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Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated & Published Monthly 


January — June 1 9 2 i 












(Reftrtnces to sections vthich recur monthly are given at the end of this table.) 


Poussin and Claude. By R. R. Tatlock. ...... 

On a dismembered Altarpiecc by Marco Zoppo. By Tancred Borenius 

The Architecture of Saladin and the influence of the Crusades (A.D. i 77 i-i 250) 
By Martin S. Briggs. ......... 

The Eumorfopoulos Collection — XI. T'ang pottery figures at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. By R. L. Hobson ...... 

Two Drawings by Aert Claez. By Campbell Dodgson .... 

A new Teniers Tapestry at the Victoria and Albert Museum. By Francis 
Birrell ...,.,. ... . . 

Chinese philosophy of Art — II. Wang Wei and Chang Yen-Yiian. By 
Arthur Waley .......... 

For III see [March) . . . . . . . .111 

For IV see {i3Iay) ......... 244 

Finnish Rugs. By Yrjo Hirn 

Italian Furniture, By H. Clifford Smith 

Two newly discovered Paintings by Michael Pachcr. By George A. Simonson 


"The Adoration of the Kings" by Peter Brueghel the Elder. By C. J. 
Holmes ........... 

A Group of drawings by Paul Veronese. By Tancred Borenius 
The Riza AbbasI M.S. in the Victoria and Albert Museum. By T. W. Arnold 
English Furniture at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. By H. Avray Tipping 
Two Pieces of English 1 5th century Embroidery at Lille. By Pierre Turpin 
A Gold Ornament from the Kuban district. By O. M. Dalton 
"Vision and Design." By C. J. Holmes ...... 

Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. Leonard Gow — V. By R, L. Hobson 
For VI see [April) . . . . . . . .196 

For VII see [June) . . . . , . . .301 

Reynicr and Claes Hals. By C. Hofstede de Groot ..... 


Editorial. "&' iMonumentum Requiris Circumspice." 

A Tondo by Luca Signorelli. By Roger Fry 

Maori Art. By Ralph Durand 

Chinese Philosophy of Art — III. By Arthur Waley 

A newly acquired Chasseriau at the Louvre. By R. R, Tatlock 

English Eighteenth Century Ormolu. By H. Avray Tipping 

















1 1 1 

1 12 


An unnoticed Byzantine Psalter— I. By Mary Phillips Perry 
For II see (June) . . ..... 

Pictures at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. By Roger Fry 
Claes Hals. I — By A. Bredius. II — By Tancred Borenius 



Editorial. Modern 'British Painting — a^ Proposal. .... 

Two Watteau Drawings. By R. R. Tatlock ..... 

Two Bronzes by Nicholas of Verdun. By H. P. Mitchell . 
The Textile Exhibition at South Kensington. By Francis Birrell . 
A Portrait of the Ugliest Princess in History. By W. A. Baillie-Grohman 
An Early Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana. By Eric Maclagan 
Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. Leonard Gow. — VI. By R. L. 
Hobson ........... 


Editorial. Qezanne and the V^tion ; The Nameless Exhibition . 
Two Rembrandt Portraits. By Roger Fry . . . , 

A Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger. By Paul Ganz 
Two attributions to Carel Fabritius. By Percy Moore Turner . 
The Saracenic House — I. By Martin S. Briggs 

For II see {Ji'ne) ........ 

Limoges Enamels of the Aeneid series at Alnwick Castle. By Bernard Rackham 
Chinese Philosophy of Art — IV. By Arthur Waley .... 

Niccolo Pio, Collector and Writer. By Tancred Borenius 


By E. Alfred 


T'he Nameless Exhibition by Desmond MacCarthy 

A Self-Portrait by Rembrandt. By Roger Fry 

The Barend Family. By John Hewitt 

The Engraving of Arms on Old English Plate — I. 

Georgian Rummers. By John Shuckburgh Risley 

Othon Friesz. By Clive Bell ...... 

An Unnoticed Byzantine Psalter — II. By Mary Phillips Perry 

The Saracenic House — II. By Martin S. Briggs 

Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. Leonard Gow — VII, 
Hobson ......... 


By R. L. 











Reviews (monthly) 

44, 98, 144, 201, 249, 302 


Monthly Chronicle page 

The re-opening of the Wallace Collection ; Etchings and Wood Engravings ; 
Leicester Galleries; Mansard Gallery; Independent Gallery; Goupil 
Gallery Salon [January) ........ 47 

Picasso ; National Portrait Society ; Cyril Andradc, 8 Duke Street ; The 
New English Art Club ; The Fine Arts Society ; Eldar Gallery 
(February) . . . . . . . . . , 98 

Independent Gallery (Clive Bell) ; Mark Gertler; Negro Art; John Nash; 

Modern Dutch Art; Carfax Gallery; Agnew's Gallery {March) . 146 

City Churches; April Exhibitions; Max Dvorak (Campbell Dodgson); 

Adolf Hildebrand (Eric Maclagan) {<tApril) ..... 202 

The Crome Centenary, (C. H. Collins Baker); May Exhibitions; National 

Gallery {^lay) . . . . . . . . .254 

June Exhibitions; The London Group (A. Lavelli) [June) . . 313 

Letters : (monthly) 

"Early Italian pictures at Cambridge." (George F. Hill) (January) . 50 

The Cross and Candlesticks by Valerio Belli at South Kensington (H. P. 
Mitchell) ; "Early Italian Pictures at Cambridge." (Guido Cagnola) 
(February) . . . . . . . . . .100 

"Vision and Design." (D. S. MacCoU) (March) . . . . 152 

Auction Sale at University College, London. (Walter W. Seton) {tApril) 205 
Clue to subject of Piero di Cosimo (Amateur) {May) .... 257 

"Cezanne and the Nation" (C. J. Holmes) (June) . . • 3^3 

Auctions (/«5n/M') 50, loi, 152,205,258,314 

Publications Received {January, February, April, May. June) . 50, 102, 2o6, 258 




Poussin and Claude. I — Classical Landscape, 
bv Nicolas Poussin (Dr. G. BeUingham 

Smith). SJ" by iij' 2 

II — [.\] Infant Moses and Pharaoh, by Nico- 
las Poussin (Dr. Tancred Borenius). 7^' 
by SJ". [b] Vie'j.' of the Lake of Brac- 
ciano, by Qaude Gellee (Dr. Tancred 

Borenius)'. Sf' by laf 5 

On a dismembered .-Vltarpiece by Marco Zoppo. 
[a] 5. Paul, by Marco Zoppo (Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford). [b] Portrait of a 
Holy Bishop, by Marco Zoppo (National 
Gallerv). Fcl S. Peter, bv Marco Zopp)0 

(Mr. Heni\' Harris) ' 8 

The Architecture of Saladin. I — [a] Interior 
of the Great Mosque (formerly the Church 
of S. John) at Gaza, [b] The Chapel of 
the Virg^in's Tomb, Jerusalem. [c] 


Remains of the Church of St. George at 
Ludd. [d] West doorway of the Great 
Mosque (formerly the Church of S. John, 
II— [e] The Citadel at Aleppo. [f] S. 
Stephen's Gate, Jerusalem. [g] A Street 
Fountain at Jerusalem, [h] The Citadel 
at Cairo 

The Eumorfopoulos Collection. I — T'ang 
pottery with coloured glazes, [a and c] 
Two Ministers. Height, 42*. [e] A 
Lokapala. Height, 43* ... 
II — T'ang p>otter}- with coloured glazes. 
[d] Groom, height, 23'. [e] Horse. 
Height, 31' 

Two Drawings by .4ert Claesz. [a] The 
Betrayal of Christ, by .Aert Claesz (British 
Museum), [b] Christ before Pilate, by 





Aert Claesz (British Museum) 
A new Teniers Tapestry at the Victoria and 

Albert Museum 
Finnish Rug's — I. 

„ n 

Italian Furniture, [a] Chest with the Arms of 
the Delfini Family. [b] Chest with 
figures of Spring- and Summer ... 

Michael Pacher. [.\] The Marriage of the 
Virgin, by Michael Pacher (National Gal- 
lery, Vienna). [b] The Flagellation of 
Christ, by Michael Pacher. (National 
GaUery, Vienna) 






2' 2'. 

About 1750. (Col. H. H. Mul- 



The Adoration of the Kings, by Pieter 
Brueghel, the Elder. 43!' by 321'. 

(National GaUery) 52 

A Group of Drawings by Paul Veronese. I. 
— [a] Studies for a Last Judgment? (Mr. 
Henrv Oppenheimer). 30 by 21 cm. 
[b] Sheet of Studies (Mr. G. Bellingham 
Smith). 30.5 by 21 cm 55 

II — [c] Various Studies (Mr. P. H. Turner). 
12 by II cm. [d] Mars and Venus (Mr. 
G. Bellingham Smith). 10 by 13.5 cm. 

[e] Christ at Simon the Pharisee's. (For- 
merly in the collection of Sir Joshua 

Reynolds) 5^ 

The Riza Abbasi MS. in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. I — [a] Shapur showing 
Shirin the portrait of Khusrau. [b] 
Khusrau and Shirin ... ... •■• 63 

II — [c] Meeting of Khusrau and Shirin. 

[d] Farhad kneeling before Khusrau. 

[e] Farhad carrying Shirin ... • ■ • 66 
English Furniture at the Burlington Fine .A.rts 

Club. I — [a] Mahogany Commode. 

Height, 2' 9'. width 4' 9'. depth 2' 2". 
About 1750. (Mr. Leopold Hirsch). [a] 
Mahogany Settee, covered with grospoint 
needlework. Height, 3' 2', width, 6' 6'. 
depth. 2' 9'. -About 1750. (M. Henry 

Hirsch) ^ 

II — [c] Mahoganv Armchair in the finest 
manner of the English rococo style, up- 
holstered in finelv executed Fulham Tapes- 
try. Height, 3' ^\\ width, 2' 8', depth, 

liner). [d1 Mahogany pole screen, on 
tripod stand, w^ith panel of Fulham Tapes- 
trv. Height, 5' 3', width, 2' 3', depth, 
I'S'. About 1750. (Col. H. H. Mul- 
liner) _ ••■ 72 

Two pieces of English 15th centurv embroidery 
at Lille. I — [a and b] Orphreys in 
English Embroidery (Lille Museum) ... 77 
II — [c and d] Orphreys of a chasuble of the 
end of the 15th century attached to a 
modem vestment. (Catholic Church, 
Kenilworth) 80 

A Gold Ornament from the Kuban district... 8c 


Chinese Porcelain in the collection of Mr. 
Leonard Gow. I — Pair of figures of bar- 
barians on lions. Height, 6^". K'ang 
Hsi period. Bottom row : Pair of per- 
fume baskets and a beaker. Height, 4^". 
Late Ming period. (Mr. Leonard Gow) 85 
II — Covered jar, one of a pair. Height, 
2 if. K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. Leonard 

Gow) ••■ 87 

III — Covered jar, one of a pair. Height, 
2i|'. K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. Leonard 

Gow) 90 

Revnier and Claes Hals. I— [a] Vie-w of the 
Groote Houstraat at Haarlem, ascribed to 
Claes Hals. (Frans Hals Museum), [b] 
Vie-w of a Village. Claes Hals. (Mr. 

R. C. Witt) 93 

n [c] Girl reading, ascribed to Claes Hals. 

(Mauritshuis. The Hague). [d] Girl 
peeling apples. Revnier Hals. 35 by 25 
cm. (Mrs. Crena de Tongh. The Hague). 
[e] Girl se-wing. Revnier Hals. 35 by 
25 cm. (Mrs. Crena de Jongh, The 
Hague) 96 


Holy Family rvith Saints, by Luca Signorelli. 
Tondo. 2' to" dia. (Messrs. Lew-is & 
Simmons) i°4 

Editorial. Some of the Threatened Churches. 

[a] S. Magnus the Martyr, Lower Thames 
Street. Built by Wren in 1676. Steeple 
added in 170=; bv Wren. (Tower to be pre- 
served), [b] 5. Nicholas Cole Ahhey. 
Knightrider Street. Built by Wren in 1677. 
fc] S. Mary IVoolnoth, Lombard Street, by 
Hawksmoor, Wren's pupU ■ . . 107 

Maori .Art. [a] Wooden pillar, representing 
Hinenioa in the arms of her lover, Tutaneki. 

[b] a Car\'ing in which facial tattoo marks 
are accurately represented. The figure has 
the peculiaritv of having the correct amount 
of fingers. fcl Wooden pillar, represent- 
ing a hero of Maori legend who invented 
stilts in order to rob his neighbours' 
orchards. Between the stilts is represented 
the man who caught the thief, [d] \ 
wooden pillar representing Hinenoia, who 
swam across Lake Rotura to join her lover. 
She is represented with swimming bladders 

in her hands "^ 

.k newlv acquired Chass^riau at the Louvre. 
[a] Venus Marine (Louvre), [b] Sketch 
in sanguine for Vdnus Marine, (Arthur 
Chass^riau) . • - • • 113 

English Eighteenth Century Ormolu, [a] Cup 
and cover of blue Bristol glass with silver- 
gilt mounts. Mounts marked T.H. for 
Thomas Heming, Hall mark 1752, (Col. 
H. H. MuUiner). [b] Cassolettes, one of a 
pair mounted in ormolu, probably at the 
Soho works. About 1770. fCol. H. H. Mul- 
liner). fc] Tea urn of Battersea enamel 
mounted in gilded metal. About 1760 (Col. 

H. H. Mulliner). [d] Candelabra, one of 
a pair. Body of Derbyshire spar, mounted 
in ormolu, orobably at the Soho works. 
About 1770 (Col. H. H. Mulliner) . .116 

.•\n L'nnotioed Byzantine I'saltiT. 1 — [a] 
Frontispiece, etc. [b] The Ascension. 
[c] '■ He sent flesh into their tent" . -123 
II — [a] The Entombment, [b] .Adoration 
of the .\(af^i. [c] Communion of Apostles. 

[d] Harrowing of Hell, [e] Digged a pit. 
f] The Waters of Babylon. [c] The 
Resurrection, [h] Daniel's Vision, [i] The 
Plagues . . . .126 

Pictures at the Burlington Fine .•\rts Club. I — 

The Nativitv, Florentine School, c. 1450, 

Panel Sh" by 25 J" (Sir Henry Howort'h) i ;,o 

II — Mythological Sribject, bv Piero di Cosimo. 

Panel 28" by 80" (H.H. Prince Paul of 

Serbia) 133 

III — [a] Medea and her Children, Ercole de 
Roberti. Panel 18}" by 12" (Sir Her- 
bert Cook), [b] Brutus and Portia, Ercole 
de Roberti. Panel ig" by 12V' (Sir 

Herbert Cook) 136 

IV — S. Jerome in a Landscape, Venetian 
School, c. 1530. T,~" by 44" (Mr. Dnug-- 
las W. Freshfield) . . • '39 

Claes Hals, II. [a] The Huckster, by Claes 
Hals. 20!" by i5f" (Mr. E. Bolton). 
[b] .4 Roman Beggar, by J. C. Van Has- 
selt. 14^" bv 2 1 '' 

Monthly Chronicle. 

[a] Landscape, by Duncan Grant. [s] 
Mosaic, by Boris Anrep. [c] Portrait of 
a Lady, by Georg-e Barne . . . -147 


Old Woman, by Antoine Watteau. Drawing 
in red and black chalk. 8^" by 6f ". (Mr. 
Augustine Birrell) ... ... ... ... 154 

Two Bronzes by Nicholas of Verdun. I — 
Moses and a Prophet. Bronze; by 
Nicholas of Verdun, about 1180. (Ash- 
molean Museum) ... ... ... ... 160 

II — Noah and David. Bronze; modifications 
of the figures on Plate I. (Ashmolean 
Museum) ... ... ... ... ... 161 

III — Abraham and the Three Angels, by 
Nicholas of Verdun, 1181. Champlev^ 
enamel on copper gilt, on the altarpiece at 
Klosterneuburg. S. Andrew, by Nicholas 
of Verdun, about 1200. Repoussd silver 
figure on the Shrine of the Three Kings 
in Cologne Cathedral ... ... ... 164 

The Textile Exhibition at South Kensington. 

I — Falconry. Franco-Flemish Tapestry ; 
early 15th century. 13' by 5' 2". (Mus^e 
des Arts Decoratifs, Paris) ... ... 167 

II — Bear Hunting. French Tapestry; first 
half of isth century. 4' 11" by 5' 10'. 
(M. Demotte) 170 

III — Pair of tapestry panels, with figures 

'" (Messrs. Durlacher) 142 
Independent Gallery. 

emblematic of the Virtues and Vices. 
Franco-Flemish; i6th century. 7' by 
2' 11" and 6' 6" by 2' 1 1 ". (Major the 
Hon. J. J. Astor) 173 

A Portrait of the Ugliest Princess in History. 
[a] Duchess Margaret of Tyrol, by 
Quentin Matsys. Panel, 29° by 19°. (Mr. 
Hugh I^laker). [n] Drawing commonly 
attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (Windsor 
Castle Library) ... ... ... ... 176 

An Early Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle 
of Cana. I— The Filling of the Water- 
Pots at the Miracle of Cana. 4J" by 3^° 179 

II — I. S. Peter and S. Mark in Rome (South 
Kensington). 2 and 6. .S. Mark in the 
Pentapolis (Milan). 3, 4 and 5. S. Mark 
in Alexandria (Milan). Ivory reliefs ... 183 

III — 7. The Annunciation (Trivulzio Collec- 
tion). 8. The Miracle of Cana (South 
Kensington). 9. The Raising of Lazarus 
(British Museum). 10 and 12. S. Menas 
and S. Mark (Milan). 11. A Saint (Cluny). 
[a] The Miracle of Cana (Salerno). |"b"| 
The Raising of Lazarus (Salerno). Ivory 
reliefs ... •■• • • 186 

IV — [c] The Angels appearing to the Shep- 
herds, and The Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, [d] The Nativity, and The Flight 
into Egypt, [e] The Healing of the Blind 
Man, and The Maries at the .Sepulchre. 
(Salerno). Ivory reliefs, [f] The Last 
Supper (and the Miracle of Cana?). Silk- 
embroidered roundel from Egypt (South 
Kensington). [g] The Filling of the 
Water-Pots. Miniature from the Gospels 

of Rabula (Florence) 190 

Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. 
Leonard Gow. — VI. I — Figures of a Lady and Gentleman, familleverte 
porcelain. Height (of lady) 14". K'ang 
Hsi period. (Mr. Leonard Gow) ... 197 

II — Pair of covered jars. Famille verte 
with coral red grounds ; and a square vase 
with black ground. Height, jars 21^", 
vase 20". (Mr. Leonard Gow) ... ... 200 

A Monthly Chronicle. Landscape. Drawing 

in Indian ink, by Jean Marchand ... 204 


Two Rembrandt Portraits. I — Portrait of a 
Man said to be Titus the son of Rem- 
brandt. 38I" by 32^" (Prince 
poff) 208 

II — Portrait of a Woman, said to be the wife 
of Titus, the son of Rembrandt. 38!" by 
32!" (Prince Yus.supoff) . . . .211 

Editorial. Cezanne and the Nation. [a] 
Landscape by Paul Cc^zanne (Miss G. 
Davies). [bI Still-life by Paul Cezanne 
(Miss G. Davies) . ". • • .214 

A Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger. 


Portrait, attributed to Hans Holbein the 
Younger. 21" by 14I" 
Two attributions to Carel Fabritius. I — [a] 
Portrait of a Girl, attributed to Carel 
Fabritius. 21^" by 17" (Mus^e des 
Beaux Arts, Ghent) .... 

II — [b] Portrait of a Man, attributed to 
Carel Fabritius (Brussels Museum) 

III — [c] Portrait of a Young Man, by 
Carel Fabritius (Boymans Museum, Rot- 
terdam), [d] Goldfinch, by Carel Fab- 
ritius (Mauritshuis, Hague) . 

IV — [e] Abraham de Notte, by Carel Fab- 
ritius (Rycks Museum, Rotterdam), [f] 
Soldier at the Gate, by Carel Fabritius 
(Schwerin Gallery) .... 

The Saracenic House. I — [a] The court- 
yard (hosh) of an old house in Cairo 
showing the alcove (takhtabosh). [b] 
windows of turned lattice-work (mush- 
arabiya) in an old house in Cairo . 

II — [c] House of Gamal ed-Din ez-Zahaki, 
Cairo. The courtyard (hosh) and the 
loggia (makad). [d] House of Gamal 
ed-Din ez-Zahaki, Cairo. The great 

hall (ka'a) 

Limoges Enamels of the Aeneid series at 
Alnwick Castle. I— [a] The signal for 
war given by Turnus from the citadel of 
Laurentum. "Rauco strepiierunt cornua 
cantu." [b] The sacrificial feast of 
Evander before the walls of Pallantium 
interrupted by the arrival of Aeneas 
and his fleet; Pallas, son of Evander, 
challenging Aeneas, who answers from 
the poop of his vessel. " Turn pater 
Aeneas puppi sic futur ab alta " . 

II — [c] Pallas conducts Aeneas from the 
ship to his father. "Excepitque manu 
dextramque amplexus inhaesit." [d] 
Evander relating to Aeneas how Fauns 
and wild men once dwelt in the land. 
" Haec nemora indigenae Fauni 
Nymphaeque tenebant " 

ni — [e] Venus making a sign with 
thunder and the flashing of arms in the 
heavens to Evander and Pallas with 
Aeneas and Achates. "Arma inter nubem 
. . . rutilare vident et pulsa tonare." 
[f] Evander bidding farewell to Pallas, 
who rides forth with Aeneas and Achates 
to meet Tarcho and the Etruscans ap- 
pearing from a grove in the background. 
"Ipse agmine Pallas In medio, chlamyde 
et pictis conspectus in armis." (The six 
plaques belong to the Duchess of 
Northumberland) . . . . 

A Monthly Chronicle — [a] Farm and Pond. 










by John Crome. 14" by 11" (Miss H. 
M. Fisher). [a] S. Martin's Gate, by 
John Crome. 19" by i^i" (Miss Faith 
Moore) . . .... 









A Self-Portrait by Rembrandt. 29" by 
25!" (Mr. G. Serra) .... 

The Barend Family. A Fresco in Chichester 
Cathedral, attributed to Barent Dircksz, 

C-I5I9 • 

The Engraving of Arms on Old English 

Plate.— 1 

Georgian Rummers. I . . . • 



Othon Friesz. La Bergire assise, by Othon 
Friesz. Jeune Femme a la Fenitre, by 
Othon Friesz ..... 

An Unnoticed Byzantine Psalter. — \l, HI — 
[a] David in Cave. [b] David and 
Philistiiies. [c] Coronation of David. 
[d] Beheading of Goliath, [e] David's 
Escape, [f] David rebuked by Nathan. 
[g] David and Goliath .... 283 
XV — [h] Elijah between Night and the 
Dawn. [1] Saints. [j] Church. 

[k] " Breakest head of Leviathan in 
pieces." [l] Jonah, [m] The Blessed 
Virgin Mary. [n] Habbakuk. [o] 
Horsemen. [p] Waters saw and were 
afraid ....... 

The Saracenic House.— H, III— [a] Old 
Houses (Turkish style) on the bank of 
the Khalig-el-Masri, Cairo. [b] Old 
Houses at Rosetta. [c] Courtyard of 
the House of Abdallah Pasha at 
Damascus . ■ • • • .291 

IV — [d] Alcove in courtyard of a house in 
the Turkish style at Damascus, [e] 
Great Hall (Ka'a) in the house of 
Abdullah Pasha at Damascus . . 294 

Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. 
Leonard Gow — VH. I — Kuan-yin vase, 
with famille verte decoration. Height 
i8|". K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. 

Leonard Gow) 297 

II — Vase, height 17^", and two covered 
bowls, height 8^", with famille verte 
decoration. K'ang Hsi period (Mr. 
Leonard Gow) ..... 300 
III_Vase, blue and white. Height, 30". 
K'ang Hsi period (Mr. Leonard Gow) . 303 

Auctions. [a] Studies of Angels, by Ben- 
ozzo Gozzoli. [a] Sick Woman in Bed, 
by Rembrandt 3'^ 



V V ! » 










N the smoking-room of the BurHng- 
ton Fine Arts Club there has been 
on view for the past few weeks a Httle 
loan collection of drawings by 
Poussin and by Claude. The exhi- 
bition was a private one but it was of so much 
general interest as affording a further and 
exceptional opportunity for the comparative 
study of the monotone work of the two masters 
that it would have been regrettable if the 
pleasure it gave to those who saw it were not to 
be in some way recorded. 

The organisers probably would not claim that 
every drawing on the walls is of unquestionable 
authenticity or even that all the authentic ones 
were produced at the very height of the artist's 
inspiration. One feels them to be rather a set of 
good average productions, and for that reason 
thoroughly representative of the two masters. 
The majority are, as might be expected, by 
Claude, who is, as regards quality as well, rather 
the more fortunate. This may be partly 
accounted for by the fact that the great mass of 
his work, and consequently the examples likely 
to be available for exhibition, is singularly even 
in quality — far more so than is that of Poussin. 
This fact leads one to compare the two men in 
other respects. We are accustomed to think of 
them together, for not only were they both 
natives of the same soil, born almost at the same 
moment in history, and subjected in youth to 
similar influences, but they were alike in study- 
ing in a new way the outward appearances of 
natural things. The same kinds of subject, too, 
attracted both, and in certain ways their in- 
fluence on later art has been identified with a 
common movement which, as it revealed itself, 
developed into one of the most vital traditions in 
the history of modern painting. And yet the 
more deeply one searches for clues to their 
character and the more perfectly one responds to 
the spirit of their art, the wider does the breach 
between them grow, until at last one stands 
amazed that two such opposite characters, to each 
of whom, as men, life seems to have been a com- 
pletely different thing, could come so intimately 
together through their profession. 

To one who might have met them at the time 
when each, actuated by the same ambition, turned 
his face to Rome, little enough resemblance 
would have been apparent between them. 
Nicolas Poussin was eager, vigorous and deter- 
mined in his attitude to the events of every-day 
life; very fully conscious of himself, but having 
at the same time a sufficiently scrupulous 
sense of the feelings and desires of others to 

enable him to be not only respected but admired 
and beloved. His was an acquaintance to be 
sought by the serious man, for he had a happy 
capacity for interesting himself in human ideas 
and felt the philosopher's relish in a clear mind 
and a problem resolved. He was eminently 
civilised, and his view of men and of nature was 
the result of a keen, quick observation that was 
habitually and instinctively employed by him to 
construct as definite, as vivid and as complicated 
an intellectual concept as possible. In addition 
to that he possessed the precious gift for invent- 
ing arrangements of the material of the visual 
memory, and the art that he produced was 
peculiarly distinguished by the success with 
which he made use of these visions of the intellect 
to heighten the effect of his compositions. The 
story of his development as an artist is the story 
of an increasingly intimate fusion of one kind of 
psychological concept with another and the ease 
and perfection of his attainment in this respect 
constitutes one of the most remarkable achieve- 
ments in the history of design. It was not to be 
wondered at that as Poussin grew older and wiser 
and clever and more celebrated that he became 
more conscious of his own place and function 
and increasingly careful of wasting himself for 
the sake of mere company by associating with 
dissimilar spirits. When he had relations with 
his fellows it appears generally to have been the 
result of some kind of mutual arrangement and 
dependent on some common pursuit. 

It was characteristic enough of Poussin that he 
was, in the course of one of these acquaintance- 
ships, taken to Rome on a definite mission, and 
it was as characteristic of Claude that he went 
there because he longed to go, as Whittington 
went to London. Claude's solitary figure on 
the road to Rome would not have impressed an 
observer as having anything in common with the 
other. He appeared dark of brow and slow and 
clumsy of movement, very gentle, very patient, 
with little apparent ambition and certainly with 
no pride ; gloomy to a fault but with an insistent 
strain of good-nature that, one imagines, could 
on occasion broaden into humour; the sort of 
man the world loves if he succeeds and despises 
if he fails. To Claude, life was not a spectacle 
on which his brain could feed. He had conscious 
wish to interpret, much less to influence the 
things he witnessed around him. To him nature 
was a mysteriously intoxicating force supervis- 
ing the world and including in that supervision 
the fate of Claude Gellee, and he was happiest 
when he felt himself controlled most strongly 
and was conscious of being most deeply sub- 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 214, Vol. xxxviii — January, 1921. 

merged in and identified with all that visible life 
with which he could so fully live and in which 
he believed with passion and devotion. The 
waters and the si;y and the green life of the earth 
appeared to his romantic mind as continually 
expressing sentiments that were native to himself 
and that had come to be indispensable to him as 
a consolation and a refuge from the world of men 
and affairs. While Poussin's isolation was in 
reality an intelleciual aloofness, that of Claude 
was due to his impulse to commune alone with 
nature as others communed alone with God. 
Claude believed in nature, and if he brought 
himself to love men it was because they 
too were hers. He resembled in this 
respect a tvpe of scientist now for the last 
twenty years, in the atmosphere of special- 
ised science, extinct, who could still, before 
the invasion of Einstein and the psychologists 
made of them a laughing-stock, look upon the 
clouds and listen to the sea and the wind with 
rapture and adoration. So the attitude towards 
subject matter was strikingly at variance in 
Poussin and in Claude. The former had visions 
in his brain with which he lived in a luxury of 
delight. He saw natural scenery and groups of 
people as imperfect compositions, as slovenly 
designs, unbearably, tormentingly ineffectual 
but full, in their bulk and space and in their 
growth and their movement, of the material of 
which dreams could be made. For him the 
dream was all and nature was the disorderly 
force that furnished the material for man to use 
in his own way and for his own delight. The 
object of nature was not his object, her effort in 
creating and maintaining life and dead matter 
and transforming their appearances was directed 
towards the fulfilment of a half hidden utilitarian 
scheme which to the artist seemed often mis- 
directed and gross. 

When, however, it came to representing 
nature the two men had more in common and in 
many respects adopted an identically similar 
technique. But while Poussin invariably 
observed his subject as a whole, Claude had an 
unfortunate trick of elaborating his preliminary 
sketch-plan part by part — of thrusting, as it 
were, wedge-shaped masses of landscape into 
his picture from the sides, in the manner of the 
" wings " in stage scenery. Within each mass 
of this kind there is always a more or less com- 
plete three-dimensional design, and he relies on 
his ability to co-relate the masses to obtain his 
final pattern. The result is that sometimes there 
exist two kinds of composition in the same pic- 
ture. The first consists of a large two-dimen- 
sional pattern to enjoy which the eye must accept 
as a factor the surface of the canvas or the paper, 
as the eye accepts it in the case of the great 
majority of Korean, Chinese and Japanese 
paintings and drawings, or in the case of 

Whistler. The second consists of a number of 
far more complicated three-dimensional designs 
which affect us in spile of the tint surface, 
which is in this case no longer a part of the 
picture but is a more means by which the picture 
was made, like the paint and tiie brushes. So 
that one linds oneself, the moment a Claude draw- 
ing is seen, vividly aware of an effective balanc- 
ing of graduated spaces. Every little seemingly 
representational or even merely accidental detail 
stands poised in its own place, fixed and indis- 
pensable because of its relationship to all the 
other details surrounding it. Then, in the case 
of many of Claude's works, we find ourselves 
picking otu a certain group of trees here, and 
then a hill or field there, and responding in a 
slightly different way to them. The artist seems 
now to be asking something more or scjmething 
different of us. But Poussin demands this atti- 
tude of mind for the whole of his picture. 

Now, many people, as one can satisfy oneself 
by experiment, are capable of reacting only 
to two-dimensional pattern and respond to 
Claude's "charm", just as they do to that of 
Whistler or of D. Y. Cameron, but they fail to 
turn the corner with which he confronts them 
and remain blind to part of his appeal. Such 
observers never really understand Poussin and 
usually frankly say so. Claude, one suspects, 
will always remain, so long as he is judged on 
pure design, the more popular of the two. 

It is in this connection interesting that John 
Ruskin in the course of his involved arguments 
regarding Claude should, while advocating in 
his own curious way the practice of " fore- 
shortening ", have forefelt the importance of the 
illuminating principle of the three-dimensional 

The peculiar individual characteristics of 
the two masters may be studied to advan- 
tage in the drawings reproduced on Plate 
n, A and B. The superficial pattern of a sketch 
like that of the Infant Moses and Pharaoh is a 
poor, tawdry thing, and until one feels the 
depths depicted it imparts hardly any esthetic 
thrill at all. So completely indeed is the effect 
of such a drawing dependent on the transmission 
of the sense of solidity and cubic space that it is 
only with a considerable effort that one's eye can 
accept it as a flat pattern. 

In the Claude drawing of the Lake of 
Bracciano the charm of the pattern insists 
iFself upon us at once, but presently we 
become aware of a more complicated system 
of structural composition in the realisation 
of the shrubs and grasses in the foreground 
with the beautifully conceived row of darker 
trees beyond ; at first sight words like charming, 
slight, effective, delicate, come to mind; one 
feels that the fluent pencil of the artist in tracing 



. \ 




lufaul Moses and I'luiradh, 1)\ Xirolas I'nussin. ;.:" h\ S|". (Dr. 
inrret! Hdrenius) 








B ]'iciv uj the Lake 0/ Braceiano, ii\ (laiulc (n-lrc. 8^^" bv 12.^". (Dr. Tancred Borenius) 

I'lalL' 1 I. I'ou.s.sin and tlaud 


-I >, 

' u 


^ ,4 























■— U-, 




— X 






»»«. ». 

. e 


-^ 2 


•^ 0/ 



-T- "3 

the contours of the scene, had written down "this 
thing is perfect." It is only after an interval, 
however brief, that one associates the thought 
of structure, of depth, of power and of greatness 
with the drawing — as apart, of course, from the 
subject depicted, which may easily have any of 
these qualities. An amusing study of this inter- 
esting drawing can be made by a comparison 
with a photograph of the exact scene which hap- 
pens to exist in Sante Bargellini, Etruria Meri- 
dionale (Italia Artistica, ^S), page 82, which de- 
monstrates very beautifuly how Claude inter- 
preted his subject and based his design upon the 
great V-shaped contour of the hills and the little 
V-shaped arrangement of the foreground and the 
third and still smaller V-shaped line of the lake 
bank connecting these two main masses. This 
was his favourite, almost his invariable starting 
point when sketching, though no doubt the evi- 
dent haste with which the drawing was made — 
which probably accounts for the slightly per- 
functory and mechanical treatment of some of 
the ridges of the hills — enables one to note the 
characteristic with less of an effort than usual. 
It is a remarkable thing that so topographical a 
drawing should succeed in imparting so vividly 
the lyrical delight experienced by the girtist. It 
is noticeable that in this, as in almost every work 
of Claude, even those including figures, a still- 
ness reigns over all ; nothing ever moves ; no tree 
so much as stirs. This is a characteristic of 
much French art, both that of the distant past 
and of our own day. I can, for instance, remem- 
ber only one picture of Cezanne which represents 

movement in the way that every little journey- 
man in Italy depicted it. 

The drawing before us was carried out with 
pen and sepia and sepia and Indian ink wash, 
and is signed below " Claudio fecit sovra il lac 
di bracciano ". (Cf. Collections Palgrave, 
W^ellesley and Fairfax Murrav.) The Infant 
Moses and Pharaoh is in black chalk, pen and 
sepia with brush drawing in three colours. (Cf. 
the pictures in the Louvre and the Collections 
Lemperear ; Lord Northwick ; and see Fried- 
lander, p. 225.) 

The other drawing reproduced of a Classical 
Landscape [Plate I] is a superb example of 
Poussin's landscape work, though looser in both 
design and handling than was usual with him. 
Its sonority and formal completeness has a Bach- 
like flavour that is unmistakeably recognisable 
as Poussin's. The arrangement of the subject, 
with the repetition of the pinnacle, etc., escapes 
monotony because it was Poussin who inter- 
preted it. It will at once be noticed how 
remarkably the spirit and the technique of Claude 
has entered into the depiction of the boats, the 
hills, etc., on the extreme right hand. The draw- 
ing is in pen and sepia and sepia and wash, and 
is unsigned. 

In certain respects the most perfect work in the 
exhibition is a drawing of two ships by Claude 
in which we see him at his best. The drawing 
referred to has just been published as No- 11, 
Pt. I, of the second series of reproductions bv 
the Vasari Society, and the original is in the 
possession of Henry Oppenheimer, Esq. 


to the 


NE of the early Italian pictures, 
forming that remarkable collection, 
which the Hon. W. T. H. Fox- 
Strangways (subsequently fourth 
Earl of Ilchester) in 1850 presented 
.'Xshmolean Museum at Oxford, is a half- 
figure of St. Paul, on gold ground 
[Plate a]. Through a mistake, which is reallv 
not much to be wondered at in the early days of 
connoisseurship, this picture for some time 
passed as a work by Luca Signorelli, until Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle' recognized the author as being 
Marco Zoppo, as a characteristic example of 
whose art the picture has since been referred to 
by all who ba\e written on the subject. Little 
or nothing seems to be known about the history 
of the panel prior to its acquisition by Lord 
Ilchester, who, according to his own statement, 
bought the pictures presented by him to the 

' Crowe and Cavalcaselle, History of Painting in Italy, ist 
ed., iii., 35; 2nd ed., v. 121. See also History of Painting in 
North Italy, ist ed., i., 34q ; 2nd ed.. ii., 52. 

Ashmolean Museum at Rome some years later 
than those which he in 1825-28 collected at 
Florence and in 1828 presented to Christ 
Church. The picture itself only allowed the 
inference that it must originally have formed 
part of a series of half-lengths constituting the 
upper course of a composite altarpiece. Its size 
is 19J by 12 inches (49.5 by 30.5 cm). 

Two or three years ago my attention was 
drawn by Mr. Henry Harris to a half-length 
figure of St. Peter [Plate c] discovered by him 
in London, and which plainly proclaimed itself 
a companion piece to the Oxford panel. Not 
only did the style of Mr. Harris' excellently pre- 
served picture point to Marco Zoppo beyond the 
possibility of doubt, but the manner of showing 
the figure, and the dimensions of the panel (19 
by 12 inches) made it appear a certainty, that 
the two pictures originally formed part of the 
same altarpiece, no doubt as actual pendants on 
each side of the central panel in the upper 
course, which, as may be seen from manv 

instances, usually was a iialf-lengtli of ilic Dead 
Christ in His tomb. On the gold haclvi^round 
of Mr. Harris' panel the ogival outline of the 
original Gothic frame shows with greater dis- 
tinctness than on tlie Oxford picture. 

Discoveries as regards portions of dismem- 
bered altarpieces have the projierty of gradually 
accumulating: and I was therefore more pleased 
than surprised the other day, on examining the 
pictures lately presented by Mr. A. de Pass to 
the National Gallery, to find a half-length figure 
of a Holv Bishop [Plate i?] which evidently is 
a third member of the series we have now been 
reconstituting. Again there is complete identity 
of stvle and mode of presentment; the size is u) 
bv lo.V inches — the picture having thus been 
somewhat cut at the sides, whilst the top of the 
panel has been converted into a semi-circular 
arch. Nevertheless, the outlines of the original 
Gothic frame are showing on the gold ground 
exactly in the Si\me manner as in Mr. Harris' 

Perhaps the publication of this note may 
further the identification of the still missing 
parts of the series; apart from the central panel, - 

^ In case tho dimensions make this (Xissible, this might quite 
conceivably be the fine three-quarter length of Christ in tlir 
Tomb, belonging to Signer Roberto Schiff of Pisa and rcpro- 

there must originally have existed a pair to the 
National Gall(>ry figure, and there were possibly 
still more panels in the .series, if the altarpiece 
was a very elaborate one. Among the surviv- 
ing works by Zoppo I know of no big fuJl- 
Icngths that could be identified with the panels 
in the principal course of the altari)iece; and it 
is just possible, that at the time when this was 
dismembered, the smaller panels may have 
fared better th;m the big ones, being more port- 
able and looked upon as curiosities. Where that 
altarjiiece originally stood is also for the present 
a matter of conjecture. We possess but few 
records of any large polyptychs by Marco 
Z()]ipo : one big altarpiece (" palla grande ") by 
him, dating from 1468, there was in the church 
of S. Giustina in Venice," but of this we possess 
no description, and it has been missing since 
the 17th century. Although it is thus impossible 
to carry the process of historical reconstruction 
quite as far as could be desired, it is yet interest- 
ing to have found out something about a work 
which must have taken rank among the more 
important productions of this fascinating artist. 

duced in Venturi, Storia deW arte italiana, vol. vii., pt. iii., 
p. 39. I do not, however, possess sufficient data about Signor 
Schiff's picture to put this forward as anything but a sug- 

^ Sansovino, Venetia, ed. Martinioni, !6f>3, p. 42. 

OF THE CRUSADES (A.D. 1 171 — 1250)* 

T would be interesting to trace the 
influence of the greatest soldiers of 
histor}' upon the architecture of their 
respective periods. In some cases it 
would be very slight, in others con- 
siderable. Among the ancient despots of the 
East, it was common for the King to combine 
the functions of commander-in-chief and master- 
builder of the State. Napoleon found time to 
interest himself in the facade of Milan Cathedral, 
in the re-planning and embellishment of Paris, 
and in the monumental work, prepared under his 
inspiration, describing the ancient buildings of 
Egypt. Conversely, Lord Kitchener as a very 
young man, attracted attention by his archaeolo- 
gical W'Ork in Palestine, long before he conquered 
the Soudan, ruled Egypt, or raised the Army 
that finally won the recent war. 

Saladin, or to give him his full name and titles, 
El-Melik en-Nasir Abu-l-Muzaffar Salah-ed- 
dunya-wa-d-din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub, was aptly 
christened " Honour of the Faith ", for such is 
the English meaning of his name. As the gentle 

*This article is a sequel to Fatimitc Architecture in Cairo 
(a.d. 969-1 171), by the same author, published in our issues 
for Septeml^er and October. 

knight " sans peur et sans reproche " of the 
Crusading story, he has been popularised by Sir 
Walter Scott in The Talisman, and lives in more 
serious history as a great soldier without a serious 
stain on his reputation at a time when cruelty 
and treachery characterised the records of nearly 
all his contemporaries, especially the majority of 
the leading Crusaders themselves. He was born 
in 1 137 or 1 138 at Tekrit in Mesopotamia, one of 
the many towns mentioned in this article that 
have become familiar to Englishmen during the 
past few years. His father's name, Ayyub 
(Job), explains the name of the Ayyubide dynasty 
in Egypt of which Saladin was the founder, and 
the " Ayyubide " architecture of Egypt and 
Palestine between 1171 and 1250 with which this 
article is concerned. By birth Ayyub was a 
Kurd from Northern Armenia. His son is 
therefore one more example of the energy and 
ability of the various foreign rulers of Egypt, 
like Ibn-Touloun in the 9th century, and the later 
mameluke Sultans who made Cairo one of the 
most beautiful cities in the world. At the time 
of Saladin's birth the Turks had already spread 
over most of the eastern part of the old Baghdad 
caliphate, that famous dominion being reduced to 


a small part of Mesopotamia. Their first or 
Seljuk empire had included most of Syria in the 
latter half of the nth century, but towards the 
end of that century it broke up, thus contributing 
largely to the initial successes of the Crusaders, 
who captured Jerusalem in 1099 and established 
over most of Palestine a Latin kingdom which 
lasted nearly ninety years. The Seljuk Turks 
were soldiers rather than artists, but they were 
by no means indifferent to culture, and provided 
an excellent system of education in their 
numerous colleges. 

While the Crusaders as they settled in Pales- 
tine made Oriental marriages and contracted 
Oriental ways, or at any rate all the less desirable 
of Oriental wavs, the Atabeg or ruler of Mosul 
was becoming a powerful menace to them, and in 
1 128 established his power at Aleppo. A few 
vears later he appointed Ayyub governor of 
Baalbek, and in 1154 Nur ed-Din, King of 
Aleppo and son of the Atabeg of Mosul, entered 
Damascus. At his court there Saladin spent the 
next ten years of his life. He appears to have 
been a retiring youth, devoted to books and 
religion, and content to spend most of his time 
in the famous medrcsas (colleges) of Damascus. 
From 1163 to 1171 there was a constant struggle 
between the Turks and the Crusaders for the 
possession of Egypt, then tottering helplessly to 
its fall under the feeble rule of the later Fatimites. 
The Egvptians formed secret alliances with each 
of the invaders from time to time, and in these 
transactions the Crusaders appear at their worst. 
Saladin now arrives on the scene as a studious 
and self-effacing officer on the staff of his uncle, 
the commander of the Turkish army in Egypt. 
In 1 167 he was appointed governor of the fortified 
city of Alexandria, whose Arab walls and towers 
now no longer exist, but are finely illustrated in 
Jomard's Description de I'Egypte as they 
appeared in 1798. A truce having been arranged, 
he was then entertained at the court of the Cru- 
sading king. A treacherous invasion of Egypt 
bv King Amalric of Jerusalem again in the fol- 
lowing year led to a frantic appeal to Nur ed-Din 
for intervention from the Fatimite caliph. Sala- 
din was sent with the Turkish army, under his 
uncle, who then became wesir, or chancellor of 
Egypt. In 1 169 Saladin, though a young man, 
was chosen to succeed him, and two years later — 
on the death of the caliph — he ascended the 
throne of Egypt himself, acknowledging the 
suzerainty, only so far as was necessary, of Nur 
ed-Din. He had again fought against the Cru- 
saders, at Damietta, Gaza, and Deir el-Belah, 
during the two years that he was wesir, and he 
also was forced to attack the Soudanese troops of 
the Egyptian army, who had risen against him. 
But from 1171 to 1182 he ruled and resided in 
Cairo, leaving his mark on the city, according to 

Professor Lane-Poole, more strongly than any 
other of its numerous rulers. Cairo at that time 
did not extend over the modern European 
quarters, these being under water, as well as the 
modern suburb of Bulak. The strange hills on 
the south-west of the city that so perplex a 
modern visitor, consisting as they do for the most 
part of rubbish, had just been formed, for the 
suburb of Fustat had been burned down lest it 
should afford shelter to the Crusaders. Saladin 
did not occupy the famous palace of the Fatimite 
caliphs upon his accession, but allowed it to fall 
into decay, while he himself preferred simpler 
quarters. This palace was built in two halves, 
separated by a square then known as Beyn el- 
Kasreyn (" between the palaces ") and now 
forming part of the Sharia en-Nahhasin, wherein 
lie several of the finest mosques of Cairo. In 
one of the palaces were all the state apartments 
and offices of the court, in the other and smaller 
one the private rooms and harem of the monarch. 
The square was large enough to form a parade 
ground for 10,000 troops. Beneath it ran a sub- 
way along which the caliph could ride on his 
mule to his private apartments. The incredible 
luxury of these palaces is recounted by William 
of Tyre,' who describes the embassy of the Cru- 
saders to Cairo in 1 167. Among other feaures of 
the buildings is mentioned an oubliette. 

Though one of the most important innovations 
effected by Saladin in Cairo was the substitution 
of the orthodox religion for the heretical Shi'a 
doctrines of the Fatimites, the most important 
to us is the building of the great Citadel that still 
dominates the town. Its original strength 
vanished with the discovery of gunpowder and 
long-range artillery, but it commanded the city 
for several centuries, and was itself immune from 
attack from the great cliffs of the Mukattam Hills 
that rose high above it not very far away. It 
was commenced about 11 76, and in spite of con- 
siderable later alterations and additions, pre- 
serves on the side facing the Mukattam Hills 
very much the appearance that it must have had 
in Saladin's day [Plate II, h]. At the same 
time he began to extend the city walls, intend- 
ing to connect the Fatimite portion with the 
enceinte of the Citadel. However, he died 
before this work was completed. There is no 
doubt that he owed something of his knowledge 
of fortification to the Norman castles that had 
by this time sprung up all over Palestine. 
Besides this military architecture, he introduced 
into the city two new types of building, the 
muristan or hospital, and the medresa or school- 
mosque. The latter form is of the most import- 
ance to the student of Saracenic architecture, for 
it was the origin of the medresa plan that pro- 

» Quoted in Lane-Poole's Cairo, pp. 130-2 ; see also M. 
Ravaisse in Mimoircs de la Mission archiologique francaise 
au Caire, torn. I-lII, for conjectural plans of these buildings. 

I I 

duced in late years the finest Arab monuments 
of Cairo, if not, indeed, of all the Moslem world. 
The word mcdrcsa means a college, and it was 
part of Saladin's policy to suppress the Shi'itc 
hercsv of the Fatimites by systeinatic teaching 
of the orthodox faith. The four doctrines or 
rites {inazhab) of the Moslem fnith were the 


Malekite, Chafeite, Hanefite, and Hanbalite. 
Now medresas had been built many years pre- 
viously by Nur ed-Din at Damascus, and in 
these buildings, where Saladin himself had sat 
at the feet of the doctors, the plan may have 
been dictated by common sense, or may have 
been copied from Mesopotamian or Christian 
prototypes. The typical medresa plan, of which 
the most splendid example is the mosque of 
Sultan Hassan at Cairo, consists of a square 
central space or sahn, open to the sky, with a 
large covered recess or liwan, spanned by one 
huge pointed arch, on each of the four sides. 
In each recess is taught one of the four doctrines. 
The plan thus obtained is a simple Greek cross, 
a form that was evolved in East and West in 
very earlv times (as the frantic partisans of the 
two theories of the origin of Saracenic art have 
plainly shown), or may very conceivably have 

been invented by Nur ed-Din himself. To 
those who have no pet theory to advance, these 
explanations are sufiicient, and an architect 
should be more concerned with the development 
of this embr)o plan into the magnificent 
wedresa-mosques of the 14th and 15th century 
in Cairo.- The first medresa in Cairo was built 
near the present tomb-mosque of Imam esh- 
.Shafei south oi the city by Saladin in 1176, but 
has long ceased to exist even as a ruin. In 1183 
it was described by Ibn-Jubeyr^ as so surrounded 
by buildings as to resemble " a township with 
iits dei^crulcncies. . . . Over against it is the 
hammam (balh) with all its needful offices, and 
the building and additions are still going on at 
a cost not to be counted. The Sheykh . . . 
himself oversees it, being imam of the mosque, 
a pious learned man." Another medresa was 
built by Saladin in Cairo adjoining the mosque 
most sacred to the Fatimites, where the head of 
the martyr Hoseyn was buried, and three more 
separate colleges for the various rites in different 
parts of the city. 

The following is Ibn-Jubeyr's description' of 
the first hospital in Cairo, founded by Saladin. 
Though of little importance to the architectural 
student, it throws some light on the arrangement 
of the Arab rnuristan. 

He has appointed here an administrator, a man of 
knowledge, in whose charge a provision of drugs has beon 
placed, with power to com|X)und potions with thes.^ 
according to diverse reci|>es, and to prescribe them. In 
the chambers of this palace couches have been placed, 
which the sick folk make use of as beds, these being fully 
provided with bed-clothes, and the administrator has under 
him servants who are charged with the duty of inquiring 
into the condition of the sick folk morning and evening, 
and these last receive food and medicines according as 
their state requires. Opposite this hospital is another, 
separate therefrom, for women who are sick, and they 
also have persons who attend on them : while adjacent to 
these two hospitals is another building with a spacious 
court, in which are chambers with iron gratings, which 
serve also for the confinement of those who are mad, and 
these also are visited daily by persons who examine their 
condition and supply them with what is needful to ameli- 
orate the same. The Sultan himself inspects the state of 
these various institutions, investigating everything and 
asking questions, verifying the statements with care and 
trouble even to the uttermost ; and in Misr [Cairo] also 
there is another hospital, exactly after the pattern of the. 
one just described. 

Unfortunately no mosque remains to us of Sala- 
din's time, so that here there is a brief hiatus in 
the main thread of development of Saracenic 
art. He restored or rebuilt a large part of the 
ancient mosque of Amr at Fostar near Cairo, 
but that much-altered building has had so 
chequered a career that it is impossible to ascribe 
the various portions to their respective authors. 
He carried out other work, such as the great 
Dyke of Giza, that is military engineering 

2 For further information as to the medresa see Prof, van 
Berchem, Corpus inscriptionum Arabicarum, page 251 et 

s Quoted in Lane-Poole, Cairo, p. 184. 

•'Quoted in Lane-Poole's Cairo, p. 186. 

I 2 

.1 Interior (if tlu- Greal .M()S(|iu' (tnrmfrl\ tlif 
C'luirrl) iif S. jdlin) ;il ("laza 

/>' The C'liapel of ilic X'ii^in's I'oiiili, |l■|■u^-al^n^ 

(' l\t-iiiaiiis i)t' the C'luiri li nl S. (icuri'e at Liulil 

/' West door\va\- of the Cireat -\|ui' (lninu-rl\ 
ihe Cluirrh of S. John, (iaza) 

Some f'Xaiiiples of Crusader ("luircht-s in Palestine 


Plate 1. The Arcliiteclure of Salaclin 


/•-■ 'I'lu' (."iladel .11 Aleppo 





/• Si. .SiL'iilien's (ialc, Icrusalem 

(j A Sireei I*"i)unl;iin at Iciiisalcni 

H The Citadel ;it Cain^ 

lixamples of Saracen buildings showing Crusader mtlurnre 

'l.iie II. The Architeciure of Sal;idin 

rather than architecture, and even his architec- 
tural masterpiece in Cairo, the Citadel (or, as the 
Arabs call it, " the Castle of the Mountain ", 
el-Kalat el-Gebel) only aflfects the development 
of Saracenic art in matters of detail. 

It was his intention so to complete the fortifi- 
cations constructed by Badr el-Gamali nearly a 
century before as to render Cairo safe from 
attack. It is impossible to understand his 
scheme without recalling the very different aspect 
of the city in those days from its present topo- 
graphy.^ The Nile then covered the modern 
suburb of Bulak, as well as the present Ismailia 
quarter, and its eastern shore lay somewhere 
about the position of the modern railway station. 
There was a quay or small port at about this 
point, and at this point was the western end of 
the new wall, a tower named " Kalat-el-Maks ". 
Thence the north wall, still to be seen in part by 
a persevering student, was continued to join the 
Fatimite wall near the Sharia Khalig el-Masri. 
The east wall with its fortifications, including 
the so-called Burg ez-Zafar, is partly buried 
beneath the " rubbish hills " already mentioned, 
but runs southwards towards the Citadel, and is 
chiefly the work of Saladin. Finally there is the 
wall of Fostat on the south. The position and 
design of these walls is a matter for the military 
engineer and the archaeologist rather than for 
the architect. The whole question has been 
recently and ably discussed by Creswell.' But 
it is to be noted that the science of masonry was 
now developing rapidly, thanks, no doubt, to 
intercourse with the Crusaders, who brought 
with them from France a knowledge of stereo- 
tomy' that found a fertile soil in a city like 
Cairo, where an unlimited quantity of fine lime- 
stone was to be had for the carting. So in these 
walls we find good ashlar masonry, or rusticated 
blocks with drafted margins. It is thus the more 
to be regretted that in constructing the Citadel 
Saladin's builders used, as a quarry, the small 
pyramid at Giza seven miles away rather than 
the natural quarry which lay almost at their feet. 
The great walls of the Citadel shown on Plate II, 
with the fine round towers, are of this period, 
but perhaps the most remarkable feature of the 
whole fortress is the so-called " Joseph's Well ", 
descending 290 feet into the earth to water level. 
Steps wind spirally downwards to a platform, 
about half-way down, where were stationed the 
oxen that worked the slowly moving sakkiya that 
raised the water from below, as water has been 
raised from time immemorial in Egypt, and is 
still raised to-day.* But obviously " Joseph's 

'See the excellent map in Lane-Poole's Egypt in the Middle 

8 K. A. C. Creswell. Muhainniadan Monuments of Egypt. 

' See Clermont-Ganneau, .-Uchieological Researches in Pales- 
tine, 1896. 

'An excellent illustration of this well is given in Jomard's 
Description de I'Egype (volume, Etat moderne). 

Well " does not preserve the name of Pharaoh's 
■wezir. It is one of the names {Yusuf in .'\rabic) 
of Saladin, * and the Bahr-Yusuf (a stream 
familiar now to English soldiers), connecting the 
Nile with the Fayyum, is another case in point, 
in spite of popular legend.' The architectural 
features of this citadel admittedly show the in- 
fluence of the Crusaders, and it is significant that 
much of the construction was carried out by 
Christian prisoners of war. 

During the eleven years that he ruled as Sul- 
tan in Cairo, Saladin conquered the Soudan, 
Arabia, and the Libyan coast as far as Tripoli. 
But his chief fighting was with the Crusaders 
in Syria and Palestine. The struggle was a long 
one, and his fortunes varied. In succession he 
occupied Damascus, Hama, Aleppo, and then 
assumed the title of King of Syria. In 1182 he 
left Cairo for the remainder of his life, and made 
Damascus his headquarters. Finally, after 
besieging the great fortress of Kerak and defeat- 
ing the Crusaders near the Sea of Galilee, he 
captured Jerusalem in 1187, and thus put an end 
to the Latin kingdom that had ruled Palestine 
for 88 years. The remaining six years of his life 
were not all peaceful, however, for it was not 
until after the famous siege of Acre, and the 
battles of Arsuf and Jaffa, that Saladin concluded 
a truce with the Crusaders in 1192, leaving them 
only the coastal strip of territory from Tyre to 
Jaffa. After making a last tour of his new king- 
dom to see that its fortifications were all in order 
and his new subjects contented, he returned to 
Damascus, only to die there in 1193, in the fifty- 
fifth year of his age. He was buried near the 
great Ummayad Mosque, in the little kitbba or 
domed tomb-chamber that still bears his name. 

Before describing the architectural work of 
Saladin in Palestine and Syria, chiefly in Jeru- 
salem and Damascus, it is necessary to review 
briefly the buildings of the Crusaders, erected 
during their tenure of the Holy Land. These 
may be divided into two main groups, fortresses 
and churches, for the few bridges and minor 
buildings that do not fall within either of these 
categories may, for the purpose of this book, be 
neglected. ^Iention must be made, however, of 
the stone-vaulted bazaar-streets of Jerusalem, 
always among its most picturesque features, and 
in part at least due to the Crusaders. The cita- 
del, walls, and gates of Jerusalem have formed 
the subject of controversy for years, but the 
greater part of them as they appear to-day, as 
well as the beautiful street fountains, date from 
the days of Suliman the Magnificent (middle 
i6th century), that is, from the post-Saracenic 
period after the Turkish conquest in 1517. This 
is the more remarkable in view of their close 
resemblance to Crusader-architecture, and 

' See my book, Through Egypt in War Time. pp. 45-7. 

shows the power of Crusader influence. [Pi.ati-: 
H. F, g]. , 

The " strong points " of Palestine were forti- 
fied witli great castles with French names now 
replaced in Arabic, such as " CMiatoau Neuf" 
(Kalat Hunin). " Banias" (Kalal Suheibeh), 
" Belfort '■ (Kalat esh-SluiUif), " Toron " 



(Kalat Tibrin), " Montfort " (Kalat el-Kurein), 
and possibly " Mirabel " (Ras el-Ain). Of 
these Toron was perhaps the finest. The fort- 
ress of Athlit on the coast south of Haifa, built 
by the Templars in 1218, is now partly ruined. 
The remains of many fortified towns, e.g., Arsuf, 
Caesarea, Ascalon, Beit Jibrin, etc., are also to 
be seen.'" All these buildings prove that the 
Crusaders brought with them from Normandy 
and Italy to Palestine a wide knowledge of 
military science, as well as of scientific masonry, 
and that the Saracens in late years made abund- 
ant use of this knowledge. 

The churches of the Crusaders in Palestine 
are also very numerous. Outside Jerusalem 
itself, the best preserved examples are at Ram- 
leh (now known as the Great Mosque), Ludd, 

"> For illustrations of the chief castles of the Crusaders s*e 
the various volumes of the Survey of Palestine, prepared by 
Lieut. C. R. Conder and Lieut, (later Lord) Kitchener. 

Nablus, Samaria, Kuryet el-Enab, Hebron (now 
incorporated in the Great Mo.sque), and Gaza 
(now converted into the Great Mosque). Be- 
sides these there are numerous small churches, 
as at Nebi-Samuel and at Bireh, as well as a fine 
church at Tortosa in Northern Syria. With 
this exce])lion, all the examples mentioned be- 
came familiar to soldiers during the 
recent war, and, partly for this reason, partly 
because it is one of the least damaged of any of 
the buildings metioned above, the Great Mosque 
of Gaza may be taken as the typical church of 
the Cru.saders for the purposes of this chapter. 
Hundreds of thousands of Englishmen in 191 7 
watched shells pouring on to the surrounding 
city for eight months, but the sanctity of the 
mosque was respected, and not until it was estab- 
lished beyond doubt that it was used as an ammu- 
nition dump did the monitors and howitzers 
turn their fire on to the building. It has suffered 
severely, and now one climbs over heaps of stone 
fallen from the groined vaulting. But the bat- 
tered interior, its marble shafts torn by shell 
splinters, still retains much of its ancient glory, 
and the exquisite west door still remains just as 
it was when " Lieut. Kitchener " photographed 
it in 1874 or thereabouts. The illustrations on 
Plate I are from his negatives, and show the 
building in use as a Mosque, as it has been used 
for seven centuries. A study of the architec- 
tural detail reveals a close similarity with the 
Norman-Sicilian style then prevailing in Sicily 
and certain towns of the mainland, itself derived 
from a fusion of Northern Gothic art in its in- 
fancy with the work of the Saracen craftsmen of 
Sicily. The arch used by the Crusaders in Pales- 
tine was usually a simple pointed form, though 
in Palermo, Lecce,'' and elsewhere in Italy the 
pointed horseshoe type is found. Vaulting was 
simple, usually groined. Engaged or detached 
columns were used, with capitals treated with a 
rather stiff and conventional type of acanthus 
foliage. At Nablus a fine doorway remains, at 
Ludd a beautiful arch, and at Kuryet el-Enab 
there is a noteworthy window. At Cairo is per- 
haps the most beautiful Crusader doorway 
extant, brought from the Christian church at 
Acre in 1291, and incorporated in the mosque of 
En-Nasir. In Jerusalem itself the Crusaders 
erected a large number of churches, besides the 
Holy Sepulchre, about which whole books have 
been written. That famous building, in spite of 
extensive and lamentable alteration, still pre- 
serves its original plan, as well as the nave of 
the Crusaders' Church (i 140 — 1 149) with pointed 
arches, clustered pillars, groined vaulting, and 
consisting of a nave and aisles, with an ambula- 

11 See my book In the Heel of Italy, figs. 7-11, for illus- 
trations of a church built by Tancraed, King of Sicily, in 1180. 
This building (containing horseshoe arches) should be com- 
pared with the Crusaders' Church at Gaza. 


tory and semi-circular eastern apse. The bell- 
tower (about 1 160-80) and the south fac^ade also 
remain. Other interesting relics of the period 
are the 12th century portal of the Hospital of the 
Knights of St. John (now incorporated in the 
modern German Church of the Redeemer), and 
the Chapel of the Virgin's Tomb (1161) [Plate 
I, f], a dainty little building between the Haram 
esh-Sherif and the Mount of Olives. In the 
Haram esh-Sherif itself the Crusaders' work 
included the remarkable vaults known as Solo- 
mon's Stables and the beautiful grille of French 
hammered ironwork, with lily-heads between the 
spikes, round the central octagon of the Dome of 
the Rock. The footprint of Muhammad on the 
actual rock was temporarily rechristened as the 
footprint of Christ, thus satisfying all hostile 
criticism. The rock was paved over with marble 
and an altar erected, but Saladin cleared all this 
work away when he restored the mosque to its 
original uses in 1187. The mosque of El-Aksa, 
too, was used as a Christian church by the 
Templars and reconverted by Saladin. Speak- 
ing in general of the churches of the Crusaders 
in Palestine, it may be said that they all possess 
the following distinctive characteristics. They 
consist of a nave and aisles of equal length, a 
transept, and three apses. They are vaulted in 
stone, the vaults being supported on simple 
piers, usually square with engaged shafts. 
Over the crossing of nave and transepts is a 
dome on pendentives, the remainder of the roof 
being flat. Pointed arches are used, and but- 
tresses have slight projection. Not only were 
the Norman knights of Sicily and Southern Italy 
partly responsible for the Norman-Italian type of 
Gothic architecture that we find used, but the 
Pisan, Venetian, and especially Genoese'^ 
sailors and merchants who played so prominent 
a part in the Crusades also left their mark on the 
churches of the Holy Land. 

The influence of the Crusaders hardly appears 
in the mosques built during the time of Saladin 
or of his immediate successors, except in one 
very noteworthy instance, the porch of the 
Mosque of El-Aksa at Jerusalem. The fine 
mitnbar or pulpit in this mosque was brought 
here by Saladin from where it had been installed 
in the Great Mosque by Nur ed-Din twenty years 

The comparative absence of monuments of any 
importance in Cairo between 1193 and 1250 may 
be ascribed to the general distress prevailing in 
Egypt during the earlier part of the period, and 
the constant fighting with the Crusaders that 
lasted up to 1249, when they were finally driven 
out from Damietta, which had, curiously 
enough, taken the place of Jerusalem as their 

'2 For the Genoese architecture of this period see my articles 
The Architecture of Genoa (Nos. I-Il) in The Builder, July, 

objective. Yet the rulers of Egypt appear to 
have been enlightened men of culture, so toler- 
ant that in 1219 we hear of St. Francis of Assisi 
preaching before the Sultan, and finding an 
attentive audience. The only building of any 
note is the medresa constructed in 1241-4 by the 
last Ayyubid Sultan, Es-Saleh Negm ed-din 
Ayyub in the Sharia el-Gohergiya, and the 
adjoining mausoleum completed in 1250. A 
large part of the group is ruined, but there is a 
striking minaret in three stages, the lowest 
rectangular, the next octagonal, the third of a 
remarkable mabkhara form. The mausoleum is 
a large square structure covered with a simple 
dome having primitive stalactites in the penden- 
tives. The mihrab (when I saw it in 1916) was 
somewhat dilapidated, and was flanked by 
columns of green marble. North of the mau- 
soleum is a square porch vaulted in stone, an 
unusual feature. The facade is, unfortunately, 
partly concealed by shops, but is decorated with 
Persian arches and curious but characteristic . 
battlements of Mesopotamian type. 

In Palestine and Syria a good deal of Ayyu- 
bide architecture survives from the period 1193 — 
1250. One of the mu-wazzin (arcades) on the 
south side of the podium of the Dome of the 
Rock, at the east end, bears the date A. H. 608 
(a.d. 121 1), the remaining viuwazzin being later. 
Damascus, as the capital in Saladin's later days, 
was a city of great splendour. The Sultan him- 
self lived in the castle, then isolated from the 
remainder of the city, and here, too, was the 
Sultan's mosque. According to Ibn-Jubeyr, 
writing in 1184, the city contained at that time 
twenty colleges, two free hospitals, and many 

" Near the castle, outside the town towards the west, 
are two Meydans that are like pieces of silk brocade rolled 
out for their greenness and beauty. The river Hows 
between the two Meydans, and there is a grove of pop'a^- 
trees extending beside them, most beautiful to behold. 
The Sultan is wont to go there to play the game of polo 
and to race his horses; and nothing can be pleasanter 
to see than this. Every evening the Sultan s sons go out 
there to shoot the bow, and to race, and to play i>olo. 

Yet of all these glories nothing authentic re- 
mains except parts of the Citadel and perhaps 
the Adeliya medresa, though that is a buildmg 
of some importance. . 

The monuments of Aleppo still await their 
historian, but most of the following bear inscrip- 
tions authenticating their dates : the Munstan 
in the Jallum quarter (ascribed to Nur ed-Din), 
the Medresa of el-Maruf (1193), the Mosques of 
Hosevn and Sheikh Mohsin (1211-13), the Great 
Mosque in the Citadel (1213-14), the Medresa 
es-Sultaniya (1223), the Mosque of El-Kaltowiya 
(1223), and the Medresa el-Ashrafiya or esh- 
Shara fiya (1242-3)." 

~i3 For all these dates I am indebted to Capt. K. A. C. 
Creswell, whose work on Muhammadan Monuments in hgypt 
has already been cited m this article. 


Of these tlie most importam is iinddiibicdlv 
the Citadel, which is strikingly situated on a 
great mound or rock-base, apparently partly 
artificial.'* [Plate II, e]. For centuries it was 
regarded as one of the most formidable fortresses 
in the Hast, as it had need to be, for it rom- 
mandt'il the junction of three great trade routes. 
But it is a composite structure, the work of many 
hands at difl"erent periods. It has a magnificeni 
approach across a deep moat. 

In other parts of Syria the Kubbet el-.Xmjad, 
and the Kubbet Downs, both at Baalbek, date 
from this period; also the Citadel, the Arsenal, 

'* .A fine general view is gK-en in Girault de Prangey's book. 
Monuments arabfs (1846-52). 

ihe Mosque of Al-Ivhidr, and liie so-called 
■ Omar Mosque " at Bosra ; the old Khan of 
Khan Tuman near Aleppo; the Shafeyitc Med- 
resa at Ma'arat an-Numan ; and the Citadel of 

But the full fruit of intercourse with the Cru- 
saders is onlv to lie traced in the an iiilecture of 
liie Mamelukes {13,82 — 1517) in Cairo and else- 
where, when we find the medresa plan, the use 
of pointed arches, of fine ma.sonry, of vaulting, 
of N'orman military .science, and all the other 
features iiorrowed from the churches and ca.stles 
of the Holy Land, combined with the native skill 
of the Saracen craft.smen in a long series of 
splendid buildings. 



O apology is needed for returning 
1 10 the T'ang pottery in the Eumorfo- 
jjoulos Collection. The collection 
K'ontinues to grow, and the splendid 
series of tomb figures, part of which 
is now illustrated, is a comparatively recent 
addition, and one which demands publication 
not merely on the ground of outstanding merit, 
but for the historical interest attaching to the 

The unusual size, superior modelling, and rich 
glaze-colours of these figures would indicate a 
burial of some importance, and this inference is 
borne out by the memorial tablet found with 
them, a rubbing of which followed the figures to 
this country. Translated by Mr. A. D. Waley, 
this document yields the following important 
information. The tomb was that of " the late 
Chancellor Liu of the great T'ang dynasty, 
General of the Chung-\vu Army, Lieutenant of 
Honan Fu and Huai-\in Fu, Privy Councillor, 
etc. His literary name was T'ing-hsiin .... 
He died on the i6th day of the 8th month of the 
i6th year of K'ai Yiian (728 .a.d.) at the age of 
72 ". The inscription further includes a lengthy 
discourse on the historv f)f Liu's familv, wliich 
" for 20 generations during both the Han dyna.s- 
ties supplied emperors, ministers, judges and 
barons". Liu himself is of course eulogised, 
and it is clear that he was an Admirable Crich- 
ton. To the great abilities displayed from his 
earliest years he added the moral qualities of 
benevolence, justice, statesmanship, modesty, 
loyalty, truthfulness, friendliness, and deference. 
" So that his conversation was calculated to im- 
prove the age and country in which he lived, 
while his behaviour set a standard which was 
destined to a revolution in popular man- 

ners". He was besides an adept in military 
strategy, superior in swordsmanship to the 
famous Li Ling, and more than equal to P'ang 
Chiian in military administration. Naturally 
such a man was soon promoted to high com- 
mands. He led his men with skill and dash, 
and "when the Kitan Tartars attacked the 
frontier he cleared them away as a man brushes 
flies from his nose ". 

Liu's numerous campaigns are duly recorded 
on this tablet, and his greatness is clearly indi- 
cated by the fact that he was wrongfully accused 
by the famous General Li T'o-lsu of plotting 
against the Emperor. This peril, we may 
assume, was .safely surmounted, for he lived to 
the ripe age of 72 and was evidently buried in 
princely state. Four laudatory poems complete 
the panegyric. 

The nature of the T'ang tomb finds and the 
great interest, both ceramic and cultural, which 
attaches to them, have been explained at some 
length in previous articles on the Eumorfopoulos 
Collection. It is only necessary to recall here 
that the numerous objects deposited in the graves 
were intended for the service and protection of 
the dead man's .spirit; and that the more import- 
ant the person buried the more splendid would 
be the retinue of figures and the other furniture 
of his tomb. The tomb of Liu T'ing-hsiin must 
have been .spacious indeed, even if it contained 
nothing more than the thirteen figures now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. Two of them 
[Plate I, a, c] are evidently persons of standing, 
probably ministers, if we may judge by their 
dress. The hands folded in front must have 
held some sort of emblem, probably a kitei or 
jade tablet of office, which is now missing. The 
headgear of the one has two holes to carry some 
kind of plume or ornament, while that of the 
other is decorated with a bird. This bird head- 
















dress has been seen on other tomb figures of the 
period, and has given rise to much conjecture. 
The theory that the bird may be a dove and the 
figure wearing it a Manichean priest, can 
hardlv be maintained any longer. There is 
nothing priestly about our present figure. His 
appearance is martial and he wears over his 
splendid robes a kind of breastplate supported 
by shoulder straps. What a pity that the object 
held in his hands is missing ! It might have 
decided the question of identity once for all. 

Two fierce warriors [Plate 1, b] armed cap-a- 
pie and standing on recumbent bulls are doubt- 
less two of the Lokapalas or Guardians of the 
Four Quarters of the Buddhist heaven. The 
prostrate animal, which is sometimes a bull, 
sometimes a demon figure, is common to these 
and to the figures of Yama, god of Death.' But 
the fact that there are two of these mail-clad 
warriors seems in itself good evidence that they 
represent the Guardians rather than the God of 
Death. In any case thev are superbly modelled 
statues full of dignity and defiant power. The 
details of their armour, rendered with delightful 
precision, will make them important for purposes 
of study. 

There are two other supernatural guardians 
of the grave, the t'u-kuai or earth-spirits, repre- 
sented as sphinx-like creatures with wings and 
horns and flame-like attributes. One has a 
leonine and the other a human face; and it is 
wonderful with what dignity and stateliness the 
T'ang potter has been able to invest these 
strange and almost grotesque creatures. All 
these figures are posed on rocky bases which 
resemble in treatment those of the now celebrated 
Lohan figures.^ 

Two horses [Plate II, e] and two camels 
with three grooms complete the equipage. 
The animals, particularly the horses, are 
superbly modelled ; and doubtless they origin- 
allv had horsehair manes and tails fitted 
in the now emptv sockets. The Bactrian 
camels are shown in the familiar posture, 

snorting with head in air. They are modelled 
with a wealth of detail, from which we can study 
the form of their pack saddle and their load even 
to such details as the bird and the side of bacon, 
the and the ewer hung at the sides. The 
form of the flask, with its foliate handles, and 
the ewer with phoenix head, are interesting be- 
cause we have objects of like form in our collec- 
tions.'' One of the camels is walking and is 
posed on a lozenge-shaped base. The other is 
standing still. One is mainly white and the 
other glazed with clouded yellow. 

The three grooms [Plate II, d] are delight- 
fullv real persons. Their attitude as holding- 
imaginary leading reins is full of "life-move- 
ment"; and one feels that one is here in the 
presence of a genuine T'ang citizen, henchman 
though he be. 

The material of all the figures is fine, white 
pipe-clay. The glaze is a faintly crackled, .soft, 
lead glaze of the usual kind, yellowish white 
where uncoloured, but tinted for the most part 
with green and yellow in large areas or in mott- 
ling. Much of it is now iridescent with age; 
but this bv no means detracts from the general 
richness of the colouring. 

Dated T'ang grave-finds are unfortunately 
rare. Perhaps one should say that owing to the 
haphazard wnv in which the tombs are opened 
one rarelv hears of definitely dated finds. One 
other example, however, is on record,'' the tomb 
of a princelv personage named Wen Shou- 
ch'eng, who died in 683. The figures obtained 
from this tomb, though smaller, were of the same 
splendid workmanship as those which form our 
present theme. 

Mr. Eumorfopoulos has deposited Liu's tomb 
figures in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
where they are a conspicuous feature of the Loan 
Court. With them he has placed two other im- 
portant T'ang statuettes, one a guardian figure 
of an archer, and the other a finely modelled 
Bactrian camel with a strange, 
rider sealed between the two humps. 

'See B. Laufer, Chinese Pottery Figures, Part i. 
-See the life-sized pottery Lohan In Buddhist Room, British 

3 Hobson, Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, Plates q and i,j. 
■* Ibidem, Vol. I, p. 25. 



HE painter Aert Claesz, of Leyden 
(1498-1564), is the subject of a 
lengthy and careful biography in 
Caret van Mander's Schilder- 
Boeck,' but no extant works can be 

1 Vol. i, p. 321 in the translation by Hymans, 1884. Th< 
latest critical account of this painter, also called Aertgen van 
Leyden, is that by Dr. Walter Cohen in Thieme's Lexikon, 
vii', 35- 

attributed to him with certainty. .Ml the 
more interest, therefore, attaches to a pair 
of drawings recently acquired by the British 
Museum from a private collection in Scotland, 
which have been ascribed to this rare and un- 
known artist by a former owner, who must have 
based the attribution on old tradition. The 
drawings have passed through the Lawrence 
and Woodburn collections, and were acquired 


by their late owner, Mrs. Miller-Morison, at the 
sjile of tlie I'r.Tniis Ahhdtt rollertion (stani]), 
Fngfan, 183) at Edinburgh in January, 1894. 
The name " Arnold Clacssoon " appears on the 
mount, which was evidently made for Mr. 
.Abbott, but a mucii older piece of evidence is 
the pencil inscription " Aert Claesson van Ley- 
den, n. 1498, ob. 1564," in a hand probably of 
the iStli century and older than Lawrence's time, 
on the bacU of one of the drnwintjs, which has the 
rather surprising watermark of the arms of 
Nuremberg, Briquet 925. The paper must have 
been exported, for it is obvious that the drawings 
are of the Dutch school, about i$p,o, and no one 
could have been surprised if thev had been 
vaguely attributed, as so many unsigned works 
of that school and period have been, to Lucas 
van Levden. The much more definite old attri- 
bution which lias sur\'ived is the more credible 
because it agrees in all respects with what Van 
^L1nder has recorded of the style of Aert Claesz, 
and the kind of subjects that this painter pre- 
ferred. He became, we are told, in 1516, a 
pupil of Cornelis Engelbrechtsen, under whose 
instruction he painted in oil and distemper, 
chiefly religious subjects, avoiding fiction and 
allegory. Later on he was much influenced by 
Scorel, and afterwards by Heemskerck, especi- 
ally in the architectural backgrounds, in which 
he showed much talent. The execution of his 
paintings was inferior to his composition, the 
merit of which, according to Van Mander, in- 
duced Frans Floris to persuade Aertgen to leave 
Levden for Antwerp, which he refused to do. 
His figures are described as long and out of pro- 
portion. He made many designs for glass- 
painters, and was very badly paid for them ; 
according to Van Mander, hundreds of his 
drawings of this class could be found at Leyden, 
where Aertgen lived in quite humble circum- 
stances. He goes on to describe a number of 
pictures by this artist, none of which can now be 
recognised with certainty as surviving. The 
Amsterdam cabinet is said to contain a drawing 
by him of an architectural subject. 

The two drawings that have now come to light 
are circular designs for glass, of unusual size 
(diam. 3-^ cm.) and unusual in subject, in that 
all the figures, with the exception of Christ and 
St. Peter, are nude, a peculiarity that I do not 
remember to have seen before in any Passion 
series. Thev are drawn with the pen in Indian 
ink, and washed with the same material, while a 

reddish tint, which covers much of the surface, 
has been produced by rubbing red chalk into the 
paper. In the Betrayal [Plath a] there is a very 
noticeable disproportion in size between the head 
of Christ and that of the other figures, especially 
Judas, who is about to embrace the Saviour, and 
is, therefore, in close proximity to him. The 
heads of the other figures are small in proportion 
to the length of their bodies and limbs. This 
subject gives an idea of the artist's use of land- 
scape, while the background in Christ before 
Pilate [Plate b] is architectural. It will be 
noticed how in both cases the round space is 
divided by vertical lines, trees in one case, pillars 
in the other, into spaces artfully calculated to 
avoid a too obvious symmetry. The composition 
merits the praise bestowed by Van Mander upon 
Aertgen, as much as the proportions deserve his 
censure. The drawing of the hands and feet is 
very curious, the fingers and toes being only 
occasionally divided from one another, while 
some of the feet are very ugly and deformed. 

The drawings show considerable affinity in 
style with the art of Scorel, especially with such 
a picture, showing nude figures, as the Baptism 
of Christ, at Berlin. I was even tempted to 
ascribe the pair to Scorel himself, on seeing the 
reproductions of drawings at Budapest and 
Eriangen, attributed to him by Dr. L. von 
Baldass.' But they do not exhibit the peculiari- 
ties, already mentioned, that are specially 
characteristic of the draughtsman of the Passion 
series, and the close correspondence of that series 
to the recorded style of the very painter to whom 
tradition assigns it must weigh down the scale in 
favour of Aert Claesz. 

2 Mitteill d. Geselisch. f. vervielf. Kunst, igi6, p. 5. On 
seeing photographs of the London drawings Dr. von Baldass 
wrote : " You are perfectly right in your opinion that the 
drawings are very near to Scorel in style and in the concep- 
tion of figures, landscape and trees. In spite of that, I do 
not believe that they are by Scorel himself, but I would rather 
suggest a younger artist who was a pupil of Scorel. Doubts 
are raised not only by the type of Christ, with broad cheeks, 
which is quite unusual for Scorel, but also by the much more 
elegant pose of the figures, the more obvious correctness of the 
movement in the nude figures, the less firm and more lightly 
drawn lines. The more "academical correctness, displayed in 
some of the architectural lines, drawn with a ruler, combined 
with the lack of early Netherlandisch tradition, which is still 
clearly recognisable in the Budapest drawing and in the various 
versions of the Baptism of Christ at Berlin, Haarlem and 
Philadelphia, leads me to the opinion that this is not Scorel 
himself, but a pupil who is already steeped in the new Italian- 
izing art." Dr. Friedlander wrote more briefly in the same 
sense, and urged adherence to the old attribution to Aert 



















A new Teniers Tajjestrv at tlie X'ictoria and Allien Must-uni 




'HE Textiles Department of the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum has filled 
up an awkward gap in its tapestry 
collection by the purchase, out of the 
funds of the Murray Bequest, of a 
particularly good " Teniers " tapestry. 

As is well known, this type of tapestry, 
designed after compositions by Teniers, became 
so popular at the end of the 17th and the begin- 
ning of the i8th centuries that French patrons 
used to order " des Tenieres ", using the term 
generically. Since that date, these tapestries 
have fallen into undue disfavour. The great 
merits of the style will be seen from examining 
the Museum's new purchase [Plate], which 
shows all the possible cunning of the tapestry 
weaver. It is of an unusual height, 13 feet by 
8 feet, and has no border, which is also unusual, 
though not unique. The general composition is 
good and the middle foreground particularly 
felicitous. The colour scheme is skilfully gradu- 
ated to get lighter as it goes up, the leit-7nolif 
of the foreground being dark green, of the 
middle light red, and of the background yellow. 
The background is nearly all woven in silk, the 
foreground almost entirely in wool, save the high 
lights on the vegetation which are blocked out in 
silk. Such tremendous cleverness may not be 
part of an artist's essential outfit, but to pretend, 
as is often done, that the later tapestry weavers 
did not know their own job is absurd. On the 
contrary, they knew it much too well. 

The tapestry bears the Brussels mark and the 
signature of the weaver, D(aniel) L(eyniers). 
The Leyniers, like the Brueghels, the Teniers, 
and the Van Orleys, were a family that kept 
going in an advanced state of artistic activity 
during the better part of two centuries (from 1620 
circ. 1794). In 1630 the Archbishop of Consa, 
papal legate at Brussels, writes to Cardinal Bar- 
berini at Rome that one Daniel Levis (Leyniers) 
was the first dyer and weaver at Brussels. But 
there were several Daniels in the family. The 
Leyniers did not specialise in any particular 
style, but were obviously very hard-working 
people, only too anxious to supply what the 
public wanted. Heroic subjects, sacred subjects 
and " genre " were equally to their taste. Plate 
xxxii of M. Joseph Destr^e's catalogue of 
Flemish tapestry exhibited at Brussels in 1905 
shows a magniloquent Time enchained by 
Love, signed " D. Teniers Jun. pinx. 1684 " on 
the left and, on the right, "Joan: Leyniers 
fecit". A tapestry illustrating the Acts of the 
Apostles, by D. Leyniers, was sold at Christie's 

in December, 1910; on June 6th, 1912, one show- 
ing Ceres sending Triptolemus to instruct man- 
kind in the art of agriculture, four tapestries 
of the "Tenieres" variety and signed D. Ley- 
niers, hang in the British Embassy at Paris. 

Plates cvii, cviii, and cix. Album 2, of M. G. 
Thermes' Exposition de L'Art ancien au pays 
de Liege show three tapestries after Teniers, this 
type being very well represented at the Exhi- 
bition. The tapestries in question are in the 
possession of M. de Clercx de Waroux, who sent 
with them to the Exhibition the following note 
from his family papers. 

" Ces pi^c€s ont H6 commandoes par I'archidiacre de 
Clercx pour !e chateau d'Aigremont et fabriqu^s en 1725 
par le Tapissier Urbain Leyniers. (Jan) van Orley 
exOcuta le carton d'aprfes Teniers." 

{See Thermes' catalogue of the Exhibition). 

The tapestry shown in Plate cix resembles our 
own so closely as to be almost identical with it. 
The only difference would seem to be that M. de 
Waroux' piece ends with the gardener on the 
right and that there are unimportant changes in 
the treatment of the cottage on the left. 

Urbain Leyniers had a son, Daniel, who 
worked with him in his atelier, so that it is not 
extravagant to suggest that it was this Daniel 
who was responsible for our variant on M. de 
Waroux' piece. 

Our tapestry recalls familiar figures in 
Teniers' talkative canvases. The gardener, who 
is Teniers' gardener, appears in Picture No. 86i 
in the National Gallery, where he stands in much 
the same position save that he is wheeling a 
barrow instead of holding a spade. The same 
woman, to his left, is washing a household pot, 
though both pot and wash-bowl have been 
slightly altered from the picture. So has the 
cottage on the left. The background in 
tapestry and picture (where a river-scene 
is shown) differ completely in subject, but 
not in general composition, both being of 
an open character, to contrast with the crowded 
scene in the left foreground. 

Altogether, the Museum authorities are for- 
tunate in having been able to utilise the 
funds of the Murray Bequest in order to 
purchase this important example. In days 
when grants are, much to Governmental regret, 
greatly curtailed so as to meet more vital com- 
mitments in Mesopotamia or Whitehall, our 
museums are becoming increasingly dependent 
on external sources of supply. Benefactors, 
who feel tempted to make similar bequests, may 
rest assured that their funds will be spent with 
the greatest discretion by the officials of the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum. 




HE canons of the early writers were 
tnmied with referente to figure 
pointing, and llieir successors were 
rehictant to apply these standards to 
landscape. Accordingly we tind that 
W'ano Wei (61)0-759 A.D.), the T'ang dynasty's 
representative writer on landscape, enunciates 
few general jsrinciples, contenting himself with 
observations proper rather to a naturalist than 
to an ivsthetician. " W^ind without rain only 
affects the trees' branches, but rain without 
wind causes the tree-tops to nod. . . . When 
the rain clears the clouds pack away, the sky is 
pearly-grey, a thin mist floats across the scene, 
the mountain is tinged with a deeper blue. . . . 
In summer, ancient trees cover the sky, waters 
run green and waveless, waterfalls seem to pierce 
the clouds. . . ." 

Occasionally, however, he commits himself to 
a more general observation : " In landscape, the 
idea must come first : the carrying out of the 
idea follows ". Or again : " Ink-painting is 
the foremost branch of the whole art. It per- 
fects nature and completes the Creator's work ". 
In this last sentence, thrown off casually and not 
again referred to, we meet with a conception 
which has formed the basis of many European 
theories of art. ^^^hy he ranks ink-painting 
above other branches, Wang does not explain. 
" Profound truths ", he says at the end of one 
essay, " cannot be explained in words ", show- 
ing thereby his adherence to the teaching of Zen 

Chang Yen-yiian, who lived in the middle of 
the gth century, was an art-historian rather than 
a philosopher. His theory of art becomes 
apparent only incidentally in his writings. 
" Painting ", he says, " perfects education, aids 
morality, explains to us the operations of the 
Spirit, helps us to penetrate the mysteries of 
Nature. It shares the merit of the Six Scripts 
and the potency of the Four Seasons. It pro- 
ceeds not from effort but from Nature ". 

One of the principal objects of painting is to 


HE illustrations here reproduced 
represent some choice specimens of 
old Finnish rugs of the rya type. 
The ryas are, together with the 
Karelian embroideries and the 
Raumo lace, the most remarkable products of 
Finnish textile craft. While, of these three 
crafts, tho Karelian embn^ideries take the prece- 


record the actions of the virtuous. " Those who 
had distinguished them.selves by loyalty or 
filial pietv were portrayed in the Cloud Terrace 
Museum; those iieroism had been con- 
spicuous foimd their way to the galleries of the 
Unicorn Tower. The sight of good is in itself 
a warning against evil, the sight of evil arouses 
thoughts of virtue. . . . Ts'ao Chih says : 
' There is no one who in front of a picture of the 
Three Kings and Five Emperors [the mythical 
paragons of Confucianism] would not raise his 
head in thankfulness; nor any that before a 
painting of the depraved monarclis of the De- 
cadence would not heave a sigh. There is none 
who contemplating the picture of a good and 
honest man would not forget his meals; . . . 
nor any that coming upon the image of a licen- 
tious husband or abandoned wife would not 
hastily avert his gaze ' ". 

Chang, then, considered the aim of painting 
to be chiefly a moral one ; but he lets slip certain 
reservations. It is something which " proceeds 
not from effort but from Nature ", and to this 
touch of mysticism he adds the doctrine of 
Hsieh Ho's first Canon. " Be the resemblance 
never so great ", he says, " yet if the operation 
of the Spirit (Ch'i-yiin) be lacking, it will be of 
no avail ". 

Chang Yen-Yiian's (almost unconscious) art- 
philosophy refers solely to figure-painting; in 
his essay on " Landscape, trees and rocks " he 
confines himself to retrospect and anecdote. He 
begins by complaining of the lack of realism in 
landscape-painting previous to W^u Tao-tzii : 
" The peaks of their mountains were like the 
teeth of a comb ; their water does not look as if 
anything would float on it ; the men are larger 
than the mountains"! " Tiie revolution in 
landscape painting began with Wu, and was 
completed by Li Ssij-hsiin and his son ". But 
in what this revolution consisted Chang does not 
tell us. 

The copy of Chang Yen-yiian 's works which I 
have used was kindly lent to me by Professor 
Osvald Siren. 

dence of age, and the laces have the distinction 
of supreme technical refinement, the rugs appeal 
to our attention by virtue of their ornamentation 
and their warm, deep, brilliant, but none the less 
harmonious, colouring. 

The technical processes employed in the 
making of ryas resemble those of the Oriental 
weavers. In the ornamental motives, too, manv 





analogies may be found with Oriental carpets. 
The art of weaving ryas has not, however, been 
introduced into Finland from the East. On the 
contrary, all the evidence is proving that these 
rugs were brought into the country by the 
Swedes. They were first used as wall-coverings 
in the castles of the aristocracy, later on they 
were employed in the parsonages, and at last, 
about the-end of the eighteenth century, they 
took their place in the rooms of the well-to-do 

In the patterns of comparatively modern 
peasant rugs ornamental motives are met with 
which can be identified on the samplers of 
Swedish ladies of the eighteenth century. 
.\lthough the Finnish rya may thus be con- 
sidered as foreign in its origin, the peasant 
weavers have, however, expressed their own 
likings and taste in the colour composition. And 
these rugs have preserved their national char- 
acter well because of the laudable conservatism 
with which the weavers have stuck to the old 
vegetable dye-stuffs of local origin. It is even 
known that at the end of the eighteenth century 
the peasants in some parishes decided at their 
vestry meetings " to refrain from buying any 
colour stuffs from the town shops, and restrict 
themselves to such colours as could be prepared 
at home from roots, flowers or leaves." 

The rya appears to have been in Finland some- 


HE furniture of the Italian Renais- 
sance occupies a high position 
among what are known as the 
"industrial arts". Yet, while the 
furniture of most other countries, 
France or England, Germany or the Nether- 
lands, has received its share of attention, that of 
Italy at its golden period, the Renaissance, has, 
previous to this, been unaccountably neglected. 
We have, it is true, Bode's small monograph 
and Schubring's book on chests; but for satis- 
factory illustrations of the subject our only 
sources of supply have been the .sale catalogues 
of the Davanzati, \'illa Pia, Volpi and Bardini 
collections. Even these at best are but make- 
shifts, and as the recent sales of those collections 
took place in New York and most of them during 
the war — when attention was largely turned in 
other directions — the catalogues themselves, rare 
even in America, are practically unobtainable in 
this country. The large work of two hundred 
plates which Messrs. Helburn. of New York, 
have now published will go some wav towards 
su pplying this want.* T he practical value of a 

* Italian Furniture and Interiors, 200 PI., in 10 pts. ; texi 
by G.eorge Leland Hunter. $30 ; separate parts .S3. (William 
Helburn Inc., New York). 

thing of a social institution, for there are docu- 
ments to prove that it was generally given away 
as dowry or as a morning gift. In token of this 
the young bride's initials, and the date of her 
wedding, have often been woven into the pattern 
of the rug. It is significant, too, that figures 
of a man and a woman are very generally to be 
found on ryas, and it ma\- be that the old (Oriental 
tree of life has accjuired a new and appropriate 
symbolism when it appears — often changed into 
a tulip in a flower pot — between some anthropo- 
morphic design on the bridal rugs of Finnish 

The weaving of ryas is nowadays falling out of 
use among Finnish peasants, though efforts are 
made to revive the craft, and to collect old and 
valuable rugs. Last autumn an exhibition of 
ryas was held at the private Art Gallery 
in Helsingfors, the Galerie Horhammer. A 
catalogue raisonn^ of the specimens exposed was 
published, and it is from the introduction to this 
catalogue (written by Dr. U. Sirelius, director 
of the Ethnographic Department of the National 
Museum) that the above statements have been 

It is the intention of the proprietor of the 
Galerie Horhammer to publish in the near future 
a book on Finnish ryas, with text in English or 
French, and with coloured reproductions of some 
of the oldest and rugs. 

portfolio such as this, comprised of large well- 
printed plates, is unquestioned. Carefully 
chosen reproductions of this kind are likely to be 
helpful, as Mr. George Leland Hunter observes 
in his short introduction, "to those who have 
homes to furnish, and they are indispensable 
to architects, decorators, designers, students, 
teachers, libraries, and manufacturers ". 

There can be little question of the influence 
that the direct study of the early Italian Renais- 
sance, as manifested in its furniture, has exer- 
cised in the present decorative revival in the 
United States; and the distinguished work of 
certain eminent American architects and de- 
signers of recent years, such as the late Stanford 
\Vhiie and Mr. Charles H. Piatt, bears abun- 
dant evidence of its source of inspiration. 

This interest in Italian furniture and decora- 
tion was responsible for the carrying over and 
disposal in New York of the important collec- 
tions already referred to. Among the most 
interesting of these were the ancient furnishings 
which Signor \'olpi had gradually brought 
together and arranged with real artistic skill in 
the Davanzati Palace in Florence. Visitors to 
Florence who knew this fine old house, with its 


rare specimens of tiirnimre, cannot but regrci 
the dispersal of the contents. Photographs for- 
tunately were made while these were still in 
place; and the series of views of the Palace here 
given, together with a number of other furnishiil 
interiors, such as the X'illa Palmieri, the \'inci- 
gliata Palace, Florence, and the Art Museum, 
Cittc^ di Castello, form perhaps the most valuable 
and suggestive section of the i)ul)licaiion. A 
quarter of the volume is allotted to views of this 
kind, the remainder of the plates being equally 
divided into four separate groups of furniture : 
tables and picture frames, chairs and benches, 
cabinets, and chests. Of these, the last were 
unquestionably the most important on account 
of the leading part they played as articles of 
furniture in early times. In turning over the 
plates one cannot fail to notice the frequency 
with which the title " X'ictoria and Albert 
Museum" occurs beneath the specimens illus- 
trated. The wealth of the Museum in Renais- 
sance chests, in particular, is due to the sagacity 
of its founders some sixty or more years ago, who 
were responsible at the same time for the mag- 
nificent collection of Italian sculpture which is 
one of the chief glories of the Museum. The 
series of chests, carved for the most part with 
figure subjects, which are shown there side by 
side with the sculpture, is probably the finest 
either inside or outside Italy. 

These chests, as is known, were generally 
made in pairs as wedding presents for the bride, 
to hold her trousseau. As showing the advan- 
tageous terms at which specimens of these were 
procured for the Museum in its early days, it is 
interesting to record that the pair of chests {cas- 
soni), one of which, carved with figures emblem- 
atical of Spring and Summer, is shown on plate 
193 of this publication, were purchased in the 
year 1861 for the modest sum of forty-six pounds. 
The same price, again, was paid for the sump- 
tuous chest on plate 198, along with a second 
chest which forms its fellow; while the great 
Florentine coffer-bench (casa-panca), enriched 
with carving and intarsia work, illustrated on the 
plate following,** cost the Museum in 1859 no 
more than fourteen pounds. 

When the coat-of-arms of the bride, as some- 

* 'Unfortunately (through no fault of the publishers) by 
rather a poor photograph. 

times happens, is placed on one of these chests 
and that of the bridegroom on the other, it has 
been found possible to identify not only the 
families who commissioned ihem, but the actual 
date when they were made. A striking instance 
of this is the chest in tiie X'ictoria and .Albert 
Museum here reproduced [Plate a], which bears 
the arms of the Deltini family. The chest which 
forms its pair is carved with the arms of the 
Lancellolti family of Rome; and research has 
brought to light the record of the marriage of u 
certain Julia, of the house of Deltini, with Paul 
Lancellolti, which took place in 1570. It has 
since been ascertained that this pair of cassoni 
was actually sold about a century ago from the 
Palace of Prince Lancellolti in Rome. In the 
case of the chest already referred to, carved with 
figures of Spring and Summer [Pi,atk b], and 
its pendant, which has figures representing 
Autumn and Winter, the heraldic shield on both 
of them takes the form of an impalement of the 
coat-of-arms of the husband and wife. It repre- 
sents the Bentivoglio device impaled with the 
arms of Sforza, Count of Santa Fiora ; and recent 
research has led to the discovery of the marriage, 
about the year 1540, of Count Gianfranccsco 
Bentivoglio, of Gubbio, with Giustina, daughter 
of Bosio Sforza, Count of Santa Fiora. 

These sumptuous pieces are of more particular 
interest to the student of Italian art. But from 
the practical point of view the simpler ones which 
depend for their effects upon plain mouldings 
will be found of special value to the craftsman 
and designer. This applies above all to some of 
the examples of Tuscan furniture, in the form of 
cupboards and cabinets, framed tables and move- 
able chairs. To a chest on a stand and 
open it by the front falling forward, or opening 
as a pair of doors, was the evolutionary process 
which made a coffer into a cabinet; and several 
examples of cabinets are illustrated. A large 
variety of simple tables are reproduced; others 
show great richness of detail, as for instance 
" the ingenious and wonderfully beautiful 
writing-table of the i6th century " in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum (on plate 71), which is 
singled out by Mr. Hunter for special commen- 
dation. The series of illustrations of chairs, 
which occupies some forty plates, give a wide 
and remarkably complete survey of the different 
types used in Italy in Renaissance times. 


N these times of unrest, events of 
artistic interest which would have 
found ready chroniclers in quieter 
days, have been inevitably over- 
isaa looked. But better late than never. 

The object of this article is to draw attention 
to an important discovery made, not long ago, 
of two pictures painted by Michael Pacher, 
which have found a permanent home in the 
National Gallery in \'ienna. 










A The Marriage of the I'irf^iii. hv \\u-h:\e\rncher. (Natidiial (;allrrv, N'icnna) 

B The Flagellation of Christ, bv -Michael I'acher. (National Gallerx, X'icnna) 

Michael Pacher 

Though Pacher (the eminent Tirolese painter 
and wood-sculptor who flourished in the second 
half of the 15th century) has no such high- 
sounding name as Diirer, who came after him, 
he stands in the highest esteem on the Conti- 
nent, and, even on this side of the Channel, not 
a few students are acquainted, through graphic 
reproductions at least, with the noble treasures 
of his plastic and pictorial art on the altarpiece 
in the Church at St. Wolfgang. There is no 
finer example of late Gothic carving in wood in 
Central Europe than this chef d'ceuvre of the 

For several reasons the discovery of the two 
Vienna pictures will be hailed with satisfaction 
by the scholar. 

Very few undoubted paintings by Michael 
Pacher are known. The coming to light of new 
ones is almost as rare an occurrence as the visits 
of angels here below, but at last there are two 
fresh examples. 

A stimulus such as that which they will bring 
to the study of Pacher's works, has been sorely 
needed, especially to disperse the cloud of 
Olympic dust with which the horizon of know- 
ledge has been obscured, during the last few 
decades, by certain leaders of controversy abroad 
as to some cases of disputed authorship. Each 
of his two artistic birthrights has been, in turn, 
stripped from his personality. One writer chal- 
lenges his claim to be a painter, another has 
attempted to invalidate his title to be a wood- 
carver. Unless these iconoclasts of criticism, 
which is at variance with contemporary testi- 
mony and tradition, are shown to be wrong by 
concrete examples of Pacher's work, such as the 
Vienna pictures, there is a danger of his being 
some day reduced to a mere shadow of his real 
self. Within the self-imposed limits of this 
article only his achievement as a painter will 
be dealt with, as it appeals to the art-historian 
in particular. 

Pacher is a most interesting figure in art- 
history. Even among men of true creative 
imagination it is rare to find the type of genius 
which has the faculty of reconciling apparently 
opposite ideals. In music, Mozart, in literature, 
Heine exemplify it. The poet grafted the ease 
and grace of the French language upon the 
genius of his native tongue. The composer 
blended harmoniously the northern and southern 
musical spirit. Analogously, the painting of 
Michael Pacher, in some of its manifestations, 
exhibits the phenomenon of fusion of ideals, his 
aim being to fuse the Art of the North and the 
Art of the South of Europe. 

This ideal was thrust, as it were, upon the 
early painters of the humble Tirolese School by 
the geographical situation of their country, 
which lies intermediate between Germany to the 
North and Italy in the South. They consist- 

ently strove after this aspiration, leaning now 
more towards Northern, now more towards 
Southern teaching. But Michael Pacher is the 
only exponent of his native school who worthily 
upheld the Tirolese ideal and, whilst realising 
it, retained his own originality of style and 

To return to the two Vienna pictures, the sub- 
ject of the one is the Marriage of the Virgin 
[Plate a]. One sees the Virgin and S. 
Joseph in the centre before the High Priest, who 
joins their hands. In spite of the overcrowding 
tendency, the composition is as dignified in 
execution as it is noble in conception. The 
other picture shows the Flagellation of Christ 
[Plate b] . Christ is seen at the pillar between 
two soldiers. In the right background, Pilate 
is shown conversing with a Pharisee. The 
refinement of feeling and handling of this sim- 
pler composition makes us condone a certain 
exaggeration in the poignantly tragic rendering 
of it. 

Presumably both these paintings, originally, 
formed together the front and back of a single 
panel, painted on both sides. One may conjec- 
ture that it occupied a place on one of the 
shutters, folding over the main shrine of an altar- 
piece. Living in the age of the reign of the 
Folding-Altar in Central Europe, which dawned 
with the beginning of the 15th century ("that 
solemn fifteenth century ", as Walter Pater 
styles it, with reference to its artistic taste), 
Pacher turned out one altar-piece after another, 
in his workshop at Bruneck, in the Gothic style, 
making this branch of art the speciality of his 
artistic activity. And it is evidently to one of 
his lost altar-pieces (most of them have unfortu- 
nately gone astray) that the pair of Vienna 
panels belonged, before they were divided for 
better preservation. Each measures i m. 13 cm. 
in height and i m. 39cm. in width. 

It has been plausibly suggested that the 
original height was greater : in other words, that 
more than a third of each panel, at the lower 
end, has been cut off. Internal evidence of 
composition appears to favour this view. 

With regard to Pacher's panel with the 
Marriage of the Virgin, it should be remembered 
that to paint, as the later Venetians did, who 
were masters of pictorial representation, a group 
of personages as half-figures, was foreign to the 
conception of art peculiar to him, as well as 
foreign to the spirit of his age and school. On 
the other hand, it would have been consonant 
with the symbolical meaning of the picture, for 
the clasped hands of Joseph and the Virgin to 
be the centre of the composition, not only as 
regards width, but also with reference to height. 
The effect of its architectural setting (the nave of 
a Gothic Church) would also be more impre.s- 
sive, if the whole view of the figures, with the 


floor under their feet visible, were disclosed, 
instead ol merely half the view. 

A close examination of the panel with the 
Flagellation of Christ conhrnis the conclusion 
arrived at in the case of the companion-panel. 
Had it retained its original height, the ensemble 
would be still more telling than it is. The 
central hjiure of Christ was evidently meant to 
be seen at a higher elevation than it occupies in 
the now curtailed composition. 

Though the writer is not in a position to offer, 
at present, detailed critical comments upon the 
Vienna pictures, or their stylistic and colouristic 
affinities with Pacher's other works, close 
scrutiny, by the aid of graphic reproduction, 
of the northern types of faces, the expression, 
the hands, the poses of the figures and the treat- 
ment of drapery found in both works, have con- 
vinced him that the Director of the National 
Gallery in Vienna, Herr Haberditzl,' is amply 
justified in ascribing them to Pacher. Accord- 

nr NT Haberditzl — Zwei Altarhilder von Michael Pacher 
in der Oesterreichischcn Staatsgalcrie. See die Bildenden 
Kiinste, Wiener Monatshefte. II Jahrgang, Heft 1/2 pages 


Irish Guass, An .Account of Glass-Makino in Ireland from 
THE 16TH Century to the Present Day. By M. S. Dudley 
Westropp, M.R.I..'\. Profusely illustrated. (Herbert 
Jenkins). 1920. 63s. n. 

This book is an elaboration of the Author's 
excellent Guide to the Irish glass in the Dublin 
Museum (1913). Hartshorne wrote but one 
rather brief chapter on " Irish Glass ", and 
though he was familiar with some of the earlier 
records and documents (including George 
Longe's Petition of 1589), his generalisations as 
to the Irish Glass-Houses and their products 
were not supported by any detailed information 
such as that which Mr. Dudley Westropp now 
publishes as the result of twenty years' patient 
and careful research. He marshals a long pro- 
cession of names, dates and localities which is 
in itself a skeleton history of the Glass-Houses 
working in Ireland in the i8th and 19th cen- 
turies, but the skeleton is clothed with a mass of 
interesting detail relating to the principal of 
these Houses, their establishment and various 
changes of ownership, the kinds of glass articles 
produced at each, the extent of English influence 
on glass manufacture in Ireland, and so on. 

Mr. Westropp successfully explodes many 
popular fallacies, e.g., that all old glass found 
in Ireland is Irish, that Irish glass is mostly 
of "very early " date, that the greater part of it 
is "Waterford", that Waterford glass has a 
more or less pronounced blue tinge, etc. Except 
in Dublin, where glass was made to a varying 
extent all through the i8th century, the glass 
industry in Ireland did not start on a large scale 

ing to this learned critic, they illustrate a phase 
of Pacher's ])ainting which is intermediate 
between his earlier manner, exemj)lilied by the 
cyclus of six panels illustrative of the Infancy 
of Christ, inside the altar-piece of St. Wolfgang, 
and the later jianels of the Fathers ol the 
Church, forming together a triptych, in the 
Munich Gallery (.Alte Pinakothek). 

An instructive sidelight is shed upon, what 
has been described as the singularity of Pacher's 
aims as a painter (namely, the close fusion of the 
Art of the North and the South) by one of the 
groups of figures in the composition of the 
Flagellation [Plate b] . The two soldiers, 
between whom Christ stands in the picture, have 
an unmistakably Mantegnesquc aspect, which 
recalls the fact that the teaching of the great 
Paduan crossed the Alps and made many con- 
verts among the early Tirolese artists. In the 
light of the fresh revelation of Pacher's talent, 
as seen in the \'ienna pictures, it will doubtless 
be easier in future to follow his evolution, a task 
which the scarcity of his uncontested works 
made almost impossible in the past. 

until about 1780, when the prohibition against 
the export of Irish glass was removed. This 
particularly applies to Cork, Waterford and Bel- 
fast, where flint glass was produced from about 
that time to various dates near the middle of the 
19th century. The greater part of the output of 
these Houses, at any rate, and probably of all 
the old Irish glass still in existence, must there- 
fore have been 19th century work, and some fine ' 
pieces of Irish cut glass must even be " Early 
Victorian " ! The single House at Waterford, 
started by the Penroses in 1783 and ending with 
George Gatchell in 1851, can have produced but 
a small proportion of the glass made in Ireland 
during that period, when at least eight or nine 
other Glass-Houses were also at work. This is 
confirmed by the respective export figures for the 
various glass centres (1781-1811) compiled by 
Mr. Westropp from the Custom House books, 
which also show that a large part of the whole 
output of glass manufactured after 1780 in Ire- 
land was exported to America, the West Indies, 
and elsewhere, and consecjuently much of the 
glass now found in Ireland and sold as Irish is 
in reality English glass which was, as Mr. 
Westropp also shows, imported in very consider- 
able quantities. 

In all these circumstances it is evident that of 
the comparatively small amount of real Irish 
glass now to be found in Ireland not a very great 
deal is i8th century work and only a small pro- 
portion of the whole is actually "Waterford". 
The plain truth is that " Waterford " has be- 


come a mere trade-label, like " Chippendale " 
or "Sheraton ", and is in general used either 
ignorantlv or dishonestly. As to the blue tinge 
Mr. Westropp establishes pretty conclusively 
that this was simply an accident which might 
occur in anv pot of metal, whether at the Water- 
ford Glass-House or at any other. That it was 
not intentionally produced at Waterford is 
shown bv authentic pieces made of fine white 
metal and marked " Penrose, Waterford ". 

There is, at first sight, one conspicuous omis- 
sion in this book, viz., old drinking glasses. The 
explanation is simple. The earlier Dublin 
Glass-Houses. in producing the drinking 
glasses of their day, followed, as their advertise- 
ments proclaimed, the " newest London pat- 
terns", whilst the later Houses at Cork, Belfast 
and Waterford employed English workmen and 
English materials and made drinking glasses 
from 1780 onwards practically indistinguishable 
in tvpe or metal from those being made at Stour- 
bridge or Bristol. As in the of other glass 
vessels, great numbers of English drinking 
glasses were also imported into Ireland during 
the century. Mr. Westropp therefore wisely 
refrains from attempting to earmark any kinds 
or types of wine glasses, etc., as peculiarly Irish, 
and to have dealt with glasses which might well 
be common to England and Ireland would have 
been traversing well-worn ground and would 
have detracted from the originality of his work 
without perhaps adding very much to what is 
already known as to the drinking glasses of the 

There is, however, obviously one kind of 
drinking glass which was most probably pro- 
duced in some numbers in Ireland — the so-called 
" Williamite " glasses described in his chapter 
on Irish glass by Hartshorne, who appears to 
have invented the barbarous compound " Wil- 
liamite". ("Orange" is surely a more eupho- 
nious and significant epithet). In a brief men- 
tion of these " Glorious Memory " glasses Mr. 
Westropp says (p. 202) that they are found as 
late as the first half of the 19th century. This is 
perfectly true, and it is a fact not realised by 
many people who have been led by the term 
" Williamite" to think that these glasses had 
the same sort of personal or dynastic significance 
as the Jacobite glasses. They were of course 
purely political in the narrowest sense, and were 
made for the anti-Catholic partv in England as 
well as Ireland long after the public had ceased 
to take much interest in Dutch William. 

In 1826 Lord Eldon, after practically killing 
the Catholic Emancipation Bill of that day bv 
his speech in the House of Lords, was univer- 
sally feted by all the Protestant grandees, and 
in describing " a most sumptuous and splendid 
set-out at the Duke of York's, twenty four rejoic- 

ing Protestants round the table", he says that 
they drank " the glorious and immortal memory 
of William III — but without noise or riot". 
(Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vol. vii, 
p. 414). Mr. Westropp figures a " Glorious 
Memory " rummer [Plate XXXVIII], which 
he correctly dates about 1820-30, and glasses of 
this type may well have been used at the Duke 
of York's "set-out". 

The modern Orange glass [Plate XXXII] 
made bv Pugh of Dublin about 1870, is a sad 
monstrosity and was hardly worth illustrating, 
but the Plates, generally, display an admirable 
range of fine pieces, the decanters being particu- 
larly well represented, and the reproductions of 
the Waterford patterns (circ. 1830) for perma- 
nent record gives distinction to a book which is 
in many respects a notable addition to the litera- 
ture of old glass. J. S. RISLEY. 

A Catalogue of Etchings by Augustus John, 1901-1914, by 
Campbell Dodgson. Roy. 410 buckram (Chenil). 151 pp. 
of Plates. £3 3s. n. 

The publication of this illustrated catalogue of 
all the known etchings, 134 in number, by Mr. 
John, is an event which will inspire gratitude in 
everyone interested in etching. The work has 
been admirably produced by Mr. Campbell 
Dodgson, the plates are illustrated in occasion- 
ally as many as four states, while the printing, 
paper and letterpress leave nothing tobe desired. 
Etchings very rarely have a purely aesthetic 
appeal, or are dependent for their value entirely 
upon the aesthetic emotion they produce. They 
have, like all forms of engraving, an association 
with illustration. It is as though the process 
which they have in common with books, of being 
printed, imparted to them a literary value. Be- 
sides their value as illustration, they make 
another appeal — that of a highly skilled tech- 
nique, and they are therefore capable of possess- 
ing purely technical merit from which painting 
in oils is nowadays comparatively free. 

Mr. John is fortunate in being able to appeal 
to these three forms of appreciation, and it is 
noteworthy that precisely as he satisfies each one 
of them, he satisfies the others. For Mr. John 
is an example of a kind of artist one finds less 
frequently in the plastic arts than in music — an 
artist possessing a real and great talent which is 
not primarily an imaginative or at all a revo- 
lutionary one. 

Where he gives rein to his imagination — 
where as an artist he experiments — he fails, and 
it is when he is held in check, or one might 
almost say, held together, by the limitations of 
medium and subject, that he succeeds. It is for 
this reason that he is at his best in his drawings 
from life, in his portraits, and as the present 
catalogue shows, in his etchings. The choice 
of a definite subject, such as a man's head, and 


the small size of the plalc hv employs, ihus help 
rather than iiimler, so that what at first sit;hi 
seem to he its fetters are really a sort <if 
skeleton which supports his genius. In ilic 
majority of the etrhintjs there has heen a Knish 
use of dry point in the later states, anti (xcasion- 
allv there has been too miuh work done on ihr 
plates, so that the earlier states have greaici 
vigour, clarity and directness. Many of the 
plates were allowed to lie about and became 
.scratched or covered with verdigris, and some of 
the best etchings bear the evidence of ilicir 
neglect, particularly in a dark toned background. 
The catalogue is divided naturally according to 
the subject, as <'i strictiv chronological order has 
not been possible owing to lack of information. 
The etchings are thus divided into studies of 
heads, nudes, imaginative, or perhaps one 
should say, fanciful compositions and miscel- 
laneous sketches, landscapes, etc. 

It is in the portraits that Mr. John reaches his 
highest level, especially perhaps in those with a 
.slight tendency to caricature. Among his male 
portraits both heads of Wvndham Lewis, of 
Charles MacEvoy, and of a gipsy — Benjamin 
Boswell, are masterpieces of a high order which 
will even bear some slight comparison with the 
greatest of Mr. John's masters — Rembrandt. In 
this first .section of the book all are good. 
The Old Man of Liverpool and the frontispiece, 
a portrait of the artist, .should perhaps also be 
mentioned as particularly successful. In the 
portraits of women this high .standard is main- 
tained. The lady in the fur cloak of so early a 
date as 1901 shows that the has had 
nothing to learn for many years. Another earlv 
plate, Gwendolen, a portrait of the artist's sister, 
shows greater originality. It is in manv wavs 
the most intere.sting thing he has done. Others 
of outstanding merit are Avne -with a feathered 
hat. and The Pheasant. But the high level 
which Mr. John maintains throughout the 
portraits de.serts him entirelv in his etchings of 
the nude, only one of which. The Woman in the 
Arbour, is a successful piece of work. The more 
fanciful Mr. John becomes, the more he strains 
to compose or to invent, the more he infuses 
into his work a strange unexpected feebleness. 
This is present in almost all the original com- 
positions. In the landscapes and sketches of 
gipsy vans he is better, but with the exception 
of one plate, A Man seated by a Camp-fire, there 
is nothing of particular excellence. 

It would seem that Mr. John is an artist whose 
faculties slumber unless they are aroused by an 
external object which interests him intenselv, 
and that the only subject w^hich can awaken the 
highest degree of interest in him is the person- 
ality of another human being, and that is onlv 
saying in a roundabout way that Mr. John has 

literar\' instincts and the literary method of ap- 

To say that is by no means a liostile criticism ; 
it is .something that he shares with many of the 
greatest ma.sters, but it .separates him .sharply 
from the living art of his own day. This leads 
us to the consideration of Mr. John's jilace 
among the living, and among the dead. 

\n .American critic has recently announced as 
a principle of a\sthelic that "what happenswhen 
a new work of art is created is something that 
hajipens simultaneou.sly to all the works of art 
that |)receded it ". By this standard Mr. John's 
work is not new. It belongs to the past, though 
it does not modify our view of the past. Thus 
it is capable of affecting the current of modern 
painting as little as would the discovery of a 
hitherto unknown pupil of Rembrandt. 

It cannot influence what is growing up to-day, 
for it has added and can add nothing new to the 
existing heritage. It does not contain original 
ideas. But this is not a measure of the delight 
which it can furnish, nor of its ultimate value, we decide that the really great artist can 
never be entirely the child of another age. d. g. 

Domestic Life in Scotland (1488-16S8), by John Warrack 
(Methuen). 7s. 6d. 

Mr. Warrack is to be congratulated on finding 
a new subject to write a book about, though 
domestic life in Scotland seems to have been 
very much like domestic life everywhere else. 
Mr. Warrack should have tried to find out where 
Scottish life differed from the life of other coun- 
tries. After all, tea, coffee and cocoa, periwigs, 
powder and Sedan chairs were known to others 
than the burghers of Edinburgh. Still Mr. 
Warrack writes once more in a lively fashion 
about the troubles of the Scotch, and there are 
some nice illustrations of interiors, woodwork, 
i6th century embroidery, etc. F. b. 

The Silver Coinage of Crete. A Metrolooical Note. By 
George Macdonald, C.B. 30 pp., i plate. Milford. 4s. n. 

This reprint of Dr. Macdonald's paper from 
the Proceedings of the British Academy is con- 
cerned not with the art of Cretan coins, but with 
their weight-standards, to the study of which it 
makes a very important contribution, applying 
the newest method of investigation. It becomes 
clear that two, or even three different standards 
were employed at the same town, and not always 
distinguished by obvious differences of type. 
Like most real advances. Dr. Macdonald's dis- 
covery has not made the task of the numismatist 
any easier. 

CARPET Knotting and Weaving. — Tt may be 
of interest to state that this book, reviewed in our 
last issue, is the work of Mr. Cecil Tatter.sall, of 
the Dept. of Textiles at the Victoria and .Mhert 



The Re-opening of the Wallace Collec- 
tion. — The re-opening of Hertford House, to 
judge by the daily crowds that press their way 
through the galleries, has been enthusiastically 
welcomed by the public. And the public, from 
whom part at least of the Wallace Collection 
has been withdrawn for more than seven years, 
has every reason to show its satisfaction. Of all 
the London galleries this is perhaps the one most 
calculated by its arrangements to appeal to the 
general public rather than to students or crafts- 
men. To a large extent Hertford House pre- 
serves the amenities of a palace furnished with 
masterpieces for the most part of an obviously 
sumptuous order, so that Boucher's large pic- 
tures and Riesener's commodes seem to be bask- 
ing in the congenial atmosphere for which they 
were created. 

The changes which Mr. MacColl has taken 
this opportunity of introducing tend to empha- 
sise this aspect of the collection. They are 
lucidly set out in the little pamphlet report that 
he has prepared, and they have been discussed 
tea considerable extent in the Press, so there is 
no need to go into them in detail here. Every- 
bodv will appreciate the improvement in the two 
main picture galleries which have been re-opened 
(the large gallery is still closed). The new 
lighting is most successful, the lowering of the 
roofs has sensibly improved the proportions of 
the rooms and the warm ivory of the canvas on 
the walls is in itself delightful to the eye. Light 
backgrounds, in an atmosphere that is too often 
gloomv, are undeniably attractive; though even 
apart from the difficulty of keeping them clean, 
it is bv no means everv picture that looks its 
best against them. And it is impossible not to 
wonder what those walls will look like after a 
couple of London winters, especially if any of 
the pictures have to be moved. 

The three new rooms which have been opened 
on the top floor represent a gain in space which 
has most eflfectivelv reacted on the conditions of 
the main rooms below. The closing of super- 
fluous doorways between the rooms has given a 
little more precious wall space for exhibition pur- 
poses, and room has been found for a few inter- 
esting works of art which have never before been 
made accessible to the public. One of the most 
attractive of these is the terra cotta model by 
Robert Guillaume Dardel (1749-1821) for a 
monument to Descartes, which has been 
placed in an intercolumniation between Gal- 
leries I and n. Dardel, a pupil of Pajon, 
seems to have specialised in such retrospective 
sketches for monuments, probably with little 
prospect of their being carried out on a larger 
scale; this particular terra cotta was exhibited 
at the Salon in 1782. 

The decoration of the magnificent grand stair- 
case has been completely changed by the re- 
moval of the family portrait busts to a special 
room dedicated to the founders of the collection. 
Instead of them, the Coyswox bust of Louis 
XIV and the two incomparable portraits by 
Houdon of Madame de Serilly and Madame 
Victoire de France now adorn the main landing 
and the two smaller landings on a slightly higher 
level to each side of it. The Louis XIV bust 
certainly shows there to great advantage. But 
one can hardly help feeling that the two Hcni- 
don busts deserved a more restful place. They 
must surely rank among the supreme examples 
of extant portraiture in marble, and it is a little 
difficult for a visitor to give them the attention 
they deserve in their pre.sent position without 
becoming a nuisance to his fellows. 

A minor criticism that might perhaps be made 
of the new arrangement concerns the Sevres por- 
celain. Hertford House is almost inconveni- 
ently rich in this sumptuous ware, and it is not 
very easy to place it in harmonious surround- 
ings. But it certainly does not marry at all hap- 
pily with Oriental armour, and still less with 
the Renaissance jewels with which it has at pre- 
sent to share a case in Gallery XII. 

But when all such carping objections have 
been made the general gain to the collection is 
undoubted. There are pictures like the exqui- 
site little Guardi in Gallery XII and the two 
Boucher pastorals in Gallery XVIII that are 
revelations of beauty in their new positions. The 
public can re-enter with an added satisfaction 
into the enjovment of their recovered property, 
and await with fortified patience the revised and 
renumbered catalogue of sculpture, miniatures, 
furniture, and objects of art which Mr. MacColl 
has promised us. eric maclagan. 

Etchings and Wood Engravings. — Three 
exhibitions of these processes are being held at 
the present time. The first, at the Leicester 
Galleries, is of Modern Masters of Etching, with 
special reference to the work of the late Anders 
Zorn ; the second, at Messrs. Colnaghi tSt Co., 
is a collection of etchings and woodcuts by 
Auguste Lepere, and the third, at the Chenil 
Gallery, is the First Annual Exhibition of the 
Society of Wood Engravers. 

These considered together give some interest- 
ing indications of the direction in which modern 
etching and engraving are moving. The work 
of Zorn is too well known to need description. 
Comparison with his contemporaries and suc- 
cessors suggests that he is a rather isolated 
figure, one of a small group who sought to adapt 
the technique of etching to the purposes of the 


Impressionist School of Monet. I?y tin- use ul 
open parallel lines and avoitlanoe of oiilline, 
Zorn managed to surround his figures with lii;ht 
and air. But in so doing he often siicrilued 
striKture, especially in his nudes, and allowed 
his method to degenerate into a recipe. His 
portraits are probably his work. In con- 
trast to Zorn, most modern etchers cling to the 
traditional use ot line, in the manner of Rem- 
brandt and Goya. The examples by Whistler 
anil Seymour Haden exhibitcti at the Leicester 
Galleries show that, in England at least, there 
is an unbroken descent from the older masters. 
In technique, the work exhibited by Mr. 
Cameron, Mr. Rone, Mr. McBey, and others, 
leaves nothing to be desired; but it lacks indi- 
viduality and often expresses the veriest com- 
monplaces. Some of the Frenchmen, on the 
other hand, notably M. Dufresne, show feeling 
for design and form, but do not reallv under- 
stand their medium. Their work might almost 
as well have been done with the pen. It is when 
technical power is united to vision, as in the 
of Forain, tnat great work results. 

Wood engraving seems to be following a 
similar course to etching, in abandoning the 
methods of the last generation in favour of those 
emploved bv older masters. As examples of 
technique, the wood engraving of the late 
Auguste Lep^re could hardly be beaten. He 
shows a mastery in rendering delicate inter- 
mingling tones, which gives great luminosity 
and atmosphere to his work. Yet towards the 
end of his life he abandoned the method he had 
used so successfully, as though he recognised 
that it did not give the medium its full scope, 
and took to the use of liiie and broad masses ot 
black and white. This is the technique adopted 
by most members of the Society of Wood En- 
gravers. Mrs. Raverat and Mr. John Nash 
sometimes use tones in the way that Lepere used 
them. In the case of Mr. Gibbings, the other 
extreme is reached and simplification is pushed 
«o far as to give nothing but a very flat pattern. 
The possibilities of the medium are more ade- 
quately explored by Mr. Ethelbert White, Mr. 
Nash, and M. Lucien Pissarro. Mr. Sydney 
Lee's work is too much like inferior etching to be 
satisfactory. w. G. c. 

Leicester Galleries. — Paintings and draw- 
ings by Pamela Bianco. Paintings by C. 
Maresco Pearce. — There is no doubt about Miss 
Pamela Bianco's skill. For a child of fourteen 
her work is extraordinary. But it is not certain 
whether it amounts to more than clever mimicry. 
Mr. Pearce's latest paintings are certainly more 
interesting than the tinted architectural drawings 
and landscapes in a Japanese convention which 
he used to produce. Both in subject and treat- 

ment he is now toiling rather painfully in llic 
wake of the modern French School, with a 
glance towards Belgian Iniiiicssionism. His 
vivid colour is agreeable, though rather mean- 
ingless, and there is little sense of space in his 
[lictures. "' '' "" 

\v. (i. c. 

Mansard Gallery. Messus. Hem.. Old 
and Modern Toys. — Industry may be revolution- 
ized, the conventions of art transformed ; but the 
maker of toys in all countries and in all ages 
plies his craft in much the same way. Tradition 
may have lost its force elsewhere ; but in the 
manufacture of toys it still reigns supreme. The 
Burme-se baby plays with the same jumping jack 
as his British contemporary, and .some toys of 
modern Tuscany closely resemble the little 
figures found at Knossos. Noah's Ark may be 
indigenous to Christian civilization; but it has 
its counterpart in the It must be that toys 
appeal to some common element in humanity 
which nothing can change or eradicate. The 
variety of the exhibition at the Mansard Gallery 
is surprising; but its homogeneity is even more 
remarkable. Here one sees man and all his 
works reduced to their simplest form — just the 
dominant facts of structure stated. This is sig- 
nificant form indeed. w. a. c. 

Independent Gallery. — An exhibition of 
some fifty pictures in oil and water-colour by 
Mile. Th^r^se Lessore, with a number of repre- 
sentative works by contemporary French 
painters, well sustains the reputation of this 
gallery. Here is no collection of rough sketches 
and experimental canvases, gleaned from the 
studio sweepings of Paris; but well selected 
examples which, whatever their quality, at least 
repre.sent the artist adequately. The work of 
Marchand is tolerably well known in London; 
but the paintings and drawings here serve to 
emphasize its great merits. Among contem- 
porary painters, Marchand has been conspicuous 
for steady adherence to the aim of building up a 
monumental and dignified design in planes, put- 
ting aside the lure of fantastic rhythm and mean- 
ingless colour. This unswerving devotion has 
earned its reward in such drawings as the simple 
yet spacious and structural Environs de Vence; 
and in canvases like La Colle ; Vue panoram- 
iqiie, which, with its great central mass whence 
all the others proceed in logical sequence, con- 
veys an impressive sense of reality. This power 
of using natural forms for creative purposes is 
also shown in the work of Fr^laut, who is 
scarcely known in England. At times he shows 
an anecdotal tendency, and in the Vannes the 
detailed treatment of the town conflicts with the 
broad handling of the foreground trees. But in 
this picture and in La Chapelle he produces 


something very real and solid. Rouault, 
another painter new to London, is represented 
by a boldly designed Paysage, rich and har- 
monious in colour but lacking structure. This 
last is admirably emphasized in Friez's La 
Belle Rose, but the body beneath the dress is 
not felt or expressed so well. A Pay sage by 
Puy is notable for the way in which a number 
of otherwise disconnected objects are welded 
into a harmonious design by a fine sense of space 
and atmosphere. Signac and Segonzac are the 
disappointments of the exhibition. Some of the 
water colours by the former are spotty and care- 
less in design ; and not only are the two Segon- 
zacs heavy in colour, but in the figure subject 
the head seems out of relation to the whole 

Mile. Lessore's work undoubtedly has good 
qualities. The design is almost always vigorous 
and interesting, and shows much skill in utilis- 
ing as part of a pattern such material as lime- 
light rays and the edges of a stage. The colour, 
too, is harmonious and related to the design. 
But there is a sameness in her pictures which 
suggests that they are less the result of a num- 
ber of emotional experiences than a series of 
examples of how a given technical apparatus can 
be used to express one idea. This is most evi- 
dent, perhaps, in the group of caf^ subjects, 
where the device of putting a few big figures 
in the immediate foreground to throw back the 
more distant planes becomes rather wearisome. 
It looks indeed as though Mile. Lessore con- 
ceives her design as a flat pattern and introduces 
a third dimension as an afterthought. A piece- 
meal solidity is thus secured, but the forms are 
not really set in space ; a defect emphasized by 
certain parts of the design sometimes being left 
absolutely flat. Mile. Lessore is more success- 
ful in her theatrical subjects, which enable her 

to create a delicately artificial world more con- 
vincing than her efforts at realism. A word of 
praise is due to the framing and hanging of 
Mile. Lessore's work. It is rare to see frames 
which are at once unobtrusive and serve their 
purpose well. w. G. c. 

GoupiL G.'VLLERY Salon. — This large and mis- 
cellaneous exhibition suggests a revived Inter- 
national Society, leavened by an admixture from 
the New English Art Club. Most of the work 
on view is technically accomplished and con- 
scientiously modern, makes great use of vivid 
local colour, and tends to become a poster ver- 
sion of more popular or more skilful work. The 
more interesting exhibits include some drawings 
by Mr. John, which rouse the wish that he would 
abandon the brush for the pencil. Mr. William 
Nicholson's " Still-lives " are exactly what one 
expects from him, save that the drapery is more 
metallic than usual. Mr. Wilson Steer is repre- 
sented by some delightful water-colours, which 
the underlying pencil drawing saves from the 
formlessness of his work in oil. The Danseuses 
by Forain is interesting in treatment but defec- 
tive in design ; and in the one Matisse, Sur le 
Sofa, though the warm colour is skilfully 
handled, the drawing is not very vigorous or 
expressive. The design of a Cezanne Paysage 
is entirely satisfying, and the colour is rich and 
harmonious; but compared with his best work 
it lacks structure. Other exhibits worth notice 
are a mannered but vigorous V'laminck, and two 
restrained and individual landscapes by Mr. 
Ginner. The examples shown of the work of 
M. Denis and M. Bonnard will not add to their 
reputations. The sculpture exhibits mainly con- 
sist of work by Mr. Eric Gill, simplified in a 
rather mechanical way, and at times so naive in 
design as to become ludicrous. w. G. c. 



Sir, — Dr. Osvald Siren's interpretation of the 
inscription on the Cambridge " desco " with the 
" Justice of Trajan" will not bear examination. 
" Sub Palma " cannot possibly mean " under 
your protection ". If Dr. Sir^n had remem- 
bered his Vulgate, the inscription would have 

recalled to him the well-known text (Ps. 91, 13, 
A. v., Ps. 92, 12) : ivsTvs VT palma florebit — 
The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree. 
This is obviously the right motto for an " ex- 
emplum " of Justice, used as the Trajan story 
was throughout the Middle Ages, svb must 
then be a blunder for vt. 

Yours faithfully, 

George F. Hill. 


Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell, at 34, New 
Bond Street, on February 8th, Persian and Indian miniatures 
from the Kosemberg Collection, some of which were shown at 
the Munich Exhibition of Mahommedan Art, 1910; Persian 
Book-Covers, the property of Charles Fairfax Murray, and 
Mediaeval MSS. of English, French, Flemish, and Italian 
execution. This collection is of unusual importance to ama- 

teurs. The Persian and Indian miniatures are all of e.Tcep- 
tional interest. They include such descriptive subjects as lot 
33, of Gemini, one of the signs of the Zodiac, representing 
two youthful figures in attitudes determined by the motive 
which is not mainly decorative. This drawing is 6^" x 4I", 
on parchment, and belongs to the Timurid School. Another 
conceived in the same vein and designed for the same purpose 


is lot 34. It i^presents the fish-tailod goat. But curious 
works of that kind do not constitute a majority of thr <lraw- 
ings, which are of groat importance from a purely artistic 
standpoint. Two of the latter represent in a naive mannw the 
native warfare of the time. In lot li the whole page is oixu- 
pied by masses of cavalry-soldiers crowded upon one another 
as in the patchwx>rk figures on present-day Ukrainian quilts. 
The subject is the slaying by Rustam of his son in battle and 
dates from the lOth century. The other is lot aS, whoso sub- 
ject is equally gruesome. The decorative elTect is here more 
logically thought out, although the main intontion is to record 
an episode. The drawing is 14J" x 82". A drawing like lot 
1 1 belongs to a class that is well represented in the collection, 
where the subject matter is still more strictly subjected to the 
:usthetic conception, so that the result is an artistic product 
of very considerable dignity and beauty. Kai Khusran is 
represented as seated in a castle with nobles and ladies who 
are being entertained by dancers who perform outside. This 
drawing is in the style of Muhammod Qasim, i6th century. 
These examples represent the main artistic tendencies to be 
found in the Persian miniatuns. .Among the Indian examples, 


the panel (lot loj) of llie Moghul scIukiI, of a luinling scene 
will altraet altonlion. Within a b<)rd<r of beasts and llowers 
carried out in a manner that s|X'uks u( kcvn observation of 
natural lite, are a number of lions and tigers, against which 
are arrayed a row of bullocks mounted by armed hunters. 
B<hind those there is a mass of elephants, on the backs of 
which are noble warriors, one of whom is Shah Jahan. The 
drawing is 19J" x 14J". Some of the European M.SS. are 
also noticeable. 

MiiSSKs. SoTiiEBY, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell, at 34, 
New Bond Street, on February nth, I-urniture and Tapestries, 
etc., various important properties. Included in this sale are 
two remarkable pieces of Elizabethan Needlework, the property 
of the Rt. Hon. Lord St. John of Bletsoo. These arc of great 
beauty, one of them having embodied in the decorative scheme 
three circular panels with a coat of arms and two highly 
efTective animal subjects, the arrangement of which is carried 
out with a decision and grace that places the work quite 
abo\e the average product of the age in which they were pro- 

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Serial Publications will be arranged here according to the ordinary periods of their publication, and only the latest 
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Maxwell (Donald). A Dweller in Mesopotamia. Being 
the adventures of an official artist in the Garden of Eden. 
124 pp. + 28 pi., colour and monotone, + line blocks in 
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May (C. J. Delabere). How to identify Persian Rugs. 
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Centro de Estudios Historicos, Madrid. 

Gomez-Moreno (M.). Inglesias Morarabes. .irte Espagnol 
de los Siglos ix a xi. 2 vols. 407 pp. of text + diagrams 
and 351 pl. respectively. 
Dutton, New York. 

Gallatin (.Albert Eugene). Walter Gay. Paintings of 
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Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, U.S. .A. 
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Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. Collection of Medice- 
val and Renaissance Painting. Ed. Edward W. Forbes, 
Director, 356 pp. + 56 pl. + 2 maps. 32s. 6d. n. We call 
attention to this work as an example of what caii be done 
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authors have devoted a large volume to cataloguing and 
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help of many of its members, and those of the Division 
of Fine Arts at Harvard, have included as a help to 
students a 7vhole history of European painting from the 
days of Byzantium onwards. .4 bibliography is also in- 
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J. H. Ed. Heitz, Strassburg. 

Groner (Dr. .a.). Die Geheimnisse des Isenheimer Altares 
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TIic Adoralioil oj the Kiiii^s, by Pietcr Brueghel, the Elder. 43^' by },lj (NiUional (.allery) 





HE attempt which is now being 
made by the National Art Collections 
Fund to help the Nation to secure 
Brueghel's " Adoration of the 
Kings " will be familiar to 

renders of the Bukmngton Magazine, -- • 

rarity of Brueghel's work, and the su' 

of this example. The illustration .^ 

the grandeur of the design, but nor ' 

richness of the colour, or the 

variety with which the mr<'- -* 

is adaoteH to a new and r ■ 


n 1... 


fr. iin 


r.^it it 

:io can help the 
do so, and that 

.-> queer tricks, and " Peasant '■' 
ias been one of her victims. Far- 
-.remg patronage, or accidental preference, (we 
cannot tell now which it was) brought no less 
than fourteen of his finest paintings into the 
Imperial Collection at Vienna, where his force 
and splendour remained hidden from half the 
world. Fortune also gave him sons and dest:en- 
dants, far less capable but far more prolifi<: 
painters, to the general discredit of the family 
name. Hence the acquisition of even a master- 
piece from his hand, has to be accompanied by a 
certain amount of explanation, before most people 
know that they have to deal with a real master. 
Sixteenth Century Flanders is not in general 
survey an artistic country, but very much the 
reverse. The grave and genuine conviction 
which lies behind the work of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, from Hubert van Eyck to Van der Goes and 
Memling, had weakened at the close of that 
[leiiod under the influence of the commercialism 
of Antwerp. When we come to Mabuse we find 
that art and faith alike have become sterile, con- 
cealing poverty of content by outward elabora- 
tion. E%'en the outburst of the Reformation had 
but little effect on art in Flanders. The heavy 
hand of Spain was not a thing to trifle with, 
so Brueghel is almost alone in his daring. 

His work is one continuotis revolt against blind 
acquiescence in tyranny and in superstition. His 
popularitv was gained by his engraved satires on 
the gree.'^. rhf f.iUr and the ni!arkf!\' of the 

peasant-life about him. When in his las- • • - 
he takes to painting, part of his theme, fo 
a great artist, was the splendour, the c 
and the tragedy of the landscapes he .^ . 
remembered from the days when he made his 
journey over the Alps to Italy. Another part 
was the lusty, vivid and highly coloured life of 
the Flemish peasant. In both these aspects of 
art he is the great forerunner of Rubens. 
Religious pictures, too, were needed, yet even 
here Brueghel would forego neither his satire nor 
his naturalism. That group of horsemen with 
uprai.sed lances, halting motionless in the snow, 
to see that no resistance " ' . ..cre 

at Bethlehem, is no k--. „ : r of 

Spanish tyranny, than the P Calvary 

is of ciir hods of • The 

faith (»f is no tp this 

sati '-.elties anu ; >! in 

thn le Kings " hes 

its ; ification of ous 

onded bo>p 'as- 

•n's natural for 

- (^ the CI-. 1 of 

L,, ,-..-;,.., .,. .-, .,.,^ f,;cture b> .......... at 

Trafalgar .Square, where the significance of the 
Epiphany is smothered by magnificent dresses 
and jewels. Brueghel will have none of this 
idealizing ; he will rather go to the opposite ex- 
treme. Look for example at his Kings. Caspar 
is a superstitious old dotard; Melchior is an un- 
kempt, ill-dressed and dreary being; Balthazar is 
a delightful woolly-headed blackamoor. Joseph 
is a huge cynical peasant, recognising that he is 
in luck, and listening with affected unconcern 
to the gallant who is whispering into his ear 
(Heaven knows what !) Is he bidding for the de- 
lightful nautilus-boat which Balthazar carries, 
and on which the Jew merchant has fixed his 
hungry eyes ? The more we ltx)k at the pictiire, 
the more daring appears the satire. The date, 
1564, may perhaps give a clue to this audacity. 
It -v s the year in which Cardinal Granvelle, 
■nly attempting to force Philip's policy 
i'' people of the Netherlands, was com- 
10 leave the country. Then freedom 
iry triumph. Three years 
'.a came. 

The Burlington MAGA/iKH, Nc 215, Vol. xxviii. January, 1921, 


■(J- '.. 

The Adoration of the Kings, by Pieter Brueghel, the Elder. 43^ by 32^ (National Gallery) 





HE attempt which is now being 
made by the National Art Collections 
Fund to help the Nation to secure 
Brueghel's " Adoration of the 
Kings " will be familiar to most 
readers of the Buki.ington Magazine, as will the 
rarity of Brueghel's work, and the superb quality 
of this example. The illustration will indicate 
the grandeur of the design, but not the glow and 
richness of the colour, or the suppleness and 
variety with which the method of the Van E^'cks 
is adapted to a new and more summary handling. 
The value of the picture to the National Gallery, 
from all points of view, will be so evident that it 
is earnestly to be hoped that all who can help the 
Fund on this occasion will do so, and that 

Fame plays queer tricks, and " Peasant " 
Brueghel has been one of her victims. Far- 
seeing patronage, or accidental preference, (we 
cannot tell now which it was) brought no less 
than fourteen of his finest paintings into the 
Imperial Collection at Vienna, where his force 
and splendour remained hidden from half the 
world. Fortune also gave him sons and descen- 
dants, far less capable but far more prolific 
painters, to the general discredit of the family 
name. Hence the acquisition of even a master- 
piece from his hand, has to be accompanied by a 
certain amount of explanation, before most people 
know that they have to deal with a real master. 
Sixteenth Century Flanders is not in general 
survey an artistic country, but very much the 
reverse. The grave and genuine conviction 
which lies behind the work of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, from Hubert van Eyck to Van der Goes and 
Memling, had weakened at the close of that 
period imder the influence of the commercialism 
of Antwerp. When we come to Mabuse we find 
that art and faith alike have become sterile, con- 
cealing poverty of content by outward elabora- 
tion. Even the outburst of the Reformation had 
but little effect on art in Flanders. The heavy 
hand of Spain was not a thing to trifle with, 
so Brueghel is almost alone in his daring. 

His work is one continuous revolt against blind 
acquiescence in tyranny and in superstition. His 
popularity was gained by his engraved satires on 
the greed, the folly and the quackery of the 

peasant-life about him. When in his last years 
he takes to painting, part of his theme, for he was 
a great artist, was the splendour, the character 
and the tragedy of the landscapes he saw, or 
remembered from the days when he made his 
journey over the Alps to Italy. Another part 
was the lusty, vivid and highly coloured life of 
the Flemish peasant. In both these aspects of 
art he is the great forerunner of Rubens. 
Religious pictures, too, were needed, yet even 
here Brueghel would forego neither his satire nor 
his naturalism. That group of horsemen with 
upraised lances, halting motionless in the snow, 
to see that no resistance is offered to the Massacre 
at Bethlehem, is no less surely a reminder of 
Spanish tyranny, than the Procession to Calvary 
is of current methods of torture and death. The 
faith of the time is no more exempt from this 
satire than are its cruelties and its follies, and in 
the " Adoration of the Kings " the satire reaches 
its climax. In glorification of the miraculous 
birth, faith had been seconded both by ecclesias- 
tical policy, and by man's natural appetite for 
splendid pageantry. We see the culmination of 
this splendour in the big picture by Mabuse, at 
Trafalgar Square, where the significance of the 
Epiphany is smothered by magnificent dresses 
and jewels. Brueghel will have none of this 
idealizing; he will rather go to the opposite ex- 
treme. Look for example at his Kings. Gaspar 
is a superstitious old dotard ; Melchior is an un- 
kempt, ill-dressed and dreary being ; Balthazar is 
a delightful woolly-headed blackamoor. Joseph 
is a huge cynical peasant, recognising that he is 
in luck, and listening with affected unconcern 
to the gallant who is whispering into his ear 
(Heaven knows what !) Is he bidding for the de- 
lightful nautilus-boat which Balthazar carries, 
and on which the Jew merchant has fixed his 
hungry eyes? The more we look at the picture, 
the more daring appears the satire. The date, 
1564, may perhaps give a clue to this audacity. 
It was the year in which Cardinal Granvelle, 
after vainly attempting to force Philip's policy 
upon the people of the Netherlands, was com- 
pelled to leave the country. Then freedom 
enjoyed a momentary triumph. Three years 
later the Duke of Alva came. 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 215, Vol. xxviii. January, 1921. 



(ROM the point of view of the 
Jmalerials employed, the drawings by 
.Paul \^eronese may, roi:ghly speak- 
\ing, he divided into three groups. 
/One is formed by monoclirome brush 
drawings, iieightened with wliite, and of the 
many carefully finished examples of this type, 
which go under Paul Veronese's name, a good 
many are probably in reality only drawings after 
the master. In its finest and freest form, this 
technique is seen in the wonderful study for 
Venice Triumphant which from the collection of 
the Earl of Pembroke passed to that of 
Viscount Lascelles and was shown at the 
Exhibition of Drawings by the Old Masters 
at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 
191 7-18. Another large group among the surviv- 
ing drawings by Paul Veronese is formed by 
studies of single figures, either only heads or 
whole or three-quarter lengths, executed in black 
chalk, the paper often being the characteristic 
green or green-blue Venetian one. 

These two classes of drawings are indeed the 
onlv ones mentioned by Baron von Hadeln in 
his article on Paul Veronese in Thieme-Becker's 
Dictionary' which, brief as it of necessity is in its 
reference to the master's drawings, yet remains 
the only effort to grapple scientifically with this 
fascinating subject as a whole. There exists, 
however, vet another fairly large group of indu- 
bitably authentic drawings by Paul Veronese, 
which hitherto have never been grouped together, 
but to which it seems worth while to draw atten- 
tion, both because of the light which they shed 
on the work and artistic personality of Paul 
Veronese, and because their true authorship has 
not always been recognised. 

The drawings in question comprise a number 
of sketches, executed with pen and sepia and 
washed with sepia, many small studies of figures 
being grouped together on a single sheet. Often 
these figures bear written notes in a hand which, 
from such autograph documents of Paul Veronese 
as are known to exist, can be identified as being 
the master's. Whether some of these sheets 
actually formed part of a sketch book of his, or 
whether he was in the habit of drawing them on 
such scraps of paper as happened to be handy, 
is a matter which perhaps future research may 
determine. Many of these drawings bear the 
marks of distinguished seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth century collectors. Artistically they have 
great attraction through the master's unfailing 
gracefulness and elegance of line and delightful 
use of wash; and they are also of great interest 

1 Thieme-Becker, vol. v. (ign), p. 317- 


as containing the first ideas for many of his well- 
known works. 

The following is a culalogue raisonml of such 
of these drawings as have up to now become 
Ivnown to me : — 

(i) Paris, M. Emile Wauters (27 by 23 cm.) 
This superb sheet of studies for the Martyrdom 
of St. George in the church of San Giorgio in 
Braida at Verona, is reproduced in Mr. Frederic 
Lees' book. The Art of the Great Masters (Lon- 
don, 1913), plate facing p. 50. Seeing that this 
sheet and numljers (2), (3) and (4) are very nearly 
the same size, the idea naturally occurs that they 
may be leaves out of a sketch iDook ; but in view 
of the fact that the drawings on both sides of (2) 
are executed on a letter addressed to PauJ 
Veronese, the hypothesis seems inadmissible, at 
least as regards ail these sheets. 

(2) Paris, M. Emile Wauters (28 by 20 cm.) 
Drawings on both sides of a letter addressed to 
Paul Veronese (reproduced in Lees, op. cit. p. 
52). On one side are various groups of figures 
(some of them nude) for none of which I can 
suggest a definite interpretation ; on the other 
side is at the top a study for a Judith ('vna Giu- 
dita che talia la testa A Holofe ' as the master 
himself notes) which is clearly identifiable with 
the picture in theGalleriaBrignole-Sale-Deferrari 
at Genoa, ^ though the composition is reversed ; 
below is a study for a Nativity (' Per un Prese- 
pio '), and at the bottom of the sheet, David 
kneeling by the body of the slain Goliath, with 
Philistine horsemen in flight further back. 

(3) London, Mr. Henry Oppenheimer (30 by 
21 cm. : ex collections Sir Peter Lely, J. Thane, 
W. Esdaile). Groups of figures [Plate I, a]. At 
the bottom of the page, above a slight sketch of 
a figure, two couples of figures are seen : pos- 
sibly the four Evangelists, from right to left 
' Mate ' (Matthew), listening to the angel inspir- 
ing him, Luke seated next to the ox, ' Zuane ' 
(St. John the Evangelist, with his emblematic 
eagle) — the note next to the fourth figure reading 
however, more naturally, it seems, ' Mouese ' 
(Moses) than ' Marco.' Then, further up, a group 
of bishops (probably the Fathers of the Church), 
Christ enthroned on clouds, his head surrounded 
with a halo, St. Lawrence with his gridiron, St. 
Andrew with his cross, and a number of other 
Saints and Angels. The whole giving the im- 
pression of a series of studies for a Last Judg- 

(4) London, Mr. G. Bellingham Smith (30.3 
bv 21 cm.; ex collections Sir Peter Lely, 

- Reproduced in Archivio stortco dell'arte, ser. ii, vol. 
(1896), p. 103. 


1 • - - ii/-,- 


Sjr>i»0^^— ■ -'^ 


_1 X 







A '/"^i-k.", 


C ]'arious Studies, \2 h\ ii iiii.: 
(Mr. 1\ M. Turner) 


'^'XM.'' JiF~^\ kFf^ / ^^ 

\ •' r 

I) M<irs lUiil \'<'}nts, 111 In 1:5.5 cin.; (.M|-. (i. I5cllini;h;ini 

E Christ at Simon the l^hariscc's. (I'drmerly in the Collection of .Sir Jo.slma Re\ nolds) 

Plate II. .\ Group of Drawings bv Paul X'eronese 

Richardson jun., Sir Joshua Reynolds, A. M. 
Champernonwne). Sheet of studies [Plate I, b], 
the majority connected with a composition of 
the Finding of Moses reminiscent of the picture 
in the Prado. At the bottom of the sheet are 
also some studies of architectural details. 

(5) London, Mr. G. Bellingham Smith (lo by 
13.5 cm.; ex collection Woodburn) Mars and 
Venus [Plate II, d]. A spirited, almost Rem- 
brandtesque sketch for an animated composition, 
bearing no relation to the picture now in the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York (for- 
merly in the \Vimborne Collection). 

(6) London, Mr. P. M. Turner (12 by 11 cm.; 
ex collections Sir Joshua Reynolds, Francois 
Flameng ; some notes at the back of the sheet 
believed to be by Sir Joshua Reynolds). Small 
sheet of studies [Plate II, c] connected with the 
lost paintings in the Palazzo Trevisan at Murano, 
known through some etchings by Zanetti' and 
four copies in the library of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford,** viz., a figure of Cybele, two groups of putti 
and one of Venus and Cupid. 

(7) Northwick Park, Captain E. G. Spencer- 
Churchill (15 by 16 cm.; ex collections Richard- 
son, jun., T. Hudson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Lord Northwick). Small sheet of studies 
including camels' heads, people and hands. 
Sometimes ascribed to Vandyck. 

(8) New York, J. Pierpont Morgan collection 
(size not stated ; ex collections Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, Avlesford, Fairfax Murray; reproduced in 
A Selection from the Collection of Drawings by 
the Old Masters formed by C. Fairfax Murray, 
London, 1905, plate 90; and on a larger scale in 
y. Pierpont Morgan Collection of Drawings by 
the Old Masters formed by C. Fairfax Murray, 
vol. iv., London, 1912, plate 81). Sheet of 
studies for a composition of the Finding of 

3 A. M. Zanetti, Varie pitture a fresco de' principali maestri 
z'eneziani, Venice, 1760, plates 20-24. 

■• T. Borenius, Pictures by the Old Masters in the Library 
of Christ Church, Oxford, Oxford, 1916, Nos. 223-226 (with 

Moses — compare again the picture in the Prado. 

(9) New York, J. Pierpont Morgan collection 
(size not stated ; ex collections Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, Aylesford, Fairfax Murray; reproduced 
in A Selection, u.s., plate 90). Sheet of studies 
containing various allegorical figures. 

(10) Collection of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1776, 
present whereabouts unknown. Etched by Sim. 
Watts in C. Rogers' Imitations of Old Masters. 
Christ at Simon the Pharisee's [Pl.-^te II, e]. 
Study for the picture of 1570, formerly in the 
monastery of S. Sebastiano at Venice and now 
in the Brera Gallery at Milan (No. 140). 

I have little doubt but that further research 
may be able to extend, perhaps considerably, the 
list of drawings given above.'* 

The main object of these notes has been to 
make the beginning of a systematic exploration 
of a province of Paul Veronese's work which, 
when some time he will come in for a mono- 
graphical treament commensurate with his 
importance, will doubtless be deemed to be of 
even greater interest than appears now, seeing 
that — as mentioned before — it is in these slight 
pen and ink drawings that one finds embodied so 
many of the master's premieres pensees both for 
works that were executed and such as never were. 
And turning to the historical perspective of the 
Venetian School as a whole, just as the art of 
Tiepolo in general may be described as a trans- 
lation into the playful forms of the Rococo of the 
brilliant decorative style of Paul Veronese, so 
we have in the drawings of this type— the point 
was suggested to me in a discussion with Mr. 
A. P. Oppe — the direct forbears of Tiepolo's 
prodigious performances with pen and wash. 

5 Judging from descriptions, I feel practically certain that 
the following may Ix; added to the present series : — 

(11) Stockholm, National Museum. Adoration of the 
Mas.' (27.4 bv 18.4 cm.). 

(1^2) Turin, Roval Library. Study lor the Martyrdom of 
St. Justina m S. Giustina' of Padua (1575). Photographed 
by ."Knderson, 9856. 
'Both referred to by Dr. Sir^n {Italicnska handteckningar. 
Stockholm, 1917, p. 122) as showing "the light stroke and 
quivering lines " of cerlain drawings by Paul Veronese. 




lEFORE anything like a complete 
history of Persian art can be written, 
much work will have to be done both 

lbs- the art critic and by the historian. 
'From Persian literature must be col- 
lected alf the scanty references to artists and 
their paintings. Unfortunately, during the 
greatest period of Persian art, the painters had 
no Vasari, and consequently materials for the 
biography of the earlier masters are almost 

entirely lacking, and when chroniclers began to 
find a place for them and added to the enumera- 
tion of scholars, poets, doctors and calligraphists 
in anv particular reign, some account of 
painters also, the details provided are very 
meagre and include no description of individual 
paintings or of characteristics of style. The 
student of Persian art is therefore dependent 
almost wholly on the data provided by the paint- 
ings and drawings themselves, and here there is 


much work left fur him to do; the distinctive 
characteristics of individual painters have still to 
be definitely ascertained after a minute study of 
such paintings as can with certainty be assigned 
to each, and by means of the results attained, the 
manv forgeries of great names must be exposed, 
and the false ascriptions ackled by later hands 
for the deception of the ignorant purchaser must 
be rectified; there will then remain hundreds of 
pictures that bear no signature whatsoever, and 
if these cannot be assigned to any particular 
artist, it may at least be possible to ascertain to 
what period or school they belong. Further, 
some kind of inventory of Persian paintings of 
each period is needed; and this is by no means 
easv, for thev are constantly changing hands, 
and those in private possession are not readily 
accessible. But the case is quite different with 
such examples as are public property and have 
found a safe refuge in mu.seums or in the 
libraries of permanent corporations. In the pre- 
sent instance it is proposed to give an account 
of an illuminated MS. in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, which appears up to the present time 
to have been very little studied. It is a copy of 
one of Xizaml's romantic narrative poems, 
based on the old Persian story of Khusrau and 
Shirin, and it contains 17 pictures by one of the 
best known of Persian painters — Riza Abbasi — 
who has attached his signature to each one of the 

There is no single Persian artist who 
has received more attention in Europe and has 
had more written about him than Riza Abbasi. 
For ten years a fierce controversy has raged over 
the difficult problem of his identity and the attri- 
bution to him of certain drawings that are said 
to bear his signature. A long promised publi- 
cation, containing facsimiles of drawings in the 
possession of Friedrich Sarre, was published in 
igi4, but on account of the war did not come 
into the market until 1916. In this volume, pro- 
duced with that care and delicacy characteristic 
of the best German art-publications. Professor 
Mittwoch has attempted to give a biographical 
account of this artist, whose identity is so 
obscure, though his work is so widely known. 
The task is not easy. His name, Riza, was (as 
it is still) very common in the period of enthusi- 
astic devotion to the Shiah cause that witnessed 
the founding of theSafaviddyna.sty and the estab- 
lishment of the Shiah faith as the State religion 
of Persia. It is the name of the martyred eighth 
Imam of the Shiahs, who was believed to have 
been put to death by the Sunni Caliph, Al- 
Ma'mun, in 818, and had thus become a symbol 
of Shiah hatred for the Sunni domination from 
which the Safavids by the establishment of a 
native Persian dyna.sty had delivered their fellow 
countrymen, and a catch-word of devotion to a 

creed glorified by the blood of the martyrs and 
cherished with patient devotion through long 
centuries of oppression. The critic is conse- 
((uentlv faced with the problem of choosing 
between quite a number of painters of the name 
of Riza, and has to decide to which of them the 
creilit of producing so many works of art is to be 
assigned. The appellation Abbasi is of little 
help, as it may well have been adopted by the 
painter in token of the service he owed to his 
sovereign Shah Abbas, just as the poet, Muslih 
ud-Din, stvled himself Sa'di after his patron, 
.Sa'd b. Zangi, the .Alabek of Fars, with the result 
thai he became famous under this designation 
unlv, and his real name became forgotten, being 
variously given by different biographers as 
Muslih ud-Din (which was really the name of 
his father), and Musharrif ud-Din, &c. Prof. 
Mittwoch has identified the painter with a certain 
Maulana All Riza .Abbasi, who was famous as a in the reign of .Shah .Abbas (1387- 
1629), and wrote out inscriptions for some of the 
great mosques of Ispahan ; he was also appreci- 
ated as a copyist of manuscripts, several of which 
are still preserved in libraries in Europe. 
Prof. Mittwoch thought that he could read the 
name Riza All on the portrait of the painter by 
his pupil, Mu'In. (Martin I, p. 68). But the 
words are really Riza Abbasi. Out of all 
the possible claimants. Prof. Mittwoch has 
made a singularly unfortunate choice — one 
that entirely misses the essential character 
of Riza Abbasl's work and the very different 
estimation in which the painter and the calli- 
graphist were held in Muhammadan society. To 
the latter was assigned the highest place in the 
artistic world; did not God Himself swear by 
"the pen and by what they write" (Qur'an 
chap. 68 init.)? — and the highest honour was 
paid to those who copied out the Word of God, 
wherebv the calligrapher enjoyed a reflection of 
the respect with which the Sacred Text itself was 
regarded. Even apart from this religious aspect 
of the art, calligraphy was considered to be 
one of the noblest activities of civilised life, 
since it made possible the transmission of 
wisdom and thus served as one of the very 
foundation-stones of knowledge and culture. 
Accordingly, it was possible for the honourable 
title of Maulana ("our Master") to be prefixed 
to the name of All Riza — an honorific that im- 
plies eminence either in the field of religion or 
learning, and generally in both. But to the 
painter a very different position was assigned ; 
by the declaration of the Prophet (who 
frankly expres.sed his detestation of all pictorial 
representations of living forms), the painter was 
doomed to Hell ; on the Day of Judgment God 
would call upon him to put life into the forms 
of men and animals he had drawn, and on his 


confession of inability to fulfil this function of 
the Creator which he had attempted to usurp, he 
would be cast down into the fire, therein to abide 
for ever. This ill-esteem of the painter's art 
explains something of the choice of subjects that 
Riza Abbasi and many other Persian artists 
made — representations of persons and activities 
that Muslim theologians have always viewed 
with the sternest reprobation, such as drinking- 
parties, dancing-girls, love scenes, catamites, 
and the like, from which the godly drew away 
their skirts in pious horror, pictures which their 
Puritan zeal led them to destroy whenever they 
found opportunity. To credit Maulana All Riza, 
who owes his fame to the passages from the 
Word of God which he inscribed on the mosques 
of Ispahan, with the paintings of Riza Abbasi, 
is as libellous an error as to attribute the scan- 
dalous pictures with which Giulio Romano 
decorated the Palazzo del Te in Mantua for Duke 
Federico Gonzaga, to his devout contemporary, 
Fra Bartolommeo. 

Moreover, the evidence from handwriting goes 
against such an ascription, for there are several 
Persian MSS. still in existence that were copied 
by Maulana AH Riza and bear his signature, 
but his handwriting and signature are manifestly 
unlike those of the painter, Riza Abbasi, as we 
find them on numerous paintings and drawings 
which he has signed. 

But among the painters of Shah Abbas's 
reign, there is one of whom the contemporary 
historian^ gives an account under the name Aqa 
Riza, — and this is the very appellation we find 
written bv former owners on those drawings by 
Riza Abbasi, to which the artist did not himself 
attach his signature. In Sarre's Album there 
are two such drawings, with the signature Aqa 
Riza, in a handwriting that is clearly not that 
of the painter himself; the attribution must have 
been added by some previous owner or cata- 
loguer. More important still for the identifica- 
tion suggested above is the picture of a youth 
by Riza .'\bbasi, reproduced as Plate VII in 
Karabacek's monograph on this painter ; here 
there are two separate signatures, one (in the 
right-hand margin) Agha (a variant of .A^qa) 
Riza, and the other (on the left of the figure) 
Aqa Riza .'\bbasl ; neither of these inscriptions 
is in the well-known handwriting of the painter 
himself, but they have been added later by 
others. It is through lack of familiarity with 
the Persian use of honorifics that some European 
critics have been led to invent a separate painter, 
Aqa Riza — distinct from Riza Abbasi — and Dr. 
Martin- has even gone so far as to attribute to 
this mythically distinct Aqa Riza a portrait in 

1 Iskandar Munshi in his Ta'rikh-i-'alamarai-' Abbasi. 

^ The Miniature Painting and Painters of Persia. Plate no. 

the British Museum, to which Riza Abbasi has 
added in his characteristic handwriting an in- 
scription relating the circumstances under which 
he painted it. 

Iskandar Munshi describes Aqa Riza as the 
marvel of his age in the art of painting and as 
unequalled in the drawing of portraits; but he 
kept bad company and spent much of his time 
with wrestlers and other such persons of an un- 
intellectual type — just like another painter, his 
contemporary, named SadiqT Beg, who also led 
a wild life, wandering about in the garb of a 
dervish and in one period of his career turning- 
soldier. Though Aqa Riza received rewards 
and favours from his royal patron. Shah Abbas, 
he was constantly in trouble and poverty in 
consequence of his evil habits. To this need of 
money may possibly be attributed the large out- 
put of Riza Abbasi — so strikingly in contrast 
with the restricted number of paintings con- 
nected with the names of other great Persian 
artists : he does not appear to have ever received 
an appointment in the royal atelier or library, 
and had apparently to find patrons among the 
courtiers, for whom he painted pictures of their 
favourites, and his inscriptions on his pictures 
often express his obligation to their patronage. 
The whole character of Riza Abbasi's work fits 
in better with the above account than with that 
of Maulana All Riza or of any other Riza of 
whom we have any record. 

His paintings in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum are contained in a manuscript written 
by Abdul Jabbar, a famous calligraphist of Shah 
Abbas's reign, and a pupil of one of the greatest 
calligraphists of that period, Mir Imad, the rival 
of the Maulana All Riza above-mentioned, who 
is said to have compassed Imad's death. The 
colophon of the manuscript bears the date 1091 
A.H. (= 1680 A.D.), and the signature of Abdul 
Jabbar. This calligraphist is said to have been 
a great favourite in court circles, and to have 
produced comparatively little because he was so 
much in demand in the society of the great. The 
completion of his part of the work must have 
been considerably delayed, as Riza Abbasi's 
painting on fol. 47 bears the date 1042 a.h. 
(= 1632 A.D.). The value attached to the manu- 
script is attested by the superb cover in which it 
is bound, and the binder was so proud of his 
workmanship (as he had a right to be), that in 
four small lozenges inside the covers he left an 
inscription: — "The work of Muhammad Muh- 
sin, of Tabriz". The MS. contains 17 paint- 
ings bv Riza Abbasi, and below each one of 
them he has signed his name, and under that on 
fol. 47 there is a longer inscription, "Completed 
on Monday, the sixth of the month Safar, 1042. 
Signed, the low-born Riza Abbasi". The pic- 
tures are finished with great care, and the painter 


apparently wished to sliovv that he was capable 
of the same delicate miniature work as was pro- 
duced by his rivals in the royal library; and in 
this respect these pictures are remarkably unlike 
the rapid drawings and sketches with which the 
name of Riza Abbasi is chiefly connected, while 
(on the other hand) they closely resemble the 
miniatures he painted for other manuscripts. 

The poem that Riza Abbasi set out to illus- 
trate is one of the romances of NizamI, giving 
the story of the adventures of Khusrau, the Sas- 
anian monarch, and his love for the beautiful 
Shirin. This poem was composed in 1175 and 
for several centuries Persian artists had delighted 
in illustrating it; however few might be the 
number of pictures that any particular manu- 
script was to contain, a favourit<» subject of their 
choice was the bath of ShIrIn, as this (like the 
story of Susanna and the elders in western 
Europe) gave them an opportunity of painting 
the nude, such as convention seldom allowed 
to the Persian artist. In his treatment of the 
subject matter of the poem Riza Abbasi breaks 
away entirely from the traditional methods of his 
predecessors; he was too original an artist to be 
fettered by any previous atteinpts to represent 
the story, and in his illustrations we lind nothing 
of the hieratic character of the earlier artists or of 
their seriousness of treatment. He selected 17 
incidents out of the romance, and as the meaning 
of his pictures is apt to be unintelligible without 
a knowledge of the Persian text, a brief descrip- 
tion of them is given here. 

The story of Xizaml's poem begins with an 
account of Khusrau's exile from the court of his 
father, who had been deceived by false reports 
of his son's disloyalty; on fol. 26, the artist 
shows Khusrau lying prostrate at the Shah's 
feet; an executioner with drawn sword stands 
over him, and an aged man, wearing a mulla's 
turban, stretches out an appealing hand to the 
monarch on his throne, while he turns his head 
deprecatingly towards the executioner. So little 
sense of historic fitness does the painter show 
that he makes the Shah look just as young as his 
son, and repeats his features and dress for 
Khusrau himself on fol. 55b, and on fol. 246 for 
the Atabek of Adharbaijan. 

The young prince has a friend, called Shapur, 
who tells him of the beauty of ShIrIn, an Arme- 
nian princess, and in consequence of his glowing 
description, Khusrau falls in love with her. His 
friend, who happens to be a painter, acts as his 
emissary and arouses the interest of the princess 
by showing her a portrait of Khusrau (fol. 34) 
[Plate I, a]. Khusrau himself starts off for 
Armenia, and on the way he catches sight of 
ShIrIn sitting by the side of a stream in which 
she has been bathing, and wringing the water 
out of her hair; her horse, with forelegs painted 

red, stands by her, and the young prince, with 
his finger on his lips in the conventional attitude 
of surprise, gazes at her beauty from the other 
side of a mass of rocks (fol. 47) [PLATt: I, h], but 
he does not make his presence known and rides 
on to her mother's kingdom. Meanwhile ShIrin 
goes into Persia, where she has a castle built for 
her residence and spends her time in hunting. 
Shajii'ir returns lo Khusrau and gi\es a report 
of his interview with the beautiful Armenian 
princess (fol. 55b). Meanwiiile the father of 
Khusrau dies, but Bahriim Chobin, his inveter- 
ate enemy, disputes the throne with Khusrau, 
who is in consequence driven from his kingdom. 
During this second exile, he happens by clian e 
to meet Shirin in the hunting field, and the artist 
has depicted the two lovers talking together, 
while a band of frightened ibex runs away in the 
foreground (fol. 64b) [Plate H, c] ; in this pic- 
ture the colour has scaled off from the faces of 
the two chief figures, revealing the original 
sketch ; but for this defect, the picture is a fine 
piece of work, brilliant in colouring and lively 
in design. ShIrIn takes the young prince to her 
mother's court, where she entertains him and the 
painter represents them drinking together in a 
garden by the side of a stream (fol. 73). 

Later on, Khusrau succeeds in defeating Bah- 
ram Chobin, and an incident of the battle is 
depicted : the prince's elephant is trampling on 
one of his enemies, whose galloping horse has 
left him lying dead on the field (fol. 88). After 
this success, he is able to enter into the 
possession of his kingdom, and when he is seated 
on the throne of his father, news of the death of 
Bahram Chobin is brought to him (fol. 99). 
Shirin also has succeeded to the throne of 
Armenia, after the death of her mother, and 
Khusrau sends ShapUr to ask her hand in 
marriage; but the princess had grown displeased 
with her laggard lover and had meanwhile made 
the acquaintance of Farhad, a talented sculptor 
and engineer. Farhad falls desperately in love 
with her, on the very first occasion that he is 
brought into the presence of ShIrIn (fol. 114b). 
The violence of his passion almost drives him 
out of his senses, and he wanders like a madman 
in the desert. Khusrau comes to hear of this 
rival in the afTection of ShIrIn, and sends men in 
search of him ; they succeed in catching him and 
bring him to Khusrau, before whose throne he 
is seen kneeling (fol. 123) [Plate H, d]. The 
prince sets Farhad the task of cutting a road 
through the mountain of Blsutiin, promising to 
give him -Shirin as a reward for his labours. 
Shirin rides to the mountain to see him at work, 
but Farhad is so bewildered at the sight of her, 
that he only recovers his senses when she gives 
him a cup of water to drink (fol. 134)- As she 
leaves him, her horse stumbles on the rough 
















mountain path, and the devoted Farhad Hfts 
both horse and princess on his shoulders, and 
carries them back to her castle (fol. 138b) [Plate 
II, E]. 

To rid himself of his rival, Khusrau treacher- 
ouslv has a false report of the death of Shirin 
conveved to Farhad, whereupon the unhappy 
lover throws himself down from a rock and kills 
himself. Shirln has a dome built over his grave, 
and enraged with the behaviour of Khusrau, 
refuses to accept his advances. Meanwhile 
Khusrau consoles himself with a fair lady, 
named Shakar ("Sugar"), who on fol. 153b is 
shown kneeling before him, presenting a cup of 
wine; however, he soon tires of her and pines 
again for Shirin. Passing over several other 
incidents in the story, Riza AbbasI hurries on 
to the denouement of the romance, and gives a 
picture of Khusrau on a hunting expedition 
riding up to the castle of Shirin, who looks down 
from the roof to talk with him (fol. 166). She 
upbraids him for his faithlessness and Khusrau 
leaves her in anger, but Shirin now repents of 
her harsh treatment of her lover, and goes in 
disguise to Khusrau 's camp, where they feast 
together (fol. 192). 

After lengthy discussion and exchange of pre- 
sents, the marriage takes place (fol. 211). But 
their happiness did not last long, as Khusrau is 
treacherously slain in his bed by his son, Shi- 
ruya (fol. 225), whereupon Shirin stabs herself 
to death on the body of her husband. 

The last picture (fol. 246) represents the poet 
Nizami being received at the court of Qizil 
Arslan, the Atabek of Adharbaijan (i 185-91), 
who has stepped down from his throne to em- 
brace the poet, and who is represented by the 
same venerable, bearded figure that Riza had 
put into his picture on fol. 26. 

In his illustrations to this romance (derived 
ultimately from the heroic period of the history 
of his native country), Riza Abbasi makes no 
attempt to rise to the level of such dignified 
treatment of the subject as we find in earlier 
illustrated manuscripts of Nizaml's poem, 
belonging to the classical period of Persian art. 
On the contrary, he reproduces the same plump 
figures and unintelligent round faces as we meet 
in the cup-bearers and other pampered menials 
that he used to draw for his aristocratic patrons. 
Riza Abbasi has here attempted to submit his 
peculiar genius to the established convention in 
book-illustration, in this attempt to rival the 
work of the orthodox school of painters working 
in the royal library ; but the individual character- 
istics of his style are too strong for him ; he 
transfers his broad method of treatment to a 
sphere that the illuminator with his patient 
elaboration of detail had for centuries past made 
his own. He is fond of broad spaces of colour, 
and grows impatient when he has to put in a 
plane-tree, which in his hands remains with a 
wintry appearance of scanty foliage, whereas 
Bihzad or Mirak would have clothed the tree 
with innumerable leaves and lavished on each a 
wealth of elaborate detail ; nor does he trouble 
to put in his foregrounds those delicately veined 
flowers that his predeces.sors loved to dwell upon. 
He was an innovator too in his colour scheme : 
he shows a preference for mixed colours, and 
has a predilection for orange, cinnamon and 
plum colour, and we no longer find the lapis- 
lazuli blue that gave to the paintings of earlier 
artists so brilliant an effect. But his colouring 
has a vigour and attractiveness of its own, and 
in none of his works has Riza Abbasi attained 
such success as a colourist, as in the manuscript 
described above. 


'HE Winter Exhibition at the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club is one of 
varied interest, for not only is there a 
charming collection of pictures from 
various lands and some English 
decorative objects worthy of special notice, but 
also pieces of furniture very carefully selected to 
illustrate the more elaborate and expensive sec- 
tion of the output of English cabinet makers 
between the years 1730 and 1770. The greatest 
number, and also the most noteworthy pieces, 
indeed, cover a narrower period and more 
especiallv show how the rich Englishman fur- 
nished his house during the second half of 
George 2nd's reign — that is at the time when the 
cabriole form was at its zenith. Beginning with 

the century it had already had forty years of 
vogue when the middle years of George 
II's reign were reached. Designers and makers 
had therefore acquired a perfectly assured hand 
and almost every structural and aesthetic possi- 
bility had been probed. All problems of design 
and technique were solved, and variety, always 
in demand, had to be sought by inventing novel 
details of form and motif within the general prin- 
ciples of the style. The contrast between the 
severitv of the basic structure of the classic style 
and of the baroque cum rococo extravagances 
that were seeking to envelop it with their riotous 
and exotic growths was briefly stated in these 
pages a year ago.^ It was shown how, eveii in 

I Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxxvi, pp. 78 and 79. 


the i6th century, Italian cleverness and imajjina- 
tion had introduced realism, mo\enient, and oven 
structural unreasonableness into the austere 
framework of V'itruvian rule. Eventually these 
tendencies ilemoralised Italian architecture, 
hut were kept within strict bounds bv the Knijiisil 
sclnxil that t(H>k Palladio and Ini^o Jones as its 
masters. I'or interior decoration, however, and 
for furniture, a good deal of licence was allowed, 
and a strange medley of decorative material was 
ihawn with liltle study or judgtnenl from all 
manner of si>urces — a llight into the past produc- 
ing the Gothic and a flight across the world 
giving the Chinese tastes. Thus, though classic 
puritv was still preached, not merely a narrow 
loophole but a broad gateway was open for the 
influx of eccentricity and extravagance, especially 
among the more inventive and artistic race across 
the Channel. In France the existence of a Court 
composed of Sovereign and nobles, who widely 
absorbed and freely squandered the national 
wealth, created a demand for audacity of sump- 
tuous design and exquisiteness of elaborate 
craftsmanship in the decorative arts; so that there 
we find the prodigality of the Italian baroque 
wedded to exotic chinniscries, and producing a 
multitudinous and vigorous offspring that 
showed forth in high degree every possible com- 
bination of inherited variety and excess. 
.Anarchy might well have supervened, but fortu- 
nately the Ancien Regime of France, to meet 
whose requirements this output was called forth, 
prided itself with reason upon its bon goiit, and 
this acted as a sufficient discipline to the more 
riotous tendencies with results that may not 
always be sympathetic, but must always call forth 
admiration. Foreign ways constantly reached 
our English shore, and it was the French influ- 
ence that became strong in England after the 
Peace of Utrecht, and especially when the two 
countries drew closer — establishing indeed an 
entente — when Fleury and Walpole were at the 
head of their respective Governments. Thus in 
1733 Bramston's " Man of Taste " exclaims : 

Those who of courtly Franco ha\e made the tour, 
Can scarce our English aukwardness endure. - 

and an anti-Gallican Society was formed by the 

honest men who never were abroad, 
I^ike England only, and its Taste applaud. - 

Nor did the Austrian Succession War, waged 
against France, long interfere with this tendency, 
and Chippendale, a very alert business man, took 
care to meet the fashion by giving the French 
taste prominence in his " Director " first pub- 
lished in 1754. 

The Gallican taste, however, was only an influ- 
ence, not an obsession. The national spirit and 
bias and the habits and economics of the com- 
munity gave a native stamp. The humbler 
artistic aspirations and powers of the producers 
combined with the opinions of the consumers to 

- Dodsley's Collection of Poems, ed. 1770, vol. i, p. 286. 

impose restraint. The demand came not so much 
from an exceedingly wealthy ,-uid luxurious few 
as from a large class of well-to-do but not un- 
thrifty peers, squires and merchants, who were 
domestic rather than jialalial in their outlook. 

I'lie modification thus imposed upon French 
ideas and pieces of furniture of I'^rench origin is 
shown by the commode, for which the French 
term was adopted since it was not an English 
e\-ohuion from the old oak chest to the various 
forms of |iieccs of furniture with drawers, but a 
|)urely I'rench creation on the same lines. But a 
French commode under Louis XV was usually 
extravagant in its curves and rich in its surface, 
that surface not showing the material of the struc- 
ture, but a veneer of choice w(jods richly a.s.soci- 
ated. Yet despite their beauty and patterning 
half their surface was covered with large, intricate 
and well-wrought ormolu handles and escut- 
cheons, while the generally acute and much 
curved corners of the commode were armour 
plated from top to toe with highly wrought rococo 
metal work, the top being almost invariably of 
marble. Except in name and general form there 
is no great similarity between this description and 
that of the mahogany commode lent to the Bur- 
lington Club by Mr. Leopold Hirch [Plate I, a]. 
Certainly the front is serpentine and there are 
brass handles and escutcheons much resembling 
the more modest French examples of the period. 
But there is no other metal work, all enrichment 
being carved out of the solid mahogany, which 
forms the .substance of this piece. Nothing 
strikes the visitor who looks round this typical 
collection of the furniture of the period more than 
the dominance of solid maliogany and the total 
absence of veneer. Veneer, plain, lined or in- 
laid, was u.sual enough in England in the pre- 
vious walnut period, and was again much used 
in the subsequent age of satinwood, but is quite 
rare under George II, when mahogany for sub- 
stance and for surface held full sway. How and 
when it first came and gradually as.serted itself 
can well' be studied in the Oxford " Diction- 
ary of the English Language," which quotes the 
use of the word by various authors. There we 
can see that John Ogilby, in his " America ", 
published in 1671, mentions " Mohogeney " as 
among the " curious and rich sorts of woods " in 
Jamaica. As such it was occasionally used for 
small objects or little veneered panels under 
Charles II. But under Queen Anne it came 
over in bulk, so that in a 1703 number of the 
London Gazette "Mohogony" is stated to form 
part of the cargo of the Galeon " Tauro ", the 
.sale of which is announced. By the time George 
the 2nd is King the fashionable man will have 
nothing else for furniture, and Bramston's "Man 
of Taste ", when 

Queer country-puts extol Queen Bess's reign. 
And of lost hospitality complain ; 


.1 .Mahi)gan\ C'ummnile 
(I\Ir. Lei)pi»lcl Ilirsrh) 

Ileii^ht 2' <)", wiillli 4' 4", tleplli 2' 2". AIjdui 175'). 

B MahoSianv Settee, cuvered with !^Tos]3(iint needlework. 
6' 6", depth 2' .)". Abmil 1740. (Mr. ' Ilrnry Hirsch) 

Hei;^iu ,V 2", witltli 


Plate 1. Enaiisli Furniture at the Burlint-lon Fine Arts Club 









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considers that he has fully silenced them by the 
question — 

Say thou that dost thy father's tabk praise, 
Was there mahogena in former days?' 

while at the time we are specially considering, 
that is about 1746, younfj Thomas Warton, the 
future Poet Laureate, satirically voices the preva- 
lent fashion at Oxford by exclaiming : — 

Odious ! upon a walnut ijl.iiik to dine ! 
No — the red-vein'd Mohogt;ony be mine. 

It was not merely the texture and colour of 
mahogany, but the strength of the tissue for con- 
struction and perfection of the grain for carving 
that recommended it to the now dexterous 
English cabinet-makers. The chairs and settees 
of the period thoroughly illustrate its quality, and 
their mastery over it. A settee lent by Mr. 
Henry Hirsch [Plate I, b] has arms terminating 
with lions' heads and the three front legs elabor- 
ately carved with lion masks terminating with 
lions' paw feet. It is characteristic of the years 
round about 1740 and has, in simple fashion but 
masterly treatment, the same motifs as the 
famous Penshurst card table of similar 
date which Lord de L'Isle and Dudley has loaned 
to the club. Both pieces date before the French 
rococo influence and our own Chinese " inven- 
tions " obtained strong hold, but those are pre- 
sent in an exceptionally finely wrought chair lent 
bv Colonel Mulliner [Plate II, c]. The leg is 
cabrioled with acanthus foliage on the knee and 
ball and claw for the foot. In the centre of the 
seat frame is a satyr's mask and on each side of 
it spring rococo scrolls which are repeated 
throughout the framework, often taking the shell 
work form. But besides this, wherever the sur- 
face permits of it, there are flower and fruit swags. 
Still more rococo and Chinese are the frame and 
stand of a Pole Screen from the same collection 
[Plate II, n]. Here the shell work is univer- 
sally present on frame and stand, stretching right 
down to the foot, where a plain whorl of the then 
named French foot order stands on an out- 
stretched conventional shell, while this same 
favourite rococo motif is built up into a semi- 
pergoda form at the top of the stand through 
which the pole rises. These pieces are represen- 
tative of many others in the club room, both in 
the substance of the frame and the character of 
the upholstery. Throughout both the walnut and 
mahogany periods the upholstering of chairs and 
settees was apt to be far the most expensive part. 
We have seen that, when William 3rd was fur- 
nishing Hampton Court in the closing years of 
the 17th century, " Elbow Chair frames of 
Wallnut Tree, carved foreparts and cross 
frames "* were supplied at 25s. apiece, whereas 
the cut Genoa velvet and silk fringes of the cover- 
ing cost ten times that amount. Velvets, cut and 
plain, were still greatly in vogue for such pur- 

3 Dodsley's Collection of Poems, ed. 1770, voL I, p. 294. 
* Burlington Magazine, VoL xxxiii, p. 164. 

poses whilst the Duchess of Marlborough was 
furnishing Blenheim and the Earl of Manchester 
Kimbolton, and, moreover, together with 
damask, " cafoy ", and other tissues, they 
covered the sets provided for Houghton 
by Sir Robert Walpole during the first decade of 
George II's reign. But as that reign progressed 
velvets were less used. Various silken fabrics 
remained fashionable, but there was an increase 
in the use of needlework and tapestry, and these 
alone are represented at the Burlington Club 
show. Thus the settee loaned by Mr. Henry 
Hirsch is described in the catalogue as having 
" the back seat and arms covered with gros-point 
needlework in coloured wools ; in the centre of the 
back and seat is an oval panel of fruit on buff 
surrounded by conventional floral designs on a 
black ground ", and various other settees and 
chairs have even finer coverings of both gros- 
point and petit-pomt. 

Such work was largely a home product. Ladies 
spent much time within doors and, when there 
was no other household call, plied the needle with 
zeal and effect. In great households the uphol- 
stery needs were made almost a business. The 
Duke and Duchess of Beaufort re-edified and re- 
furnished Badmington in Charles and's time, and 
when, some time about the close of that reign, 
Roger North visits and describes it, he speaks as 
follows of one of the Duchess's occupations : — 

The ordinary pastime of the ladies was in a gallery on 
the otheT side where she had divers gentlewomen com- 
monly at work upon embroidery and fringe making ; for 
all the beds of state were made and fini-ihed in the house.-'* 

For bed hangings floral patterns were often 
embroidered on a silk or linen background, but 
sometimes a fine canvas was worked all over in 
the manner of tapestry, as in the splendid bed at 
Drayton. The latter form of needlework was best 
adapted to resist wear and was therefore specially 
used for chairs and settees. But tapestry, especi- 
ally designed for the purpose, was prevalent in 
France and was one of the types of French taste 
that obtained a large vogue in England. After 
the close of the Mortlake works in 1703 the fore- 
most weaver in England was John Vanderbank, 
who made sets of tapestry hangings for William 
and Mary before the 17th century closed, and 
carried on his works in Queen Street, Soho, until 
1728. Whether he or his shadowy contempo- 
rary, Morris, did much in the way of chair covers 
is doubtful, but Bradshaw, almost as nebulous a 
person as Morris, certainly did, for though he 
executed great and splendid wall hangings, such 
as the Watteau scenes at Ham House signed by 
him, he also wove chair and settee covers, 
of which a complete set bearing his signature 
survives at Belton. A vase or basket of flowers 
in natural colours is his usual central motif, and 
such we find on the Soho tapestry covers of a pair 

5 Roger North's Lives of the Norths, ed. 1826, Vol. I, p. 


of chairs loaned to ilie Burlington Club by Lord 
Lascelles. Birds, however, are the leading 
features of the tapestry that covers Colonel Mul- 
liner's chair and screen [Pi atk II, A and b], and 
these are especialh' worth noticing as they are the 
products of the short-lived I'ulham Ta])ostry 
Works.* They were conducted by a naturalised 
Frenchman named Parisot, who certainly did not 
wish to be nebuh)us in his own or any future age, 
for he published an account of his establishment 
in 1753. It would appear that lie first set up in 
Paddington, but other French expert workers 
reaching London and finding no opening were 
absorbed bv him and he moved to Fulham. 
There he produced tapestries and carpets in the 
manner of the French royal factories of Gobelins 
and Chaillot, the Duke of Cumberland especially 
supporting him and presenting one of his first 
Chaillot products to the Princess of Wales. Pari- 
sot tells us that not only had he, in 1 753, one hun- 
dred workmen, but that his establishment offered 
accommodation " for a great number of artists of 
both sexes and for such young people as might 

« W C. Thomson, History of Tapestry, pub. lyoj, p. 46^. 

be sent ic learn (he art of drawing, weaving, dic- 
ing, and all other branches of the work". Bubb 
Doddington enters in his diary how he calls in at 
the manufacturer of tapestry from France set up 
at Fulham by the Duke and finds the work fine 
but \erv dear. Very likely it was its costliness 
that proved its ruin, for in 1755 it came to an end 
and the stock-in-trade was put up to auction. One 
of the items included is described as 

.\ superb State chair the bacU with .1 
Parrot eating fruit and the seat a Landslci]). 

which description will answer perfectly for the 
chair illustrated, parrot and landscape each being 
framed in a border of flowers upon a pale blue 
background. Another lot in the catalogue is 

A pattern for either chair or scretn with 
a beautiful Chinese Pheasant, 

and it will be seen that the screen has such a 
pheasant, the body being red, the back blue and 
the head and tail a yellowish-brown, the whole 
evidently being a representation of what we know 
as a Golden Pheasant. Parisot also offered sub- 
jects from .i^isop's Fables, and such appear on 
another pair of arm chairs lent by Colonel Mul- 
liner, who has done much to call attention to this 
rare product of French craftsmen on English soil. 




VER since the German bombard- 

'ment of 1914, the Palais des Beaux 

Ifl ^^W Arts, which sheltered the precious 

\\l K^A/ collections of the Lille Museum, has 

remained in a lamentably damaged 
condition. One can hardly blame the public 
authorities for dealing first of all with the more 
urgent necessities of the population, and leaving 
the repair of the museums until later on, but 
works of art are the patrimony of the whole world. 
Is it too audacious to hope that one day the 
civilised world will be moved by the pitiable con- 
dition of some of the French museums, and that 
before it is too late ? I said that the state of the 
Lille Museum was deplorable, as may be judged 
from the fact that 70 shells destroyed a large part 
of the roof; that formidable explosions later 
added to this work of destruction by bringing 
down windows and ceilings ; that for months on 
end rain and snow have penetrated into the 
building; while temporary repairs render the 
larger part of the galleries dark and inutilizable. 
The vaulted rooms on the ground floor of the 
edifice have suffered relatively less than the 
others, and it has been possible to reconstitute in 
its original state the wing which shelters the 
archaeological gallery, in which mediaeval em- 
broidery is remarkably well represented. 

The principal piece in this collection is well 
known, — an admirable 15th century altar-frontal 
with figures of the Virgin and the angel Gabriel. 
This Annunciation has often been reproduced. 
Notably, it is to be found in Van Ysendyck's 
well-known work, and it is therefore useless to 
describe it here. The perfection of the work and 
the beauty of the whole are such that one is 
tempted to see in it a late example of that " opus 
anglicanum " which in the early part of the 
Middle Ages was the admiration and envy of 
Christian Europe. But it appears that the work 
is really continental, and it is very probable that 
it should be attributed to the Low Countries.' 
On the other hand the Lille Museum does 
possess two orphreys in English embroidery of a 
slightly later date. The comparison which I 
have been able to make, from memory or with 
the help of photographs, between them and 
similar pieces in the Victoria and .'\lbert Museum 
or in private collections such as that at Oscott 
College, Birmingham, have left me with no 
doubt as to their origin. This origin has also 

1 Such at least is the opinion of Mr. A. F. Kendrick, who 
examined the piece. It comes from the little church of 
Novelles-les-SecIin, near Lille, and w.-is given to the Museum 
by 'the family of the collector Gentil, together with the two 
pieces of embroidery which form the subject of the present 


been attested by the presence of characteristic 
details which it may be interesting to study and 
to compare with others observed elsewhere. The 
characteristics of English embroidery of the 15th 
and i6th centuries, as occasionally indicated by 
authors who have made a study of the subject, 
are not free from a certain vagueness. They are 
based principally on the general form and move- 
ment of the figures, — a method which, it appears 
to me, allows too much scope to the personal 
appreciation of the observer. The study of Eng- 
lish embroidery is in any case relatively recent 
and of necessity incomplete. The critics whose 
work has restored this secular art to honour have 
themselves expressed a desire to see detailed 
observations lead to the establishment of dis- 
tinctive characteristics. I hope, therefore, that 
I shall be pardoned for venturing on ground 
usually reserved for technical authorities on the 

In my opinion, one of the characteristics 
peculiar to English embroidery is ^the choice of 
certain distinctive attributes for the saints repre- 
sented. Thus S. Philip is here figured [Plate 
I, b] holding loaves (whose hexagonal form is 
also found in the illuminations of the time). This 
allusion to the part played by the apostle in the 
miracle of the loaves and fishes is in keeping with 
the text of the Evangelist (S. John vi., 57, 5, 7), 
but it is peculiar to England, where it is fre- 
quently met with at a certain period.' It is, on 
the other hand, absolutely unknown on the 
Continent, where S. Philip is represented with a 
book, or with one of the supposed instruments of 
his passion, — a spear, a sword or even a cross. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the figure of 
S. Philip in this orphrey has hitherto been taken 
for that of S. Etienne. But it is impossible to 
mistake for stones the hexagonal loaves, orna- 
mented on top with a black spot which recalls the 
customary baker's mark. In any case, S. Etienne 
would probably have been dressed in a deacon's 
dalmatic' In this case the figure wears some 
kind of 15th century vestment, as do the other 
five figures represented. But while these have 
their feet and heads covered, the apostle's head 
is bare and surrounded by a halo, and 
his feet are also bare, — a characteristic 
which is usual in representation of the 
apostles.* The other personages are not so 

2 For instance, it is found in stained glass at Wintringlnam, 
North Tudd^nham, on rood-screens at North Walsham, Mar- 
sham, Trunch, and in embroideries. See Nos. 5 and 23 of 
the Catalogue of English Ecclesiastical Embroideries at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, by E. Maclagan and A. F. 

' See Cahier, Caracteristiques des Saints, the well-known 
work by M. Male, and for the emblem of the loaves, Husen- 
beth and Maurice Drake. 

* As regards bare feet see Molanus (De Historia S. S. 
Imaginum, p. 541 of the Jean-Noel Paquot edition, 1771), who, 
among other authorities, quotes the text of S. Matthew (X. 
9, 10), " Do not possess gold . . . neither two coats nor 
shoM ". 

easily identified. Four appear to represent 
patriarchs, as they do not carry the volume which 
ordinarily distinguishes the prophets, — such as 
the prophetic book in which the fifth person 
points out a passage with his finger. 

The second distinctive characteristic which 
shows the English origin is the peculiar develop- 
ment of the foliage which crowns the arch of the 
niches framing the figures. It is remarkable that 
this detail should have been accurately recorded 
in the description of orphreys of English origin 
which figured in the inventory of the chapel of 
Philip the Bold in 1404 : " une chappe h. ung 
orfrois ou sont les douze apotres . . . seans 
en tabernacles de perles h deux troches d'arbris- 
seaux . . . et diet on qu'elle feut faicte en 
Angleterre ". M. de Farcy, quoting this text 
after Mgr. Deshaines, compares it with another 
more explicit still, a description of the same cope 
in another inventory dated 1420: "orfrois de 
fa^on d'Engleterre faicts k apdtres . . . 
estans en mani^re de tabernacles faiz de deux 
arbres dont les tiges sont toutes couvertes de 
perles ".' An examination of the archives of 
the various French Departments would probably 
lead to the discovery of other no less interesting 
accounts which have not yet been brought to 
light. Sir Charles Wolston was kind enough to 
inform me that M. de Farcy, whose qualifications 
to speak with authority are well known, laid 
stress upon this characteristic when affirming 
the English origin of the fine collection of sacer- 
dotal ornaments which belonged to Sir Charles 
and Lady Wolston, before they generously 
presented it to public collections. These 
embroideries were studied at length in 
the Burlington Magazine^ by Mr. Cecil Tatter- 
sall who, without making any categorical pro- 
nouncement, remarked that the appearance and 
notably the design of the ornaments pointed to 
the probability of an English origin. 

This appears to me to be proved by a third 
peculiarity, — the presence of steps forming a 
perron at the foot of the cross in a crucifixion 
which ornaments the chasuble in Sir Charles 
Walston's collection. In a study of a crucifixion 
in Coventry Charterhouse,' painted at the 
beginning of the 15th century, I laid stress on 
this unexpected arrangement, which is so little 
in accordance with iconographical tradition. In 
crucifixions with figures the cross is usually 
planted in the soil, from which emerges the skull, 
and sometimes the whole body of Adam, the first 
man and the originator of the sin redeemed by 
the Cross. This is more than a picturesque cus- 
tom, it is part of a religious tradition in which, 
with that fine symmetry of ideas which was so 

' Quoted by de Laborde : Les dues de Bourgogne, II, No. 

• Burlington Magaeint, Vol. 29, p. 49. 
' Ibid, Vol. 35, p. 246, and 36. p. 84. 


sought tor in the Middle Ages, the cross was 
pretigiued by the tree of liden. The text of 
hymns preserved in the Catholic Church are full 
of allusions to this analogy. In order to explain 
it, it was necessary for the cross to be planted 
like a tree, and not situated on the top of steps, 
unless the latter were requisite for reasons of 
construction, as in crosses made of stone.' 

Finding the same peculiarity in the designs of 
English embroideries I was curious to discover 
whether this was the result of a fortuitous circum- 
stance or whether it was possible to establish the 
existence of a certain regularity or even custom 
in its employment. Mr. Kendrick, who was 
interested in what I considered nothing more 
than a hypothesis, was kind enough to help me 
in this search. He did not find these steps in 
any foreign embroideries. On the other hand, 
he ascertained their presence in eight pieces of 
indisputably English origin. (Nos. 314, 317, 
324. 326, 326*, 329, 332, 357). The most ancient 
example goes back to the end of the 14th century, 
the most recent to the beginning of the i6th 
century. Other examples at Cresswell Catholic 
Church and Oscott College allow us to conclude 
that the tradition survived in England up to the 
beginning of the 17th century. 

1 can add to Mr. Kendrick's list a complement- 
ary list of pieces which contain the same peculi- 
arity. In some cases, such as that of the 
embroidery at Oscott College, it has allowed us 
to rectify a doubtful attribution and to pronounce 
in favour of the English origin, — a decision 
which is confirmed by a general examination of 
the piece. 

IX. Chasuble mentioned above from Sir 
Charles Walston's collection. 

X. Catholic Church at Kenihvorth,- — orphreys 
of a chasuble of the end of the 15th century 
attached to a modern vestment.' [Plate II]. 

XI. Catholic Church at Cresswell (Stafford- 
shire). Chasuble in purple velvet of the end of 
the i6th century." 

• A study upon the origin of the cross with the perron would 
be outside the scope of the present article. It is worth 
remarking, however, that if this arrangen:ient is always 
employed for stone crosses in cemeteries and public places (see 
Mr. Aynier Vallance's articit in the Burlington Magazine, 
vol. 33, p. 79), its appearance in embroidery is peculiar to 
England. There it appears fairly early in brasses, first in the 
form of a cruciform ornament with a foot, which frames the 
figure of a saint or a deceased person (East Wickam, 1325. 
Stone, John Lumbarde, 1408). Later, as an actual cross with 
2, 3, 4, or even 5 steps, sometimes with the figures of the 
Virgin and S. John (Higham-Ferrers, Hildersham, Cambridge, 
East Wickam, Broadwater, Sussex). The same arrangement 
of a cross with steps has existed everywhere in heraldry and 
appears sometimes in numismatic. 

• Crucifixion with the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, 
two angels catching the Precious Blood. Below, the Virgin 
and S. John ; on the back S. Agnes (traces of the lamb), S. 
Peter with the keys, S. Bartholomew with a book and a knife, 
and finally a saint Incomplete and not identifiable. 

K'This information was supplied to me by the Rector, 
Father Thomas Scott. The collection of embroideries at 
Cresswell seems to be of the highest interest, to judge from 
the description with which he was kind enough to furnish me. 


XII. Valle di Cadora (Italy). Chasuble re- 
produced in Dr. Costantini's book on the Cruci- 
fix. The photograph of this piece, compared 
with those in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
leaves no doubt as to the English origin. 

XIII to XVII. Oscott College. Here we have 
five chasubles and a veil for the chalice (of the 
In'ginning of the 17th century). of these 
pieces were exhibited in the Burlington Club in 
1907 and iigure in the catalogue. 

XVIII. VVhitworth Institute, Manchester. 
Chasuble of the end of the 15th century from 
the Robinson collection. Crucifixion with 
angels, below, S. Christopher and S. George. 

XIX. The Somz^e collection (sold at Brussels 
in 1904). No. 851 of the catalogue (III vol.) re- 
produced on plate LXXIX, is the orphrey of a 
chasuble described as Flemish work of the 15th 
century. All the details of the ornament, as 
well as the presence of steps at the foot of the 
cross, go to prove the c*igin to be English. But 
the catalogue of the Victoria and Albert Museum 
published in 1907 was not known to the authors 
of this catalogue, which refers for comparison 
to a piece from the collection of M. de Farcy 
(Plate 68 of his book)." 

XX. The de Farcy collection (Plate LXVIII 
La Broderie). Chasuble ornamented with sera- 
phims and flourishes. The author gives the fol- 
lowing description : " riches fleurons, feuilles 
retourn^es, croix d'une facture assez soignee; 
sur les tourelles voisines du Christ flottent des 
drapeaux portant les dessins des 5 plaies". In 
ornament this piece is really very like those 
mentioned above, from theSomz^e collection and 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. M. de Farcy 
not having pronounced on the origin, there is 
nothing to prevent us from attributing it to the 
English school of the end of the 15th or the 
beginning of the i6th century, having regard 
to the presence of the characteristics mentioned 

One may criticise the method'* which finds 
characteristic indices in the details of the design 
or in the symbolic or picturesque representation 
of the subject rather than in the technical exami- 
nation of the textile materials employed 
and the processes of embroidery. The 
truth is that in studying the records of a 
fairly general civilisation, and of a liturgy as 
stationary as that of the Middle Ages, details 
are most important. They indicate the origin of a 
piece because, judged to be without importance, 
they were left to the initiative of the executant, 
who created a sort of local tradition with special 
characteristics. This is particularly true in the 

'• Christ on the cross with S. John and the Virgin, to right 
and left, angels catching the blood ; above the Holy Spirit and 
the Eternal Father (incomplete) ; higher, a fragment of S. 
Madeleine ; below the cross, the figure of S. John Baptist. 

12 Which is, however, endorsed by the authority of M. de 
Farcy. (La Broderie, p. 50). 


.4 and B Orphreys in English Embroidery (Lille Museum) 

Plate I. Two pieces of English X\'lli century Embroidery at Lille 



a,:M,;K;,;:f;!;::;^r' ^' '•"^'^^■'"" '' "■'• '■-' "^ ""• '^'" — •> atta^d ,.. . ,.,.,.,,. .,..„.,... 



' II. Two pieces of En-lish Wtl, eeiiiury l-nibroiderv al L 


A Gold Ornament from tlie Kuban district 

case of embroidery. M. Marquet de Vasselot, in 
his introduction to the catalogue of the Martin- 
Leroy collection, has justly remarked that in the 
15th century embroidery all over Europe showed 
more or less the same general forms, borrowed 
from illuminations, with the same mixture of 
Flemish and Italian influences. The technique 
which spread from studio to studio, or rather 
from one monastery to another, is everywhere so 
identical that even the most experienced 
specialists hesitate to pronounce an opinion, as 
we saw in the case of Sir Charles Walston's 
embroideries. The total of the pieces which bear 


'HE accompanying small illustration 
[Plate]' may be of interest in 
view of the origin and antiquity of 
the object which it represents. It is 
a cast gold plaque in the Her- 
mitage Collection at Petrograd, discovered in 
1903 in a tumulus near the river Kelermes, not 
far from Maikop in the Kuban district, east of 
the Sea of Azov; it thus belongs to the art 
which, since the publication of Mr. Minns' book 
Scythians and Greeks, we describe by the con- 
venient general term Scythic. It lay by the 
skeleton of a chief with various objects, one of 
which, a gold dagger-sheath, had ornament of a 
purely Assyrian type, while others were decor- 
ated in a mixed Assyrian and Scythic style. 
Archaeologists seem to be agreed that the date 
is not likely to be later than the early part of the 
6th century B.C. 

It is clear that the quadruped, conjectured to 
be a panther, was regarded by the artist above 
all as decoration ; representation there is, but it 
already takes a secondary place ; it is even more 
subordinated than in the case of the better 
known figures of deer from Kul Oba and Kos- 
tromskaya.^ But it is instructive to find the 
angular relief here illustrated thus systematically 
used on an object still comparatively near to 
nature. In later centuries we find it employed 

1 The illustration is taken from Strzygowski's recent work 
Altai, Iran und Volkerwanderung, Leipzig, 1917, which con- 
tains an important study of early barbaric ornament from 
Further Asia to Europe. The Kelermes finds are described 
by Minns (Scythians and Greeks, p. 222) after an account by 
Pharmakovskv in the Archdologischer Anseiger, 1904, p. 100, 
but at the time when he wrote photographic illustrations 
were not available. The use of cloisonn(^ work in the ear 
of the panther should be noticed. This is one of the earliest 
examples in Asia of this mode of decoration, which occurs 
on another remarkable gold ornament from the same site. 

- Scythians and Greeks, Figs. 98 and 129. 

the characteristic index above-mentioned amounts 
to a score, which must be acknowledged to be a 
fairly respectable number. There remain to be 
examined the embroideries scattered over a num- 
ber of continental museums and collections. It 
is safe to predict that some of these should be 
attributed to the English school, whose fecundity 
was remarkable. This school enjoyed a universal 
reputation, even when the artistic quality of its 
productions was on the decline, as was the case 
in the 15th and i6th centuries, for the triumph 
of " opus anglicanum " evidently belongs to an 
earlier age. 


for highly conventionalised or geometrical 
designs chiefly on small metal ornaments of gold 
or gilt bronze,^ the object being in all cases to 
produce sharp and continuous contrast of light 
and shade : it is in fact one of the " coloristic " 
methods which the East preferred to modelling. 
The recent researches of Strzygowski make it 
more than ever probable that it started its 
journey across the Eurasian continent from the 
Further East, whence in course of time it was 
carried by the various migrant peoples through 
the South of Russia into the West of Europe; 
thus the hafts of bronze knives at Minusinsk in 
Siberia and the gilt metal brooches of our Anglo- 
Saxon forefathers are decorated on one prin- 
ciple. It penetrated the field of industrial art 
in the Roman Empire, where its appearance was 
so hard to explain on any theory but that of an 
oriental origin, that Riegl, who attempted the 
task, was driven into aesthetic speculations of a 
notorious subtlety.'' 

It is to be regretted that the earlier Scythic 
art was concerned with beasts rather than with 
men. It would have been interesting to see the 
human figure treated by the original art of the 
Asiatic steppes on the principles applied to the 
Kelermes panther. 

3 It was also used in wood carving, stucco ornament, 
etc., especially in Mohammedan art. 

*They are developed in his Spdtromische Kunstindustrie 
nach den Funden in Oesterreich-Ungarn, Vienna, igoi. The 
term used bv Riegl for what I have called " angular relief " 
was Keilschnitt, or " wedge carving " ; Strzygowski suggests 
Schriigschnilt or " slant-carving ", which seems an improve- 
ment in so far as it emphasizes the importance of the slopes 
forming the sides of the ridges. When the method is applied 
to continuous patterns, the design may sometimes be seen 
either in the channels between the ridges, or along the ridges 
themselves, and it is difficult to say which is background and 
which pattern. 



R. Roger Fry has played so pro- 
minent, and, to many, so inexplic- 
able a part in the art life of England 
during the last few years that 
this profoundly interesting book* 
should have an interest for a far larger public 
than art criticism commonly attracts. Mr. Fry 
has few rivals as an exponent of the Old Masters, 
and those who have enjoyed his papers on Giotto, 
on William BlaUe, and Aubrey Beardsley, will 
enjoy reading them again, and will regret per- 
haps that such notable essays as those on the 
French Primitives were not also included. These 
no doubt were outside the scope of the book, 
(already vast enough) which is intended rather 
to explain Mr. Fry's present attitude than to re- 
call his past achievements. Only this idea, in- 
deed, could quite justify the inclusion of the 
paper on Mohammedan art. Excellent as it is, 
many of its points will be almost unintelligible 
to the general reader from the absence of the 
illustrative accompaniment required for com- 
prehension. But Mr. Fry himself is the main 
subject of the volume, and to him accordingly 
we must turn with no further prelude. 

The narrow conservatism which regards him 
as Tom o' Bedlam we may disregard. But to the 
puzzled minds which are inclined to wonder 
whether he is not an aesthetic Cagliostro, he gives 
quite unconsciously one undeniable opening. 
The earliest essay in the volume is a long and 
most able study of the paintings attributed to 
Giotto at Assisi. As a piece of constructive and 
interpretative criticism it could not easily be 
bettered. Yet it was written nearly twenty 
years ago, and Mr. Fry therefore indicates in a 
note the change in his own views during the 

" Where I should be inclined to disagree is that there 
underlies this article a tacit assumption not only that the 
dramatic idea may have inspired the artist to the creation 
of his form, but that the value of the form for us is 
bound up without recognition of the dramatic idea." 

Those who have accused Mr. Fry of wrapping 
up his thoughts in unintelligible words might 
triumphantly quote this last sentence against 
him. As it stands it has no recognizable mean- 
ing. Indeed it was not till I saw it misquoted, 
or corrected, by another reviewer, that I was able 
to find out what Mr. Fry had intended to say. 
Substitute "with" for "without" and his state- 
ment is plain enough. 

Bv taking the essays in chronological order it 
is easy to see at what point Mr. Fry's conversion 
took place. His critical year was 1912. At the 
beginning of that year he was his old self ; at the 

"Vision and Design, by Roger Fry. 405 pp. + 32 pi. 
(Chatto Si Windus). 25*- net- 

end of it he was another man, denying almost all 
that he had previously affirmed. A few repre- 
sentative quotations will illustrate the contrast 
between the old and the modern point of view. 
In " The Artist's Vision " (1919) Mr. Fry 
writes : — 

" The creative vision demands the most complete de- 
tachment from the meanings and implications of api»ar- 
ances. In such circumstances the greatest object of art 
becomes of no more significance than any casual piece of 
matter; a man's head is no more and no less important 
than a pumpkin, or, rather, tliese things may be so or 
not according to the rhythm which obsesses the artist and 
crystallizes his vision. . . By preference he turns to 
objects which make no strong aesthetic appeal in them- 

And in " Art and Life " (1917) : — 

" With the new indifference to representation we have 
become much less interested in skill and not at all inter- 
ested in knowledge. . . . The artist of the new move- 
ment is moving into a sphere more and more remote from 
that of the ordinary man. In proportion as art becomes 
purer, the number of people to whom it appeals grows less. 
It cuts out all the romantic overtones of life by which 
men are induced to accept a work of art. It appeals only 
to the aesthetic sensibility, and that in most men is com- 
paratively weak." 

With these we may compare one or two earlier 
passages from the "Essay in Aesthetics" (1909). 

" If we represent these various elements (the emotional 
elements of design) in simple diagrammatic terms . . . 
such diagrams can at best arouse only faint ghostlike 
echoes of emotions of differing qualities, but when these 
emotional elements are combined with the presentation of 
actual appearances, above all with the appearance of the 
human body, we find that this effect is indefinitely 

An illustration from Michelangelo follows. 
Lastly there is a significant passage in the essay 
on Diirer (1909). 

" The decadence of Italian Art came about not through 
indifference to the claims of artistic expression, but 
through a too purely intellectual and conscious study of 

We cannot help asking ourselves whether the 
modernists have not themselves embarked upon 
this same dangerous course. I can imagine no 
more purely intellectual theory of art than that 
which Mr. Fry seeks to establish; by separating 
from design absolutely every element which does 
not make a direct assthetic appeal to the eye. 
Some element of realism he himself feels bound 
to retain, because he feels that art must be three- 
dimensional, and the suggestion of three dimen- 
sions calls for a corresponding suggestion of 
light. But with the suggestion of light, the 
suggestion of nature creeps in, and with nature 
associated ideas, however rudimentary. I con- 
fess that on this point Mr. Fry and his friends 
appear to me to be a little illogical. If we must 
paint only the aesthetic absolute, the absolute let 
it be and nothing else. Possibly it is some doubt 
on this point that inspires the last words of the 


" As to the value of the aesthetic emotion ... it 
seems to be as remote from actual life and its practical 
utilities as the most useless mathematical theorem. One 
can only say that those who experience it feel it to have 
a peculiar quality of " reality " which makes it a matter 
of infinite importance in their lives. Any attempt I 
might make to explain this would probably land me in 
the depth of mysticism. On the edge of that gulf I stop. " 

No one who studies this valiant attempt to cap- 
ture the secret of pure and unadulterated aesthetic 
perfection, can do so without respect for the self- 
sacrifice it has entailed upon the part of the 
author. The book should remove once and for 
all any temptation to regard Mr. Fry in any 
light except that of a most sincere and most 
austere pilgrim to the shrine of truth. But 
the secret itself — well — " it needs heaven-sent 
moments for this skill," and in one aspect we 
may think of Mr. Fry as a new Scholar- — Gipsy — 
" still nursing the unconquerable hope." We 
may know in our hearts that the hope is vain, but 
the scholar who has cast all else aside to wander 
in search of it is far from a ridiculous figure in 
these harsh material times. Like Glanvil's 
wanderer, he may even inspire us with a certain 
envy, as one protected by his quest from the jar- 
ring discontents which rack the modern world. 

But if in his private ideals Mr. Fry may seem 
like the Scholar-Gipsy, the fact that he is a teacher 
as well as a searcher has to be faced, and here, if 
the comparison be not irreverent, he is perhaps a 
little too like S. Peter. He will touch nothing 
that is common. In his essay on Renoir he 
says : 

" The few artists or writers who have shared the tastes 
of the average man have, as a rule, been like Dickens — 
to take an obvious case — very imperfect and very impure 
artists, however great their genius." 

He then quotes Rubens and Titian as artists 
of common tastes. 

There is some truth in this criticism, but, I 
submit, it is not the whole truth. Surely the 
gross exuberant and material elements in art, 
visible, tangible and acceptable to common 
humanity occupy, as it were, one end, perhaps the 
lower end, of a scale. At the other end of the 
scale are the super-refinements of art, the esthetic 
abstractions, such as that of which Mr. Fry and 
his whilom opponent, Mr. D. S. MacColl, are 
both in search. Now no great artist works con- 
tinuously at either extremity of such a scale. If 
he were at one end he would be quite vulgar ; if at 
the other he would be quite empty. His art is a 
combination in various proportions of the 
material and the abstract, or in Mr. Fry's 
language of the common and the pure. To tell 
the artist to give up altogether the substantial 
dements in life and to paint the pure assthetic, is 
like asking any other skilled workman to give up 
all ordinary healthy, natural food, and subsist on 
the elegant extracts of Messrs. Brand and 
\'alentine. May not the very narrow circle of 
aims and achievements to which Mr. Fry, his 
friends and his followers are confined, be the 

unanswerable proof that this precept means 
starvation of nine-tenths of the normal artistic 
stimuli ? The fact that a similar effort has been 
made in literature, and has failed definitely and 
conspicuously, points to the same conclusion. 
The analogy of literature with painting is indeed 
a close one : much closer than that of either art 
with music. In poetry and in poetical prose we 
have subject matter emphasized by rhythm, and 
so blended with it in the finest examples that we 
cannot in any way alter or separate them without 
absolutely destroying the whole delightful fabric. 

Now, I think, if the theory held by Mr. Fry 
and the modernists were sound, we should find 
that in poetry, so long as the verbal music was 
perfect, an equally fine poetic result was attained 
whether the subject matter was insignificant or 
the reverse. But this is far from being the case. 
When we know but little of a language, much of 
the finest poetry in that language is practically 
dumb for us. We can read the words perhaps, 
and catch their rhythm, but the rhythm hardly 
moves us. It is not until we have mastered the 
meaning of the words that the beauty and fitness 
of the rhythm take hold of us and reveal their 
perfections. It is true that when we first read a 
poet we are apt to be caught by his purple pass- 
ages, by obvious assonance and resounding 
rhythm. But when we know our poet better we 
find that these are but rhetorical ornaments, the 
flourishes of exuberant strength, and that the 
heart of the matter and his true genius are often 
conveyed in lines whose rhythm is so subtle and 
unobtrusive that we hardly notice it at first. 
Think, for example, of the line in which Catullus 
sums up the dreadful fate of Attis — Ibi omne vUcb 
spatium deae famula fuit. What a contrast with 
the radiant imagery and fiery rhythm of the rest 
of the piece, and yet the whole intensity of the 
tragedy is concentrated in that " famula." The 
contrast between the sonorous scholarly music of 
the " Vita Nuova ", and the broken recondite 
phrasing by which the terrific images of the 
" Divina Commedia " are stamped upon the 
memory might be quoted to the same effect. 

The truth is that rhythm is nothing, or next to 
nothing, except when emphasizing something. 
The more significant that something, the more 
valuable, and the more powerful does the rhythm 
become. Mr. Fry quotes the remark of a friend 
in the presence of his still-life by Marchand, that 
" it was like Buddha." The phrase describes 
not inaptly the monumental simplicity of this de- 
sign, and incidentally seems to me to give away 
Mr. Fry's case. When I ask myself why I like 
certain still-lifes by Cezanne, I find that it may 
be because the shape of a cloth or a curtain 
suggests to me the mass and large contour of a 
mountain, and from that association the rhythm 
acquires an added largeness and grandeur. In- 
deed, the aim of all great artists is to extract from 


ilie natural forms that stimulate them, not sonu' 
pure abstraction of pattern, some absolute 
.-usthetic quality, but just those elements which 
by association with our ideas of things large, 
weighty, splendid, swift, subtle, refined, spa- 
cious, luminous, majestic or passionate, will 
awake in us the appropriate emotion, the particu- 
lar emotion which the artist wishes to inspire. 
The rhvthm of form and colour in the piece is a 
result of this selecting process, and apart from 
the associations of which it is the vehicle, has but 
a shadowy and empty existence. 

Here we come to the cjuestion of what is com- 
monlv known as generalization of forms : a prin- 
ciple accepted alike by Mr. Fry and Sir Joshua 
Revnolils. This generalizing has too often been 
misunderstood. In the past, when the artist was 
under the spell of Greco-Roman Sculpture, it led 
to the search for an "ideal" form, an ideal de- 
prived of all character by its very perfection and 
which therefore remained insignificant and 
insipid. Brilliant executants like Tiepolo, 
who escaped from this failing by spirited 
calligraphy, are always in danger, as Mr. Fry 
points out, of accepting an empty type, 
or rather, perhaps, become monotonous 
bv sheer repetition of similar types. When 
the reaction started with men like Courbet and 
Daumier, the rugged contours of the one sug- 
gested the scale and robustness of primitive 
things, as the incisive swiftness of the other 
suggested strong movement and life. The 
Impressionists in their devotion to science 
sacrificed both these valuable contributions 
to creative art ; but opened up a new 
key of tone and colour. Cezanne, accept- 
ing this new key of tone, went back, 
in his best works, to Courbet for the secret 
of generalizing form. Unluckily he did not see 
that his Neo-Courbet formula was not appro- 
priate to many of the things he tried to paint. 
The writhing touches of Van Gogh, again, repre- 
sent a generalization of form in its way no less 
personal than that of Greco. 

Some generalization, we all know, is essential to 
creative design : for design involves the combina- 
tion of similar forms, and similar forms can only 
be got by abstraction and selection. But if the 
similar forms we select are geometrical, as with 
the Cubists, not only must our designs have a 
common general character, and therewith a 


LATE I. comprises a group of small 
but rare and precious porcelains deco- 
rated for the most part with famille 
verte enamels on the biscuit. The 
pair of figures mounted on lions 

certain monotony, but as the general ideas which 
we associate with geometrical forms are limited to 
sharpness, mass, intricacy, but not much more, 
the significance of the designs will be limited too. 
This seems now to be recognized in the case of 
Cubism. I think in time that implicit faith in the 
formula of Cezanne will also weaken. It is con- 
venient for tiiose who have little to say, for it 
makes that little look its biggest, by asswiation 
with large and weighty things. i?ut there are 
countless other forms of the artistic emotion for 
which it is inappropriate, and when those emo- 
tions come to be expressed a new generalization 
will have to be found for each of them. 

I am grateful to Mr. Fry for having compelled 
me to think of this aspect of the arts more 
seriously, and I hope more clearly than I ever did 
before. I only wish I could carry into practice 
one half of what I seem to have learned from his 
book. And it is doubtful whether this stimulat- 
ing protest against coinmon materialism could 
have been conveyed effectively in any way but 
that which Mr. Fry has chosen. His frank self- 
revelation, touching the art of the past and of the 
present at a thousand different points, is a more 
illuminative and far more attractive presentment 
of his theme than any scientific treatise could 
have given us. Though his one artistic absolute, 
his aesthetic master-emotion which is (like the 
Gipsy's secret) to bend recalcitrant nature to the 
artists' will, seems to me a will-o'-the-wisp, it is 
possible that in the hunt for it he may have run 
past a genuine lantern, which is not Reynolds' 
lantern of ideal beauty, nor Ruskin's lantern of 
detailed imitation, nor Whistler's lantern of deco- 
ration, nor the Impressionist's lantern of science. 
I cannot describe the lantern myself, I would 
only venture to suggest, somewhat on the lines of 
Mr. Berenson, that form becomes jesthetically 
significant through association, not so much with 
specific objects as with those general ideas of 
mass, space and movement and the like which 
quicken our aesthetic pulses. A great artist may 
evoke these forms from the humblest and sim- 
plest of themes; but he can evoke them with 
infinitely more richness and variety when his 
theme is a great one. Some degree of ascetic- 
ism is a necessary and valuable protest against 
a vulgar age. Elevated into a creed, it is apt 
to become merely a cloak for impotence, and a 
cloak which soon wears thin. 


are of a peculiar and intriguing nature. 
The beasts themselves are of the usual 
type consecrated to Chinese Buddhism, 
in which the features of the lord of 
the forests have been conventionalised out of 





■5 O 

5X) C 

O rt 

o ^ • 

j-'„ \ v 

.'^"W: 'Sv''''5^^ — * 

'if A' 

Plate II. Covered jar, one of a pair. Height 2 i|". K'ang Hsi 
period. (Mr. Leonard Govv.) 


Plate III. Ccwered jcir, one <)t"a pair. } Icight 2 if . K'ang Hsi 
period. (Mr. Leonard Ciow.) 

recognition. Harness hung with bells and tas- 
sels proclaims the subjugation of their savage 
nature to the Law of Buddha. But who is the 
strange figure in Tartar head-gear mounted on 
the ample saddle cloth which is thrown over their 
backs ? The best-known rider of lions is the 
divine Manjusri ; but here we have to deal with a 
more mortal being. We have seen in the white 
porcelain of Fukien figures of Europeans 
mounted on kylins which are difficult to explain 
as anything but caricature. Here, however, the 
composition was probably inspired by a more 
serious thought, which may be explained, like so 
many designs in applied art, by an ancient picture. 
Dr. Ferguson' describes a famous picture screen 
painted by Lu T'an-wei in the fifth century and 
copied by the order of the Emperor Shen Tsung 
in 1076, which has such an important bearing 
not only on our present subject but on the evolu- 
tion of the Buddhist lion that I am tempted to 
quote at some length from its description. It 
depicts, we are told, " the triumph of Buddhism 
even among the barbaric frontier tribes." A 
huge lion with shaggy mane is seated with one 
paw on a ball of silk brocade while in front are 
figures in barbarian dress with head-gear not un- 
like the Tartar cap of our statuettes. One of the 
barbarians holds a chain which is attached to the 
lion's neck. Here we have the Buddhist lion 
drawn with the true features of the king of beasts, 
but tame as Una's guardian and already fur- 
nished with the ball of brocade. An appreciation 
of the picture from Shen Tsung himself is of 
further interest : — ' Haughty are the eyes of the 
lion, prominent is the nose. His mane is 
ruffled, his tongue swollen, and his teeth slightly 
protrude. His feet are dancing, his ears are 
pricked up . . He is pleased with the appear- 
ance of his tail. Though fierce, yet he is gentle. 
Such playfulness hung in the Main Hall has the 
effect of adding a guest to the festive board. ." 
Playfulness has never been associated with lions 
in the western mind, and it has always been a 
puzzle to us why the Chinese so soon transformed 
the Buddhist lion into the spaniel-like " dog of 
Fo." Here we see something of the line of 
thought which caused this curious transforma- 
tion ; and at the same time we may look for an 
explanation of Mr. Gow's figures in the picture 
of the Barbarian and the Lion. We need not 
quarrel with the porcelain modeller if his version 
is not rigidly exact and if his long-sleeved Tartar 
figure holds in his left hand a peach, the Taoist 
symbol of longevity. Buddhism and Taoism had 
lived together amicably for many generations, 
and nothing is commoner in later Chinese deco- 
ration than a blend of the emblems of the two 
religious cults. These two figures are enamelled 
mainly in green, yellow and aubergine ; but the 

ij .C. Ferguson, Outlines of Chinese Art, Chicago, 1918 : 
page 215. 

colours also include composite black, red and the 
violet blue which proclaims their origin in the 
K'ang Hsi period (1662-1722). 

It was long the custom to attribute 
this type of porcelain indiscriminately to 
the Ming period, but we now reahse 
that the bulk of existing specimens is not 
older than K'ang Hsi. Lest, however, we should 
go to the opposite extreme and forget that the 
type is of Ming origin, it is well to have our 
attention directed occasionally to some of the rare 
Ming examples of on-biscuit enamels. The low, 
beaker-shaped vase in the lower row of Plate I, 
bears the Wan Li mark and has a paste of un- 
doubtedly Ming character. It is richly enamelled 
whh two ascending and descending dragons, 
pale green and aubergine in a yellow ground. 
The tails of the monsters end in scrolls and they 
hold in their claws scrolls of the ling-chih fungus 
of long life. Inside, the vase is leaf-green with 
a scroll border. 

The picture is completed by two dainty per- 
fume baskets, each with six panels of peony 
flowers framed in open work. The covers are 
designed to match, with lion knobs; and the 
handles are painted to resemble wicker-work. 
The decoration combines the two methods of 
enamelling, on the biscuit and on the glaze, a 
combination found convenient where much use 
was to be made of the coral red colour which is 
difficult to apply to the raw biscuit surface. The 
pierced hexagon diaper is finely executed. This 
kind of work, to which the Wan Li potters gave 
the name of ling lung and which the jade cutters 
call knei kung or devil's work, required the 
greatest delicacy of touch. The piercing was 
done while the ware was still unhardened by the 
fire and great care was needed to avoid pressing 
it out of shape. The ling lung work in this case 
is coloured with enamel on the biscuit, while 
glaze has been used on the solid parts. The red 
borders are in scroll design in one case, and in a 
wave and blossom pattern in the other. When 
one looks at the base of these baskets one finds 
that the ware is precisely that of the well-known 
covered bowls with pierced designs in white 
biscuit combined with small reliefs. These are 
assigned on excellent ground to the late Ming 
period, and one example is known to bear the 
date mark of the reign of T'ien Ch'i (1621-27). 
Like our beautiful baskets they were intended to 
contain fragrant flowers and perfumes which the 
Chinese use freely in their rooms, not only for 
their pleasant fragrance but in the belief that 
they keep off disease. 

Plates II and III illustrate a pair of 
handsome jars of potiche form with dome- 
shaped covers. They are stoutly constructed 
and bare of glaze under the base; and 
the entire surface is richly clothed with famille 


verte designs. The groiiiui work is a brocade 
pattern of speckled green strewn with chrysanthe- 
mum blossoms and butterflies, in which are 
reserved panels of varying form, shaped like fans, 
hand-screens, leaves and pomegranates. In 
these panels are diverse designs, including land- 
scape, rockery with flowers, birds and insects, 
baskets of flowers, Po-ku emblems, animals and 
monsters. On the neck is a tine trellis diaper 
overlaid with the flowers of the four seasons — 
prunus, peony, lotus and chrysanthemum. The 
animal forms are significant. They include the 
deer beside an ancient pine tree, both emblems 
of long life ; and the kylin and phoenix which are 
connected with spring in Chinese nature worship. 
Taken together these two groups would suggest 
to the Chinese mind the familiar wish " long life 


HOUGH Frans Hals, notwith- 
standing his assiduous painting, 
never attained to any fixed good 
position, he gave one of his 
_ daughters in marriage to a painter, 

Pieier Roestraeten, and he states that no less than 
seven of his sons followed the same calling as 
himself. This we know from contemporary 
records brought to light by Dr. A. Bredius. Not 
all the sons are known through extant works, 
some, indeed, not at all, others by only a few 
examples. I should like to draw attention to 
two of them. 

Reynier Hals lived from 1627' to 167 1. Only 
a single picture of his is mentioned in early 
literature, and this came to the Haarlem Museum 
in 1899 as the gift of Mr. Arthur Kay of Glas- 
gow. It is a fully signed half-length, nearly 
life-size, and represents a young girl smiling 
pleasantly at the onlooker. She is about to put 
a spoon into a pot of porridge in front of 
her, with an air of pleasurable anticipation. 
The easy way in which the child grasps the 
homely pot with one hand and the wooden spoon 
with the other makes it plain that she posed 
quite unaffectedly for the painter, and probably 
was one of his own children or a younger sister. 
From an artistic point of view the artist has not 
been quite successful in his problem. The 
details show a certain emptiness and weakness in 
drawing which suggests the likelihood of the 
canvas being rather large for the artist. 

When, as early as 1900, I wrote about the 

1 On the nth Februarj', '627, a son, Reynier, was born to 
the elder Frans. However, according to his own statement, 
the former was only 33 years old in 1663, in which case he 
must have been born in 1630. Yet it is possible that Reynier 
born in 1627 died early, and that the parents had, between 
Nicolaes, born 25th July, 1628, and Mary, born 12th November, 
163 1, another son, who was also given the name Reynier. 

and enduring spring." The Buddhist lion and 
cub occupy another panel ; in others again are the 
kylin and tiger, the latter a defence against evil 
spirits and disease; and finally there is one of 
those indeterminate monsters which the Chinese 
call hai shou (sea mons'ers)' and the French have 
graphically described as chimercs. The enamels, 
which throughout are brilliant in tone, include 
ilie fine K'ang Hsi blue enamel, composite black 
which is formed by a dull black-brown pigment 
under a wash of transparent green. A little 
underglaze blue on the knob of the cover and a 
few rings of the same colour serve to remind us 
that this blue played a prominent part in the 
famille verte colour scheme before the violet 
enamel ousted it from its place in the K'ang Hsi 

picture in the periodical Woord en Beeld, I ven- 
tured the conjecture that the power of the artist 
lay in painting small pictures. This assumption 
is confirmed by the two, herewith reproduced, 
which have since come to light, and are now in 
the possession of Mrs. Crena de Jongh van Eck 
at the Hague [Plate H, d, e]. Both are 
drawn amply, painted on wood, and 36 
by 25 cm. (14 t\ by 10 tV inche.s) in size, thus 
considerably smaller than the Haarlem picture, 
which measures 66 by 56 cm. (26 by 22 inches). 
The subjects of the pictures are clearly seen from 
the photographs and need no further explana- 
tion. The Girl peeling Apples is represented in 
a dark dress and blue apron, the Seamstress in a 
brownish yellow bodice with deep red sleeves. 
In both pictures the white of the linen pre- 
dominates, yet the general impression of colour- 
ing is harmonious. The execution is careful and 
reminds one in no way of the school of the elder 
Hals. Also the roguish smile in the Haarlem pic- 
ture, which denotes the father's infiuence, is here 
absent. Both women have a serious expression. 
The attention with which the one is sewing and 
the other is watching the proceeding in the dis- 
tance outside at her left is well expressed. 
Were it not for the signature, which in 
the case of the Seamstress is between the jug 
and the woman, and in that of the girl and 
apples, to the right below (it reads here " Hals 
rynier ") one would assume that both were the 
works of a painter of the Leyden school, rather 
than of an artist so closely in touch with the 
great Haarlem master, Frans Hals, as his son 
continually was. For curiosity's sake let us also 
mention that the .Seamstress was painted over a 
newlv-begun portrait, of which the collar is still 
visible as a pentimento. 

Nicolaes Hals was the second son of the great 





^ E 

I I 


C Girl Reading, by Claes Hals (Mauritshuis) 

/) (Url peeling Apples, by Reynier Hals. 14" by 
10". (Mrs. Crena de Jongh Van Hague) 

/•: Cirl Se-ieing. b\ KeyniiT Hals. 14" ''v 10" 
(Mis. Ciena de Jungh \'an I'.ck, Hague) 

Plate 11. Revnier and C'laes Hals 

artist of whom, thanks to the kindness of my 
friend Robert C. Witt, I can give some fresh 
information. According to the biographical 
statement of the Mauritshuis catalogue, he was 
born on the 25th July, 1628, in Haarlem, where 
he was also christened, and on the 17th July, 
1686, he was buried there. In 1656 he had be- 
come a member of the painters' guild, and 
in 1682 a member of the Committee- 
From 1664 he was a brewer. Hitherto 
the picture in Plate I, B, representing the 
large church in the great Houtsraat in Haarlem, 
has been ascribed to him, by reason of a mono- 

M gram in the left lower corner. It is 
^ very difficult from this monogram 
(which is more accurately reproduced 
^ here than in the reproduction in 
the Haarlem catalogue) to decipher the letters 
N.H., and even if these letters are accepted 
it is not certain that they stand for Nicolaes Hals. 
Less ambiguous is the monogram C.H. on a 
picture of quite different style at the Mauritshuis 
representing a young woman in an attic 
thoughtfully looking at a picture book [Plate 
II, c]. The facihty displayed in the art of 
laying on and blending the colours, which at 
least does not speak against the Haarlem 
origin of this little picture, has already 
induced Dr. A. Bredius, director of the gallery, 
to ascribe this pretty picture to Claes (Nicolaes) 
Hals. And I believe I have recognised, 
in an unsigned picture in the John G. 
Johnson Collection at Philadelphia, the same 
hand as that of the little picture at The Hague 
(Cat. No. 437 with reproduction). This picture 
represents a smiling woman sitting with a pipe 
in her right hand and a glass of beer in her left, 
with a man singing in the shadow behind her. 
Both the touch and the technical execution are 
in such perfect accordance with the Hague pic- 
ture that there can be no doubt of the identity 
of the author of these two paintings. Besides, 
the cheerfulness — the joy of life — which this work 
imparts to us, indicates an artist of Frans 
Hals's circle. 

There is, however, no trace of resemblance to 
be found between these two pictures and that of 
the town view at Haarlem [Plate I, b]. Those 
two genre pictures prove a much superior gift 
of art. Now, it is possible that an artist, re- 
nowned as a purely genre painter, should for 
once, in painting the unfamiliar subject of a town 
street, fall short of his other achievements. But 
otherwise it is more likely that when we have a 
superior genre picture signed by C.H. and an 
inferior street picture by the artist of the mono- 

gram, that we are confronted wit 1 two different 
artists, of whom the painter of the street scene, 
considering his subject, probably belongs to 
Haarlem, and the genre painter, by hij technique 
and fine perception, may have been quite familiar 
at Haarlem. 

Were these monograms identical, the differ- 
ence in quality could be disregarded, and were the 
quality the same the variance in the monograms 
could be overlooked, but where both quality 
and monogram differ, it were more prudent to 
regard them, provisionally, as being the work of 
two different artists. If one of these must have 
been Claes Hals, then, for that reason, the 
painter of the street view has the better claim to 
consideration, because the picture in Mr. Witt's 
possession is signed in the left lower corner by 

the full name of the 
f » ,. . /^ 1^ master, and is, for us 

thought to have 
the artist either 
Haarlem or the 
Hague museum, a total 
surprise. It is, as the reproduction shows 
[Plate I, a], a village view with a large 
four-cornered tower, which as the only re- 
mains of an Abbey Church, towers high above the 
peasants' low houses and determines the total 
impression of the picture. On the top of the 
tower is a signal for mariners ; therefore prob- 
ably the village and tower are situated on the 
duties not far from the North Sea coast. A 
broad uneven country road stretches beyond it 
and the houses. In live different spots there are 
single figures to be seen, and to the left, at a 
corner, two figures together. As regards artistic 
character, we perceive no connection with the 
pictures of Frans Hals nor with his school. On 
the other hand, we are struck at first sight 
by a great resemblance to a certain group 
of Ruisdael's pupils — the two painters, Roelof 
and Michiel van Vries, later also Cornelis Decker 
and Solomon Rombouts, who were all busy at 
Haarlem and with more or less preference 
painted these subjects. The colouring, with its 
predominating brownish tone, the distribution of 
light and shade, the treatment of the tree-trunks 
and foliage, are entirely in the style of the last 
mentioned master. Were the picture not signed 
one would surely search for its author in the 
immediate vicinity of those painters. We shall 
be justified by testing once again with the aid of 
this authentic work of Claes Hals the oeuvre of 
Ruisdael's pupils. Additional pictures by him 
will then probably be brought to light. 



h'oi'R Irish LASt>sc.\rt Painters, by Iiiomas Bodkin ; .\xi + 
jjti pages, j(> plates. Dublin : The Talbot Press, Ltd. ; 
London : T. KUher Unwin, Ltd. £^ •*. net. 

Local historiography in tlie domain of ;nt 
possesses an importance and usefulness far out- 
stripping its circle of immediate interest, seeing 
how often — owing to the migratory properties of 
works of art — it may be called upon to render 
services where this may be least expected. It is 
not often, however, that an illustrator of local art 
effort brings to his task the equipment of many- 
sided and up-to-date knowledge possessed by the 
author of this charming volume on four Irish 
landscape painters — George Barret, sen., James 
A. O'Connor, Walter Osborn, and Nathaniel 
Hone, R.H.A. — not to be confused with his 
eighteenth century namesake and kinsman. Mr. 
Bodkin modestly states in his preface that he 
believes the elaborate appendices to be the most 
valuable portion of the book, and they do indeed 
contain a wealth of information in tabulated 
form ; but it is also a pleasure to acknowledge 
how valuable is the appreciation which Mr. 
Bodkin gives of the artistic achievement and 
evolution of the four painters dealt with bv him ; 
and on the purely literary side there is a delight- 
ful vivacity in his account of the chequered 
career of O'Connor, whilst an exceedingly sym- 
pathetic portrait is drawn of Nathaniel Hone, 
whose death in 1917 probably robbed the world 
of the last surviving direct link with the Bar- 
bizon school. Inquirers into the history of 
eighteenth and early nineteenth century land- 
scape painting will be glad of tine reproductions 
(excellent, as the illustrations throughout the 
book) of the works of George Barret (not infre- 
quently confused, as the author points out, with 
Richard \A'ilson) and O'Connor, who, it may be 
remarked, as a painter of moonlight scenes did 
have an English predecessor in E. Childe 
(exhibited 1798-1896), one of whose works — in 
the collection at Northwick Park, Blockley — has 
been mistaken by more than one good judge for 
an Aart van der Neer. We hope that the volume 
may be followed by others, completing the series 
of notable Irish painters. T. B. 


Picasso. — Picasso is the object of more 
worship and more abuse than any contemporary 
painter; and this alone gives special interest and 
importance to the exhibition of his work at the 
Leicester Galleries. Almost every phase of his 
development is to some extent illustrated. After 
an impressionist period, represented by paint- 
ings such as La Mansarde, the study of form 
begins in the Jeune Saltimbanque and work of 
the same period. Then comes the familiar blue 

Catalogue of Painters and Draughtsman reprksknteu in 
Tin: I^inRARV or Kkproductions of Pictures and Drawings 
FOUMKD iiv RoHERT AND Marv VVitt. 23S pp. Privately 

If llic Witt lil)rary of reproductions is nol 
well known to students it is no fault of its 
authors, but if there still exist students who 
hesitate to avail themselves of the collection, 
the issue of this catalogue should be more tJian 
suflicient to embolden lliem to cross Mr. Witt's 
inviting threshold. A great deal of work has 
been done in collecting photographs and ex- 
tracting prints from all manner of art publica- 
tions, and already the nucleus of a complete 
library of works of art has been formed. It is 
unnecessary here to describe either the collec- 
tion or the catalogue except to say that the 
latter is a well bound and clearly printed 
volume, and that the important matter of 
arrangement has been thought out with admir- 
able thoroughness. We are glad to have it on 
our shelves, where it will be available for any 
readers who care to use it. With its help and 
the patience and courtesy of the attendants at 
Portman Square, connoisseurs and studeiHs 
can have no difficulty in studying anything 
contained in the collection. In order to in- 
crease its scope and usefulness and hasten its 
growth the authors of the new catalogue wilt 
obyiou.sly be helped by suggestions from those 
who actually use the library. To do so is the 
privilege of the " serious student ", of whom 
Mr. Witt speaks in the preface and for whom 
he so generously caters. R. R. x. 

The Modern Coi.our-Print of Orioinal Design, by Malcolm 

C. Salaman. 28 pp., 3s. 6d. Bromhcad & Cutts. 

This book is a plea for the colour-print that 
is conceived and carried out by one artist. The 
author accepts, we feel, a little indiscriminately, 
the work of those who adhere to this principle, 
and he rejects unhesitatingly all who do not. 
While we do not agree with Mr. Salaman re- 
garding what modern colour work is vital and 
what is not, still, for those who do so, his enthu- 
siastic little book, limited though it is in scope 
and subject, will no doubt be found readable, 
informative and stimulating. R. R. t. 

phase, with form more emphasized, but overlaid 
with sentiment. From this point the paintings 
take us direct to cubism, in which natural form 
is almost disregarded, serving merely as starting 
point for an abstract geometrical pattern in three 
dimensions. This pattern is at first treated 
almost in monochrome, with perhaps a few- 
patches of colour; later, the colour is used more 
freely, and becomes more vivid. Unfortunately, 
there is nothing among the paintings to repre- 


sent the intermediate phase in which Picasso 
came under the influence of Negro sculpture, 
and learned to think in planes. Some of the 
etchings and drawings supply this omission, how- 
ever, notably the fete de Fcmme et Nature Morte 
of 1910. The drawings also illustrate the artist's 
very last phase, in which there is a return to the 
use of natural forms under apparently the influ- 
ence of Ingres. Though it is difficult to believe 
that the exhibition is really representative of the 
artist's best work, it shows his versatility and 
technical skill. He can pass dexterously from 
the manner of Toulouse-Lantrec to that of 
Rops : turn from experiments in the manner of 
Zorn to etch the fine L'Aveugle ; produce Les 
Trois Marins (which may or may not have influ- 
enced Mr. John), draw the solid and weighty 
Nil Accroupi, and within a few years paint the 
series of Nature Morte with sand embedded in 
the paint. It is all very clever and ingenious. 
But it does not make it easy to understand the 
great influence claimed for Picasso. It suggests 
rather that he may have been an early exponent 
of ideas which would have developed in any case, 
rather than an originator. Still, it is sufficiently 
curious that from the uninspiring and eclectic 
art of modern Spain, this Catalan should have 
sprung to set Paris by the ears and make such an 
impression on modern art. It recalls the case of 
Goya, a similarly isolated figure in his own 
country. But it is another question what rank 
Picasso will take as a creative artist. Certainly 
he has power as a colourist. In the present exhi- 
bition this is most clearly shown in his earlier 
work, where the use of black, white and grey, 
with touches of more vivid colour, is most skil- 
ful. In some of the later cubist examples, how- 
ever, the colour distribution is naive and 
mechanical, rather like heraldic counter-charg- 
ing. But the chief interest of the exhibition 
centres round the Nature Morte lent by Mr. 
Clive Bell, not because of its intrinsic merits, 
but because it raises in the clearest way one of 
the most disputed questions in modern painting. 
Possessing little charm of colour, an unpleasant 
quality of paint, and a design almost entirely 
independent of natural forms, its appeal rests in 
the main on the arrangement of abstract form. 
The most that can be said is that the picture 
leaves the case for pure cubism unproven. But 
Picasso's recent use of vigorous colour, and his 
present Ingres phase, must be singularly dis- 
quieting for those who believed that in cubism 
truth was at last found. w. g. c. 

N.'^TioNAL Portrait Society. — The tenth 
annual exhibition of the Society contains many 
portraits, but few pictures. Most of the exhibits 
show considerable skill in reproducing super- 
ficial characteristics of the sitters, but lack the 
structure and solidity which give vitality. Ex- 

travagant and tasteless use of local colour em- 
phasize the artificiality of the work ; and the 
anxiety of some members to show that they are 
familiar with modern French painting has a simi- 
lar effect. In fact, much of the work is both 
mannered and vulgar. Mr. John and Mr. 
Sargent are open to the same charge, though 
mastery of their material saves them to some 
extent. Mr. John's drawings are more worthy 
of his talents. It is a relief to turn to the sincere 
and competent painting of Mr. Russell, and to 
the refinement and sensibility of Mr. Steer, or 
even to the prettiness of Mr. Sims. M. Blanche's 
portrait of Mr. Thomas Hardy is a straight- 
forward and well characterized piece of work. 

w. G. c. 
Cyril Andrade, 8, Duke Street. — There is 
an interesting collection here of work in rock 
crystal, originally brought together by Mr. 
Alfred Simson. It includes a few early speci- 
mens from India and Ceylon, and a bust of 
Cfesar Augustus of unknown date carved from 
one piece cf the material. The finest examples, 
however, date from the i6th century or later. 
Notable among these is a cross three feet high, 
standing on a skull, which rests on a base en- 
graved with instruments of the Passion ; a cup 
of Austrian workmanship in the form of a nau- 
tilus shell; and a jug from Germany. Most of 
the articles are lavishly decorated with the 
precious metals, jewels, enamel and niello work. 
Their aesthetic value is not to be compared with 
that of earlier work, such as the Mexican mask 
in the British Museum ; but as technical tri- 
umphs they are remarkable. w. g. c. 

The New English Art Club. — The generous 
policy illustrated by the present exhibition of 
giving so much wall space to younger artists 
shows great public spirit ; but it is doubtful 
whether it is in the best interests of the club 
itself. Much of the work on view is merely good 
students' work, and it is unfortunate that the 
New English Art Club should seem to lend its 
countenance to the young man in a hurry to 
exhibit. The work of the younger exhibitors, 
however, has some interesting points; notably a 
strong inclination towards Pre-Raphaelitism, 
which is in striking and amusing contrast to the 
work of the older members. Mr. Gilbert 
Spencer, among others^ does in fact return to 
the Italian primitives; Mr. Underwood and Mr. 
Chubb, on the other hand, take the English 
Pre-Raphaelites as their model, and share their 
superficialitv and disjointedness. Mr. Paul 
Nash .stands apart in cultivating pattern, but 
wave forms have baffled him ; and Mr. Guevara's 
expressionist Signs of the Zodiac, with its incon- 
sistent lighting, is ingenious but uninteresting. 
The best section of the exhibition consists of the 
drawings and water colours. The latter in gen- 


cral show real understanding of the possibiHties 
and limitations of the medium. Conspicuous 
among them are two examples of Mr. Steer's art. 

w. G. c. 

The Fine Arts Socuctv. — Most of 
etchings by Adolphe Beaufr^re are of landscapes 
in France and in Algeria, in the treatment of 
whicli the artist is certainly at his best. There 
is indeed something particularly attractive in 
Beaufr^re's line and in his broad open treatment 
of backgrounds. In the rather ambitious etch- 
ings of the martyrdom of S. Sebastian, however, 
there is a stifif, slightly suburban quality, and the 
.same thing is particularly noticeable in the two 
woodcuts, Nos. I and 2. In the introductory 
note M. .\rmand Dayot .says he is " inclined to 
believe that the mysterious germ of mysticism 
which is embedded in ever\- Celtic soul developed 
in Beaufr^re .... under the ever present 
shadow of death ". Perhaps fortunately, we 
could find nothing in any of the etchings to sup- 
port this hypothesis. On the contrary, most of 
them are very matter of fact and very accom- 
plished. D. G. 

Eld.\r G.allery. — This exhibition consists 
mainly of some of Boudin's pencil notes of 
figures, ships, and little corners of land- 
scape with all the apparatus of harbour life that 
appealed so strongly to him. There are, how- 



Sir, — In his interesting article on "Early 
Italian Pictures at Cambridge ", Mr. O. Siren, 
speaking of a tondo representing the Madonna 
with the Infant in her arms by a pupil of Botti- 
celli, proposes to call this unknown artist " The 
Master of the Gothic buildings ". After having 
mentioned one or two plausible arguments, Mr. 
Siren adds : " The master may, however, be 
still more easily recognisable by certain accessory 
elements introduced in his pictures, such as 
buildings of a northern type placed in the back- 
ground. Sometimes we see in his pictures 
churches with pointed roofs, sometimes northern 
castles with high turrets, sometimes palaces with 
steep gables, or other specimens of mediaeval 
architecture ". And the author quotes a 
Madonjia in Turin, another with Gothic towers, 
and a high bridge in the background, in the 
Liechtenstein Collection at \''ienna, a tondo in 
the Musee J. Andre in Paris, and a few others. 

I would like to observe that such 
peculiarities are precisely those we find 
in many of the works of Botticelli him- 
self, who seemed to have had a special 
liking for architectural motives, Gothic towers, 

ever, several large paintings, besides a number 
of more elaborate sketches in water colour and 
in oil. All the large works and most of the 
more completely worked-out sketches are ex- 
am])les of Boudin in the style he habitually 
employed and by which he is so well known. 
The remainder are more or less in the nature of 
occasional exjieriments. We see him, for ex- 
ample, in No. 30, attempting, with considerable 
and rather surprising .success, to construct a 
figure composition in active foreshortening and 
interpreting the conception by means of what 
was for him an entirely fresh colour scheme. 
Or, again, we find him occupying himself exclu- 
sively with the rendering of evening atmosj^heric 
efTects — sometimes with such a singleness of pur- 
pose that he seems to have forgotten composition 
altogether. A few of the smallest of the draw- 
ings are the merest unemotional records of facts 
and serve only to illustrate how insensitive a 
draughtsman the artist could become when he 
allowed himself to be careless or hurried. But 
here and there one comes upon a rapidly executed 
drawing which, in spite of a certain heaviness 
in the line, stands out among its fellows, not 
only because of a superficial charm, but on 
account of real nobility of design. Examples of 
these are Nos. 7, 16, 57 and 58. The exhibition 
illustrates admirably the main characteristics of 
Boudin. R. R. T. 

pointed roofs, toits a poivriere as (I think) the 
French say. We see the same bridge of the 
Liechtenstein Madonna in the An7iunciation of 
the Florentine Academy, northern turrets and 
castles in the S. Sebastiati of Berlin, in the 
Nativity of the National Gallery, in the Destruc- 
tion of the Children of Korah, and in the Christ 
tempted in the Sixtine Chapel, which paintings, 
particularly the last four, are admitted as San- 
dro's genuine works. 

I do not intend to discuss here Mr. Siren's 
judgment about the Cambridge tondo, which he 
certainly correctly attributes to a pupil of Botti- 
celli, but I only wish to say that the Gothic 
characteristics are a rather vague indication to 
enable us to distinguish this artist from the 
master himself and from others of his followers. 
Yours faithfully, 

GuiDO Cagnol.'\. 

Milan, December, 1920. 




SiR,^ — In an interesting article contributed to a 
recent number of L'Arte (fasc. IV-V, vol. xxiii, 
1920), Dr. G. Zorzi deals with the work of 
Valerio Belli of Vicenza, and particularly with 


the three chief remaining examples of it — the 
crystal cross of the Vatican Library, the crystal 
casket of the Ulfizi, and the cross at South Ken- 
sington. This last-named was described and 
illustrated in the Burlington Magazine for 1906 
(vol. ix, pp. 124, etc.), and it will interest Dr. 
Zorzi to learn that the candlesticks belonging to 
it were presented to the Museum this year by 
Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild, in order that they 
might rejoin the cross. 

Dr. Zorzi refers with a good deal of scorn, 
and perhaps justly, to a pamphlet by a certain 
Panigalli made use of in the description pub- 
lished in your columns. But he appears to over- 
look the real service rendered by this " dealer's 
puff ", namely, that its illustrations provided the 
means of reconstituting the cross, and the final 
proof of its relation with the candlesticks. Nor 
does he do justice to the writer in the Burling- 
ton in assuming that he accepted Panigalli 's 
statements without question ; the dubious char- 
acter of the evidence is explicitly stated in the 
course of the article. 

Dr. Zorzi assumes that the South Kensington 
cross and candlesticks are a set mentioned by 
Vasari as having been made by Valerio for Pope 
Paul III, and further identifies this set as one 
referred to by the artist himself in a letter writ- 
ten to the Duke of Mantua in 1533. In this 
letter Valerio declines a commission from the 
Duke on the ground that he is occupied with a 
" fornimento di altare " for the Pope (Clement 
VII), and explains in the frankest way that he is 
unwilling to disappoint the Pope chiefly because 
of the handsome way his Holiness has remuner- 
ated him for all the works he has done for him. 
Dr. Zorzi concludes that the altar-set was begun 
for Clement and finished for Paul. 

But Valerio refers to the subjects of deco- 
ration of these pieces as " molte istorie 
della vita di Cristo " ; and Vasari similarly 
as " storie della Passione di Gesu Cristo 
in vari spartimenti ". In reality the cross 
at South Kensington has only a figure of 
Christ between the four Evangelists, and its 
pedestal three subjects: — the Entombment, the 
Resurrection, and the Descent into Hades. The 
plaques of the candlesticks are without carving. 
Altogether they hardly tally with the description 
of Valerio and Vasari, even allowing for another 
subject on a pax (now lost) which formed part 
of their set. This difficulty is surmounted by Dr. 
Zorzi by supposing that a set of nine crystals 

of which impressions were in the Poniatowski 
Collection (illustrated in D'Agincourt, Hist, de 
I'Art, IV, pi. 43) may have belonged originally 
to the pedestals of these pieces. These are 
carved with just such elaborate Passion subjects 
as the descriptions seem to imply. It is pos- 
sible, certainly, to suppose that the plain plaques 
of the candlesticks might have been inserted at 
some time in place of carved originals, but why 
the carvings on the foot of the cross should have 
been substituted for other carvings it is not easy 
to say. Moreover, the proportions of the Ponia- 
towski plaques are totally different from those 
on the pedestals of the cross and candlesticks, 
and this negatives the theory. 

The cross at the Vatican, with three medal- 
lions illustrated by Dr. Zorzi, is believed to be 
one made for Pope Clement in 1525. (Vasari, 
Opcre, ed. Milanesi, V, 380). In this it is worth 
noting that the curious error of the South Ken- 
sington cross (omitting to reverse the INRI label, 
so as to read correctly when seen through the 
crystal) is avoided. It is certainly strange that 
an artist of Valerio's experience should have 
committed this error, but stranger still that he 
should have committed it several years after he 
had successfully avoided it in a similar work. 
And why are the carvings at South Kensington 
not signed, by an artist so careful to sign his 
previous works ? 

In short, the more closely the facts are 
examined the more uncertain becomes the identi- 
fication of the South Kensington pieces as those 
made for Pope Clement or Paul. Is it after all 
just possible that Panigalli, the despised dealer- 
author of the pamphlet, may have really drawn 
on a i6th century manuscript authority, as he 
professed, for his story of their having been 
made earlier in Valerio's career, for Francis I ? 
Finally, Dr. Zorzi, in remarking that we have 
nothing but a record of a silver-gilt tabernacle, 
made for his native town, by which to judge of 
Valerio's reputed skill as a goldsmith, overlooks 
the exquisite work in silver-gilt, enamelled with 
charming floral designs, which forms the main 
structure of the South Kensington pieces, a sub- 
ject duly discussed in the description of them 
in your pages. I may add that, as there stated, 
there is a pair of candlesticks, not a single one 
as Dr. Zorzi supposes. 

Yours faithfully, 

H. P. Mitchell. 

2ist December, 1920. 


Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods will sell at King 
Street, St. James's, on March i8th, a number of important 
pictures by Old Masters from the collection of F. J. Austen, 
Esq., deceased. These include examples by Alunno di 
Domenico, Ambrogio de Predis, Amico di Sandro, Cariani, etc. 

Also Early English pictures, the property of the trustees of 
the will of Sir William Clavering, Bart., including The Claver- 
ing Children, by Romnev, engraved by J. R. Smith, 1779; 
Portrait of Lady Napier, bv Romney : Portrait of Colonel 
Thomas Thornton, bv C. Romnev ; the well-known Sportsman, 


and oilurs ; a version o( The Beggars' O/i.rd, by lloj^ajili, 
from the Louis Hulh Collection, 1905. Portrait oj Miss Kmflia 
Var^sittarl. by Reynolds, painted in 177J ; Portrait oj the Rev. 
John Home, by Kac-burn. The most strikinj- lot in this sale 
is the superb example of Aniioo di Sandio, The Virgin and 
Child -.fith S. John, with a background of architecture and 
landscape. It is one of those paintings by minor masters, 
only tix> rare even in Italian art, in which the maiirierisms 
of a great school have been adopted as they stand and em- 
ployed solely as a vehicle for a greatly conceived and nobly 
constructed design. There is not a line or a space on the 
canvas that does not take its place in the wonderful h.irmonj 
of the whole creation. It is the work of artists such as this 
follower of Botticelli as much as that of the great founders 
of schools that has placed Central Italian art in the supreme 
position in which we find it to-day. The .Ambrogio dc Predis 
portrait is another notable work of high artistic merit, and 
unusual interest will be felt in the two subject pictures of 
.Munno di Domenico. Of the English (xjrtraits one is drawn 
particularly to the finely felt Emilia Vansittart by Sir Joshua. 

R. R. T. 
Messrs. Sotiiebv, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell, at 34, New- 
Bond Street, on February nth, various collections of Old 
English and Erench furniture and tapestries, etc. The lots 
are few in number, but of the highest quality. .Among the 
furniture, Lot 27 is a reinarkable triple-hooprd-back soltee, 
in English walnut, with the broad splats veneered with pieced 
burrs, on four front legs of cabriole form, hipped over the 
broad veneered front rail, carved with ringed lion masks on 
the knees and finishing in vigorous paw feet. This piece is 
in original and unrcstorcd condition, and comes from Lord 
Willoughby de lirokc's Warwickshire seat, Compton Verney. 
Only those who have attempted to collect this lion-walnut of 
the early mahogany years (1725-35) know how rare genuine 
examples are. From Fineshade .Abbey, in Northamptonshire, 
comes a collection of iSth century English furniture of excep- 
tional quality, among which a remarkable set of Hepplewhite 
furniture, consisting of two settees quadruple-backed, with 

oval backs filled wiih carved lallice-work in a free rendering 
of the conventional honeysuckle pattern, on ten cabriole legs 
in the French taste, with nine chairs to match, all of the 
highest quality and in remarkable condition, may be noticed. 
The most n-markable lot in the sale is No. 121, the property 
of Lord St. John of Blelso, removed from Melclibourne Park. 
This is the extraordinary panel (mentioned in this column last 
month) of English needlework of the period of Henry VIII, 
in line cross and tent stitch, measuring 18 ft. 6 ins. in length 
by 4 ft. 7 ins. in height. Messrs. Solheby, with commendable 
modesty, have calalogu<d the panel as IClizabethan, but it has 
every apjx^arance of being earlier. It consists of three circular 
bordered panels enclosed by laurelled borders centred at the 
top with the Tudor rose, the central panel with a coat of arms, 
three lions passant on a shield or surmounted by a crested 
helmet. The other panels represent deer feeding be- 
neath oak trees. The panels are surrounded by a ground of 
a small diced pattern, double-bordered, all in fine tent stieh. 
.A petil-|>oint panel of this size and quality, and above all, in 
mint condition, as this panel is, must be unique in the auction 
sale world. There is another panel of nwdlework in the s.-ini • 
sale, and from the same source, which is nearly as remark- 
able, in quality and size, as the preceding, and two tapestry 
panels, the one of 15th century Flemish, of ecclesiastical type, 
and the other of the early iSth century, after the cnanner of 
Teniers, which are worthy of description and illustration, but 
considerations of space forbid more than a mere description. 

II. c. 
Messrs. Sotiiebv, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell, at 34, New 
Bond Street, on 15th and 16th February, an important collec- 
tion of Old Master Drawings, principally of the French, Ger- 
man, Dutch and English schools, comprising works by and 
attributed to Claude, Fragonard, Poussin, Watteau, Pieler 
Brueghel, Van Dyke, Van Goyen, Hobbema, Maes, Metsu, 
Van Ostade, Rembrandt, Teniers, Terborch, Van de Vclde, 
etc., and a series of drawings by I7lh and 18th century Dutch 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have 
must be stated. Publications not coming within the scope 
prices are stated. 

Serial Publicalions will be arranged here according to 
number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Boston Museum of Fine .Arts. 

Handbook of the Museum. 448 pp. Profusely illustrated. 
75 cents. This is a characteristically American publication. 
being something between a catalogue and a text booh. 
One finds at the beginning instructions about how to 
dispose of one's umbrella when entering the gallery, and 
in the bulk of the hook, lavishly illustrated, notes on the 
art and the artists of every period and people, a synopsis 
of art history, a note on Chinese chronology, etc. Enter- 
prise and thoroughness characterise the publication, which 
is a model of what an inexpensive museum catalogue 
ought to be. 
Museum of Fine .irts, Boston. 1870-1920. 38 pp. Illust. 
in text. 

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EDITORIAL "/SV Mona^f^^fnu/fi Reqmrts^ Kuutumipice 

ORKS of art and ity are 

commonly lo-^ to ii ,, not in 

the midst of a storm ot public pro- 
,test, nor as the result of ftirious 
icon(x~iasm. They vanish, un- 
noticed by those who rare most for them, and 
their value is felt only when it is too late. It 
l(x>ks as if we were oji the eve of just such a 
'-ataslrophe v '■■ '• !1 deprive us of some of the 
most distinc .amples of architectural de- 

sign tha een created by the English 

;'pnit;- , happens, we students of art 

largely to blame, for so far we have 
!■ i{) attempt" to formulate any expres- 
\\r attitude, 
borne months ago there was raised in the popu- 
lar press a furore over the proposed destruction 
by the Church of England of nineteen City 
It served its purpose of providing 
i>py " for the editors, and rapidly 
passed away, not to be revived. People felt im- 
potently glad that " something had been done " ; 
the flame of agitation was extinguished in a sea 
of vague satisfaction. But the time of real dan- 
ger came, not -svith the birth of the movement, 
but with its The deed will be perpe- 

trated, like uii" i uccds of the kind, in the dark 
and the silence — in just such an ominous still- 
ness as has now descended upon the whole 

, The Lord Bishop of London, in " reply to 
an enquiry I sent him, says, " The matter 
of the City Churches is still under very 
u! consideration. It is not, however, the 
likely there will be a wholesale demolition 
of ihfsi- hurches. Each case will be carefully 
considered one by one." This comfortless com- 
munication, when one remembers the scant 
,'nition the buildings have in previous dis- 
. ,,. .IIS received as works of art, will leave all 
conniii-M-i:rs and many cultured people anxious 
and dei-'r*--.'.f d Our uneasiness will be appeased 
neither h\ h^- ihought that the churches may be 

destroyp ' of all together, nor 

by the ni c>f the spires alone. 

It shall be len we have a defi- 

nite assuran. -!'- stone is to be 

taken from , jf the churches 

for secular .iy or wrongly, re- 

garded as a heir destruction is 

surely a des- pardonable. We 

do not feel ai : n inclined to discuss 

their merit. 7 - long ago passed the 

censors of criticism, ami the world thought them 
for ever secure. As for the argument that 
" people do not go to see them " : If they do 
not — and we are not aware that they do not — 
then so much the worse for " people ". Once 
let us admit that as a principle and how many 
fine works of art would have to disappear ! 
Many of them were conceived by one of the 
greatest creators for whom our race can account, 
and he built them on the crest of a high enthu- 
siasm, with a fine sense of his responsibility 
and an energy altogether worthy of himself and 
the occasion. The Churchmen of that time rea- 
! the greatness of Wren and the permanent 
le of his immense accomplishment. It is for 
the Churchmen of to-day to decide whether the 
celebrated epitaph their fathers raised above his 
foiiih hai to remain significant or to become a 
er we and our children shall look 

. ;' the perfcf;t legacy left for us by 

our Master Architect or at the monuments of his 
genius scarred, disfigured and blotted out? 

I propose to reply to the Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don by sending him a list of signatures of those 
of us who, whatever our opinions may be regard- 
ing the difficulties confronting the Church in 
this matter, wish to emphasise the importance of 
these edifices as works of art and to express the 
hope that they may be allowed to remain intact 
and unmutilated. I therefore ask all who share 
this hope to send me on a postcard or otherwise 
the words " City churches " together with their 
signature and address. 




seated the white- 

ondo which we reproduce as a 

■ ' nt number 

\ziNE has 

from a private cc)llec-. 

nd, where it has lain 

i:e of art students. 

ited with the Christ 

, a table at which is 

jre of S. Bernard. He 

turns round to listen with intent eagernes- 

Virgin's discourse and holds one h.- ' 
on a manuscript, the other hand '" 

gesture expressive of wonder i -a. 

In front of this hand Signorelli "d 

his favourite motive of the opene. ul 

S. Bernard is the ru in 

type of S. Joseph. ■ nd 

wearing a grey monastic robe leans over the 

The Burlington Magazins, No. 216, Vol. xxxviii. March, i()2i. 



yifir (Jicfvcy^evMcn (■ • Ut-.'> 

EDITORIAL "A Mo7iumentmn Requiris^ Circumspice''' 

ORKS of art and of antiquity are 
commonly lost to the world, not in 
the midst of a storm of public pro- 
,test, nor as the result of furious 
iconoclasm. They vanish, un- 
noticed by those who care most for them, and 
their value is felt only when it is too late- It 
looks as if we were on the eve of just such a 
catastrophe which will deprive us of some of the 
most distinguished examples of architectural de- 
sign that have ever been created by the English 
genius. And if this happens, we students of art 
must be held largely to blame, for so far we have 
failed even to attempt to formulate any expres- 
sion of our attitude. 

Some months ago there was raised in the popu- 
lar press a furore over the proposed destruction 
by the Church of England of nineteen City 
churches. It served its purpose of providing 
" tony copy " for the editors, and rapidly 
passed away, not to be revived. People felt im- 
potently glad that " something had been done " ; 
the flame of agitation was extinguished in a sea 
of vague satisfaction. But the time of real dan- 
ger came, not with the birth of the movement, 
but with its death. The deed will be perpe- 
trated, like other deeds of the kind, in the dark 
and the silence — in just such an ominous still- 
ness as has now descended upon the whole 

The Lord Bishop of London, in reply to 
an enquiry I sent him, says, " The matter 
of the City Churches is still under very 
careful consideration. It is not, however, the 
least likely there will be a wholesale demolition 
of these churches. Each case will be carefully 
considered one by one." This comfortless com- 
munication, when one remembers the scant 
recognition the buildings have in previous dis- 
cussions received as works of art, will leave all 
connoisseurs and many cultured people anxious 
and depressed. Our uneasiness will be appeased 
neither by the thought that the churches may be 

destroyed one by one instead of all together, nor 
by the notion of the retention of the spires alone. 
It shall be appeased only when we have a defi- 
nite assurance that not a single stone is to be 
taken from its place. The use of the churches 
for secular purposes is, rightly or wronglv, re- 
garded as a desecration. Their destruction is 
surely a desecration still less pardonable. We 
do not feel at this moment inclined to discuss 
their merit. They have long ago passed the 
censors of criticism, and the world thought them 
for ever secure. As for the argument that 
" people do not go to see them " : If they do 
not — and we are not aware that they do not — 
then so much the worse for " people ". Once 
let us admit that as a principle and how many 
fine works of art would have to disappear ! 
Many of them were conceived by one of the 
greatest creators for whom our race can account, 
and he built them on the crest of a high enthu- 
siasm, with a fine sense of his responsibility 
and an energy altogether worthy of himself and 
the occasion. The Churchmen of that time rea- 
lised the greatness of Wren and the permanent 
value of his immense accomplishment. It is for 
the Churchmen of to-day to decide whether the 
celebrated epitaph their fathers raised above his 
tomb has to remain significant or to become a 
sham ; whether we and our children shall look 
around us at the perfect legacy left for us by 
our Master Architect or at the monuments of his 
genius scarred, disfigured and blotted out? 

I propose to reply to the Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don by sending him a list of signatures of those 
of us who, whatever our opinions may be regard- 
ing the difficulties confronting the Church in 
this matter, wish to emphasise the importance of 
these edifices as works of art and to express the 
hope that they may be allowed to remain intact 
and unmutilated. I therefore ask all who share 
this hope to send me on a postcard or otherwise 
the words " City churches " together with their 
signature and address. 


HE tondo which we reproduce as a 
frontispiece to the present number 
of the Burlington Magazine has 
come recently from a private collec- 
tion in Ireland, where it has lain 
hidden from the knowledge of art students. 

It represents the Virgin seated with the Christ 
Child upon her knee, behind a table at which is 
seated the white-robed figure of S. Bernard. He 

turns round to listen with intent eagerness to the 
Virgin's discourse and holds one hand resting 
on a manuscript, the other hand opened in a 
gesture expressive of wonder and admiration. 
In front of this hand Signorelli has introduced 
his favourite motive of the opened book. Behind 
S. Bernard is the aged, intensely Signorellian 
type of S. Joseph. A young man tonsured and 
wearing a grey monastic robe leans over the 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 216, Vol. xxs 

March, 1921. 


Virgin's left shoulder. He holds in his hniui a 
heart. The svmbol suggests S. Hcinardino of 
Siena, tiiough he shows no lil<cness to the well 
known and authentic portraits of that saint 
which occur so frequently in Italian art of the 
mid-fifteenth century. 

The picture is painted on poplar wood (2 ft. 
10 in. in diameter) and bears at the back in 
Roman capitals the inscription pietro vanucci 
MCCCCLXXi (or perhaps 11— ^the last figures are 
doubtful). Owing to this inscription the picture 
has traditionally been ascribed to Perugino, and 
as such it came into the market. The inscrip- 
tion is, however, obviously a later addition, pre- 
sumably of the 18th century, and must have been 
added at a time when Signorelli's name had 
ceased to be as famous as it has again become 
in our own day. 

For the picture bears throughout the evident 
marks of .Signorelli's invention and handling. 
The book in the foreground, with its peculiar 
density and solidity of matiere, and the hand 
behind it with its harsh, blunt, broad modelling, 

are alone sufficient as signatures of the master. 
It is only in the upper part of the picture where 
some ai)rasion anil softening of the surface has 
occurred, that one fails to lind so clearly Sig- 
norelli's unmistakable handwriting. 

The picture would .seem to belong somewhere 
about the year 1400. In its rather hot rich 
colouring it reminds one slill of worJvs like the 
Circumcision of the National (lallery, but it is 
probably of somewhat later date and fits most 
nearly into the group of Holy Families of which 
the Tondo in the Pitti and the Holy Family of 
the Rospigliosi galleries are examples. It will 
be seen that the rather peculiar and unattractive 
type of the Cliild occurs in all three pic- 
tures. In the Pitti Tondo the motive of the 
Virgin's discourse is repeated, and though here 
the S. Bernard of our Tondo is replaced by a 
female saint, the action of the hands and the 
motive is identical, suggesting that both pic- 
tures were based upon the same general design, 
which was modified according to the saints 
whose figures had to be introduced. 



■»5^a F anyone were to do anything so 

i^^ futile as to raise a discussion as to 

^^ which modern primitive race has pro- 

^^^duced the greatest artists, the popular 

-j ^^ vote would undoubtedly be recorded 
in favour of the Eskimos, on account of the 
wonderfully life-like engravings of hunting 
scenes and incidents of daily life which they en- 
grave on reindeer bone, as did our palaeolithic 
ancestors twenty thousand years ago. If the 
subject were limited to that of decorative 
design one would have to take into account 
the Maoris of New Zealand, that is, the Maoris 
of the period before New Zealand was overrun by 
civilisation. Maori carvings of recent date, made 
with steel tools, though most perfect in finish are 
far less spirited than the carvings of olden days 
that were laboriously scraped, with stone tools, 
out of solid blocks of hard timber, jade or whale- 
bone. The Maori of that era decorated practically 
everything he used, from household pottery to 
war canoes with designs of which the human 
figure was in most cases the motif. The resemb- 
lance to the human figure is not strikingly- 
apparent to the European eye. The Maori artist 
believed that if the representation was too lifelike, 
the figure might actually come to life, or rather 
come back to life, for the figures are intended to 
be portraits of tribal ancestors. One may revere 
one's forefathers without wishing them to come 
back into this world. Such a reincarnation would 
be embarrassing. They might wish to interfere, 

with disastrous effect, in contemporary politics, 
and they would almost certainly wish to resume 
possession of such property as they had left be- 
hind them. To guard against such re-incarna- 
tion, therefore, Maori artists depicting the human 
figure usually ensured that the likeness should 
not be perfect by carving only three fingers and 
a thumb on each hand. Figures on which the 
correct amount of fingers are represented are to be 
found, but they are comparatively rare. 

Every New Zealand village contains a building 
ornately carved inside and out, which is the com- 
mon property and pride of the clan. The roof of 
such a house is supported by wooden pillars, and 
on each pillar is carved a representation of one of 
the clan's ancestors, which is said to be the actual 
temporary home of the dead man's spirit. Most 
of these carvings bear so close a resemblance to 
each other that at first glance they seem to be all 
of one pattern. More detailed examination, 
however, shows that no two are alike in 
every particular. Each has its own pecu- 
liarity, that to the initiated reveals who 
it is that is represented. In some cases 
the carving on the face of the figure accurately 
represents the tattoo marks worn by the man or 
woman whose portrait it is intended to be. In 
this case it is easy to see whether a man or woman 
is represented; a man's tattoo marks cover the 
whole face, and a woman's only the lips and 
chin, with, in some cases, a small pattern on the 
forehead and nose. In most cases the pattern 


.1 S. Magnus the Martyr, 
l.iiwer Thames Street. Built 
b\- W^ren in 1676. Sti'e]3le 
atldetl in 1705 by W'ren. (Tower 
Id be preserved). 

B S. Nicholas, C'.ile Abbey, 
Knightrider Street. Buih bv 
Wren in 1677. 

C S. Mary Woolnoth, Lorn 
bard Street, by Hawksmoor, 
Wren's pupil 

Editorial. Some of the threatened Churches 

..] — Wooden pillar repi'cscniiny lluu-nioa m ihe arms 
of her lover, Tutaneki 

/■>' A carNin^' 
ill wliiili facial 
lalloo marks arc 
accuralely ic|i- 
resciiled. I'lic 
lif^iirc has the 
peculiarity o! 
ha\'in^ llic cor 
rect anioiini ol 

C — Wooden pillar representing a hero of Maori 
legend who invented stilts in order to rob his neigh- 
bours' orchards. Between the stilts is represented 
the man who causjht the thief. 

D — .A wooden jiillar representing llincnioa, who 
swam across Lake Rotura to join lier lover. .She is 
represented with swimming hlatldcrs in her hands. 

Maori Art 

on the carved figure is complicated by supple- 
mentary designs, used merely to fill up vacant 
space. The protruding tongue, for example, is 
always carved with tattooing design, and it is 
safe to say that no one has ever submitted to hav- 
ing his tongue tattooed. 

The carvings on some of these pillars illustrate 
a family legend such as that of Hinemoa, a girl 
of noble birth, who lived among the geysers and 
hot springs of Whakarewarewa on the shores of 
Lake Rotorua. She was in love with Tutaneki, 
the young chieftain of the tribe that lived on 
Mok'oia, an island in the lake four miles from the 
mainland. Hinemoa's tribe was at feud with 
the tribe on the island. The girl was forbidden 
to have any communication with Tutaneki. One 
dark night, however, she escaped from her home, 
and after a perilous swim across the lake, joined 
her lover. 

Carvings that illustrate definite historical 
events such as the elopement of Hinemoa neces- 
sarilv have their own peculiarities. Strict con- 
vention as a rule, however, governs in each tribe 
the representation of the human figure. Any 
departure from this will, it is believed, bring bad 

luck to the carver, and may even cause his death 
at the hands of outraged ancestral spirits. Very 
wide departures from the original type must, 
however, have crept into the designs, if we are 
to believe a story told of Rua, the original in- 
ventor of the art of carving, who invited the sea- 
god Tangaroa to visit his house. Tangaroa mis- 
took the carved doorpost of Rua's house for a 
living person — so life-like was the design — and 
even .saluted it in the JMaori fashion by rub- 
bing his nose against that of the figure. 

Such carvings as may be seen on the Maori 
communal halls took many years to complete. 
Those applied to war-canoes, few of which 
now survive, were the work of successive 
generations. As all have a definite, though to 
the European eye, obscure, connection with 
Maori history, it may be imagined with what 
veneration they are regarded by the Maoris, 
whose family pride is intense. 

The author's acknowledgments are due to Mr. 
Augustus Hamilton, Curator of the Dominion 
Museum, Wellington, New Zealand, for per- 
mission to publish some of the photographs that 
accompany this note. 



'HE landscape painters of T'ang had 
worked in a minute and laborious 
style. It was Ching Hao who, at 
the beginning of the loth century, 

developed a broad. Impressionist 

manner and became the first of the long line of 
Southern School painters. 

It is true that the critics of the i6th century, 
wishing to claim a greater antiquity for the 
Southern style, traced its inception to Wang 
Wei of the 8th century. But such copies of 
Wang Wei as v/e possess suggest that it was 
rather in his attitude towards Nature than in his 
technical methods that Wang was the ancestor 
of the Impressionist landscape painters. 

Ching Hao excelled as a painter of snow-laden 
hills. It is doubtful whether any of his pictures 
survive. The huge collection of the Emperor 
Ch'ien Lung contained only one work attributed 
to Ching Hao ; and this was evidently regarded 
by the compilers as a copy. A Chinese art- 
journal contains the reproduction of a 17th cen- 
tury copy of a 14th century copy of one of his 
works ! 

But his essay on landscape painting exists. 
By a pleasant literary artifice he puts his pre- 
cepts into the mouth of an old man whom he met 
whilst sketching pine trees on the Hill of the 
Sacred Gong, in the T'ai-hang Range. " Paint- 

ing", the old man said, "is delineation;' to 
measure the shapes of things, yet with grasp of 
Truth ; to express outward form as outward form 
and inner reality as inner reality. Outward 
forms must not he taken as inner realities. If 
this is not understood, resemblance may indeed 
be achieved, but not pictorial Truth. A ' re- 
semblance ' reproduces form, but neglects 
spirit ; but Truth shows spirit and substance in 
like perfection. ... In landscape painting 
there are six essentials — Spirit, Harmony, 
Thought, Atmosphere, Brush, and Ink. Spirit 
makes the heart travel with the brush and seize 
unerringly the shapes of things. Harmony, 
without visible contours, suggests form ; omits 
nothing, yet escapes vulgarity. Thought segre- 
gates the essential and concentrates the mind on 
the shapes of things. 

The master of Atmosphere,' while yet observ- 
ing the laws of the seasons, can search out the 
Mysterious and establish Inner Truth. The 
master of the Brush, though he follow the laws 
and ordinances of painting, can yet move among 
them unimpeded; all is flight and motion, 
nothing solid or fixed. 

1 Or delimitation. There is here a play on two senses of 
the Chinese word hua. 1 may mention that I have used the 
text of the Hua Hsiieh Hsin Yin, checked by that of the 
Shu Hua P'u. 

2 Lit. " seasonal aspect." 

] I I 

The master of Ink can lieighten or lower his 
tone at will, to express the depth or shallowness 
of things; creating; what seems liUe a natural 
brilliancy, not derived from the line-work of the 

Again, there are four categories : The Divine, 
The Mysterious, The Mtirvellous, and The Skil- 
jul. The Divine Painter makes nt) etTort of his 
own ; his hand spontaneously reproduces natural 

The Mysterious Painter first experiences in 
imagination the instincts and passions of all 
things that exist in heaven or earth ; then, in a 
style appropriate to the subject, natural forms 
flow spontaneously from his hand. 

The Marvellous Painter is profuse in ill-con- 
sidered forms. Often, while achieving resem- 
blance in detail, he misses the universal prin- 
ciples of the view before him. This is the result 
of mechanical dexterity without intelligence. 

The Skilful Painter scrapes together little 
prettinesses and welds them into the pretence of 
a masterpiece. But the more he loads his design 
with decoration, the further it recedes from the 
true spirit of the scene which he depicts. This 
is called excess of outward forms with poverty 
of inner meaning. . . . There are two kinds 
of faults. Those that depend upon representa- 
tion, and those that do not. When flowers or 

trees are out of season, when a man is larger 
than a house, or a tree taller than a mountain, 
when a bridge does not rest on its banks, 
are demonstrable faults of form. . . . Hut 
when the operation of the spirit is weak, all the 
forms are defective; and though the brush be 
active, its productions are like dead things, — 
then we speak of ' faults unconnected with repre- 
sentation.' " 

Then follow notes on the " growth " of diller- 
ent trees, on the technical terminology of land- 
scape painting, and on the painters of antiquity. 
The essay closes with an ode in praise of pine- 

Unlike Chang Yen-yiian, Ching Hao does 
not demand that art should be " improving". 
He takes Hsieh Ho's philosophy of figure 
painting and adapts it to lancLscape. It did not 
occur to him to take into account anything out- 
side his own branch of painting, still less to 
construct a general philosophy even of the 
plastic arts. 

But he shows a vivid perception of the fact 
that art consists of something more than mere 
representation, and by leaving certain vital ques- 
tions unanswered, at any rate avoids falling into 
the absurdities which entrapped his successor, 
Kuo Hsi, to whom my next article will be de- 


ONSIEUR JAMOT of the Louvre 
has already described in these 
columns a number of pictures 
recently acquired for the Paris 
Gallery. In speaking of Chas- 
seriau he did not mention the little nude subject 
in oils known as the Veiius Anadyomene, but 
entitled by Chasseriau Venus Marine. Before 
it was presented by an anonymous donor. Baron 
Anhur Chasseriau had already presented in 
1918 to the Louvre : Portrait d'Adele Chasse- 
riau, the Ca'id visitant un Donar, the Macbeth 
rencontrant les Sorcieres, and a drawing entitled 
La Paix. The Vinus Marine [Plate a] was 
purchased at the first Beurdeley sale and now 
goes to rejoin the Suzanne, by the same artist, 
with which it was hung in the Salon of 1839. 
The canvas is signed and dated 1838, which was 
Th6odore Chass6riau's nineteenth year. 

There exist three other interpretations of the 
same subject. The first is a sketch in oils, the 
figure in which is very like that of the picture 
itself, although the sea and rocks are simpler 
and less perfect in design. This sketch is in 

the collection of M. Arthur Chasseriau. There 
is also the familiar lithograph bearing the mis- 
spelt title " AffPOrENEIA", in which the 
arrangement of the composition is very like that 
in the picture. Finally there is a little-known 
sketch in sanguine [Plate b] the composition 
of which closely resembles that of the lithograph. 
It also is in the possession of M. Arthur Chas- 

Perhaps the reproduction of the painting and 
the drawing side by side, in addition to being 
of biographical interest, will serve to illustrate 
the similarity and the difTerence between the 
genius of Chasseriau and that of Ingres. In the 
sketch especially, although the spiritual concep- 
tion and the specialised vision that manifests 
itself in an exquisite insistence on the rhythms 
of contour, are strikingly reminiscent of Ingres, 
the latter's firm, deliberate line, every elabora- 
tion of which explains, reveals and elucidates, 
has little in common with the slightly indeter- 
minate and experimental character revealed in 
the modelling of Chassdriau. 

I 12 



^ o 








■— ' 






■*— ' 
























' (J 


1 - C3 

1 » 


^ >, 


-1 Cup and Cover of blue Bristol glass with silver-i^ilt 
mounts. Mounts marked T.H. for Thomas Hemming. 
Hall mark 1752. (Col. H. H. Mulliner) 

B Cassolettes, one of a pair 
mounted in ormolu, probabl\ at 
the Soho works. .\boiU 1770. 
(Col. H. H. Mulliner) 


rtV^' ^ 

C Tea Urn of Battersea Enamel mounted 
in gilded metal. About 1760. (Col. H. 
H. "Mulliner) 

D Candelabra, one of a pair. Body of Derbyshire 
Spar mounted in ormolu, probablv at the .Soho works. 
About 1770. (Col. H. H. xMulliner) 

English i8th century Ormolu 


HE strong hold which the " French 
Taste" obtained over our cabinet 
makers and their clients under 
George II was discussed in these 
pages last month,' when the furni- 
ture then exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club was under review. It was much less 
notable in the decorative objects shown at 
the same time — mostlv dating from the 
earlier part of George Ill's reign — four of 
which are now illustrated. They are composed 
of various English products, natural or manu- 
factured, mounted in that form of metal work 
for which the French term ormolu was adopted 
into our language, and which is the subject now 
to be considered. 

Except among the smiths, who had worked so 
splendidly at clairvoyees and stair balustrades 
under the inspiration of Tijou, metal work re- 
mained unambitious in England during the first 
half of the i8th century. Moulded and engraved 
door locks and furniture mounts of brass were 
well designed and wrought, but no attempt was 
made to reach the high plane of contemporary 
French metal workers at a time when, among 
others, Jacques and Philippe Cafieri were using 
the entire surface of commodes as a field whereon 
to spread rococo scrolls of the utmost involution 
and the highest technical excellence, as we can 
see in examples at Hertford House. 

Candelabra, clocks, and the mounts of urns 
and vases followed the same lines until Louis 
XV grew old, and then we find the beginnings 
of a revulsion of taste in favour of more reticence 
in design, accompanied, however, with even 
greater delicacy and perfection of execution. 
Duplessis, called Sculptcur Fondeur, Ciselcur et 
Doreur du Roi, but appointed Director of the 
Sevres china works in 1753, shows this tendency 
in the designs for the mounts of both vases and 
furniture, and it also appears in a pair of 
flambeaux at Hertford House signed by 
Marti ncourt. He ranks as the teacher of 
Gouthi^re, who already in about 1765 was 
creating for Madame du Barry domestic 
articles that were pure works of art in 
the style which came to be known as that of 
Louis XVI, although he did not succeed his 
grandfather until 1774. By that date casso- 
lettes' and candelabra such as are here illus- 
trated had been produced at the Soho Works 
near Birmingham. 

The revulsion from baroque-rococo extrava- 

' Burlington Magazine, vol. xxxviii, p. 67. 
2 " Cassolet : a small vessel us'd in the Burning of Pastils 
or other odours ". Diet. Rust, 1726. 

gances, with their Chinese, Gothic and other 
developments, came even earlier and more 
strongly in England than in France, so that any- 
one who, on the accession of George III, wished 
to develop and improve the output of ormolu in 
this country would — while depending largely on 
French examples, and even on French craftsmen 
for technique — not so much copy French models 
as work out, at home and with English draughts- 
men, designs on parallel but independent lines. 
That, we gather, is what Matthew Boulton did, 
although so far no attempt has been made to 
produce an adequate and critical biography of 
this very remarkable man. He was the initiator 
of all the movements in the commercial world 
which led on the one hand to the aesthetic im- 
provement in our manufacture exemplified by 
the products of the Wedgwood firm, and on the 
other to increased and more effective output 
through mechanical invention, in which Watt's 
steam engine played so large a part. Emulation 
of Boulton had much to do with Wedgwood's 
success, and without Boulton's support it is 
doubtful whether James Watt would have per- 
fected his invention. Yet whereas Wedgwood 
and Watt are included in all biographical works 
however cursory, and have whole volumes de- 
voted to their lives, references to Boulton are 
few and his career is nowhere separately treated. 
By Smiles it was grouped with an account of 
Watt and the steam engine, and the whole of 
the remarkable revolution which he effected in 
the quality of Birmingham goods is related in a 
dozen pages. We really can make out rather 
more on the subject by collecting casual refer- 
ences and quotations from letters scattered about 
the second volume of Eliza Meteyard's " Life 
of Wedgwood ". 

Born in 1728, Matthew Boulton began, while 
still in his teens, to improve and increase his 
father's business of a Birmingham " Toy 
Maker", under which head fancy buttons, 
trinkets, cheap watch chains, and the like were 
then grouped. Before he was thirty his father 
died, and the business, outgrowing the existing 
space and primitive equipment, required new 
premises. Boulton purchased a large area of 
waste land at Soho, a short way out of the town, 
and began the construction of works designed 
and organised on a scale and with a complete- 
ness that had not hitherto been attempted. 
Thither he removed in 1762, and within ten years 
his fine wares in ormolu were not only competing 
with and largely ousting kindred French objects 
in this country, but also on the Continent, and 
even found a ready market in France itself. This 

I I 


does not mean tlia'. Boulton produced anyiliing 
that could vie with the creations of Gouihitire 
during the fourth and of Tliomire during the 
liith s<.ore of years of the i8th century. 1 hey 
were esseniially individual works of art, pro- 
duced singly and without limit to time and cost 
for the successive sovereigns of France. Boul- 
ton, however much of the artist and man of taste 
there was in him, was primarily a manufacturer 
keen on builtling up the biggest possible busi- 
ness consistent with high quality. He was an 
ardent seeker after improved mechanical pro- 
cesses. His machinery was as comple.\ and as 
ertective as he could get it, and every improve- 
ment was adopted as soon as tested. But for his 
ornaments — for what could be classed as objets 
d'art — he procured and trained craftsmen, so 
that, however hne were his castings, they were 
afterwards tooled by hand, and the ciseleur or 
chaser was as important at Soho as in Paris 
workshops. The chaser, however, might well 
put in more or less time, give more or 
less quality, according to the destination 
of each example of the same model. For 
instance, Wedgwood finds, rather to his 
surprise, that by 1776 the Soho works had 
already placed 200 examples of a clock "with 
\'enus weeping over the Tomb of Adonis ". 
But it does not follow that all received the same 
amount of attention. For the King and his 
great lords, higher finish would be given than 
for the ordinary purchaser. But that it could 
be given is shown by Colonel MuUiner's casso- 
lettes, where the whole work is very good and 
the chasing of the four grotesque marks, rising 
from the guilloche band round the body of the 
vase, is quite admirable. Are there still such 
cassolettes and one of the " \'enus" clocks in 
the royal collections ? Such were obtained in 
1767, when Boulton writes that: 

The King hath bought a pair of cassolets, a Titus, a 
Venus Clock, and some other things.^ 

That was a very busy year at Soho, Boulton 's 
exceptional capacity and intelligence in equip- 
ping the work, gathering and training the 
craftsmen, studying style and obtaining designs, 
seeking out and establishing new markets at 
home and abroad, having by that date borne 
much fruit. Two years earlier Wedgwood — 
already planning Etruria, which, however, was 
not opened till 1769 or completed till 1773 — had 
declared Soho to be the finest instance of orga- 
nised industry that England had yet seen, and 
he had noticed the exquisite form and detail of 
its ormolu articles such as vases, candelabra and 

At that time there was a strong bond of sym- 
pathy between the great potter and the man he 

' Smiles' Life of Boulton and Watt. 1865, p. 174. 
*Meteyard's Life of Wedgwood, 1866, vol. II, p. 26. 

called " liie first and most complete manufac- 
turer in metal in England".' The closest co- 
operation between the older Soho and the 
younger lururia seemed likely to develoj). In 
176S Wetigwood is at SdIio, and he and Boulton 
are working at the " joint improvement and ex- 
tended sale over Europe " of their wares, which 
in large measure are to be in combination, for 
" many of our articles will be finished to great 
adxaniage with works of metal "."' .Such com- 
bination he feels " is a field to the further end 
of which we shall never be able to travel ". 
Boulton surprises him by a relation of "what a 
trade has lately been made out of vases at 
Paris ", and hints that if Wedgwood does not 
wish to go in with him he is so set on " an 
alliance between the Pottery and Metal 
branches " that he will go elsewhere or .set up 
potteries of his own. This po.ssible rivalry 
Wedgwood is quite prepared to enter into and 
assures his partner Bentley that 

It doubles my courage to have the first manufacturer 
in England to incounter with.' 

What might have happened if Soho had had 
satisfactory water power we cannot tell. As it 
was water, especially in summer, was very short, 
and Boulton had to look around for some other 
motive power. Thus it was that he heard of 
Watt's experiments in Glasgow, and Watt 
found that the greater precision of the Soho 
lathes and other machines would enable him to 
produce better models there. But the first Watt 
engine to Ije set to work was made in Glasgow 
and brought to Soho to be put together. Boul- 
ton's attention was gradually attracted away from 
art products to the great industrial development 
which would follow the effective use of steam. 
But the first Soho-made engine was not 
completed until 1776, and during the first 
years that Watt was there he had to attend 
to the ordinary business of the firm, in 
which ormolu objects still played a large 
part, so that he complains that when in London 
in 1775 he was kept " running from street to 
street all day about gilding "" The output was 
still remarkable in both quantity and quality. 
In 1770 Wedgwood is at Soho and finds that 

They have 35 chacers at work and will have a superb 
show of vases for the spring.' 

The home and foreign trade is growing, and 
when Wedgwood is at Bath in 1772 he sees a 
large assortment of Soho mounted vases in "a 
very rich shop in the market place ". Presum- 
ably the " bodies" of some of these objects 
were of Derbyshire spar or " Blue John ", as the 
shopman declares that Boulton had the mono- 

5 Meteyard's' Wedgwood, Vol. II, p. 27. 

* Meteyard's Wedgwood, vol. II, p. 77. 

' Meteyard's Wedgwood, vol. II, p. 213. 

' Smiles' Life of Boulton and Watt, p. 208. 

' Meteyard's Life of Wedgwood, vol. II, p. 222. 


poly of the " Derbyshire Radix Amethyst 
mine, the only one in the world ", which Wedg- 
wood denies as it is " open to all the world on 
due payment ".'" Certain it is that Boulton 
made large and effective use of this rare English 
mineral, which is the substance of the bodies of 
various vases and candelabra belonging to 
Colonel Mulliner, including the candelabrum 
illustrated [Plate d], which he describes as : 

One of a pair : The oviform bodies are of Derbyshire 
Fluor-spar, ornamented with finely pierced and chased 
mounts, water gilt ; the bases are circular, spirallv-fluted, 
with square plinths of statuary marble. The twisted side- 
branches for candles are removable, being fixed in sockets 
formed of acanthus leaves. The covers which terminate in 
finials of flame are reversible, and form a third candle 
socket when required. 

The body of the cassolette illustrated [Pl.\te 
b] is of alabaster — also a Derbyshire product — 
but Col. Mulliner, who is the first to specialise 
in and draw attention to Boulton's ormolu, has 
another, with precisely the same mounts, 
the body of which is of fluor-spar. The 
general form is again that of a vase, so 
that candelabra and cassolettes as well as 
vases pure and simple may have been in the 
Queen's mind when she told Boulton that she 
was going to remove the china from her boudoir 
chimney piece and replace it with his vases, 
enquiring how many it would take." That was 
somewhere between 1767 and 1770, which will 
be about the date of Colonel Mulliner's pieces, 
and quite a dozen years earlier than a cassolette, 
of cognate form and decorative motifs, in the 
Musee du Louvre, which M. Molinier'^ sets 
down as the work of Thomire towards the close 

10 Meteyard's Life of Wedgwood, vol. II, pp. 255-6. 
"Smiles' Life of Boulton and Watt, p. 175. 
12 Molinier, Mohilier Roval. 

of the reign of Louis XVI. Boulton certainly 
had a sprinkling of French craftsmen at Soho 
and bought and borrowed French objects for 
study. In 1768 a London dealer " back from 
Paris with fine things " finds purchasers in both 
Boulton and Wedgwood.'^ But we know that 
the former also collected and borrowed antiques, 
studied and drew " rare works in metal " at the 
British Mu.seum, and was " desirous of culti- 
vating Mr. Adam's taste in his productions ".'' 

The Soho products in ormolu, although the 
name and the instigation came from France, 
may therefore be set down as from English 
designs, made between 1762 and 1776. In the 
latter year Boulton assured Watt that in future 
engines would take first place in his attention,'' 
and it is probable that little further trouble was 
taken to obtain new models, although the old 
ones continued to be reproduced. It is likely 
also that from that date the quality of the finish 
began to deteriorate and that the chasers became 
fewer in number and lower in talent. It would 
have needed the continued driving power of so 
exceptional a man as Boulton to maintain this 
industry at the high level to which he had raised 

The other illustrations show English gilt 
metal work mounting, in the one case, a Batter- 
sea enamel urn [Pl.\te c], and in the other a 
vase of deep blue Bristol glass [Plate a]. They 
are very distinguished pieces, but with our pre- 
sent imperfect knowledge of the Soho models it 
would be rash to assign the mountings to that 

'^Meteyard's Life of Wedgwood, vol. II, p. 96. 
^* Smiles' Life of Boulton and Watt, p. 171. 
15 Smiles' Life of Boulton and Watt, p. 215. 


HERE is, in the possession of the 
Western College at Bristol,' an illu- 
minated Greek Manu.script Psalter 
of very considerable interest, of the 
past history of which nothing is 
known, not even by whom it was given to the 
College.^ It is a small volume of 26,'? vellum 
leaves each measuring 4J x t,^ inches ; the pages 
have been cut down, presumably to adapt them 
to the present binding, a medijEval one of tooled 
leather mounted on thick wooden boards. 

On palaeographical grounds the manuscript is 

1 The writer is indebted to Dr. Franks, the Rev. Professor 
Macey, and the .Authorities of the Western College for the 
very kind way in which they have given her access to their 
beautiful manuscript, and permission to photograph from it. 

2 The manuscript has not been given to the College within 
the memory of any who have been connected with it, and who 
are still living. 

assigned by Mr. J. P. Gilson, Keeper of MSS. 
in the British Museum, to the eleventh century. 
It is written\ in cursive Greek minuscules in 
brown ink, most of the capitals being illumin- 
ated in gold, a few in gold and colours, whilst 
all prefaces, and the added liturgical details, are 
also inserted in gold. Throughout, the cali- 
graphy is of high quality, wonderfully even, and 
exact in its spacing. As is usual, in a Greek 
liturgical Psalter, the Canticles and certain other 
portions of Scripture are included in the volume. 
Admirable as is the caligraphy, much of the 
interest of the Manuscript lies in the miniatures. 
Of these there are two occupying a com- 
plete page, and a series of marginal vig- 
nettes. The full page miniatures are formal 
compositions framed within a plain band 
of colour, having a gold background, the 


rjold heinsj laid here, as elsewliero tlirouijhout 
the manujkTipt, upon a red priming whicli ron- 
trihiites to the richness of its effect.' The tirst, 
wliiih forms the frontispiece, represents David 
in the midst of liis Musicians [Plate 1, a], a 
siiiiject iiclonpinp: to early Cliristian art, whicli 
in Psalters was frequenlly used in this position, 
the fact that David was regarded as a type of 
Christ and of His Church rendering this arrange- 
ment very suitable. In this instance, King 
David, holding his open book, sits enthroned in 
a courtvard, on cither side being two musicians, 
each side being carefully balanced with the other, 
as mav be seen from the pose of the heads, and 
the similarity of clothing. .-X fifth in contrast- 
ing dress, introduced between the pair on 
David's left, serves to break the monotony with- 
out disturbing the symmetry of the composition. 
The second full-page illustration is placed 
after P.salm LXX\T, at the beginning of the 
second half of the book; it represents Christ 
enthroned. His right hand raised in the Gre-'k 
attitude of blessing, and on each side of Him a 
group of people. Unfortunately one group is 
too obliterated for identification, but in the other 
are individuals who are dressed in monastic 

Immediately following the frontispiece is a 
beautiful rectangular headpiece [Plate I, a] 
based on a flower, executed in rich 
blues and greens with slight touches of red, 
on a gold background; this encloses a circle 
within which is the title. The design is of the 
type familiar in Byzantine manuscript, reminis- 
cent of an Oriental praying mat,* and its ex- 
tended base line is finished by the upstanding 
floriated finial which is so often associated with 
such headpieces, a similar finial set diagonally 
being at the upper corners of the design. Upon 
the rectangle stand two peacocks on either side 
of a " Fountain of Life ". A band of the flower 
which is the motive of the headpiece follows the 
second full-page miniature, an oblong 
design, based on the same flower, introduces the 
Canticles. A few insignificant bands of orna- 
ment occur elsewhere, always at the end of a 

The most interesting feature of the illumina- 
tion consists in the marginal vignettes which 
adorn 86 of the pages, forming a running com- 
mentary upon the text, and which connect this 

'The red priming is not singular to this MS. It occurs in 
Brit. Mus. Add. 35030 and 19352 ^the Theodore Psaltor), and a 
magenta priming" in the Paris Psalter Bib. Nat. 139. See 
Illaminated Manuscripts, by J. .A. Herbert, p. 47 and note. 

* J. .\. Herbert, op. cit. p. 55. . 

5 These do not occur at the end of every cathisma. The 
division is marked in a few instances by the use of a more 
elaborate and larger capital, and in several there is no indi- 
cation, in the ornament, of any break, but in every case the 
number of the cathisma is inserted in the text, as well as the 
Gloria whenever it was required. 

m.inuscript with the group of Byzantine 
l'.s.ili(Ts similarly decorated, which are generally 
referred to as the "Monastic-theological"" 
group. This method of illustration is tiioiight 
to have been suggested by the calenre, or mar- glo.ssaries of tlieological teaching which, 
in certain manuscripts, were added to the text of 
Scripture,' to be in fact the translation of such a 
glossary into terms of Art. It is certainly a 
method which serves to draw attention to impor- 
tant, and to stress the bearing of the pro- 
plietic pa.s-sages upon their ,sul).sc(iuent fulfil- 
ment. F.ach of the miniatures has explanatory 
notes in.serted in bright red ink, with, in most, reference marks, also in red, to the text to 
which tlu'v ap]>ly. Certain of them are intro- 
duced without a reference mark, but in many of 
these the connection is .so obvious that it is un- 
mistakable ; for example, the Nativity without 
reference mark illu.strates the second Psalm, but 
this Psalm holds chief place with Ps. CIX in 
those used in the .special Offices for Christmas 
Day, and its bearing upon the Nativity had been 
expressly pointed out bv S. Paul (Acts XIII, 

The surviving manuscripts of the " Mona.stic- 
theological " group of Psalters are few in num- 
ber. They are as follow :' the Chludoff Psalter 
at Moscow, a written in uncials in 
the 9th or loth century, over-written in minus- 
cules in the 12th, the miniatures of which are 
partly repainted; Pantokratoros, No. 61 of Mt. 
Athos, also a palimpsest, the early writing of 
which was of the loth or nth century, the later 
of the i2th or 13th ; a fragment from Ps. XCI — 
Ps. CXXXVIin the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris, No. 20 ; the beautiful Theodore Psalter of 
the British Museum, Add. MSS. 19352, dated 
1066; a i2th Cent. Psalter in the Barbarini 
Library, No. HI, 91 ; a 12th century Psalter in 
the Vatican Library, Vat. Gr. No. 1927 ; the 13th 
Cent. Grajco-Latiri Hamilton Psalter at Berlin, 
Kupferstich Kabinett, No. 119; and later, a 
.series of Russian Psahers, the earliest being a 
Kiev Slavonic Psalter of_ 1397, preserved at 
Petrograd, the latest dating from the 17th cent.; 
there are in addition fragments of three other 
Psalters. With these the Bristol Psalter will 
compare favourably, as only a few pages of the 
introductory tables are missing, and the minia- 
tures are in fair preservation, some being won- 
derfully perfect. 

Small as is the scale of the marginal vignettes, 
most of the figures being only about an inch in 
height, they are vigorous and full of expression, 
and are executed with directness, certainty, and 

6 J. J. Tikkanen, Die Psalterillustralion im Mittelalter. 
'J. J. Tikkanen, op. cit., p. 9. 
'J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 50. 
9 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., pp. n-14. 


delicacy of touch. There is a breadth of treat- 
ment in the draperies far removed from the over 
reiterated lines, and stifT folds associated with 
later Byzantine Art ;the figures also are free from 
the attenuation characteristic of the later period, 
and its cold formal severity is totally larking. 
There is spontaneity, and dramatic feeling, and 
at the same time great dignity in the pose and 
bearing of many of the figures, particularly in 
those of Christ, and of the Blessed Virgin. 

The iconographic scheme is a simple one, 
being scriptural in origin, and uninfluenced 
either by hagiology, or the teaching of the 
Physiologus. Almost all the subjects depicted 
can be divided into one of three classes : — (i) 
Scenes from the life of Christ ; (2) Incidents from 
Old Testament history, and the pictorial ren- 
dering of the exact words of the text; (3) Inci- 
dents in the life of David. The events from the 
life of Christ are not inserted in chronological 
order; they often occur according to the use of 
the passage illustrated in the particular services 
for special davs in the Eastern Liturgy. For 
example, the Entombment of Christ [Plate II, 
a] is connected with Ps. LXXXVII, 6, "Thou 
hast laid me in the lowest pit, a place of darkness 
and in the deep", this being used during the 
services of the evening of Good Friday ;" and 
the Communion of the Apostles [Plate II, c], 
which in Byzantine Art represents the Institu- 
tion of the Eucharist, is associated with Ps. 
XXXIII, 8, which was sung during the distri- 
bution of the Communion." This does not 
secure to the subjects a uniformity of position in 
all the Psalters of the "Monkish theological" 
group. The ideas were associated differently 
by different minds. Thus, the Communion of 
the Apostles, which in Pantokratoros 61 and the 
Grjeco-Latin Hamilton Psalter illustrates, " Oh, 
taste and see how gracious the Lord is", Ps. 
XXXIII, 8, the same verse as in the Bristol 
Manuscript, ^^ is placed in the Chludoff and other 
Manuscripts of the group, at Psalm CIX, 4, 
" Thou art a priest for ever after the order of 
Melchisedech ", and on the other hand, in the 
Chludoff and Barbarini Manuscripts the verse, 
" Oh taste and see ", Ps. XXXIII, 8, has as its 
illustration the feeding of the multitude in the 
wilderness.'' In the Bristol Psalter the minia- 
ture of the Annunciation, Psalm XLIV, 11, 
represents the Blessed Virgin seated outside her 
house, spinning the scarlet thread for the Veil 
of the Temple, and great attention is paid to the 
detail of spinning, derived from the Apochrv- 

'"J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 60. 

11 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 54. 

12 In this connection it is interesting to note the close simi- 
larity between the composition of the Pantokratoros, and the 
Bristol Communion of the Apostles. J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., 
p. 54, fig. 68. 

13 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 52. 

phal " Protevangelium of James". The Virgin 
is depicted making the spindle whorl revolve 
with her right hand whilst spinning the thread 
with her left, and a large ball of scarlet thread 
is in a basket on the ground at her side. She is 
turning to look at the Angel who approaches, 
whilst David points to the fulfilment of his pro- 
phecy, the explanatory note, "God the Father 
speaks ", written above him, showing that he is 
represented as the Prophet inspired by God. He 
is similarly depicted in several other miniatures 
of this codex, as well as in other manuscripts of 
the "Monkish theological" group.'* 

All that remains of the Nativity is the Christ 
Child, lying at the mouth of a cave in a hillside, 
in a sarcophagus-like trough over the edge of 
which the heads of an ox and an ass are seen, 
whilst above is the star. The earlier pages of 
the codex have their outer margins more severely 
cut down than those farther on in the book, and 
here the Blessed Virgin at the outer end of the 
trough has apparently been cut away, leaving 
only a part of a hand beneath the nimbus of the 
infant Christ, and a patch of gold in the back- 
ground, a segment of her nimbus. Beneath are 
some figures,''' now too obliterated to identify, 
whilst at the foot of the page are the shepherds 
pointing to the star, their flocks beside them. 

The visit of the Magi [Plate II, b] is associ- 
ated with Ps. LXXI, II. "All kings shall bow 
down before Him", and in this resembles most 
of the later manuscripts of the series, the Psalm 
was used in the course of the special Christmas 
services.'" The Blessed Virgin, a dignified 
figure, is seated beneath a draped arch with the 
old-looking and fully clothed Christ Child of 
Byzantine tradition on her lap. The Kings, 
who approach in awkward and distinctive atti- 
tudes," wear crowns instead of the Phrygian 
caps of early representations, and have their 
cloaks flying in the wing-like fashion, which 
throughout this manuscript, as elsewhere in the 
art of the period, indicates haste. 

The miniature of the Baptism, with its two 
attendant angels, conforms to the usual Byzan- 
tine type, but the water has the appearance of 
being heaped up about the figure of Christ, and 
is not enclosed between perpendicular banks, as 
is the case in some of the Psalters of the .series." 

1-1 In Theodore Psalter; also in Chludoff, Hamilton, and 
1397 Russian Psalter (J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit.), and in the 
Barbarini (Ch. Diehl Manuel d'Art Byzantin, fig. 279). 

15 This may have been the washing of the infant Christ, a 
subject nearly always depicted from earliest times in Byzan- 
tine Nativities. See O. M. Dalton, Byzantine Art and Archcs- 
ology, p. 654. 

i^J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 50. 

I'The attitudes of the Kings and the detail of their crowns 
are identical with those in the same subject in the loth or nth 
century Menologium of Basil II., Cod. Vat. Gr. 1613, 
figured in Geschichte der Christlichen Kunst, F. X. Kraus, 
Vol. I., p. S7S. 

18 As in Chludoff, fol. 72, figured J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., 
fig. 64. 


S. John Baptist is on a rather higher level than 
the Christ, and is represented in the act of step- 
ping upwards. 

Tlie rransfiguration, as in most Psalters from 
ChhulofT onwards, illustrates I'salm LXXWll, 
13, "Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy 
name ". In it the Apostles are represented with 
a nimbus, evidently to indicate the distinction 
conferred upon SS. Peter, James and John, in 
being allowed to be witnesses of the event. 
Throughout the codex, the Apostles are gener- 
allv unnimbcd, the only other example with a 
nimbus being the single figure of S. Peter 
rebuked, which is connected with Psalm 

A miniature of the Last Supper has Christ 
beneath a baldachino reclining at a semi-circular 
table with the Apo.stles, one of whom is dipping 
his hand in the dish. This is associated with 
Psalm XL, 9, " Yea, even mine own familiar 
friend whom I trusted, who did also eat of my 
bread, hath laid great wait for me", this being 
the verse with which it is connected in most of 
the " Monkish theological " Psahers. 

There are two representations of the Cruci- 
fixion, the first, as in Chludoff, Barbarini," and 
Theodore; to Ps. XXL 17. used in the Eastern 
Church in the Vespers of Good Friday. Christ 
is depicted upon the Cross, in a long kilt-like 
loin cloth," whilst below, two people are casting 
lots for a blue and a purple garment. A soldier 
on a ladder is attending to a nail in Christ's left 
hand with a large pair of pincers, whilst another, 
now almost cut away, is engaged with the nail 
in His right foot. In the second miniature of 
the same subject, illustrating P.salm LXVIIL 
22, " Thev gave me gall to eat, and 
when T was thirsty they gave me vinegar to 
drink", Christ wears the long sleeveless purple 
colobium, in w-hich He is generally pourtrayed 
in Bvzantine Crucifixions. A soldier on each 
side offers Him a sponge. 

The representation of The Harroiving of Hell 
[Pl.\te H, d] is connected with Ps. LXVH, i, 
" Let God arise, and let His enemies be .scat- 
tered", as it is also in all the other Psalters of 
the group. This selection was made because the 
Psalm was the only one used by the Eastern 
Church in the Special Offices for Easter Day,^' 
which rendered it very fitting for the subject, 
which was always understood as the Resurrec- 
tion (Anastasis). Christ in a blue mandorla, 
holding a large patriarchal cross, and standing 
upon the prostrate figure of Hades, leads the 

"J. J. Tikl<anen, Op. cit., p. 57. 

-" In a similar miniature to the same verse in ttie Theodore 
Psalter (Brit. Mus. Add. 19352) Christ wears the colobium ; 
the artist of the Bristol Psalter was more logical, and realis- 
ing that Christ must have been divested of His garments 
before the lots were cast, sacrificed the Byzantine convention 
to realism, as was also done in some of the other Psalters. 

21 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., pp. 60, 61. 

aged Adam forth from a qtiiidrangular pit, Eve 
and two other souls are repie.sentcd at .Atlam's 
side, all four being fully clothed, and three 
ilevils, "enemies", scattered before Christ are 
also depicted, though now much erased. The 
rejiresentation differs from tlie Ciihidoff (fol. 6.",), 
the Theodore (fol. 82b), the Hamilton (fol. i,",i, 
145), and also from the Paris fragment (Bib. 
\at. 20, fol. 19), as in Christ does not bear 
the, neither rue any devils included.'" At 
l'.sa!m IX, 33, " Arise O Lord Goil, lift up 
Thine hand ", there is a miniature of llie Resur- 
rection of Christ [Plate II, c] in which He 
steps forth from an upright tomb, behind which 
David stands.^'' 

The difference in treatment of the two minia- 
tures of the Ascended Christ is a good example 
of the dramatic discrimination of the artist. In 
both the chief component parts are identical, the 
first representing the Coming of Christ in Glory, 
Psalm. XVII, 10-13, " He rode upon the cheru- 
bins and did fly", in which the idea of the 
Second Coming to judge the earth is conveyed 
by the " hailstones and coals of fire " which fall 
beneath Him; the second the Ascension [Plate 
I, b], Psalm XLVI, 5, " God is gone up with a 
merrv noise". The solemnity of the Christ in 
the first subject is accentuated by the reserve in 
the treatment of the angels, who seem oppressed 
by the gravity of the scene of which they form 
part, whereas in the second the Christ, though 
still solemn and dignified, is less ponderous in 
expression and, whilst, in accordance with 
the verse with which it is associated, the angels 
swirl upwards with a sense of joyous motion. 
There is an amplification to the Ascension in a 
miniature on the .same page, below it, in which 
the "Mother of God", in the attitude of an 
orans, stands between two groups of the 
.Aipostles" [Plate I, b]. This refers to the 
verse, "The princes of the people are joined 
unto the people of the God of Abraham, for God 
which is very high exalted doth defend the earth 
as it were with a shield ", Ps. XLVI, 9, the con- 
nection implying a recognition of the interces- 
sory power of the Blessed \'irgin in the theology 
of the time. That the two miniatures are inter- 
dependent is shown by the way in which one 
individual in each of the two groups is gazing 
upwards at the A.scended The Blessed 
\"irgin is here larger than the figures about her, 
and elsewhere in the codex representations of 
divine persons are on a slightly exaggerated 

22 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., compare figures 75, 76, 77. 

23 A similar illustration occurs in Chludoff, P.Tntocratorus 
61, Theodore, and Barbarini Psalters, but they are not always 
attached to the same verse, but occur also with Ps. VI, 6, 
and Ps. XXIX, 5. J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 62. 

2'* The same association of subject occurs as early as the 
6th Century in the Rabula Gospel of Florence, vide Ch. Diehl, 
Manuel d'Art By:antin, fig. 119, p. 235. 


,4 Fruniispiece, etc. 

U*X( I* T^.^.1A* t 


'-i^ v>^ 

/" y • - ■/ ' ^ • ' 

». I liin-^ X A /T-i ^o 60- frTa-( --I »m^ ( -^^M ; 




B The Ascension 

C " He scut flesh into their tent " 

Plate I. An unnoticed Byzantine Psalter 



. , _..,.. 

/ .V. . ,# 


/) Adoratioft of the Mus;' 

r'f-'^.TT^o^t J.'»i't -^^i-v/o-. i-,;c 


C Communion of Apostles 

I ' - " y ^ ,' ' ' . 

t»pociV ■■ 

D Harroicinz of Hell 

^ i^^otrartfc[TiiLj^»lo-'3Arn>»^Kv(<Ofit|<.^ 

A ! K ■ • " 

-I- -"H^ 

h" " />',I,'.i,"''' " T'' 



!■■ The ITcl/./N .'.' /.',.'/'v/.m; 

I / 

X t t K " t li p «u « i « A q «V. 

6' 77u' Resurreclion 


o 2l>>l I M A ft A t 'TT^Aj ^J rrtf H * A 

■Twe P\< TTfv M 6 «j t *v"7rv n 

' i' '1 t T^ >' " '^'T-:»t • ."^^ I -^ »f .X^.c y^ 

W Ihiiiiel's I'isinn 

•"ycDOdirTTanu ; 

t-^M^— '^r 


/ T/iL' Plagues 
Plale 11. An unknown l)\zantine Psalter. 

Turning to the Old Testament incidents, 
" Joseph who was sold to be a bondservant ", 
Psalm CIV, 17, though a badly damaged minia- 
ture, is still very dramatic. Joseph, in a dal- 
matica enriched with circular ornaments, stands 
between two groups, his purchasers and his 
brethren. Of the tirst only sufficient is left to 
show that the price was being weighed out, but 
the group of brethren is full of expression. One 
(Judah?) has evidently been selected as spokes- 
man, and the others huddled together behind 
him seem to be edging him on, and encouraging 
him ; that encouragement is needed is shown by 
their leader's quaking knees; the brethren 
behind him have the air and expression of people 
who have embarked on a very questionable piece 
of business, and knowing it, wish to efface them- 
selves as much as possible. Joseph looks at 
them over his shoulder with an expression of 
reproach and disgust. On the next page Joseph, 
deprived of his beautiful coat, is represented in 
charge of a soldier, when " The King sent and 
delivered him", Ps. CIV, 20. The selling of 
Joseph was accepted as a type of the Betrayal of 

Moses typifies Christ, the Red Sea the 
Water of Baptism, and it was with this signifi- 
cance that the Israelites being led through the 
Red Sea is depicted, Ps. LXXVIl, 14, 15." As 
the Egyptians were overcome at the Red Sea, so 
the Devil is overcome by Baptism. In this 
miniature Moses is represented leading a group 
of Israelites along a path, strewn with stranded 
fish, which cuts through the sea, behind him is 
an object badly flaked which appears to be a half 
figure with hands helplessly stretched out. On 
its head is a golden asped crown" reminiscent of 
the Egyptian ur^eus crown, with red issuing 
from the mouths of the asps, and below them, 
two other snakes. The marginal note is Tha- 
lassa, but the devilish or Hades-like personifi- 
cation, with the Egyptian crown of sovereignty, 
seems to accord more nearly with a personifica- 
tion of Egypt, having a bearing upon the theo-^ 
logical interpretation of the scene. In the same 
way a curious miniature of Egyptians drowned 
in the Red Sea, the sea being a blue rectangular 
tank, enclosed by a thick brown line" — land — 
would indicate the discomfiture of the Devil. A 
picture of Moses striking the Rock, associated 
with Psalm LXXX, 17, " With honey out of a 
stony rock should I have satisfied thee ", bears 

25 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 2. 

*^ The asped crown seems to have been depicted on the top 
of a building to symlxjlise Egypt in a very much destroyed 
miniature of Jacob going down into Egypt. It is not very 
clear, but heads of asps are there. 

2' The Theodore Psalter has a miniature, representing the 
earth as a rectangle, with the personified winds blowing at the 
corners. Mr. Dalton points out that such illustrations had 
their origin in the 9th century in the Geographical Miniatures 
of Cosmas Indicopleustes, Op. cit., p. 459. 

a similar interpretation, the rock being Christ, 
from whose pierced side the water of Baptism, 
and the blood of the Eucharist flows. This 
Psalm was used in the Eastern Church on the 
Festival of the Baptism of Christ. In many 
places in the Eastern Liturgy, the staff of Moses 
was regarded as a type of the cross of Christ.-' 
Psalm LXVII, i6, " This is God's hill in which 
it pleaseth Him to dwell, yea the Lord will abide 
in it for ever", calls forth a representation of 
Daniel's Vision [Plate U, h]. Daniel, a young 
man, is lying upon a bed looking up at a star 
near the top of a precipitous crag^ from the side 
of which a large rock is falling. King David 
stands behind Daniel, pointing to the star. The 
allegory in this is clearly indicated by the in- 
scription added to it, "The mountain is the 
Virgin, and the rock Christ". In the Chludofl' 
miniature of the same subject the head and 
shoulders of Our Lady is depicted on the moun- 
tain side in place of the star.-' The verse, " He 
shall come down like rain into a fleece of wool ", 
Psalm LXXI, 6, was considered to refer to 
Gideon's fleece and to be a type of the Immacu- 
late Conception, and is here illustrated by the 
hand of God stretched from the semi-sphere of 
Heaven, and the Dove descending upon a medal- 
lion of the Blessed Virgin which rests upon the 
earth, whilst David stands pointing upwards. 
A similar miniature occurs in the same con- 
nection in Pantokratoros 6i, whilst in the 
other manuscripts, except Chludoff, which has 
nothing, the passage is associated with the An- 
nunciation,^" in the liturgy of which Festival it 
occurs", Psalm LXXVIl, 25, " He rained 
down manna also upon them for to eat, and gave 
them food from heaven" is depicted quite liter- 
ally [Plate II, c], but it also typifies the Euchar- 
istic Bread. From a blue semi-sphere, God the 
Father in a rayed nimbus looks forth upon two 
Israelites with baskets full of manna. This is 
the only representation of the First Person of the 
Trinity in the codex, elsewhere the symbol of the 
Hand of God is used. A similar interpretation 
probably belonged to the miniature on the same 
page, which illustrates in a realistic and spirited 
way, " He rained flesh upon them and feathered 
fowls like as the sand of the sea, so they did eat 
and were well filled," v. 28-30 [Plate II, c]. A 
flock of birds in various attitudes of alighting, 
full of life and expression," are arriving near 
two men, one of whom is engaged in killing a 
bird, whilst the other is roasting four on a spit 
over a fire. 

28 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 45. 

29 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 44. 

30 Histoire de I'Art, Ed. Andrd Michel, L'Art Bysantin, par 
Gabriel Millet. Tome i, Partie. i, p. 227. 

31 J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 49. 

32 One is instinctively reminded of Japanese .'Vrt by the 
perception, delicacy and directness with which this flock of 
birds is executed. 


A naturalistic representation is connecti'(.i with 
Psiilm LXXIII, 15, " Thou smotest the heads 
of Leviathan in pieces (the dragons in the 
waters"). A large snake, its head a bright red 
patch, lies in a stream which pours from a rocky 
hillside, " Thou brougtucst out fountains and 
waters out of the hard rocks". Two birds are 
pecking at the snake, " Thou gavest him to be 
meat for the people in the wilderness ", and a 
formal star above, is the " light and the sun 
which Thou hast prepared". Accurately illus- 
trative as this is, it nevertheless was intended to 
convey a reference to Christian Doctrine, for to 
a similar miniature in the ChludotT manuscript 
a note is added to the effect that as Pharaoh was 
broken at the Red Sea, so the might of the Devil 
was overcome by Baptism.^" Another picture 
following the words of the text with exactitude, 
yet accepted as a reference to Baptism^' illus- 
trates Psalm LXXVI, 16, " The waters Sitw thee 
and were afraid " ; two river gods pour forth two 
Streams, which flow downwards in the direction 
of a figure of Christ, but suddenly turn at a 
sharp angle to flow away from Him. Similarly 
the drinking stag, Psalm XLI, i, and the closed 
door. Psalm XXIII, 7, though called forth by 
the exact words of the text, had their theological 
as well as their illustrative value. 

A miniature full of dramatic expression is 
associated with Psalm CXXXVT, 1-4, " By the 
waters of Babylon we sat down and wept" 
[Plate II, f]. A river god pours forth a stream 
by which trees and plants are growing. On one 
of the trees hang musical instruments, whilst 
seated on a hillock beneath is a group of sorrow- 
ing Jews, in attitudes of grief, most of them with 
their hands to their chins. Opposite these are 
three men in contrasting costume of breeches, 
cloaks and curious rectangular turbans, ^^ one of 
whom with hand outstretched is evidently 
requesting that a "Song of Sion " should be 
sung, whilst the Jew nearest him has a hand 
raised in a deprecatory attitude as if to say 
" How can we sing the Lord's song in a strange 

A subject repeatedly represented in some of 
the "Monkish-theological" Psalters'*" occurs 
once only in this codex, connected with Psalm 
XV, 1, " Preserve me O God : for in thee have 
I put my trust ". David, in an attitude of 
prayer, is depicted before an icon of Christ, 
which is suspended from the fine initial letter 

'' J. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 51. 

'*}. J. Tikkanen, Op. cit., p. 51. This illustration occurs 
in most of the Psalters of the " Monkish-theological " group. 

^' It is interesting to note that the dress of the Babylonians 
is identical with that of Daniel in the lions' den in the Meno- 
logium of Basil II., figured by O. M. Dalton. Op. cit., p. 


36 In the Theodore Psalter of the British Museum and 

which begins the Psalm. I-Our saints associated 
with the verse, " All my (.Icligiil is upon the 
Siiints that are in the earth ", I'.salm XV, i,, have 
something of the hieratic quality of the art of the 
Ra\eiina mosaics, as has also a beautiful figure 
of the .\lai.k)nna as Orans in the Canticles. The 
saints all lu)ld crosses, but are of varying 
colour, one being red, two black, and one 

Among tile more inlcresiing of what may be 
termed the lighter illu.slralions is that of the man 
who has " digged up a pit and is fallen himself 
into the destruction that he made for other" 
[PL.\Tii II, e], Ps. VII, 16, which has quite a 
suggeslic^n of humour in it ; and the church 
which illustrates the " habitation of Thy house". 
Psalm XXV, 8, in front of which is a row of 
trees and plants, with a reference mark distinct 
from that of the church, to the words, " And all 
Thy wondrous works" (v. 7), which shows an 
appreciation of natural beauty. That the artist 
was an observer of nature is shown by the 
quality of his animals; the cattle, discomforted 
by hailstones, which illustrate the Plagues in 
Psfdm LXXVII, 49 [Plate II, j], are a per- 
fectly delightful group, quite convincing in their 
feeling of discontent. Their grouping is not 
original, it occurs in Pantokratoros 61, which, 
except for an additional animal, is almost iden- 
tical,^* but, instead of being blunted by repe- 
tition, the characterization in the Bristol codex 
is intensified. The horses of David and Absa- 
lom and their soldiers are forceful studies instinct 
with life and action, the rearing horse in par- 
ticular, notwithstanding the impossible pose of 
its rider, being quite remarkable. Very dif- 
ferent is the careless presentment of some of the 
inanimate objects, such as the "horrible pit" 
and "miry clay ", or the "open sepulchre ", 
an open sarcophagus of doubtful perspective, 
which are included in the pictorial prcjgramme. 
A good example of the faithfully illustrative 
method followed throughout the codex is 
afforded by the difference in the representation 
of the Day ; in the miniature of Moses between 
the Night and the Day [Plate I, a], in which 
she is the woman Eos ; and the Dawn, the boy 
Orthros, in a miniature in the Canticles, with 
Isaiah as the central figure. Moses is associated 
with Psalm I, 2, "In His law will He exercise 
himself day and night", whereas the verse con- 
nected with Isaiah, " With my soul have I 
desired Thee in the night, yea with my spirit 
within me will I seek Thee early ", implies the 
early dawn. 

{To be continued). 

2' In the Coptic Church the Confessors were called " the 
Cross-bearers ". TJie Daily Office and Theotokia of the Coptic 
Church. Rev. De Lacy O'Leary, B.D. 

38 Ch. Diehl, Op. cit., fig. 278, p. 573. 













HE miscellaneous exhibition ar- 
ranged for this winter at the Bur- 
ington Fine Arts Club has, as 
usual, brought together several not- 
able works which deserve annotation 
ana record before they return to the comparative 
inaccessibility of private collections. 

Plate I reproduces a predella panel of The 
Nativity lent by Sir Henry Howorth. It is true 
that this is not by a great master. The artist 
who executed it shows a rather helpless naivety 
in his construction and in the rendering of move- 
ment. But precisely by reason of these failings 
he brings into relief the extraordinarily high 
aesthetic level of the Florentine tradition in the 
middle of the 15th century. For this minor 
artist of the school of Pesellino, in no way dis- 
couraged by his incapacities, goes straight for 
the essentials of design. At almost any other 
period such an artist as the author of this pre- 
della would have laboured after a verisimilitude 
which did not come to him naturally, would have 
underlined and elaborated details which he 
might hope would bring conviction, and would 
have lost in this effort the essentials of design. 
But in Florence such an artist had the courage 
to leave representation to take its chances and to 
concentrate on the purely aesthetic relations, to 
balance his masses with an astonishing instinct 
for their relative weight and position, and to find 
for each tone and colour its due emphasis. The 
result is festhetically far more satisfying than 
many celebrated and accomplished perform- 

By far the most interesting and sensational 
event of this exhibition is the appearance of 
Prince Paul of Serbia's great panel by Piero di 
Cosimo [Plate II] representing a forest fire. It 
cannot be said exactly that it throws a new light 
on the strangest and most curious personality ot 
Florentine art, since it is so entirely character- 
istic. But perhaps in no picture are his peculi- 
arities both of invention and vision more deeply 
underlined. Fifteenth century Florence afforded 
one of those rare moments of civilization when 
the pressure of the herd upon the individual was 
less overwhelming than usual — when individual 
idiosyncracies, even individual caprice, were 
fairly respected. It was a time when even 
fashion in dress scarcely ventured to dictate to 
individual taste. But even in 15th century 
Florence there was only one Piero di Cosimo, 
only one personality of such extravagant and 
farouche individualism, and only one artist who 
was capable of such a strange phantasy as this. 
Even to his contemporaries who admired and 

encouraged the peluliar bent of his mind, Piero 
must have seemed a little odd, and to the next 
generation, which felt no longer the first fine 
frenzy of the early Renaissance, he already 
seemed a little reprehensible ; so that the sage 
and worldly-wise Vasari, though he confesses 
to a peculiar fondness for his work, began his 
biography in the first edition with a little homily 
on the folly, almost the wickedness, of such reck- 
less individualism. 'Tf one were to contemplate," 
he begins, " the dangers which beset artists and 
the distress which they endure in life, one would 
perhaps keep far from art, especially if one con- 
sidered that if art does well by the most perfect 
geniuses it renders others so distraught and 
deformed that they fly the society of men and 
seek only solitude ... so tliat their fan- 
tastic way of life leads them to a miserable end, 
as one may clearly see in all the actions of Piero 
di Cosimo ". 

It is true that Vasari cut this out of the second 
edition, but a feeling of commiseration and a little 
contempt runs through the whole of the life of 
Piero. No doubt there were those who explained 
Piero's conduct on the ground that he was a 
harmless lunatic. It seems to me more probable 
that he was something of a " crank ". He 
rebelled against civilisation, he wanted to lead 
the simple life, and he succeeded to a great extent 
by never having his studio swept nor his garden 
weeded, by cooking nothing but eggs, and those 
fifty at a time. He had clearly begun, what we 
think of as a modern invention, the worship of 
wild nature. "He would often go to observe ani- 
mals or plants or whatever things nature makes 
by accident or caprice, and of these things he 
had such content and satisfaction that he was 
beside himself, and he returned to them so often 
in his discourse that even though he may have 
enjoyed it himself it became a bore to others." 

Wild animals and wild plants were his pas- 
sion, and as a result his sympathies turned also 
to wild men. Classical mythology opened to his 
mind a vista into ages when men might be sup- 
posed to have lived untrammelled and undis- 
turbed by the conventions of civilization. It was 
upon such ideas that his solitary brooding mind 
dwelt until the strangest visions became lumi- 
nous and distinct to his inner sense, already well 
stored with memories derived from his own 
curious observations of such aspects of nature 
as he could approach. 

The two main contacts other than jesthetic 
which were likely to affect an artist's mind in 
Piero's circle were the new world opened by a 
knowledge of the classics and the dawnings of 


the scientific idea of nature. We have sein that 
dassiial mythology liad supplied I'iero with a 
rich material for his speculative invention. How- 
far was he also inspired by scientific curiosity? 
Here where a few more words from \'as;ui would 
be welcome, he only whets our curiosity in order 
to tantalize it. What, one wonders, were Piero's 
relations to his older contemporary Leonardo da 
\'inci ? \'asari tells us that he was fascinated 
bv Leonardo's nmv manner of paintini;' ant! 
tried, though but unsuccessfully, to imitate it. 
The traces of this influence are faint and only 
to be seen in one or two of Piero's surviving 
works, but what one would liUe to know far more 
is whetiier Piero had any idea of Leonardo's 
scientific speculations, what were the mutual 
reactions of two such adventurous and original 
natures. Piero clearly had, like Leonardo, an 
idea of the inlinite possibilities of observation. 
Apart from the pass^ige from V'asari cited above. 
Prince Paul's picture shows us what a wealth of 
minute observation of natural forms Piero had 
amassed, and in other pictures we find daring 
new experiments in the treatment of light and 
shade. But as compared with Leonardo's, 
i'lero's was a naive, almost childish nature. 
Whereas Leonardo's profound scientific intuition 
led him to question what is obvious and familiar 
in order to discover universal laws, Piero's 
curiosity was mainly for what was strange and 
abnormal. His was indeed a more capricious, 
undirected curiosity than the scientific curiosity 
of Leonardo. It was a simpler, more primitive 
impulse that led Piero to study distorted tree 
trunks, twisted rocks, and exotic plants. He 
had a taste for the "curio " in nature. 

1 have attempted thus to map out Piero's 
mental geography as giving some kind of clue 
to the picture with which we are concerned. 
Three other pictures must be studied alongside 
of it, namely, the two panels in the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York reproduced in the Bur- 
lington Magazine for February, 1907, and the 
Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths belonging to 
Messrs. Ricketts & Shannon. One of the New 
^'ork pictures is of the same subject as Prince 
Paul's picture, A Forest Fire; the other, if it 
were a modern picture, would certainly be called 
" Neolithic men returning in canoes from a hunt- 
ing expedition." The mere fact that such a 
title would appear natural shows how far Piero's 
invention had taken him out of the tracks of con- 
temporary imagery, and how deeply he had pon- 
dered his favourite theme of the human animal. 
So deeply indeed that he could build almost as 
coherent a picture of primitive man as we can 
with the help of all the accumulated knowledge 
of the intervening centuries. Two things in this 
picture, however, destroy the plausibility of 
Piero's case, a centaur and a satyr. They show 

that cither he intended his vision as fantasy or, 
as 1 think more [)rol)ai)le, ha\ing got his vision 
of primitive stales through classical mythology, 
he had come to believe in centaurs and satyrs 
as hybrids between animals and men, possible 
at a period when man was so muih more " natu- 
ral," so nearly akin to his fellow animals. 
In Prince I'aul's picture we see some antelopes 
and wild boars with human faces. This has led 
some to supi)()se that the picture is based on the 
Circe legend, but this is not borne out by any- 
thing else in the i)icture, and it seems more prob- 
able that it is just an invention of Piero's own, 
on the lines of classical mythology. That P-ero 
went to the classics for his inspiiation would be 
almost certain considering the age in which lie 
lived, but it is clear from Messrs. Ricketts and 
Shannon's Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths 
that he knew more than the general outlines of 
classical myths, for in that case he has followed 
Ovid's text very closely in every detail. Indeed 
if I am right in my surmise of Piero's mentality 
it was to Ovid that he went most for inspiration. 
When one looks at such pictures as this and the 
two New York panels, one's first surmise is that 
Piero might have got his notion of primitive man 
from Lucretius, but in fact he was of too flighty 
and whimsical a turn of mind to be satisfied with 
Lucretius's rationalism. Lucretius, for instance, 
would have denied him his centaurs and fauns. 

Nor, I think, ought we to suppose, as Mr. 
Mather suggests in his note on the New York 
panels, that Piero had got some vague idea of our 
evolutionary theory such as, if we may judge 
from the drawings for the Battle of the Anghiari, 
may have flickered across Leonardo's prophetic 
mind. He was not even Lucretian ; rather he 
accepted Ovid's account of the gradual decay of 
man from pristine simplicity, a theory which 
would have fitted with Piero's hatred of the 
sophistications and conventions that human 
society has imposed upon itself. It is true 
that so far I have found nothing in 
Ovid or elsewhere that might have suggested 
precisely the subjects of any of these three 
panels. Piero may have got the suggestion of 
the forest fire from Homer, where the simile 
occurs frequently, but I suspect these compo- 
sitions to be rather the outcome of his constant 
preoccupation with the idea of wild nature and 
of man as yet entirely at one with it. 

The question arises as to what relation these 
four fantasies bear to one another. The mea- 
surements of the panels are as follows : — The 
two pictures at New York are 28" x 66" ; Messrs. 
Ricketts and Shannon's is 27^" x 102" ; Prince 
Paul's is 28" X 80". The fact that all are ap- 
proximately of the same height would suggest 
that they all formed part of a common scheme 
of decoration of the kind actually described by 





























5 8 












• — 



















- <!-' 



Vasari, who says : — " He also executed, round 
a chamber in the house of Francesco del Pug- 
liese, various stories with little figures; nor is it 
possible to describe the variety of fantastic 
things which he delighted to paint in all these 
stories, what with the buildings, the animals, 
the costumes, the various instruments and other 
fancies which came into his head, since the 
stories were drawn from fables." 

In favour of such a view is not only the cor- 
respondence of measurement but the general 
likeness of the colour scheme in all four panels. 
At no other period did Piero adopt quite the 
same subfusc general tone of dull olive greens 
and browns or quite the same exquisite flat 
lacquer-like quality of paint. All the same, 
there are differences. If I remember right, 
Messrs. Ricketts and Shannon's Battle of the 
Centaurs and Lapiths is clearer and fresher, the 
sky bluer, the browns more pure brown — that is, 
it has not the dull green-olive-brown tone of 
Prince Paul's Forest Fire. This, I think, agrees 
more nearly in colour with the New York panels. 

Then again the Battle of Centaurs and 
Lapiths is a complete composition, which re- 
counts the whole of the story as given in Ovid, 
and one would expect companion pieces to con- 
tain similar mythological stories treated in the 
same way, whereas, if I am right, the three other 
panels are more purely creations of Piero's own 
whimsical invention. Can we then eliminate the 
Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths — which more- 
over differs slightly in dimensions — and sup- 
pose that the two New York panels and Prince 
Paul's formed part of a single scheme of decora- 
tion ? Again I think it unlikely. There is clearly 
a unity of idea in the two New York pieces. They 
both represent the life of primitive man — man 
before he had discovered the need for dress. 
But the herdsman in Prince Paul's picture is 
by no means primitive. He is an agriculturist 
living in a farm house, already far too sophisti- 
cated to share with the centaurs and satyrs, as 
the men in the other panels do. 

Moreover, the composition of the Forest Fire 
in New York is curiously similar in main idea 
to the composition of Prince Paul's picture. In 
both, the burning forest makes a dark mass filling 
the centre of the panels; in both, diagonal vistas 
lead the eve awav to the horizon and sky, to 
right and left. In both, one or more isolated 
tree trunks mnke a salient point more or less in 
the cenfe. It is true that the figures are com- 
pletely different. But these likenesses are such 
as to lead one to suppose that one of these panels 
is in the nature of a second version of the theme. 
Whichever may have been the first version, the 
general setting of the scene remains similar, but 
in one case the forest fire is merely a background 
to a most exciting and melodramatic fight be- 

tween primitive man and wild animals; in the 
other, the fire in the forest determines the action 
of all the animals and birds that fly from it. It 
is unlikely that such a repetition would have 
occurred in a single scheme of decoration, and 
we must suppose rather that more than one mem- 
ber of the Florentine aristocracy had a taste for 
decorating his rooms with Piero di Cosimo's 

All the same, I think all these four pictures 
belong to the same period of Piero's career ; they 
flow from a single source of inspiration. I 
should put them in the middle of his career, 
intermediate between Mr. Benson's Hylas and 
the Nymphs and the late Andromeda series of 
the Uffizi, where he developes an entirely new 
conception of space construction. Those later 
works show how profoundly original a designer 
Piero was, anticipating ideas of treating the pic- 
ture space which were not fully realized till the 
seventeenth century. In one of those at least — 
the Perseus delivering Andromeda — he has anti- 
cipated the free construction of more modern art. 

Even in Prince Paul's panel one sees him as 
an innovator. Unlike the early perspectivists 
who, for the sake of their theory, made their 
recessions at right angles to the picture plane, 
Piero makes his vistas go out diagonally on 
either side of his central mass. This freedom 
from the tyranny of the picture plane was rare 
in his day and for long after. It is the same 
with his foreshortening of individual objects. 
The cow in the foreground is seen coming dia- 
gonally towards the spectator, and Piero was 
sharp enough observer to catch, and honest 
enough to record the oddity and improbability 
of such an aspect. He makes no attempt to 
soften down those unfamiliarities of actual 
appearance which, by departing from the con- 
ventionalized aspects of things, tend to be con- 
sidered " unnatural " and " unlike." The 
flight of the birds shows again his frankness and 
his open-mindedness to impressions. One can 
think of no other artist who had seen so 
clearly as this the effect of birds falling 
forwards through the air by their own 
weight and the momentum of their bodies. 
The strangeness and unexpectedness of the 
general aspect of Piero's pictures often makes 
them seem more primitive than they are. He 
was really an adventurous innovator, and in 
some directions fully abreast of the forward move- 
ment of his day. As he treated sornewhat simi- 
lar subjects to Botticelli's, it is natural to compare 
them, and the comparison shows how great a 
gulf there is between the two, what an immense 
step forward in the realization of the picture 
space and the recessions of planes Piero's work 

Our next plate shows two small panel pictures 


from Sir Herbert Cook's collection, now re- 
united by a fortunate chance. The stvcalleil 
Medea has long been known to amateurs as one 
of the masterpieces of Krcole Roberti, but the 
other has only recently come to light. It repre- 
sents Brutus and Portia [Platk 111, b]. In ortlcr 
to convince her husband that she was worthy 
to share in the conspiracy, she wounded herself, 
and is here seen showing the wound to Brutus as 
a proof of her constancy. The other panel [ Pi.atk 
ill, a] is probably not Medea and her children, 
but Hasdrubal's wife immolating herself and 
her children in the burning temple of Carthage 
rather than allow herself to fall into the 
enemies' hands. It is evident that these panels 
formed part of a series representing types of 
noble women which may have formed the scheme 
of decorations of a small room. 

The newiv discovered panel is in perfect con- 
dition and is a fine example of Ferrarese colour 
with its predilection for rather sharp harmonies 
and morbid colours. The subject, however, was 
not one to inspire the artist to such a fine design 
as the Hasdrubal's wife. In the drawing of the 
children's nude forms and in the fine movement 
of the central figure, Ercole comes perhaps as near 
as a North Italian artist could to the principles 
of Tuscan design. One suspects that the in- 
fluence of Piero della Francesca and perhaps 



iS Dr. Hofstede de Groot, in the last 
number of this magazine, seems 
[more or less to doubt my attribution 
of a Girl Reading in the Maurits- 
huis to Claes Hals, I should like to 
explain why I believe that attribution to be abso- 
lutely correct. 

I bought the picture, signed /""TJ 
in London, and attributed it immedi- v-/f- 
ately to Claes Hals, having once seen in the 
Peltzer collection at Cologne two small heads 
in the Hals manner, signed in the same way. 
.Another reason for my attribution was that this 
charming picture reminded me of the work of 
Jan Hals, his elder brother. In the Notaries- 
archive at Haarlem I discovered a great manv 
documents regarding him and bearing his sig- 
nature, which, with a few exceptions, was 
/'"Yjf* °'' /"^ T—^X* Even a document 
^^-T V— _it- written on De- 

cember 1st, 1664 (Notary de Keyser) in which 
Claes Hals, painter, declares himself to be 34 
years of age, " ofte daer omtrent " ("or about 
that age ") is signed ^> | / and to this 
monogram the Notary ^ jI, has added: 

Pollnjuolo had .spread to Ferrara, as indeed is 
appaii-nt from Francesco Cossji's work. In the 
Brutus and Portia panel, however, Ercole has 
not kept his eye on the main lines of movement 
and there are evidences of a relapse into that more 
[)articularizcd and detailed vision which came 
naturally to Northern artists. 

The picture of S. Jerome in meditation repro- 
duced in Plate IV figures in the catalogue 
merely as " Venetian school." It is a most at- 
tractive picture finely composed and with an 
admirable sense of the mise en page of the 
figure. It is unusual to find so modern a treat- 
ment of landscape at this period — a landscape 
treated so essentially as a " view " over a wide 
expanse of valley, lake and mountain. 

The dominating influence of Titian is clearly 
evident here, but the picture does not seem to 
me purely Venetian in the strict sense of the 
word, but rather to come from one of the depen- 
dent schools of the mainland. The colour is 
not quite so rich as in pure Venetian painting : it 
has, to my eye, something of that more suffused 
tonality, and the muted harmonies of the 
Brescian school. Among the artists of that 
school Savoldo was particularly devoted to this 
kind of " poesy," and it seems to me to be in 
all probability by his hand, and by no means the 
least successful of his works. 

" Tmerck van Claes Hals" ("the mark of 
Claes Hals "). Since the painter was accus- 

'^m^r^ Cfi 

tomed to put this mark even beneath a notary 
document, is there anything peculiar about his 
having signed some of his pictures in the same 
way? On October 21st, 1664, Claes Hals, 
painter, again signing v""^ 'jr declares 
himself to be about 35 ^ j"^ years of 
age. On January 3rd, ^.^ J» 1682, he 
signs an account of the Gilde of St. Luke : 

He lived 
the hum- 
blest sur- 
rou ndings, 

his wife having been the widow of a servant of a 
" baillieul of Kennemerland ". On September 

e Gilde of 5 

















— ^ 


'— ' 










































" H 


























22nd, 1667, he was very ill, and made a Testa- 
ment in which he leaves something to his 
mother, Lysbeth Reyniers. Should she die 
before him, his brother, the painter, Frans Hals 
the younger, was to be given a certain suit of 
clothes referred to as being of medium quality, 
as well as a mantle. (Not. Geraers). All that 
time he and his wife, Jenneken Hendricxdr \'an 
der Horst, lived in the street called Turfsteegh. 

Finally, I do not understand why Dr. Hof- 
stede de Groot states that genre painters were 
rarer than landscape painters at Haarlem. Have 
not Dirck Hals, Jan Hals, Reynier Hals, Jan 
Miense Molenaer, J.Leyster, Ostade, Dusart and 
many others painted excellent genre pictures? 

But Dr. de Groot has omitted to mention 
something else, viz., that there exists an i8th 
centurv drawing which is a careful copv of the 
View of the Groote Houtstraat reproduced in the 
February Burlington Magazine. An inscrip- 
tion bv the artist mentions that it has been 
copied from a picture by Nicolaes Hals. In the 
face of such evidence it is surely likely that 

the picture was regarded 150 years ago as the 
work of Claes Hals. After I had bought the 
painting for the Haarlem Museum, Mr. Gonnet, 
the archivist, showed me the drawing bear- 
ing the inscription in the Ryks-Archief, of which 
he has been for so long the learned director. 

As to Reynier Hals : he was already resident 
at Amsterdam before 1637, ^^^ "^^^s buried there 
in the Leidsche Kerkhof, a churchyard for the 
poor, on May 3rd, 1672. He lived in Vysel- 
street, near the Reguliers Tower, in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Aart van der Neer. His 
widow existed in poverty by selling old clothes, 
furniture, etc., and was buried in the Wester- 
kerkhof, beside the Westerkerk, on April loth, 
1689. She had lived in Hartestreet, near the 
Keizersgracht. A most amusing scene, wit- 
nessed ijy Jan Hackaert and Aert van der Neer, 
is mentioned as having occurred in 1667 in the 
studio of Reynier Hals, who was then living in 
the room of a house on the Singel called the 
Green Organ. I hope to be able to publish this 
soon in " Oud Holland ". 


^O the reconstruction of the work of 
Claes Hals, begun by Dr. Hofstede 
de Groot in his article in the Feb- 
ruary number of the Burlington 
Magazine, I am in a position to 
make a small contribution by drawing attention 
to a picture, brought to my notice by its owner, 
Mr. E. Bolton. The picture in question [Platea], 
a panel, measuring 2of by 15I inches, represents 
a huckster, outside a dilapidated cottage, offer- 
ing his goods for sale to a woman who puts her 
glasses on to examine them ; on the right of these 
figures are grouped a number of children. In 
the foreground on the left is seen a hen-house, 
on the shadowed wall of which is the artist's 
signature, the initials C.H. neatlv written as in 
the examples facsimiled in Dr. Bredius's paper 
above. The artist's afifinity to Frans Hals ap- 
pears very strongly marked in the figures, more 
especially so in the children, whose dresses make 
a piquant medley of gav notes; while the huck- 
ster is draped in a mantle of slaty blue which — 
as pointed out by Prof. W. Martin in discussing 
the picture with me — marks a point of resem- 
blance with the scheme of colour of the Maurits- 
huis picture. The background shows an effec- 
tive Ruysdaelesque glimpse of sombre trees 
against a grey, clouded sky. 

As I am on the subject of Dutch masters, 
hitherto only known from records, I should like 
to seize the opportunity of referring to the case 
of the painter J. C. van Hasselt, whose signa- 

ture, with the date 1659, authenticates a picture 
on panel (21 ins. by 14I ins.) in the possession of 
Messrs. Durlacher [Plate b]. Wurzbach's 
Dictionary of Netherlandish Artists refers under 
Jacob van Hassel to a landscape painter, men- 
tioned at Utrecht about 1638 and 1643, and 
stated to have worked for a long time in Rome. 
Mention is also made of an Isak van Hasselt, 
a landscape painter, referred to by Houbraken 
as a foundation member of the Guild of S. Luke 
at Dordrecht in 1642, with an expression of the 
possibility that he may be identical with the 
artist whose name is given as Jacob van Hassel ; 
apparently the name van Hasselt was a frequent 
one in Utrecht, where one Isack Janssen Hasselt 
in 1619 was a pupil of Paul Moreelse's. The 
picture here published does not settle conclu- 
sively the question of the artist's Christian name 
as it only gives the initial ; artistically, it shows 
the painter working somewhat in the manner 
usuallv associated with the name of Pieter van 
Laer (il Bamboccio), though there is no little 
individuality in the clever planning of the com- 
position, which shows a Roman beggar seated 
outside the vaulted gate of a building, into the 
winding staircase of which the opened door 
admits the view; and the treatment of light and 
shade throughout the picture is of considerable 
delicacv and charm. The signature and date 
are on the " cartoccio " shield on the left of the 



Twelve Water Colours bv Ropis (portfolio). Cicorg <'t Cio, 
Geneva. 450 fr. 

Because the connection between art and the 
reasoning faculties is obscure, critics, philo- 
sophers, and even artists have often been 
tempted to talk nonsense about works of art. In 
the past this nonsense was usually laborious and 
systematic, an attempt to philosophize about a 
subject-matter not understood and perhaps never 
experienced. Nowadn\s, tiie non.'iense tries to 
be art rather than philosoph)' ; no effort is made 
to prove a statement or to connect one statement 
with another ; assertions are made as if thev were 
wrung out of the depths of the soul and as if 
hearing them was believing. The critic aims at 
that divine caprice which, according to Whistler, 
is the mark of the artist ; and he has all the 
inconsequence of the butterfly, without itscharm. 
His method often is to choose an artist who 
becomes for him an immaculate mv.sterv to be 
understood by his own intuition alone. This 
mystery he reveals in sayings that remain mys- 
terious; and if you do not understand them it is 
because you do not understand his chosen artist ; 
and if the artist himself has the habit of talking 
about his art, his most casual sayings are quoted 
as if they were the Sermon on the Mount, and 
in them, we are told, a whole gospel of art, a 
whole philosophy, is implied. 

Rodin, more than most artists, seems to have 
had the habit of talking about his art; we may 
even suspect from some of the reports of his con- 
versation that he was tempted by obsequious 
listeners to say more than he meant, more even 
than he, or at least his listeners, understood. 
For this we need not blame him ; he worked hard 
and it was his diversion to be an oracle. Some- 
times, no doubt, he .said a good thing, sometimes 
he failed to say it ; but to the listeners it was all 
one ; they took it down at the time or remem- 
bered it, perhaps imperfectly, and then made 
their gospel out of it. 

So M. Gsell's introduction to these 12 admir- 
ablv reproduced drawings by Rodin consists of 
remarks by Rodin with a commentary by M. 
Gsell. They may sound better in French than in 
the language into which Mr. Davis has translated 
them, which, though usually intelligible to an 
Englishman, is not English. At first I thought 
that Mr. Davis was deliberately practising his 
own theory of translation, that he was resolved 
to be as literal as he could without caring 
whether or no he wrote English. The effect was 
surprising, but, I thought, there might be .some- 
thing to sav for it. Here, for instance, is an 
early sentence : — " When it is question of a 
great sculptor envy has a good chance of exert- 
ing itself on his pencil or his brush. Being 

unai)U' to bite the statuary it works up for it on 
the draughtsman ", but when I found him call- 
ing Virgil, " Virgile ", and making Rodin 
assert that Corot " always hatl C'hcrubin'sage ", 
1 began to suspect that he must know French 
at least better than l-inglish. ['"inally, near the 
end, 1 came on this passage, " He applied him- 
self by noting what up to then his colleagues 
had completely neglected, acrobatic movements, 
falling back, quartering, astonishing disjoint- 
ings. Under his pencil or his brush the body 
is agitated as if it despaired of ever becoming 
.supple enough to satisfy all the caprices of 
imagination ". The disjointings are indeed 
astonishing, and they have left me wondering 
what Mr. Davis was trying to do. 

As for M. Gsell, so far as he is to be under- 
stood in the translation, he insists that all 
Rodin's drawings, if not all his sculpture, are an 
expression and glorification of the .sexual 
instinct. " No fig leaf! Rodin expressed him- 
self as if in private. As indifferent, as the 
creator himself, as to what one calls decency or 
indecency, he triumphantly celebrated the 
supremacy of sex. Without the least embar- 
ra.ssment he interpreted the most secret raptures, 
the most extravagant paroxysms ". In fact 
M. G.sell seems resolved to arouse expectations 
that are not aesthetic. Rodin, he tells us, 
executed some small terra cottas that were 
deliciously '' We hope that these 
exquisite groups will be united in a reserved 
room, which will recall the Cabinet secret of the 
Naples Museum. The drawings that are too 
free to be shown to everybody will be assembled 
there. Only those who will see these works are 
the visitors who will ask to know them ". And 
so on. But I hasten to say that no drawing in 
this portfolio is too free to be shown to every- 
body ; and, if Rodin himself said, as M. Gsell 
makes him say, that all his drawings were ex- 
pressions or glorifications of the sexual instinct, 
then the drawings themselves, I think, show that 
he was mistaken or talking to amuse himself. 
This is not a question of English prudery, but 
of fact. We should expect to find, in a drawing 
that expres.sed, only or mainly, the sexual 
instinct, little curiosity about form or movement; 
we should expect the figures themselves to be 
mere symbols or instruments of desire. But 
what is expressed in these drawings is the most 
searching curiosity about form and movement, 
a curiosity which Rodin could not express so 
well in his sculpture; and I see no reason to 
make a mystery about them or to say, as M. 
Gsell says in his last sentence : — " Well ! Rodin 
has perhaps been the greatest prophet of this 
new religion and his drawings will probably 


remain the most significant pages of the modern 
gospel ". There is no new religion in them, 
no modern gospel, but only that curiosity which 
is as old as art itself. It seems new with each 
example of it because the artist, familiar with the 
observations of past artists, implies what they 
have observed and pushes his own researches 
further; and this he does, not because of his 
sexual instinct, which he shares with many who 
cannot and do not wish to draw, but because, 
being an artist, he finds in drawing an experi- 
ence of reality to be valued for its own sake, an 
experience which he himself makes instead of 
merely allowing it to happen to him. Mr. 
MacColl said once that all drawing is gesture ; 
it is in fact the artist's emphasis upon what 
delights him ; and, instead of merely gesticu- 
lating to show his delight, he, as it were, recre- 
ates the object with his gesture. Rodin seems 
to have taken a peculiar pleasure in thus recre- 
ating" the object at the very moment of his experi- 
ence, or, to put it more simply, in drawing from 
nature. But, in drawing from nature, he 
managed to forget more completely than most 
artists what the public expects in a drawing. 
M. Gsell is right when he says that Rodin 
expressed himself as if in private, but he 
is wrong in the reasons which he gives. He 
expressed himself without regard for his public ; 
he talked to himself, as it were; but not inces- 
santly about his sexual instinct. In fact the 
sexual instinct, as an explanation of everything, 
is becoming a bore. 

M. Gsell tells us, more than once, that these 
drawings are astonishing; but they will not 
astonisii a public jaded by many efforts to 
astonish ; and, after all, there is nothing very 
astonishing in a drawing of a woman standing 
on her head, even if she has no clothes on. 
Anyone can do it, with more or less plausibility, 
who can draw at all ; anyone could think of doing 
it without being able to draw. The peculiar 
excellence of Rodin's drawings consists, not in 
the unusual attitudes he sometimes chooses to 
depict, but in the fact that he can draw from life 
and with extreme swiftness, combining all his 
particular observation with a rhythm that yet 
seems to have an abstract beauty. He had a 
gospel of his own, not this tiresome gospel of 
sex, but a gospel that the most piercing and 
authentic beauty is to be got direct from the 
facts of reality ; and in these drawings he often 
does get it ; it is a particular model, who seems, 
as it were, to have traced herself on to the paper, 
yet the lines have a calligraphic beauty and flow 
and part and flow together again as if they were 
in a dance. If drawing is always a gesture, this 
drawing is a beau geste, yet it seems always to 
be action, and not a gesture of mere rhetoric. 
Clearly to Rodin this kind of drawing was a 

compensation for the labours of his sculpture ; 
there, however momentary the movement he 
might try to represent, the process must be 
laborious and he could not surrender himself to 
the moment ; but in the drawings he seizes the 
moment as it flies and lives in eternity's sunrise, 
expressing an instant delight with an execution 
utterly suited to it. It is always hit or miss, 
and in some even of the drawings reproduced 
he seems to have missed, to have said too little, 
to have lost both fact and flow ; but there are 
several in which fact and medium are one as 
much as in music ; and they are surprising 
because the line, the emphasis is not the same 
as that to be found in the work of any former 
artist; with a vast deal of knowledge im- 
plied, Rodin can actually see what other artists 
have failed to see and can draw it so that we 
see it. He makes us look at the human form 
with his experienced and expert eyes, frees us 
from our own unfamiliarity with it, and shows 
us secrets of unexpected beauty that he has ex- 
plored. That is why I refuse to believe in the 
sexual theory ; those who look at a body with 
appetite see only with the eyes of appetite ; and 
such vision would not have made Rodin a great 
sculptor ; they would have kept him a salon prac- 
titioner, concerned to represent only what inter- 
ests the moyen homme sensuel. But that, the 
great artist never is, because for him there is a 
science of beauty, because he rises to an experi- 
ence of it in his art utterly different from the 
experience of appetite. It is this other experi- 
ence that we see in Rodin's drawings. 


Some Contemporary English Artists. (Birrell & Garnett, 
19, Taviton Street, W.C.i). 10 pp. + 22 pi. 2s. 6<i. 

This little book is something of a novelty. It 
consists of a number of half-tone illustrations of 
the works of a group of London artists who are 
now exhibiting at the Independent Gallery (fully 
noticed in another column). The production 
conveys an adequate idea of the scope and qua- 
lity of the non-Academic art of to-day. Books 
of the kind are usual in France, but few attempts 
have been made here to go beyond the dull 
catalogue of artists' names and picture-titles. 
The reproductions are admirably printed and 
are sufficiently large to give a fair impression of 
the originals. An unsigned foreword gives 
character to the book, which bears on the cover 
an interesting design by Mr. Duncan Grant. A 
book of this kind, published at so low a price, 
should be in the hands of all interested in 
modern art. 

Chats on Sheffield Plate. By Arthur Hayden. 302 pages. 
(T. Fisher Unwin). 21s. net. 

This volume, written in the " chatty " vem, 
characteristic of the series, will without doubt 
be warmly welcomed by those amateurs who at 


the outset find themselves in need of a kindly 

guide to this branoli of the colleciinj:; hobljy. 

The book is well and liberally illustrated with 

reproductions which should serve not onlv to 

familiarise the reader with the types and styles 

common to Sheffield Plate, but also to enable 

him to dilTerentiate between what is desirable 

in this direction, and what is meretricious. 

Ancient Ec.yptias, Assyrian and 1'ersian Costume, by Mary 
G. Houston and K. S. IloKNni.owKR, 25 pi. (16 of (hem 
in colour) and 60 lino diagrams in tht" text (A. & C. Bl.irk). 
■ OS. 6d. 

These coloured illustrations from Egyptian, 
Assyrian and Persian costume may be useful to 
certain students. But not much attempt has 
been made towards fitting the book into a his- 
torical or social setting, and the authors have 
avoided, doubtless wisely, the dangerous seas 
of comparative archajology. This is the more to 
be regretted, as the best way to interest voung 
people in history is to show that the inhabitants 
of former ages were after all very like ourselves. 

F. B. 


Victoria and Albert Museum. — By an 
arrangement between the French and British 
Governments a retrospective Exhibition of Tex- 
tiles has been opened at the museum. We hope 
to deal with this important matter in our next 

Mr. Arthur M. Hind, of the Print Room, 
British Museum, will deliver a course of four 
lectures, illustrated by lantern slides, on " The 
collecting of prints and drawings," in the Stein- 
way Hall, on Thursdays, March 3, 10, 17 and 23, 
^t 5.30 p.m. Lecture I : The making and keep- 
ing of collections. II: Old prints. Ill: Modern 
prints. IV. : Old master drawings. 

The Independent Gallery.— This exhibition, 
and the book of photographs {Some Contem- 
porary English Artists : Birrell & Garnett, 
2S. 6d.) which apparently it called into existence, 
is the most hopeful symptom manifested for 
some time by that chronic invalid, British Art. 
The patient, one is tempted to believe, has now 
reached a state from which recovery is not 
out of the question. One cannot say more; and 
to be able to say as much seems to me extra- 
ordinary. Only a dozen years ago, such was the 
atmosphere of self-complacent stagnation that it 
seemed impossible almost for a young English 
painter of talent — and in England it is never 
talent that lacks — to grow into anything more 
considerable than a British portrait-painter. 
Whereas, to-day, the better sort realise without 
an effort that there is in art something more 
important than a thousand-guinea commission ; 
what is more, they seem dimly to be aware of 

Medici Society's Prints. — This society have 
recommenced issuing their well-known colour- 
collotypes. A beginning was made by the pub- 
lication of large colour prints of two well-known 
pictures from the Buckingham Palace Collec- 
tion : The Card Players, by Pieter de Htxich, 
and The Letter, by Gerard Tarboch. These 
have been followed by two others : Romney's 
undistinguished Madame de Genlis, from the 
collection of Major Buxton, and the little Pesel- 
lino Virgin and Child with Saints from the 
Holford Collection. The quality of the prints 
is high, the Romney being the most successful. 
W'idely separated schools of painting are repre- 
sented, but it is to be hoped that there will be 
no tendency on the part of the editors to choose 
pictures simply because the artists' names are 
familiar to the public. Would it not be possible 
to reproduce some examples of Poussin, El 
Greco, etc., with whom the casual art-lover is 
not so familiar? 

r. r. t. 

what that "something" is. 

For this happier state of affairs we have to 
thank in the first place the contemporary French 
movement, with its pervasive influence ; in the 
second, that habit recently acquired by British 
painters of looking at pictures. It is becoming 
as common almost to meet English painters in 
the National Gallery as it has always been to 
meet French in the Louvre, and one result of 
this can be seen clearly enough at the Indepen- 
dent Gallery : the new generation has a far 
better notion than the old of what sort of thing 
a picture is. As for the French influence, it was 
the indispensable means to freedom and serious- 
ness; but I will admit that, in the beginning, 
some of its consequences were unfortunate. For 
instance, it created a fashion of spreading, at 
the last moment, over a very dry hunk of literal 
representation, a few blobs of butter borrowed 
from the larder of Cezanne. The result was not 
appetising. But, unless I mistake, the influence 
is now beginning to sink deeper and manifest 
itself more intelligently. Certainly, the best of 
the younger men are all, or almost all, disciples 
of Cezanne. The business of an artist, however, 
is not to follow a leader, still less to adhere to a 
doctrine or a tradition, but to express himself; 
and because in this exhibition we see half a 
dozen or more English painters, who have not 
been too proud to learn from their neighbours, 
trying honestly to express their own feelings, a 
visit to " The Independent Gallery " is encour- 

Because these painters are English, with 
English temperaments and reactions, what they 


B Mosaic by Boris Anrep 

C Portrait of a Lady, hv George Barne 

Monthlv Chronicle 

produce should be, if they have to any extent 
mastered their instrument and learnt their 
lesson, English art. And, sure enough, it is of 
that we get a taste. Here, once again, is art that 
may be called English : and I would emphasize 
the word " art " because, though you can find 
in scores of galleries a home-grown product free 
from all trace of foreign adulteration, you will 
find also that, as a rule, it is as free from any 
trace of artistic intention. But here is some- 
thing which the sanguine, at any rate, may take 
for the first, faint dawn of a genuine Renais- 
sance ; and, by extraordinary good fortune, this 
young movement has in Duncan Grant a poten- 
tial chef d'ecole. By a chef d'ecole I do not 
mean a schoolmaster, still less an object of imita- 
tion : I mean an artist who has unquestionably 
"made good" on a tack which others are still 
pursuing. Duncan Grant is thoroughly 
English ; his descent is from Piero della Fran- 
cesca through Gainsborough and Constable : 
and his two pictures, Landscape [Plate a] and 
Snow Scene seem to me the sort of masterpieces 
about which there can be no further dispute 
amongst sensitive and educated people. The 
sparkling and subtle beauty of his paint, his 
curiously sure and personal sense of construc- 
tion, and the way in which, without rhetoric or 
trickery, he can key every inch of his picture 
up to the sharpest accent and most luminous 
passage, prove him, past question, a master. But 
it is the almost Elizabethan fantasticality of his 
vision, a queer mixture of lyricism and sensuous- 
ness in his reaction to material things, and that 
gesture of genius by which he converts poetry 
into paint, which prove him not only a master, 
but, rarest of all rare things, an English 
master. For the rest, the safe criticism to make 
on Duncan Grant's pictures is that they lack 
plasticity, which will impress me more when 1 
have been persuaded that plasticity is an end in 

I wish that interesting and steadily improving 
artist, Mark Gertler, were better represented. 
His Bathers, which I had seen before, disap- 
pointed me rather : the composition seemed not 
less admirable or less admirably established : 
but the picture, as a whole, struck me this time 
as laborious and concocted and too frankly unin- 
spired. I gather he is to be seen to greater 
advantage at the Goupil Gallery, so that is where 
he should be studied. Of other British artists 
of more or less established reputation there con- 
tribute to this exhibition Roger Fry, John Nash, 
Vanessa Bell and Walter Sickert. It is always 
a pleasure to see a Sickert, and to hang a picture 
by him does honour to any gallery; so there are 
two good reasons for his inclusion. But Walter 
Sickert has, of course, little or nothing to do 
with the new English movement, if such a move- 

ment there be. And, as about Mr. Fry and Mr. 
Nash I have lately said my say, I need pause 
only to note that the exquisitely finished and 
personal art of Vanessa Bell is bound to have 
enthusiastic admirers so long as there are civi- 
lised people to find themselves alive and lonely 
in a barbarous age. 

Of the less known or, at any rate, to me less 
familiar, painters, Mr. Porter and Mr. Seabrooke 
are perhaps the most interesting. The latter, 
manifestly, is still in search of a style; and Mr. 
Porter, I fancy, is finding some difficulty in 
fitting into the narrow creed of another school 
his own fresh and to him perhaps disconcerting 
discoveries. It is not unreasonable to expect 
better things of both. Mr. Adeney, too, is free- 
ing himself to some purpose from a tiresome 
convention : while Paris has already done Miss 
Hamnett a world of good. 

In a note, of which the main purpose has been 
the strengthening of a faint belief in an English 
renaissance, it has been impossible to write of 
two artists whom I gieatly esteem. Mr. Anrep 
is a Russian who has taste, talent and scholar- 
ship ; and perhaps no man alive possesses so pro- 
found a knowledge of the mosaicist's craft 
[Plate b] . It is preposterous that he .should 
still want an opportunity of showing on a grand 
scale what this glorious art might do to conceal 
the poverty of our forlorn modern architecture; 
or, if such rare beauty as that of the naked 
interior of Westminster Cathedral must be 
covered, that he should not be allowed to cover 
it worthily. Also there is Mr. George Barne. 
As he lives and works entirely in France he can 
hardly be claimed for our movement. Never- 
theless I venture to reproduce one of his pictures 
[Plate c] because it is good to see, from time 
to time, what is being done by one of the best 
English painters alive. clive bell. 

Mark Gertler. — We have long ago accus- 
tomed ourselves to speak of all the best artists 
of our own day as " young ", and after the 
passage of a decade or two we still continue to 
apply the compliment, in an artistic as in a per- 
sonal sense, indiscriminately to the youth whose 
star is just rising and to the man whose head 
has turned hoary with age, with unsympathetic 
markets and with the long martyrdom of 
many criticisms. Mr. Gertler is scarcely to be 
included in either of these categories. He is 
just at the age when he is apt to find himself 
sandwiched between the critics of the older gen- 
eration, by whom he is regarded as a somewhat 
unnecessary child who has no real business to 
have any merit, and the critics of his own day, 
who are so familiar with every line on his face 
that they fail to notice the signs of maturity 
coming upon it. These observers mechanically 


apply to his work tl:e same remarks that pleased 
us bv their fitness wiien he was a little younger 
and a little different. At the Hampsiead Gallery 
some six months ago we found ourselves attnu- 
ted in a new way by a couple of his pictures, 
and to-tkiy at the Goupil we see him justifying 
the belief we then expressed that he would before 
long occupy an important place. We are lai 
from feeling even now that Gerller is a made 
man — much less that he has proved himself a 
master. He is obviously feeling his way for- 
ward, but is not that one of the invariable 
characteristics of genius ? As it iiappens, his 
somewhat odd technique dcjes not specially ap- 
peal to us. His quite peculiar artistic tempera- 
ment corresponds indifferently with our own. 
Several of the pictures in his exhibition leave us 
cold, and standing alone, give no hint of unusual 
gifts. Nevertheless the impression received 
from a visit to the Goupil Gallery was of a con- 
summate artist who is fast learning to express 
himself in a highly personal and effective style. 
And if he has mannerisms they are rendered 
innocuous by a vast store of genuine originality 
that is not the cold originality of a deliberate 
solver of problems, but the bright-eyed vision of 
a spirit reacting in its own w-ay to the reality 
around it and after long labour getting the upper 
hand of a stubborn but beloved medium of ex- 
pression. One can count on one's fingers the 
living English artists of whom the same can 
quite honestly be said. It is one thing to be a 
clever expressionist in a multitude of moods that 
are familiar to a multitude of onlookers — that 
way popularity lies — and quite another to be the 
faithful exponent of one's own richly mutable 
nature. Every artist who does that, demands 
and deserves a consciously sympathetic and dis- 
passionate study. It is only when one allows 
Gertler to take one into his confidence in this 
way that it becomes possible either to estimate 
hiiTi critically or to enjoy him in the wider sense 
And a collection of his pictures more fullv 
adapted for such a purpose could not be 
imagined than that at the Goupil Gallery. 

R. R. T. 

Negro Art.— The exhibition of Negro Art 
at the Goupil Gallery is hardly more than a 
footnote to the collection in the British Museum, 
and interesting though it is, adds little to our 
knowledge. The exhibits are for the most part 
pure Negro work, brought mainly from Nigeria, 
the Ivory Coast and the Congo Basin. One 
mask is described as coming from " Cale- 
donia ", which throws new light on the origins 
of Scotch art ; and in other respects the catalogue 
is not beyond criticism. But the compilation of 
a catalogue is almost superfluous, since we do 
not know the history of these Negro images, or 

when or by whom they were made. There are 
indications that at one time a great Negro 
Empire dominated Central Africa, and that art 
transceiuled tribal boundaries as it did in Europe 
in the .Middle .Ages. But the earliest reliable 
information shows only a number of separate 
tribes, each fashioning its fetiches and idols in 
accordance with its own tradition. When 
Europe comes into touch with Africa, the art is 
already degenerate, often a mere repetition of 
forms which have lost their meaning; and as the 
result of European contact, the Negro apes our 
art and becomes increasingly realistic. The 
much vaunted work of Benin, of which an ex- 
ample appears here, is a case in point. The 
object of the earlier Negro Art is not reproduc- 
tions of the human figure, but provision of a 
local habitation and a home for tribal gods. 
Indeed, among many tribes, too much anthropo- 
morphism would be regarded as sacrilege. Thus 
the maker of idols was set the task of creating 
some solid object which would inspire worship 
and would not be too like humanity. At the 
same time, definite religious symbols had to be 
introduced such as the enlarged stomach, denot- 
ing fertility. Within these limits, the task was 
akin to the architect's, and gave the Negro's 
feeling for design full scope. How considerable 
that feeling may be is shown by the numerous 
examples of formal decorative work we possess, 
inadequately represented in the exhibition by 
two cups from the Ivory Coast ornamented with 
interlaced patterns, and by an idol in \vood and 
brass from the Bakota tribe, remarkable for the 
large part metal plays in its construction. But 
the Negro's knowledge was small and his tools 
poor. Realism being both undesirable and diffi- 
cult, he was content in his work to emphasize 
the elementary facts that a head resembles a box, 
the trunk and limbs resemble cylinders, and to 
let his material shape his conception. It is facts 
such as these which give the more primitive 
negro work its interest and fascination. It is 
when imitation begins that the images lose their 
dignity and descend to earth. Contrast, for 
example, the two realistic idols from the Ivory 
Coast (Nos. 27 and 29) with the earlier specimen. 
No. 22, from the same district. There is every 
evidence that the Negro constantly strives for 
closer correspondence with natural forms. Like 
a child, however, he is apt to imitate details 
rather than essentials. Divest these idols of 
their strange proportions and attitudes, probably 
prescribed bv tradition, and it is remarkable how 
closelv individual peculiarities are reproduced. 
For example, the nose and lips of the pure Negro 
type, the aquiline noses of races containing Arab 
blood, and the elongated breasts of the Bush- 
ongo women, all appear in the images. This 
imitation even extends to the cicatrization prac- 


tised among many tribes. Earlier Negro Art 
has a fantastic dignity of which even museums 
and exhibitions cannot rob it; but later mani- 
festations have not been able to survive Euro- 
pean influence. w. g. c. 

John Nash. — The exhibition at the Goupil 
Gallery leaves the impression that Mr. Nash has 
spread his considerable talent over too wide an 
area. In consequence his work lacks substance. 
Particularly does this apply to his oil painting, 
which confirms the view aroused by other exhibi- 
tions that there is to-day in England a slump 
in that medium. The explanation seems to lie 
in the practice, apparently followed by Mr. 
Nash, of working from a small sketch with little 
or no subsequent reference to nature. Such a 
method leads to improvizations and generaliza- 
tions which may be adequate in the sketch, but 
are bald and unconvincing in larger work. It 
may be argued that in this way alone can the 
artist keep clearly in mind his whole conception 
and design. But at the same time it is his busi- 
ness to fill in the inevitable gaps by constant 
study of nature; and it is in this filling of gaps 
that Mr. Nash fails. Even the pure Cubist 
cannot dispense with nature entirely; and Mr. 
Nash is not a Cubist. Design, indeed, is his 
first consideration, but it is based entirely on 
natural forms. When he forgets the Japanese 
convention, this design frequently results in a 
pleasant and delicately coloured sketch. But in 
the oil paintings the superstructure is inade- 
quate to the design. For example, in the Saw- 
mill, Daneways, and the Landscape in the Cots- 
wolds, the cloud convention does not adequately 
express their character and structure. Certainly, 
a cloud has three dimensions; but it differs from 
an iceberg. Again, in The Dingle, the blue 
trunk in the foreground might pass in a flat 
colour-pattern ; but it is out of harmony with 
the plein air treatment of the rest of the picture. 
It is in his drawings and woodcuts that Mr. 
Nash is at his best. Here he is working on a 
scale in proportion to his present knowledge, 
and the result is more interesting and satisfying. 

Modern Dutch Art. — The organisers of the 
exhibition of Modern Dutch Art at the White- 
chapel Art Gallery are to be congratulated on 
their enterprise. The collection is well chosen 
and fairly representative, though some of the 
exhibits could have been omitted with advan- 
tage. That the art of Holland does not always 
appear in a very favourable light is the fault, 
not of those responsible for the exhibition, but 
of the artists. These, in imitating the masters 
of their own and other countries, have too often 
lost the Dutch tradition of fine colour and good 
craftsmanship. The Hague school has had a 

host of followers, all striving without con- 
spicuous success to reproduce its characteristic 
cool grey tonality and feeling for atmosphere. 
Here and there, however, attempts have been 
made to break away and to use more positive 
colour, notably in the case of G. H. Breitner. 
Another group is following in the footsteps of 
Monet, but works in a shriller and more vulgar 
key. Of a third group, trying to mingle 
Rubens and Mr. Brangwyn in canvases covered 
with loosely handled masses of bright colour, 
the most individual is M. A. J. Bauer. The 
younger generation have, however, turned to 
modern France. Among others, Jan Toorop 
and Willem van den Berg have adopted the 
subdued colour and sharply defined planes of 
the Cubists to clothe an academic art. The 
most interesting figure among the younger men 
is undoubtedly Jan Sluyters, who has a sense 
of design and form which make him con- 
spicuous. Leo Gestel clothes Huysum and de 
Heem in modern French dress without improv- 
ing them. Piet Mondriaan's abstract " Com- 
positions " have little merit. w. g. c. 

Carfax Gallery. — Mr. Ethelbert White is a 
conspicuous example of concentration upon 
design, combined with insufficiency of content. 
His method is that of the defined contour en- 
closing areas of flat colour, and his treatment 
of natural forms somewhat resembles the Italian 
primitives. But his naivety is as a rule too 
calculated to be interesting; and lacking the 
early Italian feeling for structure and reality, 
the units of his design are frequently mannered 
and lifeless. This is particularly the case in his 
larger figure compositions, such as Quarry Men 
and Hawaiian Musicians, the latter of which is 
little more than a parody of Gauguin. In his 
landscapes he is more successful, but even here 
he often fails to express the structure of trees and 
clouds. This weakness in the units of the design 
is rarely compensated for by the design itself, 
which is frequently flat and carried out in over- 
vivid greens and purples. In The Linhay, how- 
ever, Mr. White has produced an interesting 
and harmonious arrangement. In particular, 
his treatment of suburban houses is prosaic. It 
may express their essential character, but it does 
little more. A group of woodcuts in the tra- 
ditional method of white on black is worth 

Agnew's Gallery. — This exhibition is an 
attractive one and contains many charming water 
colours, though none of outstanding importance. 
There are a number of Turners of varying excel- 
lence, all of which depend almost entirely for 
their merit upon his particular sensitiveness to 
colour, and it is amusing to contrast them for a 


moment with the water coldurs by Blake on 
exhiliiiiiin at the Tate Gallery, which have all 
Turner's delicacy of colour, with the added (]ua- 
lities of great imaginative conception and power 
of design. After the Turners, perhaps the most 
striking series is by F. Towne (1740 — 1816), 
chiefly landscapes of Italy anil the Lake District, 
translated into a cold, rather severe notatit)n, and 
admirably internally balanced. Nos. 39 and 40 
are particularly remarkable in these respects. 
There are also many very beautiful works by 
Girtin, all characterised by mastery of teciinique, 

by perfect restraint and a certain sweet serenity. 
The same qualities in a much lesser degree are 
shared by 1 )ayes, who is, however, sometimes a 
little awkward. Others well worthy of attention 
are the Constables, and No. 74 — a charming i8th 
century view of Melford Hall by I\l. :\. Rooker. 
But it woidd lie misleacling to omit any reference 
to the less attractive exhibits. P. de Wint, 
Copley Fielding, Birket Foster and Pinwell are 
all represented. The least satisfactory are cer- 
tainly the Fred Walker and the Ho]m;in Hunts. 

D. G. 



Sir, — Mr. Holmes's review of Mr. Fry's book 
in the February Burlington seemed to me a just 
one, both in praise and criticism ; all the more 
because his chief objection (including the repre- 
sentational character of the third dimension and 
the feeble effect of word-music apart from mean- 
ing) were points upon which I had myself laid 
stress. But I was completely puzzled by one 
sentence, viz., "at the other end of the scale are 
the super-refinements of art, the aesthetic abstrac- 
tions, such as that of which Mr. Fry and his 
whilom opponent, Mr. D. S. MacColl, are both 

in search ". Mr. Holmes has probably tried to 
pack too much into a single sentence, at the 
sacrifice of his usual lucidity. Without attempt- 
ing to unpack, may I assure your readers that 
my views have not changed since I discussed 
Mr. Fry's position in your columns. The recent 
exhibition of Picasso's works has been a suffi- 
cient reductio ad absurdum of one of the pre- 
tended " abstractions ". 

Your obedient servant, 

D. S. MacColl. 

15th February, 192 1. 


Messrs. Navili.e et Cie, Geneva, will sell at the Galferies 
Fischer, Lucerne, on April 4th, old Greek Coins from the 
collection of the late Dr. S. Pozzi, who had amassed a vast 
collection, including some great rarities and, it was said, not 
a few forgeries. Most of the latter have been weeded out 
by the very skilful compiler of the sale catalogue, though 
to judge by the illustrations a few suspect pieces, especially 
in the neighbourhood of Macedon and Thrace, still remain. 
Of the 3,334 lots, the most remarkable is perhaps the gold 
stater of .Athens with the name of Mithradates, of which the 
only other extant specimens are in Berlin, London and Paris. 
It is to be hoped that the Athenian Museum will secure this. 
The catalogue is an excellent piece of work, all the weights 
being recorded, and is illustrated by loi admirable plates. 
In fact it puts in the shade even the fine catalogues issued 
in the years before the war by Hirsch and Egger. G. F. H. 

Me. F. Lair-Dubreuil will sell at the Gal^rie Georges Petit, 
Paris, on March 4th and 5th, Modern Paintings, Water 
Colours, Pastels and Drawings; also Objets d'.Art and Furni- 
ture, etc., the collection of Georges Petit. This is of course 
an important collection of French work, the majority of which 
indicate an inclination towards the more romantic attitude 
to art. Amongst the many familiar examples by the greater 
Impressionists are a number of well selected pictures by 
artists who never actually tjecame leaders of important schools 
or movements. The catalogue includes works by Corot, Dela- 
croix, Monet, Pissarro, Tfi. Rousseau, Sisley, Stevens and 
Georges Moreau. Regarded from a purely artistic standpoint 
the quality is very uneven. Side by side with subject-pictures 
whose aesthetic appeal is rudimentary one finds such things 
as a remarkable Corot landscape (lot 66) or La Caiixette i)y 
Pissarro (lot loi) or the wonderfully arranged composition by 
Lebasque entitled Siir la terrasse ; jour d'iti (lot 82). It 
would be difficult to imagine a collection of works more 
capable of conveying an accurate idea of the whole Impres- 
sionist movement, with its science, its singular group-conscious- 
ness, its indomitable faith in colour and its groping after new 
conceptions of design. r. r. t. 

SoTHEBY, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell at 34 & 35, New 

Bond Street, on the 7th of March, a collection of Persian and 
Indian paintings, together with some Arabic and Persian 
MSS. Among them are some fine examples of the early 
Safavid school (e.g. No. 74), and several belonging to the 
school of Riza Abbasi. There are two noteworthy examples 
of the work of Akbar's artists : No. 24 was sketched by 
Basawan and painted by Dharmdas, and No. 31, also sketched 
by BasaWan, appears to have been painted by an artist 
named Chitra. (In both instances the Catalogue attributes 
these characteristic examples of Indian workmanship to the 
Bihzad School of Persia.) Deserving of special notice is a 
portion of one of the frescoes from he Caves of Ajanta 
(No. 139). It is said to have been removed about i8ig, wlien 
these Caves first became known to Europeans ; but no other 
specimen is recorded as having been brought to this country. 

T. W. A. 

Me. F. Lair-Dubrfuil will sell at the Hotel Drouot, on 
March gth, a, collection of pictures including examples by 
Both, Greuze, Hals, Hobbema, Rubens, D. Teniers, and an 
important composition attributed to Van Dyck. 

Me. F. Lair-Dubreuii. will sell at the Hotel Drouot, Paris, 
on March 16th, Modern Pictures and Drawings from the col- 
lection of M. Pierre Baudin. This sale includes works by 
Corot, Gauguin, G^ricault, Toulouse-Lautrec, Marquet, Pis- 
sarro, Puvis de Chavannes, and Renoir. Lot i is a telling 
figure composition by Corot. In the Femmes cucillant dcs 
Fic'ur.': (lot 8) Gauguin expresses himself with more than usual 
breadth and simplicity. In lot 18 and several others Guys* 
caprice and charm are evident. There are several excellent 
examples of Lautrec, lot 27, L'etifant au Chien being a remark- 
able design. Marquet 's Lc Pont dc la Concorde is familiar to 
all. The Millet drawings vary in quality, the well known 
version of La Bergcre is the best, but Le Faiine is of interest 
only as a biographical fact. La Toilette is a characteristic 
Renoir in which the problem of the relationship of contour 
and modelling which so constantly fascinated and intrigued 
him may be advantageously studied. The only English work 
is lot 46, a fairly effective genre painting by .Alfred Stevens. 

R. R. T. 


Old Woman, bv Antnine Watteau. Drawini^- in red and black ilialk. 
Auiiustine Birrell) 

Actual size. (Mr. 

EDn ORIAL : Modern British Tamtr- 

HERE is hardly a critic w' ■ -.w 

attitude towards the painting ci 
day would not be fairly reflects i 
an expression used by Mr. Clive i 
in our last issue — "That chn.; 

invalid, British art." There are critics, nv 

akin to artists than to judges of art, whose ws. 

are gestures responding to the appeal of S' ■ 

beloved and completely understood exampl' 

art. There are critics whose habit being al.' 

wholly introspective, grope wonderingly i'.: 

the tangled labyrinth of their own emoi 

actions, with an unqueno!i:rnI<^ hope c^l 

coming upon a clue to some simpler, \' - 

plete aesthetic. There are critics wi. 

lo art is almost a devotional one, for 

ncailv a religion and certain artists . 
':ni, labour ir 
are filled -^^ 

tent II some slight ray fror 

ledge they carry should pt- 

which it had seemed too mu 

would ever again h ' 

together with the i' 

now appears, the p 

common. ''■ •: 'ii - .,.. ,, . 

of oppi 


D. J. J 

The Morning 
newspaper to 

. that some n 
lirilish Art. 
\ vigorous correspondence 


Post has been extended from 
newspaper antil the attention 
of the whole country ha« been focussed upon con- 
temporary art in a manner that reminded one for 
.1 time of the days of the Ruskin-Turner out- 

"^ ■ '' a iu>.s ind discontent would seem clearly 
•;h two things : first, that there is a wide- 
.sp !' ;n and a strong demand for art of 

son r another ; sw^cond, that it is as 

wi(l: strongly felt that something is 

wroi mjichinerv h\ agency that 

art i Tom the ari'si ro the public. If 

these u *rue, as ! bi'Hevf ihem to be, we 

cannot first of tl. n 

satisfar he secc 

regret . that .1 

.so mu lers to ■ 

seem >■ ill un 

ous soil, . le in th< - 

be crying • for art, 

be a sufiRii. c^ indui 

set about the . ut eithei 

tion. oi settr: luiise in order 

attempt to (i' discover, as is commonly 

found in su' that it is easier to see what 

is \^ ' 'ht. Nearlv everything, 

if V. inost I'lojielv concerned 

wit! _,. The R(iv al Academy 

anil rsr-niiri!- " ff'-'al" art. 

with too much 

too much 

ime, when 

man would 

an ungener- 

<'.:■<■<% -'lOuld 

; rely 

us to 

i hesita- 

When we 

.ni' hr-ljpve? 

Of his easy 
ijj. 1 ""nvy like 

iig in a gei' or rises 

lo be permitted to shake hani.i>, .vi!!. it)\altv, or 
to make an appointment with his chiropodist, or 
to take it into his head to "explain" the pictures 
to the ladies at some grotesque private view, and 
afterwards to write about it all, with no ghost 
of a genuine emotion, but as one of 'the things 
that is expected of one^ that one, alas, lives for. 
And truly it must be admitted that seldom 
indeed is the critic to. be found who searches 
diligently among everything that is produced 
for what is good or is of good promise instead of 
for what is merely of good report, respecting 
always, generous unfailingly, rigorously taking 

• --ath and his 

stock of his desire for 
yearning for repntariryn 

!s stern with 
II" unknown 

pai' lim, like the 

sti;. onsibility to the art 

and \ Some have said 

th:!» fh wrong, and one is 

• ven liiat strong statement 

:'rs the criticism of former 

7ie of Rembrandt, for example, 

s .-juincicni CO tempt the suggestion that our 

inheritance is simply on the one side. Art, 

passionately and bravely continuing, and on the 

other, Criliri = m si!i>n( or else m'^ri-'lr.i;s' v intern- 

The BcFLiNGTOjn .M*o»nKE, No. 317, Vol, ixjivjii, .^pril, 1921. 


Old ]\'oman, by Antoine Watteau. 
Augustine Birrell) 

Drriw in"- in red and bl 

Actual size. (Mr. 

EDITORIAL : Modern British Tainting— A Proposal 

HERE is hardly a critic whose 
attitude towards the painting of tOr 
day would not be fairly reflected bv 
an expression used by Mr. Clive Bell 
in our last issue — "That chronic 
invalid, British art." There are critics, more 
akin to artists than to judges of art, whose words 
are gestures responding to the appeal of some 
beloved and completely understood example of 
art. There are critics whose habit being almost 
wholly introspective, grope wonderingly through 
the tangled labyrinth of their own emotional re- 
actions, with an unr|uenchable hope of one day 
coming upon a clue to some simpler, less iiicom- 
plete jesthetic. There are critics whose attitude 
to art is almost a devotional one, for whom art is 
nearly a religion and certain artists almost gods; 
who, infinitely patient, labour in the dark places 
of art history, and are filled with a great con- 
tent if some slight ray from the torch of know- 
ledge they carry should penetrate a recess into 
which it had seemed too much to hope that light 
would ever again be thrown. All these critics, 
together with the majority of artists and, as it 
now appears, the public, have this one thing in 
common, that they each feel sure, for a multitude 
of opposite reasons, that some malady has lately 
descended upon British Art. 

A surprisingly vigorous correspondence in 
The Morning Post has been extended from 
newspaper to newspaper until the attention 
of the whole country ha* been focussed upon con- 
temporary art in a manner that reminded one for 
a time of the days of the Ruskin-Turner out- 

Such a fuss and discontent would seem clearly 
to indicate two things : first, that there is a wide- 
spread belief in and a strong demand for art of 
some kind or another ; second, that it is as 
widely and as strongly felt that something is 
wrong with the machinery by whose agency that 
art is conveyed from the artist to the public. If 
tiiese things are true, as I believe them to be, we 
cannot accept the first of them with too much 
satisfaction, nor the second with too much 
regret. The fact that at this time, when 
so much that matters to civilised man would 
seem to be thriving ill on an ungener- 
ous soil, the very people in the streets should 
be crying out at us for art, sliould surely 
be a sufficienth' strong inducement for us to 
set about the task without either delay or hesita- 
tion, of setting our house in order. When we 
attempt to do so, we discover, as is commonly 
found in such cases, that it is easier to see what 
is wrong than what is right. Nearly everything, 
if we are to believe those most closelv concerned 
with the matter, is wrong. The Royal Academy 
and the other bodies representing "official" art. 


The Burlington iMaoazine, No. 217, Vol, xxjivjii. .^pril, 1921. 

are, one is informed, turning dimming and de- 
spondent eyes toward the crepuscular obscurity 
of the tomb. The New English Art Club is 
regarded as maintaining cunningly and with 
much risk to life and limb, a dangerous equili- 
brium between two stools; the London Group we 
are assured is now quite lost in a forest of super- 
fluous, preposterous and irrelevant theories. 
The Cubist sits nearest to heaven, cold-toed but 
ever painting unsaleable creations in an attic 
without a stove ; and ever and anon in some back 
street of the West-End, little " groups " appear 
for a moment — at great expense to themselves — 
and grow hikirious over the sale of a bad draw- 
ing on half a sheet of unclean notepaper, darting 
out of obscurity and nibbling, in the manner of 
rats at dusk, the crumbs that fall from the 
tables of the rich. 

Of course, hardly anyone believes that all these 
criticisms are justified, but nearly everybody 
believes them to be all justified except one. But 
these are not the only complaints. The critics 
are as bad, indeed far worse than the artists. 
One of them keeps screaming out about the 
Royal Academy but, all unknown to himself, the 
Academy he has in mind is not that of to-day 
but of nearly a quarter of a century ago, when 
he last visited an exhibition at Burlington House. 
Another never moves all afternoon except to 
turn from side to side in the deeps of his easy 
chair, growing ripe and round and heavy like 
an egg hatching in a generous nest, or rises 
to be permitted to shake hands with royalty, or 
to make an appointment with his chiropodist, or 
to take it into his head to "explain" the pictures 
to the ladies at some grotesque private view, and 
afterwards to write about it all, with no ghost 
of a genuine emotion, but as one of the things 
that is expected of one, that one, alas, lives for. 
And truly it must be admitted that seldom 
indeed is the critic to be found who searches 
diligently among everything that is produced 
for what is good or is of good promise instead of 
for what is merely of good report, respecting 
always, generous unfailingly, rigorously taking 
stock of his desire for the easier path and his 
yearning for reputation, remaining as stern with 
himself and his artist friendsas with the unknown 
painter — the critic who feels within him, like the 
sting of conscience, his responsibilily to the art 
and to the artist of his day. Some have said 
that the critics are always wrong, and one is 
tempted to excuse even that strong statement 
when one remembers the criticism of former 
times. The name of Rembrandt, for example, 
is sufficient to tempt the suggestion that our 
inheritance is simply on the one side. Art, 
passionately and bravely continuing, and on the 
other, Criticism, silent or else mercilessly intem- 

peratelv vociferous in ;\ll bin inartii iilatc fri>n/.y 
of condfnination. 

In order to round olT I lie srone of yinom, 1 
might add that ihi' puliHc also, as wi'll 
as the artists and their groups and ihc 
critics, are in the wrong, but the iliing lias 
been s.iid already far too often ; ami even if we 
had some notion of what we mean by " the 
public," it is douijiiul whether there is anv 
truth in the assumption that our public is 
very difTerent from that with which artists of the 
past have had to deal. The public is a very 
formidable, even a terrifying image, but so is 
anything else that doesn't really exist. We can 
s;ifelv dispose of the public by classing liim with 
the bogev-man. And if, as is said, that vague 
shape recjuires to be educated, we who are 
members of it have much need of a dose of the 
same strong and unpalatable physic. 

Then, lastly, there are the purchasers. They 
too are condemned bv all, and having failed to 
organise themselves into a " group," arc con- 
demned by their own number as well, so that 
they are traditionally regarded as the indispens- 
able clowns of the show. 

Is there, then, any way (a) by which artists 
mav have their work seen ff)r once perfectly fairly 
by critic, by purchaser and by anybody from the 
street ? (fe) by which critics may be free to look 
at modern pictures unjaded by the accumulated 
memories of many shows, by the battalions of 
artists' surnames, the nomenclature of schools, 
groups and influences, and by the shrill pres- 
ence of their own oft repeated opinions? (c) by 
which the public will be able to .see modern art 
for themselves and not through the eyes of group 
enthusiasts? Careful consideration of this 
question leaves it plain that these ends can be 
attained only in one way. 

An Exhibition of Contemporary Painting 
would have to be organised by some neutral bod)' 
of serious scholars of art whose integrity is 
bevond doubt. The collection would have to be 
thoroughly and honestly representative of all the 
manv tendencies of the day. This alone would 


N the Print Room at the British 
Museum is a drawing in sanguine 
and black chalk by Antoine Watteau. 
It represents an old woman seated, 
y— Q with an alms box ( ?) over her arm and 

a stick in her hand. The drawing is on a sheet 
of writing-paper, the fold across the centre of 
which can still faintly be made out cutting across 
the figure. On the back of the paper is written 
in Watteau's fine and rather flamboyant hand- 
writing the following commencement of a 
letter : — 


make such an exhibition dilTereni from an\' other has lieeii held in this countr\ for manvvears. 
Hul the pictures hung would have to be not onlv 
cosmo[K)litan and include work from the extreme 
right of the Royal .Xcademy to the latest abstrac- 
tions of Cubism, but, in addition, there would 
have to be no clue to the authorship of the ivorkx 
on the ivalls. They woidd have to be hung with 
an eye solely directed to giving each picture the 
best possible opportvmity to be advantageously 
seen. The exhit)ilion would have to be in .some 
accessible and spacious galler\' not identified with 
the propagation of any particular group or cidt. 

There being really noin.surmountable difificulty 
in making these arrangements, we have taken it 
upon ourselves to such an exhibition, 
ho[)ing that the name of Thk Burlington Maga- 
ziNK will be an adequate guarantee of fair play 
and of the works of art exhibited being thor- 
oughly representative. The greatest care and 
pains are being taken to bring together a really 
fine collection of British paintings. Our I'^xhibi- 
tion will be held in the Grosvenor Gallery, Bond 
Street. The opening day has been fixed for 
May 20th, and the work will be exhibited for 
about six weeks. Towards the of the 
Exhibition the names of the artists will be 
divulged. The show will be known as the 
the artists exhibiting will be known only to 
mvself, and will be kept perfectly secret until 
after the Exiiiiiilion has been open for some 
weeks. The enterprise will in due course be 
suitably advertised. 

I feel satisfied that this step will result not 
only in a fresh interest in contemporary painting 
as a whole, but in something much more precious 
to all who really care for art — that it will break 
down cantankerous prejudices and lift a veil from 
the eyes of every one of us and, above all, that it 
will tend towards that width of outlook and that 
spirit of toleration without wliich art or anything 
else that matters descends from its true place to 
become little better than a breeding-ground for 
common snobbery. 

Monsieur, — J'ai reiju aujourdhui .nu matin vos deux 
lettres en[seml3!e] qui ont autant donn^ de peine au facteur 
qu'clles [m'ont] caus^ df surprise — 

Another drawing by Watteau [see Pl.\te] has 
recently come to my notice. It has for many 
years remained quiteunobserved by connoisseurs 
and does not seem ever to have been published. 
It is in the possession of Mr. Augustine Birrell, 
who was given it by his relative, Sir Frederick 
Locker Lampson, who was a collector of some 
renown. This drawing is also in sanguine and 
black chalk, on a piece of writing paper exactly 
similar to the other. It represents the same old 

woman in the same dress and with the same odd 
paraphernalia in her possession. In this case, 
however, slie is standing. On the back of tlie 
paper is the following, written by Watteau's 
fiand : — 

Monsieur, — J'di rei;u aujourdhui vos deux lettres eu- 
siinble qui out autant doniii; de peine au facteur pour uie 
les remettre t-n main qu'eiles ni'ont caus6 de surprise par 
la quality que vous nie donnez de |>einlre de son A. A. 
Monseigar. Le Due d'Orleans nioy indigne et qui n'a 
aucun talens pour y aspirer a moins que d'un miracle. 
J 'ai tant de ley en vos reliques que je ne doute nullement 
de son accomplisement si vous voulez avoir la bont6e de 
joindre vos pri^res au desir que j'ai d'acquerir du credit 
et de la faveur mes desirs sont sans bornes quand me — . 

The only available information regarding the 
history of tiiis fascinating little souvenir of the 
artist is contained in a pencil note written by 
Locker Lampson, wliich is as follows : — 

30, Lower Sloane Street, S.W. 
Miss James has a drawing by Wattcau very similar to 
this, but the old woman is sitting clown. 1 was much 
interested to sec it, and on looking at the back of it 1 
found the sam^ letter in A.W.'s handwriting, but only 
just begun and different in the preamble. It is evident 
that VVatteau had been writing a letter and made two 
rough copies [versions] of it. Miss James inherited the 
drawings, a fine collection by Rembrandt and VVatteau, 
from her father. — F. L. L. 

The Other drawing to which he refers is of 
course that now in the Print Room, Miss 
James's collection having been sold and dis- 
persed. The style and handling of both draw- 
ings are exactly alike. There is no indication as 
to whomWatteau's letters were addressed, but the 
terms in which he refers to the due d'Orleans 
make it probable that they were written at the 
time when the Duke was Regent. Now, at that 
time Watteau frequented the theatre of a com- 
pany of Italian comedians who had, in 1697, 
been banished by Louis XIV, but who had, after 

Louis' death in lyiSj been recalled by the 
Regent amid the enthusiasm of the Paris play- 
goers, whereupon they advertised themselves as 
" Comediens italiens de S.A.R. Monseigneur le 
due d'Orleans ". A second glance at the two 
drawings leaves one in little doubt that the "old 
woman " and her picturesque belongings and 
dress was some character in a play, for not only 
is there in both cases a certain air of unreality 
in the appearance and costume of the figure, but 
in the British Museum one there is indicated in 
the background a few vague shapes that almost 
certainly represent stage scenery. Accepting 
these evidences, the drawings must have been 
made between June, 17 16, when the comedians 
returned to Paris, and July, 1721, the date of 
Watteau's death. 

Both sketches represent the artist in one of his 
less frequent moods, when he drew with a 
harder, heavier, and more restless line than 
usual and accentuated the deeper shadows in 
black chalk with a certain harshness very unlike 
his treatment in those languorous eclogues with 
which his name is popularly associated. By 
means of the drawings and of the two letters so 
obviously revealing his desire to become the 
recipient of the Regent's favour, one is 
enabled to imagine very vividly the unfortu- 
nate painter mingling with the favoured actors 
and actresses at the theatre where his love of 
delineating types could so conveniently be satis- 
fied. One sees him imprisoned by his failing 
strength and, shrewdly conscious of the near 
approach of death, looking on with fascinated 
and perhaps with envious eyes at the courtesies 
and flippancies of that butterfly life that had 
grown to be so dear to him. 


MONG the bronzes exhibited in the 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, is a 
group of four seated figures of 
mediaeval work and pronounced 
.character. Nothing is known of their 
history but that they were transferred from the 
Bodleian Library, probably in 1887, with a 
number of other objects of art.' The figures 
shown on Plate I represent Moses and a 
Prophet; on Plate II, Noah and David. They 
are seated, clad in flowing robes, and each holds 
with his left hand an emblem serving to identify 
him — Moses, the tables of the law ; the Prophet, 

I No record exists of how they entered the Bodleian Col- 
lection. They do not appear in Thomas Hearne's Hst of 
curiosities kept at the date 1710-1713 in what was then the 
Anatomy School, to which the bulk of such things were con- 
signed ; but that does not exclude the possibility that they 
were kept in some other place. (For this information I have 
to thank Mr. H. H. E. Craster, Sub-Librarian.) 

a scroll-case (most of the scroll, which doubtless 
bore an identifying quotation, unfortunately 
lost) ; Noah, a model of the ark ; while David, 
whose harp has disappeared, is identified by his 
attitude, by wearing a crown, and by the 
character of the head. The first two are seated 
on chairs of antique X-form — that of Moses 
ending in knobs (two to left broken otT), the 
Prophet's in heads of serpents (one wanting) — 
and the other two on thrones with sides of scroll 
form.^ The lower part of the seat in each is 
intentionally incomplete at the back, where pro- 
vision is made for attachment to some larger 
object from which it has been forcibly detached. 
Above the level of these seats the figures are 
modelled at the back, the two first with some 

2 The square blocks seen 
course, only museum mounts. 

the photographs are, of 


care, tlic otluT two very rouglily ; tln-y show no 
trace of jjikliiig. 

From the technical point of view these bronzes 
are exceeihngly interesting. Tlie iM uses and the 
Prophet, tiu' two thinner and hner pieces, are 
cast liollow by the cire-perdiie process, and 
traces of tiie s;ind core remain inside. The\- 
have a wide opening down tiie middle of tiie 
back, inchithng the liead, tlic purpose of whiili 
is not obvious. In the .\h).ses this opening is, in 
tiie iiead, hiied with a piece of sheet bronze, let 
in and chased as part of the general surface, and 
apparently by the same hand ; down the back of 
the tigure the gap is tilled by another piece of 
sheet bronze, hammered to give the requisite 
modelling. The gap in the Prophet's figure is 
grooved for similar fillings, which are lost. A 
channel cut on the right shoulder of this last 
perhaps helped to hold the figure in place. 
Hoih figures are chased with great care and 
linish, especially in the faces, hair, beards, and 

The Noah ant! David are much heavier and 
coarser work than the other two; the bodies and 
heads have no opening at the back and are cast 
solid, and the chasing is much, rougher. The 
chief point of interest about them is, as will be 
seen from the illustrations, that while the heads 
and hands, with the emblems, are varied, the 
rest of each is virtually reproduced from 
the Moses and the Prophet respectively. The 
drapery in each case follows the same lines not 
only in its masses and flow, but even the 
individual folds are mainly reproduced. A close 
comparison of the heads shows that here too 
it is rather modification than substitution which 
has taken place. The pose and proportioning of 
the heads are similar; the main masses of the 
beard of Moses can be traced in the more 
rugged counterparts of Noah, and the same 
holds good between the Prophet and David. It 
is prettv clear from inspection, and careful 
measurement confirms the conclusion, that casts 
(probably in wax) have been made of the Moses 
and the Prophet, that casts have been 
modified to form the figures of Noah and David, 
and have served as the models from which the 
bronzes have been cast. Where the change has 
been drastic, as in the right arm of the Noah, 
the junction of the original model with the modi- 
fication is clearly apparent in the surface. 
Under this arm the bold swathe of drapery seen 
in front is abruptly ended, and is given a 
direction across the back quite different from the 

3 The figure here designated as a Prophet is labelled 
" .\aron " at Oxford, but I can see no real ground for that 
identification. The scroll inscribed with a quotation from his 
prophecy is the time-honoured emblem of a prophet, and it 
seems unlikely that .Aaron's priestly office would not have 
been indicated by some more appropriate attribute. See also 
Note 6 t)eIow. 

The extreme mea.surement of the figures from 
top to toe is as follows: Moses, tj.2 in. 
(2,^4 cm.), the Prt)phet S.O in. (Ji.i)im.), Noah 
ij in. {22A) cm.), David S.45 in. (21.5 cm.). The 
measurements of the Noaii aiui David lliiis show 
such a reduction as woidd be ex|)e( leil from 
shrinkage in casting from the original figures of 
Moses and the prophet. A corresponding 
reduction is given by transverse measurements.' 

It is obvious from their charatter that the and the Prophet are late Romane.s(|ue 
works of the latter part of the twelfth century. 
The grandeur of style, the expressive modelling 
of the heads and hands, the movement of the 
ligures, and ihe fiow of the draperies are very 
striking. Among the artists of this peritjd was 
one, the goldsmith Nicholas of Verdun, whose 
work is remarkable for just these qualities. On 
Pi,.\te: III two examples of his work are 
shown, one selected from the magnificent 
figures repou.ss6 in silver on the shrine of the 
Three Kings in Cologne cathedral.'' The com- 
parison with these figures amply justifies us in 
attributing to the same hand the bronzes of 
Moses and the Prophet. They show precisely 
the same nobility of style, the same gift of 
action, the same fine modelling of heads and 
hands, the same treatment of overlapping 
swathed folds of drapery. Only such difference 
of handling is apparent as is due to the difTerence 
of technique between casting in bronze and 
repousse work in silver, and to (he development 
of greater freedom and maturity of style in the 
work in silver, indicating a more advanced stage 
in the artist's career.' Another comparison 
is provided by the figure-drawing on the 
enamelled panels of the Klosterneuburg altar- 
piece (referred to later), one of which is shown 
on Pl.ate III, dating about twenty years 
earlier than the Cologne shrine. 

The same artist was clearly not responsible 
for the Noah and David based on the other two 
bronzes. Not only are these modified figures 
much less highly finished than their originals, 
but the modelling is of a different character and 
spirit. The flowing curves of drapery in the 
Moses and the Prophet are here purposely 
broken and are made more angular; the 
sinuous lines of the hair are similarly replaced 
by broken masses. The work is much less 
accomplished; but it is not merely a loss of skill 
in the artificer, but a change of taste and style 

•• In the technical questions involved I have had the assist- 
ance of a sculptor, Mr. Cecil Brown, who has kindly 
examined the bronzes with me and has given me the benefit 
of his expert knowledge of casting. 

5 Reproduced from O. v. Falke, Der Dreikonigcnschrt'in 
des Nikolans v. Verdun ini Coiner Domschalz, pi. XIX. 

* It is worth remarking that, on the shrine of the Three 
Kings, the figure of .'\aron is distinguished by the mitre and 
jewelled breastplate ; Moses appears, not as the law-giver^ but 
as the author of Genesis, with tablets inscribed with the 
opeiiing words of the book. 


Moses and .4 Prophet. Bronze; by Nicholas of Verdun, about iiSo. 
(About half actual size) 

(.\slimi>l('an Museum, ( )\forel) 

Plate I. Two Rronzes by Nicholas of Verdun 

Soah and David. Bronze: modifications of the figures on Plate 1. (Asiunolean Museum, 
Oxford) (About half actual size) 

Plate II. Two Bronzes by Nicholas of \'erdun 


<<) 'KO 

^ b/j 



^ > 







that is indicated. Similarly the substitution of 
thrones for chairs of X-form is not only a 
simplifying of ditlicully but a change of fashion. 
What interval of time is represented by the 
difference of style, and to what period do the 
Noah and David belong ? 

The question might well be insoluble were 
there not a very similar instance in the work of 
Nicholas of Verdun which may perhaps furnish 
the solution. His earliest authenticated work, 
the celebrated altarpiece in the abbey-church of 
Klosterneuburg near Vienna, consists of three 
horizontal series of subjects, two from the Old 
Testament and one (in the middle) from the New 
(designated by the titles ante legem, sub gracia, 
SUB lege)j executed in champleve enamel on 
fifty-one panels of gilt copper.' The work is 
shown by an inscription to be of the year 1181, 
and has had a varied history. Designed 
originally as a covering for the ambo, it 
probably so remained until the occurrence 
of a hre in 13 18, when it was greatly 
damaged. It was sent to Vienna to be 
repaired and regilded, and on its return was set 
up as a retable to the altar at the choir screen. 
The work, aclayed by adverse circumstances, 
was only completed in 1329; paintings were at 
the same time done on the back (then standing 
free). This arrangement seems to have lasted 
until 1714, when the church was transformed in 
the Barock style and the retable was removed to 
the treasury. The nineteenth century saw it 
again brought into use, under three different 
arrangements, and it now adorns the high altar. 

In the reconstruction executed between 1318 
and 1329, it appears that the goldsmiths of 
Vienna, in order to adapt the work to its new 
purpose as a retable, added six fresh enamelled 
panels. These six panels * are extremely inter- 
esting examples of mediaeval imitative work. In 
outline, dimensions, colour, and general 
character they conform to the type of the original 
panels of the twelfth century, with which they 
are arranged. The desire to make them har- 
monise with the earlier work is evident. There 
is an obvious effort to emulate Nicholas of 
Verdun's gift of facial expression, and in the 
drawing of the nude the twelfth-century method 
of duplex outlining of the muscular masses is 

' Fully illustrated in an album of phototype and coloured 
plates by Drexler und Strommer, Dcr Verdiwer Altar . . . 
im Stifle Klosterneuburg bei Wien, 1903. Also in full-size 
chroino-lithographs in Camesina und Arneth, Das Niello- 
Antipendium (sic) zn Klosterneuburg. 1844. 

* Plates 22, 23, 24 and 28, 29, 30, in Drexler's work. The 
author demurs to the view of their being executed in the 
fourteenth century, considering rather that they may be 
original panels renovated (pp. 4, 11); but the testimony of 
style is conclusive against this theory. See Camesina und 
Arneth, p. 5 ; and O. v. Falke in Zeitschrift fiir Christliche 
Kunst, XIX, 326-7, 1906. 

' CI. Adam and Eve, Drexler und Strommer, pi. 2S. 

bravely attempted," strangely repugnant though 
it must have been to the fourteenth-century 
artist. In the accompanying inscriptions and 
subsidiary fillings of detail which he had to 
supply we see further curious imitations of the 
twelfth-century work. But when it comes to the 
draperies of the figures the power of imitation, 
and apparently even the desire to imitate, breaks 
down. The result is that we have a fourteenth- 
century rendering of broken folds and angular 
turns, corrupted and weakened by the example 
of fiowing lines and curving swathes which the 
artist had before his eyes as an example. 
In short, the figures in these added plaques, 
whether in the faces, the nude surfaces, or the 
draperies, exhibit a bastard style with the beauty 
neither of the twelfth-century original nor of a 
pure fourteenth-century treatment. 

This is a very similar case to that presented 
by the figures of Noah and David, where a 
twelfth-century model is taken as the basis of 
the design, retaining thus an outward 
resemblance, but freely modified and instinc- 
tively transformed in treatment in the spirit of a 
later period. The alteration of flowing curves in 
the drapery by transverse and angular strokes, 
the breaking up of flowing locks of hair into 
rugged masses, and the attempted lively 
characterisation of the faces substituted for the 
originals, are examples of this modified imita- 
tion, resulting in a mixed style. 

It is of course mere speculation, but the pos- 
sibility is worth considering, that these four 
bronzes of Old Testament characters may be a 
part of the retable as set up at Klosterneuburg 
between 1318 and 1329, and removed in 1714. 
If that be so, the Moses and the Prophet, as 
twelfth-centurv work, would have formed a part 
previously of Nicholas of Verdun's decoration of 
the ambo, removed with the rest after the fire of 
13 18. It is obvious that these two figures would 
aptly suit the bottom series of subjects (sub 
lege). Their height would consort very well with 
that of the panels (about 9^ inches with their 
inscribed borders). We can, if we please, 
imagine the ambo with its three faces each 
clothed with three rows of panels, and the figure 
of Moses and the Prophet bracketed on the 
angles, with two other pairs of figures for the 
series ante legem and sub gracl4 above them. 
The Noah and David would be additions by the 
Viennese goldsmiths of the fourteenth century, 
required to complete the adaptation of the work 
to its new purpose as a retable. In considering 
this possibility it is desirable to take into 
account the fact that the reconstruction of the 
fourteenth century included a piece of work about 
which there has been considerable discussion, 
but which, in the plain sense of the words, seems 
not unlikely to have been a tabernacle for the 


Host arranged as part of tlie retable.'" 

1 lie known lads of Nicholas of VeitlLin's lite 
are scaiuy enougli. llis i>'lioiis iiuliide iwo 
signed works — llie i-iiainellcil allarpieie al 
Kloslerneuburg, dated iiSi," and llic Sliiinc ol 
Xotrc-Uanie at lourniiy tinislu'i.1 in 1205.'- 
These two w'orks serve as the standard b\ whii h 
his style is knt)wn. By coniparative criliiisiii 
the shrines oi St. Anno at Sit'gluirg and of Si. 
Albinus at Cologne, dating from 1183 and 
11^0 respectively, have been attributed lu 
him, anil the shrine of the Three Ivings at 
(.ologne has been recognised as his master- 
piece.". 1 his kist was no doubt executed in the 
interval between 1186 and 1205. Nicholas of 
Verdun is thus identified as the successor of 
Frederick, the monk of St. Panialeon, in the 
leadership of the Cologne school of goldsmiths, 
and the introducer of the Lotharingian style 
observed about this date in iis productions. A 
smaller work, a reliquary formerly at Arras, is 
also his, as shown by the distinctive I;ite 
Romanesque foliage decoration on a blueground 
which was one of his characteristics." 

'" The words of the chronicle recount the sending of the 
damaged work to the goldsmiths at Vienna, who regildtd it 
" und machten das schonn zibarn daraulT und unser frauen 
bildt mitten darein in der eeren." (Urtxler und Strommcr, 
p. 3.) Dr. V. Kallie assumes that the " Zibarn " was the 
enamelled ciborium on a foot still belonging to the church. 
(illustrated and described in l^rcxler und List, Goldsi:h»iicde- 
Arbeiten in dl^m regul. Chorherrnstifte Kloslerneuburg bei 
Wieii, 1897, pi. 6.) But that interpretation is by no means 
certain. (O. v. Falke in Zeitschrijt fur Chrislliche Kunst, 
XI.X, 324-5, 1906.) 

11 See .Note 7. 

'- Illustrated and described by L. Cloquet in Kevue de I'Art 
Chretien, XLll, 1892, with coloured plates of the enamels. 
See also O. v. Falke, Der Dreikotiigenschrein (as before), 
figs. 11-15. The inscription giving the name of Nicholas, now 
lost, was fortunately recorded in the seventeenth century. 
(Cloquet, p. 309.) 

"O. V. Falke in Zeitschrijt fur Christliche Kunst, XVllI, 
161, 1905. The shrine of the Three Kings is magnificently 
illustrated in the same author's Der Dreikonigenschrein, 
already referred to. For the .^nno and Albinus shrines see 
V. Falke und FVauberger, Deutsche Schmeharbeiten des 
Miltelalters, pi. 49-54, and col. pi. xiv-xxii. 

'* More than fifty years ago a gifted French antiquary 
observed that this object and the Shrine of the Three Kings 
were by the same hand. See C. de Linas, Einaux chatnpleves 
de I'Ecole Lotharingienne. Notice sur un reliquaire appur- 
tenant aux religieuses Ursulines d' Arras, 1866 (5 plates), 
p. 39. (Reprinted in pju-t in Le Beffroi, 111, 1S66-70.) A 
photo-lithograph in Weale and Maes, Album des objels . . . 
exposes a Maliites en 1864, Orfevrerie, No. 14. See also v. 
Falke, Der Dreikonigenschrein, fig. 16. 


HE Franco-British exhibition of 
textiles now on view in the North 
and adjoining courts at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum enables those of 
us who rarely have left England to 
judge for ourselves what French weaving means, 
and great pains have been taken to put the 
exhibits in a sympathetic setting. But it is par- 

It is highly probable that Nicholas was trained 

ill ihr worksho]) of (iodcfroitl de Cljiire.''^ It is 
i)i)\ious lliat his work al Kloslerneuburg must 
iia\i' iicen ]ircccded by a long jiraclice in the 
goldsinilli's art, dating back perhaps into the 
middle \ears of ihe twelfth centurv. His name 
indicates an inhabitant, and ])roi)ably a native, 
of X'eiiliin, anil like the style of iiis art |)roclaims 
liim as belonging to Ltitharingia willi its tradi- 
tions of ilassical antiquity. We iiave no know- 
iftlgo of aiiv work executed bv him at \'erdiin ; 
lie appears as one of lay craftsmen then 
beginning to replace the monastic workers of 
liic earlier age, travelling from jjlace to place as 
their work demanded. He disajipears early in 
the liiirleenlli centurs' ; the ciuls of the shrine of 
the 'Three Kings already show the hand of a 
successor, and the 'Tournay shrine of 1205 gives 
the latest date known for his work. The relation 
to the stained glass of the period shown by the 
drawing of his enamels is obvious, and it has 
been suggested that another Nicholas of Verdun, 
a giassworker, admitted as a burgess of Tournay 
in 1 217, may be his son.'" 

The mastery of action and expression in the 
human figure displayed by Nicholas of Verdun, 
the beauty and characterisation of his heads, and 
the easy flow of his handling of drapery, place 
him in the front rank of medijEval artists. The 
astonishing quality of his art, eloquently 
appreciated by a distinguished critic, the late 
M. Emile Molinier," has been still more clearly 
demonstrated since the researches of Dr. v. 
Falke identified the finest of the great shrines 
at Siegburg and Cologne as his work. The 
beautv of the figures in silver on the shrine of 
the- Three Kings may best be judged by 
saying that in style they approach the figures 
in the sketch-book of Villard de Honnecourt, 
and the Visitation group of Reims cathedral. 

"^ The grounds for this conclusion are stated by v. Falke 
in Zeitschr. fijr Chr. Kunst, XVIII, 167, and Der Dreikoni- 
genschrein, p. 14. See also Burlington Magazine 
XXXVII, 17, note 16. 

'^Cloquet, op. cit., p. 325. 

1' " Nicolas de Verdun peut prendre place A c6li des 
plus grands sculpteurs du Xlle et du Xllfe sitele ; c'est un 
artiste, auprfes duquel les autres orf^vres, quels que soient 
leur savoir ou leur virtuosity, passent au second plan." 
(L' Orfevrerie, p. 164.) 


ticularly important when reviewing an exhibition 
of this importance to try to .straighten out one's 
aesthetics. It is surely true that tapestry weav- 
ing is one of the purely decorative arts. Like 
stained glass and wallpaper, it has been most 
successfully practised in two dimensions. But 
after the sixteenth century, it followed painting 
in the search for three-dimensional expression. 















and along these lines was never able to do more 
than feebly follow in the wake of the painters. 

That extraordinary achievement of the modern 
Gobelins factory, the imitation of the RafTaelino 
del Garbo in the Munich gallery, is the reditctio 
ad absurdum of the method. Thus, for all his 
limitations, Morris has been the most successful 
of modern tapestry weavers, for he returned to 
two-dimensional composition. 

We are happy to be able to admire in the 
present exhibition two supremely beautiful 
specimens of mediaeval tapestry, the famous 
Falconry [Plate I], lent by the Musee des 
Arts Decoratifs, and the hardly less lovely 
Bear-hunting, lent by M. Demotte [Plate II]. 
These pieces, small and unobtrusive com- 
pared with the huge products of the Gobelins 
factory, represent the golden age of tapestry 
weaving. The designers have realised clearly 
the limits of their craft, and by observing 
the convention^ have achieved a breadth of 
design we shall not find again in our pilgrimage 
through the centuries. The three pieces from 
the famous set which once decorated the walls of 
Reims Cathedral are fine specimens of early 
sixteenth-century work, and as the compiler of 
the guide excellently remarks, are without that 
insincerity which mars so much early Renais- 
sance work. But still they show the designers 
feeling their way after the third dimension, and 
this attempt imparts an almost niggling quality 
to the design, which hinders the complete 
triumph that it almost obtained. And, in truth, 
the designers are saved by their own limita- 
tions. Raphael had not yet shown them how it 
ought to be done. For rarely has a first-class 
genius interfered in somebody else's job with 
more disastrous results. His cartoons are among 
the supreme achievements of Rennaissance art. 
But he sent all the tapestry weavers running off 
in the wrong direction. Very charming too are 
two small Franco-Flemish panels, lent by Major 
the Hon. J.J. Astor. and which represent carnal 
and spiritual love. [Plate III.] Though these 
pieces date also from the early years of the six- 
teenth century, the conventions have been per- 
fectly observed, without this implying any 
archaistic limitation of technique. These two 
little tapestries enable one to realize that the 
search after pictorial effect was not inevital^le,, 
and that there was room for development along 
the old lines. 

The North Court, now for continental reasons, 
transmogrified into a " Salle d'honneur," con- 
tains some of the most famous tapestries ever 
produced by Gobelins, which are well known by 
reproduction to all interested in the subject. It 
is a privilege to be able to see them, and they are 
well shown in their proper surroundings, with 
furniture and carpets of the period to match, 

But we feel they were made a bit too much with 
an eye on the " salle d'honneur." The best art 
is outside time and space and hence liberates no 
historical or archeological complex ; we are much 
too interested in looking at the thing itself to 
pay any attention to our learned companion 
babbling in our ear. But it is impossible to look 
at these great seventeenth-century Gobelins, with 
their Savonnerie carpets, commodes, and sofas, 
without thinking of the setting for which they 
were intended and the great king whose glory 
they were designed to increase. The set Les 
Sujcis dc la Fable, designs attributed to Giulio 
Romano and Raphael, are most bold in colour 
and cunning in technique. But still we now lend 
a willing ear to our learned friend, who did not 
notice our earlier indifference, as he tells us of 
Versailles and its superb monarch, of Turenne 
and Colbert, and above all of Saint Simon. In 
fact our deepest nature is not stirred, though our 
intellect is vastly entertained. To be bored by 
the historian now would prove not an excess of 
sensibilitv, but an absence of general education. 
This does not mean that "Louis XIV" was bad. 
On the contrary it had great merits. It was at 
any rate the careful product of a dignified and 
well-educated age. Most " art " satisfies neither 
the intellect nor the emotions. As Dr. Johnson 
said of the metaphysical poets : " Great labour 
directed by great abilities is never wholly 
lost. . . To write on their plan it was at least 
necessary to read and to think." But more is 
necessary than reading and thinking, though 
both are excellent things, and we could do with a 
good deal more of both. But the artificers of 
Louis the Great lacked the spiritual earnestness 
that can alone achieve the highest success. 

We were particularly glad to notice the excel- 
lent display of furniture, which the Museum was 
able to provide from its own collections. The 
bequests of Mr. H. Kdnig and Mrs. Lyme 
Stephens were among the best things in the 
court, though we would particularly commend 
the good firescreen covered with Royal 
D'Aubusson tapestry, lent along with some 
extremely " handsome " Savonnerie carpets 
by the Earl of Crawford. Passing out of 
the " salle d'honneur " into the adjoining 
court, we are in happier mood. As we look at 
these delightful products of eighteenth-century 
legerete, we feel that the iron grip of the old 
tyrant has been rriercifully removed. Both as 
literature and art, these charming eighteenth- 
centurv panels are preferable to the seventeenth- 
centurv products. The rhetoric and constant 
straining after effect are gone. It is not for 
nothing that the ladies and gentlemen have got 
out of their Greek clothes, while even when 
they are dressed up, one feels they arc just happy 
people off to a fancy-dress ball. The Chinoiseries 


are cli-liglitful in their folly, the Depart pour la 
pcchc, showing at llie xinie time real merit as 
design, while the Fra^s:mcnts d'Opi^ra (\'ertum- 
mis and Pomona) shows the eiglUcentli reiitury 
at its best. Tiie treatment is most sympatlictic, 
and a sense of design very inten-stingly controls 
the whole. This piece of Heauvais is given to 
Boucher, the cunning forerunner of the astonish- 
ing Goya, some of whose Ia|)estr\' designs were 
recently to be seen at Burlington House. An 
amazing attempt at realism are two tapestries 
from a series Convois militaircs, lent by Mr. 
Wildestein. These are late eighteenth-century 
Beauvais work and show a curious blend of 
naturalism with a baroque courage, picked up 
perhaps in Tiepolo's workshops. 

The magnificent array of Napoleonic silks in 
the Central Court is almost blinding in its 
effect; they are no doubt in their way very 
successful. But they are terribly the appurten- 
ances of the parvenu, trying to keep up the style 
of the " old massa." Still they are very 
important historically. From them the modern 
French standards descend. Napoleon broke one 
tradition and started another, in art as in politics. 
Nothing could be the same after the deluge. 

In contrast two brocades woven for Marie 
Antoinette, charm the eye with their com- 
parative chastity. 

.After all this, it is quite a relief to turn to the 
F.ngJish side of the exhibition, though the work 
of our own country is not nearly so richly repre- 
sented as that of France. But when we say 
Engli-sh, we mean English, and emphatically do 
not mean a mere ba.stard imitation of what was 
most repulsive in the French art of the day. The 
Moorfields carpet, dated 1769, has all the 
ugliness of the worst .Aubusson carpets without 
any of their strident energy. But very 
lovelv is a heraldic stole of the early four- 
teenth century, an exquisite specimen of opus 
anglicanum, which was exhibited at the Bur- 
lington Fine .Arts Club Exhibition of English 
Embroidery. We envy the owner of this 
delightful piece, and should like to see it in 
our national collections near the Syon Cope. 
Worthy of notice, too, is an excellent collection 

of late Elizabethan and James I embroideries, 
mostly charming tunics and caps, as delightful 
to wear as to look at. 

I'inglish tapestry is hiil jioorh' represented. 
There is no specimen of our Warwickshire 
looms. It is a great pity ilia I the tapestry maps 
couUI not \vd\o been stayed for the occasion, 
riiey could have held their own with llicir French 
allies. Nor is there much Moitlake, from whom 
Gobelins learnt so much, though the Naked 
Boys, lent by the Duke of Rutland, is a charm- 
ing specimen of Mortlake's later style. They 
are but variants of Italian children born in 
Ferrara some 160 years earlier, and who can be 
seen in the Salting collection, along with the 
original sketch attributed to Giulio Romano. 
But with the passage of time these children have 
taken on an English quality. 

The absence of any early English carpet is to 
be regretted. It would have been good to see 
Lord Sackville's beautiful example, which shows 
such a genuine understanding of Oriental art. 
Among many other important loans we should 
have liked to discuss more fully is an admirable 
series of " Teni^res," lent by Lord Crawford, 
which may be compared with that recently 
acquired bv the Museum and illustrated in the 
Burlington Magazine.^ These tapestries really 
have decorative value, and the artists have 
developed a formula for three-dimensional ex- 
pression, which is more successful than any 
known to Gobelins designers. A curious 
Flemish tapestry, dating from the earlier years 
of the sixteenth century, is lent by H.M. the 
King. Tt is astonishing that such work should 
be produced so late. It is a perfect example of 
the decadent primitive, which Major Astor's 
panels emphatically are not. 

But it is impossible when reviewing so 
important an exhibition to do more than notice 
very inadequately some of the more important 
loans. For the exhibition is of real historical 
importance and reflects the greatest credit on the 
committees concerned in its organisation. We 
offer them our heartiest thanks. 

Vol. xxxviii, p. 31 (Jan., 1021). 


HE accompanying plate [a] is from 
the portrait of Duchess Margaret of 
Tyrol, better known as Pocket- 
mouthed Meg, by the hand of Ouen- 
tin Matsvs. For more than half a 
centurv^ it was buried away in the private collec- 
tion of the Seymours, and one of the last con- 
noisseurs who examined the panel seems to have 
been Waagen, who described it (II. 243) as " A 

frightful old woman ; half-length figure larger 
than life, painted with fearful truth in his (Quen- 
tin Matsvs') later brown flesh-tones- Greatly 
resembling a caricature of a similar kind drawn 
by Leonardo da Vinci.'" Wurzbach (p. 117), 
when giving a German translation of this pass- 
age, adds that in the year 1856 the picture was 
in the collection of H. Danby Seymour. From 
him it seems to have passed into the possession of 


Pair of tappstrv panels, with figures emblematir of the Virtues and \'ices. 
b\' 2' 11" and 7' by 2' 11". (Major tlie Hon J J. Astor) 

Franco-Flemish ; i6th century. 6' 6" 

Plate in. The Textile Exhibition at South Kensington 





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the iate Alfred Seymour, who bequeathed it to 
his daughter, Miss Seymour, by whom it was 
sold at Christie's on January 23rd, 1920, at a 
price which did not reach four figures. I obtained 
permission from the courteous purchaser of the 
panel, Mr. Hugh Blaker, to examine it at greater 
leisure than was possible while it hung on the 
walls of the King Street rooms. 

The panel, which measures 29 by 19 inches, 
and is in a very perfect state of preservation, 
shows, in the treatment of the white draperies, 
the persistent use of the " point " — probably 
the sharpened end of the paint-brush — by which 
means the modelling of the folds is accentuated. 
The same is to be said regarding the pattern of 
the head-dress, the dark ground showing through 
the design which is picked out in green and red 
pigments, and thus given the effect of minute 
finish. Though it is many years since the writer 
saw another Hapsburg portrait by the same 
hand, i.e., lunperor Maximilian's in the Amster- 
dam Museum, if memory is not at fault, a similar 
technical manipulation is there observable. 

If Waagen's acute judgment was correct in 
respect to the brown flesh-tones being noticeable 
only in Matsys' later works, one panel was 
painted long after Matsys' emigration to Antwerp 
from Louvain where, as Van Evens has shown, 
he was born (he is entered in the Liggern in 1491, 
his name being spelt Massys). Not improbably 
it was painted in the third decade of the i6th 
century after his meeting Albrecht Durer on the 
latter's famous journey to the Netherlands. 
This brings us to the drawing [Plate b] pre- 
served in the Windsor Castle Library, and 
which, almost certainly, is the one to which 
Waagen alludes as a work of da Vinci's. Doubts 
as to the correctness of this attribution have 
lately been raised, and the writer is informed that 
some little time ago the Director of the Uffizi 
expressed the opinion that the drawing, though 
strongly reminiscent of certain of the grotesques 
at Windsor and Venice, is not by da Vinci. 
However this may be, it is very improbable that 
the drawing was copied from the painting. An 
artist sketching the picture would have adhered 
more closely to the details, such as the pattern of 
the head-dress, the folds hanging over the same, 
the position of the chin, and would have kept 
more closelv to the proportions of the face and 
particularly of the forehead. Hence one may 
assume that the drawing is the earlier of the two, 
though, of course, it cannot have been taken 
from life, for Margaret died nearly a hundred 
years before Matsys was born. Curiously enough 
the picture or the drawings struck the fancy of two 
later artists. Hollar's engraving, of the Rex et 
Regina de Tunis proves this, though it is 
puzzling how he came to give the couple that 
impossible title. He also brings da Vinci into 
the frame 1 An artist of our own time, Tenniel, 

must also have been acquainted with one or the 
other when he drew his famous Duchess in 
" Alice in Wonderland." He may have seen 
our picture in the collection of Alfred Seymour. 

It is to be hoped that the present owner will 
continue his efforts to trace a portrait of the 
Duchess which we know was included in the 
second half of the i6th century in the collection 
of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol at his castle of 
Ambras near Innsbruck.' Subsequently it may 
have passed into the hands of Archduke Leopold 
William,^ for an inventory mentions: — " Ein 
Contrefeit eines alien Weibes mil blossen Brus- 
ten in einem rothen Kleid und Schleier auf dem 
Haupt, Hiihe 2 Spann i Finger und 1 Spann g 
Finger breit. Original von Quenline Masseys, 
Mahler von Leuwcn." By identifying the 
painter as a native of the city which he left for 
good in or about 1491, the age of our panel would 
be increased by some thirty years. 

The princess was reputed to be the ugliest 
woman of her time, and the legends of which she 
is the centre would suggest that she was also the 
wickedest and most licentious. The Duchess's 
father, Duke Henry of Tyrol and Goricia, was 
the most improvident of spendthrifts. In 1317, 
a year before Margaret's birth, certain Innsbruck 
wine and fish merchants, and soon afterwards, 
the butchers of Bozen, went so far as to capture 
him and hold him up to ransom. Politically he 
was also unfortunate, for his claim to the throne 
of Bohemia on the strength of his having wedded 
the King of Bohemia's daughter never material- 
ized in more than his empty title of King. Not 
having any sons, Margaret became heiress to 
vast dominions. Her father tried to regain for 
his family the lost throne by marrying her at the 
age of twelve to the even more youthful Prince 
John, son of the blind King John of Bohemia 
who was killed at Crecy. She must have de- 
veloped her virago's temper at an early age, for 
she chased her husband and his Bohemian cour- 
tiers summarily out of the country on the plea of 
his impotencv. The ensuing divorce suit heard 
by the Bishop of Choire brought to light details 
that made it the most sensational case of the age, 
and one of which two historians have left very 
curious details.' Margaret did not await the end 
of it, and as intervening King's Proctors were 
unknown in mediaeval Tyrolese jurisdiction, she 
boldly defied the Pope's fulminations and ex- 
communication by wedding in an altogether 
illegal manner the stalwart and handsome Louis 
of Bradenburg, son of the then Emperor of 

i Primisser mentions that this portrait bore the number 78. 
He adds that the Hapsburg portraits in voller Emhicmatiir 
us.d to hang in the famous Saal, a gallery <;ome 140 feet in 

''"s^Th'is son of the Emperor Ferdinand II., who for many 
years was Governor of the Netherlands (in the middle of the 
seventeenth century) owned a very famous collection of 

3 Cf. Steyerer and Tgnatz Zingerle. 


German)-. l?iit cxen he was unable to satisfy 
her amorous proclivities; cduntlfss intrigues, not 
a few with lowly-born but haiuisonie peasant 
youths who received substantial rewards in the 
shape of estates and noble rank, being episodes 
of her dissolute reign. Finalh' poi.son is said to 
liave removed from her vicious path her husband 
and her son, just as the latter had attained his 
majority and was abi>ut to take up the reins of 

When we examine into the origin of her nick- 
name, Miiultiischi',* a word which English 
writers have turned into Pocket-mouthed, we 
find that the idiom of the time tiie w-ord meant 
bo.x on the ear. A tale is told how in a youth- 
ful squabble with one of her f^avarian cousins 
of the Wittelsbach clan, the latter smote Margaret 
on her cheek. She did not let the incident inter- 
fere with her subsequent intercourse with her 
Munich kinsmen. During her long life these 

■* .Vow obsoK'te, it was still used in that cerise a couple of 
ct-nturifs later. In a curious MS. qiioled by .Schoft it is said 
that Christ received 102 Maiillascheit from the Jews. 

and her not quite so clo.sely related Ilapsburg 
kinsmen were rivals for her fa\-our, and at the 
licath of her son anil her heirs these rivals, to 
one of whom the two tluchies of Tyrol and 
Goricia were bound to fall, tumbled over each 
other to first reach Margaret's side. But for once 
the Hapsburgs proved the nimblest, and bv a 
jjlienomenally fast winter trip over the snow- 
laden Alps from Vienna, the energetic Rudolph 
W of .\u.stria managed to reach his cousin's 
court on the thirteenth day after the yoimg 
Prince's " sudden demise," thus forestalling his 
slower-footed rival, case, however, was 
anyhow a doomed one, for dissimulating Mar- 
garet had apparently never forgotten the Maul- 
liisclie he had inflictcHl upon her when they were 
children. The day following Duke Rudolph's 
arrival, on January 26th, 1363, Duchess Mar- 
garet signed and sealed the great parchment 
sheet by which Tyrol and Goricia pa.s.sed to the 
Hapsburgs, in hands it rem;iined imtil the 
other day. 




HE Victoria and Albert Museum 
has recently acquired from an old 
English collection an ivory relief 
which, though unfortunately only 
half of the original panel has been 
preserved, may serve to throw light on a dif^cult 
problem in the history of Early Christian art. 
Apart from its archseological importance the 
relief is of peculiar and remarkable beauty, as 
mav be seen from the accompanying illustration 
[Pl. I; cf. Pl. hi, viii], enlarged for con- 
venience to twice the linear dimensions of the 

The panel itself measures 93 millimetres 
(3.65 inche.s) in width, but it may possibly have 
lost a millimetre or so on the right hand side; 
the height, to the top of the central figure, is 
113 millimetres (4.45 inches). The ivory, which 
is slightly worn, is yellowish in colour, the back 
considerably scratched. The panel is pierced 
with four circular holes, no doubt for pegs to 
attach it to a larger framework. It has been 
given the number Ai — 1921. 

The scene represented is clearly part of the 
Miracle of Cana. In front are six pots of very 
peculiar form, subtly arranged in a pattern of 
varied rhythm. To the left is a servant filling 
one of these pots from a wine-skin (which is 
marked with a small incised circle); the twisted 
stream which flowed from the mouth of the skin 
has been broken away. To the right a younger 

servant carries on his shoulders a little wine-jar. 
In the centre a third servant, whose right arm 
has been broken away, holds in his left h;uid a 
slender cylindrical vessel, apparently an 
alabastron or scent-bottle. Each of the servants 
is wearing a short sleeveless tunic, decorated with 
embroidered or tapestry-woven ornament. The 
boy with the jar, whose tunic seems to be slit at 
the sides like a modern shirt, has a neck-band 
and a nearly square panel on the breast. The 
other two servants, whose tunics (like the boy's) 
are girdled at the waist, have narrow clavi on 
each side of the breast as well as the neck-band. 
Fortunately another ivory relief enables us to 
reconstruct with some certainty the missing 
upper part of the panel, which was probably a 
little smaller than the part which has been pre- 
served. The great ivory paliotto which now 
serves as an altar frontal in the sacri.sty of the 
Cathedral of Salerno includes a panel the lower 
half of which represents the Miracle of Cana 
[Pl. hi, a]. Here, though the shape and dis- 
position of the vases has been completely 
changed, the figures of the three servants are so 
closely related to those on the panel at South 
Kensington that some community of origin may 
be taken as certain. We may conclude accord- 
ingly that the central figure was holding up in 
his right hand a cup of the miraculous wine and 
offering it to Christ, Who was .seated (or rather 
reclining) to the left of the usual -<;f^ma-shaped 


The Filling of the Water-Pots at the Miracle of Cana (South Kensington) 
(Enlarged to twice linear dimensions) 

Plate I. An Earlv Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana 

table (perhaps with the \'irgin beside Him), 
while the " ruler of the feast " was on the 
spectator's right. 

The exact relation of the Salerno and South 
Kensington reliefs is a matter of great interest, 
but it may be more convenient to discuss it at a 
later point. The South Kensington relief, 
however, does not stand alone, and at least two 
other ivories are so closely similar to it in style 
that we may almost be justified in regarding 
them as being by the same hand. These two 
panels, one of which is preserved in the Museo 
Archeologico at Milan and the other in the 
Musee de Cluny at Paris, each represent a saint 
standing in the attitude of prayer [Pl. Ill, 
X & xi]. The figure on the Paris panel has no 
symbol which might make identification possible, 
but the kneeling camels and the inscription on 
the Milan panel show that the saint represented 
is St. Menas, whose shrine in the neighbourhood 
of Alexandria was a chief centre of devotion in 
Christian Egypt. The tunics worn by the two 
saints are sleeved, and reach below the knee ; but 
the embroidered or woven ornament is treated in 
precisely the same way, by light cross-hatching 
within a bordering line. Both tunics have a 
border at the hem, and medallions at the knees 
or a little above them. St. Menas wears clavi 
with heart-shaped or leaf-shaped pendant ends, 
like the two taller servants in the South 
Ken.sington relief, while the saint at the Cluny 
Museum wears a rectangular panel on the breast 
like the boy. The faces, with their peculiar 
narrow eyes and pouting lips, are almost 
identically rendered, as are the tight rose-like 
curls that surround them. 

Even if these two reliefs of saints are not (as I 
am inclined to think they are) by the same artist 
as the Miracle of Cana relief, there can be no 
question that they belong to the same period and 
school. But the St. Menas panel is traditionally 
and stylistically connected with a well-known 
and remarkable series of ivories, five or six of 
which are exhibited beside it in the Museo 
Archeologico at Milan. These ivories repre- 
sent scenes in the life of St. Mark the Evangelist 
[Pl. II, ii-vi, III, xii], and it has long been 
believed that they formed part of the decoration 
of an ivory chair, said to have been that of 
St. Mark, which was formerly venerated in the 
Cathedral of Grado among 'he lagoons at the 
head of the Adriatic. 

The Victoria and Albert Museum already 
possesses another ivory relief (270-1867) belong- 
ing to this series. It represents St. Mark writing 
his Gospel under the dictation of St. Peter, who 
is inspired by an angel [Pl. II, i]. Like the 
relief of the Miracle of Cana, this has lost its 
upper part, which an inscription shows to h.-ive 
represented the city of Rome, no doubt 
svmbolised by an architectural background of 

roofs, domes and towers like those in the Mil .11 

Two other ivories, representing scenes in the 
Gospel story, have been associated on purely 
stylistic grounds with the St. Mark series. One 
of these, with the Raising of Lazarus, is in the 
British Museum (No. 27 in Dalton's Cata- 
logue); the other, with the Ayinunciation, is in 
the comparatively inaccessible Trivulzio Collec- 
tion at Milan [Pl. Ill, vii & ix]. These two 
reliefs, though closely related to one another in 
design, appear to show some diflferences of 
handling. Maskell in his 1872 Catalogue of 
Ivories (p. no) had, however, already recognised 
the kinsship of the Lazarus panel to the St. Mark 
and St. Peter. We have then twelve ivory 
reliefs more or less closely connected with one 
another, not indeed all by the same artist but 
probably all (with one possible exception) from 
the same school and period as well as from the 
same piece of church furniture.' 

The twelve reliefs, with their subjects and 
dimensions, are given in the following list : — 

Pl. II, I, St. Mark writing his Gospel at Rome 
under the dictation of St. Peter — the upper part 
missing. H.13.5, centimetres.' 

Pl. II, II, St. Mark delivering his Gospel in 
the Pentapolis of North Africa (the Cyrenaica). 

1 It is hardly possible to accept Mr. Alfred Maskell's con- 
tention {Gazette des Beaux Arts (11. igog), p. 3g4) that the 
South Kensington- St. Mark and St. Peter does not belong to 
the Milan series, but is a ninth century imitation of the 
Carrand diptych in the Bargello. 

2 The literature connected with these ivories (excepting the 
Miracle of Cana relief, here published for the first time, and 
the relief at Cluny, which so far as I know has not previously 
been published, at any rate in relation with the others, though 
it has been incidentally mentioned by Venturi and Strzygowski) 
is a considerable one. The fullest account of the St. Mark 
series at Milan and South Kensington is that given by 
Graeven in his essay Dcr heiligc Markus in Rom tind in der 
Pentapolis (Romische Ottartahchrift, XIII (iSgg), pp. logff.) ; 
there are photographs of these, of the Milan St. Menas, and 
of the British Museum Rai.wtg of Lazarus in Graeven 's 
Elfenbeinwerke, I & II (from which the corresponding blocks 
on Pls. II & III have been made), and reproductions of the 
reliefs in Italy (including the Trivulzio .innunciation) in the 
second volume of Venturi's Storia (Figs. 439 & 451-457). 
Other general references are to be found in Berlaux, L'.irt 
dans I'ttalie Miridionale, I. pp. 43off. ; Cabrol, Dictionnairc 
d'Archiologie Chritienne, s.v. Alexandrie (Arch^logie), 
col. 1124; Dalton, Byznatine Art, pp. 213 & 234; Kaufmann, 
Handbuch dcr christlichen Archdologie, pp. 543-4 ; 
Strzvgowski, Orient oder Rom, pp. 73!!, Hellenistische 
und koptische Kunst, p. 80, and Byzantinische Zeitschrijt , 
IX (igoo), p. 606 (the last a review of Graeven's 
essay). Particular discussions of the St. Peter and 
St. Mark at South Kensington are to be found in 
Maskell's Catalogue, p. log, and in Westwood, Fictile 
Ivories, p. 68 (for the Milan (Museo Archeologico) ivories, of 
all of which there are casts at South Kensington, see pp. 69 
and 70) ; of the Raising of Lazarus at the British Museum in 
Dalton's Catalogue of Ivory Carvings, p. 21, and Catalogue 
of Early Christian and Bytantine Antiquities. No. 296; and 
of the 5(. Menas at Milan in Kaufmann, Ikonographie der 
Menas- Ampullen, pp. q6 & 98-9, and Die Menasstadt, p. 65. 
The Trivulzio Annunciation is carefully engraved in outline, 
full size, in Garrucci, Storia. VI, 453 ; see also Schlumberger, 
L'Epop^e Byzantine. I. p. 48, Stuhlfauth, Altchristliche Elfen- 
heinplastik, pp. I76ff, and Molinier, Les Ivoires, pp. 77-8. 


Pi . II, 111, St. Mark gazing upwards ;it a vision 
— a Irai^nient only, split vorlirally iKuii ilic 
panel. H.19.5, \\\ about 4.5.' 

i'l.. II, IV, St. Mark entering .Alexandria and 
healing .Anianus the shoemaker, afterwanis 
bishop. H.19.5, ^^ •>).* 

1'l. II, y, St. Mark ha[5tising Ani.inus and 
his hou.sehold. n.u).5, \V.»).5.* 

Pi.. II, \'i, St. Mark conseiraling a liishop 
and priests on his second visit to the I'fntajjolis. W.g.s.* 

Pi. III. \ii, Annunciation. II. 111.5, W'.tj.;.' 

Pi. Ill, \iii, .Miracle of C"ana — the upper 
part missing. H.11.3, W.g.^.' 

Ft.. Ill, i.\. Raising of Lazarus. Il.u).=i, 

Pl. Ill, X, .St. Menas in pr.iver. H.10.2, 

Ft.. 111. XI, .\ Saint in prayer., W.8.' 

Pl. Ill, XII, .\ Saint, perhaps St. Mark 
entering Aquileia, holding a scroll. H.10.2, 

It will be observed tliat tiiese reliefs may 
readily be divided into three groups. The first 
[Fl. H, i-vi] is entirely concerned with the life 
of St. .Mark; the second [Pl. Ill, vii-ix] with 
scenes from the Gospel story, none of them, 
however, related by St. Mark in his Gospel. 
These nine reliefs (excepting Pl. II, i, and 
Pl. Ill, \'iii, the two reliefs at South Kensing- 
ton, each of which has lost the upper part) all 
measure exactly nineteen and a half centimetres 
in height ; and there is no reason to that 
the missing portions of Pl. II, i, and 
Pl. Ill, VIII, w-ould not have brought them up 
to the same height. Their width, excepting 
Pl. II, III, which is clearlv a fragment, varies 
between nine and about ten and a half centi- 
metres, but one of the narrowest of these 
[Pl. Ill, ix] seems to have lost the flat flanges 
at the sides which may be seen in most of the 
others, and it is probable that parts of 
flanges may have been pared off in others as 
well. Allowing, however, for a slight variation 
in width, we may consider these nine reliefs as 
being, for practical, uniform in size." 

The third group [Pl. Ill, x-xii] is also 
uniform in size, at about ten by eight and a half 
centimetres; the measurements of Pl. Ill, xi 
are taken from the old Cluny catalogue which 
ignores fractions of a centimetre. This is prac- 
tically half the size of the other reliefs. It is 
just possible that two reliefs like Pl. Ill, x and 

' In the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. 

* In the Musco .Archeologico (Castello Sforzesco), Milan. 

^ In the Trivulzio Collection, Milan ; I have never seen this 
ivory, and can judge it only from the one photograph avail- 
able. The mea<:urements are from Garrucci's engraving. 

^ In the British Museum. 

' In the Musee de Cluny (1048), Paris. 

* The individual figures on the ivories vary considerably in 
scale, even on the same ivory, e.g. Pl. II, iv., where the little 
figures are smaller than the servants in Pl. Ill, viii. 

I'l. Ill, XI in,i\- lia\e been s.iwii .ipart, but if 
ilic\ once formed one panel it would be at least 
a rcnlinictn^ taller and narrower than the 
others, " and it seems far more lik(>lv that ihev 
formed part of a .separate series or row, though 
they are almost certainly of the sami^ iicriod 
ami style as the r(\st. On the other hand, 
Pl . Ill, XII is obviouslv diflercnl in style and 
nuicli coarser in execution, and it is (]iiite 
probable that, as Gra<'\-en has suggestetl, it was 
atkled at a lal(M' date to fill a material gap, or 
to complete the legendary scenes represented so 
as to suit local requirements. 

But setting aside Pl. Ill, xii, it can hardly 
be doubted that all the other ivories belong to 
the .same period. This is bv no means obvious 
at first sight when the two reliefs at .Souili 
Kensington [Pl. II, i, and Pl. Ill, viii] are 
.seen side by side. The handling is not quite 
the same. The ivory itself — that chameleon 
among materials — has reacted differently to the 
conditions of light and atmosphere to which it 
as been exposed. And yet the links which 
join them together will bear testing. 

It is unnecessary to insist further on the many 
[loints of resemblance which indicate the 
common origin of Pl. Ill, viii, x, and xi. 
But it is impossible to compare the architec- 
tural backgrounds of Pl. Ill, x and xi with of the St. Mark group, particularly 
Pl. II. II and vi, with their odd decoration of 
curling leaves like ostrich-feathers, without 
realising that they are closely connected. Turn- 
ing from the architecture to the figures we find 
the same peculiar narrow eyes, the .same lean 
fingers; the curly-headed boy on the right hand 
side of Pl. II, vi might be a brother of the 
younger servant on Pl. Ill, viii, the new panel 
at South Kensington. Again, the panels of 
the St. Mark group are inevitably connected 
bv the unusual type of the Evangelist, which is 
so like that as.sociated in normal Christian 
iconography with St. Paul that until the pub- 
lication of Dr. Graeven's es.say the South 
Kensington panel [Pl. II, i] was taken to repre- 
.sent St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome. 

In the Raising of Lazarus [Pl. Ill, ix] the 
same peculiarities of eyes and fingers are com- 
bined with the same fantastic architectural back- 
ground ; the feet, too, have the same long, 
almost prehensile toes. And if the types of the 
Annunciation [Pl. Ill, vii] are more solid and 
the architecture more classical, still, to judge 
from the reproduction, the resemblances of this 
noble relief with others in the group under dis- 
cussion, and especially with Pl. Ill, ix are too 
marked to admit of a different origin. When in 
addition to these formal points of comparison 
we observe the material identity in size of the 

9The top of the St. Menas relief does look as if it had been 
cut away or pared off. 


{Missing upper part represent- 
ing the City of Rome) 

1. S. Peter and S. Mark in 
Rome (South Kensington) 

II. 5. Mark in the Pentapolis 



III. S. Mark in 
Alexandria (MWan) 

IV. S. Mark in Alexandria V. S . Mark in Alexand- 

(Milan) -ria (Milan) 

(Reduced to half linear dimensions) 

\'l. S. Mark in the Penta- 
polis (Milan) 

Plate II. An Early Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana 


(Missiiii; iipf^cr j^arl rcprc- 
sentiiii; tilt' W'rddiiii:,- FaisI) 

\'ll. The .Inniinciatio}! 
(Triviilzin Collection) 

\'lll. / '/(' Miititic oj 
Cana (South Kensinqton) 

X. 5. Menas (Milan) 

IX. Raising of Lazarus 
(British Museum) 

XI 1. S. Mark (Milan) 







- V 


A The Miracle of Cana (Salerno) 
(Reduced to half linear dimensions) 



B The Raising of Lazarus (Salerno) 

Plate III. An Earlv Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana 

first nine of these ivories (allowing for the 
obvious mutilation of Pl. I, i and Pl. Ill, viii), 
and the presence in every one of the twelve 
panels, except the very fragmentary Pl. II, in, 
and the admittedly aberrant Pl. Ill, xil, of 
similarly spaced holes for fastening-pegs, it 
may fairly be taken for granted (as indeed most 
recent authorities have agreed) that a common 
place and period of origin must be sought for 
the whole group. 

But as to this place and period two very 
divergent views have hitherto been expressed. 
it is hardly necessary to detail here the opinions 
held as to separate panels before the continuity 
of, at any rate, the main part of the group had 
been recognised." But Graeven in his essav of 
1899, and, following him, Strzygowski, Kauf- 
mann, Leclercq (in Cabrol's Diclionnaire), 
Diehl (in L'Art Byzantin) and others," place 
the fabrication of these ivories in Egypt or its 
immediate neighbourhood at a date in or about 
the sixth century; while Bertaux, Venturi, and 
Dalton date them five or six centuries later 
and suppose them to have been made in South 
Ital\-, under the influence of Monte Cassino, 
in the same school as the Salerno paliotto. 

The evidence in favour of Graeven's view has 
alwavs been verv strong. To begin with, 
Bertaux himself admitted the difficulty of ex- 
plaining the presence of so definitely Egyptian 
(or Coptic) a saint as St. Menas, treated in so 
Egyptian a fashion, in a South Italian work of 
a date when his cult must already have 
declined.'^ It is true that there were early 
churches dedicated to him in Constantinople 
and Rome, and that he figures (though in a very 
different form) on the gorgeous eleventh century 
Byzantine enamelled book-cover with the relief 
of St. Michael in the centre in the Library of 
St. Mark at Venice." But a comparison between 
the ivorv relief [Pl. Ill, x] and a fifth or sixth 
centurv marble relief from the nunnery of St. 
Thekla at Dechele. now in the Museum .at 
Alexandria, published by Kaufmann (Ikono- 
graphie der Menas-AmpuUen, Fig. 7,5), makes 
it almost impossible to doubt that they belong to 
the same period and school. The marble relief, 
though it has no architectural background and 
the draperv is treated in a simpler, more " clas- 
sical " fashion, without ornament, has even the 
same peculiar convention (which may be paral- 
leled in Coptic stone-carvings) for the curled 
'•air, the eyes and the mouth. 

Graeven himself has dealt fully with the 

• » Maskell, for example, had dated I. in the ninth century, 
Wfstwood II-VI in the ninth or tenth, Srhlumberger, I and 
VTl in the eleventh as Byzantine worjss of art. 

11 For the bibliographical references see Note =. 

1= There is an interesting account of St. Menas and his cult 
in an article by Miss M. A. Murray in the Proceedings of the 
Societv of Biblical Archcrology for 1907. 

13 Illustrated in Dalton, Byzantine Art, p. 511, and else- 

Egyptian or Coptic character of the long- 
bearded type of St. Mark and of the piled-up 
architectural backgrounds which occur in so 
many of the ivories under discussion ; both these 
features are found in the presumably Coptic 
relief of St. Mark and the t,S Patriarchs of 
Alexandria in the Louvre '* which is perhaps 
definitely datable soon after the year 607. 

As to date, the argument in favour of the 
sixth century for the Annunciation 

[Pl. Ill, vii] based by Graeven ^^ on the 
wording of the inscription has been attacked 
by X'enturi,'" who does not even admit that this 
ivory belongs to the Milan group. Venturi's 
reasons do not seem very convincing, but the 
point about the wording is not perhaps of very 
high evidential value, though the forms of the 
letters apparently do suggest the earlier rather 
than the later date. In the St. Mark group itself, 
however, sufficient attention does not seem to 
have been paid to the costume of the bishop 
who is being consecrated in Pl. II, \"i. His 
vestments, a loose chasuble worn over a long 
tunic with two vertical stripes reaching down 
to the feet, correspond exactly with those 
familiar in the sixth century mosaics at Ravenna 
(e.g., the figure of Archbishop Maximian in 
S. \'itale). It is hardly possible to suppose that 
a bishop or priest (other than an apostle) could 
have been represented as late as the eleventh 
century, when the regular liturgical vestments 
were already well established both in the 
Eastern and the Western churches, in so 
primitive a fashion. 

The relief at Cluny [Pl. Ill, xi], which was 
apparently unknown to Graeven, adds no 
positive evidence as to date, except in so far as 
its close resemblance to the relief of St. Menas 
[Pl. Ill, ix] shows that the latter does not 
stand alone. But the newly-acquired relief of 
the Miracle of Cana does, I venture to think, 
considerably if not conclusively strengthen the 
case for an early origin for the whole group to 
which it so clearly belongs, and a few of the 
points connected with it may be noted here. 

To begin with, Hellenistic influence is 
obviously still dominant in the composition, 
tiiough it has been transformed by the new 
breath of life which was stirring through the 
art of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 
sixth centurv. The vigorous movement, the 
rhythmic interplay of the figures, can only be 
Greek in their inspiration. It does not even 
seem impossible that the three figures may have 
their origin in the representation of some purely 
.secular banquet. Treated as they are, it would 
be difficult indeed to place them in the eleventh 

14 Monuments Plot [I, Pl. xxiii] ; see also Dalton, Byzan- 
tine Art, p. 212, and Strzygowski, Orient oder Rom, I.e. 

15 Der heilige Markus, p. 125. 
listeria, II, p. 611, n.l. 


(t-nturv. The costume again is clearly late 
classical. The tunics are closely similar in 
ornament to those which have been toinul in 
such numbers in the burying grounds of I'-gypi, 
though my colleague Mr. Kemirick informs me 
that he is not acquainted with any actual 
example of a tunic with a mere central panel 
of ornament on the breast, like those worn by 
the bov to the right and the saint on Pt.. Ill, xi. 
But (lie chwi or stripes with their heart-shaped 
ends can be exactly paralleled, as can the two 
medallions worn about knee height by the 
saints on Pl. Ill, X and xi. This is valuable 
evidence as to date, for the type of ornamenta- 
tion with short clavi seems to have gone out 
soon after the seventh century except perhaps 
for ceremonial dress. It may be noted that 
long-sleeved tunics with clavi and orbiculi, very 
similar to that on the Cluny ivory [Pl. Ill, xi], 
are worn bv the two attendants on the fourth to 
fifth century silver Casket of Projecta at the 
British Museum (Dalton, Catalogue of Bycan- 
tinc and Early Christian Antiquities, No. 304, 
Pl. XVIII, w^hich may be of Alexandrian origin. 
But it would perhaps be unwMse to press this in 
claiming an Egyptian origin for the group, for 
there isno evidence to show that similar tunics 
were not worn all over the Mediterranean 
region, or at any rate all over the Eastern part 
of it. in what we might call the Early Christian 
period, though accidents of soil-conditions and 
burial-habits have preserved them in Egypt 
alone. Certainly, however, there is nothing in 
this form of dress to militate against Alexandria 
as a place of fabrication ; and that the artists 
concerned treated costume with particular 
realism mav be seen from the strange garments 
worn bv the natives of the Pentapolis in 
Pl. II, II, on which Graeven has already com- 
mented. '' 

For the strangely but very beautifully 
moulded wnter-pots, I know of no exact 
parallel. More or less similar vases, but always 
with handles, occur not infrequently as motives 
of decoration on textiles from Egypt, and 
several examples mav be seen in the collection 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum." Inciden- 
tallv it mav be noted that they are of a shape 
utterlv impossible for the pots of stone .specified 
in the Gospel story of the miracle. The smaller 
jar carried by the boy on his shoulder is more 
normal in shape. If the cylindrical vessel held 

'"The rare scene of St. Mark delivering his Gospel in the 
Pemtapolis also occurs in an eleventh century fresco in the 
crypt of Aquileia (see Lanckoronski, Der Dnm von Aqitileia, 
p. 90 and Pl. XVn, but the composition is not much like 
that on the ivory. For a full discussion of the use of tunics 
in Early Christian art sec Griineisen, Sainte Marie Antique. 
pp. i68fl. 

•s The shape mav also be compared to that of the handle- 
less water-pots on the lid of the silver box (perhaps late fourth 
century) at S. Nazario in Milan (Venturi, Storia, I, p. 513). 
But the resemblance is by no means complete in either case. 

i)\ the central figure is (as 1 think it must be) 
an ahihastron, it is certainly of rather unusual 
length and size, though it may lairly be com- 
pari'tl with rather iwrlier E.gyplian vessels 
exiiiiiiteil in the Louvie and el.sewhere.'" Such 
an alahastron may have been the mark of a 
butler; for a vessel absolutely identical in shape 
with that on the ivory is carried by the chief 
butler in the ninth century fre.sco of Pharaoh's 
Feast on the left wall of S. Maria .\ntiqua at 
Rome," who further holds a cup like that on the 
Salerno relief. 

As a representation of the Miracle of Cana 
the relief, if we may imagine it in its complete 
form, is not altogether without parallel, though 
it differs widely from the ordinary Early 
Christian iconography of the scene. This is 
conveniently siimmari.sed, with several illu.s- 
trations, in the article (s.v. Cava) in Cabrol's 
Dictionnairc, and in E. Baldwin Smith's Early 
Christian Iconography and the School of Pro- 
vence (1918), Table 5'. The interest is normally 
concentrated on the actual performance of the 
miracle, so that the scene is condensed on the 
gilt glass discs to the single figure of Christ 
surrounded by the water-pots which he touches 
with a wand. In the earliest of all known repre- 
.sentations, the wall-painting in the Catacombs 
of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, "the feast is seen as a 
background to the miraculous act, but as a rule 
Christ appears either alone (as on the doors of 
S. Sabina) or with attendants (as on the ivory 
panel from the chair of Maximian or in the 
mosaic of S. Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna), 
touching or blessing the water-pots. On the 
well-known sixth century ivory book-cover in 
the Treasury of Milan Cathedral " the water- 
pots are actually being filled, while Christ 
ble-sses them, bv a servant with an amphora on 
his shoulder. In Egypt a fuller representation 
may be traced in a wall painting of which un- 
fortunately only fragments have survived; the 
feast was represented (with an almost naked 
woman reclining at the table), and servants 
certainly figured at one side, as may be seen 
from the inscription.^^ 

1' The curious resemblance, pointed out to me by Mr. 

Arthur Smith, with a type of very early (Mycenaean) Greek 
terracotta vessel, apparently a wine-taster, excavated in 
Cyprus, can hardly be anything but an accident. See 
Excavaiions in Cyprus, by Murray, Smith and Walters (iqno), 
Fig. 68, No. iioS, p. 40. , . r, 

20 See Griineisen, Sainte Marie Antique (lou), It. xxiv, s, 
The whole composition mav be compared with that of the 
Cana Feast; it is more or less derived from the corresponding 
miniature, three centuries earlier, in the Vienna Genesis 
(fol xvii), where, the butler, standing like the figure on the 
ivory, carries a very long amphora-shaped vessel ^^;'tnou' 
handles. A classical analogy for the Feast is supplied by the 
Banquet of Dido in the almost contemporary Vatican Codex 
Romauiis of Virgil. , 

21 Venturi, Storia. 1, p. A^4: cf. Dalton, Byzantme Art, 

'' =3 In the apse of the Catacomb of Karmouz, near Alexandria 
(perhaps third century). Cabrol, I.e., Fig. 1987. 


<• (-- 





, \ 


; The Angels Appearing to the 
ihcpherds, and The Massacre ot the 

/) The Nativity and The Flight 
into Egypt 

E The Healing of the Blind 
Man, and The Maries at the 
Sepulchre (Salerno) 

F The Last Supper (and The Miracle of Cana ?) Silk- 
embroidered roundel from Egypt (South Kensington) 

G The Filling of the Water-Pots. Miniature from 
the Gospels of Rabula (Florence) 

Plate IV. An Earlv Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana 

On the gold altar of S. Ambrogio at Milan 
^of whiuh the best available illustrations are in 
Zimmermann, Oberitalnnische Plastik (1897), 
pi. 60-64), "^ relief to the left of the frontal 
(pi. 61) shows the Miracle of Cuna. In this very 
strange composition the water-pots are being 
filled in the foreground by two tiny servants, 
one of whom distinctly recalls, by the movement 
of his arms, the left-hand servant in the ivory at 
South Kensington ; Christ stands behind the 
water-pots in front of a building, with the 
gigantic figure of the Virgin towering above him, 
and in the upper corner the " ruler of the feast " 
sits tasting the wine. The date of this part of 
the much-disputed altar may be about the 
twelfth century. The very fragmentary fresco 
in S. Clemente at Rome dating from the middle 
of the ninth century (of which there is a small 
woodcut in Eitelberger's communication to the 
Miltlieilungen der k.k. Centralkommission 
(Vienna, 1863), p. 307, Fig. 5) shows Christ and 
the Virgin standing tsefore the water-pots with 
three other figures, one of whom is designated 
by a vertical inscription as architriclinvs. 
Later, about 1174-1182, the Mosaic at Monreale 
Cathedral (Gravina, II Duomo di Monreale, 
PI. 17c) has the Feast in front of a building 
behind a sigma table ; one servant fills the water- 
pots from a jar, and two more with napkins, the 
second carrying a covered cup, move towards the 
table from the right. 

But a closer parallel to part at least of the new 
South Kensington relief is furnished by a page 
of the Syrian Gospels illuminated by Rabula in 
586 at Zagba in Northern Mesopotamia, and 
now preserved in the Laurentian Library at 
Florence. On the margin of one of the opening 
pages with the Eusebian Canons the Miracle of 
Cana is represented; at one side of the arched 
border are the figures of Christ and the Virgin, 
at the other two servants filling the water-pots 
[Pl. IV, g]. These figures are here reproduced 
for the first time from a photograph," and it 
will be seen at once that (allowing for reversal) 
they have many analogies with the two similarly 
employed figures in the ivory. 

1 believe that another parallel may be found 
in an embroidered roundel or medallion from 
an Egyptian grave^ unfortunately very imper- 
fectly preserved, in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, No. 815-1903 [Pl. IV, f]. This is 
one of a series of silk-embroidered medallions,^* 
probably from a robe, most of which as far as 
can be judged enclosed two scenes from the 
Gospel story. They probably date from about 
the seventh century. The upper part of the 
composition clearly represents the Last Supper, 

23 I have to thank CommT Guido Biagi for permitting me 
to have this photograph taken ; the page is engraved in Asse- 
manus and in Gairucci, Storia. Pl. 131. For the MS. itself 
see Dalton, op. cit. p. 448. 

3* About 8 or 9 inches in diameter. 

with the Apostles seated behind a si^ma-shaped 
table. But this subject exactly fills half of the 
roundel, and no more. Of the lower half only 
the figure on the extreme right remains, a 
servant carrying a small jar on his shoulder. 
But the upper part of the body corresponds 
almost line for line, so far as the rather inade- 
quate skill of the embroiderer would allow, with 
ihe right-hand servant on the ivory. It is 
difficult to suppose that the whole foreground of 
a medallion of the Last Supper would have been 
filled with figures of servants and mere acces- 
sories, and I suggest that this medallion origin- 
ally combined the two scenes of the Last Supper 
and the Miracle of Cana^ just as one correspond- 
ing medallion (No. 814-1903) combines the 
Annunciation and the Visitation, and another 
(No. 813-1903) the Apparitions of the Angel and 
i)f Christ to St. Mary Magdalene. 

There is a close connection, iconographically 
TtS well as symbolically, between the two 
scenes.^^ When the Wedding Feast at Cana is 
represented in Early Christian or Byzantine 
art it is generally, as Millet has pointed out, a 
condensation of the scene of the Last Supper. 
In some cases, as in the eleventh century 
miniature of the Byzantine Gospels at Parma " 
(and apparently in the small square panel of the 
Milan book-cover cited above), the F'east is 
reduced to four persons. Christ reclines at one 
end of the sigma table, the " ruler of the feast " 
at the other, and two figures are seated between 
them; immediately below, in a separate com- 
partment of the miniature, Christ advances fol- 
lowed by the Virgin and the Apostles to bless 
the water-pots, behind which stand three 
servants. In the narrow space available in the 
missing upper part of the South Kensington 
ivory the feast may have been similarly com- 
pressed; but in the Salerno version of it we 
have besides the half-length figure of the Virgin 
(almost an essential for the adequate representa- 
tion of the scene), and a third guest at the table 

The persistence of iconographical types in 
much of the art produced under Byzantine 
influence makes it hazardous to lay any heavy 
stress on arguments derived from them in a 
discussion as to date. But at least, while the 
general character of the South Kensington 
Miracle of Cana points to an early date, there is 
nothing in the iconographic evidence to con- 
tradict such a conclusion. A close connection 
between Syrian or Syro-Palestinian types and 
those in use in Egypt is fully in accordance with 
other evidence as well as with historical pro- 
babilities. And it is interesting to note that 
su ch a connection has a lready been suggested by 

■ 25 The early iconography of the Last Supper has been 
elaborately investigated by Millet (Recherches sur I'lcono- 
graphie de I'Evangile, 1916), and by Dobbert in Reperlornim 
XIV and XV (1891-2). 

26 Millet, op. cit. Fig. 608. 


Graeven and Sirzygowski hotween the 
Anuunciaiioii relief [I'l.. 111. \ ii] and the minia- 
ture of the same subjeet in ilu- lusi hniiad/in 
Gospels," a nianiisiTi[)t iluscly relateil to the 
Gospels of Kabula at l-"loreiue ; while eerlain 
parallels may perhaps be traced between tlic 
Raising of Laaarus relief [i'l.. Ill, ix] and the 
corresponding miniature in the Codex Rossaii- 

It is exceptionally diHiciili to tix with any 
degree of certainty the place of origin of move- 
able objects, such as ivories, belonging to the 
i^arly Christian period. But if this group of 
ivories is taken as a wliolc it mav fairlv be said 
that the prominence given to St. Mark, the first 
Patriarch of Alexandria, and (in five cases out 
of six) to scenes from his life directly connected 
with Hgypt or the immediate neighbourhood of 
Ivgypt; the peculiar bald and long-i)earded type 
assigned to him; the inclusion of the locally 
honoured St. Menas, and the striking 
resemblance between the ivory representing liim 
and the Alexandrian marble relief already 
referred to; the preference for piied-up archi- 
techtural backgrounds; and such general con- 
clusions as may be drawn from iconography and 
costume, all converge to make it exceedingly 
[jrobable that the ivories were made in Egypt, 
perhaps in or for Alexandria, at a date in the 
neighbourhood of the sixth century. 

Against such a conclusion at least one argu- 
ment fairly presents itself. We are acquainted 
with a number of ivories (and a larger number 
of bone-carvings, mostly of small importance 
artistically) such as the St. Menas pyxis in the 
British ^Iuseum (Xo. 12 in Dalton's Catalogue), 
and the St. Mark relief in the Louvre, which are 
very probably Coptic or Egyptian work of about 
this period. Besides these, a whole mass of 
ivory carvings of the noblest quality, including 
the Throne of Maximian at Ravenna and the 
reliefs associated with it,°' are now frequently 
ascribed to Egyptian artists. Yet among all 
these it is hardly possible to find any close 
analogy for the very definite stylistic 
peculiarities of the group of ivories now under 
discussion, in particular for the narrow folds of 
drapery, the almond-shaped eyes with their 
clearly-marked lower lids and the sharp pre- 
cision with which hair and hands and feet are 
defined. The only partial comparison I can sug- 
gest is with the beautiful diptych at Berlin 
(Voge, Elfenbeinbildwerke, PI. II), which in its 
turn clearly connects with the Ravenna Throne. 

"' See Strzygowski, Das Etschmiad:in-Evangeliar ; the mina- 
lures in question are considerably earlier than the text of 989. 

2S Best published by Haseloff in 1898 and by Munoz in 
1907 ; probably early sixth century. 

-'This group of ivories is fully discussed in Dalton, 
op. cit., pp. 203ff. It seems at least as likely that they are 
Syrian in origin, in spite of the jerboa which DiJtschke 
(Ravennatische Stiidien, pp. 279 ff.) id<=ntified among the 
animals carved on the throne. 

It is perhaps on such grounds that 
Strzygowski has been led to suggest that the 
St. Mark ivories may have been made in the 
Pentajjolis itself rather than in Alexandria.'" 
Hut without taking refuge in such distant pos- 
sibilities it may legitimately be urged that Alex- 
andria, in the long years of pros|)erity that pre- 
ceded the di.sasters of the seventli century, was 
a place of great wealth and activity, rich in 
artistic as well as intellectual enterprise. Such 
works of art as have survived can be no more 
than a small part of w'hat was then jiroduced, but 
if our series of documeiils were more comijlele 
we might be able to trace the rise and fall of 
whole movements of which the isolated remains 
only perplex us. And it can hardly be denied 
that these ivories have as valid a claim to an 
Egyptian origin as almost any of the rest men- 
tioned above. 

Such a claim is considerably strengthened if 
we take into account the traditional connec- 
tion^' of the St. Mark group at Milan witli the 
lost Chair of St. Mark at Grado. 

The history of this chair is not altogether 
clear. ^' So far as I know the first mention of it 
occurs in the Ar|uileian (V^enetian) Acts of the 
Evangelist, ^^ which are dated by Lipsius "* as 
belonging to the eighth century, if not earlier; 
they are obviously later than the Alexandrian 
Acts, which recard the scenes represented in the 
Milan and London ivories [Pl. II, i-vi]. Here 
the existence of a throne or chair is cited — ex 
ebore antiquo cathedra poJitis compacta tabulis 
— made of polished or ornamented '" panels of 
ivory, already described as old, which was pre- 
served in the Cathedral of Grado. It was 
believed to have been the chair on which St. 
Mark sat when writing his Gospel, and no 
Bishop had since ventured to take his place on 
it; indeed the supports had been heightened to 
make this impossible. The next reference is in 
the Acts of the Synod of Mantua '" in 826, which 
state incidentally that the Chair had been 
brought to Grado (with the Chair of St. Herma- 

^o In Hellenistische und Koptische Kunst, p. 80, where they 
are dated just before the Arab domination. The two currents 
of influence on Early Christian art in Egypt distinguished by 
Strzygowski and otliers would account for a good deal of 
divergence in style. 

3' .'\dmitted by Bertaux, op. cit., p. 434. 

^- Much of ttie material is to be found in the learned and 
voluminous work of the Jesuit Padre Secchi, La Cattedra 
.ilessandrina di S. Marco (Venice, 1853). This curious book 
is divided into five parts, Historical, Philological, ArchiEO- 
logical, Hirmeneutical and Dogmatic ; the index is enlivened 
by such entries as " Morgan Lady teologhessa anglicana e_d 
iliusioni sue " ! See aUo, for the Venice throne, Garrucci, 
Sturia, VI, pp. 141 ff. 

33 A. SS. Boll. April, III, pp. 349-50. 

s* Die apokryphcn Apostelgeschichlen, II (2), p. 346. 

35 I do not see why politis need be pressed to mean plain 
polished. Facciolati refers to Pliny, " argenio et aiiro polita 
anna," and ivory was too precious a material for ornamental 
purposes to be wasted. 

30 In De Rubeis, MomnMenta Ecclesiae .'\quileianensis, 

P- 4'5- 


goras, the disciple of St. Mark at Aquileia) by 
Paul, Patriarch of Aquileia (557-569), on his 
flight from the Lombard invasion in 568. But 
in the Supplemcntum to the Chronicle of Grade 
by John the Deacon," written between 980 and 
1008, it is recorded that the most pious Emperor 
(who should, if the reference is taken strictly, 
be Justinian (528-565), though Migne notes that 
Heraclius (610-41) is presumably meant) gave 
to Primogenius or Primigenius the Patriarch 
(630-649) the chair of Blessed Mark the Evan- 
gelist which Heraclius Augustus had taken from 
Alexandria to the Royal Town (i.e., Constan- 
tinople). A variant of the latter part of this 
story in the Venetian Chronicle is that the chair 
was taken from Alexandria to Constantinople by 
the Empress Helena. The Chronicle '^ of the 
Doge Andrea Dandolo (1342- 1354) states defin- 
itely that it was Heraclius who both took the 
chair from Alexandria to Constantinople and 
later bestowed it on Primigenius. 

The balance of probability seems strongly in 
favour of the latter of these two conflicting 
accounts. It is impossible to make consistent 
sense of the phrase in John the Deacon as it 
stands; and so many of the treasures of Grado 
must have been taken there in 568 that the state- 
ment in the Acts of the Mantuan Synod admits 
of an easy explanation. But the Heraclius 
story may very well be historical. Alexandria 
was not actually taken by the Mohammedan 
invaders until just after Heraclius' death, but 
the troubles caused by the Persian occupation in 
616 may well have given an excuse for the 
removal of such a precious object as the Chair, 
and the Emperor had every reason for showing 
substantial favour to his protegi Primigenius. 

In the Commentarii Aquileianenses of 
Giovanni Candido (Venice, 152 1) the writer 
notes that he had himself seen the chair in a 
damaged state, decorated with ivory, in the 
sanctuary at Grado.'' At this point some con- 
fusion arises owing to the desire of Venetian 
writers such as Stringa to identify the Grado 
chair with the well-known throne of cipollino 
now shown in the Treasury of St. Mark's at 
Venice, which seems to make its first appear- 
ance there about 1534-''° But this identification 
is definitely disproved by the evidence of 
Palladio degli Ulivi about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. In his Historic delta Pro- 
vincia del Friuli (Udine, 1660), where the state- 
ment is perhaps more definite than in his Latin 

37 In Migne, S. L. CXXXIX, pp. 871 ff. 

3" In Muratori, R.I.S., XII, p. 114. 

3^ Vidimtis illatn in sacrario Gradensi lacerani ehore con- 
sertam (p. 13, v.). 

*° This throne is illustrated and fully discussed by Secehi 
and Garrucci, as well as by Pasini, II Tesoro di S. Marco, 
pp. 105 ff. What is supposed to be a retrograde Hebrew 
inscription on it has been rather dubiously interpreted (by 
Professor Barges) as signifying Cathedra Marci qui 
EvangcUtim ■^tabilivit Alexandriae. 

Rerum Foro-]uUensium Libri IX, cited in this 
connection by Graeven, he writes that the ivory 
chair given by Heraclius to Primigenius was in 
his own day preserved, though ina ruinousstate, 
at Grado.'" Here the chair disappears from 
history. That not the smallest trace of it 
remained at Grado in the second half of the last 
century is clear from the testimony of the then 
parrocco of Grado, Don Giovanni Rodaro, cited 
by Garrucci. The chair of St. Hermagoras, of 
which no sort of description has survived, seems 
also to have vanished ; unless (which may be 
within the bounds of possibility) it is to be 
identified, by some confusion, with the stone 
chair in the Treasury of St. Mark's. 

There is nothing in this history to militate 
against the tradition that the St. Mark ivories 
at Milan, and with them the other reliefs belong- 
ing to the group, once decorated the chair. A 
date before 6io or 6i6 suits perfectly well on 
other grounds for them ■*- ; the St. Mark subjects 
are hardly suitable for any decorative whole that 
was not immediately connected with the Evan- 
gelist (the Gospel subjects would of course have 
been appropriate anywhere) and the introduction 
of St. Menas would be natural at Alexandria. 
Excepting for the tradition as to the Milan set 
none of the ivories concerned can be traced back 
(so far as I know) beyond the nineteenth 
century, with the exception of the British 
Museum Raising of Lazarus. This was for- 
merly at Amalfi, in the Church of St. Andrew,*' 
and afterwards in the eighteenth century (when 
it was engraved by Verkruys for Gori) in the 
Museum of the Convent of the Holy Apostles at 
Naples. But we have seen that the Grado chair 
was already mutilated by 152 1, and more than 
one panel might have been detached from it even 
before that date. 

The Throne of Maximian at Ravenna is the 
only ivory chair of about the same period which 
has survived, and from this, though it has never 
fallen into complete disrepair, panels have at 
various times been detached. From it we may 
perhaps form some idea of what the Grado chair 
was like.". On the sides are ten panels, vary- 

11 E composta d'avorio, <S^ hoggidi si coitserva, benche 
deieriorata del tempo (p. 51). The Latin text has : Iliiiiis 
sedis tion memoria tanttim, sed structura etiam iiitegra ad 
nostra tempora pervcnit, qiiam ebore intersectatn se Gradi 
vidisse refert Candidus (p. q8). 

■*2 There is of course the possibility that these reliefs, 
though they may have decorated the Chair, were added to it 
after it was brought to Grado; but the evidence of the Acts, 
that the ivories were already old not later than the eighth 
century, is strongly against such an hypothesis. 

■•3 It has been suggested that the Raising of La::arus was 
sent to Amalfi by Pius II. But Gori (Vol. Ill, p. no) only 
says that it decorated a shrine, the relics in which had befn 
presented by Pius II. 

■•* It is hairdly worth while to refer here to the Chair of 
St. Peter, enshrined in St. Peter's at Rome (cf. Garrucci, 
Storia, vi, pi. 412), which has never been adequately photo- 
graphed and is completely inaccessible to students ; its decora- 
tion includes ivory reliefs of uncertain date, some of which 
represent the Labours of Hercules. The ivory " Throne of 


ing to some degree in size, with ilie slorv of 
Joseph; the iiirved b;ick was deioralcil wilh 
sixteen more, eiglit of them i-;irveil on both sule.s, 
to show twenty-four si-enes from the earlier part 
of the Gospel slory (from tlie Annunciation lo 
the Mirailes)), while ihe lower pari of ilu- from 
has elaborate decorative panels and five full- 
length figures of St. John the Baptist and ilu- 
Hvangelists on a much larger scale/^ If the 
Grado chair was adorned to a similar extent it 
may well have carrieil thirty or more i)antls. 
And if we are justifuHl, as 1 belie\e that we are, 
in regarding the twelve ivories under discus- 
sion as having once been among them, we mav 
imagine that lliev incluiled two sets t)f upright 
panels, of approximately the s<ime dimensions, 
with scenes from the Life of Si. Mark and the 
Gospel story, and another set of smaller jaanels 
with single saints, probably saints more or less 
connected with Alexandria. 

But before such a conclusion can be accepted 
it is necessary to consider the reasons which led 
Bertaux (whose too early death, directly due to 
his patriotic devotion during the war, is surelv 
one of the heaviest losses that art criticism has 
recently sustained) to ascribe the whole series of 
these ivories to the eleventh century and to a 
South Italian school. These reasons (which had 
independently led V'enturi to similar conclu- 
sions) have been sufTicient to convince such 
authorities as Millet^'" and Dalton,^' the latter 
of whom had previously ■"* agreed with the sixth 
century date assigned to them by Graeven ; and 
I feel very considerable hesitation in differing 
from them. 

Unfortunately the Salerno paliotto, on com- 
parisons with which the whole discussion must 
turn, has never been really adecjuately pub- 
lished, and no large photographs from it (so 
far as I know) are available for study. Ihe best 
account of it is in Bertaux, L' Art dans I'ltulie 
Meridionale, pp. 43off-, where all the panels 
with figure subjects at Salerno, as well as the 
isolated panels at Berlin, Buda-Pesth and Paris, 
are illustrated by very small collotype reproduc- 
tions of photographs; the half-tone reproduc- 
tions in V'enturi's Storia dell' Arte Italiana, II, 
Figs. 458-469, which are equally reduced, 
include the decorative panels at Salerno but not 
the figure panels outside Italy. There is a com- 
plete set of casts (unfortunately not very good 
casts) from the panels of the paliotto itself (not 

Ivcn l!i" ."t ti.e Kremlin was said to have been brought 
fr-oni Constantinople in the fifteenth century, but to judge 
from the reproduction in Maskell's Ivories (1905), PI. XXV, 
there is not much Byzantine work visible on it ; the same 
plate also gives an illustration of the Chair of St. Peter. 

■"•^ It is quite clear that the ivory panels of the Ravenna 
Throne are not all by the same hand, and they differ con- 
siderably in merit. 

■»6 Recherches sur I'Icotiographie de I'Evaiigile, p. 249. 

•" Catalogue of Ivory Carvings, No. 27. 

*^ Catalogue of Early Christian and Byzantine Aiilitjuities, 
No. 296. 

including the .separate p.inels, except the one at 
Berlin) at .Soutli Kensingion, and another at 
Najiles; .it .South Kensington there are also 
earlier ami rather belter casts of ten of ihe panels 
of the puiiotit) from which the illustrations 
I Pis. Ill, ,\, and 1\', c-i;J have been taken. 

The paliotto, as it has Ijeen irregularly recon- 
structed at a comparatively recent date, consists 
of eighteen large upright ivory panels, 24 centi- 
metres high (nearly t^J inches), and of varying 
wielili — the panel with the Miracle of Cana is 
just over 1.3 centimetres wide — each of which 
(with one exception) contains two scenes from 
Ihe Gospel story; of twelve oblong panels, 
iji centimetres high and about 2,3 centimetres 
wide, each with two scenes from the earl)- part 
of the Old 'Icstament ; and of decorative 
borders, with twelve heads of .saints, and strips 
of foliage with birds and animals. Half of one 
of the upright panels is separately preserved at 
Salerno, half of another at Berlin ; two complete 
oblong panels and halves of tvso others are 
separately preserved at Salerno, there is a com- 
i^lele oblong panel at the Louvre and a half 
|)anel at Buda-Pesth. The range of subjects, 
as rearranged and identified by Bertaux, extends 
from the V'isitation to the Descent of the Holy at Pentecost, and from the Beginning of 
Creation to the Giving of the Law on Sinai ; 
but at least one pair of subjects is missing at the 
end of the second series, and I am inclined to 
think that the first series must have begun with 
a panel the upper half of which represented the 

On general stvlislic grounds it seems pretty 
clear that these ivories belong to the eleventh or 
twelfth ''" century. Pope Gregory VII con- 
.secrated an altar at Salerno for Robert Guiscard 
in 1084, and this date would fit well enough with 
the few details (such as the helmets in tlie scenes 
of tlie Magi before Herod and the Massacre of 
the Innocents) [Pl. IV, c] that suggest con- 
tem])orary costume. 

An examination of the casts, or even of the 
small reprtiductions in Bertaux or Venturi, 
makes it cjuite clear that there is a definite and 
sometimes a close relation between the Salerno 
ivories and the group that has been a.ssociated 
wilh Grado. In the absence of available photo- 
graphs it would hardly be worth while to specify 
the manv general points of resemblance; the 
piled-up architectural backgrounds, with small 
domes and pointed roofs, that occur in so many 
of the Salerno panels; the heavy folds and 
fringes of the dress worn by the Virgin in the 
Salerno Visitation and a seated woman in the 
S alerno Nativity [Pl. IV, d] recalling the dress 

i^ There are isolated panels from another, closely similar, 
set of ivories with Gospel subjects at South Kensingtoti 
(701-1884 and 238-1867) Berlin, Bologna, and the Louvre. 

5" But hardly, I think, as Venturi suggests (Ic, p. 621) 
to the end of the twelfth century. 


of the Virgin in the Trivulzio Annuncitiiion ; 
the agitated movement of tiie Salerno Shep- 
herds [Pl. IV, c] in their short, sleeveless 
tunics, girdled like those of the servants in 
the South Kensington Marriage of Cana. But 
in two specific instances the relation is much 
closer. In the Salerno Raising of Lazarus 
[Pl. Ill, b] the figure of Christ and of the man 
who follows him can hardly have been designed 
independently of the British Museum Raising 
of Lazarus; and the definite correspondence of 
the Salerno Marriage of Cana '' with the South 
Kensington ivory has already been pointed out. 

This relation can of course be explained by 
supposing both groups to belong to the same 
school and period. Ikit the difference in style 
is hardly less clear than the resemblances noted 
above. To take one example alone, the treat- 
ment of the eyes in the Salerno ivories, with 
their heavily emphasised pupils and overhang- 
ing upper lids, is conspicuously difTerent from 
that of the eyes in the St. Mark series; and this 
is only one of a number of similar distinctive 
peculiarities of technique. Again, the inscrip- 
tions that occur on the Salerno ivories (on the 
Crucifixion panel and the first panel of the 
Creation) are in Latin ; the inscriptions on the 
Grado group [Pl. II, i, ii and Pl. Ill, vii, x] are 
in Greek, incised or [Pl. II, i, and Pl. Ill, vii] 
in relief. 

But if the two groups are not of the same 
school there is no reason for supposing them to 
be of the same period. A comparison between 
the two compositions of the Miracle of Cana 
makes it certain that while the Salerno relief 
might verv well have been copied or adapted 
from that' at South Kensington the reversed 
relation would be impossible ; and the same 
applies (with much less certainty) to the two 
compositions of the Raising of Lasarus. In 
both cases we see a narrow upright design 
adapted with more or less success to a horizontal 
oblong. Tiie Raising of Lazarus is a common 
subject in Early Christian art, and the Salerno 
relief adds the figure (common in typically 
Byzantine renderings) of the man unwinding 
the grave-clothes. But the group of three 
.servants with wine-skin, cup and jar occurs in 
no other known representation of the Miracle of 
Cana; and when we see how at Salerno the 
characteristically classical details have been mis- 
understood, so that the clavi on the tunics have, 
become detached strips, and the long slender 
alabasfron has apparently turned into a stirring 
rod, it becomes exceedingly probable that the 
.Salerno ivorv was actually imitated from the 
ivory now acquired for South Kensington. 

Once this can be admitted the whole problem 

s' Tlie upper part of the Salerno Miracle of Cana, with its 
Imost Sassanian figure of the " ruler of the feast," is clearly 

suggestive of an Eastern origin. 

becomes soluble. If we suppose that the makers 
of the paliotto " had access to the chair of St. 
Mark in its complete state, nothing is more 
natural than that they, like so many other crafts- 
men of the eleventh century revival of the 
plastic arts, should have profited by the inspira- 
tion of earlier work, copying or adapting the 
Gospel scenes which were of common interest 
and ignoring the episodes in the Life of St. 
Mark which appealed only to districts where he 
was specially venerated as the introducer of the 
Faith. There are many panels at Salerno where 
h-^ influence seems completely difTerent; but 
'Jiere are others, particularly among the Miracle 
subjects, where it is tempting to imagine a 
reflection from a lost narrow upright composi- 
tion like those in the Grado group." And such 
a relationship would completely explain the 
resemblances of architecture and, above all, of 
costume which (as I believe), misled Bertaux in 
tentatively assigning the same period to both 

The opinion of Bertaux, though it has been 
widely accepted, is expressed with extreme 
caution. He admits'''' that it is difficult to 
suppose that " the costume of Alexandria in the 
seventh century" came into fashion again in 
Campania in the eleventh, or that St. Menas 
was a figure likely to appeal to an Italian artist 
of that date. And his conclusion is this : " La 
question ne peut etre actuellement tranchee : les 
modeles de I'autel de Salerne seront inconnus 
tant que les origines des ivoires de Milan 
resteront douteuses." I venture to believe that 
the newlv acquired ivorv of the Miracle of Cana, 
here published for the first time, shows where 
one at least of the models of the paliotto is to be 
found, and that its characteristics go far to 
support the traditional view that the Milan 
ivories, and the others grouped with them, were 
carved in (or at any rate for) Alexandria about 
'he sixth century to decorate that lost Chair of 
St. Mark which for so many centuries adorned 
in Grado the remote and ancient church now 
returned by the issues of the war into Italian 

52 There is not, as far as I l^now, any conclusive ground 
for maintaining that the Salerno ivories were actually m.ide 
in Southern Italy ; thev are quite isolated in style and might 
perhaps have been brought from the North, though the pre- 
sumption that they were made in Campania is a legitimate 


53 The original of the Salerno Nativity, or at any rate an 
earlier stage in the development of the composition, is. I 
believe, to be found in a curious oblong ivory panel published 
from the Chalandon Collection bv Migeon in Les Arts, 
June, 1905. p. 22. This panel appears to be very closely 
related to the Grado ivories; a little niche with a hanging 
lamp and a pierced screen below almost repeats those on the 
Milan St. Menas, the recumbent Virgin recalls the standing 
firture in the Trivulzio Annunciation, and the ornamentation 
of the couch recurs on the arch in the Milan Consecration 
[Pl II, vi]. Migeon dates it sixth-seventh century: but it 
is difficult to judge from the publfshed reproduction whether 
it can be by the same artists as any of the Grado ivories. 

5* L.c, p. 435. 


RV R. L. 



^--i^^^ac-rC) oHf wlio compares our large coi- 
U lOwr^ )) li'ilioiis of I'airopean and C'liinesi- 

l^tVX^N iH>ivt"lain can fail to notice the rela- 
tive preponderance of statuettes and 
i:froups of fitjures amoncf the western 
wares, it is not that llio Chinese lacked in anv 
way the aptitude for this kintl of ceramic work. 
They have, on the contrary, shown exceptional 
skill in figure modelling when they have turned 
their attention to it. The scarcity is due rather 
to the limitations which they have voluntarily 
imposed on their choice of .subjects. If we ex- 
clude the Buddhist and divinities and a 
few deified mortals, Chinese figures in human 
form will be exceedingly rare. \'or is the Ea.stern 
modeller restricted only in the range of his sub- 
jects. Any individuality he may possess is apt 
to be obscured by the enforced observance of 
conventions and set types. The genre figures 
inspired by everyday life which offered a limit- 
less field to the European modeller have been for 
the most part neglected by the Chinese. The 
result is that the rare exceptions of this type 
have a greatly enhanced interest; and it is 
refreshing to turn from the superhuman dignity 
of Buddhist saints and the exaggerated ferocitv 
of demon faces to such naive and lifelike repre- 
sentations as those illustrated in Plate I. 

Modelled with a simple directness which cap- 
tures our immediate sympathy, this lady and 
gentleman are so obviou.sly human and Chinese 
that they seem to bring us into intimate touch 
with Chinese familiar life. Their gaily brocaded 
costumes, which show incidentally how little dif- 
ference there is in China between male and 
female attire, are just those of two well-to-do 
persons in " Sunday dress ". The man wears 
a pigtail unconcernedly thrown over his left 
shoulder, showing that he at least felt no resent- 
ment against the Manchus who imposed this 
fashion of headdress; and in his right hand he 
carries what appears to be the shaft of a ju-'i 
sceptre. The characters ju i mean "as vou 
wish ", and the good-luck sceptre to which they 
give their name was a suitable gift at marriages, 
on birthdays, and at the New Year. The ladv 
carries a lotus frond in her right hand and a bud 
in her left, which may or mav not have a 
religious significance; and her hair is neatlv 
coiled upon her head. 

To the porcelain collector the technique of 
these figures is of no little interest. While much 
of the enamelling is on the biscuit, the decorator 
has not hesitated to insert patches of glaze where 

his projected colours would re(]uire thai medium 
for their proper development. Thus in the man's 
costume the yellow of the under robe, the green 
of the over garment, and the green, yellow, 
aubergine and violet blue of the brocade flowers 
area[)plied direct to the biscuit, while the patches 
of glaze are decorated with underglaze blue and 
overglaze coral red and gold. The hair and a 
few other details are black. The hands and face 
are biscuit with a thin wash of almost colourless 
green, and the raw biscuit emerges only at the 

The dress of the companion figure is similarly 
treated. Her coat of brilliant leaf green is bro- 
caded with chry.santhemum flowers and covers a 
garment of aubergine ; and her under robe is of 
very pale brownish green brocaded with lotus 
scrolls. The colouring throughout is exception- 
ally good; and both figures are modelled in a 
delightful naturalistic style without any trace of 
stiffness or conventionalism. They are cleverly 
built up so as to stand on the bases of the robes 
and the feet which emerge in front, without the 
aid of rock or tree trunk or any other adven- 
titious support. Three smaller figures of the 
same type are illustrated by Gorer & Blacker,' 
and there is another in the Salting Collection in 
the \'ictoria and Albert Museum. 

On the right and left of Plate II is a pair of 
covered jars which may once have formed part 
of a set of five. They have a form and plan of 
decoration which one associates with some of the 
finer K'ang Hsi blue-and-white ; but here the 
design is expressed in rich famille verte colours 
with a predominance of coral red. The centre 
of the field is occupied by the well known " rose 
and ticket " pattern without the tickets; but the 
large rose-peonies are not white, but violet, blue 
and aubergine, lighted occasionally with gold, 
and the foliage scrolls are pale green, 
while the pulsating blue ground is replaced 
by a rich mottled red. This design is 
enclosed by two deep bands of lappets 
shaped like the head of the jii-i staff, with stiff 
leaves between, each member of the pattern 
being edged with blue and filled with arabesque 
flowers in a pale green ground. On the 
shoulders are symbols : and there are borders of 
brocade diaper. The necks and covers are decor- 
ated to match. Vases of the same type and size, 
though by no means common, are to be seen in 
the celebrated collection of Augustus the Strong 

i^Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones, PI. XC. One is 
described very unconvincingly as a Kuan-yin and the otlier two 
as court ladies. 




Plate I. Figures of a Chinese lady and gentleman, famille verte porcelain. Height (ot lady) 14" 
K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. Leonard Gow.) 


v .— 







at Dresden and among the ornaments at Buck- 

ingham Palace. 

Between these two jars is one of those hand- 
some square, club-shaped vases which are 
usually decorated with pictures of the flowers of 
the four seasons. In this case the facets are 
painted with varieties of the beautiful prunus 
design. On two sides we have the prunus with 
birds, and on the other two the prunus and 
moon, a[5parcntly representing the lovely tree by 
dav and night. Ornamental rocks and graceful 
bamboos are the usual adjuncts. This frequent 
but never stale design had long been a favourite 
with Chinese artists. Dr. Ferguson' describes 
a well-known scroll in which "the Prunus is 
painted in its four stages of development — first 

- Outlines of Chinese Art, Chicago, 1918, p. 237. 

with wintry branches, then with flowers and no 
leaves, again with flowers and leaves, and lastly 
in its spring appearance. A pair of birds appro- 
priate to the period of development is found in 
each of the four paragraphs." He tells us 
further that a picture of birds hovering over 
branches of prunus and hibiscus was painted by 
Chao Ch'ang in the eleventh century. The 
porcelain printers delighted in rendering these 
pictures, as on our vase, in the beautiful famille 
verte enamels against a background of graded 
black pigment washed with transparent green. 
The decoration of the neck of the vase consists 
of birds and rocks and flowering plants; and on 
the shoulders there is a brocade pattern of 
peonies in a yellow ground. Under the base is 
the K'ang Hsi mark in a sunk panel. 


ROMISCHE UND RoMANISCHE Palasti-, by Karl M. Swaboda. 
279 pp. Illust. (Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co., Vienna). 
40 m. 

This is a learned historical investigation into 
the development of domestic architecture roughly 
from the ist century to the 12th. The author 
traces the descent of palace and villa design from 
the original hellenistic forms at Pergamon and 
Priene. He points out how the peristyle was 
the dominant feature, and added to it the occiis 
or living-room with its prostas or verandah, a 
combination similar to the arrangement of a 
templum in antis. He finds a relation to this 
type in the Domus .Augustana at Rome, and 
shows how the Roman town house elaborated 
the earlier forms with the atrium, courtyard and 
great peristyle garden ; as for example the house 
of the Faun at Pompeii. Seneca and Cicero 
are produced as witnesses and help us to under- 
stand how the great Roman villas were really 
town houses in the country, like the villa at 
Chiragan (Garonne). Next we have the portico 
villa, a smaller type generally and often a rect- 
angle with an open colonnade down one side. 
Details at Silchester illustrate it. Another 
development is the U-form, like the Golden of Nero and the villa at Tetingen, and 
the combination of this with both the portico 
type and the peristyle. Admirable plans and 
some photographs from mosaics illustrate the 
argument. The fusion of the portico-type with 
the U-form became the dominant form and 
developed by shortening the portico between 
the wings and by withdrawing the wings them- 
selves to mere massive blocks of building to the 
important " Portikusvilla mit Eckrisaliten." 
This type, the author shows us, continued to the 
end of antiquity and beyond. There is a good 
example of it at Mansfield Woodhouse and 
another in the great villa at Hennig. The palace 

at Flie.ssem is important as it multiplies the 
standard plan to great elaboration. Local tra- 
dition became strong about 500 a.d., and though 
a faint reflection of the underlying type is some- 
times apparent, cross influences almost obliter- 
ated it. The Palace of Diocletian at Spalato 
shows the influence of military requirements, and 
in North Syria and Asia such buildings as the 
villa at Djemmerin and the Pandocheion at 
Tourmanin show an almost complete indepen- 
dence. However, the author labours to include 
them in his pedigree, and thereby wearies the 
reader. In chapter vi, for instance, the Fondaco 
dei Turchi at Venice is brought up as a building 
absolutely based on late Roman villa plans, 
owing to the arrangement of its facade with two 
rows of arches (Portikos) between two solid 
masses of buildings (Eckrisaliten). The author 
lavs so much stress on the similarity as to sug- 
gest that the architect of the building was guided 
only bv the desire to follow tradition. 1 think 
it much more probable that the arrangement was 
dictated bv the necessity to concentrate the max- 
imum amount of light into the centre of the 
building from a flat front on a crowded street. 
One might as well say the south front of the 
Piccadilly Hotel was based on later Roman villa 
designs and not on the necessity to light the back 
of the Regent Street rooms. This book then 
suffers from the burden of a difficult argument, 
and is less valuable therefore to architects than 
to historical students. The latter will be inter- 
ested in the notes on Carolingian castles with 
which it ends. A. s. G. B. 

The Vasari Society for the Reproductions of Drawings 
BY Old Masters. • Second Series. Part I. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. 1920. 

We compliment the Vasari Society firstly on 
the reappearance of their Portfolio in a convenient 
size, and on their attention to humdrum practical 


deuiil, siuli as tlu' iiiilitv of tlu-ir tlesiiiptive 
notes. These, now issued in t)Ota\\>, can really 
be referred lo with ease. Secoiuliy, we are ylacl 
of the wider range of tlie drawings reproduced. 
Though the more modern drawings may be re- 
garded as an earnest of future policy as mucii as 
in tliemselvcs a complete |)erformance, we are 
grateful. Too often learned Societies fall to 
attaching a superstitious and specialist import- 
ance to drawings because tliey are old or puzzling 
or rare. None of these considertaions really 
reconciles one to poverty of aesthetic stimulus. 
\\'e can conceive, for instance, no interest other 
than academic being whetted by the antiquarian 
attractions of tlie Hausbuch Master's Stained 
Glass design or the unknown Paduan's Knight 
in a ]]'ood. Nor is the example of tlie usually 
over-rated, if fashionable, Altdorfer likely to 
quicken perception. But, on the other hand, the 
Portfolio is worth while for a number of fertilising 
influences. Foremost we rank I.eonardo's Rider 
on a diilloping IJorsc ; and Rembrandt's .S^/'/'c')' 
al Emmaiis (" and He vanished out of their 
sight "), surely the most efficient expression in 
all art of spiritual imagination. The suggestion 
of corporeal matter swifilv translated into ghostly 
passing light is miraruious; the rendering of the 
disciples' natural amazement unique. Next we 
place Van Dyck's brilliant note of actually seen 
landscape. In comparison Corot's Landscape 
Study, the Gainsborough compositions and Cor- 


City Churches. — We have received a con- 
siderable number of signatures from readers and 
their friends who wish to support us in our appeal 
in favour of the retention of Wren's Churches, 
but we know that many who are of our opinion 
in the matter have not vet sent in their names. 
We shall be grateful if readers -will do so now, as 
"we -wish as large a list of names as possible. The 
appeal to the Lord Bishop of London is framed 
in the most moderate and friendly spirit, and no 
hesitation need be felt by those who sympathise 
with the difficulties confronting the Church. The 
words " City Churches " with signature and ad- 
dress on a postcard is sufficient. A list of signa- 
tures will be published later. In the meantime 
we thank all who have responded. Will those 
who have sent letters in support of our step ac- 
cept our gratitude and excuse any further 
acknow ledgment than this note ? 

Apkii. Exhibitions. — Among the exhibitions 
open during April, a full list of which will be 
found on p. ii of our advertisement columns, are 
those of the R.B.A. and the R-S.W. Messrs. 
Colnaghi will exhibit water colour drawings by 
Muirhead Bone and D. S. MacColl. The Fridav 
Club are showing at the Mansard Gallery and 
the Goupil Gallery have a collection of Modern 

reggio's rei'i])e notes are uncniixincing. They 
ajjpear mere ri'pelilions of lircd itlcas, ain.uh' in 
the artists' heatls, rather than (he mettlesome 
expression of some discovery which generated 
new imimlse. Blake's famous River of Life 
seems to us to li.ill : ii is not a spontaneous or 
"aulornalic" transciiption, made as it were under 
|)oss('ssion of a living vision, so much as a careful 
morning reconstruction of a dimly remembered 
dream. And we confess that the " suburban " 
George l\"lii l\|ic of Blake's celeslial ligures 
impedes our pleasure h\ imphing either an im- 
perfect apprehension of visions vouchsafed, or a 
parochial invention. Very different in apparent 
authenticity of vision are the Job masterpieces. 
Nor can we honestly declare that the puerility of 
this conception of Paradise makes no difference 
to our estimate of Blake's rank as a Seer. 
Ailmirers of Watts will rightly be confirmed in 
their re.spect by the fine drawing of a J^ude 
ivoman stooping, which holds its own surpris- 
ingly with a Nude by Alfred Stevens: indeed 
it makes the Stevens look a little tame. Rossetti's 
admirers will welcome the tensely characteristic 
Miss Siddal of 1S54. The collotype reproduc- 
tions are excellent. c. H. coij.ins baker. 

The Antiquaries' Journal. — The Journal of 
the Society of Anticjuaries of London. Vol. I., 
No. I. Jan., 192 1. (Oxford University Press). 
5s. We draw attention to this important new 
quarterly and wish it every success. 

British and French paintings. At the Leicester 
Gallery there will be some work by Wyndham 
Lewis, and at the Alpine Club, Modern British 
art. A collection of modern French paintings 
will be on view at the Independent Gallery. We 
reproduce on the accompanying plate one of an 
interesting series of drawings by Marchand in- 
cluded in the last-mentioned exhibition. The 
paintings by French artists which form the 
greater part of the exhibition comprise what is 
perhaps the most important collection we have 
seen at this gallery. The large Matisse oil of 
Skates on the Beach seems to sum up all that the 
artist stands for. Its singular simplicity and 
frankness are repeated in the little picture of 
boats on the sands which is one of the most ex- 
quisite works of art of our day. There is a char- 
acteristic Degas pastel of two dancers, and a 
large unfinished oil by the same artist, in which 
his technique can be studied with unusual ease. 
There are a number of examples of Segonzac both 
in oil and line, an important Frieze, several 
Marchand landscapes with a still life, and the 
drawings just mentioned. Among the other 
exhibits are some examples of Frelaut, an artist 
whose work impresses one more and more as it 
becomes familiar. It will be interesting to com- 










pare the Prench work in oil in this exhibition 
with that by British artists at the Goupii and 
the Alpine Club and with W'yndham Lewis's 
compositions at the Leicester. Perhaps a com- 
parison between the Marchand, Frelaut, and 
Segonzac drawings at the Independent with tlie 
drawings by Muirhead Bone and D. S. MacCoU 
at Messrs. Colnaghi's Gallery will prove even 
more instructive. R. R. T. 

Max Dvorak. — The .study of art in German 
Austria has suffered a serious loss by the un- 
timely death, on February 8th, of Max Dvorak, 
Professor of the history of art in the University 
of Vienna, in his 47th year. He was generally 
recognised as the ablest of the band of scholars 
trained bv Wickhoff, whom he succeeded in the 
professorship. Though a Czech by race, he was 
devoted to Austria, and resisted last year the 
temptation to desert that afflicted country and 
become professor at the newly revived university 
of Cologne. As president of the Commissions 
for Museums and for the preservation of State 
monuments and editor of the publication, Oester- 
reicbisclie Kunsttopo graphic, he took an active 
part in the studv of monuments of art in all the 
Austrian provinces, and, since the war, in pro- 
tecting those which remain to Austria, in the 
narrower sense, from the threat of foreign 
spoliation. His best-known work, probably, 
is Das Rlitsel der Kunst dcr Briider Van Eyck 
(1904), a lengthy essay published in the Jahrbuch 
of the Imperial collections. He also wrote a 
monograph on the Palazzo Venezia, edited the 
writings of Wickhoff, and edited the Jahrbuch of 
the K. K. Central-Commission, and an excellent, 
but short-lived, periodical, KunstgeschichlUchc 



Dear Sir, — May I be allowed to say through 
your columns that the students of this college 
are raising £6,000 for extending and for paying 
off the debt on their athletic ground at Perivale? 
It is proposed to raise funds by means of an 
auction sale of books, MSS., pictures, prints, 
drawings, textiles, furniture, etc. The staff of 
the Slade School, which is part of the college, 


MkSSRS. SOTIIKHY, WILKINSON & HoDGR will Sell, at 34, 

New Bond .Street, on 7th and 8th April, Japanese colour 
prints anxJ Chinese and Corean drawing's and works of art, 
the property of Arthur Morrison, Esq., of Miss Josephine 
Richardson, of Sir Edmund Backhouse, and of Admiral 
James Ley. 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodc.i; will sell at 34, New 
Bond Street, on 15th April, furniture and textiles, v.-irious 

Messrs. Sotiieby, Wilkinson & Hodge will sell, at 34, 
New Bond Street, on 22ind April, embroideries, tapestries, and 
carpets and Old English and coiUinrntal furniture, the pro- 

Anseigen, which maintained the Wickhoff tradi- 
tion of fearless and trenchant exposure of shal- 
lowness and empty phrases in art criticism. His 
learning, sound, humane and wide, was by no 
means confined to Austrian subjects. The few students who had the privilege to know 
Dvorak will cherish the memory of a lovable per- 
sonality, with a delicate sense of humour and an 
engaging smile. campbell dodgson. 

Adolf Hildebrand. — The recent death of 
the sculptor, Adolf Hildebrand, at a ripe age 
(for he was born in 1847) calls at least for a 
brief mention in the Burlington Magazine. 
His work is not perhaps widely known outside 
Germanv, though many travellers must recall the 
big Wittelsbachbrunnen in Munich, and some 
the more modest and attractive Brahm.sdenkmal 
at Meiningen. But in his ideal figures (mostly 
done towards the beginning of his career) and 
still more in his portrait busts, he revealed a plas- 
tic imagination of very high quality. The sculp- 
ture of "the Italian Renaissance, by which he was 
much influenced, appealed at once to his love 
for realism and his craving for simplified form, 
and the best of his busts, whether in marble or 
in terracotta, are not unworthy of the successors 
of Donatello. Hildebrand paid deep attention to 
the theory as well as to the practice of his art, and 
his short but highly compressed and in conse- 
quence rather difficult book. The Problem, of 
Form in Art (which has been translated into 
English) is of permanent value as a contribution 
to .-esthetic theory. eric m.\clagan. 

Dr. De.\rmer's new course of free lectures on 
Gothic Art will begin on Wednesday, May 4th, 
at King's College, Strand. 

and the students of which use the athletic ground 
actively, are co-operating. I hope this letter 
will meet the eye of many who can bring them- 
selves to part with some item, perhaps a dupli- 
cate, from their collections. I shall welcome 
offers sent to me at LIniversity College, London. 
Those who give will be helping University 
education on sound and healthy lines. 
Yours truly, 
Walter W. Seton, D.Lit., F.S.A. 

perty of the late Edwin Abbey, R..\. ; a fine Chippendale 
commode, two famille rose vases, and a series of six panels 
of F'lemish tapestry, the property of Lady Leveson ; a William 
and Mary lacquer cabinet, a rare central Persian carpet, 
c. 1600, etc. The sale includes (Lot 128) part of a wonder- 
fully fine example of Flemish tapestry representing a Roman 
triumph. Even in its mutilated condition it is a thing of the 
rarest beauty, which should be examined by all who are 
interested either in applied art in general or in textile work 
in particular. Other lots are of similar interest. 

Messrs. Ward, Price & Co., Scarborough, will sell on 
24th, 25th, and 26th May, the furnishings, etc., of the Tudor 
mansion house. Gwydyr Castle. The sale will include six- 


teonlh century and eighteenth cenliiiy furniture, etc., which 
is all of a more or loss sumptuous and ix>nd<-rous naturt-. 
Lot 88 consists of a riMiiarkalilc series of panels, chimney 
piece, and frieze. The work was carried out in 1040 and is 
alleged to be by Inigo Jones. \ piece of curious interest is 
the John Wynn's Court cuplx»ard (Lot 7S) naively designed in 
Ciothic style. 1-ot 1 1 j is a walnut armchair whose rtorid 
bulk rather reminds one of the throne of one ol Wagner '> 
heroes. It has the Russian Royal arms on (he li.ick and is 


i'iii>/i<(i/n)".« ■■<inru)( be iiuludcd luie unless tliey have 
must be staled. Publications not coming within the scope 
prices are slated. 

Serial i'ublicalions will be arranged here according to 
number of foreign serials actually received wilt be entered, 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive. 

Kelix .Alcan. 

TiLD (JE.^N). Goya. I.a Collection .\rt et Et-lhetique. 142 
pp. + 16 pi. to frs. n. 
Phillip .Allan. 

Edwards (Trystas). The Things ^vhich are .Seen, ^jf) p|>. 
Illus. in Text. i8s. 
Joseph Baer & Co.. Frankfurt. .A.M. 

Rosenberg (Marc). Zellenschmelt^. 80 pp. Illus. in 
text. 690 mks. 
M. Bav(;s. Barcelona. 

CiERVo (Joaquin). EI .\rte y el I'lrir de Forliiny. 
42 pp. + 105 pis. 
Bell & Son. 

Litchfield (Frederick). .Intiques Genuine and Spurious. 
278 pp. + 48 pis. Coloured Frontispiece. 2Ss. 


Orbaan (J..\.F.). Miscellanea delta R. Societa Romana 
di Storia Patria ; Vol. VI. Documenti sut Barocca in 
Roma. 660 pp., and in addition, 6 large plates of views 
of ancient Rome. 


Some Contemporary English .\rlisls. in pp. + 22 P'- 
2S. 6d. n. 
Cambkidc.e University Press. 

Hervev (Mary). The Life of Thomas Howard Earl of 

Arundel. 562 pp. + 23 pi. 63s. 
Jackson (Sir Thomas CiRAHAMJ. Byzantine and Roman- 
esque Architecture. 2nd edition, vol. I, pp. xxii + 274; 
vol. II, pp. viii + 286. 171 pis. (5 in colour), 153 ills, 
in the text. ;^4 4s. n. 
Shakespeare, Iol. /. The Tempest. Ed. Sir A. Quiller 
Couch. 116 pp. + 3 pi. 7S- 6d. Tlie art of artistic 
type-spacing having almost vanished since the war, it is 
a great plea.sure to be able to draw attention to a new 
edition of Shakespeare in -which the production of the 
book is worthv of the contents and of the scholarly 
labours of the editors. The volume is free both from the 
slovenly ugliness of half-skilled workmanship and from 
the still more objectionabe flamboyance and silliness 
apparently inseparable from the " decorative " reprints 
of our greatest literature. 
Jonathan, Cape. 

Sheridan (Claire). Russian Portraits. 202 pp. + 24 pi. 
los. 6d. 
Edouard Champion, Paris. 

Lami (Stanislas). Dictionnaire des Sculpteurs de I Ecole 
Fran^aise au dix-ncuvieme siecle. Vol. IV, 378 pp. 30 fs. 
Chapman & Hall. . ., j 

Ward (J.). History and Methods of Ancient and Modern 
Painting. Vol. V. 344 pp. + 24 pi. 15s. 

Mayer (.August L.). Matthias Grimewald. 92 pp. + 62 pi. 
.\rchitektur und Kunstgewerbe in .ilt-Spanien. 24 pp. + 
176 pi. 
Pfister (Kurt). Rembrandt. 56 pp. + 47 pi. 
Gazette des Beaux-.Abts. Paris. 

Bricon (Etienne). Les Trois Salons de 1920. 88 pp. 
67 illus. in text and one wood-cut. 

Felice (Roger de). Translated by F. M. Atkinson. 
French Furniture under Louis XVI and the Empire. 142 
pp. + 64 pi. Coloured frontispiece. 4s. 6d. n. 
Henri Laurens, Paris. 

RtAU (Louis). L'Art Russe Des Origines d Pierre le 
Grand. 387 pp. + 104 pis. 40 frs. 

slated to have be«^n made by Peiej ilie Great. Among a 
large number of other cosily ^■xanlple^ is a gorgeous bed 
" on which Uilh (Juren Eli/alielh and Charles I. sU-pl." 

iMisSKS. t'liRisriE, Manson \' Woods will sell al S, King 
Street, on 2()lh, 27lh, and jSth April, arms and armour, earl) 
English oak and tapestry. i:olleclion of the late Morgan 
Williams, Esq. Lot 38, early war harness from ihe Biard- 
MUire I'ollection ; Lot 2^, th<- Viking sword found near Wesl- 
minstir Hridgi' ; and many other lols ,iii' of snpn ine inleresl. 

been delivered before the lOlh of the previous month. Prices 
of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the 

the ordinary periods of their publication, and only Ihe latest 
in order that foreign editors and publishers may learn which, Berlin. 

Grantoff (Otto). Die Fran::osische Malerei Seit, 1914. 
50 pp. + 40 pi. 
.Alexander Morino. 

FiNBERG (.Alexander J.). The First Exhibition of llie New 
Society of Graphic .-Irt. 8 pp. 2S. 

Baldwin Brown (G.). The Arts in Early England. Vol. 

V. 420 pp. + 43 pi. and ills, in text. 30s. 
Gregory (Ladv). Hugh Lane's Life and Achievement. 
240 pp. + 10 pi. i8s. 
Cecil Palmer. 

Richmond (Sir William Blake, K.C.B., R.A.). Demo- 
cracy — False or True? 172 pp. 6s. 
Oxford University Press. 

Gardner (Percy). A History of Ancient Coinage. 700-300 
B.C. 456 pp. -f II pi. 18s. n. 
Seeley, Service & Co. 

Vicat Cole (Rex). Perspective. 279 pp. Copiously illus- 
G. Van Oest & CiE, Brussels and Paris. 

Errera (Isabella). Repertoire des Peintures Dati'es. Vol. 

1, PP- 4S1- 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Kendrick (.a. F.). Catalogue of Textiles from Burying- 
Grounds in Egypt. Vol. I, Graeco-Roman Period. 
142 pp. + 33 pi. 5s. 

Warren & Son. 

Le Couteur (J. D.). Ancient Glass in Winchester. 160 
pp. -H 40 pi. and s plans. 8s. 6d. n. 


Weekly — Architect — Le Journal des Arts. 

Fortnightly — Le Bulletin de I'Art ancien et moderne — 
Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosity — Kleinmobel Korb und 
Kunstgewerbe — Der Kunstwanderer — Mercure de France — 
Revista del Centre de Lectura Reus. 

Monthly — L'Amatore d'.Arte, I, II — The .Art Trade Journal, 
189, XVII — The Bookplate Chronicle, 6, i — Bulletin of the 
Cleveland Museum of Art, 2, xviii — Bulletin of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, N.Y. 2, xvi Bulletin of the 
Minneapolis Inst, of Arts, 2 — Bulletin of the Worcester 
Art Museum, 4, xi — Der Cicerone, 4, xiii — Dedalo, 9, i — 
The Diagonal, g, i — L. 'Esprit Nouveau, 5, i — (iazette des 
Beaux Arts, 5, in — Kokka 368 — Rassegna D'.Arte, 2, viii 
La Revue de I'.Art ancien et moderne, 223, xxxix — \'ell i 
Nou, 10, II, I. 

Bi-Monthly — L'.Arte i, xxiv — .Art in America, i, 2, ix. 

Quarterly — The Cambridge Magazine, 2, x — The Journal 
of the Imperial Arts League, 43. 

Annually — Jahrbuch der Preuszischen Kunstsammlungen — 
Kunstmuseets Aarsskrift, 1920 — The Year's .Art, 1921. 

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Portrait of a Mnii, said to be Titus, the son ot Rcmbranat. ^Sf by 32^. (Prince Yussupoff) 

Plate I. Two Rembrandt portraits 

nlji 1 ORIAL : Ch 


arid the ISui^ 

) uce on ar 

I - which !■ 

subject of a contro^• 
columns of the "Obv 
Hugh Blaker wrote 
indignant letter in which he sta!> 
pictures, which he had offered on lo. 
foreign section at the National Ga!l« 
Art, had be-^n r> ■ ' Mr. 
director, rep'ie.; :r. :;atory v 

out that til '11! for f 

foreign •■ ■' ''"'"' '• 


some offered on 
r-n from time to 

pi, : as gilts and 

The position ilien would appear ; 
two Cezannes ' either {t, n 

theii ')!i;ility, . 'here is no • 

x\x ;i) because the conditions of loan 

in ■' roncludiftg sentence of M 

At; ";s to imply that the quality > ■ 

the Cezannes is not up to the Tate standard. 
The fact that one of then?, the landscape, has 
already been reproduced in The Burlington 
Magazine is a sufficient comment on our opinion 
regarding it, and it will be apparent, even from 
the plate on page 214, that the still life is an 
equally characteristic and important example of 
Cezanne. As for there being no room for them, 
— which is the reason formally given — in a large 
collection like that at Millbank, room can be 
found for any two small pictures if they are 
re-lily wanted" And as regards the conditions of 
loan ; the pictures are stated to have been offered 



ten. I 


jar a t 

lor an indefmif 
;he property, W" 
Davies, whose di^ 
are, of course, ^'^^ 
lis almost to .'^. 

■ • -ise wc 
. But 
e we h.' 





howe\ ■ 
Hut brs 

'ig inob- 

};, .... .icxt issu' 

pictures will be on 
therefore take this ftnril opportunity ^ 
ing readers that the N uneless Exhibit 
opened at the Grosvenor Gallery 
Our aim has been to I'-' 
of British art unn- 
pictures that p 




will be 



. > select 


V the 


I onks, 

.^r as 

s will 

od of 


..; be 

ity, for 



Magazine. No. 

Pi)/7/ < 'Liii, said to be i itus, tnc ^on ut KcmDiuii^t. 38f by 32^. (Prince Yussupoff) 

Plate 1. Two Ktr.i^irAuut portraits 

EDITORIAL : Cezan?je and the Natioii 


E reproduce on another page two 
C^zannes which have been the 
subject of a controversy in the 
columns of the "Observer." Mr. 
Hugh Blaker wrote a wise and 
etter in which he stated that the 
pictures, which he had offered on loan to the new 
foreign section at the National Gallery of British 
Art, had been rejected. Mr. Aitken, the 
director, replied in a conciliatory vein, pointing 
out that there is no room for more than a few 
foreign pictures until the new wing is built. He 
adds that " for sufficient reasons " and " except 
in special circumstances " offers of pictures on 
loan will be refused, and that the whole gallery 
already contains twice as many pictures as can 
be shown. The absence of any Government 
grant is also spoken of ; and the letter ends with 
the assertion that, for the reasons stated, the 
trustees must " weigh carefully the quality of 
pictures offered as gifts and the conditions of 
proposed loans." 

The position then would appear to be that the 
two Cezannes were rejected either (i) because of 
their quality, (ii) because there is no room for 
them, or (iii) because the conditions of loan were 
impossible. The concluding sentence of Mr. 
Aitken 's letter seems to imply that the quality of 
the Cezannes is not up to the Tate standard. 
The fact that one of them, the landscape, has 
already been reproduced in The Burlington 
M.'\GAZINE is a sufficient comment on our opinion 
regarding it, and it will be apparent, even from 
the plate on page 214, that the still life is an 
equally characteristic and important example of 
Cezanne. As for there being no room for them, 
— which is the reason formally given — in a large 
collection like that at Millbank, room can be 
found for any two small pictures if they are 
really wanted. And as regards the conditions of 
loan ; the pictures are stated to have been offered 
simply " for an indefinite period." Moreover, 
they are the property, we are permitted to say, 
of Miss G. Davies, whose disinterestedness and 
generosity are, of course, beyond dispute. Mr. 
Aitken seems almost to say " I don't think we 
can take loans because we must reserve our 
space for purchases. But we cannot make 
purchases because we have no money." He 
certainly implies that, with an occasional excep- 
tion, none but the unconditional gift — always a 
jara avis — can be accepted. 

Experience, however, has shown that the 
surest way of encouraging gifts is to welcome 
suitable loans. But besides the Cezannes, many 

other modern French pictures, some offered on 
loan and some as gifts, have been from time to 
time refused, and the fact that most of the largest 
collectors — among whom a strong feeling un- 
doubtedly exists — are known to be willing to 
lend examples, makes the policy of refusing 
loans hard to defend. One of the best collections 
to be found anywhere could, it is felt, be rapidly 
formed free of cost. What these collectors and 
others ask is that modern French art should be 
shown alongside the other pictures at Millbank, 
then if after continued examination they come to 
be condemned, they can at worst be returned to 
their owners. Now that it is decided that 
there is to be a foreign section it would surely be 
well to welcome really heartily the aid of the 
collectors, who at any rate have for many years 
studied this section of painting with the faith 
and passion through which alone, successful 
collecting, private or public, becomes possible. 
Although, of course, the opinion of such 
enthusiasts varies greatly regarding the relative 
merit of the painters of modern France, all have 
come to an agreement about Cezanne, who was 
born as long ago as 1839, is universally re- 
cognised as the father of the whole movement, 
and is now given a place in great public col- 
lections throughout the world. A Gallery of 
Modern Foreign Art without Cezanne is like a 
gallery of Florentine art without Giotto. 

"T/ie Nameless Exhibition 

?HE arrangements for our exhibition 
of Modern British Art of all schools 
are progressing most successfully. 
Before our next issue appears the 
pictures will be on view. We 
therefore take this final opportunity of remind- 
ing readers that the Nameless Exhibition will be 
opened at the Grosvenor Gallery on May 20th. 
Our aim has been to leave no tendency or school 
of British art unrepresented and to select 
pictures that are as characteristic of their authors 
as possible. With these objects in view the 
work of selection has been placed in the hands 
of Mr. Charles Sims, R.A. of Professor Tonks, 
and of Mr. Roger Fry. In order as far as 
possible to dispel prejudices, the artists will 
remain anonymous during the first period of 
the exhibition, but their names will be divulged 
before the last two weeks. The hanging will be 
carried out in a similar spirit of impartiality, for 
the maintenance of which The Burlington 
Magazine holds itself responsible. 

The Burlington Magazine, No. iiS, Vol. xxxviii. May, 1921. 




T will be a relief to all lovers of art 
to know that the two portraits of a 
man and woman which were the 
i^lories of the Yussupoff Collection 
at Petrograd are safe. During the 
Russian revolution they were securely stored in 
London, where they still remain. By the kind- 
ness of Prince Yussupoff we are able to repro- 
duce them in the The Burlington Mag.azine. 
In the present case we have suspended our 
ordinary rule of reproducing only new or 
scarcely known work, first because works of 
such supreme importance and beauty can hardly 
be too well known, and secondly because the 
reproductions in text-books on Rembrandt 
(excepting of course Dr. Bode's monumental 
and expensive work) give but little idea of the 
extraordinary quality and subtlety of such works 
as these. It is generally futile to say of any 
work that it is the finest that a particular master 
ever produced, but it is true that these two 
portraits stand alone in the aetivre of Rembrandt. 
At the end of his life, when he had at last 
attained to supreme mastery, Rembrandt was a 
lonely and unsuccessful man, neglected by the 
great world which had once admired and em- 
ployed him. He had to look for models in the 
immediate circle of his family. He himself 
indeed became his best and most constant sitter. 
For the rest there were humble old men and 
women who may have had nothing better to do, 
or humble bourgeois families like those in the 
Brunswick " family group." From a purely 
aesthetic point of view this want of choice in 
Rembrandt's sitters is of no consequence what- 
ever, but the fact that for once at so late a date 
as 1660 Rembrandt was commissioned by this 
unknown gentleman and lady does mark out the 
Yussupoff pictures with a singular if onlv acces- 
sory charm. For in this case clearly the models 
themselves had distinction and a certain magni- 
ficence of bearing that Rembrandt has made use 
of as only he could. 

Rembrandt had so miraculous an instinct for 
the characteristic that he could, one imagines, 

have discovered an expressive design from any 
conceivable material. Certainly at the end of 
his life he found such again and again from 
the stiff rheumatic poses of old cronies, from 
the clumsy ungraciousness of their limbs and 
the dumb wooden pose of their hands. 

But here for once he had other material. 
These two persons have not, one must admit, 
the supreme elegance and " scioltessa " of 
Branziows' aristocrats. Something of the thick- 
ness and phlegm of the Dutch character is there, 
but they have the poise and balance of well-bred 
people. In response to this, Rembrandt has 
here developed a more sweeping silhouette, a 
more flowing rhythm in the lines and a general 
sense of amplitude and ease that give to these 
two pictures so singular a charm. 

It is perhaps in the hands that this peculiarity 
is best seen. The man's hands have a certain 
facility for gesture as of one who could be 
eloquent at moments, and in the woman's there 
is the quality of repose without deadness. They 
express admirably the same mood of gentle 
reverie and abstraction that the poise and ex- 
pression of the head also suggest. For the rest, 
even from the accompanying reoroductions the 
reader may guess that these works have all the 
supreme qualities of Rembrandt's mature style. 
The profound understanding of plastic form, the 
fulness and intensity of the modelling, the per- 
fection of the mhe-en-page — all these are 
apparent enough. What, however, we cannot, 
alas, convey is the great beauty of the colour. 
In this, too, what distinguishes the Yu.ssupoff 
portraits is the peculiar charm — the delicious 
quality, the sweetness of the greys and blacks, 
and the luminosity of the flesh. Fortunately 
these peculiar examples of Rembrandt's maturest 
activity are admirably preserved and in almost 
perfect condition. It may be rash to hope that 
at such a time as this some great English col- 
lector will come forward and retain them, but 
nothing could be more desirable for the future 
understanding of art in this country. 



HERE are not more than a dozen 
portraits known, which were painted 
by Hans Holbein between the years 
1515 and 1526, if we omit the 
portrait-group on the Darmstadt 
Madonna. This fact is all the more singular, 
when we realise the great number of portraits 

he painted in his later years. Still we may 
assume that Holbein was even then considered 
a master in this branch of art. 

A portrait has recently been discovered in 
England, which in my opinion belongs to 
Holbein's early time, the size of the picture, 
21 inches by 14J inches, shows the importance 


Portrait of a Wonirui, said to be the wife of Titus, the son of Rembrandt. jSf by 32^'. (Prince Yussupoff) 
Plate II. Two Rembrandt portraits 



Landscape, bv Paul Cezanne. (Miss G. Davies) 

l^'-s^^-r^-^fiJI".'"" '""1 

Still-life, by Paul Cezanne. (Miss G. Davies) 

Editorial. Cezanne and the Nation. 

attached to the sitter and the effort the artist 
made to make it a masterpiece. There is a good 
impasto and modeUing of form and colour. The 
man is sitting behind a table with his right arm 
resting on a thick red cloth of coarsely-woven 
material, showing a geometrical pattern in blue, 
vellow, brown and white. His left hand grips 
the edge of the table and pushes the cloth into 
folds. The face is turned three-quarters to the 
right and is lit from the left side. He wears a 
close-fitting cap, made of plaited gold cord, 
such as was worn by rich men in those days.' 
His thin dark brown hair already shows 
traces of grey. His blue-grey eyes are 
vivacious. It was one of the characteristics 
of Holbein's work that he could give the 
moisture and the mobility of an eye. His 
strongly-formed nose is modelled like a piece of 

sculpture and shows with the chin and massive 
neck a strong personality. On the dark violet- 
grey sleeves is a beautiful damask pattern of 
greenish-black flowers. A sleeveless jacket has 
a brown fur collar and is trimmed with black 
braided stripes. 

1 Stephen and Lucas Baumgartner in Durer's altar piece 
at Munich; Jakob Fugger in Durer's portrait (1520) at 
Munich and tjie same in the coloured woodcut of Burgl<mair. 
See Lijtzow, Geschichte des deutschen Kupferstichs und 
Hohschnitts, Berlin, 1891, p. 184. 

More attention has been given to the head 
than to the hands, which are painted somewhat 
stiffly. The architectural oackground of the 
picture is formed by an arch, through which one 
sees a brilliant blue sky like the one in the 
Meyer ^ portrait. The renaissance arch is in 
grisaille, the design of which occurs in a draw- 
ing by Holbein on a book-title of 1517,^ which 
he further enriched with garlands. Sculptures 
crown the two side pillars; mermaids in profile 
are put on each of them. Out of the large crown 
of each mermaid streams a mass of hair like a 
flame. Cupids clasp the bodies of the mermaids. 
These identical figures, which he also used in his 
Lucerne time for the book-title as well, again 
appear on Holbein's authentic sketch for the 
facade-painting of the Hertenstein House, where 
these peculiar sculptures ■* are put on both sides 
of the arched doorway of the 'chief entrance. 

The newly-discovered portrait marks a stage 
in young Holbein's development, of which we 
hitherto had no proofs. In these years 
Holbein began to find his own way, but the 
transition goes on so slowly, that it is extremely 
difficult to distinguish the different hands of the 
father Holbein and of his two sons. The 
Darmstadt portrait of a young man ' (1515) and 
that of the painter Hans Herbster in Basle 
(1516), given formerly to Hans, are now 
assigned to his brother Ambrosius, as are the 
two boys in the Basle Museum. These pictures 
show quite a different linear arrangement, a 
variegated, more decorative style and a greater 
delicacy of expression. A resemblance in the 
colouring and the manner of drawing between 
the two brothers, is not surprising, if we con- 
sider, that the two sons trained in their father's 
school arrived at a point, where they can only 
be distinguished and separated by the 
psychological differences of temperament and 
artistic comprehension. In spite of the youth- 
ful strength and firmness of execution, in many 
places this picture shows a harshness and an 
awkwardness only explicable in a young artist, 
not yet quite able to deal with such a ceremonial 

The picture is painted by a man, who was 
first and foremost a designer and inventor, a 
man who found his joy in pattern and intricacy 
of line, a man rich in ideas and with great 

2 Diptych with the portraits of Jakob Meyer, burgomastei 
of Basle, and his wife, 1516, in the Basle Museum. See 
Ganz, Hans Holbein d.J. (Klassiker der Kiinst XX), pp. 12 
and 13. 

3 This book-title, given by Woltmann to Ambrosius 
(Vol. II, p. 205) was made by Hans Holbein the Younger 
for the printer Frobenius ; first published in March, 1517. 
See Hans Koegler, Monatshefte fiir Kunstwissenschaft. 
Vol. IV, p. 397, and Heitz 30. 

* Arthur B. Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger. 
London, 1913. Vol. I, p. 68, and the facsimile reprod. in 
Ganz, Les dessins de Hans Holbein le Jeune. Geneve, 1921. 
Vol. II, PI. IX, 13. 

' See Ganz, Klassiker, pp. 203 and 204. 


facility in expressing these ideas. His sureness 
of hand never hindered the translation of his 
thoughts, and he combined with great realism 
an illogical turn of mind, so that he was capable 
of giving a cast shadow on a wall to an orna- 
ment whilst failing to see that the solid body of 
a man cast a shadow. It is only possible to 
explain this contradiction by the hypothesis 
that he completed his decorative wall first and 
painted his figures to it. Frequently the 
figures and their surroundings are as completely 
separated as if thev were stained-glass designs. 
It is typical of Holbein of this period that he was 
more interested in line and pattern than in the 
connection of sitter and background, seen as a 
unity. In what this picture says and what it 
leaves unsaid, there are proofs of Holbein's 
workmanship which make it impossible to assign 
it to another hand. Certainly the use of 
decorated architecture as a background or frame 
for the figures and the idea of an arch over their 
heads was not confined to Holbein alone; but 
in this picture we have the complete development 
of the mermaid and Cupid invention, which was 
undoubtedly used in two instances by Holbein 
in Lucerne. It is most improbable that another 
designer would take a Holbein sketch or a 
Holbein idea and improve it; but it is a logical 
thing for Holbein himself to play with and 
improve on a fantasy which was to his liking, 
and so to develop it himself. The primitive 
idea of the mermaids is on the Hertenstein 
design and its full development and execution 
is here. The picture is instinct with intellectual 
qualities of invention, whilst lacking in the 
broader artistic qualities of Holbein's maturity. 
It is therefore the work of a young man, whose 
rich conceptions are still in a stage of evolution. 
It is again typical of Holbein at this period, 
that his work was emotionless. In his marvellous 
quality as a draughtsman he gives a vivid 
translation of the differences of bone and muscle, 
of soft flesh and hard surface, rendering them 
triumphantly by a shade or a few lines. The 
nuances of colouring are much more variegated 
than on the Meyer portraits, and the highest 
effect is obtained by the marvellous disposition 
of light and brilliant colours. The man's head 
and hands are modelled in a strong light, more 
accentuated than in other parts of the composi- 
tion. The darker parts are cleverly lit up by 
reflections on the sword-handle and the gold 
chain, so that the wonderful play of various 
colours animates the whole picture. The com- 
position is not spontaneous, not seen as a whole. 
It shows that the beautiful decorated arch would 
have to be larger, so as to have a correct pro- 
portion with the head. However, if the arch had 
been larger the quantity of the blue in the sky 
would have been too great for the flesh colour of 

the face and the gold and russet of the figure. In 
the stained-glass painting of 1517 of I'lccken- 
slein in Lucerne,' the sculptured figures of the 
liackground have their shadows, whilst the 
human ligurcs arc shadowless. In this picture 
the interest the designer shows in the ornament 
is quite equal to the interest he takes in the 
man. T^ven the colouring is projDortioned as a 
designer would weigh and t)alance it, and this 
is one of the great characteristics of Holbein's 
work at this time. 

Again, Holbein loved to give the quality of 
surface of what he saw; the differences of fur, 
metal, cloth, silk, marble, delighted him, and 
one sees here the joy in subtly analysing his 
brocade, his rough table-cloth, his gold chain, 
his plaited gold, and the quality of the skin of 
his model, framed in by the hard arch and its 
sharp-cut ornaments. 

There is a portrait in the collection of Count 
Lanckoronski (the only one known with 
certainty as a work of Hans the Klder) which 
also shows a man turned three-quarters face put 
against the light blue sky, framed in by a square 
renaissance window.' It is dated 1513. The 
inscription, " Johannes Holbein in Augusta 
bingebat," is on the second half of the diptych, 
to which the portrait belongs. This is a 
Madonna and child in the collection of Prince 
Montenuovo at Vienna. The portrait has all 
the typical qualities of the father's work : a 
plain, almost weak perception of the human 
being, empty, dry ornaments, but a harmonious 
colouring without contrasts. Our portrait 
seems to have still nearer relationship to the 
Sebastianaltar in Munich, about 1516, which 
once stood in the Dominican church at Augs- 
burg.* The enamel-like brilliancy of the colour, 
as well as the renaissance ornaments on the two 
wings, have at first sight a great resemblance 
with the colouring and ornament of the newly- 
found picture. As soon as we compare the two 
paintings more closely, we verify a number ol 
variations only to be explained by the different 
perceptive faculties of the two artists. The one 
is content with the decorative beauty of the 
form, the other enlivens it. 

If we compare the newly-found portrait with 
the first of Hans Holbein's, dated 1516, we may 
reasonably ascribe them both to the same hand. 
In the double-portrait of the burgomaster Meyer 
and his wife we find the same colour problem, a 

• See Ganz, Les dessins de Hans Holbein le Jeune, Vol. I, 
PI. V. 4. 

' See Campbell Dodgson, Burlington Magazine, 1908, 
p. 37. The " Madonna " is reproduced in \V. Suida, 
Oesterreichische Kunstschdtze, Wien, 1911, Vol. I, PI. 27. 

8 The altarpiece was long attributed to Hans Holbein the 
Younger. See Karl Vol!, Die Meisterwerke der kgl. alteren 
Pinakothek zu Munchen, Hanfstdngl, 1905, and Fiihrer dutch 
die Alte Pinakothek. Munchen, 1908. 


Portrait, attributed to Hans Holbein the younger. 21" by 14^-" 

A Portrait bv Hans Holbein the Younger. 


.4 Portrait of a Girl, attributed to Carel Fabritius. 21I" by 17" (Miisee des Beaux Arts, Ghent) 

Plate I. Two attributions to Carel Fabritius. 

head put against a light blue ground. The 
headdress and the gown of Meyer's wife are 
painted with the same exactitude and observa- 
tion as the details of the new picture. The 
hands, with the nails so very typical for Holbein 
the younger, are nearly as stiff as in the Meyer 
portrait, and the modelling of the head, so full 
of life and character, is already much better. Our 
portrait is contemporary and very near to the 
Mever portraits, but it surpasses them. The 
same can be said about the portrait of ^ Bene- 
dict von Hertenstein at the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York. There Holbein tries to 
put the man into the space, and he solves the 
problem by a clever composition. In spite of 
the happy outline the face is flat and less 
animated than the strong plastic head of the 
man, whose bearing is that of a ruler, with an 
iron will. 

All this leads to the conclusion that the 
portrait is one of Holbein's early period, and 
that it was probably painted at Lucerne. More- 
over there have been found traces of the date 
1517, and of an inscription in the middle of the 
arch. The portrait of Bonifacius Amerbach '" 
(1519) already shows Italian influences, which 
are not yet visible in our picture. 

Should not the two mermaids which Holbein 
also painted about the year 151 7 above the 
great entrance-door of the Hertenstein house 
connect us with the man, who then was 
Holbein's patron ,the burgomaster Jakob von 
Hertenstein ? He worked for him through the 
years 1517 and 1518. The arms on the ring 
are not distinct enough to identify the man, nor 
can we base any conclusions on the so-called 
portrait of the burgomaster, attributed to 
Holbein the elder. ^' This picture exists as an 
original, with an inscription added much later, 
and in two copies. The inscription is incorrect 
in certain details, and so the identification of 

^ See Chamberlain. Vol. I, p 72, plate. 

10 Se« Chamberlain. Vol. I, p. 86, plate. 

11 Formerly in private possession in Buonas Castle near 

this man with Jakob von Hertenstein is probablv 
incorrect also. 

We know from Ulrich Hegner that Hans 
Holbein the younger painted the portrait of the 
burgomaster Jakob von Hertenstein. It was 
still in the possession of the family in the year 
1826. According to another record it was sold a 
year later by the last of the family at Basle. 
From there it may have passed into one of the 
foreign collections, as well as Holbein pictures 
out of the Barfiisserkirche in Lucerne. They 
were sold to England by the painter Marquard 
Wocher, and that may be the channel by which 
our portrait came to London. This picture 
appears later in the century in the collection of 
Wynn Ellis, the famous English collector. It 
may well be that he bought it in Basle or soon 
after it left Switzerland. 

We know Jakob von Hertenstein from the 
wall-painting in the rooms of the Hertenstein 
house." There he is pictured hawking accom- 
panied by his two sons and his wife on horse- 
back. The son Benedict could even be recog- 
nised from the bad copy, made in the year 1823 
just before the demolition of the house. This 
copy helped to identify the person in the New 
York portrait. 

Jakob von Hertenstein is also to be recog- 
nised ; his heavy square body, his short neck 
and his round head with the strong nose and 
the round double chin, are very like the portrait. 
He also wears nearly the same cap. Between 
Benedict von Hertenstein in the New York 
portrait and the old powerful man in our picture, 
there is certainly a family resemblance not only 
in the structure of the head, but also in the 
setting of the eyes and in the form of the nose. 
In conclusion we believe in the hypothesis that 
the man in our picture painted in Lucerne, and 
showing the same mermaids as the Hertenstein 
house, is most probably Jakob von Hertenstein, 
the powerful protector of Hans Holbein the 

12 See Ganz. Glassiker, p. 155, 2. The copies are in the 
Biirgerbibliothek in Lucerne. 


MONGST the numerous pupils of 
Rembrandt, many of whom pro- 
duced works of enduring quality, 
eclipsed only by the transcendent 
genius of their master, none is of 
greater importance than Carel Fabritius. The> 
intrinsic merit of certain of the pictures un- 
doubtedly from his hand raises him to the fore- 
most rank of Dutch painters. Who can deny 
the quality of the Goldfinch [Plate III, d] in 

the Mauritshuis at the Hague ; the Music Seller 
which is, or was in the collection of the late Sir 
William Eden ; the Portrait of a Yoiing Man 
[Plate III, c] in the Boymans Museum at Rot- 
terdam ; and the Soldier at the Gate [Plate 
IV, f] in the Schwerin Gallery ? Certain phases 
of his art cause one instinctively to associate 
him in quality with Vermeer of Delft and with 
Rembrandt, his best work being actually com- 
parable with certain authentic examples of those 


mighty masters. Rembrandt, like all great 
geniuses, was unoqual ; he had his uninspired 
moments when lie spoke more in the language 
of the teohnitian than the aesthete. 1 his is 
chielly observable in what might be termed his 
transition years between 1635 and 1648, when he 
was evolving from his early period with its 
directness and restraint, and ridding himself of 
the exigencies of popularity ; when the degrad- 
ing inlluence of wealthy patronage was finally 
giving way before the quest for the sublimely 
abstract quality of his later manner — the full 
and mature expression of his genius. 

Carel Fabritius also was unequal. In spite 
of their interest, as authentic examples of his 
work and their fine craftsmanship, the portrait 
of Ahraliam de Xotte [Plate IV, e] in the 
Rycks Museum at Amsterdam and the Tobias 
and His Wife at Innsbruck can hardly be 
said to be of as great aesthetic worth as 
other productions of his brush which have 
descended to us. These two examples 
have been equalled, if not surpassed, by 
Barend Fabritius. Among the most striking 
of such works by that painter is a picture which 
was, and perhaps still is, in a private collection 
in Belgium, and which is ascribed by its owner 
to Carel Fabritius. 

We must nevertheless be grateful that time 
has spared the Amsterdam and Innsbruck 
pictures, for their absence would seriously 
reduce the small number of examples generally 
accepted as being unquestionably from Carel's 
brush. Of higher aesthetic worth are the two 
portraits of men, one formerly in the DelarofT 
collection at Petrograd ; the other, noted in the 
erudite work on the master by Dr. Hoftstede de 
Groot, as being then in his possession, I know 
only from the reproduction. But if Carel 
Fabritius had painted nothing better than the 
Delarofif picture, we should not be justified in 
claiming for him the elevated rank in seven- 
teenth century painting which is his due. There 
is a lack of inspiration in the portrait, a certain 
absorption in the technical side of his art, occa- 
sioned probably by the task of portraying a 
sitter with whom he was not in much sympathy. 

What a contrast we find when we compare 
this work with the magnificent portrait at Rotter- 
dam. Here Fabritius seems to rise to the level 
of Rembrandt in his best period. The picture 
was indeed for long attributed to Rembrandt, 
and it was as late as 1859, as Dr. Hoftstede 
de Groot informs us, that Carel Fabritius's 
signature was discovered hidden beneath the 
frame. In this portrait Fabritius exhibits 
a breadth and vigour of handling, a 
supreme sense of unity, and a profundity 
of abstract appeal which places him among 
the very first of the Dutch painters, and 

justifies us in proclaiming the picture to be his 
masterpiece. It is interesting to compare it 
with the Music Seller and the Soldier at 
Schwerin in order to see how l'"abritius could 
adapt his manner of paintmg to works of 
smaller dimensions, whilst still retaining 
cohesion and force of presentation. If a painter 
of less capability than Fabritius had attempted 
to paint the Music Seller, the technique of such 
a work would inevitably have been petit. But 
what a sense of power and concentration he 
succeeds in imparting in so small a space, and 
this in spite of meticulous attention to detail I 
How exquisitely every object is drawn. Some- 
what similar qualities are embodied in the 
Soldier at Schwerin painted two years later. 
Fabritius here shows a rather broader vision 
and the same absorption in the problems of light 
that, in spite of the widely different outlook of 
the two men, engrossed his fellow townsman 
Jan V'ermeer of Delft. 

More akin to the Schwerin than to the Eden 
picture, is the wonderful tour-de-force the Gold- 
finch at the Mauritshuis. This example is 
perhaps the one in which most of the technical 
qualities of the few works known certainly to 
be from Carel's hand are concentrated. It is 
from this, amongst others, that we are justified 
in basing the comparison of technical and 
aesthetic qualities which enables us to approach 
certain other extant works to the artist. 

Amongst these, the splendid Portrait of a 
Girl [Plate I, a], which the Ghent Museum was 
fortunate enough to secure some years ago, 
should certainly be considered. This picture was 
acquired as the work of an anonymous Dutchman 
of the seventeenth century, and on the strength 
of its aesthetic merits alone. The question of its 
rightful attribution has given rise to much dis- 
cussion. The problem has been in a measure 
complicated by certain repaints in the costume, 
the presence and disposition of which have 
probably been responsible for the erroneous 
impression that the picture was left in an un- 
finished state by its author. These repaints, 
however, are far from being of such a character 
as effectually to conceal the identity of its 
creator, or, indeed, seriously to interfere with 
its high artistic qualities. In an article in 
" L'Art Flamand et Hollandais " (October 15th, 
1912, p. 120) Dr. J. O. Kronig is inclined to 
look to Jan de Bray for its authorship. He 
compares it with that painter's works in the 
Haarlem Museum, with a Portrait of an Old 
Woman from the Dahl collection at Dusseldorf, 
and particularly with a pair of portraits 
formerly in the Maurice Kann collection 
in Paris. One of these, the portrait of a 
man, is reproduced in Dr. Kronig's article. 
Dr. Kronig says of it : " Le models des 


B Portrait of a Man, attributed to Carel Fabritius. (Brussels Museum.) 

Plate 11. Two attributions to Carel Fabritius 




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formes, le dessin soign^, le coup de pinceau 
large, mais non souple, les eclats de lumi^re sur 
les paupieres, sur I'arrete du nez, les femmes en 
general plantureuses. Le fond des Regents de 
I'hospice des enfants pauvres (Musee de Haar- 
lem) est du meme gris-pale transparent que 
celui du portrait de Gand, et Ton retrouve dans 
ce dernier ' les tons clairs ' de toutes les oeuvres 
citees plus haut." Dr. Kronig says that the 
Ghent picture, on account of the colouring, and 
particularly because of the pale grey back- 
ground, leads one, at first sight, to think of the 
Vermeer-Fabritius group. But an examination 
of the technique reveals nothing which causes 
him to associate either of those masters with it. 
He misses the fat painting of Fabritius. Further 
he is of opinion that the portrait does not come 
from the Rembrandt but rather from the Frans 
Hals School. 

Prolonged acquaintance and recent com- 
parison with the Haarlem de Brays and a dis- 
tinct recollection of the portraits formerly in the 
Maurice Kann collection fail to convince me 
that the Ghent picture is from the hand of Jan 
de Bray or even of the Haarlem School. 

Carel Fabritius and Jan de Bray are dis- 
tinctly removed from one another in emotional 
expressiveness and technical qualities. De Bray 
painted with more fluidity and achieved his 
modelling by gradually building up. Striking 
examples of his method are the Christ Blessing 
Little Children, at Haarlem, and the Moses in 
the Bulrushes, at Rotterdam. Fabritius, on the 
other hand, attains his effects by the use of broad 
planes — the Rotterdam portrait. Dr. Hoftstede 
de Groot's picture, and the Goldfinch are all 
characteristic examples of his methods, and with 
these the Ghent picture presents striking affin- 
ities. The painting throughout the latter is 
fatter than in any work of Jan de Bray with 
which I am acquainted, and in this respect 
approximates to Fabritius. The quality and 
texture of the background, as well as the high 
lights, strongly resemble those of Fabritius; the 
manner of treating the shadows is reminiscent 
of the Goldfinch and of the portrait at Rotter- 
dam. Further, the general quality, the curious 
incomplete fusion of blue — much favoured by 
Fabritius — in the dress, flesh, hair and back- 
ground, lead one almost involuntarily to 
Fabritius. Again, there is evidence of an abso- 
lutely original compromise between the two 
dominating influences by which Fabritius was 
surrounded — Rembrandt and Jan Vermeer of 
Delft — that of Rembrandt, in the dress especi- 
ally — compare the shirt in Rotterdam. We see 
Fabritius swaying towards Rembrandt in the 

Tobias and the Rotterdam portrait, whereas in 
the Goldfinch, the Soldier at the Gate, and the 
Ghent portrait he exhibits a marked tendency 
in the direction of Vermeer. The evidence of 
this dual influence points distinctly to a Delft 
picture of the time, and further investigation in 
that direction leads one to Carel Fabritius. 

Another portrait of supreme aesthetic quality, 
in the possession of Belgium, also suggests the 
name of Carel Fabritius. This is the Portrait 
of a Man (No. 713) [Plate H, b], which the 
Brussels Museum was fortunate enough to 
secure at the Werner Dahl sale in Amsterdam 
in 1905. This picture has been ascribed to 
Simon de Vos, largely on account of a supposed 
affinitv with the portrait of that painter, which 
is in the Antwerp Gallery, then considered to be 
a self-portrait by Simon de Vos, but since 
known to be a capital work of Abraham de 
Vries. Neither in technique or vision, however, 
have the Brussels and Antwerp portraits any- 
thing in common. 

It is again in the direction of Carel Fabritius 
that we must look for the authorship. There is 
the same quality of opposition between the back- 
ground and the portrait, the same admixture of 
blue in certain parts of the flesh, the ruff, hand 
and cuff, the same sure character of outline in 
the face, mouth, and brim of the hat, the same, 
spontaneity in the painting of the tassels, face, 
hand and hat as that displayed in the Ghent 
portrait. It is instructive also to compare the 
painting of the dress at Ghent and the hand and 
cuff at Brussels with that of the Rotterdam 
portrait. The remains of Rembrandt's influence 
passing across another and intensely sensitive 
temperament is at once apparent. It is possible 
that the Brussels portrait is one of the latest 
we know from Fabritius's hand. The evolution 
from the Notte, the date of which, in spite of the 
fact that it has been tampered with, we can 
assume to be 1640 — to the Music Seller (1652) 
and the Schwerin and Hague pictures (both 
1654) points to the fact that the Brussels portrait 
makes a definite advance towards Vermeer. 

The quality of both these portraits is such that 
no admirer of Carel Fabritius need suffer any 
pangs upon seeing their authorship fathered 
upon him. From their qualities of craftsmanship, 
their power and concentration of presentation, 
the knowledge and facility of painting revealed in 
them, and, what is far more important, by the 
quality of their emotional appeal, they are worthy 
of his highest achievements. Beside them, the 
Amsterdam and Innsbruck pictures fall to the 
level of the work merely of a fairly good painter. 



Persia, even from 

an elaborate structure 

later Fatimites and next 


HE primitive mosijue, a rude 
structure of mud anil palm-trunks, 
gradually developed all through 
the Middle Ages, generally under 
external influence. Assimilating 
from Rome, Constantinople, and 
India itself, it became 
of stone under the 
underwent further 
changes as a result of intercourse be- 
tween Egypt and the Crusaders. The mame- 
luke sultans carried the architecture of the 
mosque to a still higher pitch, culminating in 
the wonderful buildings of Kait Bey and El- 
Ghuri. Lastly, under Turkish dominion, came 
the substitution of Byzantine domes and 
" pencil " minarets for Saracenic motives, and 
the final decline of Saracenic art as a living style. 
During all these centuries, the development of 
the dwelling-house in Egypt and Palestine was 
curiously dissimilar to that of the mosque. Of 
its earlier stages few examples remain, but there 
is surprisingly little difference between the oldest 
surviving houses (of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries) and those built on traditional 
lines even so recently as last century. The 
reason for this apparent stagnation is not easy 
to find. The plan of the mosque was deter- 
mined by the requirements of the Moslem faith, 
which has hardly been modified since its founda- 
. tion. And though life in Cairo as Edward Lane 
described it in the fourth decade of last 
century, was probably more medi.-evnl than in 
any country of Europe, there must have been 
certain alterations in the habits of the people — 
or at any rate of the upper classes — that one 
would expect to see reflected in the plan and 
.style of their dwellings. Certainly no European 
country can show such a slight change in its 
nrchitecture from the Middle Ages to the present 


The factors that have produced the typical 
Arab house, which one sees best in the older 
quarters of Cairo, are partly climatic, partly 
social, and partly religious. In the Northern 
countries of Europe, houses are planned with a 
view to obtaining the maximum amount of sun 
and resisting rain and cold. In Egypt, where 
the annual rainfall is negligible even on the sea- 
coast and practically non-existent in parts of 
the interior, hardly any provision is made for 
resisting the weather. The sudden deluge of 
rain that may descend on Cairo once in a year 
plavs havoc with many of its flimsv modern 
houses in the poorer districts and floods the 
narrow streets of the older quarters. In 

Palestine and Syria, where the winter rains are 
heavy and prolonged, more precautions are 
taken in the construction of roofs, and the old 
streets of Jerusalem are paved with stone, but 
Damascus in mid-winter is a sea of mud. Yet 
the sun in Syria is hardly less powerful during 
the summer than in Cairo, so that the need for 
shade is equally important. The effect of this 
climatic factor on the Egyptian house is seen in 
the provision of an open makad or belvedere 
facing the north, in the use of the maJkaf or roof 
ventilator to catch the cool north wind that sets 
in some hours after sunset in the hot months, 
and in the substitution of unglazed frames — 
filled with musharabiya or ornamental wooden 
lattice-work — for glazed windows. The need for 
plentiful cold water, so vital as to be hardly com- 
prehensible to an untrayelled Briton, but a very 
real need to any man who has served in an 
Eastern campaign, is met by the placing in the 
open courtyard of a well or fountain, in larger 
houses by a similar though more ornamental 
fountain in the great reception-room, and in all 
houses by shaded and ventilated shelves in the 
7nusharabiya windows for the porous clay jars 
in which the inhabitants of Egypt keep cold 
water for drinking. It is perhaps the remark- 
able suitability of the Egyptian house to the 
exacting demands of the climate that chiefly 
explains the slight change in its development 
through hundreds and even thousands of years, 
for on old frescoes at Thebes, more than thirty 
centuries old, may be seen pictures of houses 
provided with a makad and a malkaf, facing 
north. There are some things in Egypt, — the 
shadoof, the sakkiya, and the sails of the Nile 
boats, — that never change. 

The extreme simplicity of Oriental domestic 
life is dictated partly by the great heat that 
prevails. Even a mediaeval castle in Europe 
contained a fair amount of portable furniture — 
tables, chairs, carved oak chests, and so on. 
There was usually an elaborately decorated fire- 
place with logs. The walls were panelled with 
wood or hung with tapestry. The age of the 
Tudors saw a great advance in comfort and com- 
plexity, and by the times of the late Stuarts an 
approach had been made to modern conditions. 
Nowadays the word " furniture " almost pre- 
supposes upholstery, while carpets and curtains 
are regarded as elementary necessaries of life. 
It is only of recent years that tables, chairs, 
curtains, mirrors, fireplaces, wall-paper, iron- 
mongery, sideboards, framed pictures, and- 
" knick-knacks," have been introduced into 
Cairo to disturb and vulgarise the austere sim- 


















































3 -C 
O t^ 


plicity of the Arab house. Originally it was 
designed to meet the requirements of an exact- 
ing climate. The rooms were stark naked, 
according to our European ideas, devoid of up- 
holstery, carpeted only w-ith a few mats of good 
design, and furnished only with divans. But 
they were cool. 

The third factor dictating the arrangement of 
the Arab dwelling is to be found in the various 
precepts of Islam. First among these is the 
injunction that the women of the household, 
veiled when they go abroad, should be invisible 
at home to all male visitors save their own men- 
folk. The rapid Europeanisation of Cairo has 
made the veil little more than an added attraction 
to the charms of the Egyptian women, who 
display more than was ever intended by the 
founder of their faith. But the privacy of the 
older Arab house is so contrived that no modern 
innovations can effect much alteration. It is so 
built that a visitor on entry has to pass a door- 
keeper, then an angle in the entrance-passage 
that prevents any outsider from gazing into the 
house, and lastly a locked door from the inner 
courtyard that gives reluctant access to the 
women's portion of the house. The rooms 
towards the street on the ground-floor are very 
seldom entered by women, but the windows are 
placed so high up in the wall that even a 
passer-bv on camel-back cannot see within, and 
the musharabiya bays and windows above allow 
the women to see out while not becoming visible 
themselves. The house is so planned that none 
of its windows look into any other house, nor 
can the courtyard be seen by any neighbours 
from their roofs or windows. From one point 
only is it possible to look into these jealously- 
guarded abodes, and that is from the top of a 
lofty mosque-minaret. It is for this reason alone 
that the office of muezzin came to be the prero- 
gative of blind men only. There was no great 
novelty in this segregation of women. It was 
practised among many primitive races, especially 
in the East, and both Greeks and Romans 
favoured it to some extent. But only among 
Moslem and other Oriental nations has it per- 
sisted so long, and in Cairo its fate is sealed. 

The comparative scarcity of notable mediaeval 
houses surviving in Egypt and Palestine is due 
to some extent to superstition. It was generally 
held that the house in which any man had died 
was unlucky, and should never again be 
inhabited. For that cause the mameluke sultans 
and emirs preferred to build their palaces of 
ephemeral construction as compared with their 
mosques and city-wallSj and to concentrate all 
their energies on decoration. The uncertainty 
of life during this period may surely have been 
a contributory factor, for the existence of the 
Cairo courtier was apt to be a very transient 

one, and if he never knew from day to day when 
an assassin might cut short his career, he was 
hardly likely to waste much time in building his 
own house. It was part of his fatalism to take 
no thought for the morrow. 

Before proceeding to a detailed examination of 
the historical development of the Arab dwelling, 
we may well pause to visit an imaginary house 
in Cairo, such as has been described at various 
times by competent writers, and such as may 
still be found in odd corners of that wonderful 
city, preserved, without serious modification 
from its original state, by the care of the 
" Comite " or by the zeal of some cultured 

The exterior of the building is bare in the 
extreme. One side only, as a rule, faces a street, 
and that street is narrow. In such an example 
as the so-called " House of the Kadi," only the 
elaborate makad or belvedere remains, and that 
formerly stood within an enclosed court, not, as 
now, on a wide thoroughfare. This severity of 
external treatment is due partly to the constant 
faction-fights among the mamelukes that often 
made the streets of Cairo dangerous, partly to 
the narrowness of the street itself — giving no 
view and allowing of little fresh air — and partly 
to the concentration of all decoration in the 
private part of the house, invariably grouped 
round an internal court. But in spite of modern 
ideas of hygiene there is something to be said 
for these narrow alleys between towering houses 
that nearly touch overhead. Except at mid-day, 
they are always shady and cool. Moreover, they 
protect one to some extent from the khamsin 
wind and the sandstorms that sometimes sweep 
through the city. The wide boulevards at 
Khartoum, laid out in accordance with British 
ideas, offer little protection against either sun 
or sandstorm. 

The lower part of the external walls is faced 
with the fine limestone obtained from the neigh- 
bouring Mukattam hills, carefully dressed and 
with fairly narrow joints. The upper part, 
except in the earliest examples, is of lighter con- 
struction, usually of brickwork filled in between 
wooden posts, or, as we call it, "bricknogging." 
This frequently overhangs the stone sub- 
structure, and in such cases is supported by great 
stone corbels or wooden brackets, boldly 
designed and placed at short intervals. These 
brackets form the most picturesque feature of 
many a Cairo street. The overhanging upper 
part is usually plastered in Cairo, though not, 
as we shall see later, in all other towns of Egypt. 
Sometimes the substructure is formed of 
alternate layers of red and white stone, as in the 
case of many of the mosques. From the main 
wall-face project, as a rule, one or more of the 
magnificent oriel windows, filled with mush- 


arabiya or lattice, that have already been men- 
tioned. These are characteristic of Saracenic 
architecture, but especially of the architecture of 
Cairo, where they are treated with a wealth of 
fancv and a beauty of desijjn not found else- 
where in Egypt and Palestine. They may be 
said to fulfil a triple object. In the first place 
the word vmsharabiya means " a place for 
drink," ' and, more precisely, a place where 
drink may be kept cool, hence a place protected 
against the sun, yet well aired, for the greyish- 
white porous clay water-jars, known as 
" Efoolas " or " zias " and made chiefly in 
I'pper Egypt. These vessels have the pro- 
perty of keeping water surprisingly cool in 
the hottest weather, if shaded and placed 
near a current of air. They may stand 
in a large latticed oriel, or in a small oriel 
projecting from the front or ends of a larger one, 
or even from a large lattice flush with the wall, 
this latter type being by no means uncommon. 
The second object fulfilled by these musharabiya 
windows is to prevent pas.sers-by, or neighbours 
in houses across the street, observing the women 
of the household within. The lattice is formed 
of small turned bars of wood, often of great 
beauty and design, arranged in squares or 
diagonally, the di.stance between the centres of 
each pair of bars varying from \\ inches to 
if inches. This spacing fulfils the third object 
of the lattice, for it enables the women within to 
watch the traffic in the street below and the 
frequent processions and street-ceremonies that 
in former times were almost the only events in 
the world without that penetrated to the eyes of 
the ladies of the harim. Where the musharabiya 
lakes the form of an oriel, there is frequently a 
flat lattice above it. [Plate I, a]. Windows are 
not, however, always of this form, and some- 
times gratings of iron or of turned wood bars 
are used approximating in size to the leaded 
lights of houses in England in Elizabethan 
days . 

The top of the fac^ade to the street is usually 
quite plain, but occasionally one finds a crested 
battlement such as was used in mosques of the 
fifteenth or sixteenth centuries. The roof is 
invariably flat, and is constructed of palm 
trunks covered with cement or mud. The chief 
feature of most fa(;-ades is the entrance doorway, 
often decorated with the arms of the owner, with 
a verse from the Koran in ornamental 
characters, or occasionally with a stuffed animal 
such as a young elephant or a crocodile. The 
latter objects are supposed to ward off ill-luck, 
and thus show a superstition akin to the fear of 
the " evil eve " in Southern Italy and other 
lands. These doorways may have pointed heads 

iThe word "sherbet" now .Anglicised, has the same 

with Huted moulding round them, a stalactited 
head as is so often found in the porches of the 
manu'luke mosques, or, most commonly of all, a 
scjuare or segmental head formed of elaborately 
joggled voussoirs surrounded by a delicate inter- 
lacing moulding. The characteristic fastening 
of the door is a wooden latch called a dabba, of 
absurdly primitive design, with small iron 
pins that slip into small holes. ' A mediieval 
burglar would have no difficulty in dealing with 
so childish a contrivance, and Edward Lane 
naively observes — " It is not difficult to pick 
this kind of lock." At nights the door is secured 
by another mediaeval survival, a heavy bar right 
across its width. Outside the doorway there is 
frequently a mounting-step and an iron ring for 
tving up one's mount. 

Entering the house then, by fair means or 
foul, we find further access guarded by the 
boab — a doorkeeper or concierge — who sits just 
inside the doorway on a stone or wooden bench 
(a mastaba) in the narrow and dark entrance 
passage. This passage always has a right- 
angled turn in its length before it reaches the 
inner courtyard, so that instead of a glimpse of 
a cool cortile with sunlit orange-trees within, 
such as so often provides a delightful surprise in 
Roman or Genoese streets, our prying gaze is 
confronted with a frowning blank wall of stone. 

If our credentials are good, we pass the boab 
and the angle in the passage, and find ourselves 
in the real heart of the house, the hosh or inner 
courtyard. No rule can be given for the shape 
or dimensions of this court, but it is often 
approximately square. On the ceremonial 
occasions that occur in better-class Egyptian 
households a great tent-cloth or awning, with 
red and blue patterns on a cream or buff ground, 
such as is still made near the Musky, is hung 
over the whole area of the court, and the 
turbaned guests of the host sit round with 
cigarettes or pipes to listen to flowery Oriental 
oratory or the curious syncopated music of the 
country. No women are ever present in the 
court on such occasions, or indeed on any 
occasions when a stranger might be admitted. 
In the centre of the court is often a well, whence 
the brackish water of the Nile that percolates 
I'.nder all Cairo is drawn, or occasionally an 

namental fountain occupies this position. 
Round the court are grouped the servants' apart- 
mpots (such as they are) and the stables for any 
animals — horses, donkeys, even camels — that the 
owner may possess. The floor of this court is 
paved, but a tree — often a palm — frequently is 
found there, very seldom a garden as we under- 
stand the term. For ordinary business, visitors 

* See excellent illustration in Lane's Modern Egyptians 
(1914 edition), p. 20. 




— -Ci 

E S 


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D O 

o ;i; 



of no great social standing are received in a room 
or alcove called the takhtabosh. This is a square 
recess of which one side, towards the court, is 
open, and in the middle of this side is usually 
found a pillar to carry the floor of the rooms 
above. The takhtabosh is fur.i'^hed with a lon^- 
wooden sofa or dikka on one, two, or three of 
its walls. It is usually one or two steps above 
the level of the court. The latter is sprinkled 
with water during the summer months. [Plate 
II, c] 

Visitors (and by this is implied male visitors 
only) of any importance are, however, received 
in a much more pretentious apartment, the 
mandara or reception-hall. This room is usually 
lofty, and in one important case at least its 
central portion rises to the height of three 
storeys. It consists of a central portion, the 
durka'a, into which one steps on entering the 
room, and one or more liwanat or alcoves raised 
a foot or less above the level of the durka'a. 
Before one ascends into a liwan, on the 
courteous host's invitation, one removes one's 
shoes, for the floor of the liwan is carpeted. 
Where two or three liwanat are found, as in the 
largest houses, the same effect is obtained as in 
the medresa or cruciform mosque, for the ceiling 
of the durka'a is often higher than the rest. The 
ceilings of these State apartments are always 
their chief ornament, formed of heavy beams of 
dark-coloured wood placed about a foot apart, 
stop-chamfered, carved and gilt, or of 
geometrical interlacing panelling in intricate 
designs. The walls are usually quite bare, 
whitewashed and plastered. The floor is 
frequently paved with marble mosaic, and in the 
centre of the room is often an ornamental 
fountain, the faskiya. In the walls are recesses 
for ornamental cupboards, usually shallow, with 
arched openings for vases, and delicately carved 
and panelled doors. There is sometimes a suffa, 
a marble or stone sideboard with an arcaded 
front where are placed the few but often very 
beautiful vessels required for Arab hospitality. 
The only remaining articles of furniture are the 
seats. These in their simplest form consist of 
" divans," long stuffed mattresses on the floor, 
on which host and guests sit cross-legged. But 
sometimes these mattresses are placed on a 
frame of palm-sticks (serir), commonly known 
in Cairo as " affass-work," or on turned legs 
connected by a wooden framework and rails. 
On these divans or seats are laid cushions. The 
divan is commonly about a yard wide, and the 
cushions about a yard square. Sometimes the 
divan is placed in a small recess or sidilla. In 
summer the floor of the liwan is covered with 
the palm-leaf matting so largely used in the 
more sacred part of the mosques, and with mats 
laid upon it, but in winter carpets are added. 

Of movable furniture the only example gener- 
ally used is a kursi, a small and very low poly- 
gonal table made of wood, often richly inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl, ivory, and ebony. The 
only utensils commonly found in such rooms 
are a brass basin and ewer for ablution, water- 
bottles, coffee-cups, and vessels containing 
perfume, all of which stand on the sufja. This 
somewhat detailed description of the appearance 
and contents of a mandara indicates that in its 
simplicity it represents the taste of the architect 
rather than of the upholsterer. 

Occasionally one finds in the hosh a small 
private mosque, containing a mihrab niche, 
and separated from the courtyard by a latticed 

On an upper floor is situated a makad or 
belvedere, in all houses of the larger sort. This 
is the most attractive feature of the Arab house, 
and closely resembles the loggia of an Italian 
palace. It is an open-air sitting-room or 
verandah, often 8 or lo feet above the level of 
the hosh, and used as a reception-room for male 
visitors. Invariably it faces north for coolness 
sake. The front to the hosh consists of an open 
arcade, usually of two, three, or four slightly 
horse-shoe arches, stilted, on stalactite capitals 
and supported by plain or spiral columns of 
limestone or marble. Between the bases of 
the columns is fixed a low balustrade of 
musharabiya lattice. In the best examples the 
ceiling is lofty, coved, and richly carved and 
decorated, the favourite colours — if colour is 
used — being dark blue and gold. In some cases 
the makad is sheltered from the sun by a great 
eaves carried on carved brackets. A flight of 
steps leads up from the hosh to the makad, the 
latter thus forming an ante-room to the more 
domestic parts of the house. And although the 
makad is essentially a male apartment, the 
women of the harim are occasionally permitted 
to watch the happenings therein through a 
musharabiya communicating with one of their 
own rooms. [Plate II, c] 

From the makad the next step towards com- 
plete penetration of the house is the entry into 
the ka'a, the largest chamber in the house. In 
nearly every case this is an imposing and very 
lofty hall, consisting, like the typical mandara 
just described, of a central durka'a, which is 
higher than the two liwanat. In the centre of 
the ceiling of the dwkaa is a small lantern- 
cupola (memrak) with musharabiya sides, pro- 
viding both light and ventilation. Other 
latticed openings are often found in the 
clerestory of the durka'a roof. The beams of 
the gorgeous ceiling are carried on great 
stalactite consoles. The walls are for the most 
part plain, decoration thus being concentrated 
in the ceiling where it is sufficiently distant not 


to trouble the eyes, but a high dado of colourt-d 
marbles is often found, and the floor is similarly 
paved. A central fountain is sometimes used, 
and if so is always ornamentally treated. Like 
the nuiiidara, the ku'u contains laltiird windows, 
a suffa, and recessed cupboards with elaborately 
panelled doors. Round the upper part of the 
walls runs a narrow shelf of wood, used to 
display the owner's china, and thus supplying 
a feminine note. In fact the ka'ti corresponds to 
a modern drawing-room, and at the same time 
is the Ultima Thule of favoured visitors, who 
may be scrutinised through a lattice by the 
ladies of the household. Ihis is the exact 
prototype of the grille in the Ladies' Gallery 
in the English House of Commons. The recent 
removal of the latter interesting survival shows 
that we are several years ahead of Moslem 
Cairo in that respect at least. 

Except for the master's office or study adjoin- 
ing the makad, the remaining apartments on the 
upper floor constitute the harim. 1 his misun- 
understood term properly includes both the 
women of the household and the rooms they 
occupy. It signifies " set apart," and simply 
means the private apartments used by the 
owner and his family, as opposed to the recep- 
tion-rooms where male guests and business 
visitors are received. The word is even painted 
on the op-^n portions of tramcars and the com- 
partments of railway carriages that are reserved 
for women, thus implying no more than our 
" Ladies only." In a Cairo house, a separate 
doorvvay usually leads from the hosh to the 
harim, this doorway being ornamentally treated. 
The smaller rooms are loftier than in this 
country, 14 feet being a usual height. The 
wood used in their ceilings gives harbour to 
bugs, which are very prevalent in Cairo. The 
walls are often painted with clumsy representa- 
tions of Mecca and other subjects, but these 
are of late workmanship. Until recently there 
were no rooms furnished as bedrooms in our 
sense of the word. The bed simply consisted 
of a mattress, resting on one of the palm- 




N one of his charmingly-written 
studies of the enamel-painters of 
Limoges,' Monsieur J. J. Marquet de 
Vasselot has described the work of 
an anonymous artist known to the 
world only as the author of a series of plaques, 
unsigned and undated, illustrating incidents 

1 Une suite d'^maux limousins k sujets tirfe de I'En^ide 
(Bull, de la Soc. de I'Histoire de I'Art frangais, Patis, 1912). 

Stick frames or crates already described, and 
was placed in a recess during the daytime, thus 
allowing the room to be used as a parlour. 
But in the matter of furniture, the upper and 
inidille of Cairo have adopted European 
ideas to a large extent, notably in the arrange- 
ment of their bedrooms. 

The bathroom of a Cairo house has one 
notable characteristic, a small domed ceiling 
of cement, pierced with glazed circular openings 
for light. This practice is somehow remini- 
scent of Rome. The baths are heated in the 
same way as the public baths, and even those 
who have a private bathioom in their o\\ n home 
frequently resort to the public baths for 
purposes of amusement. Of the sanitary 
arrangements even in the larger houses the 
less said the better, though it may be remarked 
that it is perfectly possible to modernise the 
systems existing in the old Arab mansions 
without in any way infringing Moslem 
traditional custom. The historic houses of 
Cairo have no fireplaces. Their inhabitants 
shiver round a brazier, when the temperature 
in winter drops, and on the rare occasions when 
snow falls they suffer greatly. Of the means 
employed for ventilation, mention has already 
been made. The vialkaf or roof-ventilator 
resembles in appearance the top of a staircase 
leading on to the flat roof of a modern building 
in England, but with this difference, that it is 
not closed at the top by a door. It invariably 
faces north. Sometimes an open summer 
sitting-room, the jesaha, is found in the harim 
part of the house. 

The only remaining features requiring notice 
here are seldom found except in the larger and 
older houses. The makhba or strong-room is a 
hiding-place for treasure. The bab es-sirr is 
an entrance to a convenient secret passage, con- 
necting the house direct with the street, and 
thus allowing the master to escape from justice, 
vengeance, or assassination, or, conversely, 
according to the best authorities, to enable a 
paramour to enter the harim. 


from the Aeneid of Vergil. Though not paint- 
ings of the first order, these works are not 
without attraction by reason of the balance and 
harmonious richness of their colours, in the 
choice and arrangement of which a certain con- 
servative tendency is apparent. The chromatic 
composition of the series carries on the tradition 
of which Nardon P^nicaud was the greatest 
exponent ; the gilt stars and clouds with which 


A The 
can til." 

sienal for war uiven l)\ rurniis from the citadel of l.aurrniuni. " Rauco strepuerunt cornua 

B The sacrificial feast of Evander before the walls of Pallantiiim interrupted by the arriv, 
and his fleet; Pallas, son of Evander, challenging Aeneas, who answers from the poop of 
" Turn pater Aeneas puppi sic fittur ab alia 

d of Aeneas 
his vessel. 

Plate I. Limoees Enamels of the Aeneid series at Alnwick 



C Pallas conducts Aeneas from the ship to his father. 
in hues it " 

'• Exccpitqiic manu dextramque amplcxits 





T-iK; T 


■/ iV ■ 




D Evander relating to Aeneas how Fauns and wild men once dwelt in the land. " Haec nemora 
indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant " 

Plate 1 1 . Limoges Enamels of the Aeneid series at Alnwick 

in many of the plaques the sky is brightened 
are in accordance with the practice of the late 
Gothic school at Limoges. The archaic aspect 
of the series is emphasised, as we shall see, by 
the source from which the designs are drawn. 
At the same time there are not wanting, in 
the treatment of some of the subjects, signs of 
awakening Italian influence, and a technical 
feature, the fondant, or wash of colourless 
translucent enamel, with which the plaques are 
covered on their back, in place of the thick 
purplish enamel of early times, shows that their 
date is not as early as might at first sight be 
thought. It may be fixed in the neighbourhood 
of 1530. 

As M. Marquet de Vasselot has shown, there 
are certain peculiarities which give to the series 
a place apart in the history of Limoges enamel- 
ling. Whereas from about 1515-1520 onwards 
the copying of engravings was the rule amongst 
the Limoges painters, it is extremely rare to 
find an enameller basing his work on the illus- 
trations of a book and reproducing them 
systematically one after another, as in the 
present instance. Nor is any other case known 
of so large a series of panels of virtually uniform 
size, undoubtedly intended to make up a set and 
destined for an identical purpose. Triptychs 
and other arrangements of plaques with religious 
subjects are of common enough ; sets of 
small plaques framed together, such as the 
splendid series of the life of Christ by Jean H. 
Penicaud at South Kensington, are not unusual. 
But here we have the unique case of a suite 
numbering upwards of sixty panels. As the 
learned conservator of the enamels at the Louvre 
has pointed out, the destination of such a suite 
appears to be indicated by the mention, in an 
inventory of the effects of Catherine de M^dicis, 
of a " Cabinet des emaux " decorated witii 
enamel paintings set in the panelling of the 
apartment. It is highly probable that the 
Aeneid series was executed to the order of a 
single individual for a parallel destination. 

As long ago as 1867, twelve plaques shown at 
the Paris Universal Exhibition of that yeai were 
recognised by Victorien Sardou as being 
identical in design with the cuts of a Lyons 
edition of Vergil, dated 1529, in his possession. 
Shortly after, it was pointed out by Alfred Darcel 
that this book was based on an earlier one, pub- 
lished by Johann Griininger at Strasburg in 
1502. The enamels, therefore, are based on 
German woodcuts of the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and their archaic aspect is 
thereby largely accounted for. 

In 1897 other plaques of the series, including 
two in the Victoria and Albert Museum, were 
recorded by Dr. Bode in his catalogue of the 
Hainauer Collection. The researches of M. 

Marquet de Vasselot brought the total number 
identified in his monograph to 63. 

To this number it is now possible to add six 
hitherto unrecorded. It has been my good 
fortune to identify as belonging to the series six 
plaques framed together which form part of the 
art treasures preserved at Alnwick Castle. I 
have to thank the Duchess of Northumberland 
for her kind permission to reproduce photo- 
graphs of them in the accompanying plate. - 

The subjects of all six plaques are taken from 
the Eighth Book of the Aeneid. They are there- 
fore, as it would seem, amongst the latest 
executed by their unknown painter, his last 
subjects being tal-cen from the following (Ninth) 
book. The incidents depicted are as follows : — 

(i) The signal for war given by Turnus from 
the citadel of Laurentum (" Raiico strepuerunt 
corniM cantu "). 

(2) The sacrificial feast of Evander before the 
walls of Pallantium interrupted by the arrival 
of Aeneas and his fleet ; Pallas, son of Evander, 
challenging Aeneas, who answers from the poop 
of his vessel (" Turn pater Aeneas puppi sic 
fatur ab alta "). 

(3) Pallas conducts Aeneas from the ship to 
his father (" Excepitque manu dextramque 
amplexus inhaesit "). 

(4) Evander relating to Aeneas how Fauns 
and wild men once dwelt in the land (" Haec 
nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tene- 
bant "). 

(5) Venus making a sign with thunder and 
the flashing of arms in the heavens to Evander 
and Pallas with Aeneas and Achates (" Anna 
inter nubem caeli in regions sertna Per sudum 
rutilare vident et pulsa tonare "). 

The objects held by a hand thrust down 
through the clouds, indistinctly seen in the 
enamel, are shown by the woodcut to be a 
breastplate with thigh-pieces, a helmet with 
lion's-head crest and a shield. 

(6) Evander bidding farewell to Pallas, who 
rides forth with Aeneas and Achates to meet 
Tarcho and the Etruscans, appearing from a 
grove in the background (" Ipse agmine Pallas 
In medio, chlamyde et pictis conspectus in 
armis "). 

One of the two plaques in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum (No. 1604-1855, the dream of 
Aeneas on the bank of the Tiber) comes in order 
between the first and the second of the above .^ 

Of the woodcuts here reproduced for com- 
parison with the plaques, five were photographed 
from a copy (in the Library of the Victoria and 

2 I wish also to thank Mr. J. C. Hodgson, librarian at 
the castle, for his kindness in arranging to have the photo- 
graphs taken by Mr. J. Candlish Ruddock, of Alnwick. 

' The other (No. 2036 — 1855) represents the death of 
Anchises ; that in the British Museum (Waddesdon Bequest), 
Aeneas talking leave of Dido. 


Albert Museum) of the German translation, 
published at Strasburg in 1515.'' It is iinportant 
to note that, in the last of these, one letter in 
each case is missing from tliree of the labels 
set above the tigures, whereas in the correspond- 
ing enamel this omission does not occur, — a 
proof, apart from other considerations, that the 
enameller did not use this edition for his model. 
A more definite proof is atTorded by the fact 
that the second subject of the Alnwick set has 
no counterpart in this German edition, and must 
be sought for in the original Latin edition of 
1502.' This is the case also with several others 
of the enamels scheduled by M. Marquet de 
V'asselot, many of the cuts of the first edition 
being omitted from the German translation. 

* With the title Vergilii Marois dryzche Aeneadische liiicher 
vott Troianischer zcrstorttng utid ufjgang des Komische Reichs 
durch doctor Mtirncr vltitst. 

'Cut on fol. 311 vo. 1 have to th.-ink Mr. \V. King for 
identifying this in the copy at the British Museum from 
which the accompanying reproduction was taken. The 
remaining five cuts are printed on folios 308 vo, 312 vo, 
3'7 \'°i 3^3i 324 respectively of this edition. 

There is no need here to repeat the reasoning by 
which he has proved further that the enamels 
were not copied from any of the other editions, 
published at Lyons and in Italy, in wiiich the 
Griininger cuts were used. 

It will be seen that the enameller has not 
allowed himself any great deviations from the 
original. Here and there only, a slight modifica- 
tion is observable, as, for instance, in the first 
of the six, in winch the legs of the hornblower 
are altered, and iji the last, where Evander in 
the woodcut is shown actually shaking hands 
with Pallas. The relative positions of the 
figures are also modified in several cases. In 
this respect there is a difference from the practice 
of most of the later painters — who generally 
adhered closely to their engraved originals. 

This discovery at Alnwick prompts the hope 
that more enamels of this suite may yet come to 
light. It is with this object in view, and in order 
to make more widely known the learned mono- 
graph of M. Marquet de Vasselot, that this 
article has been written. 



UO HSI was born c. 1020. He 
•specialised in the painting of vast 
landscapes on the walls of princely 
palaces. Consequently few if any of 
• his works have survived. The 
Kokka Company has reproduced (as a separate 
publication) a roll attributed to him and formerly 
possessed by Tuan Fang. But Mr. Taki him- 
self has doubted its authenticity. The catalogue 
of the Emperor Ch'ien Lung's paintings 
mentions seven pictures attributed to Kuo Hsi ; 
but in so curt a way as to suggest that the com- 
pilers could not accept them as genuine. 
Fortunately he was a writer as well as a painter. 
His essay on " The Sublime in Landscape 
Painting," edited by his son, Kuo Ssu, may 
still be read and has been noticed by several 
European writers. Fenollosa {Epochs of 
Chinese and Japanese Art, Vol. II., pp. 12-19) 
gives considerable extracts from it, using a 
translation made for him by Japanese friends. 
Like most English renderings of Chinese texts 
made by Japanese, this translation is exceed- 
ingly inaccurate, and in places nonsensical. 
Petrucci {Ostasiatische Zeitschrift I., 395) has 
translated and annotated two passages. The 
essay is devoted entirely to landscape-painting. 
The sentence (Fenollosa, p. 15) where Kuo Hsi 
seems to be discussing flower-painting, has been 
mutilated by Mrs. Fenollosa, who made extracts 
from the complete Japanese version. The refer- 


ence to flowers, etc., is a comparison — " Just as 
in flower-painting ... so in landscape . . ." 

Kuo Ssu's introduction opens with the usual 
quotation from Confucius and etymological 
speculations. The actual essay of Kuo Hsi 
begins as follows : — 

Wherein lies the reason that good men so much love land- 
scape? It is because amid orchards and hills a man has ever 
room to cultivate his natural bent ; because streams and rocks 
never fail to charm the " rambler who goes whistling on his 
way."i It is because fishing and wood-gathering are the 
natural vocations of the hermit or recluse, hard by where the 
flying birds and chattering apes have made their home. 

Noise and dust, bridles and chains — these are what man's 
nature is ever weary of. Haze atnd mists, saints and fairies — 
for these man's nature pines eternally, and pines in vain. 

In times of tyranny and misrule, Kuo Hsi 
continues, it is natural that wise men should 
betake themselves to the hills and forests. But 
in times of peace we are held to the city by 
filial and feudal ties. Woods and streams, 
nature-spirits and fairies are seen by us only in 
our dreams. 

Now comes a painter, and by his skill all these things are 
suddenly brought to us. Still in our home, stretched on the 
divan, we hear the cries of gibbons by many streams, the song 
of birds down many valleys ; while our eyes are flooded by 
the gleam of hills, the hues of falling streams. Does not this 
illustrate the saying, " Charmed by another's purpose, I 
attain my own desire "? 

It is for these reasons that the world honours the painting 
of landscape. If it be approached under the dominance of any 
other spirit, carelessly or light-heartedly, it is as though one 
should defile the sanctuary of a God, or cast impurities into 
the clear wind of heaven. . . . Landscapes have been classi- 
fied as those fit to walk through, those fit to gaze on, those 
fit to idle in, those fit to live in. A painting of any of these 
may reach the standard called " miao," pre-excellent. But 

1 From a poem by T'ao Ch'ien. 


E \'enus makinij a sien with thunder and the flashing of arms in the heavens to Evander and Pallas 

with Aeneas and Achates. " Arma inter niibcrn 

rutilare vidcnt ei pidsa tonarc 

F Evander biddinjj farewell to Pallas who rides forth with Aeneas and Achates to meet larcho and 
the Etruscans appearing from a grove in the background. " Ipse agmine Pallasln. medio, chlamyde 
et pictis conspectus in armis." (The six plaques belong to the Duchess of Northumberland) 

Plate III. Limoges Enamels of the Aeneid series at Alnwick 

those fit to idle in and those fit to live in make better subjects 
than the others. Why is this? Look at the landscape paint- 
ings of to-day. In a panorama of several hundred leagues not 
more than three or four parts in ten will be such as might be 
dwelt in or idled in. Yet the painter will certainly regard 
the scenery as of the " residential " or " pleasure " class. 

Now it is just for the sake of these beautiful spots (suitable 
for residence or pleasure) that wise men thirst and pine for 
the country. The painter and the critic must both bear this 
in mind. To do so is what is called " not losing sight of 
the essential." 

The above account of the purpose of land- 
scape-painting seems to us very absurd ; but it 
corresponds exactly to the view of most people 
in Europe to-day. The average man admires a 
landscape-painting because it reminds him of 
some place where he has pleasantly " idled or 
dwelt." The painter who ignores this has, in 
several senses, " lost sight of the essential." 
Kuo Hsi speaks, and speaks charmingly, for the 
great majority — those for whom art has only an 
associational value. A few lines later Kuo 
continues : 

In painting any view, whether it be large or small, 
whether it contain many details or few, the artist must con- 
centrate his powers in order to unify the work. Otherwise 
it will not bear the peculiar imprint of his soul. 

His whole soul must attend the completion of the task. 
Otherwise his energies will be dulled. He must have deep 
seriousness wherewith to dignify his work ; else it will lack 
depth of conception. He must use reverent toil to perfect it ; 
else it will be incomplete. 

If a painter forces himself to work when he feels lazy his 
productions will be weak and spiritless, without decision. 
This is because he cannot concentrate. If, when he is feeling 
distracted and bothered, he decides to muddle 2 through, his 
forms will be fogged and frightened ; they will have no fresh- 
ness. This is because his whole soul has not attended at the 
completion of the task. 

If the work is dashed off light-heartedly, the forms will be 
evasive and incomplete. This defect comes from lack of 
seriousness. If it is hurried-on feverishly, the composition 
will be rough and arbitrary ; it will lack consistency. This 
defect comes from lack of reveren t toil. 

2 A literal translation. 


T is but fitting that the rise of the 
'S=fl historiography of Italian art should 
^i-^ have taken place in Tuscany, where 

the middle of the sixteenth century 
saw the publication of its most im- 
portant and monumental work, the Lives of 
Vasari (first edition, 1550, second edition 1568). 
The position of supremacy in the art world of 
Italy, and indeed of Europe, which the Counter 
Reformation gained for Rome is, however, 
reflected in the long series of Artists' Lives 
composed in Rome during the Seicento and the 
Settecento and to which belong the well-known 
published works of Baglione (1642), Bellori 
(i672),Passeri (written in the seventeenth 
century, published in 1772) ' and Pascoli (1730). 
Two works, forming part of this remarkable 

1 A MS. copy of this book, differing in important par- 
ticulars from the printed version, was some years ago in the 
possession of Messrs. Loescher of Rome (Catalogo 89, 
No. 3550). 

Now indecision leads to loss of lucidity ; lack of freshness 
destroys charm ; incompleteness mars composition ; lack of 
consistency leads to sudden transitions. ^ 

These are the main defects of painters. But they can only 
be discussed witti those who understand the subject. 

The above passage calls for no comment. It 
expresses admirably the conditions under which 
a work of art is produced and shows Kuo Hsi 
speaking no longer as a member of the undis- 
tinguished public, but as that rare and individual 
thing, an artist. It should be mentioned that the 
term " immobility d'esprit," which Petrucci 
finds so felicitous, occurs only in his translation 
and not at all in the Chinese text. 

The editor of the essay, Kuo Ssu, annotates 
this passage as follows : 

I, Ssu, remember that when my father was at work on 
several pictures, he would often suddenly put them aside and 
not return to them for ten or twenty days. . . . This was 
because he felt disinclined. And disinclination, what is it but 
the " laziness " of which he speaks above? If, however, he 
was in a good humour and his work was going well, every- 
thing else was forgotten. But if the least thing happened to 
distract or disturb him, he would at once stop painting. 
This is what he means by saying that one must not attempt 
to paint if one is feeling " distracted and bothered." 

On days when he was going to paint, he would seat him- 
self at a clean table, by a bright window, burning incense to 
right and left. He would choose the finest brushes, the most 
exquisite ink ; wash his hands, and clean the ink-stone, as 
though he were expecting a visitor of rank. He waited till 
his mind was calm and undisturbed, and then began. Is not 
this what he meant by saying that one should not dash off 
one's work light-heartedly? 

What he had completed, he would sift again. What he had 
enlarged, he would amplify. When once might have seemed 
enough, he would not even be content with twice, but would 
improve upon it ! He would recommence each picture many 
times, as though at war with a pitiless adversary— till at last 
he was content. Is not this what he meant when he said 
that a work of art must not be hurried-on? 

3 Lit, " To the quick-slow method." I do not see how 
I'etrucci gets his " m^thode de la composition " out of this. 
He seems to have borrowed it from the clause before. 


series, exist to this day, however, in MS. only : 
namely, the very interesting Lives written by 
Giulio Mancini, physician to Pope Urban VHI, 
of which several codices are known, ^ and which 
were composed about 1621 '; and the Vite di 
Pittori, ScuUori et Architetti, in compendio, in 
niimero di ducento venticinque, completed by 
Niccol6 Pio " dilettante romano " in 1724, and 
of which only one copy is known at present, in 
the Library of the Vatican (Cod. Capp. 257). 
It is of this latter collector and writer that the 
present article will treat, since a recent dis- 
covery enables one to throw a much clearer light 
on his personality and work than has hitherto 
been possible. 

2 Cj Th. Schreiber, in Gesammelle Studien zur Kunstge- 
schkhte . . . A. springer, 1S85, pp. 103-110; L. Venturi, in 
L'Arte. Vol. xiii. (1910), p. 192. 

3 The date of this work, which has been the subject ot 
some conjecture, is quite plainly stated on ff. 19 and 29 recto, 
of the Cod. Harl. 1672. 


Let us first siiinniarise wliat up to now has 
been Unmvn aln.ut NiccokS Pit). From tlie 
prefatory note of tlie Vatican MS.* ii 
appears that Pio, who had made a collection 
of drawings by 225 masters, the a'ltvrc of 
each being preceded by a portrait and a 
biographical note, was compelled for financial 
reasons to part with the collection of draw- 
ings, and, as he sadly notes, " solamente 
gli sono restate le sue misere fatiche delle vite 
manoscritte," which to his bitter regret he had 
no means of publishing. Pio himself does not 
state who the acquirer of the drawings was, but 
his name is known from other sources : it was 
the famous collector Pierre Crozat, among 
whose purchases ° made at different times, 
Mariette mentions " la Collection entiere du 
sieur Pio de Rome," giving in another place the 
following details about the Roman drawings in 
the Crozat Collection '^ : — 

La plus grande partie de ces Dessins des Peintres & 
Sculpteurs de I'Ecole Romaine, a ^t^ rcssembMe par un 
curieux de Rome nomm^ Pio. It avoit entrepris dc former 
un Recueil de Dessins de tous les Maitrcs dont il pouvoit 
d^ouvrir des ouvrages ; & dans celte vue, il fit Iravailler 
tous les .Artistes qui vivoient de son tcms i Rome. L'on 
peut croire que I'^mulation les excita k faire de leur mieux. 

I am not aware that Niccol6 Pio had any 
"collector's mark," properly speaking; and a 
provenance from his collection can therefore in 
most cases only in a general way be surmised 
for such extant drawings of the late Roman 
school as are known to have come from the 
Crozat Collection.^ 

All along it has thus been known that there 
attaches to Niccol6 Pio a double character of 
collector and writer, which differentiates him 
from the general run of Roman art historians. 
This double aspect of his work is still further 
emphasized bv the discovery of a portion of his 
collections, which hitherto seem entirely to have 
escaped general knowledge : namely, his exten- 
sive collection of woodcuts, engravings, and 
etchings, grouped in conformity with a definitely 
thought out scheme according to authors or 

There has recently passed into the possession 
of Messrs. Batsford a set of 32 mostly large 
folio volumes,* bound in contemporary vellum, 
formerly belonging to the Foley family. With 
the exception of one volume, which contains 
drawings only (among them one made by one 

* See the transcription of E. Miintz in his publication of 
some of Pio's Lives of French .'\rtists in the Nouvelles 
Archives de I'Art franfais, 1874-5, P' '9i"203. I ^m indebted 
to M. L. Demonts for drawing my attention to this article. 

^ Description somviaire des dessins , . . du cabinet de feu 
M. Crozat, Paris, 1741, p. ix. 

^ Ibid. p. 33. Cf. Abeccdario, iv. 161. 

' The descriptions of the Pio drawings in the Crozat Cata- 
logue are very summary ; among the more easily identifiable 
examples are eighty portraits of mostly Roman painters, 
divided into five lots (Nos. 329-333). 

' One of smaller format and three in oblong folio. 

Odoardo de Silva for Niccol6 Pio at Easter 1717), 
these books are filled with woodcuts, engrav- 
ings, and etchings, pasted on the leaves, the 
sum total of subjects being upwards of 5,500. 
Several volumes bear the inscription " Kx LibriS 
Nicolai Pii in R[oma]," and a still larger 
number have MS. introductions in the same 
hand, giving biographies of the artists repre- 
sented — the relation of these lives to those of the 
Vatican MS. would be a matter of interest to 
determine. The volumes are numbered, the 
highest number being 39; but seven lower 
numbers are missing — i, 3, 9 ,25, 28, 37, 38. 
All of these volumes are, however, not lost : for 
through a curious chance I acquired myself 
some years ago from an entirely different 
source,' two folio scrapbooks of engravings, 
which the absolutely identical binding, lettering 
and MS. annotation prove conclusively to 
belong to this series, although they show no 
numbers. One contains engravings after 
Raphael and his school ; the other, engravings 
and etchings by or after Pietro Testa, Ribera, 
Correggio, Baroccio, and the Zuccari. What, 
one wonders, has become of the remaining five 
volumes? — and did the original total possibly 
exceed 39 ? 

A necessarily very brief synopsis of the con- 
tents of the collectiori will nevertheless give an 
idea of its scope. Vol. II contains a series of 
works by Diirer, Cranach, Hans Baldung, and 
Beham; Vols. IV-VII are devoted to Marc- 
antonio and his school; Vols. VIII, X an? XI 
to Raphael and his school; Vol. XII is filled 
with engravings after Michelangelo and contem- 
porary Florentine masters; and Vol. XIII with 
engravings after Titian. Vol. XIV. contains 
portraits, notably a series of Roman Emperors 
and Empresses, and then follow Vols. XV. to 
XIX in which the oeuvrc of the Carracci 
is illustrated with a perfect wealth of material. 
The next two volumes deal with the Carracci 
school — Vol. XX with Guido and followers, and 
Vol. XXI with Domenichino and Guercino. 
Polidoro da Caravaggio and Parmigianino 
between them fill Vol. XXII, Tintoret and Paul 
Veronese Vol. XXIII, and Lanfranco and 
Albani Vol XXIV; Callot and Stefano della 
Bella are represented in Vol. XXVI, Antonio 
Tempesta in Vol. XXVII, and Carlo Maratti in 
Vol. XXIX. Vol. XXX differs from the 
remainder of the collection inasmuch that it con- 
tains only drawings, 113 in number; they 
include a long .series after Polidoro da Cara- 
vaggio, and an interesting drawing, bearing the 
date 1619 and the name of the elder Gerard 
T erborch (i 584-1 667. in Rome 1604-9). 

s The Library of Sir Samuel Bagster Boulton, of Copped 
Hall, Totteridge, Herts, sold by auction on Oct. 14, igi8, 
and four following days. 


Vol. XXXI is devoted to The Sadelers, 
Vol. XXXII to Pietro Santi Bartoli, and 
Vol. XXXIII to Pietro da Cortona. The con- 
tents of Vol. XXXIV are miscellaneous, 
Vol. XXXV is filled with reproductions of 
Roman Antiquities, and Vol. XXXVI with 
miscellaneous portraits — Kings, Popes, Car- 
dinals, painters— whilst Vol. XXXIX, lettered 
" Boscarec e Paesi diversi," contains landscape 
engravings and etchings by various masters. 

It is doubtless true that many of the items in 
this vast collection are of interest in themselves 
as fine and rare examples; but the chief im- 
portance of it lies nevertheless in the collection 
as a whole, and more especially as a unique 


Albrecht DCrer der Kupferstecher und Holzschnitt- 
ZEICHNER, by Max J. Friedlander. 152 pp. with illus- 
trations in text ; 55 plates. (500 copies). Berlin. (J. Bard). 
600 marks. 

This magnificent book, a stately folio large 
enough to contain full-sized facsimiles of the 
Apocalypse woodcuts and the St. Eustace, is 
intended not so much for the specialist or student 
as for the rich collector, possessed of ample book 
shelves and spacious tables, or still more, per- 
haps, for the man of general culture, similarly 
endowed, who will find in its incomparable illus- 
trations a substitute for a Diirer collection of his 
own. The scope of the book is limited to the 
engravings and woodcuts, of which a large pro- 
portion is reproduced with the utmost perfection 
of modern facsimile engraving. Pictures are 
excluded altogether ; of the drawings only a few, 
immediately related to the prints as preparatory 
studies, are reproduced in the text. But such 
praise of the illustrations must not be taken as 
implying that this is only a picture book. The 
text contains a detailed appreciation of Diirer as 
an engraver, written with all the courage, origin- 
ality and point which we are accustomed to find, 
as well as erudition, in every page written by 
the director of the Berlin Print Room and Pic- 
ture Gallerv. Dr. Friedlander is a master of his 
native language as well as a first-rate authority 
on Flemish and German art ; he is one of the 
few critics among his compatriots of whom it 
may be said that he never wastes his words, but 
always has something definite, fresh and infor- 
mative to say and can express it in a clear and 
interesting style. It is not a very easy thing, 
after all that has been written about Diirer, to 
go through all his engravings and all his wood- 
cuts, to explain them, comment on them, criticise 
them, and never to write a page that is common- 
place or dull. But Dr. Friedlander has achieved 
this. As he is writing for the intelligent lay- 
man, not for the art historian or specialist, he 
states in the text his own point of view, the 

illustration of practically the entire field of six- 
teenth and seventeenth century Italian paint- 
ing. It also brings out in the most vivid relief 
what one can only describe as Niccol6 Pio's 
absolutely insatiable desire to track all the 
available material for his studies, which is 
presented by him in as ordered and lucid a 
manner as possible. And anyone attempting a 
study of any of the numerous, fascinating and 
still neglected subjects supplied by the late 
Cinquecento and the Seicento would find the dis- 
charge of his task made singularly lighter and 
more effective through the results here preserved 
of the ant-like industry of the now well nigh 
forgotten " dilettante romano." 

results to which he believes research has led, 
avoiding polemics and the detailed proofs, with 
interminable reference to documents, which make 
much of German art criticism almost unreadable. 
So much of this as he thinks necessary is placed 
apart in an appendix occupying only ten pages, 
which the " KoUegen " for whom it is intended 
will find the most valuable part of the book. 
His notes on every section are full of precious 
hints and observations, and contain a precis, 
critical but sympathetic, of all the more note- 
worthy utterances on Diirer, scattered among 
numerous periodicals and brochures, most of 
which have appeared during the war and are 
difficult of access, even now, to readers in foreign 

The body of the work is divided into eleven 
chapters, in which Diirer's activity is traced from 
1492, the year of his earliest authenticated wood- 
cut, to 1527, when the book on Fortification ap- 
peared. Woodcuts and engravings are kept 
apart, and receive treatment in alternate chap- 
ters. On the engravings there is not, and can- 
not be, very much to say, by way of statement 
of fact, that is not already generally known. 
An engraving of a sitting Turk, at Amster- 
dam, unfinished, has recently been attributed 
to the youthful Diirer by another writer; Dr. 
Friedlander does not positively accept or reject 
it, but dates it about 1497, if it is by Diirer at 
all. All the other engravings mentioned have 
their recognised place (but not always their 
recognised date) among the canonical works, 
and scope for originality is only to be found 
in comment on the subjects and the technical or 
jesthetic merits of the engravings. In this, as 
we have said already, the author excels. 

The woodcuts afford much more room for 
discussion, for the list of authentic works is 
still far from being established by the general 
agreement of critics. No writer of authority 
has hitherto gone so far as Dr. Friedlander 


in the additions which he makes, or accepts, 
to the universally acknowledged works. It is 
especially the work of Diirer's youth that is 
thus extended. Long before the so-called 
■■ Sturm und Urang " period, the period of 
the Apocalypse, Great Passion, and other 
large woodcuts, with which the more conser- 
vative chronological catalogues used to com- 
mence, we are now asked to believe — not for 
the first time — that Diirer was a prolific and 
facile illustrator, whose woodcuts numbered 
many scores, if not hundreds, before 1498. Dr. 
Friedlander knocks down the various puppets 
whom hypothesis after hypothesis has set up 
on insecure legs as substitutes for Diirer : the 
Master of the Bergmann printing house, the 
Brigittenmeister, Benediktmeister, Wechtlin, 
and the " Doppelgiinger." Diirer and no other 
is, for him, the illustrator of Terence and the 
Ritter von Turn,Brant'sNarrenschifT, theStrass- 
burg Missal of 1493, the Revelations of S. 
Bridget, S. Lucy of Narni ,and, long after the 
appearance of many authenticated works, the 
two long sets of woodcuts, Bible illustrations 
and Saints (1503), which the writer of this 
review published with a commentary in which, 
alas ! one of the puppets, not Diirer himself, 
got all the credit. The chapter in which all 
this early work is put together and discussed 
is one of the most interesting in the book, and 
will, it is to be hoped, do much towards clear- 
ing away clouds of doubt and error and win- 
ning credence for the simplest explanation of 
many otherwise inconvenient and contradictory 
facts. At later stages of Diirer's career Dr. 
Friedlander also claims for him decidedly cer- 
tain woodcuts which have not been at all uni- 
versally recognised, such as the title-page with 
Pirkheimer's arms, the round Madonna with a 
little landscape sketch, the Freydal cuts, and 
the much rarer, and more rarely mentioned, 
woodcut of an owl attacked by other birds 
(reproduced in Hirth's " Meisterholzschnitte 
aus vier Jahrhunderten"), for which — a fact un- 
known to Dr. Friedlander, but valuable as con- 
firming his insight — a slight sketch by Diirer's 
hand exists. Though the inclusion of the St. 
Bridget illustrations is still unlikely to prove 
acceptable I believe that this wider recog- 
nition of Diirer's authorship in many unsigned 
works in different styles is neither rash nor 
revolutionary, but actually conservative, and 
marks a healthy reaction, deliberate and 
mature, against a tendency which grew up in 
the last years of the 19th century and went too 
far; a tendency to be over jealous for Diirer's 
honour and consequently reluctant to admit 
his authorship of certain works which, if not 
actually " pot-boilers ", were not up to the 
highest standard, and on the other hand too 

full of zeal for certain obscure pupils of Diirer, 
whose oeuvrc it was tempting to enrich at his 
expense. There are still several woodcuts on 
which it would be interesting to read Dr. 
I'"riedl;inck'r's opinion, for instance Judith cuts 
in the " Beschlossen Gart " and the two 
6". Scbalds of 1514 and 1518. In conclusion it 
must be said that rather more proof might be 
expected of the belief which the author holds, 
in opposition to all writers on woodcuts for a 
generation or two past, that Diirer, in youth 
and for many years of his maturity, cut his 
own blocks. The evidence is admittedly 
scanty ; before 1509 (arms of M. Behaim assigned 
by the author to that year), there is, so far as I 
remember, no evidence at all ; all the evidence 
that we have after that date is on the other side. 
It is pardonable, therefore, to remark that the 
strongly asserted defence of "Eigenhandigkeit" 
in this respect is more subjective than con- 
Zorn's Engraved Work. By Karl Asplund. A descriptive 
Catalogue translated by Edward Adams-Ray. xxviii + 
464 pp., fully illustrated. Stockholm. (A. B. H. 
Bukowski's Konsthandel). £s^ 'o^. (3^5 copies.) 

Zorn, who died on August 22nd, 1920, aged 
sixty, lived to see the first part of this catalogue 
published, in an equally limited edition, in the 
original Swedish. Never has an etcher enjoyed 
such world-wide fame in his lifetime. On his 
fiftieth birthday he was already feted as a great 
genius. In the last ten years of his life, his 
etchings rose immensely in reputation and 
value, and British collectors, notably those 
living north of the Tweed, competed eagerly 
for the newly published etchings, after French 
and Germans, Americans and Hungarians, 
quicker to discern their merits than we were, 
had bought up most of the early ones, on the 
whole the more desirable. The prices have 
risen again rapidly, in obedience to the well- 
known psychological and economic laws which 
govern such cases, since his death. 

There was already a good catalogue of all 
Zorn's work down to 1909, that of M. Loys 
Delteil, but it is out of print and scarce, and no 
supplement has appeared to bring it up to date. 
Moreover, as regards description of states and 
correctness of chronology it is now proved to 
be less perfect than was supposed. It will still 
be of great value to those who are not lucky 
enough to afford the much more sumptuous 
and exhaustive catalogue written by Mr. Karl 
Asplund, and there are many cases in which 
the two catalogues supplement one another by 
reproducing different states. The splendid 
Swedish catalogue, beautifully printed on fine 
paper and illustrated by reproductions of which 
a large number are in photogravure and the 
rest produced by the offset process and printed 
on the same page with the type, consists of two 


quarto volumes, not too heavy to be easily 
handled. Zorn etchings have become a luxury 
for the very rich, and it is fitting, perhaps, that 
the book which describes them should be the 

The catalogue takes us from 1882 to 1919, and 
contains 288 numbers. It deserves much 
praise and very little blame, but books 
are rarely quite perfect, and this one suffers 
from a few defects which more consci- 
entious proof-reading might have avoided. 
The title, in the first place, is a misnomer ; it 
should have been " Zorn's Etched Work ". 
There are little faults both in the introduction 
and in the body of the work; Mrs. Gardner, of 
Boston, for instance, is called repeatedly 
" Gardener "; it was not W. Armstrong, but 
E. A. Armstrong, who wrote a book on Axel 
Haig; St. Gaudens' first name is given under 
No. 113 in the German form, " August ". It 
is not very clear, by the way, why this etching, 
to which the date 1898 is given, is called 
" No. I " and placed before the other portrait 
of St. Gaudens, which is dated 1897. The 
state reproduced of No. 154 is not the fourth, 
but the third. It is unlucky that the author does 
not say whether the new signature first appeared 
in the fourth state or the fifth. The biographical 
notes on the sitters are excellent, but in the 
case of M. Albert Besnard it should have been 
mentioned that he etches. The typographical 
arrangement of " Delteil N :o 75 " looks odd 
to English eyes; this has been corrected in the 
second volume. 

In one respect in which Mr. Asplund departs 
from M. Delteil, the omission of sale prices, 
he is heartily to be commended. After a year 
or two such quotations become absurdly mis- 
leading and have only an antiquarian interest. 
The page looks much more dignified without 
them, and the proper place, if they must be 
given at all, is in an appendix. 


A Record of European Armour and Arms through Seven 
Centuries, by Sir Guy Francis Laking, Bart. (Bell). 
5 vols. £1$ 153. Volume II, xxxi + 347 pp. + 396 pi. 

The first volume of this work covered the 
period from 1000-1400 approximately. The 
present one deals with the 14th and 15th 
centuries. Having already dealt with this 
work on general lines in our notice of the 
first volume,' we will content ourselves here 
with mentioning some outstanding features of 
the second. In chapter x. The Salade head- 
piece from the i^th to the 16th Centuries, Sir 
Guy Laking distinguishes three groups — the 
Italian Celata, the German Schallern, and a 
tailed variety called French. The last is then 
sub-divided into three — the single-piece Salade, 

J Burlington Magazine, .'\pril, 1920. 

the movable-visor Salade, and those merg- 
ing into a close helmet of the armet type. 
Baron de Cosson had previously differentiated 
the Italian and German Salades,^ and Sir 
Guy Laking has carried the matter a stage 
further by defining this last group. The gener- 
ous number of illustrations with which he 
supports this classification will be of the utmost 
value to students since so many of the pieces are 
now made accessible for the first time. Many, 
however, will deem insufficient the evidence 
upon which so many of the pieces are dated. 
The origin of his third group is not very clearly 
established as French — 

The next family or group of salade head-pieces which 
we shall consider are those of the tailed order which we 
have very vaguely termed " French ", to distinguish them 
from the types already dealt with. We call the class 
" French " merely because the form appears to have 
originated in France ; but as a matter of fact almost imme- 
diately on its introduction the French salade found uni- 
versal favour, especially in Germany, where the finest 
examples are still to be seen (p. 18). 

And again — 

Although we have accepted the Bashford Dean salade 
as being of French origin (it is stated to have been found 
at [sic] Meuse), we must admit that its proportions very 
closely resemble those of the head-piece on the Neville 
effigy to which we have already referred. (Fig. 330). On 
the brass, too, of Sir Robert Staunton the visored salade 
may be seen most clearly represented (Fig. 363). The date 
of this brass is about 1455, which illustrates clearly how 
very difficult it is, even when some marked national 
characteristic is present, to assign with certainty a helmet, 
or, in fact, any piece of armour, to any given country, 
on the mere ground of a general similarity of form (p. 23). 

Moreover, the close general resemblance which 
this "French" tailed type has to the North Italian 
Salades reproduced on page 30 (Figs. 373-4), 
suggests that it is much more likely that this 
"French" type is Italian or Italian in origin, 
especially when we remember the merit of the 
Italian armour of the period. On page 90 Sir 
Guy Laking sets out to define the Spanish type 
of Armet — 

Of the purely Spanish tyf>e of the armet head-piece 
we can give no better illustration than the third armet in 
the Wallace Collection, No. 8i (Fig. 433). Its entire 
surface is blued, and though its workmanship is on the 
whole poor and rough, a good deal of spirit is shown in 
its general form. A characteristic Spanish feature 
may be noted in the fluting of the visor immediately below 
the snout. This we also find on a visor of a Spanish 
armet formerly in our possession, but now in a private 
Continental collection (Fig. 444). There is an armourer's 
mark of some importance on the back of the skull of the 
Wallace Spanish armet ; but it has been so rubbed down 
in the past by overcleaning of the helmet as to be almost 

Now a recent examination of the mark upon the 
Wallace armet (probably the letters M F R 
crowned) shows that it bears strong resemblance 
to one upon the Claude de Vaudry suit at 
Vienna which was attributed by Boeheim to the 
Merate Fratelli (the brothers Francesco and 
Gabriel '), and if this be the case the so-called 

' Arch. Journ., xxxvii (1881), pp. 472-3. 

» Album aus der Waffensdmmhing des Kaiserhauses, Weu- 
delin Boeheim, I, p. 26. 


Spanish type of armet has still to be proved to 
be Spanisli. It is true that the same mark 
appears upon the armet of a suit at -Madrid 
(A4), but it is concei\abl(' that tills also may 
turn out to be Italian. 1 he few references 
which Sir Guy Laking makes to armourers' 
marks, and the absence of a single reproduction 
of them, do suggest that he was inclined to 
untler-value the evidence wiiich the\' afford. His 
knowletlge of form and material it mav l)e was 
so great that minor evidence seemed super- 

Our records of armourers' marks are never likely 
to be in better case until all known marks are re- 
produced and classified ; and it is obvious that, 
even if the name of an armourer is lost, 
grouping bv the evidence of marks is not 
to be despised, and a good example of 
this is the Spanish armet referred to above, 
whether it be the work of the Merate Brothers 
or not. 

The thirteenth chapter deals with The Helm 
of the i^th Century, and contains reproduc- 
tions of well-nigh every known example of 
importance whether in private or public pos- 
session. Chapter xiv on Chain Mail and 
interlined Textile Defences reminds us of the 
lamentable fact that there is hardlv a hauberk 
of mail extant whose pedigree is authentic 
enough to take it back even to the 15th centurv 
— all have been so altered and cut that the only 
grounds upon which an approximate date can 
be assigned is the slender and dubious evidence 
of the form and riveting of the links. With the 
advance of the i6th centurv the whole shirt of 
mail beneath plate armour was discarded, and 
mail became of secondarv importance. The short 
chapter on The Gauntlet traces its development 
from the pouch or mitten of mail of the 13th 
centurv to those remarkable examples of technical 
skill produced in the i6th. The True Shield of 
the i^th Century is also discussed at length with 
illustrations of its changing form until it finally 
became a circular or rectangular buckler. Sixty 
pages are devoted to The Sword of the i<,th Cen- 
tury, and chapter xviii — Swords of Ceremony in 
Ens^land — admittedly largelv based on Sir St. 
John Hope's Corporation Plate. 

No more need be said to show that in this 
second volume Sir Guv T,aking has more than 
fiilfillpd the promise of the first, and although he 
mav not have given all that that the scholar 
desires — his appetite is notoriously insatiable — 
we havp here a bodv of evidence in picture and 
text that will be of the greatest interest and value 
to every student of the subject. s. j. c. 

Lustre Tottery, by Lady Kvans. i^R pp. + 24 pi. 
(Mcthui'ii). 52s. 6d. 

This hand.some volume is embellished with 
excellent photographs of over a hundred speci- 
mens of different sorts of lustre ware, the text 
proviiling a connected history and a commentary. 
Though the text is in fact little liut a compilation 
summarising the conclusions of previous 
authorities, the majority of the documents in- 
corporated are either somewhat inaccessible 
j)am[5hlels or extracts from foreign jieriodicals. 
Footnotes full of references enable any doubt- 
ful point to be decided on the evidence of the 

The most copious section of the book is devoted 
to Hi.spano-Moresque pottery. It is akso the most 
successful, ba.sed as it is upon the researches of 
Mr. Van de Put and Serior (or, as Lady Evans 
prefers to call him, Don) de Osma. In the pre- 
ceding chapter, dealing with Persian and 
Egyptian wares, Lady Evans is on comparatively 
unexplored ground. Lady Evans' account of the 
origins of lustre might well have contained a 
reference to M. Charles Vignier's article on the 
so-called " Samarra faience," a lustre ware of 
gth century date (Burlington Magazine, vol. 
XXV, page 211). We may note too that recent 
archaeology (as represented, e.g., by M. Maurice 
P^zard's Ceramique archa'ique de I'lslam) tends 
to confirm M. Saladin's theory of the Qth centurv 
origin of the Kairouan mosque-tiles (see Lady 
Evans, pp. 12-13). 

The last chapter deals with Italian lustred 
maiolica and with English experiments of the 
i8th and 19th centuries. The treatment of the 
former is somewhat perfunctory, and is marred 
bv the statement (p. 126) that the Beit Collec- 
tion contains a Deruta lustred plate dated 1477, 
though no dated piece of lustred maiolica is 
known earlier than 1501. The Gubbio dish 
with bathing nymphs in the Wallace Collection, 
a masterpiece, is not even mentioned. The 
statement on p. 127 that " the subjects of 
Gubbio lustred ware are sometimes taken from 
known works of art " is scarcely happy. It is 
becoming increasingly more evident that after 
1500 practically all the subjects of maiolica 
painters were borrowed from contemporary en- 
gravings. On the last page of the book is an 
unfortunate sentence which siigge.sts that both 
De Morgan's pottery and the manufacture of 
" Lancastrian ware " were in existence about 

Students of Spanish tile-work who may desire 
to study original examples of the tiles figured 
in Plate X, Nos. 31 and 3.^, may be spared a 
journey to Madrid and New York bv the infor- 
mation that similar specimens are to be found at 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. w. K. 


KoNSTHisTORisKA Sallskapets PuBLiKATiON 1919. Stockholm : 
A. B. Svenska Teknologforeningen. 

The last volume to hand of this attractive 
publication, of which two previous issues have 
been noticed in The Burlington Magazine 
(Vol. xxix, p. 214) contains a number of valuable 
papers on a variety of subjects. It opens with an 
article by Prof. Strzygowski, treating, with the 
author's customary largeness of perspective, of 
the place of the North of Europe (defined as the 
whole stretch of continent between the North 
Sea and China) in the general evolution of art; 
whilst a fascinating problem of applied aesthetics 
is discussed in Dr. Paulsson's paper on spatial 
representation in art. Coming to the articles 
dealing with individual works of art, we note a 
paper by Dr. Gauffln on a magnificent three- 
quarter length portrait of the Due de Iraslin, 
painted by Alexander Roslin in 1762; this re- 
markable example of Roslin's art is a recent 
gift to the National Museum at Stockholm. M. 
Carl Robert Lamm discusses a variant of the 
composition known from the Vierge sous le 
pommier on the outside of the wings of Rubens' 
Triptvch of St. Ildefonso; the picture in ques- 
tion, formerly in the possession of the Earl of 
Carnarvon, now forms part of M. Lamm's in- 
teresting collection at Nasby Slott, near Stock- 
holm. Having been skilfully restored, this 
Nasbv example is now proved to have been con- 
siderably enlarged in the eighteenth century (an 
engraving by Earlorn of 1771 shows the addition 
as having already been effected). M. Lamm, in 
the course of a closely-reasoned argument, sug- 
gests for the picture the date of 1619, which is 
considerably anterior to that of the St. Ildefonso 
Triptvch (1630-32), some deductions — which it 
would perhaps be more prudent not to treat as 
mathematically binding — being drawn from the 
ages of the models for the figures. No reference 
is made in the article to a paper by M. Max 
Rooses on this very picture which appeared in 
L'Art flamand et hoUandais, Vol. xviii (July- 
Dec, 1912), and in which it is described as " un 
jovau inconnu jusqu'^ ce jour de la couronne 
artistique du grand maitre." Dr. Sir^n reviews 
an exhibition of early Italian pictures, held at 
the National Museum in Stockholm in 1019; 
Some of the pictures in question are well known, 
and have indeed been discussed in these pages ; 
others include a noble Portrait of a Woman by 
Pontormo, a striking Madonna and Child by 
Salvia! i, and a characteristic Portrait of a Man 
by Lotto. T. B. 

NOLLEKHNS AND HIS TiMES, by JoHN Thomas Smith. Editf-d 
and Annotated by Wilfred Whitten. 2 vols., illustrated 
(Bodlcy Head). /:i us. 6d. 

Mr. Wilfred Whitten has done a good service 
to art-historians by his most adequate reprint of 
J. T. Smith's spiteful memorials. The period 

in which Smith lived, moved and had his being 
is rather out of favour just now, but these two 
volumes serve to remind us that George III and 
George IV were the only English Kings, e.xcept 
Charles I, who ever took art seriously. We may 
read here lively gossip about that amazing par- 
liamentary committee of ignoramuses which sat 
to decide whether the Elgin marbles were worth 
purchasing for the nation. Our leading artists 
were unanimous in opining that the best 
figures in the collection were better than 
the Townley marbles and very nearly as 
good as the Laocoon. Also that their 
exhibition had already raised the standard of 
British art. Nollekens himself Dr. Johnson has 
adequately described : " My friend Nolly can 
chop you out as good a bust as any man ". But 
his character was more amusing than his works. 

These two volumes will cast light on the 
careers of greater artists than Nollekens : Rou- 
billac, Hogarth, Gainsborough, Reynolds, and 
many others. 

Smith had an eye for topography, which ren- 
ders this book melancholy reading. Who can 
learn without pain of the fine row of walnut trees 
which ran along Tottenham Court Road, or of 
the splendid mansion and gardens which he saw 
being destroyed to make room for the kings or 
slaves of the rising industrial system? Mr. 
Whitten is our best living London topographer, 
and his is an excellent edition of a most enter- 
taining book. F. B. 

Russian Portraits. By Claire Sheridan. 202 pp., 21, pi. 
Jonathan Cape. los. 6d. 

When Mrs. Sheridan was in Moscow she 
made the acquaintance of Nicholas Andrew, a 
sculptor, and the following conversation took 
place : — " I consider that there are a few people 
in the world who are worth any effort to do, even 
if they do not give one a chance to do one's 
best work. Andrew laughed and said that was 
journalism in art." Both were of course right. 
Mrs. Sheridan's sculpture is nothing really but 
journalism in art, but its value as such is con- 
siderable, because she has got good likenesses 
of a group of men who are of exceptional interest 
to the world. In her journal she has the same 
happv knack of getting a likeness. Why is it, 
one wonders, that Mrs. Sheridan's account of 
her visit to Russia should be so much better 
than any similar record that has been pub- 
lished? Can it be that she went off gaily on 
her adventure without the least idea of what it 
was going to be like, whereas all other writers 
have gone with preconceived ideas? In any 
case, if one wants to know what the Bolshevist 
leaders are like there is no doubt that in Mrs. 
Sheridan's book and in her sculpture you get 
them to the life. d. g. 



The Crome Centenary.— In opening the 
representative Centenary Exhibition of Crome's 
work at Norwich, the Director of the National 
(iallcry cryptically remarked that one, if not 
two, of tile exhibits were wrong. Feverish 
speculation as to the identity of the two pictures 
lie had in mind was rife that afternoon in 
Norwich, where the remnant of the devoted band 
of students had gathered to pay Crome homage, 
and detect dubious exhibits. For the first time 
since 1821, ample opportunity was given to study 
Crome's development; from his earliest tentative 
efforts almost to the great fulfilment of his 
genius, Crome could be explored in his Cen- 
tenary Exhibition. He is resolved as the master 
of some ten or twelve incomparable works, which 
rise from a compact assembly, of secondary im- 
portance, perhaps, but still of invariable 

Mr. Nutman's and Mr. Fuller Maitland's little 
Wilsonian examples of Crome's early days ; 
Capt. Hnnbury's Lime Kiln; and Sir Leicester 
Harmsworth's Sheds arid Old Houses (35); Mr 
Colman's Cow Tower; his lovely Dawn and 
noble Carrow Abbey; and the Tate Gallery's 
solemn Slate Quarries, progressively illustrated 
Crome's first steps. His middle period was fully 
represented. Perhaps the most notable examples 
were Miss Faith Moore's delicately .sensitive 
S. Martin's Gate (45) [Plate B], one of the most 
forged of Crome composition ; the Norwich 
Museum Yarmouth Beach, which has the 
grandest and most monumental of all Crome 
skies; Mr. De Zoete's Yarmouth Jetty (57) and 
Major Benedict Birkbeck's View on the Wensum 
(11). The next stage in Crome's development 
was best exhibited by the Crown Point Road 
with Pollards (18), Miss Fisher's Farm and 
Pond (30) [Plate A] ; Sir Eustace Gurney's 
Norwich from Household (32), Mr. Darell- 
Brown's largely painted Moonlight (29); the 
beautiful Mousehold Heath, Boy Keeping 
Sheep (5) from the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and the lovely Mousehold; Mill and 
Donkeys (i) from the National Gallery. This 
stage heralds Crome's unique achievement, 
which is his large Mousehold, and Poringland 
Oak in the National Gallery, and perhaps The 
Willow in Mr. Billing's Collection in California; 
Mr. Colman's Postwick Grove (17) is a small 
example of this final achievement. In these 
masterpieces and their immediate predecessors 
the Road with Pollards, Mousehold Boy Keep- 
ing Sheep, and Sir Eustace Gurney's View of 
Norwich, Crome's greatness and solitude are 
declared. No other painter approaches him on 
this ground. 

Outside the main current of his develop- 
ment lies a variety of charming and bril- 

liant pictures — notably Mr. Darell Brown's 
Yarmouth Harbour (27) and Bathing Scene (28) ; 
Mrs. Raphael's Return of the Flock (49a) which 
so strikingly forestalls Rousseau and Corot ; 
Mrs. Lubl)ock's limpid Yarynouth Beach (40), 
Mr. Samuel's Thistle and Vole (52), the Norwich 
Museum Burdock (7) and Mr. John Gurney's 
conspicuously blond Boulevard des Italiens (34) 
and Fishmarkct (33). In these last the Crome 
.student has a delightful stock of novelty. 

Crome's work falls in four main groups. His 
purely Wil-sonian, early pieces, with their pale 
silvery colour; his Velazquez and Rembrandt- 
like phase; his smaller Dutch style, in which 
Hobbema and Ruisdael, Van Goyen and Van 
der Neer are reflected, and his uniquely grand 
manner in which all that went before, with Cuyp 
added, is transmuted into the Crome we mean. 

The Crome we mean is the master who in all 
landscape art is unparalleled in his breadth and 
mass and openness; in spacious dignity of 
design and simplicity of subject; in grave in- 
spiration and in the knowledge of how to express 
the subtlest richness of light and air with classic 
serenity and weight. This is the master of the 
early Moonrise on the Marshes and Slate 
Quarries; of the mid-period Boy keeping Sheep 
and Norwich from Household; and of the later 
Moonlights of Mr. Darell Brown and the 
Norwich Museum ; the two National Gallery 
Mousehold Heaths, the Poringland Oak and 
Postwick Grove. Having just reached this stage 
in his development Crome died, in the prime of 
an artist's life. 

I am glad of this chance to amplify the refer- 
ences made in my " Crome " to Mrs. Ruffer's 
Cottage on the Yare and Mr. Konig's Trowse 
Lane (catalogued by me as Wood Road : Horse 
and Cart). Both are important genuine works; 
Mrs. RufTer's is the earlier, and Mr. Konig's 
belongs to the same phase as the large Marling- 
ford Grove, which unluckily was not exhibited. 
Equally regrettable was the absence of Mr. 
Michaelis' Norwich River; Afternoon. 

As for Mr. Holmes' provocative and enigmatic 
allegation of doubtful pictures in the exhibition. 
The" View near Woodbridge (36), lent by Mr. 
Hirsch, naturally came in for some discussion. 
The student who is unprepared for abnormal 
Cromes, and Cromes of a lower rank than his 
average, would instinctively suspect this picture. 
He would also doubt the quite genuine Woody 
Landscape: Woodman and Children in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. But he who 
knows that Crome's standard did vary and who 
recognises the difference between his lowest 
pitch and the highest of his followers, will, I 
think, be satisfied that Crome painted the 
greater part of this Woodbridge. The sky and 





















the scrubby foliage against it are for me con- 
clusive evidence. But, all said, this picture is 
an indifferent Crome. It came from Sam 
Mendel's sale, in 1875, and the Price Sale of 
1895. Another obvious butt for criticism was the 
large, dramatic. Wantage Sea Piece (39), for 
which John Berney Crome's name was sug- 
gested. But here again I submit that, unusual 
and unrepealed though this picture be in 
Crome's oeuvre, it is certainly his, and that the 
solidity and breadth of the painting and the 
forms and impasto in the sky are quite above 
John Berney 's level. No doubt Crome had 
Turner in his mind, and we may fairly judge 
that this experiment exhausted his interest in 
this direction. Two other pictures were severely 
scrutinised by a judge whose intimate knowledge 
of Crome must command attention. They were 
Mill near Lakenham and Cottage near Laken- 
ham (Nos. 53, 54), lent by Mr. Samuel. Mr. 
P. M. Turner suggested that Ninham painted 
them. In their skies there are meaningless 
touches of impasto, unlike Crome's clouds, and 
the detail drawing in the buildings is a little 
shaky. But, on the other hand, they have a 
subtlety of lighting and tone far exceeding any 
quality in any Ninham I have seen. Unless 
conclusive evidence is produced I should regard 
the charge against these pictures as unproven. 




Sir, — Since no one — Mr. Roger Fry not 
excepted — seems to have found a satisfying in- 
terpretation of Prince Paul of Serbia's Piero di 
Cosimo, recently exhibited at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club,' may I call the attention of your 
readers to Lucian's " True Story." 

Lucian starts by telling us how everything in 
his story is a more or less comical parody on 
one or other of the poets, historians, and 
philosophers of old, who have written much that 
smacks of miracles and fables. He gives some 
of their names and says they made up false- 
hoods patent to everyone — telling of huge beasts, 
one-eyed men, animals with many heads — 
transformations of their comrades by means of 
drugs, etc. He then tells us that he is about to 
lie as valiantly, but more honestly, than any of 
them. His hero sailed out from the Pillars of 
Hercules into the Atlantic. After many adven- 
tures he and his boat are swallowed by a whale 
150 miles long. Inside the whale there was 
land with hills on it, a forest of all kinds of trees, 
garden stuff, and everything appeared to be 
under cultivation. The coast of an island inside 

1 See The Burlington Magazine for March 1921, p. 131. 

May Exhibitions. — An extraordinary variety 
of schools will be on view in London during this 
month, ranging from the Royal Academy 
Summer Exhibition and the R.B.A. Spring 
Exhibition to the London Group at the Mansard 
Gallery and Friesz at the Independent. The 
Goupil will have a show of paintings by British 
and foreign artists, and Max Beerbohm's work 
will be on view at the Leicester. Polish Art 
will be shown at the Whitechapel Gallery. Our 
Nameless Exhibition will open on 20th May at 
the Grosvenor Gallery, where every tendency in 
British Art will be represented, the artists 
remaining for the first few weeks anonymous. 
Fuller particulars of these and other exhibitions 
will be found on p. ii. of our advertisement 

National Gallery. — During the past month 
a selection of the Milanese pictures at the 
National Gallery has been hung in Room V, 
which has now been opened to the public, and 
the gallery begins to look more like its former 
self. As in all the other rooms at Trafalgar 
Square, the wall decoration has been thought 
out with great care and taste. Underlying the 
arrangement is the primary intention of giving 
the visitor the fullest possible opportunity of 
being impressed by each individual picture. The 
paintings included in the new room could hardly 
look better than they do. 

the whale was 27 miles long, sea birds were nest- 
ing on the trees, and gulls and kingfishers 
abounded. There was a temple of Poseidon, a 
farmhouse, dogs, etc. The hero then meets a man 
and a boy who take him to their house and tell 
him of the grape vines in the forest, the birds 
and fish they catch, the lake on which he sails, 
and of the unfriendly and oddly-built people 
who live with them — the Tritongoats, the Sole- 
feet, etc. They then form an alliance, and with 
their 50 men attack and exterminate all these 
creatures, which may suggest what Piero di 
Cosimo had in his mind when painting the New 
York picture referred to by Mr. Roger Fry. 
They live in luxury for a year and eight months 
and then decide to escape ; but after digging into 
the whale's side for 5 furlongs they give it up, 
and decide to kill the whale by setting fire to 
the forest. It burns for nine days before the 
whale dies, and they then escape through his 

Though every detail in Prince Paul's picture 
may not be absolutely consistent with Lucian's 
" True Story," and Piero di Cosimo may have 
added from his imagination to that of Lucian, 
yet it seems to me to fit it better than any other. 
Yours faithfully. 




Mkssks. Sothkdv. Wilkinson & Hodoe. 34, Now Bond 
Street. MAY 10, Medals, Plaqucttcs and Coins, property of 
R. C. Fisher, Esq.; and MAY 11, Commemorntivc Medals 
nnd Tickets, property of Talbot Ready, Esq. This collirlion 
of moilals and coins is rtniarkable and contains many inter- 
esting, rare and impi>rlant lots, some examples being unique. 
The concluding part of the Ready collection contains a number 
of line items, such as that by Briot with Prince Charles and 
his father, and the beautiful Royalist Badges. M.\Y 25 to 
JUNE 3, Library of the late Sir J. .X. Brooke. Rare illu- 
minated MSS., handsomely-bound library sets, and a fine 
series of incunabula. Among an abundance of remarkable 
things are Lot ijby, a copy of the statutes of S. .Michael, 
date 1460; Lot 1174, the register of Innkeepers' Cor|>oration 
of Perugia, 1379, with their su|x;rb miniatures, and that rare 
and beautiful example of decorative printing, Spencer's 
Ainoretii (1359). Other items include very scarce or unique 
works. JUNE 13, Egyptian and Oriental antiquities. The 
sale is mainly of pieces of antiquarian interest. Perhaps the 
most beautiful are Lot 193, probably a door jamb, having a 
bas relief portrait of some delicacy (18th dyn.). Ix)t 255, 
statuette of a state official is a capital Theban example ; 
Lot 842, limestone fragment of the face of an .^khenaten 
statue, hints at the power of the complete work ; Lot 847, a 
simple incised head on a slab of limestone, has peculiar 
elegance of design. JUNE, Engravings, property of the late 
H. \V. Bruton, Esq., comprising rare Cruikshank items like 

The Humorist «nd The Fairy Library, and tlie .ilniost 
uniqui' cnncelled wrapper of " Sketches by Boz." Two vols, 
of charming Rowlandson drawings. Mezzotints after Rem- 
brandt, Joseph Wright of Derby, etc. A male portrait by 
Lawrence, of Samuel Lysons, will also be sold. 

M' F. LAiR-DiinREUiL. — At the Galerie Georges Petit, 8 rue 
de Size. May 30 to June 1. This very important sale in- 
cludes the fine polygonal panel — Lot 1 — given to Matteo 
Balducci, similar in subject — Diana and Acteon — <tc., to that 
lent by the Earl of Crawford to the Burl. F..\. Club in 1904; 
Lot 3, Virgin and Child, altrib. Th. Bouls ; Lot 4, two 
Portraits of Men, attrib. Bramantino and belonging to a 
dispersed series described Buki.incton Maoazink, \ov. 1905 ; 
Lot 5, Clouet's fine Portrait of a Man; Lot 9, the curious 
and charming early XVth century, Le mauvais riche cl 
lacarre, Ecole de Boheme ; Lot 10, late XVth century, 
Flemish Phillippe le Beau ; lx)t 14, Ecole de Souabe, Nativity 
of S. John ; Lot 18, Holbein, the younger, Portrait of Ma:i, 
a very important example, fine condition, circular panel (c.f. 
Fitzwilliam Mus. Cam.); Lot 17, jeune I'emme, by the rare 
master Alexis Grimon ; Lot 21, Le repas, an Umbrian work, 
given in the catalogue to I'erugian school. A large number 
of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities, Rhages Pottery, 
Limoges Enamels ; Superb .S. Porchaire faience cup, epoch of 
Henri IL Gothic and Renaissance Sculptures and Gothic 
and other Textiles of the first importance to collectors. 


Publications cannot be included here unless they have 
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prices are stated. 

Serial Publications will be arranged here according to 
number of foreign serials actually received will be entered, 
numbers of their publications have failed to arrive, 

B. T. Batsford. 

Graves, F.S..'\. (.Algernon). Art Sales. From early in the 
XVIIIth Century to early in the XXth Century. Vol. IL 

38s PP- 
A. & C. Black. 

Sharpley (R.). The Thames: A Sketch-Book. 24 pi. 

3s. 6d. 
Woollard (Dorothy E. G.). Bournemouth and District : 
A Sketch Book. 24 pi. 2S. 6d. 
Selwvn- Blount, Ltd. 

Lyon, M.A. (Thomas Henry). The Attribute Proper to 
Art: " Pure .4r( Value." 94 pp. + frontispiece. 3s. 6d. 
Castle Museum, Norwich. 

Souvenir Catalogue Crome Centenary Exhibition. With 
an .Appreciation of John Crome by Laurence Binyon. 
46 pp. + 10 pi. 2S. 6d. 
Georc. et Cie, Geneva. 

Renoir. Coloured reproductions of 10 water-colours, 
sanguines and pastels by Auguste Renoir ; in large port- 
folio ; introduction by Ren^ Jean, translated by Ronald 
Davies. 37 pp. 15 copies with i supplementary draw- 
ing, numbered, 700 Fs. — 185 copies, numbered, 500 Fs. 
John Lane. 

Bryant (Lorinda M.). American Pictures and their 
Painters. 307 pp. + 176 pi. 21s. 

Collins Baker (C. H.). Crome. 206 pp. + 52 pi. £s Ss. 
Kaines Smith (S. C). Looking at Pictures. 151 pp. + 
8 pi. 6s. 
F. Rieder, Paris. 

Sedeyn (Emile). Le Mobilier. 124 pp. -|- 24 pi. 8 Fs. 
LtoNCE Rosenberg, Paris. 

Doesburg (Tnto Van). Classique-Baroque Modertte. 

31 pp. + 16 pi. 
Mondrian (P.). Le Neo-Plctsticisme. 14 pp. 
Privately Published. 
Musnings (A. J.), A.R.A. The Tale of .Anthony Bell. 
16 pp. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Review of the Principal .Acquisitions during the year 1918. 
64 pp. -t- 27 pi. + half-tone ills, in text. 3s. 6d. 

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of this Magazine will not be acknowledged here unless the 

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PrideaUX (S. T.). Notes on Printing and Book-binding : .4 
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Monthly — The Antiquaries' Journal, 2, i — Art et Decoration, 
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Self Portrait by Rembrandt. 29 by 25I (Mr. G. Serra; reproduced by the courtesy of Mr. T.H. Robinson) 

The Nameless Exhibitio?i.—V>Y Desmond MacCarthy 

ROSE," it is said, "by any other 
name will smell as sweet." This 
is not always true of a picture. 
It the wail, " How am I to know 
, if a picture is good if I don't know 
who painted it? " was not constantly audible at 
The Nameless Exhibition's press day, it was 
only because it was unbecoming on the lips of 
critics. Yet how excellent a thing it would be 
if on press days catalogues were always withheld 
and signatures obliterated ! Newspaper criticism 
might in the end pass from the hands of men 
who have learnt the safe sort of things to say 
about artists, into the hands of men who have 
learnt to look at their works. 

The object of this anonymity was not, how- 
ever, to provide an assinometer for critics. It 
was an essential part of an experiment. The ex- 
periment was to hang pictures chosen independ- 
ently by three judges, who take very different 
views about works of art, side by side, so 
that the public who have only seen such 
pictures in different exhibitions, should com- 
pare them, and get a clearer idea of the aims 
and methods of different schools of painting : so 
that we should look at the pictures with as few 
prejudices as possible, the names of the artists 
were withheld. 

The result is most instructive. We are vividly 
impressed with the nullity of painting which 
sacrifices charm of treatment, representation and 
imaginative interest to design — without achiev- 
ing it, and with the emptiness of pictures which 
imitate what is conventionally supposed to be 
nature, as though design was no concern of the 
artist. The exhibition shows us how an artist 
can safely dispense with representation if only 
he finds a non-literal equivalent of an aesthetic 
impression, and also that he may achieve an 
aesthetic result without deviating from the con- 
ventional interpretation of colour and form. In 
short, the exhibition is the best stimulus imagin- 
able to that critical sense which lies dormant or 
servile in most of us. 

Mr. Sims, R.A., Mr. Tonks, and Mr. Fry 
have each collected independently one-third of 
the pictures exhibited. Mr. Sims stands, of 
course, for the Royal Academy tradition ; Mr. 
Tonks for the taste of the New English Art Club 
in its hevday, and Mr. Fry for the movement 
dubbed vaguely Post-Impressionist. There is 
no difficulty in spotting the pictures which could 
onlv have been hung by Mr. Sims, and those 
which only Mr. Fry could have selected. Mr. 
Fry would have rather had his teeth torn out 
one by one than allow merit to such pictures as 
(i) Preparing for the Ball, (21,) A Dutch Family, 
(73) Firelight, (79) " Listening now to the Tide 

in its broad-flung shipwrecking roar," (99) The 
Monastery, or (113) The Aeroplane, to mention 
a few obviously R.A. pictures; while the most 
persuasive wild horses could not have dragged 
consent from Mr. Sims for hanging such 
P.I. pictures as (17) The Visit or (21) The Water 
Carriers, or the two imitation Matisse (102) and 
(106). (It is a mistake to follow Matisse with- 
out possessing extremely delicate sensibility.) or 
(77) Bursting Shell, or (86) Landscape, or the 
geometric design (166). With the exception of 
The Water Carriers, which is in a different class 
altogether (though it is marred by heaviness of 
treatment), these pictures have as little artistic 
merit as the preceding list. What is it, then, 
that makes Mr. Fry (or you, reader) kind to 
them and contemptuous of the others, and Mr. 
Sims (or you, reader) vice versa? The main 
difference is that the basis of the R.A. ^Esthetic 
is that Art is the copy of something, and being 
the copy of something, it follows that a picture 
is (i) the better for being the copy of a pleasant 
thing, and (2) that it becomes the duty of the artist 
to represent it in such a way that the emotions 
a spectator would feel in the presence of the 
original are repeated. (Hence the inclination 
of this school of painters towards sentimental 
subjects or those which suggest a mood or a 
story.) For instance, Kitty, the Flower-Girl, 
must have a pink shell-like complexion, for that 
is agreeable in real life, and the shoulder of the 
young lady Preparing for the Ball must be of 
pearly smoothness for the same reason. The 
more pink and shell-like, the more pearly- 
smooth these objects are, the intenser the 
emotions in the spectator (it is taken for granted 
these emotions are esthetic) will then be. The 
Dutch Family must be resemblant, lady-like and 
well off. But supposing one does not know 
them ! Does one still want to spend years in 
the company of a group of small replicas of 
these kind, refined, handsome women? In real 
life they would talk to one and offer one tea. 
There's the rub ! Art cannot compete with 
life. Fire-light, for instance, is very like fire- 
light, but, alas, not so delightful, for real fire- 
light warms and changes, and flickers. We 
should like to be walking at the foot of that 
" Monastery," among the cypress trees drink- 
ing star-light, while the bowed form of that 
young monk is passing by. But where are the 
tiny stufifless noises of the night? Where the 
solemn monastery bell? Where, indeed, our 
own fragrant, sentimental cigar ? If we want to 
hear " the broad-flung shipwrecking roar " of 
the sea, it is best to go to the sea-side; if we 
want to watch its welter, and cannot leave town, 
we can see its wash and movement better on 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 2ig, Vol. xxxviii. June, 1921. 

26 I 

the cinematograph than in Number ()(). Thus 
Life heats the Artist lioUow at inspiring com- 
plex, keen emotions, and lie must find another 
aim, or fold up his stool like an Arab and as 
silently steal away. But what he can do is to 
record' and intensify a little thin but piercing 
sensation, which tlie shapes, colours and propor- 
tions of objects inspire in human beings. At 
that game he can beat nature. ihe problem, 
then, is how far can he permit himself to deviate 
from actuality in order to intensify that sensa- 
tion. Mr. Fry would say there are no limits to 
the degree of distortion the artist may introduce; 
Mr. Tonks would certainly say that in order to 
receive this sensation in perfection we must feel 
we are contemplating recognisable objects. The 
difiference between Mr. Tonks' aesthetic and Mr. 
Sims' lies in the former's insisting on a certain 
delicate detachment from those emotional values 
of everyday life which the R.A. tradition strives 
to communicate on canvas. Although each of 
the three judges, as autocrats, would thus have 
rejected the bulk of each other's selections, in 
collaboration they would, I think, have con- 
sented to hang (with varying degrees of reluct- 
ance) a fair number of the pictures actually 
shown. Thev would, all three, have passed, I 
think (9) Ballad Seller (possibly deprecating 
murmurs from Mr. Fry), (7) Breton Landscape 
(resistance from Mr. Sims, but ultimate consent 
on the understanding he was presently to get a 
handsome quid pro quo), (10) Landscape, (11) 
Strolling Players, (14) Reading, (17) Brighton 
Beach, (32) P. Wilson Steer, (51) Viganello, 
(58) Victorian Portrait, (78) Lemons, (81) Still 
Life, (96) Lemons. And the interesting thing 
is that although this list (which is far from com- 
plete) of the pictures over which as a hanging 
committee they might not have quarrelled, is not 
equivalent to a list of the best pictures actually 
exhibited, the proportion of good pictures 

among them is very much iiigher than among 
any one of the sections which represent the in- 
dividual tastes of the judges. It is instructive 
to compare (85) Pines with (7) Breton Landscape. 
In the former the colour and the trees are copies 
of nature seen at a twilight moment; in the 
latter they are used for the purpose of design. 
Let the spectator ask himself of which of the 
two pictures he would tire soonest. (No. 17) 
Christ carrying the Cross is a picture in which 
distortion is subjective. It is employed with the 
object of intensifying an imaginative emotion, 
as is often the case in Blake's pictures, and the 
picture itself has an interesting dream-like in- 
tensity. (No. 25) Marionettes is an example of 
immense skill unaided by design. (No. 48 The 
Anrep Family, and (No. 72) Italian Village, 
are attempts to secure fidelity to fact and an im- 
pression of simplification, without making design 
the primary aim ; they fail. (No. 65) Portrait of 
an old man and (No. 105) A Butler are examples 
of distinguished realism ; numbers (76) and (63) 
of undistinguished ditto. (No. 156) Himalaya is 
an attempt to combine poetic emotion with sim- 
plicity of design ; but the poetry is without dis- 
tinction and has got the upper hand entirely. 
(No. 104) Nymphs a7id Shepherds is a failure, but 
it is interesting as an object lesson. The artist 
yearned to make a pattern in two dimensions, 
but could not abandon three dimensional repre- 
sentation : the resuh is fidgeting and ungainly. 
Mr. Fry has been too indulgent to many a 
picture which showed a determination to put 
design first ; Mr. Tonks to many a picture which 
showed a certain fastidiousness in handling light 
and shade and emotional detachment; Mr. Sims 
to pictures which showed skill in producing illu- 
sion and recording sentiment. But together 
they have collected some admirable pictures and 
produced one of the most interesting and in- 
structive of recent exhibitions. 


HE work which we reproduce as a 
Frontispiece, though not generally 
known to the public, has been seen 
and discussed by art historians. It 
is reproduced in the new volume of 
rediscovered works of Rembrandt in the 
Klassiker der Kunst series, which we hope to 
review in our next issue. But the reproduc- 
tion there given hardly does justice to the 
original, which is better represented in the 
accompanving plate. It would appear to be one 
of the latest of Rembrandt's self-portraits. Dr. 
Valentine gives the date 1663, but I should be 
inclined to put it even later than that. It is a 
work of the most consummate art. I doubt 

whether the possibilities of expression by 
pictorial means have ever been pushed so far 
as this. It exhausts every conceivable resource 
of the painter's art. What brilliance and 
surety of handling in the rapid brush work of 
this ' amazing notation of form ! What 
miraculous co-ordination of eye and hand; 
Rembrandt was so gifted that the greatest 
wonder of all is that he survived the menace of 
his gifts. Had he succumbed he would have 
been but another and a more brilliant Frans 
Hals. Fortunately for us he had got hold of 
something infinitely more exciting, the imagin- 
ative comprehension and construction of form — 
the discovery as here, for instance, in the 


tangled complexities and irrationalities of his 
own battered countenance, of a coherent and 
systematic idea. To express that with perfect 
logical explicitness and yet to lose none of the 
sense of its infinite complexity and variety 
needed all the accumulated and superbly dis- 
regarded gifts of his lifelong apprenticeship. 
Out of this there emerges even for those who 
miss this discovery of formal sequences a spirit 
which brings conviction not so much of its ever 
having been actual as of its being necessary and 
eternally real, so that what Rembrandt made of 
Van Rhyn's head becomes almost a mytho- 
logical personification, an ideal figure : but ideal 
and universal without losing anything of the 
sharp particularity of the individual. 

I must speak too of the colour. Deep golden 
olive greens in the shadows with almost black 
accents pass in the half tones through dull 
vinous purples to brick reds over which play the 


N Chichester Cathedral there are 
I several pictures attributed to an 
Italian painter named Theodoricus 
iBarnardi or Theodore Barnard. 
I These works though not of special 
artistic merit, are of interest in as far as ihey 
show sufficient evidence to prove that they are 
the work of Barend Dircksz or Dirk Barentsz, 
one of the earlier and lesser old masters and a not 
unimportant member of the Dutch School. The 
work illustrated [Plate] is perhaps as repre- 
sentative as any. Unfortunately, these paintings 
have lost many of their original touches owing to 
their being "restored" by a comparatively un- 
known and unskilful British artist, named Tre- 
mayne. Local information about the paintings 
is as follows : — 

The pictures were painted by order of Bishop Sherbourne 
(variousl)' spelt), Bishop of Chichester (1508-1536), and it is 
generally believed that he employed for this purpose and for 
other 1 decorative work in the cathedral and palace, an Italian 
artist named Barnardi. 

In Walpole and Vertue's " Anecdotes of 
Painting in England," Vol. i, p. 174, I find the 
following : — 

In Chichester Cathedral are pictures of kings of England 
and bishops of that See, painted about the year 1519 by one 
Barnard, ancestor of a family still settled in those parts. They 
were done at the expense of Bishop Sherbourne. Carl van 
Mander mentions one Theodore Barnardi of .Amsterdam, 
master of Michael Coxie, who (Virtue thinks) painted these 
works at Chichester, as they are in Dutch taste. 

Another extract says : — 

In Italy Dirk Barend, or Barentsz, came under the 
patronage of Bishop Sherbourne, of Chichester Cathedral, 
who was also on a visit to Italy. About that time Barent 
visited England under persuasion of Bishop Sherbourne. 

On reading the above I formed the opinion 
that the painter in que.stion was probably a 

1 These are also to be seen in the cathedral. They are of a 
floral and slender pattern chiefly in cold green. 

silver greynesses of the high lights. The repro- 
duction tends to understate these and reduce 
somewhat the full salience of the relief. 

The picture has recently been admirably 
cleaned under Dr. Bode's supervision, and is 
in .superb condition. Indeed I have rarely been 
able to read with such certainty and ease every 
detail of the original handling. 

Once more one cannot but bitterly regret that 
the opportunity of retaining in the country such 
supreme masterpieces as this and the Youssoupoff 
portraits comes upon us at a time when our 
financial condition gives little hope of grasping 
it. Personally I would rather see this picture in 
the National Gallery than twenty examples of 
even the most interesting secondary artists. How- 
ever different from Rembrandt's an artist's 
methods may be, he cannot but recognise here 
the consummation and achievement of all those 
principles by which he works. 

Dutchman named Dirk Barend or some- 
thing similar, — certainly not Barnard or 
Barnardi. I found no further account of this 
painter under either of the latter names, but 
under the name of Barend I fotmd much which 
gave support to my idea that the two paintings 
in Chichester Cathedral, and possibly the one in 
Amsterdam were executed by the .same master — 
who was neither Italian nor English. In the 
technique of the pictures at Chichester I found 
characteristics peculiar to the artists both of 
Holland and Italy, though obscured by the hand 
of the so-called restorer. The pictures are un- 
doubtedly similar in subject, composition and 
general tone. 

As previously stated, the paintings in Chi- 
chester Cathedral were executed about 1519. 

In support of my argument it may be noted 
that the names Theodoricus (Italian) and Theo- 
dore (English) are Christian names synonymous 
with the Dutch, Dirk or Dirck, and Barnardi 
(Italian) and Barnard (English) are surnames 
synonimous with Barend, Barent, Barentssen or 
Barentsz. The last is an abbreviation of Barent- 
szoon — Barent's son. Thus, Dirk Barentsz 
means Dirk, son of Barent. 

It is believed that the painter of the pictures at 
Chichester returned to Amsterdam some time 
before 13.34, and afterwards settled in England 
with his family, residing here till the time of his 
death, also that a family of that name lived in, 
or near, Chichester. Other information regard- 
ing the Barend family is to be found in Wurz- 
bach (Niederlandisches Kunstlcr-Lexikon) who 
says that Barent Dircksz (Doove Barent) was the 
father of Dirk Barentsz. Karl van Mander 


mentions one of his pictures in the Amsterdam 
Town Hall (still there in 1604^ reprcsentinfj the 
Disorders of the Aiuibul'tists in Ihc year 1535, 
including six pictures representing tlicir punish- 
ment. The Albertina in \'icnna possesses a 
mvstic or allegorical picture having as the sub- 
ject .1 BiJiiqtiet, where the guests are coming 
in pilgrim dress and reading hooks, the work 
being in reddish brown tone with pale green 
high lights.' 

Ulric Thieme and Felix Beaker' say that : — 

Barend Oircksz, known as Doaf Barcnt (falhor of Dirk 
Barentsz. born at Amsterdam 1534), is probably identical 
with Barcnt Dircks?, who in 1550 receivrd four shillings for 
weapon painting. His portrait is to be found in an early 
edition of Van Mandcrs (1764), and he is mentioned as rather 
a good portrait painter. In the Rijk's Museum catalogue 
(1903), Barentsz is mentioned as follows: Barentsz (Dirck), 
born at Amsterdam 1534; interred there 26th May, 1592; 
student of his father, Barent Dircksz, called Doovc (deaf) 
Barent. At Venice he was in the studio of Titian. 

In the work by Thieme and Becker, quoted 
above, the following occurs : — 

.'\nthonv Barendsz, son of Dirck Barendsz (Theodoricus 
Barnardi) was born at .\msterdam 1514 (!) and died in 
Chic hester 1619 ( I). 

3 In the work referred to atmve there is also this entry : 
" Theodoricus Barnardi, who came to Chichester in 1519 or 

3 Allgeineines Lexicon der bildeiidon Kuitsllcr von di'r 
Antike his ztir geyenwart. 


HE embelli-shment of English plate 
with armorial bearings goes back 
many centuries. It was customary 
before the Elizabethan era to enamel 
the arms, as may be observed from 
the few remaining pieces of Tudor and earlier 
plate which have survived the three great periods 
of destruction of ecclesiastical and domestic 
plate in England, namely, the Wars of the 
Roses, the Reformation and the Civil War. 
.Among secular plate thus embellished is the 
rose-water dish of the year 1493-94 at Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford,' and in ecclesiastical 
plate the very rare example in a paten-cover, 
belonging to a silver-gilt chalice of 1564-65 in 
the chapel of All Souls' College." At Cam- 
bridge there is among other pieces the historical 
silver-gilt cup of 1435-40,^ enamelled with the 
arms of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and his 
second wife — the noble bequest to Christ's 
College of the foundress, Margaret, Countess of 
Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII; 
and the beaker of about 1350 at Trinity Hall,* 
as well as the rose-water dish and ewer of the 
year 1545-46,'* which are enamelled with the 
arms of Christ Church, Canterbury, impaling 

1 H. C. Moffat, Old Oxford Plate, 1906, PI. Ixvi ; ^ Ibid., 
PI. xlii. 

3 E. Alfred Jones, The Old Plate of the Cambridge Col- 
leges, 1910, PI. Ixxv ; * Ibid., PI. xxxv ; » Ibid., PI. xlix. 

Hryan and other authorities repeat, to some ex- 
tent, the information already given. 

iMom n study of the examples of their work 
which have comi' down to us, I am led to con- 
clude that the Harcnd family was constituted as 
follows : — 

Oircksz ; F.ither of Barent Dircksz. Probably born in 
Amsterdam .-ilxiut the middle of llie fiftccnlh cenlury. 

Barent Dircksz : Son of Dircksz me'rui<ined above. Painter 
and decorator. Born Amsterdam in or before 1488, learned 
much of his art while visiting Italy. There worked in 
Titian's studio and met Bishop Shcrbournc of Chichester. 
Returned with Sherbournc to England and painted the pic- 
tuns in Chichester Cathedral about 1519. Some time before 
1534, returned to Amsterdam for a short lime. His son 
Dirk (Uirk Barentsz) born there 1534. Possibly then painted 
picture in Rijks Museum, now catalogued " Ainsterdam 
School by unknown master." Returned to England with 
family and resided in Chichester until death. 

Anthony Barendsz : Son of Dirk Barentsz and grandson of 
Barent Dircksz (?). The particulars about this painter as 
supplied by Thieme and Becker confusing. If date of birth 
is correct (1514), could not be son of Dirk Barentsz, who was 
born 1534. Might be brother of Dirk Barentsz and son of 
Barent Dircksz. Probably born .Amsterdam, 1514, before his 
father Barent Dircksz went to Italy, and assisted his father 
at Chichester probably in decorative work. If dates of birth 
and of death (1619) are both correct, his life must have been 
very long. 

Dirk Barentsz : Probably born Amsterdam, 1534. Dutch 
technique with traces of father's influeince. No influences of 
the Italian school apparent, certainly none of Titian. Pi-o- 
bably did not leave Holland to practice his art, but m..y 
have visited parents at Chichester. 


those of the donor, Matthew Parker, the great 
bibliophile and collector of rare objects and 
first Archbishop of Canterbury after the 

Medi£eval mazer bowls were frequently em- 
bellished with a print in the interior, enamelled 
with arms or sacred devices. 

The custom of adorning or marking plate 
with enamelled shields of arms did not die out 
after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, as will 
be noticed from the ecclesiastical piece men- 
tioned above and from other examples of plate, 
but it was an uncommon practice. Indeed, the 
little Elizabethan plate engraved with armorial 
bearings would seem to indicate modesty in the 
owners, or impatience in the goldsmith with 
the notion of introducing a (to him) meaning- 
less and unnecessary shield of arms to spoil the 
effect of his elaborate decoration, and is thus 
in striking contrast to the plate of Charles II, 
where the arms are engraved in a bold and un- 
mistakable manner, such as to suggest pride 
rather than modesty in the owner. In the little 
space allowed by the Elizabethan goldsmith for 
the arms, it was impossible to include the crest 
and supporters. 

In the amazing collection of historic English 
plate in the Kremlin at Moscow, only seven 
pieces are adorned with heraldry, namely, a pair 












of Elizabethan bottles of 1580-81, two cups of 
the years 1616-17 and 1617-18, which are pricked 
with the arms of the donor, James I of England ; 
and a pair of flagons of the year 161 7-18, bear- 
ing the arms of Charles I, by whom they were 
given to the Tsar Michael, the first of the 
Romanoff line. The seventh piece is a Jacobean 
cup, dated 1614-15, adorned with the arms of 
Nevill of Raby. 

As with the plate itself, there is little change 
in the taste for displaying arms in the reign of 
James I. In the time of his son and successor, 
Charles I, a marked change is noticeable both in 
the style of domestic plate and in the manner of 
engraving arms. The tendency is towards a 
larger shield, covering greater space on the 
plainer plate then coming into vogue, accom- 
panied by new-fashioned mantling. 

An early example of Carolean mantling is on 
the pair of flagons of 1626-27, given by Valen- 
tine Carey, Bishop of Exeter, to Christ's 
College, Cambridge, engraved with the arms of 
the see impaling the Bishop's arms (Fig. i.) 

A plain chalice of great historic associations, 
made in the year 1629-30, is engraved with the 
arms of Sir Henry Henne, baronet, in a plain 
shield with a mantling of feathers and palm-like 
leaves, tied together, though the heraldic orna- 

mentation is a few years later. '^ This historical 
relic, which was the actual vessel in which 
Charles I received the last sacrament on the 
scaffold, is in the possession of the Duke of 
Portland (Fig. 2). 

Contemporary with this ornate Carolean 
mantling was a plain shield, devoid of all 
mantling, such as may be seen on a good deal 
of plate, including the arms of the donor, 
William Foxwist, engraved in 1645 on a cup of 
1615-16 belonging to the Corporation of St. 
Albans. Another variety of Carolean mantling 
is the wreath, as on the " Box " flagons of 
1640-41 at Oriel College, Oxford. 

In the next stage in the development of 
mantling, a plain palm leaf was engraved on 
either side of the shield and tied below. This 
was continued during the Commonwealth and 
into the reign of Charles II. A good example of 
a Commonwealth piece of plate is the plain 
tankard of 1655-56, the gift in 1656 of Isaac 
Creme to the defunct Barnard's Inn and now in 
the collection of the Earl of Rosebery (Fig. 3). 
Similar mantling is engraved on a cup and stand 
of the year 1659-60, the property of Mr. J. M. 

« The baronetcy was created in 1642, which would be the 
earliest date for the engraving. Sir H. Heniie died in or 
before 1668. 


Kirk wood.' 

I'his plain palm leal mantling is far from 
common on Charles II plate, though miuli 
favoured on the elaborate bookbindings of that 
King, which are attributed with insufficient 
reasons to .'^amuel Mearne, who was not a prac- 
tical bookbinder, but the royal stationer who 
supplied the palaces with ink, paper and other 
necessaries for the writing table. .Specimens of 
these bindings are on exhibition at the British 

The feather mantling, a characteristic feature 
of Charles II plate, is not confined to one 
variety, as might be assumed from a casual 
glance at a quantity of plate so engraved. There 
are, in fact, several varieties, as may be seen 
from those illustrated here. The first shows a 
mantling composed of six feathers tied by a knot 
below the shield, on the two-handled "Hooper" 
cup of the year 1677-78 at Exeter College 
Oxford [Plate 4], a number increased to eight 
on the "Davenant" tankard at Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge (Fig. 5). A mantling of ten feathers is 
engraved on the " Bankes " tankard of the year 
1674-75 at Queens' College, Cambridge (Fig. 6), 
and on the earliest known English coffee-pot or 
teapot, dated 1681-82, formerly the property of 
the East India Company, and now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. A slight varia- 
tion in the size and arrangement of the same 
number mav be seen on the alms dish dated 
1680-81, at 'All Souls' College, Oxford. The 
engraver of the arms of Sir William EUys, the 
donor of a caudle cup of the same year at 
Lincoln College, Oxford, has increased the 
number of feathers to fourteen, which is the 
greater number observed on Plate 7. 

Although the approximate date of English 
plate may be assigned by the style of the 
mantling, without reference to the marks or to 
the fashions of the objects themselves, armorial 
bearings have frequently been engraved a few 
vears later than the date of the pieces. Foi 
example, the deduction might be made that the 
arms of Alderman Sir Thomas Bloodworth on 
the Cromwellian cup of 1653-54, given by him 
to the Vintners Company, were engraved in that 
year, were it not for the fact that the mantling 
is of the feathered style of Charles II, and was 
added in the year of the gift, 1682. 

A rarer varietv of feather mantling, with the 
feathers finished in a slight foliation, appears to 
have been a somewhat later development. It 
occurs on the large caudle cup of Thomas 
Mansell, dated 1684-85, at Jesus College, 

' C. J. Jackson^ The History of Old English Plate, p. 222. 

Oxford,* and on the Firebrace arms on the large 
bowl and cover of 1691-92 at Trinity College, 
Cambridge." Interesting as a .specimen of 
American engraving in this style is the large 
plain baptismal basin, engraved with the arms 
of Clarke, given by Mary Saltonstall to the Old 
South Church at Boston and wrought bj' John 
Coney (1655-1722), silversmith, of that place.'" 

A fact deserving of notice in the history of 
mantling is that while the large foliation hang- 
ing from the helm which supports the crest is a 
conspicuous feature of bookplates by Albrecht 
Diirer, Hans Sebald Beham, and other German 
artists of the sixteenth century, this variety was 
not generally adopted by engravers of armorial 
bearings on English plate until the time of 
Charles II. English portrait engravers, William 
Faithorne and other artists had, however, in- 
troduced it some years earlier, while bookplate 
engravers had adopted the style in the first half 
of the seventeenth century, as may be observed 
in the Lyttelton bookplate, done on paper made 
anterior to the year 1650 by one William 
Marshall, who died in 1646. It may also be 
seen in the bookplate of John Tradescant, 1656, 
which is with the Lyttelton bookplate in the 
Franks Collection in the British Museum. An 
interesting dated example is the bookplate of 
William Penn, proprietor of Pennsylvania, 
1703. Although not firmly established on Eng- 
lish plate until the reign of Charles 11, an earlier 
example may be observed at Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, on the tankard of 1635-36, which was 
engraved shortly after 1645 with the arms of the 
benefactor, Thomas Eden. 

For historical specimens of the " Durer " 
mantling there is the set of four silver beakers 
of the seventeenth century of Dutch craftsman- 
.ship, but engraved by an English engraver with 
the curious inscription, Ralph Lord Hopton's 
Little Kitchen of Silver Plate, formerly the 
property of Ralph, Lord Hopton, the distin- 
guished royalist leader, who died in exile at 
Bruges in 1652. The beakers were given to 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, by 
Richard Watson, royalist divine and poet, and 
faithful friend and chaplain to Lord Hopton 
until that nobleman's death. 

This foliated mantling (Plate, 8) remained 
in favour for bookplates into the reign of George 
I, for .some years after it had been superseded on 
silver plate by the " Jacobean." 

» H. C. Moffatt, Ibid. 

9 E. Alfred Jones, The Old Plate of the Cambridge Colleges, 
PI. xcix. 

10 Illustrated in The Old Silver of American Churches, by 
E. Alfred Jones, 1913, p. 58. 

(To be continued.) 





1 1 


Plate I. Georefian Rummers 





r may well be that the English word 
' rummer " has, as stated in 
Murray's Oxford Dictionary, a con- 
tinental origin — the Flemish rommer 
and the Dutch and German roemer — 
but the drinking-vessels usually included under 
the English term and dealt with in this article 
have nothing in common with the continental 
roemer, which was hollow right down to the 
foot, the " stem " (if it can so be called) having 
almost as great a diameter as the bowl. Bate 
describes and illustrates examples of the larger 
wine goblets, having plain, spiral, or cut stems, 
as rummers {English Table Glass, p. 67, and 
Plate xxxiv), but this seems to introduce un- 
necessary confusion into glass-nomenclature, 
and it is better to reserve the term for the large 
class of drinking-vessels, usually of a solid and 
heavy nature, possessing three well-marked 
characteristics which, in combination, separate 
them entirely from any class or group of wine- 
glasses. These are a wide-mouthed capacious 
bowl, a very short stem, and a foot small in 
proportion to the bowl and nearly always of less 

This kind of drinking-vessel may perhaps 
claim as its prototype the Verzelini Goblet 
(1586) in the British Museum (illustrated in 
Hartshorne, Plate 27, and Bate, Plate ii), and 
its descent may possibly be further traced 
through Greene's beer-glasses with big bowls 
and short stems (Hartshorne, Plate 30), but the 
rummer as defined above was introduced little, 
if at all, earlier than 1750, and did not come 
into general use until the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century. The earliest dated 
example illustrated here is of the year 1766 
[Plate II, No. 10] and the earliest that has 
come under the author's notice was dated 
1758. According to Murray's Dictionary 
the word rummer occurs in English litera- 
ture as early as 1654, and instances are 
given of its use by Davenant (1668), Dryden 
(1673), and Ward (1706), but it is only possible 
to conjecture what type of drinking-vessel was 
thus characterised in England between 1650 and 
1750. During the first half of this period it 
seems probable that the word was merely an 
Anglicised form of roemer, and that in such 
context as " a rummer of Rhenish " allusion 
was made to the continental drinking-vessel. 
There may possibly have been English drink- 
ing-glasses during the first half of the eighteenth 
century styled rummers, but, so far as the 
present writer is aware, there is no evidence as 
to what their form may have been and none to 
bear out Bate's suggestion that the larger wine- 

glasses of that period were in their own day 
known as rummers. 

Hartshorne appears content to connect the 
word with the liquor rum and associates the 
English " rummer proper " with the consump- 
tion of punch and " hot grog." Punch was 
known here as early as the seventeenth century, 
but rum-punch was only one of its many kinds, 
and there is no apparent reason why other kinds 
of punch should be drunk out of glasses called 
rummers. The case in favour of grog is dif- 
ferent. Rum and water only became known as 
" grog " on its substitution for neat rum as a 
naval ration in August, 1740, by Admiral 
V^ernon, known in the Service as " Old Grog " 
from his grogram boat-cloak, and it is at least 
a plausible proposition that the word rummer 
in its earlier use referred to, and was an 
Anglicised form of, the continental roemer, and 
that the term was aptly transferred to a purely 
English type of glass for rum and water only 
about the middle of the eighteenth century after 
the introduction into the Navy of " grog." 
However this may be, the drinking-glasses with 
which this article is concerned are certainly not 
earlier than that date, and only reached their 
best about 1790-1810, and although they con- 
tinued to be made long after 1820 and are now 
still produced (mostly as indifferent copies of 
the old shapes) their interest for the collector 
ends with the Georgian era. 

Before the bowl-forms of the rummer are 
described it may be as well to deal briefly with 
the stems and feet. The stem is always short, 
seldom much more than an inch long and often 
less, most commonly of a plain cylindrical type 
though occasionally taking a baluster form 
[e.g. Plate II, Nos. 6 and 8, Plate III, 
No. 5], and a simple glass collar at the 
with the bowl is an almost con- 

in general, round 
" step " upward 
seen very plainly 
of examples in 


stant addition. The foot is, 
and often has a single 
to the stem, which may be 
in, e.g., the first row 
Plate II. In a far less common class may be 
placed the square foot, sometimes solid but more 
often hollow, with a pressed interior which 
resembles an old-fashioned jelly-mould, a 
feature which produces a brilliant lighting 
efTect. The square foot appears to be associated 
only with the cup-shaped and bucket-shaped 
bowls. In the accompanying illustrations the 
height of at least one piece in each row is given, 
and this will enable the reader to gauge the 
height of the other glasses in the same photo- 

Probably the most common form of bowl is 


that which may, for the want of a better general 
term, be described as cup-shaped. Tliese cups 
vary in their lines just as china cups do, the 
" pot-bellied " example in Plate 1, No. i, fining 
down through Nos. 2 and 3 to the elegant shape 
shown in No. 4 (5^ inches). It is not suggested 
that this is a chronological evolution. Un the 
contrary, the character of the oil-gilded engra\- 
ing on No. 4 shows it to have been a much 
earlier glass than No. 2, which is actually dated 
(181 7) bv the series to which it belongs described 
below [see Plate III, Nos. 4 and 6]. The 
second row of glasses in Plate I illustrates a 
similar variation of lines in the cup-shaped 
rummers possessing square feet, and here, 
again, the style of the engraving on No. 7 
(5 inches), an example of the solid square foot, 
proclaims it much the earliest glass in the row, 
whilst the subject-matter of Nos. 6 and 8 shows 
them to have been earlier than No. 5, which 
probably dates after 1800. 

In the third row in Plate I, Nos. 9 
(5f inches), 10, and 11, show a similar variation 
of lines in another type of cup-shaped rummer, 
those with pressed flutes on the lower portion 
of the bowl. Neither No. 10 nor No. 11 has any 
collar, and No. 10 is of interest in that it 
possesses practically no stem at all, the flutes 
being, as it were, simply gathered together and 
joined to the foot. No. 12 illustrates a cup- 
shaped " trick-rummer " (4J inches). It will 
be seen that the bowl has double " walls," a 
short hollow stem, and a high domed and folded 
foot. The modus operandi was to turn the glass 
upside-down and fill the " wall-space " with a 
liquid of the right colour to represent the liquor 
to be offered to the intended victim of the trick. 
The stem was then corked and when the glass 
was set on its foot the liquor appeared to be 
" swimming " within the bowl in the most 
natural manner possible. In the absence of 
close scrutiny the illusion is absolutely perfect, 
as the author can vouch by personal experiment, 
and perhaps it is not surprising that not very 
many trick-glasses, from " yards of ale " down 
to rummers of this type, have survived the 
horse-plav of the tavern parlour. 

The next type of bowl, shown in the first 
row-of glasses in Plate II, ma}- conveniently be 
called waisted. No. i (a fine piece 6| inches 
high) shows this waist in the most pronounced 
form, in No. 2 (5^ inches) it is less marked, 
whilst in No. 3 it has almost disappeared, this 
glass being distinguished from the cup-shaped 
type only by the fact that the lines of the lower 
portion of the bowl continue to be straight 
instead of being curved. Rummers of this type 
are seldom engraved except with the name of 
some individual or inn, or with a date just below 
the rim. No dated specimen earlier than 1800 

has come under the author's notice. No. 4 
illustrates a waisted rummer with pressed flutes, 
a verv pleasing variety. In the next row are 
illustrated tiie bucket-.shaped bowl (No. 5), the 
barrel-shaped bowl (No. 6), and the double 
ogee bowl (Nos. 7 and 8). The two last- 
mentioned types are those least frequently 
found, and No. 7 (5J inciies) is perhaps worthy 
of note for the unusual length of its stem, and 
No. 6 for the unusual size of its foot, the 
diameter of which is slightly larger than that of 
the bowl. Other examples <jf tiie bucket-shaped 
bowl may be seen in Plate III, Nos. 2 and 5, 
and it is a shape particularly associated with the 
series of commemorative Nelson rummers issued 
after the State Funeral in 1806 and in the 
immediately succeeding years. By 1814 the 
sides of the bucket had already been given a 
slope [Plate III, No. 5], and this tendency 
became still more pronounced in later years, as 
may be seen in most of the " Sunderland 
Bridge " rummers, which have no as.sociation 
with its opening in 1796, but were made to com- 
memorate its being widened under the direction 
of Robert Stephenson in 1858. 

It remains to give a few illustrations, and to 
refer the reader to others already published else- 
where, representing finely engraved or inscribed 
examples, which will serve to give some idea of 
the varied part which the rummer played in the 
social life of the country in the time of 
George III. Loyal and patriotic sentiment, 
political party-feeling, the interest of an island 
race in all nautical afifairs, the importance of 
commerce and farming, freemasonry, heraldry, 
sport, convivial toasts, and all the small affairs 
of local or private life alike found record on the 
rummer of the day. 

The fine bucket-shaped glass (7^ inches) 
figured in Plate III, No. 2, commemorating the 
Jubilee of George III, is a good example of the 
" loval and patriotic " rummer. Others in- 
scribed " King and Constitution " are occasion- 
ally found. A bucket-shaped rummer with a 
pronounced " slope " commemorating the 
Coronation of George IV, and engraved with a 
representation of the King's Champion, is 
illustrated in Bate (Plate Ivii, No. 216), and 
another of similar type commemorating the 
King's visit to Dublin in 1821, is shown in Mr. 
Dudley Westropp's Irish Glass (Plate xxxviii). 

As regards " political " rummers reference 
may be made to the example concerning the 
General Election of 1802, which is figured in 
Plate III accompanying the article on 
" Georgian Electioneering Glasses " in The 
Burlington Magazine of November, 1920. 
The rummer illustrated here [Plate I, No. 6] 
inscribed " Success to Fair Trade " (5| inches) 
is hardly political in the strict sense, though it 



1 1 



Plate II. Georgian Rummers 

Plate III. Georgian Rummers. 

may be regarded as an eighteenth century 
protest against the excessive duties on wine and 
brandv. It has nothing to do with Fair Trade 
or Protection as known to EngHsh poHtics since 
the middle of the nineteenth century, but un- 
doubtedly commemorates the smugglers, who 
called themselves indifferently " Free Traders " 
or (by way of euphemistic synonym) " Fair 
Traders " in the latter half of the eighteenth 

Rummers of general " maritime " interest 
were dealt with in the article on " Sea Power 
under George III Illustrated on Contemporary 
Glass," in The Burlington Magazine of 
November, 1919, and a representative series of 
nine rummers, including specimens of the 
Nelson glasses already referred to, will be 
found illustrated there in Plate III. 

The rummer reproduced here in Plate I, 
No. 3, is engraved with the Farmer's " Arms " 
(an example of pseudo-armorial bearings antici- 
pating Mr. E. T. Reed's humorous devices of 
that kind in Punch some years ago), and is in- 
scribed on one side, " May farming flourish," 
and on the other, " A trifle from Yarmouth." 
Similar glasses were no doubt common in most 
agricultural centres. Genuine coats of arms are 
often found on rummers, those of public bodies 
occurring more frequently than those of private 
families. Examples, may be seen here in 
Plate III, No. 8 (the City of Norwich), and 
No. 9 (University College, Oxford). The 
rummer figured in Plate II, No. 9 (6 inches), 
is engraved with the arms of the Goldsmiths 
Company on one side and the crest above the 
initials J.S.A.R. on the other, additional 
details being crossed barley ears, the date 1790, 
and the initials S.W. within a wreath — a fine 
and well-covered piece. 

As might be expected, rummers associated 
with freemasonry are numerous, and examples 
will be found in Plate I, No. 5, and Plate II, 
No. 1 1 . The latter is well engraved with masonic 
emblems with a triumphal garland on one side and 
on the other bears the initials B.S.K. and the date 
1795 above a floral wreath. Very few genuine 
" sporting " rummers remain. No doubt, like 
the trick-rummers, they were peculiarly sus- 
ceptible to casualties and the great majority of 
those engraved with cock-fighting or hunting 
scenes, etc., now to be found are poor modern 
forgeries. An interesting " toast " glass is to 
be seen in the graceful rummer (5| inches) 
decorated with deep-cut and polished festoons 
after the Adams fashion figured in Plate III, 
No. 7. It has an air of " breeding " which is 
even enhanced by a toast of the right eighteenth 
century flavour written with a diamond beneath 
the foot, " Incomparable Miss Charters." One 
example of " local patriotism " has already been 

seen in the Norwich rummer [Plate III, No. 8] 
and the Sunderland Bridge rummer figured in 
Plate I, No. 8, is another. It is engraved on 
one side with a representation of the bridge 
with a ship beneath it, and above the inscription 
in diamond-point, " Sunderland Bridge, Height 
100 Feet, Span 236 Feet." On the other side 
within an elaborate circular design are the 
initials H.P. This glass commemorates the 
opening of the bridge in 1796, and is of precisely 
the same type as the rummer dated 1794 shown 
in Pl.\te III, No. 3. 

Finally the large class of rummers associated 
with matters of private and domestic concern 
are still full of human interest, although most 
of the individuals commemorated may have been 
of no importance, and in any case have long 
been forgotten. The small rummer (5 inches) 
simply inscribed " J.B. 1789," with a conven- 
tional floral design on the other side [Plate III, 
No. i] has private memories as to the nature of 
which not even a guess can now be made, but 
it has the extra little bit of interest which always 
attaches to a genuine dated example. Many rum- 
mers however tell their own story. Amongst the 
people who could not afford silver cups a rummer 
duly inscribed must have been a common form of 
christening gift. The early example already 
alluded to [Plate II, No. 10] is inscribed round 
the rim, " Rebecca Greedey, Born April 23rd, 
1766," the rest of the bowl being covered vvith 
a design of grapes and vine-leaves, and the 
square-footed rummer figured in Plate III, No. 3 
(5| inches) is inscribed " Edward Norton, 
South Cove, Born 5th July, I794." and engraved 
on the other side with the ever-recurring hover- 
ing bird [cf. Plate I, No. 7]. 

The two weighty glasses [sf inches] illus- 
trated in Plate III, Nos. 4 and 6, form together 
with the two others shown in Plate I, Nos. 2 
and II, an interesting series of what may be 
termed " family and commercial " rummers. 
The first [Plate III, No. 4] records on one side 
the marriage of Richard Sexton and Esther 
Edwards at Morton (in Lincolnshire), 
January 4th, 1816, and is inscribed on the other 
with the following verse : — 

" Let mutual Love be ours 

And two faithful Hearts our Bow'rs. 

Let Virtue like the Ivy twine 

And mine be thine and thine be mine." 

Underneath this gem is inscribed " J. Carr," 
a name not familiar to the present writer 
amongst the great array of English poets. The 
second glass [Pl.^te III, No. 6] records on one 
side the birth of Edward Sexton, February 9th, 
1817, and is inscribed on the other with the 
following verse : — 

" Was I so tall to reach the Pole 
Or grasp the Ocean with a span, 
I would be measur'd by the Soul ; 
The Mind's the Stature of the Man." 


This quatrain is quotoJ (with six verbal 
mistakes of which the most important is 
" stature " for " standard ") from Dr. Isaac 
Watts' False Greatness, and it seems probable 
that his name as its author would have been 
inscribed beneath it if J. Carr were the author 
of the eflusion on the other rummer. He may 
have been, of course, but the more probable 
conclusion is that "J. Carr " was the signature 
of the engraver and, as all collectors know, 
engraved glasses signed by the engraver are 
extremely uncommon. The other two rummers 
[Plate I, Nos. 2 and 11] are inscribed, clearly 
bv the same hand, " R. Sexton, Whalebone 
Inn," anil thus complete the picture of the 
Sexton family and business in 1817. It was 
probably a common practice for inn-keepers to 
have glasses or sets of glasses inscribed in this 
way " for the good of the house," and another 
example may be seen in Plate III, No. 5, boldly 
inscribed in large capitals, " Hastings Arms, 
George Sargent, 1814." 

Amongst all the %'aried subjects chronicled by 
the rummer which have been mentioned or illus- 


RIESZ is a painter who has 'come 
on ' visibly since the war. He has 
drawn right away from "the field" 
to join those leaders — Matisse, Pic- 
asso, Derain, Bonnard, shall we 
say, with one or two more in close attend- 
ance — a cursory glance at whom, as they 
flash by, provokes this not unprofitable exclama- 
tion : " How different thev are!" Apparently, 
amongst the chiefs, that famous movement no 
longer counts for much. I ook at them ; to an 
eye at all practised these arti.sts are as unlike each 
other as are hounds to the eye of a huntsman. 
Certainlv, they all owe something to Cezanne : 
but what other important characteristic have they 
in common which they do not share with the best 
of the last hundred years? It was ever so : the 
best, who are all alike in some ways, in others 
are, from the first, the most sharply diflferentiated 
simply because they are the personal. Also, 
as they mature, they become more and more 
peculiar because thev tend to rely less and less on 
anything but themselves and the grand tradition. 
Each creates and inhabits a world of his own, 
which, by the way, he is apt to mistake for the 
world of everyone who is not maliciously preju- 
diced against him. And Friesz, whose char- 
acter and intelligence are utterly unlike those of 
his compeers, is now, naturally enough, produc- 
ing work which has little in common with that 
even of Matisse — Matisse to whom, not fifteen 

trated here the collector will note that the 
memories connected with the Jacobite cause have 
not been included. The author has never seen 
or heard of a genuine Jacobite rimimer, i.e. one 
contemporary with the movement, and engraved 
with the emblems or mottoes of the culte whilst 
it was still a living political force. There may, 
perhaps, be one or twt) .sucii glasses in existence, 
but their extreme rarity (or non-existence, as the 
case may be) may be taken to support the general 
proposition of this article that the English 
rummers only came into jiopular use about the 
last quarter of the eiglUcenth century when the 
Jacobite movement had shot its bolt. The 
so-called " Williamile " glasses, on the other 
hand, which might more correctly and euphoni- 
ously be called " Orange " or " Anti-Catholic " 
glasses, continued to be produced as long as the 
agitation against Catholic emancipation lasted, 
i.e., until the passing of the Act of 1829, and a 
bucket-shaped rummer with sloping sides (circa 
1820), engraved with an equestrian figure of 
King William III, and inscribed " The Glorious 
Memory of King William," is figured in Mr. 
Dudley Westropp's Irish Glass (Plate xxxviii). 

years ago, I saw a picture of his attributed by a 
com.petent amateur who was the friend of both. 

Friesz has an air of being more professional 
than any other artist of this first rank — for March- 
and, I think, is not quite of it. Indeed, for a 
moment, Friesz may appear alarmingly profes- 
sional. Certainly, he leaves nothing to chance : 
all is planned, and planned, not in haste and 
agitation, fingers itching to be at it, but with the 
deliberation, the critical thoroughness, of an 
engineer or an architect. There is so much of the 
painstaking craftsman in his method that for a 
moment vou may overlook the sensitive artist 
who conceives and executes. But, in fact, the 
effective alliance of practical intelligence with 
fine sensibility is the secret of his strength, as I 
realised one day, when I had the privilege of 
studying a large decoration (a sketch for a frag- 
ment of which is to be seen in this exhibition) 
which Friesz had just carried out. Since then I 
have not doubted that he was the man who might 
give this age that of which the age talks much 
and gets little — monumental decoration. 

Large decorative schemes, — when they are not, 
what most are, mere wastes of tumid pomposity, 
— are apt to fail for one or two reasons : either 
they are too much like pictures or too little like 
works of art. Because very few artists are 
capable by taking thought of adapting their 
means to an unfamiliar end. it will happen that a 
sensitive and gifted painter sets about a decora- 







tion as though he were beginning an easel pic- 
ture. He has his sense of the importance 
of richness, of filling a picture to the brim ; 
he has a technique adequate to his con- 
( option ; but he has neither the practical 
readiness nor the intellectual robustness 
which would enable him to adjust these to a new 
problem. He endeavours, therefore, to key every 
part of his scheme up to the highest pitch of 
intensity that line and colour can bear. He is 
attempting the impossible ; liis conception is in- 
appropriate ; and, in any case, his technique is 
unequal to so vast an undertaking. He produces 
something which may be delicious in detail but 
is pretty sure to be unsatisfactory as a whole. 
He fails to fill his space. His work has the vice 
of Sidney's Arcadia and the Religio Medici : 
it is good to dip into. You cannot write an epic 
as though it were a sonnet. 

On the other hand, you must not write an epic 
as though you were telling a tale in the bar- 
parlour, lest you should create another Earthly 
Paradise, leaving quite untouched the subtler 
and more energetic chords in your listener's 
appreciative faculty. The craftsman decorator, 
though he may know how to fill vast spaces, will 
never fill them with lively images, flis plan may 
be cleverly devised to surmount difficulties of 
structure and material ; it will not be inspired. 
Incapable of keying his instrument too high, he 
will be satisfied with a slack string and abomin- 
able flatness. His forms will be conventional; 
his handling impersonal ; ten to one he will give 
us a row of insipid Gothic figures or something 
in the pseu do- Veronese taste. 

Almost everyone would admit that, considered 
as pictures, those great decorations in the Doges' 
Palace were a little empty ; no one can deny that 
as parts of a vast scheme they are superbly ade- 
quate. Very much the same might be said of 
the decorations T have in mind. It is clear that 
Friesz plotted and reasoned with himself until he 
had contrived a method of matching means with 
ends. Bv constructing it out of forms less 
charged, more fluent, and more in the nature of 
arabesques than those he habitually employs, he 
gave to his scheme continuity and easy compre- 
hensibility : but never did he allow those forms 
tO' subside into mere coloured spaces, or the 
lines to become mere flourishes : always every 
detail was doing something, and so the whole 
was significant and alive. The scheme which 
was planned with caution was carried through 
with passion. 

Now obviously a painter capable of perform- 
ing this feat must possess a rare, at this moment 
possibly unique, gift. Friesz is one who can 
bring the whole weight of his intellect to bear on 
his sensibility. That sensibility let no one under- 

rate. Before his vision of the external world, 
especially before what we are pleased to call 
Nature, Friesz has a reaction as delicate and 
enthusiastic as that of an English poet. Only, 
unlike most English painters, he would never 
dream of jotting it down and leaving it at that. 
Such hit-or-miss frivolity is not in his way. He 
is no amateur. He takes his impressions home 
and elaborates them ; he brings his intellect to 
bear on them; and, as the exhibition at 
the Independent Gallery shows, without 
robbing them of their bloom, makes of 
them something solid and satisfying. To realise 
what a power this is we may, 1 hope without 
indiscretion, glance for an instant at another 
handsomely endowed French painter. That M. 
Lhote does not want for sensibility is shown by 
his sketches and water-colours, that his intellect 
is sharp enough is proved by his writings; but 
the devitalized rectitude of his more ambitious 
pieces shov.'s how appallingly difficult it is to 
bring intellect to bear on sensibility without 
cru.shing it. The failure of M. Lhote is the 
measure of M. Friesz's achievement. 

If 1 am right, it is only natural that pictures by 
Friesz should improve on acquaintance. The 
studied logic of the composition may for a time 
absorb the spectator's attention and blind him to 
more endearing qualities ; but, sooner or later, 
he will begin to perceive not only that a scrupu- 
lously honest vision has been converted into a 
well-knit design, but that the stitches are lovely. 
In every part he will be discovering subtle and 
seductive harmonies and balances of which the 
delicacy dawns on him as he gazes. The more 
he looks the more will he get of that curiously 
gratifying thrill which comes of the recognition 
of unostentatious rightness. 

But, though he offers the sensitive amateur an 
unusually generous allowance of the amateur's 
most delicate pleasure, Friesz is above all a 
painters' painter. He has been called a theorist. 
And, because he is a painter of exceptionally 
good understanding, who thinks logically about 
his art and can find words for what he thinks, I 
suppose the appellation is admissible. But, re- 
member, he never dreams of trying to convert his 
theories of art into theories of life. His are not 
of the kind that can be so converted. He is not 
a journalists' painter. Also, unlike those of the 
mere craftsman, his theories are based always 
on the assumption that there is such a thing 
as art — something that is created by and 
appeals to peculiar faculties, something rare 
and personal and not to be had simply by 
taking thought and pains, something as utterly 
unlike honest craftsmanship as it is unlike the 
cryptic mutterings of boozy mountebanks : sub- 
ject, however, to this assumption, his theories are 


severely practical. They have to do solely with 
the art of painting ; they are born of his own 
experience; and he makes visible use of them. 
That is whv 1 call Fries? a painters' painter. I 
wonder whether the Italian iiriniitives, with that 
disqiiietingly iinsolfconscioiis ins])iration of 
theirs, directed with such amazing confidence 
along well-devised, practical channels, were 
not a little liUe him. 

The exhibition at tiic Independent Gallery is 
fairly representative of Friesz's later work ; and 


HE third class of subject repre- 
sents scenes from the life of David, 
several of which are incidents re- 
corded in the historic preamble to 
a particular psalm, for example, 
Davitl hidini; himself in a cave (Psalm 
hi) [Plate III, .'\], the Philistines taking 
him in Gath (Psalm Iv), and his escape 
from the assassins sent bv Saul (Psalm 
Iviii) [Plate III, b & e] ; in the last the 
king is seen being let down from his house by 
Michal, his wife, and also hastening away, the 
double representation in the same miniature 
being unique in this codex. But the greatest 
artistic interest in the David pictures consists in 
the close similarity between certain of these, and 
those of the fine psalter with full-page illustra- 
tions of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 
M.S. Grec. 139. The Paris manuscript belongs 
to a section of psalters which has been named 
the " Aristocratic Group," since they were 
thought to have been executed for rich patrons, 
probably by a court painter. These differ en- 
tirely from the " Monkish theological," in that 
the miniatures form a supplement and are not 
closelv related to the text ; they do not add to 
the teaching value of the codex.' Each is a 
fully developed enclosed picture with a land- 
scape, or architectural background. - 

One of the most striking resemblances 
between the Bristol and the Paris psalter is in 
the representation of the history of David and 
Goliath. In the Bristol manuscript this is 
depicted in two miniatures, the first illustrating 
Psalm cxliii, i, " Blessed be the Lord my 
strength : Who teacheth my hands to war and 
my fingers to fight." [Plate III, g] shows 
David, a youthful figure with sling and stone, 
supported by an angel " strength," meeting a 
man in armour, Goliath, who has just thrown 
his lance, and behind whom is an allegorical 
figure of " boastfulness " turning away with 

' J. J. Tikkanen, op. cit. p. 14. 

' H. Omont, " Fac-similes des Miniatures des plus anciens 
Manuscripts Grecs de la Bibliotheque Nationale " (PI. i, xiv). 

if it cannot he .s,-ud quiie to simimarize a stage of 
his career, at least it is a niileslone. Friesz has 
arrived: that is to say, what he has already 
achieved siifiices to affirm the existence of a dis- 
tinct, personal, talent, entitled to its j^lace in the 
rc|)ublicof i:>ainting. .\t that ])c)int we leave him. 
Hut we may be sure that, with his remark- 
able gift and even more remarkable power of 
turning it to account, his energy, his patience, 
and his manifest ambition, he will .soon have 
gone beyond it. 


hand to forehead in an attitude of despair. In 
the second miniature, which follows the last of 
the psalms, David is represented decapitating 
Goliath who is kneeling with his hands stretched 
awkwardly downwards towards his helmet on 
the ground before him, two soldiers stand 
behind Goliath [Plate III, d]. In the Paris 
psalter the two scenes are superimposed to form 
one full-page illustration — the first, the upper 
one, is a faithful counterpart of the Bristol 
miniature; in both cases the details of the 
costume of David, the stole-like enrichment, 
the cloak twisted round his arm, the dis- 
tinctive curve of his garment over his 
knees are identical, as also are Goliath's 
pose and costume, the position of his 
shield and spear, and most telling of all the pose 
and gesture of " boastfulness." The decapita- 
tion of Goliath below duplicates the second 
Bristol miniature as far as the principal figures 
are concerned, the two soldiers being expanded 
in the Paris manuscript to two groups, one 
behind each of the chief actors. The first 
of the two scenes is also reproduced in the 
thirteenth century Graco-Latin Hamilton 
Psalter of Berlin ' ;' the allegorical figures are no 
longer included, but the pose of David and 
Goliath, particularly the right arm of Goliath, 
are strikingly like the Paris and Bristol minia- 

There are marked points of resemblance 
between the representation of David's rebuke by 
Nathan [Plate III, f] in the Bristol and Paris 
codices. In the Bristol manuscript it belongs to 
Psalm I, the preamble to this psalm referring to 
the incident. David, watched through the 
window of a garden house by Bathsheba, has 
left his throne, and is abasing himself before 
Nathan whilst an allegorical figure of Penitence 
is in the background. The pose and dress of 
David, his broad belt and the design on his 
sleeves are very like similar details in the Paris 
miniature, as also Nathan's pose and dress, 

3 J. J. Tikkanen, op. cit., Fig. 127. 


-"«» e •H-H > 

A David in Cave 

\r-t P CO '^ T« 4 , 

' 4 » • '^ •» >. - I '^i-. 

(J •' r 'y«»/3o(j.ii^o<.jiT>r 


/i Ihivid and Philistines 

E David's Escupi 

V.I / f / ^ 

* I ■ ■ .^ X '{'• -rl^nrn rr ■ /t 

C Coronation of David 

/<" David rebuked bv Natlian 

' » f *>'^U^,i-.«.j^p-Tn 

tor fS ,• ■-' * 

' f^* 1 j^j <Wy> 0-1 4i 

p o rr <*» 1 1 - 1 nr. 

I o ? « 

D Beheading of Goliath 

> --^y '^•-•''it ,^>^ .^*.t;" "•'•«- 

(.' David and Goliath 

Plate III. An Unnoticed Byzantine Psalter — II 



\\ -lO^nr^^^pJirt 

H E/i/fl/i between Nighl diui the ndi^^n 

iJu»j jj-jOLTt t» rr^ \i 6 rxT «^ i > 4— ^\ 14 P\*-0^ 

L Jonah 

t" r* f u !•»-■"»' 

O »JLA^» ♦-»-*> 

o L»^ '^« ' ' 

/ Saints 

Jf r 

M The Blessed 
\'irgin Mary 





I pop '^ 

N Hahbakiik 

«.*o t I •■■ 

^ ^ 


J Church 









' \ 

VJ I ^ H p 01^ riff- TiyT>'T«HJ-0 »>Cr H ■"-fi-'H^ ■ 

K " lUcakesl head of Leviathan in pieces 

P " Waters saiv and ivere afraid 

Plate IV. An Unnoticed Byzantine Psalter — 11 

his covered left hand, and especially the 
figure of Penitence, which is almost identical 
in both miniatures, the likeness between the 
sorrowful pose of her left hand and the pulpitum 
at which she stands, being particularly arrest- 
ing. There are also similarities in the scene of 
the coronation of David, which in the Bristol 
codex illustrates Psalm xx, 3, " And shall 
set a crown of pure gold upon his head." 
[Plate III, c] David is being raised upon a 
shield, according to the Byzantine coronation 
rite, and crowned by an allegorical figure, pre- 
sumably Fortune. The pose of Fortune's right 
arm, and the method of holding the crown by 
the back of the circle, repeat exactly the detail 
in the Paris psalter, whilst David's drapery, 
three of the figures holding the shield, and 
particularly the knot and point of drapery of one 
figure, are markedly similar in both instances. 
The same scene occurs in most of the psalters 
of the " Monastic-theological " group, but in the 
Theodore manuscript the allegorical figure has 
given place to an angel. The similarity between 
the Paris psalter and the Bristol codex is not 
confined to scenes from the Life of David, it 
extends to certain of the miniatures which illus- 
trate the Canticles, chief of these is the repre- 
sentation of Isaiah between the allegorical 
figures of Night and the Dawn [Plate IV, h], 
which except for a few small details is a duplicate 
in vignette of a page of the Paris psalter.^ 

The figures also of Hannah and Hezekiah 
have a certain resemblance in both manuscripts ; 
in the Bristol psalter the dress of Hannah and 
her pose are almost identical with that in the 
Paris psalter; Hezekiah also in the detail of his 
garments, the pose of his hands and something 
in the general stamp of his figure and cast of 
countenance, has a common factor in both. Of 
lesser significance is the large oar held as 
sceptre, both by Thalassa who rides the hippo- 
campus in the Jonah miniature of the Bristol 
psalter [Plate IV, l], and by the sea goddess 
in the corner of the Red Sea picture in the Paris 

The similarity in certain respects between the 
detail of the Paris psalter and of the Bristol, is 
here dwelt upon at length to show that these 
manuscripts, one belonging to each of the two 
groups, had something in common in artistic 
tradition, as well as in subject-matter. Whether 
the artist of the eleventh century Bristol manu- 
script was acquainted with the tenth century 
Paris psalter and was directly influenced by 
that, or whether the artists of both drew from a 
common model, there is no evidence to prove, 

* This miniature of the Paris psalter is reproduced by 
Ch. Diehl op. cit. Fig. 274, and " Histoire de I'Art," cd. 
by Andr^ Micliel, Tome I, Fig. 124, as well as by H. Omont, 
op. cit. 

5 Ch. Diehl. op. cit. fig. 275. 

but there certainly was some artistic point of 
contact. The inclusion in the Bristol psalter of 
two full page miniatures suggests the example 
of a codex of aristocratic type, but although the 
Bristol^ is now the earliest known Byzantine 
psalter to include both full page and marginal 
illustrations, there is no reason to assume that 
such was originally the case. 

An important point in considering the rela- 
tionship of the two manuscripts is the employ- 
ment of allegorical personifications. For the 
powers of nature, Helios, Thalassa, rivers and 
winds, personification was the usual means of 
expression throughout the " Monkish-theo- 
logical " group, but the personification of 
abstract ideas was exceptional,' and, in the 
Bristol manuscript, this is confined to those 
miniatures which are related to those in the 
Paris psalter, which admittedly owes much to 
classic tradition, whence such personifications 
were derived. In the pictures of the Bristol 
psalter the personifications of rivers and winds 
which occur, are for the most part small, dusky, 
seated figures of grey or blue, many of whom 
wear large crowns, or wreaths with ribbons 
flying in the wind [Plate II, F & i], 
biit the river god which illustrates Ps. i, 3, is 
of a much finer type; it is a large semi-nude 
forceful figure of realistic colouring, at once 
suggestive of a classic prototype. There is a 
classic feeling also about many of the less active 
figures in the codex, such as the single figure of 
Habakkuk [Pl.^te IV, n]. Another inheritance 
from the same source is the use of the coloured 
nimbus for Caiaphas and Nathan, as well as for 
Night, Day, and the Fortune who crowns 
David, which resemble in this the Paris psalter. 
There is an ill-understood representation of the 
Helios chariot (Psalm xlix, i), a subject which 
occurs in almost all the psalters of the " Monkish- 
theological " group, as do also idols represented 
on pillars. 

In the Bristol manuscript the flesh tints are 
very warm, of a pinkish red colour, shaded with 
brown, though the female figures are of a paler 
tint with greenish-grey shading, a distinction 
which it is significant to note is also made in 
the Paris psalter.' The colours used elsewhere 
are for the most part clear and brilliant, different 
shades of bright azure blue being predominant. 
There is no bright yellow except gold, though 
to a small extent a dull shade of ochre is used. 

6 1 believe this to be correct ; I can remember no reference 
to anv full page combined with marginal illustrations before 
the Grseco-Latin Hamilton psalter of the thirteenth century. 
M P.P. 

7 J. J. Tikkanen, op. cit. pp. 41. 42- Pi^of- Tikkanen can 
only cite one example, that of " Compassion m ChludoH 
Psalter fol. "K^' 

« The writer is much indebted to Professor Tikkanen for 
having kindly looked at the flesh tints of the Paris psalter 
on her behalf, after having seen the Bristol manscnpt. 


Curiously brilliant are the ;irrliitei-tural details, 
the huiklings beinij often of jiinU or mauve, 
roofed with the brightest blue or red. 

In the matter of colour the Bristol manusiri[)t 
is a great contrast to the Theodore psalter of the 
same century, in which the flesh tints ;ire nmrh 
colder with greenish shading, and the general 
efTect of the rest of the colouring is heavier and 
less transparent. In the Theodore psalter the 
draperies are emphasized by means of line gold 
lines, anil hatching,' a metliod which is entirely 
absent in tlie Bristol codex, where gold is used 
rather sparingly for the enrichment of detail, 
or for armour, but is always laid on broadly. 
The contrast between these two manuscripts is 
emphasized by the difference in the iconographic 
programme, that of the Theodore psalter being 
much more extensive, and including non-scrip- 
tural subjects such as scenes from the lives of 
the Saints, or incidents of the iconoclastic con- 
troversy. Another difference lies in the dis- 
tribution of the miniatures; in the Theodore 
psalter they are fairly evenly distributed 
throughout the volume whereas, in the Bristol, 
there is a great falling off in the number at 
the end of the Book of Psalms, only three 
miniatures occurring between Psalm cvi and 
the beginning of the Canticles. A somewhat 
similar diminution is also found in other psalters 
of the group.'" With the strong traditional 
tendency of Byzantine art such contrasts, 
originating within a comparatively short space 
of time, make it probable that the two manu- 
scripts w-ere illuminated in different schools. 
Both in colour and in breadth of treatment of the 
draperies the Bristol resembles more nearly the 
Paris than the Theodore psalter. There are 
points of similarity, between the Bristol codex 
and Pantokratoros 6i, of Mt. Athos, which in- 
cline to the suspicion that if full data for compari- 
son were available, some artistic contact between 
these might be found. 

Throughout the Bristol manuscript the type 's 
constant for the representation of Christ, and of 
the Blessed Virgin, and both follow the Byzan- 
tine tradition. David is represented in two 
ways, as a curly-headed youth in the scenes of 
his more active adventures, or as a bearded 
king when the occasion is a solemn one 
[Plate I, a, Plate II, g & h, Plate III, b, d, e, 
G, Plate III, f, etc.], but both types are consist- 
ently maintained to be quite recognisable. 
Moses also is young, as the leader of the 
Israelites, old, on the Mount of Transfiguration 
and between the Night and the Day [Plate I, a]. 
Wherever there is a repetition of a prominent 
character, the individuality is preserved. 

' Professor Tikkanen points out, op. cit. p. i8, that a light 
gold hatching is used in the Chludoff psalter. 
1" J. J. Tikkanen, op. cit. p. 89. 

The chief architectural features are Basilican 
churclu's witli single domes on drums [Pl.vfe 
1\', j], lushion capitals with volutes at the 
corners [Plate II, h & c, Plate III, f], one 
design being constantly and conscientiously re- 
pealed, even when the scale is only one-sixlcenlh 
of an inch in entire width, sometimes 
with a lunette above [Plate IV, j], many 
of which occupy the entire front of the build- 
ing. The scale of the buildings is quite out of 
proportion to that of the figures, being much 
smaller. The style of doorway is rather sug- 
gestive of some Asiatic or Egyptian influence, 
but if .so there is no reason to suppose that this 
was direct ; it might quite well have been 
embodied in an artistic tradition. 

Not many devils are represented, but it is 
curious that wherever these occur they are 
obliterated, as though purposely [Plate II, d]. 
A good many, though not all, of the devils in 
the Theodore psalter have been treated similarly. 

The artist of this manuscript was often defec- 
tive in technique, his perspective being impos- 
sible, and his method of repre.senting a backward 
look in some instances being the childish ex- 
pedient of setting the head on the shoulders the 
wrong way round [Plate IV], yet working to a 
fixed theological programme," on an exceedingly 
small scale, he has managed to preserve a fresh- 
ness and spontaneity throughout, imparting to his 
figures a living interest, and filling their tiny 
faces with expression. In spite of the minute 
size of the faces, only J to J in. long, and the 
care with which the principal ones are modelled, 
they are free from any feeling of over-elabora- 
tion, and are, in proportion to their scale, 
broadly treated. The individuality of a real 
artist has here risen triumphant above his 

The following is a list of all the passages illustrated in the 
Bristol Psalter, the references being numbered according to 
the English Authorized Version, Roman numerals indicating 
the psalms, and Arabic numerals, the verse. The references 
in the text of the article are to the passages in the Greek 
Psalter, as the Greek text is the one to which most authorities 
on the subject of Byzantine Psalters refer. 

I, 2, 3, 5? (almost erased); II, 2, II, Nativity; HI, 
Preamble; IV, 8 ; V, 7, 9; VII, 15; VIII, Triumphal Entry 
into Jerusalem, 7; IX, 17; XII, 6 Resurrection of Christ; 
XVI, 3; XVIII, 3, 10-12 Christ in Glory, 15; XIX, 3; XXI, 
3; XXII, 18 Crucifixion, 21; XXIII, 2, 4 & 5; XXIV, 7; 
XXVI, 7 & 8 ; XXIX, Baptism of Christ ; XXXIV, Preamble, 
8 Communion of the Apostles ; XXXVI ? (much erased) ; 
XXXIX, 11; XL, 2; XLI, 9; XLI, Last Supper; XLII, i; 
XLV, Annunciation; XLVII, 5 Ascension, 9, L, i; LI, 
Preamble; LIl, Preamble; LIV, Preamble; LVI, Preamble; 
LVII, Preamble; LVIII, 4; LIX, Preamble; LX, Preamble; 
LXIII, Preamble; LXV, 4; LXVIII, i Harrowing of Hell, 
15-16, 27; LXIX, 21 Crucifixion; LXXll, 6, 11 Adoration 
of the Magi; LXX, 14, ?; LXXVII, 16; Full-page miniature 
before Ps. LXXVIII ; LXXVIll, 13-14, 23-24, 27-29, 44-45, 
47-48, 51; LXXIX, i; LXXXI, 16; LXXXIIl, 11; 
LXXXVin, 6 Entombment of Christ; LXXXIX, g, 12 
Transfiguration; XCI, 11-12 The Temptation; CII, 

11 " The Council of Nicaea had decreed that the composi- 
tion of each subject, down to the smallest detail, was the 
province of theologians, the part of the artist was confined 
to the execution." O. M. Dalton, op. cit. p. 250. 


Preamble; CV, 17, 20, 23, 29-31, 33, 34, 36, 39, 40; CVI, 11, 
19, 28, 37, 42; CXXXVII, i; CXLIV, i; Extra Psalm of 
Greek Version, Beheading of Goliath. 

Illustrations to portions of Scripture included with Greek 
Psalter : 


rHE earliest example of a mediaeval 
dwelling-house in Cairo dates from 
the thirteenth century, whereas the 
history of Arab art is six hundred 
years older, and even in the ninth and 
tenth centuries Cairo was a large and wealthy 
city. The recent excavations at Fustat, the 
southern suburb of Cairo, founded in the middle 
of the seventh century by Amr, give some 
slight indication of the most primitive dwel- 
lings. Nasi-i-Khosrau, a traveller of the 
eleventh century, visited Egypt during a period 
of tranquil prosperity. He states that the 
caliph himself owned twenty thousand houses, 
five and six storeys high, but these were let in 
tenements — the raba mentioned later in this 
chapter. They were built of stone, not brick, 
and had good gardens. A French visitor at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, just before 
the Turkish conquest, describes the house 
assigned by the sultan to his embassy, where he 
was an official. 

'"It contained six or seven beautiful halls, paved with 
marble, porphyry, serpentine, and other rare stones, 
inlaid with wonderful art ; the walls were of similar 
mosaic, or painted with azure and rich colours ; the doors 
inlaid with ivory, ebony, and other singularitez ; yet the 
workmanship excelled the materials. Extensive gardens, 
filled with fruit-trees, surrounded the mansion, and were 
wate-red from the Nile night and morning by means of 
horses and oxen. Such a house, he exclaims, might have 
cost 80,000 scraps of gold ; yet it was but one of a hundred 
thousand more beautiful still." ' 

Turning from these hysterical exaggerations 
to concrete examples still existing, we find the 
earliest authenticated in the Ka'a or " Hall of 
Beybars," otherwise known as the " House of 
Osman or Othman Katkhoda," but in reality 
the ka'a of the now non-existent palace of 
Muhammed Muhebb ed-din. (1253.) This 
building stands in the Sharia Beit el-Kadi and 
was constituted "wakf" (i.e. a charitable trust) 
by Osman Katkhoda^ a Turkish official in the 
eighteenth century. It was restored by the 
Comit6 in 1911-12. It consists of a fine ka'a 
over 50 feet high, with a durka'a and two Uwanat, 
the former lit by a lantern, now unfortunately 
missing . Loggias filled with musharabiya in 
the east and west wall allowed the ladies of the 
harim to watch festivities down below. The 
chief features of the design are the stone lining 
of the interior, the fine stalactite corbels, and' 
the sunk fountain or faskiya in the floor. The 

3 From l^ane- Poole's Art of the Saracens, pp. 86-7, quoting 
Jehan Th^naud. 

I Sam. II, i-io Hannah; Hab. Ill, 1-19 Habakkuk ; 
Isaiah XXVI, 9; Jonah II, 10; Song of the Three Children; 
S. Luke I, 46-55, Blessed Virgin as Orans ; S. Luke I, 68-79, 
Priest Censing Zacharias ; Isaiah XXXVIII, Hezekiah ; 
Prayer of Manasses ; Manasses. 

latter is, however, comparatively modern * and 
was brought from the house of Ayesha el- 

The Palace of the Emir Yushbak ' (com- 
monly called Hosh Bardak) adjoins the great 
mosque of Sultan Hassan. An inscription 
states that it was restored by Yushbak in 
1475-6, but Creswell ' adduces an elaborate 
argument to prove, on architectural grounds, 
that the original building must have been 
erected about the year 1337, thereby differing 
with M. Van Berchem. Although largely 
ruined, it is still an imposing pile, and possesses 
one of the finest of the great porches with 
stalactite heads in all Cairo, comparable with 
the Bab el-Kattanin at Jerusalem. It is almost 
entirely built of dressed stone. The facade is 
featureless in its present state, but contains some 
remarkable groups of windows, such as might 
be caused by piercing rudimentary tracery 
through a wall several feet thick. The ground 
floor, beyond the stalactited vestibule leading 
from the porch, consists of chambers with 
painted vaults of stone. On the upper floor is 
a gigantic ka'a with vast horseshoe arches of 

The Palace of the Emir Beshtak ' (i337 or 
1339) had a great reputation in the days of the 
fifteenth-century historian, Makerizi, who states 
that from its topmost windows one could see the 
Nile, and praises the richness of its decoration. 
It lies in the Sharia en-Nahhasin, and is largely 
submerged by modern buildings. A modern 
staircase leads up to the remarkable ka'a, which 
consists of a durka'a and four Uwanat. The 
larger of the two latter are on the east and west, 
and have noteworthy ceilings * coffered in 
hexagons. The two smaller Uwanat are separ- 
ated from the durka'a by a triple arcade of horse- 
shoe arches. The plan of the whole kaa is thus 
cruciform. The walls are all lined with stone, 
and the kda is in good condition, though the 
rest of the building is ruinous. 

The porch, the only surviving part of the 

* See Mrs. Devonshire. Rambles in Cairo, p. 93, for good 
illustration and reference to this fountain. 

' Creswell. A Brief Chronology, etc., p. 99. 

6 Illustrated with plans in report of Comity for 1894, and 
in Mrs. Devonshire (op. cit.) and Creswell {op. cit.). 

' See Report of Comity 1909, with illustrations (also report 
for 1902 for life of Beshtak). 

8 Illustrated in above report, also in Mrs. Devonshire, 
op. cit. 


palace of the Emir Manjak es-Silahdar," is 
siiuau't.1 in tlu" Siik el-Selah lu-ar tiie Sharia 
MuhamnuRl All, and is daU'd io4t>-7 by 
Cresweil, who advances historical arguments in 
support. Although this porch or vestibule, with 
a domed roof supported on pendentives, is an 
interesting example of construction, it adds 
nothing to our knowledge of the plan of the 
mediaeval house. 

Little more remains of the Palace of the Kmir 
Taz (1352), near the great mosque of Sultan 
Hassan, though in this case the walls and the 
substructure of the ka'a exist, incorporated in 
a modern school-building . 

From this period there is a gap of over a 
century till we find dated examples of any 
importance, in the reign of the famous Sultan 
and builder, Kait-Bey. But neither his palace 
(14S5) near the mosque of El-Mardani nor his 
makad in the Eastern Cemetery (1474) have the 
interest or importance of the beautiful building" 
that is commonly called the Beit el-Kadi '° 
(" House of the Kadi "), but which is in reality 
tile makad of the palace of the Emir Mamay 
(1405), the remainder of the palace having dis- 
appeared. This gem of Saracenic domestic 
architecture (Fig. I.) lies close to the tomb- 

name from the court of the Kadi or judge, 
which sat here for over a hundred years. In 
the i\ai)oleonic Descripliun de VEgyple it is so 
styled. It has been extensively restored in 
recent years by the ComiU. ihe Emir Mamay 
was killed in 1496-7 as a result of faction-lights 
with a rival. The wide open space in front of 
the makad, and extending thence towards the 
present police-station, probably represents the 
liosk of his great palace. Fragments of dressed 
masonry support this view. I'he makad itself 
is 32 metres long and 11.20 metres high to the 
ceiling, with an arcade of live horseshoe arches 
— characteristically stilted — supporting a ceiling 
unrivalled for beauty in all Cairo. 'Ihe adjoin- 
ing portal with its stalactite head precisely 
resembles others in contemporary mosques. 

The House or Palace of the Emir Kairabek 
(c. 1501) adjoins the mausoleum of the same 
emir, to which it is connected by an arch. 
Cresweil " gives historical reasons for the above 
date. The so-called House of Zeinab 
Khatoun,'^ in the Haret el-Dawidari, is of 
uncertain date, probably posterior to the 
Turkish conquest of Egypt in 1517, and consists 
of a handsome ka'a, now approached by a 
separate staircase provided by the Comite. It 
also has a small but well-designed bathroom. 
Another ka'a of note survives from the house of 
El-Haramein,''' and is dated by the Comite at 
the end of the sixteenth century. It has a 
lofty durka'a, with a remarkable ceiling carried 
on stalactite consoles, and two liwanat. 

From the seventeenth century at least four 
important houses are known to survive in 
Cairo. First among these is the House of 
El-Giridlia '" (1631-2), which adjoins the 
entrance from the street to the famous mosque 
of Ibn-Touloun. It is therefore familiar to 
tourists. Both internally and externally the 
walls are of dressed stonework. A sebil 
occupies the external angle. The hash is 
8.10 metres square, and contains a makad and 
some fine stalactite corbelling. The heads of 
the doors and windows are treated with great 

The House of Gamal ed-din el-Zahaki," 
(1634 oi" 1637), in the Sharia Khosh Kadam, is 
the most perfect example of this period. The 
owner is believed to have been Master of a 
Merchants' Guild, as he is referred to as 
" Sheykh of the Merchants." It has been 
acquired and extensively restored by the 
Comite. One enters from the street through the 

Fig. I 

mosque of Kalaoun in the most interesting 

quarter of all Cairo. It derives its popular 

' See report of Comiti for 1892, with illustrations. 
I" Illustrated in reports of Comiti ior 1893 and 1902 ; also 
in Eber's Egypt, vol. II. 

11 Cresweil, op. cit. 

12 Report of Comity for 1909 ; Mrs. Devonshire, Rambles 
in Cairo p. 95. 

13 Illustrated in report of Comiti for 1909. 
'* Illustrated in report of Comiti lor 1909. 

" Illustrated in Franz Pasha, Kairo ; and in Mrs. Devon- 
shire, Rambles in Cairo. 


A Old Houses (Turkish style) un tlie bank uf the Khalig 
el-Masri, Cairo 

H Old Houses at Rosetta 

C Courtyard of the House of Abdallah Fasha ai Damascus 

Plate IH. The Saracenic House — H 




usual discreet door and crooked passage into the 
hosh. Here has been placed a faskiya or sunk 
fountain-basin from another building. On the 
ground-floor are a ruined mandara, a well, and 
various unimportant rooms. The graceful 
makad [Plate II, c] has horseshoe arches and 
mav be compared with the " Beit el-Kadi " just 
described. The entrance to the makad from the 
hosh is as usual through a fine doorway 
approached by a flight of steps, but in this case 
is in the wall at right angles to the arcade of 
the makad. Through a lattice the women of 
the household can look into the makad and the 
hosh. This house also contains a small bath- 
room with domed ceiling, but the most 
important room is the great ka'a [Plate II, d] 
on the upper floor. This has a pavement of 
marble mosaic with steps up into the two 
liwanat, and a marble dado about 4 feet high. 
There are recesses for " divans," recessed and 
panelled cupboards, open ceilings with great 
stalactite consoles, and all the characteristic 
features already mentioned as typical of thee 
Cairo house. 

The House of Radwan-Bey '" (1654-5) " is 
situated in the Shoe-Bazaar, opposite the 
Mosque of Mahmud el-Kurdi and south of the 
Bab Zuweila. It was originally very extensive, 
but has been merged in the buildings of an 
elementary school, and only the ka'a and the 
makad are preserved. The latter resembles the 
" Beit el-Kadi," but has only three arches, and 
the columns beneath them are fluted spirally. 
The ground-floor rooms round the hosh are 
used as workshops, the upper rooms as 

The so-called " House of the Mufti " or of the 
Sheykh el-Mahdi " is believed to have been 
built at the end of the seventeenth or beginning 
of the eighteenth century. Its name is derived 
from the Sheykh Abbassi el-Mahdi, Grand 
Mufti of Egypt, who inhabited it during the 
nineteenth century. It has become familiar to 
students in England owing to having been 
measured in 1866 by Mr. R. Phene Spiers, who 
subsequently published his drawings in the 
R.I.B.A. Transactions for 1890. This house 
stands in the Sharia Khalig el-Masri, which 
runs on the line of an old canal, now filled in. 
It consists of a very fine room, on the ground- 
floor, described by Mr. Spiers as a mandara and 
by Herz Bey as a ka'a. Unfortunately, since 
the former made his drawings, much of the 
beautiful marble and faience lining has gone, 
and other parts of the room have been badly 
treated. The size of the room is 31 by 

1' Illustrated in report of Comity for 1912, in Eber's Egypt, 
*o!. 11, and in Franz Pasha's Kairo. 

^' This date is uncertain. Franz Pasha gives 1766. 

1' Illustrated in report of Comiti for 1912 ; also in notes by 
R. Pheni Spiers in R.I.B.A. Transactions for 1890. 

10 metres. It has a lofty square durka'a, with 
three liwanat of unequal size. The principal 
liwan is not, as one would expect, opposite the 
entrance, but on the right of the doorway, so 
that the plan is not symmetrical. The walls 
have the usual recesses, and in the centre of the 
durka'a is a sunk fountain of marble. In a recess 
in one wall is another fountain, formed with 
slopes and steps so that the sound of running 
water, so pleasant in a hot climate, is con- 
tinually heard. 

An old house in an alley off the Sharia el- 
Gamalia, popularly known as the Musaffer 
Khan " or lodging for travellers, dates from 
1779, and contains good woodwork detail, 
especially panelled cupboards. Other interest- 
ing dwellings of this late period are the houses 
of Muhammad el-Kassaby (1796) and Ibrahim 

Fig. 2. 

es-Sennary ^'' (Fig. 2). The latter lies in a 
small cul-de-sac adjoining the Sania Training 
College for Girls, and well repays a visit. The 
ka'a on the upper floor is of no great interest, 
but the small hosh contains some musharabiya 
projecting windows and a graceful doorway, now 
blocked up, in the Turkish style. 

In Coste's large folio of drawings of Cairo 
buildings. Plates 45 and 46 represent " a 
dwelling-house belonging to a rich merchant in 

19 Illustrated in Franz Pasha, Kairo ; and in Eber's Egypt, 
vol. II. 

'0 Illustrated in Mrs. Devonshire, Rambles i" Cairo. 


the Ihiiich Knd:i ^' quarter." These illustra- 
tions have also been redrawn by Mr. Spiers in 
the paper just quoted. They depict a house 
differing in one very important respect from 
any yet described, viz., in having a watidaru. 
as usual level wiiii the hash floor, so loft\ that 
its central portion or durka'a rises forty feet, and 
thus corresponds to the height of three floors of 
ordinary rooms, and practically lakes the place 
of tlie ka'a on the first floor. 

Coste also illustrates two other very familiar 
types of Cairo houses, those in the Sharia et- 
Tabbana renowned for their long row of simple 
projecting miisharahiya windows, and those 
originally lining the banUs of that old canal 
that has become a busy thoroughfare with 
tramlines. The latter type [Plate III, a] in 
many cases has a plan more resembling the 
European casino than the ordinary Arab 

There are many other old houses under the 
care of the Comite in Cairo, others again — not 
mentioned in this chapter — that have been 
described and illustrated in books on Saracenic 
architecture. But it is important that these 
buildings should be safeguarded for posterity at 
all costs, even if they may be at present in 
private ownership, and that such vandalism as 
is recorded by Presse d'Avennes " or bv Mr. 
spiers" should be rendered for ever impossible. 
The latter instances the famous French Con- 
sulate at Cairo, a veritable museum of objects 
torn from ancient buildings bv Count St. 
Maurice during his period of office, many of 
them now in the South Kensington Museum. 
Given sufficient authority, the Comite 
established in Cairo to preserve these monu- 
ments should prevent any similar occurrences." 

So far we have been concerned only with the 
town-houses of the capital of Egvpt. Of 
suburban and country houses there is little to 
say, for no vestiges remain, and indeed during 
the turbulent days of the Mamelukes few people 
lived outside the walled towns. But in the 
towns of the Delta a local style of domestic 
architecture was evolved, differing in manv 
respects from that of Cairo. There is a differ- 
ence in planning as well as in construction. At 
Damietta the house usually forms three sides of 
a square, with an entrance on the south leading 
into an open space with a covered reception- 
room adjoining on the ground-floor, open on 
one side to the court, and in some cases with an 
additional reception-room enclosed with walls 

2' Possibly Khosh Kadam. 

=2 Presse d'Avennes, L'Art Arahe, etc. " Text " volume 
p. 151.. 

"R. Phen^ Spiers, R.I.B.A. Transactions 1890, p. 237, 

2* See special report of Society for Protection of Ancient 
Buildings, 1883, on the measures adopted for preserving the 
Arab monuments of Egypt 

and doors. At Rosetta there are generally 
shops and warehouses over the whole area of 
the ground floor, and a separate entrance to a 
staircase leading to the residential floors above. 
In Rosetta especially, hut in Damietta, 
.Menzala, Mansura, .Samanud, Mciialla cl- 
Kubra, Mataria, and in the oldest parts of the 
Arab town at Alexandria, the houses are lofty, 
often five floors in height, though of apparently 
light construction with overhanging storeys. 
The rooms resemble those of Cairene houses 
already described, but they are furnished only 
with deep recesses for divans, instead of with 
large liwanat, and the appointments generally 
are far less sumptuous. Occasionally one 
comes a fine room, such as that in the 
house of Abdiilla Bey Bakri near the river at 
Damietta, which has a richly carved and painted 
ceiling. A beautiful panelled room from 
Rosetta is exhibited in the Arab Museum of 
Cairo. There are local differences in the form 
of musharabiya lattices. Thus while in Rosetta 
and Alexandria these are made of turned wood- 
work, resembling that of Cairo, though less 
elaborate, the window-openings of houses in 
Damietta, Mansura, Mataria, etc., are filled with 
a trellis formed of delicately fretted strips of 
wood, equally attractive in a different way. 
Doors are often carved, and Damietta abounds 
in examples of fine geometrical door-panelling. 
Sometimes a small " wicket " is provided in the 
centre of a large entrance-door. Ceilings are 
seldom constructed of the heavy carved beams 
found in the larger houses of Cairo, and are 
more usually formed of plain unpainted planks. 
Roofs are invariably flat, and parapets have no 
battlements or cresting. [Plate III, b.] 

But the chief characteristic of these old houses 
in the Delta towns is the almost invariable use 
of brickwork, though in Damietta and Alex- 
andria, where stone is more easily obtained by 
river, one sometimes finds stone facing for the 
lower part of the building. In Rosetta red and 
black bricks are used to form geometrical 
patterns, with narrow white joints. In some of 
the mosques in Rosetta and Alexandria this 
ornamental brickwork is very skilfully treated, 
especially in the entrance porches. In the 
bouses it is less common, and almost always 
restricted to the ground-storey. The over- 
hanging upper floors are " bricknogged," and 
here the craftsmanship is of a rougher kind. 
Another feature, peculiar to Rosetta, is the use 
of antique columns at the angle of a building. 
These columns were obtainable in large 
quantities from the ancient city of Bolbitin^, 
which lav on the site of the Arab town. 

Among these houses at Rosetta mav be 
mentioned the following examples as typical : 
The House of Ali el-Fatairi " in the Haret el- 


Plate I. Kuan-yin vase, with tamillc verte decoration. 
Height 1 8i". K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. L.eonard Gow.) 











Ghazl, bearing the date 1620 on a carved beam 
built into the facade, and with an external stair- 
case leading to the two doors of the men's and 
women's apartments respectively; the House of 
Ahmed Agha ^' in the Sharia el-Ghabachi on the 
west of the town, now partly buried in drift- 
sand; a panelled room in the House of EI- 
Meizouni^^; the House of Sheykh Hassan el- 
Khabbaz '^ in the Sharia Dahliz el-Molk, with 
interesting lattice windows; and the House of 
Osman Agha" (1808), containing some very 
beautiful panelling, at a cross-roads. 

In Assiut, Medinet el-Fayyum, and other 
towns of Middle Egypt, there are few examples 
of any note. 

In Palestine and Syria differences of climate 
and tradition are reflected in domestic archi- 
tecture. The typical large house of the six- 
teenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in 
Damascus was luxuriously furnished. A great 
advance had been made from the days of the 
caliph Moawiya, who, when he had built a 
palace of sun-baked brick, is said to have shown 
it to a Byzantine envoy, who made this diplo- 
matic criticism : — " The upper part will do for 
birds, and the lower for rats." In later days 
Damascus acquired a reputation for the 
splendour of its dwellings, which were usually 
grouped round a large courtyard, containing 

25 See report of Comiti for 1896. 
2' See report of Comiti for 1893. 


HE vase on Plate I is a splendid 
example of K'ang Hsi porcelain. 
From its shape it would be known 
by the Chinese as a Kuan-yin vase ; 
and its graceful proportions accord 
with the best traditions of the Chinese potters 
in one of their most brilliant periods. The 
decoration is characterised by skilful draughts- 
manship and a sumptuous display of famille 
verte enamels on the glaze, with here and there 
a glint of gold. The design consists of a series 
of pictures displayed in three rows of arched 
panels, in counter-changed arrangement 
bordered by a ribbon of brocade. The 
subjects are doubtless borrowed from paint- 
ings on silk, illustrating scenes from history or 
romance, or maybe from the artist's imagina- 
tion. In any case such stories are well-nigh 
impossible to identify here with the small 
amount of material at our disposal. They all 
contain figures in a landscape setting; and in 
each case it is the landscape rather than the 
figures which arrests the eye. 

orange-trees and a large rectangular tank of 
water supplied from the river Barada. Mr. 
Spiers " describes a typical house of moderate 
size, with such a courtyard, and on its south 
side an alcove corresponding to the takhtabosh 
of a Cairene house and facing north. The same 
feature is found in the old French Consulate and 
elsewhere. Opposite is the large reception- 
room, the equivalent of the Cairene mandara, 
with three Hivanat and a central durka'a. On the 
west side of the courtyard is another room, with 
a kitchen adjoining. The durka'a, as in Cairo, 
is loftier than the liwanat. The ceilings are 
treated with applied ornament in gesso, coloured 
and gilt, on the beams. Stone arches, resting 
on stalactite corbels, separate the liwanat from 
the durka'a. 

The house of Abdallah Pasha at Damascus, 
otherwise known as the Old French Consulate, 
is the most famous example in the city. 
[Plates III, c, IV, e.] A comparison with the 
illustrations of the larger Cairo houses shows 
many striking difTerences, especially the great 
size of the internal court, and the striped stone 
arches separating the liwan from the durka'a in 
the reception-room. The Maison Stambouli 
[Plate IV, d] is an instance of the more 
decadent style affected by the Turks, and marks 
the end of the Saracenic tradition. 

s' R. P. Spiers, op. cit. 


In the two lowest panels are (a) landscape 
with water, rocks and pine trees, and a horse- 
man, whose rank is indicated by an umbrella- 
bearer, approaching a bridge; (b) a hillside, 
water, and a willow tree by which are two 
dignified persons, and in the distance a build- 
ing half hidden in mist. In the middle row 
(a) a horseman with fan-bearer and attendant 
is seen approaching a mountain dwelling in 
which a lady stands awaiting his arrival : a 
graceful willow is conspicuous in the fore- 
ground ; (b) a man reclines at ease in a pavilion 
built out into the water, while two fishermen 
below discover a thievish bird helping himself 
out of their fish-basket. In the two panels on 
the neck are sages in landscape. 

There is no mark under this vase, but the 
grand style of its workmanship proclaims it of 
the best period of the reign of K'ang Hsi, which 
should be about 1700. The centrepiece of 
Plate I. is a vase of somewhat similar form, 
but less robust in style. Its more sophisticated 
lines, its peculiar folded mouth-rim, and a 


certain daintiness in its brushwork belong to 
the last years of ihat long and glorious reign. 
it is finely painted in famille verte colours with 
a stately scene which seems to represent an 
Emperor with his family and attendants by a 
pavilion in one of the Imperial pleasure-grounds. 
Sprays of season flowers adorn the neck, and 
the mouth and base are edged with borders of 
brocade. Under the base is a double ring in 
blue enclosing a seal with characters, which 
appear to be hsing wu (apricot house), doubtless 
the studio name of the potter. This dainty vase 
stands between a pair of deep scrap-bowls which 
are covered with gorgeous famille verte decora- 
tion. The groundwork is a rich brocade 
figured with peony blooms, feng birds, and 
black scroll diaper in a green ground. This 
pattern is interrupted by four oblong panels 
containing groups of vases and emblems 
selected from the Hundred Antiques. Below 
the lip is a band of trellis diaper with four com- 
partments enclosing a picture scroll, a go board, 
a lute in its case, and book-rolls, the emblems 
of the four accomplishments — painting, go or 
checkers, music, and literature. The covers are 
decorated to match ; and in the cavity of the 
handles is a feng bird or phoenix. 

Plate III. illustrates a remarkable specimen 
of blue and white, a club-shaped vase of slender 
proportions and unusual height. The porcelain 
and the blue are both of the highest quality ; 
and the elaborate designs which cover the sur- 
face are executed w'ith a skilful brush. The 
scene is set on a tumultuous river on which is 
riding the Imperial dragon barge. Under the 
deck canopy the Emperor sits in state sur- 
rounded by courtiers and women ; and a punt 
has arrived alongside bringing a dignified 
visitor resplendent in military dress. The 


Crome. By C. H. Collins Baker. 206 pp. + 52 p'- 
.Methuen. ;^s 53. 

There is no section of the early English 
School of Painting more in need of systematic 
investigation than the Norwich School. It 
presents most complicated problems of attribu- 
tion, and it is perhaps because of these difficulties 
that art historians have shirked the task. 

The book at present before us marks a distinct 
advance towards grappling with the tangle, at 
all events as far as John Crome is concerned, and 
if we cannot entirely agree with Mr. C. J. 
Holmes in his introduction and go to the length 
of accepting Mr. Collins Baker's effort as a 
"definite catalogue raisonn^ " — the construction 
of which would entail a firsthand sieving of 
American, Continental and other collections — 
we can, at least, regard it as a more than useful 

Emperor's barge wears a festal appearance, the 
women carrying musical instruments, while 
from the stern is suspended a trapeze on which 
an acrobat is performing. On either bank ot 
the river are groups of courtiers and on the near 
side is a cluster of tents. 

The shoulders are decorated with trellis 
liiaper enclosing medallions of symbols : on the 
lU'ck is a broad band of foliage scrolls reserved 
in white in ;i blue ground ; and above it are three 
figures supernaturally borne above swirling 
waves. One of them is Hou Hsien-Sheng, 
whom the Japanese call Gama Sennin, standing 
on a leaf and angling for the white three-legged 
toad, his familiar spirit. The second is an 
Immortal poised on a lotus leaf and carrying a 
dish of the peaches of longevity. The third is 
K'uei Hsing, the demon-faced god of literature, 
who balances on the head of a fish-dragon. Of 
Hou Hsien-Sheng little is known beyond that he 
was a Taoist wizard. The bearer of the peaches 
is generally regarded as an attendant of Hsi 
Wang Mu, Queen-mother of the West. The 
story of K'uei Hsing, who was canonised in the 
fourteenth century, is better known. As a 
literary aspirant he had taken a high place in 
the State examinations ; but he was denied the 
office for which he had qualified on account of 
his excessive ugliness. In despair he threw 
himself into the Yellow River, only to be rapt 
to stars by a fish-dragon. He now is the star 
K'uei and has supplanted Wen Chang as the 
most popular god of Learning. The other 
attributes of K'uei Hsing are a brush held aloft 
in his right hand and a cup or cake of ink in 
his left. Under the base of the vase is the empty 
double ring, so often found on tine examples of 
K'ang Hsi blue and white. 

foundation for further investigation. Mr. 
Collins Baker has approached little-understood 
phases of John Crome. It is quite evident that 
before Crome could produce anything so 
masterly as the Hautbois Common, now in the 
Metropolitan Museum at New York, which 
dates from 1810, he necessarily underwent an 
evolutionary process and subjected himself to 
various influences. A study of Crome's works 
during what might be called his apprenticeship 
stage — a number of which works have hitherto 
been wrongly rejected because of their tentative 
qualities — affords a clue to these influences. In 
pursuing this phase of the artist, Mr. Collins 
Baker has done invaluable work in the cause of 
one of the world's greatest landscape painters. 
In treating of these early works and the in- 
fluences which brought them into being he 



Plate III. Vase, blue and white. Height, 30". 
K'ang Hsi period. (Mr. Leonard Gow.) 

rightly thinks that the Claudian tradition as it 
descended through Richard Wilson had a pre- 
dominating influence upon him ; but when he 
goes so far as to describe Richard Wilson " as a 
better model than Dutch masters," we frankly 
take issue with him. Whilst not wishing to 
underrate in any way the qualities of Richard 
Wilson, it can scarcely be urged that he was 
much more than a meritorious exponent of the 
Claudian tradition, and was far from being an 
innovator and creative genius as Ruisdael was. 
The extensive view of a flat country, in the 
National Gallery, and the Jewish Burial Ground 
in Dresden, to cite but two examples, are 
essentially stones in the evolution of landscape 
painting, and are of infinitely more creative 
import than anything Wilson achieved. Crome 
as he approached maturity, whilst still profiting 
by the Claudian lesson as it passed across 
Wilson, rightly perceived, unconsciously per- 
haps, how much more vital were certain Dutch 
masters than Wilson. This line of thought, 
coupled with other factors, leads us to a different 
conclusion from Mr. Collins Baker, viz., that 
Gainsborough finally influenced Crome more 
deeply than Wilson. In Gainsborough's early 
works Crome perceived the influence of 
Wynants and Ruisdael in examples of the 
Cornard Wood and Dedham type, and 
further he realised the effect upon the 
mature Gainsborough of the dominating 
influence of Rubens — one of the most 
potent factors in the development of modern 
landscape painting. Gainsborough's example 
was of more importance to Crome than anything 
he could learn from Wilson. Striking evidence 
of Crome's attachment to Gainsborough will be 
apparent to those who have seen the Willow 
Tree, one of the most ethereal and spontaneous 
of all Crome's pictures. 

In looking through Mr. Collins Baker's 
list one feels much satisfaction at his 
whole-hearted acceptance of those typical 
examples, which have from time to time 
been unjustly doubted, the Brathey Bridge and 
the Slate Quarries, and his partial acceptance 
of the sturdy Near Hingham in the Tate 
Gallery. For the coupling of the last-mentioned 
with the name of Crome the writer of this 
article has fought long, and goes further than 
Mr. Collins Baker inasmuch as he accepts the 
whole work as being from the hand of Crome. 
The theory that Crome never painted a subject 
that he had etched, or vice versa, upon which 
some of the objections to the Near Hingham 
have been based, will not bear investigation, 
and the suggestion made in Norwich that Alfred 
George Stannard was its author can be sum- 
marily dismissed, not only on account of the essen- 
tial characteristics of Crome which it embodies 

and of which Stannard was incapable, but also 
upon the conclusive ground of the age of the 
pigment and canvas. The nebulous talk of 
Stannard imitations of Crome has become 
almost a local tradition. Yet in the course of 
many years' experience the writer has never 
seen any work by Stannard which could be con- 
fused with an original work by the master. 

But we are not invariably in agreement with 
Mr. Collins Baker's attributions. One instance 
can be cited — the important Heath-Sunset, 
which the National Gallery of Scotland (No. 226 
in the catalogue) is fortunate enough to possess. 
This is dismissed as not being the work of Crome 
and Mr. Collins Baker suggests J. B. Ladbrooke 
as its possible author. It seems to the writer as 
difficult to connect it with Ladbrooke as to de- 
prive John Crome of this characteristic and mov- 
ing landscape of his maturity. Not only does 
John Berney Ladbrooke's style quite definitely 
differ from that employed in the Heath-Sun- 
set, but the age of the pigment and canvas 
makes it clear that Ladbrooke who could not well 
have been out of his earlv teens when it was 
painted, was not the the author. 

The chapter on Crome's watercolours might 
perhaps have been made more extensive. One 
can hardly agree that in this medium Crome 
occupied " a very inferior position." It would' 
seem scarcely possible to maintain this view 
when one remembers the fine example owned by 
the Whitworth Institute at Manchester, to name 
only one. It is probable that watercolour 
played a not unimportant part in the synthesis 
of his work in oil. One is inclined to think that 
he led up from drawings in pencil to a fairly 
complete idea in watercolour before beginning 
some of his important pictures. Extant 
examples in watercolour tend to substantiate this, 
and time may bring still others to light. These 
watercolours reveal some of his best qualities, 
and prove that when he is working in this 
medium he is not to be lightly dismissed. 

The chapter on Crome's imitators and fol- 
lowers is instructive, but it would seem that we 
are still as far off as ever in running definitely 
to earth either of the Pauls, the elder of whom 
was by far the most dangerous and amongst the 
most prolific imitators of Crome. The Forest 
Trees in the Victoria and Albert Museum is 
from his brush. Of the men working on original 
lines, the sons of Crome — John Berney, William 
and Fred, are amongst those usually confused 
with their father. An exposition of the method 
and style of these two last-named — the first is 
adequately dealt with — would have been wel- 
comed. An important point in connection with 
John Crome attributions is raised by Mr. Collins 
Baker's remark that " So far as I know Crome 
never painted on twill canvas. Usually his can- 


vas is large-grained with the coarse strands cross- 
ing at right angles. Sometimes his grain is finer. 
But 1 have never seen a genuine work by him on 
a canvas with a diagonal or 'twill' rib." Mr. J. 
.\. Wiley's Luiidscape and Mr. Konig's 
Tro-wsc Lane are both on " lierring-bone " 
canvas, and no doubt there are others. But 
when one realises how many painters, more 
or less competent, were at work in and around 
Norwich at that time, and the number of pupils 
all of them had and upon whose productions 
they worked, it will be seen how complicated is 
the study of the Norwich School. 

Splendidly as John Crome is represented at 
the National Galery, the following types of his 
work still badly need representation : a woody 
landscape of the type of the beautiful Beaters, 
belonging to Lord Swathling, one of the distant 
views of Norwich, in the possession of 
Sir Eustace Gurney and Lord Rothermere ; 
and again. The Norwich River : After- 
noon, belonging to Mr. Max Michaelis. We 
might thus supplement the magnificent Mouse- 
hold Heath and others we know so well. It is 
further to be hoped that one or two examples 
of the other prominent painters of the Norwich 
School may soon be added to the Trafalgar 
Square collection. Amongst them, George 
Vincent, who is not included at all, and John 
Sell Cotman, who, in spite of the fact that three 
oil paintings have entered the gallery under his 
name, is still represented, as the writer thinks, 
by only one damaged and not characteristic pic- 
ture, the Wherries on the Yare. p. m, t. 

The Life, Corrhspondenxe, and Collections of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel. By Mary F. S. Hervey. 
Cambridge University Press, 1921. 63s. net. 
It is always a melancholy thing when 
handling a volume fresh from the Press, a new- 
born book, especially when, as is the case with 
the one now before us, long years have been 
spent in its making, to be told in the Preface 
that the busy, conceiving brain and the faithful 
transcribing hand never lived to see the fruit of 
their joint labour. The composer of this book, 
after devoting nine years to its preparation, 
died a few days after the first proofs reached her 
side. Pious hands have added final touches. 

Sunt lachrymae rerum et mentem mortalia 

The result of Miss Hervey's research has 
taken the shape of a very elaborate biography 
of the most famous of English collectors, for 
though there were brave collectors before 
Arundel, he was the first to attract the sluggish 
attention of the " general reader," and even in 
this well-informed age it is probable that in 
answer to the question, " Mention some famous 
British Collectors," the examinee, after 
scribbling the names of Arundel and Elgin, 

would be found biting his pen and gazing 
around him as if " to catch the casual sug- 
gestion." Miss Hervey planned her work on a 
generous .scale, on, perhaps, too generous a 
scale, but there is no need for those of us who 
love detail to quarrel with a method which has 
crowded four hundred pages with human 
interest and emotion. 

To be born a Howard in Tudor days was as 
risky an enterprise as any mortal infant, born 
with a head on his sht)ulders, could have had 
thrust upon him, and yet this was the fate of the 
man who has been styled by Horace Walpole 
" the Father of Vertu in I-lngland." A glance 
must be cast upon the pedigree of this 
" Father " or otherwise his lofty shade will be 
mightily offended, for, as Clarendon says of 
him in that too famous Character Sketch, which 
we fear can never be wholly obliterated from 
men's memories, " Lord Arundel thought no 
other part of history considerable but what 
related to his own family." Lord Arundel's 
great-great-great-grandfather was the first 
Howard to become a Duke of Norfolk. He 
died on Bosworth Field in 1485, fighting on the 
wrong side, and his estates were forfeited. His 
son was the hero of Flodden (15 13) where he 
slew with his own hand the King of Scotland, 
thereby regaining the family honours, titles and 
possessions. The third Duke, who lives for us 
in one of Holbein's portraits, after a long and 
dangerous career in the days of Henry VIII. , 
just saved his head in his 8oth year by surviv- 
ing his master, and was succeeded by his 
grandson, the fourth Duke, whose father, the 
accomplished Earl of Surrey (of blank verse 
celebrity) had lost his head in 1547, a family 
misfortune which befell the fourth Duke in 
1572. Philip, the son of this last-named duke, 
married a famous devout Catholic lady, Ann 
Dacre, and after a life of captivity, died in the 
Tower in 1595, leaving a ten-year-old boy, the 
future collector, to succeed to the barren titles 
of Arundel and Surrey. How much history, 
how much tragedy, how many heart-breaks 
are shut up within the compass of these few 
sentences ! 

But this paternal pedigree of Lord Arundel's 
hardly explains how he came to be a Collector 
of Vertu, though it might well suggest the 
probability of a violent end. We think the 
bacillus of the Antiquary may be found on the 
distaff side, in the person of his maternal grand- 
mother, Mary Fitzalan, the daughter and 
heiress of the fourteenth Earl of Arundel, the 
sumptuous owner of Arundel House in the 
Strand (long disappeared), and the extravagant 
decorator of the gorgeous palace of Nonsuch 
(also gone), which, begun by Henry VIII., was 
made rich and rare by Fitzalan. 


Ex quovir ligno Mercurius fit. 

All things considered, the young Lord 
Arundel, though apparently born to be a 
beggar, for the poor boy was surrounded from 
the first by a hungry horde of Howard uncles 
and aunts all doing their best to grab bits of the 
forfeited Norfolk estates, did very well for 
himself in the reign of James the First. He 
had been brought up by his saintly mother in 
the strict rigour of the old religion, but in his 
later life he conformed to the Anglican Estab- 
lishment, and in the gay Court of the new King 
became a distinguished figure, taking an active 
part in the masques and revels and tiltings of 
the time. Inigo Jones was his intimate friend, 
and he also shared the noble tastes as well as the 
delightful society of Henry Prince of Wales, 
whose untimely death was not only a blow to 
T-lngland but, as events turned out, a bad stroke 
of fortune to Arundel. The " Royal Martyr " 
never took to Arundel, which was a pity, for 
collectors ought to love one another ! Charles, 
on succeeding to the throne, began to " bully 
Arundel, who by this time had not only become 
an Anglican, but had married a wealthy Talbot 
heiress, and was, in all respects, a magnificent 
nobleman. Still Charles could not away with 
him, frequently forbidding his coming to Court 
or to Parliament and often confining him to one 
of his numerous houses. Perhaps Edward 
Hyde was at the bottom of this dislike, which he 
fully shared. Times grew troubled and 
Arundel was a moderate politician, and 
though often employed on State occasions, 
there was soon no room for him in England, 
and he retired to his beloved Italy, where he 
died at Padua, on the 24th of September, 1646, 
in his sixty-seventh year, much impoverished in 
fortune and sick at heart. His descendants, 
children, and grandchildren either reverted to 
the old religion or had never been allowed to 
leave it. 

When and where did Arundel begin his great 
work as a collector? The answer is, about 1616, 
and in Italy, where on one occasion he spent 
more than a year in the intelligent company of 
Inigo Jones. Milan, Venice, Florence, and 
even Rome herself, then hard of access for a 
loyal Englishman, revealed their treasures, and 
excited in Arundel's breast the Fitzalan 
bacillus. The Earl rode his hobby boldly and 
never grudged the expense of the mount. 
Arundel House in the course of a few years 
became a store-house of pictures. The fifth 
Appendix to this book contains the famous 
Inventory of 1655 prepared at Amsterdam after 
the death of Arundel's widow. It occupies 25 
pages. In August and September, 191 1, it was 
printed and explained in this magazine. 

The Arundel Marbles came from the Levant. 

We have some hesitation in directing the atten- 
tion of the " general reader," always a stern 
moralist, to Miss Hervey's 20th chapter, 
entitled " Research in the Levant," where are 
unfolded with some gusto and in great detail 
the methods of collectors in foreign lands. The 
Earl had a rival collector operating on the same 
market — the Duke of Buckingham ! Both Earl 
and Duke employed agents who did not stick at 
trifles. Each nobleman reaped a harvest, 
though the Duke never lived to see his share of 
the plunder. Felton's dagger saw to that ! At 
this point the reader should turn to two portraits 
reproduced opposite page 142 [Plates X-XI]. 
The first, probably by Mytens, exhibits the 
Earl seated in the Sculpture Gallery of Arundel 
House, the second his Countess seated in the 
Picture Gallery — both stately figures. 
Collectors have their joys amid their collections. 
But after the joys of collections come the horrors 
of dispersions. What sad and sordid scenes 
does this dread word evoke ! Fonthill and 
Stowe ! Where now are the Arundel 
Treasures? Oxford in her Ashmolean holds 
most of the Marbles. The Bust of Homer is 
one of the glories of the British Museum. The 
pictures were scattered in all directions. 
Arundel House has disappeared and not even a 
good print of it remains. Vanitas vanitatum. 
All is Vanity. It should be added that Miss 
Hervey's book has twenty-four illustrations, all 
of great interest. 'augustine birrell. 

Delphi. By Frederik Poulsen. Translated by G. C. 
Richards. With a Preface by Percy Gardner. 338 no , 
164 illustrations. (Gvldendal.) 21s. net. 

This is, we believe, the first substantial work 
of a Danish classical archjeologist to appear in 
English. Most English scholars would have 
remained ignorant of the work of such writers 
as Julius Lange or Ludwig Miiller, if they had 
not been accessible in German or French. It is 
our loss, for Danish scholarship has the 
thoroughness of the German, combined with a 
much finer instinct for the essential. The firm 
of Gyldendal are doing their best to make con- 
temporary Scandinavian literature known to us, 
but this IS their first venture of the kind in the 
archffiological sphere. No better combination 
than that of Dr. Poulsen and his translator 
could have been found for the purpose of putting 
before the general reader what is known of 
Delphi from its excavations. The book is well 
produced, and, considering the present state of 
prices, very cheap. 

We are' accustomed to regret the systematic 
looting of Greek sites in antiquity: and of all 
treasuries of ancient art, Delphi probably suffered 
most grievously. But incapable as the Romans 
may have been of learning the true lesson of 
Greek art, they nevertheless kept alive the rever- 
ence for it; and it was through them that the 


spark was handed on to tlie Renaissance. The 
ahernative would have been that such remains as 
did not fall into the hands of the Turkish 
destrover would have stayed underground until 
the davs of moilern excavation. But, if it had 
not been for the long tradition preserved by 
Rome, would those days ever have come? Per- 
haps, then, when Nero removed no less than 500 
bronze statues from Delphi, he did not do un- 
mixed harm ; there is little doubt that if they had 
surv'ived until the Turkish conquest they would 
have suffered the fate of those which the sacri- 
legious Phocians converted into cash in the 
Second Sacred War. As it is, something of 
them may possibly have survived, though un- 
recognised bv us, in the work of Renaissance 

Dr. Poulsen takes what remains of Delphi in 
more or less chronological order. The site has 
retained no single original work of the very first 
rank ; for, extraordinarily interesting as the 
bronze charioteer may be, it is not a masterpiece, 
and the .\gias, a new document for the develop- 
ment of Lysippus, is only a marble copy of a lost 
bronze original. Like most new documents, it 
has led to more disturbance than solution. Dr. 
Poulsen discusses all the more important works 
thoroughly in their general bearings, and his 
handling of the two statues mentioned appears to 
us to be the thing in his book. His com- 
parison of the charioteer with the river-god of 
Gela confirms the first impression made by the 
statue on the present writer. Other works are 
discussed with equal care and acumen, either for 
their individual qualities, or as stages in the 
development of artistic schemes : good instances 
are the Europa metope from the Sicyonian 
Treasurv, and the Heracles and Theseus metopes 
of the Athenian Treasury. It may be observed, 
however, that the operation performed by 
Heracles on the lion which Dr. Poulsen illus- 
trates from a black-figure vase as an example of 
the strangle-hold is something different ; Heracles 
is tearing the beast's jaws apart, like Samson. 

The book is on the whole well balanced ; there 
is only one curious digression of five pages on 
ancient views of the evils of war, which is more 
relevant to our own times than to the subject of 
the book. Mr. Richards's translation is very 
readable; it is seldom that it betrays a slight 
stiffness. For instance, " smukt " is a proper 
Danish epithet for a finelv built vigorous male 
figure; but "pretty" will hardly do. On page 
219 the tripod and statue of victory should be 
described as " wrought," not " erected," by 
Bion. On page 226 a sentence has fallen out (or 
been deliberately omitted?) : " the former view 
(namely that the chariot-group was placed so as 
to be seen from the front) would seem preferable, 
because one figure would hide the other if placed 
in profile." But we wish all foreign archaeo- 

logical works were as haiijiy in tlieir translators 

as this one. <-•• !•'• H- 

Old Bristou Potteries, by W. J. Pountney, with forewords 
by R. 1.. ItonsoN and Bernard Rackiiam ; xxxiii + 370 pp. 

liliisi. Urisiol. (Arrowsmith.) /J2 us. (xl. 

It has long been a matter of reproach that with 
the single exception of Mr. Hobson's Worcester 
Porcelain there existed no monograph dealing 
worthily with any Hnglish ceramic factory in 
accordance with the methods of modern criticism. 
This was the more to be regretted by contrast 
with the number of splendid volumes devoted in 
pre-war davs by German connoisseurs to the 
porcelains of their country. The appearance of 
the present work is thus an event of significance. 
The first and major portion of the book consists 
of an exhaustive account of the delft ware pot- 
teries; of one of these, which still flourishes, Mr. 
Pountncv's father was manager from 1813 to 
1852. The negative evidence of Mr. Pountney's 
excavations finally destroys the old myth of the 
existence of Brislington lustre ware ; the dishes 
on whose behalf this claim was put forward are 
clearly all imported Spanish wares. Mr. 
Pountney's important discoveries in connection 
with the earliest Bristol porcelain factory will 
not be new to readers of the Burlington Maga- 
zine (see vol. xxxii, pp. 151, 175)- About 1750 
soapstone porcelain was made for a short time 
at Bristol, but it remained for Mr. Pountney to 
identify the factory as Lowdin's China House, 
as well as to establish its site and to unravel the 
fact that by 1752 it had migrated to Worcester 
and become amalgamated with the porcelain 
factory of Dr. Wall. 

Mr. Pountney spares us no detail of the lives of 
his dramatis persona;; in some cases his pas.sion 
for exegesis rather gets the better of his judg- 
ment. Thus, on page 148, Mr. Pountney mis- 
quotes as " Thomas Rowla,n,d " the name on the 
" William Rowland " j ; in the Bristol 
Museum, and then seeks 10 identify this ghost 
of his own creation with a real Thomas Rowland 
whose name he has discovered in a local docii- 
ment. Similarly on page 243 he mistranslates die 
sabbati as Sunday, and this enables him to draw 
an illogical conclusion. A Latin entry quoted 
on pp. 155 and 295 appears to have eluded the 
vigilance of the proof-reader; the two versions 
differ slightly, but as they stand both are equally 
baffling to the best-intentioned translator. The 
fine punch-bowl made by Joseph Flower and now 
in Mrs. Swann's Collection is said on page 139 
to be dated 1747 and on plate xxxv to be dated 
1 741, the truth being apparently (Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, 1914 Exhibition, Catalogue page 
63) that the date is badly written and can be read 
in either way. 

But these are minute points. Mr. Pountney 
may be congratulated on having added a volume 
to the library of standard works. w. K. 


Ursprung der Christlichen Kirchenkonst. Neue Tat- 
SACHEN UND Grundsatze der Kunstforschung erortert 
VON Josef Strzvgowski. Acht Vortrage der Olaus Petri- 
Stiftung in Upsala. Deutsche vermehrte Originalausgabe 
mit 64 Abbildungen auf 36 Tafeln. Leipzig. J. C. Hin- 
riclis'sclie Buchhanalung. xi + 204 pp. M. 12.50 + 60 %. 

This is a challenging book written in a 
provocative style by an explorer of new land, 
urging students of the history of art to widen their 
range of vision, to embrace a field which stretches 
from Scandinavia to China, and from the Yenis- 
sei to the Upper Nile. It is at once a confession 
of faith, a chart of the author's life-work, and a 
summary of his conclusions — a restatement of the 
results set forth in detail in his massive volumes 
on Amida, on Armenia and on Altai-Iran. Three 
deeply rooted prejudices have in the past pre- 
vented anv adequate study of the origins of 
Christian art. As against those who would 
seek the origins of Christian art in a purely 
Mediterranean environment — in Hellenistic 
art and the art of Imperial Rome — Strzv- 
gowski would accentuate the fact of the early 
eastward expansion of Christianity in Meso- 
potamia and in Persia.' Here in the East, 
especially in Persia, early Christianity had a freer 
field for a natural development, unhindered by 
the religious oppression of the Roman Empire. 
The true picture is thus not that of a western 
church with its centre at Rome and of an eastern 
church with its centre at Constantinople — that is 
the creation of Islam — but rather of a Christianity 
divided into three zones: (1) a Mediterranean 
world, including the Greek cities of Alexandria 
and Antioch and the coasts of Asia Minor, (ii) a 
Semitic zone embracing Egypt beyond the influ- 
ence of Alexandria, Syria, the Hinterland of Asia 
Minor and Mesopotamia with its centre — its 
Brennpunkt — in the triangle formed by Edessa, 
Nisibis and Amid? ^nd (iii) Iran and Armenia : 
i.e., West and E? Aryans divided by a great 
Semitic wedge. The West Aryans dominated by 
classical Mediterranean traditions take as the 
model for their churches the Basilica with its flat, 
wooden roof, and, as ground plan, a building 
based on length rather than breadth. The East 
develops its own style of construction, based on 
the vault, barrel vaulting, it seems, mainly in 
Persian Mesopotamia, the cupola in Iran. By 
the fourth century the vault was the form of 
Christian architecture which was supreme in the 

As against those who would base their recon- 
struction of the history of early Christian art only 
on such monuments as chance to have been pre- 
served, Strzvgowski contends that it is essential 
to argue back from the stone vaulting of 
Armenian churches to the earlier vaulting in 
crude brick which the later buildings presuppose, 
and from the true vault to infer an earlier form of 

' E. Sachau : Zur Atisbreitung des Chrislcntums in Asicn. 
Berlin, 1919. 

overlaid wood construction (Dbereckung) which 
gradually closed up the space left by the walls to 
form a roof. 

As against those who have understanding only 
for an art of Representation (Darstellung) Strzy- 
gowski would show us the importance for early 
Christianity of an art of flat ornament filling a 
given space with a pattern which has no end. 
Where in the later art of the West the archaeo- 
logist sees only a rigid and petrified Hellenism 
(e.g., in landscape scenes), Strzygowski would 
note rather the emergence of a true Aryan art 
emancipating itself from the dominance of Medi- 
terranean traditions ; it is this hostility to an art 
of Representation which characterizes the Chris- 
tian art of Armenia. We naturally ask : where 
did the Eastern Christians find the originals 
for this art of ornament and symbohsm ? 
Strzygowski would answer : in a widespread 
Iranian Mazdaic art embodying the native tradi- 
tions of the East Aryans in revolt against the art 
of Representation practised by the Semites of the 
Tigris and Euphrates valley -civilisation.' This 
Mazdaic art is lost, but its ornament and the 
symbolism of its Paradise lie behind the art of the 
Eastern Christians. This inference is one of the 
boldest applications of Strzygowski's principle 
that the historian of art must face the problems 
implicitly raised by those later developments of 
which alone monumental evidence is preserved. 

Before ever Christianity was recognised by the 
Roman state in the West, there were Christian 
kingdoms in Osroene and in Armenia, and here, 
Strzygowski insists, national Christian traditions 
alike in ornament and architecture had been 
formed.' Constantine to give prestige to the 
revived monarchy, to add to the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of a Court founded on Oriental 
theories of absolutism, is prepared to use all 
styles in his imperial buildings : the cupola and 
vault of Eastern Christianity seem on the way to 
conquer the traditional western form of the Basi- 
lica. But the fourth century empire realises that 
if the church is to be a support to the throne, that 
church must itself be one in faith and practice, 
while the church with the prestige of the new 
alliance reinforcing its activity develops its own 
hierarchic organisation and takes for its model the 
centralisation of the imperial civil reconstruction. 
A western uniformity is imposed upon Eastern 
Christianity, and that We.stern uniformity starts 
from the Basilica — a building based on length 
(Ldngsbau) — and from an art of Representation. 

The fifth century thus checks the triumphant 

2 Strzygowski's attempted explanation of tiie abandonment 
by the Semite, when settled in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, 
of his native art of pure form seems quite inadequate. Here 
surely the influence of Sumerlan art must be considered. 

'.Strzygowski's picture of the national .Armenian Christianity 
of the third and fourth centuries apf)ears exaggerated ; has he 
considered the implications of the account given by Faustus 
of Byzantium of early ArmeniaTi Christianity? 


advance of the cupola : the Aryan of the West is 
subjected afresh to the dominance of Mediter- 
ranean forms of architecture : wiien at length he 
has sought to assert his own indiviiiiiality in the 
development of Gothic architecture the revived 
classicism of the Renascence subdues him yet 
again to an alien influence, and only in our own 
da\' are there signs that the North is beginning 
to work out its artistic salvation and to see its 
future in an art of significant form rather than 
in an art of representation, while it may yet find 
its architectural solution in the external buttresses 
of Gothic, and the radiate cupola building of 
Armenia, both the work of the Northerner. 

In the East the attempt of the West to impose 
its own uniformity results in a compromise : the 
cupola remains, but the church assumes a length- 
ened form — its classical expression is the cruci- 
form cupola church with double axis — while the 
native art of the Northerner refuses to accept the 
pictorial tradition of the West. 

And what of Byzantium ? It would seem that 
for Strzvgowski, Constantinople stands but as a 
bridge-head between two worlds for which con- 
tending forces struggle. The cupola early gains 
entrance and holds its ground, but the Iconoclast 
with Armenia and the East behind him is beaten 
back bv the Iconodule, and the supremacy of the 
sacred image — of an art of Darstellung — is 
henceforward unquestioned.* 

Of much else, of the architecture in wood of the 
Scandinavian North, of the Northern influences 
brought by Goth and Lombard to Italy and Spain, 
of the penetration of Europe by the Northerner of 
the East, especially through that postern gate of 
the West, Marseilles, by which Syrian and 
Armenian found entry into Gaul,' of the Islamic 
art of the desert nomad and how it joined hands 
with the kindred art of Iran, of all this and more 
there is no space to speak here. n. h. b. 

Old English Furniture and its Surroundings from the 
Restoration to the Regencv ; by MacIver Percival 
(Heinemann). 30s. 

This sort of book is to be encouraged, and it 
is a pitv that it cannot cost less than 30s. It 
does not pretend to be a book for students, but 
aims successfully at bringing before ordinary 
people that tradition of good taste which only 
left England with the coming of industrialism 
and the Gothic revival. 

The book, which is admirably illustrated, 
begins with the Italian and French influences, 
which came back with the triumphant cavaliers, 

* Cf. Bibliothek des Ostens : Band III. J. Strzvgowski : Die 
bildende Kunst des Ostens. Pp. 55 sqq. Leipzig. Klink- 
hardt. 1916. 

' Chambre de Commerce de Marseille : Congr^s franijais de 
la S}Tie. Stances et Travaux. Fasc. II. Pp. 75-qS, 103-126. 
151-167. Marseille. 1919. 

[Note. — We understand that Mr. O. M. Dalton of the 
British Museum is engaged on a translation of the work 
reviewed above which it is hoped will be published by The 
Oxford Press. — Editor.] 

and we see clearly the arrival of the Dutch taste 
with William and all the chinoiserie of Chippen- 
dale and the l-'nglish tapestry weavers that ran 
tiiroiigh the uSth century, till the French Revo- 
lution reintroduced the politics of Brutus and 
what was ccmceived to be the artistic taste of 

This book very properlv treats the room as the 
unit, and mouldings, staircases, chair-coverings, 
lapc-stry and pepper-pots fall into their proper 
places, as ministers in the temple man has con- 
structed for his own worship. Our museum 
.'luthorities, happv in their watertight compart- 
ments, might, if they were sufTiciently humble, 
learn something about displaying their own 
wares from Mr. Percival's book. Those who 
want to furnish their own rooms will learn that 
there is an alternative to art nouvcau and that 
extreme discomfort is not the inevitable helpmeet 
of good taste. We would particularly commend 
the section of the book which is devoted to up- 
holstery. Here if anywhere there was an 
English tradition till well on into the icjth cen- 
tury. It is a thousand pities if all memory of it 
must die. Perhaps reading this book may help 
to make the British public realise the advantages 
to be gained from studying more closely the 
unique collections in the South Kensington 
Museum. f. b. 

The Miniature Collector. By Dr. G. C. Williamson. 308 
pp. + 16 pi. (Jenkins). 7s. 6d. n. 

To consult any of Dr. Williamson's books 
as a work of reference is a source of exaspera- 
tion. He is cumbrous and inaccurate, and his 
judgments are those of a brocantcur rather than 
of an art-critic. His new book (an inexpensive 
summary of the history of portrait-miniature, 
containing a good deal of information not 
readily accessible to the general reader) furnishes 
examples of his faults. There are errors in 
dates, and it is not easy to accept his identifica- 
tion of the persons represented in some of his 
illustrations. For example Mr. F. M. Kelly 
points out that the so-called " Alen^on " in 
Plate V is a version of the portrait of Raleigh 
by N. Hilliard in Vienna. Dr. Williamson has 
written more fully than anyone about minia- 
tures, and the historical interest of his subject 
attracts a limited number of serious students as 
well as the more numerous amateurs of pretty 
trifles. The appreciation given to his volumin- 
ous and unreliable works will vary as his readers 
fall into one class or the other. R. s. 

GOVA ; by Jean Tild. 142 pp. + 16 pi. Paris (F^lix Alcan). 

10 fs. n. 

Goya was one of the rare cases in the history 
of art of an artist of great power who had more or 
less what the layman fondly imagines to be the 
" artistic temperament." He was capricious, 
vehement and impulsive, fond of display, and 





A Studies of Angels, by Benozzo Gozzoli 




B Sick Woman in Bed, bv Rembrandt 


the social prestige which he owed in part to his 
genius, in part to his love affairs. Goya went as 
near, perhaps, as an artist with such a tempera- 
ment can, to greatness, but he missed inevitably 
the higher reaches of the imaginative life. M. 
Tild, therefore, quite naturally devotes the 


The London Group. — As a foreigner accus- 
tomed to Parisian exhibitions the London Group 
at the Mansard Gallery came to me as something 
of a surprise. When I visited the exhibition of 
the same group two years ago I could never have 
foretold so remarkable an advance. Then the 
majority of the works showed signs of anarchy 
or there was at least a strong desire to produce 
startling effects. What strikes one now is the 
admirable " tenue," and the calm and concen- 
trated effort to work out essentially pictorial 
problems which most of the pictures show. 
There are no masterpieces, but one must admit 
that even in Paris one would seldom come upon 
" un ensemble " of such sustained level. Few 
indeed are the works in which unity of design, 
colour and solid construction have been sacri- 
ficed to either literary motives or to would-be 
originality. Of late years it has been my good 
fortune to see representative exhibitions of 
modern Italian, Dutch, and Spanish Art, and it 
seems to me that among those countries, whose 
art has come under the salutary influence of the 
traditionalist revival in French art, England now 
stands first. Nor is this to be wondered at, if one 
remembers that the English have a natural gift 
for colour and a sincere sensibility. The defects 
of English art have been due to these gifts never 
having been sufficiently controlled by a sense of 

As yet one cannot acclaim any great outstand- 
ing figures, but if this movement in England can 
survive these difficult times, the future of 
English art is most hopeful. 

Among those exhibitors whose works I saw 
before, the following, in particular, seem to show 
a satisfactory change of direction. Mr. Elliot 
Seabrook has become a serious and accomplished 
landscape painter; Mr. Meninsky, certainly in 
his admirable nude, shows a strong sense of 
design, and Mr. John Nash's landscape is a real 
effort towards coherence of line and colour. Mr. 
Porter has progressed steadily along his own 
path, and'the same kind of progress, in the case 
of Mr. Keith Baynes, may be deduced from his 



Sir, — Since Mr. Aitken's name figures rather 
largely in your article on the lending of pictures 
by Cezanne to the Tate Gallery, it is only fair 

greater part of his little book to the entertaining 
and diversified story of Goya's life, which he 
tells well. But he follows it up with an adequate 
account of his works, adding some judicious 
remarks on the quality of his art and his 
important influence on modern painting, r. f. 

charming and delicately seen still life. Mr. 
Duncan Grant has an exquisite sense of the 
decorative, and very exceptional invention ; these 
qualities tell in every picture he paints, but 
seldom so distinctly when he attempts more solid 
treatment. Mrs. Bell is really gifted, and when 
her compositions are simple she may trust com- 
pletely her own personal taste as an artist. Mr. 
Roger Fry's landscape, The Estuary, one of the 
most important pictures in the exhibition, has a 
great deal of atmosphere and colour, and the 
space, lines, and intervals in it are extraordin- 
arily well contrived. The exhibition is very 
well hung. A. Lavelli. 

Publications Received. — Our usual list of 
art books and periodicals published during the 
past month will be found facing page xxxvii of 
our advertisement columns. 

June Exhibitions. — A list of exhibitions open 
during this month will be found on p. iii of our 
advertisement columns. Amongst these are The 
New English Art Club at the R.W.C.S. 
Gallery, The Royal Academy, and The London 
Group at The Mansard Gallery. Lack of 
space prevents our commenting at length on 
these, but we publish in this column an 
impression of the London Group exhibition 
written by a French visitor to London. We 
refrain also from criticising our Nameless 
Exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery, but Mr. 
Desmond MacCarthy contributes a note on the 
subject which occupies our usual editorial page. 
We take this opportunity of expressing our grati- 
tude to Mr. Charles Sims, R.A., and Professor 
Henry Tonks, who together with Mr. Roger 
Fry undertook the exacting work of selecting 
and hanging the pictures. The exhibition owes 
its success mainly to the enthusiasm, knowledge 
and discrimination of these three gentlemen. It 
may be useful to add that their efforts were not 
in a single case hampered by any of the diffi- 
culties for which we prepared ourselves when 
undertaking to bring together artists aiming in 
so many different directions. 

to him to point out that the decision about them 
was taken by the Board as a whole. So far, 
indeed, as Mr. Aitken's personal record can be 
guessed in connection with the acceptance of 


loans liv tlie Tate G;illery, 1 tlunk it will hc 
found to be one of consistent generosity ami 
of conspicuous success. If tiie Board on this or 
anv other occasion may seem lo depart from that 
poiicv, its character and constitution are now 
surelv guarantees that a departure is not made 
without good reason : ant! tiiose who have fol- 
lowed the iiistory of the National Gallery with 
anv attention will know that trustees have cause 
to scrutinize with caution all offers of loans, 
even when the offers are made by private owners 
of repute and independence. 

To descend from generalities, I much regret 


Mbssks. Glkndinnisc. & Co., Ltd., 7, .Argyll Street, on 
JIN'E 6th, 7th, Sth and oih : Tsuba, Netsuke, .Sword fittings, 
Inro, Swords, etc., properly of l.ntc Henri L. Joly, Esq. 

Messrs. Sothi:hv, Wilki.sson & Hodge, 34, New Bond 
Street. — Jl'NE sjnd : Third s.ile of illuminated manuscripts, 
property of Mr. Henry Yates Thompson. Fifty-four of this 
collector's hundred manuscripts have been sold already and 
four given away, leaving forty-two still for sale or presenta- 
tion. Fifteen of these, with one not included in the 
" hundred," are to be sold on June 22nd, together with 
fifteen printed books, all but one of the fifteenth century. 
.■\mong the most notable manuscripts are three of the 
thirteenth century, a missal of the .Austin Canons of St. 
Stephen's, Dijon (pars hibernalis), the second volume of a 
French bible of which the first is among the Harley manuscripts 
at the British Museum, and an .Antiphoner of the Cistercian 
.Abbey of Beaupr^, near Grammont, once the property of Mr. 
Ruskin, whose habit of cutting out leaves to give away to 
friends or institutions has sadly mutilated it. With these may 
be mentioned a fourteenth century Epistolar of the Sainte 
Chapellc, at Paris, with very beautiful miniatures, one of 
sixteen manuscripts which, according to Mr. S. C. Cockerell, 
can be assigned to the studio of Jean Pucelle. Of different 
but no less interest is a fine Lancelot MS. of which two 
volumes are early fourteenth century and the third, fifteenth. 
Of non-French manuscripts perhaps the most attractive is a 
fifteenth century Horae in the Haarlem dialect. The 
printed books include a Mentelin Bible, a Sweynheym and 
Pannartz Lactantius (1468), the Venice De Civitate Dei begun 
by John of Speier and finished by Wendelin (1470), Schoeffer's 
Latin Bible of 1470 (New Testament only), and five of 
Pigouchet's Horje, including a fine copy of that of 16 Septem- 
ber, 1498, one of his chief masterpieces. 

JUNE 23rd : Wilton House collectiofi of arms and armour. 
In view of the amount of quite second-rate stuff now fetch- 
ing extravagant prices in the open market this sale assumes 
special importance. .At no time (apparently) have the Earls 
of Pembroke been mere " collectors," so that it seems safe 
to assume that most if not all of these pieces were made for 
actual use in the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. The 
greater part is ordinary enough : portions of armour designed 
for the rank and file of the Pembroke retainers. But there are 
two, if not three lots, which suffice to raise this sale well 
above the common ruck. No. 118, the suit made in the last 
quarter of the sixteenth century bv " Jacobe " of Greenwich, 
for Henry Herbert, second Earl of Pembroke (!534?-i6oi) is 
the pearl of the Wilton armouries ; a suit that would be a 
notable acquisition to the foremost public collections. It 
possesses a threefold claim upon the interest of armour- 
lovers (i) as a homogeneous suit of the finest quality, (2) 
owing to its unquestioned provenance, as attested by the 
famous contemporary Album, at South Kensington, (3) 
because, with the exception of the Cumberland armour at 
Appleby Castle, it is the only surviving " Jacobe " suit 
known, that has not been absorbed into Royal or public 
collections. Plainer and of less exalted pedigree than the 
last-named, the fine armour for man and horse (No. 117, 
third quarter of the sixteenth century) by reason of its 
admirable quality will scarcely fail of its appeal to the heart 
of the true amateur. The harness for the man is an anime,^ 
a type rarely seen nowadays, doubtless owing to its perish- 
1 Cf. Notes on the Anime. Burl. Mac, Jan, 1919, p. 23. 

that as a member of the Board, 1 am precluded 
from commenting on the paintings them.selves, 
hut I must compliment your pliotograjiher on 
the t.-ictful ilatterv with which he has handled 
the less fortunate of his two subjects. 
I am, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

C. J. Holmes. 

I We gladly publish the above. We used Mr, Aitken's name 
only when quoting from his letter to the press which was the 
immi'dialo occ.ision of our comment. But we never for a 
moment thought or suggested that he or any other individual 
was wholly or chiefly responsible for what we believe to have 
been a mist.ike. — Editor.] 

able structure. Excepting Vienna and the Tower, the 
greatest collections only afford isolated examples. The bards 
for the horse are of notably fine .ind uncommon design. 
No. 40 is remarkable chiefly for its rare peculiarities of con- 
struction : notably the skeleton brassards of longitudinal slats 
and its gorget designed to fit over back and breast. The 
lames above the waist in front and behind are most skilfully 
articulated, F. M, K. 

JULY 4th and jth : Drawings by Old Masters, property of 
late Lord Northwick. This large mixed collection contains 
many im|)ortant lots from various schools. We reproduce 
two examples [Plate] from the first day's sale, which 
illustrate almost ludicrously the dissimilar passions of two 
familiar masters. Benozzo (iozzoli's is a characteristic ex- 
pression of his delight in the graces of line and surface reveal- 
ing itself in these four elegant and elaborately pencilled figures, 
with gaps of space as shapely as themselves, adjusted together 
with a dexterity so effective as to impart a thrill of enjoyment 
to the most casual observer. The drawing is in pen and ink 
with white high lights on a prepared pink paper. The figures 
were obviously drawn from the model, and we find that they 
are studies for the standing and kneeling angels in the 
Adoralioii of 1459. There are several other figures on the 
back of the paper. The Rembrandt sketch exemplifies a com- 
pletelv different vision of actuality and system of design as 
well as a separate technical method. It does not succeed like 
the Gozzoli as a charming essay in the manipulation of 
balances in the complex division of a rectangular surface. As 
we look at it we rapidly grow less clearly conscious of the 
characteristics of the actual drawing and find ourselves be- 
coming subject to the dimly perceived presence behind it 
until out of the seemingly disordered ink-marks there 
emerges at least a hint or two of Rembrandt's morose and 
parsimonious spirit. The impatient, rugged, almost brutal 
brown lines of the penwork are used with unerring precision 
to create those bulks and intervals which were at the time 
when this drawing was made, 1650-60, the single and sufficient 
material of his designs. The relationship of the mass of the 
attendant's head to the receding plane between the arms of 
the woman on the bed, the significance of the larger shadow 
masses, the placing of the maze of ink over the woman's left 
elbow, the control exercised over the whole pattern by the 
scratches that indicate the wall belong to the order of things 
for which Rembrandt gave up the world. The impulse to 
create out of that wild tract of blot and line a powerful and 
passionate design, we ran readily understand, even in a 
slight measure share, but the method by which it was accom- 
plished remains a secret probably impenetrable even by 
Rembrandt himself, R. R. T. 

Messrs. Hodgson & Co., 15, Chancery Lane, JUNE loth : 
Rare Books, including library of the late John Shelly, Esq. 
Consists partly of unillustrated works, but there are a con- 
siderable number of books primarily interesting from an 
artistic standpoint, including 250 of the original plates for 
.Audubon's Birds 0/ America in good condition, a large paper 
copy of Goddard's Military Costume oj Europe, 2 vols., 
Roberts' Views of the Holy Land, coloured as drawings, and 
Autograph letters to George Cruikshank from eminent authors. 
Christie, Manson & Wood. JUNE Sth: English Silver 
Plate, 16th, 17th and i8th c, and early Spoons belonging to 
Lt.-Col. H. R. Crompton-Roberts. Includes (Lot 20) a Queen 
Anne Coflee-pot by Thos. Corbet, 1703. 


TO No. 219, JUNE 1 92 1 

EXPLANATORY NOTE. — Cross references are given under the following headings : Architecture — Artists and Craftsmen — 
Authors (of writings included in this volume)— Ceramics and Enamels — Drawings — Engravings — Furniture — Metalwork 
— -Miniatures — Mosaic — Ownership (of objects referred to, owned (i) Collectively, by Nations, Public Corporations and 
Private Associations, (2) Individually, by Private Owners and Dealers) — Portraits — Sculpture and Carving — Textiles 
(including Embroiderv and Costume) — Titles (the titles of the articles, etc., are interspersed in alphabetical order with the 
titles of the following' sections, Auctions, Letters, Monthly Chronicle [M-C], Publications Received and Reviews). 
The definite and indefinite article in all languages is printed throughout but ignored in the alphabetical series. 


The .Architecture of Saladin and the Influence of the 

Crusades (a.d. 1171-1250) 10; PI. 13, 16 
The Saracenic House — I 228; PI. 232, 236 —II 289; 

PI. 291, 294 
Some of the Threatened City Churches 105 ; PI. 107 


Anrep (Boris). Mosaic [M-C] 146 ; PI. 147 

Barne (George). Portrait of a Lady [M-C] 146 ; PI. 147 

Brueghel (Pieter, the Elder). The Adoration of the 

Kings (National Gallery) 53 ; PI. 52 
CfezANNE (Paul). Landscape (Miss G. Davies) ; Still-life 

(Miss G. Davies) 209; PI. 214 
Chass^riau (Thi^odore). Venus Marine (Louvre), sketch in 

sanguine for Venus Marine (Arthur Chass^riau) 112; 

PI. "3 
Claesz (Aert). The Betrayal of Christ (British Museum) ; 

Christ before Pilate (British Museum) 25 ; PI. 27 
Claude GellJe. View of the Lake of Bracciano (Dr. 

Tancred Borenius) 3 ; PI. 5 
CosiMO (Piero di). Mythological Subject (H.H. Prince 

Paul of Serbia) 131 ; PI. 133 ; Clue to Subject of 

[lett] 257 
Crome (John). Farm and Pond (Miss H. M. Fisher) ; 

5. Martin's Gate (Miss Faith Moore) [M-C] 254 ; 

PI- 25s 
Da Vinci (Leonardo) attributed to. Drawing (Windsor 

Castle Library) 172 ; PI. 176 
DiRCKSZ (Barent). A Fresco attributed to (Chichester 

Cathedral) 263 ; PI. 265 
Ercole de'Roberti. Medea and her Children (Sir Herbert 

Cook) ; Brutus and Portia (Sir Herbert Cook) 131 ; 

PI- 136 
Fabritius (Carel). Portrait of a Young Man (Boymans 

Museum, Rotterdam) ; Goldfinch (Mauritshuis, Hague) ; 

Abraham de Notte (Rycks Museum, Amsterdam); 

Soldier at the Gate (Schwerin Gallery) 221 ; PI. 226, 


Attributed to — Portrait of a Girl (Mus^e des Beaux Arts, 

Ghent); Portrait of a Man (Brussels Museum) 221; 

PI. 220, 223 
Friesz (Othon). La Bergere Assise, Jeune Femme a la 

Fenetre 278 ; PI. 279 
Gertler (Mark). [M-C] 149 

GozzOLi (Benozzo). Studies of Angels [auct] 314; PI. 312 
Grant (Duncan). Landscape [M-C] 146; PI. 147 
Hals (Claes) 138 ; View of a Village (Mr. R. C. Witt ; 

View of the Groote Houtstraat (Frans Hals Museum) ; 

Girl Reading (Mauritshuis, The Hague) 92 ; PI. 93, 

96. The Huckster (Mr. E. Bolton) 143 ; PI. 142 
Hals (Reynier). Girl Peeling Apples (Mrs. Crena de 

Jongh) ; Girl Sewing (Mrs. Crena de Jongh) 92 ; PI. 96 
Hasselt (J. C. Van). A Roman Beggar (Messrs. Dur- 

lacher) 143 ; PI. 142 
Holbein (Hans, the Younger). Portrait 210; PI. 217 
Marchand (Jean). Landscape [M-C] 202 ; PI. 204 
Matsvs (Quentin). Duchess Margaret of Tyrol (Mr. Hugh 

Blaker) 172 ; PI. 176 
Nash (John). [M-C] 151 
Nicholas of Verdun. Two Bronzes Moses and A Prophet ; 

silver figure S. Andrew ; enamel Abraham and the 

Three Angels 157; PI. 160, 164 
Pacher (Michael). The Marriage of the Virgin (National 

Gallery, Vienna) ; The Flagellation of Christ (National 

Gallery, Vienna) 38; PI. 42 
Picasso [M-C] 98 
PoussiN (Nicolas). Classical Lat:dscape (Dr. G. Belling- 

ham Smith ; Infant Moses and Pharaoh (Dr. Tancred 
Borenius) 3 ; PI. 2, 5 

Rembrandt. Portrait of a Man (Prince Yussupoff) ; 
Portrait of a Woman (Prince Yussupoff) 210; PI. 208, 
211. A Self-portrait (Mr. G. Serra) 262; PI. 260. 
Sick Woman in Bed [auct] 314; PI. 312 

RlZA Abbasi. M.S. in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
59 ; PI. 63, 66 

Signorelli (Luca). Holy Family with Saints (Messrs. 
Lewis & Simmons) 105 ; PI. 104 

Veronese (Paul). Studies for a last Judgment (?) (Mr. 
Henry Oppenheimer) ; Sheet of Studies (Mr. G. Belling- 
ham-Smith) ; Mars and Venus (Mr. G. Bellingham- 
Smith) ; Various Studies (Mr. P. H. Turner) ; Christ at 
Simon the Pharisee's (formerly in the collection of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds) 54 ; PI. 55, 58 

Watteau (Antoine). Old Woman (Mr. Augustine Birrell) 

156; PI. 154 
Zoppo (Marco). S. Paul (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) ; 
Portrait of a Holy Bishop (National Gallery) ; 
S. Peter (Mr. Henry Harris) 9 ; PI. 8 

Amateur. Clue to Subject of Piero di Cosimo [lett] 257 
Arnold (T. W.). The Riza Abbasi MS. in the Victoria 

and Albert Museum 59 ; PI. 63, 66 
Baillie-Grohman (W. A.). A Portrait of the Ugliest 

Princess in History 172 ; PI. 176 
Bell (Clive). The Independent Gallery [M-C] 146; 

PI. 147 ; Othon Friesz 278 ; PI. 279 
Birrell (Francis). A new Teniers Tapestry at the 

Victoria and Albert Museum 31 ; PI. 30. The 

Textile Exhibition at South Kensington 166 ; PI. 167, 

170. 173 , . , 

Borenius (Tancred). On a dismembered Altarpiece by 

Marco Zoppo 9 ; PI. 8. A Group of drawings by 

Paul Veronese 54 ; PI. 55, 58. Claes Hals 143 ; 

PI. 142. Niccol6 Pio, Collector and Writer 247 
Bredius (.a.). Claes Hals 138 
Briggs (Martin S.). The .Architecture of Saladin and the 

Influence of the Crusades (a.d. 1171-1250) 10; PI. 13, 

16. The Saracenic House — I 228 ; PI. 232, 236. 

— II 289 ; PI. 291, 294 
Cagnola (Guido). Early Italian Pictures at Cambridge 

[lett] 100 
Clifford Smith (H.). Italian Furniture 37 ; PI. 39 
Collins Baker (C. H.). The Crome Centenary [M-C] 

254 ; PI- 2SS 

Dalton (O. M.). a Gold Ornament from the Kuban 

district 81 ; PI. 80 
Dodgson (Campbell). Two Drawings by Aert Claesz 25 ; 

PI. 27 
DuRAND (Ralph). Maori Art 106; PI. no 
Fry (Roger). A Tondo by Luca Signorelli 105 ; PI. 104. 

Pictures at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 131 ; 

PI. 130, 133, 136, 139. Two Rembrandt Portraits 

210; PI. 208, 211. A Self-portrait by Rembrandt 262; 

PI. 260 
Ganz (Paul). A Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger 

210; PI. 217 
Groot (C. Hofstede de). Reynier and Claes Hals 92 ; 

PI. 93, 96 
Hewitt (John). The Barend Family. 263 ; PI. 265 
Hill (George F.). Early Italian Pictures at Cambridge 

[lett] 49 
HiRN (Yjro). Finnish Rugs 32 ; PI. 33, 36 
HoBSON (R. L.). The Eumorfopoulos Collection — XI 

T'ang pottery figures in the Victoria and .Albert 

Museum 20; PI. 21, 24. Chinese Porcelain in the 


Collection of Mr. Leonard Gow — V 84 ; PI. 85, 87, 

90. —VI 196; PI. 197, ioo. —VII joi ; PI. 397, 

300, 30J 
HoLMKS ^C J.). ■■ The .Vdoration of the Kings," by Pieter 

Brueghel the Elder 53 ; PI. 53. " Vision and Design " 

8j. C^anne .ind the Nation [lktt] 313 
Jones (E. Alfred). The Engraving of Arms on Old 

English Plate— 1 264 ; PI. 265 
Lavblu (A.). rhe London tiroup [M-C] 313 
MacCarthy (Desmond). I he Nameless Exhibition 201 
MacColl (D. S.). \ision and Design [lett] 152 
Maclaoan (Eric). An Early Christian Ivory Relief of the 

Miracle of Cana 178; PI. 179, 1S3, 1S6, 190 
Mitchell (H. P.). The Cross and Candlesticks by Valerio 

Belli at South Kensington [lett] 100. Iwo Bronzes 

by Nicholas of \erdun 157 ; PI. mo, 101, 1(4 
Perry (Mary Phillips). An Unnoticed Byzantine Psalter 

—I 119; PL 1J3, 126. —II 282; PI. 283, 286 
Rackhau (Bernard). Limoges Enamels of the Aenied 

Series at .Mnwiok (."asile 238; PI. 240, 241. -45 
RiSLBY (John Shuckburgh). Georgian Rummers 271 ; 

PI. 270, 273, 276 
Sbton (Walter \V.). .Auction Sale at University College 

[LETT) 205 

SlMONSON (George A.). Two newly discovered paintings by 

Michael Pacher 38 ; PL 42 
Tatlock (R. R.). Poussin and Claude 3 ; PI. 2, 5. A 

newly acquired Chass6riau at the Louvre 112; 

PI. 113. Two Watteau Drawings 156; PI. 154 
Tipping (H. Avray). English P'urniture at the Burlington 

Fine .■Vrts Club 67 ; PI. 69, 72. English Eighteenth 

Century Ormolu 117; PI. 116 
Turner (Percy Moore). Two Attributions to Carel 

Fabritius 221 : PI. 220, 223, 226, 229 
TuRPiN (Pierre). Two pieces of English Fifteenth Century 

Embroidery at Lille 74 ; PI. 77, 80 
Waley (.Arthur). Chinese Philosophy of Art — II 32 ; 

—III III ; —IV 244 


Abraham and the Three Angels. Enamel. Nicholas of 

Verdun 157 ; PI. 164 
The Eumorfopoulos Collection — XI. T'ang pottery figures 

in the Victoria and Albert Museum 20; PI. 21, 24. 

Chinese Porcelain in the Collection of Mr. Leonard 

Gow— V 84; PI. 8s, 87, 90. —VI 196 PI. 197, 200. 

—VII 301 ; PL 297, 300, 303 
Georgian Rummers 271 ; PI. 270, 273, 276 
Limoges Enamels of the Aenied Series at Alnwick Castle 

238; PI. 240, 241, 245 


CHASSfeRiAU (Thtedore). Sketch in Sanguine for Venus 
Marine (Arthur Chass^riau) 112; PI. 113 

Claesz (Aert). The Betrayal of Christ (British Museum), 
Christ before Pilate (British Museum) 25 ; PI. 27 

Claude Gell^e. View of the Lake of Bracciano (Dr. 
Tancred Borenius) 3 ; PI. 5 

Da Vinci (Leonardo). Drawing attributed to (Windsor 
Castle Library) 172 ; PI. 176 

GozzoLi (Benozzo). Studies of Angels [auct] 314; PI. 312 

Marchand (Jean). Landscape [M-C] 202 ; PI. 204 

PoussiN (Nicolas). Classical Landscape (Dr. G. Belling- 
ham Smith). Infant Moses and Pharaoh (Dr. Tancred 
Borenius) 3 ; PI. 2, 5 

Rembrandt. Sick Woman in Bed [auct] 314; PI. 312 

Veronese (Paul). Studies for a last Judgment? (Mr. 
Henry Oppenheimer ; Sheet of Studies (Mr. G. Belling- 
ham-Smith), Mars and Venus (Mr. G. Bellingham- 
Smith) ; Various Studies (Mr. P. H. Turner) ; Christ at 
Simon the Pharisee's (formerly in the collection of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds) 54; PI. 55, 58 

Watteau (.Antoine). Old Woman (Mr. Augustine Birrell) 
156; PI- 154 


English Furniture at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 67 ; 

PI. 69, 72 
Italian Furniture 37 ; PI. 39 


A tiold Ornament from the Kuban district 81 ; PI. 80 

English Eighteenth Century Ormolu 117; PI. 116 

The Engraving of Arms on Old English Plate — I 264 ; 

PI. 26s 
Two Bionzes by Nicholas of Verdun 157; PI. 160, 161, 



Amsterdam. Rycks Museum. Carel Fabritius. Abraham 

de Notte 221 ; PI. 229 
Bristol. Western College. A Byzantine Psalter 119, 28a; 

PI. 123, 126, 283, 286 
Brussels Museum. Carel Fabritius, attributed to. Portrait 

of a Man 221 ; PI. 223 
Chichester Cathedral. Barent Dircksz. A Fresco 

attributed to 263 ; PI. 265 
Cologne Cathedral. Nicholas of Verdun. Silver figure 

S. Andrew 157 ; PI. 164 
Florence. Laurentian Library. Miniature from the 

Gospels of Rabula 178; PI. 190 
Ghent. Mus^e des Beaux .Arts. Carel Fabritius, attributed 

to. Portrait of a Girl 221 ; PI. 220 
Haarlem. Frans Hals Museum. Claes Hals, ascribed to. 

View of the Groote Houtstraat 92 ; PI. 93 
Hague. Mauritshuis. Claes Hals, Girl Reading 92 ; 

PI. 96. Carel Fabritius. Goldfinch 221 ; PI. 226 
Kenilworth. Catholic Church. Orphrcys of a Chasuble 

of the fiflccnlh century 74 ; PI. 80 
Klosterneuburg. Nicholas of Verdun. Enamel. Abraham 

and the Three Angels 157 ; PI. 164 
Lille Museum. Orphreys in English Embroidery 74 ; 

PI. 77 
London. British Museum. Aert Claesz. The Betrayal 

of Christ, Christ before Pilate 25 ; PI. 27. Ivory 

Relief. Raising of Lazarus 178; PI. 186 
National Gallery. Marco Zoppo. Portrait of a Holy 

Bishop q ; PI. 8. Pieter Brueghel, the Elder. Tht 

Adoration of the Kings 53 ; PI. 52 
Victoria and Albert Museum. T'ang pottery figures with 

coloured glazes 20; PI. 21, 24. A new Teniers 

Tapestry 31 ; PI. 30. The Riza Abbasi MS. 59 ; 

PI. 63, 66. Ivory Reliefs. Miracle of Cana, S. Peter 

and 5. Mark. Embroidery from Egypt 178 ; PI. 179, 

183, 186, 187 
Milan. Museo Archeologico. Ivory Reliefs of S. Mark 

178; PI. 183, 186. Trivulzio Collection. Ivory Relief. 

The Annunciation 178; PI. 186 
Oxford. Ashmolean Museum. Marco Zoppo. S. Paul 

9; PI. 8. Bronze Figures 157; PI. 160, 161 
Paris. Louvre. Thtodore Chass^riau. Vinus Marine 

112 ; PI. 113 
Muste des .Arts D&oratifs. Franco-Flemish tapestry. 

Falconry 166 ; PI. 167 
Mus^e de Cluny. Ivory relief. A Saint 178; PI. 186 
Rotterdam. Boymans Museum. Carel Fabritius. Por- 
trait of a Young Man 221 ; PI. 226 
Salerno. Cathedral. Ivory Reliefs 178 ; PI. 186, 190 
Schwerin Gallery. Carel Fabritius. Soldier at the Gate 

221 ; PL 229 
Vienna. National Gallery. Michael Pacher. The Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, The Flagellation of Christ 38 ; 

PI. 42 
Windsor Castle Library. Leonardo da Vinci. Drawing 

attributed to 172 ; PI. 176 


Astor (Major the Hon. J. J.). Tapestry Panels, Franco- 
Flemish 166; PI. 173 

Bellingham-Smith (Mr. G.). Nicolas Poussio. Classical 
Landscape 3 ; PI. 2. Paul Veronese, Sheet of Studies. 
Mars and Venus 54 ; PI. 55, 58 

Birrell (Mr. Augustine). Antoine Watteau. Old Woman 
156; PI. 154 

Blaker (Mr. Hugh). Quentin Matsys. Duchess Mar- 
garet of Tyrol 172 ; PI. 176 

Bolton (Mr. E.). Claes Hals. The Huckster 143 ; PI. 142 


Borenius (Dr. Tancred). Claude GelMe. View of the 

Lake of Bracciano 3 ; PI. 5. Nicolas Poussin. Infant 

Moses and Pharaoh 3 ; PI. 5 
ChassSriau (Arthur). Th<iodore Chass^riau. Sketch in 

sanguine for Vinus Marine 112; PI. 113 
Cook (Sir Herbert). Ercole de Roberti. Uedea and 

her children, Brutus and Portia 131 ; PI. 136 
Davies (Miss G.). Cezanne. Landscape, Still-lile 209; 

PI. 214 
Demotte (M.). French Tapestry. Bear Hunting. 166 f 

PI. 170 
Durlacher (Messrs.). J. C. Van Hasselt. A Roman 

Beggar 143 ; PI. 142 
Fisher (Miss H. M.). John Crome. Farm and Pond 

[M-C] 2541 PI. 255 
Freshfield (Mr. Douglas W.). Venetian School. S. 

Jerome in a Landscape 131 ; PI. 139 
Gow (Mr. Leonard). Chinese Porcelain. 84; PI. 85, 87, 

90 — 196 I PI. 197, 200 — 301 ; PI. 297, 300, 303 
Harris (Mr. Henry). Marco Zoppo. 5. Peter. 9 ; PI. 8 
Hirsch (Mr. Leopold). Mahogany Commode, Mahogany 

Settee 67 ; PI. 69 
Howarth (Sir Henry). Florentine School. The Nativity 

131 ; PI. 130 
Jongh (Mrs. Crena de). Reynier Hals. Girl peeling apples. 

Girl sewing 92 ; PI. 96 
Lewis & Simmons (Messrs.). Luca Signorelli. Holy 

Family with Saints 105 PI. 104 
Northumberland (Duchess of). Limoges Enamels of the 

Aenied Series 238; PI. 240, 241, 245 
Moore (Miss Faith). John Crome. S. Martin's Gate 

[M-C] 254; PI. 255 
Mulliner (Col. H. H.). Mahogany Armchair, Mahogany 

pole screen on tripod stand 67 ; PI. 69. Cup, Cas- 
solettes, Tea-urn, Candelabra in Ormolu 117; PI. 116 
Oppenheimer (Mr. Henry). Paul Veronese. Studies for a 

last Judgment? 54; PI. 55 
Paul of Serbia (H.H. Prince). Piero di Cosimo. Myth- 
ological Subject 131 ; PI. 133 
Serra (Mr. G.). Rembrandt. A Self-portrait 262 ; 

PI. 260 
Turner (Mr. P. H.). Paul Veronese. Various Studies 

54 ; PI- S8 
Yussupoff (Prince). Rembrandt. Portrait of a Man, 

Portrait of a Woman 210; PI. 208, 211 
Witt (Mr. R. C). Claes Hals. View of a Village 92 ; 

PI. 96 


Abraham de Notte.. Carel Fabritius (Rycks Museum, Rot- 
terdam) 221 ; PI. 229 
Duchess Margaret of Tyrol. Quentin Matsys (Mr. Hugh 

Blaker) 172 ; PI. 176 
Portrait. Hans Holbein the Younger 210; PI. 217 
Portrait of a Girl. Attributed to Carel Fabritius (Mus4e 

des Beaux Arts, Ghent) 221 ; PI. 220 
Portrait of a Man. Attributed to Carel Fabritius (Brussels 

Museum 221 ; PI. 223 
Portrait of a Young Man. Carel Fabritius (Boymans 

Museum, Rotterdam) 221 ; PI. 226 
A Self-portrait. Rembrandt (Mr. G. Serra) 262 ; PI. 260 
Titus, Son of Rembrandt (said to be). Rembrandt (Prince 

Yussupoff). 210; PI. 208 
Wife of Titus, Son of Rembrandt (said to be). Rembrandt 

(Prince Yussupoff) 210; PI. 211 


Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana 178; PI. 179, 183, 

186, 190 
Maori Art. Ralph Durand 106; PI. no 


Finnish Rugs 32 ; PI. 33, 36 

A New Teniers Tapestry at the Victoria and Albert Museum 

30; PI. 31 
The Textile Exhibition at South Kensington; ifi6 ; PI. 167, 

170, 172 
Two Pieces of English Fifteenth Century Embroidery at 

Lille 74; PI. 77, 80 

TITLES— Complete Index of — 
Adolf Hildebrand [M-C] 205 

" The Adoration of the Kings," by Pieter Brueghel the 

Elder. C. J. Holmes. 53; PI. 52 
Agnews Gallery [M-C] 151 
April Exhibitions [M-C] 202 ; PI. 204 
The Architecture of Saladin and the Influence of the 

Crusades (a.d. 1171-1250). Martin S. Briggs 10; 

PI. 13. '6 
Auctions — 

(Jan.) 49 ; (Feb.) 101 ; (March) 152 ; (April) 205 ; (May) 

258 ; (June) 314 
Auction Sale at University College. Walter W. Seton 

[LETT] 205 

The Barend Family. John Hewitt 263 ; PI. 265 
Carfax Gallery [M-C] 151 

Cezanne and the Nation. C. J. Holmes [lett] 313 
Chinese Philosophy of Art. Arthur Waley. U 32 ; III 

III. IV 244 
Chinese Porcelain in the collection of Mr. Leonard Gow 

R. L. Hobson. V 84; PI. 85, 87, 90. VI 196; 

PI. 197, 200. VII 301 ; PI. 297, 300, 303 
Claes Hals. A. Bredius 138 
Claes Hals. Tancred Borenius 143 ; PI. J42 
Clue to Subject of Piero di Cosimo. Amateur [lett] 257 
The Crome Centenary. C. H. Collins Baker [M-C] 254 ; 

PI- 2SS 
The Cross and Candlesticks by Valerio Belli at South 

K^-nsington. H. P. Mitchell [lett] too 
Cyril .'\ndrade [M-C] 99 
An Earlv Christian Ivory Relief of the Miracle of Cana. 

Eric' Maclagan 178; PI. 179, 183, l86, 190 
Early Italian Pictures at Cambridge. George F. Hill 

[lett] 49 
Early Italian Pictures at Cambridge. Guido Cagnola [lett] 


Editorial Articles — 

5! Momimentum Requiris, Circumspice 105 ; PI. 107 
Modern British Painting — A Proposal 155 
Cizanne and the Nation 209; PI. 214 
The Nameless Exhibition 209 
Eldar Gallery [M-C] 100 
English Eighteenth Century Ormolu. H. Avray Tipping 

117; PI. 116 
English Furniture at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. H. 

Avray Tipping 67 ; PI. 69, 72 
The Engraving of Arms on Old English Plate — I. E. 

Alfred Jones 264; PI. 265. 
Etchings and Wood Engravings [M-C] 47 
The Eumorfopoulos Collection— XI. T'ang pottery figures 

in the Victoria and Albert Museum. R. L. Hobson. 

20 ; PI. 21, 24 
Fine Arts Society [M-C] 100 
Finnish Rugs. Yrjb Him 32 ; PI. 33, 36 
Georgian Rummers. John Shuckburgh Risley 271 ; PI. 270, 

273, 276 
A Gold Ornament from the Kuban district. O. M. Dalton 

81 ; PI. 80 
Goupil Gallery Salon [M-C] 49 
A Group of Drawings by Paul Veronese. Tancred 

Borenius 54 ; PI. 55, 58 
Independent Gallery [M-C] 48 

The Independent Gallery. Clive Bell [M-C] 146 ; PI. 147 
Italian Furniture. H. Clifford Smith. 37 ; PI. 39 
John Nash [M-C] 151 
June Exhibitions [M-C] 313 
Leicester Galleries [M-C] 48 


(Jan.) 49; (Feb.) 100; (March) 152; (April) 205; (May). 

257; (June) 313 

Limoges Enamels of the Aenied Series at Alnwick Castle. 

Bernard Rackham 238; PI. 240, 241, 245 
The London Group. A. Lavelli [M-C] 313 
Mansard Gallery [M-C] 48 
Maori Art. Ralph Durand 106; PI. no 
Mark Gertler [M-C] 149 
Max Dvorak [M-C] 205 
May Exhibitions [M-C] 257 
Modern Dutch Art [M-C] 151 

Monthly Chronicle — 

(Jan.) 47; (Feb.) 98; (March) 146; (April) 202; (May) 
254; (June) 313 „ ^ ,. ^ 

The Nameless Exhibition. Desmond MacCarthy 261 


National Gallery [M-C] 357 

National I'orlrait Socit'ly [M-C] 99 

Negro Art [M-C] 150 

New English Art Club [M-C] 99 

A Newly-acquiri-d Chassdriau at the Louvre. R. R. 

Tatloik 1 1 J ; PI. 113 
A New Teniers Tapestry at the Victoria and Albert 

Museum. Francis Birrell 31 ; PI. 30 
Niccol6 Pio, Collector and Writer. Tancred Borenius 247 
On a dismembered .Mtarpiece by Marco Zoppo. Tancred 

Borenius 9 ; PI. 8 
Othon Kriosz. Clive Bell 378 ; PI. 379 
Picasso [M-C] 98 
Pictures at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. Roger Fry 

131 ; PI. 130, 133, 136, 139 
A Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger. Paul Ganz 

210 ; PI. 317 
A Portrait of the Ugliest Princess in History. VV. A. 

Baillie-Grohman 172 ; PI. 176 
Poussin and Claude. R. R. Tatlock 3 ; PI. 3, 5 

Publications Received — 

(Jan.) so; (Feb.) 102: (April) 306; (May) 358 
The Re-opening of the Wallace Collection [M-C] 47 

Reviews — 
(Jan.) 44; (Feb.) 98; (March) 144; (April) 201; (May) 

249 ; (June) 303 
Albrecht Durer. Max Friedlander 349 
Ancient Kgyptian, Assyrian and Persian Costume. M. G. 

Houston 146 
Chats on .ShofVielcl Plate. A. Haydcn 145 
Crome. C. H. Collins Baker 303 
Delphi. Ftiederick Poulsen 307 
Domestic Life in Scotland. John Warrack 46 
Etchings by Augustus John. Campbell Dodgson 45 
Four Irish Landscape Painters. Thomas Bodkin 98 
Goya. Jean Tild 310 
Irish Glass. M. S. Dudley 44 
Konsthistorika Sallskapets Publication 253 
Life and Collections of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. 

M. F. S. Hervey 306 
Lustre Pottery. Lady Evans 352 
Medici Society's Prints 146 

The Miniature Collector. 
Modern Colour-Print. M. 
Nollekins and his Times. 
Old Urislol Potteries. W. 

Dr. Ci. C. Williamson 
C. Salaman 98 
J. T. Smith 253 
J. Pouiilniy 31)8 


Old English Furniture. Maclver Pcrcival 310 
A Record of ICuroix-an Armour. Sir Ci. F. Laking 251 
Romische und Romanische Palaste. K. M. Swaboda aoi 
Russian Portraits. C. Sheridan 253 
Silver coinage of Crete. Ci. Macdonald 46 
Some Contemporary English Artists 145 
Twelve Water Colours by Rodin 144 
Unsprung der Christlichon Kirchenkunst 309 
The Vasari Society. 2nd Series, Pt. I 301 
Vision and Design. Roger Fry [art] 82 
Witt Library Catalogue 98 
Zoin's FZngraved Work. K. Asplund 350 
Reynier and Claes Hals. C. Hofstede de Groot 92 ; PI. 

93. 9'' 
The Riza Abbasi MS. in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

T. W. Arnold 59; PI. 63, 66 
The Saracenic House. Martin S. Uriggs— I 338 ; PI. 333, 

336. U 389 ; PI. 391, 394 
A Self-Portrait by Rembrandt. Roger Fry 262 ; PI. 260 
The Textile Exhibition at South Kensington. Francis 

Birrell 166; PI. 167, 170, 173 
A Tondo by Luca Signorelli. Roger Fry 
Two Attributions tc Carcl Fabritius. 1" 

221 ; PI. 220, 323, 226, 229 
Two Bronzes by Nicholas of Verdun. 

PI. 160, 161, 164 
Two Drawings by Aert Claesz. Campbell Dodgson 

PI. 27 
Two Newly-discovered Paintings by Michael Pacher. 

George A. Simonson 38 ; PI. 42 
Two Pieces of English Fifteenth Century Embroidery at 

Lille. Pierre Turpin 74 ; PI. 77, 80 
Two Rembrandt Portraits. Roger Fry. 210; PI. 208, 211 
Two Watteau Drawings. R. R. Tatlock 156; PI. 154 
An Un'noticed Byzantine Psalter. Mary Phillips Perry — I 

119; PI. 123, 126. II 282; PI. 283, 286 
" Vision and Design." C. J. Holmes 82 
Vision and design. D. S. MacColl [lett] 152 

105; PI. 104 
rrcy Moore Turner 

H. P. Mitchell 157; 










































. — .^u C-: APR 23 1937 





The Burlington magazine 











, I ">?.'. i-VlnyfAJifl