface around Arnolfo's 
decoration of the three doors, peopled with statues 
and statuettes in niches, dominated by Donatello's 
S. John the Evangelist. We also see here the left- 
hand door and part of Arnolfo's Nativity relief, and 
on the right a niche containing a statue exactly 
similar to the scarce reproductions left to us from 
the statues of the ancient front. No other graphic 
document supplies us with the variants in the 
Baptistery which we find in this cassone. The 
porphyry columns, which the Pisans on their 
return from capturing the Balearic Islands, pre- 
sented to the Florentines, in acknowledgment of 
the help which they had received from thein on 
that occasion, are represented isolated from the 
church, because, as already stated, they were not 
built into the walls until 1429. Hanging from the 
Pisan columns is a trophy of the war with Pisa, 
the chains of the Port of Pisa which were taken 
by Grimaldi, the Genoese, in the service of 
Florence in 1362, and remained exhibited not only 

» K. Frey, Vasari, i (19"), P- 34^, Reg. 78. 

* To Dr, Schubring the coats appear to be the Florentine lily 
and the Marzocco (p. 224. No. 24). 

' Deir Ancisa, in his Spo^li di famigjie fioreutme {Firenze, 
Arclio. di Stale, F F. c. 3, e H H,c. 280) repeats twice the year 
1417, but Dei, an archivist, no less accurate, substitutes 1418 for 
the 1417 which he had himself previously written {Ibid., Carte 
Dei, 'famiglia Aldobrandini, No. 1 76). The date of the mar- 
riage therefore remains uncertain, and consequently the date of 
the execution of the work lies between these two years. 

* For example, a possibility with which I have had to reckon 
was that the coat might be Benci instead of Fini, for both 
families bore the same coat of the same tinctures. 

' A plan of the site as depicted in the scene is given here on 
p. 225. 





-^ --y?^ h.\^' 

Notes on the Museo Nazionale of Florence 

there but on several other Florentine public 
buildings until 1848, when Pisa received them 
back again. Over the door of the Baptistery 
which looks on to the Bigallo, under a gothic 
canopy, is S.John baptizing Christ, with an Angel. 
This is one of the marble groups, executed, 
perhaps, between 1309 and 131 3,' which were 
afterwards replaced, because they were "cosi goffi 
che pareva recassero vergogna'7 by the well 
known groups by Sansovino, Rustici and Danti. 
That the scene of the Baptism was where Vincenzo 
Danti's Decollation is now, is corroborated by the 
fact that when in 1502 the new group of The 
Baptism was ordered of Andrea Sansovino its 
destination was described as "over the door 
towards the Misericordia or Bigallo ",'" its position 
over the door of The Paradiso being an after- 
thought." Between the Baptistery and the Duomo, 
behind the court of the " palii ", the cassone shows 
a palace of the Florentine trecento type. This 
cannot be the 
Bishop's Palace, 
as Schiaparelli 
states,'^ but the 
group of houses 
belonging to the 
Mar tell i, the 
Viviani and the 
Lorini, which 
stretched along 
the Via delle 
from the present 
Via de' Martelli 
to the Via Rica- 
soli. The three 

houses torme a p,j^ ^f ,[jg ^^g^g pf the ffste A Sau Giomuin!.—!, Duomo. 2, San Giovanni. 3- Por 
COntmuOUS ime phyry columns. 4, Via della Fondamenta. 5, Via degli Spadai. 6, Case Martelli. 
like one house, 7,C.iseVivarini. 8, Case Lorini. 9, Workshops of the cofanai. 10, Loggia del Bigallo. 

for a decree of 

theArte della Lana of 1388 had ordered that in this 
stretch of road the houses should be constructed on 
a similar plan." And the three houses seem to close 
'the egress which the Via Larga had on to the Piazza 
del Luomo, through the Via degli Spadai, as the 
Via de' Martelli was then called, for that street was 
very narrow and certainly invisible from the point 

8 Vasari (ed. Milanesi, vi, p. 603) assigns them to 124°. but it 
was not until between 1309 and 1313 that a Deliberazione dell 
Arte dei Mercatanti decided to have a Baptism by S. John m 
marble placed over both the doors of the baptistery (Frey, 
Vasari, l, pp. 332-3, Reg. 16). The style of the figures m the 
little reproduction accentuates still more clearly the trecentesque 
style of the tabernacle. 

" Frey, Vasari, I, p. 347, Reg. I37- 

" Frey, op.cit., Reg. 136. 

" The sopraporta of the cassone was annotated and repro- 
duced by T. B. Supino in Gli alhori dclV arte fioreiitiiia, 1906, 
p 92, and the detail of the porphyry columns by Fr. Rupp m 
Der Iiikrustatioiisstil der romanischen Baiikunst in tlorenz, 
1912, p. 85, fig. 23. £ . „ 

1' A. Schiaparelli, La casafioreiitma, i, i90o> P- 50| nota 2. 

IS G. Carocci, Illustratore fiorentino, 1915. PP- 71-3- 

of view at which the painter regards the scene 
This point of view probably was from his own 
workshop, for there were workshops of "cofanai ", 
coffer and cassoni makers, just on the Piazza de 
S. Giovanni between the Bigallo and the Bishop's 
Palace. He reproduces here that part of the 
festival which is occupied with the offering of the 
" palii ". The offerings at the Festival of S. John 
began on the vigil of the feast day with the 
offering of the " ceri " made by the citizens as- 
sembled under the city banner. In the morning 
of the feast itself followed, with inore spectacular 
magnificence, the offerings of the cities and 
territories subject to Florence and of the Signori 
of the Zecca. The procession was formed in the 
Piazza delle Signoria, whence it approached the 
Piazza by way of S.Pietro Scheraggio, the Loggia 
del Grano, the churches of Bordia and of S. Maria 
in Campo, the Duomo and the Via della Fonda- 
menta, Further, in our cassone it is very clear 

that the proces- 
sion enters the 
Piazza San Gio- 
vanni, winding 
round the 
Duomo from the 
Via della Fonda- 
menta. The 
procession was 
headed by the 
Captains of the 
Guelph Party 
with the knights 
and most 
honourable citi- 
zens ; these were 
followed by the 
offerings of the 
territories tribu- 
tary to Florence 
—that is to say, the "palii" borne by men on horse- 
back, and then the " ceri " or " torri " or " carri ", 
as are variously called certain lofty constructions 
of wood and cardboard, in varied forms, almost 
all gilded, and ornamented with painting and 
sculpture, drawn on cars or carried on men's 
shoulders ; following these were the Signori of the 
Zecca with their "cero", which was the richest 
of all, the Priori, the Podesta, etc." 

On our cassone the last " palii " are about to 
enter the church, and behind them, at the corner 
of the Duomo, appear the first of the " ceri ". The 
crowd is near to the Duomo and S.Giovanni, and 
seated in two rows on benches, with their backs 
against the houses and the fronts decorated with 
flowers. Some groups allow their attention to 
be distracted by a cheap-jack who has planted 

" This is the order of the procession in the time of the 
chronicler Goro Dati (htoiia di Firenze, Firenze, 1735. PP- 84- 
89), who wrote during the first years of the quattrocento — that 
is to say, a few years before the execution of the cassone. 


Notes on the Museo Nazionale of Florence 

his booth and signboard near the apse of S. 
Giovanni." The ground is strewn with branches. 
High above a blue awning powdered with golden 
lilies, in circles, with coats of arms of the Arte 
dei Mercanti, gules, an eagle on the " torsello ", 
and public coats is stretched over the piazza by 
means of strong cords fastened to the Duomo, 
San Giovanni and the houses.'* The knights who 
wear the "palii " proceed two by two flanked by 
trumpeters who sound long silver trumpets from 
which hang white pennons charged with a great 
red lily. 

All this we see on the cassone, and all this we 
find again exactly stated in the chronicles, but the 
cassone-maker presents the forms of the "ceri" 
and the "palii" more precisely than the 

Of the group of the four "ceri " just emerged 
from the Via della Fondamcnta we can see well 
only the upper part, as the rest of the painting is 
very much damaged. They have hemispherical 
or elliptical domes, painted blue, powdered with 
golden stars and spots, and surmounted by the 
Florentine lily, or a globe or knob. Of the first 
"cero" we can just make out the whole form, a 
circular tower, and a little of the rich decoration, 
a "putto" supporting the coat of arms of the 
People. The " ceri " are carried on men's 
shoulders by means of wooden litters with wooden 
supports, at" intervals, painted red, evidently sup- 
ports for the " cero " when placed on the ground. 
These supports perhaps also served to carry 
tapers, as they end above the litters in somewhat 
enlarged heads with funnels, like candlesticks. 

The " palio " is composed of a rectangular cloth 
about three metres high and 80 centimetres wide, 
kept stretched between two wooden staves, to 
which it is attached by means of five or six 
ribbons placed at equal distances. Each ribbon of 
the hinder stave is tinished with an ermine tail. 
The front staff, which is guided by a knight, is 
sometimes painted in two colours repeated in 
the higher planes. The cloth is often richly 
ornamented, and in many instances traversed 
in the middle perpendicularly by a polychrome 
pale about twelve centimetres broad, or more 
rarely transversely by bends placed about 50 
centimetres apart. In the middle of the cloth is 
a coat-of-arms, perhaps of the territory which the 
"palio" represents, or perhaps of the knight to 
whom it is entrusted." The decoration of both 
sides of the "palio" is uniform, as we can see in 

" The presence of cheap-jacks and jugglers during the 
festival is noted by the chroniclers also. 

" That the awnings would have been precisely such is told us 
not only by the chroniclers, but also by the documents of 
the Arte dei Mercanti, whose duty it was to provide for the 
decoration of the festival (see P'rey, op. cil., p. 338, Keg. 41). 
In 1514 it was discovered tliat the awnings had damaged San 
Giovanni, which was consequently girt with an iron chain (ibid., 


the first two " palii " of which the opposite sides 
to those of the rest are shown, the knights having 
been obliged to slant them as they lowered them 
in order to enter under the door of the church. 
At the top extremity of the " palio " is a fascia half 
protruding from the middle of the hinder staves 
decorated with four of the public coats-of-arms on 
a blue field powdered with golden lilies : to the 
end of the front staff is fastened a sheaf of foliage 
with red flowers, probably branches of oleander. 
Among the " palii " thus described, the last visible 
to us is entirely gilded, with a longitudinal frieze 
in the middle, also gold, with the addition of two 
coats-of-arms at the top and a gold lily instead 
of the sheaf of oleander. The knight's doublet 
and his horse's trappings are also gold. This more 
elaborately decorated and more sumptuously 
attended " palio " is evidently the palio to be pre- 
sented'as the prize to the victor in the race which 
took place in the afternoon of S. John's Day itself.'* 
As the "palii" and "ceri " entered the church 
one by one they were hung against the walls and, 
until 1484,'^ were not removed from them until 
they were replaced by the " palii " and " ceri " of 
the next year's festival. The cassone of Santa 
Maria Nuova has given us considerable informa- 
tion about the festivities on the recurrence of the 
patronal festival at the offering of the " palii " ; but, 
as in the cassone with the novella of Messer 
Torello, the chronicle followed with a second 
cassone which represented precisely The Race of the 
Palio. The cassone was owned in 1741 by the 
Marchese Alamanno Bartolini-Salimbeni, and in 
that year was described and illustrated by theCav. 
Andrea da Varrazzano on the "Atti della Societa 
Colombaria di Firenze ", to which the Cavaliere 
belonged.^" Of this also, as of the second 
boccaccesque cassone, all traces are lost.^' And 
thus a document very important to Florentine 
history is cut short in the middle of its theme. 

" But here they seem rather to be the coats of families related 
or friendly to the families of Fini and Aldobrandini. But I 
have not succeeded in identifying any of them with certainty. 
The coats which are on the cheap-jack's standard on either side 
of S. Pixtd belong to the families Del Biada and Amerighi, both 
of the Quartiere di S. Maria Novella. 

'* " Cloth of gold trimmed with red damask, with a gold pale in 
the middle, with public coats of arms ; at the upper ends a blue 
chief, with gold lilies and three little shields : lined with vair". 
This is the description of tliis same " palio" in the account of 
the cassone with The Race of the Palio which was the fellow 
and sequel of ours. And the description corresponds with the 
" palio" of ours, except that in ours the red brocade has dis- 
appeared, not having been securely fastened to the cloth-of-gold 

" P'ilippo Rinuccini, Ricordi slorici, ed. AiazzI, 1840, 
p. cxxxviii. 

*■ Biblioteca della Societa Colombaria, Sunto di materie 
froposte dal Tarpalo, tomo l.^. c. 3^-"3. 

I must here thank cordially Dr. Umberto Dorini, from whom 
I learnt of the existence at the Societa Colombaria of the record 
of the Bartolini cassone. 

-' On the present locality of this cassone-front see the Editorial 
Note below, p. 245, under the heading " Letters with Notes ". 


AINTERS usually occur in bunches, 
and the bunch of Scott Lauder's 
pupils at the Trustees' Academy, which 
included William McTaggart, was a 
considerable one for a small country 
like Scotland. Orchardson, Hugh Cameron, 
Pettie, Tom Graham, Paul Chalmers, Colin Hunter 
all started well in painting from the Wilkie tradi- 
tion. Most of them took their way to London, 
and one or two survived as painters among the 
exhibition influences there. Of the two who found 
their chief subjects on the West Highland coasts, 
Colin Hunter had the more striking conceptions 
for pictures, but his painting reached no fineness 
internally. McTaggart, who remained in Scotland, 
sacrificing thereby the big money-prizes of his art, 
took his material very casually, but did develop a 
remarkable sensibility to sunlight and moonhght, 
wind and weather, and a sketch-technique to 
render these and their effects upon waves and 
boats and fields and skies. 

But before dealing with the "appreciative" part 
of our author's work let us summarise his interest- 
ing account of the painter's beginnings. It is the 
story of the thrifty and sturdy Scot, more French 
than English in its character. He was born in 
1835, the son of a Campbelltown carrier, and 
escaped from apprenticeship with an apothecary 
to throw himself, at seventeen, with a few pounds 
in his pocket and a little amateur practice, upon 
portrait painting in the town. He trusted to the 
clannishness of Campbelltown folk to give him 
commissions ; was prepared to live on a few 
shillings a week, and determined to win a school- 
ing. He carried out his programme, a good deal 
through the friendship of a ship's captain, who 
took him over to Dublin and introduced him 
there. For small sums he executed portraits in 
the summer vacations, and thus paid his way at 
school. His fellows recognised his gift ; he was 
noticed and purchased from thefirst at the Academy 
exhibitions, and in due course b2came an 
Associate (1859), an Academician (1870), the father 
of a first and a second family, and a quietly pro- 
sperous local artist. He detested equally intrigue 
and advertisement, resisted the baits of social 
success in London, hardly ever exhibited out of 
Scotland, and was content with a genial family 
and artist life in his own place. He is un- 
represented as yet in any English public collec- 
tion, and those of us who know him at all do not 
know him thoroughly enough to speak quite 
conclusively about him. 

Mr. Caw, on the other hand, was his intimate 
friend and son-in-law, as well as an enthusiastic 
admirer. These titles have their advantage for 

* William McTaggart, R.S. A., V.P.R.S.W. A Biography and 
an Appreciation. By James L. Caw. Glasgow, James Macle- 
hose and Sons, 1917- 

a biographer who undertakes to track his 
subject in his work from year to year, or to 
undertake, as Mr. Caw has done, the careful 
chronological catalogue with which the volume 
ends. Admiration too was called for, but would 
have been more effective if more exactly defined 
and measured and very greatly reduced in bulk. 
When a rhapsody is renewed over each picture 
as it is mentioned, the mind of the reader is 
somewhat battered with adjectives, and the writer 
himself exhausted by the pitch he has set. 
Better than all this, because more exact and 
penetrating, are the few plain words of one of 
McTaggart's fellow-artists quoted on page 63 : 

They are nothing short of just downright fresh air, and 
if that isn't everyttiing, I don't know what is . . . you 
have got the gift of putting such delicious freshness into 
your work, that it's nearly as good as going to the country. 
Now if "downright fresh air" were everything, 
this encomium would justify Mr. Caw's claim 
for McTaggart as a painter of the first rank, and 
different in degree if not in kind from his con- 
temporaries. But the director of a national 
gallery should not be carried off his feet by fresh 
air alone among pictorial qualities, since the fact 
is that McTaggart is weak in the fundamental 
building part of picture-making. This is illus- 
trated by the portraits, figure-pieces and sea- 
pieces alike, which are reproduced in this volume, 
the more clearly because the charm of colour 
and high-pitched light is absent (the one colour- 
reproduction is, as usual, a shocking failure). 
In the frontispiece portrait there is character 
and a rich swish of tone, but no control of 
forms to grip the eye or connect the subject 
with the frame. The architecture of a church holds 
The Past and Present together to some extent, 
but in Spring the carefully worked-out figures 
are in an undistinguished landscape against a 
trivial horizon, and the same is true of Data. In a 
sea-piece like Through Wind and Rain the fishing- 
boat sets up awkward forms, as do the foreground 
groups in many of the sea-pictures. The painter of 
the sea from the beach is faced with difficult prob- 
lems of composition : either he must accept the 
definite three stripes of land, sea and sky, or break 
across them with a countercharge of pattern in 
cloud and light, shipping and figures. If he turns 
sideways to include another element from the 
jutting out of a headland or spit of sand he has to 
meet the new difficulty of balance for this triangle. 
How far did McTaggart apprehend and overcome 
such difficulties ? there is a very fair and sober 
summing-up in the words of another artist friend, 
Mr. Hugh Cameron, which follow close on those 
of Mr. Lawson already quoted : 

I always looked upon him as doing pioneer work. He 
put aside convention after convention in his consistent and 
purposeful development towards theexprtssionof the things 
in nature which fascinated him. The figure incidents with 
which he began were gradually subordinated until they 


William McTaggart 

became accessory to tlie atmospheric effects he painted. 
I do not think that the more formal part of art interested 
him much, for he seems to have designed from his 
wonderful instinct for selecting the paintable elements in 
what was before him and by his fine sense of colour and 

Behind this friend's estimate we may read the 
judgment that McTaggart was gifted in one part 
of painting and that his instinct for this wrought 
upon what he rather naively accepted at first, 
reducing what was imported and groping towards 
singleness and coherence. That is a true witness; 
and underlining more than the friend cared to do, 
and expanding a little, we might put his case as 
follows : The figures of his first phase, the girl in 
Past and Present, the 'children in Spring, the 
figures in Dora and so on, are almost pure Millais 
of the Preraphaelite time, with a more Scottish 
accent. In his second phase McTaggart is one of 
those localised painters of whom, for sea and 
figure subjects, Hook is his English contemporary, 
Israels and Biommers the Dutch. Hook's art is 
an uncomfortable one because his figures assert 
themselves too much to be accessories to the sea, 
but are not interesting or important enough in 
scale to play the lead in the picture ; there is a 
division of interest. The same is true of the 
earlier McTaggart. The studio figures make a 
poor pattern and stick out of the sea and weather. 
The difference is that McTaggart was instinc- 
tively aware of this. It did not lie within 
his gifts to design his figures in a grander 
way, nor was he austere enough to throw them 
overboard ; but as the weather became more 
and more his theme he came to treat them as 
a kind of limpets on his rocks, or anemones, 
and to paint them as if the wind were disinte- 
grating them into blown flakes of foam or torn 
rags of seaweed. The Daybreak, Kilbrannon 
Sound, for example, is a variant upon Hook's 
Luff, Boy, but the boat and the figures are dashed 
in like the crests of waves. On these terms he 
sometimes succeeded in placing his figures happily. 

and in any case contrived that they should inter- 
fere less with his real subject ; yet the Ocean 
and Atlajitic S;(;/gain in impressiveness by their 
absence. By minimising the part of shape and 
tone he reached a relative goal; all-overishness of 
bright light and windy movement, with scudding 
and wisping notes of foam. 

Where is he to be placed among the masters of 
a scrabbled shorthand? One of the contemporary 
critics used to call the school of the West High- 
lands the " Scotch Impressionists ", and it may be 
claimed for McTaggart that he paralleled inde- 
pendently the French movement, of which Monet 
was the leader, in two respects — pursuit of high 
shimmering light and adoption of a shorthand for 
its rapid notation and the suggestion of its come 
and go. The two painters have not been suffi- 
ciently confronted for any final estimate of their 
respective places, and we should have to see as 
many McTaggarts as Mr. Caw has seen, and pick 
them over carefully, to be sure of our ground. 
But when Mr. Caw puts Monet into a separate 
and lower class, " scientific " as opposed to an 
"imaginative" McTaggart, he is the victim of a 
common mistake about Monet and plays the 
special pleader for his own favourite. The 
feverish notation of light and weather is 
" imaginative" for both so far as it goes, but does 
not become more imaginative for one of them 
by the introduction of figures with a sentimental 
title. It is only the title that differentiates the 
Emigrant Ship from any other incidental ship in 
a marine picture. The French painter was more 
strictly conscious of his aim, and there was a 
temperamental difference: he handles his matter 
more brokenly ; McTaggart saw tone more swim- 
mingly, and did not force the purple note. 
When such things are possible again, Mr. Caw 
might be invited to join with Mr. Aitken in 
giving us a select exhibition of his idol at 
the Tate, combined with his French contem- 



• LTHOUGH the furniture of our 
^Elizabethan and Jacobean periods is 
very picturesque and sympathetic, it 
lacks the learnedness of design and 
Lexpertness of craftsmanship which had 
already been attained in Italy and France. After 
the Restoration of 1660 England saw a rapid 
development of these qualities, and what in the 
domains of architecture and decoration was being 
effected by Wren and Gibbons, was also reached, 
in their sphere, by our furniture makers. If they 
did not quite emulate the palatial manner, the 


ambitious gorgeousness, of some of their leading 
Continental compeers, certainly, by the beginning 
of the 1 8th century, they had, as producers of 
fine domestic stuff, reached a very high standard 
of excellence. This makes the reigns of Anne 
and of the first two Georges of particular interest 
in our furniture annals, and I propose, in a short 
series of articles, rapidly to survey the leading 
types that then prevailed, illustrating the theme 
from the collection of Mr. Percival Griffiths, who 
has gradually brought together a mass of repre- 
sentative pieces dating from this half-century. 
The period is marked by a salient feature, and 

English Furniture of the Cabriole Period (^1700-1760^) 

may be described as the age of the cabriole. The 
straight leg held its own under William III, and 
became the vogue again under George III ; 
but during the intervening reigns it fell out of 
fashion. It merely appears as a survival under 
Anne, and an occasional revival under George II, 
thus emphasising the prevalence of the cabriole. 
The normal Restoration leg had been a straight 
twist strengthened by turned or twisted stretchers, 
an arrangement which we find in the majority 
of early Charles II tables and cabinet stands, as 
well as m chairs and settees. U ntil then oak was the 
prevailing material of English furniture, although 
already in the i6th century walnut was the custo- 
mary wood in Italy and France. In England it 
was then a scarce tree little known to commerce, 
and when the word occurs in Elizabethan inven- 
tories it probably refers to foreign-made furniture 
imported by travelled Englishmen. For instance, 
Sir Thomas Smith was in Paris as ambassador in 
the early days of the reign. A few years after his 
return an inventory was made of the contents of 
his country house of Ankerwick, near Eton. 
Therein we read that the parlour had " a great 
foulding table of Walnut Tre ", and there are also 
a little court table of walnut and a cupboard of 
walnut and pear. No doubt they were pieces 
typical of the style of Francois I" or his son and 
grandsons, but such importations turned our 
attention to their material, and the planting of 
walnut trees became habitual. Thus there had 
grown up in this country an adequate supply of 
the wood fit for felling when Charles II landed at 
Dover in 1660, bringing with him the Continental 
fashions, which favoured the use of the 
lighter and more easily carved wood. Walnut 
then held the field until it was superseded by 
mahogany at about the middle of the Cabriole 
period, so that the early pieces are almost 
exclusively of walnut, and the later of mahogany. 

The straight leg of the Restoration shared 
popularity with the scroll, especially of the double 
C form, which was much favoured in the latter 
part of Charles II's reign. But with William III 
came a new form of straight leg, originating in 
France but probably reaching us through Hol- 
land, where it will have been introduced by 
Daniel Marot. It was baluster shaped, sometimes 
turned, but more often square or octagon, starting 
from a cap and diminishing as it descended to 
meet the stretchers that were inserted between the 
base of the leg and the bulbous foot, and formed 
a flat serpentine or set of C scrolls with a turned 
or carved vase at the central meeting point. The 
English examples soon took on a distinct native 
character, but the type arose in France early in 
Louis XlV's reign and was much used, until the 
i8th century closed, by Andre Charles Boule and 
his other leading cabinet-makers. Meanwhile the 
cabriole was being evolved. Unlike the scroll 

which it was to supersede, a living form was its 
immediate derivative. A French dancing term 
meaning a goat-leap, it is noticeable that a goat's 
foot was at first generally used to terminate the fur- 
niture leg that took the name and assumed a form 
that is a decorative adaptation of a quadruped's 
front leg from the knee downwards. Such a 
form consorts badly with a stretcher, which breaks 
the clean inner curve and projects awkwardly and 
unpleasantly from the fetlock. Fortunately, at 
the moment when design called for its abandon- 
ment, improved construction and workmanship 
rendered it unnecessary, so that, whereas it was 
usual at the beginning of Queen Anne's reign, at 
its end it was rare. Two writing desks, apart 
from the legs of much the same form and date, 
are illustrated to show the difference between the 
outgoing and the incoming fashion. That with 
straight legs [Plate I, a] is somewhat of a survival. 
The legs and stretcher are of William III type, but 
as the desk flap informs us that it was made 
from a tree which fell during the historic storm 
of 1703, and as it was then the habit to use 
wood well and naturally seasoned, it cannot 
date much before 1710, which brings us to a 
time not too early for the second desk to have 
been produced. The two are similar in measure- 
ment, in the arrangement of the flap and the 
fittings of the upper part, in the choice of finely 
figured walnut for the veneer and in the character 
of the banding. But, besides the legs, there is 
another point of difference. The one is a 
movable desk set on a stand, the other [Plate I, b] 
is all of one piece. A box with a sloping lid to 
write at when placed on a table was one of the 
very limited forms of early furniture, the chest, 
the table and the bench being the most important. 
From them had come many derivatives by the 
time the cabriole period began, and the multiplica- 
tion of small household effects led to the develop- 
ment and general use of the drawer and the 
cupboard. The inconvenience of the chest, of 
which the top must be cleared to reach the contents, 
became stongly felt when that top was more 
frequently set with utilities or ornaments. Modifi- 
cations were introduced. Its top was fixed and 
the front hinged. It was raised on short legs as 
a credence or hutch. The idea of the Court 
Cupboard is of chests superimposed. Into all 
such variations one or more drawers came to be 
fitted, and as their convenience was widely 
appreciated, not only did they occupy the 
entire body of chests very variant m form, 
but they were customary adjuncts of many 
other forms of furniture. Thus, with the 
cabriole there co-existed a multiplication of the 
drawer which threatened the existence of the 
le" in every piece of furniture which was not 
intended to sit on or to sit at. And even in the 
latter, where a flap falling or pulling forward 

R 233 

English Fur nit tire of the Cabriole Period fiyoO'i'j6oJ 

gave knee room in front of the main facia of 
the piece, the drawers descended to the ground. 
Thus in the first two desks illustrated there are 
two drawers only below the flap, and therefore 
the pieces terminate with legs. But in the 
third [Plate II, c], which is quite a quarter 
of a century later in date, the four drawers 
preclude the possibility of legs, and we get 
the chest of drawers with writing accommo- 
dation above, known as the "scrutoire" or 
bureau. Yet if the leg is gone the cabriole spirit 
is no less assertive. It controls the frame which 
swells forward on both front and sides. It also 
dictates the form of the footing, such as was 
adopted during the period even when the sides of 
a drawered piece were straight as in the last 
piece illustrated. 

Although furniture by the middle of the 
i8th century had assumed many forms, it was 
not in the abundance— shall we say the 
plethora ? — which characterises our own day, 

{To be 

when quantity is so much more popular than 
quality. There was, therefore, a desire to 
make each piece as compactly comprehensive 
as possible. Hence what Chippendale in "The 
Director " calls a " Buroe-Dressing Table " 
such as is shown in PLATE II, D. It is an 
exquisitely finished and contrived piece. The 
central cupboard pushes back to give added 
knee room. The top drawer, when pulled 
out, has a baize-covered top for writing, and 
the little drawer at the side holds ink bottles. 
But a shallow scoop at each end of this top 
gives hold for the fingers to push it back and 
disclose an elaborate array of boxes and divisions 
to hold all the toilet requisites demanded by the 
most exigent Georgian belle. If she wishes herself 
to embellish her face, she raises the central 
apparatus as a looking-glass. But when she 
submits her head to the prolonged processes of 
the hairdresser she reverses the apparatus and 
raises it again as a reading-frame. 


IKETCH-BOOKS by early artists pre- 
^served in their original state, or any- 
thing approaching it, are of very rare 
' occurrence, but in the case of the book 
}now to be described rarity interests us 
less than the artistic merit of the little sketches 
that it contains. The book in question measures 
4i by 6f inches fio'5 by 16 cm.), and is about 
i| inches (4 cm.) thick ; its parchment cover bears 
on one side the inventory number 200 in faded 
ink. There are 179 leaves loose within this cover; 
these are numbered in ink in the upper corners, 
and the highest number now preserved is 290. A 
cursory inspection suggests that many leaves are 
missing, but closer examination makes this doubt- 
ful, for in the first place the cover could never 
have held another hundred leaves, or even a much 
smaller number in excess of its present contents, 
and, secondly, the method pursued by the artist, or 
whoever the person was who numbered the leaves, 
is very erratic. When there is a sketch on the 
back of a leaf as well as the front, he generally, 
but not always, numbers either page. More dis- 
concerting than this, however, is his habit both of 
skipping and of duplicating numbers. This hap- 
pens chiefly with numbers which mark the end of 
a decade. Up to 100 all goes fairly well, only 32, 
67, 68 and 87 being absent, and 89, 90 occurring 
twice over ; then there is a gap between 100 and 
120, the number 120 itself occurs thrice, 140, 
150, 160 and 170 also thrice, with many irregu- 
larities among the intervening numbers ; there is 
again a gap between 200 and 220, while 220 itself 


occurs four times ; after 221 and 222 only 230, 240, 
250, 260, 270, 280 and 290 are found, sometimes 
in duplicate or triplicate, with no minor numbers 
intervening to complete the decades. Every leaf 
contains one or more sketches in black chalk, 
skilfully supplemented by slight washes of Indian 
ink. There is no signature whatever, but the first 
page, which represents two men, in cloaks blown 
about by a fresh wind, looking at a rainbow, bears 
the date " Den 7 Juni 1650 ". Sixteen other leaves 
bear inscriptions in black chalk, in the artist's 
handwriting, each of which gives the name of a 
place represented in the sketch, except one page 
(220 verso, here reproduced), which consists en- 
tirely of memoranda, mentioning the names of 
several contemporary artists with a list of prices, 
apparently of their works ; to this I will return 

' The inscribed leaves arc as follows : 7 (verso, referring to the 
sketch on 8 opposite [Plate I]) " D kerck te tiel " (Tielis on the 
right bank of Khine below Nymegen) ; iy,"De keerck te Wamel" 
(a ruin; Wamel is on the left bank of the Rhine below Nymegen) ; 
26, "T Huys te Ooy " (a chateau and neighbouring church; het 
Huis te Oyen, just south of Wamel, but on the Maas) ; 33, 
"Cleef"; 38, "De guese Kerck tot Kleef" (the church of the 
Gueu.x, or Geusen) ; 43, " Schenken schans" (a wide flat land- 
scape with hamlets and windmills, bounded by the ridge of a 
low hill ; the Schenkcnschanz is just within the German frontier, 
on the Khine between Emmerich and Nymegen) ; 44 [Plate II], 
46, " Cleef " (there are at least a dozen sketches of Clevcs from 
many points of view, besides those actually named) ; 56, 63, 
" Elttren Berch...Bergh" (a chateau and church among trees on 
a hill, represented, like Cleves, in several drawings besides these 
actually named ; the place is probably Elten, n.e. of Cleves); 
66, " neer Elten " (Lower Elten) ; 69, not decipherable with 
certainty (wooded landscape with water and a cottage); 99, 




•*-r1?-^ir' . k . 

■ I. 




, ^?-v^ 





^■-■. v-^- 




_ia::^>.-- .J 

The subjects represented include all the usual 
stock-in-trade of a Dutch landscape painter of the 
period : riverside and woodland scenery, country 
houses and castles, churches, windmills, cottages, 
peasants and travellers passing on horseback or in 
covered carts along roads through sand dunes, 
wide prospects over flat landscape and broad 
expanses of water, clumps of trees and groups of 
fishing boats. They include also studies of Staffage 
in the shape of cows, and little groups of figures, 
especially market women and their customers, 
sitting and standing round barrows and tubs of 
vegetables or fruit. The technique is invariably 
that already described, with the addition, in a 
single case, of a few touches of red chalk on a 
sail, while one sketch is drawn in brown chalk. 
The drawings are without exception fresh 
and vivid sketches from nature, evidently done 
entirely for the artist's own use, and eloquent of 
his interest in all that he saw on his travels, and 
his sense of the value of quite ordinary things as 
materials for artistic use in landscape compositions 
of more ambitious scope. 

Who was the artist ? Tradition carries us no 
further back than the second half of the 19th 
century. The sketch-book was bought on the 
continent by Mr. Johnson Neale, an old friend of 
the father of the present owner, Mr.T. Mark Hovell, 
F.R.C.S., of 105 Harley Street. A note placed at 
the beginning of the book, in the handwriting of 
Mr. Neale, informs us, on no authority now to be 
found in the book itself, that this is " Paul Pottei's 
sketch-book of his marriage tour up the Rhine, 
from the Hague to the Castle of Cleves, now called 
'Cleef, the former palace of the Grand Duke of 
Cleves, afterwards presented by the Elector of 
Brandenburg to Prince Moritz of the Netherlands, 
the friend and patron of Paul Potter". In support 
of this attribution Mr. Neale alleges that a cow on 
one of the sketches is introduced into the back- 
ground of Potter's picture The Bull, at The Hague ; 
that the sketches of the Castle of Cleves are used 
in the background of Potter's equestrian portra't 
of Van Tufp in the Six collection at Amsterdam ; 
and that certain sketches of figures and of a horse 
were used in the same picture. Now there is a 
certain plausibility about the main statement, and 
about one, at least, of the assertions that are made 
in support of it. There is a view of Cleves in the 
background of Van Tulp's portrait, and Maurice 
of Nassau was actually a patron of Potter, and 

" Rincom " (street with church tower ; this is not a known place, 
but manyplacesnear Arnheni ending in " — kom " are to be found 
on old maps) ; 100, " Bodegraven " (houses, steeple, and bridge 
of three arches ; Bodegraven is a town between Utrecht and 
Leyden) ; 174, "tgat vanden dyk" (the hole in the dyke ; water 
with boats and cottages) ; unnumbered (after 222), Bomniel 
(walled town with two churches). Bommel, or Zalt-Bommel, 
lies north of Bois-le-Duc and south of Utrecht, on the left bank 
of the Rhine. I am indebted to Mr. J. A. J. de Villiers, of the 
British Museum, for much help in deciphering these inscriptions 
and identifying the places named in them. 

y/ Dutch Sketch-book of 16^0 

paid several visits to his house at The Hague. 
Wurzbach comments on the painting of Cleves as 
an indication of some visit that Potter presumably 
paid to that town, though there is no other evidence 
for it. I find, however, on examination, that none 
of these stateinents about the use of certain 
sketches in the background of the two pictures 
by Potter rests upon anything more than vague 
resemblances. The drawings of cows, which only 
occupy three of the numerous pages of the book, 
are summary sketches such as a landscape painter 
would be likely to make, and very unlike Potter's 
highly professional and careful drawings of 
animals. The style of the book generally is so 
free, so unlike Potter's precise and tight method 
of draughtsmanship, even in the trees and other 
elements of landscape which often fill a quite 
important place in his pictures as backgrounds to 
groups of figures or animals, that my suspicion 
of the attribution was aroused at tirst sight of the 
book. To put the difficulty in a nutshell, it is too 
good for Potter. The story about the sketchbook 
being the fruit of Potter's wedding tour has, 
moreover, a romantic or sentimental flavour 
which provokes suspicion. If it receives apparent 
confirmation from the circumstance that Potter 
was married in 1650, here again a close scrutiny 
of the facts tells all the other way. Potter was 
married on July 3rd, while the book is dated 
June 7th. What is more improbable than that the 
artist would set out a month hejove his inarriage 
on a long and apparently leisurely sketching tour? 
Who then was the artist ? He was evidently a 
thoroughly practised and professional landscape 
painter, who had no predilection for cows rather 
than windmills, sails or bushes as elements in the 
picturesque. On familiar acquaintance with the 
book, I can think of no more probable attribution 
than that which occurred to me at the first inspec- 
tion, namely. Van Goyen. The sketches contain, 
in solution as it were, just the ingredients that we 
are wont to find, compact and pieced together 
with conscious art, in Van Goyen's pictures and 
in his finished drawings. These it was his habit to 
sign with his initials, often accompanied by a 
date, but the absence of a signature, in spite of 
this methodical practice, can readily be understood 
in the case of a sketchbook carried in the pocket 
on a journey, meant only for further use in the 
preparation of finished works, and not intended 
for sale or for the public eye. The riverside 
scenery, the rather indistinctly drawn steeples and 
towers, the dilapidated houses which abound in 
these sketches, are quite the favourite subjects of 
Van Goyen. Technically they are quite in his 
manner. How does the hypothesis fit the facts 
of Van Goyen's life (1596-1656)? We have no 
documentary confirmation of a journey to Cleves 
in 1650. At that period and for some years 
afterwards Van Goyen, an elderly man reduced to 

A Dutch Sketch-book 0/1650 

straits by unfortunate speculations in tulips and 
house property,' was living at The Hague, but 
there is no reason why he should not have gone 
on such a journey as that which resulted in filling 
the pages of this sketch-book. Two sketch-books 
by \'an Goyen are mentioned by Wurzbach as 
existing, in the Dresden Cabinet and in the col- 
lection of H. E. Warneck in Paris ; the former, 
as I am informed by Dr. C. Hcfstede de Groot, 
contains sketches of Antwerp, Brussels, Laeken, 
Vilvorde, Bergen-op-Zoom, Dordrecht and other 
places. No specimens of Van Goyen's handwriting 
are available for comparison with the inscriptions 
in the book e.\cept mere monograms on drawings. 
The page here reproduced, which consists entirely 
of written memoranda, mentions the names of 
Rembrandt, Lievens, Sachtleven andThomas Wyck. 
It consists of a list of works by these artists, 
with prices attached, while in one or two cases 
subjects instead of artists are mentioned. Its 
exact purport must be a matter for conjecture, 
but as it occurs in this intimate sketchbook for 
the artist's own use, the conjecture is obvious 
that it refers to pictures in his own collection 
which he had sold, or was pricing with a view to 
sale. In the case of Van Goyen such conjecture 
is rendered more probable by his financial 
difBculties. I append a transcript of the docu- 
ment, so far as it can be deciphered ; the eighth 
line brings it within the scope of Dr. C. Hofstede 
de Groot's " LJrkunden iiber Rembrandt ". 
(L.i) een stuckcn herherg 
(,,2) een stucken Jan lieuens sameii ... 24 v ^ 
(,.3) een Jan lieuens ... 14 

(L.4) een en(lu?)goor 

( ,, 5) een stuck(i?)en Sachtleven 

(,,6) een Jacob sanien 

{ ,, 7) een stucken tomas Wyck ... 

( „ 8) een tronje van Rembrandt 

( „ 9) een stuck van lieuens 

(,,io) een stuckien tomas Wyck... 


P.S. — Since my article was in type Dr. de Groot 
has informed me that the sketchbook to which it 
refers was lent many years ago to the Mauritshuis 
at The Hague. It is mentioned in "Verslagen 
omtrent i Ryksversamelingen van Geschiedenisen 
Kunst," 1895, xvni, 64. Dr. de Groot, who has 
written a description of the whole contents which 
he has never published, concurs with me in 
attributing the drawings to Van Goyen. — C. D. 

* One of his houses, by the way, was occupied by Potter. 

^ " V " is probably an abbreviation for " Vlaamsch ". Een 
pond Vlaamsch (a pound Flemish) was the equivalent of si.x 

'' Translation : — 

A tavern piece 

A piece by Jan Lievens, together 24 Flemish pounds 

A Jan Lievens ... 14 

A Van Goor 10 

A piece by Sachtleven 

A Jacob, together 6 

A piece by Thomas Wyck ... 10 

A face by Rembrandt 

A piece by Lievens 

A piece by Thomas Wyck ... 40 


Jacob, in 1. 6, may be either the first name of an artist or the 
subject of a picture. The pictures named in 11. i and 2, 5 and 
6, and 8-10 respectively are reckoned two or three together at 
a lump sum. The fourth line, the exact reading of which is 
difficult to determine, may refer to an obscure Dutch landscape 
painter. Van Goor, who is mentioned by Wurzbach. 


The Lincoln Statue.— Owing to long delay 
in the arrival of photographs. The Burlington 
Magazine has not hitherto published anything on 
the much discussed question of the Barnard statue 
of Lincoln offered to England, so that more 
adequate reproductions of the work might be 
given. These I think make it quite evident that 
the outcry against the statue is on account of its 
merits, and that London will be the loser if it be 
finally refused. London's loss will be indefinitely 
increased if we have instead St. Gauden's trinnpery 
prettiness. Let us admit at once that the Barnard 
statue is not a work of the highest or purest plastic 
art, that it is not on the same plane as Donatello's 
Gattavielata or the Louvre Portrait of Akenaicn, 
but can London, with its inimitable collection of 
bronze dummies, afford to reject even a work of 
art of secondary importance ? And Barnard's 
statue is certainly that. It docs not attain to the 
highest qualities of synthetic form, but it does 
evince a masterly and profound interpretation of 


individual character in forms that have at least 
the unity that appertains to individuality. It 
may fairly be compared to some of Rodin's 
realistic works. I do not say that Barnard 
is as much a sculptor, that he has Rodin's ease 
of handling, but this statue, in its penetration 
of characteristic form, is comparable to Rodin. 
It is, of course, no great praise of a statue to say 
that if put up in London it would be without 
question the most interesting portrait statue in 
the city, and certainly among the first as a w'ork 
of art. There would, in fact, be very little com- 
petition from this point of view. No doubt the 
Charles I is a pleasanter objet d'art from the 
collectoi's point of view, but this is mainly 
because it dates from a period when even a very 
minor work of art had a certain pleasant surface 
quality. The only other statue 1 can think of is 
Dalou's Charily by the Royal Exchange, and of 
course Rodin's recently erected Bourgeois de Calais. 
Still, as a portrait statue — not a pure work of art, 

but a presentation of character in appropriate 
plastic form — Barnard's would certainly hold 
the field. The British are accustomed, where 
questions of taste are concerned, to listen with 
such respect to the obiter dicta of well-known 
public characters who have had neither time nor 
aptitude to study art, that it is probably useless to 
hope that good sense will prevail over ignorant 
prejudice in this matter. We may console our- 
selves by reflecting that London is already so 
deeply committed to every possible form of 
aesthetic abomination that it makes very little 
difference. Still one respectable statue would be 
a pleasure. Roger Fry. 

Art by Weight. — Those of us who have not 
observed history from the economic point of 
view, and are not versed in the principles of high 
finance, are naturally surprised at the large and 
still increasing prices fetched by all kinds of 
works of art during the long continuance of war. 
We might expect the precious metals and minerals 
to rise in value, but the rise in the value of works 
of art is in almost precisely inverse ratio to the 
cost of their material and also to their utility. 
The art of architecture, the most utilitarian 
of all, has almost ceased except for military 
purposes, and objects of the cheapest materials, 
such as pigments and their foundations, have 
risen in price far higher than objects made 
of stone or the baser metals ; while among 
glyptic works those of the commoner have 
risen higher than those of the rarer substances. 
Historians of social life tell us that the same 
phenomenon appears in the great cataclysms 
of past times ; and it is as if mankind valued 
human work most at the very times when it is 
most prodigal of human life. The low proportion 
which the material has in this enhanced war-value 
is particularly noticeable in the case of gold- and 
silver-sniithery. The value cf badly designed 
jewellery and plate has gone up no higher than 
the value of its material, fixed by law. These alone 
are unsaleable, as may be seen in the interesting 
experiment now being carried out at 39 Old Bond 
Street for the benefit of the Red Cross and the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England. 
Here all kinds of gold and silver work are collected 
as gifts to the two Orders. Many of the gifts, to 
which further reference must be reserved for 
another occasion, are objects of beauty and artistic 
merit, and some have historic or documentary 
interest ; these are re-sold at tVe enhanced war- 
prices. But many more, objects of misapplied 
ingenuity, are thrown into boxes and sent to 
the Mint to be turned into bullion. We might 
without much risk of inaccuracy guess that the 
unsaleable matter dates from the Regency to 
the present time, and that the saleable objects 
within that period are deliberate imitations of 

^ Monthly Chronicle 

earlier styles. For though English plate and 
jewellery of all periods are generally solid and 
skilfully made, it is the design which fails, and 
the designs characteristic of the modern period, 
which culminates in the vulgarities of the Inter- 
national Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, are worse 
than at any period in almost any country. I do 
not forget that much has been done towards 
asserting the superior necessity of design to bulk 
and mere adventurous craftsmanship, by individual 
artists, craftsmen or both combined. But this has 
not been sufficient, and there is scarcely a piece 
of modern plate or goldsmith's work worth more 
than another, by the ounce, because it is the work of 
a particular art-smith. In fact design seems to be 
almost entirely divorced from execution. Some of 
the new forces in art and literature which con- 
vulse us with hope, admiration, fear, indignation, 
or laughter according to our individual taste, 
may perhaps restore some vitality to this mori- 
bund art. It is too early to judge ; we can only 
hope that they may. Unhappily, also, the greater 
the weight of the metal, and the more of the 
workman's time spent upon it, the worse is the re- 
sult. Commemorative plate — royal gifts, trophies, 
prizes and vessels for ceremonial use — has the 
least artistic value. When we see these things, we 
wonder how soon those who have borne them 
away as prizes or have had them laid upon them 
as gifts will be able to lay aside their burdens 
surreptitiously. They have an opportunity for 
getting rid of them gracefully at 39 Bond Street. 
The hideous uselessness of these monuments is 
not altogether the fault of the Committees of 
Selection that choose them. They had of course 
far better spend their money on the furtherance 
of an objective interesting to themselves and to 
those whom they honour. But if Committees must 
buy some tangible object, they are given no choice ; 
almost all the lumps of newly tortured metal 
offered to them by the manufacturers are equally 
ill designed. It is for the great manufacturing 
houses, some of which have supplied these things 
for many generations, to reform their stock, much 
of which, I venture to guess, is resold to them 
and slightly camouflaged into new complimentary 
encumbrances. Their Majesties the King and 
Queen have graciously refused to receive personal 
gifts in July, when they keep their twenty-fifth 
wedding-day. In ordinary circumstances this 
would have been the occasion for a fresh supply 
of monstrous plate. Let us, therefore, rather seize 
the happy opportunity for inaugurating, at least, 
a Silver Age of Georgian plate, more in accordance 
with the tastes both of the sovereigns and of the 
artists. Z. 

The Gumprecht Sale. — Not by any means 
comparable to the Kaufmann or Oppenheim 
collections, the cabinet formed by the late 

A Monthly Chronicle 

W. Gumprecht, of Berlin, was yet one of consider- 
able distinction, and the dispersal of it by auction 
at Berlin two months ago attracted no little atten- 
tion. We give below, on the authority of the 
" Berliner Tageblatt", a list of the prices realised 
at this sale, beginning with the pictures (prices in 
marks ; purchasers' names given when ascertain- 
able) :— 
Frans Hals, Portrailof a Man (bust ; less than life size ; 

a late work) (M. Hoenegard, Denmark) 310,000 

Maitre de Flemallc, 3/(i/i: fo<7;ii/7(BoliIer) 81,600 

Jan van Kessel, The Bkucliing Ground, Ovcrveen (A. S. 

Drev) 76,000 

Attributed to D. Ghirlandaio, Female Portrait (Bohler) 71,600 

Guardi, P.j/<ic<; Yard 13.30° 

Brouwer, Boors Shjo*!"^ (Klausner) 26,000 

Teniers, Landicape (Dr. PollakI 22,000 

Dutch Schoo\,c.i5},i, Female Portrait 18,200 

A. V. Ost^dc, Portrait of ail Old IVoman 18,100 

I. V. Ostade, Frozen Canal (Graupe) 22,000 

S. V. Ruysdael, ffii'frscfl^i; (Kempncr) 33,6°° 

S. V. Ruysdael, ]'ieu' near Haarlem (Bohler) 19,000 

Jan Verriieer, /,(i»rfiYo/'C (Bohler) 20,000 

Jan Vcrmecr, Z.iJ/JiVsfii/'C (Bohler) 25,500 

Wouverman. The Cross by ilte Road [BbMer) 32,000 

Jan van Goyen, Landscape (Schwirsenz) 32,200 

Luttichuis, Pair 0) Still Life pieces (Dr. PoUak) ... 20,000 

A. V. d. Velde, /-(Jf/rfsirn^c (Dr. Bode) 2,310 

S. de Vlieger, Seascape (Dr. Kriedliinder) 16,300 

Of the sculptures, the curious and possibly unique 
Feviale Bust in rock crystal by Tullio Lombardi 
brought the highest price, viz., 49,000 marks. 
Other important items were : Central Italian 
school, 15th century, Figure of a Deacon, carved 
wood (Kaiser Friedrich Museum), 10,100; 
Cologne school, late 15th century. Madonna, 
11,500; Cologne school, late 14th century. Bust 
of a Sa/»/ (Baron Simolin), 9,050 ; School of Ulm, 
early i6th century, St. John the Evangelist (A. S. 
Drey), 19,000 ; Tilman Riemenschneider, Female 
Saint (Ur. PoUak), 16,000 ; Hans Leinberger, 
Female Saint (Dr. PoUak), 16,400. Among the 
objets iVarl two Persian albarelli fetched respec- 
tively 5,500 and 5,100 marks ; and four Renais- 
sance plates 2,000, 2,600, 3,600 and 5,100 marks. 
For pieces of stoneware some very high prices 
were paid — e.g., for a pot dated 1673, 4,400 marks 
(Dr. PoUak), for one dated 1677, 6,150, and for 
one dated 1667, 6,900 (A. S. Drey). X. 

Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, at the Leicester 
Galleries. — In the work of Henri Gaudier- 
Brzeska there is great achievement, which must 
have turned to something greater — no dangerous 
precocity, but wholesome, steady growth ; so in 

this exhibition disappointment almost predomi- 
nates, because he is dead, and he died too young. 
An artistic effort terminating at the age of twenty- 
three, even when the results are as rich as these, 
is not enough. Rarely has an artist left behind 
him such promise of masterpieces. Mr. Ezra 
Pound's preface, with its sincere feeling for the 
loss to art which Gaudier's death represents, 
seems purposely temperate, and avoids a too open 
challenge to prejudice. His view, a perfectly 
just one, is simply stated, and for those inclined 
to be unsympathetic he touches lightly on the 
obvious merits of the drawings, the quality of the 
stone animals and the sense of animal life. These 
will be' readily accepted by almost anybody. 
South Kensington Museum prepared the way to 
general appreciation, almost directly after the 
artist's death, by wisely using an opportunity of 
acquiring a considerable number of drawings and 
the marble torso of a woman, delicately realistic, 
yet so rigidly sculpturesque. But these represent 
only a small part of a richly endowed personality. 
From this collected e.xhibition, with the possibility 
of tracing Gaudier's development step by step, 
there may arise a greater understanding of his 
more vigorous and forcible side, of his intense 
interest in the science of form, and of various 
manifestations of his logical and clear intelli- 
gence. He was preoccupied latterly with the 
emotional quality derived from the relation of 
forms to each other, and their ultimate plastic 
combination. The outcome verges on abstraction 
in the sculptures of 1914 — the Dancer, Stags, and 
Biiils Erect. The Dancer, perhaps, comes nearest 
to complete realisation. The Wrestlers of the 
same year is, of a different kind, extremely in- 
genious and powerful in design ; and others of his 
last works indicate extraordinary invention and 
productive power. In soine drawings — Nos. 70- 
71, for example, which I take to be about con- 
temporary with the Wrestlers — there is an expres- 
siveness of simple line suggesting the highest 
Oriental art. The contour, not less fluent than in 
the animal series, is more markedly a sculptor's, 
and contains greater fulness and weight. Such 
purpose and gifts might have formed part of a 
true Renaissance, bringing, perhaps, a new beauty 
to reinforce the little vital sculpture done in 
England since the last gems of the mediaeval 
craftsmen. R. S. 

LETTERS WITH NOTES (o>^ the disappearance of two decorative 
' panfi s^ 


Gentlemen, — In an interesting paper on the 
Church of S. Maria Maggiore in Roine recently 
communicated to the " Accademia Pontificia " 
(Nov. 27, 1917), Monsignor Giovanni Biasiotti 
has called attention to the ancient tabernacle 
which belonged to the Basilica previous to its 


restoration in the i8th century. This tabernacle 
(in reality a little chapel or cella for relics) was 
taken to pieces at the time by Fuga, the architect 
of Benedict XIV. It was the gilt of the Capocci, 
and was constructed in 1256, the donors, in 
presence of the B. Virgin and Child, being repre- 

Letters with Notes 

seined in one of the mosaic panels which is now 
to be seen in the church of S. Michele Archangelo 
at Vico, in the mountains near Rome. The upper 
part of the tabernacle found its way to England, 
and eventually passed to the Walpole collection 
at Strawberry Hill. At the Walpole sale in 1842 
it became the property of John Webb, the well- 
known dealer of 8 Old Broad Street, who retired 
from business in 1852, when the greater part of 
his collection was bought by the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. But, according to information 
received from the director. Sir Cecil Harcourt 
Smith, the tabernacle is not at South Kensington. 
Nor have further careful investigations, kindly 
undertaken by Miss C. A. Hutton, been any more 
successful. Museums in England and America 
disclaim any knowledge of the tabernacle, and 
Miss Hutton therefore suggests that it may be in 
some private chapel belonging to a Catholic 
family, or perhaps a religious community either 
in Great Britain or America. I therefore venture 
to ask you to insert this letter in The Biirliitgfon 
Magazine, that, by giving publicity to the matter, 
we may be able to discover the present where- 
abouts of an uniquely beautiful example of 
Cosmati work. I may add that the tabernacle 
(which was a shrine and altar-ciborium in one, 
supported on porphyry columns and rising to a 
height of 25 feet) is mentioned in Prof. W. R. 
Lethaby's " Mediaeval Art " (p. 283), where it is 
reproduced in outline, apparently after a large 
drawing now at the Society of Antiquaries, 
Burlington House. Any information sent either 
to me or direct to the Right Rev. Monsignor G. 
Biasiotti,iCanon of Sta. Maria Maggiore, Rome, 
will be most gratefully received. 

I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, 

Eugenie Strong 
(Assistant Director, Faculty of Archaeology, 
History and Letters, British School at 
Rome, Valle Giulia, Rome). May 5, 1918. 


The front of the cassone, owned in 1741 by the 
Marchese Alamanno Bartolini-Salimbeni, which 
illustrates the Race of ilie Palio, reproduced in the 
Plate on p. 224 from the drawing by Varrazzano, 
appears to be now in the Cleveland Museum, 
having been recently presented by Mrs. Liberty 
E. Holden. Varrazzano's drawing exactly tallies 

with the reproduction of the Cleveland front on 
page 56 of the Catalogue prepared by Miss Stella 
Rubinstein published in 1917, except that Varraz- 
zano has continued the design of the scene into 
the corners of the parallelogram cut off on the 
cassone by the decorative border. The proportions 
are also the same. The existence of the Cleveland 
front did not come to our notice until it was too 
late to call Dr. Giacomo de Nicola's attention to it. 
Miss Rubinstein tells us in her preface to the Cata- 
logue that the history of the collection presented by 
Mrs. Holden is as follows : Mrs. Holden inherited 
the collection from her husband, who purchased it 
from James Jackson Jarves in 1884, after the bulk 
of the celebrated Jarves collection had been 
already deposited by Jarves in Yale College, which 
now possesses them. There is therefore little room 
for doubt that the front presented by Mrs. Holden 
to the Cleveland Museum is from the Bartolini- 
Salimbeni cassone. Mr. William Rankin also 
mentions the front and its subject, as the property 
of Mr. Holden, in 1908, in The Burlington Maga- 
zine, Vol. XIII, p. 381. The Editors. 

A Correction. — Mr. W. T. Whitley mentioned 
in a letter too late for publication in May that it 
was he and not Mr. M, H. Spielmann who first 
called attention to the extraordinary sale of 1797 
at which Gainsborough's unfinished painting 
Diana and Aciaeon sold for £2 5s. Mr. Whitley 
discovered the importance of the sale through 
a preliminary note upon it by Sir Henry Bate 
Dudley printed in "The Morning Herald" in 
1797, and collected from Christie's priced sale 
catalogue all the principal facts and figures 
including the price of the Diana and Actacon, as 
they appear in Mr. Whitley's "Thomas Gains- 
borough" (Smith, Elder). 1915, pp. 345-50. Sub- 
sequently, in 1917, Mr. Spielmann reprinted the 
catalogue of 1797 in the " Fifth Annual of the 
Walpole Society ". 

Mr. G. C. Druce, F.S.A., points out that he did 
not himself photograph the misericords repro- 
duced on page 181, but merely lent photographs 
which he had collected. Our thanks are therefore 
due to Mr. R. W. Dugdale, F.S.A., in the case of 
the Gloucester Cathedral misericords, and in other 
cases, perhaps, to other amateurs, with our 
apologies for not having obtained their consent 
before publication. 


SoTHEBY, Wilkinson AND Hodge will sell from 10 to 12 June 
a selection of the books of tlie Sudbury Castle library vvhicli 
belongs to Lieut. Lord Vernon, R.N. They are to be sold in al- 
pliabetical order, not the universal practice but the arrangement 
most convenient for buyers; on the loth as far as "Dances of 
Death", on the nth from "Dante" to "Mignot",and on the I2th 
from ' 'Milton " onwards. The collection chosen for sale includes 
a great variety of later illuminated MSS., early printed books, and 

rare editions of 17th century authors. There appears to be a 
larger proportion than is usually found in such libraries of 
books interesting to read, apart from their mere value to biblio- 
philes, who frequently know no more of their books than their 
points of rarity. Among the most remarkable for the one 
reason or the other are : — Lot 17, Antoninus (Archiep Floren- 
tiae) Somma de scpte peccati wor/n/; (15th c. Italian calligraphy). 
56, Belinzone (Bernardo) Sonetti, Canzoiii, Capitole, elc, 1493! 


68, Bihlia, Xahiitii Prophcta, etc. . . . Lectiones de Sanctis 
(Byzantine iitli c. MS.) ; 69, Biblia Paiipcrnm {15th c. block- 
book) ; 79, Boccaccio Libra d- Madonna Fiametta (Italian 
15th c. illuminated MS.) : loi, Breviarnm Romannm (Italian 
14th c! MS.) : 150. Clarendon, History of tlic Rebellion. 1707 
(extensively grangcrised) ; 170, Dante, Divina Commcdia 
(Italian 15th c. MS.), and t8o, Divina Commedia (Benevenulo 
de Imola, Venice, Wendelin dc Speier, 1477); 211, Dibdin 
Bibliographical Decameron, 1817 (Grangerised to 10 vol.) ; 219, 
Fabritius (A. C. degli), Libra delta Originc delli Volgan Praverbi 
(Venegia, Bernardino e Matlieo de i Vitali, 1526); 265, Harae 
B.y.M. (Flemish 15th c. illuminated MS, For a MS. of that 
date this appears from the illustration to be a very good one) ; 
266, Hcinjf B.M.V. (Printed on vellum, Guillaume Anabat, Paris, 
1505, woodcuts coloured) ; 327, Lorris (G. de) at Jean de Meun 
Le Roman de la Rose (French early i6th c. illuminated MS. 
This seems to be a particularly interesting book, to which 
reference may he made here again later); 392, Petrarca, // 
Trianfj dAmare (Italian 15th c. MS.); 518, Virgilius Opera 
(Italian I5lh c. illuminated MS.). The catalogue, with 10 pages 
of illustrations, costs half-a-crown. 

The same firm will sell 14 June (about 3.0 p.m.) two large 
pieces of silver from the estate of the late Lord Northwick. 
One is an example of Speaker's Plate, in the form of a large 
oval Wine Cistern, London, 1724, 589 oz. 19 dwt. in weight, 
of the ordinary solid kind ; and the other a curious oval 
dish 24 in. long, of mixed workmanship, concerning which 
there is much "more to say. Pretty well all the available 
information about it is given in the brief catalogue, which illus- 
trates both pieces, and after some inquiry into the matter, we 
may say here that the description seems to be quite correct. The 
obviously foreign design and workmanship of the dish itself in 
contradiction to the app.arcntly English m.ade handles and the 
mark of the London maker, Robert Hill, 1719, legible on the rim, 

are accounted for. The four handles and presumably the ball- 
feet were added in London to a dish of Dutch Jewish origin, as 
may he concluded on the opinion of Mr. C. J. Jackson in 
reference to an almost precisely dish which taelonged to 
the late Mr. Samuel Montagu (the ist Lord Swaythling). The 
tradition concerning Lord Swaythling's dish is that it was pre- 
sented to Cromwell —without feet or handles— by Menasseh ben 
Israel, the Jewish savant who conducted the negotiations for 
the re-admision of Jews to England. There are also good 
reasons to suppose that the crude symbolism of the centre panel, 
distinctly suggesting Freemasonry, was designed by Jacob 
Judaii Leon (or Ayeh) surnamed Tempio, who was connected 
with English Freemasonry. The Jewish and Masonic sig- 
nificance of Lord Xorthwick's dish is evident to the eye. The 
dish still presents a problem, and is all the more interesting on 
that account. Us claim to beauty is quite another matter. 

The same firm will sell, i to 5 and 8 and 9 July, the seventh 
portion of the Huth Collection, consisting of Lots 6061 to 7182, 
The Catalogue, priced at hall-a-guinea, contains a frontispiece in 
colours illustrating one of the full-page miniatures of " Sachsen- 
spiegel" written and illuminated in the 15th century, and some 
15 other black-and-white illustrations. Messrs. Sotheby an- 
nounce that this Catalogue and those of the remaining portions 
of tlie Collection will be issied on fine paper, with lists of tlie 
prices and buvers' names, as soon as possible after each portion 
has been sold. As the present catalogue is ready well in ad- 
vance of the sale, and can be obtained, it is unnecessary to 
specify the contents of this portion of the Library, which is 
similar in variety and quality to the six portions already sold. 

The Illustrated Catalogue of the late Lord Norlhwick's Sale 
of Engravings and Woodcuts by Old Masters on 28, 29 and 
30 May (2s. 6d.) was published too late for an earlier notice. It is 
well worth having, as it contains 8 reproductions of rare and 
well-known prints and 2 of mezzotints after Rembrandt. 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have been delivered before the i6th of the previous month. Prices must 
be stated. Publications not coming within the scope of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the prices are stated 

Serial Publications u-ill for the present be arranged here according to the ordinary periods 0/ their publication, and only the 
latest number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Cambridge Uxiversity Prfss. 

TiLLEY (Arthur). The Daii'ii of the French Renaissance ; 
XXV + 636 pp., 23 pi. ; 25s. n. 
Chatto and Windus, 97, 99 St. Martin's Lane, W.C.2. 

Bell (Clive). Pot-boilers, a collection of essays and reviews, 
by the author of " Art", dealing with such diverse subjects 
as the Pl.iys of Peacock. Art and War, Ibsen, William 
Morris, Love Letters of the Carlyles, Persian Miniatures, 
Contemporary Art in England, Oedipus Rex, etc.; viii -f 
260 pp. ; 6s. n. 
E. H. CoLRViLLE, Lyncombe, Friern Park, Finchley, N.12. 
CoURViLLE (E. H.). Coins and their Values, a practical guide 
to the values and characteristics of coins and medals of note 
based on the actual auction catalogues of sales held between 
Jan. and Dec. 1917 ; vol. 1, English, Scotch, and Irish coins 
and medals. Foreign and Colonial coins and medals, Greek 
and Roman coins, and War Medals ; ix -f- 125 pp., many 
pi. ; I2S. n. 
Hachette et Cie, 79 boulevard S.aint-Germain, Paris. 
WVBO (Georges). Re/le.rions et craqiiis sur V Architecture au 
pays de France; illust., broche 12 fr. 
John Lane, The Bodley Head, and Xew York. 
Williamson, Litt. D. (Geo. C), Life and Works of Ozias 
Humphry, R.A. xix -»- 329 pp., numerous illust. ; £3 3s. 
Stockholm, Kungl. 'Vitt., Hist, och Ant. Akadamien (Norstedt 
och son.). 
Brandel (Sven). Kyrkor i Danderyds Skcppslag, konsthis- 
toriskinventarinm V Svcrigcs Kyrkor" " Uppland", Bd. i, 
Hiifte 1) ; 170 pp., 200 fig. ; Kr. 6.60. 

Periodicals — Weekly. — American Art News — Architect — 

Country Life — Illustrated London News. 
F'ORTNIGHTLY. — Bulletin of the Alliance Fraiifaise, 'So — La 

Revista (Barcelona), iv, 64— Veil i Nou, iv, 67. 

Monthly.— The Anglo-Italian Review, 1,1(15 May)— Art World 
(New York) Mar- — Colour — Connoisseur— Fme Art Trade 
Journal— Journal of the Imperial Arts League. 32— Kokka. 334 
— Les Arts, 164- New East, i, i— New York, Metropolitan 
Museum, xiii, 4 — -Onze Kunst, xvn, 4. 

Bi-MONTHLY. — Art in America, vi, 3— Boston, U.S.A., Museum 
of Fine Arts, Bulletin, 94— L'Arte, xxi, i. 

Other Monthly Periods.— Cleveland, Museum of Art, Bulletm 
(ioayear),\'. 4— Minneapolis, Institute of Fine Arts, Bulletin 
(9 a year), vii, 4. 

Quarterly.— Bolelin de la Sociedad Espanola de E.xcursiones, 
XXV, 4— Felix I^avenna, 26— Gazette des Beaux Arts 694 
and' Chronique des Arts, Ap.-May— Oud-Holland, xxxv, 4— 
Pennsylvania Museum, Bulletin, 61 — Quarterly Review- 
Root and Branch, 11, 3— Town Planning Review, vili, 3-I-4 
—Worcester, Mass., Art Museum Bulletin, viil, 4. 

Annually— "The Athenxum', Subject Index to Periodicals 
1916, Music; IS. n. — Zurcher Kunstgesellschaft, Jahres- 
bericht 1917, illust. 

Occasionally.— Saint Louis, City Art Museum ; Catalogues (i) 
E.vliibition of Paintings by Si.v American Women, April ; (2) 
ILdiibitian of Paintings by Edmund H. Wuerpel, April; (3) 
E.vhibition of Water Colours by Winslojci Homer and John 
Singer Sargent, May— Cleveland, Museum of Art ; Catalogue 
of the Paintings presented . . . by Mrs. Liberty E. Holdcn ; 
20 illust. 

Reproductions. — Italian Furniture and Interiors, with te.xt by 
George Leland Hunter, Pt. v-f Vl, 40 pi. (Helburn, 418 
Madison Ave., N.Y.)— British Artists at the Front ; Part II, Sir 
John Lavery, A.R.A., with introductions by Robert Ross and 
C. E. Montague ("Country Life"). 5S- n- 

Trade Lists.— Maggs bros., 34, 35 Conduit Street, W.i (Xeiv 
address) ; Books with Coloured Plates,aiid with Engravings by 
the celebrated book illustrators of the 19th century, Sports and 
Pastimes, No. 366— NorstedtsA/y/i(;/i;/-(Stockholm), 191 8, No. 4. 


TO No. 183, JUNE 1918 

EXPLANATORY NOTE. — Cross references are given under the following headings : Architecture — Artists and Craftsmen — ■ 
Authors (of writings included in this volume) — Ceramics and Enamels — Drawings — •Engravings — Furniture — Locality 
(of objects referred to, owned (1) CoLLEcnvELY, by Nations, Public Corporations and Private Associations, (2) Individually, 
by Private Owners and Dealers) — -Metalwork — Miniatures — -Portraits — Sculpture and Carving — Sections of Numbers 
(the titles of the articles, etc., are interspersed in alphabetical order with the titles of the following sections. Auctions, Letters, 
Monthly Chronicle [= M-C], Periodicals (precis). Publications Received and Reviews)— Sculpture and Carving 
— Textiles (including Embroidery and Costume). 
The definite and indefinite article in all languages is printed throughout but ignored in the alphabetical series. 


Marcantonio, engraver. La Vierge an Palmier ; and Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Lawrence, after Baccio Bandinelli PL, 195 
Maris (Matthijs). Sonvcnir ({'Amsterdam 4, 73 ; PI., 8 
" Master MP ", Limoges enameller PI., 194 
" Master of S. Benedict ". S, Benedict visiting S. Schotastica, 

dr. (Brit. Mus.) PI. SO 
McTaggart (Wm.) 227 
ME^TROvid 120 [M-C] 

Milanese Bobbin-lace Makers 112 ; PI., 113, 116 
Morris (Wm.) 163 [M-C] 
Nevinson (C. R. W.). War pictures 165 [m-c] 
New English Art Club 78 [M-C] 
NiccolJ) (Lorenzo di), Sch. of — . Cassone front (Bargello 

169 ; PI., 168, 171 
Penicaud (Jean li), enameller PI., 195 [n] 

„ (Jean in), enameller PI., 195 [m] 

PlETRO Gerini (Niccolo), Sch. of — . Cassone front (Bargello) 

169 ; PI., 168, 171 
Rembrandt. Moses and the burning Bush, dr. (Mr. Henry 

Oppenheimer) PI., 60 
Rich (Alf. W.). Exhibition 206 [M-C] 
Roselli (Cosimo) (?). Combat between Amor and Castitas 

(Nat. Gall.) and Cassone panel (Mr. W. B. Chamberlin) 

201 : PI., 200 
Titian (?). Semi-nude female half-figure, dr. (Mr. W. Bateson) 

PI., 57 
ToNKS (Prof. Henry) 37 [M-C] 
Utamaro (Kitagawa), colour-printer 95 ; PI., 97, 100 
ViANEN (Christian van), silversmith, and his followers 209 ; 

PI., 208, 212, 213 
Weavers : Peruvian 109 

Egyptian Christian 145 ; PI., 142, 143 

AUTHORS contributing to Volume xxxii— 

Adey (More). The registration of works of art in occupied 
countries 120 [M-C] 
The Trustees of the National Gallery 163 [M-C] 
Ballardini (Gaetano) The bacini of S. Apollinare Nuovo 

Ravenna 123 
Barlow (C. A. M.). Sir Charles Holroyd's etchings 38 

Barnard (Rev. P. M). The date of a picture by Borgognone 

122 [Lett.] 
Binyon (Laurence). The late Stanley William Littlejohn 16 
Borenius (Tancred). Pietro degli Ingannati 30 
Briggs (C ipt. Martin S.). The mosaic pavement of Shellal, 

near Gaza 185 
Bunt (Cyril G. E.). Studies in Peruvian textiles 109 
BuscHMANN (Paul). Matthew Maris 4, 73 
CoLViN (Sir Sidnev). The late Stanley William Littlejohn 16 
Cook, k.c.b. (Sir Chas A.). Eglomise 121 [Lett.] 
Curtis (Ralph). Cezanne 39 [Lett.] 
CusT (Lionel). A portrait by Van Dyck 102 

Notes on pictures in the Royal collections — XL 127 
Dodgson (Campbell) Another drawing of the Life of S. Bene- 
dict 46 
A Dutch sketch-book of 1650 234 
Editors. The British Museum, the Natural History Museum 
and the Air Board 77 [M-C] 
Red Cross and S. John of Jerusalem in England 78 [M-C] 
The Museum of Fine Arts, Worcester, Mass. 78 [M-C] 
Christie's and the Red Cross 204 [M-C] 
Fry (Roger). Drawings at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 51 
On a composition by Gauguin 85 
The sale of Degas's collection 118 [M-C] 
A cassone-panel by Cosimo Roselli (?) 201 
The Lincoln statue 240 [M-C] 


Campanile, S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna 128 ; PI., 131 

Harrington House, Craigs Court 81 [M-C] 

Otranto, Duomo. Mosaic pavement (detail) by Pantaleone the 

Greek 1165 ; PI., 137 [h] 
Shellal, nr Gaza, Mosaic pavements and other remains 185; 

PI., 187 
Westminster Cathedral, Stations of the Cross 204 

Barnard (Geo. Grey), sculpt., Abraham Lincoln 240; PI., 

Blake (Wm.). The Agonv in the Garden, " fresco " on copper 

(Mr. W. Graham Robertson) PI., 17 Linnell Sale 82 

[AucT.], 118 [M-C] 
Borgognone (.A.mbrogio da Fossano) 122 [M-C] 
Brown (Ford Madox). King Rene's Honeymoon, Writing- 
lesson, WW (Tate Gall.) 3 ; PI., 2, 5 
Bry (J. T. and J. I. de), engravers. Plate from " Emblemata 

Saecularia" PI., 107 [a] 
Carracci (Lodovico). Female figure holding a vase, dr. (Edw. 

Poynter Sale) PI., 80 
Cassone-p.unters 169,201, 218; PI., 168, 171, 200, 220, 221, 

Cavallini (Pietro). Virgin and Child (Mr. O. H. Kahn) ; 

Apostles and an Angel (S. Cecilia in Trastevere) 45 ; 

PI., 44, 47 
Ceramicists, Chinese 165 [M-C] 
Cezanne. 38 [Lett.] 
Church Crafts League 164 [M-C] 
Cole (Tim.), wood-cutter 81 [M-C] 
Colour-printers, Japanese, in " Kokka" 122 
COROT (J-B. C). "Flore a I'Hotel dc Vilte", dr. (Mr. J. P. 

Heseltine) PI., 56 
Degas (E. J. D.) The Dancer ; Danseuses (fan) ; Les Blanchis- 

seuses (Eden coll.) 22, 63 ; PI., 23, 26 
Sale of Degas's collection 118 [M-C] 
DURER (Albrecht). Apollo, dr. (Edw. Poynter Sale) PI., 80 
Dyck (Ant. van). Unidentified h-l., male portraiUCapt. E. G. 

Spencer-Churchill, M.c.) 102 ; PI., 103 
Fry (Roger). Flower pieces 38 [M-C] 
Gainsborough (Thos.) Diana and Actneon, sketch (H.M. 

the King) 127 ; PI., 126 
Gaudier-Brzeska (Henri) 244 [M-C] 

Gauguin. Que sommes-nous f D'on venons-nous f On allons- 
f^ nous? 85; PI., 84 
Gheeraedts (M.). Sir Jerome Bowes (E. of Suffolk). PI., 

107 [c] 
Gill (Eric) 204 [m-c] 
GioRGlONE (?). Semi-nude female half-figure, dr. (Mr. W. 

Bateson) PI., 57 
Giotto (Sch. of). S. John, Pope and Theodoric, fresco (S. Maria 

in Porto Fuori, Ravenna) 148 [a] 
Glomy, inventor 121 [M-C] 
GoYEN (Jan van). Sifeefc/jes, 1650 (Mr. T. Mark Hovell) 234; 

PI., 235, 238 
HoLROYD (Sir Chas.), etcher 38 [Lett.] 
Ingannati (Pietro degli). Virgin and Saints (Kgl. Gall., 

Berlin) ; Unidentified Male Portrait (P. Kelly, Dublin) 

30 ; PI., 31 
Ingres (J. A. D.) Apotheosis of Napoleon, dr. (Vicomte d'Arcy) 

PI., 53 
Ketel (C.) (?). Elder son of Sir Percyval Hart (Sir W. 

Hart Dyke, bart.) PI., 107 [b] 
Limoges Enamellers, "Little Masters" 190; PI., 191, 194, 

Littleiohn (S. W.), restorer 16 ; PI., 17 
Loudin, ceramicist 151, 175 ; PI., 153, 174 


Index to Volume XXXII 

AUTHORS — contmmd. 

Carver (Milton). Symbolic animals of Perugia and Spoleto 

Geroiji (Giuseppe). An old representation of Thcodoric 146 
Kelly (K. M.). What are "canions " ? 102 
Kendrick (A. F.). Early textiles from Damietta 10 
More tc.iftiles from Egyptian cemeteries 145 
Recent acquisitions for public collections — ii 210 
LooMis (R, S.). Alexander the Great's Celestial Joiiniey 

136, 177 
MacColl (D. S.). Uncommissioned art : reflections at the 
Alpine Club 29 
William McTaggart 227 
M. A. The new Sladc Professor 37 [M-C] 
Mr. Eric Gill 81 [M-C] 
Andradc's Chinese pottery 165 [M-C] 
Exhibition of Ancient Ecclesiastical Art, Gustavianum, 
Stockholm 166 [M-C] 
Mitchell iH. P.). The Reichenau crozier 65, 121 [Lett.] 

Two " Little Masters" of Limoges enamelling 190 
Moore (George). Memories of Degas 22, 63 
Nicola (Giacomo de). Notes on the Museo Nazionale of 

Florence— vi, vii 169, 218 
POUNTNEY (Wm.). Loudin's Inlias " Lowris ') china house 

Bristol 151, 175 
Roosval (Johnny). Swedish and English fonts 85 
Ross (Robert). Ford Madox Brown water colours recently 

acquired for the nation 3 
R. R. The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 164 [M-C] 
R. 8. The Modern Loan E.xhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery 
38 [M-C] 
Flower-pieces by Roger Fry 38 [M-C] 
Judge William Evans's collection of contemporary pictures 

205 [M-C] 
The woodcuts of Timothy Cole 81 [M-C] 
Pictures of war by C. R. W. Nevinson 165 [M C] 
The stations of the Cross in Westminster Cathedral 204 

Water-colour paintings by Alfred W. Rich 206 [M-C] 
Henri Gaudier-Brzeska 244 [M-C] 
Rl'ssell (A. G. B.). William Blake, the Linnell collection 

118 [M-C] 
Sexton (Major J. J. O'Brien). Illustrated books of Japan — ii 

Siren (Osvald). A picture by Pietro Cavallini 45 
T. B. The Kaufmann sale 35 [M-C] 
Tipping (H.Avray). English furniture of the Cabriole Period 

(1700-1760) 228 
Trendell (P. G.). Milanese bobbin-lace with hunting scenes 

Unsigned. The Oppenheim sale 119 [M-C] 
Salvage 119 [M-C] 
The Mestrovic Committee 120 [M-C] 
■Vallance (Aymer). William Morris commemoration 163 

V. H. The Church Crafts League 164 [M-C] 
Watts (W. W.). Recent acquisitions for public collections 

— i 209 
X. The Oppenheim sale 205 [M-C] 

The Gumprecht sale 243 [M-C] 
Z. The New English Art Club 78 [M-C] 
Art by weight 243 [M-C] 


Chinese pottery (Andrade's exhibition) 165 [M-C] 
Enamcllctl bowl (detail) for Mawud (1114-1144)_ PI., 137 [c] 
Enamels of the Reichenau crosier 65 ; PI., 67, 70 

— Umoges 190; PI., 191, 194, 195 

— Rhemsh PI., 180 [l] 

Hispaiw-vwresque ware (S. ApoUinare Nuovo, Ravenna ; 

Kunstgewerbe Mus., Berlin) 128 ; PI., 131, 134 
Lcudins Bristol soft paste 151, 175 ; PI , 153, 174 


Chalk (black and white) i-length uncle ■woman ; (?) Titian or 
(?) Giorgione (Mr. W. Bateson) PI., 57 
Female i-length, holding a vase ; Lodovico Carracci (Sir 
Edw. Poynter Sale) PI., 80 

DRA WI KGS— continued. 

Apollo ; Durer (Sir Edw. Poynter Sale) PI., 80 
Race of the Patio ; Andrea da 'Varrazzano after Bartolini- 
Salimbeni cassone (Societa Colombaria, Florence) PI., 
Pastel. Dancer ; Dansenscs (fan) ; Blauchisscuscs ; Degas 

(late Sir Wm. Eden) PI, 23, 26 
Pen. Moses and the burning Bnsh ; Rembrandt (Mr. Henr>i 
Oppenheimcr) PI., 60 

Visit of S. Benedict to his Sister ; Benedict Master (Brit. 
Mus.) 46; PI., 50 
Pencil, etc. Apotheosis of Napoleon ; Ingres (Vicomte d'Arcv) 
PI., 53 
Dutch Sketch-book, 1650; Van Goycn (Mr. T. Mark 

Hovell)234 ; PI., 235, 238 
"Flore a I Hotel de Ville"; Corot (Mr. J. P. Heseltine) 
Watercolour : King Rene's Honeymoon ; Writing Lesson, Ford 
• Madox Brown (Tate Gall.) 3 ; PI., 2, 5 


" Emblemata Saecularia " No. 2 PI., 106 
Etchings, Sir Chas. Holroyd's 38 [Lett] 
Martyrdom of S. Lawrence ; Marcantonio aft. Baccio Bandi- 

nelli PI., 195 [l] 
Utamaro's " Insect book " (2 pi.) 95 ; PI., 97, 100 
Viergc an Palmier ; Marcantonio aft. Raphael PI., 195 [k] 
Woodcuts, Timothy Cole's 81 [M-C] 

English, Cabriole period, 1700-1760 (Mr. Percival Griffiths) 

228 ; PI., 229, 232 
Florentine Cassone 169, 218 ; PI., 168, 171, 220, 221, 224 

LOCALITY— I (Collective Ownership)— 
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum. Matthijs Maris, Souvenir d'Am- 

sterdam PI., 8 
Berlin, Kgl. Gall. Pietro degli Ingannati, Virgin, Child and 
Saints 30 ; PI . 31 [a] 

Kunstgew. Mus. Hispauo-moresque Bacini PI., 134 
Beverley Minster. Font P1.,91[m]. Misericord PI., 181 [s] 
(?) Cairo, Mus. Mosaic Pavement from Shellal, portion 185; 

PI., 187 
Borgo-San-Donnino, Duonio. Carved slab PI., 180 [n] 
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Mus. 164 [M-C] 
Cartmel Priory, Lanes. Misericord PI., 180 [p] 
Charney Bassett Ch., Berks. Tympanum PI., 180 [k] 
Chester Cath. Misericord PI., 181 [t] 
Crefeld, Gewebesamm. Ratisbon Tapestry (detail) PI., 180 

Darlington, S. Mary's Ch. Misericord PI., 180 [q] 
Darmstadt, Grsshz. Landesmus. Byzantine ivoryCasket(p2iT\e\) 

PI., 137 [b] 
Denmark, Tobjerg, Jutland. Font PI., 90 [e] 

Tikjob. Font PI., 91 [l] 
Florence, Mus. Naz. Cassone, Saladin and Messer Torello ; 
Procession of the Palii 169, 218; PI., 168, 171, 220, 221, 
224 [c] 
Soc. Colombaria. Cassone front, " Race of the Patio ", 
dr. from PI., 224 [d] 
Gloucester Cath. Misericords PI., 181 [w. y] 
Jnnsbriick, Ferdinand. Enamelled bowl from Western Asia 

(detail) PI., 137 [c] 
Lincoln Cath. Misericord PI., 181 [r] 
London, Brit. Mus. Various recent acquisitions 19 

Benedict Master. S. Benedict visiting his Sister, dr. 

64 PI., 50 
Loudin's Soft-paste Porcelain PI., 153 [c] 
Goldsmiths' Co. Silver-gilt Cup, temp Charles il PI,, 

213 [e] 
Grocers' Co. Silver-gilt Cup, 1666 PI., 213 [f] 
Nat. Gall. Brit. Art. Ford Madox Brown, King Rent's 

Honeymoon, w : Writing-lesson, w. 3 ; PI.. 2, 5 
Nat. Gall. Various recent acquisitions 19 
Cosimo Roselli, Combat between Amor and Castitas 201 ; 
PI. 200 
The Tower, R. Coll. of Plate. Silver -gilt Saltcellar, c. 
1660 PI., 212 [c] 


Index to Volume XXXII 

LOCALITY— I— coH/!HHed. 

V-A. Mus. Textiles from Damietia (Restall, Brown and 
Clennell; Francis Reuhell Bryan Fund) 10; PI., 11, 14 
Reichetmii Crosier 65 ; PI., 67, 70 
Milanese Bobbin-hue (Mr. Louis Clarke) 112 ; PI., 113, 

Egyptian Cemetery Textiles (Mr. Stephen Gaselee ; Maj. 
H. G. Gayer Anderson ; Sir Wm. Lawrence, Bt.) 
145 ; PI., 142, 143 
Loudin's Soft-paste Porcelain (Schreiber coll. etc.) 151 ; 

PI., 153 [a, b] 
Limoges Enamels. Anon, " Mars and Venus", " Her- 
cules and Deianira ", " Sacrifice of a Lamb" : Master 
MP, "Martyrdom of S, Lawrence", " Virgin, Child, 
etc.": Jean iii Penicaud, " Christ among the Doctors" 
(Salting, Otto Beit, etc.) 190; PI., 191 [a, c], 194 
[g, h], 195 [m] 
Engravings.MtiTCzntomo. Vierge att palmier(Rapha.c\): 
Martyrdom of S. Lawrence (Baccio Bandinelli), 
(Dyce) Pl„ 195 [k, l] 
Silver Dish, Christian van Vianen (Sir John F. Rams- 
den, Bt.) 209 ; PI., 208 
English Tapestries, floral designs (Lady Wernher, Otto 
Beit) 210; PI., 216 
Westminster Cath. Eric Gill, Stations of the Cross 204 
Mistra, Peribleptos. Stone Carving PI., 137 [d] 
Otranto, Uuomo. Mosaic Pavement, 1165 PI., 137 [h] 
Paris, Bibl. Naz. " Emblemata Saeciilaria ", print PI., 107 


Louvre. Limoges Enamel,M?iS\.er MP, " Combat of Horse- 
men and Foot" PI., 194 [f] 
Perugia, S.Costanzo Ch. Symbolic Animals, sc\. 152; PI., 156 
Pyecombe, Sussex. Font PI., 91 [h] 

Ravenna, R. Mus. Naz. Baci)w and Scodella from campanile 
of S. Apollmarc Nuovo 128 ; PI., 131, 134 
S. Ellero de Galeata, Ch. " Theodoric and S. Hilarns " 

marble relief PI., 148 
S. Maria Porto Fuori, Ch. Giottesque, Pope S. John 
before Theodoric, fresc. PI., 148 
Rome, S. Cecilia in Trastevere. PietroCavallini, Apostles and 
Angel, hesc. 45; PI., 47 

Palazzo Doria. Tournay Tapestry PI., 180 [o] 
Soest, S. Patroclus's Ch. German Embroidery, 12th c. PI., 

137 [a] 
Spoleto, S. Pietro Ch. Symbolic Animals, sc\. 152 ; PI. 156 
Stockholm, Konsthist. Mus. Fonts. 85 ; PI., 90, 91 

Gustavianum. Exhibition Ancient Ecclesiastical Art 166 
Sweden, Various Parish Churches. Fonts 85 ; PI., 90, 91 
Venice, S. Mark's. Greek marble relief PI., 137 [e] 
Vladimir, S. Demetrius's Ch. Russian Carving PI., 137 [g] 
Wallev Ch., Lanes. Misericord PI., 180 [j] 
Wells Cath. Misericord PI., 181 [r] 

LOCALITY— II (Individual Ownership)— 

Amor (per A. A.) . Loudin's Soft-paste Porcelain PI., 153 [d] 
Anonymous. Gauguin. " Que sommcs-uousf D'oii vcttons-nous? 

Oil allons-nous f " 85 ; PI., 84 
Arcy (vicomte d'). Ingres, Apotheosis of Napoleon, dr. PI., 53 
Bateson (Mr. W.). (?) Titian, more likely Giorgione, Study of 

nude Woman, chlk. PI., 57 
Beit (Mr. Otto). Anon., Limoges Enamel," Sacrifice of a Bull" 

PI., 191 [d] 
Brandt (Mr. R. E.). Silver Tazza, k. At Vim?i PI., 212 [b] 
Carfax and Co. Exhibition. Roger Fry, Flower pieces 38 

Chamberlin (Mr. W. B.). (?) Cosimo Rosselli (?) Cassone-end, 

" Group of Ladies " PI., 200 [b] 
Degas Sale (late Edgar) 118 |>I-C] 
Dutuit (M.). Master MP, Limoges Enamel, "Adoration 

of the Magi " PI., 194 [j] 
Dyke, Bart. (Sir W. Hart). (?) C. Ketel, Elder son of Sir 

Percyval Hart {wearing plain cantons) PI. 106 [b] 
Eden, Bart, (late Sir Wm). Degas, Dancer ; Daiiseuses (fan) : 

Blanchisseitses PI., 23, 26 
Evans (late Judge Wm.) Collection of Contemporary Paint- 
ings 205 [M-C] 

LOCALITY— II— coH//n!(erf 
Griffiths (Mr. Percival). Walnut Writing-desk on Stand, c. 

1710; Small walnut Writing-bureau with Legs, c. 1710-15; 

Mahogany Writing-bureau with Drawers below, 1740-50 ; 

Bureau-dressing-table, c. 1750 228 PI., 229, 232 
Grosvenor Gallery, Modern Loan Exhibition 38 [M-C] 
Gumprecht Sale (Hrr. W.). 243 [M-C] 
Heseltine (Mr. J. P.). Corot, "Flore a l Hotel de Vilte ", dr. 

PI., 56 
H.M. the King. Thos. Gainsborough, Diana and Actaeon, 

skt. 127 ; PI., 126 
Hovell, F.R.c.s. (Mr. T. Mark). Van Goyen, 1650, Drawings 

234 ; PI., 235, 238 
Hurst (Mr. Arthur). (?) Loudin's Soft-paste Porcelain PI., 

174 [e, f] 
Jackson (Mr. C. J.). Silver Porringer with Cover, 1668 PI., 

213 [d] 
Kahn (Mr. Otto H.). Pietro Cavallini, Virgin and Child 45 ; 

PI., 44 
Kauffmann (Richard von) Sale, Berlin 35 [M-C ] 
Kelly (P.). Dublin. Pietro degli Ingannati, Unknown male 

portrait, h.l. 30 ; PI., 31 [b] 
Lehmanm (M. Albert). Anon., Limoges Enamel, " Combat of 

Cavalry" PI., 191 [b] 
Linnell Sale (late John) 118 [M-C] 
Llangattock (Ld.). Rhenish 12th c. Enamel. PI., 180 [l] 
Morgan (late Mr. J. Pierpont). Jean ii Penicaud, Limoges 

Enamel, " Road to Calvary" PI., 195 [n] 
Oppenheimer(Mr. H.). Rembrandt, Moses and the Burning 

Bush, pen, etc. PI., 60 
Oppenheim Sale (late Baron Albert) 119 [M-C], 204 [M-C] 
Poynter, bart., P.R.A. sale (Sir Edw.). Diirer, Apollo, pen : 

Lud. Carracci, Female Figure holding a Vase, chlk. PI., 

Robertson (Mr. Wm. Graham). Wm. Blake, Agony in the 

Garden, " frescoe " on copper PI., 17 
Ross (Mr. Robert). Persian Miniature, ^' Kai Ka'us" PI., 

137 [F] 
Sassoon (Isaac). Egyptian Cemetery-textile (portion) PI., 

143 [e] 
Sexton (Maj. J. J. O'Brien). Japanese illustrated printed 

Books 95 ; PI., 97, 100 
Sheldon (Mr. Edw.). (.') Londins Soft-paste Porcelain PI., 

174 [c, h] 
Spencer-Churchill, M.c. (Capt. E. G.). Van Dyck, Portrait, 

male, unknown 102 ; PI., 103 
Suffolk (E. of). M. Gheeraedts, Sir Jerome Bowes {wearing 

embroidered cantons) PI., 106 [c] 

Crosier, Reichenau (V.-A. Mus.) 65, 121 [lett] ; PI., 67, 70 
Plate ; Christian van Vianen, etc. 209 ; PI., 208, 212, 213 

Abraham Lincoln, statue bv G. G. Barnard 240; PI., 241 
Elder Son of Sir Percyval Hart, 1575, by (.') C. Ketel (Sir 

W. Hart Dyke, bt.) PI., 107 [b] 
Sir Jerome Bowes, 1583, by M. Gheeraedts (E, of Suffolk) 

PI., 107 [c] 
Unknown, Man, by Pietro degli Ingannati (P. Kelly, Dublin) 
30; PI. 31 
,, by Van Dyck (Capt. E. G. Spencer-Churchill, 
M.c.) 102; PI., 103 

Abraham Lincoln ; Mr. G. G. Barnard 240 [M-C] ; PI., 241 
Byzantine Ivory Casket, panel (Mus. Darmstadt) PI,, 137 [b] 
Fonts, English and Swedish 85 ; PI., 90, 91 
Greek Marble Relief (S. Mark's, Venice) PI., 137 [e] 
Misericords PI., 180 [j, P.Q.], 181 

Norman Tympanum (Charney Bassett, Berks) PI., 180 [k] 
Russian incised Slab (S. Demetrius, Vladimir) PI., 137 [d] 
Slab in relief (Duomo, Borgo San Donnino) PI., 180 [n] 
Stone (Peribleptos, Mistra) PI., 137 [d] 
Symbolic Animals (Perugia) (Spoleto) 152; PI., 156 
" Theodoric and S. Hilarus ", sclp. (S. Ellero de Galeata) 
PI., 148 


Index to Volume XXXII 

SECTION'S OF NUMBERS (Titlei of Articles, &c.)— 
Alexander the GrciX'sCeUsUalJoiinuy. K. S. Loomis 136, 

177 ; PI., 137, 180, 181 
Andrade's Chinese pottery. M. A. 165 [M-C] 
Another drawing of the Life of S. Benedict. Campbell Dodg- 

son -16 : PI., 50 
Art by weight. Z. 243 [M-C] 
Auctions— (Jan.) 39; (Feb.) 81 ; (March) 122; (April) 166; 

(May) 206 ; (June) 245 
the Bacilli of S, Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Gaetano 

Ballardini 128 ; PI., 131, 134 
the Bartolini-Salimbeni Race of the Palio. Editors 245 [Lett] 
the British Museum, the Natural History Museum and the Air 

Board. Editors 77 [M-Cl 
the Capocci tabernacle. Eugenie Strong 244 [Lett.] 
a Cassone-panel by Cosimo Roselli (?). Roger Fry 201 ; 

PI., 200 
Cezanne. Ralph Curtis 38 [Lett.] 
Christie's and the Red Cross. Editors 204 [M-C] 
the Church Crafts League. V. H. 164 [M-C] 
the Date of a picture by Borgognone. Rev. P. M. Barnard 

122 [Lett.] 
Drawings at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. Roger Fry 51 ; 

PI., 53, 56, 57, 60 
a Dutch sketch-book of 1650. Campbell Dodgson 234 ; 

PI., 235, 238 
Eglomise. Sir Chas. A. Cook, K.CB. 121 [Lett.] 
Early textiles from Damietta. A. K. Kendrick 10 ; PI., 11, 14 
English furniture of the cabriole period (1700-1760). H. Avray 
Tipping 228 ; PI., 229, 232 [continued Vol. xxxiii, p. 19) 
Exhibition of Ancient Ecclesiastical Art, Gustavianum, Stock- 
holm. M. A. 166 [M-CJ 
the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. R. R. 164 [M-C] 
Flower-pieces by Roger Fry. R. S. 38 [M-C] 
Ford Micdox Brown watercolours recently acquired for the 

nation. Robert Ross 3 ; PI., 2, 5 
the Gumprecht sale. X. 243 [M-C] 
Henri Gaudier-Brzeska at the Leicester Galleries. R. S. 

244 [M-C] 
Holroyd's etchings (Sir Charles). C. A. M Barlow 38 

Illustrated books of Japan — II. Major J. J. O'Brien Sexton 

95 ; PI., 97, 100 
Italian periodicals (Jan.) 39 
Japanese periodical 122 
Judge William Evans's collection of contemporary painters. 

R. S. 205 [M-C] 
the Kaufmann sale. T. B. 35 [M-C] 
Letters — (Jan.) 38 : (Feb.) none ; (March) 121 ; (April) none ; 

(Mav) none ; (June) 244 
the Lincoln statue. Roger Fry 240 [.M-C] ; PI., 241 
Littlejohn (Stanley William). Laurence Binyon and Sir 

Sidney Colvin 16 ; PI., 17 
Loudin's (alias '' Lowris ") china house, Bristol. Wm. 

Pountney 151, 175; PI., 153, 174 
Matthew Mari?. Paul Buschmann 4, 73 ; PI., 8 
Memories of Degas. George Moore 22, 63 ; PI., 23, 26 
Milanese bobbin-lace with hunting scenes. P. G. Trendell 

112 ; PI., 113, 116 
Miscellaneous notes, corrections, etc. 39, 81, 162-3, 245 
the Me'trovic Committee 120 [M-C] 
the Modern Loan Exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery. R. S. 

38 [M-C] 
Monthly Chronicle— (Jan.) 35; (Feb.) 77 ; (March) 118 ; 

(April) 163 ; (May) 204 ; (June) 240 
More textiles from Egyptian cemeteries. A. F. Kendrick 

145 ; PI., 142, 143 
the Mosaic pavement of Shellal, near Gaza. Capt. Martin S. 

Briggs 185 ; PI., 18/ 
the New English Art Club. Z. 78 [M-C] 
the New Slade Professor. M. A. 37 [M-C] 
Notes on pictures in the royal collections — XL. Lionel Cust. 

127 ; PI., 126 
Notes on the Museo Nazionaleof Florence — vi, vil. Giacomo 

de Nicola 169, 218 ; PI., 168, 171, 220, 221, 224 
Obituary 120 [.MC] 

an Old representation of Theodoric. Giuseppe Gerola 146 ; 
PI , 148 


On a composition by Gauguin. Roger Fry 85 ; PI., 84 
the Oppenheim Sale 119 [M-C], 205 [M-C] 
Periodicals (precis)— {]m.) 39 ; (Feb.) none ; (March) 122 
a Picture bv Pietio Cavallini. Osvald Siren 45 ; PI., 44, 47 
Pictures of war, by C R. W. Nevinson. R. S. 165 [M-C] 
Pietro degli Ingannati. Tancred Borenius 30; PI. ,31 
a Portrait by Van Dvck. Lionel Cust 102 ; PI., 103 
Publications Received— (Jan.) 42 ; (Feb.) 82 ; (March) 124 ; 

(April) 166 ; (May) 206 ; (June) 246 
Recent acquisitions bv the British Museum and National 

Gallery 19 
Recent acquisitions for public collections — i, W. W. Watts ; 

II, A. F. Kendrick 209, 210 ; PL, 208, 212, 213, 216 
Red Cross and S. John of Jerusalem in England. Editors 

78 [M-C] 
the Registration of works of art in occupied countries. More 

■ Adev 120 [M-C] 
the Reichenau crozier. H. P. Mitchell 65, 121 [Lett.] ; 

PI., 67, 70 
REViEWS-(Jan.) 34; (Feb.) 75 ; (March) 117; (April) 160: 
(May) 201 ; (June) none 
Bench ends in English churches. J. Chas. Cox 117 
Catalogue of a loan exhibition of . . . objects from the col- 
lection of Chas. Lang Freer. F. W. Gookin 203 
on Collecting Japanese colour-prints. Basil Stewart 161 
the Collegiate church of Ottery S. Mary. John Neale 

Dalton 75 
la Corte di Ludovico il Moro. Francesco Malaguzzi Valeri 

Etchings and drypoints by Frank W. Benson. Adam E. M. 

Paff 76 
the Golden days of the early English church. Sir Henry 

H. Howarth, K.c.i.E, 160 
die HohenzoUern Danimerung. Glyn Philpot 204 
Johannes Bosboom. G. H. Marius ; W. Martin 203 
Lively recollections. Rev. John Shearme 35 
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York). Catalogue of 
the collection of pottery, etc. Garrett Chatfield Pier 34 
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York). Handbook of 

the Classical collection. Gisela M. A. Richter 201 
I'Obra d'Isidore Nonell. Various Catalan writers 117 
the Path of the modern Russian stage, etc. Alex. Bakshy 

the Silver chain. Wm. Blake Richmond 35 
William McTaggart, R.s.A. Jas. L. Caw 227 [Art.] 
the Sale of Degas's collection. Roger Fry 118 [M-C] 
Salvage 119 [M-C] 
Stations of the Cross in Westminster Cathedral. R. S. 

204 [M-C] 
Studies in Peruvian textiles. Cyril G. E. Bunt 109 
Swedish and English fonts. Johnny Roosval 85 ; PI., 90, 91 
Symbolic animals of Perugia and Spoleto. Milton Garver 

152 : PI., 156 
the Trustees of the National Gallery. More Adey 163 [M-C] 
Two little masters of Limoges enamelling. H. P. Mitchell 

190 ; PI., 191, 194, 195 
Uncommissioned art : reflections at the Alpine Club. D. S. 

MacColl 29 
Water-colour paintings by Alfred W. Rich. R. S. 206 [M-C] 
What are " canions " ? F. M. Kelly 102 ; PI., 103. 107 
William Blake, the Linnell collection. A. G. B. Russell 118 
" William McTaggart ", by Jas. L. Caw. D. S. MacColl 227 
William Morris commemoration. Aymer Vallance 163 

Woodcuts by Timothy Cole. R. S, 81 [M-C] 
Worcester, Mass. (the Museum of Fine Arts). Editors 78[M-C] 

TEXTILES (including Embroidery and Costume)— 

'•Cantons" 102 ; PI., 107 

Early Cliristiatt from Damietta 10 ; PI., 11, 14 

Efivptian Cliristian 145 ; PI., 142, 143 

German Embroidery, I2th c. (S. Patroclus, Soest) PI., 137 [a] 

Milanese Bobbin Lace 112 ; PI., 113, 116 

Peruvian 109 

Tapestry, Englisli 210 ; PI., 216 

Ratisbon, l.itli c. PI., 180 [m] 

Tournay (Pal. Doria, Rome) PI., 180 [o] 



Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 
Illustrated &? Published Monthly 

July to December 191 8 








(Rcjcrences to sections which recur monthly are given at the end of this table.) 

JULY 1918 

An unknown Quentin Matsys. By Tancred Borenius . . . . . 

English primitives — VIII. By W. R. Lethaby ...... 

For IX see . . . . . . . . [November) 169 

The frescoes in the Casa Borromeo at Milan, By Lionel Cust 

Two English court cupboards. By H. Clifford-Smith . . . . . 

English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping ... 

For continuation see . . . ; . . {October) 134 

{November) 163 

{^December) 225 

The Institut d'Estudis Catalans. By Randolph Schwabe . . . . . 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — III. By Bernard Rackham 

For IV see , . . . . . . . {August) 54 

V see . . . . . . . . {September) 107 

VI see ........ {T)ecember) 195 


Mr. E. L, Franklin's petit point panel. By C, E. Cecil Tattersall 

The masterpiece of Giovanni di Paolo. By Giacomo de Nicola 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — IV, By G. F. Hill 

A bronze by Godefroid de Claire : The Sea. By H. P. Mitchell 

An exhibition of glass paintings. By Aymcr Vallance 

Two portrait-drawings by Ingres ...... 


A pair of lion incense-burners. By R. L. Hobson . 

Churchyard crosses. By Aymer Vallance .... 

The bibliography of costume, a review. By F. M. Kelly 

Soissons, photographs and notes. By Arthur Gardner 

Italian protection of national monuments. By Randolph Schwabe 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — V. By C. J. Holmes 

A Chippendale bureau-bookcase. By Herbert Cescinsky , 


Jan Lys. By Tancred Borenius ....... 

Early Dutch maiolica and its English kindred. By Bernard Rackham 
Religion and art. By Eric Gill ...... 

Illustrated books of Japan — III. By Major J. J. O'Brien Sexton 
Early silk stuffs from Egypt, By A. F. Kendrick . 
English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 
Expressionism. By Randolph Schwabe ..... 

Durer portraits, notes. By Sir Martin Conway 


















American archaeology. By Roger Fry ..... 
Portraits of Walter Ralegh and Francis Drake. By J. D. Milner 
An English tapestry. By A. F. Kendrick .... 

English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 
English Primitives— IX. By W. R. Lethaby 
Six drawings by Rodin; notes. By Randolph Schwabe . 
Recent additions to the Dublin Gallery — II .... 








A rare Ming vase ........ 

Recent acquisitions for public collections — VI. By C. J. Holmes 
Queen Elizabeth's kirtle . By Lionel Cust .... 

Line as a means of expression in modern art. By Roger Fry . 

A note on Spanzotti, the master of Sodoma. By Herbert Cook 

Mantegna and his imitators. By Randolph Schwabe 

Three panels from the school of Pesellino. By Tancred Borenius 

English medieval tiles. By Rev. P. H. Ditchfield . 

English furniture of the cabriole period. By H. Avray Tipping 

J 95 




27, 74, 147, 180, 231 

Reviews (monthly^ except September) .... 

Monthly Chronicle : — 

Notes in the National Gallery (C. J. Holmes). Paintings and drawings 

of war by Sir William Orpen, A.R.A. ; Pictures by Lieut. Paul 

Nash (R. S.). Japanese prints and illustrated books (A. W.). 

Ferdinand Hodler, 1853-1918 (Z.). Luigi Cavenaghi (Lionel Cust). 

War coins and paper currency ; The "Silver Thimble" Fund (Ed.) 

New trustees of the Wallace Collection ..... {August) 
Partial reopening of the British Museum (M.A.). A Necrology (Z.), A 

Dutch sketch-book of 1650. Ingrcs's portrait of Charles Robert 

Cockerell ......... (September) 

Pictures by Theresc Lessore (X.). Exhibition of Modern Etchings at the 

Greatorex Galleries, September-October (R. S.) . . {November) 

The Armistice. The National Gallery. Robert Ross (D. S. MacCoU). 

Exhibition of Modern Paintings and Drawings at the Omega 

Workshops. Spink and Sons 

Letters and Notes : — 

The " Jerusalem dish " at Sotheby's (H. N. Veitch). English and Swedish 
fonts {July) 


(December) 232 


MONTHLY SECTIONS {cont<L) . page 

Letters and Notes {cotitd.) — 

Monsieur Henry Focillon's works on Piranesi (Dr. Thomas Ashby). Early 
Dutch maiolica and its English kindred (Bernard Rackham). Italy's 
protection of art treasures during the war (Randolph Schwabe). 
British Art ? (Ralph Curtis). Ivan Mestrovic purchase fund (The 
Hon. Secretary). Victor Gay material for the "Glossaire archeo- 
logique " ........ {Novetnber^ i86 

Auctions ...••. {October, Novetnber, December) 152, I92, 234 

Publications Received. .... {Monthly) 38, 76, 112, 152, 192, 234 



July page page 

The Virgin and Child with S. Catherine and another II — The panels from the Ayward coll. (Mr. 

female Saint ; by Quentin Matsys (Ayerst H. Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago) . . -50 

Buttery, 177 Piccadilly) .... 2 III — The panels from the Ayward coll. (Mr. 

Restoration of the Painted Chamber, Westminster, Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago) . . .51 

painted by Master Walter of Durham, King's Medals by Steven H. [\] Bernhard Walter, 1559 

Painter, c. 1230-1305, from a watercolour by (Brit. Mus.) ; [b] Floris Alleivyn, 1559 (Mr. 

Mr. Matthew Dawson (Prof. W. R. Lethaby). Maurice Rosenheim); [c] Cecilia Veeselaer , 

Henry III and Edward II by (?) Master 1559 (The Hague). Medals by an unknown 

Thomas, son of Walter (Sedilia, Westminster German medallist — [d] Bernhard Waller, 

Abbey) fiom watercolour copies by Mr. 1580 (late Lanna coll.). Medal by an un- 

W. E. Tristram (S.-K. Mus.) ... 5 known Flemish medallist — [e] Justus Fit, 

I — Frescoes of the Casa Borromeo, Milan . . 10 1563 (Mr. Maurice Rosenheim) . . 55 

II — Fresco of the Casa Borromeo. Study of Bronzes. I — Figure by Godefroid de Claire, J/ze 

Cos/m«;c, by Pisariello (Mus.Conde). Studies Sea (V.-A. Mus.) 62 

of Costume, by Pisanello (Mus. Bonnat, II — By Godefroid de Claire and Frederick of 

Bayonne) . . ■ . . . • .12 Cologne. Pedestal from the Abbey of 

English court-cupboards (Rt, Hon. Sir Alfred S. Berlin, and Detail, by Godefroid (Saint 

Mond, Bt., M.P.) 15 Omer Museum); Heads on the Eltenberg 

English writing-cabinet and double chest of drawers Reliquarv, by Frederick of Cologne (V.-A. 

0/ ///c crtfcno/(-/>£:/-/0(/ (Mr. Percival Griffiths) 18 Mus.); Figure, " S. Paul", on the Heribcrt 

Meissen figure porcelain (V.-A. Mus.). Four Shrine, by Godefroid (Abbey Ch., Deutz) . 63 

isolated figures (H. M. Murray Fund). English and foreign painted glass (Mr. Grosvenor 

Centrepiece (gift of Mr. Otto Beit) . . 25 Thomas). I — English i;;th-c. roundels. 

Pictures and drawings of war by Sir Wm. Orpen, "The Month of March", '^ The Annuncia- 

A.R.A. I — Return of the Patrol, oil. Blown lion " . . . . . . . .68 

((/), drawing . ...... 32 II — '■^ S. Protusius" a.nd A I'irgin Saini, i^th-c. 

II — Adam and Eve at Pcronne, oil. Bomtnng : English ; Arms borne by Sir John of Hand- 
Night, oil 33 low in 7_?oA' (detail), early i4th-c. English ; 

Arms of Q. Elisabeth (detail), i6th-c. English 69 

AUGUST Two portrait-drawings by Ingres, Hcrr Linckh of 

16th-century petit-point panel — I (Mr. E. L. Stuttgart and Baron Stackelbcrg of Esthonia, 

F"rariklin) ....... 40 iSiy, and Charles Robert Cockerell (Mrs. 

II (V.-A. Mus.) 43 Frederick Pepys Cockerell) . . . 72 

Panels, History of S. John the Baptist, by Gio- 
vanni di Paolo. I — Suggested reconslruclion 

of a polyplych, containing Annunciation to SEPTEMBER 

Zaccharias (Lehman coll., New York) ; Pair of Chinese lion incense-burners (shih-tzti), 

Naming of John and S. John rebuking Herod polychrome glazed porcelain, first hah of 

(Provinzialmuseum, Miinster), with — . . 47 K'ang Hsi period ...... 78 


SEPTEMBER (conlimied) page 

Churchyard crosses — Madley, Hereford; Tyberton, 

Hereford ; S. Donat's, Glamorgan . . 83 

Details of churchyard crosses, and a civic pillar — 
Base of cross, Ripley, Yorks ; Original head 
of Tyberton Cross, replaced ; Saint Pilon 
waysidepillar near Saint Maximin, Provence ; 
Original head of Madley cross, replaced ; 
S. Mary's churchyard cross, Cricklade, show- 
ing gradient of steps 86 

Details of pictures illustrating costume. — I — From 
A war council, by Cornelisz Troost, 1743 
(owner unknown) ; from Elegantegesellschaft 
by Dirk Hals, 1628 (K. K. Akademie der 
Kiinste, Vienna); from A family festival, by 
Jan Miense Molenaer, 1637 (coll. van Loon, 

Amsterdam) 91 

H — Figures from A nobleman and his wife, 
by Abraham van den Temprl (K. Schlosser, 
Berlin) ; Rt. Hon. Thos. Penn (d. 1775), 
Governor of Pennsylvania, d^nA Lady Juliana 
Penn (1729-1801), d. of the E. of Pomfret, 
by Philip van Dyck (E. of Ranfurly) ; Thirty- 
fourth Earl of Salisbury, 1729, by Joseph 
Highmore (owner unknown); Wedding of 
Adriaen Ploos van A nistel with Agnes van Byler 
in 1616, by Willem Cornelisz Duyster 
(loan to Rijksmus., Amsterdam) . . -94 

Soissons from photographs by Mr. Arthur 
Gardner. — I — The cathedral. The S. transept, 
and The triforium of the S. transept . . 97 
n — Saint J ean-des-Vignes, the west porches, and 
The choir of the cathedral from the south 
transept. 100 

Pictures of the Layard collection, National 
Gallery. — I — No. 3130, Portrait of an Elderly 
Man, unknown, sch. of Gentile Bellini (?) ; 
No. 3101, Portrait of a Young Man, un- 
known, sch. of Botticelli (?) . . . . 103 
H — No. 3132, Christ baptising a doge in prison, 
Paris Bordone ; No. 31 11, Virgin and Child 
idth tivo angels, Andrea Previtali (?) . . 106 

Chippendale bureau-bookcase, c. 1760-70 (Mr. 

Richard Arnold) 109 


The Satyr in the House of the Peasant, by Jan Lys, 
destroyed picture (Max Rothschild, Sackville 
Gallery) , 114 

Dutch and English maiolica. I — English ; Dish, 
"The Walk to Enunaus", 16^3, probably 
Brislington (V.-A. Mus.) ; Dish, Ship in full 
sail, 1663 (Brit. Mus., E. 154) . . -117 
H— Dutch; Two Tiles, Dish, Plate, 17th c. (V.-A. 
Mus.), Plate (Mr. Otto Beit) ; English, Dish, 
Brislington, 17th c. (V.-A. Mus.) . . . 120 

Utamaro's "Book of Birds", vol. i, PI. i, Pair of 

Quails and a Skylark, with Bog-plants . . 127 

English walnut seat furniture of the cabriole 
period belonging to Mr. Percival Griffiths. 
IV — High - backed chairs, [a] with 
stretchers, c. 1695 ; [b] without stretchers, 
'^- 1714 135 

V — Settees [c] Double, smaller size, little orna- 
ment, c. 1710; [d] Triple, larger size, highly 

ornamented, c. 1730 138 

Portraits of Albrecht Diner the Elder. By Johan 
BartholomaeusZeitblom, 1483. By Albrecht 
Diirer, 1490 (Uffizi). By Albrecht Diirer (?) 
(Albertina). By Albrecht Diirer (?), 1497 
(Nat. Gall.) 143 

Portraits of Paulus Hofhaimer and Jan Provost. 
Hofhaimer, detail (reversed) of Triumphal 
Procession of Ma.ximilian, woodcut by Hans 
Burgkmair. Provost or Hofhaimer, drawing 
by Albrecht Durer (Brit. Mus.). Death 
and the Miser, by Provost, with sup- 
posed portrait of the artist (Town Mus., 
Bruges) 146 


Maya sculpture (portion), (?) 50-200 A.D., from 

Piedras Negras 154 

Portraits of Ralegh and Drake. Ralegh, by 
Hilliard, 1581 (?) ; copy by Isaac Oliver (?), 
c. 1584 (?) ; oil painting, painter unknown 
(Nat. Port. Gall.). Drake, 1581, by Hilliard; 
larger copy, painter unknown . , . 159 

English i7th-c. tapestry. Amorini in a grape-vine 

(V,-A. Mus., presented by N.A.C.F.) . .162 

English arm-chairs of the cabriole period 
belonging to Mr. Percival Grithths. VI — [a] 
Chair of office, with gilt eagle, c. 1 730 ; 
[b] Child's arm-chair, covered in velvet, 
c- 1725 ; [c] Mahogany writing-chair, rather 

small, c. 174s 165 

VII — [d] Walnut, ivith upholstered seat and 
back, contemporary needlework, all four 
legs alike, c. 1740; [e] Large, mahogany 
carved back, " French " feet, c. 1750 . . 168 

Early drawings by Rodin, I — '^ Medea" or 
"Niobe" (Mr. Chas. Ricketts and Mr. C. H. 
Shannon). " L'horrible Transformation — 
L'homme et le serpent ", Inf. xxv, 1, 61, etc. . 173 
II — Unknown subject (Mme. Ciolkowska). 
"Figures du Puigaioire" or " Les Trois 
PtJC^Hes" (Mr. C. L. Rutherston), . . 176 
III — The Centaur (Mr. Chas. Ricketts and 
Mr. C. H. Shannon). '^ Ugolino, i" joiir". 
Inf. xxxiii, 1. 50, etc. (Mr. C. L. Rutherston) 177 

Return from Shooting, by Teniers the elder, 
(?) figures by Teniers the younger (E. of 
Radnor). Landscape, with figures after 
Teniers, by Jacques d'Arthois (Mr. R. Wm. 
Pettigrew) 182 

Gainsborough's copy of Ld. Radnor's picture (Nat. 
Gall., Ireland). Group after Teniers, detail 
of Mr. Pettigrew's Landscape by Arthois . 183 


Hard pottery, Ming vase, i6th c. or earlier (John 

Sparks) ....... 19^ 

Adoration of the Shepherds, by Bernardo da 

Parenzo (Nat. Gall.) 197 

DECEMBER (conlintictl) page 

Embroidery on a supposed kirlle of Queen Eliza- 
beth, adapted as a covering for the Com- 
munion table, Bacton Ch., Herefordshire, 
with other examples of contemporary em- 
broidery 200 

Modern drawings. Study, pencil, by Waller 

Sickert. A Xude, pencil, by Duncan Grant 203 
Portrait 0/ Monsieur Massine, pencil by Pablo 
Picasso ....... 205 

Portrait, Woman nursing a dog, pencil. Flowers 
inaillass, pen-and-ink, by Henri Matisse . 207 

Martino Spanzotti and his associates. Christ 
disputing with the Doctors (Mus. Civ., Turin). 
Virgin and Child attended by Angels (Sir 
Frederick Cook, Bt.) 209 

Judith with her nurse and the head of Hoi of ernes. 
I — Drawing by Mantegna (Uffizi, Florence). 


0/7 painting after Mantegna's drawing (Nat. 

Gall., IreLind) 212 

11—0/7 painting after Mantegna (late J. E. 
Taylor coll.). Plaquette by Riccio, after 
Mocetto's engraving of Mantegna's design 
(Brit. Mus., Whitcombe Greene gift). 0/7 
painting dhtr Mantegna (E. of Pembroke's 
sale, Sotheby, July 1917) . . • 213 

Panels of the school of Pesellino. 2'hrec scenes 
from the history of Joseph (Executors of the 
late Mr. Robert Ross)— I . . . .217 

n 220 

English stools, settee and sofa of the cabriole 
period belonging to Mr. Percival Griffiths. 

\Ul— Stools, c. 1730, c. 1735, c. 1755 . . 227 
lXSeltee,c.i-JSO' So/a, c. 1760 . . .230 




T. \V. ARNOLD, c.i.E. 
















C. G. E. BUNT, PTE,, 1ST-5TH 



A. S. G. BUTLER, Lieut., r.a. 





































D. S. MacCOLL 


SIR C. H. READ, v.p.s.A. 
A. G. B. RUSSELL, rouge 

HENRY TONKS, f.r.c.s. 
R. C. WITT, c.b.e. 



HAT Quentin Matsys is a figure of 
the greatest importance in the history 
of the Netherlandish school no one 
could of course at any moment have 

called into question ; but for all that 

it is probably recording more than a personal 
experience to say that as a rule he does not stir 
one's imagination very deeply, but appears as a 
master of very sound ability, capable of vigorous 
and straightforward characterization, and seen at 
particular advantage when expressing himself in a 
spirit of forcible and effective caricature. Take 
his great Triptych in the Antwerp Museum : the 
central panel representing the Deposition of Christ 
is really the least successful part of the whole, 
so lacking is it in intensity of sentiment and 
dramatic life, so haphazard and cut up in design. 
In the shutters, on the other hand, the artist ap- 
proaches the subjects, grim as they are, in a spirit 
of striking cartoonist's humour, and succeeds far 
better, whether it be the Feast of Herod he portrays, 
with Salome bursting into the room with the 
Baptist's head on a charger ; or the Martyrdom 
of S.John the Evangelist, with the two unforgettable 
figures in the foreground stoking the fire. 

Of a Matsys capable of rising to moments of 
higher inspiration and rarer and more exquisite 
moods, his work has, to be sure, not left one 
completely unsuspecting ; but no picture of his 

does, I feel, reveal his artistic personality in such 
a light more forcibly than the one which Tlic 
Burlington Magazine is now privileged to publish 
for the first time by kind permission of its owner, 
Mr. A. H. Buttery [Plate], into whose possession 
the picture passed after a somewhat Cinderella-like 
appearance at the Linnell sale at Christie's this 
spring. In the general planning of the design 
the work is characterized by a largeness and a 
noble and monumental dignity which are quite 
exceptional, not to say unparalleled, in Matsys ; 
and the same is true of the intensity of feeling 
which marks the action and expression of the 
figures. The picture is not quite finished, and 
this is an accidental quality for which we must 
doubtless be thankful, saving as it does the com- 
position from that excessive elaboration of form 
which is none too rare in Matsys. The scheme 
of colour is most exquisite too in its pale gobelin- 
like tonality. 

The dating of the picture presents no great 
difficulty : it finds a very natural place among the 
early works of the master. The models of the 
figures of the Virgin and the unknown female 
Saint on the right re-appear respectively in the 
Herodias and the Salome of the great altarpiece 
of 151 1 at Antwerp already referred to ; and on 
all points the features of style here exhibited also 
tally with the same work. 


PAINTER c. 1230-1305. 

'he Painted Chamber. — The Royal 
Palace at Westminster, as it was in 
the early Middle Ages, has been de- 
scribed in " Archjeo'.ogia " (1911). 

The king's great bedchamber with 

which we are here to be concerned was a long 
room having a flat boarded ceiling and several early 
13th-century windows. This chamber was ancient 
even at this time, and is mentioned as having been 
repaired in 1177 ; but Henry III practically rebuilt 
it and entirely decorated its walls twice over. 
The first series of paintings are mentioned in 
1236, in which year the wall (the dado?) was 
painted in a good green colour in manner of a 
curtain [F'IG. i]. On the wall of the inner gable 
was a motto in French : — 

He who won't give what he has shall not receive his 
Rokewode says this referred to hospitality., but at 
Woodstock "a certain chequer-board " was painted 

in the hall containing the same motto in Latin. 
I suppose it was a hint to pay contributions to 
the royal exchequer. Then there was a "great 
history " or subject painting ; and we saw in my 
article, Part v [Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxxi, 


p. 47], that there was also a Mappa Mundi devised 
by Matthew Paris. In the hall at Winchester 
Castle a map of the world was painted in 1239. 
In 1 25 1-2 the Keeper of the King's Books 

The Boelinoioh Magizine, No. 184. Vol. XXXIII— July, 1918. 

at Westminster was ordered to supply Master 
William, the king's painter, with colours for 
repairing the paintings in the chamber, and in 
1250 he painted above the fireplace a.Jessc-trec. 

After a fire in 1262, when the chamber was 
injured, it was entirely repainted, the walls being 
covered with a series of subjects arranged in 
bands with descriptive text between. The scheme 
was described by two sightseers in 1322 as being 
The Wars of the Bible, " ineffabiliter depicta". 
Warton, who quoted this record in his great 
" History of Poetry", observed : 

Thai T'lrt of the Old Testament which records the 
Jewish wars was ahiiost regarded as a book of chivalry. 
In France the battles of the Kings of Israel with the 
Philistines and the Assyrians were wrought into a grand 
volume under the title of " Plusieurs Battailes des Roys 
d'lsracl centre Ics Philistines et Assyricns " [BM. 19, D, 7). 

To this I may add that already in the 12th century 

some pages were 
devoted to pic- 
tures of these 
wars in the Great 
In 1264 the 
new works of 
painting were in 
charge of Master 
Walter of Dur- 
hain, but he pro- 
bably worked un- 
der the general 
direction of Mas- 
ter William, who 
himself did some 
work in the 
Chamber in 
1272. William 
must have been 
the senior of Walter by a generation, and the 
devising of a long series of Bible pictures would 
have been suitable work for a monk. Walter 
was a lay artist, and, as we shall find, he was 
succeeded by his son. In 1267 the Bailiffs of 
London were commanded to advance to Master 
Walter 20 marks for pictures made in " our 
Chamber " at Westminster, " and that you by no 
means omit to do it "'. In 1272 he received iocs., 
his " fee " for the year beyond his wages -. Roke- 
wode, who has given a full account of this very 
important work, says that payments continued to 
be made for the paintings in the Chamber down 
to the close of the reign of Henry III, in 1272, 
and entries for the years 1270 and 1271 confirm 
this, as does also the record of Master William's 
work in 1272. Henry III was an extravagant 
connoisseur, ever adding to and revising his 


works of art. In The Binliitgton Magazine for 
1905* I described the paintings, and a restoration 
of 'the interior of the Chamber from these 
particulars has since been drawn for me by 
Mr. Matthew Dawson [Pl.ate]. I also add a 
detail of one of the flat bosses of the ceiling 
which was preserved a few years since at the 
Soane Museum [FiG. 2]*. There can be no doubt 
from the form of these bosses, recessed as they are 
with matrices, that they were set with coloured glass 
like the similar bosses in the retable. The style of 
the workmanship of the paintings can be made 
out more certainly from Stothard's exquisite copies 
preserved at the Society of Antiquaries than from 
the coloured prints, good as they are'. The 
modelling of the draperies was done by gradation, 
aud not merely by drawn shading ; there was 
much gold distributed on crowns and borders and 
other parts, mostly on raised gesso-work ; the 
crowns had definite relief, say -,',iin. or so. The 
mail of the knights was silvered ^ Ruskin in his 
"Ariadne" has some remarks on these paintings 
as examples of pure colour design like early 
Florentine works. These paintings, like all 
mediceval art, were blithe and masterly, but they 
were hardly of so high an order as the retable. 
In one subject several horsemen were represented 
riding to the front'. 

It was Stothard's opinion that the Chamber has 
been repainted at least three times. He evidently 
meant repaired, for he added : — 

I have reason to believe that the last time the subjects 

were so renewed, the gilder was more employed than the 

He also thought, and Rokewode agreed, that the 
first painting was prior to the fire of 1262 ; but, so 
far as this applies to the figure subjects which 
have been recorded, this is a mistake. The 
tabernacle work over the most important of the 
subjects. The Coroiiaiion of S. Echvard, was clearly 
painted in imitation of the Westminster altarpiece. 
The draperies of the tall figures of Virtues in the 
window jambs with their borders of gold depend 
on the same source, as do some of the groups 
also. The whole work, in fact, was strongly 
influenced by the altar-piece. One of the subjects, 
a distribution of loaves to a crowd seated on 

" Brayley and Britten's Palace of Wcslminsler. p. 72. 
'That is nearly j£ioo over and above his wages. 

'^English Pniiiitivcs, The Painted Chamber, etc., Vol. vii, 
p. 259. 

* I could not find it recently. The late keeper of the museum, 
sending me a photograph of it, said : /The writing on the back 
of it is : 'A shield from the ceiling of the Painted Chamber at 
Westminster, taken down at the time of the general repair of 
that room in 1S19'. It is 17* inches acrossfrom point to point, 
and only an inch thick ". 

° I wish the Society would reissue Rokewode's work in 
octavo, and illustrate it with collotypes of these drawings. 

^Silver is mentioned in accounts for other works. It was 
usually doubtless applied to backgrounds, like those of many of 
the early frontals described by Herr Andreas Lindblom. 

'There is a foreshortened horse in the Trinity College 
Apocalypse ; cf. also the sketch-book of Villars de Honnecourt. 

the ground, is an echo of the miracle of loaves 
and fishes on the retable. 

In 1272 William was paid for painting the 
tabernacle about the king's bed, and as the king's 
bed was close to the picture of the Coronation oj 
Edward the Confessor, as was shown in my previous 
article, it seems probable that this picture, with its 
painted tabernacle work, may have been the work 
of Master William. It was larger in scale than 
the rest. The king is enthroned, holding the 
sceptre with a dove : an archbishop on either side 
supports the crown on his head. Behind each 
archbishop is his crozier-bearer ; a third figure 
close to the king may be the Abbot of West- 
minster ; only ecclesiastics are present. A small 
subject of a king receiving a letter (PI. xxxiv) is 
of interest, as the sealed letter is exactly like one 
shown on the Chertsey tiles, and it has been 
suggested that the latter might be a charter. The 
subject of the former, however, proves that it is a 
letter. The best description of the paintings 
contemporary with their discovery was printed in 
"The Gentleman's Magazine", November 1819, 
and of this I condense the substance : — 

The exquisite beauty of tlie numerous paintings and 
stucco ornaments is lamentably defaced, but not so much 
from time as from the carelessness of the workmen at the 
time the room was altered. The entire walls were covered 
with paintings of figures and with inscriptions in some 
places written small and close, but towards the upper part 
large and bold. The ceiling is of wood and painted with 
various figures in compartments of different shapes united 
into one regular pattern, the whole coloured and enriched 
with stucco ornaments. Thirty-three panels painted with 
figures of angels, saints and kings are preserved. These 
are formed of thin board." Amongst the wall paintings the 
most extensive and beautiful is the Coronation of the Con- 
fessor, of which the figures are of larger size. The colours 
are most brilliant; dark green and red prevail. In the 
sides of every window is a figure of the size of life under a 
canopy encompassed with a great profusion of ornaments 
emblazoned with silver and gold on stucco. Over every 
canopy is the figure of an angel ; they hold crowns and are 
clothed in blue with gilt ornaments ; the background is 
red ''. 

It has been pointed out above that the flat 
" bosses " which were set on the boarded ceiling 
^^ were like those of the altar-piece in form ; they 
were also distributed in a similar order, and 
there can be no doubt from the description of 
compartments united in a pattern, painted with 
figures'" and enriched with gesso, that the whole 
ceiling was divided into star-shaped panels like 
those of the retable. In this ceiling, indeed, we 
probably find the prototype of the ribbed ceilings 
in wood and plaster, popular in later days. 
Stothard did not illustrate the angels which were 
on the soffits of the window arches, but there is a 

sketch by Buckler of one of these in his collection 
now at the British Museum. 

In 1292-4 a large work of repair of the paintings 
was undertaken. Rokewode has published some 
of the rolls of accounts of this time, and I. T. 
Smith others. There were weekly accounts for 
about two years". Master Walter's wages were 
seven shillings a week, and working with him 
was " Thomas, son of the master ", who must have 
been quite young, as he received the lowest rate of 
payment, threepence a day. Two other assistants 
were Andrew and Giletto, who Smith suggests 
may have been Italians'^ 

Queen Alianor's Tomb. — Just before the 
time when the paintings of the chamber were 
restored Master Walter of Durham had executed 
a small work of which a faded stain may still be 
seen on the base of the tomb of Queen Alianor ; 
it was painted on the surface of the stone itself. 
Dart says that the subject was — 

A sepulchre at the foot of which are two monks and at 

the head a knight armed and a woman with a child in her 


There are four figures, but two were at one time 
hidden. Keepe, writing in 1683, while they were 
yet visible, says there was 

A sepulchre painted with divers monks praying thereat. 
From a copy made about fifty years ago in the 
Burges collection at South Kensington it appears 
that the two figures which Dart saw were monks 
in black garbs ; the other two seem to have been 
lay persons. The background was green — " per- 
haps blue originally ", says Burges, a remark 
which helps us on another point. Ttie knight, of 
whom some traces are still to be seen, who in the 
same painting was kneeling before the Virgin, 
had a heraldic surcoat of green or blue pales 
crossed by a bend gules ". 'This figure must have 
represented Sir Otho de Grandison. Why he was 
so painted here may perhaps be explained by a 
reference to Mr. Kingsford's account of this famous 
knight's life". Sir Otho was with Edward I in 
the Crusade of 1271, and remained his confidential 

" The whole ceiling was boarded ; for panels we may probably 
understand star-shaped compartments, as explained below. 

' Remnants of stained glass were found in the windows. 

'° In Stothard's notes quoted by Rokewode it is also said 
that the ceiling was painted. 

" The originals must now be in the Record Office K.R. 
Works. Smith says there were eleven rolls. Ea.stlake (1847) 
says that others up to forty-four had been found. For refer- 
ences at the present time see my former article (19051, Most 
of them must be unpublished, and it is time they should be 
properly edited. 

'- Wlien Stothard drew the remnants of the paintings he 
found on the stones blocking a window " a complete series of 
subjects representing the employments of the twelve months of 
the year ', and he thought from the form of the stones that they 
had been the original " frieze " of the fireplace. Possibly, liow- 
ever, they may have been associated with the painting of " a 
figure which may deservedly be likened to Winter itself", 
which in 1 240 was painted on the chimney of the queen's 
chamber. These Labours of the Year would have been like those 
on the Chertsey tiles. 

'•' In a good light many years ago I was able to verify this 
and drew most of the figures. 

^* Transactions of the R. Hist. Socy., 1909, p. i.lS. 

adviser and secretary. While Alianor was dying, 
Edward was preparing anotlier crusade, and in July 
1290 Sir Otho took 
tiie cross and (Mr. 
Kingsford says) — 
He set out for 
Palestine with a 
small company 
w h i c li included 
more priestly pil- 
j;rims than men-at- 
It would seem that 
pilgrims going at 
such a time must 
have been charged 
with Alianor's 
prayers at the holy 
places, which, how- 
ever, they never 
reached. My read- 
ing of the picture 
would be that it 
shows Sir Otho 
praying to the 
Virgin in the Holy 
Land while 
mourners gather at 
Alianor's tomb, or 
these last may be 
the pilgrims at the 
Holy Sepulchre. London wills of this time prove 
that it was a custom to make proxy pilgrimages to 

the Holy Land, and it appears from Mr. Kings- 
ford's work that Grandison was in 1307 charged 
to go again on behalf of the king'"'. Mr. Kingsford 
has called my attention to the fact that in the 
Berne Museum there is an embroidered altar- 
frontal, from the cathedral of Lausanne, in the 
centre of which are the Virgin and Child with a 
small figure of Sir Otho de Grandison kneeling 
before them in his heraldic surcoat [FiG. 3]. The 
composition is curiously like the Westminster 
painting'". From the illustration the frontal itself 
looks like later Byzantine work, with additional 
strips of (English ?) embroidery at the ends and 
the added figure of Sir Otho. It is known from 
the accounts for the making of Alianor's tomb that 
Master Walter of Durham was engaged on painting 
in connection with it. At Blackfriars, where 
her heart was buried, Walter also did painting, 
receiving in that case the large sum of -^13 is. 
Our tomb painting was thus the work of Master 
Walter ". 



"See an elegy on the death of Ed. I in Warton's History 0) 
Poetry ; from this it appears that Edward intended his heart to 
be taiien on a crusade. 

''° Kor a restoration of the Westminster painting see my 
Wislniiiistcr Ahhcy and tlic King's Craftsmen. 

'' The two tall figures illusitrated in the plate are from the 
Sedilia at Westminster Abbey. They, as will be shown, are 
probably the work of Master Thomas, son of Walter, and were 
painted about 1308. In a lately issued Calendar of Pafant 
liolls I find Walter denominated the King's Painter in 1267 
and the King's Sergeant Painter in 1270, when he was 
granted a bailiwick and two pence a day. 


I LAN is a city which was visited 
in the years before the great war by 
irobably more tourists than any 
ither town in Europe. Few however 
.of these tourists made any long stay 
in Milan or after paying duty visits to the Diiomo, 
the Castello, and the Brera gallery, found time left 
to explore the innumerable art-treasures of this 
great city, the wealth and iinportance of which 
had been increasing with great rapidity, though 
not without a deleterious influence upon its artistic 
traditions. It is probable, therefore, that many 
readers of The Burlington Magazine have not 
had the quite unusual pleasure of visiting the 
Casa Borromeo at Milan, with its collection of 
precious paintings and drawings, and above all 
the frescoes on its walls. Many students of art 
have however made this house a place of pilgrim- 
age, so that the paintings there are fairly well 
known, and have been the subject of no little 

In one of the small rooms on the ground-floor 
of the Casa Borromeo a delightful surprise awaits 
the visitor, the pleasure of which will leinain 

undiminished by lapse of years. On three of the 
walls of this room are painted in fresco scenes 
representing the pastimes and amusements of the 
nobility in the 15th century, forming a most 
valuable contribution to our knowledge of the 
private habits and customs in what may be called 
Society of that period. In one of these, four 
ladies and a youth are engaged in a kind of dance 
[Plate I, bJ, in another, five ladies are taking 
part in a game of ball [Plate II, c], and in a 
third a party of three ladies and two gentlemen 
are seated round a table playing at the Tarocchi 
game of cards [PLATE I, a]. One of the ladies 
seems to take the lead in all three of these scenes; 
in the first she is dancing a kind of pas seiil, while 
her companions are posed with various gesticula- 
tions behind; in the second she stands wielding a 
kind of bat to strike a ball, which is to be caught 
in the lap of one of the four other ladies, who all 
hold out their skirts for this purpose — a game 
which seems to foreshadow stool-ball and cricket ; 
in the third she is seated in the centre of the five 
card-players, facing the spectator. It is stated by 
Signor, who gives an account of these 



(E) STUDIES OF CObTLMh l-l\ ll^A\Hlu iMlshE HONX.AT, 


frescoes in his monumental work, '' La Pittura e la 
Miniatura nella Lombardia ", that he searched in 
vain among the archives preserved in the Casa 
Borromeo itself for any record as to the date 
when these paintings were executed or as to the 
persons represented. The paintings themselves 
tell their own story as belonging to the middle of 
the 15th century, and in spite of their neglected 
state and the ravages of time, which have destroyed 
so much of what must have been their original 
colour, they remain a source of real enjoyment to 
the student of late mediaeval art. It is a matter 
of greater difficulty to discover with any degree 
of certainty who was the painter of these delight- 
ful scenes. The present writer, who visited the 
Casa Borromeo some years ago, carried away a 
conviction that the originator in some way or 
other of these compositions was Pisanello, the great 
artist, who is now known to be Antonio Pisano 
of Verona. More recently the great stores and 
treasures of painting to be found in the churches 
and palaces of Northern Italy, both in the moun- 
tain districts and the plain of Lombardy, have 
been explored and written about by such students 
as Toesca in the work already alluded to and 
elsewhere, Venturi in the stupendous history of 
Italian Art, which has not yet attained completion, 
and the learned editor of Crowe and Cavalcaselle's 
"Painting in North Italy " (vol. Ii, chap, vi, ed. 
191 2). Various painters have been suggested, and 
for a time Michelino da Besozzo was almost 
accepted as the creator of the Casa Borromeo 
paintings, until a closer acquaintance with certain 
works by Michelino showed that he could not be 
the artist so eagerly sought for. No suggestion 
has, however, as yet been established as convinc- 
ing, and each successive writer has alluded to the 
obvious influence of Pisanello in the paintings 

The importance of Verona as an art centre has 
only been recognised in quite recent years, 
thanks chiefly to the labours of Signor Gerola, 
Dr. Schubring and other earnest students of 
North Italian painting. This importance was 
greatly enhanced by the discovery made by 
Signor Biadego that the painter and medallist, 
Pisanello, was identical with Antonio (Btiiliiigton 
Magazine, xiii, 288) Pisano, or Pisanello, born at 
Verona in 1397, the son of Bartolome da Pisa and 
Isabella, afterwards wife of Filippo da Ostigliar. 
Even if his father's family came originally from 
Pisa, Antonio Pisano was entirely Veronese by 
birth, and also by education, as he came under 
the influence of the painters Altichiero and 
Avanzo, and in reality took up the work of these 
excellent artists and brought it to a high degree of 
perfection in himself. There is no need in this 
Magazine to speak of Pisanello's art as a whole, the 
paintings, drawings, and medals, which have made 
him a landmark in the history of the fine arts. It 

is rnuch to be hoped that Mr. G. F. Hill will be 
able to re-publish in the light of recent information 
the admirable study of Pisanello which he 
published in 1905. In 1441 Pisanello was 
brought into contact with Filippo Maria Visconti, 
Duke of Milan, who became for a time the artist's 
principal patron. Filippo Visconti was a man 
and a ruler of remarkable character. The medal 
with his portrait, which was made by Pisanello, 
is well known. Mr. Hill speaks of a tradition 
that the duke declined to be painted by anyone 
because of his repulsive looks, but the very 
authority quoted by him. Pier Candido Decem- 
brio (of whom there is a medallion portrait by 
Pisanello), does not really make such a statement. 
In his description of Filippo's personal appearance 
he begins by saying : " Forma fuit a principio 
non inelcganti, corpore eximio ", does not suggest 
anything repulsive, and ends by saying : " Cuius 
effigiem, quamquam a nullo depingi vellet, 
Pisanus ille insignis artifex miro ingenio spiranti 
parilem effinxit ". The same writer speaks of 
Filippo's love of horses, dogs, leopards and birds, 
his passion for fowling and hunting, and his skill 
in games " nam modo pila se exercebat, nunc 
folliculo". The statement that Pisano made his 
portrait does not allude definitely to the 
well-known medal, but might apply to a 

A comparison of the portrait of Filippo engraved 
for Paolo Giovio with the rider in the well-known 
painting by Pisanello of S. £;/s/ace in the National 
Gallery, suggests that this horseman is really a 
portrait of Filippo Maria Visconti, and that the 
painting was executed for him. Pisanello was 
among the artists employed by Filippo Visconti 
to paint frescoes in the duke's castle at Pavia, 
where there was, as Mr. Hill says, a grand 
room all frescoed with beautiful figures, repre- 
senting hunting and fishing and jousting and 
various other diversions of the dukes and 
duchesses of this State. It is only natural, as Mr. 
Hill also says, to suppose that Pisanello should 
have been employed by Filippo at Milan as well 
as at Pavia, and his hand, or his influence, has 
been traced in the frescoes in the church of S. 
Eustorgio and in those known to be by the 
Zavattari at Monza. Far nearer in spirit and 
design to the art of Pisanello are the frescoes in 
the Casa Borromeo. Take, for instance, the 
studies of costume from the drawings at Chantilly 
(Hill, p. 93, pi. 23), and at Bayonne [Plate II, 
D, e], and compare it with the principal figure 
in the Borromeo groups. It seems hardly pos- 
sible to doubt that the Borromeo figures were 
designed by Pisanello. Our knowledge of 
mediaeval practices of painting is so defective, that 
it is difficult to say for certain how much of a 
fresco painting was done by a master's hand and 
how much only from cartoons prepared by the 


master himself, but actually carried into execution 
by other hands. It would take a genius of 
unusual elasticity to be able to combine the delicate 
minuteness of the medallist or goldsmith with the 
broad, rapid work necessary for painting in true 
fresco. If one was on sure ground in supposing 
that an artist like Pisanello did not actually 
execute with his own hands such work as frescoes, 
however responsible he may have been for the 

design, it would not be difficult to assign the 
frescoes in the Casa Borromeo to Pisanello, as 
designer and creator, any lack of technical 
excellence being due to the actual workman and 
not to the creative artist himself. The subjects of 
these frescoes assign themselves to the period 
of the reign of Filippo Maria Visconti at Milan, 
so that the work may have been undertaken at 
his command. 


COURT cupboard, according to the 
[dictionary dehnition, is a movable 
Ibufifet with shelves on which plate 
'was displayed; yet the actual origin 
^of the word "court" in this connec- 
tion is somewhat obscure. The court cupboard 
would seem, in the genesis of the term, to have 
been a low, short cupboard, and to have derived 
its name from the French court, short ; being so 
called to distinguish it from the early dresser 
with tiers of degree for the display of plate, in 
which the height or number of the shelves denoted 
the position claimed by the owner. However 
this may be, the title became the accepted one in 
this country in Elizabethan and Jacobean times 
for a standing cupboard with shelves. That it 
was the English equivalent for both the buffet 
and the dresser is shown in Cotgrave's " Dic- 
tionarie of the l^rench and English Tongues", 
published in London in 1611, in which a btiffet is 
defined as "A court cupboord or high standing 
cupboord ", and a dressoir as "A cupboord; a 
court-cupboord (without box or drawer) onely to 
set plate on "'. 

The court cupboard in its simplest form is 
merely a two-tiered sideboard, buffet, or dresser, 
each tier supported by pillars or jewelled bulbs, 
and the open shelves used for standing plate or 
other articles on required for meals. In its next 
development the back was panelled and the upper 
tier was partially filled with a cupboard three-sided 
in plan and narrower in front than at the back, 
the centre of the three panels opening as a door, 
and the outer ones canted back at each end. This 
combined sideboard and cupboard corresponds 
with a well-known type of Gothic credence. Like 
the French and Flemish dress, iis of similar con- 
struction it was always open below ; and this shelf, 
as well as the top and the ledge of the recessed 
upper tier, afforded space for the display of vessels 
of silver, glass and faience, either for show or for 

actual use on the table'. The top of the cupboard, 
where the tallest of these articles stood, was 
covered with a piece of material, either damask 
or needlework, with fringes which fell over the 
ends, or a small Turkey carpet". 

The first of the two illustrations [Plate, a] 
shows a court cupboard of the above type in its 
finest and most perfect form, dating from the latter 
part of the i6th century. It is of good proportions 
and of admirable design. Its salient features, the 
two paiis of handsome bulbous pillars, are of the 
same height, but show interesting variations. 
Each bulb, headed by an Ionic capital, is carved 
above with nulling and below with acanthus, and 
encircled by a band of jewelled ornament. The 
nulling of the lower pair of bulbs alternates with 
concave gadroons ; the acanthus in the upper 
pair is interspersed by a guilloche pattern, while 
in the lower it is flat and formal in treatment, and 
alternately upright and reversed. The top of the 
cupboard has a simple ogee cornice ; the frieze is 
inlaid with a delicate checker of holly and bog 
oak m sunk panels, and below this is a narrow 
projecting moulding carved with gadroons. The 
three panels of the triangular cupboard are deeply 
recessed by mouldings and framed in borders of 
checker inlay. Each panel is inlaid with holly, 
bog oak, and cherry wood in a conventional 
design composed of gilly flowers, amid which 
are perched small birds. (In the photograph the 
inlay is only visible on one panel.) Below the 
shelf is a band of checker work, and just below 
this is a drawer extending across the front, its 
face carved with spiral gadroons and its ends 
mitred with the mouldings on either side. The 
open shelf below has its liack filled in by two 

' The subject of the court cupboard is discussed at some 
length ill J. \V. Lyon's Colonial Furiiitiireof Xcw England (Bos- 
ton, 1891), a work of considerable value for the study of various 
types of early furniture common both to England and America. 

- "And so for the feast, you have your court-cupboards planted 
with Haijons, cans, cups, beakers, bowls, goblets, basins and 
ewers". (Chapman's ,S/iiv-D(iy, 1611.) 

^ Carpets and rugs in the reign of Queen Elizabeth began to 
be imported direct from the East by the English Levant Com- 
pany. They were used chiefly as coverings for tables, chests, 
beds and cupboards, and only laid here and there upon the 
floor. A table cloth and a cupboard cloth in particular is often 
mentioned in the inventories of the time, where it is occasionallv 
specified as a " stript of Turkev carpitl ". 


^. . 




1 > '4J^ 


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p^'"^Hr ' 1 s 



^^l^r i ' 1 



III 11 ' imHE 1 ■ *l "i 


- X ^ Hj^ 




^^ ^ ^ "m. 


^„ ..-..^ijMHB 





panels similarly inlaid with a charming design of 
birds and flowers. They are divided by a style 
carved with a conventional pomegranate, flanked 
by the back supports which are enriched with 
arabesque strapwork, and enclosed above and 
below by cross-pieces carved with leafy scroll- 
work. Unfortunately no information is forth- 
coming as to the exact place where the cupboard 
came from, but it is said to have been brought 
from an important house in the neighbourhood 
of Gloucester. The outstanding quality of the 
piece proves that it must have been made for 
persons of rank and importance ; while the 
beautiful condition of the surface, with its rich 
red-brown patina, shows that it has always been 
valued and cared for. It is satisfactory to learn 
that this fine example of Elizabethan furniture 
was acquired by Sir Alfred Mond just in time to 
save it from being exported from this country. 

This buff^et-form of court cupboard is distinct 
from the more usual type, which was designed 
rather for storage than for purposes of display. 
In this case the upper portion is enclosed by a 
straight front slightly recessed beneath the cornice, 
while the lower is fitted with a pair or more of 
cupboard doors. Both of these types were in use 
at the same time, but whereas the former ceased 
about the middle of the 17th century, the latter 
continued to be made until the beginning of the 
i8th. An interesting variation of this hitter type 
is presented in the second of the two cupboards 

here shown [Pi.ATE, b]. This piece, unlike the 
majority of its class, is narrow in proportion to its 
height. The recessed upper part is furnished 
with two cupboards ; but the lower is partially 
occupied by an unusually deep drawer, and the 
remaining space below is left open. The bulbous 
supports, carved with nulling and acanthus, are 
not furnished with capitals, and the jewelled 
bands are omitted. The cornice has a dental 
moulding ; and the frieze is flatly carved with 
acanthus design within lunettes, which is re- 
peated upon the face of the bottom shelf. The 
doors, bordered with a waved pattern, are 
decorated with shallow strapwork designs, and 
the upright between them has an applied half- 
baluster ornament. The front of the drawer is 
carved with well designed strapwork arabesques 
centreing on two rosettes and fitted with two 
turned handles. On the uprights at either end 
are two large half-balusters turned with a pyramid 
of rings above and with acorn drops below. The 
back supports are carved with a laurelled design 
in low relief. This interesting and uncommon 
piece of furniture dates from about 1630. It has, 
like the other cupboard, a beautiful surface, and 
is generally in fine condition. Comparison of it 
with its Elizabethan companion is instructive, for 
although the ornament of the earlier period is 
retained, poverty of invention, as well as of execu- 
tion, is evidence of the fact that by this date oak 
furniture in England had already passed its apogee. 


LTHOUGH the spelling of early 
18th-century society folk— especially 
those of the fair sex — was still apt to 
be free of the trammels of the gram- 
marian and the lexicographer, the 
letter-writing habit had, as we have seen, reached 
the pitch of needing chests of drawers and even 
dressing-tables fitted with writing facilities. Ad- 
ditional room for stowing letters, documents, 
account and other books could be given by 
placing a shallow cupboard on such part of 
the top as was not occupied by the flap, and 
the name of writing cabinet was assigned 
to the composite piece. Both bureau and 
writing cabinet occur before the 17th century 
closes, but were not numerous until after walnut 
had been displaced by mahogany, which is the 
substance of the cabinet now illustrated [Plate, 
e]. It is difficult to assign it an exact date. It 
is certainly of one design carried out at one time, 
but the lower half is rather older in feeling than 
the upper half. The latter has the full architectural 

character which did not prevail until George II's 
reign, and which we connect with William Kent's 
vogue as a designer. But the bureau is still on the 
model of those made of walnut under Queen 
Anne. Indeed I haveone in mindat Belton of which 
the interior scheme is almost identical, although 
it probably saw the last days of William Ill's 
reign. Note the serpentine sweep of the pigeon- 
holes with drawers below them, the central cup- 
board inspired by the earlier Italian temple-fronted 
cabinets, the steps of geometric inlay which pull 
out as a drawer, the looking-glassed door which 
opens on to a vistaed space with inlaid floor, 
the door, flanked by sections of a classic order, 
forming a block which pulls out on touching a 
spring and revealing nests of secret drawers. All 
this is also characteristic of the Belton piece and 
the looking-glass doors of the upper half savour 
of the same earlier manner. But its other details 
and general lines render it very improbable that 
it was made till after 1730. Despite the excellence 
of design and workmanship which make it worthy 


of liaving come from Thomas Chippendale's work- 
shop, it is possible that these mixed qualities 
arise from its being of provincial origin, say 
Bristol, or other West Country centre, for it was 
found a dozen years ago by its present possessor 
in the private parlour of a Monmouth hotel keeper. 
Its excellent repair and untouched condition give 
it enhanced charm and interest. 

The quiet little English "scrutoire " (illustrated 
last month) in its forward swell and also in its 
key and handle plates modestly borrows from the 
elaborately serpentined and richly mounted F"rench 
commodes of the Louis XV period of which Chip- 
pendale gives many an Englished version in his 
" Director", telling us that — 

The ornamental Parts are intended for Brass-Work, 
which I would advise should be modelled in Wax, and 
then cast from these models. 

In England such mounting never, in extent or in 
quality, reached the point that it did in France. 
But chased ormolu cornerings, footings, headings 
and bandings, of good quality, were made and 
used for sumptuous pieces, while for fine house- 
hold furniture the flat plate for scutcheon and 
handle, such as we find on the writing cabinet 
drawers, gave way, by the middle of the century, 

to a richer type made in the manner which 
Chippendale mentions. Such appears on 1 the 
double chest of drawers [Plate, f] of which 
the Chinese fret of the cornice and chamfered 
edges are associated with pagoda topped and 
fretted plates, while the shell and C-scrolled 
handles end with the heads of much the 
same birds as were used on the "Chinese" 
plaster and minor work cf the latter half of 
George ll's reign. The evolution of the double 
chest of drawers is rather like that of the 
desk. Under William III we get chests of 
drawers raised on stands having only one tier 
of drawers above the legs. Then the stand 
became a second complete chest of drawers. But 
although such occur in walnut dating fro'ii the 
days of Anne, the "tall boy" did not become 
customary to the chamber till mahogany pre- 
vailed, which it had done long before the piece 

illustrated was inade, about 1750. 

Although straight-sided, the footing has, in 
compressed form, both the lines and detail 
common to the cabriole leg. When we come to 
chairs and settees we shall find that the spirit of 
the cabriole not only dominates the leg, but 

influences the arms and back. 


fOINCIDEN'T with other movements 
literature and the fine arts of a 

) national character, such as the Pan- 

I Celtic in Ireland and the Jugo-Slav, 

jthe " Renaixenfa cientifica catalana " 
has converted Barcelona into an intellectual and 
artistic capital. Modern culture and modern 
art have found not merely an echo, but a spirit of 
fertile initiative in Catalonia, and the same spirit 
has produced excellent results in the examination 
of its own racial traditions, and of the extremely 
rich art-inheritance of the Catalan people. A 
sustained regard for organised scientific research 
and a contempt for dilettantism are embodied in 
the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, whose extensive 
programme of historical, literary, juridical and 
scientific studies, is being competently realised 
year after year by the formation and arrange- 
ment of national archives, by a series of sump- 
tuous detached publications, and by the issue 
of an " Anuari " containing articles in various 
languages, which takes its place worthily by the 
side of Austrian and German " Jahrbiicher". 
The Institut is young, and its work has not as yet 
penetrated deeply into England, but in the circles 
where it is known recognition has been most 
cordial. A number of books bearing the imprint 
of the Institut has reached IJic Builiiigton Maga- 

zine\ and much matter relevant to the history of 
the arts has been extracted from them and briefly 
rehearsed in the following notes. It may be stated 
in passing that typographically all these books 
are admirable, and the standard of reproduction 
is very high, especially in the use of three-colour 
process, of which " Les Pintures Murals Cata- 
lanes" is the best example. Catalan painting of 
the period dealt with in this work— roughly to be 
classified as Romanesque— may conveniently be 
referred to first. Many remains exist in the form 
of frescoes and altar-frontals, and the specimens 
of the latter in the museums of Barcelona and 
Vich are examined in an article written in Italian 
by Dr. Antonio Munoz in the" Anuari" for I907^ 
The Catalan frontal exhibited at the Grafton 
Galleries in 1913 will be remembered by ama- 
teurs of Span'ish art. This was characteristic 
of the class, but hardly so important or well 
preserved as the best of those which are still 
treasured in their native country, such as the 
two fragments, the Madonna and S. John and 
the Coronation of tlid Virgin (Nos. lo-ii, 

'Anuari 1907: 1908: 1909-10 : 1913-14, Pts. i-ll. Les 
I'niliiics Murals Catalancs, Fasciles i-il-ni. V Arquttectura 
Roniaiiiai a Catcilunya. 

■^ Pittiira Romaiiicn Catalana : I paliotti dipiuti dei Musei di 
Vich e di Barcelona, del Dott. .'\ntonio Muiioz, 


Museum of Vich, from their form and size, 
not parts of altar-frontais), whose magisterial 
figures bear witness to an altogether superior 
level of art. Here and in other illustrations 
Dr. Muiioz points to the evident influence 
of the monumental arts of fresco and mosaic, 
and traces throughout the currents from By- 
zantine, French and Arabic sources. The 
general impression is of a vigorous native school 
responding now to one, now to another influence; 
sometimes a prolongation of the primitive forms 
of the Qth-ioth centuries common also to the 
south-east of France, or of earlier forms differing 
from Carlovingian and spreading over the whole 
of Spain (here in contact with Irish art); and later, 
in the 15th century', enjoying a period of maturity 
which counteracted on southern Italy, Sardinia 
and Sicily. The development of art in mediaeval 
Catalonia (including Roussillon) differs from the 
strongly localised schools of the rest of Spain, 
and is recognisably national ; but an intangible 
emotional quality, something of which permeates 
Spanish painting as far as Greco, seems to be 
common to the whole peninsula. This charac- 
teristic is visible in the altar-frontal of S. Margaret 
(Museum of Vich — possibly nth century), a work 
of great beauty. Part of it is well reproduced in 
colour. Without the colour factor a great part of 
the effect of these paintings is, of course, lost. 
Their harmony, it may be, is due to the use of a 
limited number of earth pigments, which combine 
in a rich and full tonality suitable to the expres- 
sion of dignified themes. In " Les Pintures 
Murals ", by means of photographs and careful 
colour-copies on a convenient scale, we get as 
near as possible under the conditions to an im- 
pression of the actual objects. Some of them 
are singularly well preserved. The frescoes of 
S. Climent de TahuU are described as being fresh 
and transparent in colour as if newly painted. At 
S. Miquel de la Seo, Urgell, the lower paintings 
have been perfectly protected by the accident of 
a Gothic altar (since removed) having been placed 
against them — an occurrence which explains the 
survival of other of these frescoes, many of which 
have been lately discovered. Others have been 
found in Galicia and in the centre of the penin- 
sula. The multitude of them in Catalonia is 
hypothetically ascribed to Benedictine activity. 
The Benedictines would naturally reserve the 
best artistry for the sanctuaries of their own 
order, as at Sta. Maria d'Aneu (13th century ?). 
Here are the most impressive paintings of all. 
Unfortunately, like those of Pedret (possibly the 
oldest), they are badly damaged. The descriptive 
notice indicates a S. Italian rather than a French 
source for their Byzantinism. In any case they 

differ from contemporary French work, and are 
in some respects superior. 

Turning to later Catalan painting, the " Anuari " 
for 1913-14 (Pt. II) contains an article by M. 
Couyat-Barthoux, with an excellent colour repro- 
duction, on the picture of S. Catherine of Alex- 
andria, discovered by him in 1909 in the Greek 
monastery of Sinai. An inscription records the 
presentation of the picture to the monastery in 
1387 by the Catalan consul at Damascus. Two 
other travellers, MM. Ubach and Kergorlan, 
independently made the same discovery as 
M. Couyat-Barthoux, but shortly afterwards. 
M. Kergorlan * found another inscription at the 
back with the date 1388 and the name of Marcus 
de Villanova — possibly the signature of the artist. 
The panel is of its kind a masterpiece. It appears 
to have a certain affinity to the Sienese school, 
whose influence in Valencian painting is acknow- 
ledged by Sr. Lluis Tramoyeres.^ 

At the time when this picture was executed 
Catalan authority was widely distributed in the 
Mediterranean. There are illuminating articles 
in the "Anuari"* by Sr. A. Rubio i Lluch, 
President of the Institut, on the Catalan settle- 
ments in Greece, with photographs of many of 
the ruined castles which still bear witness to the 
Latin domination. That of Lamia, or Zeitun, is 
the most complete, and elsewhere are other 
sufficiently important specimens of mediaeval 
military architecture. Concerning the Acropolis 
of Athens, the most famous fortress of all, 14th- 
century admiration of antiquity is preserved in 
the eulogy of the Parthenon by King Pere '1 
Cerimonios : " la pus richa joya qui al mont 
sia ". 

The publications of the Institut are of great 
interest to students of architecture, who will 
appreciate particularly the work of Sr. J. Puig i 
Cadafalch, Vice-President of the section of 
Archaeology'. This author has made a close and 
enthusiastic study of early Catalan monuments, 
and is not blinded by his intimate local knowledge, 
and the patient accumulation of documents of 
every kind, to the wider issues involved. For 
this reason he is worthy of attention on such a 
complex question as the degree of Oriental 
influence in the formation of Romanesque 
architecture. Catalonia, on account of its inter- 
mediate position between Moorish influences and 
European, has been assigned by M. Marcel 

^ Flemish influence is ver)- marked in this century : cf. also 
note 5. 

* Sites delaisscs d'Oricnt, 191 1. 

^Anuari 1909-10, p. 729. See also Historia del Arte hy J. 
Pijoan (vol. 11, p. 450), where Catalan receptiveness for Sienese 
art is further recognised and documented. 

^ Els castells Catalans de la Grecia eoiiliiiental, 1908: La 
Grecia catalana des de la inoit de Roger de Lltiria fins a la de 
Frederic III de Sicilia, 1913-14, Pt. i : Ateties en tcnifs dels 
Catalans, 1907 ; see also The Latins in the Levant, by William 

' Since President of the Institut. 


Dieulafoy" an important mission in the develop- 
ment of Romanesque ; his theory being that this 
art was engendered, on the one side, by Persian 
forms (brought somewliat deviously from their 
source by the Moorish invasion) in contact with 
Roman and Visi-Gothic traditions, and transmitted 
to France by way of the Pyrenees. Similarly 
Lombard architecture is Sicilian-Mussulman 
grafted on a Classic [stock. Sr. Puig i Cadafalch 
discusses the question temperately and judicially, 
avoiding the attitude of the old type of archaeolo- 
gist — too often obstinately partial to a personal 
view rather than impartially searching after truth. 
He shows that the intensity of Moorish influence 
in Catalonia, at least in t!ie period prior to the 12th 
century which is qualified as first Romanesque, is 
over-estimated by M. Dieulafoy. In an account, 
fully provided with plans and photographs, of the 
Baths of Girona (which had not been thoroughly 
studied since Laborde, owing to the rigid seclusion 
of the religious order to which they belong) he 
finds an instance of the Romanesque rebuilding 
(A.D. 1294-96) of a Moorish edifice, in which the 
plan alone remains Moorish. Except one or two 
trifling details of arcading there is no other feature 
of immediate Moorish derivation. If in other 
respects a remoter origin is sought in Sassanid- 
Persian forms, they arrived in Catalonia through 
Byzantine and Lombard channels. On the other 
hand, from the 12th century onward, rich decora- 
tion of a Moorish character is frequently used in 
church buildings. There are many examples 
among the illustrations in the concluding part of 
the same article^ : at Tarragona, Cubells, Lerida, 
Santa Coloma de Queralt, etc. ; and in woodwork, 
the doors of Gandesa and Agramunt. This 
change would naturally be brought about by the 
employment of workmen from the conquered 
Moorish provinces ; and in addition many decora- 
tive elements were furnished by the ivories, illu- 
minations and textiles of the East. A photographic 
comparison is made between textiles from the 
Museums of South Kensington, Cluny and Vich, 
and the sculptures of S. Cugat del Valles, I'Estany, 
and San Joan de les Abadesses, the motifs of 
the weaver being faithfully preserved in stone. 
Nevertheless Sr. Puig i Cadafalch finds in the 
results of Moorish contact merely somethingsuper- 
imposed, not really combining with Romanesque 
nor vitally affecting it, and he enforces M. Enlart's 
view of the unity of the Germanic-Roman Empire 
in art matters.'" 

The detailed exposition of these views, to which 
it is impossible to do full justice without lengthy 

'See Hisioire R6tUrale dc I'arl: Espngiic ct Porlugal, Paris, 
1913- An English edition is published. 

• Els Batiys dc Girona i la iitflncncia morcsca a Catalunya, 
Anitari 1913-I4 : See also L'ArqiUtccliira Rom'anica a Cata- 
lunya, Vol. I, chap. xii. 

'" Aniiari, 1913-14, Part n, 962. 

quotation, is most ably rnanaged. Much new 
matter discovered in researches instigated by the 
patriotic zeal of the Catalan movement adds weight 
to an already highly specialised knowledge. Sr. 
Puig i Cadafalch's opinion on the problem of 
the origins of the horseshoe arch is embodied" in 
" L'Arquitectura Romanica a Catalunya", an im- 
portant treatise in three well illustrated volumes 
written in collaboration with Srs. A. de P'alguera 
and J. Goday, and published by the Institut. 
Authorities differ considerably on the solution of 
this problem, and conclusive evidence is not yet 
forthcoming. Spanish archajologists (as Sr. Gomez 
Moreno) hold that this arch-form was imported 
into the Peninsula by the Iberians, preserved 
throughout the Roman period, and transmitted 
to Mussulman art by the Visi-Goths. The text 
of S. Isidore which serves as one basis for their 
theory is interpreted in a different sense by 
Rivoira, who claims the importation of the horse- 
shoe arch, as a constructive system, for the 
builders of the Mczquita of Cordova (begun in 
A.D. 785), following on its appearance in the 
Mosque of Damascus (a.d. 705-15). A whole 
group of buildings'* hitherto classilied as Visi- 
Gothic is placed by Rivoira in a later category. 
S. Miquel de Tarrassa, in which, on plan, the 
ultra-semicircular form appears, is one of these. 
Here he differs from the authors of " L'Arquitec- 
tura Romanica," who give good reasons for their 
supposition that parts at least of S. Miquel, and of 
the neighbouring S. Pere, are coeval with the 
Visi-Gothic bishopric. They will remain uncon- 
vinced till thorough excavations can be made ; 
nor will the omission of the horseshoe curve from 
Rivoira's plan assist their conviction. M. Enlart, 
in Vol. I of "The History of Art", published 
under the direction of Andre Michel, dismisses 
S. Miquel de Tarrassa as of 12th century character. 
This is only one of numerous rash statements and 
positive errors in the section of Michel's work 
which deals with Catalan Romanesque". But the 
field of inquiry into Oriental origins is beset with 
doubt and contradiction. From the appearance 
of the horseshoe form at Ajanta, from the dubious 
chronology of Persian and Cappadocian remains, 
from the steles of Leon and Palencia ascribed to 
the 2nd century, and other evidence, only a general 

" Sec also his review of Kivoira's Arcliitettnra iinisiiliiiaua, 
Aiuiaii. 1913-14. Part 11, 959- 

'- Controversy has been chiefly concerned with the date of 
San Juan de Bafios. For a bibliography of the subject see 
L'Aiqiiitccliira Romanica, Vol. i, p. 362. C/. also J. Pijoan 
(Historia del Artc,Vo\. 11, p. 164), who accepts San Juan de 
Baiios and the Baptistery of Tarrassa as Visi-Gothic. 

'^ See Anuari, 1907, Bibliografia : and Historia del Arte {J. 
Pijoan), Vol. 11, p. 270. However, Michel and Dieulafoy point 
the way for the ordinary English student, who might infer from 
a glance at such treatises as Sir T. G. Jackson's Byzantine and 
Romanesque Architecture, or Professor Banister Fletcher's His- 
tory of Architecture (admirable of their kind) that Romanesque 
did not exist beyond the Pyrenees. In some respects we have 
not advanced far from the confessed ignorance of Fergusson. 


conclusion can as yet be safely adopted ; that, 
together with the six-pointed star and other 
simple inventions, this device is common to 
primitive art among many peoples. Something 
may be allowed for spontaneous development, as 
M. Brutails has remarked in his genial demolish- 
ing)" of Courajod's thesis of the artistic importance 
of the Goths in France. Similarly with the 
cusped and foiled arches favoured by the Moors. 
Given the arch and the desire to decorate its edge, 
any body of workmen with the spirit of growth in 
them might turn, when satiated with chevron 
indentations or other patterns, to the form of the 
arch itself. No new element is added in the foiling 
of a series of small arches round a great one. 

A purely local type of Catalan Romanesque is 
described by Sr. Puig i Cadafalch in an article on 
the timber-roofed churches of the valleys of Aran 
and Bohi, which preserved, in their construction 
and ornament, traditions long abandoned else- 
where"'. The wall paintings of Sta. Maria de Ta- 
hull and S. ClimentdeTahull, both churches con- 
secrated in 1 123, and of Sta. Maria de Bohi, receive 
special notice in " Pintures Murals Catalanes ", 
mentioned above. There are brief notices, by the 
same energetic antiquary, of the Monastery of S. 
Daniel at Girona (" Anuari ", 19 [3-14, Part 11) ; of 
the Templar church of Nostra Dona del Miracle at 
Tarragona, in the same volume ; and an exhaustive 
examination ("Anuari", 1909-10 — in conjunction 
with Sr. J. Miret i Sans) of the Palace of the Depu- 
tation in Barcelona. This last building, with its 
nucleus of the I4th-i5th centuries, and additions 
of the i6th-i7th (including the neo-classic prin- 
cipal facade), ranks in interest with the communal 
Palazzi of Italy. The rich sculptural adornment 
of the mediaeval portion has been well photo- 
graphed and in great detail, so that one can 
accurately appreciate the varied fantasy and 
technical mastery displayed in its gargoyles and 
in the S. George of Master Pere Johan (1418). 
Not least among its treasures is another statue 
of S. George, now in the Barcelona Museum, 
exceptionally noteworthy for specialists in the 
history of armour. Its front and back views 
(both illustrated in the "Anuari ") supply complete 
information on the type of armour worn, which 
falls most usefully into place between the S. George 
of Dijon and William Austen's effigy of Richard 

The elaborate vestments used in the service of 
the Chapel of S. George are now also in the 
Barcelona Museum, among them the set pur- 
chased in 1443, of Florentine brocade. But the 
most valuable addition to the textiles of the 
museum was made in 1913 by the acquisition of 
the collection of the late Sr. Pasco. This contains 

^* Les Influences de !' Alt Oriental et les Goths dans le Midi 
de la France in Anuari 1907- 
'^ Anuari, igoj. 

a small but representative group of Coptic 
examples ; a large number of Hispano- Arabic or 
Mudejar type ; a few Sicilian pieces of the 13th 
century ; a rich series of Italian work of the 
I4th-i5th centuries ; of Spanish, from the i6th- 
i8th centuries; and abundance of the manu- 
facture of Lyons and other French schools. Some 
seventy specimens are selected for illustration in 
a notice by Sr. Folch i Torres ("Anuari", 1913, 
Pt. II), who suggests a certain revision of accepted 
classifications. He inclines to a Hispano- Arabic 
origin for the fragment of a vestment from the 
tomb of S. Bernat Calvo, Bishop of Vich. 
Lessing and Pasco considered this piece Byzan- 
tine'". Other claims " are tentatively put forward 
by Sr. Folch i Torres for the primitive Arabic 
schools of Spain, which developed into the art 
characteristic of Granada in the I3th-i4th cen- 
turies ; and the Germanic origin assumed by 
some authors for the cope of the Abbot Biure is 

The range of the Institut's interests would be by 
no means fully indicated without some reference 
to the considerable explorations at Empuries and 
other sites. The importance of the work at 
Empuries may be judged by the large proportion 
of papers in the " Anuari " devoted to the dis- 
coveries made there. Sr. Puig i Cadafalch studies 
the topography of the successive Iberian, Greek 
and Roman settlements ("Anuari ", 1908). The 
sculpture found is described by Sr. Ramon Casellas 
("Anuari ", 1909-10, with special reference to the 
then newly excavated statue of .^sculapius). The 
ceramics are dealt with by Sr. Manuel Cazurro in 
" Los Vasos Aretinos y sus Imitaciones Galo- 
Romanas en Ampurias " (" Anuari ", 1909-10) ; 
by Herr August Frickenhaus (" Anuari ", 1908 — 
" Griechische Vasen aus Emporion ") ; and again 
by Sr. Cazurro and Sr. Emilio Gandia ("Anuari ", 
191 3-14, Pt. II — " La estratificacion de la Ceramica 
en Ampurias "'*). Photographs of the Roman 
catapult of Empuries are given in the " Anuari " 
(1913-14, Pt. II) side by side with the reconstruc- 
tions of General Schramm. 

A minor mission, the examination of the pre- 
historic rock paintings of Cogul, in the province 
of Lerida, has yielded e.xcellent results. The 
paintings are carefully reproduced in the "Anuari " 
for 1908. They consist of well-defined human 

'^ Of another fragment preserved at Vich, from the tomb of 
St. Bernard (showing not the motif uf tlie double-headed eagle 
poised on two animals, but a giant strangling wild beasts), Sr. 
J. Pijoan says : — " ... no por ello cabe poner en duda que 
procedia del Oriente y habia sido labrada en epoca mas antigua". 
Historia del Arte, Vol. 11, p. 123. 

" Among them for the fragment in the Pasco collection 
repeating the " elephant" theme of the piece of stuff from the 
tomb of Charlemagne (this latter piece is generally thought to 
have beenlplaced in the tomb in the nth century). This would 
not imply that the two pieces are products of the same school. 
They differ considerably. 

'* Cf. also La Ceramica Ibhica a t'Arago, bv Sr. Josep Pijoan, 
Anuari, lyo8. 


hgures and expressively drawn animals, and are 
invaluable material for comparison with other 
manifestations of primitive art at Celtes in 
Aragon, at Altamira, and elsewhere. 

The wealth of art included in the Catalan 
inheritance referred to at the beginning of this 
summary has been only slightly touched on, but 
sufficiently perhaps to show the disproportion 
involved in the comparative neglect of its study in 
England. Archneologists and connoisseurs recog- 
nise, of course, that there is an interest. No one 
but a casual tourist now needs to be cautioned 
against the literal acceptance of the statement of 
that amusing traveller Richard Ford — "commer- 

cial Catalonia has never produced much art or 
literature". Ford suffered the disadvantages of 
his period, which was closer to the dark age of 
the 1 8th century, when figures such as Viladomat " 
emerged but rarely from the prevailing lack of 
culture in Barcelona. But to-day to fail in 
appreciation is to lag behind other Western 
nations : French, Italian and German students 
have anticipated us, and have been liberally 
admitted to a share in the work of the Institut 
d'Estudis Catalans. 

'" See the study of Vil.idomat — Origciis del Riiuiixeiiieiit 
Barccloni, per Raimond Casellas (Aiuiari 1907) — which traces 
his artistic relations with Bibiena. 



NE of the weak sections of the 
Department of Ceramics at the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum has until 
recently been that of German porce- 
lain. The ornamental groups and 
figures in which the German factories were so 
prolific reflect better, perhaps, than any other 
form of plastic art the light-hearted, mildly cynical 
attitude towards life of the average educated 
society of the i8th century. These charac- 
teristic creations of their age were particularly ill 
represented in the Museum. Of late, however, 
some progress has been made towards making 
good this deficiency, and a very notable accession 
is that of a chocolate service forming a centre- 
piece or " Tafelaufsatz " in Meissen porcelain, 
bought at the Red Cross sale at Christie's for 
presentation to the Museum. For this handsome 
gift the nation is indebted to the munificence 
of Mr. Otto Beit, whilst it is owing to the 
generosity of its former owner, Mrs. Leopold 
de Rothschild, that so important a piece 
found a place amongst the objects offered at 
the sale. The base of the centrepiece is in the 
form of an oblong tray with a scroll handle at 
either end ; its edge is of wavy outline and its 
surface divided by raised scrollwork into eight 
compartments shaped to receive cups and other 
vessels. In the middle rises a rock work erection 
topped by a baluster column, which supports an 
openwork basket with handles formed by the 
intertwined stems of flowers. On ledges projecting 
from the rockwork are perched five figures in the 
pseudo-pastoral dress of the period — a gallant and 
a maiden seated with baskets on their laps, a little 
boy holding a shell, and two other children in the 
act of showering flowers on the principal per- 
sonages. All these figures appear to have been 


composed specially for the adornment of this 
particular model. The lower part of the pedestal 
is overlaid with applied trailing stems of flowers 
in the round, coloured in imitation of nature. 
On the flat of each of the compartments in the 
base, and in panels on the balusters, are painted 
pairs of finches and other small birds, perched on 
tree-stumps, whilst various insects are scattered 
over unoccupied parts of the entire surface. The 
chocolate service made to fit the centrepiece is 
composed of two chocolate-pots with twig handles 
and long spout, a jug for hot milk, a sugar-caster 
and four cups. The cups are in the form of a 
yellow flower, with stalk coiled up to form a 
handle, painted inside with bouquets. The re- 
maining vessels are moulded with contorted 
scrollwork and painted with birds and insects in 
the same manner as the centrepiece itself. Each 
individual piece bears underneath it the usual 
crossed-swords mark in a small form neatly 
painted in blue. 

A centrepiece with tray of the same shape, but 
variations in the superstructure and fittings, is in 
the Royal Palace at Berlin*. The authorship of 
these models may safely be attributed to Kaendler, 
the gifted Saxon sculptor to whose lively imagina- 
tion " old Dresden " owes the distinctive character 
which through a long period exercised a dominat- 
ing influence on the work of porcelain modellers 
throughout Europe. The date of. the composition 
is clearly about 1745. The baroque style of 
Kaendler's early models has given place to fully 
developed rococo. The transition stage of the 
celebrated Briihl service, created between 1737 
and 1741, is already past. In the crisp, fantastic 
scrollwork a well-planned balance of the parts 
goes with an entire absence of literal symmetry. 

The painting proves that the piece was com- 
pleted not long after the date at which the model 

' Illustrated by Karl Berliug, Dtis Meissner Poi:elIaii, 1900, 
fig. 129. 





■ V 






for it originated. The birds are recognisable 
species, faithfully coloured after nature, not the 
" Fantasievogeln " of a slightly earlier date, whilst 
the flowers are no longer the severely formalised 
"deutsche Blumen" of the 'thirties, but show 
an advance in the direction of the complete 
naturalism which became the fashion later, during 
the directorship of Count Marcolini. 

Four other characteristic examples of Meissen 
modelling were acquired for the Museum in 1917, 
by purchase out of the funds of the H. B. Murray 
Bequest at the sale of the J. J. Mason collection. 
One of these, a Circassian tribesman, is known 
to be from the hand of Kaendler,* modelled by him 
about 1742. It belongs to the large and interest- 
ing series of ethnological figures in national or 
tribal costume which Kaendler composed about 
that time. The second, a drummer in infantry 
uniform of the period, has not been definitely 
identified as his work, but approximates so nearly 
in style to other military figures^ known to have 
been made by him about 1741 that there can be 
little doubt about its authorship. The remaining 
pair of figures, a sower and a peasant woman 
pointing with pride and satisfaction to the hen that 
supplies her means of livelihood, do not appear to 
be recorded amongst Kaendler's productions, but 
they are of about the same date and must have 
been modelled under his supervision if not 
actually by him. This pair of figures shows the 
influence of French engravings depicting various 
trades and occupations, such as the Cris de Paris 
by Bouchardon published in 1737-1742, 

The centrepiece and figures well illustrate the 
fertility and scope of Kaendler's imagination, 

'^ Compare Berling, op. at., p. 87, fig, 85, 
' E.g., a mounted drummer illustrated in Festive Publication. 
Meissen, 1910, fig. 45. 

The life of the court, religion and hagiology, 
classical mythology and history, the curiosities of 
ethnology, incidents of commerce and industry, 
all alike were of interest to him and provided 
material for embodiment in plastic form by his 
busy and genial brain. 

There are many whose sympathies remain un- 
quickened by this strongly individual phase of the 
potter's craft. Their attitude implies that their 
hoDio sum lacks its corollary of a catholic interest 
in all manifestations of the human spirit, Kaendler 
and his fellow-artists in porcelain are as natural 
an outgrowth of European society of the i8th 
century as Watteau, Mozart or Voltaire, and they 
deserve at least that their works should not be 
judged without an attempt to understand the 
purpose for which those works were created. 
Their groups and figures were intended not only 
for the decoration of the salon and boudoir, but 
also, no less than centrepieces such as the present 
example, for the enlivenment of the banquet-table 
on gala occasions in palaces and great houses. 
This form of table decoration has passed so com- 
pletely out of fashion that the elaboration to which 
it was carried is generally forgotten. As was 
shown by Adolf Briining in an article in " Kunst 
und Kunsthandwerk "*, the composition and ar- 
rangement of these ornaments of the banquet- 
table was an object of serious attention, as much 
almost as the art of landscape gardening. The 
best of these porcelain toys were the work of 
sculptors of no mean order. They give but an 
indifferent account of themselves in photographic 
reproduction, but they receive the approval which 
is their due when they are visualised in the milieu 
half frivolous, half stately, of an 18th-century f6te. 

' Vol. VII, 1904, Schaii-essen und Porzellanplastik, 


Pot-boilers ; a collection of essays and reviews, by Clive 

Bell ; London (Chatto and Windus), 6s. n. 

This is a collection of reprinted essays and 
reviews. Some of them are contributions to The 
Burlington Magazine, and deal with problems of 
aesthetics or with particular periods of ancient and 
modern art. Many deal with literary subjects, and 
a few are generally speculative on life and civilisa- 
tion. Mr. Clive Bell has many remarkable qualities 
as a critic. Perhaps the most striking of these is 
that he is extraordinarily readable ; he is down- 
right, straightforward, perfectly lucid, and, except 
when the subject is himself, entirely without 
affectation. When, as in the foreword, he deals 
with that subject, he amuses himself with a certain 
foppishness which is a natural enough result of 
his high spirits, his self-confidence and pugnacity. 
He is nearly always pointed and witty, and his 
writing is really distinguished. All these qualities 

might be possessed by a man of genial tempera- 
ment and high animal spirits who was just out to 
have a good time playing skittles with estab- 
lished reputations and the most cherished idols of 
his contemporaries, but the odd thing is — and it 
comes out much more clearly now these essays 
are collected in book form — the odd thing is that 
Mr. Clive Bell really cares. He cares not for his 
reputation or for the goodwill of his fellows, nor 
even for their souls — for he almost insists on the 
impossibility of their conversion — but he cares for 
certain ideas, for a certain attitude to life. The 
ideas are unpopular, the attitude to life is almost 
extinct, but he flings down the challenge to his 
age with a gaily contemptuous indifference that, 
whether or no it have any effect, evidently relieves 
his own mind. None the less, he seems every 
now and then to conceive the possibility that 
what he says may affect other minds, and for 


lliat reason I wish I did not find myself so con- 
stantly in agreement with him ; I should then 
know better whether his manner is more stimu- 
lating to the mind of his opponents or more 
irritating to their temper. Oddly enough it might 
be possible to test the comparative effect of 
Mr. Clive Bell's methods with those more usually 
adopted by apostles and prophets, if one could 
only obtain statistics of conversion. F'or it so 
happens that a good deal of Sir Rabindranath 
Tagore's recent book on Nationalism is concerned 
with exactly the most central theme of Mr. Clive 
Bell's propaganda. In his essay on the " Flight of 
the Dragon " Mr. Bell contrasts the constant pre- 
occupation of the East about spiritual values with 
the amazing indifference for them, of our com- 
mercial civilisation. I suspect that both authors 
might feel a momentary shock of surprise at 
finding themselves such close allies in the same 
battle, for Sir Rabindranath speaks with the 
unction and fervid earnestness of religious con- 
viction — Mr. Clive Bell with something of the 
jollity of the miller of Dee. At any rate they both 
preach the same doctrine to an as yet unheeding 
world, namely, that though the material goods of 
our civilisation are good so far as they go — and 
Mr. Bell is no ascetic — they become evil when 
they prevent us from seeing how infinitely more 
important the goods of the spirit are. It may 
well be that the war has increased in him the 
conviction of this truth, and certainly in the last 
two essays, " Art and War " and " Before the 
War ", I find Mr. Clive Bell at his very best, 
and that is extraordinarily good. Indeed, the 
more I go over these essays the more highly 
1 think of Mr. Clive Bell as a prophet — he 
will have to pocket the apparent insult, but I find 
no better title to hand — so highly that by com- 
parison with his vigorous and to me persuasive 
eloquence on these general themes I find him less 
remarkable as a pure critic either of literature or 
art. He himself says in his preface that he cares 
for Art, Truth, Liberty and Peace. I do not 
doubt it, but 1 suspect his love of Truth to be the 
least intense of these passions. He desires Truth, 
and he has a mind open to conviction, but he 
does not desire Truth at the price of painful 
research or a long suspension of judgment. He 
has a keen delight in the use of the intellect rather 
than a profound belief in the importance of the 
resulting truths. He is really more concerned 
with civilisation, with the kind of life and the kind 
of pleasures that may be available for mankind 
than with any purely abstract ideas. It is indeed 
Mr. Clive Bell's passionate earnestness about 
certain general, and generally neglected, aims in 
life that gives such point to his wit and such 
weight to his satire, and it is just this that should 
make this book appeal to a far wider audience than 
those whose special interests it professedly serves. 

R. F. 


IlrsToRic Silver op thk Coloxirs ant) its Makers; by 

Kkancis H. Bigelou- ; (Macmillaii) 31s. 5d. 

The author of this excellent book on old silver 
in America has been long known on the other 
side of the Atlantic as one of the earliest collectors 
of old furniture and other objects of American 
origin. Not the least of Mr. Bigelow's services 
to the increase of knowledge of one important 
branch of American art has been his patient 
research among the original records for the names 
and dates of silversmiths, particularly in New 
England, by which means he has rescued from 
obscurity the names of several native craftsmen 
of undoubted merit and skill, of the 17th and 18th 
centuries, and has added material information 
on other aspects of the subject. Mr. Bigelow 
has now compiled an interesting and useful work 
on the old silver, both of European and American 
origin, which has been preserved in America. 
Unhappily, as he would be one of the first to 
recognise, the losses of old silver and other 
objects during the American Revolutionary War 
have robbed his book of many notable specimens 
of historic and other silver. Copies of old inven- 
tories made by the writer of this notice reveal 
great wealth in silver in America in the i8th 
century, much of which perished in that upheaval, 
together with pictures, furniture and other artistic 
objects, the property for the most part of the 
educated and prosperous inhabitants, who by an 
ungenerous, not to say short-sighted, policy, were 
banished from the country which they loved so 
well. For example, the worthy Governor Hutchin- 
son failed to bring away some of his silver. Many 
pages of this magazine could be filled with lists of 
pictures, objects of art, libraries of books which 
were wantonly destroyed in fits of passion and 
revenge during the war. Many of the pieces of 
silver described and illustrated by Mr. Bigelow 
are of historic interest. Among these are the 
English "steeple" cup of 1610-11 (the cover is 
lost), which was given to the First Church, 
Boston, by one of its founders, the illustrious 
Governor John Winthrop. Another old English 
cup, dating from 1607-08, is in the South Church, 
in the same city. Illustrations of other 17th- 
century English cups are also included. One of 
the most interesting pieces of English plate is the 
plain salt of Charles I period, a bequest in 1644 
to Harvard College by one of its tutors, Richard 
Harris, formerly of Winchester College, and New 
College, Oxford. Earlier in date than any of 
these pieces is a stoneware tankard with a silver 
cover and foot of the i6th century, which had 
been given to Governor John Winthrop's father in 
1607 by his sister. Lady Mildmay, and came 
into the possession of the American Antiquarian 
Society, Worcester, in 1825, upon the death 
of William Winthrop, the seventh owner of the 
tankard in direct lineal descent. This book is 

enriched with many admirable ilhislrations of 
important pieces of American silver, sacramental 
and domestic, wrought at Boston, New York and 
other places, and contains as well much useful 
information on the manufacture of plate in 
America. With its 325 illustrations, the majority 
of which are of old American silver, this work will 
do much to stimulate an interest in the arts and 
crafts of America— a subject which is insufficiently 
appreciated, except by a few discerning collectors, 
even on the other side of the Atlantic, and is 
virtually unknown in Europe. Mr. Bigelow has 
not yielded to the temptation to include in his 
book the important examples of old European 
silver acquired by American collectors within 
recent years, confining his account in the main to 
silver which has had a settled history in America 
since pre-Revolution days. E. ALFRED JONES. 
Les Decoratf.I'RS : Henri Martin, Aman-Jean, Maurice Denis, 
Edouard Vuillard, par Achille Segard, Paris (Ollendorff, 
" I'eintrcs d'aujourd'hni ".) 326 pp., 24 illiist. 5 fr. 
This is the complement of a previous treatise, 
under the same general heading, on the work of 
Albert Besnard, Gaston La Touche, Cheret and 
Paul Baudoiiin. The present series includes 
Henri Martin, Aman-Jean, Maurice Denis, and 
Edouard Vuillard. The author has an intimate 
knowledge of his subject. The appreciative and 
not over-indulgent account of the career of Henri 
Martin presents the curious spectacle of an artist 
wandering for twenty years in paths utterly remote 
from his true objective, his decided personality 
submerged by the influence of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts, of his master Jean-Paul Laurens, and 
of various literary movements. During these 
years, on his own showing, Martin remained 
unconscious of the Impressionists, and actually 
ignorant of Monet, Renoir and Sisley, arriving 
circuitously at his interest in the study of light by 
way of Besnard. Only after the age of forty he 
becomes free from the trappings of literary subject 
and conventional accessories, and his genuine 
instinct for realism and the poetry of rustic life is 
revealed. Whether he has an equal instinct for 
mural decoration is open to doubt. His method 
of painting in innumerable detached touches 
becomes wearisome and inappropriate on a great 
scale, and his sunlight is too convincing for 
decorative effect. We are not surprised to learn 
that Martin concerns himself practically not at all 
with the architectural surroundings to which his 
pictures are destined. His peculiar merits are 
well shown in the delightful panel illustrated 
from the Mairie of the x^ Arrondissement. Of the 
remaining three painters only Maurice Denis is 
essentially a decorator. The work done for purely 
decorative purposes by Aman-Jean and Vuillard 
could be subtracted without great prejudice to the 
reputation of either artist. Aman-Jean would 
remain known for his delicate and subtly charac- 
terised portraits and Vuillard for the reticent and 

concentrated beauty of his still-life, which by the 
way has had a considerable influence on certain 
recent English painters. M. Segard gives of 
course a wide interpretation to the term " decora- 
tion ", which can be made to cover any picture 
containing certain qualities of design ; and he 
rightly recognises a strong decorative sense in 
Aman-Jean. Here again we can trace the 
development of the artist's own temperament ; his 
gradual escape from the Ingres-Beaux- Arts tradition 
so foreign in its precision of form and contour to 
the countryman of Watteau. " Le propre des 
artistes septentrionaux est de distinguer les volumes 
des objets par la couleur " — as opposed to the 
Meridional whose climate imposes on him a 
different conception : a distinction which has a 
certain obvious truth, though it need not be pressed 
too far. The position of Maurice Denis has 
already been clearly defined for us in his own 
"Theories". From the first this artist has been 
conscious of his own essential qualities. The 
review of his accomplishment leaves one with a 
sense of his vast productivity — a Gozzoli-like 
ability for covering space, the mere acreage of 
which may account for occasional monotony and 
repetition. R. s. 

Life and Works of Ozias Humphry, R.A. : by George C. 
Williamson ; London (John Lane), £3 3s. n. 
At a moment in the history of this country 
when authors, editors, and publishers are all 
suffering in common from the shortage of paper 
and other materials of publication, as well as from 
the unprecedented increase in the cost of all 
labour in every department of the trade, there has 
come as a welcome surprise this splendid volume 
compiled by Lr. Williamson and published by 
Mr. John Lane at the Bodley Head. In every 
way this book does the publisher credit, and 
justifies his courage in launching it on the pub- 
lishing world in such difficult circumstances. 
Aiidaces fortnna juvat, and if there is any 
truth in this old saying Mr. Lane should look 
forward to a satisfactory result from his venture. 
If we have any doubt as to the value of the book, 
such doubt is not due to any want of confidence 
in the industry of the compiler, or to the perhaps 
over-copious use of illustrative material. It is 
simply due to a suspicion, not removed by careful 
perusal of the text, that Ozias Humphry, R.A., 
was hardly worthy of so stately, almost plethoric, a 
monument as this biography. Dr. Williamson 
has collected every fact about Humphry's life, 
from the state of his boots at school to the bellows 
presented to Humphry's natural son, William 
Upcott, in the latter's school days. We know more 
now about Ozias Humphry than about most artists 
of his or any other day, but does this intimate 
knowledge establish any claim for him to rank as 
a first rate artist? Is there anything more in 
Humphy's life than would be found in that of any 


average Royal Academician ? — the early struggles, 
the lirst success, the pat on the head from Sir 
Joshua Reynolds or Dr. Johnson, the attainment 
of academical honour.the security of patronage, the 
competition of younger men, the inducements to 
sink all art in mere money-making, orthe inevitable 
stagnation and decay. All of these ingredients 
we find in the life of Ozias Humphry. Let it be 
conceded at once that as a hmner, a painter of 
portraits in little, either in crayon or miniature, 
Humphry attained a very high rank. His work 
is free from the meretricious flimsiness which 
became a trick with Cosway, and from the 
mannerisms which are so evident in the works of 
the Plimers, and sometimes in that of Engleheart. 
Humphry's work in this line is quite individual, 
not a pasticcio from any other painter, but good 
honest English work, covering a transition from 
Sir Joshua Reynolds to Sir Thomas Lawrence. 
He was not, however, content with this limited 
sphere of activity, but sought to rival Reynolds 
and Romney on their own ground. A recent trial 


Notes in the National Gallery— I. A 
Venetian Secret. — Several years ago blisters 
developed on the well-known portrait of a Poet 
in the Gallery (No. 636) which after passing under 
the name of Titian, and being speculatively given 
to Giorgione, is now generally recognised to be 
one of Palma's masterpieces. When the trans- 
ference to panel was at last successfully effected 
the process had removed a number of old repairs 
so that the system on which the picture was 
painted could be easily studied. It would be too 
much of course to assume that " the Venetian 
Secret," that philosopher's stone of colouring 
for which painters searched a century ago, could 
be revealed by the analysis of any single picture, 
but even in these days when all recipes for picture- 
making are generally disregarded, the somewhat 
unexpected result of uncovering the ground of 
this rich and glowing picture may be worth record- 
ing. I say "unexpected" because no one would 
be likely to guess that its golden lines were based 
on a foundation of cool grey, so cool that by 
contrast with the dark greens of the background 
the exposed spaces told as spots of positive lilac. 
So far as it was possible to judge, this grey was a 
flat tone of black and white spread over the gesso 
ground, making a foundation for a painting in 
warm golden brown, thin and transparent, into or 
on to which the positive colours were worked. A 
discoloured varnish had added considerably to 
the general warmth of effect. When this was 
removed the harmonies of the portrait became 
fresher and less drowsy, and the reason for the 
use of this cool grey ground became evident. 
Working upon it, the Venetian master was able to 


at law brought to light a large portrait group 
ascribed to Komney, but which, as it transpired, 
was really the work of Ozias Humphry. Even 
though the notoriety into which Humphry was 
brought as the result of this trial seems to have 
been the cause and excuse for this magnificent 
book, the exhibition of this painting was enough 
to exclude Humphry once and for all time from 
the ranks of really great painters. Avarice drove 
Humphry to his artistic ruin : it caused him to go 
to India and seek to gather a share in the spoil to 
be gained there from the native princes now first 
coming within the orbit of the British Empire. 
This visit was hardly a success, and troubles 
arising from it perplexed and worried Humphry 
until the end of his life. Humphry acquired 
some wealth, and with it some social distinction. 
On the whole, we are disposed to agree with the 
opinion of Mr. M. H. Spielmann, that Humphry's 
painting " misses the highest level, because the 
artist lacked true grasp of character " ; this might 
serve as an epitaph for many a Royal Academician. 

LIONEL cust. 

employ the warmest and most glowing colours for 
his half-tones and shadows, without risking that 
general hotness of effect which makes the works 
of many minor Venetian painters so tiresome. 

II. The " Tone" of Claude. — Another picture 
which needed relining was the well-known work 
by Claude, Seaport, ivith the Embarkation of St. 
Ursula (No. 30). When the varnish came to be 
removed my attention was called to it by the 
restorer. It was a simple mastic varnish turned 
to a brownish-red with age and perhaps a little 
added colour. It came off at once, revealing 
underneath a painting in perfect condition, but of 
a tone so sharp and bright as to be almost discon- 
certing. Close examination indicated with practical 
certainty that this was the state in which the artist 
had left his canvas ; that the atmospheric effect 
was not dependent upon delicate glazing, but that 
the whole was painted directly in solid paint, in 
tones as sharp and hard as those of the freshest 
early Corot or Boudin. Those interested in the 
history of the Gallery may remember the accusa- 
tions made in the fifties against the then Keeper 
because the cleaning of the large Claude repre- 
senting the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba 
(No. 14) had produced a similar result. Time 
has now toned the varnish of that picture so 
thoroughly that we can hardly understand the 
accusations of over-cleaning that were then made 
so freely. But the sight of this smaller Claude 
will enable us to judge how genuinely shocked 
the connoisseurs of the " brown tree " school 
must then have been. And it could be argued 
that there was some method in their madness. A 
richly toned varnish conceals much of the rather 

petfy detail in which Claude evidently delighted, 
and his work might be held to gain through such 
toning at least as much in breadth as it lost in 
freshness. C. J. HOLMES. 

Painiings and Drawings of War by Sir 
William Orpen, A.R.A. (Messrs. Agnew and 
Sons). — There are great differences of tempera- 
ment and outlook among the official artists who 
have hitherto illustrated the war, and this variety 
is a distinct advantage from the point of view of a 
pictorial record. The imaginative, generalising 
vision naturally lays stress on aspects differing 
from those selected by a more literal realism. 
Each has its separate value, and helps to make 
the collection of historical documents more com- 
plete. Sir William Orpen's contribution to the 
record is an important one. In some degree he 
fuses the imaginative tendency with the literal. 
He e.xcels in exact delineation — in the rapid nota- 
tion of the thing seen ; indeed, his skill savours 
of legerdemain when the difficulties of an artist 
working at the front are considered. There is in 
his exhibition an impression of work done at high 
pressure, but the keen discipline of hand and eye 
is never relaxed — the statement is always clear 
and definite, with an amount of intimate detail 
unrivalled by any war-artist but Mr. Muirhead 
Bone. The quality of precision, together with a 
quick-witted appreciation of character and inci- 
dent, is found in almost all the paintings and 
drawings ; the combination occasionally suggests 
comparison with Menzel. Apart from literal 
representation. Sir William Orpen has a piquant 
sense of the grotesque-romantic, which never 
deepens into real tragedy, but has a curious and 
quite personal imagmative turn. He has developed 
this tendency at intervals ever since his student 
period at the Slade School. Adam and Eve at 
Peroiiiie (74) is an example of it ; and, approach- 
ing nearer to tragedy, Bombing : Night (54) recalls 
in spirit some of the artist's early compositions 
[Plate]. The former is an instance of his method 
'of painting from drawings. It is to be hoped that 
he may use in the same way, for the amplification 
of the record of his impressions, some of the very 
numerous figure studies and landscape sketches 
in this exhibition. Many of these are admirable 
tours-de-force : the drawing of a crowd of lice- 
ridden German prisoners (104), Blown Up (47) 
[Plate], Iron Cross (107), K.O.S.B. Fagged (12^), 
and others. The landscape of the chalky Somme 
district, so like the English downs, is noted appre- 
ciatively in a series of paintings. Among the oil 
portraits are many incisive studies of character. 
The least successful are those of the two Field- 
Marshals, which have not quite the same freshness 
and vitality as the rest. A peculiar pathos and 
sentiment attaches to the two heads of a girl 
(Nos. i6, 71 — The Refugee). 

Pictures by Lieut. Paul Nash, an official 
artist on the Western Front (the Leicester 
Galleries). — Those two energetic bodies, the 
Trustees of the Imperial War Museum and 
the Committee of the Canadian War Memorial 
Fund, have again shown great discrimination 
in choosing Lieut. Paul Nash's work for the 
purpose of a war record. Like Mr. Nevinson, 
he has a vivid and dramatic vision, and the 
ability to set down an impression rapidly 
and completely. Both artists' work carries a 
conviction of actual experience, and both see the 
obvious with a certain distinction. The landscape 
drawings by which Lieut. Nash made his reputa- 
tion before the war had this latter quality. What 
might be for others an average Buckinghamshire 
landscape, or a commonplace piece of garden, 
became, while remaining a faithful transcript from 
nature, invested with a new interest through the 
discovery of a fitting personal convention. The 
personality that this implies differs with Lieut. 
Nash, by reason of its imaginative tendency, from 
the more clear-cut realism of Mr. Nevinson. It 
is natural, too, that Lieut. Nash, as a landscape 
artist, should insist on devastated nature and 
tortured earth rather than on other aspects of 
war in which the human factor is all-important. 
The conditions he has chosen to represent appeal 
forcibly to his special sensibility, and the pictures 
adequately convey his feeling. Some of the grey, 
almost colourless drawings (as in Nightfall, 
Zillebcke) are particularly successful. The simple 
treatment of Vimy Ridge (No. 12) is as effective 
in its way as the more lurid kind, of which 
Dumbarton Lakes may be taken as an example. 
Hill 60 (No. 42), Monument to the Canadians 
(No. 40), and the lithograph, Marching at Night, 
all possess valuable qualities. The last has the 
sense of continuity, of monotonous repetition of 
movement in great armies. Elsewhere the figures 
of soldiers burrowing in contorted mud-heaps 
have an insect-like activity, and again the con- 
vention fits the occasion. Where the figures 
reach a larger scale they are sometimes ineffective. 
There seems a slight danger of the artist becoming 
a slave to his convention ; but his power in this 
direction is evidently not matured. The picture 
called Existence must in any case be excepted 
from this criticism. R. S, 

Japanese Prints and Illustrated Books.— 
On June 6th Major J. J. O'Brien Sexton exhibited 
at 49 Belsize Park choice specimens from a 
collection of Japanese prints and illustrated books. 
The objects of the exhibition (as explained on a 
notice hung near the first exhibit) were twofold. 
By restricting the exhibits to impressions of the 
finest quality it was hoped to show the capabilities 
of Japanese woodcutting at its best. Secondly, 
by holding this private exhibition of his collection 


Major Sexton hoped to encourage other collectors 
to follow his example. The prints ranged in date 
from Moronobu (17th century) to the modern artist 
Kobayashi Kiyochika, of whom Major Sexton 
writes: "The print exhibited is certainly the finest 
night-scene in the whole range of Ukiyoye. . . 
I am able to throw some light on the maker of the 
early print signed Gyochin, a name hitherto 
unknown to collectors. He is mentioned on 
p. 1419 of " Kogwa Biko ". His brush-name was 
Kugyu (not Seigyii, as labelled. The characters 
sei, "green ", and ko, " smell ", are almost identical 
in cursive) and his surname, Hozumi. The 
" Kogwa liiko " reproduces his signature from a 
picture of "Courtezans as Bijin in the Okumura 
style ". He may possibly have been a pupil of 
Chinchoasthe Cliiii in both their names is written 
with the same Chinese character. Among prints 
of remarkable beauty may be mentioned the Hagi 
Tama scene by Shunman, the Garden Scene by 
Shuncho, the Utamaro from the Ontia Geisha set 
with wonderfully preserved mica background, and, 
latest in date, the Tiger Triptych by Sadahide. 
Of this print, dated 1858, Major Sexton says: "A 
remarkable print and certainly the finest treatment 
of the subject by an Ukiyoye artist. The grada- 
tions of colouring in the fur of the tigers is a 
wonderful piece of printing. This is the only 
copy recorded ". 

Apropos of the Hakurakuten from Hokusai's 
" Imagery of the Poets " it may be well to record 
that the scroll which the principal figure holds 
unrolled before him is inscribed with the couplet. 

Green moss like a cloak on the rock's shoulder is borne : 
With white clouds like a belt the mountain's waist is girt. 
This is the poem which Hakurakuten (i.e. Po 
Chu-i) recites in the No Play of that name. There 
is therefore no doubt as to the subject, though in 
sale-catalogues the print is still often called " Haku 
Raku the Horse-trainer". 

The illustrated books shown included magnifi- 
cent copies of the " Seiro Bijin Awase" by Shige- 
masa and Shunsho, " Momochidori, Mushi Erabi " 
and "Shiohi no Tsuto " by Utamaro and three 
editions (for the sake of comparison) of Hokusai's 
" Fugaku Hyakkei ". In conclusion, we would 
thank Major Sexton for giving to lovers of Japan- 
ese art this opportunity of admiring the finest 
specimens of his collection. A. W. 

Ferdin.axd Hodler (1853-1918).— In record- 
ing the death of this famous Swiss painter, on 
20 May, we may for the present refer ourreaders to 
a reproduction of his characteristic picture, The 
Woodcutter, and a sympathetic account of him 
written by Mr. Horace Taylor in our contempor- 
ary, "The Manchester Guardian", for 26 May 
As Mr. Taylor states, " Hodler was recognisad 
throughout Switzerland as a great national 
asset"; and it may "not be too much to say 


that Hodler himself is largely responsible for " 
the fact "that Switzerland is becoming a centre of 
artistic activity"; as indeed it happily is. Hodler 
was the principal professor for some years at the 
Beaux-Arts in Geneva, whither he attracted many 
foreign students, and he was equally influential 
in Zurich, but so far as he is represented in 
England, which is by no means well, he can 
scarcely be said to " be able to nod to Holbein 
across the ages" in the sense that Mr. Taylor 
seems to intend ; for Switzerland has surely 
produced in the meanwhile painters more com- 
parable with both. However it is well that a little 
known artist, celebrated by his own country, 
should be first introduced abroad by an enthusiastic 
admiier. The illustrated catalogue of the exhibi- 
tion of Hodler's work held last year in the 
Kiinsthausat Ziirich, and more especially the large 
folio illustrations " Das Werk Ferdinand Hodlers, 
vierzig Heliograviiren " (undated), issued about 
1914, by Piper and Co., Munich, will enable a 
better estimate of Hodler's work to be made, 
when the Munich publication becomes more 
available. Z. 

LuiGl Cavenaghi.— Probably but few persons 
in England have heard the name of Luigi Cave- 
naghi, but to those few who knew him either 
personally or by repute, his death is an event of 
capital importance. There is no craft more 
difficult, more full of danger, than that of a 
restorer of pictures or works of art, and at the 
same time none in which the individuality of the 
craftsman is of greater importance. The restora- 
tion of paintings is even a fine art in itself, one 
difficult to learn and difficult to teach ; in some 
ways more difficult than that by which the paint- 
ing was first brought into being. The picture 
restorer needs as much technical training and 
special knowledge in his line as the physician and 
the surgeon do in theirs. He needs the same 
power of diagnosis and the same surety of action, 
and to be guided by the same rules of objective 
and subjective morality. There is no class of 
practitioner better abused than the picture restorer, 
and it may be said at once that the instances of 
ignorant and unskilful manipulation and the 
disastrous results therefrom are too numerous for 
the mind to reckon up. But there have been, and 
may be still, practitioner-artists in this line whose 
reputation is unclouded by any allegations as to 
want of skill, or want of honour and truth, con- 
cerning their work as restorers. The number of 
these practitioners may be few, but among them 
the name of Cavenaghi will always take an 
honourable and high place. Cavenaghi is 
probably best known to the world at large as the 
restorer of the famous fresco by Leonardo da 
Vinci of The Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan. This fresco after innumerable episodes 

of mal-treatment would in course of time have 
perished more and more, until nothing would 
have remained but modern repainting, which 
could at its best only preserve the lines of the 
composition. Cavenaghi arrested the decay and 
removed some of the defacements by age and 
previous attempts at restoration, but he did not 
"restore" the fresco by new paint, so that people 
were disappointed who expected to find a new 
and complete version of this famous painting. 
It had always been a wish that Cavenaghi could 
have been employed in this country in restoring 
the great tempera paintings of The Triumph of 
Julius Cctsar by Mantegna at Hampton Court, but 
Mr. Roger F~ry's experiments on one of these 
paintings have shown that the destruction by 
travel, age, and the repainting of the whole by 
Laguerre and others had gone so far that but 
little of Mantegna's original work can be recovered. 
Such men as Luigi Cavenaghi can be ill spared in 
the world of art. It is not long since we spoke 
of the death of Stanley Littlejohn on the field of 
battle. Each artist of this rank leaves an actual 
void which can never be filled by anyone else. 
Others do exist, and may be found hereafter to be 
as good or even better, but the name of Cavenaghi 
will always be attached to a certain high standard 
of work in his profession, as a record of an 
honourable and useful career. Lionel Cust. 

War Coins and Paper Currency. — The 
stress of the War has produced in nearly all 
countries large quantities of "money of necessity", 
in the shape of token coinages issued by Govern- 
ments, municipalities, or private persons, as well 
as mnumerable varieties of paper-currency. These 


Gentlemen, — In your^ comments on the so- 
called "Jerusalem Dish" of the Northwick col- 
lection, in your last issue, I observe that you quote 
Messrs. Sotheby's statement that the handles are 
unmarked. This is not really the fact ; all four 
handles are correctly marked, though only with 
the Leopard's head erased, showing that the 
handles were sent to the Goldsmiths' Hall to- 
gether with the dish itself, which bears all the 
other marks, including the date letter D, the mark 
for 1719-20. 

In my opinion the entire piece was made in a 
London workshop, but the design is foreign, and 
probably from one of the South Eastern Countries 
of Europe. If the dish itself were of foreign make, 
as has been suggested, it is hardly likely to have 
been made in Fine Silver. Fine Silver was com- 
pulsory in England between 27th March 1697 
and 29th May 1719, but from 29th May 1719 the 
earlier standard, called "Stirling", was restored for 

coins and notes are usually without value, excep 
as curiosities, outside the places in which they 
were issued ; but as a record of war-conditions 
they have some historical interest. The Depart- 
ment of Coins and Medals in the British Museum 
has already acquired by donation a certain number 
of specimens, including a collection of 77 local 
notes in use on the Western Front, presented by 
Lt.-Col. F. H. Ward. We call the attention of 
our readers to this opportunity of placing any 
specimens of such coins or paper currency for 
which they may have no use ; specimens should 
be sent direct to Mr. G. F. Hill, the Keeper of the 
Department. Ed. 

The " Silver Thimble " Fund.— In alluding 
on page 243 to the work being done at 39 Old 
Bond Street for the benefit of the Red Cross and 
the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 
reference should have been made, if space had 
allowed, to the " Silver Thimble " Fund, the work 
of the same kind, at i68a New Bond Street, started 
long previously. This collecting house for " Odds 
and Ends of Silver and Gold, etc.", was opened in 
July 1915, and has continued ever since, its present 
object being for the benefit of the " Disabled 
Men of the Mercantile Marine". It has been 
amazingly successful, as may be seen from the 
report placed for free distribution outside the en- 
trance of the shop. The present object, somewhat 
overlooked otherwise, and the low rate of the 
working expenses, i^ per cent., entitle the Fund 
to as much support as the better known societies. 
To Miss Hope-Clarke, the founder and organiser, 
must also be given the credit of having invented 
the scheme and hrst carried it into practice. Ed. 

concurrent use. Both standards are still legal at 
the present day, though Fine Silver is now seldom 
used for plate on account of its softness. 

I am not aware of any regulations at the time 
when the Northwick piece was marked, directing 
that imported foreign plate must be Hall-marked, 
and even if that were so, it is hardly likely to have 
been made in Fine Silver. I am unable to form 
any definite opinion as to the intended purpose 
of the dish ; it may have been used for some 
ceremonial purpose, but I cannot think that it 
was connected with Freemasonry. I observe that 
the four handles are set so close to the dish and 
have such small apertures that they are practically 
useless as handles. On Lord Swaythling's dish 
the two handles at the sides have larger apertures 
than the handles at the ends. Such inscriptions 
as the one on Lord Swaythling's piece referring to 
Argyll are not necessarily of any importance, if 
they do not coincide with the intrinsic evidence 
of the pieces themselves. Such inscriptions have 


constantly been added as memoranda, or for other 
purposes, up to the present time, witliout much 
regard to the evidence of make, design or even 
hall-marks. The inscriptions which are really 
important are those contemporary ones which 
fall in with the scheme of decoration. 

Yours faithfully, 

H. N. Veitch. 

English axd Swedish P'onts.— Dr. Roosval 
has pointed out that the force of his argument on 
the analogy between certain types of English and 
Swedish fonts has been weakened by an error in 
illustration ; for this he is in no way responsible. 
Bv some confusion not now traceable, the font of 
South Brent, Somerset, was illustrated in place of 
the font of South Brent, Devon. The font of 
South Brent, Devon, is therefore illustrated here. 

and the block of the font of Vestra Stro is repeated 
in order that Dr. Roosval's argument of the close 
analogy between them may be clearly seen. 




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► T would probably be no exaggeration 
Ito say that of all the decorative needle- 
work earlier than the i6th century 
(which has come down to us, at least 
>99 per cent, was designed for eccle- 
siastical uses, though of course there are some 
notable exceptions, like a few embroideries from 
Egyptian tombs, the so-called Bayeux " tapestry ", 
and some articles of costume enriched with 
stitchery. Quite suddenly however, after, and no 
doubt on account of, the Keformation, the case 
becomes different, and from that time the majority 
of embroideries are of secular origin. The needle- 
work of the new period is of interest not only as 
an illustration of the change, but also because it 
so quickly attained a measure of perfection which 
has never been excelled in later times. In this 
country the development of " black-work " gave a 
style of embroidery which for originality, beauty 
and vigour of design can fairly be compared with 
the opus anglicaiinm of the 13th century. It is 
not the present purpose to treat of this, but there 
is another method of decorating fabrics with the 
needle which, though not typically English, is 
represented by many examples which appear to 
have a close connection with this country. 
Whatever may have been the origin oi petit point, 
there can be no doubt that it was found to be as 
invaluable a method of beautifying the walls and 
furniture of dwellings as black-work itself was of 
enriching the garments of their occupiers. It 
could even compete on fairly equal terms with 
loom-woven tapestry. The latter, it is known, 
was made in England in Elizabethan times, and 
without doubt earlier still, but the home supply 
was so small that most of the hangings required 
were imported from Flanders. The amateur 
needleworker would admire and wish to repro- 
duce such effective work, but elaborate apparatus 
is required and a long technical training. The 
refuge was naturally petit point. Almost as 
effective, easy of execution, and less costly, ij the 
expense of time ituis not considered, petit point 
adequately met the needs of the non-professional 
craftsman. All that was required in the way of 
apparatus was a needle and a simple frame to 
support the evenly woven canvas. Diagonal 
stitches, added patiently one after another, would 
give an effect limited rather by the skill of the 
designer than by that of the worker. 

There is now scattered throughout this country 
a group of pieces of very similar character, and 
all dating from the latter part of the i6th century, 
which specially deserve the attention of the 
student. One of the finest and probably the 
largest of the pieces of this group is a panel 

belonging to Mr. E. L. Franklin, which hangs in 
his house in London. A short description of 
this little-known embroidery may help in the study 
of this interesting phase of practical art. 

This panel is worked, as is usually the case, on 
a plain loosely woven linen canvas, which, though 
wide, is apparently without a join. Probably 
there is a selvedge at top and bottom, but the 
present mounting prevents this from being 
clearly seen. The canvas has on the average 
about 17I warps and 14 J wefts to the inch, and as 
each stitch crosses one warp and one weft; the 
same figures apply to the number of stitches in 
each vertical and horizontal inch. The panel, apart 
from the bare canvas edge, is 6 ft. 8 in. high and 
10 ft. wide, so that the number of stitches amounts 
to at least 2,400,000, a figure which suggests the 
amount of labour entailed by the work. Through- 
out the panel the stitches are plain diagonal ones 
having the same direction as the middle stroke 
of the letter Z. Errors of slope are very rare if 
present at all, and no intentional variations are 
found. In a few cases, however, notably where 
jewels are represented, extra and longer stitches 
are put in to give a raised effect. The slight 
irregularities in the weaving of the canvas, and the 
consequent variation in the fineness of texture of 
the embroidery, lead to an interesting observation 
applying to most embroideries of the kind. It is 
found that members of the design (such as sym- 
metrically placed bands), obviously intended to 
be of the same size, actually are so by measure, 
though the number of stitches may differ. This 
points to the conclusion that the design was 
transferred in some manner to the canvas, as is 
the case with tapestries, and was not done by 
count from squared paper, which would be the 
more usual way now. 

The materials used are wool and silk, the former 
greatly predominating, while the latter is reserved 
to give emphasis to the high lights of the design. 
The colours are very varied, representing originally 
the natural hues of the objects portrayed ; the 
ground of the border is white. The dyes now 
are more or less faded, with the exception of the 
blues, which, probably produced by woad and 
indigo, are still remarkably fresh. The general 
arrangement of the design is shown in the Plate. 
A border, about 9 in. wide, is filled with grotesque 
demi-figures, cherubs, animals and birds, plumed 
masks of lions, fruit and flowers. In the angles 
are four panels containing the words VICTVS, 
TECTVM, coCORDiA, OPVS, which are symbolised 
respectively by (i) fields and fruit-trees, (2) a 
house and a hare, (3) a pair of birds, (4) a spider in 
its web. Perhaps the general significance is that 

The Bvelinoion Migazine, No. 185. Vol. XXSIII— August, 1918. 


food and shelter depend upon harmony and 
labour, though the Latin does not seem beyond 
reproach. The central pariel has for its chief 
motive a group of eight persons in rich contem- 
porary costume, representing a meeting between a 
mounted nobleman and a lady of rank. The 
background above the group is roughly divided 
into four scenes. There is, starting from the 
right, firstly, a formal garden in which 
are a peacock and a hare ; secondly, a castle 
with moat and drawbridge, on which last 
sits a large dog. Next there is a hunting-scene 
with men, mounted and on foot, hunting a stag 
with the aid of dogs. It is difficult to trace 
any special significance in any of these three 
pictures, but the fourth is more noteworthy. It 
represents a moated castle which seems to be 
the scene of a widespread and dismal tragedy. 
On one side a lady floats in the water and a child 
is being hurled from the battlements by a ferocious 
figure with brandished sword. On the other side 
a man, cast from a window, is falling through 
mid-air and a lady inside the castle is about to 
suffer the same fate. This must certainly mean 
something; but what? At the end of the i6th 
century, the massacre of the French Protestants by 
the Guises in 1562, and the greater tragedy of 
St. Bartholomew in 1572, must still have been very 
much in men's minds. A detail that may or may 
not have some significance is that one figure from 
the hunting scene is running with uplifted staff 
towards the castle, in an opposite direction from 
the rest, and that his costume closely resembles 
that of the chief figure in the large group below. 
It seems impossible at present to identify the sub- 
ject of this design, but perhaps a mere suggestion 
may be made that it has reference to events of 
contemporary French history. 

The provenance of this hanging and the kindred 
panels that form the group already alluded to is 
one of some uncertainty, but considering the fact 
that they are found in this country, and that there 
is nothing in their design or t«;chnique incon- 
sistent with an English origin, such may be 
assumed to be a very plausible theory. A com- 
parison with a few other examples may add a 
little evidence to the same effect. 

The second Plate illustrates two panels of a 
set of three which are in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and closely resemble Mr. Franklin's panel. 
They are about 23 in. high, and are worked on a 
linen canvas of about the same fineness but some- 
what more regular in mesh (18^ threads to the inch 
vertically and lyj horizontally). They have a 
narrow border of fruit on white ground : the 
colouring is very similar ; the stitches have, how- 
ever, an N-slope and several errors can be found. 
Raised work is introduced for the jewels. Each 
panel contains a figure-subject treated in the 
same style as that of the large panel, and it 


is noteworthy that plumed masks — this time 
human — occur in the border. Evidently the 
three panels all refer to the same subject, which 
has not, however, at present been identified. The 
material is wool with a fair amount of silk for the 
lighter colours. It may be noted here that these 
three panels, together with five others containing 
strap work and floral ornament, originally made 
up one long hanging — a shape which seems to 
have loeen popular at the time. 

A larger panel at South Kensington (measuring 
5 ft. 6 in. high by 9 ft. 9 in. wide) resembles all 
those already mentioned in respect of the floral 
bands with a white ground, the introduction of 
plumed masks, and the employment of raised 
work for the jewels. This last has for subject 
the story of Lucrece, which has recently been 
recognised as having been taken from an en- 
graving of Philip Galle. All these pieces came 
from a mansion in the Midlands ; but the origin 
of Mr. Franklin's panel is not known. 

Another very similar panel, belonging to the 
Earl of Morton, was shown at the New Galleries, 
Edinburgh, in February 1917 s and Lady Forbes 
has at Aberdeen a panel apparently belonging to 
the same set. 

Another piece at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is shown in the second Plate. It came 
from Purley Church, near Reading, and re- 
presents the story of Myrrha, the mother of 
Adonis, as told in Ovid's Metamorphoses. The 
four scenes show her (i) attempting to hang 
herself, and being prevented by the nurse ; 
(2) telling her love to the nurse; (3) being led by 
the nurse to the bed of Cinyras, under which is 
an owl ; (4) being pursued by Cinyras and 
changed into a myrtle-tree. The panel is 22^ in. 
high and 7 ft. i in. long. The stitches, which have 
generally a Z-slope, but occasionally an N-slope, 
occur 19 to the inch vertically and 16 horizontally. 

A very similar panel to the last, with the story 
of the prophet Daniel, is on loan at South 
Kensington from the Duke of Buccleuch. It 
measures about 22 in. high by 6 ft. 2 in. wide. 
The stitches have a Z-slope generally, but some 
with an N-slope are intentionally used to help 
the design. There are 17^ stitches to the inch 
vertically and 15 J horizontally. No raised work 
is employed. 

Now, if all these embroideries owe their being 
to amateur effort, their similarity is not a little 
remarkable, and the possibility of their having a 
common origin naturally suggests itself, though 
direct evidence on such a point can hardly be 
expected. There is a tradition that the Duke of 
Buccleuch's panel was worked by Mary Queen 
of Scots, when at Loch Leven Castle. This 
ascription is by no means an uncommon one in 

' Figured in the Catalogue oj a Loan Collection held at the 
New Galleries, Edinburgh. 

^ I j 

the case of needleworkof her date (and sometimes 
of two centuries later !), but the evidence here is 
more trustworthy than usual. Also, the Earl of 
Morton's panel has a border very near in style to 
an embroidery at Hardwick Hall, which, having 
roses, lilies and thistles, and the crowned mono- 
gram MARIA, is almost certainly the work of the 
unhappy queen f. Is it possible that the whole 
^ Figured in Kendrick's English Embroidery, PI. .\Lli. 

series was executed by her and her ladies ? That 
she was a needlewoman with much opportunity 
for such work is certain. The subjects, as far as 
they can be appreciated, would seem to be con- 
genial to her taste, and there is no internal evidence 
obviously contrary to such a conjecture. It is 
only a conjecture which time and further study 
may disprove, but at present it is perhaps not 
unworthy of suggestion. 


FEW years ago Mr. Joseph Breck' 
was congratulating himself that as 
jmany as twelve of Giovanni di Paolo's 
' works were in America, and he was 
^analysing them carefully, but he could 
not have nnagined that they were soon to be in- 
creased by the painter's masterpiece, the celebrated 
series of The Life of S. John the Baptist, which 
was formerly in the Aynard collection in Lyons'. 
When the collection was dispersed in Paris, at 
the end of 1913, the Giovanni di Paolos fell, at a 
price which might then have seemed high, to the 
art-dealer Kleinberger, from whose hands they 
have since passed to adorn the collection of 
Mr. Martin A. Ryerson of Chicago, and it is 
by the present owner's kind permission and 
Mr. Kleinberger's co-operation that they are 
reproduced here. 

The small dimensions of the six panels are 
almost enough to assure us that they will take 
their place among the artist's finer works. It 
must not be supposed, accordmg to the opinion 
formerly established, that this is a common phe- 
nomenon in Sienese quattrocento painting, for, 
on the contrary, in predellas by Sano di Pietro, 
Matteo di Giovanni, Neroccio and others the 
figures are often less exactly proportioned than 
in their works on a larger scale. Nor must it be 
supposed that this is due to the practice of minia- 
ture painting". As to Giovanni di Paolo, at any 
rate, I maintain that there is a deeper, and purely 
personal, cause for the marked difference between 
his life-size works and those on a small scale. As 
regards Sassetta, Giovanni is among his pupils the 
one least dominated by the master, although certain 

' Some paintings by Giovanni di Paolo in Art in America, 
1 91 4, pp. 177-186 and pp. 280-7. 

- Another Giovanni di Paolo, a half-length figure of the Bap- 
tist, which had then passed into the Sachs collection in America, 
was published by Perkins in Rasscgna d'Arte, 1914, p. 166. 

■' Besides the miniatures of Mr. Yates Thompson's Divina 
Comedia attributed to Giovanni di Paolo by Fry [The Burlington 
Magazine, 1905, Jan., p. 312), there are 16 by Giovanni among 
the very beautiful miniatures of the Corale G. I, 8 in the 
Biblioteca Comunale of Siena. Moreover, we know from an 
unpublished document (Siena, Arch, di Stato, Spcdale delta 
Scala, Conti Correnti P, c. 339 v.) that he had painted in 1450 
wo books of the Capitolo dello Spedale della Scala. 

of his works, such as the two predellas of the 
Galleria Doria', have passed until recently as 
Sassetta's. Pietro di Giovanni d'Ambrogio merely 
repeats Sassetta; he is his understudy; Sano di 
Pietro is but Sassetta classicised, he is the follower, 
the consistency of whose art is based on the 
application of his master's formulae, which he 
believes absolute perfection, and the essence, 
manifested in academic phenomena, extracted 
from his master's principles. But Giovanni di 
Paolo passes beyond the school bounds prescribed 
for him. He is the pupil who develops that 
trend to realism in the type which Sassetta had 
only accented and kept in harmony with his 
fundamental idealism. 

Now the artist must needs feel the preoccu- 
pation of this objective, especially when he sets 
himself to reproduce the human figure life size and 
isolated, which is the principal theme of the realist 
whose subject is man. But, for Giovanni di 
Paolo, the objective is a difficult one, and we may 
say that the nearer he approaches it the more 
his execution falters. The result is a realism 
which sometimes savours of the grotesque. 

On the other hand, in reproducing the figure 
small and in conjunction with lothers, this does 
not happen so often, not only on account of the 
actual fact of reduction in scale, and, as I have 
noted, of the consequent diminution in the artist's 
preoccupation in realistic intention, but also 
from the greater force assumed in these circum- 
stances by the opposing elements received from 
education under Sassetta. That is to say, in these 
works on a small scale the human object, as it 
were, absorbs into the elegant drapery, the 
dignified bearing, and the gentle and noble 
gesture, the residuary characteristics of the large 
figures, such as the emaciated curved -fingered 
hands, the tressed, disordered locks, the lean and 
wrinkled faces, and others. The expression of 
the person's soul, in short, is far more lofty than 
his physical aspect implies. It is this contrast 
in the process of realism, personal to the artist, 
between typological realism and scholastic 
idealism, which is Giovanni di Paolo's peculiarity. 

* See Toesca in L'Arte, 1904. PP- 3°3-8. 


Another reason for Giovanni's predilection for 
little things is the larger part taken by them in 
the rural and floral detail, into which he carries his 
acute observation of nature and his exquisite 
sense of beauty *. 

Now all Giovanni di Paolo's refinements, and 
above all those which he derived from Sassetta, 
are to be found at their highest pitch in the little 
Ryerson panels. If we look, for example, at the 
third scene, The Prison, we see how forcibly the 
simple and yet essential gestures of the three 
persons express the language of the drama — the 
deep grief of one of the disciples, the effusive 
astonishment of the other, and the grand serenity 
of the Baptist dominating the troubled minds of 
both. And in the following scene, with what 
restraint and humanity of sentiment is Salome's 
horrible demand received by those present ! 
Herod leans his hands on the table, about to 
raise them in indignation ; a second is overcome 
with compassion, and his arms fall inert upon 
the table; a third, in his anxiety to hear what 
answer Herod will give, bends low over the table 
towards him, leaning his hand on his neighbour's 
shoulder, as if to seek his moral support ; two 
soldiers, apart from the rest, take each other's 
hands and press together as if horror-struck. 
And let us note also the very happy expres- 
sion of antithesis, in the scene of Tlic Pre- 
sentation of the Head, in the soldier who enters 
impassibly from the background on the right into 
the midst of the general terror, bearing in the 
most correct manner the charger with the head. 
Moreover, in the first two paintings, which are 
pure landscapes rather than scenes from the 
Baptist's life, the landscapes reach a pitch of 
exaltation rare in the quattrocento. They are 
very spacious landscapes, both from their elevated 
point of view and on account of the illusive 
expanse given them by their broad, white, zigzag 
country roads. They are fantastic, almost oriental, 
in the broken contour, the rocks that rise abruptly, 
like strange trees from the plain, and in the 
serpentine windings of the river-banks and the 
road on which the little Baptist sets forth. 

' Like Gentile da Kabriano, from whom he learnt the custom, 
he sometimes introduced flowers as an isolated element 
of decoration. For instance, one of the subjects, John the 
Baptist entering the Desert, of the late Butler, and now pre- 
sumably Pierpont Morgan, predella, still preserves at the sides 
of the scene two very beautiful rose-branches. The other sub- 
jects were evidently also originally separated by flowers. The 
predella of the picture of S. Galgano. No. igS of the Gallery of 
Siena, is similarly divided, and also the three parts, Nos. 174-176 
of the same gallery, which in all probability are the remnants 
of the picture painted in 1436 for the Fondi family in San 
Francesco at Siena and lost in the famous fire of 1655 which 
almost destroyed that church. If the supposition concerning the 
origin of these predella fragments is correct, as the description 
which I'gurgicri gives of the Fondi picture and of the traces 
of fire upon the fragments, in Le Pontpe Saiiesi, n, Fistoia, 
1649, p. 436, warrants our accepting, we h.-ive in them yet 
another of the painter's works dated. 

If we consider the Ryerson series atten- 
tively, we shall have no doubt that it is frag- 
mentary. Dr. Schubring, one of several writers 
who have reproduced if, observed that it wants 
The Xalii'tty oj the Baptist, but only because he 
supposed that the panels originally formed some 
sides of an octagonal ciborium, and consequently 
that there must have been seven of them, the 
eighth side being occupied by the door. But it is 
not the Nativity only that is wanting. In a series 
of the legend such as ours, in which we have The 
Baptist in Prison, The Decollation and Tl:e Choice 
of Salome, how could such scenes as The Annun- 
ciation to Zaccharias, The Natii'ity, The Baptism of 
Christ and The Baptist rebuking Herod have been 
omitted ? These are the most important scenes, 
and are therefore never omitted even in summary 
accounts. For example, they occupy four of the 
six spaces on Jacopo della Quercia's font at Siena. 
Now, three stories of the Baptist painted by 
Giovanni di Paolo e.xist, corresponding with three 
out of the four scenes which I suppose must have 
originally formed part of the Ryerson series. In 
Mr. Philip Lehman's collection, in New York, is 
The Annunciation to Zaccharias\ in the Provin- 
zialmuseum, in Miinster, are The Nativity and The 
Baptist rebuking Herod^. These three panels, of 
the same dimensions; of the same provenance, 
from the collection of the Principe Santangelo of 
Naples ; of the same shape, with pointed arches^, 
were once certainly parts of the same whole. But, 
while the six Ryerson panels measure 69 cm. high 
and vary in width from 37 to 40 cm., the Sant- 
angelo measure 4 cm. high and 35 cm. wide ; and 
while the paintings on the first are rectangular 
like the panels, the others end in a pointed arch. 
These difficulties are insurmountable if we imagine 
the panels of the two series on a single horizontal 
line, but the difficulties disappear if we suppose 
that the Santangelo panels were placed above 
the Ryerson [Plate I]. The two series thus re- 
united might have decorated the doors of a cup- 
board for relics, as is the case with The Legend 
of the Cross, erroneously attributed to Pietro 
Lorenzetti, on the doors in the Museo dell' Opera 
of the Duomo, Siena ; or they might have formed a 
pala for an altar. If they decorated the doors of 
a relic cupboard, the upper, the Santangelo series, 

« p. Schubring, Cassoni, Leipzig, 1915, IT- 3^4 5. «• Tav. civ- 
cvi. Perkins also has reproduced it in Rassegiia d'arte seticse, 
1907, pp. 82-3 ; the Catalogue di la Collection Edonard Ayuard, 
iyi3. No. 51 ; and Siren and Brockwell in Catalogue of a Loan 
Exhibition of Italian Primitives, New York, 1917, Nos. 54-59. 
The attribution to Giovanni di Paolo was fixed later, by Beren- 
son, in Central Italian Painters. 

' Reproduced for the first time by Breck in the article already 
cited, p. 285. 

8 Schubring, op. cit., Tav. cm, p. 324 ; also in Rassegna 
d'.Arte, 1912, P- 162, 

" In the two paintings at Munster the rectangular panels were 
evidently cut to the arched form of their painted surface in 
order to fit the wood into the modern frames. 


must have been in the same number of parts as 
the Ryerson, and three panels of the Santangelo 
series must be lost, either destroyed or untraced, 
which is indeed possible. But we must at the 
same time remember that two out of the three 
missing panels would have to have represented 
two scenes intervening between The Choice of 
Salome and The Decollation^", and that is im- 
possible, since the second incident followed 
the first immediately. There remains, then, the 
hypothesis of the altar-ancona. In this hypothesis, 
concreted in the plan of reconstruction which I 
submit for illustration here [Plate I], the paint- 
ing would lack two of the central panels on the 
upper tier, perhaps the full or half-length figure 
of the Baptist, and The Baptism of Christ ; the 
scenes would follow in chronological order from 
left to right and from above to below ; the dimen- 
sions vi'ould be regular, about 2.40 x 1.50 cm.; 
and the arrangement of the various parts in the 
picture would accord with a method well known 
in Sienese art. To give a more familiar example, 
such is the arrangement of the picture, Santa 
Utnilta, by Pietro Lorenzetti, in the Accademia 
of Florence. 

The composition. Scenes from the Life of the 
Baptist, in two tiers around a figure of the saint, 
also recalls the disposition of the piece which 
Sassetta painled for Borgo San Sepolcro, already 
illustrated with a penetrating analysis by Mr. 
Berenson in this Magazine ". If there is any 
connection between the two polyptychs, as there 
easily might be between a pupil's and his master's 
work, Giovanni di Paolo's polyptych would have 
to date later than 1-^40, the year in which Sassetta 
completed the work, which, like Giovanni's, is 
also his masterpiece. We should have to refer to 
the same terminus post qnem some of the archi- 
tectural backgrounds of the S. John scenes, if their 
elaborate perspective convention were due to the 
charm of the fantastic frescoes which Domenico 
di Bartolo painted at Siena, in the Pellegrinaio 
of the Hospital, between 1440 and 1443. But, 
while such relations are only possible, the relations 
with the font in San Giovanni in Siena are in- 
dubitable and, as we shall see, plentiful. Giovanni 
di Paolo's polyptych was, therefore, certainly 
executed after 1430, the approximate year of the 
completion of the font. But we are still far from 
reaching an exact date, for the artist did not die 
until 1482. However, an examination of the style 
helps the dating a little by connecting the painting 
with Tlie Coronation of the church of Sant' Andrea 
in Siena, which is of the year 1445, and with The 

'" This distribution of the scenes on the two doors, as might 
be easily shown if space and time allowed, is the only one 
possible. Even so, however, it is an arrangement, on the face 
of it, by no means probable. 

" The Burlington Magazine, 1903, Sept. -Oct., pp. 3 et seq., 
Nov, pp. 171 et seq. 

Circumcision of the Sienese Gallery, which is 
documented as of 1447 to 1449, rather than with 
any other of Giovanni's works. 

Giovanni di Paolo compiled from the Legend 
of the Baptist, illustrated in the Ryerson-Santangelo 
panels, an editio minor, in the late Butler predella, 
already mentioned, of which The Nativity, The 
Entry into the Desert, and The Presentation of the 
Head^'- correspond exactly with the same scenes 
of the polyptych, if we take into account the 
simplifications necessitated for the predella by its 
much smaller dimensions. But the polyptych 
itself, as I have already mentioned, is in great part 
derived from another work, the reliefs of the font 
in the Duomo, Siena. 

We already know well that Giovanni di Paolo 
frequently borrowed from other artists — for 
example, from Gentile da Fabriano, from Fra 
Angelico, from Ambrogio Lorenzetti, among 
others. I had myself occasion to point out one 
loan, singular enough, in a picture of the Museo 
deir Opera of the Duomo, Siena, copied from the 
fresco. The Apparition ofS. Francis to S. Anthony, 
one of the Giottesque cycle in the Upper Church, 
Assisi ". 

There, however, the loan is so extensive that it 
may be intentional, that is to say made, not only 
for aesthetic considerations, but for the purpose 
of offering to the city for which the painting was 
destined " a version of the magnificent works with 
which the greatest Tuscan sculptors had recently 
decorated the font of Siena. In fact, among the 
six reliefs of the font. The Nativity by Giovanni de 
Paolo is the only one no more than just recorded 
in the Miinster Nativity ; the rest reappear in their 
entirety, though in differing degrees, in Giovanni 
di Paolo's series. Jacopo della Querela con- 
tributes to the Lehman Annunciation his two 
groups on the right and left, summarised in the 
Angel and Zaccharias, without the least alteration. 
Giovanni Turini reappears in the Ryerson /'reac/j- 
ing in the group on the left and in the two figures 
of the centre and right, placed at the same dis- 
tances from it, in the same order, on the same 
planes and with the Baptist in the same attitude. 
To judge from the Butler predella'"', The Baptism 

'^ R. Langton Douglas, Illustrated Catalogue of Exhibition of 
Pictures of Siena (Burl. F. A. Club), 1904, Nos. 27-28. 

" Vita d'Arte, 1912, Luglio, pp. 43-45. 

" It is, therefore, very probable that the city was not Siena. 

" The correspondence existing between the three parts of 
the Butler predella and the polyptych of Saint John leads us 
to suppose that the fourth part also, The Baptism of Christ, 
corresponded with the lost Baptism of the polyptych. Now the 
Butler Baptism is copied from the relief by Ghiberti. The 
Baptism of Christ by Giovanni di Paolo which is at Oxford in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Borenius in Crowe and Cavalcasellc, History 
of Painting, Murray, vol. V, p. 178, note), is of neither the 
shape nor the dimensions required in order to belong to the 
Santangelo series. In The Burlington Magazine, Oct. 1915, 
p. 23, Borenius also justly attributes to Giovanni di Paolo the 
SS. Fabian and Sebastian belonging to Mr. Robert Ross. 


of Ghiberti's bas-reliefs may have passed just as it 
stands into the lost scene of the polyptych ; and 
The Baptist rebuking Hood evidently turns up 
again in the Miinster panel, which has the same 
disposition of the groups, a similar Herod, a 
very similar Herodias and S. John, and the 
soldier who repels S. John, almost identical. 
From Donatello's Presentation of the Head is taken 
the distribution of the surrounding figures of the 
panel, Salome's action in the dance, the pose 
and the gestures of the two youths standing near 

By pressing the process of comparison further, 
elements of derivation, extraneous to the font, 
might also be found in Giovanni di Paolo's series. 
One of these is indubitably supplied to The 
Decollation scene, namely, the executioner in the 
act of thrusting his sword into its sheath, copied 

from the executioner whom Ambrogio Lorenzetti 
drew for the fresco. The Martyrdom of the Fran- 
ciscans, in the church of San Francesco, Siena. 
But these elements, extraneous to the font, are 
few and occasional ; the S.John polyptych remains 
the glorification of Jacopo della Quercia's font in 
the more attractive sphere of Giovanni di Paolo"'. 

'" I lake this opportunity of pointing out some works liy tlie 
painter hitlierto unknown: 

Florenxe, Collection of the Marchese Piero Bargagli, a sinall 
triptych, Virgin, Child, and Stiints. 

Milan, Chiesa collection, fragment, The Virgin crowntd by 
an Angel. 

IMONTEPULCIANO, Church of Sant' Agostino, S. Bernadino. 
Radi (near Siena), Villa Forteguerri, Virgin and Child- 
Rome, Corsini Gallery (now in Prince Chigi's collection). Two 
parts of a predella. Scenes Jroin the Life of a Saint. 

Vatican Gallery, Magazzino No. 196. Very small 
panel, Virgin and Child. 
[Since final proofs could not be passed by the author, he is 
not responsible for clerical errors. — Ed.] 



'HE medal which is illustrated in the 
accompanying Plate, a, appears to 
be unpublished, except in so far as 
it has appeared in the Catalogue of 
the Collection of Mr.Guthrie Lornie'. 
Its full description is as follows: — 

Obv. BERN.A.RD ■ WALTER • AET • 20 • A° • 1 559. 
Bust r. of Bernhard Walter, with short hair, 
wearing doublet with standing collar and pufifed 
sleeves. Inscription between two incised circles; 
moulded border. 

Rev. Achievement (shield, helm, crest and 
mantling) of Walter of Augsburg: [or]* a stepped 
gable of one step [sa.] charged in base with an 
estoile [or]; crest: a pyramidal hat [sa.], lined 
and charged with an estoile [or], surmounted by 
cock's plumes [sa.]. Below, STE • H • F Border 
as on obverse. 

Lead, 67 mm. Cast. 

The medal, thanks to the generosity of Mr. 

Maurice Kosenheitn, is now in the British Museum. 

Bernhard Walter is identified by the arms on 

the reverse as belonging to a well-known Augsburg 

' Sotheby's, 23 April, 1918, lot 257. I have to thank Mr. J. B. 
Caldecott for calling iny attention to its existence. 

'' Rietstap, apparently by a slip, gives arg. instead of or ; all 
the German authorities I liave been able to consult agree in the 
latter. The German conception of heraldry is so unlike that of 
English that it is impossible to find a proper translation for the 
German terms; but the illustration will make all clear. 

merchant family*. This house had been elevated 
to the Augsburg patriciate in 1538*. A brief 
history of it is given by Paul von Stetten in a book 
on the Augsburg nobility \ The Bernhard of our 
medal is not mentioned by hiin, but it is possible 
that he was the son of another Bernhard, the 
patrician, who (in 1526)" married Felicitas Rehlin- 
ger, and had many children. Von Stetten is 
chary of giving dates; all he tells us is that the 
elder Bernhard's grandfather Ulrich married in 
1437, lived with his wife Barbara Riedler for 60 
years, and had 22 children. Of these, two children 
he only mentions Ulrich (the father of Bernhard) 
and Lucas, as they alone had male children. So 
that our Bernhard may have been the son of 
either Bernhard or Lucas. The Bernhard of our 
medal was in his twentieth year in 1559, so that 
he was born in 1539 or 1540. This date obviously 
makes it possible that he was the son of the elder 
Bernhard, who was married, as we have seen, in 
1526. Whatever his exact origin, the Bernhard 

» For nearly all the information which follows about Bern- 
hard Walter and his family I have to thank Mr. Maurice 

■* The date is given on f. 9 of a MS. Augsburger Hochzeits- 
buch, with the initials G.M.N. and the date 1574 on the binding, 
in Mr. Rosenheim's library. 

^ Geschichte der adclichen Geschlechter in . . . Angsbnrg 
(Augsburg 1 76i).P- 165. 

• The marriage took place on 14th May, 1520. Sec F. War- 
necke, Augsburger Hochzeitsbnch, p. 32. 


fAl Bernh.rd Walter .559, by Steven H. British Museum. [d] Bernhard Walter, 1580. By .m unknown German MedalUst- 

iS K^ll^wyn, .'s^by'steven H. Mr. Maurice Rosen- ^^^ ,J::^\^t^r^^^^^^^^^^^ Medallist. Mr. 

Ic] CeciliTveeselaer, 1559, by Steven H. The Hague. Maurice Rosenheim. 



of our medal married Franziscina Kraffter on 21st 
April, 1567'. 

We have to reckon, however, with a third 
Bernhard ; for it is impossible to identify either of 
those already mentioned with the old man who 
is represented on a medal of 1580. I take the 
description of this piece from the catalogue of 
the Lanna Collection^ and reproduce it [Plate, d] 
from the same work : — 

Bust nearly facing, bearded, inclined to r., 
wearing small ruff and gown with furred collar ; 
across the field, 15 80 ; below, BERNHARDVS | 

No reverse. 

Silver, 45 mm. Cast. 

A man who was in his sixty-fourth year in 1580 
can obviously not be identified either with the 
Bernhard who married Felicitas Rehlinger in 
1526, or with the Bernhard who was born in 
1539 or 1540. This third Bernhard may have been 
one of the children of Lucas, son of Ulrich the 
elder. It is, however, not very profitable to specu- 
late on questions of this kind, which are probably 
susceptible of being easily settled by those who 
have access to the Augsburg archives ^. 

Our new medal tells us something that those 
archives probably would not, to wit, that Bern- 
hard was living in the Low Countries in 1559. 
There is nothing surprising in that, since so many 
of the great German mercantile houses then, as in 
later days, had their agencies in cities like 
Antwerp. That the medal was made in Antwerp 
may be conjectured from a consideration of what 
is known of the medallist's career ; for, as we 
shall see, the persons of whom he made medals in 
1559 were, so far as they can be identified, 

In The Buiiington Magazine, ten years ago, I 
endeavoured to disentangle the remarkable con- 
fusion in which the facts available concerning 
" Steven H." have been involved, chiefly owing 
to Walpole's careless handling of certain casual 
conjectures of George Vertue's. The mystery of 
the artist's identity is still unsolved, but this seems 
io be a convenient opportunity for summing up 
the state of our knowledge of his works, and 
giving a list of them, so far as possible in chrono- 
logical order'". 

' Warnecke, op. at., p. 71. Franziscina may have been a 
sister of the Anna Maria Kraffter who, according to the same 
authority (p. 59), was married in 1556 to Ulrich Walter, a son 
of Bernhard. 

' K. Kegling,SiJwm/H«g Z,flH»a,III Teil (Lepke, Berlin, 1911) 
lot 1274, Taf. 52. A specimen (the same?) is described in 
Egger's Catalogue of the Gotthard Minus and other collections, 
Vienna, 1874, lot 5374. 

' There is, for instance, a Walter and Mannlich Augsburg 
Stammbuch, which does not appear to have been printed. 

'" In addition to Walpole's Anecdotes and Franks and 
Grueber's Medallic Illustrations, 1 may mention the following 
items in the bibliography of the subject : Pinchart in Rev. Beige 
de Ntimismatigue (i860), pp. 178-182 ; J. Simonis, L'Art du 

I need not dwell again on the absurdity of the 
explanation of "H" as the initial of " Hollandi- 
cus " ". Nearly as improbable is the solution 
"Van Hollant", as a family name"; while the 
explanation of " Ste " as meaning Steynemolen" 
may be unhesitatingly rejected, since the English 
evidence shows that it means "Steven". Nor 
need I repeat in detail the reasons for distinguish- 
ing the medallist from the sculptor Richard 
Stephens, a native of Brabant, who was born in 
1542, and worked in England at intervals from 
1568 to 1589". 

The ground being thus cleared, I proceed to 
give a list, chronological so far as possible, of the 
works which are known to be from the hand of 
the medallist, or can reasonably be assigned to 
him ; to which I append a list of works of which 
the attribution is doubtful, or certainly wrong. 
Unless otherwise described, all these works are 
medals, and (so far as they belong to the first 
category) bear the signature STE ■ , STE • H •, 
STE • H • F • or STE • H ■ FEC. 

Utrecht, 1558-9. 
1558. Cornells van Myerop, Provost of the 

Cathedral of Utrecht (Simonis, PI. xx, 3). 
1558. Woutervan Byler, Baily of S. Catherine's, 

Utrecht [ibid., PI. xx, 2). 
1558. Georg van Egmond, Bishop of Utrecht, 

2 medals {ibid., Pis, xix and xx, i). 

1558. Engelken Tols of Utrecht''^ {ibid., PI, xxii, 

3 ; Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. i, 5 ; MuUer, loc. 

[1558 or 1559]- Antonis Mor", with two reverses: 
{a) Woman spinning, signed {Burl. Mag., 
1908, PI. I, 3, 4 ; Hymans, loc, cit.); 
(6) Allegorical figure of Painting, unsigned 
(Simonis, PI. xii, i). 

Mcdailleur en Belgique, 11 (Jemeppe-sur-Meuse, 1904), pp. 187- 
219 ; L. Forrer, Dictionary of Medallists, 11 (1904), pp. 530-532; 
G. F. Hill in The Bitrlitigton Magazine, Vol. xii (1907-8), 
pp. ^55-363 ; Henri Hymans, Antonio Moro (191°), PP- 108-9 ; 
S. Muller Fz, "De medailleur STE. H. te Utrecht" in Tijd- 
schriftvan hct Kon. Ned. Genootschap\voor M tint- en Penning- 
kunde, I911; L. Forrer, Dictionary v. (1912), pp. 674-6S2 ; V. 
T[ourneur] in Rev. Beige de Nnmismatique, 1912, p, 104. 

" Muller, who apparently wrote without knowledge of the 
previous exposure of this error, pours legitimate scorn on the 

" It is Pinchart, not Forrer, who is responsible for the state- 
ment that " in the fifteenth century a family of the name of Van 
Hollant was occupying a high position in the magistracy at 
Utrecht", a statement of which Muller doubts the truth. 

" Leon de Burbure, quoted by Hymans, loc. cit. The van 
Steynemolen were an artist family of Malines. 

" When I wrote the above sentence I had not seen the new 
volume of the Walpole Society (vi, 1917-1918), in which, I regret 
to say, the old confusion is perpetuated (p. 19 ; "The famous 
faynter Steven seems to be identical with Ricliard Stevens, a 
Flemish painter in London, who was statuary and medallist as 
well as painter"). There is no evidence worthy of the slightest 
consideration that Richard Stevens was either a medallist or a 

'^ On this name at Utrecht, see Mailer's article (p. 5 of reprint) . 

" The painter was at Utrecht in 1559 (Hymans, p. 106). 


Antwerp, i 559-1 561. 
1559. Peter Panhuys, Treasurer of Antwerp 

(Simonis. PI. xxill, i). 
1559. F'loris Allewyn (ibid., PI. xxi, 2 ; here, 

Plate, b). 
1559. Cecilia Veeselaer of Antwerp (ibid., PI. xxi, 

I ; here, Plate, c). 
1559. Hans van den Broeck, administrator of 

the hospitals of Antwerp (ibid., PI. xxill, 

4 ; Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. I, 7). 

1559. Jacobus Fabius (Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. i, i). 

1559. Bernhard Waiter of Augsburg (here, 
Plate, a). 

1560. Antonisvan Blocklandt'^, painter (Simonis, 
PI. XXI, 4). 

1561. Thomas Therlaen {ibid., PI. xxii, i). 
1561. Karel Cocquiel, member of Consistory of 

the Lutheran church at Antwerp {ibid., 
PI. XXIII, 2). 
1561. Thomas de Montrichier (ibid., PI. XXIII, 3). 

Poland, 1561-1562. 

1561. Sigismund Augustus, King of Poland {ibid., 
PI. XXIV, I). 

1562. The same, small medal {ibid., PI. xxv, i ; 
Domanig, "Portriitmedaillen des Erzhauses 
Oesterreich ", No. 91). 

[1561 or 1562?] Catherine of Austria. Queen of 

Poland, not signed (Simonis, Pi. xxiv, 2 ; 

Domanig, op. cit.. No. 89). 
[1561 or 1562 ?] Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland 

(Simonis, PI. xxiv. 3). 
[1561 or 1562?] Johann Sigismund, King of 

Hungary (ibid., PI. xxiv, 4). 

England, 1562-1563. 
1562. Richard Martin and Dorcas Eglestone 

(" Med. 111.", I, 107, 33 ; Simonis, PI. xxvi, 

3 and 4 ; Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. 11, 2). 
1562. Michel de Castelnau, Seigneur de Mauvis- 

siere, in England ("Med. 111.", i, 113,42 

[date misread] ; Simonis, PI. xxvi, 6). 
[1562]. Edmund Wilhipoll, aet. 48, three-quarter 

face ("Med. 111.", i, 108, 34; Simonis, 

PI. XXV, 3). 
1562. The same, aet. 48, profile, unsigned (" Med. 

III.". I, 109, 35 ; Simonis, PL xxv, 2). 
1562. William, Marquess of Northampton (" Med. 

111.", I, 103, 28; Simonis, PI. xxv, 6). 
1562. Elizabeth, Marchioness of Northampton 

("Med. 111.", I, 104, 29; Simonis, PI. xxv, 

5 ; Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. 11,3). 

1562. William, Earl of Pembroke (" Med. 111.", i, 

104, 30 ; Simonis, PI. xxvi, i). 
1562. Anna Poines, wife of Thomas Heneage 

("Med. 111.", I, 105, 31; Burl. Mag., 

1908, PI. II, i). 
[1562]. Thomas Stanley (" Med. 111.", i, 105, 32 ; 

Simonis, PI. xxvi, 5). 
[1562 ?]. Maria Newce, wife of John Dimock 

("Med. 111.", I, 109, 36; Simonis, PI. 

XXV, 4). 
[1562 or 1563?] Henry Fitzalan, twelfth Earl of 

Arundel (two paintings). 

1563. John Lord Lumley, aged 30 (painting). 
[1562 or 1563?] Jane Fitzalan, first wife of the 

preceding (painting)". 

Utrecht, 1564. 

1564. Hillegoent van Alendorp {Burl. Mag., PI. i, 2). 
Two medals of 1571 and 1572, representing 

Sigismund Augustus of Poland, are also assigned 
to Steven by Zielinsky in an article cited by 
Simonis (p. 210), but inaccessible to me. It is not 
stated whether they bear the artist's signature. One 
of them, dated 157 1, seems to have attached to it 
the reverse type of the medal of 1561, a horseman 
charging at a rock, but with the motto DVRVM 
pacientia franco, instead of DA mihi virtvtem 
contra HOSTES tvos, and to be the piece illustrated 
by Raczynski '''. Of the other I can obtain no idea 
from Simonis's description. Zielinsky's attribu- 
tion of a jeton of Isabella of Hungary to Steven 
does not inspire one with confidence in his 
judgment ; and failing further indication of the 
accuracy of the attribution, it seems safest to 
assume that 1564 (the date of the medal of Hille- 
goent van Alendorp) is the latest date at which 
the artist is known to have been working. 

Works of which the Date is Uncertain. 
Plaquette of Angel holding the Vernicle (Brussels 

Museum, Simonis, PI. F). 
Medal or token of a Dutch Gild of Armourers 

(British Museum, Burl. Mag., 1908, PI. I, 6). 

" Born 1532, educated in Delft, worked for some time in 
Antwerp with Frans Floris and, from soon after 1552, chiefly 
in Delft ; in 1577 he entered the gild at Utrecht, where he died 
in 1580 (Thieme-Becker, Allgem. Lcxikon). This is the only 
medal by Steven dated 1560 ; it is possible that he was not in 
Antwerp when he made it. 

'' For these three pictures, of which the last two are still at 
Lumley Castle, see The Burlington Magazine, 1908, p. 361. In 
the Walpole Society's Vol. vi (in which the various inventories 
of the Lumley pictures are conveniently reprinted) Mr. Cust 
says (p. 19) "The portrait of Lord Lumley by this painter, 
which is stiil preserved at Lumley Castle, is a good example of 
Tudor painting without any special mark of distinction". In 
the Literary Cabinet, quoted ibid., p. 30, there is an entry : 
"John Lord Lumley, 1591. Black skull cap, a white beard, in 
his robes. By Richard Stevens ". The attribution doubtless, 
like Pennant's statement, ibid., p. 45, rests on Walpole's 
authority. In Christie's Sale Catalogue of 1785 (ibid., p. 32) 
lot 30 is" a pair of half-lengths of John Lord Lumley and Jane 
his first wife, 1563 ". As some of the pictures were bought in 
for the family at this sale, 1 suppose these are Steven's two 
portraits. A portrait of Jane Fit/alan also appeared in the sale 
of i807((6irf.,p. 34, No. 5). as did the portrait of Henry Fitzalan 
in the sales of 1785 and 1807 (No. 42). I have not been able 
to trace the passage in " the Nic-Nac or Literary Cabinet ", the 
British Museum copy of this "entertaining" periodical (1823- 
1828) being imperfect. 

" Mc'dailler de Pologue, No. 23. The mere fact of the use 
of a reverse type similar to that used by Steven on an earlier 
medal does not, of course, prove that he had anything directly 
to do with this piece. 

Painting of "the County Egmond -" executed at 
Brussels ", formerly at Lumley Castle (inven- 
tory of 1590, ibid., p. 361). 

Medals Attributed. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1586 (attributed 
by Vertue). By an anonymous artist, probably 

Sir Thomas Bodley (attributed by Vertue). By 
Claude VVarin, made in 1646.-' 

Pope Adrian VI. Rev. " Longo postliminio " 
(Simonis, PI. xxii, 41. Itahan work. 

Hieronymus van Tuyl, lord of Seroskerke, ii^^S 
(Simonis, PI. xxiil, 6). A doubtful attribu- 
tion, as regards the portrait ; the reverse 
attached to it is Italian, and belongs to the 
next medal. 

Pietro Piantanida (Simonis PI. xxiii, 5). Milanese, 
under influence of Cellini. 

Egidius Hoftman, 1559 (Simonis, p. 202). No 
reproduction of this medal is given, so that 
the attribution cannot be criticised. 

Melchior Lorichs (Simonis, PI. xxi, 3). Entirely 
foreign to Steven's style. 

Isabella of Hungary, 1557 (Simonis, PI. xxiv, 5). 
A gold jeton, rashly attributed by Zielinsky 
because of the letters s-F-v, which he explains 
"Stephanus fecit Utrechto" ( ! ), at the end 
of the reverse inscription. 

Sigismund Augustus (Tr^sor de Numism., Med. 
allemandes", Pl.xxviii, i; Simonis, p. 210). 

The same (Simonis, PI. xxvi, 2). Probably Polish 

Henry VIII. Rev. " Rutilans rosa sine spina" 
(Simonis PI. xxvii). 

Justus Fit, 1563 (Mr. Maurice Rosenheim's Col- 
lection ; Forrer, Diet.," v., p. 680 ; here, 
Plate, e-=). 

^ 111 my previous article I quite unwarrantably confused this 
person (whom Lampton, the author of the Lumley inventory of 
1590, evidently means to be Lamoral Count of Egmont. who 
was beheaded in 1568, with his uncle George) who was Bishop 
of Utrecht, and of whom Steven made two medals in 1558. It 
is, nevertheless, just possible that the picture may have really 
, represented the latter, and that Lampton took him for his more 
famous nephew. 

-^ .V»»!. Chroii., 1913, p. 423. 

'■^ Mr. Rosenheim permits me to illustrate this piece, to show 
the great difference in feeling and workmanship between it 
and Steven's work, It is the product of some mediocre and 
unknown Flemish medallist. I have not been able to identify 
the sitter. 

Unknown lady, veiled (Simonis, PI. xxir, 2). 

Perhaps Italian. 
Domanig, op. cil., No. 84, describes a medal of 

Albrecht V and Anna of Bavaria, about 1558, 

as in the manner of Steven. 
Two medals of Sigismund Augustus, 1571 and 

1572, have already been mentioned. 
Of all the above medals attributed to Steven, 
many are not Netherlandish at all ; the one which 
comes perhaps nearest to his work (the Hierony- 
mus van Seroskerke) might conceivably have been 
accepted if its date were later than 1558, when 
Steven was working in a rather different style. 
Steven's earlier medals are usually on a larger 
scale; in 1561, in such a medal as that of Karel 
Cocquiel, one sees the beginning of the change to 
the smaller module and plumper fabric which 
characterise his work in Engl.uid ; though in the 
medals made in Poland just before his visit to 
England the importance of the personages repre- 
sented made him revert to the larger scale. The 
medal of HiUegoent van Alendorp of 1564 is 
entirely in the manner of the English medals. 

Knowing so little as we do of Steven's personal 
history, it may seem rash to speculate as to his 
artistic education. I am however inclined to 
think that he may have learned the medallic art 
from the unknown medallist who was responsible 
for a small group of very fine m-^dals, which have 
been placed together by Simonis as early work of 
Jonghelinck. They have, however, a very distinct 
character of their own, and are much finer than 
any medals by that soinewhat mechanical if accom- 
plished craftsman. They represent Antonis de 
Taxis (1552), Frans Floris the painter (1552), 
Reinart van Busdal (1552), Ursula Lopez 1555), 
and Jan Lotin of Bruges aet. 36 (undated), and 
are all illustrated by Simonis (Plate 11,4,5; '"' 2,3; 
viii, 5, 4). Most of them have also been attributed 
to Cornells Floris, apparently for no better reason 
than that he was the brother of one of the persons 
portrayed. Whoever made them, they seem to me 
to represent a style out of which the earlier manner 
of Steven H. might well have developed. If so, 
he most probably studied in Flanders or Brabant ; 
and, indeed, it is legitimate to ask whether he was 
a Hollander at all. The assumption that he was 
is based partly on the mistaken interpretation of 
the initial of his surname, partly on the fact that 
he first appears as working at Utrecht. 


HIS little figure of a bearded man 
[Plate I] is executed in reddish 
bronze, cast and chased, and gilded. 
He is seated on a tuft of foliage, 
with his left leg crossed over the 

right knee. His head is turned towards his 
right hand, which is raised and twisted back- 
wards, the forefinger having been broken off ; the 
left hand is bent inwards and has lost the thumb. 
He wears a long robe pinned together under the 


chin and falling about him in elaborate folds, 
leaving his legs bare from the knee. At his wrist 
the wrinkles of the close-fitting sleeve of an inner 
garment appear. The figure with its supportmg 
tuft of foliage is raised on a base or phnth, 
rounded in front, with beaded edges and concave 
surface, inscribed MARE. As a figure of the Sen the 
object which engaged his hands, and his attention, 
was probably a large fish, and the position of the 
right hand rather suggests that the missing finger 
supported a hook in the fish's mouth K 

The execution is of very high quality— the head, 
hands and legs modelled with refinement, and the 
hair (in a corded lock on either side of the fore- 
head) and the beard engraved with delicate finish. 
The drapery is cut with precision, and falls at the 
foot in slightly fluted folds with sharp edges. A 
piece of metal is skilfully let in on the right thigh, 
probably to make good a defect in the castmg, 
and is modelled as part of the general surface. 
The style of the work shows its date to be soon 
after the middle of the 12th century. It measures 
in height 3-55 inches (9 cm.), and is part of the 
collection of mediaeval metahvork in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum ^ 

For its singular beauty of modelling this little 
figure is well worthy of publication. But it is also 
of unusual interest as a document of mediaeval 
craftsmanship, since it contains enough internal 
evidence to indicate something of its hibtory. 
Between the figure and the foliage on which he 
sits a broken fragment of bronze is held by rivets, 
the remains of the base-plate of some object of 
which the figure with its plinth formed a foot. 
Its resemblance to the supporting figures of the 
well-known pedestal of an altar-cross in the 
Museum of St. Omer, which formerly belonged 
to the Abbey of St. Bertin [Plate II] ^ shows 
clearly enough that this was the foot of some 
similar object. The identity of style makes it 
possible to go further and to say that they are by 
the same hand. A comparison of the photographs 
[Plate I and Plate II] makes the relation clear 
and dispenses with any need for long discussion. 
The same system of folds is observable on the 
back of the robe (compare the figure of S. John 
with his eagle above him) ; the same slightly fluted 
or polygonal folds of falling drapery at the foot 

' On the subject of the emblems borne by allegorical figures 
of the Sea, or Water, see Cahier et Martin, Melanges d'Archco- 
logic, II. p. 60. and F. Piper, Mytliologic dcr christlichen Kiitist, 
II, PP' 97-109- The attitude is rather suggestive of tuning an 
instrument of the hite family, but I cannot find any authority 
for Buch an attribute. There is a special reason for supposing 
tliat the fish figured here, as will appear. 

'Purchased from a dealer in Paris; No. 630-1864 in the 
Museum register. 

^Reduced from v. Falke und Frauberger, Deutsche Scliiiiclzar- 
beiten des Mittclallers, pi. 116. (The S. Paul is from a section of 
pi. 84 of the same work, hereafter referred to by the initial F.) 
Another view of the St. Omer pedestal will be found in Molinicr 
et Marcou, Exposition retrospective de rart/icjiifais (1900), pl. 26. 


(compare the figure of S. Matthew with bis angel, 
in the enlarged detail) ; the sanfe wrinkled sleeve 
at the wrist. Moreover, the same charming natu- 
ralness of pose, and the same type of head, with 
face expressive of a spirit of grace and gentleness 
(see S. Matthew), are found in both. Tlie identity 
of handling extends even beyond the figure to the 
foliage and the base. The somewhat freer render- 
ing of pose and drapery suggests that our figure of 
the Sea is a few years Liter in date, when the artist's 
hand and eye had gained something in accomplish- 
ment. Probably we should not be far wrong, on 
the evidence that follows, in dating it about 1160. 
A peculiar interest attaches to this pedestal of a 
cross at St. Omer. It is of gilt bronze and copper 
decorated with figure-subjects in chanipleve 
enamel, and it long been recognised that it 
shows on a small scale some of the same features 
as the great enamelled copper pedestal set up by 
Abbot Suger at St. Denis to carry the gold cross 
he bestowed on the abbey, and consecrated in 
1147*. Of this pedestal, though itself has perished, 
descriptions of the 17th century and earlier 
fortunatelv exist, as well as Suger's own mention 
of it^ M". Emile Male has recently shown* that 
the figures on the capital of the St. Omer pedestal 
represent the Four Elemenls, and that in this 
respect also it echoes the St. Denis work. The 
inventory of 1634 speaks, according to Labarte, 
of four figures of "prophets" (really the Four 
Elcineiits) in gilt bronze, among foliage, on the 
capital of the St. Denis column, looking up 
towards the cross it supported. When the scale 
of the work is taken into account (it is supposed 
to have been not less than 15 feet high) it is not 
very likely that these four allegorical figures were 
merely half-length figures, as on the miniature 
St. Omer column, which measures barely 12 inches 
in height. It must be clearly understood that the 
latter, indeed, notwithstanding its interesting 
resemblances, is in no sense a reduced replica of 
Suger's great work, as is apparent enough from 
the description of the latter in the inventory. It 
would be tempting to think that we have in our 
little bronze a nearer approach to the figure on 
Suger's column than the half-figure of the same 
element on the St. Omer work'. But against 
such a supposition stands the fact that the one is 

* Dcschamps dc Pas, " Le Pied de Croi.\ de St. Bertin", in 
Annates Areheologiqiies, XVIII, 1858, p. 5, with 2 plates. 
Labarte, Histoire des Arts Inditstriels, 1S64, 11, p. 257. 

' Labarte, op. cit., 11, pp. 248, 253-9, iii, p. 644 ; and Album, 1, 
cut opp. pl. XLV. Unfortunately i