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Full text of "The Burlington magazine"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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The 



Burlington Magazine 



for Connoisseurs 



Illustrated & Published Monthly 



Volume XLI Number CCXXXII^ CCXXXVII 

July December, 1922 



LONDON ^^^ . ^^ 

THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE, LIMITED -^ 

17 OLD BURLINGTON STREET, W.i 

BOSTON, U.S.A.: THE MEDICI SOCIETY OF AMERICA INCORPORATED, 755 BOYLSTON STREET 

PARIS: THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE, LTD., 5 RUE DE STOCKHOLM 

AMSTERDAM: J. G. ROBBERS, SINGEL 1 51-153 

FLORENCE : B. SEEBER, 20 VIA TORNABUONI 

BARCELONA : M. BAYES, CALLE TALLERS 32 

BASLE: B. WEPF & CO. 



CONTENTS 



By Max J. Friedlander 
By Tancred Borenius 



be continued). 



104 

256 

By 

127 



By Archibald H 



JULY to DECEMBER, 1922 

(Inferences lo sctUons tchich recur wont !.■!■•; are giz'eu dl the end cf this table.) 

JULY 

Editorial : Expertising .... 

A Catalonian Fresco for Boston. By Jose Pijoan 
Three Sketches by Hogarth. By C. F. Bell 
The Van Eycks and their Followers 
Unpublished Cassone Panels — IV. 

For V see (September) 
,, VI ,, (December) ..... 

A New Work by Nicola Pellipario at South Kensington (to 
Bernard Rackham ..... 

For conclusion see {September') .... 

The Prud'hon Exhibition in Paris. By Jean Guiffrey . 
Vanessa Bell. By Walter Sickert .... 

The Development of Ornament from Arabic Script — II. 
Christie ....... 

A Portrait by Lavinia Fontana. By Tancred Borenius 
Some Unknown Works by Zurbaran, By August L. Mayer 

AUGUST 

Editorial : Admission Charges at the British Museum . . . . . 

A Crucifixion of the Avignon School. By Roger Fry . . . . 

Vestiges of Tristram in London. By Roger Sherman Loomis 
The Seicento and Settecento Exhibition in Florence. By Count Carlo Gamba 
Unidentified English Embroideries in the Museum Cinquantenaire in Brussels. 
By George Saville Seligman ........ 

Recent additions to the National Gallery. By Sir Charles Holmes 
Some Reflections on the last phase of Titian. By Tancred Borenius 
The Origin and Early History of the Arts in relation to ^Esthetic Theory in 
General (to be continued). By G. Baldwin Brown . . . . 

For conclusion see (September) . . . . . 135 

SEPTEMBER 

A Toad in White Jade. i.— By Roger Fry ; II — By Una Pope-Hennessy 

Unpublished Cassone Panels — V. By Tancred Borenius . . . . 

The Arms and Badges of the Wives of Henry \'III. By F. Sydney Eden 

A Fourteenth Century English Triptych. By W. R. Lethaby 

The Identification of Japanese Colour Prints — IV. By Will H. Edmunds 

An Attic Red-Figured Cup. By J. D. Beazley 

Largilliere : An Iconographical Note. By. W. G. Constable 
A New Work by Nicola Pellipario at South Kensington {concluded). By 
Bernard Rackham ......... 



PAGE 

3 

4 
1 1 

18 



21 

27 
33 

34 

41 
42 

53 
53 
54 
64 

75 
76 

87 



91 



103 
104 
109 
1 10 
119 
121 
122 

127 



11 



N 






Two Pictures by Morales. By R. R. Tatlock. 

The Origin and Early History of the Arts in relation to ^Esthetic Theory 
in General (concluded). By G. Baldwin Brown .... 

Some Greek Bronzes at Athens. By S. Casson ...... 

The Beale Drawings in the British Museum. By Henry Scipio ReitHnger 
The Works of G. P. van Zyl. By J. H. J. Mellaart 

OCTOBER 

Editorial : T'he F rob I em af the Provincial Gallery .... 

A Florentine Mystical Picture. By Tancred Borenius 

Settecentismo. By Roger Fry .....••• 

The Significance of the Sketch. By Alfred Thornton . 

Pictures by Constantyn Verhout. By A. Bredius .... 

Two English Ivory Carvings of the Twelfth Century. By H. P. Mitchell 

Diez, Busch and Oberlander. By Walter Sickert . . • . 

Gaston Thiesson. By A. Carnac ...-..• 

An Early Spanish Retablo. By Tancred Borenius . . • • 

Two Portrait Miniatures from Castle Ambras, By Julius Schlosser 

NOVEMBER 

An Unrecorded Signorelli. By Tancred Borenius 

Some Early Works by Tintoretto -I. By Detlev, Baron von Hadeln 

For II see (T)ecember) .....•• 

Some Portraits by Pieter Dubordieu. By W. Martin . 
A Landscape by Bunsei in the Boston Museum. By Rikichiro Fukui 
The Lloyd Roberts Bequest of Old English 

E. Alfred Jones . . . . • 

Chinese Temple Paintings. By Arthur Waley 
A Tiepolo Portrait. By R. R. Tatlock 
A Van Eyck for Melbourne. By Sir Charles J. Holmes 
A Greek Glass Vase from China. By Jose Pijoan 

DECEMBER 

Editorial : Leonardo in the consulting room .... 
Unpublished Cassone Panels — VI. By Tancred Borenius 
A Tapestry in the Murray Collection. By A. F. Kendrick 
French i 8th Century Furniture in the Wallace Collection — I. By D 

For II see (January, 192 3^1 
A Drawing by Antonello da Messina. By Gustav Gliick . 
Old Plate at the Church Congress. By E. Alfred Jones . 
The Derby Day. By Walter Sickert .... 

Early Works by Tintoretto - II. By Detlev, Baron von Hadeln 
Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Antwerp. By Marcel Laurent 
A Frans Greenwood Goblet. By Sir John Risley .... 
A Spanish-Italian Trecento Altarpiece. By August L. Mayer 



Plate to Mancheste 



278 
• By 



S. MacColl 
. 28 



PAGE 

■35 
137 
143 
147 



156 

T58 
169 

176 

180 
188 

193 
194 



205 

206 



217 

218 

227 

228 
231 

232 

235 



255 
256 

259 

260 
270 

275 

276 

278 
288 
297 
298 



111 



PAGE 
45, 95, 198, 237, 303 



MONTHLY SECTIONS 

Reviews (monthly) . . ..... 

Monthly Chronicle 

Independent Gallery (R. A. Stephens) ; The International Theatre Ex- 
hibition (Desmond MacCarthy) (July) ....,• 

The Bredius Museum ; Maurice Rosenheim (C.H.R.) {August) . 
Early Ting Ware at South Kensington (E.E.B.) {September) 
The Clough Collection at the Manchester Whitworth Institute (T.B.) 
{October) , . . ....... 

Japanese Screens at Suffolk Street (L.B.) ; London Group (R.R.T) ; 

The Heseltine Collection of Bronzes and MajoUca (W.G.C.); {S^ovember) 

Chinese Jade (W.G.C.) ; Exhibitions {December) 

Letters : 

The Bernini Bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum (Rachael Poole) ; 
Art " Scholarship " (Hugh Blaker) ; The Mind of Corot and his 
Change of Style (Alfred Thornton) {July) 

Paint versus The Rest (R. Gleadowe) {August) ..... 

Nicola Pellipario (Bernard Rackham) {October) 

Pictures by Constantyn Verhout (A Bredius) {November) 

Unidentified English Embroideries in the Cinquantenaire (Isabella 
Errara and G. Saville Seligman). (December) ..... 

Auctions {monthly) 5°' '52, 202, 252, 

Gallery and Museum Acquisitions {monthly). 50, 99, 152, 202, 252, 



46 

98 

148 

20! 

245 
3-6 



48 

99 

201 

252 



3" 

3'i 
312 



LIST OF PLATES 



JULY TO 



JULY 

A Catalonian Fresco for Boston. I — [a] 
The Ascension of Christ. Fresco from 
the Church of Santa Maria de Mur. 
(Boston Museum of Fine Arts) 

II — [b] The Adoration of the Magi. 
Fresco (Santa Maria d'Esterri) 

III — [c] Baptism of Christ. Fresco 
(Santa Eulalia d'Estahon). [d] St. 
Joseph and .4pparition to the Shepherds. 
Detail of Fresco from the Church of 
Santa Maria de Mur. (Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts). [e] Virgin in Majesty. 
Fresco (St. Climent de Tahull) 
Three .Sketches by Hogarth. I — [a] .4 
Sketch for the Rake's Progress (No. i), 
by Hogarth. Canvas, 74.3 cm. by 61.6 
cm. (Sir Robert Witt), [b] A Sketch 
for tlie Rake's Progress (No. 3), by 
Hogarth. Canvas, 35.6 cm. by 31.8 cm. 
(Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) 

II — [c] A Sketch for the Rake's Progress 
(No. 7), by Hogarth. Canvas, 30.5 cm. 
by 37-5 cm. (Ashmolean Museum, Ox- 
ford) 



DECEMBER, 

Unpublished 



1922 



PAGE 



»3 



16 



Cassone Panels — IV. [a] 
Spring. [b] Summer. [c] Autumn. 
Three Allegories by Matteo Balducci. 
Panels, diameter 51 cm. (Mr. W. H. 
Woodward) ..... 

Nevi' Work by Nicola Pellipario at South 
Kensington. 1 — [a] Perseus and 
.Andromeda. Maiolica plate from the 
Salting Collection. (Victoria and Albert 
Museum), [b] The Story of Callisto. 
Maiolica plate given by Mr. Henry Op- 
penheimer. (Victoria and .'\lbert 
Museum) ...... 

II — [c] Narcissus and Echo. Plate. 
(Museo Correr, Venice), [d] L'homme 
aux deux trompettes, by Marcantonio 
Raimondi. Engraving, [e] Solomon 
adoring an idol. Plate. (Museo Correr, 
Venice). [f] Solomon adoring an 
idol. Woodcut from the " Hypneroto- 
machia Poliphile." [g] The Death 
of .Achilles. Woodcut from Ovid's 
" Metamorphoses " . 



PAGE 



20 



26 



IV 



PAGE 



PAGE 



The Prud'hon Exhibition in Paris. I — 
[a] Dunseuse joiiant des cymhales, by 
Prud'hon. Drawing- in black and white 
challi on blue paper, 43 cm. by 21 cm. 
(Mme. ¥oh). [bJ rc'iui.v aa Bain or 
rinnocence, by Prud'hon. Canvas, 1.32 
cm. by 1.02 cm. (M. Edouard Des- 
fosses). [c] La. Danseuse au Triangle, 
by Prud'hon. Drawing in black and 
white chalk on blue paper, 43 cm. by 
20 cm. (Mme. Deligand) 

n — [u] Venus and Adonis, by Prud'hon. 
Charcoal drawing- with high lights in 
white chalk. A preliminary sketch for the 
picture in the Wallace Collection. 
(M. le Gdn^ral "Vicomte de La Villes- 
treux) ...... 

Vanessa Bell. 1— [a] Portrait of Mrs. M., 
bv Vanessa Bell. Canvas, 67 cm. by 



54 cm. (The Independent Gallery) 
II — [b] The Seine, by Vanessa 



Bell. 



Canvas, 26 cm. by 40 cm. (The Inde- 
pendent Gallery).' [c] The Frozen 
Pond, by Vanessa Bell. Canvas, 75 cm. 
by 61 cm. (The Independent Gallery) 

.•\ Portrait by Lavinia Fontana. Portrait, 
by Lavinia Fontana. Canvas. (Sir 
Lionel Earle) ..... 

Some LInknown Works by Zurbaran. I — 

[a] The Immaculate Conception, here 
identified as by Zurbaran. Canvas, 
1.32 m. by 1.04 m. (The National 
Gallery of Ireland, Dublin) . 

II — [b] Portrait of a Child with a Flower. 
here identified as by Zurbaran. 
Canvas, 87.6 cm. by 66 cm. (Pierpont 
Morgan Collection) ... 

.A.UGUST 

A Crucifixion of the Avignon School. 1 — 
Crucifixion. School of Avignon. Panel, 
1. 12 cm. by 1.06 cm. (M. L. A. 
Gaboriaud) ...... 

II — Crucifixion. School of Avignon. 
Fresco. (Chartreuse of Vilteneuve-les- 
Avignon) ...... 

Vestiges of Tristram in London. I — [a] 
Carved ivory casket. Early 14th cen- 
tury. (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

[b] Carved wooden casket, circa 1350. 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). [c] 
The .Sword Curtana. From the Re- 
storation manuscript of Sir Edward 
Walker, Garter King of Arms 

II — [d] Sicilian coverlet, late i4lh cen- 
tury, 3.2 m. by 4. 1 1 m. (Victoria and Al- 
bert Museum), [e] Thuringian wall 
hanging, appliqu^, circa 1370. 2.41 m. 
by i.oi m. (Victoria and Albert Museuml 



29 



32 



^2 



35 



39 



39 



43 



S2 



,.8 



61 



The Seicento and Seltecento Exhibition in 
Florence. I — [a] The Calling of St. 
Matthew, by Caravaggio. Detail. Can- 
vas (S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome), [b] 
The Blessing of Jacob, by Bernardo 
Strozzi. Canvas. (Pinacoteca, Pisa) . 
II — [cj St. George, by Bernardo Caval- 
lino. Canvas. (Prof. A. Gaultieri, 
Naples), [d] St. John Nepomuceno 
confessing the Queen of Bohemia, by 
Crespi, called Lo Spagnolo. Canvas. 
(Pinacoteca, Turin) .... 

Ill — [e] Judith and Holof ernes, by 
Piazzetta. Canvas. (Lazzaroni Col- 
lection, Rome), [f] Christ in the 
Garden, by Giuseppe Bazzani. Canvas. 
(Prof. Podio, Bologna) .... 
IV — [g] Martyrdom of SS. Ruffina and 
Seconda, by Morazzone, Crespi and Pro- 
caccini. Canvas. (Brera, Milan) . 
Unidentified English Embroideries in the 
Museum Cinquantenaire in Brussels. 
I_[a] St. Agatha, English, early 14th 
century. [b] SS. Barbara, Jerome, 
Catherine, Eloy and Veronica. English, 
third quarter of the i4th century. 

(No. 20) 

II — [c] Martyrdom of the Apostles, from 
Cope, here identified as English, late 
13th century. (No. 9). [d] St. 
Jacques and St. John the Baptist, 
English, early 14th century. (No. 10). 
[e] Martyrdom of the Apostles, from 
Cope, here identified as English, late 
13th century. (No. 9). [f] Cope, 
English, late 15th or early i6th century. 
(No. 25). [g] Scenes from the Life of 
St. John, English, early T4th century. 

(No. 16) 

Recent additions to the National Gallery. 
I_[a] The Holy Trinity with Angels. 
F'rench School, circa 1400. Canvas on 
panel, 1.17 m. by 1.14 m. (National Gal- 
lery), [b] Holy Family, by Antonio 
del Castillo y Saavedra. Canvas, 0.91 m. 
by i.i6m. (National Gallery) . . 
II— [c] Peasants warming themselves, 
by Jo.s6 Martinez. Canvas, 96 cm. by 
80 cm. [d] Two Boys, by Jacob Van 
Oost the Elder. Canvas, 56 cm. by 58 
cm. [e] The Nativity. Studio of 
Masaccio. Panel, 22 cm. by 65 cm. . 
Some reflections on the last phase of Titian. 
I_[a] St. Sebastian, by Titian. Canvas, 
2.12 m. by i.i6m. (Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg) ...•■• 
II_[b] Judith, by Titian. Canvas, 1.12 
m. by 0.93 m. (Mr. A. L. Nicholson), 
[c] Salome with the head of St. John. 
Engraving, by L. Vorsterman after 
Titian 



65 



68 



74 



74 



So 



86 



89 



SEPTEMBER page 

A Toad in white jade. Three-legged toad. 
Chinese jade. Shang or pre-Shang ( ?) 
Length, 24.6 cm. ; width, 13.5 cm. ; 
height, 14.7 cm. ; weight, 4.947 kg. 
(Colonel Pope-Hennessy) . . . 102 

Unpublished Cassone Panels. [aJ The 
Triumph oj Love and The Triumph of 
Chastity, possibly by Andrea di Giusto. 
Panel 0.43 m. by 1.77 m. (Mr. Walter 
Burns), [b] The Triumph of Fame, 
The Triumph of Time and The Triumph 
of Eternity, possibly by Andrea di 
Giusto. Panel, 0.43 m. by 1.76 m. (Mr. 
Walter Burns). [c] The Triumph of 
Scipio Africanus, by the " Anghiari 
Master." Panel, 0.41 m. by 1.79 m. 
(M. Guido Arnot) . . . -105 

The Arms and Badges of the Wives of Henry 
VIII. [a] Anne Boleyn's badge. 
(Carnegie Library, Hammersmith), [b] 
Anne Boleyn's badge. (Wethersfield 
Church, Essex), [c] Jane Seymour's 
badge. (Noke Hill Church), [d] Arms 
granted to Jane Seymour on her mar- 
riage. (High Ongar Church, Essex). 

[e] Panel of the Royal and Seymour 
Arms. (All Saints' Church, Maiden). 

[f] Arms granted to Anne Boleyn on 
her marriage. (St. John's Chapel, Tower 
of London). [g] Arms granted to 
Katherine Parr on her marriage. (The 
Siege House, Colchester) . . . 108 

A fourteenth-century English triptych. I — 
Triptych. Wood and copper. Size when 
open, 0.84 m. by 1.12 m. (Messrs. Dur- 
lacher & Co.) . . . . .111 

II — St. Francis preachitig to the birds. 
St. Andreiv and St. Lewis of Toulouse, 
St. Clare and St. Paul, Franciscan sub- 
jects from the doors of a triptych. 
English, 14th century. Panel. (Messrs. 
Durlacher and Co.) . . . .115 

The Identification of Japanese Colour 
Prints — IV. [a] and [a] Karuizawa, 
by Hiroshige. ist and 2nd editions, [c] 
and [d] Oiwake, by Yeisen. ist. and 
and 3rd editions, [e] and [f] Mochi- 
zuki, by Hiroshige. ist. and 2nd 
editions. [g] and [h] Nagakiibo, by 
Hiroshige. ist and 2nd editions . .118 

An Attic red-figured Cup. Cup by Eu- 
phronios. Dia., 23.5 cm. (Sr. Gu- 
glielmo De Ferrari) . . . .123 

Largilliire : an iconographical note. I — 
[a] The family of Louis XIV, by Nicolas 
de Largilli^re. Canvas, 1.27 m. by 
1.6 m. (Wallace Collection) . .123 

II — [b] The Duke of Brittany and Mme. 
de la Mothe, by Largilli^re. Canvas, 
1.64 m. by 1.52 m. (Fomerly Burdett- 
Coutts Collection), [c] The Marichale 
de la Mothe-Houdancuurt. French 
School, 17th century. Canvas, 1.24 m. 



by 1. 17 m. (Mus^e Nationale de Ver- 
sailles) ...... 

A New Work by Nicola Pellipario at South 
Kensington — II. [a] Apollo and 
Marsyas. Maiolica plate. (British 
Museum), [b] The Calumny of Apelles. 
Maiolica plate. (Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford). [c] Subject from " Dia- 
logues of the Dead." Maiolica plate in 
the Salting Collection. (Victoria and 
Albert Museum). [d] .Apollo and 
Daphne. Maiolica plate. (British 
Museum), [e] Apollo and Phaeton. 
Woodcut Irom Ovid's " Metamor- 
phoses." (Venice, 1497). [f] Apollo 
and Daphne. Woodcut from Ovid's 
" Metamorphoses." (Venice, 1497) 

Two pictures by Morales, [a] Madonna and 
Child, by Luis Morales. Panel, 54.6 cm. 
by 40 cm. (Messrs. The Spanish Art Gal- 
lery), [b] Head of Christ, by Luis 
Morales. Panel. (Sir Claude Phillips) . 

Some Greek Bronzes at Athens. [a] 
Bronze figure from the Sanctuary of 
Asklepios at Trikkala, Thessaly. Height, 
14.5 cm. Bronze figures from the Acro- 
polis, Athens, [b] Height, 6.7 cm. [c] 
Height, 6.2 cm. [d] Height, 14 cm. 
[e] Athenian coins of about the 
period of the Battle of Marathon, [f] 
Bronze figure from Dodona. Height, 
12 cm. [g] Bronze winged figure from 
the Acropolis, Athens. Height, 4.2 cm. 

The Beale Drawings in the British Museum. 
[a] Man with a pipe, by Mary or Charles 
Beale. Drawing, [b] Girl's head, by 
.Mary or Charles Beale. Drawing, [c] 
Girl voith a cat, by Mary or Charles 
Beale. Drawing, [d] Laughing Boy, by 
Mary or Charles Beale. Drawing 

The Works of G. P. van Zyl. I— [a] Six 
figures in a Courtyard, by van Zyl. Can- 
vas. (Mr. Victor Koch), [b] The Concert 
Party, by van Zyl. Canvas, 55.2 cm. by 
62.2 cm. (M. Paul Matthey, Paris) 
n_[c] The Toilet, by van Zyl. Canvas, 
58.4 cm. by 48.9 cm. (The Earl of 
Dysart). [d] The Concert, by van 
Zyl. Drawing, 27.7 cm. by 36.7 cm. 
(Brunswick Gallery) .... 
OCTOBER 

A Florentine Mystical Picture. Mystical 
Subject. By Niccol6 di Pietro Gerini. 
Canvas, 2.51 m. by 1.62 m. (The Earl of 
Crawford and Balcarres) 

Settecentismo. I — [a] The Conversion of 
St. Paul, by Caravaggio. Canvas. 
(Church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome) . 
II — [b] Elijah in the Wilderness, by 
Domenico Feti. Canvas. (Royal Gal- 
lery, Berlin), [c] Venus and the Three 
Graces, by Giovanni Lys. Canvas. 
(Uffizi Gallery, Florence) 



page 



126 



129 



132 



139 



142 



146 



149 



154 



159 



162 



VI 



Ill— [d] S. Maria delta Pace, by Pietro 
da Cortona. Facade (Rome), [e] 5 
Maria in ]''ia Lata, by Pietro da Cortona 
Facade (Rome) .... 
IV— [f] S. Maria di Monte Santo, by 
Rainaldi (Rome) .... 

The Sig-nificance of the Sketch. I — [a] 
Landscape, by Diirer. Water-colour. 
(Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) 
II — [b] Landscape, by Claude Gell^e. 
Monochrome. (British Museum), [c 
Landscape, by Matisse. Canvas, 33 cm. 
by 40.6 cm. .... 

Pictures by Constantyn Verhout. I — [a] 
Etudiant Endormi, by Constantyn Ver- 
hout. 1663. Panel, 38 cm. by 30 cm. 
(National Museum, Stockholm) 
II — [b] Still Life, by an unknown artist. 
1633. Panel. (Rijksmuseum). [c] 
Old Man and Girl at a table, attributed 
to Constantyn Verhout. Panel, 30 cm. 
by 25 cm. (Braams Collection, .Arnhem) 

Two English Ivory Carvings of the 12th 
century. I — [a] Fragment of ivory 
carving from St. Albans. 12th century. 
(British Museum), [b, c] Ivory Tau- 
head of a Staff. 12th century. (Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum). [d, e] 
Portions of the Gloucester Candlestick, 
gilt bell metal, cast and chased. About 
mo. (Victoria and Albert Museum). 
B, c — nearly actual size ; A, D, E — about 
three-quarters ..... 

II — [f, g] Initials from Bible given by 
Bishop William of St. Carileph, 1081- 
1096. (Durham Cathedral Library). 
[h] Bronze Sanctuary Knocker of Dur- 
ham Cathedral. Probably 2nd quarter of 
i2th century. []] Initial P (upper por- 
tion) from St. Albans MS. Rabanus 
Maurus. 3rd quarter of 12th century. 
(British Museum) ..... 

Drawings by Diez, Busch and Oberlander 

185 and 

Gaston Thiesson. [a] Woman reading, by 
Gaston Thiesson. Canvas, 65 cm. by 54 
cm. (Mme. Gaston Thiesson). [b] 
Boy's head, by Gaston Thiesson. Can- 
vas, 35 cm. by 27 cm. (M. Paul Poiret) 

An Early Spanish Retablo. Retahlo 7vith 
Scenes from the Legends of SS. 
Sebastian and Julian Hospitntor. Early 
Spanish School. Panel, 2.20 m. by 2.44 
m. (The Spanish Art Gallery) 

Two Portrait Miniatures from Castle Am- 
bras. [a] The Marchioness of Dorset, 
niece of Henry VIII. School of Hol- 
bien the Yrunger. Miniature (Castle 
Ambras). fn] Self Portrait, by Clovio. 
Miniature (Castle Ambras). [c] Portrait 
of Clovio, by El Greco. Canvas. (Naples 
Museum ...... 



•65 
168 

168 



'74 



182 



i»3 
186 

189 

102 



195 



NOVEMBER 

An Unrecorded Signorelli. The Virgin of 
Mercy. By Luca Signorelli. Panel, 
1.38 m. by 1.09 m. (Col. Douglas Proby) 

Early Works by Tintoretto — I. I — [a] 
The Contest between Apollo and Mar- 
syas, by Tintoretto. 1545. Canvas, 
1.37 m. by 2.36 m. (Col. W. Bromley 
Davenport) ...... 

II — [b] Studies, by Tintoretto. Draw- 
ing. (Christ Church Library, Oxford) . 
Ill — [c] The Adulteress before Christ, 
by Tintoretto. Canvas, 1.82 m. by 3.35 
m. (Dresden Gallery). [d] Christ at 
Emmaus, by Tintoretto. Canvas, 1.57 
m. by 2.03 m. (Budapest Gallery) 

Some Portraits by Pieter Dubordieu. I — 
[a] Portrait of a Woman, here identified 
as by Dubordieu. Panel. (Worcester 
Art Museum, U.S.A.). [b] Portrait of 
a Woman, by Dubordieu. Panel. (M. 
van Lennep, Heemstede) 
n — [c] Self Portrait (?) here identified as 
by Dubordieu. Panel. (Mme. Alice de 
Stuers). [d] Portrait of a Girl, here 
identified as by Dubordieu. Panel. (M. 
Stephan von Auspitz, Vienna) 

A Landscape by Bunsei in the Boston 
Museum, [a] Landscape, here identified 
as by Bunsei. On paper, 73 cm. by 
32.7 cm. (Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, U.S.A.). [b] Portrait of 
Yuima, by Bunsei, 1547. On paper, 
92.7 cm. by 34.6 cm. (Mr. Tomitaro 
Hara, Yokohama) .... 

The Lloyd Roberts Bequest of Old English 
Plate at Manchester, [a] (a) Cup 1657-8, 
[h] Miniature Cup, probably by John 
Sharpe, Jacobean, about 1620. [b] Set 
of Six Spoons, 1652-3. Engraved with 
crest and monogram. [c] Cup, once 
the property of Barnard's Inn. About 
1617-8. [d] Chalice with paten cover, 
by John Plummer, York Plate of 1602-3. 
[e] Snuff box, made in Dublin in 1801 
and engraved with the names of the 
officers of the 38th Foot (ist Stafford- 
shire Regiment) . . . . • 

A Tiepolo Portrait. I— [a] Portrait, here 

identified as by Tiepolo. Canvas, 58.4 

cm. by 47 cm. (Mr. Max Rothschild) . 

II — [b] After the Bath, by Tiepolo. 

Detail. (Royal Gallery, Berlin) . 

A Van Eyck for Melbourne. Madonna, by 
John Van Eyck. Panel, 26.4 cm. by 
18.4 cm. (National Gallery of Victoria, 
Melbourne) . . . . ■ 

Reviews. The Upper Entrance Hall, Nos- 
tell Priory, Wakefield, designed by 
Robert Adam 

Monthly Chronicle. I— T*] Two-leaved 
Screen by HOitsu. Japanese, i8th 
century. ' 1.7 m. by 1.7 m. (Messrs. 
Yamanaka) . . . • • 



PAOE 



204 



208 



2og 



216 



219 



223 



226 



233 



233 



244 



244 



VU 



II — [b] Flowers, by Keith Baynes. Can- 
vas, 45 cm. by 54.6 cm. (London Group 
Exhibition). [c] On the Bure, by 
Frederick J. Porter. Canvas, 23 cm. by 
40.6 cm. (London Group Exhibition) 
III — [d] Horse, Renaissance bronze, 
modelled on those of St. Mark, Venice. 
(Heseltine Collection), [e] Greyhound, 
Renaissance bronze. Paduan. (Hesel- 
tine Collection) ..... 

A Greek Glass Vase from China. Vase, 
carved from glass. Height, 22.9 cm., 
width, 25.4 cm. Probably Greek, found 
in China. (Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto) ...... 

DECEMBER 

A Tapestry in the Murray Collection. I — 
[a] The Deposition. Flemish tapestry 
of the isth century. Detail. (Victoria 
and Albert Museum) .... 
II — [b] The Deposition, Entombment 
and Resurrection. Flemish tapestry of 
the 15th century. 1.12 m. by 3.02 m. . 

Unpublished Cassone Panels — VI. Scenes 
from the Life of Alexander the Great. 
Florentine School. Panel, 39 cm. by 
132 cm. (British Museum) . 

French 18th-century Furniture in the Wal- 
lace Collection — I. I — [a] Bureau by 
J. U. Erstet. 86.4 cm. by 100.3 cm. by 

96.5 cm. [b] Clock-case by Balthasar 
Lieutaud. 2.36 m. by 0.56 m. by 
0.36 m. [c] Casket by Antoine Foullet. 

35.6 cm. by 57.2 cm. by 45.7 cm. [d] 
FouUet's signature and maitrise stamp 
on (c) . 

II — [e] Console table by Jean Franqiois 
Leleu. 83.8 cm. by 121. 9 cm. by 48.3 
cm. [f] Cabinet by Jacques Dubois. 
1.39 m. by 1.55 m. by 0.52 m. [g] 
Commode by Etienne Levasseur. 76.2 
cm. by 111.8 cm. by 63.5 cm. [h] Sec- 
tion of the Londonderry Cabinet by 
Levasseur. 1.83 m. by 6.04 m. by 0.43 m. 

Ill — [j] Cabinet by Etienne Lavasseur. 
T.07 m. by 1.63 m. by 0.46 m. [k] 
Cabinet by Joseph. i m. by 1.35 m. 
by 0.51 m. [l] Cabinet by Adam Weis- 
weiler. 1.08 m. by 0.79 m. by 0.42 m. 
[m] Cabinet by J. F. L. Delorme. 
1. 01 m. by 1.8 m. by 0.48 m. 
A Drawing by Antonello da Messina, [a] 
Drawing, here identified as by Antonello 
(la Messina. Silverpoint on white 
prepared paper (Staedel Institute, Frank- 
fort), [b] Crucifixion, by Antonello da 
Messina. Panel, 58 cm. by 42 cm. 
(Antwerp Museum) .... 

Old Plate at the Church Congress, [a] 
Secular cup, English, 15th century. 
Height, 14.9 cm. (Marston Church, Ox- 
fordshire), [b] Cocoanut cup mounted 
in silver gilt. English, about 1500 (St 



-Augustine's College, Canterbury), [c] 
Domestic cup and cover. i6th century 
(Fareham Church, Hants), [d] Secular 
bowl. Probably English, early i6th 

247 century. Diameter, 17.1 cm. (.St. 

Michael's Church, Bristol) 
The Derby Day, by Frith. Canvas. De- 
tail. (National Gallery) 
Early Works by Tintoretto — II. [a] 

250 Tarquin and Lucretia, by Tintoretto. 

Canvas, 1.88 m. by 2.71 m. (Prado) 
II — [b] Venus, Vtdcan and Cupid, by Tin- 
toretto. Canvas, 1.36 m. by 2.01 m. 
(Frau von Kaulbach, Munich). [c] 

250 Sketch for above, 20.4 cm. by 27.3 cm. 

(Staatliche Museen, Berlin) . 
Ill — [d] Sacra Conversazione, by Tinto- 
retto. Canvas, 1.23 m. by 1.7 m. (M. 
C. A. de Burlet). [e] The Death of 

254 Holofernes, by Tintoretto. Canvas. 

(Prado) 

IV — [f] The Last Supper, by Tintoretto. 

257 Canvas (S. Marcuola, Venice) 

Auctions. I — [a] Portrait of a Young Lady . 
by A. Cuyp. Panel, 88.9 cm. by 68.6 
cm. (Erskine Collection) 

257 Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Ant- 
werp. I — [a and b] Pavement tiles from 
Herckenrode (Musee du Cinquantcnaire, 
Brussels), [c] The Conversion of St. 
Paul. Tile picture, dated 1547. (Vleesch- 
huis, Antwerp) . .... 

II — [d and e] Drug vases, probably Ant- 
werp earthenware, [f] Porringer, [g] 
Fragment of a dish (Musee du Cinquante- 

261 naire, Brussels). [h] Roman Charity. 

Deep dish of earthenware. (Rijks- 
museum, Amsterdam) .... 

Ill — [j] Dated tiles (Claes Collection, 
.'\ntwerp). [k] Tiles (Vleeschhuis, 
Antwerp) ...... 

A Frans Greenwood Goblet. Goblet, en- 
graved by Frans Greenwood. Flint glass, 

264 English, 28.6 cm. (Sir John Risley) 

A Spanish-Italian Altarpiece. I — [a] Scenes 
from the Life of St. Vincent. School of 
Giotto. 14th-century triptych from the 
Church of Estopinan, Huesca. (Don 
Luis Plandiura, Barcelona) . 
11 — [b] Sf. Vincent committed 'ly his 

268 parents to the charge of St. Valerius. 
Detail of Triptych, [c] St. Vincent 
receives deacon's orders from the Bishop, 
St. I'alerius. Detail of Triptych . 
Monthly Chronicle. Flat bowl in green jade. 
Kang-H'si. On carved wood stand. 
(Spink & Son) 

271 Auctions. II — [b] The Dead Christ sup- 
ported by .4ngels, by Francesco Zaga- 
nelli da Cottignola. Panel, 1.02 m. by 
2.03 m. Lunette of [c] The Baptism of 
Christ, by Francesco Zaganelli. Panel, 
2.06 m. by 1.97 m. (Erskine Collection) 



page 



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279 

279 



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286 

286 



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296 
296 

299 

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EDITORIAL : " expertising' 

NDER cover of this hideous term 
whose usual synonyms are "authen- 
ticating" and "naming," pictures 
are condemned from time to time to 
take a step up or a step down the 
ladder of fame. In a letter, published on another 
page, Mr. Hugh Blaker requestions the value of 
the activities of those who give themselves up to 
the genteel art of identifying the brushwork of 
all and sundry, from Rembrandt to Albert van 
Korkodale and from Masaccio to Amico di 
Sandro — for evidences of whose earthly sojourn 
budding experts are known to search with the 
same earnestness as Messrs. Cook's Venetian 
itinerants search for the house of Shy lock. 

Few lovers of art will be able to refrain from 
sympathising with Mr. Blaker's desire to give 
art criticism a push in the direction of art. The 
origin and the destiny of the thorn in his and 
many another's side is a subject of immense 
importance and absorbing interest. In con- 
sidering it the mind goes back at once to Mo- 
relli, the god or devil, as opinion may decide, of 
" authentication." Until Morelli broke in and 
scattered them like sheep, the browsing critics 
were content to devote themselves to the con- 
sideration of the merits and the demerits of 
works of art and to remain in a muddle about the 
authorship of even their favourite pictures. 
From the reaction in favour of Morelli 's system, 
art criticism has not yet recovered — though 
there are abundant signs that it is on the way 
to recovery. 

Two things regarding Morelli are frequently 
forgotten. He was a man of genius or at least 
of very marked talent, and he came at a moment 
when he was badly needed. His system, as far 
as it went, was sound, and the task before him 
and his immediate followers was so urgent 
and so obvious, that in a comparatively short 
space of time the most important part of it was 
accomplished. In an' age of unparalleled his- 
torical and scientific research, every year left 
fewer art mysteries to solve, and the truth is 
that the great majority of the really significant 
pictures of the world have now been identified ; 
so it comes about that Moriarty being safe in 
his straight-jacket, Sherlock Holmes, in the 
pursuit of his vocation, has taken to cross- 
questioning the Baker Street errand boys in 
search of sensational crime. The cases that do 
come to light are not only increasingly trivial 
but increasingly difficult to establish. At the 
same time we, intermittent sinners as we are, 
should be the last to deny the frequency, sur- 
prising under the circumstances, with which in- 
teresting and occasionally even enormous finds 
are still made. As long as the names and ad- 



dresses of purchasers of pictures are unrecorded, 
and that will be as long as auction-rooms 
last, and as long as inheritors conceal, forget or 
otherwise dispose of their inheritance, as long 
as dishonesty finds a billet in the human heart, 
and that will be as long as man and money last, 
art problems, great and small, will continue to 
confront the experts. One would have thought, 
for instance, that the authorship of works of art 
produced during the last hundred years by the 
most aesthetically sensitive and one of the most 
critical people in Europe would have been set- 
tled beyond all doubt. But even in a small ex- 
hibition of modern French art like that at the 
Burlington Fine Art Club, one picture has had 
to be written down an orphan, while the parent- 
ages claimed for several others are very ob- 
viously unjustified. And so there is nothing 
for it but to set the genealogists to work again. 
It is worth their while to give another child to 
Vollon (not to Ribot) and to relieve Corot and 
Manet of a changeling apiece, though it seems 
of less importance to the world with whom the 
brats are to be lodged. 

As to the accuracy, apart from the usefulness of 
these decisions, it is necessary to realise that only 
in rare cases can they properly be accepted as 
final. Both history and modern experience pro- 
claim them trumpet-tongued to be tentative. 
" Authentication" has become a popular super- 
stition. Our own experience would almost seem 
to point to the probability that the more numer- 
ous the body of thorough-bred experts concen- 
trating themselves upon a given painter, the 
wider is the divergence of their opinions. 
The truth seems to depend on the fact 
that a great artist is so many-sided 
that we each see in his work a different 
combination of attractive qualities. He who is 
nothing if not aesthetically sensitive classifies 
these works according to their individual power 
of producing emotion, and if some work of even 
the greatest artist fails to do that, then that 
work is for that observer simply of no import- 
ance, and all talk about it is irrelevant. But to 
those non-a;sthetic experts who crowd around 
us to-day in such embarrassing numbers it is 
quite otherwise. Even when they lay down their 
magnifying glasses, their interest in technique is 
simply replaced by an interest, not in art but in 
the artist, and in the artist as a man rather than 
as a spirit. But for the guiding lights supplied 
by the calendar and by that effervescent snobbism 
that is the one reward the world offers to the 
inarticulate cesthete, they would fall into errors 
altogether ludicrous. They would confuse any 
two artists like Piero di Cosimo and .-Xrent 
Arentsz Cabel who, although widely differing ip 



TmK BukLlNGTON MaGAZISE, No. 1T,2, VoI. XI.I, July, H)2J. 



power as creators, reveal in their pictures the fact 
that their interest and their attitude to hfe are 
altogether similar. They might even confuse 
Picasso with the painter of the fresco in 
Sant Climent de Tahull, illustrated on p. 8. 
If the background of the aesthete's interest in the 
picture is an emotional one, that of the "expert" 
is one of events. The former is interested in 
the painter because of the painting, the latter in 
the painting because of the painter. The 
ideal of the one is a collection of fine work, 
ranging from the cave-dweller's drawings to the 
productions of his own day, chosen, however 
labelled, on their merits as art, while that of the 
other is a complete collection of the complete 
work of each master, every surface on which he 
dabbed paint, even his palette, to be hung hki- 
a totem on the wall. There are great paintings 
that seem to contain all the painter had within 
him, and about these both classes of observers 
are agreed. But his minor works and those of 
his associates contain only a few of the quali- 
ties that made him a great artist. And in accord- 
ance with the temperament of the observer, be 
he of the one class or of the other, a certain in- 
evitably limited selection of congenial qualities 
is made. The aesthete makes his selection in- 
stinctively, with ease, in the twinkling of an 
eye. He has all the overwhelming prejudice of 
the artist himself, but his prejudice is in favour 
of pure art, and he prides himself on it. The 
other continually imagines that he is unpreju- 
diced and devoid of passion. If that were so, 
all might be well, but with him, as with other 
men, the wish is often father to the thought. 
Just as much Shakespearian criticism has con- 
sisted in attributing to Shakespeare all the lines 
that happen to gratify the taste of the individual 
critic, so in the " expertising " of Rembrandt- 
esque pictures, each expert has formed in his 
mind a different grouping of Rembrandt-like 
qualities, in accordance with which the pictures 



are most confidently labelled. It is inconceiv- 
able, of course, that anything like all the works 
given in the books of our time to Rembrandt are 
really his, or that it will be possible for posterity 
to leave undone the vast work of re-examination 
these books have rendered necessary. But the 
astounding credulity of the Monotheists, for 
whom Rembrandt-souvenir-hunting has become 
an obsession, or worse, has done nothing to 
shake the confidence of collectors, who gladly 
sacrifice, the hour after the oracle has spoken, as 
many pounds as they would have given pence 
the hour before. The astonishing thing is that 
in every centre of culture in the world, market 
values depend solely and public adoration 
largely on " authentications." 

We altogether disagree with those who assure 
us that art criticism is "going to the dogs." 
(Art criticism and art and everything else that 
matters has always been and will always be "go- 
ing to the dogs.") The free judgment that grows 
up from a genuine joy in art may seem at present 
to be in a state of coma, but there is a growing 
habit among critics of confining the subjects of 
their writings to works of art they really like 
as such. That is obviously the first step neces- 
sary if we are to get out of our present diffi- 
culties. The practice will at least bring the 
criticism of painting into line with that of the 
other arts and into closer conformity with the 
general attitude of modern culture. There is 
no danger of its leading us back to the slipshod 
days of careless and ignorant attributions, be- 
cause, as we have said, the more important part 
of that work is done already, and done well, 
and because there is no likelihood of a lack of 
eager experts to go on with it where necessary. 

The aesthete and the technical expert have 
each their separate work awaiting them. But 
these are ideal types, and by far the most im- 
portant tasks lie open to those who belong to 
neither category and to both. 



A CATALONIAN FRESCO FOR BOSTON 



BY J. PIJOAN 




■HE Church of Santa Maria de 
Mur, near the Romanesque castle 
of the same name, stands on the 
southernmost range of the Pyrenees 
in the Province of Lerida and over- 
looks the plains of Urgell. The church was 
originally part of a monastery of which only 
the cloisters remain. The archives, however, 
have been preserved, and we know the story of 
the establishment from the time it was conse- 
crated in 1069 A.D. The castle appears to be 
much older. 

The apse of the church was decorated with 
frescos of the eleventh or twelfth centuries, and 



a description of these has been published by 
myself in one of the series of monographs called 
" Les Pintures Murals Catalanes," edited by 
the Institut d'Estudis Catalans. The coloured 
plate which accompanied the description is re- 
produced here by the courtesy of the Institut. 
Since then these frescos have been taken down 
by extremely skilful Venetian artisans who suc- 
cessfully performed the very difficult feat of 
removing them in small pieces. They were 
then shipped to New York, where they were 
sold by agents of Mr. Plandiura, of Barcelona, 
to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

The composition of this fresco may be divided 




B — The Adoration of the Magi. Fresco. (Santa .Maria d'Esterri) 



Plate 11. A Catalonian Fresco for Boston 



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into three parts. The portion from the vaulted 
ceiling displays the seated figure of the Lord 
within an oval rainbow and, in the four corners, 
the four beasts of the Apocalypse with the usual 
inscriptions from the Sedulius text. In the 
second part, below, on the sections of the circu- 
lar wall between the window recesses, stand the 
twelve Apostles, each with a book. Then, on 
the thickness of the wall in the windows and in 
a zone on the wall below them, we have a third 
division showing small figures in biblical 
scenes. Those in the window recesses refer to 
the story of Cain and Abel after the manner in 
which it is presented in Catalan Bibles and in 
the Roda and Farfa MSS. of the tenth century. 
The scenes in the lower circle still show the 
Visitation of the Virgin, the Nativity, and the 
Adoration of the Shepherds. These are treated 
as they are on the Catalonian antipentia, or altar 
fronts, of the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. 

Very little new can besaid of this third division 
of the fresco ; but the figure of the Lord, in the 
first, and of the Apostles in the second, require 
further study. Jesus is apparently represented 
here as a judge, and this might be established 
by comparison with other Catalonian frescos of 
the same type as that at Mur. Take, for example, 
the fresco in the Chapel of Santa Eulalia d'Esta- 
hon in which the Lord and the four beasts are 
flanked by two archangels, each with a rotulus 
in his hand, the one bearing the word Petitio 
and the other Postulatio. These words, of 
course, refer to supplications for the souls of 
men. In some other Catalonian frescos the com- 
position is further complicated by the presence 
of Seraphim with eight-eyed wings and by the 
wheels in the vision of Ezekiel beneath. The 
whole composition in this type seems to be a 
condensation of the prophetic visions of Isaiah, 
Ezekiel, and John. It is to be remembered that 
the same condensation is achieved in Charles 
the Bold's Bible in the miniature reproduction 
of a fresco in the Church of St. Paul Without- 
the-Walls at Rome. Here the three seers are 
shown on the same page with the Lord and the 
Elders above them. 

In my previous studies of this group of fres- 
cos I stated that they must have degenerated 
from an original which had been misunderstood 
and has been disintegrated through the cen- 
turies. The prototype I thought was intended 
to display the glory of God with the apocalyptic 
visions of Isaiah, Ezekiel, and John condensed. 
But the twelve Apostles in the Catalonian fres- 
cos, at Mur and other places, have nothing to do 
with the apocalyptic visions, and in some places 
thev are even accompanied by the Virgin, who 
is generally shown holding up the Cup of the 
Holv Grael. If this group — the .Apostles and 
the Virgin — has any connection with the repre- 



sentation of the Lord within the oval and the 
beasts, all ideas concerning the original mean- 
ing of the representation will have to be 
changed, for there is no reference to the Twelve 
or to the Virgin in the apocalyptic visions ex- 
cept as twelve candlesticks. The regular com- 
panions of the apocalyptic Almighty are the 
twenty-four Elders, and we find these in the Cata- 
lonian frescos at Fenollar. There is not the 
slightest doubt that in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, when most of these Catalonian frescos 
were painted, the artists were already confusing 
the subjects in the Repertorium, and were add- 
ing figures only with the idea of filling up spaces 
and obtaining a certain decorative effect. So the 
question now is, not what the painter of those 
monuments wanted to represent, but what was 
the original meaning of this type of composi- 
tion at its inception, perhaps several centuries 
before these Catalonian frescos were painted. 

I am now inclined to think that the Almighty 
on the vaulted ceiling, and the Apostles and the 
Virgin on the cylindrical wall below, in the be- 
ginning formed a united composition, the sub- 
ject of which was the Ascension of Christ as 
described in the Gospel of St. Luke and in the 
Acts. In one of the first-known Christian re- 
presentations of the Ascension, that in the 
Rabula Gospels of the sixth century, the com- 
position is much more complete. Christ rises 
to heaven in the midst of an oval rainbow, hold- 
ing a scroll of the Scriptures, with the four 
beasts, the wheels of Ezekiel's vision and two 
archangels about him. Below are the Apostles 
and the Virgin in ecstasy at the words of two 
more angels who stand among them evidently 
proclaiming, " This same Jesus," etc. There 
are several repetitions of this Syrian representa- 
tion of the Ascension, and it gradually loses 
some of its elements. In the Monza aijipulhe 
the four beasts have already disappeared, as 
have also the wheels. In the Coptic frescos of 
the monastery of Bawit in Egypt, the composi- 
tion is reduced to Christ already seated in the 
oval and with a book on the vaulted ceiling, the 
four beasts in the corners, and two attendant 
archangels. Below there are only the Virgin 
and the Apostles, not the angels. This Coptic 
presentation is, then, preparing the way for the 
complete separation of the two groups, the 
Christ becoming the Almighty with beasts 
above and the Apostles with the Virgin below on 
the walls. When, at the end of the Romanesque 
period, the two parts of the fresco were divided 
by geometric patterns it is hard to understand 
at first sight that they originally formed one 
subject — that is to say, the Ascension, not the 
apocalyptic visions. 

It is therefore curious to trace in these Cata- 
lonian frescos fragments of a great lost composi- 



tion, originating most likely in Asia Minor or 
Syria at the very beginnings of Christian art. It 
would seem rather daring to go back to the Ra- 
bula Gospels to find the original type of a com- 
position of which onlv disjointed remnants and 
scraps are found in the decoration on eleventh- 
century churches. 

It will be objected to the Ascension interpre- 
tation of these frescos that sometimes the 
Apostles are accompanied by other saints, and 
also that Christ in the oval obviously represent- 
ing the Almighty is sculptured over many door- 
way arches without any trace of the Apostles. 
Also the A and H painted in many frescos make 
plain allusion to the apocalyptic vision. Never- 
theless in the various frescos of the Catalonian 
churches we have a whole group of elements, 
scattered here and there, with which we could 
form a complete picture, on a gigantic scale, of 
the type found in the Rabula Gospels — the Lord 
in the character of Jesus seated within the oval, 
the four beasts, the wheels, the archangels, the 
angels, and the Apostles with the Virgin. This, 
I think, was the original type which, when it 
came to the Occident (more likely through 
Egypt and Spain than from Byzantium to 
Italy) was but poorly understood, and was 
taken as a basis for the representation of the 
visions of the Apocalypse, those of Ezekiel and 
Isaiah included. 

In the Carolingian Age the original meaning 
was entirely lost, and this would explain the 
illustration in the Bible of Charles the Bold, re- 
ferred to above, and those in other MSS. of the 
period. The lost frescos in the crypt of the 
church of St. Lawrence Without-the-Walls at 
Rome, mentioned by De Rossi' already, show 
the archangels holding the rotuli bearing the 
words Petitio and Postulatio. The style of these 
Catalonian frescos is more strikingly similar 
to Coptic ones than to any occidental represen- 
tation. The figures of the four Evangelists, 
painted in very strong and sharp colours, on 
the covers of the Gospels in the Freer collection 
at Washington, most strongly resemble in style 
the ones in Catalonian churches.^ The bindings 
of these MSS. seem to be painted during the pre- 
iconoclastic period, but after the Bawit frescos, 
and we have here another link between the 
Syrian type and the degenerating occidental 
imitations. 

In Byzantine art it is curious to find also ele- 
ments of the same earlier composition used dis- 
jointedly without a knowledge of their original 
meaning. The Ascension was usually repre- 
sented in the panels of the Twelve Feasts, and 



1 Bolletino d'Archeologia Cristiana. Vol I. 
^ Morey & Dennison. Studies in East Christian and 
Roman Art. 1915. University of Michigan Studies. 



there is the Christ above within an oval carried 
by four angels, and below, the Virgin in the 
centre surrounded by two angels and the twelve 
Apostles. We find the same composition in the 
mural paintings of the church of Peribleptos at 
Mistra and also in the mozaics in the church of 
St. Sophia in Salonica. Christ is shown in 
the centre of the dome within a circle, and the 
Virgin, the two angels and the Apostles are de- 
picted round the walls. But in many other 
cases it would be difficult to arrive at the mean- 
ing of the sculptures of paintings if taken by 
themselves, for they often display mere frag- 
ments of the original composition. For example, 
in one Byzantine ivory, now in the Museum of 
Ravenna and reproduced by Dalton (page 24), 
Christ, sitting on a throne with a book in one 
hand and giving a blessing with the other, is 
surrounded by four angels who hold the oval 
encircling Him. Nothing could induce us to 
believe that we are here in the presence of an 
element of a composition depicting the Ascen- 
sion except for a hand stretched down from the 
top. This can be nothing but the hand of God 
the Father receiving His Son. 

The hand projecting from a cloud is very 
common in early art, and there is no doubt that 
it signifies nothing but the reception of an 
ascending person into heaven. It is found not 
only in Carolingian representations of the 
Ascension, but also in reliefs and miniatures 
showing the Rapture of Elijah, the Martyrdom 
of Stephen, etc. The heavens opening to re- 
ceive the martyr's soul is indicated by a round 
cloud and a projecting hand. I therefore be- 
lieve that the subjects of many Byzantine 
mozaics in which Christ is depicted upon a 
throne, holding a book, and giving his bless- 
ing, flanked by angels (Torcello, Cefalij) as 
though to represent the Almighty or Panto- 
crator, are in reality derived from an original 
depicting the Ascension. 

If such a thing could happen in Byzantine 
art, which had preserved artistic and ecclesiasti- 
cal traditions so well, it is much more easy to 
understand exactly the same mistakes in the 
Occident at a later period. If the Greek artists 
who covered the Sicilian and Venetian churches 
with mozaics, could become confused and de- 
sign the figures of Christ and the Apostles with- 
out a clear idea of the significance of the special 
grouping they employed, how much less could 
be expected of the uneducated painters of the 
Pyrenees, who, most likely, copied from models 
that had come down to them from Visigothic 
times, without any longer understanding their 
full significance ? 

[It is impossible to leave this subject without 
drawing our reader's attention more pointedly 
than Mr. Pijoan has been able to do, to the im- 



10 



portance of the portfolios of plates illustrating 
" Les Pintures Murals Catalanes," published by 
the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, and edited and 
annotated by Mr. Pijoan. We take the oppor- 



tunity of publishing here a few monochrome 
reproductions of the colour plates of some of the 
very remarkable works included in the portfolio. 
—Editor, B. M.] 




THREE SKETCHES BY HOGARTH 
BY C. F. BELL 

^^^ OGARTH is not one of those 
I ^^^ > artists about whom it would be 
■l thought that there could be many 
) surprises in store. His work, if 
_I poorly remunerated on the whole 
during his lifetime, was none the less so much 
appreciated bv a certain circle of admirers, and, 
from a period immediately after his decease until 
the present time, has been studied, catalogued 
and moralised in such numerous publications 
that the chance of an important sketch by him 
being lost sight of for nearly a hundred years 
seems very remote. This, however, has hap- 
pened in the case of the very interesting canvas 
recently acquired by Sir Robert Witt and here 
described and reproduced for the first time 
[Plate I, a], it is believed, since a rough etching 
of it was published in lyqg by Samuel Ireland in 
the second volume of his not very trustworthy 
work " Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth." Nor 
are the fresh problems that the rediscovery of 
even a single picture can sometimes raise in con- 
nection with our estimate of an artist's powers, 
confined in this case to the aesthetic and technical 
qualities of the work. The study of it throws new 
light on the general methods of Hogarth in con- 
ceiving his illustrations of contemporary life, 
and piecing together the details employed to en- 
force his moral and point his satire. 

The completeness of the literary commentary 
in which Hogarth's graphic text has gradually 
become encased, the meticulousness of the ex- 
planation given to all the details in his subject 
pictures and their special significance, has en- 
couraged a general impression that not only was 
each of his moral tales — the Harlot's Pros;ress, 
Rake's Progress and Marriage a la mode — in- 
vented and carried out quite independently, but 
that every single picture was thought out and 
built up, down to the slightest innuendo, with 
direct satiric intention. 

Up to a certain point this position still re- 
mains unassailed, although the view has long 
been gaining ground that Hogarth's essential 
greatness as a painter and artist pure and simple 
has been less recognised owing to his success 
as a dramatic moralist. The popularisation of 
his works during his lifetime bv means of his 
own engravings was mainly responsible for this, 
and the prints, the exact dates of which are 
easily determined, are also accountable for the 
misconception about the artist's method of 



work. It is obvious that the pictures of the Har- 
lot's Progress must have been in hand long pre- 
viously to the publication of the engravings in 
April 1732, and even before 1731, the date on 
one of the plates; and those of the Rake's Pro- 
gress before December 1733, when Hogarth was 
at work on the engravings published in June 
1735. The first advertisement of Marriage a la 
mode is stated by Mr. Austin Dobson, whose 
researches fixed the dates given above, to have 
been put forth in April 1743, and the pictures 
were sold in February 1745, with a provision 
connected with the publication of the plates 
which followed in April of that year. 

The evidence afforded by Sir Robert Witt's 
picture shows that not only was the Rake's Pro- 
gress probably at first conceived in a form much 
more condensed than that ultimately adopted, 
but that motives made use of in Marriage a la 
mode, and seeming to us, under the suggestion 
of the commentators, to be inalienable parts of 
the substance of that story, were remainders 
brought forward from the Rake's Progress in 
the confection of which no place could be found 
for them. 

The subject of this brilliant sketch is in effect 
a compromise between the Contract scene of the 
Marriage and the Levee and '']'edding of the 
Rake. The most highly finished figure is that 
of the bride, unattractive and no Jonger young, 
but far from the repulsive harridan of the 
Wedding scene at the Soane Museum. She is 
dressed in an exquisite shade of sky blue. Her 
miserly father, it would seem, who nowhere 
appears in the completed .series, is in the act of 
joining her hand to that of the y( ung rake who, 
inattentive as the Viscount in the first picture of 
the Marriage series, is receiving a letter from a 
whispering servant. The last figure, although 
perfectly distinct in th*^ picture, is unaccount- 
nhW absent from Irelland's etching, which con- 
tains equally inexplicable additions to be alluded 
to later on. In the foreground kneels the jockey 
holding the raci^ng plate, who becomes a promi- 
nent personage in the Levee of the Rake's Pro- 
gress, and into the same picture was conveyed, 
with trifiing alterations, the antechamber and its 
occupants in the background of Sir Robert 
Witt's sketch. Links with Marriage a la mode 
are suggested by thf objects, some battered 
antiques and a picture of Ganymede by Titian, 
on the ground tc, tlie left. A similar group of 



I I 



spoils from an auction, but in that case Chinese 
magots instead of Roman busts, appears on the 
floor in the Countess's Dressing Room, to the 
walls of which apartment the Ganymede has 
been transferred, while a bust of the same type 
as those in the sketch stands on the chimney 
piece in the second episode of the same story. 

Hogarth's contrivance of enhancing the 
satirical character of the living figures in his 
compositions by allusions in the pictures hang- 
ing on the walls of the rooms they inhabit, is 
exhibited in several scenes of both the Pro- 
gresses and of Marriage a la mode and else- 
where. But nowhere has he gone such lengths 
as in the present sketch. It indicates the great 
revolution that has taken place in what may be 
called moral taste that the subject of the princi- 
pal masterpiece decorating the Rake's walls 
should have been deemed legitimate and comic 
in an age far more harsh and intolerant than 
the present day in enforcing punitive legislation 
against what was then considered infidelity and 
blasphemy. 

This irreverent jest is described by Ireland, 
who gives in his first volume a full-sized 
aquatint engraving of it as " a satire against 
Transubstantiation," and excused by him in 
the hope that — 

this attempt of our inimitable painter will be considered 
by the judicious merely as a satire on the inconsistency of 
priestcraft ; not as a wilful attempt to strike at the root of 
Christianity : a doctrine to which mankind owes its princi- 
pal happiness and consolaMon. 

The principal object in it is a sort of windmill 
with a hopper at t^e top. In the sky above it 
are the Virgin any Child, below is a priest dis- 
tributing the wa''ers which issue from the lower 
part of the mill. The inter-relation and sup- 
posed satirica,! import of two other pictures 
hanging besir^e this, a Madonna and Child with 
a painting of'a large foot suspended below it, of 
which Ireland also gives full-sized illustrations, 
with additions presumably of his own invention, 
are left doubtful even by that over-subtle 
expositor. x; 

The sketch, which measures 2 ft. 5I in. by 
2 ft. J in., was bought by Ireland at Mrs. 
Hogarth's sale in i^Q9, and was recently ac- 
quired in London bv v>jr Robert Witt. Its 
history in the intervening period is not recorded 
by Dr. Dobson, but the p^ifcture is believed to 
have been in the well-known \Hawkins Collec- 
tion. ') 

It is indeed unfortunate that/fhe only unsatis- 
factory portion of that erudj-te, charming, and, 
it may be said classical, boa)k — " Mr. Dobson 's 
work on Hogarth" — is the (catalogue of pictures 
given in the appendix, /it is to be lamented 
that the author did not, Hke Sir Walter Arm- 
strong in parallel circumstaiTCes, hand over this 
part of his task to somebody rt^ore practised in 



the learned drudgery required for this essential 
class of research. Had he done so, it is impro- 
bable that he would have failed to locate, as he 
did, a group of five of his hero's works, includ- 
ing the originals of the Enraged Musician and 
the Stage Coach, housed in a public gallery at 
no great distance from London. 

Amongst them are the two sketches here re- 
produced, which illustrate further the presum- 
able overlapping of the inspiration and develop- 
ment of Hogarth's three greatest series of pic- 
tures already alluded to. The first of them 
[Plate I, b] is connected, like Sir Robert Witt's 
picture, with the Rake's Progress. It will be re- 
called that the episode of the Rake being robbed 
by a courtesan, who makes love to him while 
handing his watch to a confederate, is conspicu- 
ous in the Bagnio scene (No. 3) of the Progress. 
In the present sketch this incident forms the 
whole subject, and is developed in fuller detail. 
The harpy who embraces the profligate is not 
herself handling the watch ; it is being passed be- 
hind her back by the accomplice to a third 
woman, while a fourth raises the alarm at the 
unexpected entrance of the watchman, accom- 
panied by a large dog, one of the most living re- 
presentations of an animal in all the painter's 
works. This small picture measures only 14 in. 
by I2| in., and is rich and dark in tone. The 
woman on the left is dressed in deep scarlet, she 
who passes the watch in greenish grey. It is un- 
wise to dogmatise about the period of Hogarth's 
undated paintings; but, from the style, it is per- 
missible to conjecture that this is an early work, 
and mav embody the first idea of the incident 
in the Rake's Progress. Its early history is un- 
known ; it was bequeathed to the University of 
Oxford by Dr. Thomas Penrose in 185 1. 

The remaining illustration [Plate II, c] re- 
presents a sketch (12 in. by 14! in.) much 
slighter in execution than either of the others, 
and more suggestive than explicit. It likewise 
belonged to Ireland, having also been purchased 
by him at Mrs. Hogarth's sale, and appears 
among his " Graphic Illustrations " in the form 
of a coarse and inaccurate engraving containing 
details that are no longer and, it is safe to say, 
never were discernible in the original. After 
his death it passed to Mr. Peacock, of Mary- 
lebone Street, and from him to Mr. Chambers 
Hall, with the rest of whose valuable collection 
it came to Oxford, by gift, in 1855. Ireland 
called it The ill effect of Masquerades, and ex- 
plained its meaning by a rambling and incon- 
sequent legend. There is no evidence that 
Hogarth ever heard the story or intended to 
illustrate it. Indeed, it is tempting to assume 
that the two groups, which Ireland construes as 
forming part of one subject, are in fact two 
separate studies of the same motive hastily 



12 



\ 







^1- 11 jw^ .;"?llf 




■r\; ' ' /I 


*W /i 


.>fe5" 











-'I — --1 Sketch for the Rake's Progress (No. i), by Hogarth. Canvas, 74.,:; cm. 
by 61.6 cm. (Sir Robert Witt) 




B — A Sketch for the Rake's Progress (No. 3), bv Hogartii. Canva.s, 
35.6 cm. by 31.8 cm. (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) 



Plate 1. Three Sketches by Hogarth 



/^ 




O 



X! 
t/! 



u 
JZ 

H 






dashed down on a single canvas. Be this as it 
may, the outstanding interest of the sketch lies 
in the fact that it presumably embodies a com- 
position which occurred to Hogarth as pic- 
turesque and dramatic on purely artistic 
grounds, and was utilised by him, with serious 
modifications it is true, in two of his most cele- 
brated pictures. 

As the painting is somewhat formless and 
confused, and its masterly tone and brushwork 
are naturally not made the most of in a repro- 
duction, it may be permissible to explain that 
the principal figure in the group on the left is 
that of a young woman reclining in a chair. She 
is stripped to the waist and bleeds from a 
wound in her right breast, which is being 
dressed by a surgeon. Leaning on the back of 
her chair is a person overcome by distress. In 
front of the girl stands a man bending eagerly 
forward and holding her left hand, and behind 
him is a little girl who seems to appeal to be 
allowed to share in the attentions required by 
the sufferer. The group on the right contains 
several of the same elements in a changed and 
more indistinct form ; here again is a fainting or 



tors. In both we seem to have the actors in 
episodes in the Prison scene (No. 7) of the 
Rake's Progress and in the Suicide of the 
Countess, the closing subject of Marriage a la 
mode. But if into the significance of the figures 
we read the dying girl, the avaricious alderman 
drawing the ring from her finger, the weeping 
nurse and the child, here more fully grown than 
in the Suicide piclure, their actual appearance 
presents in many respects closer parallels with 
the group of the long-forsaken mistress swoon- 
ing on recognising her faithless lover in the 
prison. The attitude of the girl and the dis- 
array of her garments are similar; the child, of 
much the same age, although closer to her 
motiier in the picture, is in the same attitude; 
and while the supporting figures are different, 
and the old woman slapping the girl's hand 
takes the place of the man, the general composi- 
tion is, although reversed in direction, very 
similar. In any case, the sketch, like the more 
beautiful and elaborate painting belonging to 
Sir Robert Witt, shows that Hogarth's proce- 
dure in composing his subjects was not alto- 
gether as spontaneous and direct, as his early 
critics appear to have believed. 




dying woman surrounded by agitated specta^ 

THE VAN EYCKS AND THEIR FOLLOWERS 
BY MAX J. FRIEDLANDER 

INCE the publication of Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle's Early Flemish 
Painters nobody had had the 
courage to attempt a comprehen- 
sive account of early Netherlandish 
painting. The book in question, which is the 
joint production of an Italian painter and an 
English writer, remained for a long time the 
standard work, as no real substitute for it ap- 
peared. First issued in London in 1857, it 
appeared in a second English edition in 1872. 
A French translation was published at Brussels 
in 1862-65, supplied with notes by Pinchart, 
which to this day are of value. A German trans- 
lation, revised by Anton Springer, appeared in 
1875 at Leipzig. The book continued to be ex- 
ceptionally widely read and highly regarded even 
at a time when its contents offered an almost 
comical contrast to the achievements of art his- 
tory. Sir Martin Conway's book* disposes at 
last of this wholly antiquated work. When we 
compare the new book with the old, we can on 
all points observe considerable progress, which 
is due less to documentary research than to 
criticism of style. Both as regards the number 
of artistic personalities, now made clear, and as 
regards the number of works within our ken, 

* The Van Eycks and their Followers. By Sir Martin 
Conway, M.P. 528 pp. + 24 pi. (London : John Murray.) 
£2 2S. 



an immense increase of knowledge has taken 
place. 

As regards the chronological limits. Sir Mar- 
tin's book extends farther than that of Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle, and farther than even the 
title suggests. The expression " followers " is 
to be understood in its widest sense. Evidently 
this title has been chosen from a conviction that 
the whole of the purely Netherlandish, auto- 
chthonous and national, art is directly or in- 
directly dependent on the Van Eycks, and 
springs from them : a view which, to the greater 
glorv of the founders and originators, is 
pointedly expressed in the title of the book. Ac- 
cordingly, of the painters whose careers begin 
about 1550, only Pieter Bruegel is taken into 
account, and effectively placed at the end. 
Painters, like Frans Floris and Lambert Lom- 
bard, who were working in the Netherlands at 
about the same time as Pieter Bruegel, are 
passed over, for no other reason than because 
their Italianizing tendencies forbid to regard 
them as " followers of the Van Eycks," how- 
ever much you may stretch this concept. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle still confined them- 
selves to the fifteenth century. Sir Martin 
Conway puts the line of demarkation much 
later, and does not shrink back from the multi- 
tude of painters working between 1500 and 1550 



17 



— not even from the chaos of the nameless and 
the jungle of the painters known as the " Ant- 
werp Mannerists." Netherlandish painting is 
comparable to a tree, which rises from the 
ground big and simple, and then is split up in 
boughs and branches. 

The researches and discoveries of the last 
decade — which in 1902 received a powerful im- 
petus from the great Loan Exhibition at Bruges 
— are to be found in many Belgian, French, 
English and German periodicals, mostly in the 
forms of reviews of exhibitions, short notes, and 
ascriptions rapidly thrown off, reports and 
hypotheses. Only a few early Netherlandish 
masters have been dealt with in comprehensive 
monographs in book form. Sir Martin Conway 
has mastered the gigantic material of attribu- 
tions, suggestions and re-valuations, and has 
done this extraordinarily exacting work with- 
out pedantry, indeed with great temperamental 
freshness. Not only perseverance but also dis- 
crimination was necessary for such a perform- 
ance. More particularly the author's judgment 
shows itself in a negative form, that is, in that he 
has disposed of and left aside many mistakes ; 
for intance, the errors of Durand Greville and 
the sterile hyper-criticism of Carl Voll, which for 
a time had a checking and injurious effect in 
Germany. 

There is great clearness in the way in which 
the whole material is disposed and set forth in 
thirty -two chapters. First the author deals at 
praiseworthy length with the preparatory stage 
of the Van Eycks, the Netherlandish book-illu- 
mination ; then follow several chapters on the 
Van Eycks ; further, all the chief masters, like 
Roger, Memling, David, each in one chapter, 
while the lesser masters are lucidly treated of in 
small groups. The illustrations (twenty-four 
plates, each with four smaller but fairly clear 
ones) gives well-chosen examples, many of them 
unfamiliar and hitherto unpublished pictures. 

With the keenest interest do we read Sir Mar- 
tin Conway's considerations on the Van Eycks, 
in particular his reply to the burning question 
as to the relation between the brothers. The 
Ghent Altarpiece mentions in its celebrated in- 
scription both names, and that in a manner 
which attributes to the elder brother, Hubert, 



the main share in the Ghent Altarpiece, and in- 
directly also the main share in the revolutionary 
action which laid down the path which Nether- 
landish painting was to pursue. But against 
this, all other old sources make mention only of 
Jan, not Hubert, and we possess by Jan works 
authenticated by inscriptions, by Hubert, 
strictly speaking, nothing, as his share in the 
Ghent Altarpiece is by no means clearly and 
indisputably apprehended. 

Sir Martin Conway endeavours, like many 
other critics of late years, to put Hubert at the 
head of the evolution, in the sense of the Ghent 
inscription, and ascribes to him all pictures of 
Eyckian style, except for those which he, .on 
account of their signatures, is obliged to leave to 
Jan. Even the Rollin Madonna in the Louvre 
passes from Jan to Hubert. 

This conception is in that sense not quite 
satisfactory, that the personalities of Hubert and 
Jan do not become clearly differentiated from 
one another. If Jan was a pupil and imitator 
of Hubert's, who owes everything to the elder 
brother, this uncertainty of the border line might 
be explicable. Hut if you look upon Jan as a 
genius, like his brother, then you are bound to 
expect that his individuality becomes definitely 
marked in contrast with his brother's. Sir 
Martin Conway seems to feel this difficulty. 
And this probably explains his tendency to be 
noticeably critical towards the authentic work of 
Jan. 

Every art historian who has devoted himself 
to early Netherlandish painting or to any section 
of this subject, will be able to trace omissions 
and mistakes in Sir Martin Conway's book. In 
view of the gigantic proportion of the material 
which has been mastered, it is inevitable that 
gaps and misunderstandings should occur. I 
should, however, on the present occasion prefer 
not to give a list of the points on which I am of 
a different opinion from him, because I do not 
wish to lessen the expression of grateful recog- 
nition and admiration of the performance as a 
whole. The book is like a report, a balance- 
sheet of what has been achieved, it marks the 
conclusion of a period of research, and from this 
I hope a new period of successful research may 
begin. 



UNPUBLISHED CASSONE PANELS— IV 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 



N Umbro-Sienese artist of some in- 
terest to the student of Cassone 
panels is Matteo Balducci. A few 
facts referring to his life were strung 
, together already by Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle' ; a contact with Pinturicchio, 




which is evident from Balducci 's art, is con- 
lirmed by his appearance as a witness to a record 
of 150Q; in 1517, he was apprenticed at Siena to 
Sodoma for six years, an influence of the latter's 

1 Crowe and Cavalcaselle, History of Painting in Italy, 
2nd ed. (Murray), vol. V, pp. 420-1. 



18 




(D 

a 

CI, 

0) 

C 

o 

m 
tn 

CS 

U 

•T3 
D 

J2 

.22 

3 

;3 
& 

d 



style being, on the other hand, scarcely notice- 
able in Balducci's paintings; and as late as 1550 
and 1553 we find him as municipal councillor in 
Citta della Pieve, the birthplace of Perugino. 
The short list of works, attributable to Balducci, 
published by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, has since 
been considerably extended ; the exhibition of 
Sienese paintings at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club in 1904 brought to wider notice what is 
perhaps his most attractive work, the delightful 
tondo with Diana and AcUcon belonging to 
the Earl of Crawford^ ; Mr. Berenson, in the last 
edition of his Central Italian Painters, gives a 
fairly long series of works by Balducci,' and of 
his Cassone panels a few — including the pretty 
Flight of Clcelia in the Morelli collection at Ber- 
gamo — are reproduced by Dr. Schubring.* 

Of a series of four decorative panels by Bal- 
ducci, three now in the collection of Mr. W. H. 
Woodward, and here reproduced by his kind 
permission [Plate], are new to art litera- 
ture.' The series was originally one of allego- 
ries of the four seasons, the description of each 
being stated in Latin on a tablet at the bottom 
of the panel. Spring is symbolised by a 
maiden in a light, flowing dress, fluttering in 
the wind, who, crowned with a wreath of 
flowers, and holding a bunch of sprigs in her 
hand, stands in a garden full of blossoms. 
Summer is a young, nude woman, seen in the 
foreground of a landscape, where beyond a 
cornfield — whence she has just got a handful of 
gleanings — appears the quiet surface of a river 
or lake, glistening in the moonlight : for the 
scene takes place at night, and it need not be 
emphasised how rare it is to find such an effect 
of light in the work of one who still ranks as a 
" Primitive." An influence of Beccafumi's 



2 Reproduced in the Illustrated Catalogue of the above ex- 
hibition, pi. XL. 

3 Berenson, Central Italian Painters (1900), p. 137 sqq. 

* Schubring, Cassoni, plates CXX, CXXL My view of the 
authorship of No. 516 (Rouen), pi. CXX, I have stated in the 
first article of this series (February, 1922, p. 75). 

* I talce this opportunity of rectifying a statement by Dr. 
Schubring ; The picture of the Story 0/ Camilla, by Matteo 
di Giovanni, reproduced by him on plate CX, No. 471, as in 
the Metropolitan Museum of New York, is now in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Woodward. 



dusky scheme of illumination can perhaps be 
traced on this point. The personification of 
Autumn is a semi-nude youth, enthroned, with 
a staff twined round with a vine for a sceptre, 
under a bower covered with vines weighted 
down by grapes. (There is probably some sym- 
bolism in the way in which the cloak terminates 
abruptly half-way across the body, one foot 
being shoed and the other not ; but the meaning 
of this escapes me unless indeed it be an allusion 
to the way in which autumn intervenes between 
the heat of summer and the cold of winter.) 
Whether the panel of Winter still exists is an 
open question — in fact, it was from a different 
source and at a different period that Summer got 
re-united in Mr. Woodward's collection to 
Spring and Autumn; so the possibility of the 
fourth panel yet being traced is not to be ex- 
cluded. 

That Matteo Balducci should be recognised 
as the author of these charming idyllic compo- 
sitions — in which the tradition of the Mediseval 
Calendar illuminations is still fully alive — 
seems to me evident from a comparison of the 
types of face and the treatment of the landscape 
with what we find, for instance, in Lord Craw- 
ford's Diana and ActcBon and The Flight of 
Clcelia in the Morelli collection. Originally the 
four tondos were perhaps meant to decorate the 
walls of a room, rather than the ends of a pair 
of cassoni. Visitors to the Casino Rospigliosi 
in Rome will recollect the way in which, in the 
Hall of Guide's Aurora, the four seasons are 
depicted by Paul Brill at the ends of the friezes 
of the two long walls : a much later instance, 
of course, but perhaps not devoid of importance 
as a parallel. I cannot recollect any case of 
allegories of the seasons decorating a Cassone, 
though Dr. Schubring ° refers to carved alle- 
gories of the months on Cinquecento Cassoni. 
On the whole, Quattrocento allegories of the 
seasons do not occur very frequently. There is, 
of course, Francesco Cossa's superb Autumn 
(or October) at Berlin — a life-size figure — but the 
context to which it belonged has yet to be deter- 
mined accurately. 

s Schubring, loc. cit., p. 208. 



A NEW WORK BY NICOLA PELLIPARIO AT SOUTH 



KENSINGTON 
BY BERNARD 



RACKHAM 



MONGST the ceramic painters of 
Europe the Italian maiolica potters 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies will be generally admitted to 
hold the foremost rank. Their work 
as a body of craftsmen stands at an extraordi- 
narily high average level, and some half-dozen 




amongst them may be allowed the title of artist 
without fear that the claim will be seriously dis- 
puted. A leading place, if not the first place, 
amongst these belongs to Nicola Pellipario, also 
known as Nicola da Urbino, the founder of the 
Fontana workshop. 
The name of this artist has long been familiar 



21 



in ceramic literature, and his identity as the 
painter of two celebrated services, one in the 
Correr Museum at Venice, the other, bearing 
the arms and imprese of Isabella d'Este, distri- 
buted in various places. These two services are 
generally admitted to represent the earliest work 
of Nicola, executed some few years before the 
first of his two dated works, the plate of 1521, 
with a figure of King David, in the Basilewski 
Collection at Petrograd.' We may place at a 
slightly later date than the Correr service — about 
1520 — another heraldic service, of which a plate 
with the subject of Perseus and Andromeda 
[Plate I, a] is one of the most beautiful ex- 
amples of maiolica in the Salting Collection at 
South Kensington (No. 798). This plate bears 
an escutcheon charged on a blue field with a 
bend or between three awls and in chief the label 
with fleurs-de-lys of Anjou ; the identification of 
this very distinctive blazon has so far evaded 
search.- The shield is hung from the branches of 
a tree, a device frequently adopted by Nicola 
which finds its parallel in the tondo by Sodoma 
lately acquired by the Louvre,^ Love and Chas- 
tity, where a shield and quiver are similarly sus- 
pended. The chief elements in the design on 
the plate are derived from the woodcut of Per- 
seus and Andromeda in the edition of the 
Metamorphoses of Ovid printed by Giovanni 
Rosso for Lucantonio Giunta at Venice in 1497." 
The painter has modified only slightly the 
figures of Andromeda (whose posture is re- 
versed) and the gorgon, which is represented in 
the form of a mediaeval dragon. The diver- 
gence from the original in the figure of Perseus 
is more conspicuous, but the derivation is still 
clearly recognisable. The figure of Andromeda is 
repeated again with little alteration, as Echo in 
the Correr plate depicting Narcissus and Echo 
[Plate II, c] ; this print appears to have escaped 
the observation of the late Henry Wallis, who, 
in his scholarly monograph'^ on the service sug- 
gests that the composition may have been the 
fruit of Nicola's own invention. It is true that 
the Echo and Andromeda of Nicola are vastly 
more skilful in treatment than the crude if vigor- 
ous prototype I have argued for them, but the 
Andromeda leaves little room for doubt as to 
their derivation. 

1 Figured in Delange, Recueil de faiences italiennes, pi. 55. 

2 My colleague Mr. A. Van de Put has kindly assisted 
me in this matter ; though his researches have proved fruit- 
less I am none the less indebted to him. 

3 See Les accroissements des musses nalionaux fran^ais—- 
Le Musee du Louvre depiiis 1914. igig, pi. 14. 

^ This cut has been followed in another maiolica plate with 
the same subject belonging to Sir Otto Beit, K.C.M.G. 
{Catalogue 0/ the collection of pottery and porcelain in the 
possession of Mr. Otto Beit, 1916, pi. XXIVa) ; it is of Ur- 
bino origin, probably one of the less careful works of Fran- 
cesco Xanto, with lustre added at Gubbio. 

5 Seventeen plates by Nicola Fontana da Urbino at the 
Correr Museum, Venice, a study in early 16th century maio- 
lica, 1905. 



A second plate [Plate I, b] from the same ser- 
vice as the Andromeda plate, lately sold at auc- 
tion in London,** was purchased by Mr. Henry 
Oppenheimer, who very generously presented it, 
through the National Art Collections Fund, to 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. The plate 
had once before been exhibited at South Ken- 
sington as a contribution from its then owner, 
Mr. G. H. Morland. It was not, however, then 
recognised as the work of the same artist as the 
Correr and Este services.' Its subject is the 
story of Callisto, the nymph of Diana, who in 
punishment for her amours with Jupiter was 
changed by Juno into a bear and attacked by 
the hounds of her own son. Areas. The star 
appearing below a spiral cumulus cloud of the 
type that is a characteristic feature of the skies 
of Nicola, refers to the translation of Callisto 
to the heavens by Jupiter, to form the constella- 
tion of the Great Bear. 

In the drawing of the animals Nicola was 
clearly inspired by the Florentine prints of 
hunting-scenes of the school of Maso 
Finiguerra, which were largely copied or 
adapted by maiolica-painters.* The landscape 
shows the luminous harmonies that give such 
an alluring charm to the earlier works of Nicola ; 
in none of them are the glowing layers of sunset 
cloud above the horizon rendered with more 
tender beauty. Henry Wallis suggested that 
Nicola's love of landscape and his colour treat- 
ment of it betray the influence of Giorgione. 
There is an undoubted similarity, and the skies 
of our painter remind one irresistibly of Gio- 
vanni Bellini, which is to say that in spirit he is 
essentially a Venetian ; but we must seek for an 
immediate source of inspiration more readily 
accessible to him, and we shall find it in the 
engravings of Diirer. It is tempting to discover 
analogies between pottery painting and the 
major arts, but it must be remembered that the 
maiolicari were craftsmen of humble preten- 
sions, generally content to follow the guidance 
of designs that could be brought within the 
walls of their own workshops. Hence it is rare 
to find them copying sculpture or fresco-paint- 
ing except through the medium of engravings; 
the St. George of Donatello and the frescoes of 
Perugino are the only instances known to me. 
In the landscapes of Nicola, the distant lakes 
with clustered trees reflected along their margin, 
the wooded hills with turreted castles and 
gabled houses, which are so constant a feature, 



"i Illustrated in Messrs. Sotheby's sale catalogue for Febru- 
ary 3rd, 1922, lot 234. The relationship of the two plates 
was first recognised by Mr. J. B. Caldecott. 

' See J. C. Robinson, Catalogue of the special exhibition 
of works of art at the South Kensington Museum, 1862, 
p. 413, No. 5212. 

8 Compare my article in the Burlinoton Magazine, vol. 
XXIII (July, 1913), Sources of design in Italian maiolica, 
p. 196. 



22 




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are all derived from the German master.' The 
very distinctive trunl^s of foreground trees, as 
on the Andromeda and Callisto plates, indicate 
that Nicola was familiar also with the prints of 
the monogrammist I.B. with the Bird, himself 
admittedly an imitator of Diirer.'" 

The service in the Correr Museum is the sub- 
ject of a thorough examination in the mono- 
graph by Henry Wallis to which I have already 
referred. His critical acumen is proved not only 
in his fine appreciation of the artistic qualities of 
the paintings, but also by his ingenuity in 
identifying the sources of their leading motives. 
Many of the compositions are traced to the 
Venetian Metamorphoses of 1497, from which 
Nicola took his Andromeda, others to the 
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili published at Venice 
in 1499, and one to a Florentine woodcut illus- 
trating the poetical romance of Ottinello and 
Giulia. The subjects of two of the plates in 
the service still remain to be identified. 

The best-known plate of the set [Plate H, e] 
represents Solomon kneeling before an idol 
which stands on a pedestal before an arched 
niche;" the numerals 1482 inscribed on the base 
of one of the columns caused much confusion in 
the earlier literature of the subject. As Wallis 
pointed out, the inscription, so far from being the 
date of the maiolica painting, is not even that of 
the woodcut, in the Hypnerotomachia, which be- 
yond all doubt the painter had in mind in com- 
posing the design ; the cut in question [Plate 
n, f] bears no date. The numerals must there- 
fore be credited to a wayward fancy of the 
painter, as also the meaningless lettering on the 
corresponding base of the arcade. 

Wallis saw in the idol which is the object of 
Solomon's obeisance a reflection of a Florentine 
type of the youthful St. John the Baptist. 
Whilst some such reminiscence may have been 

" Compare especially the copperplate Meereswunder and the 
woodcuts of Samson and the Lion and The Knight in a Land- 
scape. 

'" P. Kristeller, Kupferstich und Hohschnitt in vier Jahr- 
htinderten, 1921, p. 152. The Diana and Actccon of I. B. was 
followed by Maestro Giorgio in the great Gubbio dish in the 
Wallace Collection. 

11 I have to thank my friend Mr. Harold Wallis for his 
kind permission to reproduce his father's drawings of this and 
the Echo plate. 



in the painter's mind, it appears to me that his 
immediate source for this detail is to be recog- 
nised in the youth holding a standard in the 
engraving by Marcantonio known from the most 
striking figure in it as L'homme aux deux 
trompettes.^^ A glance at the reproduction 
[Plate H, d] shows that not only the statue but 
also the enclosing archway (a feature absent 
from the Poliphilus woodcut) has been taken 
from this engraving. Repetitions of the old 
man in conversation with the youth are discern- 
able in details of both the bearded figures to the 
right on Nicola's plate. The vase-shaped pedes- 
tal of the idol, with its elaborate reliefs, was 
recognised by Wallis as a borrowing from the 
illustration in the 1497 Ovid [Plate H, g] of the 
death of Achilles. It has been repeated with 
slight variations in a Sacrifice to Diana on a 
later dish, in the British Museum, bearing the 
signature " Nicola da V." The statue to which 
Wallis refers in the dish in the Basilewsky Col- 
lection with the subject of Marcus Curtius is 
another repetition of the youth in Marcantonio's 
engraving." 

Another armorial service of about the same 
date as that comprising the Andromeda and 
Calliope plates is distinguished by a shield bear- 
ing a charge, again unidentified, of a white flag 
on a ladder, the field azure. A large dish be- 
longing to it, depicting Apollo and Midas, is in 
the British Museum. This is to a large extent a 
repetition of Nicola's dish with the same subject 
in the Correr service, a woodcut in the 1497 Ovid 
being the source of motives for both. Another 
plate of this service, formerly in the Castellani 
Collection, is in the Metropolitan Museum, New 
York.'* Its subject, the death of Achilles, 
based on another cut in the Ovid, shows the 
pedestal for the statute used in the Correr Solo- 
mon dish, but with diflferent sculptured details. 

12 This engraving served as model for another maiolica 
painting, a plate of unestablished origin in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum (Salting Collection, No. 753). 

13 See A. Darcel and A. Basilewsky, La Collection Basi- 
lewsky, Catalogue raisonni, Paris, 1874, pi. XLV. 

i< Illustrated in Catalogue of the collection of pottery, por- 
celain and faience, by C. Chatfield Pier, 2141), but authorship 
not recognised and date given as late as 1540-4S. .Another 
dish of this service with Sacrifice scene, in Muscle Cluny, Pari.s. 



(To be continued.) 



THE PRUD'HON EXHIBITION IN PARIS 
BY JEAN GUIFFREY 



HIS exhibition ' was opened ju.st 
before the centenary of the artist's 
death, and at a moment that shows 
that the many faithful friends who 
surrounded Prud'hon during his life- 
time have been replaced in our own day by a 
large circle of passionate admirers. Prud'hon 

' .\t the Palais dcs Beaux-Arts, Paris. Organised by M. 
Henry I-apauze, M. Fauchier Magnan, and M. Groncowski. 




occupies an exceptional place in French art. He 
came at the moment when the French tradition 
in favour of gradual change was broken, and 
when a revolution took place in art with the 
same violence as in society. Like the majority 
of the artists of his time, Prud'hon accepted the 
the new political ideals with enthusiasm, but 
remained faithful to the old order in art. As 
David loved to glorify the heroes of Rome and 



27 



Sparta, Prud'hon loved to retrace the most 
splendid fables of Greece. In preferring Leon- 
ardo to Raphael, he was audacious in his genera- 
tion. He did not know Greece; he had never 
seen those terracotta figures we all admire 
to-day ; but he had astonishing intuition, curi- 
ously associated with that simple predilection 
of his for graceful and smiling young women 
clad in filmy drapery. He did not attempt, 
like David, to astonish his contemporaries by 
the accuracy and elaboration of his reconsti- 
tution of the past in details of dress, arms and 
accessories, but attempted to reflect the Greek 
outlook with greater truth by his favourite 
practice of depicting the figure veiled in long 
thin drapery. Using such subjects as episodes 
in the life of Psyche, Venus, etc., according to 
the practice of his predecessors, particularly 
those of the eighteenth century, he managed to 
give a new translation of the old stories. Through 
him, if it had not been for David, the transition 
from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century 
would have been accomplished without blows, as 
gently as that from the seventeenth to the eigh- 
teenth. He was still so close to his predecessors 
that in the last rearrangement of the Louvre his 
works were placed, I believe with almost unani- 
mous approval, among the eighteenth century 
pictures, with which they appeared to be more in 
accord than with the work of David and his 
followers, though Proud'hon's art belongs to the 
nineteenth century rather than to the eighteenth, 
and his technique is nearer to G^ricault than to 
Boucher. 

Though the Louvre possesses Prud'hon's 
principal pictures, those which, with the Venus 
and Adonis of the Wallace Collection, mark the 
important period of his work, the organisers of the 
present exhibition have succeeded in collecting 
some very important works as well as a number 
of delicate sketches, several good portraits, and 
a long series of admirable drawings. One can 
see there the first and the last pictures which 
Prud'hon painted. The former is a hatter's 
sign, clumsily painted for some friend of the 
boy's father, a worthy stonecutter of the little 
village of Cluny. The latter depicts the soul in 
the form of a gigantic winged woman, soaring 
into the sky, while across the earth below a 
serpent and a mass of stormy water are shown — 
an allusion to the ardent desire of the unfor- 
tunate artist to leave the earth where he had suf- 
fered so much and where he had to spend his 
last months in the despair of knowing that he 
had perhaps been the involuntary cause of the 
suicide of his pupil and friend, Mile. Mayer. 
The picture remains unfinished, and in spite of 
its moving subject cannot be considered one of 
his best works. 

However, the exhibition contains two master- 



pieces, Venus au Bain [Plate I, b] and ZSphyr 
qui se balance. He repeatedly sought a suitable 
composition for the former picture, which is un- 
finished and of which the exact date is unknown, 
though it can be placed between 1810 and 1814. 
He first represented the goddess standing, ac- 
companied by cupids, and preparing to enter 
the water. Then he stopped and began to re- 
paint her sitting on the grassy bank, surrounded 
by cupids, leaning the upper part of her body 
towards its reflection in the water. The torso 
resembles a Greek marble, and the whole work 
has considerable grace and nobility. If the 
composition of Vinus au Bain progressed by 
slow stages marked by drawings and sketches, 
the same cannot be said of the Zephyr, shown 
swinging himself from the branches of a forest 
tree. Nevertheless the figure in this example 
is modelled with the greatest care. The Louvre 
owns a preliminary sketch in monochrome of 
the picture,^ which was shown in the Salon of 
1814, two years after the Venus and Adonis of 
the Wallace Collection. It marks the end of the 
most brilliant period of Prud'hon's career, who, 
with the fall of Napoleon lost some of his best 
supporters. 

Prud'hon's sketches have generally retained 
a fresher, more harmonious colour than his 
pictures, the shadows of which have turned 
black owing to the use of too much bitumen. 
Several very charming ones are shown in the 
exhibition. We must stop before a sketch for 
the celebrated Louvre picture Justice and Divine 
Vengeance pursuing Crime, in which the land- 
scape is larger than in the picture, thus lending 
the figures a life and movement, almost com- 
parable to a romantic work by Delacroix. A 
monochrome of Love and Hymen in its good 
composition and harmonious colour is reminis- 
cent of an ancient cameo. The sketch for a 
ceiling in the Louvre never carried out has a 
rare quality of its own. It depicts Minerva lead- 
ing the Spirit of Painting to Immortality. 
Another sketch of a ceiling for the Louvre which 
was carried out and exists to the present day, 
represents Study guiding the effort of Genius, 
is held by Edmond de Goncourt to be one of 
the best of Prud'hon's works. We must re- 
mark on an excellent sketch, unfortunately 
rather blackened, of the Venus and Adonis 
[Plate II, d] and another of Joseph fleeing 
from Potiphar's wife, besides others of the 
Creation, the Punishment of Adam and Eve, 
etc. 

Among the excellent selection of portraits is 
that of the charming Mme. Copia, who could 
not have failed to please Prud'hon since she 
shows the captivating smile of Mile. Mayer, 
although the portrait was painted at a 
- Burlington Magazine, vol. XXXVII, p. 156. 



28 




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time— the last years of the eighteenth 
century — when Prud'hon had not made 
the acquaintance of that lady, who was 
still studying under Greuze. Other out- 
standing portraits are those of Count Sommariva 
(kindly lent by the Brera Gallery, Milan), rather 
in the English manner; of Talleyrand, another 
patron of Prud'hon's, who made several portraits 
of him ; of the Duchesse de Courlande and of 
other pretty women of the period — Mine. Barbie 
Walbonne, Mme. Piande St. Gilles, Mme. 
Antoine Passy, etc. A special mention is due to 
the sketches and drawings for the portrait of the 
Empress Josephine at the Louvre and for the un- 
achieved one of Mme. Dufresne. 

There are nearly two hundred drawings on the 
walls, many of very high quality. Every variety 
is represented; scenes sacred and profane, alle- 
gories and familiar subjects, portraits and furni- 
ture; for the Exhibition includes almost all 
Prud'hon's drawings for the marvellous furni- 

VANESSA BELL 

BY WALTER SICKERT 

■ OOR David Scott, of Edinburgh, 
,the brother of William Bell Scott, 
Isaid, on his deathbed in 1849, " It 
'takes a long time to know how to 
Hive and work." " The ultimate aim 
of criticism," said Coleridge, " is much more 
to establish the principles of writing than to fur- 
nish rules how to pass judgment on what has 
been written by others." This quotation, which 
I owe to Arthur Symons, embodies exactly my 
conception of the function of criticism, though 
I only read it since the Derby, which shows how 
wise it is to wait. A great deal has been written, 
and I doubt if they will leave off, about 
" woman," with a capital W, in art, of course 
with a capital A. 

Woman, then (and this is no toast) has this 
unsporting advantage over man, in her work, 
that she is generally free from the more piffling 
forms of dissipation, in which the lords of crea- 
tion tend to waste a portion of their valuable 
time and energy. I have never, for instance, 
met a woman who thought that her status as a 
painter would be, in some occult way, raised by 
" being seen " at the Caf6 Royal, or who 
would hit upon the ingenuous scheme of spend- 
ing, at the beginning of her career, say, seven 
of her best years, in advertising what the adver- 
tisement has left her no time to produce. 

We may believe, then, in the wake of the 
poet, that when a woman has {he misfortune to 
have art in her, it tends to be her whole exist- 
ence. Physiology would teach us to expert 
maternal passion, and sequence bordering on the 
fixed idea, with, perhaps, a touch of intolerance. 



ture made for Marie Louise and presented by 
the Municipality of Paris on her marriage to 
Napoleon in 1810. Later, in Parma, this furni- 
ture was most barbarously destroyed to obtain the 
precious metals with which it was ornamented. 
One piece only survived, the cradle of Napoleon's 
son presented by the town of Paris at his birth, 
and made after Prud'hon's design. It is kept in 
Vienna and the Austrian Government were kind 
enough to send it to the Exhibition. 

One cannot praise enough the charming draw- 
ings of Dancers with tambourines and triangles 
[Plate I, a, c], or those of Apollo and the Muses, 
the Naiads, Venus and Adonis, etc. The draw- 
ings constitute perhaps the most original and 
personal part of Prud'hon's work. In any case it 
is on them that his reputation will ultimately de- 
pend, for already his bitumen charged paintings 
are no more than shadows of their former selves. 
To our grandchildren they will hardly be visible 
at all. 



Of this paradise of England— for I go further 
than John of Gaunt — painting-pure cannot be 
said to be one of the hobbies. And probably 
for the very reason that it is a paradise. What 
should they care for art who are wakened by a 
housemaid with a face by Reynolds and a cap 
by Chaplin, who walk, completely dressed and 
booted, on pile carpets down staircases of sal- 
mon and antlers, varied perhaps by Gustave 
Dora's dream of Pilate's wife, to an English 
breakfast, and to days on lawns of ages, and 
nights at secular mahoganies. Art was invented, 
Sir Claude Phillips will bear me out, as a con- 
solation, and of consolation this island has no 
need. 

It is, curiously enough, generally in Liberal 
papers that I find such adjectives as " upright," 
accompanied by bewildering adverbs like 
" strenuously," as if the upright were not the 
normal position. There are trade papers that, 
month after month, deal out certificates of " sin- 
cerity " to anyone and everyone. But sincerity 
is nothing to write home about. Everybody in 
the Edgware Road is sincere. But to pursue 
painting-pure, in a country to which it is double- 
Dutch, certainly requires a passion which is 
rare. 

The more one knows of a subject, the less one 
inclines either to comparisons or to superlatives. 
It is not so far from the truth to say that, once 
an art is excellent, it becomes, in a sense, equal 
to all other things excellent; it is of the family. 
Vanessa Bell has been from the first a painter. 
Instinct and intelligence and a certain scholarly 
tact have made of her a good painter. The 



33 



medium bends beneath her like a horse that 
knows its rider. In the canvas called The 
Frosen Pond (Plate II, c) in the exhibition of 
her work in the Independent Gallery, the full 
resources of the medium in all its beauty have 
been called into requisition in a manner which 
is nothing less than masterly. She has given 
to her modern women carousing, in the exhibi- 
tion of the London group, a flower-like charm, 
with an afterthought of the barnacle. I have al- 
ways defended and admired, for their possi- 
bilities, the subjects of Jordaens in Flanders, of 
Bundy in England, and of Gaston Latouche in 
France. There is more to a feast than to the tiles 
and slates of the roofy school of Collioure and 
Fitzroy Street. The subject of painting is, per- 
haps, that it is not death. It is, perhaps, no- 
thing more. It is possible that I am rather 
specially qualified to praise and enjoy what I 
believe is now called the " binge " in art, as the 
reality has always been to me a thing from which 
I am temperamentally averse. 

It is not necessary, in the pages of the 
Burlington, to defend or justify such portraits 
as those of Mrs. N. and Mrs. X. as against the 
commissions that do, or do not {vide inter- 
views), satisfy the supergoose, as caller of the 
tune. Still, language is a game, perhaps as 
ancient, if not always as respectable as spil- 
likins, and, being given a near relation, let us 
say, who asked us, in all good faith, to find the 
difference between the current commission and 



the painting-pure, should we be hard put to, to 
do so? I think not. 

The difference between the both-eyes, both- 
ears, both-hands and both-feet school of, say, 
the statue of Irving, and the multy donahs with 
the quisby snitches that pullulate on the lustre 
teapots of the cadet grand-daughter of Emil Les- 
sore, is, that, from the former, all that takes the 
eye, and with it the heart, has been obediently 
eliminated. It is as Cerebos to kitchen salt. 
Cerebos is tidier and gives the waiters less 
trouble. Still, the reason for being of salt is, 
not tidiness, but savour. 

Something happens under accomplished 
fingers, when guided by passion, which makes 
of the painter a conduit for strange insights 
greater than, and outside himself, something 
which the pottering cheque-book of the super- 
goose can only baulk. It is love alone that 
clings to what is unique and unusual in its 
object, and makes, of what are called defects, a 
desiderium in the light of which all so-called 
beauties are decolorate. 

What a different generation we are, may be 
seen by the following quotations from the life of 
Romney . — 

Ophelia, with the flowers she had gathered in her hand, 
sitting on the branch of a tree, which was breaking under 
her, whilst the melancholy distraction visible in her lovely 
countenance accounts for the insensibility to her danger. 

And again (ibid.), 

" The Milkpail overturned by a She-goat anxious to ap- 
proach its Kid, which a Milk-girl is fondling," a happy and 
clever thing, was also left incomplete for want of a suitable 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORNAMENT FROM ARABIC 

SCRIPT — II 

BY ARCHIBALD H. CHRISTIE 




The bold, 
expressed 



LTHOUGH the weaver was early 
in the field, and distributed his 
efforts over a wide area, other 
craftsmen were at work at the pro- 
duction of calligraphic ornament, 
sharp brush-work of the potter 
his decoration in a kind of 
" short-hand," which, when applied to 
writing, exposed it to very drastic, accu- 
mulative chances and changes. Potters, like 
weavers, were not necessarily men of letters ; 
and in Spain in the fifteenth century they often 
used in their work a language and characters 
with which they were unfamiliar. The word 
^UJI (" health ") which occurs in the last de- 
sign of Fig. I, has, according to Seiior G. J. de 
Osma," undergone a strange transformation at 

11 " Los letreros ornamentales en le cerdmica morisca del 
siglo XV." Cultura Espanola, No. 2. M.-idrid, 1906. See 
also Leonard Williams, The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain. 
London, 1907. Vol 2, p. 161, and A. Van de Put Hispano- 
Moresque Ware of the fifteenth century. London, 1911. 



the hands of this bold crafts- 
man, who knows so well how 
to subordinate everything to 
decorative effect. Continu- 
ally repeated, with the omis- 
sion of the diacritical points, 
and the prolongation of the 
upstroke of the " y^," the 
word ultimately assumed the 
form seen in the lower 
band of ornament on the 
fourteenth century Spanish 
Drug-jar, in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, drawn in 
Fig. 7, a design of common 
occurrence in Spanish art of 
of this time. kig. 7. 

Perhaps enough has now been brought to- 
gether to indicate, at least, how one or two dis- 
tinct varieties of calligraphic ornament came into 
being. Incidentally some material has been 




34 




B^Thc Seine, by Vanessa Bell. Canvas, 26 cm. by 40 cm. (The Independent Gallery) 




C—The Frozen Pond, bv Vanessa Bell. Canvas, 75 cm. by 61 cm. (The Independent Gallery) 



Plate II. Vanessa Be 



gathered that may help us to identify as orna- 
ment of this type a number of examples which 
occur scattered in many kinds of art work made 
in Europe and elsewhere. It may not be pos- 
sible to demonstrate the actual lines of growth 
of these " sporadic " examples, for the links in 
their life-histories are as yet incomplete. The 
evidence already advanced indicates that the 
causes which produced calligraphic ornament 
were aliicays at work, wherever Arabic was being 
used by craftsmen. 



and the Spanish examples impossible. On the 
other hand its resemblance to a band of carved 
work on the wooden door of the church of La 
Voute Chilhac, b, is apparent. If the floral en- 
richment added by the illuminator is suppressed, 
and the upright strokes brought together, the 
designs are practically identical. If, as M. Noel 
Thiollier thinks^' the Chilhac door is the work of 
the master-carver of Le Puy, referred to 
in the first part of this article, the 
likeness of its unit to the central feature of 




IIG. 9. 

The design on the Spanish Drug-jar has 
brought us definitely to pure ornament. But 
fur the researches of Sefior de Osma, the origin 
of this pattern would be as obscure as are those 
of the examples given in Figs. 8 and 9, which 
occur in mediaeval art work of England and 
France. The repeated " lams " and " alifs " 
of these, and of the Spanish variety are not 
enough to bring them into close " specific " re- 
lationship ; this combination is a "generic*" 
characteristic common to a large group of these 
designs. It may, however, be worth while to 
compare these few examples, and to note some of 
their resemblances and differences. The first, in 
Fig. 8, A. is from the border of an initial letter in 
the Psalter of Isabelle of France, sister of St. 
Louis, one of the treasures of the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, acquired in 1919. This 
manuscript is dated " before a.d. izyn."^^ The 
appearance of this fully developed design at so 
early a date makes any connection between it 



the Le Puy border unit (Fig 3, a) 
is not without interest. If not 
actually from the same hand, 
these two doors are certainly of 
the same school and period, most 
. .. ., IP ~ir ~ir "I probably the middle of the twelfth 

' XJ UU 'JCJ {a) l/*J IaJ *^^"^"''>'- Continuing the same 
■ ^"^ Q vem 01 comparison, if a nourish 

in the unit of the Vich band 



F 

I'lG. 



1= S. C. CocUerell, The Psalter and Hours of Isabelle of 
France. London, 1905. 



design (Fig. i, c) is suppressed and the 
units rearranged, it becomes very like 
that of a border in an English manu- 
script Bible at Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, given in Fig. 8, c. Both examples 
date from the same time, the first half of the 
thirteenth century. The first design in Fig. g 
from the great Winchester Bible, written there 
late in the twelfth century, again recalls the 
decorated " lams" of the Le Puy border (Fig. 3, 
a), from which, or from another version of the 
same combination, the illuminator might easily 
have derived it, freely translating its form into 
pen-work. A pattern stamped upon the leather 
cover 01 a book bound for Henry, son of 
Louis VII of France, before a.d. 1146 (Fig. 9, 
b), is another early English example. It is from 
one of two volumes of the same date preserved 
in the Library of the Faculty of Medicine at 
Montpellier, which Mr. W. H. James Weale" 

13 L'architecture romane dans I'ancien diockse du Puy. 
Paris, 1900. p. 66. 

!■» Book bindings and Rubbings of Bindings in the National 
Art Library, South Kensington. London, 1894-98. Vol. » 
p. XXIII and Vol. 11 p. 82. 



37 



identified as having been bound in England, 
probably either at Winchester or Durham. Mr. 
Weale described the design as a " band of 
honeysuckle ornament," and remarks that both 
this band and the interlaced cablework that 
accompanies it " appear to be direct imitations 
of Oriental work." 

Some decorative borders derived from Arabic 
script occur on the altar retable of Westminster 
Abbey, now placed in one of the chapels ; these 
are shown in the last drawing of Fig. 9. In a 
note to the writer, Professor W. R. Lethaby 
says that they are " reduced to simple orna- 
ment, very like a crown," and he suggests that 
similar borders on early stained glass, still exist- 
ing in the Abbey, are also developments of 
Arabic characters. One of these, from the frag- 
ments of a thirteenth century " grisaille " win- 
dow,^'' is shown in c, Fig. 9, This appears to 
be an instance of an Arabic inscription becom- 
ing incorporated with a piece of contemporary 
ornament ; a particularly interesting case, for 
here the final stage is the pictorial symbol of 
kingship, a reversion of highly developed 
script to a pictograph. We have seen already 
how, when letters reach a certain stage of con- 
fusion, the designer's instinct for clearness 
begins to mould them into orderly forms, which 
tend to lose all trace of their origin. We may 
suspect that not a few examples of fully- 
developed calligraphic ornament took yet an- 
other step, and changed into the current designs 
of the time, that they resembled most closely, in 
much the same way that the incoherent, 
" scribbled " units of the fifteenth century bor- 
ders turned towards Lombardic letters. It is 
dangerous to attempt definitely to cite instances 
of this transformation ; for although we may 
note tendencies in unstable, novel designs to 
take on usual forms, it is obviously difficult to 
identify patterns that have become merged into 
one of the main streams of design, however 
clearly their separate courses in tributory chan- 
nels may be traced to remote sources. Two 
examples, however, are submitted, with all re- 
servations (Fig. 10). They are from a late thir- 
teenth century silk fabric, woven in Sicily, now 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Although 
found in positions in the design corresponding 
to those in which Arabic inscriptions occur in 
other examples of the same type, they may have 
no connection whatever with calligraphic orna- 
ment ; but their resemblance to certain patterns 
that may clearly be shown to have this origin 
are suggestive. Both patterns are, of course, 
common in medieval art. 

With the scanty clues available it is hopeless 

'= W. R. Lethaby, Westminster Abhey and the King's 
Craftsmen. London, 1906. p. 300. Fig. 8, c, is also taken 
from this work. 



to attempt to trace the sources of the English 
and French examples discussed. The process 
of absorption of Arabic script into Western art, 
working in other crafts on lines similar to those 
indicated by the textile examples already cited, 
must have developed forms of calligraphic orna- 
ment before the Italian weaver had worked out 
his contribution. The life-histories of some 
examples may yet come to light in the products 
of arts, which, like tooled leather work, had 
ancient Oriental developments now known 
mainly by their reflections in Western art. The 
English book stamp is a clear case in point; its 
patterns were evidently derived from the cover 
of an Arabic manuscript. 

That many of the developments of calligraphic 
designs hitherto noticed have taken place in 
countries where Christian and Muhammadan 
craftsmen were working in close touch with each 
other, is worthy of note ; for it may be that this 
circumstance has some bearing on their genesis. 
It must not, however, be inferred that examples 
from countries where Arabic was in common 
use are lacking. On the rich inlaid metal work 
of Mesopotamia, according to Professor Stanlev 
Lane-Poole'" " occasionally a meaningless in- 
scription, consisting of a few decorated letters, 
frequently repeated, takes the place of a genuine 
inscription, and so far is this from being an 
indication of late date (though it is perhaps more 
common on late work) that it is found on objects 
which undoubtedly belong to the thirteenth cen- 
tury." An example of this use of lettering is 
given in Fig. ii, from a medallion on an inlaid 
salver in the British Museum, which bears the 
two-headed eagle badge of .the Amir Baisari, an 
Egyptian noble who died a.d. 1298. The circu- 
lar border of this medallion is divided into six 
equal spaces, in each of which a line of lettering 
is inlaid.'' One of these is given complete at a, 
the rest are similar but have different endings as 
at B, c and D. Oriental ceramic art provides 
other examples. The potters of Rhages, in Per- 
sia, who produced finely-decorated wares before 
the fall of that city early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, anticipated their Spanish fellow craftsmen 
with a pattern, of which an example is given at 
E, in the same figure. This is from a painted 
tile of about a.d. 1200. The two following 
designs, f and G, which Professor Sir 
Thomas Arnold has kindly communicated, 
are from minatures, daited a.d. 1307, in 
a Mesopotamian manuscript. It is plain 
that inscriptions of various kinds of Muhamma- 
dan art work in the thirteenth and fourteenth 



1' The Arts of the Saracens in Egypt. London, 1886. p. 
183. 

1' The ground of these little panels is covered with inlaid 
" floral scrolls," which are omitted in the drawing, as they 
are indistinct in the photograph from which this is taken. 
Perhaps these scrolls are the remains of other .Vabic letters? 



■i>^ 



M 




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N! S 




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j: Id 




a 




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CS 


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C3 




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3 


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JD 


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u 


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O 




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c 


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s 


^? 


o 

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-i " 


c 


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D 


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aj 


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r~ c3 


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centuries were undergoing changes similar to 
those occurring in Europe at this time. As 
Oriental metal-work, pottery, and books were 
imported into the West, it is quite possible that 
some calligraphic ornament was either taken 
over, ready made, from objects such as these, or 
adapted locally from imported inscriptions, and 
enriched with secondary decoration of foreign 
fashion. 

The borders of certain Oriental rugs are deco- 
rated with formal interlaced work, which is 
usually described as derived from Arabic script. 
Two examples of this ornament are shown in 
Fig. 12, A and c, both from rugs in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. The first, of Turkish 
make, from Asia Minor, is of sixteenth or seven- 
teenth century date ; the second Caucasian, of the 
eighteenth century. Inscribed borders are found 
on rugs of early times; the three oldest known, 
probably made in the early part of the thirteenth 
century, now in a mosque at Konieh, have leg- 
ible inscriptions in their borders, and this tradi- 
tion has survived in Persian rugs down to our 
own days. That these borders of lettering 
underwent changes, and became formalised, we 
know from the example drawn in Fig. 3, b. But 
patterns so like these interlaced borders that they 
seem to originate from a common source, occur 
widely distributed in Muhammadan art, going 
back to a date at least as early as the Konieh 
rugs. A specimen (Fig. 12, b), from the painted 
ceiling of a house in Cairo, is an eighteenth cen- 
tury example, and an interesting early one from 
a thirteenth century frieze of inlaid tile-work, in 
a mosque at Konieh, is drawn at d, in the same 
figure. If we compare these with the inscription 
of the Spanish silk, given in Fig. i, d, their like- 
ness to the interlaced decoration of the latter is 
striking. In all probability the rug border pat- 
terns are interlaced flourishes of calligraphv 
which have taken on a new lease of life as inde- 
pendent ornament, after the formalization or 
disappearance of their parent lettering. Some of 
the examples of English and French calligraphic 
ornament, given above, may also have originated 
in this way. 

A PORTRAIT BY LAVINIA 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 

LONGSIDE of the ambitious sub- 
ject pictures of the Bolognese 
masters of the late sixteenth and 
early seventeenth centuries, the por- 
traits of the same school and period 
have inevitrifilv attracted less attention. At the 
Mostra del RUratto held at Florence in igii, 
this province of the Bolognese School was 
plentifully represented and seen to considerable 
advantage; but no attempt has so far been made 




Arabic inscriptions in early Muhammadan 
work are written in the formal, square " Kufic " 
character, which was in common use during the 
first centuries of Muhammadanism. As the 
flowing " Naskhi " script came more and more 
into general use, the Kufic hand, which differs 
from it in many details, may have presented 
difficulties to those not versed in its niceties, 
similar to those which " black letter " occasions 
to readers of modern Roman type, and these 
difficulties were perhaps an additional factor in 
the production of caligraphic ornament. The 
Kufic character, however, long after it had been 
supplanted by Naskhi for ordinary purposes, re- 
mained in use for formal inscriptions, in much 
the same way that Gothic letters are still the 
fashion in some forms of Western monumental 
work. The importance of this change of charac- 
ter must neither be overlooked nor over-rated. 

In putting together these notes the writer has 
had, under stress of circumstances, to rely almost 
wholly upon the material that came to hand in 
the few books and photographs in his own pos- 
session ; access to wider fields of study might 
modify the impressions gained. The interest of 
the question involved, the evolution of a highly 
developed script — surely the most convincing 
type of " information giving " element of deco- 
ration that could be found — until, bereft of its 
informative use, it attains an honourable place 
as pure ornament on some of the masterwork of 
mediaeval art, cannot fail to appeal to the imagi- 
nation. And if he sees this script going 
through all kinds of strange performances 
in its endeavour to earn a precarious livelihood 
under changing conditions, standing on its head, 
changing into the semblance of characters of an- 
other language, reverting to a form of primitive 
picture writing, pairing and begetting a strange 
progeny, and literally gaining its ends by hook 
or by crook, he trusts he will not be accused of 
exercising, as well as appealing to, his imagina- 
tion.'* 

■8 Grateful acknowledgments are due to Professor Sir 
Thomas Arnold, for translating Arabic, and to Mr. S. C. 
Cockerel], Mr. A. F. Kendrick, Professor W. R. Lethaby, 
and Mr. G. H. Palmer for kind help in various ways. 

FONT ANA 



to deal with it comprehensively, great as its in- 
terest both historically and aestheticallv un- 
doubtedly is. 

A Bolognese artist of the time about 1600, 
who won special fame as a portrait painter, and 
whose work at the present moment is but little 
known, is a woman, Lavinia Fontana. Born in 
1552, the daughter of the painter Prospero Fon- 
tana, she was trained under her father, and also 
felt the influence of the Carracci, the senior of 



4' 



whom, Lodovico, was slightly younger than 
herself and first studied under her father. Be- 
fore 1579 she married Giovanni Paolo Zappi, a 
member of a wealthy Imola family, who had 
also been Prospero Fontana's pupil, and is said 
frequently to have painted the draperies in La- 
vinia's pictures. From Bologna, the fame of 
Lavinia soon reached Rome, where she settled 
in 1600, under the pontificate of Clement VIII, 
and it was at Rome she died, in 1614. Her life 
may be read, set forth with greater or smaller 
circumstance, in Malvasia (1678), Baglione 
(1642) and the interesting collection of artists' 
biographies written about 162 1 by Giulio Man- 
cini, phvsician to Pope Urban VIII, and to this 
day' existing in MS. only. In Rome she was 
apparently one of the most successful and 
fashionable portrait painters of her day— in 
Baglione's words, " ritrasse la maggior parte 
delle Dame di Roma, e spetialmente le Signore 
Principesse, e anche molti Signori Principi, e 
Cardinali, onde gran fama, e credito ne acquist6, 
e per esser'una Donna, in questa sorte di pittura 
assai bene si portava." Mancini also relates 
how she painted the portraits of the Persian 
Ambassador in Rome and of the Shah of Persia 
from a miniature— the view of the Persian diplo- 
matist, " huomo molto discreto et giuditioso " 
being that " fra le cose che haveva visto in 
Europa, quella della Signora Lavinia gli pare- 
va delle piij singolari "; he also expressed his 
admiration for her work in a madrigal in Per- 

SOME UNKNOWN WORKS BY 
BY AUGUST L. MAYER 

rHE oeuvre of Francisco de Zur- 
baran, which his two most recent 
biographers, Cascales y Mufioz and 
Hugo Kehrer have attempted to de- 

termine is more comprehensive 

than these two authors assume. Apart from the 
long-lost large painting, The Apostle St. James 
in the Moorish Fight, which was recently trans- 
ferred from English ownership to the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York, and which can indubit- 
ably be identified as the work which was once in 
the collection of Louis-Philippe, I want only to 
refer here to one or two quite outstanding works 
by the Spanish master. 

The National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin 
owns a large picture of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion [Plate I, a], till now attributed to the 
Sevillan painter, Juan de Valdes-Leal. As a 
matter of fact the picture has no relation what- 
ever to that master; it is a late work of Zur- 
baran, scarcely earlier than 1640. Like all the 
works of the artist's last period, it shows dis- 
tinct traces of Murillo's influence which has 
destroyed Zurbaran's original harsh and austere 



sian.' A pity that there should be so few in- 
stances known of similar early exchanges of 
artistic opinion between East and West. 

The National Gallery of Ireland possesses an 
important example of the art of Lavinia Fon- 
tana, a large portrait group of the Duke of Man- 
tua with his wife and family (No. 76). She is, 
however, not represented in any public gallery 
in London, and I am glad to have this oppor- 
tunity of drawing attention to an authentic clue 
to the style of an artist who cut a considerable 
figure at the time, a portrait belonging to Sir 
Lionel Earle, K.C.B., who kindly allows me to 
reproduce it [Plate]. The picture is signed 
in neat capitals below on the right " La- 
vinia Fontana de Zappis fac. MDLXXXI," and 
thus still belongs to the artist's Bolognese 
period. The sitter, persumably a lawyer, is re- 
presented in the act of writing a deed, some of 
the minute script of which can be deciphered; 
and it is interesting to notice how in style and 
mise-en-scene the picture still carries on the tra- 
dition, of which some of Pontormo's portraits 
mark an earlier stage, and the curious portrait of 
F. de Pisia, Papal Notary, by Andrea del 
Sarto's pupil, Jacopo del Conte, in Mr. R. H. 
Benson's collection, marks another. In these 
quiet, sober portraits of lawyers and scholars at 
work, the artistic formula of the early Cinque- 
cento had a much longer lease of life than is 
usually realised. 

1 Cf. Cod. Harl. 1672, ff. 2i6r., aiyr. 




ZURBARAN 



style and substituted for it a gentle and soft 
manner. The Dublin picture is very character- 
istic of this. In particular the figure to the left 
whose eyes are concealed by the Blessed Vir- 
gin's cloak merits special attention. It doubt- 
less represents Hope and is a companion figure 
to the Faith, whose symbol, the anchor, is shown. 
There is in the Morgan collection a charming 
picture [Plate II, b] of a child. A Girl ivith a 
Flower, dated 1646, described as by an un- 
known Spanish master. This picture, too, 
seems to me to be undoubtedly by Zurbaran, as 
also The Man in Armour (1.25x0.64 m.), which 
was put up for auction in the Dollfus sale in 
Paris as an unknown Spanish work. In this 
connection I should like to recall the delightful 
double portrait of two sisters which passed from 
the Ehrich Galleries in New York to an Ameri- 
can private collection a few years ago. This 
work does not only prove once more Zurbaran's 
unusual faculty for portrait painting, especially 
for the portraits of children, but of its particular 
type, it is among the finest work of the whole 
seventeenth century. 




B — Portrait of a Child ivilh a Floivcr, here idenlilied as by Zurbaran 
(Pierpont .Mi)rgan C(.)llerli(in) 



Canvas, 87.6 cm. l)y 66 cm. 



Plate II. Some L'nkiinwn W'oiks b\' Ziiri)aran 



REVIEWS 

Perspective as Applied to Pictures. Rex Vicat Cole. 

New Art Library. viii + 279 pp. Illust. (Seely, 
Service & Co.). 

This is a courageous and tolerably successful 
attempt to combine a simple statement of the 
theory of perspective with its practice, by assum- 
ing that the artist is before his subject and ex- 
plaining how the rules of perspective may then 
be applied. The book is specially notable for its 
treatment, not only of the towers, arches and 
pavements of the text books, but of the human 
iigure, clouds and foliage ; and for the numerous 
examples of the use of perspective by well-known 
painters. The discussion of the structure of 
different objects as a preliminary to their being 
drawn in perspective is also likely to be useful. 
Certainly, the student will realize from this book 
that perspective may be more than a barren geo- 
metrical exercise. But attention to practice has 
submerged theory, and the result is rather a 
collection of "tips" than a statement of principles 
with their application. The emphasis through- 
out is on lines rather than on planes, which 
appears to make for simplicity, but in the end 
leaves many difficulties unsolved. In short, the 
book is useful for the solution of concrete, fairly 
simple problems. But it will not give a student 
that mastery of principle which alone can raise 
perspective from being a cramping mechanism 
to a pov/erful aid in design and construction. As 
often happens, peptonizing a science has de- 
stroyed much of its value. w. G. c. 

Greek Vasi; Painting. By Ernst Buschor. Translated by 
G. C. Richards, with a Preface by Percy Gardner. 
180 pp. + 160 pi. (Chatto & Windus.) 25s. net. 

The original of this work (second German 
edition, Munich, 1915) is one of the most useful 
contributions to Classical Archaeology and, no 
less, to the general literature of art that has 
appeared for some time. In it, for the first time, 
we believe, in any language, we are presented 
with a complete survey of the development of 
Greek pottery from the earliest times to the 
period of decline in the fourth century B.C., 
written in a manner at once sufficiently lucid and 
untechnical to appeal to the beginner and ama- 
teur, and scholarly and original enough to make 
it of interest to the professed archaeologist. In 
addition, it is by far the best illustrated work of 
its kind of moderate size that has ever appeared. 
Unfortunately, the same degree of praise can- 
not be given to the translation. The language 
is often stilted, at times almost to grotesqueness, 
in the effort to reproduce the meaning of the 
original more exactly, whilst now and again the 
translator's choice of words sounds strange to 
anyone accustomed to the terms usually em- 
ployed by writers on the subject. None the less 
he has performed a real service to the many 
English art lovers unfamiliar with German, to 



whom this handsomely bound and boldly- 
printed book should serve as an admirable intro- 
duction to a fascinating topic. c. d. b. 

A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. 
By Sir Banister Fletcher. Sixth Edition. (Batsford.) 
£2 2S. net. 

More than sixteen years have passed since the 
fifth edition of Sir Banister Fletcher's well-known 
book appeared and was noticed in these columns. 
It was then a volume of some 730 pages with 
2,000 illustrations. In the new edition the pages 
have increased by nearly 200, and the illustrations 
by nearly 1,500. In its original form the book 
was a miracle of compression. That miracle is 
made still more miraculous now because the very 
considerable increase in the contents has been 
obtained without any great increase in bulk. To 
combine a technical handbook, a history and an 
encyclopaedia in one volume was the feat which 
Sir Banister Fletcher achieved in the previous 
edition. Now by the use of smaller illustrations 
and smaller type he has succeeded in amplifying 
and enriching each section of the work until it is 
as nearly complete as any piece of human work 
can well become. Whether it be Mycenae, 
Tiryus and Knossos, or the Baroque, each sec- 
tion of the book has been recast and enlarged, 
the increases for the most part being most lavish 
in the periods to which practising architects of 
to-day most frequently turn. The American sec- 
tion still remains brief, too brief perhaps, but the 
author having always an eye to the needs of the 
student has, perhaps, deliberately curtailed his 
notice of buildings which have not yet the ap- 
proval of time. Though primarily designed for 
professional and technical use, the compactness 
of the book, its clear plan, and its abundant sup- 
ply of carefully-chosen illustrations make it a 
fascinating possession for the layman and a 
delightful means of expanding and solidifying 
the architectural impressions of travel. Indeed 
both in matter and form it surpasses any other 
book of the kind which has hitherto been pro- 
duced either on the Continent or in America. 

C. J. H. 

English Goldsmiths and Their Marks. By Sir C. J. Jack- 
son, 2nd edition, 747 pp. + i pi. (Macinillan.) £-; 5s. 

A new edition of this valuable work is wel- 
come. It is largely a reprint of the former edi- 
tion, with the information relating to the mark- 
ing of gold and silver plate brought completely 
up to date. Some hundreds of new maker's 
names and marks are added, including some in- 
teresting classifications of provincial marks. 
The much-discussed Channel Islands' marks, 
hitherto ascribed to Ireland, form an interesting 
addition. For the first time are given the con- 
fusing marks of Calcutta and Jamaica, which 
suggest an English origin, but omitted is the 



45 



somewhat similar mark, which belongs to the 
same class, used in Portugal during the Penin- 
sular War. 

It must be admitted that the records of the 
marks on plate in this country have reached a 
very high standard, in the publications of 
Chaffers, Cripps and this author alone, yet the 
greatest care is still required in assigning a mark 
on plate to its proper category, as there are few 
pieces of plate, even unmarked, which cannot 
now be definitely assigned by their shape and 
workmanship, not only to a period, but to a place 
of origin. A mark given in the first edition of 
this work, as a probable Newcastle mark of 
1600-1625, is now definitely removed to Aber- 
deen, with other examples found on seal-top, 
lion-serjant and apostle spoons, disregarding the 
fact that such spoons cannot claim to have been 
made so far north. Surely the author has also 
made an error in attempting to assign the miss- 
ing London date-letter for the year 1478-9 to the 
spoon described on page 78. There are in exist- 
ence spoons bearing the Lombardic capital "A," 
but from its position on the spoon, this should 
be regarded as a maker's mark. The mark pur- 
porting to be " NI " is usually undecipherable, 
and is placed where the date-letter ought to be, 
while the leopard's head in the bowl represents 
the type used between 15 15 and 1543. Further, 
these spoons, judging by their shape, cannot 
pertam to so early a period as the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

Independent Gallery. — I do not know which 
is the more difficult, to convince a connoisseur 
that modern painting can be good, or to convince 
a young " modern " who is not very successful 
that connoisseurs know anything about art. It 
is distasteful to divide art into modern and old 
as there are no essential differences between two 
works of art except that they belong to 
different tendencies which are natural reactions 
to each other and are perpetual. Every tendency 
has produced great works of art and also works 
which have failed to stand the test of time in 
spite of their great bearing on their contempora- 
ries. Thus we get a succession of waves whose 
highest and lowest points are marked by noted 
artists, or movements, in between which it is pos- 
sible to place all other events. As there is no 
means of foretelling what dimensions the waves 
in contemporary art will attain (they do not im- 
press me at present as very large), one cannot with 
any show of reason allot to Marchand a definite 
place in the hierarchy of already well-known 
masters. What one can do with a fair amount 
of certainty is to show the merits and defects of 
his painting, not by comparing him with any 
past painter but by judging how far he has gone 
towards reaching the highest ideal in art, not 



Many of the new marks given in this volume 
are not reproduced with the same great accuracy 
as prevails in the original editions. h. n. v. 

GEuvRES CHOisiEs DE Maitres Belges. 6o pp. + 160 pi. 
Brussels : (Van Oest.) 

This volume is a memorial of the retrospective 
exhibition of Belgian nineteenth-century art held 
at the Musee Royal des Beaux Arts at Antwerp 
in the summer of 1920. Dr. Paul Buschmann 
contributes a prefatory sketch of the period 
covered by the exhibition, and a long series of 
work by the artists represented follows in excel- 
lent half-tone reproductions. The custom of 
thus perpetuating the results of an exhibition is 
one highly to be commended, even if a number 
of the artists passed under review have primarily 
a local interest. Nevertheless Belgium did un- 
doubtedly for a certain period during the nine- 
teenth century hold a position of some consider- 
able importance in the art life of Europe, thanks 
to the Antwerp Acadamie des Beaux Arts. The 
influence of this institution and the school of 
historical painting which flourished under its 
iEgis is widely traceable in continental painting 
— notably in the schools of Germany and the 
Scandinavian countries and in England — Ford 
Madox Brown, who studied at Antwerp, owed 
not a little to impulses received from the Ant- 
werp masters. In consequence, the volume 
cannot fail to possess, utility to students of the 
various currents of art in nineteenth-century 
Europe. T. B. 



the ideal recognised either by the opponents 
or by the supporters of modern painting, but that 
indicated throughout the whole course of events 
in art history. Let me criticise the art of Mar- 
chand in the light of such an unattainable ideal : 
the chief defect which strikes me is bound up 
with his attitude towards his subject itself. His 
excellently-painted pictures appear merely to set 
down in their proper relation to each other a 
certain number of statements without solving the 
problem arising from the relationship. In Mater- 
nite (20), for instance, while the design of the 
central figure is successful, the oblong on the 
left in the background ha,s no function in the 
design, although as colour it is very well related 
to the general scheme. Although this lack of 
deliberation in composition is a feature of all 
his works, on the other hand when it happens 
that the subject itself has a suggestive combina- 
tion of forms, I cannot point to a living painter 
who can emphasise it better than Marchand. An 
excellent example of this is La Source (14) in 
which a slanting triangle on the left makes an 
excellent transition to the slope of a hill (another 
triangle), and the angle at which they meet is 
accentuated by two nicely proportioned slabs of 
rock on the right. The design is completed by 



46 



a cupola crowned by a rock which accentuates 
strongly the shape of the hill. The vertical trees 
break the monotony in a very pleasing way and 
add to the space of the picture. Another excel- 
lent example of that kind is La Belle Provengale 
where the succession of the planes is denoted 
very successfully. In Cascade, all the planes 
slant towards a line almost in the middle 
of the picture and are splendidly con- 
trasted by a horizontal shape in the back- 
ground. It may be of some interest to 
note that Marchand, in order to get distance 
and to contrast more strongly the angle between 
the planes, resorts to the use of a slab of paint 
placed parallel to and against the side of the 
frame. This device can be traced throughout 
his work from the earliest period. A question 
which I cannot answer at present is whether the 
slab is intentionally put there in the very be- 
ginning in order to serve as a scale or key-note, 
or is put afterwards as a correction. It is an 
interesting though not a new way of getting 
distance. Ghirlandaio, in his Visit of St. 
Elisabeth (S. M. Novella, Florence), used a 
similar means in running through the picture 
a vertical plane, in that way obtained an un- 
usual effect of space. Another characteristic of 
Marchand's in dealing with space is the use of 
parallel oblongs in landscape. Very probably 
this may result later on in an excellent solution 
of the problem of rhythmical repetition, but so 
far these shapes repeated in the same size and 
value, do not give a satisfactory impression. 

The greatest change in Marchand's work is 
in his colourings. From the vivid colouring 
which he used to have he has passed to a quieter 
and necessarily more restricted palette. There is 
no longer the charm of the early Marchand 
colour, but there is more seriousness and more 
understanding of material. The greatest gain 
from this is in dignity, just as the greatest loss 
is in brilliancy. He still finds difficulty in 
managing his reds, especially when they are in 
full light. There frequently occur red roofs 
which are not in keeping with the rest. At times, 
though, his colouring reaches an unusual level 
of attainment, as in the case of La Source, Cas- 
cade and La Belle Proven^ale. The simplicity 
of treatment, and great economy and taste in the 
choice of pigments, as also the way in which he 
relates them to each other is really remarkable. 

Obviously, Marchand is still in an experi- 
mental stage, and his best works are yet to come. 
His importance lies chiefly in his being a 
counter-balance to the other modern schools. He 
is also practically the only living French painter 
of any note who has refused to accept a formula 
and to manufacture by it pictures in hundreds. 
He prefers to fail at times, hoping to reach his 
aim in course of time. It is the stubborn envy 



and seriousness with which Marchand ap- 
proaches every problem, and the excellent 
qualities of a painter which he often shows, that 
make me believe that if any of the living French 
painters survive the present fashion it will be 
Marchand. Whatever defects we may find in 
his work, it is impossible to deny that he is the 
man who, in his generation, has the most chance 
of final achievement. R. A. Stephens. 

The International Theatre Exhibition at 
the Victoria and Albert Museum ought to prove 
" damned good to steal from;" indeed, it was 
in this hope that it was brought over from 
Holland. " A new way of looking at an old 
thing — this was our principal idea, and this idea 
has freshened up that part of entertainment 
which was growing dull," writes Mr. Gordon 
Craig in the foreword to the catalogue. " We 
based our changes on some of the oldest and best 
traditions known to mankind, though we neg- 
lected that ancient, and for some unknown 
reason, respected tradition which orders you to 
' do as was done last time.' We began to build 
our theatres differently, we set our stage with 
different scenes, and we acted our old and new 
plays differently — not in every land and in every 
city, but nearly in every land and in most cities." 
Then comes at the end a gentle stab, characteris- 
tic of a prophet in his own country, " and this 
Exhibition is held in London, so that England 
may prepare to do not merely what other lands 
have already done — but much more." Mr. 
Gordon Craig is probably sceptical about that 
" much more "; for the English stage has to 
move some way before even getting level with 
the Continent ; but it is, after all, England which 
produced Mr. Gordon Craig himself, who is the 
most delicate, original and stimulating influence 
in the whole movement. If he had had a share 
of the practical energy of some who are indebted 
to him for their ideas, he would have already 
inspired here not only the expeiiments but the 
general practice of modern stage production. 
His drawings and models are the most beautiful 
ones in the Exhibition. But here he has an 
undue advantage over the majority of his fellow- 
workers, for he is a fine and sensitive draughts- 
man himself. His designs are works of art ; the 
drawings of M. Appia are commonplace beside 
them. But we must remember, and not only 
in this room, where their work is hung together, 
but in going round all the rooms that the ulti- 
mate medium in which these ideas is to be im- 
pressed does not require an artist's touch on 
paper. This gift is important only in conveying 
attractively at first sight the effect aimed at, and 
the stage designer without it (many of them are) 
has the right to ask us generously to interpret 
his work in the light of his intention. We have, 
in judging these designs, to imagine the colours 



47 



translated into stuffs of various textures, which 
alter values ; and the proportions in the draw- 
ings themselves, though relatively the same, 
enormously enlarged, which again alters values. 
There is a story of Gladstone discussing on the 
Treasury Bench during a debate, who could 
claim to be the ugliest member of the House of 
Commons, which might be kept in mind while 
looking at these designs. At the time Sir Wil- 
liam Temple was an obvious favourite in any 
such competition. Gladstone, however, with 
rather unexpected subtlety, would not hear of his 
being awarded the distinction. " No," he said, 
vehemently, " magnify Temple and he would be 
magnificent; but the more you enlarged X, the 
meaner he would become." That is the test 
here. The visitor to the International 
Theatre Exhibition must constantly make these 
allowances and imaginative efforts in judging 
the work; pictures are to the art itself only 
what an architect's drawings are to his. A pre- 
liminary visit to the peep-show section of the 
Exhibition, where scenery is seen still in minia- 
ture as from an immense distance, but in the 
round, may help the critic towards making this 
necessary effort. Even, however, after making 
allowance for Gordon Craig's superiority as a 
draughtsman, in my opinion he emerges as a 
head and shoulders above his fellow-workers. 
His designs have a peculiar lyrical quality ; those 
for The Tempest, for instance, seem like songs 
made faintly visible. But as in the case of 
Turner, the god of his universe is the sun, and 
man is comparatively unimportant in it. Light 
and Shadow are the great protagonists in his 
sense of drama; and the question which the 
dramatist asks himself somewhat uneasily in 
front of some of these designs is whether Craig's 
backgrounds may not be so effective in them- 
selves that intricacies of character and the art of 
the actor would be lost against them. Unfortu- 
natelywehave not had an opportunity of putting 
these doubts to the test; though a sense of the 
human and the concrete seems to play a subor- 
dinate part in most of Craig's designs. On the 
stage, the foreground not the background must 
focus interest; and in some of his designs this 
essential fact is ignored, or it is taken for granted 
that the living actor must inevitably compel 
attention. 

The work of various nations is assembled in 
different rooms. The Russian artists show a 

LETTERS 

THE BERNINI BUST AT THE VICTORIA 
AND ALBERT MUSEUM 
Sir, — Will you allow me to offer a possible 
explanation of the two names — Mr. Baker and 
Milord Coniik — under which the original of 
Bernini's bust passed among his contempora- 



restless richness of colour; they seldom please 
without astonishing, and please, when they do, 
by a dazzling accumulation of emphatic detail, 
often archaic, often symbolic. The German 
room shows a determination to drive home at all 
costs a strong, definite emotional, and often, crude 
impression ; they are eminently practical even 
when the effect aimed at is extreme, and in this 
the Dutch artists resemble them. The English 
show a tendency to borrow without logical co- 
herence; they take without committing them- 
selves to a scheme. The French are very scrap- 
pily represented and the designs for Le Vieux 
Columbier theatre in Paris give one no correct 
measure of the achievement there under M. 
Coppeau's direction. Mr. Robert Jones' work 
stands out among the American exhibits as the 
most significant. His background for Richard 
III is particularly successful. 

There are two schools in modern stagecraft. 
By one school, scenery is conceived as a static 
background ; as a compromise between some- 
thing permanently pleasing to the eye and the 
dramatist's directions as to hour, place and 
properties; by the other scenery is conceived as 
a translation into visibility of emotions intended 
to be produced by the act or the whole play. 
The work of the former aims at being purely 
aesthetic or aesthetic and literal ; of the latter at 
being aesthetic with a psychological or symbolic 
significance. Between them are the compro- 
misers, who, according to their temperaments, 
cling to naturalism or pure decoration and sup- 
plement it from time to time with a little 
emotional symbolism. The danger of the 
psychological school is to postulate a greater 
and more inevitable correspondence between the 
idea as expressed in literature and certain effects 
of light, line and colour, than actually exists; 
though the designer may have succeeded in 
persuading himself that the shape of the play is, 
say, undoubtedly " pyramidical," or its colour 
" violet." With the dangers of naturalism we 
are only too familiar; the static, pleasing, non- 
committal background is certainly the safest. It 
does not, however, attract the imaginative and 
exploring temperament; artists of that tempera- 
ment are striving after a closer unity between 
the arts which meet, and so often quarrel, in 
stage representation, and it is their work which 
contributes most to the interest of this exhibition. 

Desmond MacCarthy 



ries? Mr. MacColl's guess cannot, it seems to 
me, be accepted as satisfactory. At the time 
when the bust was produced the papal agent, 
Conn, was a middle-aged tonsured Dominican 
friar. Surely it is in the highest degree im- 
probable that his figure should be confused in 



48 



the memory of the Bernini family with that of 
the young cavalier with his hair in prodigious 
quantity, incomparably loose and free. The solu- 
tion, I suggest, is that Coniik (or the name for 
which that word stands) was an alias adopted 
by " Mr. Baker " while in Rome. This was 
the practice of English Roman Catholic travel- 
lers in the seventeenth century, and many scores 
of names and the aliases chosen to conceal them 
are to be found in the index to tlie Douay 
Diaries (vol. II, published by the Catholic 
Record Society, 191 1.) It is unfortunate that 
the Diary, usually very copious, is ex- 
tremely scanty for the years 1630 to 1637, and 
missing altogether from 1637 to 1641. There- 
fore the absence from its pages of the names of 
Baker and Coniik proves nothing. In the Pil- 
grim Book of the English College in Rome 
(Records of the English Province, vol. VI, 
p. 608) an entry tells us that " Mr. Baker, a 
gentleman of distinction " dined in the Refec- 
tory on Nov. i6th, 1636; a date when we should 
expect him to have recently arrived in Rome 
with Van Dyck's triple portrait of Charles I 
for Bernini's use. Vertue's account of the trans- 
port of this picture, and of the making of 
Baker's bust (MS. Add. 21 in, p. 6, under date 
1 7 13) is given on the authority of " Mr. Ra- 
gond. Carver." This man, no doubt a French 
Huguenot refugee, may possibly have obtained 
his information through some personal associa- 
tion with one of the successive owners of the 
bust. He may quite well have been employed 
bv Sir Peter Lely or the Duke of Kent. 
Yours faithfully, 

Rachael Poole. 
Oxford, June "jth, 1922. 

ART " SCHOLARSHIP." 
Sir, — I should be very sorry to see the Bur- 
lington entirely given over to historians, art- 
detectives and archjeologists, with their alj too 
common facultv of enthusing over everything 
in the world except the intrinsic qualities of a 
work of art. In my opinion, the one test should 
be that of artistic merit ; and anything, however 
rare, which does not approach vour general 
high standard is out of place. I even dare to 
suggest that a rare plate-mark does not enhance 
the a^sthetic value of silver work, and that a 
mark on china is of no more importance than a 
signature on a picture; also that the stitch of 
an old piece of needlework is not necessarily 
significant from the point of view of beauty. 
From this sort of thing it is only a step back- 
wards to stamp collecting. 

Art " scholarship " can easily be overrated : 
perhaps Germany supplies the best illustration 
of this. There is no parallel to the slipshod in- 
clusion of school works, copies — even modern 
fakes — in German " authoritative " works on 



the old masters, and there is no country where 
careful tabulation is so developed in conjunction 
with indifferent critical faculty. At the same 
time, every country possesses its authorities 
whose sole claim to omniscience is the publica- 
tion of ponderous tomes on certain masters. It 
usually takes about three expensively-produced 
derivative works to establish the author in the 
position of a leading autiiority on his pet 
masters. Thenceforward the authenticity of a pic- 
ture depends on the opinion (jf Mr., Monsieur, 
Herr or Signor Blank, in spite of the fact that 
scholarship and industry may be the criterion 
instead of the necessary flair. There is also the 
danger of elevating into first-class importance 
the work of fifth-rate artists. This is particu- 
larly the case in regard to certain Italian primi- 
tives, which supply a happy hunting ground for 
detectives bent on discovering the sublime in the 
trivial. It is possible to be too learned in the 
field of art. 

May I say how admirable and stimulating are 
the articles and illustrations devoted to modern 
work? They prove that the fundamental prin- 
ciples of art are the same whatever the period 
of production. 

Yours faithfully, 

Hugh Blaker. 

Old Isleworth. 

P.S.— Mr. Walter Sickert's lofty disdain of 
the Cezanne pictures, the principle feature of 
the exhibition of French art of the nineteenth 
century, at the Burlington Fine Arts' Club, 
hardly rings true. But having said in the 
Anglo-Trench Review that " Cezanne was by 
nature deplorably, lamentably, tragically almost 
incredibly wanting . . . and that his very in- 
capacity produced a style which was his, the 
like of which we shall not, it is to be hoped, be 
asked to look upon again " — what was he to 
do? 

THE MIND OF COROT AND HIS 
CHANGE OF STYLE. 

Sir, — Mr. Roger Fry, in his article in your 
issue of June which deals with the early pictures 
by Corot, on exhibition in Paris, asks why the 
artist changed from the austere Corot of the 
Roman studies to the romantic Corot of the 
dealers. He adds that the extraordinary purity 
and simplicity of his character makes this falling 
away difficult of explanation. Is not the explana- 
tion the quite simple one that Corot, on the 
psychic side, never quite grew up? He was 
always the dutiful son and never really freed him- 
self from parental control or its substitute. His 
biographers show clearly enough that he always 
accepted guidance and direction in the general 
affairs of life as one of the consequences of this, 
and this tendency would re-act on his art. His 



49 



first inspiration undoubtedly came from Italy, 
and as Mr. Fry says, this caused him to see the 
Lake of N^mi everywhere, even in the pond at 
Ville d'Avray, and I may add he saw the olive 
in his trees, even in the Gros Chene a Fontaine- 
bleau. The fixity of this impression was no 
doubt due to the great stimulus of the first real 
escape from family authority by his journey to 
Italy in 1825. Further, Corot's choice of subject 
— always the calm of nature, rarely the storm — 
betrays a possible lack of initiative and the ab- 
sence of a " divine discontent " which led him, 

AUCTIONS 

Messrs. Sothebv, Wilkinson & Hodgf., July 3rd to 7th. 
The second and final portion of the library of the late Michael 
Tomkinson, Esq., including many notable illuminated MSS., 
iSth century printing, boolis in fine bindings and a copy of 
the coloured issue of Blake's America: A Prophecy. June 
26th to July gth, the very extensive and remarkable 
so'ries of Egyptian antiquities known as the MacGregor Collec- 
tion. This sale covers so large a ground that shortage of 
space prevents our doing more here than calling attention to 
its importance. Other sales announced by Messrs. Sotheby for 
July include the fine collection of English and foreign portraits 
in stipple, line and mezzotint, the property of the Baroness 

GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



once the severity of his early style was thrown 
over, into sentimentality. Following the classical 
trend while it subsisted, then without any low 
motive but simply as the suggestible child, 
Corot, thanks to environment, changed to his 
later manner. For the art of the world his may 
be called the " tragedy of the dutiful son," and 
is writ large all through his life. But his tem- 
perament, unlike Cezanne's, kept him happy 
enough. 

Yours faithfully, 

Alfred Thornton. 



Lucas of Crudwell and Dingwall (July loth-iith) ; drawings by 
the old masters and oil paintings from various collections 
(July I2th), among the most interesting lots on this occasion 
being a design for a Tazza by Hans Holbein, in the style of 
the well-known design for Jane Seymour's Cup in the British 
Museum (No. 22) and a powerful Mirevelt Portrait of a Lady, 
dated 1631 (No. 67), and a number of interesting paintings by 
the old masters of the Italian, Dutch and Flemish schools 
(July 19th), among the masters represented being Mariotto 
.Mbertinelli, Bernardino Licinio, Corneille de Lyon, Nicolaes 
Maes, D. Mytens, Gerard Terburg, Isaac van Ostade and 
Gabriel Metsu. 



NATIONAL GALLP;RY. 

Antonio del Castillo v Saavedra. The Holy Family. 

Canvas. 36 in. by 455 in. 
School of Masaccio. Nativity. Panel. 8^ in. by 25 in. 
Jacob van Oost, the Elder. Two Boys. Canvas. 22 in. 

by 23 in. 
Dutch School, c. 1500. The Birth of the Virgin. Panel. 

26^ in. by 17 in. 

These four pictures have been presented by Sir Henry 

Howorth, through the National Art Collections Fund, in 

memory of Lady Howorth. 

NATIONAL GALLERY, MILLBANK. 

J. S. Cotman. The Drop Gate. Oil. Presented by Sir 
William Lancaster. 

J. S. Cotman. Distant I'iew of Greta Bridge. Water- 
colour. Presented by Mr. Leonard Bolingbroke. 

J. S. Cotman. Durham. Drawing. Presented by Mrs. 
Helen Hawksley. 

J. S. Cotman. On the Greta. Drawing. Presented by Mrs. 
Helen Hawksley. 

Eric Kennington. Portrait of C. M. Doughty. Chalk 
Drawing. Presented by Mr. T. E. Lawrence. 

Eric Kennington. Muttar il Hamoud Min Beni Hassan. 
Chalk Drawing. Presented by Mr. T. E. Lawrence. 

Sir C. Holroyd. George Meredith. Bronze Medal. Pre- 
sented by Lady Holroyd. 

J. Havard Thomas. Cow and Calf. Marble Relief. Pur- 
chased. 

J. Havard Thomas. Irrigators. Drawing. Presented by 
Sir Joseph Duveen. 

A. Neville Lewis. Rag and Bone Man. Drav/Ing. Pre- 
sented by Sir Joseph Duveen. 

Mrs. Grace Whkatlev. Seated Woman. Drawing. Pre- 
sented by Sir Joseph Duveen. 

C. Conder. Windy Day, Brighton. Oil. Purchased. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Print Room. 
Drawings. 

W. Miller. Ailsa Craig. (Engraved.) Water-colour. 
R. Wilson, R.A. Views in Ualy. (Study for No. 303 in 
the National Gallery.) Black chalk. 
Prints. 

School of DCrer. The Man of Sorrows and Mater 

Dolorosa ; woodcut, undescribed. 
P. M. .Alix. Four aquatint portraits printed in colours. 
F. Janinet. Portrait of Crillon : aquatint printed in 
colours. 



.'\. Menzel. Thirty-five proofs of woodcuts illustrating 
the works of Frederick the Great. 
Ceramics. 

Bowl of " Rakka pottery " painted in blue, brown and 
green. Figure in the centre holding a sword. Purchased. 

Dish of Roman mosaic glass in red, blue and white. Evans 
Collection. Purchased. 
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(The acquisitions marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Ceramics. 

" Blue and white " earthenware Dish, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main ; 17th century. Presented by Stuart G. Davis, Esq. 

Chinese porcelain Saucer, painted in colours and bearing the 
mark of the Emperor Ch'eng-hua (1465-87). Bought. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 

*Perino del Vaga, Morabone and Ghisi. Designs for 
Decoration, etc. 

*T. .'\. Steinlen. Proofs of lithographs (2) and an etching. 
Presented by the Artist. 

•Rubbings (6) of reliefs from the Mausoleum of T'ai Tsung 
(A.D. 627-650). Presented by J. Spicer, Esq., through the 
National Art Collections Fund. 
Metalwork. 

Full suit of Armour, from the Michael Tomkinson Collec- 
tion. Japanese, about 1800. Acquired with the assistance 
of Lt. -Colonel H. Streatfield, D.S.O. 

Objects from the W. Harding Smith Collection, including 
a CiHNESE bronze libation-cup (chio) of the Chou dynasty 
(1122-255 B.C.) and a Japanese helmet and quiver. 

Brass Candlestick of rare type. Flemish ; 16th century. 
Presented by F. Gordon Roe, Esq. 
Paintings. 

*J. J. Cotman. Telegraph Lane, near Norwich. Water- 
colour drawing. Purchased. 

*J. Farington, R.A. Carnarvon and Near Hastings. 
Water-colour drawings. Purchased. 

Fache. Miniature portrait of a man. Presented by J. Life- 
tree, Esq. 

*J. W. Slater. Miniature portrait of the Hon. Mrs. 
Phipps. Purchased. 
Textiles. 

Chasuble with orpheys of gold and silk embroidery. English 
work of the early' 14th century. Formerly in the collec- 
tion of Monsieur Georges Saville Seligman. 

Embroidered coat, baby-carrier, and two pairs of silver car- 
rings, worn by women of the Black Maio tribe in Kuei- 
chow province. South-west China. Presented by B. G. 
Tours, Esq., C.M.G. 



.■JO 



5 




Cntcifixioil. School of Avignon. Panel. (Monsieur L,. A. Ciaboriaud) 




EDITORIAL : Admission Qharges 

'N July loth the second reading of a 

Bill entitled the " Economy (Miscel- 
I laneous Provisions) Bill " was passed 

in the House of Commons.* Clause 

1 2 reads : 

Notwithstanding anything in any Act, the Trustees of 
the British Museum may, with the consent of the 
Treasury, make regulations requiring payment to be 
made for admission to the Museum at such rates and at 
such times, and subject to such exceptions as may be 
prescribed in the Regulations. 

A heated debate preceded the reading of the 
Bill, and many prominent members of the House 
selected the above clause as a particularly per- 
nicious one. The three main objections to the 
proposal are obvious. It restricts the freedom 
of those thousands for whom the Museum has 
been during its whole history a pleasant place of 
instruction and of refuge from the toil and mono- 
tony of daily living. It seriously interferes with 
the education of the young. It restricts the work 
of the student. 

The first and very relevant objection we may 
here pass over, and to argue in post-war England 
about the value of education appears for the 
moment to be a waste of time. It hardly seems 
too bitter a thing to pray that our inevitable 
punishment mav come with speed and severity, 
so that we may feel, since we cannot see, the folly 
of our present mood before it is too late. One 
would have thought, however, that the case of 
the impecunious scholar would have appealed 
even to the politicians. He has given so much 

* On July i2th, the Government announced that the further 
stages of the Economy Bill would be postponed until the 
Autumn Session. Sir Robert Home, answering a question, 
made the formal reply that there was no truth in the report 
that the Bill was to be withdrawn. 

A CRUCIFIXION OF THE AVIGNON SCHOOL 
BY ROGER FRY 

^ ^j-ggN spite of the research that has been 
devoted to the French Primitives since 
the beginning of the century, the 
» <^Tu Avignonese school remains something 
^=^of a mystery. It is mysterious because 
among the comparatively small number of 
examples of that school which have come to light, 
there are two or three masterpieces of such sur- 
prising quality, of such imaginative power, that 
one cannot but suppose that they derive from a 
bigger and more important school of painting 
than any of which we have evidence either in 
documents or in surviving works. 

These works — the great Fieta> from Villeneuve- 
les-Avignon, now in the Louvre, the Annuncia- 
tion' of the Cathedral at Aix-en-Provence, and 
perhaps the little Pieta now in the Prick collec- 
tion, appear therefore in a strange isolation. 

' Burlington Magazine, vol. V, p. 377 (July, 1904). 
2 Burlington Magazine, vol. V, p. 295 (June, 1904). 



at the British Museum 

unrewarded time and labour to the community, 
has been hit so terribly by these latter-day calami- 
ties, has exercised for so many years a right of 
entry to the British Museum, and can spare so 
paltry a sum towards the replenishment of his 
country's Treasury, that one cannot but feel that 
our ingenious " economists " might, in mere 
shame, have let him alone. We need not remind 
our readers, some of whom are or have been 
impecunious scholars, that for all such, con- 
tinual visiting and re-visiting of the British 
Museum is essential. 

If this Bill should become an Act, the method 
of applying the tax will be in the hands of the 
Museum authorities themselves, and all who are 
interested and experienced in the subject will 
look to that quarter with confidence. The 
Museum Trustees will have to choose, it seems, 
between funds for acquisitions and free admis- 
sion. It is our belief that it would be far better 
in the long run to preserve the principle of a right 
of entry for the public (for if that is once lost it 
will be hard to regain) even at the heavy cost of 
a temporary corresponding loss of acquisition 
grants. But here we fear we are likely to be with 
the minority. What we hope the Trustees will 
do is to issue free passes to all serious adult 
students and at least to certain school children. 
By them better than by any other sections of the 
community, the public, to whom the Museum 
belongs, is represented. We cannot afford to 
discourage them, for they stand for knowledge, 
culture and civilisation. In short, we oppose 
the " Economy Bill " simply on grounds of 
economy. 




These paintings have not at all the character 
which we expect from a provincial school. They 
show the originative power and masterly treat- 
ment which we associate with great artistic 
centres. We reproduce in the frontispiece^ yet 
another work which may perhaps help to 
amplify our conception of the school. 

This has, what we may notice in all the works 
I have named, the strange and moving power of 
a quite personal and original conception. It does 
not follow the dictates of any received formula 
of mediaeval painting. It has the vivid intensity 
of a quite personal artistic vision. The originality 
lies of course not in the actual grouping of the 
two figures about the cross, which from the sub- 
ject would be inevitable, but in the spacing of 
the figures and their placing in the landscape 
background. It lies too in the strange dramatic 

' Crucifixion, size 1.12 m. by 1.06 m. 



D 



The BuRLlNr.TON Maoazinf, .Nc. 2,13, Vol. XLl, .August, inaa 



53 



expression of the figures and in the wonderfully 
subtle idea of arranging that the pale ivory tones 
of the bloodless figure of Christ should tell, not 
against the indigo of the upper sky but upon the 
pale yellowish tones of the clear sky below. The 
artist gives thereby remarkable unity to his com- 
position which builds up parallel bands passing 
horizontally across the composition. The breadth 
and simplicity of structure which this gives to 
the design shows that we are here dealing with 
a genuine artist and no mere school craftsman. 
The town, which probably represents Avignon, 
is also treated in pale colours but with bright 
touches of blue and red in the roofs. Below, 
making another dark band, is a wild landscape 
of rocks and bushes. 

The whole effect, which only partly survives in 
the reproduction, has a strangeness and poign- 
ancy which makes one instinctively compare it 
with the great Pietd of the Louvre. It does not 
show by any means the same mastery of form nor 
the same knowledge of the nude, but the imagina- 
tive approach seems to me similar. Nor do I 
think the forms entirely unconnected. The long 
narrow features and the peculiarly high skull of 
the St. John are not unlike the type of the Mag- 
dalene in the Pietd. 

But I do not wish to build too much on this 
rather vague and general impression — certainly 
not more than to suggest the possibility that this 
may be the work of some earlier and less learned 
contemporary of the unknown master of the Pietd. 

The owner of this picture, M. L. A. Gaboriaud, 
through whose courtesy we are able to reproduce 
it, has also kindly communicated to me the 



photograph [Plate II] of another Crucifixion 
which is still in situ in the Chartreuse of Ville- 
neuve-les-Avignons. The much-damaged fresco 
is a work of such rare and strange beauty that 
we offer no excuse for making it better known, 
although it clearly belongs to a considerably 
earlier date than the picture we have been dis- 
cussing. 

The fresco is clearly influenced by the Sienese 
artists who worked under Simone Martini at 
Avignon. The Sienese types are evident in the 
Christ and the St. John the Baptist to the left, 
but the Virgin and St. John the Evangelist are 
quite original, showing that it is probably not the 
work of an Italian artist but of some Porven9al 
painter who had absorbed the Italian tradition. 
But here, too, in the intensely poignant and 
dramatic poses we experience the peculiar feeling 
of the Avignonese artists. No less marked in 
its original and local flavour is the wonderful 
eff^ect got by the unusual spacing of the figures. 

To return to M. Gaboriaud's Crucifixion, we 
notice that here the Sienese influence has 
almost evaporated and one may suspect influences 
either from Northern France or even from 
Flanders. That influence was destined to pre- 
dominate entirely in the work of Nicolas Froment, 
the one Provencal artist whose personality can 
be established. Froment, however, shows him- 
self very inferior to these more native Proven9al 
painters, and lacks altogether that intense imagi- 
native conviction which lifts this composition 
above the level of many more accomplished but 
less inspired works. 



VESTIGES OF TRISTRAM IN LONDON 
BY ROGER SHERMAN LOOMIS 




HE romance of Tristram of Lyoness 
was beloved above all others by 
mediaeval artists.' Still in Au- 
vergne the castle of St. Floret dis- 
plays on its walls the adventurous 
combats of the hero, and still in the Tyrol, 
Schloss Runkelstein depicts his loves. But 
other arts than painting contributed to the re- 
nown of Tristram. A misericord in Chester 
cathedral, an embroidery at Wienhausen in 
Hanover, and two quilts from Sicily attest not 
only the diversity of the arts which celebrated 
this grreatest of lovers, but also the many and 
remote lands which knew his story. 

It is a fortunate coincidence which has brought 
together after all these centuries so large a num- 
ber of medieval illustrations of the Tristram 



1 Bibliography in R. S. Loomis, Illustrations of Medieval 
Romance on Tiles from Chertsey Abbey, 9-13, and Modern 
Language Review, iqiq, 38. Add Malaguzza-Valeri, Corte 
di Lodovico il Mora, I, 557. 



romance in London. Though connected with 
Arthur's court comparatively late in its career, 
the legend of Tristram was from the first British. 
The original Tristram was one of several Dros- 
tans, Pictish kings, of whom we know next to 
nothing.^ He appears in the Welsh triads, and 
his name was early associated with Cornish Tin- 
tagel. But not until the Norman poet B^roul 
retold a Cornish tale of him in French verse about 
1 1 50 or later does he appear outside the literature 
of his native isle. Moreover, the theme of Tris- 
tram seems to have held a special fascination for 
the royal Angevin house and for poets under their 
patronage. A half-sister of Henry II, Marie de 
France, wrote in Anglo-Norman a Breton lay 
about Tristram. Two daughters of Eleanor of 
Aquitaine, Marie de Champagne and Matilda of 
Saxony, were both patrons of poets who dealt 
with his story ; in fact, it was probably during her 

»J. B^dier, Roman de Tristan par Thomas, II, 105. 



54 




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st(irati(in nianuscripl 
of Sir lulward Wal- 
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Arms 



A — Carved ivory Casket. Early 14th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum) 



^««s 




B — Carved wooden Casket, circa i,",5"- (N'idoria ant! .\lbert MuM-uni) 
Pl:iip I \/p<;ti.cTpc nf Tristram in London 



exile at the Angevin court in 1 184-85 that Matilda 
procured the French poem which she had trans- 
lated into German. Greater than any of these 
poets was the Anglo-Norman cleric, Thomas, 
who composed his romance of Tristram between 
1 170 and 1200.^ Though two-thirds of the poem 
is lost, a complete Norwegian redaction exists, 
and from it we learn the fact that the housings of 
Tristram's horse were red embroidered with gold 
lions. The significance of this was suggested to 
me by Professor Lethaby. In the reign of King 
Richard I, two, then three golden lions on a red 
field were blazoned on the royal shield. These 
may have been also the device of King Henry. 
At any rate, it seems probable that Thomas was 
flattering an Angevin monarch by ascribing to 
his hero the Angevin arms.* This Angevin con- 
nection with Tristram has been corroborated by 
a document brought to my attention by Professor 
Lethaby. Among the Patent Rolls for the year 
1207 is a receipt for the regalia, which mentions 
" duos enses, scilicet ensem Tristrami et alium 
ensem de eodem regali.'" These precious em- 
blems were not among those which King John 
" lost in the Wash," but seem to have been kept 
in the custody of Peter des Roches, Bishop of 
Winchester ; for it is he who attests the receipt of 
the regalia at Clarendon in 1207, and it is from 
him that in 1220 Henry Hi's treasurer received 
the same. In the inventory which was made on 
the latter occasion, the swords are merely de- 
scribed as "Duo gladii cooperti de Rubeo Samito 
frettati aurifragio." Apparently, during the years 
in which they had been in the Bishop's keep- 
ing, the association with Tristram had been for- 
gotten. When Henry Ill's queen, Eleanor of 
Provence, was crowned in 1236, there is men- 
tioned for the first time the sword " Curtein," 
described as the sword of St. Edward the Con- 
fessor. In the account of the coronation of 
Richard III Curtana is described as pointless and 
as therefore symbolizing Mercy." The name un- 
doubtedly is connected with the French court, 
short. 

Now anyone familiar with the romance of Tris- 
tram, if asked what was the distinctive feature of 
the hero's sword, would answer promptly that it 
lacked a piece from the edge or point, — the piece 
in fact which stuck in Morhaut's skull at the time 
that Tristram dealt him his death-blow. Now the 
present Curtana, as everyone knows, dates only 
from the Restoration, but the manuscript of Sir 

3 A translation of Thomas's poem based on Old French 
and Old Norse sources will be published within a year or so 
by the American house of Dutton. 

* R. S. Loomis, op. cit., 50. This matter I discuss fully 
in a forthcoming number of the Modern Language Review. 

5 T. D. Hardy, RotuU IJIterarum Patentium, 77b, 
Ancestor, I, 135. 

^ L. G. Wii kham Legg, English Coronation Records, _:,;, 
58, 195. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, Rolls Series, III, 
337- 



Edward Walker, then Garter King of Arms, 
assures us that all the regalia then made " do now 
retayne the old names and fashion."' The same 
manuscript shows us what that fashion was. 
[Plate I, c] The point of Curtana is broken 
off, leaving a splintered edge. At some time 
after 1661 that edge was cut off square, and an 
interesting vestige of Tristram in London was 
thus partially obliterated. 

Though in Henry Ill's time Tristram's con- 
nection with the coronation sword had been 
forgotten, his story was by no means forgotten. 
Thomas's poem was the basis for the figure 
designs in that elaborate tile pavement laid 
down in the latter years of Henry III 
at Chertsey Abbey. Most of the remaining 
fragments of this pavement are now in the stores 
of the British Museum. Thirty-four scenes from 
the story of Tristram have been identified and 
published.' Professor Lethaby' and Rev. P. H. 
Ditchfield'" have both dealt with the Chertsey 
Tiles in these pages in recent years; so I shall 
content myself with notes on a few of the designs. 

Thomas's romance tells how as a youth Tris- 
tram was carried away from his foster-father's 
castle on the Breton coast by merchants from 
Norway, and was set ashore alone on the coast 
near Tintagel, where Mark, king of England, 
was holding court. Tristram comes to the castle, 
and in the evening undertakes to rival the playing 
of a Breton harper. He strikes the strings so 
sweetly that Mark is captivated with the stranger 
youth, and bids him play in the royal chamber 
at night when he is sleepless. Tristram's harp- 
ing is the subject of the first tile reproduced 
[Fig. i]. Later, after Tristram's identity as the 
son of Mark's own sister has been established, 
the young hero proves an even stronger title to 
the king's regard. Gormon, king of Ireland, 
demands from Mark a tribute of sixty noble 
youths and sends his champion Morhaut to en- 
force the demand. The barons of the kingdom 
come to Tintagel bringing with them their sons 
to be chosen by lot. The designer of the tiles has 
put into the countenance of the mourning barons 
all the expression of which he is capable, and has 
indicated their misery in the wringing of hands 
and their tenderness in the fondling of the boys' 
heads [Fig. 2]. Tristram induces Mark to re- 
fuse the tribute, and throws down the gage to 
Morhaut. In the combat which follows, Tris- 
tram though wounded himself by Morhaut's 
poisoned sword, cleaves through Morhaut's 
helmet and mail cap, and bites deep into his skull, 

' Edward Walker, Circumstantial Account of the Pre- 
parations for the Coronation of Charles II, 7. MS. British 
Museum Additional 30,195, fol. xv. 

8 R. S. Loomis, Illustrations of Medieval Romance on 
Tiles from Chertsey Abbey. 

8 BuRi.iNCiTON Magazine, vol. XXX, p. 133 (1917)- 

10 Ibid., vol. XX.XIII, p. 221 (1918). 



59 



so that a splinter, as we have already noted, re- 
mains lodged there [Fig. 3]. It is interesting 
to observe how closely the guard of Tristram's 
sword as represented on the tile depicting this 
scene resembles that of "Curtana" ; also to ob- 
serve the lion rampant on Tristram's shield, 
which so significantly resembles that on the 
earlier shield of Richard Coeur de Lion — two 



colour. The figures are outlined by a sort of 
parchment, once gilt but now turned black, and 
the belts of the knights and gowns of the ladies 
are studded with the same material. Both sides 
and top and bottom have been cut away, and the 
compartments attached perpendicularly on the 
right side must have been added from another 
Tristram embroidery, since they are smaller in 




FIG. 3. 



FIG. 4. 



curious hints of the connection which I have 
proved between Tristram and the house of Anjou. 
The romance relates further how Tristram, 
tortured by his poisoned wound, has himself set 
adrift in an open boat and is carried by chance to 
Dublin, and by successful lying and skilful harp- 
ing wins a cure for his deadly hurt from Mor- 
haut's sister, the queen. Out of gratitude he in- 
structs her daughter, Ysolt, in music. This sub- 
ject inspires one of the most graceful of the 
designs of the Chertsey artist [Fig. 4]. The 
Chertsey Tiles may not have been destined for 
the abbey church but for some princely palace, 
perhaps for Windsor itself. How astonishingly 
intricate and beautiful must have been the total 
effect of the great pavement, composed of perhaps 
two hundred roundels, depicting every scene of 
combat, passion, ruse, and tragedy, of the en- 
circling inscriptions, and of the exquisite foliated 
patterns twining about them all. 

As I have already mentioned, one version of 
the Tristram story was carried to Germany by 
Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughter, Matilda of 
Saxony, about 1 185, and translated at her behest 
by Eilhart von Oberg. This is the version fol- 
lowed by the school of embroiderers in Thuringia, 
one of whose products was bought from the Bock 
Collection in 1864 by the Victoria and Albert 
Museum." [Plate II, e.] It is a piece of ap- 
pliqu^ measuring 7 ft. 11 in. by 3 ft. 4 in., and 
was apparently intended for a wall-hanging. The 
colouring, with all its simplicity, is delightful. 
The backgrounds of the various scenes alternate 
between red and blue. Besides white, the em- 
broiderer has used shades varying from pea-green 
to deep indigo and from a rich pink to plum- 

" No. i37o'64. D. Rock, Textile Fabrics, A Descriptive 
Catalogue (1870), 77. 



size and the backgrounds are uniformly red. The 
costume indicates that the work was done about 
1370, and the general treatment is closely akin to 
that shown in another Tristram embroidery, a 
table-cover preserved at the cathedral museum of 
Erfurt.'^ In both, the scenes are enclosed under 
arches : both show similar costumes :. and most 
of the scenes found on the South Kensington 
hanging appear also on the Erfurt table-cover. 
First, we see Tristram seated at Mark's side, 
undertaking the search for the unknown princess, 
whose golden hair has been brought in by the 
swallows. Then Tristram's squire brings him 
his sword, helm, and a shield barry azure and 
argent. (In other scenes the blazon is argent a 
fess azure.) The third compartment shows us 
Mark bidding farewell to his nephew from a door- 
way. Then Tristram and his squire, who have 
been driven overseas by accident to Ireland, ap- 
pear asking of a fleeing knight the whereabouts 
of the dragon. In the next scene the hero, 
mounted, drives his spear down the dragon's 
gorge. In the row below we now find the horse 
lying dead and Tristram afoot desperately strik- 
ing with his sword at the dragon. The stroke 
proves fatal, for in the next scene the monster 
submissively allows Tristram to cut out his 
tongue. As we know, the dragon's tongue 
poisons the hero so that he fails to go to the King 
of Ireland to prove his victory. Meanwhile the 
cowardly seneschal of the Irish court rides out, 
as we see in the eighth compartment, toward the 
body of the dragon. Finding no one about, he 
rashly resolves to claim the exploit for himself, 

1- Anzeiger fUr Kunde dcr Deutschen Vorzeit, 1866, col. 14 ; 
A. Overmann, Die Alteren Kunstdenkmdler der Stadt 
Erfurt, 344 ; O. Doering, Meisterwerke der Kunst aus 
Sachsen, 40a; Dedalo, 1922, p. 770; Monatshefte fiir Kunst- 
wissenschajt, 1919, p. 166. 



60 




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D — Sicilian Coverlet, late 14th century. 3.2 m. by 4.1 1 m. (Victoria and Albert 
Museum) 




E — Thuringian wall hanging, appliqu^, circa 1370. 2.4 



I in. I)\- 1. 01 



ni. (\'irtoria and Albert Museum) 



(c 



Plate II Vestiges of Tristram in London 



and cuts off the dragon's head as evidence. In 
the tenth scene he appears kneeling before the 
king, the queen and the princess, holding up the 
monster's head. The last compartment in this 
row does not belong in this position, and, though 
the gentleman and lady are doubtless Tristram 
and Ysolt, the occasion cannot be fixed. On the 
right of the embroidery two other pieces have 
been attached. The first seems to represent King 
Mark and a huntsman riding out from the castle, 
and a fragment of the scene where the lovers lie 
in the grotto. The other piece depicts the famous 
episode of the lovers sitting beneath a tree beside 
a fountain. There are no traces of Mark's head 
among the foliage, and the conclusion follows 
that this embroidery, like so much other mediaeval 
work, was done by craftsmen after patterns whose 
details they frequently ignored or misunder- 
stood. Yet in spite of its stereotyped and crude 
designing, the fabric is a highly effective decora- 
tion. 

The Victoria and Albert Museum also possesses 
another curious presentment of the romance in 
the form of a Sicilian quilt or coverlet (Cat. No. 
1391, '04.) [Plate II, d.] This is made of white 
linen, the figures being raised by padding and 
outlined in brown thread. This fabric formed a 
part of a far larger quilt, as Mr. Kendrick proved 
to me bv the padding of certain containing lines 
and by the end of the trumpet in the left-hand 
border, which must have been attached to the top 
of the right-hand border. Another piece of the 
same coverlet, found at Usella, Italy,was attached 
to the left in place of the present left border. The 
South Kensington piece measures 10 ft. 6 in. by 
9 ft. I in. ; the whole coverlet must have measured 
about 16 ft. by 13 ft. 6 in. The costume indicates 
that the work was done in the last quarter of the 
fourteenth century. Professor Rajna has treated 
both fragments exhaustively, though mistakenly 
believing them to constitute a pair of coverlets." 

Strange to relate Sicily was one of the earliest 
lands to feel the charm of Arthurian romance, and 
one where it took deep root. Norman knights 
who heard the legends from Breton or Welsh 
minstrels brought the tradition with them to 
Calabria, Apulia, and Sicily. In 1165 a Greek 
employed to lay a mosaic pavement in the 
cathedral of Otranto included in his scheme the 
figure of Arthur, doubtless in accordance with 
Norman instructions." Richard Coeur de Lion 
on his way to the East gave to Tancred of Sicily 
as a gift to be treasured " gladium optimum Arc- 
turi, nobilis quondam regis Britonum, quern 
Britones vocaverunt Caliburnum."" And early 
in the thirteenth century Gervase of Tilbury re- 
corded the local Sicilian belief that Arthur dwelt 

13 Romania, 1913, 517. See also Journal of Royal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall, xvii, 142. 

'•» Studi Mfdicvali, 1906-7, 11, 507. 

15 Benedict of Peterborough, Rolls Series, II, 159. 



in the heart of Mount Etna, awaiting the day of 
his return.'" And we may be sure that in Sicily 
as all over Christendom, there glowed from many 
a wall rows of knightly figures and lissome ladies, 
painted or woven in vivid colours. One of the 
richest of such secular decorative schemes extant 
is a painted ceiling in the Palazzo Chiaramonte, 
Palermo, finished in 1380." That about this 
time quilts adorned with illustrations of romance, 
such as that at South Kensington, were well- 
known Sicilian products is confirmed by a Floren- 
tine inventory of 1386 mentioning " una coltre 
ciciliana di drappo cum armi et dipinture a piu 
colori." In the case of the Tristram coverlet the 
"armi" are represented by the three horns on the 
shield of Tristram and by the lilies on the shield 
of Morhaut or rather Amoroldo. Prof. Rajna 
has identified the horns as the cognizance of the 
Florentine house of the Guicciardini. He has 
pointed out also that the lilies occur in the arms of 
the Acciaiuoli, to whom the Guicciardini became 
allied in marriage in 1395. But he rightly doubts 
whether the three lilies alone could have been 
accepted as their badge. 

According to Prof. Rajna, the exact version of 
the romance used as a basis for the coverlet has 
not survived but bears a close affinity to both the 
Italian prose forms. We shall follow merely the 
story as told on the South Kensington piece. The 
inscriptions make elucidation of the scenes easy. 
There has been some tampering with the order of 
the scenes, however, which makes necessary exact 
reference to their placing. 

1. Right border bottom. Comu lu rre Languis mania 
■per lu trabutu in Cornualia. How King Languis (of 
Ireland) sends to Cornwall for the tribute. A galley 
with a number of knights rowing, two ambassadors on 
the poop, a pennant with three lilies flying. 

2. Lower border middle. Comu {li m)issagieri so 
vinuti al (lu) rre Marcu p(er) lu trihutu di secti anm. 
How the messengers are come to King Mark for the 
tribute of seven years. Under a baldaquin Mark hold- 
ing up a letter. Two ambassadors kneel before him. 
A knight stands behind them with sword drawn. 

3. Right border middle. Comu lu rre Languts 
cumanda chi vaia lo osti (in) Cornuaglia. How King 
Languis commands that the host go to Cornwall. 
Languis sits holding sceptre and pointing to Amoroldo. 
To the left three men with upraised hands, and the walls 
of a city. To right two ambassadors kneel, and 
Amoroldo stands holding mace and glove, symbols of 
ambassadorial office. . 

4. Right border top. Comu lu Amoroldu fa bandirt 
lu osti in Cornuvalgia. How Amoroldo causes the host 
to be summoned lo Cornwall. Amoroldo stands raismg 
one hand and holding the mace in the other. A man 
holding glove and blowing trumpet, of which end is cut 
off and appears in next scene. 

5. Left border lower middle. Comu lu Amoroldu fa 
suldari la genii. How Amoroldo recruits the men 
Amoroldo gives money to knights bearing spears and 
shields with the device of the lily. . . 

6. Left border bottom. Comu lu Amoroldu vat in 
Cornuvalgia. How Amoroldo goes to Cornwall. 
Knights rowing galley, flying penn.int with lilies. Above 

16 A Graf, Miti, Leg^ende, e .'iuperstizioni, II, 303. 

iJ I.'Arte Italiana, 1S90. 37. P'- =5. 3" ; I?! ..Ma™' ^" 
Pittura in Palermo, 28 ; C. Waern, Mediaeval Stctly, 250 ; U. 
Sladen, In Sicily, II. 140; Colasanti, Volte e Soffitti, pi. 4. ?■ 

63 



stands rowing master with wliistle or horn in mouth. 
Amoroldo in poop. 

7. Left border top. Comu lu Amoroldu e vinutu in 
Cornuvalgia cu(m) xxxx galei. How Amoroldo has 
come to Cornwall with forty galleys. Same as above, 
except that in this galley the poop is occupied by the 
rowing master and Amoroldo is absent. 

8. Left border upper middle. Comu T{ristainu) dai 
lu guantu aUu Amoroldu dela bactaglia. How Tristram 
gives the glove of battle to Amoroldo. Tristram gives 
Amoroldo, armed, the gage of battle. 

9. Lower right. Comu Tristainu aspecta lu Amoroldu 
alia isola dilu maru Sanca Vintura. How Tristram 
awaits Amoroldo on the island of the sea, Saint Vintura. 

10. Lower left. Comu Tristainu bucta la varca arretu 
intu alu maru. How Tristram launched his boat back 
into the sea. Tristram, armed, kicks away the sailing- 
boat which had brought him to the island of combat. 
His horse stands near with his shield hung from its side. 

11. Middle right. Comu lu infa de lu Amoroldu 
aspecttava lu patrunu. How the squire of Amoroldo 
awaited his master. Amoroldo 's squire holds his 
master's horse. 

12. Middle left. Comu Tristainu feriu lu Amorolldo in 
testa. How Tristram smote Amoroldo in the head. 
Tristram and Amoroldo fight on foot, and Tristram 
drives sword into Amoroldo's helmet. 

13. Upper left. Comu lu Amoroldu feriu Tristainu a 
tr{a)dimentu. How Amoroldo smote Tristram by 
treachery. Squire rowing boat with horse. Amoroldo 
stands up in it, holding bow as if he had just loosed an 
arrow. 

14. Upper right. Sitati de Irlandia. Cities of Ireland. 
Gate, walls, and towers of city with heads of king, 
queen, and three others appearing. 

It is an odd coincidence that of all these illus- 
trations of one of the world's great love stories 
so few should have any concern with love. There 
was one episode, however, from the adventures of 
Tristram and Ysolt which not only was illustrated 
in series, as we have seen on the German 
embroidery, but also attained a remarkable inde- 
pendent vogue among both writers and craftsmen 
of the Middle Ages. The motif appears in 
literary form among collections of anecdotes, and 
crops out as a carving or an illumination or a 
subject from embroidery. This is the scene of 
the tryst which the lovers hold beside a fountain 
beneath a tree. King Mark, apprised of the 
meeting beforehand, mounts among the branches, 
and awaits the coming of the lovers. First Tris- 
tram arrives, and by chance catches a glimpse of 
the reflection of the crowned head in the waters of 
the fountain. He fails to rise when the queen 
approaches, and she, alarmed by his lack of 
courtesy, adopts a cold demeanour and in turn 
discovers the presence of her husband. The two 



lovers then accuse each other of causing the 
slanders that have connected them in shame. 
Thus they convince the spying king of their 
innocence. 

This subject is to be found on a carved ivory 
casket, now in the British Museum, in juxtaposi- 
tion with the subject of the hunting of the uni- 
corn, thus presenting a moral antithesis between 
passion and virginity. This casket, one of a 
number of similar examples, has already been 
treated in the Burlington Magazine by Mr. 
Dalton.^* Another of the group is at South 
Kensington. [Plate I, a.] Both date from the 
early fourteenth century, and probably were made 
in the same workshop at Paris. Though Tris- 
tram's pointing to the head in the fountain is not 
consistent with any version of the story, it is 
probable that these carvings drew their inspira- 
tion from the poem of the Norman B^roul, who 
wrote a little before Thomas. This episode occurs 
again on a carved wooden casket, made about 
1350, now at South Kensington. [Plate I, B.] 
At the left Ysolt stands, pointing at an oval hol- 
low in the centre intended to represent a fountain. 
On the right stands Tristram. In a tree above 
appear the head and shoulders of King Mark, 
who brandishes a sword. 

It is a lucky coincidence that led to the gather- 
ing together in London of so many memorials of 
the great hero of romance. For it was largely 
from the Angevin court that the impulse went 
forth that made known to all the Christian world 
his piteous story. And it was Thomas himself 
who sang some seven hundred and fifty years 
ago : " 

London's a right rich city free, 

Better is none in Christentie, 

None worthier, none more filled with praise, 

Furnished with folk that dwell at ease, 

Lovers of honour and largesse. 

They live in full greaLjoyousness. 

The very heart of England's there, 

You need not seek it otherwhere, 

There Thames runs by beneath the wall. 

Where pass the merchant vessels all. 

From every land both high and low 

Where Christian merchants come and go, 

There men full wise and cunning bin. 



18 Vol. V, p. 301. 

i» Translated by Dorothy Sayers, Modern Languages, 

I. 143- 



THE SEICENTO AND SETTECENTO EXHIBITION IN FLORENCE 
BY COUNT CARLO GAMBA 



HE reaction against the academics 
and the mannerists of the end of the 
Cinquecento aimed at bringing art 
back to the direct study of nature 
and its interpretation by means of 
values of colour and illumination. This re- 
action was achieved, in the first instance, not 
by the Carracci — followers of rules rather than 




of the dictates of temperament — but by Michel- 
angelo da Caravaggio. 

Having as a youth grown up before the paint- 
ings of the Brescian artists and Lotto, his genius 
formed itself through the study of the chiaros- 
curo of Leonardo and Giorgione's chromatic 
warmth, which he seems to blend in a new and 
true synthesis when creating the Calling of St. 



64 




A~The Calling of St. Matthew, by Caravaggio. Detail. Canvas. (S. Luigi dei 
Francesi, Rome.) 




B — The Blessing of Jacob, b}- Bernardo Slrozzi. Can\as. (Pinacoteca, Pisa) 
Plate I. The Seicento and Settecento Exhibition in Florence 



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Matthew in S. Luigi dei Frances! [Plate I, a] : 
whilst in its companion piece, the Martyrdom of 
St. Matthew the dominating note is that of the 
Michelangelesque plasticity — without a trace, 
however, of mannerism, so as to recall the style 
of Tintoret. Caravaggio chooses his models 
from amongst the common people as in the 
Madonna of S. Agostino, and creates natural- 
ism. He studies the effects of twilight and re- 
flections in the taverns, as in the Christ at Em- 
maus in the Patrizi collection, and creates the 
style known as tenebroso ; he stops at every detail 
and reproduces with the most vivid sense of the 
material the most humble objects and the pro- 
ducts of the soil, and creates still-life as in the 
Bacchus of the Uffizi. Above all, this realism 
and these conquests are controlled by a most 
effective dramatic power, as in the tragic sub- 
jects in S. Maria del Popolo and the Death of 
the Virgin in the Louvre: all works which, at 
present, can be admired in the Exhibition at 
Palazzo Pitti. 

In Italy, Caravaggio soon found apostles of 
admirable technical ability of whom we can 
here admire Serodine, hitherto unknown to the 
public, with a Charity of S. Laurence; Mola in 
his first manner; Manetti of Siena with the pala 
from S. Pietro alle Scale; the Gentileschis, 
father and daughter, whom we here learn to 
differentiate. The Caravaggesque influence on 
Orazio GentilescHi is passing, partial and shared 
with Guido Reni : but under it can evidently be 
traced a Tuscan substratum. On the other hand, 
in the art of Artemisia, the daughter, that influ- 
ence is of a more essential importance, both 
as regards the forms and the colouring, and 
marks a link with the Neapolitan school. Bor- 
gianni is also represented by works of real sig- 
nificance, as for instance the great pala from 
Sezze, restored to him by R. Longhi, who re- 
cognises in it impressions of Greco. 

One may also, on account of his study of 
light, place Guercino in his first and finest 
manner among the Caravaggesques, as in the 
St. William of Aquitania from Bologna; and 
his brother Paolo Antonio would still more 
definitely belong to the same category in case 
some still-life pieces here exhibited are his — 
much less detailed than the Flemish ones, but 
all the more massive. 

But as a make-weight to the influence of 
Caravaggio many other currents of art may be 
traced in the Peninsula, marking a struggle 
with his conceptions which seemed brutal and 
his treatment which seemed gloomy. 

Baroccio, with his rich and luminous variety 
of shades, after the manner of Correggio, had 
had a very widespread influence, which extended 
to Tuscany, Genoa, Lombardy and more par- 
ticularly Rome, where his art impressed Rubens. 



The latter derived from it many elements, blend- 
ing them with the Venetian influence : and was 
thus able to give back to the decadent Venetian 
school the externals of its old splendour through 
artists radically influenced by his art. To his 
fellow-countryman, Jan Lys, to the Roman, 
Domenico Feti, and to the Genoese, Bernardo 
Strozzi, a room is devoted at the Pitti in view of 
the common influence they exercised on Venice 
where they settled. There, above fiery and rich 
canvases by Strozzi — like Christ Washing the 
Apostles' Feet from the Accademia Ligustica, 
the Madonna from the Maison Laffitte, and the 
Blessing of Jacob from the Pinacoteca at Pisa 
[Plate I, b] — and the luminous and atmos- 
pheric pictures by Jan Lys {e.g., the St. Jerome 
of the Tolentini), extends the gigantic lunette 
of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes 
painted by Feti for a Mantuan church, with 
great vivacity of grouping and lightness of 
colouring. Better than their pompous and elab- 
orate followers (Celesti, Zanchi, Fumiani) we 
are able to appreciate here the Vicenzan, MafFei, 
who paints with a luminosity, a lightness and a 
richness of tints which seems to form the link 
between the great masters of the Cinquecento 
and those of the Settecento. 

A more scholarly and refined reaction against 
the Caravaggesque movement is marked by 
Guido Reni with his silvery harmonies and 
counter-reformation sentimentality, from which 
developed that current of Jesuit art, which 
appears triumphant over the Baroque altars of 
Rome with Sacchi and Maratta. By Guido 
there are well-known masterpieces of every 
phase of his career, the Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, the Atalanta, with its difi'used twilight 
tonality, the S. Andrea Corsini, a real sym- 
phony of clear tones, and others. 

Apart from the Hunt of Diana by Domeni- 
chino, there is also extensively represented the 
most profound and pathetic of the Bolognese, 
Tiarini, leaden in colour — possibly from an art- 
istic training in Florence — as, for instance, in the 
vast canvas from Reggio Emilia representing 
the Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist. 

The masterpieces by the Modenese artists 
Schedoni and Cavedoni and by the Ferrarese, 
Bononi, form one group through the common 
tendency to give relief to the figures with 
strongly illuminated contours. They continue, 
however, very different traditions, Schedoni that 
of Correggio, Cavedoni that of Paul Veronese 
and Bononi that of Dosso. 

The Emilian group is closed at length by 
Giuseppe Maria Crespi, who, with his light and 
brilliant lighting achieves a transparent and 
tremulous plasticity, and through his pupils; 
Piazzetta and P. Longhi, contributes to the 
formation of the Venetian style of the Settecento. 



69 



In addition to the Fair from Poggio a Caiano, 
and the Massacre of the Innocents from the 
Uffizi, we can here admire some of the magnifi- 
cent Sacraments from Dresden, together with 
the replicas from Castel Gandolfo lent by His 
Holiness Pius XI [compare Plate II, d]. 

Among the final and triumphant exponents of 
the tendencies of Caravaggio, the great decora- 
tors of domes and ceilings, Pietro da Cortona 
shows his exuberant imagination in the Sacrifice 
of Solomon, lent by Prince Corsini. Baciccio, 
Padre Pozzo and Luca Giordano are the prin- 
cipal representatives of this festive and gor- 
geous style which culminates with Tiepolo. 

Also the principal offshoots of the chain which 
connects the Renaissance with the sunset of the 
purely Italian art are worthily represented in 
the Exhibition. 

The Neapolitans are present with capital 
works : the great Pietd by Massimo Stanzioni, 
the Triumph of David by Vaccaro, the Libera- 
tion of St. Peter by Caracciolo, a follower of 
Caravaggio, the Silenus by Ribera, etc. 
Amongst them, the most brilliant is Mattia 
Preti, whose dramatic effects are obtained 
through livid play of light and shade : he fasci- 
nates us here with the Feast of Belshazsar, with 
the Crucifixion, belonging to the Duca d'Al- 
baneta, with the Martyrdom of S. Gennaro, and 
other works : while Bernardo Cavallino diffuses 
his tender light on silk dresses, relieving the 
spiritual compositions against delicate twiligrht 
[compare Plate II, c]. Luca Giordano is 
specially effective in his splendid masses of 
luxurious vegetables close to the rustling of 
irrigating waters : and alongside of these, fishes 
by Recco, fruit by Ruoppolo and flowers by 
Belvedere bear witness to the accomplishment 
of the Neapolitan school in still-life painting. 

And simultaneously with the great decorators 
of the succeeding generation — like Solimena, 
De Mura and Giaquinto — Bonito delights us 
with some genre scenes where the Neapolitan 
vivacity replaces the better known and somewhat 
affected gracefulness of the analogous Venetian 
subjects. 

The Tuscans shine with lesser lustre, certainly 
not from the lack of knowledge of drawing or of 
taste, but from exhaustion of the constructive 
force and imaginative power. Nevertheless, one 
cannot but admire Cristofano Allori, Furini, 
Volterrano and Carlo Dolci, as represented 
by the Portrait of a Conte Bardi. 

The Lombards during the Seicento rose to a 
high level, going back to the pictorial tradition 
of Gaudenzio Ferrari, revived by the Bolognese, 
Giulio Cesare Procaccini, who as we see here 
blends Baroque forms with Parmigianinesque 
harmonies and elegance. The passionate note of 
the conceptions, and the fluidness and richness 



of colour in his followers is here patent even in 
pictures of modest size by Morazzone and Cairo 
[compare Plate IV, g]. Better than in the Ma- 
do7ina from the Brera and the delightful little 
Miracles of St. Francis, the monumental quali- 
ties of Cerano may be appreciated in the tempera 
picture lent by the Marchese Campori, possibly 
a partial replica of the Nativity of S. Carlo Bor- 
romeo in the Duomo of Milan. As regards 
Daniele Crespi, he is deeply moving in his St. 
Charles in the Cell from the Chiesa della Pas- 
sione at Milan. To this school also belong some 
vivid still-life pieces by Baschenis, Boselli and 
Crivellone, with musical instruments, articles of 
silver, fish and poultry. 

At Genoa, the genius of Strozzi gave to his 
contemporaries greater knowledge of the charac- 
teristics of the race ; hence we witness the de- 
velopment of articles of expressive imagination 
and robust technique like Domenico Piola, An- 
saldo, the De Ferraris and others here repre- 
sented. Further, the influence of Van Dyck with 
his flowing and delightful brushwork attracts 
the younger artists, like Valerio Castello, Bis- 
caino and Benedetto Castiglione, whereas Ba- 
ciccio at Rome gets drawn into the whirlpool of 
the following of Pietro da Cortona, giving ex- 
pression in painting to the ideals of Bernini. 
As regards the last great Genoese painter, Mag- 
nasco, we can follow him in the development of 
his fantastic spirit and sparkling brushwork 
across his caves peopled with gipsies and his 
monasteries in which Ariost's restlessness seems 
to tremble. And his brilliant technique had a 
great influence on the development of Settecento 
art, since a pupil of his was Marco Ricci, from 
whom descend the Venetian school of landscape 
painting and Guardi's spirited and sparkling 
technique of sketching. 

Thus, all the most vital currents of Seicento 
art — from the Neapolitan to the Bolognese, from 
the Roman to the Genoese — meet in Venice to 
create the last great National School. 

Of the first imaginative colourist of the 
school, Sebastiano Ricci, we may quote some 
canvases of his early manner decorating here in 
Florence, the ancient Palazzo Marucelli, and of 
a later period, one of his most carefully wrought 
masterpieces, the pala from S. Alessandro in 
Colonna at Bergamo. Pittoni captivates us 
through his decorative elegance, in the end 
somewhat after the French fashion. 

Powerful through his dramatic strength and 
vigour of colour i.« the impression conveyed by 
Piazzetta in masterpieces like the Immacolata 
from Parma, the Ecstasy of St. Francis from 
Vicenza, the Decollation of the Baptist from 
Padua, etc. [compare Plate III, e]. Among his 
pupils we here learn to know and appreciate Cap- 
pello, who produced, especially at Bergamo, 



70 




E — Judith and Holofcrucs, bv Piazzetta. Canvas. (Lazzaroni Collection, Rome) 









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E 


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F — Christ in the Cardcn, by Giuseppe Bazzani. Canvas. (Prof. Podio, Bologna) 



Plate III. The Seirento and Settecento Exhibition in I-'lorcnce 



I 



^3 




G Martyrdom of SS. Ritffiua and Seconda, by Morazzone. Crespi and Procaccini. Canvas. (Brera, 

Milan) 

Plate IV. The Seicento and Settecento Exhihiticin in Florence 











A—St Agatha, English, early B—SS. Barbara, Jerome, Catherine, Eloy and Veronica. English, 

14th century ' third quarter of the 14th century. (No. 20) 

Plate I. Unidentified English Embroideries in the Museum Cinquantenaire in Brussels 



works of distinguished quality, like those which 
decorate the Casa Bonomi and the Casa Maz- 
zocchi. 

Tiepolo specially displays his robust tempera- 
ment in youthful works influenced by Piazzetta, 
as in the grandiose scorci from Ospedaletto and 
certain little scenes hitherto attributed to Ricci 
and others. Of his better-known manner we can 
here admire the magnificent Querini portrait, the 
luminous pala from Noventa Vicentina and the 
Baptism of Constantine from the parish church 
of Folzano in the province of Brescia. 

From the brush of anotlier Venetian, variously 
influenced, who brought credit to his native 
city wandering through Europe, viz., Jacopo 
Amigoni, there are some small allegories which 
are rather charming in their floury and milky 
technique; and also some sumptuous portraits. 

A canvas contributed from Berlin is signed 
Giovanni Antonio Guardi, and shows us the 
elder brother of the famous vedute painter as 
the author of certain pictures of pleasing colour 
but weak construction, gathered together in this 
exhibition, thus helping to solve the problem of 
Francesco's youthful work as a figure painter, 
which recently has attracted attention. Close by 
we find gathered a score of the most precious 
paintings by Francesco Guardi, from the small 
and sparkling gems of the Cagnola and Ber- 
gamo Collections to the marvellous vedute of 
Casa Moroni, the Louvre and Mr. Walter Burns 
of London. Around them are grouped interiors 
by Longhi, pastels by Rosalba, landscapes by 



Marco Ricci, Zuccarelli, Zais and Marieschi, 
Venetian pageants by Carlevaris, and so on. Of 
the two Canalettos, Bellotto is seen to greater 
advantage with masterpieces like the Views of 
Dresden, of Turin, and of Gazzada. 

A Venetian influence may be traced in a Man- 
tuan artist, Giuseppe Bazzani, who adapts to 
forms of exceedingly Baroque but expressive 
character a sfumato technique of living and 
tremulous shades, achieving a most delicate 
decorative effect [compare Plate III, f]. 

Currents in Settecento art of definite origin- 
ality may be traced at Bologna in the Gandolfi, 
the fantastic scenographers of the Bibbiena 
school, like I^igari, who is here well represented 
with admirable perspectives. With these we 
may connect Pannini — a Piacenzan by birth, 
but Roman by adoption — the greatest painter 
of architectural subjects and ceremonial scenes, 
who also exercised such a great influence on 
Canaletto. By Pannini there are here two vast 
canvases with views of the Quirinal, contributed 
from the coffee house of the Royal Gardens, 
the Opening of the Porta Santa belonging to 
Mr. Gutekunst, the Interiors of S. Pietro and 
S. Agnese belonging to Mr. Langton Doug- 
las, etc. 

At the end of the century there comes a weird 
series of macabre scenes for the catafalque of 
S. Grata at Bergano, with skeletons dressed up 
as peasants, as Napoleonic soldiers and artists, 
the work of Paolo Vincenzo Borromini, the last 
decorator with the Tiepolesque technique. 




UNIDENTIFIED ENGLISH EMBROIDERIES IN THE MUSEUM 
CINQUANTENAIRE IN BRUSSELS 
BY GEORGE SAVILLE SELIGMAN 

HAVE pointed out before now that 

the facts which constitute the history 

of the art of embroidery, and indeed 

of any art, cannot be accepted with- 
' out reserve, as is the case in mathe- 
matical science. It is therefore very difficult to 
attribute this or that embroidery to a country 
with certainty, more especially as, until the 
twelfth century, many workers emigrated from 
Greece to Sicily, and later on English embroi- 
deries settled in Italy and in France. Their 
work shows variations from native art, and a 
fusion of styles was not effected for a long time. 
Francis I, for example, summoned Italian 
embroiderers to Fontainebleau and Paris, 
Marie de Medici caused workers in embroideries 
and tapisserie au point to be brought from 
Constantinople; Flemish workers flooded Spain 
throughout the sixteenth century with the tapes- 
tries and embroideries in which they excelled, 
while, apart from such direct influences, imports 



and exports passed constantly between one 
country and another, and the great fairs to 
which objects of art were brought contri- 
buted in many cases to deflect to a slight degree 
the purity of the traditional design and 
workmanship of each country. However, 
the artist subjected to alien influences preserved 
in certain details and in his technique the char- 
acteristics peculiar to his own land. It is those 
faint traces of origin that afford for the experi- 
enced eye to-day the surest clue to nationality. 
The first duty of the museums is to give us 
the material necessary for the avoidance of 
errors, by the exhibition of choice and charac- 
teristic examples of indisputable authenticity. 
At South Kensington this is very completely 
achieved. The authorities there certainly 
realise that though an exhibit may be given to 
a certain country, it may not faithfully represent 
its style, and where a false identification is 
detected it is at once corrected. Unfortunately 



75 



this is not always the case elsewhere. In the 
Louvre, for example, an embroidery represent- 
ing the life of St. Martin, unmistakably of the 
thirteenth century, is described as fifteenth 
century. 

There is displayed in the fine Museum du 
Cinquantenaire in Brussels a marvellous collec- 
tion of embroideries belonging to the well- 
known collector and scholar Mme. Errera, who 
is at the head of the textile department. I exam- 
ined there a superb altarpiece [Exhibit No. 22 in 
the Museum] depicting scenes from the life of S. 
Martin, which was not attributed to any school, 
but which, from its technique, is clearly Italian. 
For the moment, however, I will refer only to 
certain English embroideries in the Museum du 
Cinquantenaire which have not so far been cata- 
logued as such. 

One of the most beautiful copes in existence 
[Plate II, c, e] (No. g) depicting the martyrdom 
of the Apostles, is described as French of the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century ; this is a mis- 
take, the work is English, opus anglicanum, and 
belongs to the last quarter of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It is worked in point couch^ retir^, gaufr^ 
and fendu.' The ground work is certainly in 
the style of the English embroiderers, with its 
regular and geometrical design, spreading out 
over the cloth as though every stitch were 
counted with mathematical conscientiousness 
and care. Another essentially English charac- 
teristic of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
is the fantastic colour of the hair and beards, 
which is blue, green and yellow; a further detail, 
equally English, is the shaven upper lip; while 
another important characteristic always to be 
found in opus anglicanum of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries is the spiral use of the stitch 
for the cheek. The architecture is curious, and 
I have noticed in the columns depicted an 
element peculiar to English architecture — the 

>, 2 Illustrations and descriptions of these stitches are given 
in De Farcy's La Broderie, Plates 1, III and text. 

RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE 
BY SIR CHARLES HOLMES 

ROM the decorative standpoint, no 
recent acquisition to the Gallery can 
be compared with the picture of The 
Holy Trinity with Angels [Plate 
I, a], which has just been purchased 
by the Trustees from Messrs. Cassirer, of Ber- 
lin. Yet, while almost all the rest of the Collec- 
tion can be definitely ascribed, if not to some 
particular master, at least to some particular 
school, the origin of this important and striking 
work has been a matter of dispute. The reproduc- 
tion given here will indicate the general plan of 




quatre feuilles ; I have remarked that generally 
in English embroideries the pinnacles are not 
cut by cornices or pediments as in French Gothic 
architecture, but are ornamented by quatre 
foils. Although in this case the quatre foils 
is at the base of the column, it is identical with 
those in the middle. As to the period, 
after a glance at the folds of the costumes ren- 
dered by a single line, one cannot attribute the 
cope to any century but the thirteenth. 

In the following embroideries it will be un- 
necessary to revert to the familiar tech- 
nique of opus anglicanum of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries ; all show it unmistakably ; 
for example [Plate II, d] depicting St. Jacques 
and St. John the Baptist in point couch^ retir^ and 
fendu.^ But here we have also the arches with 
five lobes which are only found in English work 
of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies. This embroidery is catalogued as being 
of the fourteenth, and without any indication of 
its origin; it is certainly English and of the be- 
ginning of fourteenth century. 

The three examples on Plate II, g (No. lo), 
representing episodes in the life of St. John the 
Evangelist, strike a single note — fourteenth cen- 
tury. They all bear the marks of opus anglica- 
num and are, like the preceding example, of the 
first quarter of the century. Plate I, B (No. 
20), catalogued as Flemish, is also English 
work of the third quarter of the same century. 

The copes catalogued 25 [Plate II, f], 26, 
26b, are covered with floral ornaments and 
cherubims in appliqud work which is only to be 
found in the English embroideries of the late 
fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. 

This short summary shows to what extent 
the Museum du Cinquantenaire is of interest 
for the study of opus anglicanum ; the more so 
as I have only quoted the principal examples, 
which together with a certain number of others 
make a collection worthy of the most thorough 
and thoughtful study. 

NATIONAL GALLERY 



the picture, which measures 46 inches by 
45 inches, but can give no idea of the colour, 
on which the effect of the design in a measure 
depends. The work is executed on canvas 
stretched over a stout panel. The background is 
of gold, in excellent preservation, on the white 
ground, which, I am told, is characteristic of 
French work. The architectural throne is of 
pale stone colour, relieved against an arcade 
of purple above and at the sides, the purple 
being repeated in a much paler tone in the 
extreme foreground. The shadows of the lower 



76 




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,4 — The Holy Trinity ivilh Angels. French School, circa 1400. Canvas on panel. 
1 .08 m. by 1 .06 m. 




B—Holy Faniily, by Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra Canvas, 0.91 m. by 1.16 m. 
Plate I — Recent additions to the National Gallery 



arches are filled in with green, the lining of the 
robe of the Almighty is apple-green, so are the 
dress of the angel to the right, and the wings of 
the angel on the left. This diagonal of apple- 
green is contrasted with the rosy red of the 
Almighty's robe, the red wings of the angel to 
the right, and the red dress of the angel to the 
left. The angels' dresses are painted over the 
gold ground, which is " reserved " to show the 
rich semi-oriental patterns. The scrolls at their 
girdles bear the usual pseudo-Kufic inscrip- 
tions, and have at one time been coloured with 
a crimson of which all but a few traces have 
vanished. The heads of the Almighty and the 
angels are laid in with a grisaille preparation, 
on which the pinkish flesh tint are super- 
posed, but the expression of the heads and 
hands is somewhat conventional and shows 
much less experience and observation than the 
figure upon the Cross. Three sides of the 
original frame remain covered, like the ground 
of the picture, with gilded gesso upon canvas, 
and finely tooled. Marks of hinges at the side 
show that the picture once possessed wings or 
shutters, while the back of the panel is washed 
over with a thin coat of white on which a foli- 
ated pattern in terra verde has been swept in 
by some practised hand. The panel has the 
appearance of pine or fir-wood, but I have not 
yet had an opportunity of submitting it to any 
specialist in wood work. 

The picture was acquired in Florence a short 
time ago, and is said to have come from Pied- 
mont from a member of the Italian Royal 
House. In view of this origin it was ascribed 
at the time of its purchase to the school of 
Avignon, but this ascription was naturally 
called in question when it reached Berlin. The 
Teutonic elements in the colour and the treat- 
ment of the faces led some to ascribe it to the 
school of the Bodensee. Others noticed its re- 
semblance to the small picture from the Weber 
Collection, now in the Berlin Gallery, repre- 
senting the Holy Trinity with the four Evan- 
gelists. This is said to have come from the 
Chartreuse of Champmol, where Broederlam 
and others worked, and so leads our thoughts 
towards France. And the forms of the drapery, 
the general design of the Almighty's figure 
and of the throne on which He sits, point in 
the same direction. 

In 1896 M. de Lasteyrie drew attention to the 
miniatures of Andr^ Beauneveu and Jacquemart 
de Hesdin. Ten years later Mr. Fry's dis- 
covery of the sketch book by Jacquemart, which 
passed into the Pierpont Morgan Collection, 
and was admirably described and reproduced in 
the Burlington Magazine (October, 1906), 
added immensely to our knowledge of that 
master's genius. More recently the available 



facts about these two famous names have been 
summed up by Sir Martin Conway. Now we 
find a group of the Trinity, practically identical 
with the centre part of our picture, adorning 
Jacquemart's Petites Heures at Paris (Bib. Nat. 
18014), while the general scheme of the figure 
and throne is similar to that of the figures in 
Beauneveu 's Psalter in the same Collection 
(MS. Fr. 13091).' 

Only one deduction seems possible, namely, 
that our picture, and the smaller and clumsier 
work from the Weber Collection, are directly 
derived from this group of Miniaturists work- 
ing for the Due de Berri between 1370 and 1415. 
Our picture itself is indeed more in the nature 
of a glorified and enlarged miniature than a 
strictly pictorial design. To this enlargement 
is due perhaps a certain emptiness as compared 
with the closely-knit patterns, and scrupulous 
filling of spaces, which we find in the very few 
other pictures of the time on a similar scale, 
but to it also we owe the radiant breadth and 
vividness of the decorative effect. It has long 
been felt that the art of Stepan Lochner was 
probably derived from the work of these minia- 
turists (Flemish by origin for the most part) 
who worked for the great lords of France at the 
end of the fourteenth century. In our picture 
we have, it would seem, a proof of this con- 
nection — a definite link between the school of 
Jacquemart de Hesdin and the school of 
Cologne, and so a historical document of the 
first importance as well as a rare and remark- 
able work of art. 

The most depressing of the Rooms at Trafal- 
gar Square was undoubtedly that in which the 
lesser works of the Spanish School were hung. 
Notwithstanding a noble Ribera, the Boar 
Hunt by Velasquez, and some excellent little 
paintings by Greco and Goya, the result was 
neither representative of the school nor satis- 
factory as decoration. Where the general 
artistic level is so high as at Trafalgar Square 
it is perhaps open to argument whether the 
lesser Spanish painters deserve on their merits 
to find any place. Yet since want of space in 
the larger Spanish Room compelled the housing 
of several fine things in this annexe, it was 
clearly desirable to improve so far as possible 
the company which they have to keep there. 
The purchase of the seated figure of St. Paul, 
that curious anticipation of Whistler's Luxem- 
bourg picture, was the first step. The name of 
Ribalta has been suggested by one famous 
authority. The painting of the hands certainly 
resembles that in Ribalta's St. Peter from 
Valencia, which was seen at Burlington House 



1 Reproductions will be found attached to M. de Las- 
teyrie's article in Piot. " Monuments," vol. Ill, pp. 71-119- 



81 



in the winter of 1920-21 ; but tliis resemblance 
is hardly sufficient to warrant definite baptism. 
Another addition to the nation's Spanish paint- 
ings has been found in the Gallery itself. Many 
visitors will remember the Peasants warming 
themselves [Plate II, c] (No. 1444), which 
for many years bore the name of Honthorst, 
and was supposed to illustrate the manner which 
gained him the nickname of " Gherardo della 
Notte." This attribution had long been ques- 
tioned, and various other names proposed, none 
with any convincing evidence. But a short 
time ago when reconsidering the picture with 
Mr. Gleadowe, he suggested to me that the 
work was not Dutch at all but Spanish. A 
moment's thought showed this suggestion to be 
correct. It explained at once the types, the 
colouring, and the handling with its loose, for- 
cible impasto. Further, a search among photo- 
graphs of the Spanish School led to the im- 
mediate discovery of the painter. In the 
interesting Collection of Spanish pictures at 
Budapest, there is a study of an old man's head 
by Josd Martinez (No. 324), which is technic- 
ally identical in style with our picture. A second 
picture representing the mocking of Job (No. 
290), with its exaggerated drama, still further 
illustrates the resemblance. Like Honthorst, 
Martinez studied the works of the Naturalisti 
in Rome at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, so that it is not altogether surprising 
that this work done under their immediate in- 
fluence should have passed for so long as Hon- 
thorst's. 

A third addition to the Spanish pictures in 
the Gallery has been made more recently as 
part of a generous gift from Sir Henry 
Howorth. Among the pictures so acquired was 
a Holy Family [Plate I, b] measuring .91 m. 
by 1. 13 m., in a contemporary frame of Spanish 
walnut, most elaborately and skilfully carved. 
This Holy Family, if not a painting of quite the 
first rank, is a work of a vigorous and personal 
artist, who may be identified, I think, beyond 
question with the Cordovan master, Antonio 
Castillo y Saavedra. The later paintings of 
Castillo show a blending of many influences, 
but the signed Pastoral of his earlier time, when 
he was studying at Seville, is conclusive evi- 
dence of his authorship of our picture. It is 
reproduced in C. Gasquoine Hartley's " Record 
of Spanish Painting " (p. 162). The peculiar 
construction of the head of St. Joseph with the 
aquiline nose and projecting lower jaw is charac- 
teristic, it may be noted, of Castillo's work at 
all periods. Though Zurbaran is said to have 
been his first master, the predominant influence 
both in our picture, and in the Pastoral re- 
ferred to above, is evidently that of the Bassani. 
In the sixteenth century their work had been 



introduced to Charles V by Titian, and from 
the additional purchases made in the time of 
Philip IV by Velasquez and others, it is clear 
that the reputation of the Bassani in Spain was 
much higher than is commonly thought. Cas- 
tillo's critics call him no colourist, but in our 
picture there are vivid and original notes of red 
and orange, which are much fresher to our 
modern eyes than the conventional Italianised 
tones of his better known contemporaries. 

Sir Henry Howorth's gift, in memory of 
Lady Howorth, made through the National 
Art Collections Fund, includes three other pic- 
tures. Of these the charming predella repre- 
senting the Nativity [Plate II, e] is already 
well known to students of Italian art, through 
exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 
1907. At that time it went by the name of Pesel- 
lino. " Studio of Masaccio " would now seem 
a more accurate description, even if we do not 
go so far as the new edition of Crowe and Caval- 
caselle, and give it definitely to Masaccio's 
assistant, Andrea di Giusto. The exact parallel 
may be found in the panel at Berlin, No. 58E, 
illustrating miracles of St. Julian and St. Nich- 
olas, where we find a similar use of large empty 
spaces, while the figure of one of the maidens 
dowered by St. Nicholas is almost identical with 
that of the woman warming clothes at the fire 
in our picture. The dimensions of the panel, 
too (.22 m. by .65 m.), allowing for the margins 
at the end, are practically the same as those of 
the Berlin panels. The presence of the Star in 
the sky, it may be noted, is suggested not only 
by the unsatisfactory bunch of gilt rays and 
the gesture of the two shepherds below, but 
also by the shadow which the engaging donkey 
casts upon the ground. 

From the same source come two pictures of 
the Dutch School. The earlier is a panel 
measuring .67 m. by .43 m. representing the 
Birth of the Virgin, with the return of the Dove 
to the Ark and Balaam's prophecy of the Star 
that shall come from Jacob as subsidiary 
episodes Though by no means a work of the 
first importance, it represents a characteristic 
phase of Dutch art at the opening of the six- 
teenth century, and is in fine condition. The 
second picture is a portrait of two boys on can- 
vas measuring 56 cm, by 58 cm. [Plate II, d]. 
The full tone and rich colour of the piece no 
doubt accounted for the old attribution to Tin- 
toret. But the more modern ascription to 
Jacob Van Oost the Elder is the correct one. 
Van Oost after becoming a master in the Bruges 
Guild at the age of twenty travelled to Rome 
where he spent five years. But he did not con- 
tent himself with studying the Italians. It is 
clear that Van Dyck and Rembrandt were 
among his models, and his remarkable picture 



82 





C — Peasants ivariiiing themselves, by Jose 
Martinez. Canvas, 96 cm. by 80 cm. 



I^—Two Bays, by Jacolj Van Oost tlie Elder. Canvas, 
56 cm. by 58 cm. 




E — Tlie Xativitv. Siudid nt Ma.saccio. Panel, 22 cm. bv 65 cm. 



Plate 11. RiTciU additions Id ihe National (iallcry 




A — St. Sebastian, by Titian. 
Petersburg) 



Canvas. 2.12 m. by 1.16 m. (Hermitage, St. 



Plate I— Some reflections on the last phase of Titian 




in the Gallery at Lyons of a young man receiv- 
ing a letter shows him to be a thoroughly ac- 
complished student of the great masters. I do 
not remember clearly his more ambitious work 
in the Bruges Museum, but the close re- 
semblance of this Lyons picture to our own, 
especially in the handling of the head seen in 
profile on the right, makes the attribution prac- 
tically certain. Since the recollection both of 
Van Dyck and Italy is here still fresh, we may 
assume the painting to be a comparatively early 
work executed between 1630 and 1640. The at- 
tractive and popular portrait. No. 1137, which 

SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 

N any discussion of the last phase of 
Titian's career, a question which al- 
most automatically demands atten- 
^ tion at the outset is that of the age 

ffi~V y-ISto which Titian actually lived. As is 
well known, the traditional notion, that Titian 
had reached the age of ninety-nine when carried 
off by the plague in August, 1576, and that he 
was thus born about 1477, was first contested 
some twenty years ago by Sir Herbert Cook. 
The traditional view found a champion in Dr. 
Gronau, and the two sides of the case may be 
found conveniently stated in the second edition 
of Sir Herbert's monograph on Giorgione, and 
his later volume Reviews and Appreciations. 
Briefly, the case for a revision of the traditional 
date is, for one thing, that certain statements by 
Lodovico Dolce and Vasari as to the age of 
Titian at different periods of his life — state- 
ments which are independent of one another^ — 
point consistently to the years 1488-9 as the 
time of Titian's birth ; and, further, that the con- 
temporary statements which make Titian a 
centenarian at the time of his death occur in 
begging letters, written either by Titian him- 
self or on his behalf by agents of the King of 
Spain, and therefore not unlikely to have ex- 
aggerated the age of the person in whose favour 
they were pleading. 

To the case now summarised and, as will be 
seen, certainly not devoid of a considerable 
amount of plausibility. Dr. Gronau objects, 
among other things, that Vincenzo Borghini, 
writing in 1584 — or only eight years after Titian's 
death — gives his age at his death as ninety-eight 
or ninety-nine; and points out that the probable 
dates of certain early pictures by Titian, if the 
latter was born in 1488-9, would make them the 
works of a lad of fourteen or fifteen — a con- 
clusion which would obviously be difficult to 
uphold. 

I have reminded my readers of this con- 
troversy — which necessarily is of great signifi- 



we already possess from his hand is dated 1650, 
and proves that in later life Van Oost conformed 
to the prevalent fashion of his country and with 
no little success. It has even gained a place in 
our literature, for it is always said to be the por- 
trait mentioned by Walter Pater in his " Sebas- 
tian Van Storck." But there is a charm, too, 
in Van Oost's earlier work, for unlike most 
eclectics he did not allow his studies to deprive 
him of his delight in the freshness of youthful 
faces, or of his sense of humour, as the Hogar- 
thian grisaille, illustrating the story of Gideon, 
in our new picture indicates. 

LAST PHASE OF TITIAN 



cance in its bearing on the history of Vene- 
tian Cinquecento painting — because of late some 
fresh evidence strengthening the case for the 
traditional view has been brought forward in a 
German art review, without, as I believe, at- 
tracting a very general attention.' Part of this 
evidence is contained in certain passages of 
two letters from Pietro Aretino. One, writ- 
ten in 1542 and addressed to Titian, congratu- 
lates him on his delightful portrait of the little 
daughter of Roberto Strozzi (now in the Berlin 
Museum); and in it occurs the phrase " certo 
che il pennel vostro ha riserbato i suoi miracoli 
nella maturity della vecchiezza." The conten- 
tion is that an expression like " the ripeness of 
old age " is surely more applicable to the age 
of sixty-five than to that af fifty-two of fifty- 
three. Similarly, statements by Titian as to him- 
self, which occur in a letter from Aretino of 
1547, seem also more easily reconcilable with 
a more advanced age at the time than would 
be his if the date of 1488-9 for his birth be 
accepted. Still more important in its bearings 
on the question now before us, in the state- 
ment which, according to Dr. Waldmann, 
Marino Sanuto makes as to Titian's age when 
he painted the Assunta; he says, as reported by 
Dr. Waldmann, that Titian was then forty 
years of age, and as the Assunta was solemnly 
unveiled on May 20th, 1518, in its place above 
the high altar of the Frari — to which it has 
lately returned — a simple operation of subtrac- 
tion takes us to the year 1478 as that of Titian's 
birth.^" 

It is, of course, in its relation to questions 

1 See E. Waldmann, " Zur Frage von Tizians Geburts- 
jahr " in Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt, Jan. 21, 1921 ; and 
communications from Dr. Waldmann and Signer Guido 
Battelli, ibid., March II, 1921. 

2 Dr. Waldmann 's statement as to what Sanuto says is 
quite definite ; without wishing to question it, I may, how- 
ever, point out that the reference to Titian's age dors not 
occur in the context where one most naturally would look 
for it, the memorandum of the unveiling of the Assunta 
(see Marino Sanuto, I Diarii, vol. xxv [1889], col. 418). 

87 



concerning the early work and development of 
Titian that the problem as to whether he reached 
the age of ninety-nine has its biggest signifi- 
cance. Artistically, it may be said that it was 
about 1555 that he entered his old age — not, 
indeed, a period of decay, but on the contrary 
the one which marks the culmination of his 
greatness as an artist and which is distinguished 
technically by a previously unparalleled free- 
dom and breadth of handling and richness of 
atmosphere ; the method of working being by 
masses of colour, which when looked into 
at close quarters seem to resolve themselves 
into a chaos of pigments, but with every stroke 
put in with an unerring sense of the total effect 
at some distance. It may be that the failing 
eyesight of the aged master had something to 
do with his adoption of this style of painting; 
but it is a style which has an absolutely inde- 
pendent raison d'etre and needs no explanations 
or apologies of any kind; indeed, if it sprang 
from physical disabilities, these should rather, 
in M. Jens Thiis' happy phrase,^ be regarded 
as Nature's last great gift to the artist. And 
as a parallel to the case of many a modern 
master, it is curious to observe how the charge 
that the picture " looked unfinished " was also 
made against Titian by some of his contem- 
poraries. I may recall in this connection the 
unusual signature appearing on the superb pic- 
ture of the Annunciation painted by Titian 
about 1560 for the Church of San Salvatore in 
Venice; the word " fecit " is twice repeated on 
it — " Titianus fecit fecit." The explanation is 
that the worthy monks of San Salvatore did not 
think the picture finished enough, and made 
representations to Titian, but instead of com- 
plying with their request for more finish, Titian 
simply repeated his signature as an emphatic 
confirmation of the fact that he had completely 
carried out his task in accordance with his inten- 
tions and that nothing more could be done to 
the picture. 

As is well known, it is in the Royal Collec- 
tions of Spain — in the Prado and the Escorial — 
that one finds the most representative and ex- 
tensive series of examples of Titian's last man- 
ner, thanks to his incessant work for Philip II — 
even considerable depletions have not suc- 
ceeded in reducing this series to a secondary 
importance. A collection of late Titians, which, 
if it remains a long way behind the Spanish one, 
is nevertheless of exceptional interest and impor- 
tance, has ever since the middle of the last 
century belonged to the Hermitage. This is 
the collection which passed into the possession 
of the Barbarigo family, when, in 1581, Ti- 
tian's son, Pomponio, sold to Cristoforo Barbari- 

3 See his brilliant essay on Venetian painting in the 
catalogue of M. Christian Langaard's Collection (privately 
printed, Christiania, 1913). 



go, the house of Titian with all its contents, in- 
cluding a number of pictures which had hung in 
Titian's studio at the time of his death.* Having 
long been an ornament of the Palazzo Bar- 
barigo " alia Terrazza " on the Grand Canal, 
the greater part of this collection was in 1850 
acquired by the Emperor of Russia. Some of 
the Titians in the Barbarigo Collection^ — like 
the Toilet of Venus and the Repentant Mag- 
dalen — count among the most celebrated pos- 
sessions of the Hermitage. Less known are some 
'quite late examples, of which one is here re- 
produced [Plate I, a], the magnificent full 
length of St. Sebastian, which indeed, until 
1892, was not deemed worthy of a place in the 
exhibition galleries, the reason being in all 
probability that the taste of previous genera- 
tions was startled and shocked by the freedom 
and boldness of technique which here have 
been carried to lengths beyond which it may be 
doubted whether even the old Titian himself 
ever went. 

One feels naturally some diffidence in sug- 
gesting additions to the extant ceuvre of an 
artist whose standard is so tremendous as the 
late Titian's is; but I should nevertheless like 
to call attention to a picture, which to my mind 
in many ways displays so remarkable an affinity 
to his manner as to justify an ascription to him. 
The picture in question was formerly in the 
collection of Colonel W. Cornwallis-West, its 
earlier history being, so far as I have been able 
to ascertain, a blank; it is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. A. L. Nicholson. There is no 
mention of it in art literature previous to its 
being shown at the exhibition of pictures by 
Titian and his contemporaries, held at the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club in the summer of 1914 
(No. 47). 

As may be seen from the accompanying re- 
production [Plate II, b] the picture shows the 
half-length figure of Judith, holding in her right 
hand a sword and in her left hand the head of 
Holofernes which she is dropping into an open 
sack, held by a negro page, whose head and 
shoulders appear in the lower right hand corner 
of the composition. The heroine is dressed in a 
white chemise with a yellow scarf, and the silk 
dress of the attendant is also yellow. A rose- 
purple drapery forms a background to the figures. 

That the picture in a general way is akin to 
the work of the old Titian must, I think, be 
evident at first sight ; but we possess, more- 
over, specific evidence that a composition more 
or less on these lines may be coupled with his 
name. During the seventeenth century, there 
was in the great collection of the Archduke 
Leopold Wilhelm at Brussels, so particularly 
strong in Venetian pictures, a painting given 

* Compare for the above facts, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
Titian, (1877), i, 114. 



88 




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to Titian which cannot now be traced, but of 
which an engraving (by L. Vorsterman) exists 
in the volume l^nown as Theatrum Pictorium 
(1660) in which the whole collection is engraved 
from copies of the pictures, made by the keeper 
of the collection, David Teniers. The en- 
gravings in this book invariably reverse the 
compositions ; so I have had the engraving 
which here interests us, reversed [Plate II, c] 
which automatically gives us the disposition 
of the original. The facial type of the heroine, 
the bend of her head, the placing of both her 
arms, the figure of the negro page — all these 
are points upon which the closest resemblance 
with the picture belonging to Mr. Nicholson 
may be detected. Only, the two pictures are dif- 
ferent in subject, the lost one being a Salome 
with the Head of St. John the Baptist ; and 
among other variations, which need not be 
analysed at length, the engraved picture shows 
an additional figure, namely, that of an old 
woman. For pictures of the period of Titian, 
the ascriptions in the Archduke's catalogue are 
generally worthy of serious consideration :. so 
here we have a not unimportant piece of evi- 
dence, connecting a kindred design with Titian, 
whose inclination to repeat his compositions with 
modifications of varying extent is well known. 

All this is, however, touching the fringe of 
the problem. The decisive answer as to the 
authorship has to come from the picture itself. 
And here it seems to me that the indications, 
if we begin with the character of the forms, 
are very strongly in favour of Titian. The 
features of the head of Judith show, I think, a 



very close resemblance to those of the nymph 
in that marvellous work of Titian's old age, the 
Nymph and the Shepherd, now in the Gallery 
of Vienna, and the drawing of the hands also 
strikes me as remarkably similar in both pic- 
tures. The head of the figure of Religion in the 
picture of Spain succouring Religion in the 
Prado may also be brought in for comparison. 

The all-important test in a case like this is, 
however, that of the treatment of colour ; and 
in this respect, it appears to me that the greater 
part of the picture displays very clearly that 
marvellous swiftness and looseness of touch, and 
that incomparable command of atmosphere, 
which are Titian's, and Titian's only, and to 
which the closest parallels may be found both in 
the St. Sebastian of the Hermitage and, again, 
the Nymph and Shepherd at Vienna. It is es- 
pecially in a passage like that of the left arm of 
Judith that one discovers that endless richness 
of delicate modulations, which is so character- 
istic of the last phase of Titian. Again, to a 
detail like the painting of the silk sleeve of the 
negro page, a passage in the portrait of Jacopo 
di Strada (1568) in the Gallery at Vienna, offers 
an illuminating parallel. The head of Judith 
has, unfortunately, suffered from retouching, 
and I regard it as not impossible that that is 
the result of an attempt ti remove the impres- 
sion of a " lack of finish " ; but the remainder 
of the picture seems to me to be of a quality 
which should remove any doubt as to its being 
a work which may be added to the list of 
surviving examples of Titian's last and greatest 
phase. 

THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE ARTS IN 
RELATION TO ESTHETIC THEORY IN GENERAL' 
BY G. BALDWIN BROWN 




NTHROPOLOGICAL science, in 
its dealings with the earlier stages 
of human development, may dis- 
cover truths that bear on our inter- 
, pretation of the more complicated 
phenomena of advanced civilisation. This cer- 
tainly applies in the domain of art, for there are 
fundamental conditions of artistic activity that 
remain always the same, and it is the purpose 
of what follows to endeavour to find in some of 
the earliest phenomena of art, principles of uni- 
versal application that may be assumed to be at 
work in the more advanced periods, though this 
working be under elaborate modern conditions 
not easy to trace. 

The earliest phenomena of art are partly to 
be studied among primitive peoples of the 

' A paper read at the Edinburgh meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, September, 1921, 
in the Section of Anthropology. 



modern world, who, like the Australian abori- 
gines, the almost extinct Bushmen of Africa, or 
the Eskimo, are still in the hunter stage, and 
partly in the remains that have come down to 
us through thousands of years from the period 
of the pakeolithic cave dwellers. Most forms of 
art are already represented under these primi- 
tive conditions, though the origins of architec- 
ture are neolithic. Graphic design, sculpture, 
the decoration of the person and the implement 
in form and colour, are palaeolithic; and the 
same is true of the dance, though for this par- 
ticular form of art we turn naturally to modern 
savages, amongst whom, especially in Australia, 
it has received an extraordinary development. 
Direct evidence of the existence of the cere- 
monial dance among the cave dwellers is gener- 
ally recognised as afforded by the now well- 
known painting in the cave at Cogul, near 
Lerida, in north-eastern Spain (Fig. i). 



91 



where nine women seem to be circling round 
a figure, or an effigy, of a man. Since 
many of the savage dances of to-day are 
of mimetic character, as we l<now was also the 
case in ancient Greece, we find in such primi- 
tive performances the origin of the drama, and, 
to some extent, through the ever-present 



Aristotle with their unfortunate doctrine of 
fiiMfrK, " imitation," established the theory, 
and it was enforced with desperate earnestness 
by writers of the Italian Renaissance such as 
Leonardo da Vinci and Vasari, while in our 
own day the Pre-Raphaelites, with their spokes- 
man, John Ruskin, have extolled " truth to 




L^- 



orchestra, of music. The most interesting of 
all these early forms of art are the drawings and 
relief sculpture of the palaeolithic cave dwellers 
of western France and of Spain. These are 
now quite familiar, at least as regards their 
general character, and it will be sufficient here 
to remind readers that they consist for the most 
part in representations of animals, remarkable 
for their variety, their spirit, and their accuracy. 
These will be noticed in the sequel, but 
Figs. 2 and 3, some studies from the heads of 
chamois and a noble Altamira bison, may be 
taken as characteristic examples. Fig. 4, a 
piece of mammoth tusk with a sketch upon it 
of that now extinct mammal, will be referred to 
later on. 

As has been said, the purpose of this paper 
is to extract from the phenomena of art in primi- 
tive times those points of interest which bear on 
artistic principles under discussion to-day, and 
such a point at once emerges when we consider 
these life-like images. Superficially regarded 
they may seem to exemplify the principle of the 
exact copying of nature, which in the popular 
belief governs the art of painting. Plato and 



nature " as the be-all and end-all of the repre- 
sentative arts. More recently still the favour of 
" The God of things as they are " has been spe- 
cially invoked for accurate copies of His work. 
In this, some would say, there is only a further 
assertion of a principle established some 20,000 
years ago by the palaeolithic carvers and en- 
gravers. Everyone, however, who is acquainted 
with the present trend of artistic thought, knows 
that this principle is now repudiated by both 
artists and critics. Resemblance to nature plays 
a most important part in the effect of painting 
and sculpture, but it is not of their essence — it 
is a means to the end at which they aim, but not 
an end in itself. Painting and sculpture aim 
not at copying nature, but at producing an 
aesthetic impression by the presentation of cer- 
tain figures and objects similar to those 
which are familiar to us in nature, and 
with which certain associations are con- 
nected in our minds. In order that the 
figures and objects thus presented by the 
arts should appeal to these associations, and in 
this way affect our thoughts and emotions, they 
must be sufficiently like their natural proto- 



92 



types to be recognised as the kind of things they 
are, and this verisimilitude can only in prac- 
tice be secured by a close study of nature, and, 
where practicable, a constant reference to nature 
during the progress of the work. The resultant 
figures and objects are creations, not reproduc- 
tions, but they are created in accordance with 
the established forms and operations of nature. 
The artist bases his work on nature, but does 
not merely imitate her. 

In the light of modern scientific investiga- 
tions into the nature of the ancient cave paint- 
ings we can see that they illustrate in the hap- 
piest manner the doctrine just enunciated. At 
ftrst, and for a good while after their original 
discovery, these fresh, varied and accurate de- 
lineations of animals of the chase were regarded 
as purely aesthetic products executed for the 
mere pleasure in them, and for no ulterior pur- 
pose whatever. It has now been clearly demon- 
strated that there was a practical purpose 
underlying this activity, the purpose of 
rendering the operations of hunting the quarry 
more effective by a certain magical influence 
which the representation was supposed to exer- 
cise over the creature portrayed. This seemed 
at first to detract from the aesthetic interest of 
the works, but looked at from the point of view 
here taken they really acquire an entirely new 
artistic value. They confirm in a striking 
manner the modern repudiation of the old idea 
of art as the " handmaid of nature," and ex- 
hibit the designer as using nature for the 
furtherance of his own ends. The painter of 
the caves was certainly not copying natural 
models, for he was very commonly working in 
obscure recesses into which live mammoths and 
bisons could not have been introduced, nor is it 
necessary to assume that as Professor R. A. S. 
Macalister has lately suggested,^ he had with 
him in the cave small engraved patterns to 
which he could refer. He had mastered the 
forms of nature till they had become part of 
himself, and was employing them in freedom. 
He was not working after nature, but before 
nature, and was as it were showing nature the 
way, for his purpose in creating the ideal 
figure of the beast was to charm the tangible 
monster of flesh and blood within the reach of 
the hunter's dart. 

What is here said about the magical purpose 
of the cave drawings opens up further con- 
siderations that go to the foundations of aesthetic 
theory. Esthetic theory may be said to be 
built on the fundamental principle of the " free- 
dom of art." The activities of art are popularly 
distinguished from most of our every-day 
human operations in that, while the latter have 
some intelligible motive at their back and serve 

* A Text-Book of European Archaology, Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1921, I. The PaJcroUthic Period, p. 504, note. 



some useful end, the activities of art are ends In 
themselves and serve no ulterior purpose of a 
practical kind. Not only the older writers, but 
those also who in our own day have adopted the 
modern scientific standpoint, have no doubt as 
to this. Professor Grosse of Freiburg in his 
Beginnings of Art' remarks that "by an 
aesthetic or artistic activity we mean one . . . 
which is not entered upon as a means toward 
an end outside itself, but as in itself the end. 
In this manner it comes before us as the direct 
opposite of practical activity which always 
serves as a means " to some end outside itself, 
and Dr. Yrjo Hirn, of Helsingfors, in his philo- 
sophical work The Origins of Art,* in almost 
the same words declares that " a work or a per- 
formance which can be proved to serve any 
utilitarian, non-aesthetic object must not be 
considered a genuine work of art. True art 
has its end in itself, and rejects every ex- 
traneous purpose." If this be true of art in 
general, it should apply to art in its early mani- 
festations, for under simple conditions the essen- 
tial nature of a thing should show itself most 
clearly. But, are these early activities of art 
free? On the old theory the actual operations 
of hunting, the stalking of the game, the shot, 
the capture, were utilitarian acts of necessity, 
forced on the agent by the need for food ; 
whereas the paintings and carvings of animals 
of the chase on the walls of his cave habitation 
were thrown off in hours of leisure for his own 
private aesthetic satisfaction. We now see 
that the drawings and carvings were just as 
much a part of the chase as the actual launching 
of the fatal arrow. The throwing-stick which 
gave the arrow force and directness would be 
called on the old system a necessary implement, 
the figure of the reindeer into which its business 
end is carved a mere fanciful adjunct, but we 
are now told that, in all probability, the figure 
would be a charm, and in the view of the hunter 
a necessary condition for the full efficacy of the 
weapon. What, we may ask, in these cases 
becomes of the " freedom " of the artistic act? 
The same question may be asked of all the early 
operations of the arts already enumerated. The 
question has been, at any rate partially, an- 
swered in convincing fashion by Professor 
Grosse, who demonstrates' about these early 
arts that they are not free in the sense of being 
unnecessary and serving no useful purpose, but 
are of essential use in the economy of primitive 
man and his societies, and as such are forced 
upon man as part of his equipment for the 
necessary struggle with the forces of nature and 
with his fellows. He first argues d priori that 
this must inevitably be the case because these 

» English Translation, New York, 1897, p. 48. 

* London, 1900, p. 7. 

' Beginnings of Art, Eng. Trans., p. 312. 



93 



Various performances, such as elaborate per- 
sonal adornment or highly organised and intri- 
cate dances, involve an expenditure of time and 
energy that would be economically suicidal if 
the activities were devoid of any practical bear- 
ing on life. The non-artistic peoples would 
soon make a clean sweep of the artistic ones if 
the latter were only wasting time on useless 
though attractive performances. He then goes 
on to show in detail how these artistic activities 
are as a matter of fact utilitarian in that they 
have a practical scope. They are educative, 
they are helpful, they make for efficiency and 
for solidarity. The great savage art of the 
dance is immensely educational, first, by giv- 
ing to the individual performer increased 
suppleness and strength of limb, and, next, by 
training large bodies of men to execute continu- 
ous and elaborate manoeuvres in absolute union, 
according to a pre-conceived and long-practised 
scheme. The moral effect of this regular drill 
in common actions is necessarily very great, 
trivial as the actions in themselves may be. The 
whole performance must make powerfully for 
the solidarity of the social aggregate, and by 
knitting the members of it in this way together 
give them a practical advantage over looser 
aggregates the members of which have not been 
trained to act in common. 

The same applies to the great achievement of 
neolithic man, the rude stone monument, not in 
itself artistic, but the foundation of the noblest 
of all the arts — architecture. The erection of 
these vast monuments was a common act, carried 
out by a very large number of workers, acting 
under strict control, in absolute unison, pro- 
bably in time set by music,' and the act not 
only furnished discipline, but made for soli- 
darity, while the completed work was a glorifi- 
cation of the primitive community that with in- 
finite toil had carried it to triumphant comple- 
tion. As an act of self-expression it made the 
community conscious of itself as an entity, and 
imparted the self-respect, the ambition, which 
are essential conditions of progress. 

Personal adornment, a matter for the indivi- 
dual rather than the community, is in like 
manner of practical advantage in that it en- 
hances the wearer's status alike in his own eyes 
and in those of his fellows. There is some rea- 
son for conjecturing, with Herbert Spencer, 
that this begins in the trophy,' the teeth or 
claws or scalp or blood of the slain enemy, 
whether beast or man, displayed upon the per- 

* A tradition of this survived in Greece and is embodied in 
the legend that Amphion played the stones of the walls of 
Thebes into their places by the sound of his lyre. 

' Actual discoveries can hardly be said to establish this 
theory, but they certainly do not disprove it. A palaeolithic 
skeleton was found " girt with a girdle made of the canine 
teeth of lions and bears." Macalister, I.e., p. 383; see also 
p. 515 of his book. 



son ; and the bearing of such a trophy confers 
distinction. Other kinds of decoration, borrow- 
ing or inheriting, as they seem to do, something 
of the character of the trophy, also raise the 
wearer, to his no small advantage, in the eyes 
of his fellows. Personal adornment of a showy 
or costly kind gives him potent aid in court- 
ship and secures for him the favour of the most 
eligible bride. It aids him, too, in council, and 
most notably in war, where decorative devices 
are employed to exalt the personality of the 
highly equipped champion and to strike terror 
into his foemen. 

On the one side, therefore, we have the old 
orthodox doctrine of the " Freedom of Art," 
which means its detachment from all ideas of 
practical utility, and on the other side the 
demonstration, on the ground of recent dis- 
coveries and observations, that the arts in early 
times do possess a very definite practical value. 
How can these two opposing- points of view be 
reconciled ? 

We are met here by the curious fact that in 
most of these early artistic activities the per- 
former or agent is quite unconscious of the prac- 
tical scope of what he is doing. So far as his 
own consciousness is concerned his action is 
free, and if it be felt as free, it must necessarily 
be pleasurable or it would not be performed. 
He has no idea in his mind that what he is 
doing is of real solid use to himself or to his 
tribe, but he acts as he does because it pleases 
him, or from a kind of instinct — to use the word 
in its loose popular sense — of which he could 
give no reasoned account. He throws himself 
into his task with the sense that it is the only 
thing that at the moment he wants to do, and 
revels in the delight it affords. The savage, it 
has been noticed, will be so intoxicated with the 
excitement of the dance that he repeats his 
ordered movements till he sinks exhausted on 
the ground, but no idea of the educational and 
disciplinary value of this form of activity is 
present to his consciousness. No modern fine 
lady takes more trouble about her attire than 
the primitive brave, who adorns himself for 
courtship, for war, or for a public ceremony, 
but in his act he feels the pleasurable sense of 
his own enhanced personal distinction rather 
than a calculated assurance that it will be to his 
practical advantage. 

In the case of the animal paintings in the 
caves, there was of course no real practical ad- 
vantage resulting from them, such as actually 
accrued from the practice of the dance, but the 
people who made the drawings believed that they 
would, through what we call magic, produce 
such an effect, and this gave the hunter con- 
fidence and really helped him to success. Hence 
a utilitarian purpose was in this case apparent 



94 



and arknowledged, and not merely latent as in 
tliat of the dance. Yet in spite of this the execu- 
tant carried out the work in the spirit not of the 
magician or medicine man but in that of 
the artist. Had the magical purpose been 
uppermost in his mind and in those of 
his fellows as all-in-all, the resultant images 
would probably have been of a formal, 
schematic, character, with a make-believe 
of resemblance to the real object, and with the 
same pattern repeated ad nauseam^ as in the 
so-called " hieratic " art of later Egypt. As a 
fact, the animal drawings, especially in some of 
the Spanish caves, evince a keen personal 
interest in the creatures delineated, and exhibit 
the draughtsman constantly trying his hand at 
out-of-the-way positions and appearing at times 
to delight in tackling difficult artistic problems. 
The utilitarian purpose remains quite in the 
background of the designer's mind, and it is in 
this connection noteworthy that the expert 

REVIEWS 

La Miniature Flamande au Temps de la Cour de Bour- 
GOGNE (1415-1530). By Count Paul Durrieu. 80 pp. + 
103 pi. Brussels (Van Oest). 

The number of lovers of mediaeval art who 
would be willing to face an examiner on even 
the rudiments of the history of Flemish 
miniature painting in the fifteenth century is, 
I may safely say, small. Now and again we 
encounter a learned paper on some part of the 
subject, which cites MSS. in this or the other 
inaccessible library, and deduces conclusions ; 
but the way of the reader is hard, for what the 
eye does not see the mind grasps with difficulty 
and the aesthetic sense not at all. It is well 
therefore to have a set of illustrative reproduc- 
tions issued in a handy form and selected by an 
expert acquainted with the subject as a whole, 
who is able to give the reader sight and sense of 
its general outlines. Manuscript miniatures of 
the Flemish school, it is true, depend and were 
largely intended to depend upon colour for their 
charm. Photographs cannot render that colour, 
and are therefore deprived of their chief power of 
pleasing the eye. Nevertheless they are of con- 
siderable use and interest, wiiile few of us are so 
utterly without knowledge of the school as to be 
unable to supply the deficiency of colour to 
some extent by memory, analogy, and imagina- 
tion. 

Count Paul Durrieu is a well-known and ex- 
perienced worker in this field. He has prefixed 
to his one hundred and fifty-three reproductions 
a lucid and valuable memoir, full of learning, 
suggestion and information. We could have 
wished that he had carried his dating of many of 
the prints to a further degree of approximation, 
for when records are silent a comparison of 
stvl.es fifid other indications generally enable a 



authority on these drawings, the Abb^ Breuil, 
who has done more than any one to establish 
the magical purpose behind the work, is at the 
same time a whole-hearted believer in its artistic 
character. In one of his writings he speaks of 
" les grands artistes qui en ont gravd et sculpt^ 
les chefs d'oeuvre," * and, himself an artist, 
takes it almost as much from the aesthetic as the 
scientific side. 

Artistic activities in primitive times are 
accordingly indulged in for their own sakes as 
free and pleasurable, while in another sense the 
agent is not really free, but is constrained to 
perform the acts because of the practical purpose 
which as a fact they serve. The agent himself 
is either quite unconscious of this constraint, or 
merely takes it for granted and allows his mind 
only to dwell on the artistic delight of creation. 

* Comptes R^ndus de V Acadimie dcs Inscriptions, etc., 
1905, p. 120. 

(To be continued.) 



fairly close identification of the date. This, 
however, is a minor criticism, for what is lacking 
is not hard to supply in most cases. Count 
Durrieu points out that Philip the Hardy and 
John the Fearless, the first two Valois Dukes of 
Burgundy, were Frenchmen in habit and Pari- 
sian in home, and it was not till Philip the Good 
succeeded that a vital Burgundian-Flemish 
Court came into existence and gave the needful 
encouragement which produced and maintained 
for a century that school of art which we briefly 
describe as Flemish. It is the work of minia- 
turists of this school that are exemplified and 
studied in the volume under review. 

Starting from Hubert Van Eyck and his 
miniatures in the Heures de Turin, reproduced 
from the bad reproductions in a published 
volume which (some prints in a magazine ex- 
cepted) are all the record we possess of that fire- 
consumed volume, he carries us down the de- 
cades, introducing us by the way to various 
individual identified artists, some known by 
their own names, others labelled with nick- 
names of his invention. First comes one who 
is associated chiefly with illustrations made by 
him for the writer Guillebert de Mets, of Ghent, 
an artist of little importance. He copied (in one 
series) the originals attributed to a painter of 
higher merit identified with a Paris miniaturist 
named Jean de Pestivien. In William Vrelant 
we encounter a more interesting personage, for 
he was the neighbour of Memling at Bruges, 
and his likeness appears in one of the great 
artist's pictures. Vrelant's miniatures here re- 
produced seem to lack originality and have the 
aspect of steady going guild work, nor do I find 
in them any trace of Memling's influence. One, 



95 



Dreux Jehan, at work in Bruges around 1440, if 
he was the painter of the miniatures doubtfully 
ascribed to him, was a better artist. One of 
them appears to have followed a design by the 
author Mi^lot who used to sketch in outline the 
compositions that were to illustrate his works 
and, as the example shown proves, did so very 
well. Jean le Tavernier, of Andenarde, was an- 
other of Philip the Good's artists, an inventive 
illustrator, but a thorough conventionalist. 
Loyset Ly^det was a worse specimen of the same 
type. Much superior to these was Jean Henne- 
cart, who leads us on to a man of well-known 
name, Simon Marmion His miniatures are 
said to be exquisite in harmony of colour and 
delicacy of execution. One reproduced shows 
mainly a wide extending landscape, rather 
charming and not unlike Fouquet. It is hard to 
imagine the maker of these as painter of the 
pictures often ascribed to him. 

Perhaps the best-known mid-fifteenth-century 
miniature of the school is the frontispiece of a 
MS. at Brussels, showing the author presenting 
his book to Duke Philip. It was frequently 
imitated. As a picture it stands alone. Who 
made it? Many have guessed Roger van der 
Weyden. It is good enough for him, and if he 
painted it the fact that it is unique would be ex- 
plained. With Philip de Mazerolles, a Parisian 
working at Bruges from 1465 to his death in 
1479-80, we come upon an artist of merit. One 
of his reproduced miniatures, showing a number 
of people in a room, invests them with vitality, 
variety, and movement instead of lumping them 
together like a group carved out of a single log 
of wood according to the usual Flemish conven- 
tion. He was the decorator of one of Duke 
Philip's most charming books, the Chronicle of 
Jerusalem, which is in the Vienna Library. 

It was not till after the days of Duke Philip 
and Charles his son that the important school of 
miniature artists arose at Ghent and Bruges, 
whereof the common founder seems to have been 
Alexander Bening. Before his time the in- 
fluence of Roger and the Van Eycks had pre- 
dominated. The Benings and the Horenbauts 
and their associated workmen gave currency to 
the styles of Van der Goes, Gerard David, and 
Ouentin Massys. The Grimani Breviary was 
their finest production, but a number of now 
well-known MSS., mostly Books of Hours of 
small dimensions, have been grouped around it 
as like in style and merit. This school was 
formed by repulsion from the output of the 
printing press. Woodcuts took the place of the 
ordinary run of illustrations. Prayer-books for 
private devotion were more conservative. But 
the printing press was bound to win in the long 
run, and miniature painting as the output of a 
school came to an end in the first third of the 



sixteenth century. martin conway. 

Constable, Gainsborough and Lucas. Brief Notes on 
Some Early Drawings by John Constable. By Sir 
Charles Holmes. 33 pp. + 16 pi. (Maggs.) 21s. 
Like most great artists Constable achieved 
greatness with infinite pains; his original gift of 
perception did not content him. The superla- 
tive merits of untutored technique and childish 
na'i'vet^ of expression had not been discovered in 
his day. So, like any humble and unself con- 
scious old master, he set himself to learn the most 
expressive and accomplished style of drawing 
applicable to his requirements. With his great 
predecessor Crome he turned to Ruisdael, Wil- 
son and Gainsborough, as well as to Agostino 
Carracci, Girtin and Claude. But the masters 
from whom he took most were Gainsborough and 
Girtin. Sir Charles Holmes' stimulating notes 
on some early Constable drawings, echoing his 
analysis of Rembrandt's development, published 
in this Magazine' some years ago, emphasise the 
need of discipline, even for those who possess 
pronounced genius. And they suggest that sub- 
mission to long discipline, of the right sort, will 
so protect and prepare what may seem but the 
frailest shoots of genius that they will eventually 
flourish. This doctrine is tonic in a time when 
the mortality of infant genius is so high. Possibly 
the germs of what we call genius are more com- 
mon than we suspect, if we base our estimate on 
the genius which grows to maturity. So that we 
should find increasing truth in the adage about 
infinite capacity. Thus the right to bear the 
palm passes from the mere heaven-born genius 
to the rarer breed which has the stamina and 
capacity to foster and harden his starry gift. 

A conspicuous fact in the development 
of Rembrandt, Crome and Constable is their 
certain progress. If not from year to year, 
at least in every three years they steadily ad- 
vanced. First of all in technical range, in fluency 
of expression and rudimentary carpentry. Then, 
and consequently, in the capacity to express more 
advantageously their special vision. In the four- 
teen casual drawings analysed by Sir C. J. 
Holmes, covering about five years, 1 798-1803, 
Constable is seen to have developed a scratchy, 
amateurish talent into something approaching 
ma.stery. Almost incredible as his method must 
appear to us he did this by continuously acquir- 
ing more certain draughtsmanship, more subtle 
tone and character, more enveloping atmosphere. 
The superior efficacy of learning to draw like a 
child or a Papuan was unguessed by Constable ; 
the virtue of impoverishing Nature to a signifi- 
cant formula did not, alas, occur to him. He 
simply strove to make his drawings correspond 
more closely with his growing perception of the 
vital and subtle in Nature. Too ignorant and 
philistine to become an ' ist ' of any sort — indeed 
1 Vol. IX, pp. 87, 245, 313, 383. 



the only sort of ' ist ' he ever heard of were those 
Mannerists he so crudely loathed — poor Con- 
stable became one of the world's outstanding 
stimulants. Not because he was original enough 
to adapt Nature to a system of geometries and to 
paint in the trecento manner; but because (a) 
what he saw in Nature was new and profoundly 
true, and (b) he had early taken pains to learn 
how best he could express this in the medium he 
used. Well, we have changed all that, so that 
the prodigy of 1922 stagnates till 1924, wilts 
through another year or so and then fades out, 
lost in the press of newer prodigies, c. H. c. B. 

Indian Drawings. Twelve Mogul Paintings of the School of 
Humayun (i6th Century) illustrating the Romance of 
Amir Hamzah. Text by C. Stanley Clarke. 17 pp. + 
12 pi. (Victoria and Albert Museum Portfolio.) 5s. By 
post, ss. sd. 

The student of classical or modern art has 
abundant material at hand in the form of 
photographs and reproductions. For oriental 
painting, and especially for Indian painting, 
such materials are still scanty, and the present 
publication is therefore doubly welcome, as 
drawing attention to an attractive group of pic- 
tures of a character rare even among the vast 
multitude of Indian paintings. It is well known 
that the palaces of Muhammadan princes in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were often deco- 
rated with large wall paintings, but these have 
entirely perished, and we can only form a con- 
ception of them from miniatures that in some 
slight degree reproduce them. Owing to the 
very nature of miniature painting, however, the 
monumental style of these larger works is sel- 
dom adequately represented ; but, in this remark- 
able series of pictures, prepared by order of the 
Emperor Akbar, we have an indication of the 
bold treatment of landscape and architectural 
features such as would be found in the adorn- 
ment of large walled spaces. Even these 
examples narrowly escaped destruction, some of 
them having been used as screens to shut up the 
latticed windows of the curiosity shop in Srina- 
gar, where they were found by Sir Purdon 
Clarke in 1881. To Muhammadan fanaticism is 
due a further damage in the obliteration of the 
greater part of the faces. Despite this injury, 
these pictures are precious as representing a 
school of painting and a technical method of 
which very few other examples have survived. 
The account which Mr. C. Stanley Clarke has 
given of them will attract attention to these trea- 
sures in the Indian Section of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum which, under his wise direction, 
has grown to be so valuable a centre for students 
of Indian painting. At the present time, when 
art publications have become so very costly, the 
modest sum of five shillings should secure for 
this beautiful production a large number of pur- 
chasers, T. w. A. 



Collectanea Vari>e Doctrin/C. 281 pp. i colour plate, 
7 collotypes, and many reproductions in the text. (Munich . 
Jacques Rosenthal.) M. 350. 

The sixtieth birthday of Signor Leo S. 
Olschki, the well-known Florentine bookseller 
and editor of La Bibliografia is attractively com- 
memorated by the present volume, to which 
fourteen German and Italian scholars have con- 
tributed. Bibliography and literary history pre- 
dominate appropriately among the subjects of 
the various papers : art history is mainly repre- 
sented by two writers, Prof. Walter Bombe, 
who passes in review the early activity of 
Raphael, and Dr. Georg Gronau, who contri- 
butes a very interesting paper on a half-for- 
gotten artist, Lauro Padovano, an assistant of 
Giovanni Bellini's. The starting point for the 
reconstruction of the work of this artist is a pre- 
della, originally part of an altarpiece in the 
church of theCaritk at Venice and until recently 
in the Kauffmann collection in Berlin : the 
name of the artist is mentioned — though with- 
out absolute conviction — by the Anonimo Morel- 
liano, who assigns the remainder of the altar- 
piece to Giovanni Bellini. The style of this 
predella, with its vivacious, populous composi- 
tions, reveals very clearly the influence of Man- 
tegna : and Dr. Gronau is able to fix its date 
as 147 1, further tracing the presence of the 
artist at Rome in 1482 and 1508, and establish- 
ing that he also worked as an illuminator. On 
the strength of the Carit^ predella, Dr. Gronau 
also recognises the hand of Lauro Padovano in 
the altar predella of the much-discussed St. Vin- 
cent Ferrer ancona in SS. Giovanni e Paolo at 
Venice, and further, though with less certainty, 
in the grisaille of the Meeting of Solomon and 
the Queen of Sheba at Highnam Court, which 
was exhibited at the Burlington Club in 1912. 
The name of Lauro Padovano as author of the 
St. Vincent predella seems indeed a very plaus- 
ible suggestion, and the fact of Lauro's collabo- 
ration with Giovanni Bellini in the case of the 
Caritk altarpiece is a strong point in favour of 
the view that Bellini painted the main portion 
of the St. Vincent ancona — a view upheld by 
Dr. Gronau with much force of argument. Alto- 
gether, a volume of exceptional interest to 
students in a variety of fields. T. B. 

The Origin of the Cruciform Plan of Cairene Madrasas. 
By K. A. C. Creswell. 54 pp. + 12 pi. (Quaritch.) 

Mr. Creswell's name is already familiar to 
readers of this Magazine, and the present work 
adds to his reputation among serious students 
of Muhammadan architecture. It is a closely- 
reasoned argument against the theory hitherto 
held by all previous writers on Saracenic art, 
that the typical plan of the Cairene madrasa (as 
exemplified in the famous mosque of Sultan 
Hasan) was cruciform, that the few recesses 
grouped round the sahn and forming the arms 



97 



of the cross were used for the few different 
" rites " or " doctrines " of Islam, and that 
this cruciform plan was introduced into Egypt 
from Syria, where it was originally evolved. 
Mr. Creswell proves, with the aid of elaborate 
chronological tables of all known examples, that 
only two madrasas in Egypt prior to 1408 had a 
cruciform plan where the four Ihvans were used 
as just described, and then adduces further facts 
to prove that the first cruciform madrasa is 
found in Cairo two centuries after the first 
madrasa was established in India, and a century 
later than Saladin's introduction of the madrasa 
into Egypt. He gives elaborate descriptions 
with original photographs and plans of all the 
early madrasas in Aleppo to prove that the 
" four-rite " cruciform plan was unknown there 
or elsewhere in Syria. These descriptions and 
illustrations are particularly valuable, as very 
little is known of the mediaeval architecture of 
Aleppo, where Mr. Creswell obtained his infor- 
mation first-hand. He also offers a theory as 
to the origin of the " two-rite " plan, and 
another as to the existence of Gothic details in 
the Muhammadan architecture of Cairo. He is 
to be congratulated on this valuable contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of an interesting period. 

M. s. B. 
Mary Davies and the Manor of Ebury, by Charles T. 
Gatty. 2 vols. 5S8 pp. + 40 pi. (Cassell.) £3 3s. _ 

The tragic and farcical story of Mary Davies 
and the trouble her property brought her is told 
by Mr. Gatty with a gusto that will carry every- 
one along with him. But perhaps to our 
readers much of the significance of Mr. Gatty's 
work will consist in the topographical energy 
the author has put into tracing the boundaries 
of the " Manor of Ebury," and the book is in 
consequence full of excellent plans and engrav- 
ings. The map of the "Manor of Elia" (1614) 
with modern landmarks added in red is fasci- 
nating to study, and brings up that lump in the 
throat that all historians and topographers 
know so well. Another pleasing feature of 
these volumes is an appendix, containing eight 
aerial photographs of the Manor of Elia, re- 
cently taken by the Central Aerophoto Com- 

A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

The Bredius Museum. — It gives us pleasure 
to announce that Dr. Bredius has generously 
opened his house at 6, Prinsegracht, The Hague, 
to the public. The house, which contains a 
unique collection of Dutch pictures, will hence- 
forth be known as The Bredius Museum. 

Maurice Rosenheim, F.S.A. — On May i8th 
last there died at Hampstead Mr. Maurice 
Rosenheim, well known with his brother Max 
as a keen collector of works of art of many kinds. 
The two brothers, living together, have for the 
last thirty years assiduously gathered with much 

98 



pany. When we compare these photographs 
of what is now the richest part of London with 
the same bare acres, mostly arable, which ap- 
pear in the map of 1614, we realise what it 
means to be rich in the manner and the manor 
of the Dukes of Westminster; for Mary Davies 
married a Grosvenor. She suffered, for her 
fortune, indignity and outrage beyond words, 
but those who fought for her body and her 
money, ces hommes sans talents et sans hon- 
neur, perdus de dettes et de crimes, can never 
have called up to their imagination in their 
wildest phantasies one-hundredth part of the 
riches that the Manor of Ebury would one day 
give to its future owners. F. B. 

Sculpture of To-day, by Kineton Parkes. Vol. I. .America, 
Great Britain, Japan. 25s. Vol. II. The Continent of 
Europe. 30s. Universal Art Series. (Chapman & Hall.) 

These two new volumes in the Universal Art 
Series advance no general theory and have no 
general plan except to furnish a de.scription of 
the work of modern sculptors, with biographical 
sketches of each. While such a catalogue would 
no doubt be useful, as a book in two volumes 
costing fifty shillings it is a bad bargain. There 
are no illustrations of works by Maillol Rodin, 
Barnard or Brancusi, and no mention of Gau- 
dier-Brzeska. The author has, however, col- 
lected together a vast amount of information, 
and this, together with his reflections, swells 
the book out to the desired number of pages. 

In one such parenthesis, after deploring the 
discussion aroused by the work of Epstein, the 
author continues: — 

To pass from the consideration of the rebels back to the 
normal members of the English school is like emerging 
from the passage of a swiftly running river on the South 
Devon Coast, such as the Exe, or the Otter, into the smooth 
sunlit Channel. 

The author is certainly happiest at sea. There 
are, however, more arresting passages : — 

The temperament of Alfred Gilbert is most like his great 
predecessor in the art of sculpture, Benvenuto Cellini. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Parkes has omitted, in 
the biographical sketch, all those passages of 
Gilbert's life which may have borne so 
exciting a resemblance. But we cannot quite 
agree that in both men " Art was in very truth 
the whole of their lives." D. G. 



industry and considerable knowledge, a small 
museum of art. Like many others who have 
exercised their taste in this field, they were at 
first very uncertain of the line that best satisfied 
their artistic longings, and excursions were made 
among books, prints, drawings and faience, 
which up to the end were never entirely neglec- 
ted. But in their later years the energies of both 
brothers were concentrated on Italian and Ger- 
man medals of the Renaissance, and on dials and 
other instruments of precision. In these direc- 
tions no sale took place during the last twenty 



years unnoticed by the Rosenheim brothers, and 
their minute and accurate knowledge of the sub- 
jects enabled them frequently to secure prizes 
from competitors of much greater wealth. In this 
way they were able to accumulate a collection of 
the first rank, and the readers of this Magazine 
will recall how frequently the Rosenheim collec- 
tion has figured in every article dealing with 
Italian or German medals. 

Their circle of friends and correspondents 
was very large, and all soon became familiar 
with the wide range of knowledge of the collec- 

LETTER 

PAINT VERSUS THE REST. 
Sir, — Mr. Sickert thinks it " possible that he 
may be rather specially qualified to praise and 
enjoy what he believes is now called the ' binge ' 
in art, as the reality has always been to him a 
thing from which he is temperamentally averse." 
This surmise follows on a statement that " the 
subject of painting is, perhaps, that it is not 
death " : and, indeed, that "it is perhaps 
nothing more." Perhaps. I do not know what 
that thing is which Mr. Sickert believes is now 
called " binge" in art: still less can I grasp 
the exact intention of his formula as to the subject 
of painting. But, were it not for his admission 
that " there is more to a feast than to the tiles 
and slates of the roofy school of CoUioure and 
Fitzroy Street," I should suppose from the tenor 
of his notes in your last issue that Mr. Sickert 
values " pure " painting more highly than all 
those living realities which make the works of Era 
Angelico or the Van Eycks so disgustingly im- 

GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



tors, and equally grateful for their ready gener- 
osity in imparting it. Mr. Max Rosenheim died 
about twelve years ago, and now that his 
brother Maurice has also passed away, a sensible 
gap is left in the circle of London collectors. 

They were both generous benefactors to the 
public collections during their lives, and Mr. 
Maurice Rosenheim by his will has left to the 
British Museum an important, if small, series of 
medals and instruments. 

The rest of his collections are to be sold by 
auction early next year. C. H. R. 



pure. Now, Sir, there is a kind of low fellow 
who is averse neither from " painting-pure " 
("binge"?) nor from reality: who thinks 
Velasquez no worse a painter for sometimes giv- 
ing two eyes to a face, and that for a commission, 
and who has no mind to be bullied out of his 
harmless delights by any d6mod6 Declaration of 
Paris that the virtue of a picture is in the paint 
and nothing but the paint. As for excellence 
of paint, why. Sir — says our low fellow — that is 
a thing which most good and many bad painters 
have achieved in their stride. 

" What a different generation we are," con- 
cludes Mr. Sickert. Shall we then, while respect- 
fully regretting his omission to state from what 
we as a generation — or two — dilTer, leave it 
peaceably at that, and agree, in the cloistered 
academic calm of your columns, to differ hand- 
somely at any rate from one another ? 
Yours faithfully, 
22 Campden Hill Square. R. Gleadowe. 



NATIONAL GALLERY. 

French School, The Holy Trinity. Wood. 42J in. by 
42 in. c. 1410. Purchased. 

NATIONAL GALLERY, MILLBANK. 

H. B. Brabazon. Sunset : Mountain and Lake (water- 
colour) ; Como (water-colour) ; Monaco (water-colour) ; 
Venice; a side Canal (water-colour); Venice; a Grey 
Day (water-colour) ; Sunset (after Turner) (water- 
colour). Presented by Mrs. Hamilton Fox in memory of 
the Honourable Mr. Justice Peterson. 

Colin Gill. Drawing of a Woman. Pencil. 

J. D. Innes. Rodez. Drawing. 

A. Hayward. Composition. l5rawing. Presented by Sir 
Joseph Duveen. 

J. S. Sargent. Mrs. de Glehn with Miss Sargent sketching. 
Water-colour Bequest from the late W. Newall, Esq. 

H. Le Sidaner. Claire de Lune a Gcrberoy. Oil. Presented 
by Mrs. Hamilton Fox in m.cmory of the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Peterson. 

NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY. 

(Portraits marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Anon. Sir John Kirk, 1832-1922. Explorer and one of 
the founders of British East Africa. Water-colour. Pre- 
sented by .'\. H. Kirk, Esq. 
•Sir Philip Burne-Jones, Bart. 5i> Edward John Poynter, 
Bart., 1836-1919. President of the Royal Academy. Pur- 
chased. 
C. W. Furze, R..A. Admiral of the Fleet Lord Reresford, 
1846-1919. Presented by Dame Katherine Furze. 



*John Gibson, R.A. Walter Savage Landor, 1775-1864. 

Author. Plaster cast of a bust modelled at Rome. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Walter S. Landor. 
M. GoRDiGiANi. Richard Bethell, First Baron Westbiiry, 

P.C., 1800-1873. Lord Chancellor, 1861-65. Purchased. 
*Hackwood. Josiah Wedgwood, 1730-1795, and Thomas 

Bentley, 1731-1780, the famous potters. Modern casts 

from the old medallions. Presented by Josiah Wedgwood 

and Sons. 
Richard Houston. John Wilkes, Serjeant Glynn and tite 

Rev. Home Tooke. Presented by the N. A. C. Fund. 
Edward Lacey. Henry Mayers Hyndman, 1842-1 921. 

Founder of the Social Democratic Federation. Bronze 

bust. Presented by the Hyndman Memorial Committee. 
Carlo Pellegrini. Charles Kingsley, 1819-1875. The 

well-known author and Canon of Westminster. Drawing. 

Purchased. 
*QuiLLEY. Robert Lindley, 1776-1855. The ce'ebrated 

violoncellist. Engraving from the palming by William 

Davison. Purchased. 
Sir William B. Richmond, K.C.B., R..^. William Morris, 

1834-1896. Poet, artist, socialist and founder of the 

Kelmscott Press. Purchased. 
Hugh Ross. Sir William Charles Ross, /?..!., 1794-1860. 

Miniature painter. Miniature. Purchased. 
Sir William C. Ross, R..^. Sir Harry George Wakelyn 

Smith, Bart., G.C.B., 1787-1860. General and Governor 

of the Cape of Good Hope. Miniature. Purchased. 
John Russell, R..^. James Price, M.D., F.R.S., 1752- 

1783. Called " the last of the alchemists." Professed 



99 



ability to convert mercury Into gold and silver but com- 
mitted suicide rather than admit the imposture. Pastel. 
Purchased. 

*JOHN S. Sargent, R.A. Some General Officers of the Great 
War. Presented by Sir Abe Bailey, Bart., K.C.M.G. 

Unknown Artist. Extensive series of water-colour draw- 
ings of Peninsular and Waterloo Officers. Purchased. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Print Room. 
Drawings. 

Ercole de Roberti. Massacre of the Innocents. (Large 

cartoon, reproduced in Sotheby's Catalogue, May 23, 

1922, lot 63.) 
Anon. Peasant mowing. Design for glass painting. 

Netherlandish, c. 1500. 
J. Callot. Design for Etching, M. 15. 
M. A. DA Caravaggio. Group of heads. Pen and ink. 
Rev. W. H. Carr. Landscape, 1816. Presented by T. 

Humphry Ward, Esq. 
G. B. Castiglione. Virgin and Child and St. John. 

Brush drawing in red, the lights added in oil-colour. 

Group of animals and figures. Sepia wash. 
J. Farington, R.A. Bridgnorth. Water-colour. 
F. Floris. Mythological subject, in the style of his 

chiaroscuro woodcuts. 
D. FossATi. Architectural composition (Venezia, 1762). 
S. Leclerc. Designs for two of a series of four etchings 

of Cupid and Psyche. 

A. Legros. Head of a Bishop. From the Holloway and 
Bliss collections. Presented by G. Henderson, Esq. 

J. Wright, of Derby (attributed to). Figure subject. 
Engravings. 

Anon, isth century. Christ entering Jerusalem, Lehrs iv 
223, 17, ii. 

B. Beham. St. Christopher, P. 11, I; Lucretia, P. 21, I; 
Flora, P. 16; Two panels of ornament, P. 82, 83. 

H. S. Beiiau. Christ on the globe, P. 32, IV; Fortune, 

P. 143, II ; Ornament, P. 239, I. 
J. Binck. Adam, 1526 (Pauli, Nachtrag, No. i). I'ir^in 

and Child on the crescent, crowned by angels (un- 

described). 
A. Claessen. St. Agatha, Pass. 95, Aum. 72. 
T. DE Leu. Nine engraved Portraits. 
H. Leinberger. Man of Sorrows, Lossnitzer 6, I. St. 

Hubert, Lossnitzer 10. 
A. Mair. St. Anthony, after Schongauer ; NagI Mon. 

I, p. 385. 
I. VAN Meckenem. Acanthus scroll with dance of lovers, 

B. 201. 
Monogrammist, I. B. St. Jerome, after H. S. Beham, 

B. 60. 
W. VON Olmutz. St. Catherine, Lehrs 56 ; undescribed 

second state. 
Aug. dk Saint-Aubin. Victor Amadeus, II, 1777, before 

letters, Bocher, 2, II. 
Agostino Veneziano. Leda, B. 232. 
Etchings. 

A. Hirschvogel. Four Biblical subjects. 

Rembrandt. Ecce Homo, Rov. 77, the rare second state. 

Presented by H. Van den Bergh, Esq., through the 

N. A. C. Fund. Bust of Rembrandt's father. Hind 21, 

I, with the White Negress on the back. 
A. Stimmer. Portrait of J. Marbach, Andr. 3. 
S. Strauch. Self-portrait. 
M. ZOndt. Gabriel Schliisselberger and L. Osiander 

(1601). 
Woodcuts. 

Anon, isth century. St. Bernard leading a chained devil. 

Undescribed. 
L. Beck. Signed title-page of Eck's sermons, 1530. 
H. BuRGKMAiR. Group of savages (part of B. 77, 1508), 

early impression. Title-page to " Spiegel der Blinden," 

1522. 
Jacob Cornelisz. Christ before Pilate; 1521. Christ 

mocked (round passion), with the late border. 
Monogrammist, N. S. A battle, from two blocks. 
T. Stimmer. Nine woodcuts, and one attributed 
H. Weiditz. Maximilian hearing Mass, formerly attribu- 
ted to Durer, B. App. 31. 
J. Skippe. St. Paul, after Perino del Vaga. 
Y. Urushibara. Eight colour prints, chiefly after F. 
Brangwyn, R.A. 



British and Mediaeval Antiquities. 

Cameo portrait of Giangaleazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, 
perhaps by Domenico del Cammei, and various dials of 
late 16th century. Bequeathed by Maurice Rosenheim, 
Esq. F.S.A. 

Panel enamelled by Leonard Limousin with a scene from 
the life of St. Anthony and the arms of Antoine de 
Langeac, Abbot of Saint-Antoine de Viennois. Signed 
L. L., and dated 1536 ; a companion panel to one in the 
Barwell Collection bequeathed in 1913. Acquired by 
purchase. 
Ceramics. 

Plate of Chinese porcelain with arms of Heathcote impaling 
Parker. About 1720. Presented by Lieut. -Colonel Heath- 
cote, D.S.O. 

Pottery vessel in form of a lion, turquoise glaze ; from 
Rhages. Purchased. 

Unglazed pottery jug with moulded ornament. Persian ; 
loth century. Purchased. 

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(The acquisitions marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Ceramics. 

Early Meissen Cup and Saucer, " blanc de Chine " type. 
Formerly in the Royal Saxon Collection. Presented by 
Roland H. Ley, Esq. 
Chinese and European porcelain, and a collection of 
Wedgwood medallions and English cut-glass. Presented 
by Douglas Eyre, Esq. 
Bristol delft plate made by Flower, painted with a ship 
and inscription in Dutch. Presented by T. Charbonnier, 
Esq. 
Zurich and Bow figures and a Capodimonte inkstand. 
Presented by Lieut. -Colonel K. Dingwall, D.S.O., through 
the N. A. C. Fund. 
Six pieces of modern French porcelain made by E. Decoeur. 
Presented by Dr. Lindley Scott. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 

"Sidney H. Sime. Designs for Stage-scenery, Costume, etc. 
Presented by The Right Hon. Lord Howard de Walden. 
'Copies (45) in Water-colour, made by George Wallis, of 
Portraits exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition 
held at the South Kensington Museum in 1866-1868. 
Drawings illustrating the history of Footwear from the time 
of the Norman Conquest until the beginning of the i6th 
century, by " Robin " (Miss M. C. Blood). Presented 
by Messrs. Daniel Neal & Sons, Ltd. (to the Bethnal 
Green Museum). 
Library. 
Three sets of photographs illustrating historical monuments 
in Hertfordshire and in North and South Bucks, taken 
for the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments 
(England). Presented by Mr. E. J. Horniman, through 
the N. A. C. Fund. 
Metalwork. 
A bronze mortar with iron pestle. English ; first half of 17th 

century. Presented by Robert E. Brandt, Esq., F.S.A. 
A cast iron fireback of heraldic type. English ; 17th cen- 
tury. Presented by Arthur du Cane, Esq. 
A group of Japanese Swords and Near Eastern Arms and 
Armour. Presented by Mrs. Biddulph in accordance with 
the wishes of the late Colonel John Biddulph. 
A group if inro (Japanese girdle-pendants) in metal, a 
giotai (analogous object worn with ancient Court dress in 
Japan), and four Japanese sword-guards, from the Michael 
Tomkinson Collection. 
A gold-hilted sword of native workmanship given by the 
King of Bekwai, Ashanti, to Colonel Sir Edward Sladen 
in 1901. Presented with the letter accompanying the 
original gift, by Mrs. G. H. F. Sladen. 
Paintings. 
'A.Gallaway. Two miniature portraits. 
'Bernard Lens. Portrait of Andrew Benjamin Lens. 

Miniature. 1723. 
*Box of pastels, iSth or early 19th century. Presented by 
Miss Isabella Cay. 
Woodwork. 

A cabinat-maker's hammer. Stamped " Leander Green "; 

1604. 
A chairman's armchair, of mahogany, of unusual size and 
type. Style of Mainwaring. English ; second half of 
i8th century. 



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A TOAD IN WHITE JADE 

I_BY ROGER FRY 

HE toad here reproduced [Front- 
ispiece] is carved in jade of a 
somewhat dirty and mottled white. 
It was discovered by its owner, 
Colonel Pope - Hennessy, in a 
shop in the West End of London, and 
nothing is known of how or when it came to 
England. I can fortunately leave it to more 
competent hands to discuss its provenance and 
date. From a purely artistic point of view it 
is of extraordinary interest. The problem of 
the artist is almost always the same, namely, that 
of discovering a possible synthesis for life and 
form. Sometimes life itself seems to have 
attained to form, as in the case of those 
lizards which modern Italian craftsmen convert 
directly into bronze by purely mechanical 
means. But the form there has only the trivial 
expressiveness implied in the unfamiliarity of 
a change of material from living tissue to rigid 
bronze. This undoubtedly gives the mind a 
slight stimulus whereby we contemplate more 
tranquilly the actual form than when we chance 
upon the living creature. 

At the other end of the scale are the innumer- 
able stvlisations of animal form which those 
too impatiently esthetic Egyptians practised. 
Here nearly always we find the life crushed out 
in the process of a too rigid, too " decorative " 
formula. 

Somewhere in between will be, I think, all 
the greatest works of art, and among them, 
how many at least in the class of objects we are 
considering, must be counted to the credit of 
Chinese sculptors of Han, Sui, T'ang and 
earlier times. 

But, in spite of our familiarity with all these 
examples, nothing quite like Colonel Pope- 
Hennessy's toad has hitherto come to our 
notice. For here, in spite of the artist's adher- 
ing to the symbolic convention of giving his 
toad but three legs, he has pushed naturalism 
very far. Much of the mere surface texture 
of the toad's skin is retained by the artist. 
It has more than a reminiscence of the blotches, 
warts and wrinkled looseness which are the 
most striking characters of the animal. This 
is remarkable, for it is the rule in highly stylis- 
tic early art to abstract from all such visual 
effects and to concentrate on the general plastic 
relations. 

And it is not only here that the unknown 
master of the toad is peculiar — in the asym- 
metrical movement of the body he has again 
accepted more from life than is usual in early 
art. Indeed the vivid impression of the inner 
life of the animal is the most striking effect of 




this work. And yet the sense of style is no less 
intense. This is as far as possible from a work 
of merely initiative skill or of purely external 
observation. It is a masterpiece of plastic 
design as logical and as sure in its rhythm as 
the most conventional art, but for all that with 
a freedom and subtlety that can embrace life. 

-BY UNA POPE-HENNESSY 

'HIS toad probably dates from 
a very archaic period and pre- 
sumably is made of indigenous 
Shensi jade. It may have been 
fashioned in early Chow days, but 
it is more likely to be Shang or even pre-Shang 
in origin. What we know of Shang and early 
Chow art reveals itself to us as stylisised and 
hieratic, but this object is naturalistic and of ex- 
traordinary freshness and power. This leads 
us to think it may well be a survival of the 
naturalistic and dynamic art which must have 
existed in China before religious art in that 
country became conventionalised and static. 

Both technically and in character the toad 
bears the signs of great antiquity. The cutting 
of the central orifice is rough as also is the mouth 
opening. It is as if they had been hollowed 
out with tools more primitive than those used 
to fashion the admirably finished ritual jades of 
the Chow dynasty. Both openings are dis- 
coloured by burning. As incense was unknown 
in Shang days the Toad cannot be labelled " in- 
cense-burner," rather it would seem to have been 
a vessel used for the burning of the southern- 
wood, mugwort and fragrant orchid used in 
certain early ceremonies before the introduction 
into China of aromatic gums. 

The outside of the vessel is discoloured by 
long burial and stained brown, dull red and ivory 
yellow. In the texture are a few small pockets 
of chalky substance which Mr. Laufer notes in 
his famous books on jade as being characteristic 
of the early indigenous jades of China. Every 
jade object of the Shang and Chow dvnasties had 
a ritual, a religious or a magical significance, 
and it is the view of certain sinologists that in 
such objects may be discovered the key to that 
remote Natural Religion which in late Chow 
days came to be known as Taoism. 

Collectors of early jades are familiar with 
cicadas, emblematic of immortality, and highlv 
stylisised tigers and dragons symbolising the 
regions of the east and the west ; also with wild 
boars, rams and tortoises, but in this toad I be- 
lieve we have something far older. Probably — 
for there is no certainty in pre-historv — it is one 
of those mysterious ling animals which were in- 



103 



voked to adjust the relations between the primal 
elements — the Yin and the Yang— at certain 
periods of the year, notably at the equinoxes. 
Here perhaps we have the original of what we 
come to know in Taoism as " Chang Yu " (the 
toad of the moon), the manifestations of which in 
pottery are legion. The very object here depicted 



may have served an actual use in those autumn 
equinoctial feasts of the dim past when the moon 
was worshipped, sacrifices were made, herbs 
burnt, wine drunk and dances measured. In any 
case it seems to be unique and unrelated to any 
known objects in the collections of China, Europe 
or America. 



UNPUBLISHED CASSONE PANELS— V 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 




TRIUMPHAL pageants were 
among the subjects which enjoyed 
a great vogue in Italian Renaissance 
painting generally; and they were 
specially favoured for the decoration 
of cassones, as is natural enough, considering 
how the fronts of these pieces of furniture 
through their width lent themselves to the un- 
rolling of a motive in processional sequence. 
The " Trionfi " of the Renaissance have lately 
been made the subject of an attractive and well- 
illustrated monograph by Dr. Werner Weis- 
bach ;* and as regards their bearing on the 
theme of cassone decoration they are, of course, 
dulv noticed by Dr. Schubring.^ From the 
point of view of subject, the Triumphs appear- 
ing on cassoni may be divided into two main 
groups, viz., those which are connected with 
historical events (e.g., episodes from the Old 
Testament, from Classical history, and from 
contemporary history); and those which are 
essentially mythological and allegorical scenes. 
Among the latter, a particularly extensive 
group is formed by the Triumphs which were 
inspired by Petrarch's six famous poems in 
terza rima, known as / Trionfi — the Triumphs, 
that is, of Love, Chastity, Death, Fame, Time 
and Eternity. 

The surviving examples of complete sets of 
Petrarchian Trionfi represented in pictorial or 
graphic art, are not very numerous : Dr. Schu- 
bring limits himself to quoting four such ex- 
amples : the magnificent pair of cassone fronts 
bv Francesco Pesellino, formerly belonging to 
Mrs. Austen, of Horsmonden, Kent, and now 
in the collection of Mrs. J. L. Gardner, of 
Boston ;' the series of six Mantegnesque panels 
in the Pinakothek at Munich ;* and two en- 
graved sets in the Albertina at Vienna, Flor- 
entine fifteenth-century productions in the "fine 
manner." Instances reducing the series to 
four or three Triumphs are also quoted by Dr. 
Schubring; and on the present occasion I 
am able to draw attention to a case of five of 
the Triumphs appearing on two delightful cas- 
sone fronts in the collection of Mr. Walter 

1 Werner Weisbach, Trionfi (Berlin : G. Grote, 1919). 

2 Schubring, Cassoni, passim, but especially pp. 58-60. 
s Schubring, Cassoni, pi. LX, Nos. 266, 267. 

* Ibid., pi. CXXXII, Nos. 586-591. 



Burns, of North Mimms Park, Herts, and here 
for the first time published by his kind per- 
mission. 

The series begins [Plate, a] with the 
Triumph of Love, standing on his chariot 
drawn by four white horses, and surrounded 
by a number of people in modish dress. 
As usual in the pictures of this subject, 
Cupid is shown nude, blindfolded and shoot- 
ing his arrows. At the opposite end of the 
panel is the Triumph of Chastity, a young 
woman, fully dressed, holding a palm branch 
in one hand and what looks like a small tree in 
the other :. she is standing on a chariot drawn 
by two unicorns, and followed by a crowd of 
maidens, while Cupid sits lower down on the 
chariot, with his arms tied behind his back, 
and accompanied by two likewise captive 
amorini. On the left of the actual Triumph is 
the pretty and unusual scene of Cupid, with his 
bow and quiver broken, surrendering with two 
amorini to Chastity, accompanied by two female 
attendants of smaller proportions. Next there 
should follow the Triumph of Death (compare 
one of the Pesellino panels belonging to Mrs. 
Gardner), but this is left out, as striking per- 
haps too tragic a note for a marriage chest : 
there is a parallel to this omission in a cassone 
front by the anonymous Florentine artist known 
as the '" Cassone' Master," in the collection of 
the Marquess of Lothian, at Newbattle Abbev." 
The three remaining Triumphs are shown in 
the other panel [F'late, b] : beginning on 
the left, the Triumph of Fame, a female figure 
enthroned on a chariot drawn by two slaves 
and two white horses, and surrounded by 
heroes and heroines; next, the Triumph of 
Time, an old man with long flowing hair 
and beard, leaning on his crutches and with 
an hour-glass on his winged back— rather a 
perilous moment of equilibrium, seeing that he, 
too, is placed on a chariot, drawn in this case 
by two stags; and finally the Triumph of 
Eternity, symbolised by God the Father, en- 
throned in the Empyrean among angels play- 
ing on musical instruments, while below ap- 

« See Prince d'Essling and E. Miintz, Pdtrarque, Paris, 
1902, pp. 169-171. 

e Schubring, Cassoni. pi. XLV, No. 204. 



104 




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pears a bird's-eye view of the world. 

More especially the treatment of the last- 
mentioned scene, but also to a certain extent 
the Triumph of Fame and the Triumph of 
Love, point to the painter's having been ac- 
quainted with the scheme of Pesellino's two 
great cassone panels, depicting these subjects, 
and usually held to date from about 1445. But 
in comparison with Pesellino, the style of 
drawing and modelling and the bright positive 
colouring which so charmingly characterises 
these works, strike a note akin to an earlier 
generation of artists, with definite reminiscences 
of the manner of Fra Angelico and his follow- 
ing {e.g., Benozzo Gozzoli). A name which 
occurs as a possible candidate for the author- 
ship of these panels is that of Andrea di Giusto 
in the phase of his in which he appears under 
the influence of Fra Angelico : but it is perhaps 
superfluous to add what caution must be exer- 
cised in allotting cassone panels of this period 
to definite masters, seeing how little is yet ascer- 
tained about the individuality of these cassone 
painters, including the one whom tradition, 
and tradition only, makes most of, namely, 
Dello Delli, to whom Mr. Burns' panels have 
long been assigned. 

As I am on the subject of Florentine cassone 

THE ARMS AND BADGES OF 
BY F. SYDNEY EDEN 

T is remarkable, having regard to 
the short periods during which most 
of the ladies who, successively, occu- 
pied the position of Queen during 

the reign of Henry VIII remained 

on the throne, that there are extant, to-day, so 
many memorials of them. If we take only one 
form of memorial, heraldry in painted glass, 
we shall find quite a considerable number of 
contemporary examples. A few may be re- 
ferred to as representative of the many scattered 
about England. 

In a window of the reading room at the Car- 
negie Library, Hammersmith, is a fair amount 
of Tudor Ro}aI Heraldry — arms and badges — 
in sixteenth-century glass. There are badges 
of Katherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, both 
within oak-leaf chaplets with coloured bands 
and clasps and surmounted by royal crowns. 
These accessories are all of one design, though 
differently coloured, and Queen Katherine's 
badge bears, in the base of the chaplet, not her 
initials, but those of Jane Seymour, I.S. — pre- 
sumably an error in modern releading. The 
split pomegranate dimidiated with the red and 
white rose in this badge is not very happily 
conceived, and, unless one knew that the sinister 
half of the design must be pomegranate, one 




panels of the time about 1450, I should like to 
seize the opportunity of referring to a very inter- 
esting example, belonging to Mr. W. M. de 
Zoete, and representing the Horse being 
brought into Troy. There is another version of 
this composition — so happily dominated by the 
noble form of the big wooden horse — in the 
Mus6e Cluny, which also contains three more 
Cassone fronts with subjects from the vEneid by 
the same artist,' whom Dr. Schubring, on the 
strength of a picture in the Jarves Collection, 
Yale University, Newhaven, calls " The Master 
of the Tournament of S. Croce." By the cour- 
tesy of M. G. Arnot I also illustrate here the at- 
tractive panel of the Triumph of Scipio Africanus 
[Plate, c], which I take to be the work of the 
artist known as the " Anghiari Master " from 
the cassone front representing the Battle of 
Anghiari, illustrated in this magazine some years 
ago." The scheme of the picture here repro- 
duced may be compared with the panel of the 
same subject in the Mus^e des Arts d^coratifs 
in Paris (Salle 309).' 

7 Schubring, Cassoni, pi. XXVIII, Nos. 144-146; pi. 
XXIX, No. 147. 

* See the Burlington Magazine. Vol. XXII (Dec, 1912), p. 
IS9- 

'Schubring, Cassoni, pi. XX, No. 11 1. 

THE WIVES OF HENRY VIII 



might fail to recognise it as such. 

Anne Boleyn 's badge at Hammersmith [see 
Plate, a] — a falcon, royally crowned, stand- 
ing on a tree stock and grasping a sceptre — is 
a forcible rendering of the design ; but it is 
spoiled by an unnecessary amount of lead work, 
not by way of repair but original. It 
would have been quite the right thing to have 
painted this badge, which is entirely in gri- 
saille heightened with yellow stain, on a single 
piece of white glass. 

There is a very charming, though, unhappily, 
much faded, badge of Anne Boleyn on a white 
glass quarry (sixteenth century) at Wethers- 
field Church, Essex [Plate, b] : the work, which 
is in grisaille and yellow stain with a few 
touches of blue and red enamel, is exceedingly 
fine and delicate. This quarry is, no doubt, 
domestic in origin. 

A good contemporary rendering of Jane Sey- 
mour's badge — a phoenix, crowned, rising from 
a tower [Plate, c] — is in a window at Noke 
Hill Church, near Romford. Here, again, is a 
mistake perpetrated by a modern restorer — the 
initials H and A combined, for Henry VIII 
and Anne Boleyn, appearing in the chaplet in 
which this badge is set. 

By way of comparison with the well-pre- 



109 



served condition of the Noke Hill example one 
may mention a roundel within a border bear- 
ing this same badge of Jane Seymour in the 
Jericho Parlour at Westminster Abbey, in 
which the brown enamel is entirely perished, 
leaving only the yellow stain by which to iden- 
tify the subject. 

Judging by the extant remains in churches 
of Tudor heraldry, it appears to have been a 
common thing for the royal arms — France and 
England quarterly — in one panel and the same, 
impaling the arms of the Queen for the time 
being, or her arms alone, in another, to be set 
up in churches in the days of Henry VHI, per- 
haps, as one form of compliance with the regu- 
lation for setting up the royal arms in all 
churches. 

At High Ongar, Essex, are two such panels 
in the East window — that on the sinister side 
shows the arms of Seymour and quarterings, 
with the augmentation of a red pile, bearing 
three lions of England, in a gold field between 
six blue ileurs-de-lis granted to Jane Seymour 
and her family on her marriage [see Plate, d]. 
The sides of the chaplet have been cut down to 
fit its present setting. 

In All Saints Church, Maldon, Essex, are 
two somewhat similar, but larger, panels of the 
Royal and Seymour arms [see Plate, e], 
which were, probably, originally, in a window 
of St. Peter's Church there, the nave and 
chancel of which were destroyed in the seven- 
teenth century, and never, for ecclesiastical pur- 
poses, rebuilt. Instead, the then Rector, Arch- 
deacon Plume, built a hall and library on their 
site, and, at some time, these glass panels were 
fixed, in a fragmentary state, in the East win- 
dow of the hall. 

When the present writer visited Maldon a 
few years ago, he found this window in a 
broken conditon, both as to glass and lead- 
work, and the painted fragments were either 
hanging from their settings or lying in the rank 
grass of the church-yard. These fragments he 
collected and pieced together, as far as they 
would serve. Ultimately, with the kind per- 
mission of the Rector of the adjoining church 
of All Saints, they were placed, in the form of 
two panels, made up in their original form, in 
one of the windows of that church, and there 
they are to-day. No attempt was made at restor- 



glass :. fortunately, the Seymour coat, with 
augmentation and quarterings, was found in- 
tact. 

In a window of St. John's Chapel in the 
Tower of London, among the miscellaneous old 
glass there, much of which was in Horace Wal- 
pole's collection at Strawberry Hill, is a shield, 
painted in enamel colours, rather perished, and 
ensigned with a modern Garter, which bears 
the three quarters granted to Anne Boleyn, by 
way of augmentation, on her marriage, viz. — 

I. England, with a label of five points azure, 
each point charged with three fleurs-de-lis or. 

II. France (ancient), for Angouleme. III. Gules, 
a lion passant, guardant, for Guienne. The 
other quarters are : IV. Quarterly, i and 4, 
gules, a chief indented or, for Butler, 2 and 3, 
or, a lion rampant sable, crowned gold, for 
Rochford. V. England, with a label of five 
points argent, for Thomas of Brotherton. 
VI. Cheeky, or and azure, for Warenne [see 
Plate, f]. As Woodward (" Treatise on 
Heraldry," vol. 11, p. 151) says that these arms 
are taken from a book once in Anne's own pos- 
session, and as a shield at the College of 
Newark, or St. Mary the Greater, at Leicester, 
which bears identically the same six quarters, 
is assigned by Papworth ("Ordinary," p. 165) to 
Anne Boleyn, one may probably assume that 
the Tower shield refers to her. As Woodward 
remarks, the absence from the shield of the 
coat of Boleyn is noticeable. 

Henry's last wife, Katherine Parr, is com- 
memorated, in painted glass in a window at the 
Siege House, Colchester, by a white roundel, 
within a Renaissance scroll border, on which 
is a shield of six quarters, the arms of Parr in 
the second quarter and the augmentation 
granted to Katherine on her marriage with the 
King — argent on a pile, between three roses gules, 
three others argent — in the first quarter [see 
Plate, g]. The shield has a border of scroll 
and grotesque work, is supported by two herms 
and is ensigned with a royal crown. The 
sinister lower base of the roundel is lost, and 
is repaired with plain white glass. In the upper 
part of the border is a small shield bearing a 
merchant's mark, with initials W.S., presum- 
ably those of the glass painter, and the date is 
1546. The border, on its sinister side, is re- 
paired with the Divine monogram I H S, rayed, 
in white and yellow. 



ation, all lost pieces being supplied by white 

A FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH TRIPTYCH 
BY W. R. LETHABY 




UITE a remarkable English triptych 
is now in the possession of Messrs. 
Durlacher and Co., of Bond Street, 
of which I am glad to give some des- 
cription in my notes on medi- 



aeval paintings. It was obtained from Wood- 
endean Manor, near Brighton, and had been 
the property of Sir Thomas Lennard. It con- 
sists of a central panel and two side-pieces 
closing as doors : when open the full size is 



I 10 



about 3 feet 8 inches by 2 feet 9 inches. It 
is carved with tabernacle worlv in low relief 
and the surface was gilt. The unpainted gold 
backgrounds are covered with patterns made 
of punched dots. The upper part of the 
central panel is occupied by the Crucifixion : 
below are three smaller subjects^ within a 
painted arcade. [Plate I], 

The Cross of the chief subject stands high : 
Christ appears exhausted, with streams of 
blood flowing from His side, down the Cross 
from the feet, and from the hands streaming 
along the arms to fall from the elbows. On 
either hand is a group of figures : the Virgin, 
three women and St. John are on Christ's 
right, the two soldiers and a third figure are 
on the left. One of the soldiers, in ornamented 
plate-armour, points a finger and says as is 
written on a scroll, Vere filius Dei erat iste. 
This inscription has been injured but it can 
be made out by comparison with the Norwich 
retable where the soldier also points and 
speaks. Beyond the Crucifixion are the four 
symbols of the Evangelists. The subjects in 
the arches on the lower part of the central panel 
are (a) Christ washing Peter's feet while the 
other Apostles wonder : {h) the Agony in the 
Garden — a Hand offers a cup to the kneeling 
Christ : (c) the Resurrection from the tomb. 
On the lower part of {b) and in the centre is a 
small coat of arms : it is somewhat rubbed but 
appears to be barry argent and gules, a lion 
rampant sable, crowned (Fig. 2). The shield 
is clearly of the greatest importance as doubtless 
it represents the donor of the altar-piece to some 
church. 

On the inner face of each of the two doors 
of the triptych are three subjects, the two lower 
ones being within painted arcades. The sub- 
jects on the left are : (i) The Annunciation, 
the Virgin and the Angel both kneel, above on 
the left appears God the Father leaning out in 
the canopy work : (2) The Coming of the three 
Kings, one having presented his gift (an orb 
on a stand) kneels and kisses the arm of the 
Holy Child, Joseph behind stirs a bowl of 
milk with a spoon : (3) The Presentation, the 
Child stands on the altar or table of offerings : 
the Virgin's companion carries doves and a 
long ornamented candle. 

The subjects on the right are : (4) The As- 
cension, Christ leaves footprints on a green 
hill : (5) Descent of Holy Spirit, the Virgin 
in the middle and Apostles right and left : (6) 
Death of the Virgin, Apostles behind, one 
reads, another sprinkles Holy water, above 
in a circle Christ receives the Virgin as a small 
naked soul which is held as an infant on His 
arm — an imaginative treatment. In the span- 
drels of the tabernacle work are angels, two 



adoring and two making music. 

On the outside of the two doors four flat 
panels painted with Franciscan subjects have 
been fixed. In style these closely resemble 
the paintings already described: they are on 
deep blue grounds, sprinkled with gold stars, 
and the figures stand on a green foreground 
strip with here and there a flower. One pair 
represents St. Francis preaching to the birds. 
Many of these rest on a tree while others fly 
above; several different kinds — owl, eagle, 
hawk, etc., are well made out. Naturalistic 
birds were characteristic of English fourteenth- 
century art ; some of the apus anglicanum em- 
broideries, which I believe were mainly London 
productions, furnish examples. The tree is 
an oak of which the leaves are deftly touched 
in. Notice how St. Francis makes the gesture 
of exposition in preaching : his hands, side, 
and feet show the stigmata. Behind him a 
companion friar is sleeping. 

The other two panels each contain two 
figures, one of each pair being a Franciscan 
saint, and the other one an Apostle. The 
Apostles are St. Andrew and St. Paul : one of 
the Franciscan figures is St. Clare and the 
other — a Bishop standing above the crowned 
arms of France — has been identified as St. 
Hugh, Bishop of Toulouse. 

The colour of the paintings generally is 
deep, brilliant, and remarkably transparent. 
The arcades have spaces of transparent colour 
laid over the gold which glitters through it. 
The painter's touches, as seen especially in 
an enlarged photograph of a portion which I 
have before me, are swift and assured. This 
portion is the foreground of the Agony in the 
Garden with part of a wattled hedge and a 
delicate branch of foliage behind. 

No one who has studied English mediaeval 
paintings will have any doubt as to the origin 
of this work and I should date it about 1360- 
75. There are so many interesting parallels 
between this triptych and the wall paintings 
once in St. Stephen's Chapel at Westminster 
that both works must be very nearly of the same 
age. The most important subjects at St. 
Stephen's — the Three Kings of the East 
making their offering to the Infant Christ, and 
the Presentation in the Temple — were half des- 
troyed before they were recorded, but by com- 
parison with the similar subjects on the triptycli 
their original composition may be better under- 
stood. At St. Stephen's the figure behind the 
Virgin, of which little more than the feet re- 
mained, must have been Joseph. The Holy In- 
fant evidently leaned forward from His 
Mother's arms towards tiie first of the wise 
Kings who knelt and placed his crown on the 
floor. The Presentation was still more frag- 



113 



mentary in the Chapel, but comparison with the 
triptych shows that the Child Christ stood on 
the Altar of offerings between the High Priest 
and the Virgin. 

In 1350 the work of painting the whole interior 
of the newly-built Chapel of St. Stephen was 
undertaken, and Edward ill issued a precept — 
" The King to all and singular. . . . Know ye 
that we have appointed our beloved Hugh de 
St. Alban's, master of the painters assigned 
for the works to be executed in our Chapel at 
Westminster. . . ." Thenceforward in the 
accounts of costs Master Hugh is found work- 
ing " on the ordination " of, and " drawing 
the images" in, the chapel; until 1357, when 
his name ceases to be mentioned. In 1352 the 
name of William of Walsyngham appears with 
other painters assisting Hugh, and he succeeded 
Hugh in the office of King's painter. Now 
Master Hugh appears from his will to have 
died in 1361. In 1363 another Royal Warrant 
was issued ..." Know you that we have 
appointed our beloved William de Walsyng- 
ham to take so many painters in our city of 
London ... as may be sufficient for our works 
in St. Stephen's Chapel. . . ." It is probable 
that Master Hugh began his work in St. 
Stephen's Chapel with the painting$ at the 
High Altar just described. 

Many more points of resemblance between 
these Westminster paintings and the triptych 
may be pointed out. The painted arcade which 
surrounds the subjects is very like an arcade 
painted about the Westminster wall paintings : 
details like a curious trefoil leaf in the capitals 
are similar (Fig. i) and so is the perspective 

treatment of the 
capitals and bases 
and the "tile" floors 
of some of the sub- 
jects. Angels in the 
Chapel had wings 
of peacock feathers, 
and we are told that 
some of the work was 
in transparent colours. There is much, too, in 
the character of the figures and face expressions 
which reminds me of the wall paintings in the 
Chapter House at Westminster executed to- 
wards the end of the fourteenth century. Here 
in the spandrels was a choir of angels, semi- 
figures playing musical instruments, remark- 
ably like those in the triptych. Altogether I 
am drawn to think that the triptych is prob- 
ably a London work, and that we may think 
of it as of the school of Master Hugh. 
Possibly, indeed, it is by Hugh himself or Wil- 
liam of Walsingham, his successor. 

The four Franciscan subjects on the outside 
of the wings seem identical in style with the 




others. Of the two figures of Apostles — St. 
Paul and St, Andrew — the former is repre- 
sented with his symbolical sword held vertic- 
ally in his hand just as he appeared on the 
banner of London — there is nothing like proof 
of it but I get the impression that this figure 
is London's St. Paul. The subject of St. 
Francis Preaching to the Birds first occurs in 
known English work in one of Matthew Paris's 
manuscripts {Chronica Majora), together with 
the note: " While he was journeying through 
the valley of Spoleto this occurred, not only as 
regards doves, crows, or daws, but vultures and 
birds of prey." The subject is found again 
in a window jamb at Little Kimble, not far 
from Windsor, c. 1320-30. There is also record 
(Mr. Tristram tells me) that a destroyed paint- 
ing at Headington, Oxfordshire, represented a 
similar subject. " A Franciscan friar holding 
a cross-staff is on the right, a figure reading is 
in the middle of the subject, and on the left is 
a conventional tree with birds perched in the 
branches."' Here it will be noticed a second 
figure occurred as on the triptych. 

A note on the shield of arms, which, as said 
above, is painted in the centre at the bottom of 
the middle panel of the triptych has been shown 
to me by Messrs. Durlacher, and I here con- 
dense the principal points : " The only one ap- 
proaching it seems to be that of the Estuteville 
(Stoteville, etc) family. Burke's General Ar- 
moury gives the Estotville arms as barry of 8 
(another 10, another 12), arg. and gu., over all 
a lion ramp. sa. French heraldic books give 
the arms as Burele d'argent et de gueles de 10 
pieces, un lion de sable brochant sur le tout, 
lampasse et couronni d'or. The elder branch 
of the family seems mostly to have been seated 
in Yorkshire, but the younger had lands, etc. 
in Northumberland, Derby, Essex etc. Stute- 
ville, Essex: barrv of 12, arg. and gu., etc. 

(B.M. Additional 
MSS., 17,732, /. 
86)." The note 
goes on to say that 
the Lennards seem 
to have been neigh- 
bours of the Stute- 
villes in Essex : 
further, a deed of 
John, son of Sir 
Robert de Stute- 
ville, relating to 
Northu mberiand 
properties, was exe- 
cuted in London 
dated 20 Feb. 8 



■ _ V-*''.«( ^ 'M 



iiiDUf—taiitt' >:iu. 1' '' . ".."l™ 



Kj^ t 1 



. iih«....iii!^ifi^.fliuii> "jnunp 




Edward II (1315). 

I give a sketch of the shield (Fig. 

1 Builder, p. 725, 1864. 



2) so far 



114 




St. Francis prcachino; tn the birds. St. Paul and St. Hugh. St. Clare and St. .indre-w. 
Franrismn subjcrts from ilic doors of a triptych. I-'nii'lisIi, 14th ccnturv. Panel. (Messrs. 
Durlacher) 



Plate II. A 14th-century English Triptych 



n 




.4 — Karuizaiva, by Hiroshige. ist edition 




C — Okvakc, by Yeisen. ist edition 




E — Mochizuki, \>\ Hiroshige. isl edition 




G — Nagakubo, by Hiroshige. ist edition 

Colour prints of the Kisokaido Series 

The Identification of Japanese Colour Prints — IV 




/) — Oilcake. 3rd edition 




F — Mochizuki. 2nd edition 




H — \asukiibo. 2nd edition 



as I can make it out. The number of divisions 
in the barrv field are of no consequence in early 
heraldry. ' It will be noticed that the lion 
is crowned : the tail seems to have been forked. 
It may not be doubted that the coat is that 
of the Stutevilles, and I find that persons of 
this name are frequently mentioned in London 
records of the fourteenth century. For in- 
stance, in Sharpe's Calendar of London Wills 
Robert de Stuteville is named in 1361 : and in 
1376 " tenements at the corner of Chykenlane 

THE IDENTIFICATION OF JAPANESE COLOUR PRINTS- 
BY WILL H. EDMUNDS 



in the parish of St. Sepulchre " were left " to 
Sir William Stoteville, perpetual vicar of the 
church, and several others." From the Patent 
Rolls we find that Robert de Stuteville was 
pardoned of outlawry in the County of York 
having surrendered to Flete Prison (London) 
in 1360; and that William was vicar of St. 
Sepulchre's, Newgate, in 1374. Here we prob- 
abh' get very near to the donor of this remark- 
able picture. 



IV 




T is only in the carefully printed 
copies, where the register is accur- 
ate and the colours are delicately 
graded, luminous, and soft, that 
the full beauty of Hiroshige's con- 
ception is made clear," as Mr. Ficke warns us in 
" Chats on Japanese Prints," p. 394- " Famili- 
arity with the finer impressions forever spoils 
the attentive observer's taste for the crude ordi- 
nary copies. The task of the collector of Hiro- 
shige's work to-day resolves itself into a search 
for those rare and precious early prints. . . The 
difference once grasped is unforgettable," and 
vet, in illustrating the book containing this good 
advice, he gives us one of those very " crude 
ordinary copies" of the print Kuivana (Plate 53) 
which should have been a guiding example of 
beauty, but is instead a late issue, as exposed in 
the March number of this Magazine. While it 
remains the custom of writers on Japanese Prints 
to be careless in their choice of copies of prints 
for illustration, so long will the collector be led 
by poor or late examples, to buy similar copies, 
in the belief that he is getting the right thing. 
He naturally turns to books on the subject for 
guidance, and the use of late copies for illustra- 
tion must therefore be, to say the least of it, mis- 
leading, yet nearly all of the numerous books on 
Japanese Prints in existence are guilty of this 
lack of discrimination. ' 

Probably before the completion of the Tokaido 
series bv Hiroshige the Hoyeido must have been 
stirred to a fresh effort and on the look-out for a 
fresh artist, for in 1835 the Hoyeido began the 
publication of the Kisokaido series of seventy 
prints, depicting the stations on that inland 
mountain road between Yedo and Kyoto, and 
for that purpose it is evident that Yeisen must 
have been commissioned to undertake the 
Journev with the object of making sketches. Much 
confusion is apparent as to this important .set, of 
which the earlier prints were designed by Keisai 
Yeisen, and the remainder, a larger portion, by 

1 Thanks are due to W Getting, Esq., for the loan of 
some of the prints illustrating this article. 



Hiroshige. Even the number of prints by Yeisen 
is constantly wrongly stated to be twenty-three, 
as by Mr. Ficke (p. 390), probably copied from 
Mr. Happer's Hiroshige Catalogue in which 
Sakamoto was, with reserve, attributed to Hiro- 
shige. " The Heritage of Hiroshige " naturally 
follows, but more important works, the " British 
Museum Catalogue," and the " Catalogue of the 
Memorial Exhibition of Hiroshige's Works," 
without quoting others, both quote the same 
number twenty-three, whereas the number is 
twenty-four. Further errors are perpetuated in 
the faulty transliteration of place names. The 
place names used here are those first published in 
Messrs. Sotheby's catalogues some time ago, 
taken from a set by Kuniyoshi, in which the 
correct pronunciation of each name is given in 
Ka7ia, beside the name, and these correspond in 
the main with those given in Murray's " Guide 
to Japan " of a date when the Kisokaido was a 
much used road, and before railways had obliter- 
ated some of the places, as well as the names. 
The twenty-four by Yeisen are : — Nihon Bashi 
No. I, Itabashi No! 2, Warabi No. 3, Uraiva No. 
4, Omiya No. 5, Ageo No. 6, Okegawa No. 7, 
Konosu No. 8, Kumagai No. 9, Fiikaya No. 10, 
Honjo No. II, Kuragano No. 13, Ilahana No. 15, 
Sakamoto No. 18, Katsukake No. 20, Oiivake 
No. 21, Iwamurata No. 23, Shiojiri No. 31, Narai 
No. 35, Yabuhara No. 36, Nojiri No. 41, Magome 
No. 44, Unuma No. 53, and Godo No. 55, the 
remaining forty-six being by Hiroshige. Further 
confusion occurs in the renderings of the seals 
on the prints in various states and editions, which 
this article will seek to correct. 

The earliest prints of this set were published 
by the Hoyeido alone, and they were all by 
Yeisen, not one print by Hiroshige being found 
with only the Hoyeido seals. The earliest, Nikon 
Bashi, bears the character Hitsuji, " Goat," and 
the only goat year to which it can be assigned, is 
Tem/)o 6=^ 1835, but at some date after twenty-two 
of the Yeisen prints had been produced, the 
Hoyeido joined hands with the Kinjndo, or /<;c- 
ya Rihei of Ike-no-hata, Naka-cho, " By the 



119 



pond, middle street," abbreviated into Iseri Ike- 
naka, and then Hiroshige must have been invited 
to contribute, for four of the prints by Hiroshige 
bear the seals of the joint firms, but no others, 
they are Takasaki No. 14, Karuizawa No. 19, 
Fukushima No. 28, and Toriimoto No. 64. Apart 
from these four, all the other prints by Hiroshige 
were issued by the Kinjudo alone, so that the 
partnership in this production could have been 
but of short duration, and when it ended, the 
Yeisen print blocks were acquired by the Kinjiido 
and were re-issued with the added or replaced 
seals of the Kinjudo, or their trade-mark. Now 
this could not have happened until after the death 
of Yeisen in 1848, first, because Yeisen's signa- 
ture could not have been removed from his prints 
during his lifetime, he was an important artist, 
and twenty-two of them had been published with 
his signature attached, and secondly, because two 
of those prints have never been found with his 
signature, atlhough undoubtedly his work, Ita- 
hana No. 15, and Sakamoto No. 18. It would 
appear that these two prints were designed by 
Yeisen, but left unsigned, and in the first case 
unfinished, when he died, for by common consent 
the script of the place name on the block must 
have been put in bv his fellow worker Hiroshige. 
This at least seems to me to be the most probable 
cause for the disappearance of Yeisen's name 
from so many of the prints he designed, though 
other explanations have been put forward. We 
might have expected a very carefully digested and 
explicit explanation of this question from such a 
work as " The Catalogue of the Memorial Exhi- 
bition of Hiroshige's Works," with its interested 
native promoters, or committee, but the whole 
question is passed over in an uncertain and per- 
functory manner. 

As we might expect then, the main differences 
to be found in various issues of this set centre in 
the prints by Yeisen, the alterations in the designs 
or seals of which will be duly recorded, as well as 
those of the designs by Hiroshige. For a con- 
siderable part of the latter, however, the differ- 
ences are but slight, and appear chiefly in the use 
or elimination of colour blocks, as the Kinjudo 
only were at any time responsible during the 
period when the prints were in demand by the 
Japanese public, since when, many curious 
changes have been rung for globe-trotters, and 
foreign markets. Not all the seals can be shown 
in such a large number of prints, but sufficient 
will be reproduced to enable collectors to discover 
for themselves the readings of others of like char- 
acter, but different form. 

No. I. Nihou Bashi : The first issue shows a tartje red sun 
behind the bridge, it is sitjned Yeisen. to left of the si^tnature 
two square seals Take Uchi above, and Hoyeido below, on the 
umbrell.T three inscriptions J^eiganjima, Tahe Vchi and 
Rnku-ju-kii " Sixtv-nin-*,*' at the side of this number Hitsnji 
for j^oat-year, on the left margin a red. open, gourd-shaped 
seal containing Kiwame above, and Take below (Fig. i). 



Second state : with rising sun, same inscriptions on the um- 
brella, signature of Yeisen cut out, in place of the two seals 
of Hoyeido, the gourd-shajDed seal Kinjudo (Fig. 2), nothing 
on the margin. Third state : without the rising sun, unsigned, 
the inscription on the umbrella altered to Iseri Ikenaka, with 
the trade mark of the firm (Fig. 3) on the other umbrella, 
nothing on the margin. Fourth state : no rising sun, no sig- 
nature, the inscripiton on the umbrella altered to Yatnasho han, 
Naka-bashi, the name and address of a third publisher. 

No. 2. Itabashi. First : signed Yeisen, to left of signature a 
square seal Take Uchi and below it a circular seal Hoyeido; 
on the horse-cloth in a circle 5/?i Awase Yoshi " a lucky 
event " (Fig. 4). Second : no signature, only one circular 
seal Hoyeido, the horse-':loth altered to the trade mark of 
Iseri. Third : no signature, no seal of Hoyeido, only the 
trade mark of Iseri on the horse-cloth. 

No. 3. ll'arabi. First : signed Keisai, to left of signature 
two solid red square seals with white characters, Hoyei 
above, and Take Uchi below, on left margin Fig. i in black. 
Second : no signature to left of the place name, the one seal 
Hoyei as above, nothing on margin. Third : same as second, 
but much inferior colouring. 

No. 4. Uraiva. First : signed Yeisen, to left of signature 
two seals, at top a solid red square with white Take Uchi, 
and below the circular seal Hoyeido han moto (Fig. 5), on 
the horse's belly-band Take in black on blue in a white circle, 
on left margin a red gourd-shaped seal Kiwame and Take 
(Fig. 6). Second : no signature, only one seal (Fig. 5), the 
horse-cloth altered to the trade mark of Iseri, nothing on 
margin. 

No. 5. Omiya. First: signed Keisai, and toleft of sig- 
nature two seals Take Uchi and Hoyeido han in white on 
solid red square, on left margin Fig. i in black. Second : 
no signature, only one seal Hoyeido han, nothing on margin. 

No. 6. Ageo. First : signed Keisai, below the signature an 
open square red seal Take Uchi han (Fig. 7). Second : the 
chief difference, no signature. 

No. 7. Okegawa. The only difference in states, absence of 
signature. 

No. S. Konosti. First : signed Keisai. under the signature 
the seal Take Uchi (Fig. 8), and under the place name two 
open red square seals Hoyei and Do. Second : no signature, 
no Fig. 8 seal, the two seals under the place name Hoyeido 
and Han. In colouring there are several variations. 

No g. Kumagai. First : signed Yeisen, to the left of sig- 
nature Take Uchi. on the horse-cloth Take, nothing on mar- 
gin. Second : no signature, the horse-cloth altered to the 
trade mark of Iseri. Some later issues have Shimpan " New 
Edition " in the place of the Take Uchi seal. 

No. in. Fiikava and No. 11. Honjo : A long hunt after these 
two prints, ending in failure to find them, has prevented the 
filling in of details as to these, except that in both cases the 
first editions are signed, and the later issues unsigned. 

No. 12. Shinmachi. First ; signed Hiroshige with solid square 
red seal Ichiryusai in white under signature, to left of place 
name seal Fig. 2. Ki^t'ame on left margin. Second : signed but 
no Ichiryusai seal under signature,, nothing on left margin. 

No. 13. Kuracano. First : signed Yeisen with seals Take 
Uchi and Hoveido on the left, Kiwame on left margin. 
Second : no signature, in place of Haveido seals Kinjudo 
Fig. 2. Later,' no publisher's seals, no signature, nothing on 
left margin. 

No. 14. Takasaki. First : signed Htroshige with seal 
Ichiryusai below; to left of place name a gourd-shaped solid 
red seal with white Hoyeido : Kiwame on left marpin. Second : 
no Ichiryusai seal under signature, nothing on left margin. ^ 
No. 15. Itahana: No copy of this print hearing Yeisen's 
signature is known ; to left of place name and touching it a 
solid red square sea! with white Ikenaka Iseri. The earliest 
copies have on the left margin the black seal Fig. 6, later 
copies nothing on margin. 

No. t6. Annaka. First: signed Hiroshige with Ichiryusai 
seal below, beside place name seal Kinjudo No. 2, Kiwame on 
left margin. Later, same, but no Kiwame on margin. 

No. 17. Matsuida. First : signed Hiroshige sealed Ichi- 
ryusai, under place name a circular, open red seal Kinjudo. 
Later issues, no change. 

No. tS. Sakamntn bv Yeisen, but no copy with signature 
known, beside the place name a solid red gourd-shaped seal 
with Iseri in white. Later copies, the same. 

No. 10. Karuizaiva. First : signed Hiroshige and below a 
solid red square seal with white Tokaido. Fig. q, to left of 
place name an open gourd-shaped seal with Take Ucht, the 



120 



belly-band of the horse has an open space beside which hangs 
a lantern with Iscri on it, Kiwame on left margin. Second : 
the Take Uchi seal i' removed, and on the belly-band is the 
trade mark of Iseri, nothing on left margin [see Plate, a, e]. 

No. 20. Katsukake. First : signed Yeiscn at the right " 
bottom corner, and to left and below a vase-shaped seal with 



open square seal Ichiryusai, to left of place name a solid 
gourd-shaped seal with Kinjudo in white, on the left margin 
Khuame above the trade mark of Iseri. In this state the 
sides of the trees facing the spectator are in shadow, the 
moon being behind them. Second : this is a re-cut block, 
generally the same as the first, with no alterations of seals, but 





Kiwame in the neck and Hoyeido on the side (Fig. lo) ; to 
the left of the place name Hoyeido han vertically on the 
block, and to the left of it an open square red seal Take 
Uchi. Second ; neither signature nor vase-shaped seal, the 
vertical Hoyeido han removed from the block, and only the 
Take Uchi seal remaining. 

No. 21. Oiwake. First : signed Keisai at the left bottom 
corner, and beside it tc the lett an open gourd-shaped seal 
with Kiwame above and Take below (Fig. ii); to the left of 
the place name two open square seals Take and Mago (Fig. 
12), on the side horse-cloth Take Uchi white on blue, oji 
the rump of the horse Take in a circle. In this state the 
mountain has a pale yellow centre with red slopes on each 
side, and there is no rain block. Second : same as the first 
but with the signature and goui'd seal removed. Third ; no 
signature nor gourd-shaped seal, the side horse-cloth altered 
to the trade mark of Iseri in black on blue, and across the 
whole block a straight downpour of rain in which the whole 
mountain appears in red [see Plate c, d]. 

No. 22. Odai : No change, signed Hiroshigc, sealed below 
Ichiryusai, under the place name an oblong open seal Kinjudo. 



hearing nothing on the left margin. The trees have a false 
light where they should be in shadow. Some verv late issues 
have under the seal Ichiryusai an ivy leaf imitation of the 
device of Tsuta-ya, with the number of the issue 443. They 
^re clever modern forgeries [see Plate e, f]. 

No. 27. Ashida. First : signed Hiroshige and below a 
circular open red seal with Ichiryusai (Fig. 14), to left of 
place name a gourd-shaped solid seal with white Kinjudo, 
on left margin Kiwame above the trade mark of Iseri. 
Second ; without the Ichiryusai seal and nothing on margin. 

No. 28. Nagakubo. First : signed Hiroslnge. under the 
signature a round solid seal with Ichiryusai in white, to left 
of place name an oblong solid red seal with Kinjudo in white, 
on left margin Kiwame above the trade mark of Iscri, on the 
horse's ruinp also the trade mark. This state has a dark 
hill range in the distance. Second : same, e.xcept that the 
dark hill range is left out, doubtless on account of the diffi- 
culty in grading the blocks so that the travellers on the 
bridge could be clearly seen, and yet in mist ; also, this 
state has nothing on the left margin but Kiwame [see 
Plate g, h]. 







FIG. 9 10 II I 

No. 23. Iwamuraia. First : signed Keisai and to left of 
signature two square seals Take in white above and Uchi in 
red below. Second : no signature. Chief alterations in 
colouring. 

No. 24. Shionada. First : signed Hiroshige and seal 
Ichiryusai below, to left of place name square solid red seal 
with white Kinjudo; on left margin Kiwame above the trade 
mark of Iseri. Second : same, except nothing on left margm. 

No. 25. Yawata. First : signed Hiroshige and below an 
open seal Utagawa (Fig. 13), to left of place name gourd- 
shaped solid seal with white Kinjudo, nothing on margm. 
Second : no change but in colouring. 

No. 26. Mochizuki. First ; signed Hiroshige and below an 

AN ATTIC RED-FIGURED CUP 
BY J. D. BEAZLEY 



13 



IS 



No. 29. Wada. First : signed Hiroshige with seal Ichi- 
ryusai below (Fig. 15), to left of place name a gourd-shaped 
solid seal with Kinjudo in white, on left margin Kiwame 
above the trade mark of Iseri. Second : no Ichiryusai seal 
nor anv mark on margin. 

No. '30. Shimo-no-Suwa. First : signed Hiroshige, and be- 
low Ichiryusai in white on a solid gourd-shaped seal, to left 
of place name/Ciii/t«io in white on a solid square seal, on left 
margin Kiwame only. On the left of the ensawa of the 
house is a porcleain chosu-bachi which has a green outside 
with a deeper green running splash round the rim. Second : 
nothing on left margin, the chosu-bachi all one colour without 
the running splash. 



HE name of Euphronios is known to 
us from fourteen vases.' Four of 
these bear the inscription Euphro- 
nios egrapsen, "drawn by Euphro- 
nios." In the rest, the inscription, 
where complete, is Euphronios epoiesen, " made 
by Euphronios." The epoiesen vases were not 

' Beazley, Vases in America, pp. 30-31. Hoppin, Handbook 
of Red-figured Vases, 1, pp. 376 ff. 




painted by Euphronios. Six of them, however, 
are the work of a single person, the anonymous 
artist called the Panaitios painter. As an artist 
he was not inferior to Euphronios himself, and 
the cups which he painted rank among the 
ma.sterpieces of Greek vase-painting." 

The cup here published for the first time 
[Pl.ate], which is in the possession of 

2 Vases in America, pp. 82-87. 



121 



Mr. Gufflielmo De Ferrari, is one of the earliest 
extant wori<s of the Panaitios painter : it must 
have been painted in the last few years of the 
sixth century B.C. The diameter is 23.5 centi- 
metres, excluding the handles, which are 
modern. The foot is missing, and with it a 
great part of the interior design : on the exterior 
no figure is complete, and most are very frag- 
mentary. The ancient portions are in perfect 
preservation : the restorations are hideous, 
but give the motives, in the main, correctly.' 
The cup is remarkable in many ways. The 
draughtsmanship is of rare beauty and vigour. 
The border is an uncommon one.* Moreover, 
the tondo which decorates the interior of a red- 
figured cup is almost always surrounded by an 
ample margin of black; and it is very seldom 
that the interior picture, as here, occupies the 
whole field.' The subject of the picture is also 
unusual : — A woman wrapt in a long cloak is 
lying on a couch, her golden hair confined by a 
metal circlet; she turns her face towards the 
pillow, as if she were shy. A man with a brown 
beard sits on the couch in front of her, loosing 
his right sandal. The lady's lyre and a head- 
dress hang on the wall. 

3 Restored in the interior : the man from waist to half-way 
down the right leg, with the lower right arm, the left leg, 
and the lower half of the cloak : the face of the woman and 
most of her body ; parts of the lyre and of the stool. The 
restorations on the exterior are hatched in the photograph. 

* The vases with exactly the same pattern are four : cup, 
bearing the name of Euphronios, in Berlin, Hoppin, I, p. 383 
Cother fragments of the same cup are in the magazine of the 
Vatican) ; cup with Euphronios epoiesen in the Louvre, Hoppin, 
T, p. 399; head kantharos in New York, Sambon, Collection 
Canessa, pi. 12, 149; stand in Berlin, Genick, pi. 14-15, 3. 

5 So in the two great cups, by the Penthesilea painter, in 
Munich, Furtwangler-Reichhold, pll. 6 and 55. 



The inscription reads, Ath(en)o{dotos) ka{lo)s. 
The love-name Athenodotos is not confined to 
the Panaitios painter, but most of the cups which 
bear it are his work. The scene on the exterior 
represents a drinking-party : men; youths; and 
naked women playing the flute and the casta- 
nets : the inscriptions are kalos four times re- 
peated, kale and naich(i). In subject, in spirit, 
and in composition, the picture of the lady and 
her lover finds its closest analogy in a later work 
of the Panaitios painter, the well-known cup in 
the British Museum which bears the inscriptions 
Panaitios kalos and Euphronios epoiesen. The 
composition, and the poise of the seated figure, 
bring another work of the same painter to mind : 
the Boston cup with the love-name Epidromos.' 
The style is likest that of early cups by the 
Panaitos painter, such as the komos cup in the 
British Museum and the athlete cup in the Cabi- 
net des M^dailles.' But our cup seems some- 
what older than either of these. The head of 
the lover, and the very precise rendering of such 
things as eyelashes and finger-nails, make one 
think of the crater by Euphronios in the Louvre, 
or of the Berlin Sosias cup.' Mr. De Ferrari's 
cup, in fact, links the style of Euphronios with 
that of his brilliant pupil, the Panaitios painter. 
The fineness of its execution, the expressiveness 
of its drawing, and the grandeur of its design 
give it a high'place, despite its fragmentariness, 
in the work of an artist who has no superior 
among the painters of Greek vases. 



s Hoppin, I, p. 389. 
' Hartwig, Meisterschalen, pi. 14, 2. 
8 Hartwig, pi. 8 and pll. 15, 2 and 16. 
» Hoppin, I, p. 397, and II, p. 423. 



LARGILLIERE : AN ICONOGRAPHICAL NOTE 
BY W. G. CONSTABLE 




N the large portrait group by Lar- 
gilli^re in the Wallace Collection 
[Plate I, a], which represents Louis 
XIV, his son the Grand Dauphin, 
and his grandson the Duke of Bur- 
gundy, the identity of the lady and child has long 
been in doubt, the same pair appear in a pic- 
ture formerly in the Burdett-Coutts Collection 
[Plate II, b] , the figures evidently from the 
same hand as the Wallace picture, the back- 
ground more probably the work of an assistant. 
The suggestion once made that the lady is 
Madame de Maintenon has nothing in its favour; 
and portraits of that lady and the improbability 
of the governess to the King's bastards being 
associated with his legitimate descendants, are 
against it. The Wallace picture was exhibited 
at Boulogne in 1837, ^"d what is apparently an 
extract from a local newspaper pasted on the 
back describes the governess as Mme. de L6vi- 



Ventadour, a non-existent personage whose 
name is either a portmanteau word covering two 
possible candidates, Mme. de L^vi and the 
Duchess de Ventadour; or is a mistake due to 
the family name of the Due de Ventadour being 
de Levis. Investigation of St. Simon's 
Memoires, however, suggested that probably 
the lady is the Mar^chale de la Mothe (or Mothe- 
Houdancourt) ; and the discovery at Versailles 
of her portrait turns probability into certainty. 
Bv the kindness of M. Andr^ Perate, Director 
of the Versailles Museum, this portrait is here 
reproduced [Pl.ate II, c] , and allowing for differ- 
ences in handling, is evidently the same person 
as appears in the other two pictures. The 
Mar^chale de la Mothe was born in 1624, the 
second daughter of Louis de Prie, Marquis de 
Torcy, and through her mother was grand- 
daughter of Mme. de Lansac, governess of 
Louis XIV, and so great-grand-daughter of the 



122 




Cup by Euphronios. Dia., 23.5 cm. (Sr. Guglielmo De Ferrari) 
An Attic red-figured Cup 




A — The family of Louis XIV, by Nicolas de Largilliere. Canvas, 1.27 m. 
(Wallace Collection) 

Plate I. Largilliere: An iconographical note 



by 1 .6 m . 




o 
c 

y 

CO 

o 
c 
o 
.H 

c 






a 

Oh 



Mar^chal de Souvrd, tutor to Louis XIII. Mar- 
ried to the Mar^chal de la Mothe, who had a dis- 
tinguished though chequered career as a soldier 
and administrator in Spain, she was left a widow 
at the age of 34; but through the influence of 
Louvois, who married a relative of hers, she 
emerged from retirement to become governess 
to Monseigneur (the Grand Dauphin), and sub- 
sequently to the Duke of Burgundy, and to his 
first two sons. In this last post she had associated 
with her the Duchesse de Ventadour, one of her 
three daughters, who afterwards became gover- 
ness to Louis XV. Thus, five generations of 
heirs to the throne were under the care of the 
same family, and for three of them the Mar^chale 
de la Mothe was herself responsible. St. Simon 
speaks of her at the time of her marriage as being 
very beautiful and as having always been virtu- 
ous. On her death on Jan. 6th, 1709, he sums 
her up in characteristic fashion : " C'etoit la 
meilleure femme du monde cjui avoit le plus de 
soin des infants de France, et les 61evait avec 
le plus de dignity et de politesse, qui elle-meme 
en avoit le plus, avec une taille majestueuse et 
un visage imposant et qui avec tout cela n'eut 
jamais le sens commun et ne sut de la vie ce 
qu'elle disoit ; mais la routine, le grand usage 



du monde la soutint." 

The establishment of the lady's identity helps 
to settle that of the child, hitherto described as 
the Duke of Anjou, third son of the Duke of 
Burgundy, who ascended the throne as Louis 
XV. This prince, however, was not born until 
1 710, and with him the Mar^chale de la Mothe 
had nothing to do. With his two brothers the 
case is different. The first died when only a 
few months old; but the second who was born 
Jan. 8th, 1707, and succeeded to his brother's 
title of Duke of Brittany, lived until 1712, in 
which year he had taken the name and rank of 
Dauphin. His death was alleged to be due to 
poison administered by the Duke of Orleans, 
who ultimately became Regent. St. Simon 
speaks of the Alarechale de la Mothe sleeping in 
his room two days before her death ; so that he 
was under her care until he was two, which is 
about the age of the child in the Wallace and 
Burdett-Coutts pictures. The suggestion made 
in the W^allace Collection catalogue therefore, 
that here is a memorial picture, seems well 
founded ; the persons represented being the 
King, the three generations of heirs who prede- 
ceased him, and the woman responsible for their 
up-bringing. 



A NEW WORK BY NICOLA 
KENSINGTON— II (concluded) 
BY BERNARD RACKHAM 

DISH by Nicola in the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford [Plate, b], per- 
haps part of the same service as 
those in the Correr Museum, is an- 
other interesting example of his 
dapting engravings. It is painted 
Calumny of Apelles as described 



PELLIPARIO AT SOUTH 




m 
the 



skill 
with 

by Lucian. C. D. Fortnum '^ speaks 
of it as an adaptation from Botticelli's 
painting in the Uffizi at Florence, but essential 
divergences prove that this derivation is at least 
very unlikely. R. Forster in his essays on the 
Calumny in the Prussian Year-book '^ makes 
this point clear in a detailed discussion of a dish 
in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam painted with 
the same subject and with the arms of the Ridolti 
of Florence. I know this latter dish from photo- 
graphs only, but it is ascribed to Nicola both 
by Dr. Otto von Falke " and by Dr. Elisabeth 
Neurdenburg." There are, moreover, in spite 

15 Catalogue of the niaiolica iti the Ashmolean Museu7n, 
1897, p. 72. 

16 Dig Verleumdung des Apelles in der Renaissance, in 
Jahrhuch der kgl. preussischen Kutitstsammlungen, vol. 8 
(1887), p. 2q, and vol. 15 (1894), p. 27. 

1' Handbiicher der kgl. Museen zu Berlin — Majolika (2nd 
edition), 1907, p. 151. 

1* Oud .luriic'tt'crfe, toegelicht aan de verzamelingen in het 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst te Amster- 
dam (2nd edition), 1920, p. 25. 



of differences in composition, such close corres- 
pondences between the two dishes as to leave 
little room for doubt as to their common author- 
ship ; 1 need only point to the figure, and espe- 
cially the head with three long locks of hair, of 
the judge, and the kneeling naked figure of the 
victim. 

The ornamental border of the Amsterdam dish 
is a feature which I know of in only one other 
dish by Nicola — that at the British Museum with 
scenes from the story of Apollo and Marsyas. 
The meaningless inscriptions introduced in car- 
touches amongst the ornament recall those on 
the pedestals in the Solomon dish discussed 
above. In the hollow of the Amsterdam dish is 
another favourite motive of Nicola's, a band of 
rosettes in bianco sopra bianco, seen also on the 
Oxford dish ; this must not, however, be stressed 
as a proof of Nicola's handiwork, as it was used 
also by his imitator, the painter signing F. R., 
generally believed to be from Faenza. 

Passing now to the source of Nicola's two 
Calumny compositions, I know of no illustrated 
edition of Lucian's works extant at the time that 
can have served him for the purpose. I am con- 
vinced that the artist had in his mind the 1497 
Ovid woodcut [Plate, e] of Phaethon kneeling 



127 



before Apollo enthroned. The coincidence is 
clearly apparent of the relative positions and the 
general pose of the judge and the victim on both 
dishes with those of Apollo and Phaethon in the 
cut, whilst the group in the latter of the three 
Heliades, sisters of Phaethon, rushing towards 
the bank of the river to witness his fate, mani- 
festly provided Nicola with three of his female 
figures. Phaethon, it is true, is clothed, whilst 
his counterpart is naked, a point in which the 
influence of Marc Antonio is probably to be 
recognised. 

As Nicola does not seem to have been familiar 
with any of the existing pictorial reconstructions 
of the composition of Apelles, we must suppose 
either that he was acquainted with the subject 
from reading one of the several translations of 
Lucian that were then in print, or that the 
patron who commissioned him for one or other 
of the two dishes supplied him with the particu- 
lars necessary for building up the picture. That 
he was no stranger to Lucian's works seems 
likely from the existence of a plate by his hand 
(Victoria and Albert Museum, Salting Collec- 
tion, No. 2225), illustrating one of the Dialogues 
of the Dead, that in which the actors are Alexan- 
der, Hannibal, Minos and Scipio [Plate, c]. 

In this compostion the four figures are set in 
a building, in the wall of which is a niche con- 
taining a statue. This statue is clearly based 
upon the youth in the Marc Antonio print, 
L'homnie aux deux trompettes, with which, as 
I have already shown, Nicola was acquainted; a 
careful comparison proves that the bearded figure 
in this print is reflected in Nicola's Minos. 
The Cretan king is represented, in allusion to 
his parentage, with the legs of the eagle of Zeus 
and bull's horns, giving him a curious resem- 
blance to Moses, but the gestures of his head 
and hands and the arrangement of his robes 
betray an unmistakable likeness to the old man 
of the engraving. 

Henry Wallis has suggested in his mono- 
graph,^' that Nicola was thoroughly fami- 
liar with the works of Raphael and was a con- 
scious imitator of the master's manner of render- 
ing the figure. The truth of this contention, at 
least as regards Nicola's later productions, is 
abundantly proved by the documents; every- 
thing tends to show that when engravings 
after Raphael became available they were eagerly 
adopted by Nicola in preference to the earlier 
book illustrations. The beautiful plate in the 
British Museum, from the Isabella d'Este service, 
with the subject of Apollo and Daphne [Plate, 
d], is the most complete example known to me of 
literal copying of the earlier category; in its ar- 
rangement and in nearly every detail it follows 
closely a cut in the 1497 Ovid. The Marsyas 
" p. 23. 



dish to which I have already referred, in the same 
museum, is an instructive example of the transi- 
tion stage. Nicola was here again following a 
cut of the Ovid [Plate, f], but much less closely 
than in his early plate with the same subject 
belonging to the Correr service. In this later 
version he has introduced elements from 
Raphael. His Apollo in the contest scene 
is the Apollo of the Vatican Parnassus, 
with a lute substituted for a harp; his 
Athena, on the boss of the dish, playing 
more appropriately a triple flute instead of the 
bagpipes of the Ovid cut, is blended with the 
Clio of the same fresco. In the small represen- 
tation introduced near the top of the dish, of 
Athena piping at the table of the gods in Olym- 
pus, the table-legs are probably an echo from 
one of the scenes in Marc Antonio's Quos ego 
engraving after Raphael. The final stage, of 
complete dependence on Raphael, is exemplified 
conspicuously by the celebrated dish in the Bar- 
gello at Florence, bearing the monogram of 
Nicola, the date 1528 and the statement that it 
was painted in the workshop of " Guido da 
castello durante " at Urbino. The subject is a 
copy, with a few slight modifications, from Marc 
Antonio's engraving after Raphael of the 
martyrdom of St. Cecilia." A similar conspicu- 
ous instance is the dish in the Wallace Collection 
(Catalogue, Gallery III, No. 98) copied from the 
fresco in the Farnesina of Cupid arraigned by 
Venus before Jupiter. 

In these later works of Nicola we perceive a 
o-reat change from his free earlier manner. The 
prevailing blue tones belongmg to the tradition 
of Faenza have given way to a warmer colour- 
ing, with predominant yellows and browns, 
which was to become the distinctive note of the 
Urbino school. The outline drawing in blue 
of the figures has been replaced by a greenish- 
grey or black. An elaborate architectural 
setting is preferred to the earlier open-air land- 
scape and woodland scenes. Nicola seems 
indeed to have become more and more inter- 
ested in classical architecture, and there are 
indications that this interest was awakened by 
the pseudo-antiquarian designs which figure so 
largely amongst the cuts of the Hypnerotoma- 
chia. His rendering of perspective and detail, 
except in a few of what are doubtless his latest 
works, is infinitely more careful than that of 
Francesco Xanto and his other followers in the 

-" Alessandro del Vita, writing in the Rassegna d'Arte 
(vol. XVI, 1916, Di alciine maioliche del museo di Arezzo, 
p. 120), compares this dish with another bearing the same 
subject by a different hand at Arezzo. He seems to have been 
unaware of the derivation from Raphael, and regards the 
correspondence in composition as a matter of importance, 
showing that for both dishes " i\ medesimo cartone " was 
used ; I cannot follow him in finding here a proof that " car- 
toons " were circulated amongst maiolica factories in different 
towns. 



128 




A — Apollo and Miirsyas. Maiolica plate. (Brit- 
ish Museum) 



1^ — Tile Calumny of Apelles. xMaiolira plate. (Ash- 
molean Museum, Oxford) 





C — Subject from " Dialogues of the Dead." Maio- 
lica plate in the Salting Collection (\'ictoria 
and .\lbert Museum) 



D — Apollo and IKiphiw. Maiolica plate. (Brit- 
ish Museum) 




r^1 



E— Apollo and Phaelhon. Woodcut from Ovid's F Apollo and Daphne. \^ 
" Metamorphoses " (Venice, 1497) " Metamorphoses " (Venice, i 

A New Work by NicgUt Pellipario at Soutli Kensington— II 



WtK)dcut from t)\id\ 
497) 




■T. 



■r, 




E 

O 



-1- 



> 

c 
re 



re 



J2 






1/1 




D 


13 






re 




u^ 


-* t>. 





^ s 


f>; 


--^ ^ 




2; ^ 


> 


aO 


^ 


3 ^ 


71 


s 1- 


0) 



-r CO 



o 



Urbino school of maiolica-painting. In his 
figure-drawing, however, Nicola seems to have 
abandoned himself more and more to the easy 
course of copying literally his engraved models. 
The zest and mental energy apparent in the 
Correr and Gonzaga services can no longer be 
detected in his work. 

There needs to be said a last word in clearing 
up a misconception with regard to a certain 
group of maiolica-paintings. I refer to a fairly 
numerous class of which not a few are marked 
" In Castel Durante." These ananymous 
pieces have been regarded by Prof. Otto von 
Falke ^' as inferior works by Nicola; E. Moli- 
nier is quoted by the author as including them 
" wohl mit Recht " amongst his productions. 
But Molinier does not in reality go further than 
to draw attention to the similarity, which may 
be admitted, between this group and the paint- 



21 Majolika, 2nd. edition, p. 153. 



ings of Nicola, expressly pointing out the in- 
feriority of the former to the latter, and no- 
where suggesting that they are all from one 
and the same hand." That the Castel Durante 
painter, though perhaps associated as a pupil 
or otherwise with Nicola, shows distinct charac- 
teristics both in method of procedure and in 
style of painting, I hope to be able to show in 
another essay. 

Corrigenda. — On p. 22 of the July number of 
this volume the sea-monster of the Andromeda 
myth is referred to as " the gorgon." 

Another piece belonging to the service with 
a shield charged with a ladder and flag (p. 27) 
may here be noted — a dish in the Mus^e de 
Cluny, with a sacrifice scene on the rim. On 
p. 27 for " statute " read " statue." 

22 " Elles [i.e., the Correr plates] rappeJUnt tout a fait, 
hicn qu'elles soient plus finement execittees, ccrtaities piece.'! 
(lathes de 1525 et 1526, de Castel-Durante " (La ciramique 
italienne au XV' siecle, p. 78). 




TWO PICTURES BY MORALES 
BY R. R. TATLOCK 

HE work reproduced in Plate, b, 
is one of the recent additions to a 
collection with a delightful charac- 
ter of its own, and which largely 
_ _ consists not of celebrated examples 

of the great masters, selected in accordance with 
the dictates of established authority, but of 
specimens of unusual and often surprising merit, 
sometimes from unexpected sources, representing 
a wide range of schools. The little specimen of 
Morales is a typical example of the sort of picture 
one finds there : a work of very considerable 
interest both historically and Eesthetically, but 
one which the ordinary English collector would 
hardly be likely to acquire. The neglect from 
which Morales suffers may largely be due to the 
obvious limitations of his outlook and his style, 
but is very likely intensified by circum- 
stances of a more or less accidental kind, for 
example, by the fact that even his small works are 
rare outside Spain, where few specimens have 
found their way to public galleries. So, Morales' 
pictures are sought for only bv those collectors 
who are spirited enough to trust their own taste 
and take the consequences. An unidentified 
example can quite well be exposed for days in 
a London auction room and knocked down for a 
few pounds. 

It would seem that Morales was foredoomed to 
isolation. Although we can trace how in certain 
superficial ways he fell into line with Leonardo 
and even with Michelangelo, and although we 
can trace his influence clearly in the art of El 
Greco, it would be hard to connect him with 
predecessors or followers less immediately as- 



sociated with his life. It would be harder still 
to discern his influence in present-day painting, 
either in Spain or elsewhere. In the pages of 
history he remains very much the same secluded 
figure at Badejoz as he was in his own lifetime. 
And we see now, what was not so apparent in 
an age in which religion was a more violent and 
a narrower thing, that the astounding Spanish 
theological asceticism of which he was an ex- 
ponent was a peculiarly awkward and imperfect 
expression of man's religious experience. Nowa- 
days we can hardly help wondering whether the 
attitude of these godly men to their fellow- 
creatures does not argue some pathological 
condition of the social mind like sadism or 
masochism. At all events our own minds will 
not very readily respond to the emotional appeal 
of Morales' terrible depictions of the suftering 
Christ, presented to us with starting eyeballs 
and every joint in action, the very fingers exer- 
cising frantically, like those of a stage harper, 
upon the intolerable cross. 

That strict parochialism in which Morales 
passed his life seems to be in keeping with the 
narrowness of his outlook as a man, with that 
lack of inventiveness and imagination which im- 
pelled him to concentrate his effort on the depic- 
tion of the agonised head of Christ and the dolor- 
ous head of the Virgin, not caring even to use 
the full figure as a motive, and never once 
attempting to develop into a tale bearer like 
Ribera or Goya. And as a composer too he was 
just as unambitious. Most of his pictures such 
as that on Plate, A, 'are very simple arabesques. 
Indeed, that example is based on what for him 



133 



is an unusually complicated pattern, as if the 
unaccustomed calm of the subject had left him 
free to elaborate his design a little. However, 
the fervent Morales here contrives to over- 
emphasise even the gentleness of the Virgin, to 
transform it almost to gentility, so that the 
picture must reflect to those who care nothing for 
composition and arrangement, something of the 
sleekness and distinction of the best pew. Some- 
times, and it would seem especially rather late in 
life, he appeared to feel the arabesque system in- 
sufficient, and we find works in which the most 
significant parts of the subject are given a certain 
emphasis by means of working up the modelling 
after the manner of a sculptor's bas-relief. It 
was this habit together with that of using dis- 
tortion as an aid to design that must have caught 



the eye of the all-observant Greco. Sir Claude 
Phillips' picture is an admirable example of these 
phases of his artistry. The distorted face alone 
emerges from the picture plane. Relief is 
sought for by every device understood by the 
painter ; by the twisted brushwork, by the exag- 
gerated bony structure, the deep orbits, the long 
sharp nose, the open mouth, the ghastly pale of 
the skin contrasting so violently with the dark 
hair and eyes. Then beyond the outer edge 
of the orbit, the great impressive mass of 
deep shadow is left quite flat and is com- 
pleted by a simple line indicating the head in 
silhoutte. 

Both pictures are in good preservation though 
that of the Virgin has some repaints, especially 
in the background. 



THE ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF 
TO AESTHETIC THEORY IN GENERAL 
BY G. BALDWIN BROWN 

N the preceding instalment of this 



ART IN RELATION 

(concluded^ 



paper it was shown by various 
/^N^ lA,-^ examples how the practice of the arts 
\j=^jj ^sa in primitive times is of measurable 
fiti2_Si3Q practical value in the nascent com- 
munities, each art producing its own characteris- 
tic beneficial effect. We may go further, and 
discern in artistic operations in general a salu- 
tory influence which all art exercises in virtue 
of its artistic character, independently of these 
special services of the separate arts to human 
welfare. It is an undoubted fact, though one the 
significance of which is not generally recog- 
nized, that all the artistic activities of primitive 
man are preceded by similar activities that are 
not artistic. Thus the dance, certainly a form of 
art, is developed from the caper or free flinging 
about of the limbs, which is indulged in by 
animals as well as men to work off a mood of 
physical and mental excitement, but in which it 
is impossible, as Hirn has said, to see anything 
artistic. Taking it as a reasonable hypothesis 
that personal decoration begins in the trophy, 
the mere display or waving about of the spoils 
of victory is no more artistic than the carrying 
home of the fox's brush tucked into her saddle 
by a lady who has been in at the death. The 
cave pictures, merely regarded as accurate de- 
lineations of single objects, are not yet works of 
art in the strict sense, and are of course preceded 
by quite inartistic performances in the form of 
irregular finger-prints on soft clay, stencilings 
of outspread hands, or casual scratches. What 
is it now that makes these operations artistic ? 
It is the working of a principle which may be 
summarized in the general term Order, and 
which in the various forms of art shows itself as 
time, rhythm, measure, arrangement, balance. 



composition. The most striking characteristic 
of the elaborate savage dances, such as the Cor- 
robboree of the Australians, is that all the move- 
ments are done in time and to the sound of 
music, which, primitive as it is, possesses the 
essential characteristic of measure. The wear- 
ing of the trophy soon ceases to be a mere hap- 
hazard display, and the objects, let us say the 
teeth, claws, and tusks of slain beasts, are strung 
together in a certain order, perhaps with the 
largest in the centre and the others disposed on 
each side according to their sizes, or perhaps 
arranged with a rhythmical alternation of differ- 
ing forms or colours, and the whole is then 
adjusted, let us say, as a necklet, emphasising 
the important part of the human frame where the 
head is set upon the shoulders. The smear of 
blood becomes a pattern, when dabs, perhaps of 
varying but reduplicated shapes, are symmetri- 
cally arranged and tactfully adjusted to the part 
of the person on which they are shown. In this 
way the arts of music, of dancing, of decoration 
in form and colour, come into being. They 
come into being through the application of this 
principal of order, of arrangement, to what is at 
first haphazard, irregular, accidental, and as 
such devoid of aesthetic character. 

In painting and sculpture the elevation of a 
mere double of a natural object to the rank of a 
work of art is accomplished through that form of 
artistic Order known as composition. If the 
presentation of an object be disposed with a dis- 
tinct reference to the shape of the surface that is 
to receive it, it becomes artistic, and the same 
may be said if the different parts in the represen- 
tation be arranged so as to harmonise with each 
other and combine to produce the impression of 
a unity. Sir Joshua Reynolds once said that a 



134 



good picture looks a good picture even if one 
sees it upside down, that is to say, composition 
is the essence of artistic efTect in the graphic and 
plastic arts. 




It will be interesting to inquire whether or 
not we can discern the beginnings of composi- 
tion in the paleolithic representations, and the 
beginning of artistic decoration in the disposi- 
tion of linear motives on objects thus enriched, 
or of the trinkets strung together and worn as 
personal adornment. The figure offers some 
material.' No. 9 is of an early epoch and has 
something of the strength of archaic Greek 
coins ; Nos. 4 and 5 are of the period of the finest 
cave art, but there is no question in any of these 
of artistic composition. No. 6 shows a bull fol- 
lowing a cow, but the grouping is not artistically 
studied. 

Nos. 2, 3, show a remarkable little menagerie 
delineated by lines incised on a big block of 
stalagmite in a cave at Teyjat, Dordogne. 
The outline of the head of the stag above has 
been corrected, quite in the spirit of an artist. 

9 In the case of most of these illustrations and of some 
shown in the last issue of the Burlington Magazine, per- 
mission to reproduce has been kindly granted by Professor the 
Abb^ H. Breuil, whose admirable drawings are the basis of 
most of the reproductions of these cave pictures that are now 
so familiar. Thanks are also due to Dr. Verneau of the 
Museum of Natural History, Paris, for the use of No. 8 on 
Plate II. 



On the dexter side of the group, marked 2, is a 
female reindeer with its fawn which shows a 
delightful feeling for animal nature in a com- 
paratively out-of-the-way aspect, and illustrates 
what was said before about the general charac- 
ter of these animal representations. There is no 
question, however, here of composition. 

On the other hand, the very familiar piece 
No. I, with the stag's head turned back, un- 
doubtedly exhibits study of the kind that the 
graphic artist in advanced periods has habitually 
given to his work. Three stags following each 
other are the principal elements of the group, 
though of the leading animal only the hinder 
legs, of the second and third little more than 
half, have been preserved. The two remarkable 
features in the composition are the turned-back 
head and the presence of a number of fishes of 
the salmon type that fill in vacant spaces in a 
fashion unique in this kind of work. They are 
not introduced merely to show that the beasts 
are wading a stream, for, as Professor Macalister 
points out," fishes are shown above the backs of 
the quadrupeds. To him the creatures imply 
nothing more than a desire on the part of the 
hunter-artist to secure a fish-course before the 
venison for his family, but from the artistic point 
of view there is something to be said. The 
draughtsmanship seems to prefigure that curious 
horror vacui so characteristic of Roman and 
Early Christian relief compositions. The turn- 
ing back of the head appears to be motived by 
the desire to get the foreparts of the hindermost 
stag as near to the back of the stag 
in front of it as is possible. The inter- 
val which would still occur between the 
two pairs of legs of the animals is then filled 
in with the fish, the curious bend in whose body 
seems determined by the desire to fill in the space 
with more completeness. The underlying artis- 
tic idea of leaving no vacancies may be a mis- 
taken one, but the point is that such an idea does 
seem to be present, and through its presence the 
piece becomes in the strict technical sense a 
work of art. 

An artistic sense of composition can easily be 
discerned to underlie the famous drawing of a 
mammoth found at La Madeleine and preserved 
in the Natural History Museum in the Jardin des 
Plantes at Paris. It was figured at No. 4 on 
Plate I, illustrating the first part of this paper, 
in the Burlington Magazine for last month, 
and has often been the subject of comment, 
though not from the point of view of the present 
discussion. This concerns not so much the 
drawing itself, which is of universally acknow- 
ledged merit, as the placing of the drawing in 
the space which the ivory slab afforded for it. 

i» European Archceology, p. 471. 



135 



Its accommodation to this space, entailing as it 
did a distinct modification of the normal propor- 
tions of the creature, is undoubtedly an artistic 
act similar to the act of a Greek metope designer 
when he composed with deliberate regard to the 
square space he had to fill. A preliminary ques- 
tion arises as to whether the piece of ivory was 
of its present size and shape when the drawing 
was placed upon it. A request made to the dis- 
tinguished custodian of the precious object, Pro- 
fessor Marcellin Boule, has been responded to in 
the kindest fashion, and as a result of a re-exami- 
nation of the original he reports that a tres peu 
de chose pres the piece is as it was when found 
in the cave, for some of the earth in which it was 
bedded still remains in many crevices round its 
rim. Whether the artist had it in his hand in 
exactly the same condition is not certain, for 
some of the lines of the drawing seem to be cut 
oiT by a slight breaking away of the upper and 
under borders of the plaque'. The difference, 
however, cannot be considerable, " et il semble 
bien que I'artiste ait du accomoder son dessin 
avec la forme gin^.rale de la surface dont il dis- 
posait." How much such accommodation meant 
can be realised when we take one of many other 
palaeolithic drawings of the mammoth on free 
stretches of cavern wall, shown Plate II, No. 7, 
and compare it with the sketch Plate I, No. 5, in 
the previous number. The proportions in the 
two cases are quite different. Plate II, No. 7, 
in its height and rapid slope backwards towards 
the hind quarters agrees with the shape of the 
creature as modern naturalists commonly repre- 
sent it, whereas the ivory plaque gives us a long- 
backed low quadruped not at all the same in 
build. The artist has undoubtedlv been in- 
fluenced in his sub-consciousness by the shape of 
his canvas. See how the rise in the top edge of 
the piece has been utilised to accommodate the 
high forehead of the beast and how well the 
curved tusks fill in the space in front, while the 
tail whisking up at the end of the long and com- 
paratively level back avoids any empty look at 
the other end. This is art, and represents some- 
thing quite other than the mere rendering of facts 
in commonplace naturalism." 

The disposition of linear motives on objects 
so adorned has resulted in distinct patterns of 
which specimens are given. Nos. 10 to 13 
in the fig. are from bone assegai-heads of 
palaeolithic date, of which casts are in the 
writer's possession. Whether these designs are 
freshly invented or are degenerate copies of 
natural appearances really does not matter. The 
point is the feeling in them for pattern as dis- 
tinct from mere irregular disposition of lines 

11 Since this was penned the writer has had the opportunity 
of examining the original piece in company with Professor 
Boule, with the result of fully confirming what is stated above. 

136 



or forms, and it is noteworthy that the strips on 
which are cut the simple zig-zags or other linear 
motives are almost always bounded laterally 
by grooves, or grooves and ridges, so as to 
accentuate the patterns by thus isolating them. 
In the case of objects strung together to serve 
as personal adornment, the artistic feeling for 
grouping and rhythmical succession of groups 
is strikingly in evidence in discoveries made of 
palaeolithic burials in the Grimaldi caves near 
Mentone. There were distinct signs of pro- 
gress during the period covered by successive 
interments, as if the art of the parure was being 
specially cultivated, and in an interment that 
seemed comparatively late, though certainly 
paleolithic, the explorer. Dr. Verneau, found 
the elements of a somewhat elaborate neck orna- 
ment, shown No. 8 on Plate II, consisting in 
fish-vertebrjE, shells, and canine teeth of deer, 
the original arrangement of which had been pre- 
served owing to an adhesive clay that had held 
the necklet in position round the throat of a 
youthful skeleton of the male sex. The maker 
of the trinklet was obviously an artist quite 
accomplished in decorative design. 

Palaeolithic artistic activity is thus controlled 
by the principle of Form, of which we mav 
note in passing the animals have no sense, and 
this is the underlying principle of all artistic 
activity — the one element that all modes of artis- 
tic activity have in common. Artistic form is 
of course not mere regularity, but is order of a 
more subtle kind, which appeals only to human 
intelligence that has made some advance in cul- 
ture. Artistic composition does not consist in 
putting one object in the centre of the canvas 
and four others in the corners. In the case of 
the bodily movements which are the founda- 
tion of the dance as a form of art, mere regu- 
larity, like that of a squad of well-trained sol- 
diers at parade exercise, is no more artistic than 
the uncontrolled gestures of lads running and 
jumping about. On the other hand the move- 
ments of a graceful modern dance are artistic, 
for they consist in a round of more or less com- 
plex motions that are repeated after completion 
in a rhythmical progression, just as the arrange- 
ment of the lines and masses in a plate of 
Turner's Liber Studiorum. is artistic through its 
subtle play of contrast and balance. Through 
its maintenance of this principle art becomes a 
form-giving regulating influence in human life, 
a perpetual ordering, and so making beautiful, 
of elements that in the actual world are scattered, 
irregular, and inchoate. The poet Schiller, in 
his Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man, 
divined this to be the unobstrusive mission of 
art through all the stages of the education of the 
race. " What is man," he asked, " before the 
serene Form tames the wildness of life? " and 



^ 



the value of a regulating co-ordinating influence 
may be claimed for artistic activity quite apart, 
as was noticed above, from the more direct 
effects of a beneficial kind resulting from each 
definite form of such activity, as, for instance, 
the dance and pattern making. To us it seems 
so natural that free bodily movements should be 
co-ordinated by rhythm, that markings on an 
object should group themselves in the subtly 
regulated order of a pattern, that we take it all 
as a matter of course, but twenty thousand years 
ago it was not a matter of course, but repre- 
sented a distinct stage in the spiritual progress 
of humanity. If it be true, as was claimed at 
the outset, that we can discover " in some of 
the earliest forms of art principles of universal 
application," then we may assume that through 
all the later stages of civilization these same 
principles are at work, though under compli- 



cated modern conditions their operation may not 
be easy to trace. A scientific parallel may be 
ofifered as a concluding suggestion. Is it pos- 
sible, it may be asked, that artistic activity is 
something like the activity of radium, a con- 
cealed unsuspected agency, everywhere and at 
all times operative beneath the surface of appar- 
ent things? The action of radium is supposed 
by some to be of quite incalculable importance 
in the scheme of the universe, keeping the sun 
going and the earth warm, yet till only the other 
day it was entirely unknown. In like manner 
amid the tangled intellectual and ethical pheno- 
mena of the modern world art may be 
something more than a mere elegant distrac- 
tion, and beneath the surface of things may 
all the time be radiating a beneficent influence 
which in the future may be traced and 
determined. 



SOME GREEK BRONZES AT ATHENS 
BY S. CASSON 




N the National Museum at Athens 

there is a small group of bronze 

figures which has not attracted the 

. <,-« attention that it deserves. Of this 

S^^® group four of the figures stand out 



as clearlv belonging not only to the same tradi- 
tion but even to the same workshop. The re- 
maining figures belong to the same tradition but 
not to the same workshop. The tradition to 
which the group belongs is that of the very finest 
period of Archaic Greek bronze craft. By kind 
permission of M. Stais of the National Museum, 
Athens, I am enabled to illustrate the bronzes, 
as follows : — 

Plate A, from the sanctuary of Asklepios at 
Trikkkala in Thessaly.' (There is another pair 
of thick plaits of hair falling down the back, not 
seen in the photograph.) 

Plate B, from the Acropolis at Athens.' 
This figure is similar in type, scale and pose (as 
far as the mutilation allows us to judge) to A, 
but in this case the locks of hair are separated. 

Plate C, from the Acropolis at Athens.' 
It appears to be approximately in the same pose 
as A. The helmet, hair and chiton are the same 
as in B. 

Plate D, from the Acropolis at Athens.* 
Figure moving to the right, in the same attitude 
as A. Helmet and chiton of the same type as 
in all the preceding figures, but the chiton is 
undone on the right shoulder and falls down to 
the right hip. The right arm is bent in exactly 

1 Stais : Marbres et B-onzes du Mus^e NatlonaL p. 256. 
No. 13230. Kastriotis : The Asklepeion at Trikkala I'm 
Greek). PL 7. 

3 De Ridder : Bronzes de I'AcropoIe. No. 817, p. 329. 

3 De Ridder : op. cit. No. 816. p. 329. 

* De Ridder : op. cit. No. 815. p. 328. 



the same way as the right arm of A, but the 
hand instead of holding a sword is open and 
extended downwards over the fallen chiton fold. 
The plaits of hair are treated in the same way 
as in B and C, but are not so wide apart as 
the plaits of those figures. On the other hand, 
they are not so close together as in the case of A. 
In other respects the figure is identical in atti- 
tude with A. Behind the figure, attached to the 
back of the helmet and to the elbow is a long 
bar of bronze running obliquely. This bar is 
one of the cross-bars from the side of a bronze 
tripod to which the figure belongs as part of a 
decorative scheme. 

Plate F, from Dodona in the Carapanos 
collection.' Figure moving in a large stride to 
the right, of the same type as that of the 
preceding figures. The hair falls down the back 
over each shoulder in two plaits on each side, the 
incisions on the surface of the plaits being 
smaller and more numerous than in either of the 
preceding examples. The legs are bare and un- 
sandalled. The features resemble but are not of 
exactly the same type as those of the preceding 
figures. Nothing was held in the right hand. 
Carapanos suggests Atalanta as an identification. 
The figure is undamaged and covered with a fine 
light green patina. 

Plate G, from the Acropolis at Athens." The 
attitude can be inferred from the position of the 
arms, which together with the angle at which the 
hair falls, indicate rapid movement to the right. 
The head is crowned with a heavy diadem or 
polos. The garment is of the Ionic type of thin, 

' Stais : op. cit. p. 306. No. 24. Carapanos : Dodone et 
ses ruines. I. p. 180 and II. PL XI, i. 
» De Ridder : op. cit. p. 324. No. 809. 



137 



wrinkled material. The breasts are clearly indi- 
cated- The treatment of the hair and the fea- 
tures differs from those of all the preceding 
examples. The face is essentially Ionic, and the 
whole figure bears the marks of Ionic workman- 
ship. 

Here, then, are six figures all approximately 
of the same type. A, B, C, D and F clearly be- 
long together, while G belongs to a different tra- 
dition, but bears some relation to the others. The 
breast of none is full, and might be either male 
or female. Even in the case of D, where the 
chiton is turned down so as to disclose the right 
breast, we have no clear indication of sex. F, 
to judge from its muscular legs, might well be 
male, although Carapanos identified it as 
Atalanta. The features of A, B, C and D, how- 
ever, seem to be feminine in type and closely 
resemble those of Athena on Athenian coins of 
the periods immediately preceding and succeed- 
ing the battle of Marathon, and are of the type 
usually seen on Attic sculpture of this period 
[Plate, e]. 

The figure F from Dodona is, on the other 
hand, not Attic in style, and while having Ionic 
characteristics, such as the mouth and chin, can- 
not be considered as a work of Ionic art. Its sex 
is quite indeterminate, when it is regarded apart 
from the other figures. The very marked 
feminine appearance of the faces of the Trikkala 
and the Athenian examples taken together with 
the fact that the Trikkala example holds a sword, 
while D has the right breast disclosed, gives con- 
siderable force to De Ridder's suggestion that 
the Acropolis examples represent Amazons. 
The fact that the helmet is an oriental type 
strengthens the suggestion, and while from the 
evidence of the Acropolis examples alone it 
would be difficult to be certain that the figure re- 
presented is an Amazon, the Trikkala example, 
showing the same type of figure holding a sword 
and with the same tvpe of helmet, makes this 
identification almost certain. The similarity 
both of type and, to a certain extent, of style in 
the case of F, from Dodona, makes it most pro- 
bable that this too is an Amazon, but without 
helmet or weapon, presumably in flight. 

The three Acropolis figures are probably from 
the same tripod, a portion of which is still visible 
on D. Each would thus come from one of the 
three sides of the tripod, and probably repre- 
sents an Amazon in flight from an adversary 
who would have been facing the Amazon and 
fixed upon the left half of the bronze bands 
which were attached like inverted U's on each 
of the three sides. The Trikkala example, how- 
ever, seems to be a separate figure, and there is 
no indication of it having been attached at any 
time to a tripod. As such it belongs to the 
ordinary class of votive statuette, of which the 



Dodona figure is another example. Another 
figure, now in the British Museum, can be asso- 
ciated with these two and with the whole series, 
although it is vastly different in general treat- 
ment; it is a figure of a running girl clothed in 
the same heavy chiton, which she lifts up over the 
left knee in the same way. It comes from Priz- 
rend in Albania and belongs more closely to the 
tvpe of the Dodona figure. (B.M. Catalogue of 
Pronzes. PI. Ill, No. 208.) The garb of all 
these figures is interesting. In each case it is a 
thick chiton girt closely round the waist almost 
in the Minoan style, and nothing else. The 
helmet, which occurs in four out of five of the 
bronzes is, as has been already noted, not one of 
the characteristic Greek types but rather oriental. 
Similar helmets without crests are found on 
earlier bronze figures from the Acropolis. (De 
Ridder, Nos. 701, 702). An oriental type of hel- 
met would do well for Amazons, who belonged 
to an oriental cycle of legend. The style of the 
figures and their provenance offer the most diffi- 
cult of all the problems connected with these 
figures. In A to D the features are a blend of 
Attic and Ionic usually associated with the 
school of art that arose after the return of Cleis- 
thenes in 509 B.C., when local Attic artists, while 
profiting bv Ionic traditions, revived at the same 
time the older Attic characteristics which had 
lain dormant in the time of the Peisistratids. 
On the other hand, the beautiful little winged 
Nike (G), is one of the finest, if not the finest, of 
known Ionic bronzes and is in the purest Ionic 
stvle with all the true Ionic delicacy and finish. 
It is about a decade earlier than the others, which 
belong to about the year 500 or a little later. E, 
however, seems to be farther away from the tra- 
dition of the artist of A to D. To what school 
or area of art, then, can we assign the whole 
group A, B, C, D and F? 

The clue may, perhaps, be given bv A. This 
beautiful little figure was found in Trikkala at 
the extreme western end of the great plain of 
Thessaly on the pass that leads over into Albania 
by way of Pindus. Its similarity with B, C, 
and D is too great to be accidental. They must 
all be derived from the same workshop. Athens 
at once suggests itself as the obvious place of 
origin for all, since three of the figures were 
found at Athens and only one at Trikkala. But 
it must be remembered that the three Athenian 
examples come from the same tripod, and among 
the numerous bronzes of Athens there is no other 
even remotely resembling these. On the other 
hand, there are no less than three bronzes of 
this tvpe which come from the same region in 
North Greece ; one from Trikkala, one from 
Dodona and one from Prizrend — the British 
Museum example. The three examples from 
Athens and the Trikkala figure all show Attic 



m8 





B — Height, 6.7 cm. C — Heig-ht, 6.2 cm. 
Bronze figures from the Acropolis, Athens 



D — Height, 14 cm. 




A — Bronze figure from the Sanc- 
tuary of Asklepios at TriUkala, 
Thessaly. Height, 14.5 cm. £— Athenian coins of about the period of the Battle of Marathon 





G — Bronze winged figure from the .Acropolis, .Athens. 
Height, 4.2 cm. 



/■^ 



^■1 



F — Bronze figure from Dodona. Height, 12 cm. 



Some Greek Bronzes at Athens 





;\ 



■\- 



A—Manicith a pipe, by Mary or Charles Beale. Drawing B— Girl's h"ad, by Mary or Charles Beale. Drawing 





\ 

1 






' ■- v^ . J 




C — Girl with a cat, hv Mary or Charles Beale. Drawing 



D — Laughing boy, by Mary or Charles Beale. 
Drawing 



The Beale Drawings in tlie British Museum 



influence. The Dodona and Prizrend figures, 
on the other hand, seem to be cruder copies of 
the same type of thing. It seems, then, pro- 
bable that Attic artists in Thessaly made figures 
of this type which were copied by local artists. 
The Athenian tripod with its three figures would 
thus be a dedication, perhaps of Thessalians on 
the Acropolis. This suggestion serves to amplify 
the knowledge we already possess of Athenian 
influence in Thessaly at the end of the sixth and 
early years of the fifth century B.C. Hippias 
had a treaty with the princes of Thessaly which 
was so effective that by the aid of Thessalian 
cavalrv he was enabled to defeat both Alcmae- 



onid exiles and Spartans. The tradition of 
Thessalian friendship did not end with Hippias, 
and a little later we find the coins of Pharsalus' 
and other Thessalian towns reproducing with 
extraordinary accuracy the type of Athens. We 
have, then, in the first five of these figures what I 
believe to be examples of Attic work in Thessaly 
and of local copies of that work, while in the 
sixth figure we have a brilliant example of the 
school of bronze work which had made it pos- 
sible for Attic artists to produce such good work 
in their own style. 



' B.M. Catalogue. Thessaly. PI. IX, 6-8 



THE BEALE DRAWINGS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
BY HENRY SCIPIO REITLINGER 




HE names of Mary and Charles 
Beale seldom emerge from the ob- 
scurity which envelops the minor 
worthies of the Stuart period. Of 
Charles, the son, very litde in- 
deed is known, and Mary Beale is generally 
only remembered as a somewhat tedious por- 
trait painter working in the Leiy manner. In 
his Lely and the Stuart Painters, Mr. C. H. 
Collins Baker criticises her as follows : — " She 
did her best to sacrifice the birth-right of her 
English point of view in order to share in 
Lely's vogue," and again, " Never liable to 
consuming attacks of inspiration, she became 
inanimate and fade in her repetitions of her- 
self " — a hard judgment with which, after a 
mere examination of her authenticated oil paint- 
ings, one will scarcely be tempted to disagree. 

It is, therefore, with all the greater surprise 
that one turns to the drawings catalogued 
under the names of Mary and Charles Beale 
in the British Museum Print Room. These 
drawings, 176 in number, are not the least 
among the curious and beautiful things in the 
Cracherode collection (bequeathed to the Mu- 
seum by the Rev. C. M. Cracherode in 1799). 
They are executed in sanguin on white paper 
measuring on the average 7J in. by 9J in., the 
eves being touched in with a somewhat darker 
medium, perhaps Indian ink. Of the 176 draw- 
ings, II are catalogued under the names of 

* Bibliography : — 

H. Walpolc : Anecdotes of Painting in England. 

C. H. Collins Baker : Lely and the Stuart Painters. 

Dictionary o) National Biography, Vol. II. 

Thieme & Becker : Allgemeincs Kiinstlerlexikon. 

G. Miliier Gibson Cullum : " Mary Beale " (Article 

in Journal of Suffolk Inst, of Archceology, Vol. XVI. 

iqi8.). 
I,. Binyon : Catalogue of drawings by British Artists in 

British Museum. 
Unpublished : — 

G. Venue's MS. notes for n history of painting in 

England. In MS. Room, British Museum. 
C. Beale's diary for 1681, in MS. In National Portrait 

Gallery. 



Charles Beale and the remaining 165 under that 
of Mary Beale, with the reservation that there 
is " no discernible difference of style " between 
them. The eleven " Charles Beale " drawings 
are all signed with the monogram CB — a mono- 
gram constantly used with reference to Charles 
in Charles Beale the Elder's manuscript diary 
in the National Portrait Gallery, a document of 
which further mention will be made below. 
Two of these signed drawings are heads appar- 
ently copied from older pictures, the remainder 
being studies of statuary. The 165 other draw- 
ings are unsigned, but correspond so closely, in 
method and treatment, to the signed drawings 
that it would be rash to draw any conclusions 
as to their being by a different hand, namely 
Mary's, from merely internal evidence. The 
eleven signed drawings are somewhat heavy 
and clumsy in execution, but the same may be 
said of a considerable proportion of the un- 
signed ones, notably in the case of those that 
appear to be copies after pictures by Van Dyck. 
They give one the impression that the artist has 
taught himself to draw after casts from the 
antique, laboriously working out the lights and 
shades by means of heavy cross-hatchings like 
those of a line-engraver. This method, when 
applied to the portrayal of living sitters, leads 
to curious results, sometimes making the faces 
appear unduly swarthy in hue, or, as it were, 
hewn out of mahogany. The portraits of 
Charles II and his sister as children, after Van 
Dyke (145 and 146 in B.M. Catalogue) are 
exaggerated and unpleasing examples of this 
tendency. 

It is more profitable to turn to those drawings 
in which the artist has freed himself from the 
clogging influences of the antique and the older 
masters, and has drawn direct from the life. 
Here he frequently succeeds, in spite of the 
heaviness of his modelling, in depicting the 
sitter in a most intimate and searching manner. 



143 



The four drawings, which have been chosen 
out of a veritable embarras de richesses for re- 
production, cannot be considered otherwise 
than remarkable. We feel that they are not 
only life-like as portraits, but that they reveal 
a perception of the sitter's personality such as 
one scarcely expects to find in a period when 
the tendency to abstraction in portraiture in- 
troduced by the great Van Dyke was succeeded 
by the flatter, because more meaningless, ab- 
straction of Lely and his followers. What is 
more, these drawings are in that far older, 
more native tradition of portraiture which goes 
back to Holbein (and perhaps to the mediaeval 
illuminators) and which is kept alive by Hil- 
liard and the Olivers till the rebirth of a gen- 
uinely British school of painting in the eigh- 
teenth century. They are quite peculiarly and, 
for the period, almost startlingly English look- 
ing, both the artist and the subjects being 
characteristically English and quite untouched 
by the shallow cosmopolitanism of Lely. That 
which Hogarth did for the England of 
George H, is here done, in a lesser fashion it 
is true, for that amazing England of the Re- 
storation, of which Congreve and Shadwell tell 
us so much and the graphic arts so litde. There 
is little of the swaggering cavalier or light- 
mannered lady of the court among these por- 
traits; the prevailing temper seems rather that 
of the puritan. The stern individual smoking 
a pipe [Plate, a] looks as if he might have 
ridden at Naseby in his youth, and the two girls 
[Plate, b and c] are of the stuff of which the 
mothers of New England were made. The 
laughing imp-like boy [Plate, d] is the mis- 
chief-loving boy of all times — such a one as in 
that century Franz Hals loved to portray. 

It is clear that the author of these portraits 
has a distinct artistic personality, but evidence 
of a more definite kind than any at present forth- 
coming is necessary to determine whether the 
credit for them is due to Mary Beale or her son 
Charles. The weakness of Mary's oil paint- 
ings together with the CB monogram on eleven 
of the drawings (none of these eleven, it is true, 
being of any particular merit) incline one in 
favour of the latter hypothesis; against it one 
may argue that Charles could never have met 
with the scant contemporary notice he un- 
doubtedly received, had he had any remarkable 
talents. There are several similar drawings in 
the Pierpont Morgan, formerly the Fairfax 
Murray, collection ascribed to Charles Beale, 
but on what evidence the ascription is made is 
uncertain. Charles is reported as having 
helped his mother in her portrait painting until 
he had to desist from weak eyesight. A not 
very characteristic miniature signed CB is in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 



Most of what is known of the Beale family, 
which may be omitted here as it is easily acces- 
sible in the Dictio7ia7y of National Biography, 
is derived from Horace Walpole's Anecdotes 
of British Painters, and is derived in its turn 
from Vertue's voluminous and as yet unpub- 
lished manuscript notes in the British Museum, 
which, if they are ever printed, should give in- 
formation of inestimable value to the student of 
the beginnings of art in England. Vertue him- 
self made use of a series of manuscript diaries 
compiled by Charles Beale, Mary Beale's hus- 
band. These diaries appear to be lost, with 
the exception of one, now in the National Por- 
trait Gallery and also so far unpublished. In 
the hope that this interesting document will 
one day be printed, a short description of it is 
here not out of place : — 

The diary consists of a bound volume of W. 
Lilly's Merlini Anglici Ephemeris, or Astro- 
logical Judgments for the Year 1681, a sort of 
Almanac of the Old Moore type, in whose 
numerous blank leaves Charles Beale the Elder 
has written his diary for the year 168 1. It is 
written in a very beautiful hand, lapsing occa- 
sionally into shorthand, with numerous refer- 
ences to " Dearest Heart," viz., his wife 
Mary Beale, and to CB or " son Charles," 
and referring to Mary's pictures, the prices 
paid, and experiments with sizing and canvas. 
No mention of the drawings, unfortunately, is 
made either in this diary or in the extracts from 
others cited by Walpole. The somewhat 
meagre entries of domestic details do neverthe- 
less contrive to give one a happy impression of 
the Beale's family life; and their invariable 
habit of setting aside one-tenth part of their 
receipts for the relief of the poor is attested to 
by frequent entries such as the following, after 
a note of ;^20 received for " Dearest Heart's " 
pictures : — 

The 2£ due to ye pious and charitable account for 2 
above menconed picts was answered to it [follows a short- 
hand note, probably giving details of the charity.] 

This generosity appears the more creditable 
as the family, judging by several entries similar 
to the following, appears to have been in poor 
financial circumstances: — 

I April 1681. Borrowed of my cousin Auditor Bridges 
in our great straite and disappointment of money the 
Sume of Ten Pounds. 

£ s. d. 

I say borrow'd 10 00 00 
Our Gracious good God was pleas'd to afford us 
most seasonable supply when we were in such great 
pressing need that we had but only 2s.-6d. left us in 
house against Easter. For which Signall mercy his most 
holy Name be prais'd, who thus must graciously remem- 
bered us his poor creatures in our low condicon." 

It is to be hoped that revival of interest in 
the Beales will bring to light some much- 
wanted data as to the execution of these draw- 
ings; and the artist, whether it be " Dearest 
Heart " or " Son Charles," should surely take 



this 

and 
the 



144 



,J 



/ 




A — Six Figures in a Courtvard, bv van Z\'l. Canvas. (Mr. X'ictor 
K.jch) 




B — The Concert Party, by van Zvl. Canvas, 55.2 cm. by 62.2 cm. (M. Paul 
Matthey, Paris) 

Plate I. The works of G. P. van Zvl. 




his place in public estimation as the author of 
the most characteristically English things done 
in the seventeenth century. 

Since the above article was written, information has come 
to hand from Miss Thurston, of the Pierpoint Morgan Library, 
New York, regarding the Beale drawings in that collection. 
Those drawings closely resemble the ones in the British Museum 
and are evidently by the same hand. They are bound up in 

WORKS OF G. P. VAN 
H. J. MELLAART 

OME twenty years ago van Zyl, so 
popular a painter in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries that his 
pictures sold for higher prices than 
Vermeer or even Rembrandt, had 
been almost completely forgotten. Then the 
loan by Count Bentinck of a small picture to the 
Mauritshuis again attracted attention to his 
work ; and now, thanks very greatly to the re- 
searches of Dr. Bredius, we know of the exist- 
ence of more than thirty of his paintings, many 
of which are in this country. As he rarely signed 
his pictures they have in more recent times 
generally been attributed to such better-known 
artists as Gabriel Metsu, Pieter de Hoogh and 
W. C. Duyster; but by comparison with the en- 
gravings of Wallerant-Vaillant, P. Schenk, J. 
Gronsvelt and others, re-attribution has in many 
cases been possible. 

Van Zyl was evidently a painter of importance 
in his own day, for we find references to him in 
the poems of Vondel, Vos and Spillebout. 
About fifty years later he was the subject of a 
memoir by Houbraken, from whom we learn that 
he was known as the " little Van Dyck " and 
that he was a great friend and admirer of that 
artist, opposite whom he lived in Westminster. 
After Van Dyck's death van Zyl returned to his 
native town of Amsterdam and lived in the 



a slcetch-book, in which is the inscription : — " Charles Beale 
ist Book 1679," and " Charles Beales Book " in a florid 
seventeenth-century hand, closely resembling that of the 
National Portrait Gallery diary. This circumstance would 
appear to furnish strong presumptive evidence that the bulk 
of the British Museum drawings are by Charles. The 
possibility must, however, not be lost sight of that " Charles 
Beales Book " may be Charles Beale pere's signature as the 
owner of the sketch-book. 

ZYL 



Hartestraat from about 1650-8. Houbraken 
singles out for praise his charming girl portraits 
and especially the delicate painting of their 
hands, which he regards as comparable with 
Van Dyck's, and he makes particular note of the 
Prodigal Son taking Leave of his Father, now 
in the collection of Prince Lubomirski in 
Poland. We also learn from Houbraken that 
he was imitated by Moninck and that Johannes 
X'erkolje worked on his unfinished pictures after 
his death. Weyerman on the whole follows 
Houbraken's account closely, but adds the in- 
formation that he saw two of van Zyl's pictures 
at Badmington, and praises him in even higher 
terms. 

Dr. Bredius has now discovered that he was 
born about the year 1607. His father was a 
framemaker in Haarlem and designed him to be 
a lawyer's clerk. Painting appears, however, 
to have been the only career having any attrac- 
tion for him, and about the year 1629 he became 
for six months the pupil of Jan Symonsr Pynas 
at Amsterdam. He died in Amsterdam and was 
buried in the Oude Kerk in 1665, having been 
in prosperous circumstances for the greater part 
of his life. 

The following is a list of the works of the 
artist which recent research has brought to 



light 



Title. 
The Merry Company 

The Card Party 

Signed copy after U. v. d. Tempel, in 

Berlin. 
Lady Giving Alms ... 
Departure of the Prodigal Son ... 
The Letter 

The Concert Party 

Portrait of Christina Momrtiers ... 

The Party 

Concert Party 

Ttie Concert Party 

The Concert Party 

The Concert Party 

The Card Party 



The Toilet 

The Concert Party 

The Concert Party 

The Garden Party 

The Backgammon Players 

The Concert Party 

The Prodigal Feasting 

Figures round a Table in a Courtyard 
Artist showing Picture to Cavalier 
and Ladies ... 



Owner. 

Bonn 

Brest 

Brunswick 
Cassel 

Prince A. Lubomirski 

Count Bentinck, The Hague 
Colin. Scheurleer, The Hague ... 

Mainz 

K. Schloss, Wurzburg 

Dr. Bredius, The Hague 

Colin. Lederer, Budapest. 
Colin. Steinmeyer, Lucerne 

Woerlitz Schloss 

Kedleston Hall. 

C'tesse de Talleyrand de P^rigord, 

Paris 
The Earl of Dysart. 
]. O. Kronig, Paris. 
M. Paul Matthey, Paris. 
M. E. G. Verkade, the Hague ... 

Magdeburg 

DoUfus Sale, Paris, 1912 

Mr. Clarke 

Messrs. Agnew 

Messrs. Rothschild 



Former Attribution. 
Karel Du Jardin. 
Karel de Moor. 



Frans Francken. 

Resembling N. Knupfer. 

Signed, engraved by W. 

Oohtervelten. 

J. V. Ceulen. 

J. Verkolje. 

Jan Oils. 



Vaillant. 



N. Verkolje. 
N. Verkolje. 



C. J. V. d. Laemen. 



.\. Palamedes. 
K. du Jardin. 
B. Graat. 
G. Metsu. 
G. Metsu. 



Jan Olis. 



147 



Title. Owner. 

Ladies and Cavaliers in a Garden M. Sabin 

Figures round a Table ... ... -Mr. H. Fisher 

A Musical Conversazione ... Christie 

Six Figures in a Courtyard ... Mr. V. Koch .. 

A Concert Johnson Colin. 

A Concert Party Mr. E. Bolton 



Philadelphia 



Former Attribution. 

H. Janssens. 

Dutch School. 

Dutch School. 

P. de Hoogh. 

Still called K. Dujardin. 

W. C. Duyster 



In addition to the above list Dr. H. Schneider 
has drawn my attention to a drawing in the 
Brunswick Gallery and Sir Robert Witt to a 
painting attributed to van Zyl, and now in 
America. I hope to add to the above list in a 
subsequent article in Oud-Holland. 

Of all these pictures only the one in Brunswick 
is signed in full. Count Bentinck's picture bears 
the initials G. P., and that in M. Paul Matthey's 
collection G. P. v. Z. The rest are neither 
signed nor dated. 

Of special interest among the lost pictures are 
a portrait of Govert Flinck, a painting on the lid 
of a spinet, and a family group of van Zyl's own 
relations, various Biblical subjects and a view of 
the Town Hall at Amsterdam. We know also 
that he painted figures in other painters' 
pictures. 

Like so many Dutch painters of this period 
van Zyl's style is variable. At times he affected 
a free and sketchy manner and showed traces of 
foreign influence in his choice of subject ; at 
other times his pictures are formal in design and 
highly finished in execution. As a rule he takes 
for his subject a group of people round a table, 
either with musical instruments or playing back- 
gammon, always depicted with graceful move- 
ments and dress. Italian or Flemish landscapes 
are sometimes shown in the background with a 
curtain to one side, and a servant and one or two 
dogs generally complete the picture. The 
colour is usually bright and strong without being 
exaggerated. There is no doubt, however, that 
the chief reason for his immediate popularity 

A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

Early Ting Ware at South Kensington.— 
Foremost among those public-spirited collec- 
tors who lend their possessions for exhibition 
to the Victoria and Albert Museum is a 
small body of gentlemen whose identity is 
veiled behind the well-fitting phrase " friends 
of the Museum." These gentlemen, who are 
all possessors and all seemingly experienced 
collectors of early Chinese Ceramic wares, have 
already been responsible for two most interest- 
ing exhibitions of examples of the potter's art. 
Early last year there was brought together and 
exhibited here a unique aggregation of the 
beautiful Lung Ch'iian Celadons. This was 
succeeded in the autumn by a selection of some 
of the finest specimens of Ch'ien yao (ware with 
black, brown and " hare's fur " glazes), and 
this again has been replaced lately by a coUec- 



was the sentimental appeal made by his pretty 
girls, so that even copies of his works realised 
large prices. 

Among his masterpieces may be reckoned The 
Prodigal Son in the collection of Prince A. 
Lubomirski, The Concert Party [Pl.\te I, b], 
belonging to M. Paul Matthey and another Con- 
cert Party in the Steinmeyer collection in 
Lucerne. It may be of greater interest to Eng- 
lish readers, however, to study the illustration 
on Plate II, c, of the fine picture. The 
Toilet, in Lord Dysart's collection. The seated 
lady is in white with a yellow scarf, the page-boy 
is in brown, the maid by the lady's side in red. 



and the second maid in grev and 



The 



general effect of this picture is reminiscent of the 
fine Johannes Verkolje in the Ryksmuseum in 
.Amsterdam. 

The excellent drawing [PL-fiTE II, d] in 
Brunswick is of special interest as at present we 
know of no other drawing by van Zyl. It is 
probably a study of a picture which may yet be 
discovered. Quite diiTerent, but not less inter- 
esting is the study of a Nude Man on the other 
side of this drawing. 

Of van Zvi as a portrait painter we can form 
little idea, as there have come down to us only 
his half-length copy of a portrait by van den 
Tempel of a man and his wife, the original of 
which is in Berlin, in addition to \'aillant's 
mezzotint of his lost portrait of Govert Flinck. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Bredius, Dr. C. Hofstede de 
Groot, Dr. Gronau, and M. J. Q. v. Regteren Altena for their 
assistance in compiling this list of van Zyl's works. 



tion of Ting Yao — the white porcelain par ex- 
cellence of the Sung Period. (a.d. 960-1279). 
The factories of Ting Chou appear to have 
devoted their attention almost exclusively to the 
production of objects covered with a translucent 
glaze, which was nearly colourless, and the only 
means of decoration employed was that of the 
incised line and the impressed or moulded pat- 
tern. The reason for this is not far to seek. 
The local clav was famed for its whiteness, and 
as a medium for delicate treatment was pro- 
bably unexcelled.' It thus afforded the ceramic 



1 With the possible exception of a remai^kable Sung ware, 
whose exact provenance occasions much discussion. Tnis is 
a porcelain of very fine texture covered with a delicate bluish 
glaze and known amongst connoisseurs as Ying Ching yao 
°= misty blue ware. Is it too much to hope that the friends 
of the Museum " will be able to assemble a small collection 
of this ware for exhibition in the Loan Court? 



148 




C—The Toilet, by van Zyl. Canvas, 58.4 cm. by 48.9 cm. (The Earl of Dysart) 




O—The Concert, by van Zyl. Drawing, 27.7 cm. by 36.7 cm. (Brunswick Gallery) 
Plate II. The works of G. P. van Zyl 



artist just that means of expressing himself 
which, knowing something of the characteristics 
of the ancient Chinese, one would expect to be 
most to his liking. Restraint, subtlety, refine- 
ment were ever marked features of Chinese 
ceramic art at its best ; and in the local porcelain 
earth the Ting Chou potter had at hand the 
material which answered all his requirements, 
and did not occasion resort to pigments for the 
purpose of decoration, nor even to the use of 
coloured glazes such as were generally found 
necessary when dealing with the coarser clays. 
It should be noted, however, in this connection 
that we are not without literary data as to the 
existence of coloured ting wares, but, as Mr. 
Hobson says, this is a matter " of academic 
interest only, as no examples . . . worthy 
of notice have been identified in Western Col- 
lections. "° Similarly ancient records tell of the 
existence of ting ware with " painted orna- 
ment " — a type unknown to the modern collec- 
tor. This matter is discussed by Mr. Hether- 
ington in the latest work on the subject.^ 

Broadly speaking' the ware under discussion 
was divided into two main categories — the pai 
ting yao or " white " ting ware and the t'u 
ting yao or " earthy " ting ware. Both types 
are well represented in the collection at the Loan 
Court. The first of these was naturally the 
more highly prized ; and the craftsmen of the 
day regarding, doubtless, the mere production 
of such porcelain as a ceramic achievement of no 
mean order were often content to finish the piece 
without ornament of any sort. More frequently, 
however, the vase or bowl was handed on to an 
artist skilled in the use of the style — probably 
a pointed bamboo stick — with which he would 
engrave floral and other designs which, for 
freedom and breadth of treatment have never 
been surpassed. The large vase in the centre 
of the Museum show-case and the bowls with 
interior decoration illustrate this well. 

A very beautiful example of the impressed 
type is seen in the small flat plate on the upper 
shelf. Here the design is moulded with excep- 
tional clearness and the uniform thinness of the 
glaze, a quality common to all types of Ting, 
helps the general effect of the piece. 

T'u ting approaches much more nearly what 

~'i^Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, by R. L. Hobson. Vol. I. 
' Early Ceramic Wares of China, by A. L. Hetberington. 
Page 93 et seq. 

AUCTIONS 

Galeries Fischer, Lucerne.— A picture sale of unusual 
interest is the one announced for September 5th, 1922, at the 
Grand Hotel National in Lucerne, of the collection of M. 
Rudolf Chillingworth. .^n extremely well-prcduced catalogue 
enables one, even at a distance, to form a pretty clear idea of 
the contents of this gallery, which comprises examples of the 
Flemish, Dutch, German, and Italian schools. The series of 
Italian Primitives includes several interesting works, e.f;.. 
the Madonna and Child with Saints (No. 107), in all proba- 



we are accustomed to call earthenware, and is 
in every way inferior to ting ware proper. The 
body is coarser and of a distinctly buff tint ; it 
is also opaque, and unlike true porcelain, ves- 
sels made of it do not always give forth a musi- 
cal sound when struck. The milky opacity 
frequently found in the glaze was doubtless de- 
signed to cover the defective quality of the paste 
and to give a closer resemblance to the more 
greatly admired white ting. The two-handled 
vase in the Museum show-case is a typical 
example displaying this opaque glaze. The 
modelling of this piece and the moulding of the 
design are unusually good, but a certain flat- 
ness, noticeable in every specimen of this type 
clearly indicates that the material did not admit 
of the same delicacy of treatment that was pos- 
sible with the finer clay. The artist-potter 
working with this earthy ting undoubtedly 
found his best mode of expression when fashion- 
ing such objects as the remarkable figure of 
an elephant, now in the Loan Collection. Hence 
we find that considerations of form and general 
outline are more evident in t'u ting than in pai 
ting productions, and there is a greater variety 
in shapes. The careful observer will have little 
difficulty in distinguishing between the two 
kinds of ware and the small collection at South 
Kensington will serve admirably to illustrate 
the marked differences in treatment. 

An ancient writer quoted in the " T'ao 
Shuo "^ bewails the fact that "although you 
may know all the rules for drawing water it is of 
no avail if the people refuse to lend their 
vessels." To-day the position is altered. 
There are several admirable text-books on the 
engrossing subject of old Chinese porcelain, and 
all who will may learn therefrom "the rules." 
But the full benefit of knowledge thus obtained 
cannot be felt unless advantage be taken of the 
opportunity afforded by those who do not " re- 
fuse to lend their vessels." Lovers of the subtle 
and refined in art — those who appreciate pieces 
" of elegant form and worthy of a place in 
the library of a scholar of culture "° — and all 
serious students of ceramic art should make a 
special effort to visit the Victoria and Albert 
Museum while this unique collection may be 
seen. e. e. b. 



* Description of Pottery, translated by S. W. Bushell. 1911 
' Bushell op. cit. p. 134. 



bility by the "Maestro del Bambino Vispo," and closely allied 
to a picture in Christ Church Library, Oxford (No. 20) ; a 
number of scenes from the Lives of the Hermits of the Thehaid 
(No. 105), called Sienese School about 1440, but really, as the 
reproductions allow one to judge, Florentine work, and by 
the same hand as other similar subjects in the Jarvis Collection 
and at Christ Church ; the noble .-Irion on the Dolphin (No. 81) 
given to Francesco Cossa ; and two capital predella pieces by 
Luca Signorelli (No. iii). Turning to the Transalpine schools. 



151 



we notice the vigorous Head of a Man by the Maitre de 
Fl^malle (No. 6), from the Gumprecht Collection, the Male 
Portrait by Jan van Scorel (No. 35), the striking Bernard 
Strigel Madonna and Child with Angels (No. 77), to mention 
only a few items out of a series of remarkably high standard. 
Of the Dutch 17th-century masters, Rembrandt is repre- 

GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



sented by the Portrait of Lisbeth van Rijn, the artist's' sister 
(No. 34), at one time in the Massey-Mainwaring Collection 
(1635), and a later Study of a Young Woman's Head (No. 34a) 
from the Albert Oppenheim Collection (Bode, 374) ; Metsu 
and Hobbema are likewise present. 



T. B. 



NATIONAL GALLERY. 

QuiNTEN Massys. Virgin and Child with SS. Catharine 
and Barbara. Linen in tempera. 0.91 m. by 1.09 m. 
Presented by Charles Clarke, Esq. 

NATIONAL GALLERY, MILLBANK. 

J. S. CoTMAN. Croyland. Water-colour. Presented by Sir 

Joseph Duveen. 
Baron Rudolphe d'Erlanger. A Street in Cairo.. Oil. 

Presented by Sir Joseph Duveen. 
Duncan Grant. Lemon Gatherers. Oil. Purchased. 
P. Wilson Steer. Yachts. Oil. Purchased. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Print Room. 

Ten silver plates, decorated in niello with subjects from the 
Bible, from the Hamilton Palace Collection. Florentine, 
ca. 1460-70. Presented by C. S. Gulbenkian, Esq., 
through the National Art Collections Fund. (On these we 
hope later to publish an illustrated article.) 
Drawings. 

JosuA DE Grave. Twelve topographical drawings of 
places connected with Marlborough's campaign, in 
August, 1711. 
J. P. Le Bas a pastoral subject, 1748; pencil on vellum. 

Prints. 

Anonymous. Small copy in reverse of the Crucifixion by 

ScnoNGAUER, B. 22. From the Bell Scott and Odling 

collections. 
Anonymous. (School of Bartolozzi). Terpsichore: 

stipple, printed in colours. 
Amrrogio Brambilla. Quaresima (allegory of Lent). 

Etching. From the Odling collection. 
Jacob Cornelisz. The Presentation in the Temple. Vn- 

described woodcut. 1513. Presented by Arthur Kay, 

Esq . 
G. de Lairesse. Bachhus.. Eetching. (LeB. 53.) 
G. B. Piranesi. No. 58 of " Vedute di Roma," ist state. 

Presented by A. M, Hind, Esq. 
Valentin Sezenius. Three ornament prints, 1623-4, with 

New Testament subjects treated in a decorative style. 
J. R. Smith. Portrait of Sir W. Milner after Hoppner. 

Mezzotint. Working proof. 
Y. Urushibara. Set of 26 progress proofs of colour print. 

Lilies, with the original block of the outline. 
Parcels of English and French etchings, respectively, have 

been presented by Mr. F. R. Meatyard and Mr. C. 

Dodgson. The Contemporary Art Society has presented 

a first instalment of the prints acquired by the new fund 

for Prints and Drawings inaugurated in 1919. 
Oriental Sub-Department. 
Paintings. 

Unknown Korean Artist. Portrait of a gentleman. 

Presented by Arthur Morrison, Esq. 
RiZA Abbasi. Lady holding her little boy. 
Mu'iN MusAvviR. Sohrab and Rustam. 1648 a.d. 
Rajput School. Irrigation scene. Lady under a Tree. 

Woodcuts. ^, •,. 

Utamaro. One of a set of Beauties. Mother and Child 
in mosquito net. Travellers by river at Suruga. No. 
32 of the " Hundred Poems " set. 

Coins and Medals. 

Six bronze Italian Medals, bequeathed by Mr. Maurice 
Rosenheim:—!. Paul H; attributed to Andrea di 
N1CCOL6 of Viterbo (Burlington Magazine, Dec, 
1907. p. 149) 2. Andrea Magno ; style of Giulio della 
Torre (ibid., p. 150). 3. Giovanni di Costanzo Sforza, 
1503 ; Artis. unknown. 4. Nicolas Maugras, Bishop 
OF Uzfes ; style of Giovanni Candida. 5. Federiigo of 
Urbino ; attributed to Francesco di Giorgio (Burling- 
ton Magazine, June, 1910, p. 143 f-) 6. Leonardo 
Zantani ; by the "Master of 1523" (Maffeo Olivieri?). 



VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(Items marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Architecture and Sculpture. 

Cupid; statuette in bronze, probably by Donatello or by 

some artist working under his immediate influence. 

Florentine (or Paduan) ; middle of 15th century. From 

the Newall collection. Presented by the N.A.C. Fund. 

Bust of the Virgin, and Figure of the Child Christ; ivory. 

Portuguese; 17th or i8th century. 
St. Christopher, statuette in ivory. Spanish (?); 17th or 

i8th century. 
Cases for Knife and Spoon ; engraved bone. Italian ; 17th 
century. Presented by Sir Charles Wyndham Murray, 
K.C.B. 
God the Father, and St. Anne with the Virgin and Child. 
Figures in limewood, painted and gilded. Swiss ; 
i6th or 17th century. Presented by Joseph King, Esq. 
Ceramics. 

Earthenware bowl painted in bluish-green. Found in ex- 
cavations at Fostat (Old Cairo). Probably qth centurv. 
Bought (Fouquet collection). Porcelain dish painted in 
under glaze blue and yellow enamel. Chinese ; mark and 
reign of Chia-ching. Presented by Mr. J. B. van Stolk 
of Haarlem. 
White porcelain figure of a girl in a swing. Probably 
early Chelsea. Presented by Lt.-Col. K. Dingwall, 
D.S'.O., through the N.A.C. Fund. 
Venetian glass bowl with engraved and gilt decoration. 
i6th century. Presented by Edmund Houghton, Esq. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 

*Y. Urushibara. Wood Engravings (3), in colour. 
*W. M. Keesey. Architectural Drawings (4). 
♦Collection of Japanese Prints. Bequeathed by the late 
T. H. Lee. 
Paintings. 

E. Webb. Caen. Water-colour. Presented by Her 

Majesty the Queen. 
*Gallaway of Edinburgh. Two miniature portraits. 
*S. J. Stump. Miniature portrait. 
W. S. Lethbridge. Miniature portrait. 
*W. J. Thomson. Miniature portrait. 
*P. Jean. Miniature portrait. 
Bernard Lens. A. B. Lens. 
Metalwork. 

* Seven figures from monumental brasses. 15th century. 
Presented by Arthur G. Binns, Esq. 

Silver porringer. English ; 16S3. ^fpchanical toy, a mer- 
man on the back of a tortoise. South German; 17th 
century. Pendant jewel. Enamelled gold set with 
stones. Second half of 17th century. Two engraved 
gems mounted as pendant jewels. i6th-i8th century. 
From the Marlborough collection. Presented by Col. Sir 
C. Wyndham Murray, K.C.B. 

Silver sauce-tureen. Irish; 1787. Given by Miss Kathleen 
Martin. 

♦Bronze group. Fudo with attendant. Japanese. 
Textiles. 

* A panel of Swedish tapestry. 17th or i8th century. 
*An embroidered Chinese screen, in a carved frame. Pre- 
sented by Miss J. McCutchan. 

A linen cloth v/ith brocaded pattern. From Egypt; 5th or 

6th century. Presented by P. E. Newberry, Esq. 
An Altar frontal of point d'Argentan lace. About 1700. 

Presented by Miss K. E. Cooper. 
Department of Woodwork. 

*A small English bureau-bookcase of the time of_ Queen 

Anne, decorated in lacquerwork with Chinese designs on 

a yellow ground. Purchased. 
Chest of oak, carved with ogee arches and Tudor^ roses. 

English : late 15th century. Presented by Sigismund 

Goetze, Esq. 
A rocking chair, carved with rococo ornament. French. 

Period of Louis XV. Presented by Charles Wase, Esq. 



152 




Mvstical subject. By Niccolo di Pietro Gerini. Canvas, 2.5 i ni. by i.bi m. 
(The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres) 



EDI 



Problem of the Provincial Gallery 



little, distant, dirty 
• sjlass, is a laby- 
l-rt'sounding cor- 
ridKr>, iraiiiiiu'd tight witii glass 
cases Containing model steamships, 
> jffed seafowl, automatic solar systems, 
.'.mall crockery, Bnim' negro idols, napthalin 
balls, obsolete dc^^Tlption labels; against the 
degraded crimsor 




bols of 

ficence, 

ism, - 

hiim.- 

w' 

A 

o! 

ti 

jr. 



S,r V 



•lang expansive sym- 
I x-'s ubiquitous muni- 

iry French-Victorian- 
s of post-war 
•Uimentality ; 
inns by obsolete 
. .i:s have had done 
mayors of their ene- 
.1 . sedulous understudies 
se effrontery the official 
(■ W'M hesitate to sacrifice scholar- 

si- . .1. pride of municipal possession; 

(t^fii:ine masterpieces permitted to retreat year 
hv vear ever further behind a mask of ancient 
horn-coloured resin and modern city grime, or 
else scoured and glossed by the local restorer 
who did the varnished pike in the case '■■liKse by. 
All provincial museums are not like thtt, and 
yet thev all present a problem of r' ■ '. 

The most recent of the many se mis- 

sions of the subject, to which some of the most 
experienced and successful mt'- ^ ' ■ ^rs in 
the country contributed, took j nths 

ago before the Roval Sorirtx of Art^, and is 
now published in pamphlet form.' Tn spite of 
a prest deal of candour on th^^ part of the 
M ' r he claimed (haf the effect was 

t'l 're than rleav ihe air a little. 

The pxistenre nt disease was genornlly admitted, 
but the doctors could hardly be said to be in 
agreement when it came to diagnoses, and the 
various medicines proposed were merely pallia- 
tory. Here and there a word was dropped that 
revealed the fact that the endemic had not spared 
some of the consultants themselves. 

Tn recard to objects of art, as apart from 

<■' the three acknowledged trou- 

>■ T'ts alreadv in the possession 

rips are not good enough. 

11, .- I ,■■ ■■'■I '•■•■■> '•!;,. 

I' I 

th' II- 

mittt I -ems 

to he - 'sll 
ratlioi 

Th. ,»t of 



> The Pn.i 
By Lawreni ■ 
Gallery. 



an individual, will be . 

run by the manner lu ^i.im <■ 

acquisitivene.ss, and it will be :w 

keenest test of 

tions, which, i 

ably low order. 

urgent reform^: • 

not to be " en 

local, gift hor'- 

pictures of ep 

eluded, the director 

complete freedom 

kept down. To t, 

agree, but how are li 

It is as easy as it i:> i 

is called the public, v ' 

that varies its charactc-i h: i 

server. He who heluMH*, 

galleries must have 

number of intelligent 

when once their houses have been pi;' 
for them. 

And again, we strongly agr*»e \«'ith the view 
that in art, committees .ir and 

that Corporation " Parks mi if. 

tees " and the like, composed a f 

public representatives ' 

not be allowed to nn-' 

decisions any more than they 1 

to interfere with those of *'"' 

health inspector; still, we 

ence is not alone resj' 

management. The n^ 

the problem, the more fart 

emerges that the chief so ■ "s 

the directorship itself '^^ '> 

believe that the dirort. '<- 

ne.ss man's qualities • : i.i 

tact, but we do belie\ • ;o be 

lacking in a far rarei I 

quality which the tc 

expected to possess — thr gift gf dion 

between a good work of art and a .,:\veen 

one of permanent and one of temporary inter- 
est ; nor are our ■' 1 of the only 
possible substiti:' a wide and 
thorough kn' \ are on the 
whole poor it^i.. ■ < .ent t^'"-'! ■■^- 
deficient both ei id mtei 
And - ■ 
jump 

day betor 

^p .. ., .., 

!■' ' 

i; riiCiS. 

r must be one of those who havr 

•i '!> pass their lives in the presence of art, 

:)n(i his life must be that of his gallery. Ff'' 



Thb BURI.IV. 



'55 




Mvsficnl siib/ii t. By Niccolo di Pietro Cknni. Canvas, 2.5 1 m. by i.Oi m. 
(The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres) 



EDITORIAL: The Problem of the Provincial Gallery 




OWN below little, distant, dirty 
strips of skylight glass, is a laby- 
rinth of gloomy and resounding cor- 
ridors, crammed tight with glass 
cases containing model steamships, 
stuffed seafowl, automatic solar systems, 
small crockery. Brum' negro idols, napthalin 
balls, obsolete description labels; against the 
degraded crimson walls hang expansive sym- 
bols of Sir F. L. Chantrey's ubiquitous muni- 
ficence, tit-bits of reactionary French-Victorian- 
Ism, shedding on the hard faces of post-war 
humanity unavailing beams of sentimentality; 
whole-length-and-to-spare portraits by obsolete 
A.R.A.'s which foolish mayors have had done 
of their friends and wise mayors of their ene- 
mies; the work of little, sedulous understudies 
in alliance with whose effrontery the official 
catalogue does not hesitate to sacrifice scholar- 
ship to the pride of municipal possession ; 
genuine masterpieces permitted to retreat year 
by year ever further behind a mask of ancient 
horn-coloured resin and modern city grime, or 
else scoured and glossed by the local restorer 
who did the varnished pike in the case close by- 
All provincial museums are not like that, and 
vet thev all present a problem of the same kind. 
The most recent of the many serious discus- 
sions of the subject, to which some of the most 
experienced and successful museum directors in 
the country contributed, took place some months 
ago before the Roval Society of Arts, and is 
now published in pamphlet form.' In spite of 
a great deal of candour on the part of the 
speakers, it cannot be claimed that the effect was 
to do anything more than clear the air a little. 
The existence of disease was generally admitted, 
but the doctors could hardly be said to be in 
agreement when it came to diagnoses, and the 
various medicines proposed were merely pallia- 
tory. Here and there a word was dropped that 
revealed the fact that the endemic had not spared 
some of the consultants themselves. 

Tn regard to objects of art, as apart from 
objects of utility, the three acknowledged trou- 
bles are that the works already in the possession 
of the provincial galleries are not good enough, 
that new acquisitions are no better, and that the 
galleries are kent in an overcrowded and sloven- 
ly condition. These faults are variously laid at 
the door of the public, the city corporation com- 
mittees, and the gallery directors, but it seems 
to be realised that such deep-rooted troubles call 
rather for the divine than the physician. 

The success of an art gallery, unlike that of 



• The Problem of Provincial Galleries and Art Museums. 
By Lawrence Haward (and others), pub. Manchester Art 
Gallery. 



an individual, will be rightly judged in the long 
run by the manner in which it exercises its 
acquisitiveness, and it will be agreed that the 
keenest test of efficiency is that of new acquisi- 
tions, which, broadly speaking, are of a lament- 
ably low order. Under this heading many 
urgent reforms were called for — local talent was 
not to be " encouraged " merely because it was 
local, gift horses were to be looked in the mouth, 
pictures of ephemeral interest were to be ex- 
cluded, the director was to be given more or 
complete freedom, and Bumbleism in general 
kept down. To these proposals everybody will 
agree, but how are they to be put into effect? 
It is as easy as it is futile to rail against what 
is called the public, which is an intangible body 
that varies its character with that of each ob- 
server. He who believes at all in public 
galleries must have faith that an increased 
number of intelligent visitors will be created 
when once their houses have been put in order 
for them. 

And again, we strongly agree with the view 
that in art, committees are always wrong, and 
that Corporation " Parks and Gallery Commit- 
tees " and the like, composed as they are of 
public representatives untrained in art, should 
not be allowed to meddle with the director's 
decisions any more than they should be allowed 
to interfere with those of the public analyst or 
health inspector; still, we feel that that interfer- 
ence is not alone responsible for the ineffectual 
management. The more closely one examines 
the problem, the more insistently the fact 
emerges that the chief source of inefficiency is 
the directorship itself. We have no reason to 
believe that the directors are lacking in the busi- 
ness man's qualities of precision, alertness and 
tact, but we do believe them, as a class, to be 
lacking in a far rarer and really more essential 
quality which the town councillor cannot be 
expected to possess — the gift of discrimination 
between a good work of art and a bad, between 
one of permanent and one of temporary inter- 
est ; nor are our directors possessed of the only 
possible substitute for that gift — a wide and 
thorough knowledge of art. They are on the 
whole poor aesthetes and indifferent scholars, 
deficient both emotionally and intellectually. 
And consequently they are nearly as liable to 
jump for the safe picture that was in fashion the 
day before yesterday as are the public they are 
so constantly out to reform and as are the cor- 
poration committees they complain of with such 
inevitable bitterness. 

The director must be one of those who have 
elected to pass their lives in the presence of art, 
and his life must be that of his gallery. He 



The Burlington Magazine, No. 235, Vol. LXI, Oct., 1922. 



K 



^SS 



must not be just any worthy or clever man with 
some taste for art. In short he must be a born 
collector, born both cupidus and avarus, with 
both a love of acquiring and a love of keep- 
ing, a very miser whose only coffer is his 
gallery ; and he must collect only real riches, 
and be able instinctively to pick the diamonds 
from a handful of stones. If he is simply one 
who has got up the hall-marks from a book of 
reference he will soon find himself in as deep 
water as his brethren. 

There was a time when the quasi intelligen- 
zia, from whose ranks the provincial museums 
have recruited their officers, could contrive to 
keep themselves and the public in touch with 
their time by trying to translate into deeds the 
words of teachers like Ruskin and Wilde. But 
since the disappearance of really articulate mis- 
sionaries like these, our directors are thrown 
back on the silly art criticism of the daily papers 
which takes them back, if they only knew it, to 
the days before the publication of " Reynolds's 
Discourses." Although they would no doubt 
disclaim association with the theories of art pre- 
valent in his day, the history of the stocking of 
many an English gallery might easily induce 
one to suppose that the principles laid down by 
Dr. Johnson were still being acted upon to-day. 
In this connection we may remind ourselves of 
a passage from Boswell : — 

F. : "I have been looking at thi'i famous antique marble 
dog of Mr. Jennings, valued at a thousand guineas, said to be 
Alcibiades's dog." Johnson : "His tail must then be docked. 
That was the mark of Alcibiades's dog." E. : [Edmund 
Burke] "A thousand guineas ! The representation of no 
animal whatever is worth so much. At this rate a dead dog 
would indeed be better than a living lion." Johnson: " Sir, 
it is not the worth of the thing, but of the skill in forming 
it which is so highly estimated. Everything that enlarges 
the sphere of human powers, that shows man he can do 
what he thought he could not do, is valuable. The first 
man who balanced a straw upon his nose ; Johnson who 
rode upon three horses at a time ; in short, all such men 
deserved the appla'Use of mankind, not on account of the use 
of what they did, but of the dexterity which they exhibited. . . 

F. : " One of the most remarkable antique figures of an 
animal is the boar at Florence." Johnson : " The first boar 



that is well made in marble should be preserved as a 
wonder. When men arrive at a facility of mailing boars 
well, then the workmanship is not of such value, but they 
should however be preserved as examples, and as a greater 
security for the restoration of the art, should it be lost." 

No director would think of agreeing with 
views of this kind, but we are not so sure that 
the passage does not put into so many candid 
words pretty well what our country directors 
are putting into deeds. 

However, although we insist that the problem 
of the provincial gallery is the problem of the 
provincial director, we confess we see no quick 
way by which that problem is to be solved. The 
appointments are in the hands of the city cor- 
porations, who feel that art, like religion, con- 
cerns all men, and that therefore they are as 
entitled as anybody else to have their desires 
gratified by acquisitions, the more so since they 
act as the direct representatives of the people. 
Thus the tendency they exhibit to distrust the 
specialist becomes easy to understand. To 
them, doubting the authenticity of public judg- 
ment appears a refinement of scepticism indeed. 
Nor is their whole position without its justifica- 
tion in modern art criticism, with its main 
theory that taste is the only criterion of good 
judgment. The directors are merely exalted 
town officials. 

If the Universities would only widen their 
doors to art, provincial gallery management 
would probably gravitate in their direction, 
which would be sure to result in a great im- 
provement, for it is better that art should be 
identified with education and be controlled by 
professors, than that it should be identified with 
drain pipes and fire brigades and controlled by 
town councillors. Municipal control has been 
tried and has failed. May it not be that the 
present efforts at Oxford and Cambridge to in- 
clude art in their systems of culture will finally 
lead to a closing of the breach between the city 
university, the city school of art, and the city 
art gallery? 



A FLORENTINE MYSTICAL PICTURE 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 




ONSIDERING the interest of the 
, subject from several points of view 
it is undoubtedly rather a surprising 
fact that the art history of the proces- 
isional banner in Italy should never 
have been explored systematically. One fact 
which emerges from a preliminary survey of the 
extant material is the unequal proportion in which 
it is divided among the various schools of Italy : 
how few Florentine banners, for instance, have 
survived in comparison with those which are the 
work of Umbrian masters — Bonfigli, Niccol6 
Alunno, Signorelll, to quote a few of the most 



distinguished. Thanks to the courtesy of the Earl 
of Crawford and Balcarres, I am on the present 
occasion able to publish a Florentine Trecento 
painting in his possession, which it has been cus- 
tomary to regard as a banner and which as such, 
from its date and origin alone, would be of con- 
siderable historical interest. But it is also of so 
distinguished an artistic quality as to claim atten- 
tion on purely sesthetic grounds, and entirely 
apart from the question as to whether it origi- 
nally was a church banner — a point on which, as 
we shall see, two opinions are possible. 
The provenance of the picture is fully estab- 



156 



ished, for — as Lord Crawford has kindly pointed 
out to me — it is described at length in one of the 
volumes of the lengthy work which the industrious 
Jesuit, Giuseppe Richa, about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, devoted to the churches of 
Florence.' At that time it was placed in the first 
chapel on the left of the entrance door of the 
Duomo at Florence, known as the Cappella della 
SS. Trinitd, and containing the tombs of the 
ancient Florentine family of the Pecori. About 
1865, it was acquired in Florence by the late 
of Crawford, and at present forms part of the col- 
lection at Lord Crawford's Lancashire seat, 
Haigh Hall, Wigan. 

The scene which the composition brings 
before us might be described as an epi- 
sode in a religious drama, the mystical 
meaning of which is made clearer through the 
transcription on the canvas of the words passing 
between the actors. The focus of dramatic inter- 
est is a group of kneeling figures, below in the 
centre, at the head of which is a man in a red 
cloak with a green scarf flung over the shoulders 
— a costume which Richa suggests that be- 
tokens a Gonfaloniere di Giustizia. On the right 
of these figures, and drawn on a much larger 
scale, kneels the Virgin, draped in a white cloak 
studded with stars : her left hand presses a jet of 
milk from her right breast, and as she intro- 
duces the little congregation in front of her to 
Christ, kneeling on the left, is supposed to be 
addressing the following words to Him : 

Dolciximo Figliuolo pel lat/te chio ti die abbi 
m{isericord)ia di chostoro. (Sweet Son, for the 
sake of the milk that I gave Thee, have mercy 
upon these.) 

Christ is draped in a crimson mantle : His body 
shows the stigmata, and as He touches the wound 
in His side with His left hand. He makes with the 
other a gesture of appeal to God the Father, 
appearing above in a conventionalised setting 
symbolical of Heaven and sending forth the 
Dove of the Holy Spirit. The words addressed 
by Christ to God the Father are as follows : 

Padre mio sieno salvi chostoro pe 'quali tu 
volesti chio patissi passione. (My Father, let 
those be saved for whom Thou didst will that I 
suffered.) 

To the supposition that this painting originalK' 
was used as a banner, colour is lent by severa\ 
circumstances : most important of ail the fact that 
it is painted on canvas, which is, I believe, un- 
paralleled among Florentine altar-pieces of this 
period.^ The size and shape of the picture and 
the general character of the composition also sup- 
port this view. At the same time, a point to be 

1 Giuseppe Richa, Notizie isioriche delle chiese fiorentine, 
Vol. VI. (1757), p. iissq. 

- The picture consists of several pieces of canvas sewn 
together and Te-backed at a later date. 



borne in mind is that Richa describes the picture 
as forming part of an ensemble which served as 
an altar-piece in the chapel of the Trinity, and to 
which also belonged two pictures, likewise on 
canvas, representing David, Moses, Isaiah and 
Jacob, each with a scriptural cjuotation referring 
to the Incarnation of the Word ; while a predella 
displayed the dead Christ between St. John the 
Baptist and the Magdalen. Richa further praises 
the beauty of the baldaquin which was above this 
altar and on which were painted the figures of the 
four Doctors of the Latin Church surrounding 
Christ : but whether this baldaquin was by the 
same artist or even of the same period as the altar- 
piece is not to be determined.^ Lord Crawford's 
picture is the only portion of the altar-piece of 
which the ultimate fate is known to me, and it is, 
of course, perfectly possible and not at all unlikely 
that it originally was used as a processional 
banner : but Richa's description makes it clear 
that at an early date it was made into an integral 
part of a polyptych, and the fact that not only 
the centre but also the wings of this polyptych 
were painted on canvas make this altar-piece — as 
already hinted at — something of an exception 
among the works of the early Florentine school. 

If from these more purely arch^ological con- 
siderations we turn to the style and artistic quality 
of the picture, the problem of authorship, as it 
appears to me, is one which can be solved with 
a fair amount of certainty. The general character 
of style points to an artist of the Florentine 
school of the end of the Trecento : and among the 
tangible artistic individualities of that phase of 
painting there is one to whose manner the pre- 
sent picture shows extremely close analogies, 
namely, Niccol6 di Pietro Gerini. The pupil 
possibly of Taddeo Gaddi, this artist — who joined 
the Arte dei Medici e Speziali at Florence in 1368, 
and died in 1415 or 1416 — is known on certain 
occasions to have been the collaborator of Agnolo 
Gaddi and Spinello Aretino : he was the head of 
a busy atelier, and the work of master and assist- 
ants allow in many cases of no certain differentia- 
tion.'' A characteristic an d accessible example of 

3 I give below Richa's description verbatim : " Questo 
prime quadro fatto a olio fi.e., Lord Crawford's picture! 
fe contornato da 2. tele dipinte a tempera, essendovi nelle 
bande laterali il Re David, Mos^, Isaia, e Giacob, 
aventi ciascuno un motto preso dalla Scrittura, allusivo all' 
Incarnazione del Verbo, e nella parte inferiore. che 6 il 
quarto spartimento, si rappresenta Cristo appassionato in 
mezzo a San Giovanni Evangelista, e la Maddalona : 
Bellissimo ancora b il Baldacchino, che serve a quest' Altare, 
dove sono coloriti i quattro Dottori della Chiesa Latina, 
che mcttono in mezzo Gesu Cristo." The obvious error of 
describing Lord Crawford's picture as painted in oil may 
here be noted. 

■» Compare on Niccol6 di Pietro Gerini, Crowe and Caval- 
caselle. History of Painting in Italy. 2nd ed. ii. 264-8 ; and 
more fully and recently O. Sin5n, in Thieme-Becker's 
Dictionary, XIII., 465-7, and R. OfTner in Art in America, 
IX., 148-155, 233-240. — On Niccol6's son and assistant 
Lorenzo di Niccol6, see S'lrin in The Burlington 
Magazine, Vol. XXXVI. (Feb., 1920), pp. 72-78. 



^57 




Niccolo's art is the Baptism of Christ in the 
National Gallery (No. 579) ; and on comparing 
it with Lord Crawford's picture many striking 
parallels of style will become evident, notably in 
the types of face, with eyes of rigid fixity, and 
the drawing both of hands and feet. The grain 
of the canvas showing through the pigments is 
responsible for a greater delicacy of texture than 
the frescoes and panel pictures of the master have 
accustomed us to : and in addition to this, there 
is, both in the flow of line and the whole spacing 
of the composition, a power of simple and telling 
effect, which entitles this work to take high rank, 
not only among the work of Niccol6 di Pietro 

SETTECENTISMO 
BY ROGER FRY 

HE evidences of a new cult of 
Italian seventeenth-century art are 
by now obvious to all. The 
younger writers on art in Italy 

are putting into the study of 

this period much of the enthusiasm and the 
historical method which in the past generation 
was devoted to elucidating the tangled history 
of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. 
This is altogether natural. The work on the 
earlier periods had in the main been so thor- 
oughly done that ambitious youth had to look 
for new worlds of resthetic experience to explore 
and to conquer. It was this, one thinks, rather 
than any definite cesthetic predilection which 
made them turn once again to the long-neg- 
lected and never fully-mapped country of the 
Settecento. I may perhaps be allowed to look 
on this new movement with a certain personal 
interest since I think I must have been one of 
the first of those critics who were formed in the 
cult of the Primitives, to explore the fringes of 
that country, at a time when it was still wrapped 
in the darkest mystery and shunned by the cul- 
tured with awful disapprobation. So long ago 
as 1905 in an edition of Sir Joshua Reynolds's 
Discourses I took occasion to plead for more 
justice to the Settecento painters than had been 
accorded them, and I was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the Baroque architecture of Rome 
before it became an almost religious creed. 

I put forward these proofs of my good will 
towards this development of art history and 
criticism precisely because I find evidences in 
the work of these young Italian writers, of the 
kind of indiscriminate enthusiasm which leads 
to the formation of a creed and a dogma and 
which is opposed to the critical spirit. A 
natural tendency to save ourselves the trouble 
of an individual judgment tends to make us 
partisans of a period or a school, and there are 
signs that such an indiscriminate admiration of 
the Settecento is becoming fashionable. This 

158 



Gerini, but among those of the late Trecento 
masters in general. I take it that the picture must 
date from a comparatively late stage of Niccol6's 
career — there is something in the character of the 
form sinuosity of the lines which savours of 
the late Gothic as seen in the work of Lorenzo 
Monaco : and as in so many pictures dating from 
this phase of art a curious general affinity to the 
schemes of Chinese and Japanese painting comes 
out in the character of the composition : an im- 
pression enhanced, indeed, by details like the 
parasol-like, concentric arrangement of circles 
which symbolises Heaven round the figure of 
God the Father. 



is no doubt inevitable and much good and use- 
ful work will result from it. But in the long 
run critics will have to sift the new material 
and will find much chaff in the harvest. It is 
only now perhaps that we are beginning to find 
how much too greedily we bolted the primitives 
en bloc, accepting as genuine aesthetic experi- 
ence much that was due merely to our enjoyment 
of the manner of that period. 

It is not uninteresting to note that a genera- 
tion of Italians that has been brought up on 
Futurism should turn with such zest to their 
own painters of the seventeenth century. In 
many ways Caravaggio was an expression of a 
turbulence and an impatience of tradition similar 
to that which Futurism displays. Like the 
Futurists he appealed to the love of violent sen- 
sations and uncontrolled passions. Like them 
he loved what was brutal and excessive. Like 
them he mocked at tradition. Like them he 
was fundamentally conventional and journal- 
istic. The strange thing is that the aspect of 
the Italian character which creates Futurism 
and Fascism should have taken so long to find 
its expression in art. For, up to the seventeenth 
century it is hard to find any trace of it. There 
had been plenty of swash-buckling, ruffianly 
artists before — one has only to think of Ben- 
venuto Cellini — but their art showed no evidence 
of their predilections. But with Caravaggio and 
Crespi and many others this character comes 
out. It is not merely a question of violence of 
character so much as of attributing an aesthetic 
value to violent sensations. In fact the Italian 
artists of the seventeenth century invented the 
modern popular picture, invented the view of 
art which culminates in the drama of the cine- 
matograph. In fact they may be said to have 
invented vulgarity, and more particularly vul- 
gar originality in art. No wonder that Poussin 
said that Caravaggio had been sent on earth to 
destroy the art of painting. 

Going through the series of most attractive 




Plate I. Settecentismo 



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little volumes on seventeenth-century art which 
the Bibliolica d'Arte Illustrata of Rome is bring- 
ing out, one may find the primary and original 
sources of the Royal Academy or Salon picture, 
the veritable beginnings of that other tradi- 
tion which so often gets confused with the 
tradition handed down from the High 
Renaissance. Caravaggio was a real revolu- 
tionary in the sense that he started this new 
tradition which has since had such a success 
that the followers of the older tradition of Giotto 
and Raphael always appear to the world to be 
revolutionaries, though they are in fact the real 
traditionalists. 

As proof of this contention one has only 
to consider the very striking painting of 5. 
Giovanni Nepomuceno Confessing the Queen 
of Bohemia, which was reproduced in the Bur- 
lington last August. Here we have already all 
the essentials of the Royal Academy or Salon 
picture. Not only is everything — planning, light- 
ing, drawing — subservient to narrative, but all 
the accents are upon what is sensational and 
theatrically effective in the narrative. Design, 
such as there is, is there only as an afterthought ; 
it is not the central motive of the whole. I do 
not say that Crespi is always on this level; 
what is important is that one finds here the 
Salon picture already come into being. 

Caravaggio was a much more gifted man and 
it is not his talent but his use of it which I am 
criticising. In the picture of the Conversion of 
St. Paul [Plate I, a] we see his essentially jour- 
nalistic talent — what an impresario for the 
cinema ! He has made an elaborate study 
from nature of a horse in a stable with a man 
holding its head. He has only got to stick in 
a man lying posed on the floor to make it a 
sensational religious picture. No wonder he 
despised Raphael's cartoons. The original de- 
sign of the horse and man is not without merit 
despite the triviality of the observation and the 
insistence on details for their illusion effect, but 
the whole design comes to pieces when St. Paul 
is thus wilfully pushed into the scene, and the 
parts have no longer any significance in relation 
to the whole. 

It would be a mistake to suppose that all Italy 
went a-whoring after the new idol ; Domenichino 
and Guido Reni show scarcely any influence of 
the new ideas, and among those who 
were infected by the malady there were 
many cases of recovery. Guercino perhaps 
never got quite over it, but those who 
came most under Venetian influence got 
more and more back to the later Ren- 
aissance tradition. It is perhaps a little 
strange that Venice, which had never thoroughly 
absorbed the principles of Renaissance design, 
none the less continuously handed on something 



of its feeling even to the end of the eighteenth 
century. And in that line of descent come two 
artists treated of in the series of publications just 
mentioned, Domenico Feti and Giovanni Lys. 
The picture by Feti, illustrated on Plate II, B — 
shows him returning, after many brilliant essays 
in narrative genre, to something of the style of 
Paolo Veronese. 

Lys is a strange and exceptional figure. He 
is perhaps the only case of a German artist be- 
coming completely acclimatized to the artistic 
culture of another land. He began as a discreet 
Caravaggiesque, showing in his pictures from 
the first a much finer sensibility than those of 
his model. In certain of the early genre scenes 
there is somethingofCaravaggio's limelight, but 
the reminiscence of Dutch genre gives them 
a less insistent quality. In the later piece shown 
on Plate II, c, we see that like Rubens 
he has been studying Correggio and the artists 
of the High Renaissance and has arrived at 
a somewhat similar position, though the de- 
sign and composition are more definitely Italian. 
In later pieces he actually anticipates Piazzetta 
and Tiepolo, so that his work forms a definite 
link in the long-enduring Venetian tradition. 

The editors have had the good sense to in- 
clude in the series a number of books devoted 
to the architects of the time. When we con- 
sider these, a curious situation becomes appar- 
ent. In the art of painting during the seven- 
teenth century the great tradition of the Renais- 
sance passed from Italy to other lands — the 
great names are all non-Italian, Rubens, Rem- 
brandt, Poussin, Claude, Velasquez— there is 
no Italian name to put against these. But in 
architecture Italy maintains her predominance, 
and stranger still, in some cases the very men 
who were executing second or third-rate pic- 
tures were producing masterpieces in architec- 
ture. Bernini is perhaps the one name that 
one might put forward as a claimant to high 
rank in sculpture. But however indulgently 
we mav judge his sculpture, we must admit that 
in architecture he shows himself as belonging to 
a far higher rank. The case of Pietro da Cor- 
tona is even more striking if one compares the 
brilliant mediocrity of his painting with his real 
masterpieces in architecture. 

The Rome that we know is to a very large 
extent the work of these seventeenth-century 
architects, and even what litde architectural 
beauty is scattered about London comes largely 
from an echo of their work. It is indeed sur- 
prising what these architects made of the tradi- 
tion left to them by the High Renaissance. One 
would have thought that there was, so to 
speak, nothing more to be done without a 
sudden break, so complete, so coherent and so 
exactly established were the principles of that 

163 



art. And yet the architects of the seventeenth 
century, with scarcely any alterations in the 
individual parts of their construction, gave it a 
new character. They used almost exactly the 
same stylistic elements, the same columns and 
pilasters, the same cornices and mouldings, the 
same decorative motives, and yet managed to 
give to the whole a quite new impression. By 
choosing deeper recessions and more salient re- 
liefs, by introducing convex and concave sur- 
faces in all sorts of varieties, by a less rigidly 
rectangular planning, by all these and many 
more devices, they developed a whole new archi- 
tectural language, at once more striking and 
pictorial, so to speak, and yet, in spite of some 
florid exuberance, maintaining and even height- 
ening the plastic unity. The fact becomes clear 
that the ' style ' in architecture is of little im- 
portance compared with the use that is made of 
it. The great thing is that whatever the style, 
it should be practised long enough and consist- 
ently enough to enable artists to work through 
their interest in it as a style and get to the 
fundamental business of proportional harmonies. 
And perhaps no style has ever been so thor- 
oughly worked in this sense as the Renaissance 
classical style. 

None the less, there are already signs in the 
seventeenth-century Roman architecture of 
something of that impatient sensationalism 
to which I have called attention in the painters. 
Already in Maderno, born as early as 1566, 
there are signs in the Palazzo Chigi, for exam- 
ple, of a new picturesqueness of surface treat- 
ment which is intended to cover a certain poverty 
in plastic design. 

Rainaldi in the main is a great master of 
severe effects of massive relief, as for instance 
in the tribuna of Sta. Maria Maggiori. He even 
returns almost to quattrocento principles in the 
interesting facade of Sta. Maria in Monte Santo 
[Plate IV, f], though giving it a new accent 
by the heavy shadows of isolated projections. 
None the less in the Palazzo del Grillo and in 
certain details of Sta. Maria in Campitelli, he 
carries even further the hint of picturesque ex- 
travagance given by Maderno. The fact is that 
out of the Baroque the Rococo was being born, 
and the Rococo was destined to destroy the 
tradition of plastic design in architecture, and 
to endeavour to distract us from its loss by the 
variety and picturesqueness of its surfaces. 

Pietro da Cortona, born as late as 1596, shows 
himself as the most consistently baroque of this 
group. It is not without significance that he 
was a Tuscan and not a North Italian as 
Maderno and Borromini were, and like a Tus- 
can he keeps to the great principles of design. 
It is very significant that the nearest approaches 
to Rococo experiments occur in his early work. 




FIG. CUPOLA AND LANTERN OF THE SAPIENZA, BY BORKOMIM 

and that as he goes on he becomes more purely 
plastic. 

The facade of Sta . Maria del la Place [Plate III, 
d], seems to me one of the great creations of 
this period. Here a new effect in architecture is 
obtained by throwing two differently curved 
convex masses against a concave background. 
In this way Pietro introduces into architecture 
something of that complex double plasticity — 
convex and concave — which is the main business 
of painting. His facade of Sta. Maria in Via 
Lata [Plate HI, e], is also a masterpiece of con- 
centrated plastic design by which the utmost 
impressiveness and mass is given to a small 
building — only pedants would object to the 
arched archivolt, where its effect is so happy, so 
essential to the total unity. 

It is, alas ! upon Borromini that most of 
these writers fix as the great genius of the move- 
ment, and if a distinctive and superficial origin- 



164 




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Plate IV. Settecentismo 



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.4 — Landscape, by Diirer. Watur-coluiir. (Ashniok-an Museum, Oxford) 
Plate I. The Significance of the Sketch 



ality is the mark of greatness, no doubt he looms 
large enough. Here at least we get oddity, 
extravagance, queerness and novelty pursued as 
ends in themselves. No doubt Borromini de- 
signed some fine works — the facade of Sta. 
Agnese in the Piazza Navona, for instance — 
he could not be expected to destroy a fine tradi- 
tion all at once. But every move he makes, 
every affirmation of his own personality, is in 
the direction of cheap and vulgar sensation- 
alism. A look at the cupola of the Sapienza 
[Figure] will show this clearly. Here every- 
thing is meant to attract the eye by its oddity 
and caprice. The plastic idea is almost entirely 
lost : sudden, sharp, thin saliences, as in the 
cornice round the drum, pilasters that give no 
sense of density or mass to the wall they adorn, 
give to the whole its papery unreality, its air 
of being a stage property or a temporary build- 



ing for a world-exhibition. In the lantern 
there is a return to reasonableness only to allow 
Borromini to flourish away more extrava- 
gantly than ever in the ridiculous spiral busi- 
ness at the top. Even in its origin the Rococo 
had something of that wilful caprice, that per- 
verse inventiveness, which marked its far more 
degraded modern analogue, Art Nouveau. 

If this excursion of a painter into the pro- 
vince of Architecture needs a justification I 
would urge the curious and striking fact that 
in Italy, whose predominance in architecture 
can scarcely be challenged— in Italy from 
Giotto to Pietro da Cortona, the painter and 
architect were frequently one and the same 
individual. I am quite certain that painting 
and sculpture both gained immensely by this 
interchange, and I can only hope architects 
may agree as regards their own special art. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SKETCH 
BY ALFRED THORNTON 




N a recent article in these pages on 
the Burlington Fine Arts Club 
Exhibition of French Art, Mr. 
Walter Sickert based his main 
argument on the statement that 
" As always the line of cleavage is between the 
picture and the sketch from nature, between the 
painter of pictures and the sketcher." But 
everyone wlio admits the importance of the pic- 
ture, also admits the fascination of the sketch. 
Some care in reality for little else; others can 
see wherein lies the virtue of the picture and 
wherein the virtue of the sketch. And in the 
sketch there are certain qualities of great signi- 
ficance which are more often than not obscured 
by the building up of the picture. 

The secret of the importance of the sketch 
seems to lie in its being the direct product of the 
profounder activities of the psyche. The French 
psychologists, amongst others, have carried on 
considerable research into the nature of artistic 
and other creation. And although, thanks to 
acute perceptive powers, their tendency has been 
to over-elaborate difTerences, valuable facts, if 
carefully selected, may be gathered from the 
detailed observations of such men as Chabaneix, 
Jastrow, Ribot and Dwelshauvers.^ The latter, 
indeed, has divided extra-conscious activities 
into no less than eight different categories and 
six sub-sections ! But for practical purposes 
we need only consider some general principles 
of interaction between the conscious and uncon- 
scious processes. In certain cases an artist 
or savant or any creative worker starts on a 

1 Chaveniez (Privately printed, Paris). 
Jastrow (Sous-conscience. Paris, Alcan). 
Ribot (La Memoire, etc. Paris, Alcan). 
Dweishauvers (I'lnconscient, Paris, Flammarion). 



picture or investigation after due preparation 
and study. In a short while unexpected diffi- 
culties arise and the work is set aside. But in 
some days, or it may be weeks, much to his 
surprise, the artist finds that he can resume his 
work and carry it to a successful issue. This is 
no unusual experience and the work, in the first 
instance suggested consciously, seems to have 
been continued by mental activities outside con- 
sciousness. This is much the process with the 
picture. With the sketch, however, little imme- 
diate conscious preparation has been under- 
taken, but the artist under what may be called 
" inspiration," quite independent of will, pro- 
duces satisfactory work. Schopenhauer's unex- 
pected postulates seemed to him not to be his 
own, and an artist such as Aubrey Beardsley 
seemed to spring to life fully equipped with 
astonishing artistic and literary capacity and 
acquired a permanent reputation in the five or 
six years of his professional life. In such cases 
the artist or savant seems in no way to direct 
his inspiration, but is a channel for it, and 
subject to it. 

But artistic, like other creative work, follows 
the usual process of cognition, affect and cona- 
tion, or, as Mr. Clive Bell puts it (" Since 
Cezanne," London, 1922), has three factors, " a 
state of peculiar and intense sensibility, the 
creative impulse and the artistic problem." The 
sketch is rather the result of cognition and 
affect, the picture of all three forms of mental 
activity. 

But there are certain differences from the 
psychological point of view which are full of 
significance. Take for example rapid sketches 
of landscape by, say, Diirer, Claude, Matisse 



169 



and the sketches of Dover at Millbank, by Steer. 
We can cover a sufficient number of centuries 
to make it evident that environment and the 
common fund of acquired conscious knowledge 
in such cases could not be similar. Yet careful 
inspection reveals a strong resemblance in 
method and quality of knowledge so far as the 
sketch goes. By this I mean that in certain 
circumstances it might be difficult to assign a 
date to a given sketch, or to say which preceded 
which in order of time. Indeed, some of 
Diirer's early water-colours might have been 
produced by a sufficiently-accomplished member 
of the London group. This similarity is 
usually confined to landscape, as would be 
expected. In the case of figures, even nude 
figures, there is generally some feature which 
identifies the drawing with a particular period. 
Of course the materials used by the artist be- 
tray date; but I am here dealing solely with the 
painter's concepts and his mode of expressing 
them. This common quality is as difficult to 
define as it is easy to detect, and is just as full 
and mature in the earlier painters as in the later, 
resembling in this the intuitive ideas that appear 
full-fledged in religious and other spiritual activ- 
ities. The significance of this seems to be that 
a painter of high capacity under what is called 
" inspiration " can draw from sources deep 
down in the psyche; from sources underlying 
normal consciousness. 

It is worth noting, too, that certain methods 
of expressing space are neglected in such spon- 
taneous sketches; for one feature of sketches by 
the best men is the disregard for what is called 
" values." The study of values was much in 
vogue about 1880-90, and amounted to 
attempts to reproduce the exact relationships as 
existing in nature between objects in the selected 
motif. The exact grey of a wall, for example, as 
as it related to a cap worn by a figure was studied 
in order to get recession. Indeed, certain enthu- 
siastic searchers for values were said to confine 
themselves when painting out-door suGjects to 
working on grey days alone, between the hours 
of twelve and two ! 

But in the work, however impulsive, of great 
painters, spacing is emphasised since it is one 
of the direct results of a sense of rhythm, both 
of rhvthm parallel to the picture plane and at an 
angle to it. The latter rhythm in its turn is the 
chief element in the expression of the third 
dimension, and good design seems to be the 
expression of harmonious relationship between 
these two aspects of rhythm. 

But if conscious attention, intermittent or 
continuous, be directed to the picture — if the 
work of art be deliberatelv built up on the in- 
spiration of the sketch and its freshness of 
design — new elements creep in. One, as Mr. 



Bell says, is " the necessity for fully conceived 
form into which his (the artist's) experience may 
be made to fit." A second is the desire of the 
painter to speak to a definite audience, and this 
implies the bringing into play of further con- 
scious activities. These, in the first place stimu- 
lated by the intuitive impulses started in the 
artist's mind, are directed by his critical facul- 
ties with the purpose of expressing his ideas in 
a form that can be understood by some public, 
select or otherwise, according to the nature of 
the man. But all this implies limitation to a 
particular period and a consequent loss in the 
spontaneous universality which was to be found 
in the sketch. It is true that with the greatest 
men this feeling of universality permeates even 
the most deliberate composition, yet it is univer- 
sality clothed in the language of a period and 
not in the language of all time, and is solely 
preserved by the survival of significance in the 
forms . 

Loss of universality may also result when an 
artist paints solely for his own satisfaction, since 
he also, as well as his public, is the creature of 
his environment. Turner's pictures disinterred 
from the National Gallery, now at Millbank, are 
a case in point. Knowing his public, he kept 
his dreams to himself. They are interesting as 
documents, but though the colour schemes are 
fully carried out, since they are lacking in de- 
sign, they miss an element which leads to sur- 
vival. 

As pointed out by Mr. Roger Fry in his study 
of Claude's drawings (Burlington Magazine, 
August, 1907), there was a Claude the draughts- 
man before nature — user of universal language, 
— and a Claude the designer of compositions for 
the grand seigneur of his time. The former has 
no date, and his swift studies can be set beside 
a study by Matisse and yet look modern [Plate 
II, B and c]. His pictures on the other 
hand can but belong to the seventeenth 
century, although they are often rendered 
acceptable to us to-day by the universal 
element surviving the deliberate action of 
his critical faculties. But in comparing 
the sketches by Matisse with similar wood- 
land subjects by Claude, one is surprised to 
find the greater richness of content of the latter. 
This no doubt is due to the same causes that 
made Claude's completed works also fuller in 
content than the work of the modern painter; 
his knowledge of facts, whether he cared for 
them as facts or not, was greater than the modern 
painter's. Facts were wanted by his environ- 
ment. Moreover, he had to use them in 
relatively great number in order to convey his 
concepts to his audience, and this affected even 
his swiftest studies. Whether this be a quality 
that will be demanded in the future remains to 



[70 




B — Landxcupc, bv Claude Gellee. AInnoclirnme. (British .Museum) 




C — Luiidsciif^c, \)V Matisse. Canvas, ,^3 < in. by 40.6 cm. 
Plate II. The Signilicance of the Sketch 



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.4 — Etudiunt cndormi, bv Constantyn Verhout. 1663. Panel, 38 cm. by 30 cm. (National Museum, Stockholm) 



Plate I. Pictures bv Constantyn Verhout 



be seen, for with the progress of time, painting 
has tended to conserve in increasing degree the 
precious qualities of the sketch by means of an 
abbreviated language, pari passu with know- 
ledge gained by the average man of the signific- 
ance of such abbreviations. There will, of 
course, be the usual swing of the pendulum, 
but the tendency seems to be towards the setting 
up of a more direct relationship between the 
extra-conscious — that is, wordless — ideas of the 
artist and those of his audience. Thus the 
language of great movements in painting might 
be expected to become by degrees increasingly 
free from extraneous elements, yet capable of 
being understood of the people immediately, 
and not, as now, after some lapse of time. 

The sketch by Diirer [Plate I, a] is interest- 
ing since it shows both the aspect of the picture 
and the sketch. The small completed portion 
at once gives a date and is not so interesting 
to the modern mind as the sketchy part which 
is almost ludicrously like some of the best work 

PICTURES BY CONSTANTYN 
BY A. BREDIUS 

N a cleverly-written pamphlet the 
ever young Mr. Charles Sedel- 
meyer publishes a picture, of which 
a coloured reproduction accom- 
panies the article, representing a 
still-life of books with a skull. He tries to 
persuade us that this painting is one of the 
lost Vanitas by Rembrandt, mentioned in old 
inventories and catalogues. Mr. Sedelmeyer's 
clever argument would be convincing indeed — 
were it not for the picture. As a matter of fact 
there is in this still-life, which I saw when it 
was in Sir Charles Robinson's house, nothing 
that reminds us of Rembrandt except the in- 
scription, " V Ryn," written as the Master never 
wrote his name, especially in his early years, 
when he signed only with his monogram, 
R H L (Rembrandt Harmensz Leydensis). 
For a short time, about 1633, he signed 
" R.H.L. (monogram) van Ryn," but only a 
few pictures have that signature. 

The date 1627 does not at all correspond with 
the character of this Vaniias, and it must be 
spurious. The still-life reminds us rather of 
Leyden still-life pictures by Pieter Potter, 
Jacques de Claeu and even by the later Collier. 
It so happens, however, that I know a picture 
in Sweden which reveals the real painter of this 
Vanitas : Constantyn Verhout. 

The painting is not that of a beginner. It 
could not have been done by a young artist like 
Rembrandt, whose first endeavours were studies 
of light, of chiaroscuro, inspired by Caravag- 
giesque influences, or by works of his master 




of to-day. 

This curious universal kinship of .swift 
sketches is made possible by the fact that nature 
has not changed since man developed artistic 
faculties. Nor has the nature of the artist 
changed. But in the picture we see the per- 
manent side by side with the relatively 
ephemeral, the direct inspiration from the un- 
conscious intermingled with features due to con- 
scious activities employed in adapting the 
language of painting to its immediate human 
environment, which is ephemeral. But the 
immortality of works of art is due to the univer- 
sal qualities of design. 

All this does not imply any inferiority in the 
picture as compared with the sketch. Each 
has its value. Just as intuition and intellect 
play their due part in the common life, so do the 
sketch and the picture in the realm of painting. 
Significance in either has its source in those 
mysterious regions of mind whence comes the 
greatest mystery of all — aesthetic experience. 

VERHOUT 



Lastman, as is proved by all the early paintings 
by Rembrandt at present known to us. The 
work is not that of a young struggler in art, 
but of one who has already reached the summit 
of his capacity. It was painted by a minor 
artist who could not go farther than in this 
case he did. 

We reproduce the picture [Plate I, a] by 
Constantyn Verhout, in the National Museum 
of Stockholm, first published in that precious 
but rare work by my friend Olof Granberg, 
Inventaire G^n^ral des Tr^sors d'Art en Su6de. 
The author describes the painting as follows :. — 

" Etiidiant endormi, repr^sent^ S mi-corps, assis sur une 
chaise, dans un remi-jour, tourn^ A gnuche. II porte un 
chapeau noir couvrant ses longs cheveux boucMs, un large 
rol de chemise uni et un habit brun-clair. A cot^ de lui, sur 
la table, une pile de quatre livres ; un cinquiime est posi 
sur la pile et un sixieme sur la table. En outre un enrrier, 
une paire de gants et un rouleau de papier. La lumiire 
tombe de gauche ^clairant surtout la Teliure claire des 
livres. Fond tr^s-obscur. 0.3S — 0.30. Sign(^ C. Verhout 
1663. Tris bon tableau. Catalogue du Mus^e National 
No. 677." 

I do not know of any other artist who painted 
in just such a manner these piles of books, with 
these parchment bindings, and these red edges. 
The books may be described from the topmost 
downwards, as follows: i. Parchment back. 
2, Brown leather. 3, Parchment. 4, Greyish 
brown edged. 5, Brotvnish red edged. Book 
to the left. Brownish grey edges. 

I publish also [Plate II, b] a picture in the 
Ryks Museum (No. 104a Vanitas) dated 1633. 
The picture which Mr. Sedelmeyer attributes 
to Rembrandt may not be by Verhout, but by 
the man who, in' 1633, painted this still-life, 



'75 



but in any case that man cannot have been 
Rembrandt. There is another possibility : 
Verhout may have painted in 1633 and in 1663. 
But where then are all his other pictures? As 
soon as I can I must look in the archives at 
Gouda and see what can be found about Con- 
stantyn Verhout. It would be interesting if 
any of our readers should be able to tell us more 
about further pictures by Constantyn Verhout. 
All we know about this man comes from 
Houbraken, Vol. III. He says that Johannes 
Voorhout was sent by his father to Konstantyn 
Verhout at Gouda, an excellent painter of 
modern subjects, where he stayed for six years. 
As Voorhout is said to have been born in 1647, 
this must have been about 1663-1665. That 
Verhout had been painting other still-life pic- 
tures is proved by the Inventory of Engelbert 
Graswinckel, " Raedt en Vroedschap " of 
Delft, 1738. There is there mentioned " een 
stilleven van C. Verhout." What a pity that 
this work is not described more distinctly ! He 
possessed also a still-life by E. van Aelst, 1643, 
T-wo soldiers by de Wit, and a Seated ■woman 
by de Wit (Emanuel de Wit). In an inven- 
tory of Jacob Touw, at Delft (1682), I found 
amongst pictures by Bramer, Steenwyck, Saft- 
leven," von Asch,' Porcellis, ter Brugghen 



(backgammon players), Honthonst, C. J. Delff, 
Beerstraten, de Vlieger, e.o., also, " een out 
patroontje van C. Verhout." This old expres- 
sion means an old fellow (not an old model, 
which is also " patroon.") 

In the Catalogues of Hoet we find mentioned 
in the Collection (Sale) of Burgomaster Samuel 
van Huls at the Hague, " een lesende Heremyt 
door van Hout," and, " a room in which a 
woman, sleeping, is sitting near a table by 
Voorhout. h. i voet 5^ duim, br. i v. li d." 
As this is not exactly a subject for Jan Voor- 
hout, but recalls very much the picture repro- 
duced here, we may ask if " Voorhout " does 
not mean here Verhout. 

Since writing the above, Mr. J. H. J. 
Mellaart has kindly sent me the photograph 
shown on Plate II, c, of a picture of an Old 
man and young ivoman, sitting at a table 
covered with books, and on a shelf behind them 
again heaps of books. The figure of the girl, 
the shape of the books and the whole arrange- 
ment recalls the picture by Verhout at Stock- 
holm. The picture was in the Braams Sale at 
Arnhem in 1918, under the name of Ochtervelt. 
At that time I asked Mr. Mellaart to compare it 
with the Verhout at Stockholm. I think this 
picture may well be attributed to him. 



TWO ENGLISH IVORY CARVINGS OF THE TWELFTH 




CENTURY 

BY H. P. MITCHELL 

IN an interesting communication to the 
/January number of the Antiquaries' 
Journal Mr. Dalton makes known a 
v~^M .^^ fragment of ivory carving dug up in 
^^f V F > ig20 on the site of the monastic build- 
ings of St. Albans Abbey [Plate I, a].' 
He shows that it is closely related to 
the ivory tau-head of a staff at South 
Kensington, shown nearly full size, front 
and back [Plate I, b, c]. The similarity, or 
rather identity, of style is so pronounced that 
it is clear they are the work of the same work- 
shop, if not of the same hand. The designs are 
admirably spirited, and the carving is well exe- 
cuted. The St. Albans fragment is pierced, 
and the back plain, showing that it was to be 
mounted on a flat surface, to which it was 
attached by small nails, of which the holes re- 
main at the edge. Probably it formed part of 
a casket or reliquary. It is now in the British 
Museum. The tau-head is carved in high relief 
but not actually pierced. 

Mr. Dalton admits the probability of the frag- 
ment found at St. Albans being a local product, 

' From a photograph kindly supplied by Mr. G. E. Bullen, 
Director of the Hertfordshire County Museum, St. Albans. 



and cites St. Albans manuscripts in which similar 
designs occur. But finding such designs of 
human figures among foliated scrolls of similar 
general character in general use in the twelfth 
century, and in particular in Southern French 
carving in stone, he concludes that the evidence 
of provenance is insufficient to establish its origin, 
which he regards therefore as an open question. 

The place of origin of such twelfth century 
ivory carvings, some of which in the past have 
been tentatively described as " Northern Euro- 
pean," is a subject of much interest. It is clear 
that if the fragment from St. Albans could be 
identified as a local product it would become an 
important documentary piece, and. in providing 
the local evidence required, would carry with it 
the tau-head shown here. This may well be re- 
garded as a sufficient ground for extending the 
investigation a little further. 

In his description of the St. Albans fragment 
Mr. Dalton omits consideration of a feature 
which appears to be of some importance, the stria- 
tion of the stems of the foliated scroll, a feature 
equally apparent in the tau-head illustrated. This 
striation or grooving of the stems must have been 
a labour of considerable pains. It occurs simi- 



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larly in bronze work of the period, as for instance 
on the scrolls of foliage of the Gloucester candle- 
stick at South Kensington [Plate I, d, e]. It 
seems to be suggested by nothing in the nature 
of either material, ivory or bronze, or in the wax 
from which the bronze was cast ; nor is it reason- 
able to suppose that such conventionalised foliage 
represents a plant with striated stem, which com- 
pelled its reproduction. The explanation is, I 
think, much simpler, namely, that the striations 
are the pen-strokes of the designs in manuscripts, 
where they are often a strongly marked feature, 
from which the designs in ivory and bronze were 
copied. 

If this is conceded then the comparison of the 
St. Albans ivory carving with English manu- 
scripts becomes much more important than the 
comparison with Southern French stone carv- 
ings." And the importance of the pen-drawings 
as the immediate source of design is not affected 
by the origin of their striations, whether in 
groups of osier stems in basket-work patterns 
or otherwise.^ 

In Plate II, f and g are initials from the 
latter portion of a Latin Bible at Durham 
cathedral, one of the books given to the priory 
there by Bishop William of St. Carileph (1081- 
1096), in which the method of striation with the 
pen is fully developed. When compared with 
the tau-head at South Kensington it will be seen 
that the similarity of design and treatment is 
very striking.' 

Plate I, d and e, are from the Gloucester 
candlestick, cast in openwork by the cire-perdue 
process in bell-metal, chased and gilt. It is 
recorded by the contemporary inscription to have 
been given to the monastery of St. Peter at 
Gloucester (now Gloucester cathedral) by Abbot 
Peter (1104-1113). Here is an example of English 
bronze work of early twelfth century date, in 
which the striation of the interlaced stems of foli- 
age is strongly marked. Can it be doubted that 

2 The influence of Continental schools on English figure- 
sculpture of this date has been freely discussed in a well- 
known work, and the conclusion has been reached that *' save 
in the suggestion of doorway sculpture neither Compostella 
nor Toulouse were, we think, responsible for English work. 
. . . In the eleventh century there was a practice of native 
style in England as the groundwork of what we find in the 
twelfth. . . . Our pieces have *heir own manner, which 
grew out of our earlier work." Prior and Gardner, 
Mediaeval Figure-Sculpture in England, i<)i2, p. I84. 

^ Compare the designs of foliated scrollwork with striated 
stems on the twelfth-century chessmen from the Island of 
Lewis. (Dalton, Catalogue of Mediceval Ivories in the British 
hftiseum, pi. xxxviii to xlviii, and p. 64 for the arguments 
for their English origin.) For the influence of manuscript 
designs on carving, see Prior and Gardner, p. 164. 

* These magnificent Durham books of the period imme- 
diately after the Conquest, anticipating as they do the art of 
the twelfth century, deserve to be most widely known. (Some 
of their superb initial letters are reproduced in a series of 
photographs issued by the Victoria and Albert Museum.) The 
capital B is based on the usual English model seen in the 
Harleian Psalter of the late tenth century, at the British 
Museum. (See G. F. Warner, Illuminated Manuscripts in the 
British Museum, pi. 7.) The other letter is an initial V. 



here, as in the ivory carvings, we have the pen- 
strokes of some manuscript which provided the 
decorative designs ? 

The date of the Durham manuscript in the last 
quarter of the eleventh century, and of the 
Gloucester candlestick in the first quarter of the 
twelfth century, suggests that the ivory carvings 
should be given a date within the first half 
of the twelfth century. These products of Eng- 
lish Benedictine monasteries show too close a 
relation to differ by more than a short period of 
time. Moreover, the transverse folding of the 
dresses of the figures in the ivories clearly pre- 
serves the Anglo-Saxon tradition of the pre- 
vious century. 

This dating is corroborated by a splendid initial 
P in a manuscript of Rabanus Maurus from St. 
Albans in the British Museum (Royal MS., 12. 
G. XIV, fol. 6), written about the third quarter 
of the twelfth century (the upper portion is 
shown in Plate II, j). Here the foliage has 
become of the usual Anglo-Norman type 
and the earlier tradition of pen-work is replaced 
by striping in varying shades of colour with 
the brush. The style of the whole is clearly 
later than that of the ivory carvings. In rather 
earlier St. Albans work, such as the beautiful 
series of initials of the Flavins Josephus at the 
British Museum (Royal MS., 13. D. VI, VII), = 
and the coarser work of the Psalter now at 
Hildesheim, written between 1119 and 1146,° 
pen-work is seen in full play. 

The dating of the ivory carvings in the earlier 
half of the twelfth century further diminishes the 
value for comparison of the Toulouse sculptures, 
since these are admittedly of the latter part of 
the century.' The uncouth outline and plain 
centre of the tau-head are of course due to the 
loss of its mounting of goldsmith's work.' 

Considering their very close similarity with 
the designs of the Durham Bible (compare, for 
e.xample, Plate I, c, with Plate II, f) it would 
be tempting to think that we may have in these 
ivory carvings specimens of Durham work. 
If so we might find here the clue to the Opus 
Dunelmense of the St. Paul's Inventory of 1295, 
a mystery never yet solved.' The St. Albans 
fragment even has the appearance, as has been 
said, of having formed part of a shrine 
( scrineum) or reliquary, like the St. Paul's 

s Some are shown in Warner and Gilson, Catalogue of 
Royal MSS., British Museum, 1921, pi. 81. 

"Fully illustrated in A. Goldschmidt, Der Albani-Psalter in 
Hildesheim, 1895. 

' The references to Vitry and Bri^re, Documents de Sculpture 
Franfaise, etc., are given in Mr. Dalton's article. One of the 
most striking examples is also shown in Professor Gold- 
schmidt 's book already cited, p. 56. 

* Acquired by the South Kensington Museum in 1871 from 
the John Webb Collection (No. 372—1871). Unfortunately 
there is no record of its previous provenance. 

' Item Scrineum de opere Dunelmensi continens Reliquias 
sigillatas. (Dugdale, History of St. Paul's Cathedral, ed. 
Ellis, 1818, p. 314.) 



•79 



example. The fact that the previous entry in 
the same Inventory is expressly described as 
made of ivory '" may be regarded as either for 
or against the suggestion. The material of two 
Limoges enamel coffers occurring earlier is not 
stated.'' But the Limoges work was probably 
contemporary with the Inventory, whereas our 
ivory carvings are probably a century and a half 
earlier. 

There was certainly a school of sculpture at 
Durham in the twelfth century,'^ with the North- 
umbrian crosses of the Anglo-Saxon period as a 
source of inspiration. The celebrated bronze 
sanctuary knocker of Durham cathedral, 
assigned by Canon Greenwell to the time of 
Bishop Galfrid Rufus (i 133-1 140), exhibits a real 
genius for the grotesque, and is interesting to 
compare with the ivory carvings [Plate II, h].'^ 

Without pressing the claims of Durham too 
far, it may be worth remarking that the St. 
Albans manuscripts most nearly contemporary 
with the ivory carvings, such as the Psalter at 
Hildesheim and the Flavius Josephus at the 
British Museum noted above, do not show the 
most exuberant floral scrollwork of the kind 
found in the Durham books. They show a more 

1" Item Capsula parva eburnea gravata bestiis et imaginibus 
continens multas Keliquias Sanctorum. Ibid. 

11 Item dine Coffnc ruhctr de opere linwnicensi (i.e., Limo- 
vicensi) quas dedit t'uUo episcopus stantes siipiu .Mtare. Ibid. 

i> See Prior and Gardner, pp. 207, 218, 219. 

>» Reproduced by kind permission from a photograph by 
Judges, Hastings. For the date see W. Greenwell, Durham 
Cathedral, 7th ed., 1913, p. 53- 

DIEZ, BUSCH AND OBERLANDER 
BY WALTER SICKERT 



restrained use of foliage decoration, and it is in 
the later work of the Rabanus Maurus that such 
a free development is reached at St. Albans. 
In the South of England the Winchester school 
was, of course, pre-eminent for the exuberance 
of its floral decoration. 

Such designs of figures and monsters among 
foliated scrolls were, as Mr. Dalton has rightly 
insisted, general in Western European art of the 
period, fheir appearance in England was part 
of tile free development of art here as 
elsewhere, and examples do not need to 
be accounted for by direct importation. 
Whether attributed to Durham or St. Albans 
it seems only reasonable, in view of the 
close analogies in manuscripts and bronze 
work, to regard these ivory carvings as English 
productions. It is surely just such an example 
as the St. Albans piece, dug up where it had 
evidently lain for centuries, on the site of one 
of the greatest centres of medieval craftsman- 
ship in England, and showing every possible 
relation to English manuscript decoration of the 
period, that we are entitled to regard as a docu- 
mentary piece for the history of English art. The 
proof is fully as convincing as would be held 
sufficient, mutatis mutandis, to prove a French 
or a German origin for such an object. And it 
carries with it the attribution of the tau-head in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum to the same 
English workshop of the first half of the twelfth 
century. 




HE arrival at the Kleestrasse, off 
the Oktoberwiese, of the week's 
Fliegende Blatter on Thursday even- 
ings at supper time in the early 

_. ^ 'sixties was an event in my father's 

household, and to no member more than to me 
who was, as the eldest, the only child privi- 
leged to sit up — not to supper — but at the 
supper-table with my parents. The paper 
sheath in which the Fliegende was wrapped, 
unlike a modern wrapper, could be slipped off 
easily, uninjured, and made a cap which exactly 
fitted my head. It was looked upon as my 
perquisite. My father would sometimes corn- 
plain of the cutting of his blocks, and as in 
those days the drawings were done on the 
wood itself, and had therefore been cut up, 
there was nothing by which to check the work 
of the cutter. 

The drawings of that period were a com- 
posite product of two artists— the draughtsman 
and the woodcutter. The 'sixties were, what 
the man at the door of the booth wherein the 
danse du ventre was to thrill the Paris of the 



'nineties, was to call the " vioment psycholo- 
gique " of the art of woodcutting. They 
struck a balance between the time of Diirer, 
when one print could measure ii feet 3 inches 
by 10 feet, and the transitional American 
labours of Timothy Cole, destined perforce to 
be superseded by the camera. The balance 
between the two arts was then perfect, in Eng- 
land with Keene and the Dalziels, in France 
with the divine Cham, Gr^vin and Gustave 
Dor6, and in Germany with such men as von 
Schwind, Diez, Busch and Oberlander. We 
are to-day in the crowning era of photo-zinc, 
where the draughtsman is all-in-all, and con- 
tact direct between him and the public. 
Henceforth the draughtsman fara de se, and 
the heightened danger and delight of his re- 
sponsibility has given to expression in line a 
vitality higher than it has ever attained before. 
It has made possible such masterpieces as 
Haselden's drawing entitled Old-Fashioned 
Elaboration, on page 13 of Volume XII. 
The nature of this peculiar modern excel- 
lence must form the subject of a more 



80 





B 



D 





A — Fragment of ivory carving from St. Albans. 12th century. (British Museum.) B, C — Ivorv tau-head of a staff. 
i2th century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) D, E — Portions of the Gloucester Candlestick, gilt bell-metal, cast 
and chased. About mo. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) B, C — nearlv actual size; A, D, E — about three-quarters 



Plate I. Two English Ivory Carvings of the 12th century 




tiotnai Ciydiauir. j 
quod alii daim .aln cd'^yniolo^ia a" , 

F, G— Initials from Bible gWen by Bishop William of St. Carileph, 1081-1096. (Durham Cathedral Library.) H— 
Bronze Sanctuary Knocker of Durham Cathedral. Probably 2nd quarter of 12th century. / — Initial P (upper portion) 
from St. .Albans MS. Rabanus Maurus. 3rd quarter of I2t'h century. (British Museum). The initials slightly reduced 

Plate II. Two English Ivory Carvings of the i-'th century 



elaborate study than can be fitted in here. F'or 
the moment we are concerned with the delight 
of having remembered the pages of once upon 
a time. 

The end of drawing must be supposed, until 
anything can be alleged to the contrary, to be 
illustration. Even Mr. Wyndham Lewis's 
romantic steel cylinders filled with cannon balls 
and fitted with a central grill are, I note with 
relief, entitled Women. An artist can only 
" speak as he finds." 

A great romantic draughtsman of the 'sixties 
was Wilhelm Diez, who died in Munich at 
the age of 68. He was a lover of military 
subjects of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. There was often a certain banality in 
his always efficient expression of the obvious 
pathos of the battlefield, the fate of the gam- 
bler, or the tragedy of a village seduction. 
The political cartoon on the relations of Prussia 
to Germany is curious as being dated 
1861. [Fig. a]. It is perhaps too early to 
say whether it may not prove to have 
been prophetic. Occasionally he rises, and 
to rise occasionally in a weekly publica- 
tion to exquisite perfection, is to be im- 
mortal. The block here shown of the peasant 
at the opera is one of the extreme marvels of 



the duet between draughtsman and woodcutter. 
Why can 1 not give the cutter's name? "The 
artful devils," says the peasant, " they're 
singing in fours to get through with it more 
quickly." [Fig. b]. And only yesterday I 
heard the two most brilliant English come- 
dians, Osborne and Perryer, at the Coliseum 
in an imitation of a coster-girl and a Welsh 
boy at a music-hall, " They're putting 'em on 
in twos (of the Duncan Sisters). It must be 
late. Let's get out of it." The eighteen- 
sixties and the nineteen-twenties ! It is in- 
teresting to compare the drawing by Diez 
of the drowned lady [Fig. d] with the 
famous Martyr e Chretienne by Delaroche. 
The latter perhaps the worst, as the former is 
surely the best imagined romantic rendering 
of such an idea, with Millais' Ophelia half-way 
between. The exquisite suggestion of the 
graceful garden hat that floats with its ribbons 
on the lapping waves, theatre as it is, is tender 
and witty, where the Delaroche is merely ador- 
ably preposterous, and Millais's Ophelia gnan- 
gnan . 

Wilhelm Busch requires no introduction to 
the readers of any country. His Bilderbogen, 
his Max and Moritz, his alphabet of natural 
history, his bad boys of Corinth, are known 



©ertnania anf bent QMntttiS. 




A ,$2ngen Sie fic^ nur feft ein, liebeS Srdulein, unb Dcrlafi'en ©te \\i) jonj unb jar uf mirl!" 



185 




Diez, Busch and Oberlander 




and quoted over the whole orb. He is the 
supreme modern, the legitimate heir of the 
slower moving Diirers, Behams and Hans 
Baldung Griins. It is the fashion in the hea- 
vier sections of the German Press to decry the 
tragic mockery of his later work such as his 
Fromme Helene. They object on the one hand 
to its plastic frankness and its anti-pietistic 
tendency, and secondly to what they call its 
" formlessness," as contrasted with the earlier 
" accuracy." Both objections show a want of 
critical philosoph}'. The anti-pietism and the 
frankness are in good German tradition of the 
sixteenth century, when we find inscribed on 
a drawing " Der Tod hinter 2 nackenten 
Menschen und einem kind, propter quam 
picturum Sebaldus Beham civitate fuit 
ejectus." The artist's greater nearness to 
death and the increase of his authority, due to 
a world-wide position, enabled Busch in his 
old age to write and draw with greater frank- 
ness and nearer to his thought. All writing 
and drawing is tendentious of something, if it 
be only, as our pala;o-tipsters assert that it 
should be, tendentious, strictly, of apples, or 
vacancy ! In England, a cosier country, 
Hogarth's tendentiousness was rather an ex- 
cuse for saucy subjects by wrapping " same " 
up nicely with a mild pretence at edification ; 
rather like American revues which rattle with 
great speed from what Walter Scott used to 
call double entendre to double entendre, with 
the delighted complicity of the audience. But 
Busch's comic is tragic and withering. It 
really does chastise our habits with laughter. 
The objection to the formlessness is merely 
ignorant. Busch's whole technique, as he 
grew older, was a spring towards light and 
ever more light, towards concision and ever 
more concision. The more gaily and exqui- 
sitely powdered character of his earlier design 
has contracted itself into sullen pools of black, 
with fairylike transitions from them to the 



preciousness of white spaces. His was 
an unheard of achievement. To be author, 
at once of first-rate comic verse that sticks, 
and of first-rate draughtsmanship, and to 
marry the two indissolubly. We are still 
in England to a great extent under the 
heel of the super-goose. To the super- 
goose a great comic like Busch " has 
not got a nice mind." But the super-goose 
must be interpreted by contraries. When the 
super-goose says that someone has got " a nice 
mind," not knowing the meaning of the word 
" nice," she means that he has a mind which 
takes her bladders for lanterns. No, Busch's 
philosophy is not for our super-goose. 

Adolf Adam Oberlander has probably car- 
ried the art of drawing in its purity further 
than anyone has yet done. To the old MUnch- 
ner Kindl who, at the age of 77, has aban- 
doned the pencil for the brush, this opinion of 
his modest elder colleague's son will certainly 
appear a paradox. 

Progress is a reality. But one must know 
where to look for it. The retouched photo- 
graph has massacred serious portraiture. Pro- 
testantism and the increasing jealousy of 
women has killed both classic figure subjects 
and conversation pieces. The walls of the 
house-beautiful have been blasted by the fair 
sex. Herself bedaubed, she has successfully 
driven her painted rivals from the canvas, and 
a mediatized army of occupation, called by 
courtesy " landscape," holds a melancholy and 
transitional sway. Not even, be it noted, 
landscape with figures, as in the Carracci or 
Turner. If the subject be a Venetian one, not 
only is the gondolier songless, he isn't there 
at all, nor any gondola may swim. Who 
knows whether a " little bit " may not be lurk- 
ing in the felze, or, at any rate, whether the 
sight of a gondola, or the sound of the word 
"lagoon" may not set alight lascivious images 
in the brain of that rarer and ever rarer bird, 
the male? For Venetian subjects, the bronze 
horses, or the Campanile must rival the post- 
card for the millionth time. For English sub- 
jects, flower-gardens wherein a million red or 
yellow dots complacently multiply the an- 
nouncement of their unsuitability for transla- 
tion, on that scale, into the matter of art. Oh 
for one hour of Birket Foster ! Birket Foster, 
with his darling little girls playing at cat's- 
cradle, or figuring on their little slates ! They 
too have had to go. They might grow up, 
who knows ? 

So art, which, like grass, cannot be killed, 
has slipped between the sheets of the papers 
whence the fair sex have not, as yet, been able 
to chivy her. Routine has continued to con- 
fine art-criticism to the criticism of sculpturer^ 



87 



stone or painted canvas, exhibited in places 
with turnstiles. Pages were written, under the 
reign of her late Majesty, on such nonsense 
as Watts's Physical Energy, or Millais' 
" Speak, speak," while the art of the day 
was being poured out, undiscussed, in the 
columns of Punch over the signature C. K. 
Augustus de Morgan in 1850 showed that the 
extinction of active speculation, and its replace- 
ment by a taste for routine, " to which," he 
says, " inaccurate thinkers give the name of 
practical," was coeval with the death of Science 
in a nation. And the science of criticism has 
been no exception. 

There is a precocity that is only precocity, 
and there is talent that is precocious. We may 
be sure that Master Betty was a horrible actor 
(though he died in Ampthill Square). Ober- 
lander was, in his beginnings, an astonishing 
instance of precocity. I have just learnt to my 
amazement that the earlier drawings of his in 
he Fliegende Blatter which I have regarded 

GASTON THIESSON 
CARNAC 

ASTON THIESSON was thirty- 
eight years old when he died almost 
unknown, in 1920. Since then the 
developments in French art have 
given rise to a certain curiosity 
about the importance of his position, and last 
year at the Salon d'Automne a retrospective ex- 
hibition, consisting of thirty examples from the 
last ten years of his life, was organised. But 
the modest little collection, hung in the midst 
of those large and sensationally attractive can- 
vases that overcrowd the Salon, failed to gain 
much notice from the ordinary visitor. 

Thiesson was denied the benefit of a serious 
training in the art of painting, a circumstance 
which he greatly deplored. It retarded his 
development, which otherwise might have 
reached a still more interesting phase long before 
his death. His serious and profoundly artistic 
nature would have guarded him against the 
allurements of virtuosity and display before 
which so many of those who survived him have 
fallen. It was, however, that very characteristic 
which forced him to take so long a time to over- 
come the difficulties of pictorial construction, 
and he was just beginning to master them when 
he died. 

When, at the age of 19, he came to Paris he 
knew nothing, but, visiting the academic salons, 
he was attracted by some imitators of Sisley and 
Pissaro, and this led him to study the Impres- 
sionists. His first works are influenced by them, 
yet have an unmistakable personal inspiration 
and show a more determined feeling for form. 




for forty adult years as standards of skill, style 
and lightness, are the work of a youth of seven- 
teen. But so it is. For the aptest description 
of Oberlander's unique quality we must go to 
Bacon. " Homer's verses," he says, " have a 
slide, and an easiness more than the verses of 
other poets." Oberlander's line has the ex- 
pressiveness and the elegance of the whip of a 
skilful driver. By the intuition of genius, by 
a crystal-clear temperament, he sees and speaks 
in terms of limped light and shade. For a 
draughtsman, no praise can be higher. (See 
Figs, c, g). 

But I see you coming. You are going to 
talk to me about nobility of subject and so on. 
To which I will put to you three questions : 
Whether our obscurantist mythologies have 
done more good or harm in the world? 
Whether anything is more noble or healthier 
than laughter? And, in conclusion, whether 
you really imagine that the Vision of Saint 
Helen, of which I have an Arundel print over 
my desk, is a religious picture ? 



His search for a completer means of expression 
brought him into touch with Cezanne, and he 
was one of the very first artists of our generation 
who followed that master. But although he had a 
great admiration for him, and was profoundly 
moved by the perfection of his art, we find him 
writing : — "II faut aimer Cezanne, il faut ^couter 
ses conseils, mais nous devons recevoir nos 
pens^es de la vie et non pas des livres et des 
oeuvres d'art." 

He was by nature passionate, impulsive and 
farouche, so that it was not to be expected that 
he would " arrive " quickly. He had none of 
the quickness and adaptability which often gives 
so bright and fallacious a promise, but had to 
assimilate everything he needed by a long and 
tedious process of his own. 

In those earlier days he passed most of his 
time with his wife in a peasant cottage in one of 
the remotest villages of Brittany. Here he 
would work on month after month, especially in 
winter, when the landscape changes but little, 
labouring at a single motive, such as a church 
tower or a farm building. His determination to 
express in paint everything in each subject that 
appealed to his senses was so persistent that in 
the end the canvas would become loaded and 
sombre to an extraordinary degree. The result 
was not likely to charm the public, but the work 
had to the eyes of a few discerning students a 
solidity and a conviction which led them to hope 
that when once he had overcome the peculiar 
difficulties of his own temperament he would do 
work of permanent value. 



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Retablo liuth Scenes from the Li\s;enJs of SS. Schiixlian and Julian Ilospitator. l^arly Spanish School. Panel 
2.29 m. by 2.44 m. ('I"he S|ianish Art Ciallery) 



An Early Spanish Retablo 



The seascapes that he painted during the 
final stages of this dark and laboured period 
show plainly that Thiesson was by nature 
inclined to a romantic attitude, which his love of 
the wild scenery of Brittany tended rather to 
accentuate. But even the work of that time 
shows plainly enough how little he allowed 
anything like sentimentality to interfere with 
real pictorial harmony. 

His increasing ill-health and his early death 
just failed to prevent him from giving palpable 
evidence of what was in him. In those years the 
results of his long apprenticeship made them- 
selves felt in his rapid evolution towards freedom 
of handling, clarity of colour and masterly orga- 
nization of light and shade. The works of that 
period have a true painter's quality. They are 

AN EARLY SPANISH RETABLO 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 



simple, sincere and entirely without parade or 
ostentation and yet they are already brilliant, 
fresh and unconstrained. In the picture of a 
Woman reading [Plate, a] we see Thiesson 
in his last phase using colour still with great 
sobriety but with far greater feeling for lumino- 
sity. He was perhaps one of the first of his 
generation to turn altogether from the decorative 
aspects of design and to insist even at some cost 
upon obtaining full relief in light and shade. 
Before such a work as the Boy's head on Plate, 
B, one might guess that had he lived but a few 
years longer he would have been acclaimed as a 
painter of the avant-garde, though at the time of 
his death he appeared almost as a retardatory 
painter. 




OMPLETE quattrocento retablos 
are rarely seen outside Spain. The 
one here reproduced by kind 
permission of Mr. Lionel Harris 
[Plate], is a typical and well- 
preserved example of this characteristic class 
of early Spanish Church furniture. 

Of considerable dimensions (2.29 m. bv 
2.44 m.), the polyptych is in the first instance 
devoted to the glorification of two youthful 
Saints, one remembered as a warrior, the other 
a sportsman — SS. Sebastian and Julian 
Hospitator. Both of these are seen in the 
principal panel, at full length, dressed in rich 
modish costumes of the artist's own time; 
St. Sebastian, on the left, holding a bow 
and three arrows, the emblems of his martyr- 
dom ; St. Julian Hospitator, on the right, with 
a falcon perched on his hand, in allusion to his 
exploits as a huntsman. On each side of this 
central compartment are two others, of smaller 
height, each containing two scenes from the 
legends of the same saints. On the left we 
see thus, in the upper compartment, St. Sebas- 
tian appearing before the judge and causing 
the mother and father of his two friends, 
Marcus and Marcellinus, to desist in their 
attempts to make their sons abandon the 
Christian faith — the upshot being the conver- 
sion of all the parties concerned ; while the 
lower compartment shows the martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian. On the right again we have two 
scenes from the legend, which is familiar to us 
from the story in which Gustave Flaubert, out of 
the slight material of the mediaeval legend, has 



fashioned a character study of such intense and 
deeply moving power : in the lower compart- 
ment, St. Julian, having slain his father and 
mother in mistake, addresses outside the bed- 
chamber his wife, the " rich widow of a castle " 
in Caxton's tradition of the Golden Legend; 
while the scene at the top probably represents 
a later episode in the legend, St. Julian seated 
outside the hospital which he caused to be 
erected " for to harbour poor people," and ad- 
dressing a group of infirm men. The predella 
contains in the centre a representation of the 
Man of Sorrows between the Virgin and St. 
John, and in the other compartments figures of 
female saints in couples (including, in the first 
compartment on the left, St. Engracia, the 
character depicted in Bartolome Vermejo's 
superb picture in the collection of Mrs. J. L. 
Gardiner). 

The present altarpiece, which originally was 
in a church at the little town of Barbastro, an 
episcopal see in "Eastern Aragon, displays 
clearly enough in a general way its afSnity to 
the work of the Catalan school of the end of 
the quattrocento. The nearest parallel to which 
I can point is, perhaps, Jaime Huguet's 
Retahlo de Santa Julita in San Quirse de 
Tarrassa ^ ; but the painter of Mr. Harris's 
polyptych has individual characteristics of 
style, among which mav be mentioned the 
application of colours in fiat washes, a positive 
note of vermilion being frequently echoed in 
the scheme of colour. 



1 Spp Sanpore y Miquel, Los Cuatroccnlistas Calalancs, 
Barcelona, 1906, vol. II., plate facing page 20. 



M 



193 



TWO PORTRAIT MINIATURES FROM CASTLE AMBRAS 
BY JULIUS SCHLOSSER 




NE mav regard these two tiny pic- 
tures [Plate, a, b] as unnoticed, al- 
though, some twenty years ago, the 
writer did mention them in an un- 
familiar German publication.^ Both 
pieces can be traced from a once famous collec- 
tion in Ambras Castle, which owed its origin to 
the Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. However, 
in the earliest inventories of the collection, even 
in the one compiled after the death of the Arch- 
duke in I5q6, they are omitted, no mention of 
them appearing until the end of the eighteenth 
century, in the MS. inventory compiled by the 
curator, Alois Primisser. That the two pictures 
were long ago regarded by their owners as 
forming a pair is indicated by the similarity of 
the frames, one of which bears the date 1576. 
Besides, the miniatures are both executed in 
body colour on similar pieces of circular stiff 
paper with blue backgrounds. But the infer- 
ence suggested by that and by the frames and 
cases, that they are companion pieces is contra- 
dicted by the fact that they differ in size, the 
diameter of one being 7 cm., and of the other 
(the female portrait), 5.5 cm. The former is 
very clearly signed and dated, "Julius Clovius 
sui ipsius effigiatur retat 30. Salut : 1528." 

Ciovio was born in Croatia in 1498, and 
having come to Italv as a young man, studied 
under Giulio Romano and spent his life as a 
celebrated miniaturist until his death in 1578. 
He is represented in this miniature in plain 
black dress and cap, one year after he had joined 
the ecclesiastical estate as secular priest. The 
rather ill-drawn lap dog, thrice repeated in the 
frame which, however, is much later, probably 
conforms with the taste of the period for sym- 
bolism, and was introduced as an emblem of 
faithfulness and devotion, the work being very 
likely intended for some patron of the artist. 
The picture is a rather nerveless performance, 
but the fact that it is the only definitely known 
self-portrait of the world-famous miniaturist 
gives it a place apart. For the magnificent 
portrait of the old Ciovio at Naples [Plate, c] 
has long ago been shown by Justi to 
have 



by 
the 
can 
like 



been not only painted but 

a much greater painter, Greco; 
supposed self-portrait in the 

hardly be attributed to Ciovio 
the Greco, must be 



signed 

and 

Uflfizi 

but, 

much 

Vien- 



the work of a 
more remarkable artist. Although the 
nese miniature has been for years in a famous 
collection it has remained almost unnoticed. 



Only a feeble reflection of it, in which almost 
every tie with the original has been lost, has 
hitherto been published, the poor touched-up 
lithograph which Kukuljevic-Sakcinski, Clovio's 
fellow countryman and biographer, inserted in 
his Dictionary of Jugo Slav Artists of 1858.^ 
Neither Williamson nor Herbert, in his well- 
balanced article in the Thieme-Becker Kiinst- 
lerlexicon,^ which gives a synopsis of the por- 
traits by Ciovio, have taken any notice of the 
Viennese example. 

As we saw, there has been associated with 
this work, presumably ever since the sixteenth 
century, a second portrait, representing an 
elderly lady, which artistically is on a far 
higher level than the other. The ordinary 
observer assumed as a matter of course that the 
two works represented a man and his wife, 
while Primisser, an excellent official but no 
judge of art, encouraged the same notion.* E. 
von Sachen, the able keeper of the late Ambras 
collection at Vienna, permitted himself, strange 
to say, to embody the same notion in his cata- 
logue of the collection, published in 1855,' in 
which the statement is also made that the two 
portraits are " in the manner of Holbein," 
which of course could never apply to Ciovio. 
Still more extraordinary, Waagen himself, as 
late as 1866 failed to notice any special differ- 
ence of style between the two miniatures. He 
thinks that the woman's portrait, on account of 
its more delicate conception and scheme of 
colour, is probably by another hand, and be- 
lieves that in 1576 — the date on the frame, 
wliich as a matter of fact proves nothing — 
Ciovio, being already seventy years of age, 
would not have possessed so smooth a touch." 

It is impossible to notice without a smile how 
from two separate sources, a complete fiction of 
art history has been built up around this ques- 
tion. Kukuljevic-Sakcinski who, as has been 
stated, knew nothing of the Vienna miniature,' 
was the first to refer in the Life of his celebrated 
fellow-countryman, to an undated letter ad- 
dressed by Ciovio * to a young lady colleague of 
his, thanking her for having sent him her por- 
trait, and presenting her with his own portrait. 
It mav be assumed that these were both minia- 



' Album ausgewahller Gegenstdde der Kunstindustriellen 
Samtnlungen des Ah. Kaiserhauses. Vienna, Schroll, 1901, 
p. 22 and pi. XXXIV. 5 and 6. 



2 Slovnik umietnikah Jugoslavenskih. Agram, 1858, p. 155. 

3 Vol. \'n., pp. 122-124 (published 1911). 

* See his MS. Inventory of the Ambras Collection, 1788, 
II., p. 275, in. 51. 

5 Die K.K. .'Vmbraser Sammlung. Vienna, 1855, 11., p. 
113, no. 7 and 8. 

« Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmdler in Wien. Wien, 1866, 
II. 343. 

' Leben des G. Julius Ciovio. Agram, 1852, p. 198 sq. 

8 Published in the notes of Delia Valle's Siena edition of 
Vasari (Siena 1793 X., p. 354, note). 



194 





A—The Marchioness oj Dorset, niece of Henry VIII. B—Self portrait, by Clovio. Miniature (Castle 

School of Holbein the Younger. Miniature' (Castle Ambras) 

Ambras) 




C — Portrait of Clovio, by F.l Greco. Canvas. (Naples Museum) 



<'' 



Two portrait miniatures from Castle Ambras 



tures and the expressions used in the letter 
indicate that the addressee was a foreign, i.e., 
not an Italian lady.' 

The publication by M. Bertolotti of Clovio's 
will and the inventory of his property in 1578 
enables us to guess her name. She was a 
miniature painter of Flemish extraction, Livina 
Teerlinc — mentioned also by Vasari — the 
daughter of Simon Binning, miniature painter 
of Ghent, who died in 1519. From 1545 she 
was working in England for Edward VI. and 
for Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth.'" The 
inventory mentions a portrait of her " in a 
round box," no doubt the self-portrait which 
according to the above letter she sent to Clovio 
in her youth." Curiously enough Bradley, 
who knows and discusses the inventory of 
Clovio, has not noticed this connection. Pre- 
sumably the portrait is now lost. 

It is amusing to hear Kukuljevic, building on 
a passage from Zani'^ which he succeeds in mis- 
reading, construct quite a pretty piece of fiction, 
quite in the spirit of dying romanticism, about 
Clovio and a beautiful young German girl. 

But enough of these absurdities; Bradley 
cannot ever have seen the Vienna miniature, or 
else he, the English author of the Dictionary of 
Miniaturists, would of course have been struck 
by the enormous difference of style between the 
two pictures. His information is, indeed, as 
its phrasing shows, quite simply transcribed 
from Waagen : this is clear from his assertion 
that the portrait of Clovio " lacks " a statement 
of his age." Waagen has simply overlooked 
it in his memoranda or forgotten to note it 
down. 

In reality, a whole world separates the two 
portraits, in spite of the connection which has 
existed between them for ages. Not only 
through her age, but also through her higji 
rank — indicated by her ermine-lined costume — 
the lady is differentiated from her companion. 
Her appearance, her dress, and above all things 
the style disclose, that not only the sitter be- 
longs to another people and country, but that 
the artist belonged, not to Italy but the North. 
Curiously enough, earlier observers arrived 
nearer the truth by way of wrong theories. 
Waagen at least realises the superiority of the 

9 Pure perch6 gli artefici soglioiio haver caro veder 
diverse maniere di quello che operano ho giudicato chc non 
sia per dispiacervi di poter considerate quella di noi altri 
d'ltalia. 

1" See as regards her the article by W. H. Weale in The 
Burlington Magazine, IX. 275. 

11 Bertolotti, " D. Giulio Clovio principe miniatura " in 
Atti e memorie delle RR. Deputazioni di storia patria per t« 
pTovincie dell'Emilia. MS. Vol. VII., pt. i, Modena 1881, 
p. 274. ' Un Scattolino tondo con il ritratto di Livinia, 
meniatrice della Regina d'Inghilterra.' 

12 Enciclopedia metodica critico-ragionata delle belle arti 
Par-ma, 1820, foil., also containing a dictionary of artists. 

"3 Elsewhere fpage 135) Bradley nevertheless gives the 
complete inscription. 



female portrait while von Sachen mentions the 
name of Holbein. As a matter of fact the 
artist indirectly responsible for this little paint- 
ing can be definitely named — viz., the younger 
Holbein. Among his famous cartoons in the 
Royal Library at Windsor is a study for it 
which, according to the old inscription, repre- 
sents the Marchioness of Dorset, a niece of 
Henry VIII., who acquired some importance in 
English history as the grandmother of Lady 
Jane Grey. The cartoon was probably made 
during Holbein's second English period, 1532- 
1543. In any case it could not have been in- 
cluded among his most remarkable productions, 
and it is doubtless founded on one of those glass 
tracings, which are so characteristic of Holbein, 
as was lately demonstrated by Joseph Meder.'* 
The Vienna miniature repeats the cartoon in all 
its details; those which in the original are occa- 
sionally only hinted at or omitted — like the 
string of pearls, the ermine lining and the rings 
— are carried out with a really miniature-like 
precision. Nevertheless, one hesitates to 
ascribe the excellent, but yet somewhat nerve- 
less work to the great master himself, for out 
of the mass of the miniatures assigned to him, 
those that are indisputably genuine emerge 
distinctly, as, for instance, the examples at 
Windsor. The connection with Holbein ex- 
plains also why the female portrait stands on so 
much higher a level than its companion, that 
being symptomatic of all Northern painting in 
the Italian manner. That this work is a school 
production is indicated above all by the fact 
that it is not a unique version. A repetition, 
still more nerveless than our example, is the 
reproduction belonging to the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch and ascribed to Holbein himself, shown 
at the Exhibition of Portraits at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club in igog.'^ 

The art of miniature painting began in the 
Netherlands and came to be specially practised 
in England. Netherlandish miniaturists, ever 
since the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
worked in England, and at least in a superficial 
way gave Holbein his impulse. In England 
this branch of art came to be specially practised 
by ladies. Three of them are familiar to us by 
name and have even received the compliment of 
being mentioned by Vasari in the second edi- 
tion (1568) of his Lives : Susanna, daughter of 
Master Gerard Hornebolt (as spelt in England) 
of Ghent, whom Diirer mentions in his Nether- 
landish Diary; Catherine Maynon, of Antwerp, 
and finally Livina Teerlinc, ail oi whom were 



'■* Meder, Die Handzeichnung, Wien, 1919, p. 467 sq. 

'* Burlington Fine Arts Clut) Exhibition of Early English 
Portraits. London igoq, pi. XXXIII., i cf. p. iiS. Two 
larger portraits of the Duchess (copies after the lost portrait 
by Holbein?) are mentioned ibid. p. 74 as in English private 
possession. 



197 



active at the English court." To Livina alone 
can we with some show of probability assign 
surviving works, viz., two portraits of children 
which at one time are said to have borne her 
name and which in 1909 were exhibited at the 
Burlington Club." It certainly seems most 
probable that many of the miniatures that go 
under Holbein's name and that are derived 
from him are works by these Netherlandish 
artists settled in England. 

A connection with that curious and apparently 
authentic letter from Clovio to Livina Teerlinc 
—and this brings us to the point from which we 
started — seems thus to be established. In con- 
sidering it the mind is led at once to think of 
Anglo-Netherlandish surroundings. Clovio's 
relations with the Netherlandish art of his time 
are rather remarkable. According to the inven- 
tory of his estate in 1578 he possessed a number 
of pictures and drawings by Pieter Brueghel, 
and a miniature, one half of which was painted 
by Clovio and the other by his greatest Nether- 
landish «)nt^mpora£yV^ This leads us back to 

1'' Cf. by Chamberlain, Holbein, I. 268. 

1' Catalogue, pi. XXXIII., 5. 

18 'Ouadretto di miniatura, la met^ fatta per mano sua 
(i.e. Ciovio's) I'altra di M. Pietro Brugole ' (Bertolotti, I.e., 
p. 267). 

REVIEWS 

William Blake's Designs for Gray's Poems, reproduced 
full-size from the unique copy belonging to the Duke of 
Hamilton. Introduction by H. J. C. Grierson. 21 pp. 
+ frontispiece and 114 ili. + 6 col. pi. (Oxford University 
Press.) i;i5 15s. . 

The recovery of Blake's long missing designs 
for Gray's poems is an event of some moment to 
students of his work. As in the case of the illus- 
trations of Young's " Night Thoughts," which 
they resemble in style and follow closely in date, 
the drawings which are large in scale, somewhat 
too large it may be for their content, are carried 
out in the form of marginal illuminations of the 
printed text. It was no doubt Blake's intention 
to engrave them, but he did not do so. It is not 
unnatural that we should here find him 
less deeply moved by his subject than 
when in later years he came under the 
mightier influences of the Book of Job or of 
Dante. The series none the less marks an im- 
portant stage in the artist's development, and in 
certain respects, more particularly in his bold 
and effective use of wash, he far surpasses his 
previous accomplishment. A fine achievement 
in this medium is the " Fame," appended to the 
" Ode for Music." While in sense of movement, 
as in the rhythm of its long sweeping lines the 
figure is in a characteristic vein, there is some- 
thing of Tiepolo in the abandon of the thrown 
back head and in the manner in which mere 
outline and touches of wash are made to work 
magic with luminous spaces of paper. Blake 



the frames in which our two portraits were put 
by some early owner or collector. They point 
beyond Italy to the North. One dated 1576 
(that of the female portrait) bears a small tablet 
and a reference from the Gospels to the vanity 
of the world, and to the wife of Lot: "Quia 
nescitis diem usque horam " (Matth. XXV., 13) 
" 1576. Memores esto uxoris Lot. Lu 17 (i.e. 
Luke XVI I., 32). 

Now, a more richly carved, but in its forms 
altogetiier kindred mirror-frame in the Louvre '° 
bears the Low German inscription : "Gedenck 
des wyf Loth." The frame of Clovio's self-por- 
trait belongs to the same school and period : it 
shows the cartouche motives of the Netherland- 
ish engravers of about 1550 — artists like 
Cornells Bos or Hieronymus Cock — to whom 
the woodcarver here, as in other cases, has gone 
for inspiration. But to pursue the argument 
further would immediately land us amongst 
romantic hypotheses of the kind that have been 
sketched above, all the more so as those minia- 
ture portraits of children, even were they the 
work of Livina, offer no real parallel to the 
portrait of Lady Dorset. 



13 Molinier, Histoire des arts appliques, II., pi. XVIII., 3. 



may well indeed have derived inspiration from 
this source, since Tiepolo's sketches were not 
infrequently to be met with in English collections 
at that date. His rendering of the poet's vision 
is marred at times by a proneness to abstrac- 
tion in his treatment of the human coun- 
tenance, and he is found at his best in such 
designs as the noble one of " The Slaughtered 
Bards," where the features of his characters are 
least in evidence. Too much praise cannot be 
bestowed upon the Oxford University Press for 
the admirable manner in which the volume is 
produced. The drawings appear in their original 
scale, with certain pages in duplicate, where the 
tints are rendered in facsimile, and no pains have 
been spared in making the reproductions as near 
flawless as they can be. Mr. Grierson, to whom, 
we believe, is due the credit of having brought 
the drawings to light, contributes a thoughtful 
and discerning preface to the work. 

ARCHIBALD G. B. RUSSELL. 

Histoire de l'Art depuis les premiers temps chriiTiens 
jusQu'A Nos JOURS. Publii5e sous la direction d'ANDRfi 
Michel. Tome VI. L'Art en Europe au XVII" 
si^cle. Premiere partie. 507 pp., 345 ills, in text, 6 pi. 
Paris. (Armand Colin). 50 francs. 

It is a pleasure to be able to chronicle the 
resumption of this important publication, the 
present volume being the first to be issued after 
the war : part of it was, in fact, in type at the 
outbreak of hostilities, and the tragic caesura 
of history is noted by the editor, on p. 291. 



198 



This, the first part of the sixth volume, treats 
of art in Italy, the Low Countries and Spain 
all through the seventeenth century, and art 
in France up to the accession of Louis XIV. 
The general character of this excellent work is 
now too well known to make any lengthy com- 
ment on it necessary : we can give this portion 
of it no higher praise than saying that it fully 
comes up to the standard of those that have pre- 
ceded it. The illustrations combine, in a wel- 
come fashion, typicalness and novelty : and 
as a specially useful r^sum^ of a phase of art 
history on which handbooks as a rule have not 
too much to say we would single out Chapter V 
on painting and engraving in France during 
the first half of the seventeenth century. T. B. 

Print Publications. Reproductions of Chinese paintings in 
the British Museum. (Issued by the Trustees). 17s. 6d. 
per set. Jan van Eyck, Leal Souvenir, National Gal- 
lery, 27s. 6d. ; G. F. Watts, 5>> Galahad, Eton College 
Chapel, 37s. 6d. (The Medici Society Ltd.) Baptistk 
Monnoyer, Flower and Vase Studies (John Tiranti and 
Co., Maple St., W.i.), los. post free. 

This set of eight reproductions on cards 25 by 
20 inches are issued with a description sheet, by 
the British Museum. Two of the paintings are 
reproduced in colour, the others in monotone. 
The process used is collotype, and the quality 
is as high as can be obtained in this country. 
The subjects are chosen from widely separate 
periods so that it has been possible to include 
some of the most celebrated and the most in- 
structive paintings in the Museum, including 
the remarkable Admonitions of an Instructress, 
in the style of Ku K'ai-chih, the eighteenth cen- 
tury copy of An Arhat by Wu Tao-tyu, and the 
deservedly popular Geese of the Sung period. 
Educationists should remark the low price of 
this excellent series. 

The same process, colour collotype, is used 
for the reproduction by the Medici Society of 
the far more difficult subjects in oil noted above. 
Few can realise what a battle is fought, on such 
occasions, between the printer and the painter 
before a masterpiece is really well reproduced in 
colour, or before the printer, au bout de son 
Latin, admits defeat. The Medici Society, it 
seems clear, are accustomed to reserve their 
best efforts for foemen worthy of their steel. 
Sir Galahad in his new greenery-yellery seems 
not much less real or more tiresome than in his 
pristine state in the Etonian tabernacle. We 
_an pass the print uncritically, believing it to 
be as good a version as posterity is likely to 
demand. Leal Souvenir we felt we had a right 
to regard with more severity, to varnish it 
(Medici collotypes are often twice as good var- 
nished), and to carry it, preparing ourselves for 
the worst, to Trafalgar Square ; there to scru- 
tinise it at its most objectionable beside the 
original. But the comparison convinced us 
how good a print it is, and how much skill and 



patience had been fruitfully expended on it. 
Except that the yellow, that Ephialtes haunting 
the chamber of every conscientious colour- 
printer, is still just a little too distracting, the 
print will do very well, and together with its 
quite admirable elder companion, the Head 0} a 
Man, will be a sound acquisition for the impe- 
cunious collector. 

Jean Baptist Monnoyer's flower pieces can 
hardly be said to be in key with modern life 
and manners, and so luxuriant an edition of 
some of his engravings as the one noted above 
is for that reason in a sense all the more to be 
admired. The spacious pages of the set, with 
one engraving done in duplicate on cartridge 
paper " suitable for colour rendering," suggest 
too an age of greater leisure. This artist, during 
his long sojourn of favour and holiday in the 
England of Queen Anne, carried from France 
into our less elegant society much of that 
enticing blend of shyness and vivacity, of 
sweetness and flamboyance to which we have 
always been so quick to respond and so slow to 
imitate. Although in his work science and 
taste did not always preside with sufficient 
strictness over manual execution, these engra- 
vings have a certain personal beauty which 
merits the attentive consideration of students of 
art and life. R. R. T. 

Les Emaux Limousins de la fin du XV^ sifecLE et de la 

PREMlfeRE PARTIE DU XVI^ ; feTUDE SUR NaRDON P^NICAUD 

et ses contemporains. Par J. J. Marquet de Vas- 
selot. 4to. Paris (Auguste Picard), 192L 

In the literature of the last seventy years 
which has grown up around the subject of the 
painted enamels of Limoges, two works stand 
conspicuous — the Notice des Emaux du Louvre 
of the former gifted Conservateur, the Marquis 
de Laborde, first published in 1852, and the 
present book. Each is a notable product of its 
date, and when we find the penetrating appre- 
ciations of artistic quality and brilliant general- 
isations of the earlier work replaced in the later 
by a method of laborious analysis and detailed 
comparison we realise how greatly the condi- 
tions of artistic criticism have changed in the 
interval. 

M. Marquet de Vasselot was confronted with 
the task of reducing to order a mass of material 
exhibiting all degrees of artistic merit; a host 
of works merging into one another by almost 
imperceptible shades of difference; where dated 
landmarks are few, and clues alTorded by herald- 
ry or other persona! association are exasper- 
atingly elusive; where the well-meant attribu- 
tions of former writers have constructed little 
more than a labyrinth of pitfalls; where the 
names of imaginary artists play hide-and-seek 
with those of real persons; and where these real 
persons are credited with biographical details 
based on misreadings of documents by a care- 



199 



less archivist. That is to say he has had to 
examine and test afresh every example and every 
piece of evidence in regard to the Limoges 
ateliers for the period covered by his investiga- 
tion. 

This, period embraces, roughly speaking, the 
first half-century of the industry of painted 
enamelling at Limoges. It is characteristic of 
its history that no definite date can be assigned 
to its earliest products, and we have to be satis- 
fied with saying that the art makes its first 
appearance in the second half of the fifteenth 
century. Equally mystifying is the conclusion 
arrived at by the author that although one of 
the chief artists concerned, Nardon P^nicaud, 
is known to have lived until 1542 or 1543, no 
work attributed to him or to his presumed 
younger brother, Jean P^nicaud the first, seems 
to approach so late a date. The circumstance 
suggests the need for caution in adopting at- 
tributions based on style and quality, and this 
is of course one of the main factors of the 
problem. 

The author gives detailed descriptions of 
220 examples of these early enamels, illustrated 
by an album of excellent collotype plates, and 
by a process of comparative criticism he divides 
these works into nine different groups. Of these 
groups four are associated with the artist who 
goes by the fictitious name of " Monvaerni," 
with ttie two earliest masters of the P^nicaud 
family (Nardon and Jean I) and with the fol- 
lowers of Jean. The remaining five groups are 
identified by the name of some leading work 
or by some peculiarity of character, or are indi- 
cated by the title of " ^maux divers " to include 
pieces of indeterminate quality. 

The conclusions to which M. Marquet de 
Vasselot's masterly survey has led him are in- 
deed somewhat revolutionary. But in applying 
scientific methods of criticism for the first time 
to these works prejudices and unsupported 
traditions are bound to fare ill. It is something 
of a shock to learn that the great triptych of 
the Annunciation with portraits of Louis XII 
and Anne of Brittany, one of the glories of 
South Kensington, may no longer be reckoned 
as one of the masterpieces of Nardon P^nicaud. 
It is some compensation, however, to find it 
serves as the name-piece under which are 
grouped several of the most splendid products 
of Limoges. 

If here and there we feel inclined to question 
the author's attributions, he would be the first 
to admit that his work does not presume to say 
the last word in cases of doubt. What he has 
done is to introduce for the first time order 
where before was chaos, and to provide a sys- 
tem of classification into which further examples 
as they make their appearance, may be logically 



placed. He has done more than this, for by 
clearing the ground of errors and setting out 
the known facts based on existing documents 
and examples, he has established the early 
history of painted enamelling at Limoges on 
a solid foundation. 

The book is provided with a complete appar- 
atus of documents, indexes, and bibliography, 
and is admirably printed and produced. In its 
breadth of outlook and of antiquarian learning, 
in accuracy of detail, and in fulness of refer- 
ences to the literature both of its own subject 
and of other subjects ancillary, it is a work 
which does honour to French scholarship. In 
the interests of those who care for Limoges 
enamels it is to be hoped that M. Marquet de 
Vasselot may some day extend his labours to 
deal in similar fashion with the later periods 
of the art. H. P. M. 

The Tvro. (The Egoist Press, 2, Robert St., Adelphi.) 2S. 6d. 

The second number of the, perhaps, not very 
happily named Tyro, has appeared, undated, 
in the manner of Sinai. It is worth a great deal 
more than the money, which cannot be said of 
many magazines. Mr. Wyndham Lewis gets 
less, as many people get more than justice from 
his contemporaries. If there were in this country 
an alert and active body of criticism, a magazine 
which succeeds in publishing, in one number, 
nine such items as " Recent Painting in Lon- 
don," " The Essay on the Objective of Plastic 
Art in Our Time," the " Tyronic Dialogues X 
and F," the story " Bestre," and five drawings 
by the same hand, would be gladly and gener- 
ously hailed as an intellectual achievement not 
only astounding, but of first-rate importance. 

Like most professional bombardiers, Mr. Lewis 
is at bottom profoundly modest, and, with all his 
naughty words, curiously temperate and cour- 
teous in his claims. And this rather boyish 
modesty leads him to a real undervaluation of 
himself, with the following result. He fails to see 
that the writer of the Essay " on the objective of 
plastic art in our time " is too important as a 
critic to exercise, on another page, the function of 
an advocate for an individual manner, for a 
group of individual painters and paintings, in- 
cluding his own. Qua painter, he should follow 
the rule of the wise old lady who said, " Never 
explain. Never apologise." 

Has anything more genial and profound been 
said on art than the following? 

The game of cricket or billiards is an ingenious test of 
our relative, but indeed quite clumsy and laughable, prowess. 
These games depend for their motive on the physical diffi- 
culties that our circumscribed extension and capacities 
entail. It is out of the discrepancy between absolute 
equilibrium, power, and so on, of which our mind is con- 
scious, and the pitiable reality, that the stuff of these 
games is made. Art is cut out of a similar substance. 

Walter Sickert. 



200 



A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

The Clough Collection. — • Mr. G. T. 
Clough — a contributor of several scholarly and 
thoughtful articles to earlier volumes of this 
magazine — presented last }'car to the Manches- 
ter Whitworth Institute his remarkable collec- 
tion of engravings and woodcuts, principally of 
the early German, Flemish and Italian schools. 
About one half of these prints have now been 
placed on exhibition in the art galleries of the 
Institute; and a catalogue, from the pen of Mr. 
Clough himself, supplies not only an informa- 
tive and stimulating guide to the specimens at 
present on view, but will also be welcome as a 
useful synopsis of one of the most interesting 
and choice collections of early engravings and 
woodcuts that have been formed in this country 
during the last decades — a collection, on the 
acquisition of which, through Mr. Clough's 
public-spirited action, Manchester is to be most 
warmly congratulated. Among the artists 
particularly well represented in this " cabinet," 
Diirer takes a foremost place ; and the series 
of early Italian masters is also one of peculiar 

LETTER 

NICOLA PELLIPARIO. 

Sir, — The difhculty of making good arrears 
in the study of literature issued on the further 
side of the gulf which for four years divided 
Europe into two continents, has for me resulted 
in what must have seemed to many a strange 
omission in my recent article on Nicola Pelli- 
pario. (Burlington Magazine, Vol. XLI, 
pp. 21, 127.) By the irony of circumstances I 
only became aware after its publication of the 
notice of the artist by Professor Ritter von 
Falke, occasioned by the accession to the Kunst- 
gewerbemuseum, Berlin, of two new specimens 
of his work, in the official report of the Royal 
Prussian Art Collections for October, 1917. Pro- 
fessor von Falke has anticipated me in some of 
my observations, noticeably in questioning the 
view of the late Henry Wallis that Nicola de- 
rived his landscapes from Giorgione, and in 
recognising the change which came over the 
painter's work when he abandoned book-illustra- 
tions in favour of engravings of the school of 
Raphael as models for his compositions. In the 
former case we have not both come to precisely 
the same conclusion (Professor von Falke finds 
in the Ovid woodcuts of 1497 a sufficient basis 
for Nicola's distinctive style of landscape), but 
in other respects nothing in the Berlin report 
invalidates the points I endeavoured to make. 

Professor von Falke is not the first to assume 
that the plates in the Correr Museum at Venice 
and isolated specimens at Amsterdam, Oxford 
and (now) Berlin, belong to a single service. 



interest, the selection comprising most of the 
great names, and including several specimens 
of considerable rarity. As an introduction to 
the early history of graphic art, a study of this 
collection — not too wide in extent and yet 
clearly reflecting the main currents of evolution 
— should prove extremely fruitful. T. B. 

Lectures. — University College, London, 
public lectures by Dr. Borenius, on Fridays at 
5 p.m., beginning in October. Mediaeval, Tus- 
can and Umbrian Art. 

King's College, London, public lectures by 
Dr. Percy Dearmer, Tuesdays at 5.30 p.m., 
Oct. loth till Dec. 12th, XVth Century Art; 
Tuesdays, next year, XVIth Century Art. 

Royal .A^cademy. Arthur Thomson, 
F.R.C.S., various dates from Oct. 6th at 4.30 
p.m., Anatomy. A. P. Laurie, D.Sc, various 
dates from Nov. 15th, at 4 p.m. Pigments, etc. 

Mortimer Hall, Mortimer Street, W.r. 
Series of four public lectures by Roger Fry, on 
Art, Dec. 6th and 13th, 1922, and Jan. loth 
and 17th, 1923, at 8.30 p.m. 



On the strength of the shield of the Ridolfi of 
Florence occurring on the " Calumny " dish at 
Amsterdam (which, from a recent inspection, I 
am inclined to regard as the finest of all the 
works of the master), he suggests that the ser- 
vice thus ranged together was probably made 
for Piero Ridolfi, who died in 1525, and he 
even renames the Correr service the " Ridolfi 
service." As against the acceptance of this 
view, however, it must be pointed out that two 
of the pieces bear the same subject (the 
" Calumny ") with only slight variations in 
treatment; it seems unlikely that the painter 
would have thus repeated himself in a single 
service. 

Professor von Falke makes a new suggestion 
of first-rate importance, namely, that Nicola 
Pellipario was the author not only of the 
istoriati pieces now generally acknowledged as 
his work, but also of maiolica of three other 
types : (i) fruit dishes painted over the entire 
surface, with a portrait bust accompanied by 
a scroll with a name, a class which has long 
been assigned to his place of origin, Castel 
Durante; (2) large plates with a small figure 
subject, generally in yellowish grisaille, within 
a blue and white porcellana border; (3) the 
pieces with grotesque and candaliere designs, 
always associated with Castel Durante. As 
regards the first category, I had myself been 
struck by the similarity between the finest por- 
trait pieces and Nicola's drawing of the figure; 
examples of this group at South Kensington 



201 



which may be attributed to his hand are those 
in the Salting Collection labelled Ramazotta 
and Proserphina. To the second type belongs 
a dish in the same collection with a putto riding 
a stag in the centre, and a blue and white design 
almost identical with that on a dish newly ac- 
quired by Berlin; kindred pieces are another 
dish in the Salting Collection, with a recumbeni 
female figure and a bianco sofra bianco border, 
and a fragment with a nude figure of Judith, of 
great charm, found at Urbino and exhibited 
there in the Ducal Palace. When I saw this 
latter example last year, I was arrested by the 
likeness to the work of Nicola. With the third 
type, of purely decorative designs, may be as- 



sociated a fruit-dish in the Salting Collection, 
painted with the arms of Gonzaga above an 
open music-book. 

It may be of interest, lastly, to note a plate 
formerly in the Hainauer Collection, to which 
Professor von Falke draws attention as part of 
the service bearing a shield charged with a 
ladder and a flag. In the allegorical subject de- 
picted on this plate we find once more the 
naked, kneeling man of the " Calumny " 
dishes, suggested, as I have pointed out, by the 
Phjethon of the 1497 Ovid. 

Yours faithfully, 

Bernard Rackham. 

Purley, Surrey. 



AUCTIONS 

Messrs. Hodgson & Co., 115, Chancery Lane. End of 
November. Albums of drawings and engravings after old 
masters, and the important library from Cassiobury Park, 
Watford, property of the late Dowager Countess of Essex. 

Messrs. C. G. Boerner, Universitatstrass<;, 26, Leipsig. 
Third week of November. An important collection of 
French engravings in black and white and in colour. This 
sale is accounted for in an unusual way. The amalgamation 
of the Vienna Albertino collections with those of the former 
Court Library of Vienna has resulted in the new organisation 



finding itself possessed of a number of duplicates. A selec- 
tion of these is now to be sold, the proceeds from the sale 
being earmarked, with the permission of the Reparations 
Commission, for new acquisitions. An illustrated catalogue 
will be sent on application. 

Messrs. Paul Graupe, Berlin. Nov. loth and nth. 
Modern Graphic Art, including rare German and other 
prints, with nearly complete oeuvre of Klinger and Welti, 
also Japanese coloured woodcuts and a small collection of 
old masters, comprising works by Diirer, Rembrandt and 
Ridinger. 



GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Pri.nt Room. 

Drawings. (All presented by Andrew Oliver, Esq.) 

H. Edridge. Rochester Castle and another. Indian 

ink wash. . 

C. GiLLOT. Soldiers SmokUtg and Playing Cards; 

Children Making Music (a pair) ; pen and ink and red 

wash. 
J. P. Lt'BAS. Study of the Nude. Red chalk heightened 

with white. 
r. PicART. Original drawings for two of a set of six 

subjects from Ovid. 
G. Reni. The Magdalen. Red chalk ; the drawing itself 

and an offset. 
A. Van der Werff. Five pencil drawings, including 

two studies for a Caritas Romana. 
Prints. ^ , 

A. DE Carolis. Portrait of Dante. Large woodcut 

(camaieu). Presented by the artist. 
S. Gessner. Six etched vignettes. Presented by A. 

Oliver, Esq. 
A. Hervier. Thirty-seven etchings, and three portraits 

of Hervier. Presented by H. ]. L. Wright, Esq. 
MoNOCRAMMiST G. Z. St. Benedict. Woodcut from 

Benedictine Missal, Hagenau. 1518. 
J. Orii;, R.A. Etching; portrait of his mother. Pre- 
sented by Mrs. Barry. 
F Rons. M^daille dc Waterloo, lithograph (Mascha 

217): and La Greve. etching (Mascha 484, second 

state). , 

H. L. ScHAUFELEiN. The Annunciation, B.6. Undes- 

cribrd edition with German text. 

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(The acquisitions marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Architecture and Sculpture. 

Collection of architectural fragments in carved and painted 
stucco, marble, and pottery, from the Herzfeld excava- 
tions at Samarra, Mesopotamia. 9th oentuTy. Pre- 
sented bv the Colonial Office. . 

A Set of Eight Figures of the Immortals moulded in 
Chinese ink; modern. Presented by Her Majesty 
Queen Mary. 



Terracotta Relief of Baptism, by George Tinworth. 

Presented by Sir William M. T. Lawreince, Bart. 
Ceramics. 

Vase and stand, stoneware, covered with a deep blue 

glaze. Chinese ; probably i6th century. Presented by 

James Baird, Esq. 
Slipware Tyg with three handles. English (Derbyshire) ; 

dated 1710. Bought. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 

*Leon Bakst. Four original designs for costumes in 

" The Sleeping Princess." 
*F. Sydney Eden. Forty-six drawings of stained glass 

in churches in Essex. 
*J. M. W. Turner. Four etchings for the " Liber 

Studiorum :" 

(i) Frontispiece. 

(2) Coast of Yorkshire. 

(3) Young Anglers. 

(4) Be-s-hill. Martello Towers. 

*Adolphe Hervier. Seventeen etchings. Presented by 
Harold Wright, Esq. 
Metalwork. 

Two pieces of French silver — a cream-jug with Paris mark 
for 1819-38 and a two-handled bowl with Maijon mark 
for the same period. Presented by Her Royal Highness 
Princess Louise. 

A silver Teapot ; London hall-mark for 1817-8. Pre- 
sented by Cecil F. Crofton, Esq. 

A group of English paste Jewellery- of the first half of 
the 10th century and a Necklace of Berlin ironwork of 
the same period. Presented by Miss Kathleen Martin. 

A wrought-iron Weather-vane, English ; i8th century. 
Paintings. 

*Gervase Spencer. Miniature portrait of a gentleman. 
Signed and dated 1749. 
Woodwork. 

*Fragment of Plasterwork painted with Cupids and 
scrolls in black outline. From Shire Hall, Wilmington, 
Kent. English ; second half of i6th century. Pre- 
sented bv Edward Yates, Esq. 

*Box covered with green velvet, embroidered with the 
arms of George III. Purchased. 



202 




The Viroin of Mercy. Here identified as by Luca Signorelli. Panel, 1.38 m. by 1.09 m. (Col. Douglas Proby) 



AN UNRECORDED SIGNORELLI 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 




HE identification of a hitherto un- 
recognised work by Luca Signorelli 
is in itself an event which cannot 
fail to arrest the attention of 
students; and when, as in the case 
of the picture of which the present article treats, 
it is a question of a work in a well-known and 
frequently studied private collection, a peculiar 
psychological interest also attaches to a dis- 
covery of this kind. 

In the collection of Col. Douglas Proby, at 
Elton Hall, Peterborough — which comprises a 
number of pictures, like Luini's Child with a 
Toy, and Cesare da Sesto's Madonna with the 
Bas relief, which are familiar entries in hand- 
books under the name of their previous 
owner, the Earl of Carysfort — there hangs 
a large picture on panel (1.38 m. by 
1.09 m.), representing the Virgin of Mercy 
[Frontispiece]. In the centre of the com- 
position is seen the Madonna, in olive 
green robe and a dark blue mantle, pow- 
dered with gold and lined with green, which, 
with a large gesture, she lifts up so as to afford 
shelter to a congregation of men and women 
kneeling on the ground. Immediately on the 
left of the Virgin, the eye is attracted by a 
large mass of crimson, tiie cloak of an eccle- 
siastic, while the corresponding figure on the 
right is a youth, in yellow brown jacket and 
blue hose; on the left and right of these figures 
appear, respectively, an old, bearded man in 
slate grey cloak and a youth in a purple jacket, 
shot with blue, and scarlet hose. The silhouette 
of the Virgin's head and arms stands out 
against a sky touched by the light of dawn over 
distant hills ; while two angels in flowing dra- 
peries (yellow and blue on the left and green 
shot with red on the right), hold a crown over 
the head of the Virgin. 

Little is known about the history of the pic- 
ture beyond that it was brought to England 
by the late Mr. F. Fleischmann, and acquired 
from the Fleischmann collection by the late 
Earl of Carysfort. It has been ascribed to 
Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, and I imagine that 
it must have been a vague general likeness 
between the group of worshippers here and the 
crowd witnessing the miracle of St. Zanobius in 
Ridolfo's famous picture in the Ufifizi,^ which 
suggested that attribution. Still, one has 
but to put reproductions of the two pic- 
tures alongside of one another to realise 
what a gulf divides the art which we see here 
from that of the painstaking and competent, 

1 Reproduced, e.g., in Crowe and Cavalcaselle, History of 
Painting in Italy, second edition, Vol. VI, plate facing p. 146. 



but dull and uninspired, Ridolfo del Ghirlan- 
daio. 

The artist responsible for Col. Proby 's pic- 
ture is of an altogether different character : 
monumental, severe, even vehement, though 
capable at the same time of the expression of 
extreme loveliness. Epithets these which, as 
will be recognised, apply unreservedly to Luca 
Signorelli, of whose individual manner so many 
traces appear in the picture as to make an 
ascription to him — as I venture to think — self- 
evident once his name is mentioned. Some 
of the closest parallels are afforded by Signor- 
elli 's frescoes at Orvieto : the kneeling youths 
on the left should be compared with the group 
of the " Fulminati " in the Destruction of the 
Wicked ; the angels hovering in the air above 
the Madonna are absolutely alike in style to 
the pair which occurs in the centre of the fresco 
of Paradise^ ; the drawing of the hands is pecu- 
liarly Signorelli 's; the drapery of the ecclesias- 
tic, kneeling on the left, is surely the work of 
the same artist who painted the St. Francis in 
the Deposition of Christ in the Church of San 
Niccol6 at Cortona' — indeed, it would be easy 
to go on accumulating proofs in favour of this 
attribution. 

The picture is of an extraordinary decorative 
effect, thanks to the grand and monumental dis- 
position of its lines, and the brilliant and har- 
monious colouring :. in its delicate observation 
of a passing effect of light, the picture stands 
somewhat isolated in Signorelli's work, though 
not entirely without next-of-kin : as witness, for 
instance, the impressive twilight effect in the 
picture of Pan in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum 
at Berlin. From its very close affinity to the 
Orvieto frescoes, the picture would seem to have 
been painted about 1499-1501. The subject 
suggests the processional banner of some con- 
fraternity, and Vasari mentions two such works 
by Luca Signorelli (the standards of the Com- 
panies of St. Catherine and the Trinity at 
Arezzo *), which cannot now be traced ; but 
being painted on panel, the picture must no 
doubt have been intended to serve as an altar- 
piece. Its original destination may some time 
be discovered; meanwhile, it is satisfactory to 
have restored to the great master of Cortona a 
work in which the essential grandeur of his style 
appears tempered with a gentleness and en- 
gaging quality of which there are not very 



' For reproductions of these two pictures sec Crowe and 

Cavalcascljp, op. cit.. Vol. V, plalos f.ncing p. lOo. 
' See Venturi, Storia dell'arte ilaliana, Vol. VII, pt. ii., 

P- 399- 

* Vasari, ed. Sansoni, iii, 689. 



The Burlington Magazine, No. 236, Vol. LXI, Nov., 1922. 



N 



205 



frequent traces in his art. Herein, I think, we 
have the psychological explanation of the fact 
that his authorship has not up to now been 
recognised ; the unfamiliar aspect of Signor- 



elli's art, as seen here, not having made his 
name obvious at first sight, a kind of critical 
impasse was created, causing the fruitless ex- 
ploration of other possibilities. 



EARLY WORKS BY TINTORETTO— I 
BY DETLEV, BARON VON HADELN 




in an 

know. 

reveal 



E do not know under which 
of the Venetian painters Tin- 
toretto studied, and unless we 
are helped by some lucky 
cliance, such as a discovery 
archive, we shall probably never 
However, even should some record 
in whose atelier the young Tin- 
toretto laid the first foundations of his art, the 
information would in all likelihood be more 
curious than instructive, because the whole 
available evidence suggests that Tintoretto, in 
everything essential, was a self-taught man,^ in 
this respect resembling Michelangelo, who, 
although apprenticed to Ghirlandaio, cannot, 
strictly speaking, be called Ghirlandaio's pupil. 
Since the art of Tintoretto apparently does 
not spring from the style of a definite master, it 
will be well to try to arrive at a clearer view of the 
general situation in the Venetian school at the 
time when Tintoretto first invented a style for 
himself and began to work independently, i.e. 
about 1540. The great classical period which 
is marked by such outstanding works by 
Titian as the Assunta (15 18), the Pesaro 
Madonna (1526), and the Presentation of the 
Virgin (1534-38), was approaching its end, and 
already there were forces at work, tending 
to mould the evolution of art in several 
other directions. Regarded from the widest 
point of view, the spirit of the Counter 
Reformation was now beginning to assert itself 
in art, at once reviving and intensifying reli- 
gious feeling and allowing humanistic fervour 
to abate. But from the point of view of artistic 
form, we discern two currents which from that 
moment continued to assert themselves more 
and more powerfully in Venetian art, and for 

1 We are bound to conclude this from the style of Tin- 
toretto's earliest pictures, which cannot very well be said to 
derive from the manner of any definite, prior Venetian 
master. But it is also remarl^able that none of Tintoretto's 
contemporaries are able to name his teacher, neither Vasari, 
nor Borghini, who in his Riposo (1589) evidently repeats 
Tintoretto's own statement when he writes : — " . . egli 
stesso (Tintoretto) confessa non riconoscere per maestro nelle 
cose del disegno so non gli ariefici Fiorentini ; ma nel 
colorire dice aver imitato la natura, e poi particolarmente 
Tiziano. " — Thus a study from models, from the works of 
Florentine sculptors, from pictures by Titian and from 
nature. 

Ridolfi (Le Maravaglie dell'arte, 1648, ii. 5), who wrote, it 
is true, a hundred years after Tintoretto's youth, but who 
may have heard about Tintoretto from the lips of Domenico, 
the master's son, had also nothing to state about a definite 
teacher. He does say that Tintoretto, as a boy, spent only 
ten days in Titian's atelier. 



the young Tintoretto acquired an absolutely 
fundamental importance; on the one hand, an 
early Baroque naturalistic tendency, and on the 
other, Mannerism, penetrating from Rome and 
Florence." 

That fusion of , incipient Baroque and 
naturalism is characteristically North Italian. 
We can trace it much earlier, without 
going beyond the circle of Venetian artists, 
m Lotto, and in another aspect in Por- 
denone. It is born of a yearning to 
express oneself more freely and personally in 
form, movement, colour and light, than classi- 
cism, governed by severer rules, would allow. 
Herein lies the deeper reason for Lotto's inabi- 
lity to make any real headway in Venice over 
which the classical Titian dominated, and for so 
robust and tenacious an artist as Pordenone 
being unable to find permanent occupation 
there, so that he was forced to lead a restless 
nomadic existence. It is customary in brief 
descriptions of the peculiar character of Venetian 
paintings to contrast Venetian colour with 
Florentine drawing. That is a true enough 
antithesis, so far as it goes. But characteristic 
Florentine drawing and characteristic Venetian 
colour are only symptoms of wider facts. The 
Venetian is in the end richer and more diver- 
sified in colour because he is on the whole more 
sensual and receives impressions from nature 
more frankly. It is his natural sensitiveness 
that causes him to strive also after greater 
freedom in form, reduces the severity of 



2 A Chinese wall round Venice as a protection against 
everything Central Italian has been spoken of. But such a 
wall has never really existed. During the first decades of the 
sixteenth century, it is especially Raphaelesque elements 
which penetrate into Venetian painting. I may mention a 
sinole instance : Titian's Madonna and Haints in S. Domenico 
at Ancona is nothing but a variation of the Madonna di 
Foligno. Generally speaking, Michelangelo's language of 
form only reached Northern Italy later; although Pordenone 
had already tried occasionally to use it, for instance, when 
he painted the Cupola of the Madonna di Campagna at 
Piacenza, and there introduced prophets and sybils whose 
postures distinctly reveal the influence of the Sixtine Ceiling. 
The stricter Mannerism was, however, brought to Venice by 
two of its main representatives. In 1539, Francesco Salviati 
arrived here, leaving the city only in 1541 ; behind him 
remained his pupil, Giuseppe Porta, also called Salviati, not 
a remarkable personality, but as regards his education, a 
pure Romanist, and as an artistic intermediary very impor- 
tant. Then, in 1541, Vasari came to Venice with a staff of 
assistants, in order to make for the performance of Aretino's 
comedy, La Talanta, an extensive, allegorical, and^ mytho- 
logical setting, alia romana, which, even if it soon 
perished, is sure to have greatly interested and stimulated 
the younger generation of artists. 



206 



p-' 



^n 




u 
O 

c 
H 

X! 

















/ M 




W0^ 



B — Studies, by Tintoretto. Drawing. (Christ ClTiirch Library, Oxford) 



Plate II. Eariy Works by Tintoretto — I 



his structures, and induces a preference 
for certain momentary and transitor)' effects 
both of movement and of hght. On the 
other hand, the Florentine mentality, more 
inclined to abstraction, not only in drawing 
and composition, but also in colouring and 
lighting, aims at a more powerful and occasion- 
ally a somewhat schematic consistency. Titian, 
during his great classical period, was more 
powerfully and deeply influenced by this central 
Italian spirit, than is perhaps generally assumed. 
But even him we find adopting about 1540 a 
style conforming to strictly Venetian tenden- 
cies. 

Simultaneously, however, Florentine-Roman 
Mannerism penetrated into Venice and entered 
at once into irreconcilable conflict with native 
artistic sentiment. But this type of art, mainly 
derived from Michelangelo, had one charac- 
teristic that cannot be found in Titianesque 
painting; it exhibited a cultivated sense of plas- 
tic form. The younger generation in Venice 
were impressed with its superiority in this par- 
ticular respect ; it must have been at this moment 
that the motto originated: — " The drawing of 
Michelangelo and the colour of Titian.'" It 
was, however, a difficult matter to find a man 
strong enough to carry through so tremendous 
a synthesis, and it seemed at first as though 
Titian were justified in the reserved, even nega- 
tive, attitude which he assumed towards Man- 
nerism.* Many a Venetian at that time lost all 
balance, as for instance Paris Bordone, who had 
been brought up in the school of Titian and 
now, at the age of forty, wanted as a painter 
to be as modern, that is as Roman, as possible. 
Bordone thought he could achieve the goal by a 
multiplication of contrasted postures in his 
figure compositions. The result can be seen in 
his Last Supper in S. Giovanni in Bragora at 
Venice, and in some of his Sacre Conversazioni — 
disjointed compositions full of figures in pain- 
fully contorted postures, like those in the Dres- 
den Gallery and in the Palazzo Rosso at Genoa. 
Other Venetians preferred at that time to take 
as their models the etchings of Parmigianino, 



3 Ridolfi tells how Tintoretto, as a youth, wrote this motto 
on the wall of his studio, but that is surelv a legend. Without 
any allusion to Tintoretto, we know that this motto already 
occurs in Paolo Pino's Dialogue (1548). 

* It is true that at that very time, the beginning of the 
'forties, Titian painted those ceiling pictures — now in the 
Sacristy of the Salute in which a Roman note has long 
been remarked. Yet those were an experiment, or may be 
a concession, on the part of Titian, which remained rather 
isolated. To what extent the Roman-Florentine Mannerists 
themselves looked uixin Titian as their adversary, may be 
gathered from the wards of Vasari, subjoined to the account 
of his and Francesco Salvlati's story in Venice, complaining 
that Venice is no place for the " uomini del disegno. " On 
the other hand it is probably only to be explained from a 
polemical situation, that Titian had ridiculed the idol of the 
Renaissance, caricaturing in a woodcut the three figures of 
the Laocoon as monkeys, seeing that this very group was the 
plastic non plus ultra, to the " uomini del disegno." 



in whom the elements of the Roman style had 
already been blended with the freer and more 
pictorial vision of the North Italian. Andrea 
Schiavone may be mentioned in this connection 
as also Jacopo Bassano, who at the outset had 
worked in the manner of Bonifazio Veronese, 
but had been drawn into the wake of Parmigia- 
nino, who, however, represented at bottom 
something quite alien to him.^ 

At this moment Tintoretto appears. He was 
born in the autumn of 1518, the year of the 
Assunta, which marks the zenith of Titian's 
classicism, and at the very moment when at the 
Conference at Magdeburg between Martin 
Luther and the Papal Legate, Cajetan, one of 
the last efforts was made to prevent the great 
European schism. As the true child of this 
critical period the young Tintoretto emerges, 
unsettled, agitated, revolutionary, and not alto- 
gether attractive. Indeed we should probably 
shake our heads at many of his early experi- 
ments, were it not that his more mature works 
enable us to find in his less balanced early pro- 
ductions traces of the genius of this " terribile 
cervello." 

The first period of the career of Tintoretto, 
like that of many great artists, is surrounded by 
an obscurity which probably will never wholly 
be dispelled. Comparatively few pictures of 
this period seem to have been preserved, and a 
definite date is available for only one of them." 
Not till the year 1547 does the chronology of his 
works, and at the same time the knowledge of 
his evolution, grow more exact. Since we know 
that Tintoretto was working as an independent 
painter as far back as 1539,' we must assume 
that the works we here propose to discuss belong 
to the period between about 1540 and 1547. 
Amongst them we shall be able to distinguish 
between somewhat earlier and somewhat more 
advanced works, but not so decisively as to 
make a clear-cut chronology possible. We 
must therefore renounce all subtleties and con- 

5 The influence of the etchings by Parmigianino begins 
roughly with the Adoration of the Shepherds at Hampton 
Court, where the Bonifaziesque foundations of his style are 
still patent. There follows a series of pictures, which are 
reproduced in the Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunsisammlun- 
gen, vol. XXXV., pp. 52 seq. The transition to his own 
manner begins with the Good Samaritan in the National 
Gallery. 

s It is true that one portrait by Tintoretto at Hampton 
Court, No. 114, is also dated 1545 (reproduced by E. Law, 
Masterpieces of the Royal Gallery at Hampton Court, Lon- 
don, 1904, and by F. P. B. Osmaston, The Art and Genius 
of Tintret, London, 1915, pi. cxv). But this portrait throws 
so little light on the earliest manner of Tintoretto, that it 
need not be taken into account in this connection. 

7 On Aug. 22, 1539, he signs as witness to a will, in the 
v.'ords " Maestro Giacomo depentor sul champo de san 
Chasan." (cf. Italicnische Forschungen hcrausgegehen vom 
Kunsthistorischen Institut in Florenz, IV., Berlin, 191 1, p. 
126). It is unusual for an artist to refer to himself as 
" maestro," and probably to be accounted for by the fact 
that the youth of one-and-twenty proudly wished to emphasise 
that he already was an independent master. 



21 I 



sider the early works more as a whole, and so 
attempt to trace the artistic forces leading to 
the masterpiece, the Miracle of St. Mark, in the 
Accademia at Venice, which was painted by 
Tintoretto in 1548, when he was not yet thirty. 

We can find a convenient starting point for 
our inquiry in a picture which can be dated, the 
Contest between Apollo and Marsyas [Plate 

I, a], which belongs to Col. W. Bromley 
Davenport,' and as has already been surmised 
by other writers,' is one of the ceiling pictures 
which Tintoretto executed for Pietro Aretino 
in the first months of 1545-''' The companion 
piece, now missing, represented Mercury and 
Argus. The view that Col. Bromley Daven- 
port's picture is the one painted in 1545 for 
Aretino is supported by various considerations. 
The style makes it clear both that the picture 
is by Tintoretto and that it must have been 
painted some years before the Miracle of St. 
Mark. The breadth of treatment points to a 
definitely decorative purpose, and the rounded 
corners, never found in wall paintings of this 
period, argue very strongly in favour of its 
having been intended to take its place in a 
scheme of ceiling decoration. 

The picture is peculiarly noteworthy for 
another reason. It has a certain hetero- 
geneousness of character. Certain passages, 
like hands and draperies, are evidently 
painted without effort, with a sort of flow 
and ease, though at the same time some- 
what coarsely. On the other hand the deli- 
beration of the postures speaks clearly of the 
effort their invention must have cost the young 
artist. How artificially is Apollo posed ! If 
we examine the figure more closely we feel sure 
that it owes less to an instinctive feeling for 
natural form, than to a close study of a studio 
model. And as a matter of fact we find in one 
of the earliest drawings by Tintoretto [Plate 

II, b] in the Library of Christ Church, Oxford, 
a male statue posed almost exactly in the 
same manner as the Apollo, alongside a study 
from a Venus torso. After this discovery it is 
permissible to surmise that other figures in this 
ceiling painting are also derived from sculptural 

8 Size 4 ft. 6 in. by 7 ft. 9 in. I have not seen the picture, 
but have been able to study it from a large photograph, 
which I owe to Mr. Berenson. Possibly this is the picture 
which Sir Dudley Carlton, the English Envoy at Venice in 
1610-1615, describes in 161S in a list of his pictures as 
follows : " The Contention of Mars (sic) and Apollo con- 
cerning music by Tintoretto Vecchio.' Cfr. W. Noel Sains- 
bury. Original Unpublished Papers of Rubens, London, 1859, 
p. 46. It is true that the dimensions — height 5 ft., width 
7 ft. (Antwerp), do not quite tally, but, as is well known, 
old statements of sizes are rarely accurate. 

9 H. Thode, Tintoretto, p. 27, and F. P. B. Osmaston, 
op. cit. ii. 183. 

1" In February, 1545, Aretino sent Tintoretto a letter of 
thanks for the two ceiling pictures which had been painted 
in a very short time, and evidently had only just been com- 
pleted. Cfr. Pietro Aretino, Le lettere, ed. Paris, 1609, vol. 
iii, c. no verso. 



models. The way, for instance, in which Minerva 
is seated, and the drapery arranged over her 
knees, is sculpturesque and reminds one more 
particularly of the seated Madonna statues by 
Sansovino. 

There is nothing surprising in this fact, 
since we know through a contemporary 
of Tintoretto, Borghini," that the young 
painter eagerly drew sculpture whenever 
possible; the picture merely confirms a 
fact revealed by literary tradition. But now 
it is our business to explain the deeper 
cause of this keen, and in a contemporary Vene- 
tian painter's atelier, rather unusual study. 
Tintoretto evidently recognised very early that 
the mechanical adoption from prints and draw- 
ings of contrasted postures and other sculp- 
tural motives did not carry one far, that it was 
necessary to penetrate to the source itself if one 
wanted to get to the heart of the problem 
that Roman-Florentine Mannerism had set the 
younger generation of Venetian artists. 
Through its descent from Michelangelo this 
Mannerism insisted on the essential importance 
of plasticity, a real sense for which the student 
could acquire, only when he had accustomed 
himself, not only to realise as a painter does 
the surface appearance of a body, but also to 
apprehend its volume. Tintoretto must have 
been specially gifted by nature for this kind of 
vision, and not only his vision of the individual 
figure, but, as we shall see, his whole pictorial 
conception was from the outset a special and 
plastic one, and hence essentially different from 
that of Titian. 

In Col. Bromley Davenport's picture, this 
particular conception is not quite so definitely 
marked as in other early works, because Tin- 
toretto's task was in that instance a strictly 
decorative one, the special demands of which 
he had to take into account. Therefore we had 
better illustrate his peculiar method of pictorial 
design by other examples of the period. In 
the Dresden Gallery" there is an elaborate pic- 
ture of the Adulteress before Christ, which in- 
cludes groups of sick people come to be healed 

'1 Raffaello Borghini, II Riposo, original edition 1584, 1730 
ed. (Florence), p. 450 sq. 

12 No. 270A, 1.89 by 3.5,sni. The picture came to Dresden 
in 1749 from the Imperial collection in Prague. We know 
that the Hapsburgs acquired several pictures, from the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Buckingham, which had been sold by 
auction at Antwerp in 1648. We therefore think it almost 
certain that the picture now at Dresden is the one which 
previously was in London and is described as follows : " A 
large piece, wherein the woman taken in adultery is brought 
before Christ and some sick persons are presented to Him 
to be cured. Length 6 ft., breadth lift. 3 in." Cfr. The 
Duke of Buckingham's collection of pictures, etc., London, 
printed for W. Bathoe, 1758, p. 10, No. 3.— H. Thode, op. 
cit., p. 5, reproduces a picture which gives the composition in 
reverse, and states that this picture is in the Prado at 
Madrid. That is, however, an error. The picture is in the 
dep6t of the Budapest Gallery, and is not an original, but a 
copy after the picture in Dresden. 



212 




C — The Aihilicrcss bcjorc ClinsI, hert- identitied as by Tintoretto. Canvas, 1.82 m. by 3.35 m. (Dresden Cialler\) 




D — Christ ul Emmans, lu-re itlcniilied as bvTintoretto. Canvas, 1.37 ni. by 2.03 m. (Budapest Gallery^ 



Plate III. Early Works by Tintoretto— I 



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[Plate III, c]. Here one clearly realises the 
earnestness with which Tintoretto has built up 
figure after figure in the foreground in strongly 
plastic relief. Indeed he has done so in almost 
too noticeable a fashion, as is natural enough 
in a young man, who, in his eagerness, does 
not quite know how to keep his measure. Now 
the natural consequence of the strongly accen- 
tuated volume of these figures was that they 
demanded not only spaciousness but above all 
depth ; in other words a stage on which 
these solid figures could really seem to 
stand and move about. In the course of 
this striving after a stage-like effect, a second 
tendency, of very different origin, unites with 
the plastic one of which we have spoken — a 
tendency towards greater illusion. While 
Titian was a classicist in the sense also that he 
preferred to depict a transfigured ideal, very 
different from reality, Tintoretto aimed from the 
first at representing his scenes as convincingly 
as possible, at confronting the spectator with 
something almost like a real event. This illu- 
sionist tendency is essentially a form of realism 
based on the riot strictly classic. North Italian 
striving towards a closer contact with life. In 
many small but significant ways Tintoretto's 
deep interest in realism may be seen. In his 
depiction of that nude invalid whom Tintoretto 
has been at such pains to represent, Roman 
fashion, in a " difficilissimo scorzo," he subse- 
quently painted bits of dressing on the wounds, 
and gave him dust-stained soles — naturalistic 
whims at which a Vasari or a Salviati would 
doubtless have shaken their superior heads. 
But perhaps they would have understood and 
approved still less of the shadows of the figures 
on the floor painted intensely green, the figure 
in the dusky middle distance suddenly depicted 
without either drawing or modelling, colour 
alone surviving, colour such as the purple grey 
of a flesh tint under the dull glistening of a 

SOME PORTRAITS BY PIETER DUBORDIEU 
BY W. MARTIN 

N visiting the Worcester Art 

Museum last year, my attention 

was drawn by the Director to the 

life size Portrait of a Woman, 

dated 1631, by an unknown painter, 
shown on Plate I, A. Its bold and heavy 
touches, and the decorative manner of its treat- 
ment in places, suggest at first sight rather a 
Flemish than a Dutch master. The sharp edges 
of the lips and eyelids, the picturesque lace 
sleeves and collar, partly hanging over and 
partly turned up, caused my thoughts to turn 
to Pieter Dubordieu, and on my return to Hol- 
land I found this confirmed by the data and 
photographs available there. 



golden helmet. 

Another element present in Tintoretto's work 
from the beginning, and which further contri- 
butes to distinguish it from Titian's idealistic 
rendering of a situation, is his preoccupation 
with momentary occurrences. A characteristic 
example of this is a picture" in the Budapest 
Gallery. It bears no name and is quite vaguely 
given to the Venetian school of the sixteenth 
century ; but it is clearly a very early work by 
Tintoretto [Plate III, d]. Just think of Titian's 
Christ at Emmaus in the Louvre, with its great 
calm and solemnity, even the amazement at the 
recognition of Christ being only hinted at in 
the attitude of the two apostles. But Tin- 
toretto's version is filled with violent agitation. 
One of the apostles, seen from behind, catches 
convulsively at the table, the other turns eagerly 
to the host. And in order to increase the rest- 
lessness, other figures are introduced in lively, 
contrasted motion — a maid who takes a jug 
from the boy, an older lad who at the very 
moment when the Saviour asks a blessing, 
offers Him a plate of sardines. Such a concep- 
tion may be shocking, but it is anything but 
frivolous. On the contrary Tintoretto's wish 
was to illustrate a scriptural episode in- a way 
calculated to compel belief on the part of his 
public, a public simple like himself, whose 
naivete he felt had to be impressed by very dras- 
tic methods. In the Bible, reference is made 
to a village inn, and Tintoretto felt compelled to 
represent in his picture a " trattoria " occupied 
by humble people who react violently to sur- 
prises. Like everything youthful, the new con- 
ception asserts itself with violence, all the more 
so as it is not yet completely the master of a 
technical means of expression, so that many an 
idea emerges more crudely and loudly than was 
intended. 

1' No. 144, 1.57 by 2.03 m. 

(To be continued.) 




Indeed, one has only to compare it witii the 
woman's portrait' on Plate I, b (the property 
of Jonkheer van Lennep, of Heemstede, near 
Haarlem), which bears Dubordieu's monogram 
with the date 1639, to feel sure of their common 
origin. The treatment of the features is just as 
characteristic as the turning up of the edges of 
the lace collar and sleeves, although the signed 
portrait, painted eight years later, is a more 
thorough piece of work and is painted less in 
the French and more in the Dutch manner. 

Pieter Dubordieu was a Frenchman, he was 
born in i6oq or 1610 at I'lsle de Bouchard in 

1 Reproduced and described in " Meisterwerke der Por- 
trait-malerei aiif der Ausstellung im Haaij, 1003. Herausge- 
geben von C. Hofstede de Groot, Munich, Bruckmann, 1903." 

217 



Touraine, and died after 1678; he came to Ley- 
den about 1630; from 1636-1638 he worked at 
Amsterdam and then again at Leyden.' Among 
other worlvs he painted many of the professors 
at the University of Leyden. He must have 
come to Leyden, just as so many of the French 
painters who hved there had done, such as 
Durispy and Rembrandt's pupils, Jouderville 
and Jacques de Rousseau. 

Dubordieu's worl< exhibits a curious mixture 
of the French-Flemish style of drawing and 
brushwork, and also shows the influence of 
Rembrandt's light effects. The portrait at 
Worcester shows how Dubordieu, who had 
been established for just over a year at Leyden, 
modelled his heads after the French manner, 
and yet was inspired by van Dyck, as will be 
noticed, in the attitude of the body and hands. 
In the portrait at Heemstede, painted eight 
years later, we see how, while he continued to 
aim just as much at plasticity as at the very 
beginning, his painting had technically become 
almost completely Dutch and his light effects 
thoroughly Rembrandtesque. 

Two other portraits, hitherto unidentified, I 
would also, on the basis of the foregoing, attri- 
bute to Dubordieu. First, the very attractive 
portrait of a girl, on Plate H, d, from the 
Stephan von Auspitz collection at Vienna, 
to which my assistant. Dr. H. Schneider, 
drew my attention. Here too we have 
that sharp delineation of the eyes and 
lips, the turned up edges of the collar and 
the Rembrandtesque light effect, while the 

2 For full details sfe Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Kunstler- 
Ipxicon, in verbo Dubordieu. 

A LANDSCAPE BY BUNSEI IN 
BY RIKICHIRO FUKUI 

'HE name of Josetsu is well known 
as that of one of the greatest pio- 
neers in the domain of Ashikaga 
Idealistic painting. But we now 
.^ know of only one authentic speci- 
men, the far-famed " Hyo-nen," or " Catfish 
caught with a gourd," for many pieces formerly 
attributed to him have been found either to be 
mere forgeries or to belong to other masters 
whose work bears some resemblance to his both 
in age and style. Now the seal of " Bunsei 
^ ^ " is to be seen on almost all so- 

iThis short essay on an important Japanese painting in 
the collection of the Boston Museum, may serve, it is hoped, 
as an expression of mv deep sense of gratitude to the Staff of 
the Department of Chinese and Japanese Art of that institu- 
tion, through whose Uindncss I have been enabled to satisfy 
a long-felt aspiration to study the famous collection pre- 
served in their care. I am obliged also to Miss Chapin, of 
that department, for the trouble she has taken to polish my 
poor English. 

Boston, August 13, 1922. 



somewhat incrustated treatment of the embroi- 
dery is entirely the same as in the signed 
Dubordieu on Plate I, b. 

Having fixed the date of the Dubordieu in 
the von Auspitz collection as about 1640, we 
may attribute the fourth painting by this master, 
which we submit to readers [Plate II, c], to his 
first Leyden period, the work in this case 
being nearly entirely French. The peculiar 
turn of the eyes and the acutely observant look 
suggests that the work is a self-portrait. Here 
again we have the slightly turned up lace on the 
shoulders and the same treatment of the eyes 
and lips, while the influence of Rembrandt is 
unmistakeable. So much so that the former 
owner, the well-known art historian, Victor de 
Stuers, now deceased, regarded the work as 
Rembrandt's. 

Dubordieu is one of those comparatively 
little known, though so greatly gifted portrait 
painters of whom Holland had so many in 
those years, and whose works appear under all 
kinds of names. That at Worcester was said 
to be Flemish ; that at Vienna was called Mor- 
eelse or Ravesteijn ; that in the de Stuers col- 
lection (now the property of Jonkvrouw Alice 
de Stuers) was regarded as a Rembrandt. It 
is only by devoting one's attention to the 
various manners of painting that were intro- 
duced into Holland from about 1590 (a period 
during which all sorts of painters came from 
Antwerp, France and Germany to Holland), 
that one solves these problems. Every day new 
traces are appearing of paintings done in some 
mixed style such as that of the early pictures 
by Dubordieu. 

THE BOSTON MUSEUM' 




called Josetsu specimens, while the genuine 
painting has neither his signature nor his seal, 
its authenticity being assured only by a eulogy 
written upon it. Of course the genuineness of 
the seal in such pieces is out of the question, 
and a more fundamental problem is whether or 
not the seal itself belongs to this artist. 

Although this seal has been ascribed to 
■Josetsu since the publication in 1693 of Kano 
Eino's Honcho gwashi ("National Painters") — 
one of the oldest and most trustworthy works on 
our ancient artists — we can easily assert that 
this ascription is a mistake, and that there was 
another painter whose name was Bunsei, who 
was unfortunate enough to be forgotten for a 
long time, even his own seal being taken for 
that of a famous master. This fact has been 
positively proved by the examination of several 
paintings, among them a fine specimen, the por- 
trait of Yuima in Mr. Tomitaro Hara's collec- 



218 




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tion [Plate, b]. It bears the seal of 
Bunsei, and an inscription which states 
that it was painted in the first year of 
Choroku (a.d. 1457) — certainly half a cen- 
tury after Josetsu's death. But as for- 
merly this portrait was thought to be unique, 
and as it seemed too great a work to be attri- 
buted to an unknown artist like Bunsei, the real 
existence of this painter has been until now 
doubtful, even the simple style of the seal, 
though common in those days, being a ques- 
tionable point, because of the ease of forging it. 
Last summer I was ordered by the Govern- 
ment to examine the treasures of the Daitokuji 
temple, where I found two portraits with the 
seal of Bunsei. They are so-called " Chin-so " 
— that is, portraits of Zen monks — one being the 
portrait of Yogi, a famous Chinese Zen priest, 
while the other represents a priest of Daitokuji, 
a contemporary of the artist's, by name Yoso, 
inscriptions by whom are on each piece. I took 
special interest in the facts that the style of the 
seal was the same as that of the one found on 
the portrait of Yuima belonging to Mr. Hara, 
and that even the date given in the inscription 
on Yoso's portrait indicated exactly the same 
era. After a close study of the line used in 
these newly-found pieces had yielded me con- 
siderable insight into what seems to me the 
work of an original artist, I became convinced 
of the existence of a painter called Bunsei, who 
flourished one generation after Josetsu. He 
has, I think, a good claim to a position among 
our early Ashikaga masters, though his name 
has never been mentioned in literature except 
under the mistaken appellation Josetsu. In 
February of this year, I presented these two 
specimens to the general meeting of the " Com- 
mittee Concerning the Preservation of the Old 
Shrines and Temples," and they are now regis- 
tered as " National Treasures," Bunsei being- 
recognised as their painter. 

The world already has a settled opinion upon 
the artistic excellence of the portrait of Yuima 
by Bunsei, though its historical significance is 
recognised now for the first time. The two 
specimens newly found seem to be inferior to it, 
but since the portrait of the monk Yoso is that 
of a contemporary of the artist, it may be 
thought to illustrate his true merit as a portrait 
painter more clearly than the other two which, 
so far as their subjects are concerned, are no 
more than copies of Chinese originals. How- 
ever this may be, it gives us great pleasure to 
get a clear conception of one side of Bunsei 's 
work through such a fine set of portraits. In- 
deed, we now know Bunsei better than Josetsu ; 
but is it right to say that he was a special artist 
who used solely the method of portrait 
painting? 



There are many landscapes with the false seal 
of Bunsei attributed to Josetsu; they might tend 
to show that Josetsu was a landscape painter, 
but they have notiiing to do with our artist, 
because they are forgeries of Josetsu and not of 
him, the seals of Bunsei found on them being 
forged ones copied from the source of the 
Honcho-gwashi. The question now arises as to 
whether all the so-called Josetsu landscapes 
bearing Bunsei 's seal are forgeries, among 
them the famous painting in the collection of 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston [Plate, a]. 
We may confidently say that this is not the case ; 
the latter picture constitutes the only exception 
known, and we take great pleasure in adding 
another to the three paintings by Bunsei already 
described, especially since the last one is a land- 
scape and may, for that reason, be called a real 
discovery. 

"A Josetsu landscape from the Kobori Enshu 
Collection " — so states the handbook of the 
Museum. I feel, however, no hesitation in 
ascribing this picture to Bunsei, because the 
connoisseursliip of the seal, which is very easy 
and sure, is decisive in this case. Needless to 
say, the true seal of Bunsei was so long con- 
cealed that no one had the opportunity to make 
a copy from the original. Mere identity with 
its standard, therefore, is good evidence for its 
genuineness. But we must further investigate 
the style of the painting in order to reach a final 
conclusion. 

This landscape leads me far away to my 
native land, and appears to me like a dream 
here in the bustling town of Boston. In a 
straw-thatched house which stands near the 
water, a hermit leans against a window, enjoy- 
ing a distant view; on the opposite side near a 
rural gate is a boy looking off in another direc- 
tion. This scene may be thought trivial, and 
indeed views of the sort — a tall pine tree in the 
foreground and a cluster of bamboos and other 
trees near a cottage — are very common in land- 
scape paintings of the Ashikaga period. It is 
the composition as a whole that gives us a 
special impression felt now for the first time ; 
and secondarily, a peculiar treatment of detail 
appeals to our eyes. 

In the strong black and white impressionism 
cherished by followers of Zen thought, we find 
such a principle as might be called an enthy- 
mematic syllogism in painting, by which I mean 
an extreme simplification or omission which is 
rational and makes the statement more compre- 
hensive. This is especially the case with the 
so-called " grass-hand "—or free and impres- 
sionistic — landscape. But our work, though a 
tvpical example of the " square style " — or less 
broad manner — nevertheless remains a good 
embodiment of this principle. It represents a 



221 



corner of land with a lake view, but the main 
portion of the land itself is cut out from the 
scene : the major premise is omitted. From 
this suggestiveness comes a strong concentra- 
tion. When we look further, however, to a dis- 
tant view apart from the scene near at hand, 
we are sliglitly surprised to find not a little 
minuteness. An old man and his younger com- 
panion are returning to their home which is, 
perhaps, in the grove yonder ; a high mountain 
beyond the wood stands out more strongly than 
is usual. In a word, the distant view is not a 
mere formal one as often happens; subordinate 
as it is, it yet plays an important part in filling 
out the space left in the foreground of the pic- 
ture. With the sage in the cottage, the spec- 
tator looks out over the lake ; with ttie boy at the 
gate, he views the countryside; and with the 
two figures in the background, he wends his 
way homeward from the water's edge, he knows 
not when or how. Probably such a union of 
fore- and backgrounds is very rare, though the 
result is a peculiar manifestation of the funda- 
mental principle of omission. One sees here a 
trutn of nature through the eyes of a Zen artist. 

As for the colour composition of this work, 
we find a rather usual scheme, the so-called har- 
mony of a dominant hue. But the excellence 
with which the strong black line is accentuated 
in the delineation ot the tall tree and in the 
shadow of the huge rock baffles description ; 
needless to say, the centre of the linear com- 
position is thus made more distinct and effective, 
rhere is a peculiar softness in the nuances of 
black with certain delicate undertints which pro- 
duces the effect of a lakeside atmosphere. 

Studying this work in a more detailed manner, 
we may find some of the characteristics of our 
artist. The commanding pine tree reminds us 
of Shubun. Some of the brushwork on the rock 
and the cluster of trees seems to have a particu- 
cular analogy with that of Geiami or Keishoki. 
With jasoku, a more typical similarity will be 
observed in the treatment of the distant view. 
In spite of all these corresponding points, how- 
ever, no doubt can exist that this work is no 
amalgamation of the work of those masters : a 
consistent unity of style appears even in the 
bend of the branches and the shape of the rocks. 
The style is sincere and refined, though not so 
masterful as that of Shubun or Geiami. We 
feel as if we were talking with a Zen priest, who 
describes a poetic landscape with gentle but 
comprehensive words. Even if we did not know 
who the artist was, examination would, I think, 
convince us that in spirit and technique he 
could be no other than a pioneer in the field of 
Ashikaga landscape. Sincerity, as in the bloom 
of youth, is his merit, but we see also in his 
work some reminiscence of a precursor of whom 



he was an adherent. 

Let us now consider a few points in regard 
to the portrait paintings of our artist. In the 
portraits of Yuima and Yogi, we find a few 
traces of a Chinese prototype, as we mentioned 
before. Bunsei's masterpiece in this domain of 
art is the portrait of Yuima and not that of 
Yoso, though the latter sat in person before the 
artist. All these considerations lead us to be- 
lieve that Bunsei was not a sufficiently great 
artist to maintain his original characteristics 
strongly and evenly impressed in all his works. 
And this is indeed a true feature of Bunsei's 
work, for he belonged to too early a period to 
be so mature as Shubun or Sesshu. As for the 
relation between his portraits and this landscape, 
we can not easily realise, in comparing the two 
different kinds of work, the identity of their 
source in one man. And, in any case, a single 
specimen of landscape painting is scarcely suffi- 
cient basis on which to form a conclusion. We 
can, however, safely acknowledge that the pain- 
ter of the portraits may also be the artist of this 
landscape. Though there is no positive proof 
as regards the style on which to base our 
opinion, no disproofs exist, and at least the unity 
of the age of their production and some con- 
sequent community of treatment and of spirit 
may be conceived as supporting the theory of 
their common origin, though these considera- 
tions are too vague in themselves to lead us to a 
wholly definite conclusion. 

After all it is the seal of Bunsei which fur- 
nishes us testimony sufficient in itself to enable 
us confidently to attribute this landscape to 
Bunsei, while examination of the painting at 
least tends to corroborate this view. Important 
as it is, the seal is very simple, and, I believe, 
deserves to be fully described here. It is the 
so-called " square seal with red letters," an im- 
pression taken from a wooden seal. Its size 
and certain peculiar features of the calligraphy 
— for instance, the formation of the character 
"tsuki ^ " in " sei jf " and the cur- 
vature of the under part of the character " Bun 
3C " — which are not exactly reproduced in 
forgeries copied from the Honcho-gwashi, make 
it easy to detect false seals from the genuine, 
since there seems to be but small chance for a 
forgery to have been made from Bunsei's origi- 
nal seal. The seal is about 20.6 cm. square. 

As for the artistic value of this landscape, 
something has been demonstrated during the 
preceding examination of its style, but it would 
be necessary to consider the whole field of Ashi- 
kaga Idealistic painting in order to define its 
relations fully and to come to a more elaborate 
conclusion. It may well be a delicate question, 
and is, at any rate, beyond the scope of this brief 
article. I may say, however, that I am inclined 



222 




A — Landscape, here identified as by Runsei. On paper, 73 cm. 
by 32.7 cm. (iMiiseum of Fine Art.s, I^o.ston, U.S.A.) 



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/i — Portrait of Yuinia, by Hunsei. 1457. On paper, 
92.7 cm. by 34.6 cm. (IMr. Tomitaro Hara, 
Yokohama) 



A Landscape by Biinsei in the Boston Museum 



/" 



:?■ 





A — (a) Cup, 1657-8, (b) Miniature cup, probably by 
John Sharpe. Jacobean, about 1620 



B — Set of six spoons, 1(352-3. Engraved 
with crest and monoeram 





C — Cup, once tlie property 
of Barnaul's Inn. About 
161 7-8 



7) — Chalice with paten cover, bv F — Snuff box, made in Dublin in 1801 
John Plummer. York plate of 1602-:! and engraved with the names of the officers 

of the 38th Foot (ist Staffordshire Regi- 
ment) 



The IJovd Roberts' Bequest of Old English Plate to Manchester 



to believe that this work stands artistically, as 
well as historically, on a level with the famous 
" Hyo-nen " of Josetsu. 

In conclusion, to say a word about our artist 
himself, we know nothing of him from any men- 
tion in literature, and from the inscription on 
his works we learn nothing further than the 
period of his activity. But the fact that two of 
his works, made possibly one for Yoso and one 
for a pupil of his, still exist, and especially the 
fact that one is a portrait of the priest Yoso 
himself, may be interesting testimony to the 
friendly relations between our painter and the 
Daitokuji priests. Our imagination is carried 
still further by a consideration of the relation of 
Kobori Enshu, a famous tea master in whose 
collection this landscape was, with Daitokuji, 



for his name has long been connected with that 
of Kohoan, a monastery in the precincts of that 
temple. Be that as it may, Bunsei was prob- 
ably a priest-artist, connected in some way with 
Daitokuji. It is a curious fate which enriches 
with the single specimen of his landscape paint- 
ing known to us the collection of the Boston 
Museum, to which belong also ten paintings of 
the far-famed Daitokuji Rakan set. It seems 
to me that Bunsei 's landscape, though of a 
different kind, may be estimated as highly, both 
artistically and historically, as these famous 
paintings of Rakan. No one, indeed, who 
makes a serious study of Ashikaga painting can 
dispense lightly with this work ; and I feel it an 
honour to look for the first time upon a unique 
landscape by a great and long-forgotten artist. 



THE LLOYD ROBERTS BEQUEST OF OLD ENGLISH PLATE 




TO MANCHESTER 

BY E. ALFRED JONES 

HE bequest of the late Dr. Lloyd 
Roberts of Manchester of the whole 
of his collection of Old English 
Plate to the Manchester Art Gallery 
and Museum is a notable addition of 
a branch of English craftsmanship hitherto un- 
represented there. The sixteenth century is 
represented by three pieces, all chalices of the 
conventional forrn introduced into the service of 
the Church of England after the Reformation. 
One was made in London in 1569 and the others 
at Exeter, in 1575 and 1576. There are also 
several Apostle and Seal-top spoons. Among 
objects dating from the seventeenth century are 
bleeding bowls of the years 1654-5 and 1697-8, 
a paten of 1637-8, a caudle cup of 1659-60, a 
beaker of 1675-6, a plain plate of 1685-6, and 
candlesticks of 1685-6 and 1691-2, as well as a 
considerable number of Apostle, Seal-top and 
other spoons illustrating fashions in vogue dur- 
ing that century, especially from Charles II to 
the accession of Queen Anne. 

Of the 315 items, the six following specimens 
have been selected for illustration : a plain cup 
on a tall baluster stem, a well-recognised type of 
Jacobean and Carolean times, dated 1617-8, 
and interesting as one of the trea- 
sures scattered abroad at the dispersal 
of the property of the defunct Barnard's 
Inn, one of tiie old Inns of Chancery. 
Engraved on the cup are the initials and arms 
of the donor, one G. Neale. [Plate, c]. The 
second piece is a plain Commonwealth cup of 
1657-8 [Plate, a (a)]. In the collection is an 
earlier cup of similar form, dated 1639-40, and 
engraved with these initials and date : 



H. 

H. I. 

J. R. 

1646. 

The third is a rare miniature cup 
of Jacobean type, wrought at Youghal in Ire- 
land, probably by John Sharpe in or shortly 
after 1620. [Plate, a (b)]. 

Among the spoons the set of six of the Com- 
monwealth period, dated 1652-3, may be de- 
scribed as exceedingly rare if not unique. They 
are engraved on the backs of the bowls with a 
lion crest, in a contemporary laurel wreath, and 
on the handle ends with a monogram. [Plate, b] . 
A single spoon of the same form and engraved 
with the same crest, but unmarked, is also in the 
collection. 

A chalice with paten-cover, engraved with a 
conventional band of strap-work and foliage, is 
of interest chiefly as an example of old York 
plate, wrought in the year 1662-3 by John 
Plummer (a member of a well-known family of 
goildsmiths of York) for Christ's Church, in 
King's Court, in that ancient city, and as a late 
survival of the shape and decoration of the con- 
ventional Elizabethan chalice. [Plate, d]. The 
name of the Church and the date, 1662, are 
engraved upon this chalice, which was sold some 
years ago by the custodians. 

The last piece is a curious snuff box, divided 
into four compartments for four kinds of snuff — 
Lundy, Scotch, Rapee and Mackoba — and en- 
graved with the names of the officers of the 38th 
Foot (or ist Staffordshire Regiment) and the 
date, 4 June 1801. Two of these officers were 
native-born Americans, namely, Lieut. -Colonel 
Spencer Thomas Vassall (who was mortally 



227 




wounded in the storming of Monte Video in 
February 1807) and Major John Lindall Bor- 
land, both from Massachusetts. This relic of 
the old custom of snuff-taking was made at Dub- 
lin in 1801 when this regiment was stationed in 
Ireland. [Plate, e]. One object worthy of 
mention is a plain tankard with a domed cover 
of the year 1667-8, the gift of William Mans- 
field to the Society of Ticket Porters in the City 
of London. 

Although this bequest is not noteworthy for 

CHINESE TEMPLE PAINTINGS 
BY ARTHUR WALEY 

N the year 845 a.d. the Emperor Wu 
Tsung, discovering that China sup- 
ported an excessive number of Budd- 
hist clergy, compelled nearly 300,000 
of them to return to their lay occupa- 
tions. Four thousand six hundred temples were 
pulled down in the large towns and forty thousand 
in the country. 

In his Records of Painting in Successive Ages, 
published in 847 a.d., Chang Yen-yuan gives a 
list of the principal works of art (mainly wall- 
paintings) which were to be seen in the temples 
of the two capitals (Ch'ang-an and Lo-yang) be- 
fore the cataclysm of 845. 

Technique 
In addition to wall-paintings (both coloured 
and in black and white) he mentions paintings on 
silk, on wooden wall-panels and on panels open- 
ing out from the wall. Not a few were unfinished ; 
some had been unskilfully coloured by workmen. 
Such remarks as " spoilt by workmen," " colour 
spoilt," etc., constantly recur. 

The mention of paintings in black and white 
by Wang Wei is of interest, as he is credited 
with the invention of this technique. 
Subject 
A few Taoist pictures are mentioned, but most 
of the religious paintings are Buddhist. The 
author's interest in Buddhist iconography was 
evidently slight. His descriptions are often 
vague; thus, " A Deity," " An Assemblage of 
Deities," " Spirits," etc. He mentions " a Bod- 
hisattva on a lion and another on an elephant " 
without identifying them as Samantabhadra and 
Manjushri. 

Where the subjects are named they correspond 
to a marked degree with those of the paintings in 
the Stein Collection. The commonest are: (i) 
Illustrations to the Lalita Vistara, (2) The Death 
of Buddha, (3) The Manifestations of Hell, (4) 
Mandalas of the Diamond World and Western 
Paradise, (5) The Visions of Queen Vaidehi, (6) 
The Hindu deities Indra, Brahma, etc., the Loka- 
pala Vaishravana, (7) The Miracles of Maitreya, 
the Buddha to Come, (8) The Eight Princes dis- 



many rare examples of old English plate, the 
bequest will be warmly welcomed by the citizens 
of Manchester as a solid nucleus for a Museum 
collection. Moreover, craftsmen and students 
and others may derive practical lessons from the 
simple dignity and beauty of form of many 
objects in the comprehensive range of eighteenth 
century plate. Dr. Lloyd Roberts also be- 
queathed to the Museum a notable collection of 
old English glass, including several specimens 
of Jacobite and other rare glasses. 



tributing relics of Buddha's body (this subject is 
also illustrated in a wall-painting at Tung-huang), 
(9) Ascetic priests, (10) A set of Illustrations to 
the " Record of Western Countries " is also 
mentioned. 

The temples were not exclusively decorated by 
religious paintings. Many landscapes are men- 
tioned; also pictures of pine-trees, peacocks, 
dragons, tigers, " denizens of the deep," etc. 
At the Temple of the Great Cloud at Ch'ang-an 
was a painting of "Various Beasts of the Wilder- 
ness" attributed to Chang Hsiao-shih (Giles,' p. 
44), famous for the fact that " having died, he 
came tjo life again." 

Artists 
(i) Chang Seng-yu (Giles, p. 30). 
The Ting-shui Temple- contained three wall- 
paintings of Indra by this celebrated sixth century 
artist, all imported from elsewhere. 

At the T'ien-kung Temple (Lo-yang) two 
Bodhisattvas on wooden panels, brought from 
the south. 

(2) Wu Tao-Tzu's pictures are frequently men- 
tioned ; for example, a famous set painted by him 
in the Dhyana Hall of the Ching-ai Temple at 
Lo-yang in the year 722 a.d. : "Illustrations of 
the Sun-treasure and Moon-treasure Siitras " 
(Nanjo's Catalogue 62 and 67), "Buddha's Life," 
and the " Retributions of Sin." The last was 
drawn by W^u, but finished by Chai Yen, a 
famous colourist, who closely followed Wu's 
style. 

"Illustrations to the Diamond Sutra" are also 
mentioned. " On the north wall of the east 
aisle of the Great Hall at the T'zu-en (" Merciful 
Favour") Temple there is an unfinished picture 
supposed to be by Wu. But when one looks 
close, one sees that it isn't." The same might 
be said of most of the pictures attributed to him 
to-day. 

Of Wu's pupils the most frequently mentioned 
is Lu Leng-ch'ieh (whom Giles on p. 53 calls Lu 
Leng-chia, a pronunciation inconsistent with his 

1 History of Chinese Pictorial Art, second edition. 
' The temples referred to were at Ch'ang-an (modern 
Sianfu) unless otherwise stated. 



228 



7- 



A 




A-Po„„:, ..ere ide„.i6ed as by Tiepo.o. C».v»s, 584 cm. by 47 cm. (Mr Max Ro.hschMd) 



Plate I. A Tiepolo Portrait 



own dictionary, and on p. ig6 confuses with 
Mount Langka in Ceylon). He painted Hell 
Scenes at the Ch'ung-fu Temple, a Death of 
Buddha with inscription at the Pao-i Temple, two 
very large paintings one on each side of the 
Middle Gate of the Avatamsaka Temple, etc. 

Wu's disciple "Mr. Li" (personal name un- 
known) painted illustrations to the Suvarna Prab- 
hasa Sutra at the Hsing-t'ang Temple. 

(3) Han Kan (Giles p. 61). 

This is the artist to whom the British Museum's 
" Boy-rishi riding a Goat " was formerly attri- 
bued. The Hsing-t'ang Temple preserved his 
portrait of the Abbot Phsing, translator' of the 
Tantric Vairocana Sutra, who died in 727 a.d. 

Black and white paintings by him are also 
mentioned, and " two Bodhisattvas spoilt by 
having been coloured by workmen." 

(4) Wei-ch'ih I-Seng (Giles p. 44). 

A native of Khotan, who came to China and 
made his home in the Feng-en Temple at Ch'ang- 
an. At this temple was preserved a painting by 
him of " the king and princes of his country." 
The same artist painted a " yellow dog " and 
an eagle preserved at I^o-yang. For this painter, 
see Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, 1920, p. 300. 

(5) Chou Fang (Giles p. 71). 

A picture attributed to him was reproduced in 
the Burlington Magazine, XXX (opp. p. 210). 
It was not this picture but a similar one which was 
acquired by the late Mr. Freer The picture re- 
produced in the Burlington is presumably still 
in China. 

At the Sheng-kuang Temple he painted a 
" Kuan-yin by the Moonlit Waters " and the 
"Bodhisattva who covers Sin" : haloes and bam- 
boos coloured by another artist. Other interest- 
ing paintings mentioned are a landscape by Li 
Chao-tao (see Ars Asiatica frontispiece) and a 
peony by the famous flower-painter Pien Luan. 
Calligraphy 

The following interesting items may be enum- 
erated : (i) an inscription by Wang Hsi-chih, the 
most famous of the ancient calligraphers, at the 
Ting Shui Temple; (2) an inscription (presum- 
ably in Chinese) by the famous Indian priest 
Dharmakala who came to China in 250 a.d.; 
(3) many paintings inscribed as well as painted 
by Wu Tao-tzu ; (4) a painting of cranes bv Hsieh 
Chi (Giles p. 44) with an i nscription by Ho Chih- 

3 In collaboration with the Indian^ prie'^t SubbaUaraslmha. 

A TIEPOLO PORTRAIT 
BY R. R. TATLOCK 

HE portrait on Plate I has been 
exercising the ingenuity of critics 
for some weeks. A varietv of 
theories have been offered which had 
only one thing in common, that the 




chang, who introduced the poet Li Po to the 
court of Ming Huang. 

Marvels 

" In the Pao-ch'a Temple there is a Bodhis- 
attva painting that used to turn its eyes and look 
at people ; but the Abbot Wen-hsii spoilt it by 
letting workmen paint it over." 

There are other stories of this kind; also of 
deities appearing to painters, and the like. 

"When Yang T'ing-kuang" (frequently men- 
tioned in these records) " was painting a picture 
of Samantabhadra . . sacred relics of Buddha's 
body fell down from Heaven on to his brush- 
point." (cf. Giles, p. 53). 

The Museum at Hang Chow 

The Emperor Wu Tsung's Prime Minister, Li 
Te-yu, had once been Governor of Hangchow 
and had built here a temple called the Kan-lo 
("Manna") Temple. During the Reformation 
of 845 this temple was spared at Li Te-yu's re- 
quest, and many works of art from other temples 
in the district were removed to it. Thus it be- 
came one of the earliest " Museums." Among 
its treasures were (i) Ku K'ai-chih's Vimalakirti, 
removed by Lu Chien-tzii in 825, but afterwards 
surrendered to the Imperial Collections. (For 
this artist see Burlington IV, 39); (2) a Bodhi- 
sattva by Lu T'an-wei (fifth century) ; (3) three 
paintings by Chang Seng-yu ; (4) an ascetic by 
Han Kan ; (5) tow paintings by Wu Tao-tzu. 
Sculpture 

The Buddha-hall of the Ching-hai Temple at 
Lo-yang was famous for its sculptures. These 
included a Maitreya made in imitation of Bodhi- 
sattvas as depicted in the " Western countries " 
(India, etc.) under the superintendance of Wang 
Hsiian-ts'e. The names of two modellers and 
that of the artist who gilded the image are given. 
In this and other sculptures mentioned " the 
haloes and emblems were carved by Liu Shuang, ' ' 
of whom we know nothing. But Tou Hung-kuo, 
who modelled various Vajrapani, lions, etc., in 
this temple is known as a painter. He held a 
position at Court in the seventh century. The 
same temple contained several huge copper 
incense-burners, one of them designed by a fairly 
well-known painter, Mao P'o-lo; a set of copper 
banners designed and made by another known 
artist, Chang Li-pa ; and a set of banners painted 
on silk, with copper feet, also designed and made 
by him. 



names found for the work were all great names. 
And it is no doubt true that only a first-rate 
painter could have expressed himself with as 
much vivacity and grace, or could have contrived 
to produce as much effect with the same simplicity 



231 



and economy, or could have divided the rectangle 
with the same cleverness. If we were to consider 
less what this type of painting is than what it 
ultimately led to, we might be a little repelled by 
it, but nothing would be more misleading than 
to do that. 

It will be seen from the illustration that there is 
much in the painting of the drapery to remind us 
of Tintoretto, and still more, not only in the tech- 
nical method but in the vision itself, to suggest 
Veronese. And yet it will be agreed that the 
work is later than that, though conforming to 
the same local culture. A month or two ago Mr. 
Roger Fry, after a short discussion of the subject, 
threw out the suggestion that the artist might be 
Tiepolo; but his departure abroad has prevented 
his giving more attention to the matter. Since 
then a fuller study of the problem has led to the 
confirmation of Mr. Fry's suggestion. Again and 
again throughout the oeuvre of Tiepolo a figure 
similar to this appears ; so much so that the eye 
is baffled by the multitude of attitudes and em- 
bellishments which the artist invented for his 
too favourite model. Sometimes she even appears 
with little alteration of features in the character 
of a youth. But in her original guise we find 
her depicted in the Alexander and Campaspe 
with ApeJles,^ in the Museum at Sigmaringen ; 
in the Mcecenas displaying the Arts before Augus- 
tus in the Hermitage Gallery ; and perhaps 
even as the gaudy angel in the early fresco of 
Sarah and the Angel,' in the Pal. Dolfino, in 
Udine. Perhaps the picture on Plate II, b, il- 
lustrates this best while showing the similarity in 
the painting of the draperies. 

A figure very like this appears more than once 
in the compositions of Sebastiano Ricci, notably 

1 Giamb. & Dom. Tiepolo, von Eduard Sack. III., p. 193. 

2 Giamb. &■ Dom. Tiepolo, von Eduard Sack. 111., p. 38. 

A VAN EYCK FOR MELBOURNE 
BY SIR CHARLES J. HOLMES 

HE announcement that the Trustees 
of the Felton Bequest have acquired 
for the Melbourne Gallery what is, 
perhaps, the only work by John Van 
Eyck which remains accessible to 
purchase, is one to be received with no less re- 
spect than pleasure. When some little time ago 
they purchased a splendid and famous portrait by 
Van Dyck, it seemed as if they might be adopting 
a standard of purchase as high and rigorous as 
that which governed the making of the greatest 
collections existing elsewhere. That supposition 
is now verified. There is indeed a splendid 
audacity in acquiring for a collection, which is 
as yet in its infancy, an example of John Van 
Eyck : like the audacit)'^ of some pioneer crossing 
a great territory to its farthest limit and planting 



in King Solomon worshipping the idols, in the 
Turin Gallery, but not with quite the same char- 
acter and certainly with little of the elegance and 
none of the beauty of design of the work before 
us. Ricci's colour is also different, being more 
schematic, duller and without the touch of oddity 
in the very delicate harmony of greys and pale, 
liquid tint's of this work. All circumstances con- 
sidered, the attribution to Tiepolo appears as 
much the soundest. The handling and the 
colour proclaim it as an early work, and this 
leaves it probable enough that it was a study from 
the model which would afterwards be used and 
re-used in the course of the busy artist's work on 
larger compositions. There is no reason why 
several such studies may not have been done, and 
such may still exist somewhere, though we do not 
know of them. 

Apart from its intrinsic beauty the work is a 
valuable document. It shows us how Tiepolo 
saw his subjects from his early years. From the 
beginning he accustomed his eye both while 
drawing and while painting, to accept the sort 
of generalisation that occurs in nature when the 
object is visible through a transluscent atmos- 
phere. Even when he drew or painted a head a 
few feet away, he delighted to feel in imagination 
the details fuse together, the masses broadened 
and the colours rarified and made as delicate as 
those in a distant prospect. It was his habit of 
giving rein to this impulse that more than any- 
thing else contributed to his taking to the decora- 
tion of lofty ceilings where his airy figures could 
impart the effect of being thrust away from the 
eye and up from the earth into a spiritual, if 
topsy-turvy, limbo by themselves — this just in 
the same way as his conjurings with perspective 
aimed, too, at giving his groups of cloudy figures 
a kind of heavenesque remoteness of their own. 




his standard there as evidence of his claim to the 
whole of it. Once established in Melbourne, this 
Van Eyck must, as it were, establish a terminus 
a quo for the future growth of the Gallery. Stand- 
ing as a landmark to illustrate the first wonderful 
outburst of the craft of painting in oil, it must 
inevitably influence the attitude of future Gallery 
Directors towards each new acquisition. By its 
mere presence it must make impossible the casual 
acceptance of trifles, for each offer will have, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, to be weighed and 
considered with reference to its place in the long 
chain of artistic genius and achievement which 
lies between the efforts of the present day and 
this their remote ancestor. Australia will in- 
evitably desire to supply the chief links in that 
great chain, and spare no effort to make those 



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links worthy of the jewel with which the chain 
begins. But this effort, inevitable in any active 
and ambitious community, though it may result 
in the making of a superb collection may in after 
years be (as I have previously suggested) even 
more valuable in the influence which it will 
exert upon the National outlook. These tangible, 
visible proofs of the achievement of older civilisa- 
tions impress the reality of those civilisations 
upon us with a force which the noblest creations 
of literature cannot exert. And whatever the 
material needs of the moment may be in these 
comparatively youthful centres of human energy, 
their growth must necessarily be casual and cap- 
ricious until it is controlled by a consciousness of 
past experience, by a recognition of the continuity 
of civilised life, and by a true eye for the relative 
place in that life which the communities of the 
moment occupy. 

The purchasers of this little Van Eyck have 
thus, perhaps, done more for Australia than we 
can at present estimate. At the same time it may 
well be a source of legitimate pride that Mel- 
bourne will possess the single example of the Van 
Eyck's work which exists in the Antipodes, or 
in the whole Southern Hemisphere. Indeed, it 
will be necessary to travel as far as Philadelphia 
to see what Hubert Van Eyck could do, while 
as for John he is to be seen nowhere else except 
in Europe. 

The tiny panel (26.4 cm. by 18.4 cm.) is well 
known. It was exhibited by its former owner, Mr. 
Weld-Blundell, at the Guildhall in May, 1908, 
and was described by that unique authority, the 
late Mr. James Weale in the Burlington Maga- 
zine for June, 1906 (Vol. IX, p. 184), as well as in 
his other books on the brothers Van Eyck. All re- 
productions made hitherto have failed to do the 
picture justice. It was covered till quite recently 
with a thick coat of brown varnish, furrowed with 
deep cracks, under which the rich colouring 
showed with a certain blurred splendour, but all 
delicate detail was hidden. The removal of this 
varnish has revealed the painting in a wonderful 
state of preservation, indeed some of the little 
high lights, like those on the still-life to the right, 



seem for the moment almost too brilliant to those 
who remember the work in its former mysterious 
obscurity. It is dated 1433, and so is contempor- 
aneous with our three pictures in the National 
Gallery (1432, 1433, 1434), near which, by the 
courtesy of its new owners, it will be allowed to 
hang for a month or two. 

It would be ungenerous to grudge the posses- 
sion of such a picture to Melbourne, yet it is 
permissible to indulge in a little friendly regret. 
For if in point of supreme perfection of tone and 
detail the Melbourne Madonna (though a miracle 
of craftsmanship) does not quite equal our in- 
comparable Arnolfini, it has certain other merits 
which our examples of John Van Eyck cannot 
claim. The Child is perhaps the most attractive 
of all the children that John is known to have 
painted. Something of his brother Hubert's love 
of beauty survives in the infant's good looks and 
fair curls, painted with a Correggio's pleasure 
in their delicacy. The design, too, has a breadth 
and simplicity worthy of the great Italians, and 
amounting almost to grandeur, if the word can 
be rightly applied to anything, so minute. The 
spreading robe of red is fitted into the picture 
space with the most cunning audacity, and the 
great pyramidal mass formed by the figures is 
redeemed from immobility and made a centre of 
living movement by dexterous use of the 
waving gold pattern on the brocade which hangs 
behind. So vigorous indeed is the flamelike toss- 
ing of this pattern that the emphatic verticals 
and horizontals elsewhere are all needed to retain 
stability. Had Van Eyck ever completed the ex- 
quisite St. Barbara in the Antwerp Gallery, he 
might perhaps have surpassed this Madonna 
design, for there the problem of relating figures 
to architecture in perfect harmony is on the point 
of being solved. But among the other experi- 
ments which this great pioneer of our art has 
left to us (for, it must be remembered, all John 
Van Eyck's compositions were necessarily ex- 
perimental), none is more bold and more feli- 
citous in design than this tiny panel. The merits 
of the execution will be apparent to all who have 
good eyesight or magnifiers. 



A GREEK GLASS VASE FROM CHINA 
BY jOSE PIJOAN 




HE Royal Ontario Museum is an 
ambitious building in the grounds 
of the University of Toronto. The 
top floor has the Natural History 
collections installed in show cases 
in the brilliant and efficient manner to be found 
onlv in America. The other floors of the 
Museum are occupied by the Archaeological 
collection which was started by one of the men 
who " have been over there." In Toronto's 



case the man happened to go to Egypt, and 
consequently the antiques of the Museum 
began with mummies, coptic garments, pre- 
Pharaonic implements, casts of temple walls, 
etc. One by one classic and Middle-age en- 
thusiasts went " over there " too, and the 
Royal Ontario Museum soon could boast of 
such exhibits as an Augustus Marble Head, 
Panathenaic amphores, Valencia ware, a col- 
lection of shoes, the wedding dress of a 



235 



Queen. The Museum seemed fated to grow 
into the same sort of depository of miscellane- 
ous objects as the other provincial museums 
of the world, until during the war, there passed 
through Toronto on his way to England, the 
wealthy and cultured Tien-Sin merchant, Dr. 
George Croft, who became deeply interested 
in the institution. Since then, Dr. Croft has 
kept sending to Toronto large consignments of 
Chinese antiques, for which the trustees of the 
Museum pay, when they can, at cost price, 
much below the market value. 

In one of the Croft consignments composed 
chiefly of ceramics and paintings from Tien-Sin, 
there came two years ago the extraordinary piece 
which is the subject of this note (Plate on p. 250). 
It is a glass vase 9 inches high and 10 inches 
wide in its widest part Its shape is almost that of 
a classic hydria without handles, although rudi- 
ments of these survive in the three atrophied 
knobs not big enough even to tie the strings 
to hold a cover. The vase is dark brown. 



of the three medallions, the most interesting 
feature of the engraving, bear decorated helms. 
Their warrior-like character is weakened by the 
long curl on each of the cheeks. Most prob- 
ably the artist intended to depict three 
Amazons. Two of the helms have a decora- 
tion of the flying horse, the other has a snake 
as in the case of the helm of the Gonzago 
cameo, which these engravings resemble so 
much in size and style. 

The vase is therefore an important object 
with a claim to the serious attention of scho- 
lars ; and had it been found in Egypt or the 
Near East instead of in China, it would have 
given rise to wide interest. As a matter of 
fact' its discovery in China, when considered 
together with its great antiquity, is more than a 
little puzzling. Although it is impossible to 
give its exact date and origin, its style points 
to the Hellenistic period, and we believe the 
most sane guess is to suppose it to have been 
made in Alexandria. No glass of any kind has 




rather reddish and without irisations. The 
whole thickness of the glass seems to be per- 
meated with iron salts, which has changed its 
appearance to that of bronze, and as the vase 
has never been broken, the absence of cracks 
and restorations increases this bronze-like 
appearance. The transparency of the material 
can be realised only when the object is held up 
against the light, when also the surface seems 
to be rather irregular like blown glass, and the 
thickness also to vary. The vase clearly seems 
to have been carved from a block of glass in the 
same manner as those carved in stone. The 
object bears no traces of any earth or mud. If 
it was ever filled with earth, it must have been 
thoroughly washed before arriving at the 
Museum. 

The external decoration is of a perfect class- 
ical style, and consists of a not very deeply 
engraved central band of a large grecas, inter- 
rupted by three medallions with a head in each. 
The palmettos in between correspond to the 
three knobs or atrophied handles. The heads 



been found in Southern Russia. If the vase 
was made in Syria we should expect it, by all 
we know of Syrian glass, to have been blown, 
not carved. The land of vases carved in hard 
stone was Egypt. The question of when and 
why and how it was taken to China we leave to 
be answered by Sinologues. Whether it was 
one of the importations during the days of 
Wuttei, the sixth Han, whether it arrived in 
China in a Scythian chariot or was carried by a 
Buddhist pilgrim from Bactriana, or by some 
Nestorian monk of Khotan, we shall not try to 
decide here, but shall satisfy ourselves with 
bringing before our readers this photograph 
and description of an object that will probably 
be regarded as the most important Greek work 
yet found in China. 

For two years we have been aware of the ex- 
istence of the Croft vase in the Royal Ontario 
Museum, but, to be frank, we delayed publish- 
ing it because we thought it might be a "fake." 
We did not for one minute doubt the sincerity 
of Dr. Croft; his reputation puts him above all 



236 



suspicion of having tried to pass a counterfeit. 
However, we feared Dr. Croft might have 
bought in good faith and shipped to the 
Museum he so generously befriends, one of 
those international fakes which, when they do 
not pass in Greece, go to Syria, and if nobody 
bites there, go to Alexandria, and that perhaps 
the vase had been taken to the Orient in 
modern times from Egypt. We waited 
patiently until we had the chance to see Dr. 
Croft personally last May, when we spoke 
with him at length on the subject. From 
our conversation we did not get much 
information, but we did learn that the 
Croft's vase had certainly been found in 

REVIEWS 

The Thousand Buddhas. Recovered and described by Aurei. 
Stein, K.C.I.E. Introductory Essay by Laurence Bin- 
yon. Published by H.M. Secretary of State for India 
and the Trustees of the British Museum. 77 pp. of te.xt ; 
48 plates. (Bernard Quaritch). 

The story of the hidden store in the cave- 
shrine at Tunhuang, on the extreme western 
frontier of China proper, is one of the most stir- 
ring in the annals of archaeological discovery. It 
is now too well-known to bear retelling here. Sir 
Aurel Stein was the first European to investigate 
the mass, measuring some five hundred cubic 
feet, of closely packed manuscripts and paint- 
ings accidentally discovered seven years before 
he visited the place in 1907. The means taken 
by the distinguished explorer to obtain posses- 
sion, for the British Museum and the new Mus- 
eum at Delhi, of a goodly share of these precious 
relics are recounted in his " Ruins of Desert 
Cathay " and again in " Serindia." Our regret 
that Sir Aurel Stein was unable to carry away 
the hoard en bloc is tempered by the knowledge 
that M. Pelliot in the following year sorted out 
his share amounting to about one-third of what 
remained. The latter's visit to Peking in 1909 
and several published accounts resulted in news 
of the relics spreading, and at the end of that 
year the Central Government directed the rem- 
nants of the library to be forwarded to the 
capital. These orders were evidently not strictly 
complied with; for in 1911 Mr. Tachibana was 
able to acquire at Tun-huang a quantity of 
manuscript rolls, and when in 1914 Sir Aurel 
Stein revisited it he added substantially to his 
collection. 

Soon after the hidden hoard was first come 
upon by workmen engaged in restoring the cave- 
shrine, and before Sir Aurel Stein arrived at 
Tun-huang, the find had been reported to the 
provincial officials and specimen manuscripts 
forwarded to the Viceroy's yamen ; but no action 
was taken beyond the issue of a vague order that 
the relics were to be preserved in situ. It was 
the story of the Nestorian Monument over again. 



a Chinese tomb in the province of Honan. 
Mr. Croft told us he bought the vase 
from a modest Chinese collector, of mandarin 
education, who had been supplying him with 
the results of his personal excavations in the 
necropolis of the vicinity in which he lives, in 
the interior. Dr. Croft suggested that the 
vase's perfect condition may be due to its 
having been walled up within a Tang tomb as 
an object precious to the deceased. This was 
merely a suggestion, but from the information 
offered by Dr. Croft, we rest assured that the 
vase in the Royal Ontario Museum was actually 
found in China, where it must have been taken 
ages ago. 



Chinese officialdom showed its customary in- 
difference till spurred into activity by foreign 
intervention. When at last the bulk of the 
hoard left by Sir Aurel Stein and M. Pelliot 
was on the road to Peking, pilfering was allowed 
to occur at the various resting places, and it 
seems unlikely that the best examples ever 
reached the National Museum. Certainly fine 
T'ang manuscripts were to be picked up for 
next to nothing in most unexpected places. The 
present writer had several offered to him as 
late as 191 2. Had they all been left in Chinese 
hands, assuredly most of the collection would 
have been dissipated through various channels 
into all parts of the world and no such compre- 
hensive survey as the work under review would 
have been possible. 

It is fitting that " The Thousand Buddhas " 
is dedicated to the memory of Raphael Petrucci. 
This distinguished critic and enthusiastic 
student of Far-Eastern art had in 1911 under- 
taken to describe the paintings collected in the 
Stein expeditions, but the war and his untimely 
death in 1917 cut short his labours. His rare 
insight and appreciation in this domain are re- 
vealed in contributions to the Burlington 
Magazine and other publications, and their in- 
fluence is traceable in these pages. Happily 
Sir Aurel Stein obtained the collaboration of 
Mr. Laurence Binyon, who with his usual 
charm of expression and his wide grasp of the 
subject contributes an introductory essay- 

The title " Thousand Buddhas " is derived 
from the name given to a series of cave-temples 
hewn out of a conglomerate cliff near the oasis 
of Tun-huang. The extreme dryness of the 
place and protection afforded by drifted sand 
and other d6bris blocking up the entrance to the 
particular grotto containing the hollowed recess, 
in which the relics lay hidden, account for their 
perfect preservation during more than ten cen- 
turies. Evidence from all sources indicates that 
the deposit took place not later than the begin- 



237 



ning of the eleventh century, probably in face 
of threatened danger, and that the hiding place 
remained undisturbed till the discovery in 1900. 
Though the most distant date found on any of 
the pictures is one corresponding to the year 
A.D. 864, probably many of the pictures are 
much earlier. We are led to this conclusion 
partly by the age of the manuscripts, one of 
which was found by Dr. Lionel Giles to have a 
colophon dated a.d. 406. 

The pictures range in height from seven feet, 
and therefore size precludes some of them from 
being adequately reproduced in book form. This 
consideration and the fact that problems of 
Buddhist art and iconography appeal to many 
who are not equally interested in all the multi- 
tudinous results of Sir Aurel Stein's expeditions 
led to " The Thousand Buddhas " being pub- 
lished apart from the detailed Report entitled 
" Serindia." We have here a portfolio of thirty- 
three plates each measuring 25 in. by 2oi in., 
twelve of which are in colour; and there are also 
fifteen smaller plates most of them coloured. All 
the reproductions, three-colour and half-tone, 
reach an admirable level of excellence. The 
originals are, of course, the pick of what Sir 
Aurel Stein carried away, and he took the 
greater part of all the pictorial relics preserved 
at Tun-huang. This publication thus offers the 
first representative criteria for filling the gap in 
our knowledge of Buddhist painting between 
the fifth and tenth centuries. Indeed, it dis- 
closes a hitherto unknown stage in the art while 
on its way eastward through Asia. Two extreme 
phases at either limit of the progress were al- 
ready familiar to us as represented in the 
Ajanta frescoes and in the ancient relics of 
Buddhist art preserved in Japan ; but Chinese 
and Central Asian examples were rare and often 
of doubtful genuineness. The period under dis- 
cussion is recognised as a golden age when 
religious fervour called forth the loftiest genius 
of Chinese artists. Unfortunately we have left 
to us little more than written records and 
alleged copies of these masters' works. It was 
not to be expected that a small town on the 
far western confines of the empire would yield 
examples of the first rank. Nor do we find any 
of the Tun-huang pictures reaching a very 
exalted plane. What we do get from this halt- 
ing place on the main highway of communica- 
tion between China and outside civilisation is 
the spectacle of several different elements in the 
act of mingling ultimately to shape the tradition 
that flourishes to the present day throughout 
the Far East. 

The chief foreign influences to be traced at 
their meeting with native standards are Hellen- 
istic (as interpreted at Gandhara), purely 
Indian, Persian and Central Asian. They 



combine in varying proportions in the paint- 
ings, and the general practice is observed of 
following foreign models when the figures are 
objects of actual worship and of religious im- 
port. Accessories and scenes not of devotional 
significance are given Chinese treatment. For 
instance, episodes from Buddha legends appear 
in Chinese guise; costume, architecture, pic- 
torial conventions and racial types are purely 
Chinese. In his essay Mr. Laurence Binyon 
advances an interesting theory to account for 
this. 

Many of the pictures are votive offerings, 
and, just as in early European art, portraits of 
the donors form part of the design. Thus the 
secular art is displayed of a period which has 
left few other relics of the kind. Costume and 
other intimate human particulars are also re- 
corded. Invocations to their patron saints are 
inscribed on some of the paintings by the 
votaries ,and they provide precious glimpses of 
the worldly aspirations, religious hopes and 
family relations of sojourners in that distant 
outpost of Chinese civilisation more than a 
thousand years ago. 

The student of Buddhist iconography finds 
here a rich field for research. The popularity 
of the bodhisattva cult, characteristic of Maha- 
yana doctrine, is amply illustrated. Among the 
bodhisattvas Kuan-yin appears to have claimed 
the greatest number of devotees then as she 
does now ; but it is noteworthy that the male 
form of Kuan-yin preponderates in the Tun- 
huang pictures. At the present day the closest 
rival to Kuan-yin in reverential favour is Ti- 
tsang, the saviour from hell's torments. Every 
year many thousands of pilgrims visit his shrine 
on Chiu-hua, one of the Four Famous Moun- 
tains of Buddhist China. This exalted status 
among the bodhisattvas must have been given 
him by Chinese votaries; for his Indian proto- 
type was of small account. It is significant 
that neither of the seventh century pilgrims 
Hsiian Tsang and 1 Ching so much as mention 
him. The date when Ti-tsang's cult first entered 
China and the history of its rise in popularity 
still await full investigation. It is fitting, there- 
fore, that Sir Aurel Stein calls special attention 
to pictures which may have been painted not 
long after its introduction and yet exhibit the 
same elaboration that characterises it in modern 
times. Two plates show the bodhisattva presid- 
ing at a scene which conveys a peculiarly 
Chinese conception, the Kings or Judges of the 
Ten Courts of Hades. Sir Aurel Stein falls 
into a strange error Iwhen he describes the 
Judges as holding " narrow rolls of paper." 
The object grasped by each in both hands is 
the memorandum tablet, hu. It figures so fre- 
quently in all forms of Chinese artistic expres- 



238 



sion, dating from the earliest time to the 
present day, that perhaps a few words on the 
subject will not be out of place here, especially 
since, so far as I know, it has not been dis- 
cussed before. 

The Book of Rites, which gave most minute 
directions about the daily life of the ancient 
Chinese, described the tablet, slipped under the 
girdle, as part of every person's dress. The 
emperor carried one made of jade, feudal princes 
and the higher officials one of ivory, and 
humbler folk one of bamboo ornamented or 
plain according to rank. The tablets were 
shaped square or rounded at the corners to con- 
vey certain symbolic meanings. The length 
was put at two feet six inches, and it tapered at 
either end from a width of three inches in the 
middle. Here it should be remarked that the 
Chinese foot-measure has varied widely at differ- 
ent times and in different localities ; and prob- 
ably these ancient shuttle-shaped liu were about 
twenty of our inches long. Originally an object 
of purely useful purpose for the jotting down of 
notes, the hu became in time an emblem of 
ceremonial and of dignity. Every official carried 
one when received by the emperor, and while 
the audience lasted he held it respectfully in both 
hands before his eyes. This is the posture of 
the Ten Judges in the presence of the mighty 
Ti-tsang, to whom they thus signify their sub- 
servience. The use of the hu continued down 
to the Revolution, and, after the lapse of a few 
years. President Yiian Shih-k'ai actually re- 
vived it. The shape changed slightly from 
time to time; the modern form tapers at one 
end and varies in length from 17 to 22 inches and 
in breadth from 2^ to 3J inches. 

In conclusion it should be mentioned that 
" The Thousand Buddhas " is by no means the 
last word on Buddhist art as displayed at Tun- 
huang. The walls of the cave-shrines are 
adorned with a vast number of frescoes, and 
there are some images too. Photographs of 
these and a description from the able pen of 
M. Pelliot are in the press. The student will 
look to M. Pelliot's great work as a necessary 
complement to the admirable publication under 
review. W. Perceval Yetts. 

TosKANiscHE Maler im XIII. Jahrhundert. By OSVALD 
Sir6n. 340 pp. + 130 pi. Berlin (Cassirer.) 

Too long has the period of Tuscan Duecento 
painting remained a playground of extremely 
vague notions : true, much ink has been spilt 
in comparatively recent times over the question 
of the claims to priority of the Florentine and 
Sienese schools ; but we have had to be patient 
in our wait for a sustained effort to give a de- 
tailed account of the various schools of painting 
which flourished in Tuscany during that cen- 
tury of such capital importance for the evolution 



of Italian art. For these reasons, the publica- 
tion of Dr. Siren's volume is much to be wel- 
comed, seeing that it deals at length, not only 
with the Florentine school of the Uuecento, but 
also with two other schools, which, thougli 
highly important in that century, were of curi- 
ously slight consequence during later periods — 
the schools that is, of Lucca and Pisa. As the 
author himself points out, there are two con- 
siderable omissions in his treatment of the 
theme covered by the title of the volume — the 
school of Arezzo and, above all, that of Siena — 
but even within its present limits the book con- 
tains sufficient new or unfamiliar material to 
make it of exceptional interest to students. 

Although documentary evidence regarding 
the masters of this period is much scantier than 
one could wish, there is yet sufficient of it to 
enable the historian to operate with, at any 
rate, a few individualities distinguishable by 
name. In Lucca we have thus Berlinghiero 
Berlinghieri {jl.c. 1228 — signed Crucifix in the 
Lucca Gallery), his son Bonaventura (records 
1235-1274, signed picture, dated 1235, in S. 
Francesco at Pescia), and Deodato Orlandi (re- 
cords 1288-1327, three signed pictures); in Pisa 
Giunta Pisano (records 1 202-1 258, two signed 
Crucifixes at Pisa and Assisi), and Enrico di 
Tedice {fl. c. 1254, one signed Crucifix at Pisa); 
and in Florence Coppo di Marcovaldo (records 
1 260-1 274, one signed Madonna in S. Maria 
dei Servi at Siena), and Cimabue (records I272- 
1302, one authenticated work, St. John, in the 
mosaic of the apse of the Duomo at Pisa). 
Between these artists, their scholars and anony- 
mous contemporaries. Dr. Sir^n divides a 
material of some ninety items, discussed at 
length in the body of the book and conveniently 
arranged in lists at the end of the volume — a 
series the extent of which denotes assiduous re- 
search, even though, naturally, it would be 
possible to point to examples which have 
escaped Dr. Siren's notice. With regard 
to the fine Crucifixion in Mr. Henry Harris's 
collection, assigned by Dr. Sir^n with a query 
to Giunta Pisano, it may be mentioned, by the 
way, that so far from being of " unusually 
small dimensions," i.e., 23 by 12J cm., as 
stated on page 163, the picture is of consider- 
ably larger and quite usual size (56.5 by 32.5 
cm.), and hence by no means of an " almost 
miniature-like character." 

An extremely valuable feature of the book 
are the reproductions, which for the first time 
enable one to obtain a synopsis of the perform- 
ance of the three above-mentioned Tuscan 
schools during the Duecento, most of these for- 
bidding-looking frescoes and panels having 
been ignored even by the big and enterprising 
Italian firms of photographic publishers. The 
illustrations, naturally, are of essential import- 



239 



ance in aiding one to follow Dr. Siren's argu- 
ment, which is coloured all through by a senti- 
ment of keen appreciation of the aesthetic 
significance of the current of art which is repre- 
sented by the works discussed. Whether in 
recognising a definitely non-naturalistic ten- 
dency in this phase of painting the author 
does not, however, tend somewhat to strain his 
argument, is another question. Space forbids 
to enter into a detailed discussion of the indivi- 
dual attributions ; there are some which, as you 
read the book and consult the illustrations, seem 
very plausible, whilst others are less con- 
vincing : thus the fact that the proven- 
ance of the pictures, discussed on pp. 94- 
114, invariably, when ascertainable, points 
to Florence, appears to be a stronger 
argument against the theory that they are 
by a Lucca master than the author admits. 
But the real checking of Dr. Siren's views could 
only be done before the paintings themselves ; 
and I could imagine no more enjoyable task for 
a picture-lover's holiday in Tuscany than, 
having first read Dr. Siren's account of the 
fascinating period of which his book treats, 
following this up by investigations in situ. t.b. 

Etruscan Tomb Paintings. By Frederick Poulsen. 
Translated by Ingeborg Anderson, M.A. 63 pp. -f- 47 pi. 
Oxford (Clarendon Press). 15s. net. 

Etruscan Art has been rather hardly treated. 
Indiscriminate enthusiasm was followed by a 
neglect, which has allowed the very monuments 
to decay and disappear; and only recently has 
the subject received the critical attention it de- 
serves. Mr. Poulsen's book, well translated 
and adequately illustrated, makes an admirable 
introduction. Wisely, it makes the ethnogra- 
phic significance of Etruscan painting its main 
theme, rather than its aisthetic value. Indeed, 
a chronological survey of tomb paintings shows 
them to be mainly pastiches on contemporary 
Greek work, without Greek restraint or fit 
choice of theme. Yet these assemblies of 
borrowed motives have a definite character of 
their own which justifies Mr. Poulsen's remark, 
" Sex and cruelty are the basic group of the 
Etruscan mind." For example, in a group of 
works representing the future life as an eternal 
symposium, men and women recline on the 
same couch, an idea repellant to the Greek 
mind; and Mr. Poulsen very neatly refutes 
Weege's theory that these women are simply 
hetcerce. Likewise, in the treatment of scenes 
from the athletic games associated with obse- 
quies, there is a note of savagery absent from 
Greek work; and the character of these scenes 
suggests an origin for the more brutal contests 
of the Roman gladiators. Still, more idyllic 
elements are sometimes present. Fluteplayers 
not only perform at banquets, but stimulate 
athletes, encourage cooks, and relieve the 



tedium of masters chastising their slaves. One 
important conclusion reached by Mr. Poulsen 
is that the e.xplanation of many details in the 
costume and ritual of the Romans, must be 
sought in Etruscan practice ; and that in Roman 
art, such motives on sepulchral monuments as 
the two genii holding a cloth probably has an 
Etruscan origin. More speculative is the 
attempt to trace relation between the political 
and social decline of the Etruscans, and in- 
creasing emphasis on horrific and demonic ele- 
ments in their art. Certainly there is here a 
curious parallel to the course of events in Italy 
during the Renaissance and Counter-Reforma- 
tion. But questions like these need more de- 
tailed consideration than the scale of the present 
book justifies, but which Mr. Poulsen's learning 
and critical acumen raise the hope he will under- 
take in the future. w. g. c. 
Claude Lorrain. By Walter Friedlaender. 256 pp. 
Berlin (Paul Cassirec). 

To all students of seventeenth-century art the 
name of Dr. Walter Friedlaender is of course 
familiar as that of the author of an excellent 
volume on Nicolas Poussin ; and they will 
therefore know what to expect from a mono- 
graph by him on the other great French seven- 
teenth-century master whom we almost instinct- 
ively bracket with Poussin, namely, Claude 
Lorrain. It is now some time since Claude has 
been made the subject of a volume to himself 
on a more extensive scale; in fact. Lady Dilke's 
elaborate monograph was published as far back 
as 1884, and even Mr. Edward Dillon's de- 
lightful and instructive little book on Claude — 
curiously enough not specially mentioned bv 
Dr. Friedlaender — is now close upon twenty 
years old. The three main sections of the 
present volume deal, respectively, with Claude's 
paintings, etchings and drawings. To a 
present-day observer, the immediate appeal of 
Claude's impromptu drawings and sketches 
from nature is such as to cause an inclination to 
neglect his more carefully planned and executed 
pictures : but everyone who has at all given the 
latter a closer attention can bear witness to how 
much they grow on you, and how close the ties 
— for all apparent elements of formality and 
convention — which connect the Claude of the 
pictures with the Claude of the drawings. The 
comprehensive survey of Claude's pictures 
made by Dr. Friedlaender — excellently sup- 
ported by reproductions — is therefore exceed- 
ingly welcome and valuable. The etchings are 
made the subject of a closely-reasoned attempt 
at chronological classification ; and the draw- 
ings are treated of in an essay which groups 
the material clearly and conveniently, and is 
illustrated by specimens chosen not only from 
the incomparable collection in the British Mu- 
seum, but also from less known repositories 



240 



among which the Berlin Print Room has con- 
tributed particularly full and interesting series 
of examples. As Dr. Friedlaender himself 
remarks, the whole subject of Claude's draw- 
ings is one which has never yet been system- 
atically gone into : few more fascinating sub- 
jects of art history could probably be suggested 
than an exhaustive inquiry into this province 
of Claude's work, though the task is neces- 
sarily a lengthy one. The aim of Dr. Fried- 
laender's book is not to be the final work on 
Claude even of our generation : but all further 
research devoted to this master will derive con- 
siderable utility from his painstaking and well- 
balanced study. T. B. 

Vermeer of Delft. By E. V. Lucas, with an Introduction 
by Sir Charles Holmes. 48 pp. + 13 pl- (Methucn). 
los. 6d. 

Following upon Mr. G. Vanzype's new and 
enlarged edition of his book on Vermeer, Mr. 
E. V. Lucas's brief study of the master is more 
in the nature of an appreciation than a criti- 
cism. But it is the inspiring appreciation of 
a confessed lover of the master, while Sir 
Charles Holmes's admirable introductory note 
touches critically on some technical aspects and 
the chronological order of his work. A master 
who worked for at least twenty-three years, and 
of whom there are extant only thirty-seven 
pictures universally accepted, must have left 
others to a world which admired him and 
sought to possess his work even in his life- 
time, and Mr. Lucas tempts us to wonder with 
him where the others are to be found — not only 
those whose existence the records of Vermeer's 
three sales record (in 1679, two years after his 
death in 1682 and 1696), but also those which 
an artist, who left only one pure landscape, one 
street scene, and one religious subject, must 
surely have produced. Who will be the fortu- 
nate finder of " the gentleman washing his 
hands," the " Interior with revellers " and the 
" Devideuse " or " Spinner " — the re-dis- 
covery of which (it was in England in 1865) the 
author likens to the conquest of Mount Everest 
or the Poles? Here is a quest in which every- 
one who knows the master's work may take a 
hand. R. c. w. 

British Heraldry. By Cyril Davenport. 222 pp., 210 ills. 
(Methuen.) 6s. 

Heraldry has had its day. The faking of 
arms, pedigrees and titles by the bourgeoisie 
has deprived it of much of its historical value 
and led to a neglect of a science, which might 
be very useful to art historians. The following 
passage from p. 162 of Mr. Davenport's book 
is a description of another type of folly. " Of 
late years there has been a very interesting and 
curious tendency to choose new supporters, 
carefully analogous to, or explanatory of, the 
main circumstances of distinction, that have 
earned the titles to which they are assigned. 



This can easily be seen by looking at the 
achievements of any of the new peers in any 
illustrated peerage. For instance, Earl Roberts 
has two soldiers. Lord Fisher has two sailors. 
Lord Ashbourne has symbolical figures of 
Mercy and Justice, and so on." We can only 
deplore the amount of dusty bric-a-brac whi.:h 
blocks the path of modern England. This book 
will be useful to beginners who want to learn 
up the elements of heraldry. But we think it 
would have been better to have stopped a few 
centuries ago, leaving more space for a proper 
examination of mediaeval heraldry rather than 
have put in " a complete index of supporters," 
which will be out of date next time the Prime 
Minister issues a new list of peers. " British 
Heraldry " is more redolent of Debrett and ;ill 
its follies than of the history of the Middle 
Ages. But then Debrett costs £6 6s. and this 
book only 6s., and there may be people who 
want to know what Lord Birkenhead's coat of 
arms is. F. b. 

The Owen Pritchard Collection of Pottery, Porcelain, 
Glass and Books. Catalogued by Bernard Rackham, 
M.A., and Sir Vincent Evans, F.S.A. xvi + 104 pp. 
and 13 pl. lUust. (John Lane). los. 6d. 

The chief strength of this collection, now in the 
possession of University College, Bangor, is the 
English porcelain and earthenware, which ade- 
quately represents all the chief English factories. 
The Chinese and Japanese porcelain is chiefly 
interesting as shewing the influence of manufac- 
ture for Western markets. The books include 
numerous examples from modern presses, such 
as the Doves, the Eragny and the Vale. The 
illustrations though small are well chosen and 
arranged, and the introductions are adequate. 
Though Sevres and other P'rench factories are 
not represented, Mr. Rackham would have done 
well to mention them. As it is, the unlearned 
reader may imagine that English soft paste is an 
indigenous product, influenced only by China 
and Meissen. w. G. c. 

The Architecture of Robert and James Adam, 1758-1794. 
By Arthur T. Bolton. 2 vols. Folio. Vol. I, 344 pp. 
ill. + I pl. Vol. H, 362 pp. ill. + 92 pl., viii. pp. (Coun- 
tiv Life Offices) £S 8s. 

Much has been written on the work of the 
brothers Adam, who migrates from Scotland 
and left their mark not only in London, but, here 
and there, throughout England ; much that has 
been sheer uninformed nonsense, but with ex- 
ceptions, such as Mr. Swarbrick's " Robert 
Adam and his brothers," published as recently 
as 1916, which is just as erudite, although not 
so exhaustive, as Mr. Bolton's two monumental 
volumes. 

Mr. Bolton remarks in his preface: " It is 
certain that there is a stage in any artistic de- 
veloprnent when the form in u.se has become so 
crystallised, that the artistic spirit of the time 
must take refuge in the uttermost elaboration of 



241 



detail, thus marking time, if you will, until a 

breach is made by the rising pressure of a fresh 
creative movement." The question then arises, 
Did Robert Adam (for he was the guiding spirit) 
take refuge in this " uttermost elaboration of 
detail," or did he experience the " rising pres- 
sure of a fresh creative movement?" 

To say that Robert Adam left his impress on 
so much of London, in the Adelphi, Portland 
Place, Mansfield Street, St. James' Street, St. 
James' Square, Gower Street, Bedford Square, 
and elsewhere, is to say that his style is dis- 
tinguishable at a glance. It is peculiar in little 
else than in its " utter elaboration of detail," 
and in the sarne detail repeated time after time, 
until it becomes almost nauseating, some four or 
five motives, no more, occur again and again. 
Now that Robert Adam's work can be viewed 
through a perspective of about a hundred and 
fifty years, a careful and just observer may well 
question the fairness of such a criticism and 
judge Adam's work, apart from — almost in spite 
of_his ornament, and consider his strong points 
as well as his limitations. That he was obsessed 
by a stucco — that of Liardet, in which he had a 
commercial interest — is known, and to be re- 
gretted. This led to his over-use of ornament, 
interiorly, even at the expense of good taste, and 
exteriorly, at the expense of durability, 
in which quality the Liardet stucco was 
woefully deficient. He was also wanting 
in the practical knowledge of many of 
the materials which he used; witness his 
pendant swags overhanging the mirrors of 
his glass-frames, where wood or composition had 
to be cored with wires. Another great obstacle 
to the realisation of the good qualities of Adam's 
London work is due to the fact that posterity has 
not been contented to leave it as it was origin- 
ally finished. This applies even to the houses 
in the Adelphi, which, being the Adams' sanc- 
tuary, so closely associated with their work, one 
would have thought might have been left un- 
touched. Stories, or utterly unnecessary bal- 
conies, have been added, as in Portman Square, 
facades have been re-ornamented, and other in- 
congruous additions or alterations made long 
enough ago to look like an original part of the 
structure. Many of the interiors have fared even 
worse. Again, much of the brothers' work was 
mere addition or restoration — as at Nostell, for 
example, where Robert Adam jostles James 
Paine. So that, in justice to the Adams' work, 
one should judge of its merit in houses where 
the scope was arnple, as at Osterley, the Isle- 
worth home of the rich banker, Robert Child. 
Here Adam had almost complete sway, and a 
rich and indulgent patron — a necessity, as his 
work was never cheap ! 

A comparison between his preserved designs 



in the Soane Museum — to the curatorship 
of which Mr. Bolton succeeded after the 
regrettable death of that kindest of friends to the 
student, Mr. Walter Spiers, in 1917 — and the 
work which was actually executed in such houses 
as Gawthorp (now Harewood House), Nostell 
Priory and elsewhere, will show how much 
Adam was indebted to the rationalising influence 
of the cabinet-makers, Thomas Chippendale 
among the number, who worked for him. Yet 
with all these deficiencies, and despite his addic- 
tion to over-ornamentation, there is no doubt 
that Robert Adam, as a designer as well as an 
architect, was a genius, and an amazing one at 
that. Although he carried aristocratic England 
with hirn, built up a gigantic clientele, and de- 
voted himself to his tasks with extraordinary 
energy, he was more than merely successful. 
Allowing for the fact that he was supported by 
a large staff in addition to his brothers James 
and William, a study of the vast collection 
of drawings in the Soane Museum leaves no 
doubt of the power of his personal touch, as ap- 
parent in the actual drawing as in the designs 
themselves. These drawings show Adam to have 
had a scholarly acquaintance with the classical 
styles, especially the Roman, from which his 
style is directly derived, but so had many other 
architects of his time. He had an amazing fertility 
of invention in adapting that type of ornament, 
but that fertility was shared equally with men 
like Richardson, Carter, Crunden, Pergolesi and 
Cipriani. It is in the wise use of space, in the 
proportioning of the dimensions of rooms to 
window and door spaces, that Adarn really ex- 
celled. The result is that though both his build- 
ings and his interiors may be cold, formal or 
severe, unhomelike, if you will, they are always 
designed in better proportion than those of his 
contemporaries. 

Of the history of the brothers, of their work in 
Scotland, together with that of Adam senior, 
their migration to London, the scheme of the 
Adelphi on land reclaimed from the Thames — 
which was to make the Adams' fortunes, yet was 
so nearly their ruin — of the assistance of Lord 
Bute (" Scotsmen shoulder to shoulder ") in the 
legalising of a lottery for the sale of this and 
other London property possessed by the 
brothers, both Mr. Bolton and Mr. Swarbrick 
have given full accounts. The author knows 
his subject, has been most painstaking, and has 
the further advantage of living with the sixty 
odd volumes of the original drawings of the 
" Adelphi," which are in his care. Since the 
death of Mr. Walter Spiers, no one could have 
done the work as well or as gracefully. 

If one may express a preference for a par- 
ticular portion of this fine book, I should select 



242 



:^' 




The Upper Entrance Hall, Nostell Priory, Wakefield, designed by Robert Adam 
Reviews 




A — Two-leaved screen, by Hoitsu. Japanese, i8th century. 1.7 cm. by 1.7 cm. (Messrs. 
Yamanaka) 

Plate I. Monthly Chronicle 



the chapter on " Robert Adam's critics," and 
for the same reason with which George Bernard 
Shaw prefaced his lecture on " Great Men : are 
they real?" namely, that he was in the same line 
of business himself. Bearing in mind that 
Robert Adam, when he was permitted to do so, 
left his mark not only on ceilings, but on the 
floors also, in the way of specially designed 
carpets (at Osterley the lustres, door furniture, 
grates, fenders, and, I suspect, much of the 
silver also, were from his designs), the follow- 
ing quotation from " Nutshells," by Jose 
Macpacke, a bricklayer's labourer (1785), is 
especially delicious : 

Something in this stile I should be very much inclined 
to prefer to that generally applauded, where festoons obey 
various lateral kinds of gravity, unknown to nature and 
philosophy, and in which the chese cake and raspberry 
tarts, upon the ceiling, vie with, and seem to reflect those 
upon the floor with such wonderful precision, and where 
the insupportably gorgeous ceiling, and the fervently flowing 
carpet, cause the poor bare walls to be seemingly dissatisfied, 
uneasv, and impatient to retire from such fine company, as 
if conscious of their meanness and poverty. 

A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

Japanese Screens at Suffolk Street.— 
An exhibition of Japanese screen-paintings is 
always exhilarating. Glory of colour feasts the 
eye; happy audacities and surprises of design 
stimulate the mind. Messrs. Yamanaka's Octo- 
ber exhibition at the Suffolk Street Galleries had 
not perhaps so high an average of quality as their 
two similar exhibitions before the war; but some 
admirable works were included. Screen-painting 
was practised in Japan from the earliest times : 
but it was Kano Yeitoku, one of Japan's greatest 
masters — directing, like his contemporary 
Rubens, a crowd of gifted pupils — who created 
a special tradition for this type of art, which is 
essentially a kind of mural painting. Fusing the 
gorgeous decoration of the Tosa style with 
Chinese breadth and vigorous brush-work, he 
and his followers showed how flowers, trees and 
isolated motives from landscape could be made 
into designs of a grandeur and significance 
rarely found in Europe outside figure-composi- 
tions. One or two of the screens exhibited be- 
trayed the splendid design of Yeitoku's school. 
Of Tosa work, the Thirty-Six Poets, by Tosa 
Ilirochika, was the most important, though not 
rivalling Korin's famous screen of the same sub- 
ject ; the drawing of the figures is of great 
vivacity. In the Kano stvle a screen attributed 
to Tokinobu, and another, of Chinese sages, at- 
tributed to Sanraka, were good specimens. A 
new and superbly decorative style of screen- 
painting was created in the seventeenth century 
ijy Koyetsu and Sotatsu, though more often 
associated with their brilliant follower, Korin. 
Whether the Man Punting and the Lady Musi- 
cian are actually by Sotatsu or not, they give an 



The portico at Osterley is a good example of 
Adam's dignity, the Hall at Nostell Priory 
shown in the accompanying plate, of his 
aristocratic charm. The latter recalls to 
mind three illustrations on page 308 of 
Vol. II, two of a settee or day bed, one 
of a ribbon-back chair to match, both part of 
a suite. These are given as " Chippendale," 
and may be frorn the hand of the great crafts- 
man, but this is not furniture original to the 
house. The late Lord St. Oswald informed me, 
when I was at Nostell some eight or nine years 
ago, that the set was bought in Wakefield by 
his father, thirty years previously. One would 
like to think that this was actual Chippendale 
work returning to the great house for which it 
was made, but this is an assumption for which 
no evidence exists. But a slip of this kind is a 
small matter when one considers the splendour 
and completeness of the whole publication. 

H. c. 



adequate idea of his boldly simplified design 
and rare colouring. A later master of this school, 
Hoitsu, was represented by a small screen. 
Young Fir and Red Acacia [Plate I, a], 
on a silver ground, which, though not 
of the bigness of the earlier masters, is 
exquisite in colour and handling. Here one 
felt a personal quality in the work, missing in so 
many screens which one can only attribute rather 
vaguely to a school and period. A pair of screens 
of Bamboos in Snoiv, ascribed to a late Tosa 
master (of a time when the traditional character- 
istics of the old schools were often submerged 
under other influences) impressed by its magnifi- 
cent design in sharp greens and white on a dark 
ground. ^-- ''• 

The London Group. — It lis plain that the 
London Group has reached a crisis in its career. 
I wonder how many members realise that that 
is so. Eight years ago the youthful wildness 
attributed to it by those who criticise in conversa- 
tion and in newspapers, made it, to English eyes, 
as obnoxiously thrilling as another Gunpowder 
Plot. But to^ those who were watching the art 
of Europe as well as that of England, these youth- 
ful students were more like a row of learned 
clerks. For such, it was easy to observe that 
they were simply trying to stand in a line with 
the' school of Continental painters who were 
forcing a way through the breach Cezanne and 
his earlier colleagues had made in the wall sur- 
rounding French Impressionism. The tamencss 
of the task did not save the English contingent 
from having to suffer at the hands of the English, 
all the hardships that genuine pioneers have to 
put up with. But no handicap has been so great 



245 



as that which has, since the last exhibition of the 
Group, well nigh disappeared. What hope for 
the labours of the disciples when the gods were 
unknown ? So long as the great French artists 
on whose principles the Society was acting, were 
unknown in England, so long were their fol- 
lowers bound to remain misunderstood and un- 
popular. In these last few months there has 
occurred very quietly a change in the attitude of 
the picture public. We may with convenient 
inaccuracy regard it as having been ushered in 
by the exhibition of modern French art last 
summer at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, an 
institution moulded by the forces that determine 
the acceptability of schools of painting to Eng- 
lish cultivated society, for the first time in 
England there were brought together without the 
customary display of thunder and lightning a 
good collection of Impressionist and non-Impres- 
sionist French pictures, and in that tranquil at- 
mosphere it was generally realised that there was 
great worth in both. It was, no doubt, also 
realised that a decade of hostile criticism had not 
discouraged collectors from bringing into the 
country quite a number of C^zannes, Renoirs, 
Gauguins and others; that is, that there was " a 
demand " for them ; and from that moment even 
the ranks of Tuscany thought it would be as well 
to cheer. That, however, had of course nothing 
to do with another event which followed. The 
exhibition included one very remarkable Cezanne 
landscape. The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, in 
circumstances that called for wisdom and cour- 
age, accepted it for their collection, where it 
now hangs. These are but two external signs of 
the time. A third one can be seen in the pages of 
the new volumes of the Encyclopcedia Britannica 
where modern painting is dealt with in a way 
that would have been incredible a very short 
time ago. Whatever the London Group's per- 
formances may amount to, it now seems clear 
that their principles are accepted as sound, and 
that they are seen to be in the main current of 
European art, which cannot honestly be said of 
other English societies. How they will confront 
such an accompaniment to success remains to be 
seen. That depends on their merit as men rather 
than as artists. Perhaps after so long and so 
stiff a climb uphill the pilgrim may reasonably 
be expected to keep his feet on level ground. 
He may even realise that Cezanne is becoming 
too old to have any more children. Certainly 
no artists have prepared themselves more dili- 
gently to withstand the perils of applause, 
though the fact that the group has, and 
knows that it has, within its doors or at its call 
most of the ablest painters in England, is as 
dangerous for the Group as it is deplorable for the 
country. 

For the moment it is satisfactory that the pre- 



sent imperfect and in some respects disappoint- 
ing exhibition is probably the best the Society 
has yet had. Among the pictures we saw that it 
is no party triumph that has occurred but a re- 
conciliation — a triumph for both parties. We saw 
several exhibitors openly flirting with Impres- 
sionism and at one moment it looked as if Mr. 
Bavnes was going to get down on his knees be- 
fore everybody. It is curious how others of the 
same mind who came out when to be un-post- 
impressionist was to be pitiable, swung away to 
the extreme left rather than reveal the taint of 
conservatism. Mr. Bomberg wears his jazz uni- 
form here but appears simultaneously at the 
Independent Gallery in a crinoline. Having read 
Mr. Middleton Murry's foreword to the cata- 
logue, I found myself regarding the pictures 
as " embodiments of a vision of things " 
and, in the way one does at exhibitions, 
classifying the artists according to their 
various attitudes towards visible life. Some, 
like Mr. Sickert and Mr. Porter, seemed to be- 
long by nature to the streets and the fields, to look 
on the world with the eyes of the world, so that 
everybody can see at once what they are at. This 
is not a usual thing in our modern painting, and 
in the London Group is very rare ; an odd cir- 
cumstance when one remembers how emphatic- 
ally most of the English artists of the past — 
think of Constable, Crome and the eighteenth 
centurv — proclaimed the ordinary man's attitude 
to life, making the one or two exceptions, notably 
Whistler, appear quite foreign in the history of 
English culture. Other exhibitors, like Messrs. 
Grant and Baynes, Mrs. Bell, Miss Lessore and, 
I think, all the women painters who interested 
me, seem to have retreated from the highway, 
each into a peculiar parlour, there to contrive a 
less uncouth and more real because more personal 
world of her own. Still others, notably Mr. 
Fry and Mr. Gertler appear to regard objects, any 
objects, solely as material to be arranged on a 
canvas. They have a problem of form and colour, 
a painter's problem to resolve, and while their 
minds are on that they have no pleasure in any- 
thing else. They allow no careless expression to 
escape them but use the same forcible language on 
all occasions. This attitude of detachment is most 
typical of the London Group and is typical of 
present-day Continental painting as a whole, and 
it is round it that the storms have raged whose 
lessening billows still mutter on our shores. Then 
there are certain actor fellows, enjoying a sort of 
semi-popularity among elderly converts to post- 
Impressionism, who endeavour, and indeed suc- 
cessfully, to be up-to-date by apeing the manner- 
isms of the old-time prophets — mad and sane 
alike. To them the attitude of these adepts is as 
sentimental as it is to nature. Rhapsodists like 
the author of " Drink deep or touch not I" and 



246 








B — Flowers, by Keith Baynes. Canvas, 45 cm. by 54.6 cm. (London Group Exhibition) 

1 









;3^i.f 




t-si 



C—On the Bare, by Frederick J. Porter. Canvas, 33 cm. by 40.6 cm. (London Group Ex- 
hibition) 



Plate II. Monthly Chronicle 



^' 




Vase, carved from glass. Height, 22.9 cm., width, 25.4 cm. 
Probably Greek, found in China (Royal Ontario Museum,Toronto) 

A Greek Glass Vase from China 





f)_Horse, Renaissance bronze, modelled on those of St. Mark, 
Venice. (Heseltine Collection) 



£— Grey hound, Renaissance bronze. Paduan. 
(Heseltine Collection) 



Plate HI. Monthly Chronicle 



its twin sister are as out of place in tiie exhibition 
as those in the glass annexe who play the penny 
whistle so dolefully to Messrs. Heal's aesthetic 
flower pot. 

But after all, the critic cannot put his finger on 
what makes the picture a good work of art. He 
can explain only one facet as it appears from the 
place where for the moment he stands, and I am 
far from suggesting that the groups I have indi- 
cated are final. From another angle it would be 
absurd to class Miss Lessore with Mr. Baynes, or 
Mr. Gertler with Mr. Fry. But I think it may be 
true that the members of each group have devel- 
oped mainly from one aspect of their spiritual 
fathers. But even that implies the fact that an- 
other classification which would take more ac- 
count of what we see to-day and less of what we 
know as history, would be more just. For even 
since their last exhibition, some of the painters 
have changed their character. Mr. Fry is the same 
man but intenser, more austere, more minute, and 
almost terrifyingly conscientious. Mr. Porter is 
the same man but more romantic, and in his rom- 
anticism more at ease. Mr. Baynes is a new man 
altogether. Whoever could have guessed from his 
one-man, or rather half-man, show a few months 
ago that he would paint with this grace and free- 
dom. How odd it is when an artist holds to a 
technique just because he sees that it expresses 
aptly the ideas of someone else quite unlike him- 
self, and how pleasant it is to witness such a one 
jumping his hurdle. No one can say that Mr. 
Gertler has filched anybody's technical method. 
His brushwork is altogether his own, and from 
one square inch to another of the large picture 
he exhibits, his method never varies. The picture 
will no doubt be objected to because it is what 
is called ugly, but nobility of planning outweighs 
that as it did in the case of greater painters who 
could sometimes be " ugly " enough — like 
Velasquez. But the inflexibility of a brush 
governed not wisely but too well is monotonous ; 
the objects depicted, of cloth, porcelain, flesh, 
etc., all seemed tightened up like drums, each 
resounding with exactly the same note. Unity of 
surface is achieved at too great a cost. And yet 
there is something big in this man's work, though 
saying so in face of that picture may be too like 
prophesying. Nor must we prophesy of Mr. 
Grant whose chief picture leaves me colder than 
anything I have seen of his since he showed a 
large nude in the same gallery a year ago. His 
charming personality seems now to be repre- 
sented by two strangely distinct types of art. The 
one to which this picture belongs, is the more 
recent, the more ambitious and the less satisfy- 
ing. He may be working out in three dimensions 
a fresh system that will end in being a still richer 
index of his emotional experiences, but on the 
face of it this disjointed work gives no hint of 



such a thing. I prefer Ariel when he does not 
emulate Prospero. Mr. Sickert's huge devil-may- 
care sketch simply shimmers with vitality. It, 
too, may be considered " ugly " (by a quite 
different set of observers.) " But I wonder 
whether people like it?" I heard a fair admirer 
say. I wonder whether pigeons like peas, r.r.t. 

The Heseltine Collection of Bronzes and 
Majolica. — There is always an element of melan- 
choly in the dispersal of a great collection, especi- 
ally of one which bears markedly the stamp of its 
owner's individuality. So it is with the Hesej- 
tine bronzes now on exhibition at Alfred Spero's, 
35, King Street. Among them are many famous 
pieces; yet it is not the orthodox, sold with 
warranty type which predominates, but rather the 
intriguing, speculative piece which attracts the 
collector whose eyes are on the object rather than 
the name of its maker. Such are the Centaur and 
Deianira, composed in the manner of Giovanni 
de Bologna but of workmanship suggesting an 
earlier date and Paduan influence; a Marsyas, in 
connection with which the name of Pollaiuolo 
has been mentioned, despite a suspicious ele- 
gance and suavity of handling; a bearded nude 
figure, called The Executioner, on which Padua 
and Florence both have claims; The Witch, by 
Bode definitely given to Bellano, by others to the 
seventeenth century on account of its vivacity and 
exaggerations, features nevertheless just as 
characteristic of the transition from Gothic to 
Renaissance as of the Baroque ; and the charming 
figure of a seated child, inexplicably classed by 
Bode as Venetian work of the late sixteenth cen- 
tury, but with more affinity to Florentine work of 
an earlier date. Thus, there is plenty of oppor- 
tunity for the amusing game of attributions, for 
which Bode's work provides so many interesting 
and provocative suggestions. But the super- 
structure reared on that work has already 
become overweighty for its foundations, as the 
ascription to Pollaiuolo of a whole group of 
bronzes on the strength of one hundred-year- 
old attribution witnesses. More spade work 
is needed and less bandying about of great 
names, with realization of the fact that 
the Renaissance bronze is largely a repro- 
ductive art. But the mists of controversy 
leave the aesthetic merits of some pieces un- 
obscured. Among these is a group of fine animal 
pieces of Paduan origin such as the greyhound 
[Plate HI, e], goat and elephant, wherein 
realism is tempered by true imaginative in- 
sight; while the horse [Plate HI, d] so ob- 
viously modelled on those of St. Mark, yet 
shows the independent inspiration of its maker. 

The fourteen pieces of majolica in the collec- 
tion, chiefly from Urbino and Faenza, strike the 
same note as the bronzes. A few, such as the 
Maestro Giorgio plate signed and dated 1531, 



251 



are of the orthodox type ; others give more food 
to the eyes and thoughts. Among these are a 
good plate of the Amatori type, probably from 
Castel Durante ; a puzzling plate ascribed to the 

LETTER 

" PICTURES BY CONSTANTYN 
VERHOUT." 

Sir, — Mr. D. S. van Zuiden of the Hague 
has been so kind as to make some researches in 
the archives of Gouda for me. There he did 
indeed find mention of Constantyn Verhout, " op 
de Turfmarckt," as living there in 1666. He 
paid a small tax (" Klapgeld ") in 1666 and 

AUCTIONS 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 35, New Bond St. 
Nov. bth and 7th — Persian and Indian MSS. and worlds of 
art, including a collection of miniatures and drawings relating 
to the princes, people and religions of India, a Persian MS. 
of the Shah-Namah and a few good pieces of Persian pottery 
and objfts d'art. Nov. 8th — The collection of engravings of 
the Dutch, German and Italian schools, the chief feature of 
which is the series of familiar Kembrandts and some Man- 
tegnas, property of Baroness Lucas. Nov. 9th — English 
pottery, porcelain and furniture, and various objets d'art, 
several properties. Nov. loth — A further instalment from 
Parham Park, of the property of the Baroness Zouche of 
Haryiigworth. Among the furniture is a walnut arm chair 
of about 1700, but whether of English or Dutch origin it 
is difficult to say, as communication between England and 
Holland was very close at that date. With the exception 
of the original ruching which has been used as borders and 
has now perished, the upholstery is in its original state. 
The chief interest lies in the superb needlework. Although 
the chair appears to be original in every way, the needlework 
itself is ot two nationalities. The centre panel of the 
back, which is executed in very fine stitch, is a subject 



same factory with a Raphaelesque subject (La 
Vierge aux cuisses longues), and Urbinoesque 
elements ; and a Xanto plate, said to represent 
Michelangelo at work on a statue. w. g. c. 



1667. For the moment this is all, but it proves 
once more that Houbraken is trustworthy. The 
name is spelt both Verhout and Voorhout. Per- 
haps the master was a relative, possibly an uncle, 
of his pupil Jan Voorhout. 

Yours faithfully, 

A. Bredius. 
Monaco, 5th October, 1922. 



after Watteau, surrounded by festoons of flowers on a wine- 
coloured ground. This needlework, which is unmistakeably 
French, is extremely fine, both in design and execution. 
Ihe seat, which has evidently been made to match it, is of 
English workmanship, with all the differences one would 
expect to find. I he lot next to this chair is a set of five 
single chairs, also of about the same date, evidently made 
to match, with needlework seats and back, but without the 
centre panel. The needleworli on these is English through- 
out. Together they make an interesting set of unusually 
high quality ; and needlework, the backgrounds of which 
have this peculiar wine-coloured tint, are extremely rare. n.c. 

Messrs. Paul Graupe, Berlin. Nov. loth and nth — An 
extensive collection of modern graphic art, including the 
nearly complete oeuvre of Klinger and of Welti ; also Japanese 
coloured woodcuts and a few old masters, including Diirer, 
Rembrandt and Ridinger. 

Messrs. Hodgson & Co., 115, Chancery Lane, will sell 
at the end of November the extensive library from Cassiobury 
Park, including an album of original drawings and studies 
by old masters of the Flemish and Italian schools, which 
should prove of interest to collectors of minor works of art. 



GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



NATIONAL GALLERY, Millbank. 

P. H. Calderon. By the Waters of Babylon (oil). Pre- 
sented by Mrs. K. Calderon. 
J. D. Innls. Twilight in the Aveyron (water-colour). 

Presented by Mr. J. R. Fothergill. 
W. Strang. Landscape (oil). Purchased. 
BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Print Room. 
Prints. 

Alvarez (Brazilian Engraver). Portrait of the Emperor 

Pedro 1. Mezzotint (1825). 
Anna Lea Merritt. Portrait of Sir Leslie Stephen 

(etching). Presented by the artist. 
Sir J. E. Millais. Fisher Girl; recent impression from 
an etched plate in the possession of Mr. Ralph Amato. 
Ceramics and Ethnography. 

Amber glass bowl, Roman, from a tomb in Ithaca. Pre- 
sented by Dr. and Mme. J. K^ser. 
Two Chinese porcelain vases showing two stages in the 
process of decoration. Presented by J. Highfield Jones, 
Esq. 
Semi-porcelain box with cream-white glaze and carved 
petal design on the cover. Found with cast of Chik Tao 
(995-997 A.D.) in the foundations of the Kiating Pagoda, 
Szechwan. Purchased. 
Vase painted in black under a turquoise glaze. Rakka 

pottery, 12th century (?) Purchased. 
Persian pottery bowl with black ground and white slip 

decoration of geese, etc. 9th century. Purchased. 
Persian pottery bowl ; engraved ornament. 9th century. 
Purchased. 
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(The acquisitions marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Architecture and Sculpture. 



Set of plaster casts of the Gate of Honour erected at Gon- 
ville and Caius College, Cambridge, in 1534. Presented 
by the Warden and Fellows. 
Marble bust of Caracalla with bronze drapery, Scagliola 
pedestal. Italian ; 17th Century. After the antique. 
Presented by n. Willson, Esq. 
Ceramics. 

Plate, Chinese blue and white porcelain, Ming. Presented 

by Professor Masumi Chikashige. 
Plate, Chinese porcelain with painting in red and green 
on powder-red ground, Ming. Presented through the 
National Art Collections Fund by Lt. -Colonel K. Ding- 
wall, D.S.O. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 

'Studies (3) for Sculpture by A. Rodin. 
Indian Section. 
*A ceremonial Mace of agates and other Cambay stones, 
and jewelled jade. Formerly belonging to Wajid 'All 
Shah, the last King of Gudh. Lucknow, Oudh ; iSth 
century. 
"Ten examples of carved crystal, of which five are also 
jewelled. Mogul; 17th century, and Nepalese, I7th-i9th 
centuries. (Two exhibited.) 
*Large gilt-and-jewelled copper figure of the Dhyani- 
Bodhisattva Avalokita. Nepalese or Tibetan ; possibly 
i6th century. 
Library. 

Illuminated Manuscript Koran. Indian (Kashmir), early 
19th century, in contemporary painted papier mach^ bind- 
ing. Presented by C. E. Parkes, Esq. 
Paintings. 

"Miniature portrait of Beechey by Saunders. 

"Miniature portrait of the Rev. Dr. Foster by W. Grimaldi. 



252 



>' 




The Deposition. Flemish tapestry of the 15th century. Detail. (Victoria and Albert Museum) 



EDITORIAL : Leo7tardo in the consulting room 




LL really new scientific theories ap- 
pear before examination rather ab- 
surd; and those of the psychologist 
have the still worse fate of appearing 
after examination, unpleasant, be- 
cause they largely depend on routing out 
from the recesses of the mind the very things 
we have hidden there because of their distasteful- 
ness. In a way, it would have been better if 
general readers had continued to regard the sub- 
ject as one for specialists as they have done with 
most other developments of science. But that was 
not to be expected ; a study of the mind appeals 
to us as the most important study the mind can 
undertake, and when the modern scientist turned 
his instruments of perception in upon himself 
no intelligent man could resist the temptation to 
apply his eye to the lens. In doing so one ought 
to bear in mind that the psycho-analyst started 
and still primarily remains a pathologist. But 
his consideration of the minds of the insane led 
him inevitably to study less abnormal types, such 
as those of neurotic, nervous and eccentric people. 
Everybody who deviated permanently or tem- 
porarily from the normal was subjected to ex- 
amination, irrespective of whether his condition 
was considered psycho-pathological or not. By 
this process the poet, the artist, the musician, 
the prophet, the reformer, the criminal and, 
finally, ordinary members of society were studied. 
Minor errors of speech, acts of forgetful ness, 
oddities of conduct were regarded as temporary 
deviations from the normal, and together with 
dreams were found to be important manifesta- 
tions of theunconsciousprocessesof the mind. It 
was this widening of the scope of psychological 
research that arrested the attention of so many 
lay readers. The specialist in mental processes 
thrust his surprising theories under the eyes of 
specialists in a dozen other subjects, including 
art. 

The art specialist, with his hands already full, 
is at a great disadvantage in considering such of 
those books as encroach upon his territory. For 
each of Freud's works supposes on the part of 
the reader not only some little knowledge of 
psychology as a science, but above all that com- 
plete familiarity with it as a question which alone 
enables the ordinary man to consider it without 
repulsion. The situation is, in that respect, a 
little like the situation of evolution just before 
Darwin made his historic selection from the 
then existing evidence ; and the parallel is main- 
tained when we realise that even when one has 
mastered the Freudian theory of the uncon- 
scious, expounded in some forty books, Jung 
and others have still to be tackled. Before that 
task is accomplished the reader's attention will 



The Burlington Magazine, No 237, Vol. LXI, Dec, iqaa. 



again and again have been directed to other 
fields of inquir}^ and before long he will be con- 
fronted with the latter-day results of several 
separate courses of investigation — suggestion and 
hypnotism, behaviourism, and some physiology 
with special reference to the nervous and the 
glandular systems, fair judgment of any one of 
these subjects requiring some knowledge of the 
others. 

Perhaps only the art student who is also a 
student of aesthetics and who believes that a 
sound system of esthetics must be the outcome 
of a study of psychology, will be prepared to 
undertake a task like this. But a wider circle 
of students will probably be drawn by anything 
the scientist has to say about the personality of 
one of the greatest artists. Little surprise will be 
felt that among the peculiar manifestations of 
the mind the phenomenon of genius should have 
attracted the attention of the psychologist. But 
unhappily the admiring student of a genius is 
likely to be repelled at the very outset by the idea 
of his hero being regarded as abnormal, and as 
belonging to a type related to the neurotic. Even 
the admission by the psychologists that the 
genius represents the noblest outcome of the 
overcoming of an abnormal hereditary tendency, 
will hardlv appease the offended enthusiast. 
However, if he can bring himself to read one 
general book on psycho-analysis, and then a 
few books by psychologists who have attempted 
to examine this question of the artist genius, 
he may realise that the work of this kind that is 
being done is at any rate both useful and 
honest.' 

But it is likelier that the art student will turn 
directly to Freud's litde book on Leonardo da 
Vinci, which will be unfortunate, for as a be- 
ginner's book it has every possible disadvantage. 
It was written in a moment of leisure between 
two large volumes and when Freud was actively 
engaged in his chief work as a medical specialist. 
One doctor wrote it, a second translated it — 
abominably — and a third contributed the pre- 
face, so that it has the concentration and frank- 
ness of a medical treatise, and is therefore less 
suitable than some of the others for lay readers. 
Besides the book is something of a tour de 
force. In it Freud subjects his method to the 
most rigorous of tests. Leonardo being dead, 
cannot be psvcho-analysed in the usual way, and 
Freud, confronted with only the meagre available 
facts regarding the artist's life, tries to apply 
the knowledge he has acquired from his vast ex- 
perience of the mentality of living subjects to 

1 Der Kiinstler, by Otto Rank, Vienna, iqo7 ; Dichtung 
und Neurose bv Stekel, Wiesbaden, iqoo- also Meyer, Lenan, 
Kleist. The best general book is Freud's Introductory lec- 
tures on psyciio-analysis (Macmillan), Eng. translation. 

1 2SS 



the reconstruction of Leonardo's most intimate 
character. What Freud searches for in the ac- 
counts of Leonardo's career are evidences of the 
artist's instinctive life. He fastens upon certain 
details of an apparently trifling- nature which 
would be passed over as meaningless by the 
ordinary biographer. The chief of these is the 
single, strange mention Leonardo makes of his 
childhood in his private notebook, in which he 
describes how, when a child in his cradle, a vul- 
ture flew down to him from the sky and caressed 
him. Freud disposes of the improbability of 
such a story by assuming that the vulture scene 
is not a true memory but a phantasy of later 
days which the artist transferred by a familiar 
trick of the mind into his childhood, thus giving 
it far more importance as evidence of the nature 
of Leonardo's emotional tendency. Other pecu- 
liar details in the notebook are discussed : the 
extraordinary manner in which his mother's 
death is recorded only by a list of funeral ex- 
penses ; the recording of petty expenses and the 
omission of great ones ; the laborious details 
about the expenses incurred through the paltrv 
thefts of the little boy Jacomo; the studied pre- 
cision of the entry, consisting only of two short 
sentences, recording his father's death, in which 
he repeats the hour of death twice, makes his 
father eighty years of age instead of seventy- 
seven, and mistakes the number of his children ; 
the extraordinary difficulty he experienced in 
finishing his paintings, the sudden ruslies from 
painting to scientific investigation, appearing 
as a symptom of a mental conflict between two 
desires representing art and science ; the fantastic 
experiments with wax animals and a tame lizard 
fitted with glittering wings; the blowing up of 
the sheep's intestines till they filled the room; 
the letters to the " Diodario of Sorio, viceroy of 
the holy Sultan of Babylon" ; the reference to the 
"Academia Vinciana." These and other peculiar 
details, correlated with the odd and tragic cir- 
cumstances of Leonardo's child life, are used to 
identify the painter's mentality as belonging to 
a definite type of man familiar to the mental 
specialist in his consulting room, a type not 
normal indeed, but certainly not mad. 

Critics seem to regard this book as primarily 
a work on aesthetics, but this is far from being 
so. What Freud has to say of Leonardo is of 
value rather as biography. He does succeed in 



giving us an extraordinarily intimate portrait 
of the artist, a portrait as clear and delicate as a 
silverpoint drawing. And above all he shows 
us what it was that Leonardo felt such an im- 
perative need of expressing by his art and by his 
scientific investigation. We learn how when he 
painted the St. Anne he was fusing together the 
mental image of his models, of a religious subject 
and of a memory of his own childhood. In other 
words, we learn why he painted and investigated 
at all but not why he painted and investigated 
so well. When Freud examines Leonardo's pic- 
tures it is with a conscious purpose, not with 
assthetic detachment. That purpose is to seek 
in the picture evidence of what may have been 
in the painter's mind. Freud is investigating 
the artist, not his art, and the artist not because 
he is an artist, but because he is a man with all 
the inhibitions and compulsions which, accord- 
ing to the nature of their reaction to each other, 
account for the artist's extraordinary character. 

Critics have also given the impression that 
Freud is a violent partisan oblivious to the 
limitations of his method. That this is far from 
being the case is made clear by an extract from 
the book on Leonardo, which is otherwise suffi- 
ciently informative and curious to be worth 
quoting : 

The two characteristics of Leonardo which remained 
unexplained through psycho-analytic effort are first, his 
particular tendemcy to repress his impulses ; and second, his 
extraordinary ability to sublimate the primitive impulses [to 
find expression for them through a substitutive action]. 

The impulses and their transformations are the last 
things that psycho-analysis can discern. Henceforth it 
leaves the place to biological investigation. The tendency 
to repress, as well as the ability to sublimate, must be 
traced back to the organic bases of the character, upon 
which alone the psychic structure springs up. As artistic 
talent and productive ability are intimately connected with 
sublimation we have to admit that also the nature of 
artistic attainment is psycho-analytically inaccessible to us. 
. . . Even if psycho-analysis does not explain to us the 
fact of Leonardo's artistic accomplishment, it still gives us 
an understanding of the expressions and limitations of the 
same. It does seem as if only a man with Leonardo's 
childhood experiences could have painted the Moiina Lisa 
ajnd the Saint Anne, could have imposed upon his works 
the sad fate they suffered, and so attained to unheard-of 
fame as a natural historian ; it seems as if the key to all 
his attainments and failures was hidden in the childhood 
phantasy of the vulture. 

The other thing which the critics of this book 
have failed to deal with is the whole argument 
in favour of a connection between art and, in 
its widest conceivable sense, sex. They have 
shirked the point ; and to be frank, so have we. 



UNPUBLISHED CASSONE PANELS— VI 
BY TANCRED BORENIUS 




N the gradual evolution of the vast 
majority of museums it almost in- 
evitably happens, more particularly 
p^^^^ through gifts or bequests, that they 
^> *9 become possessors of objects which 



do not strictly come within the scope of the col- 
lections in question. And in that somewhat 
alien setting, such items are naturally apt to 
escape the attention of students in the particular 
field to which they belong. 



256 



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Not many people go to the British Museum 
in search of pictures by artists of the Western 
hemisphere : and yet it contains not a few 
European paintings of more than usual interest. 
This is not a suitable connection in which 
to discuss those wonderful fragments of the 
thirteenth - century wall-paintings from the 
" Painted Chamber " at Westminster Palace, 
now at the British Museum, which are among 
the most remarkable English Primitives which 
have survived ; but I should like to avail myself 
of the opportunity of referring in this series of 
notes to a cassone panel in the same collection, 
which, although duly noted by Dr. Schubring' 
is doubtless but little known and has never be- 
fore been reproduced. 

The panel [Plate], presented to the 
Museum by Major-General Meyrick in 1878, 
represents two incidents from the life of Alex- 
ander the Great. The greater part of the com- 
position is occupied by a rendering of the 
Battle of Granicus, B.C. 334, in which Alexander 
was victorious over Darius, whose figure, seated 
high up on a battle chariot, attracts the eye al- 
most in the centre of the composition. Immedi- 
ately on the left of the closely-packed meMe of 
the cavalry battle, we then have the next scene : 
the mother of Darius, Sisygambis, accom- 
panied by her suite, kneeling before the youthful 
victor. 

In its general scheme, the composition follows 
the disposition of the panel which occupies the 

1 Schubring, Cassoni, No. 160. The panel is exhibited in 
King Edward VII's Galleries. 



front of one of the two Cas.soni, now belonging 
to Viscount Lascelles, which were discussed in 
these columns by Dr. Schubring some years 
ago and figured at the Early Florentine Exhibi- 
tion of the Burlington Fine Arts Club in the 
summer of 1919.^ And arguing ex analogia we 
are probably justified in concluding that the 
Cassone originally adorned by the panel at the 
British Museurn, had as its companion one 
showing the same scene as Lord Lascelles's 
other Cassone : a composition interpreted by 
Dr. Schubring as the Marriage of Alexander 
and Roxane and by Dr. Weisbach' as the 
Triumph of Darius. 

In spite of the similarity in general disposi- 
tion between the British Museum panel and that 
on Lord Lascelles's Cassone, the two pictures 
cannot be ascribed to the same artist, seeing 
how greatly they differ in actual style. They 
are no doubt products of the Florentine school, 
and about contemporary — that is, painted about 
1450 :but the artist of the British Museum panel 
has considerably reduced the number of units 
in his scheme, and altogether simplified the 
design, which fills the space in a manner evinc- 
ing considerable sense of decorative appropri- 
ateness. The panel is on the whole in a very 
good state of preservation, and the gold of the 
carefully - tooled passages harmonises very 
happily with the brown and dull greens and 
greenish blues which predominate in the scheme 
of colour. 

2 See the Burlington Mac-izine, vol. XXII (January, 1913), 
p. 196 sqq. 

3 W. Weisbach, Trionfi, p. 32, n.i. 



A TAPESTRY IN THE MURRAY COLLECTION 
BY A. F. KENDRICK 




b^ 



RS^ f^SKl T is inevitable that efforts to make 
IUmI lis))) fresh acquisitions for the national 
collections should occasionally end 
in failure. When these mishaps 
occur, it is not always possible to 
take refuge in the philosophy of the inimitable 
Angler : "" Nay, the trout is not lost; for pray 
take notice, no man can lose what he never 
had." The object in question may have long 
been in the country, and indeed such cases form 
the chief problem to be dealt with to-day. The 
loss would have been irreparable if the tapestry 
which forms the subject of this notice [Frontis- 
piece and Plate II, b] had left England, as it 
very nearly did, a year ago ; for it is unique in the 
national collections and probably in the country 
as well. That it did not go was primarily due to 
the benefaction of the late Captain H. B. Murray. 
But the sum available under this bequest would 
not have outrun competition had it not been for 
the goodwill and public spirit of a group of 
London dealers who, not for the first time, 



waived personal interests in order to join in the 
effort to secure the tapestry for the nation, with- 
out commission or profit of any kind accruing 
to themselves. 

The tapestry first came to notice on its dis- 
covery by Lord Willoughby de Broke some 
years ago in a cupboard at Compton Verney. 
Although " treasure trove," it had in the end 
to be sacrificed to conditions brought about by 
the war, and last year Messrs. Sotheby were 
instructed to sell it by auction. The size (g ft. 
II in. by 3 ft. 8 in.) would render it suitable for 
hanging before an altar or at the back of the 
choir-stalls, but it can only have been brought 
out on special occasions, as the marvellous pre- 
servation of the colours shows. Although a few 
of the threads have perished, the loss is hardly 
more than the mere lapse of four and a half 
centuries would easily account for. The 
materials are chiefly woollen threads, and the 
dilapidations are almost entirely confined to 
these. Silk is sparingly used for high lights, 



and gold and silver thread for richness in the 
draperies and haloes. 

The chief advantage which this panel has 
over most tapestries of its age lies in the state 
of the flesh-tints, which are among the first to 
suffer as a rule. Their remarkable freshness 
and delicacy adds immensely to the effect of the 
work. The weaver's skill is not shown in any 
fineness or regularity of texture, but rather in 
the way that he uses the resources of his craft 
to expresss his theme. In the scenes of the 
Deposition and the Entombment a remarkable 
contrast to the living figures is afforded by the 
pallor of the body of Christ. The rendering of 
the thin texture of the winding-sheet in the latter 
scene allows the stonework of the sepulchre to 
be visible through it. The sky is in tlecks 
passing from pure white through successive 
shades to a deep blue. 

The treatment is altogether worthy of a mas- 
ter. Amid so much poignant grief there is no 
theatrical note in gesture or facial expression 
anywhere. Is it permissible to hazard a guess 
at the name of the designer? If so, that of 
Roger van der Weyden comes first to the mind. 
Such problems have their pitfalls, for no good 
tapestry counterfeits a painting. Even if it 
aims at a pictorial effect, which it may rightly 
do supposing that success is assured, the result 
is as different as the means employed. Artists 
of the first rank often made preliminary designs 
{fetits patrons) for tapestries, and they even 
collaborated at times in the grands patrons 
which the weavers had beside them at the 

FRENCH EIGHTEENTH CENTURY FURNITURE IN THE 
WALLACE COLLECTION-I 

S. MacColl 

F with pictures it is well to study the 
I back as well as the front for evidence 

of authorship and history, it is 
I doubly so with furniture during a 

period when concealed signatures 
were customary. The packing away of the 
Collection during the war and the work of re- 
arrangement delayed my intention of making a 
thorough and complete examination of the 
furniture at Hertford House, and the provision 
of a lift has rendered it easier. Besides .the 
bronze-worker's signature of Caffieri and the 
inlaid names of Riesener and Foulet two 
ebeniste stamps were certainly known to exist, 
those of Dubois and Leieu ; in other cases a 
name had been assigned with high probability ; 
but neither Molinier nor Lady Dilke, who gave 
some study to the subject, had an opportunity 
of searching for stamps or other records not 
visible on the face. In collections public or 



loom ; but no master-painter of experience 
would expect the tapestry to have any deceptive 
resemblance to his painted design. An attribu- 
tion to Roger van der Weyden, if it may be 
made in this case, is not inconsistent with the 
obvious date and probable locality of origin of 
the tapestry. Clearly it belongs to the 
middle years of the fifteenth century. At 
that time Brussels had not yet earned 
the fame it afterwards enjoyed. Tournai 
and Arras were the foremost centres of tapestry- 
weaving, and they prospered under the patron- 
age of the Dukes of Burgundy. Roger was a 
native of Tournai, and there he served his 
apprenticeship. Robert Campin, his master, 
as well as his fellow-pupil Jacques Daret, made 
designs for tapestries. So far as Roger him- 
self is concerned, a well-known set of tapestries 
at Berne preserves the designs of some paintings 
of his which perished in the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; and a tapestry in the Louvre reproduces 
his picture at Munich of St. Luke painting the 
Virgin. It should be borne in mind that even 
if Roger were the designer of the tapestry under 
consideration, no preference for Tournai over 
Arras as the place of weaving would necessarily 
be implied, for by the middle of the century 
he was already settled in Brussels as town- 
painter. 

There is a charming touch of French grace, 
so alien to the realistic art of the school of the 
Van Eycks, and it seems reasonably safe to 
locate the tapestry somewhere on the Franco- 
Flemish borderland. 




private these records often lurk unseen and 
they are not always easy to find. They may 
be under a slab, on the back, on the edge of or 
beneath a drawer, or right underneath the 
object. They are often carelessly impressed, 
filled up or mutilated, and it is astonishing how 
loosely the strict regulations of the mattrise seem 
to have been carried out.' The officers of the 
corporation had the right of entry into the 
workshops and could seize or destroy any 
pieces not properly made and marked with the 
master's name and the ME which meant maitre- 
ebeniste. But we find names without that addi- 
tion, and pieces nameless where we should expect 
a signature. On the other hand the name may 
be stamped twice, thrice or oftener. One can 
never be absolutely sure of the absence of a 



1 The stamp period is from about 1744 till the Revolution 
with a short break in 1776. Royal workers in the Louvre 
and some privileged settlements were exempt. 



260 




_4— ]5ureau by J. V. Kr.sk-l. 86.4 cm. by too. 3 cm. by 96.5 cm. 





7j_Ck)ck-case by lial 
ihasar l.icutaucl. 2.36 m. 
b\- o.s6 m. bv 0.36 ni. 




C — C'aski'i b\- Anininc I'.nilki. 35.6 cm. by 37.2 cm. by 45.7 cm. 



/) — Siii'naiun' b\ .Xnloine 
iMiulIel and mail rise .stamp 
on the casi<et (c) 



Plate I. Imcik-Ii Eighteenth Century I'tirniture in the Wallace C()llectii)n — I 



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name. In one case I had called in six pair of 
eyes to support my own scrutiny of two com- 
panion pieces without result, but as they were 
going down in the lift the accident of light re- 
vealed a faint and incomplete impression on one 
of them, and with this clue I discovered the 
name, faint but in full upon the second. In 
another case black paint had obliterated all but 
a trace of the tops of the letters, nearly covered 
by a reinforcing piece of wood. Such a hunt 
has its mild excitement and a proper history of 
the period cannot be written till a search for these 
evidences has been pursued. The illustrated 
catalogues of the Royal Collection at Windsor 
by Sir Guy Laking, of the Jones Collection by 
Mr. Brackett, of the Louvre Collection by M. 
Gaston Dreyfus and of Russian Collections by 
M. Denis Roche, have added to the material 
provided by earlier books : on the other hand 
the Repertoire of Les Artistes Decorateurs 
du Bois by the late M. Vial and his collabor- 
ators has advanced the documentary study of 
which M. de Champeaux was one of the 
pioneers. It is time that the Wallace Collec- 
tion added to the common stock of knowledge, 
and I therefore anticipate the publication of a 
catalogue by giving here some of the results ob- 
tained. I will begin with a summary list of 
signed pieces in the order of the existing cata- 
logue. The signatures of »metal workers and 
clock makers are not here included, nor marks 
of provenance, of which I shall speak later. 

Gallery I. 
Nos. 24, 26-30, Armchairs. Stamped G. JACOB. 

Gallekv II. 
Nos. II and 12, Cabinets. Stamped A. WEISWEILER. 

Gallery VI. 
Nos. xiii, xiv, Armchairs. Stamped VITEL. 

Gallery IX. 
No. 13, Buffet. Stamped J. F. LELEU 
No. 20, Commode. Stamped with false signature, RIESNER 

[iic] 
No. 27, Bureau. Stamped J. U. ERSTET. 
No. 31, Table. Inscribed Louis Le Gaigneur, fecit. (See Bur- 
lington Magazine, December, 1915.) 
Gallery X. 
No. 26, Commode. Stamped P. GARNIER. 
Nos. 32 and 34, Commodes, Stamped MARCHAND. (Now 
in Gallery XVI.) 

Gallery XI. 
No. 14, Cabinet. Stamped I DUBOIS ME. (Now in the 

Hall.) 
Nos. 24-29, Chairs. Stamped M. GOURDIN 
Head of Grand Staircase. 
Nos. 21, 31, Cabinets. Stamped J. F. L. DELORME 

Gallery XII 
No. 4, " Londonderry " Cabinet. Stamped on each section 

E. LEVASSEIJR. 
Nos. 22b, 22c, Chairs. Stamped I. B. LELARGE. 

Gallery XIII. 
No. 4, Corner-piece. Stamped J. H. RIESENER 

Gallery XVI. 
No. 44. Casket. Stamped ANT/FOULLET ME. (Now in 

Gallery VIII). 
No. 46, Commode. Stamped four times under slab with un- 

unusually large FM. (Now in Gallery XV). 
No. 4S, Console Table. Stamped I DUBOIS ME. (Now in 

Gallery XIII). 
No. 52, Console Table. Stamped J. F. LELEU ME. (Now 
in Gallery XIII.) 



No. 53, Commode. On back are initials, but probably of 
owner, EBB, as on two pieces in Jones Collection, 
and one in that of Mr. Victor Ames. 
No. 58, On the back of the CafTieri Commode is a Urge 

double V or W. 
No. 59, Cabinet. Stamped JOSEPH. (Now in Gallery 

'XVII.) 
No. 60, Commode. Stamped E. LEVASSEUR ME. 
No. 66, " Stanislas " Bureau. In addition to signature of 
Riesener and date in inscriptions to be facsimiled later, 
are large letters DC twice branded underneath. (Now 
in Gallery XI.) 

Gallery XVIII. 
No. 4, Secretaire. Stamped J. H. RIESENER and also 

G. BENEMAN. 
No. 12, Secretaire. Stamped J. H. RIESENER. 
No. 20, Bureau-toilette. Curiously branded under a drawer 

LxExLEU in large letters. 
No. 24, Secretaire. Stamped J. H. RIESENER. 
No. 30, Secretaire. Inlaid in the marquetry is foulet. 
No. 44, Commode. Stamped J. H. RIESENER. 
No. 52, Secretaire. Stamped J. F. LELEU ME. 
No. 54, Table. Under drawer are the large and rough 
initials J R L S. 

Gallery XIX. 
No 3, Cabinet. Two stamps, of which in one case 

M ME survives ; possibly M. CARLIN, but 

the obliteration has been deliberate. 
No 4 Work-table. Stamped twice M. CARLIN ME. 
No. 16 Table. Stamped I DUBOIS ME. 
No. 19, Etagere. Stamped A. WEISWEILER. 

Gallery XX. 
No. 6, Secretaire. Stamped A. WEISWEILER. 
No. II, Secretaire. Stamped A. SCHUMAN. 
No. IS, Serre-papiers. Stamped 1 DUBOIS on both parts. 
No. 16, Worli-table. Stamped R-HV-|-L4-C ME. 
No. 17, Writing Table. Stamped I. DUBOIS. 

Gallery XXI. 
No. 9, Cabinet. Stamped E. LEVASSEUR ME. 
No. 29, Long-case Clock. Stamped B. LIEUTAUD. 
No to Sofa: Nos. 31-38, Armchairs. Stamped C. 
MELLIER & CO, CABINET MAKERS, LONDON, 

No. 45, Upright Bureau with Clock. Stamped M. CARLIN 
'ME. 

Gallery XXII 
No 25 Sofa ; Nos. 26-33, Armchairs ; Nos. 34-35, Causeuses. 
All stamped G. JACOB. 

Here, then, leaving out doubtful cases, are 
twenty-three names on sixty-three pieces, some 
familiar, others only names, or even unknown to 
the records. I shall deal at present with the 
signed pieces of " BouUe " work, all later than 
A. C. BouUe the elder. 

J. U. ERSTET'S name is absent from the 
available records unless under the form " J. W. 
Erster," master in 1774, who lived "dans les 
Celestins " and in the rue des Jardins till 1791- 
One signed piece by him is recorded in a private 
collection; a rosewood bureau in Louis XVI 
style. There is also " Joseph Ertet," who 
married in 1789. The name Erstet may very 
well have been a phonetic spelling of the Danish 
Oersted. Now here [Plate I, a] is a piece 
which not unreasonably from its design was set 
down as by A. C. Boulle himself, " and in his 
finest stvle." An identical palmette mount 
appears on a commode of the same general con- 
ception. N o. 6 in M. D reyfus's Louvre Cata- 

~ 2 These chi^irs, which by no fault of tha makers have 
hitherto passed for Louis Seire work, were m.ide on a l-rench 
model in Sir Richard Wallace's time to frame the f-Khteenth- 
century tapestries. A close inspection shows that the g.Idmg 
was F:nPlish, the " burnish " beneath the gold bemg blue, 
not red. 



265 



logue, given definitely, I do not know on what 
evidence, to A. C. Boulle. Its slab is of the same 
beautiful black and gold marble, called in French 
" portor." Our marble is broken at one 
corner; a strengthening slab of stone has been 
added beneath, and this fits into an extra top 
of wood, doubtless a later addition, along with 
the little appliques at the corners. 

ANTOINE FOULLET was, in 1757, jure 
of the corporation and master of the Confr^rie 
de Ste. Anne au convent des Carmes Billettes. 
No other piece by him is on record, but this 
casket [Plate I, c] with its cipher of royal 
L's, illustrates how production of " Boulle " 
work went on under Louis XV. 

BALTHASAR LIEUTAUD is another 
Louis XV worker. I place him here, though 
there is no metal and tortoiseshell inlay on his 
clock ; hut the ebony veneer that gave its name 
to the ebcnistes along with gilt brass mounts 
persists. He became a master in 1748 and lived 
till 1780. This must be one of his later pieces, 
after 1770 perhaps, showing the influence of 
J. C. Delafosse. There is another regulateur by 
him in the Jones Collection and one at Versailles. 
Indeed he appears only to be known as a clock- 
case maker. The clock, whose works are by Ferdi- 
nand Berthoud (in Paris, 1746-1807) is said to 
have been taken from the Tuileries in 1793, 
whitewashed to conceal its value, and bought 
from a pork-butcher some fifty years ago. 
[Plate I, b]. 

JACQUES DUBOIS and JEAN FRAN- 
COIS LELEU are also characteristic Louis XV 
workers, Leleu in the Oeben-Riesener group, 
Dubois chiefly famous for the black lacquer and 
vernis Martin pieces in the Wallace Collection 
decorated with gilt-bronze figures attributed to 
Falconet. Dubois was jur6 in 1753 and died 
about 1773, but his widow continued the busi- 
ness, as widows had a right to do, till sometime 
between 1783 and 1787. Leleu was master in 
1764, and is known to have lived till 1787. It is one 
of the surprises of this inquiry to find both men 
manufacturing " Boulle " work : no such pieces 
are hitherto on record. What is more the two 
console-tables are exactly alike except for a little 
bronze mount inserted by Dubois above the 
masks; the design of the B^rainesque singeries 
on the slabs also differs. [Plate II, e]. (These 
slabs are not, like the rest of the work, shell on 
brass but brass on shell.') Now, apart from the 
slab patterns and the little urn-lamp below, the 
design of these tables goes back to one of the 
models engraved by A. C. Boulle himself, and is 
the most exact case I know of such correspond- 
ence. The significance of all this is worth notice. 

3 A table with the same curved legs and mounts is illus- 
trated on p. 70 of Molinier's Le Mobilier XV Ih et au XT7//c 
Steele, and attributed to Boulle. 



The name of a cabinet-maker stands for very little 
in the matter of design. He received a slietch 
(often, it is true, of a rough or even sloppy 
kind) from some architect or ornamental 
draughtsman, and applied his craft to render it 
as best he could. For models of bronzes he 
must apply to a sculptor and go to a bronze- 
founder and chiseller to have them carried out. 
A few men, like A. C. Boulle, were privileged 
to produce their own bronzes; Cressent, though 
a sculptor by training, got into trouble for con- 
travening the rules. This dividing up of design 
and execution accounts for a good deal of in- 
coherence, and many of the bronze mounts were 
" stock " pieces, applied to different designs by 
different hands. We cannot be sure, therefore, 
that the ebiniste's mark means more than a re- 
sponsibility for the putting together of the piece, 
its veneer and inlay. 

The second piece signed by Dubois [Plate 
II, f], one of a pair of heavily designed cabinets, 
is of later style, with a minimum inlay of brass 
and pewter only. 

The first piece by ETIENNE LEVASSEUR 
[Plate II, g] illustrates how full of pitfalls the 
work of the " Boulle " continuers or revivers 
is in the absence of documents. It was des- 
cribed as of the Regency period (1715-23). 
Now Levasseur was born in 1721 (he died in 
t8oo) and was not a master till 1766, so that our 
piece, which has the maitrise mark, must be of 
that date or later. As he lived in the Faubourg 
St. Antoine, where there was a privileged com- 
munity, largely foreign, he no doubt produced 
work before that date and may have signed it or 
may not. According to his grandson he served 
five years in the atelier of one of the Boulles, so 
that he carried on their tradition without a break 
till the end of the century. To group him, there- 
fore, as a " Boulle " revivalist with Montigny 
and Jacob under Louis XVI is a mistake, 
though he benefited by the revival. 

It is only recently that Levasseur's name has 
been detected on pieces attributed to the Boulles 
in the Louvre. The two remaining pieces identi- 
fied here [Plates II, h and HI, j] are therefore, 
useful documents, and they are found to group 
with works bv two other men, JOSEPH and 
J. F. L. DELORME [Plate HI, k and m]. Of 
the first, little is known" ; he is associated with 
pieces in lacquer and wood-marquetry. The 
second is not known at all, unless he be the 
Delorme who became master, also in 1766, by 
whom no pieces are reported. 

All four pieces illustrate the limited and 

* The mystery about Joseph is cleared up by Comte F_. de 
Salverte, In a forthcoming work, Les Ebenistes du XVIII' 
Sidcle. He was Joseph JBaumhauer, a German attached to 
the service of the Court under Louis XV soon after 1767. 
He died in 1772. 



266 




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" stock " character of type and mounts. They 
are all properly bookcases, of which a design 
engraved by BouUe is archetype. So with de- 
tails. The keyhole mounts on the huge 
" Londonderry " Cabinet, with their ap- 
pearance of double-eagle heads crowned, 
might be thought to point to a royal 
command. This device, however, appears on 
the Mazarin commodes, which are authentically 
Boulle's. The same device appears on Levas- 
seur's other cabinet and on that by Delorme : 
also on the armoire standing opposite the 
Londonderry cabinet in Gallery XII (No. 3) 
and on various pieces elsewhere. The device of 
the Cupid in flight suspending a curved frame- 
work is a smaller variation' of a motive on the 
same armoire where the suspensions end in the 
trophies of the Delorme cabinet. The curved 
mounts above appear on a cabinet at Windsor 
(Catalogue, Plate 30) above a figure of Flora or 
Spring, of which more presently. The counter- 
part has a Ceres or Summer. The corner mounts 
are the same as those in the Delorme. The 
corner-pieces on the doors of the Londonderry 
Cabinet contain smaller versions of the mask on 
the corner-pieces of the other Levasseur cabinet. 

That cabinet [Plate III, j] is one of a pair 
bought from the Koucheleff-Bezborodko family. 
They are counterparts, but it is the second part 
(shell on metal) that is signed, and there are 
differences in the wood of the interior and a 
difference also in the constitution of the gilding. 
There is a curious note in Madame Vigde le 
Brun's Souvenirs in which she describes a 
visit to Prince Bezborodko's " salons encombr^s 
de meubles achet^s a Paris." They came, she 
says, from the elaborated ^b^niste " Dagu^re '" 
and most of them had been so well imitated by 
the Prince's serfs that it was impossible to dis- 
tinguish copy from original. It is just possible, 
though in a high degree unlikely, that No. 23 
is one of those reproductions. 

The Delorme cabinet has the same mould- 
ings, base, 'outer feet and top-slab under its 
marble as the Levasseur piece : indeed, these 
features are common to a whole group of 
" meubles a hauteur d'appui " ; some of them 
go back to an engraved Boulle type. But the 
corner-pieces are those to be found in a number 
of armoires, one of them the example already re- 
ferred to in Gallery XII. They are also on the 



* It appears in this shape on No. iii in the Louvre, a 
cabinet formerly assigned to Boulle himself. It has the 
Delorme corner pieces, eagle-head keyholes, but also the key- 
hole device of a crown over a lyre with torches en sautoir, 
which is to be found on two curious commodes in our 
gallery XVII (Catalogue XVI, 61-65.) 

® Volume III, p. 71. 

' The furniture was from the quantities sacked and sold at 
the Revolution from the royal palaces. A catalogue of a 
later sale in 17,000 lots, many covering a group of piecei, 
exists in MS. Daguerre sold his stock in 1793. 



cabinet reproduced by Lady Dilke opposite p. 137 
of her book on French eighteenth-century furni- 
ture. She says, " designed by Slodtz," but the 
drawing by one of that family does not show these 
mounts (Molinier, op. cit., p. 128). It shows the 
central figure and two trophies. The Delorme 
cabinet is precisely, in design and dimensions, 
the same as one in the Louvre which M. de 
Champeaux reproduced in the Portefeuille des 
Arts Dicoratifs, Plate 193, except that it is a 
counterpart, with trifling variations, and that the 
Louvre example is stilted up by an inlaid 
band above the base, probably an addition. 
The central figure is a pendant to ours. This is 
No. 15 of M. Dreyfus's catalogue. The figure 
is called " Mars," and apparently the corres- 
ponding piece is No. 10 with a " Pomona " (our 
figure). These are now assigned to the " Boulle 
atelier." 

The Joseph cabinet [Plate III, k] introduces 
us to other stock reliefs. There are two sets, a pair 
of Apollo and Marsyas and Apollo and Daphne, 
and a set of four Seasons, or perhaps more 
properly Flora, Ceres, Bacchus and Hiems. The 
Marsyas is seen in the centre of the Joseph 
cabinet, two of the Seasons at the sides : the 
other two are round the corner. Bacchus appears 
again on the Weisweiler, which follows the 
Joseph in various details. It would be tedious to 
enumerate the pieces on which these figures 
appear in the Wallace Collection (and elsewhere) ; 
there are four of the Marsyas, three of the 
Daphne, and twelve of the various Season 
figures. Lord Hertford could not resist them. 
The "Seasons" are authenticated as used, if not 
designed by Boulle ; two of them appear on one 
of his engravings. 

The " Boulle " cabinets by ADAM WEIS- 
WEILER are another of the surprises of this 
quest. He became a master in 1778 and is as- 
sociated with fragile furniture executed for 
Marie Antoinette. He is another illustration of 
the readiness with which those craftsmen turned 
from the later fashions to do a bit of " Boulle " 
when it was wanted [Plate III, l]. 

I have not the space mow to enter on the 
question how much of A. C. Boulle's own work 
survives in the Wallace Collection or elsewhere. 
Probably not a great deal ; and some of the most 
certain examples make him out a clumsy and 
extravagant designer. How far the design was 
his own is a farther question. There is a 
preliminary work to be done in the painful 
tracking down of the common motives to their 
source and elimination of signed pieces. Levas- 
seur and others will probably reclaim a good deal 
as executants. The name Boulle has become a 
superstition, and also the limitation of Boulle's 
own work to the reign of Louis XIV. Boulle did 
not invent metal inlay : he himself survived 

269 



Louis XIV by seventeen years, and one of his 
sons by thirty-nine years. The production went 
on throughout the century and came down to our 
own times. In the 'seventies' there were various 
Httle masters producing " Buhl " in London, 

* A son (?)of Louis Le Gaigneur was at work in Gloucester 
Mews at that period. 

A DRAWING BY ANTONELLO DA MESSINA 



and exporting a good deal to France. Nor 
would there be much difficulty at the present 
day in repeating, were it desired, the achieve- 
ment of Prince Bezborodko's slaves. 
{To be continued.) 

N.B. — In additions to vol ii of \'ial, /. U. Erstet does 
appear on two Louis XVI pieces. 




BY GUSTAV GLUCK 

N the Staedel Institute at Frankfurt 
there is an early silverpoint drawing 
[Plate, a] on white prepared paper, 
^^^ » «-~ ^o which, only lately. Dr. Josef Meder 
fff-y ^^ — "^ has drawn attention in his instructive 
book on the technique and evolution of drawing.' 
It is a study of the nude from the living model 
which must have served for the figure of one of 
the thieves in a picture of the Crucifixion of 
Christ. The artist, as may be seen from the il- 
lustration, has given the slender, beardless, com- 
paratively youthful model a pose peculiarly suit- 
able for his purpose. The forms of the lean 
body are carefully modelled, with the exception 
of the hands and feet which are more summarily 
indicated. The character of the drawing pro- 
claims both a definite sense of style and an inti- 
mate observation of nature which gives a 
peculiarly plastic form to what the draughtsman 
saw. Nevertheless it has so far remained un- 
certain to what school the sheet ought to be at- 
tributed. When it was first reproduced in the 
publication of drawings in the Staedel Institute' 
it was labelled the work of an unknown Italian of 
the first half of the fifteenth century. Dr. Meder 
has, however, with a truer sense of its technique 
and spirit, ascribed it to a Netherlandish artist 
of the second half of the same century. 

Nevertheless I believe that this remarkable 

sheet ought to be ascribed to an Italian, to a 

Southerner who painted entirely in the manner 

of the old Flemings and who, one may therefore 

assume, also drew as they did. I am thinking of 

no less a man than Antonello da Messina, that 

manv-sided intermediary between Northern and 

Southern art. The use of this study of a thief 

cannot, it must be admitted, be traced in any of 

the known Crucifixions by Antonello. But the 

same physical forms may be observed in his 

Crucifixion of 1475, in the Antwerp Gallery 

[Plate, b]. For one thing, the body of Christ 

shows the same slender build, the same line 

drawn in at the waist, the same vertical division 

of the breast and vigorous accentuation of the 

ends of the ribs. Still more patent are the 

analogies, if we consider the thief on the left of 

Christ, whom Antonello, favouring a new whim, 



' J. Meder, Die Handzeichnung, Vienna, 1919, p. 389. 
a Portfolio VIII, plate 5. 



shows tied not to a cross, but to a barren tree. 
Here, too, we find the emphatic tossing back of 
the head, the accentuation of cheek-bones and 
collar-bones, the rounded and yet lean shoulders, 
which conceal part of the throat and head, the 
right hand hanging forcelessly down, the curv- 
ing line of waist, the Jong knees, the weak, 
slender ankles. The drawing in question also 
resembles other works which are (ascribed to 
Antonello da Messina — apart from the Cruci- 
fixion in the National Gallery which is so closely 
akin to the Antwerp one. The forceless bend of 
the wrist of the right hand is paralleled in the 
Madonna in the collection of Mr. R. H. Benson 
in London, in the Lamentation over the Dead 
Christ in the Museo Correr at Venice,^ and 
finally in the boldly foreshortened figure of the 
young soldier lying on his back in the back- 
ground of the big picture of St. Sebastian in 
the Dresden Gallery in which the foreshortening 
of the head of the figure stretched on the ground 
should also be compared with the head of the 
thief : the treatment of the nose, the nostrils and 
slightly opened mouth is here quite similar. 

As regards the ascription to Antonello of this 
very remarkable picture of St. Sebastian, I ven- 
tured more than a decade to express some 
doubts," and to emphasise the pronouncedly 
Venetian character of that work ; but in doing 
so, it now seems to me that I did not take suffi- 
ciently into account the changeable, easily im- 
pressionable character of Antonello's art. The 
specialists on the subject seem, indeed, through 
their silence to have expressed their disagree- 
ment with my doubts, and above all Mr. 
Berenson, in his two papers on Antonello, pub- 
lished a few years ago,' has passed over them 
to the order of the day. Since then, the same 
critic has also given the ascription of the Dres- 
den St. Sebastian a pioneer support through the 
very convincing attribution to Antonello of the 
important picture of the Enthroned Madonna 
and Child in the Kunsthistorischen Museum at 
Vienna. That this picture is a fragment of the 
last and famous altarpiece of S. Cassiano, also 

s These two pictures reproduced and discussed by Mr. 
Berenson, The Study and Criticism of Italian Art, third series, 
London, iqi6, p. 81, 89. 

■> Kiinstgeschichtliches Jahrbuch der K. K. Zentral-Kom- 
mission fUr Kunst-und historische Denkmale, 1919, p. 212. 

' Reprinted loc. cii. 



270 











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.1 — Secular cup, luiglish, 3rd quarter ot 
15th century. Height, 14.9 rm. (Marston 
Church, Oxfordshire) 





B — Cocoanut cup mounted in silver gilt. English, about 
1500. (St. Augustine's College, Canterbury) 




C — Domestic cup and cover. Probably a 
copy of a German or Netherlandish cup of 
the first half of the i6th century. (Fare- 
ham Church, Hants) 

Old Plate at the Church Congress 



D — Secular bowl. Probably linglish, earlv ibth century 
Diameter, 17. i cm. (St. Michael's Church, Bristol) 



seems to me extremel}' probable. To this may 
be added, that just as in the case of the Madonna, 
a second fragment may be identified in the col- 
lection of the Archduke Leopold William under 
Giovanni Bellini's name. This fragment now 
exists only in a small copy in Tenier's Gallery 
picture belonging to Baron Alphonse Rothschild 
in Vienna, and in an engraving in the Theatrum 
pictorium, published by the same Flemish 
artist : a narrow picture with a St. George who 
stands, with a long lance, resting on the ground 
beside a female saint with a wreath of roses in 
her hair (St. Rosalia?). If this supposition be 
accurate, one would have to imagine the altar- 
piece of S. Cassiano as analogous in composi- 
tion with the picture by Marcello Fogolino in 
the Mauritshuis in The Hague as an Enthroned 
Madonna with six saints, of whom St. George 
on one side and St. Michael on the other are 
certain. It seems less probable, that the frag- 
ment referred to formed an independent part of 
the altarpiece. 

The relations of style between these frag- 
ments with their purely Venetian character, and 
the St. Sebastian, ;are absolutely convincing. 
However, the great difference remains striking 
between the nude figure of St. Sebastian and 
those in the two above-mentioned Crucifixions 
in Antwerp and London, especially when one 
considers that the St. Sebastian must have been 
painted during the period covered by the dates 
of these two smaller pictures, 1473 and 1477. 
This difference can probably only be explained 
by assuming that the Crucifixions with their 
antiquated look were preceded, in the work of 
the artist — who had begun as an imitator of 



the Flemings — by earlier versions. 

An earlier picture of the Crucifixion, one lead- 
ing up to the versions in Antwerp and London, 
seems indeed to be what we must associate with 
that study of one of the thieves — more severe 
and less fluent in its form — which I took as my 
starting-point, and which evidently has served 
for an earlier version of the theme of the Cruci- 
fixion which no longer exists. As far as we 
may judge, the two thieves were also here, as in 
the Antwerp picture, not tied to crosses but to 
dead branches of trees. The manner in which 
the arms are tied in the Frankfurt drawing 
seems to indicate clearly that they could not 
have been fastened to the much heavier arms of 
the cross; so that this device probably takes us 
back to an early period. For the rest, this 
hypothetical picture must have been still closer 
to the Netherlandish manner than the two 
existing later versions. Also, the silverpoint 
technique entirely corresponds with that in use 
in the Netherlands. To conclude, as Dr. Meder 
does, from certain weaknesses and superficial 
passages that this is the work of a copyist, does 
not seem to me necessary ; for even the most 
important Netherlandish drawings are almost 
always artistically a little inferior to the pictures. 
This applies in the first place to those of Jan 
van Eyck, among which we may count the por- 
traits of Cardinal Albergati at Dresden, of 
Jakobaeus of Bavaria and the Man with the 
Falcon at Frankfurt, and of an Old Man in the 
Louvre. In early Netherlandish art — on the 
lines of which also Antonello began — the full 
delicacy of the rendering of form is reserved for 
the finished picture. 




OLD PLATE AT THE CHURCH CONGRESS 
BY E. ALFRED JONES 

HE Exhibition of Ecclesiastical 
Arts and Crafts at the Church Con- 
gress at Sheffield in October ex- 
ceeded in interest the Exhibition at 
Birmingham last year^interesting 

as that was — both in the variety and number of 

the exhibits. 

Some of the plate has already been described 

and illustrated in books and periodicals. For 

example, the Henry VII chalice and paten 

from Clifford Chambers Church and the late 

Elizabethan tankard from Heddington Church 

were illustrated in my article in the Burlington 

Magazine for December last.' 

Four objects have been selected for illustra- 
tion in this brief Note, on account of their rarity 

or special interest. The first is a small English 

secular cup, dating from the third quarter of 

the fifteenth century, from Marston Church in 
I B.M., Vol. XXXIX, p. 254 (Dec.) 



Oxfordshire [Plate, a]. The plain conical bowl 
is joined by a cable moulding to the plain trum- 
pet-shaped stem, the base of which is pierced at 
the edge with conventional quatrefoil tracery 
and has a cable moulding. Three talbots or 
hounds, standing on plain oblong pedestals, 
support the cup, and in this particular recall 
the three lion supports on a cocoanut cup at 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and 
the three demi-figures of angels on a cocoanut 
cup at New College, Oxford, both dating from 
the fifteenth century. The measurements are : 
height, 5I in., diameter of the mouth, 4J in., 
and of the base 3f in. Scratched on the base 
is the name of the original owner, George Skyd- 
more. Thanks to researches made by the Rev. 
H. E. Salter, Fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, some account of this good man is avail- 
able. He was a well-known and prosperous 
butcher and bailiff of Oxford in 1455, and in 



275 



1468 he married his second wife, and died 
before 1478. How this cup came into the posses- 
sion of this Church is not revealed in the earliest 
inventories {i.e., the first years of Elizabeth), 
where a " Town Cup " as well as a chalice is 
mentioned. It is assumed, not without good 
reason, that this secular vessel is the actual 
" Town Cup," and that it was used by the 
parishioners for the " Church Ales "■ — men- 
tioned in the inventories with their apparatus — 
of the parish held twice a year. The " Town 
Cup" disappears from the inventories after a few 
years, leaving only the chalice. The old cus- 
tom of " Church Ales " is recorded in the 
Churchwardens' Account Books of Bassing- 
bourne for the year 1497, on view at this Ex- 
hibition. And what would seem to be a protest 
against using a silver Sacramental flagon for 
distributing ale on those festive occasions is 
contained in the inscription on the silver flagon 
of 1674-5 from St. Michael's, Bristol, wherein 
the pious donor, Jonathan Blackwell, goes so 
far as to declare that this vessel shall be for- 
feited " if lent or imployd to any other use " 
than that of the Sacrament. 

Oxford wills go no further back than 1530, and 
therefore no help may be sought in the will of 
George Skydmore as to the future destination of 
the Marston cup at his death. The suggestion has 
been made that it may be the earliest vessel in 
use as a chalice in continuous service (for about 
460 years) in an English Church to-day ; but in 
the absence of more definite proof of the gift of 
it for that purpose by Skydmore himself, the 
suggestion cannot be sustained. This is, how- 
ever, a comparatively minor point. The rarity 
of English secular plate of the fifteenth century 
is in itself sufficient to enhance the history and 
value of this little cup. 

The second piece is an English cocoanut cup 
of about the year 1500 from St. Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury [Plate, b]. 
silver-gilt mountings comprise a wide 
scribed with the delightful invitation 

Velcom ze be dryng for charite. 
On the shoulder the mount is chased with 
leaves. The nut is supported by three jointed 
bands of Gothic foliage, with a cable running 

THE DERBY DAY 
BY WALTER SICKERT 

»F the masterpieces of British art, 
'Frith's Derby Day remains, since 
fthe memory of living man, the most 
ipopular, as it is certainly the most 
^unaffectedly enjoyed painting in the 
National Gallery. It is said, and there is nothing 
astonishing in the fact, that it accounts for more 
sixpences at the turnstile than all the other pic- 



lip. 



The 
in- 




down the centre. A modern wooden stem and 
base replace the originals of silver-gilt. A tradi- 
tion has survived in the Fagge family (to whom 
it had belonged until 1920, when it was pre- 
sented by a member of that family to the Col- 
lege) that it was the " Grace Cup " of John 
Foche, or Essex, last Abbot of St. Augustine's 
Monastery, Canterbury, who signed the deed of 
surrender of that religious house to Henry VIII 
in 1538. The Gentleman's Magazine for 1759 
(Vol. 29, page 271) contains an account of this 
cup, and in the Occasional Papers of the College 
(No. 141) are some further particulars by the 
Rev. R. U. Potts concerning it. 

An unknown piece of early secular plate, 
dating from the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was brought to light at this Exhibition, in 
a small circular bowl, 6| in. in diameter, from 
the Church of St. Michael, Bristol [Plate, d]. 
The side of the bowl, except for the plain lip, 
is covered with large spiral lobes, such as may 
be seen on English plate of the end of the fif- 
teenth, and the beginning of the sixteenth, 
century. In the centre is a raised circular disc 
chased with flowers, from which every vestige 
of the original enamel has disappeared. Radiat- 
ing from this disc are " flames of fire," in the 
manner of those on two rose-water dishes of 
1493-4 and 1514-5 at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford." This dish has been in possession of 
this Church since 1684, the date inscribed upon 
it with the name of the Church. 

The last piece selected for illustration is a 
foreign domestic cup and cover, \o\ in. high, 
erroneously described as a ciborium, from Fare- 
ham Church in Hampshire [Plate, c] In 
shape, and in the style of the lobes covering the 
whole of the cup, it might be ascribed to the first 
half of the sixteenth century, and the country of 
origin as Germany or the Netherlands. It is 
however, probably an old copy of an early cup. 
The whole has been re-gilt and restored and the 
flame-like finial added. In an inventory of the 
plate and other objects in this Church in 1552 a 
" standing copp of silver with a cover " is in- 
cluded, and the assumption has been made that 
this cup is that actual piece of plate. 

a lllubtrated in Old Oxford Plate, by H. C. Moffatt. 



tures put together. Most elderly men will con- 
fess that through good affectations, if any affec- 
tation can be said to be good, and ill affectations, 
they have, from their childhood, remained faith- 
ful to the Derby Day. It is natural to all ages 
to like the narrative picture, and I fancy, if we 
spoke the truth, and our memories are clear 
enough, that we liked at first the narrative pic- 



276 



ture in the proportion that it can be said to be 
lurid. My uninfluenced interest certainly went 
out, first of all, to Martin's Belshazsar's Feast, 
and then to Cruikshank's Bottle, in the South 
Kensington Museum. It was only when the 
mist and the driving rain of intellectual snob- 
bishness, coinciding more or less with the period 
of puberty, and the consequent " urge " to com- 
pete in agreeing with ladies a little older than 
ourselves, that we become ashamed of our true 
loves, and fidget from novelty to novelty after 
the will-o'-the-wisp of authority. Authority, of 
which I will now endeavour to define the present 
terminus. I say the present terminus, because, 
alas ! experience has taught us that no terminus 
even is permanent in its location. 

In A.D. 1922, the terminus so far as careful and 
anxious inquiry can gather is (lo!) here. The 
great paintings of the world are got out of the way 
by the convenient anathema of " illustration." 
Mantegna, Michelangelo, Veronese, Canaletto, 
Ford Madox Brown, Hogarth, Leech, Keene, 
e tutti quanti, falling, certainly, under the head- 
ing of " illustration " must, I am afraid, go. 
Rubens, I note on an invitation I have recently 
received from the Medici Society, and a few 
other worms of that ilk, can still be mentioned 
in decent company, but only, if you please, as 
"the ancestors of Cezanne!" Remains, I 
imagine, of British art such works alone by 
sedulous young men in Soho as will yield, in 
a photograph, a superficial resemblance with the 
lurches of Cezanne's well-meaning brush. One 
puzzle only is left. Cezanne was certainly trying 
to illustrate men playing at cards, or places in the 
South of France. Remains then, perhaps, we 
must say, as laudable alone, unsuccessful illus- 
tration. 

The tragic element in the career of Frith is 
that the immense eiTort of such a monument as 
the Derby Day must have gone far to account 
for the premature exhaustion of his talent. It 
was perhaps a price worth while to pay for a 
work which has held the attention of the world 
for three-quarters of a century, an attention that 
the visitor to the National Gallery can to-day 
assure himself to be as fresh as is the picture it- 
self in its pearly colours and its exquisite finish. 
Enthusiasm sustained at such white heat begets 
enthusiasm, and the love that the painter most 
visibly lavished on his everv invention and his 
every cunning touch has easily been returned to 
him a thousandfold by generations of young and 
old, of gentle and simple, not only of his own 
countrymen but of all nations. The Derby Day 
is certainly, humanly speaking, one of the 
great victories over death. I should like to see 
graven on the painter's tomb the verse of 
Homer : 



Ofoj Kfiv09 e>]v TcXeaai kpyov re tTro? re 
for none ever deserved it more. 

A work of this kind cannot be seen at a glance. 
There is an interesting article by Poe, whom the 
French have incorrigibly dowered with a 
diieresis, just because his " e " is mute, in which 
the limited capacity of sustained attention in the 
human brain is alleged in favour of the short as 
against the long poem. I hardly think the 
analogy can be pressed in the field of painting. 
The close of an Epigram by Martial pulls up 
with its thump, like Mrs. Jack Gardner's four, 
or royalty's three gondoliers, at the palace, while 
the opening still sounds in the ear. A picture 
has perhaps the right to be, if it likes, not only 
a skin of wine, but a cellar, with its beneficent 
potentialities spread over, not one, but several 
lifetimes. 

Surprises lurk in the Derby Day like Easter 
eggs. Turn for a moment from the familiar 
foreground figures, the languid swell with the 
(alas !) extinct green veil on his still, thank God, 
current topper, from the little acrobat, from the 
footman and the lobsters, from the ruined little 
gent, from the flurried bobby, and look at the 
left centre of the middle distance, at the profile 
of the lady under a green parasol, superb and 
enigmatic in her barouche, who is addressed 
by the beau brun on foot, the veritable homme 
fatal, and note how they are both silhouetted 
against a blaze of light. What a passage of 
learned chiaroscuro in colour ! What a reputa- 
tion a " Alodern " would have made with that 
passage alone ! What a bobbery at the Tate ! 
Those davs were happy in more than one re- 
spect. Not only were such pictures painted and 
exhibited for all to see. Their translations were 
available for the poor, in the exquisite, and now 
defunct art of line-engraving. The central 
ornament of my study is the engraving by 
Sharpe of the Ramsgate sands, with its in- 
exhaustible variety of linear treatment. The 
painting lives again, but the skill and tact of the 
ensrraver's execution has made of it a second 
something. Some day when the younger genera- 
tion have become what the French call more 
assis, and acquired what the German's call a 
little SitsfJeisch, the art of engraving from paint- 
ings will be taken up again. The need is too 
urgent for the harmonious pages of black and 
white that are now relegated, more or less, to the 
dining-rooms of country hotels. Teachers of 
painting are incessantly pestered by ex-students 
who apply to them for direction as to what they 
are to paint ! The only possible answer at 
present is: "If you have nothing in your • 
stomach, don't paint. Nobody asked you to 
paint." But I would rather say, " Perhaps you 
have a real taste for the crafts of draughtsman- 



277 



ship, or more, a positive love for them, without 
having originating faculty. Perhaps you have 
patience and industry. Buy a sandbag and a 

EARLY WORKS BY TINTORETTO— II 
BY DETLEV, BARON VON HADELN 



graver, and learn to engrave the paintings of 
those painters who suffer rather from having too 
much to say." 




UST as Tintoretto assumed an 
essentially different attitude from 
that of his classical predecessors in 
regard to religious subjects, so also 
when confronted with subjects from 
classical antiquity he appears as the representa- 
tive of a new generation. The spirit of the 
times has changed. The incipient counter- 
reformation gives fresh strength to faith, and 
this demands a graphic rendering of sacred sub- 
jects. On the other hand, the excessive respect- 
fulness towards humanism begins to wane. In- 
cidents from mythology and classical history 
descend from the heroic transfiguration into 
which the Renaissance had raised them, into a 
more earthly sphere, and come to be depicted 
drastically and graphically, as, for instance, in 
the Tarquin and Lucretia, also a very early 
work by Tintoretto, now in the Depot of the 
Prado at Madrid.' [Plate I, a]. Tintoretto's 
imagination always takes as its starting point 
the event which he conceives with the utmost 
vividness. That is how the picture comes into 
being. In this case he has imagined the brutal 
scene as a most violent fight, with the furniture 
in a wreck, all the articles of clothing, arms and 
household chattels thrown about the room, and 
even the baldacchino of the bed pulled down. 
In the midst of all this highly realistic jumble, 
the very artificial motion of the two figures 
seems doubly out of place. But the clash be- 
tween realism and mannerism is entirely typical 
of this group of Tintoretto's youthful works. 
The motive of the Lucretia is borrowed from 
Michelangelo. It corresponds — though in re- 
verse, since it is probably derived from an en- 
graving — fairly closely with the nude youth on the 
right of the Erythraean Sybil on the ceiling of 
the Sixtine Chapel. Nor is the very artificial pose 
of Tarquin likely to have been invented ad hoc, 
though we cannot definitely name the model 
that the aspiring young artist used in this case. 
Certain resemblances may be traced between it 
and the statue by Michelangelo known as the 
Victor but they are not striking enough to justify 
us in asserting the connection. It is just worth 
while referring to the sculpture, as it represents 
the general tendency from which this motive 
probably springs. 

1 No. 392, I.S8 by 2.71 m.— H. Thode, in the Repertorium 
fiir Kunstwissenschaft. xxiii. 433, states that this picture in 
1571 was sent to Philip II, in which connection Thode refers 
to the Dialogos of Carducho. But here again the distinguished 
scholar is mistal-:en. Carducho, op. cit. p. 349, speaks of a 
work by Titiafi. 



Tintoretto has given a sort of burlesque, even 
Decamerone-like interpretation to the delicate 
relations between Venus, Mars and Vulcan in a 
picture which belongs to Frau von Kaulbach, of 
Munich.^ [Plate II, b]. Vulcan enters, not with 
the legendary golden net, but like any jealous 
old man. Mars, however, has had to seek refuge 
under the table, where a yapping dog threatens 
to betray him. That is the comical, but also the 
moral point of the mythological scene trans- 
formed into an anecdote. The heroic Mars cuts 
the most ridiculous figure. How far this moral- 
ising takes us from Titian's idealisations, still 
faithfully reflecting the Humanist's reverence 
for everything classical ! In the Print Room 
of the Staatliche Museen at Berlin we find 
the sketch' for this picture [Plate II, c] 
quickly, almost rudely, but with marvellous 
brio, thrown on the paper, a state- 
ment of the essentials only, of the kernel of the 
artistic problem, and for that reason specially 
valuable to us. In it we can very clearly see 
what the young Tintoretto was mainly concerned 
for. He imagined his picture not in the flat 
space enclosed by the frames but in a room, as 
it were, behind the aperture of the frame. 
These two bodies of accentuated volume are 
disposed obliquely behind one another and 
along the same oblique line the room recedes in 
space as far as the circular mirror, which remark- 
ably enough occurs in this first idea of the com- 
position, thus forming an integral part of the 
initial conception. It is the focus of perspective. 
But it is probably also connected with certain 
theories and aspirations of that period, about 
which we learn from the Dialogue by Paolo 
Pino, to which reference has already been made. 
In that Dialogue it is argued that with the aid 
of reflections the art of painting might be made 
to rival sculpture in the representation of the 
three-dimensional world. 

A litde later than the works so far discussed 
is a Sacra Conversazione, in the possession of 
M. Ch. A. de Burlet." [Plate III, d]. The 

2 The late Professor F. A. von Kaulbach told me that he 
acquired the picture in Paris about 1890. It is possibly the 
work that belonged to Sir Peter Lely : Venus, Vulcan, and 
Cupid on a bed, life siz€, length 4 ft. 5J in., breadth, 6 ft. 7 in. 
Cf. A Catalogue of Sir Peter Lely's Capital Collection of 
Pictures (annexed to the Catalogue of the Buckingham Collec- 
tion already quoted), p. 42, No. 24. . ■ u 

3 No. 4,193. Pen-drawing, washed and heightened with 
white on blue paper, 204 by 273 mm. 

* Size 1.23 by 1.70 m. Herr von Auspitz in Vienna possesses 
a repetition of this picture by Tintoretto himself, reduced to 
the Madonna, as a three-quarter-length. 



278 




Derby Day, by Frith. Canvas. Detail. (National Gallery). 
The Dcrbv Day. 




A—Tarquin and Lucretia, by Tintoretto. Canvas, i .88 m. by 2.71 m. (Prado) 
Plate I. Early Works bv Tintoretto — II 



1 



9" 




B— Venus, ]'ulcan and Cupid, by Tintoretto. Canvas, 1.36 m. by 2.01 m. (Frau von Kaulbarh. Munich) 




C_Sketch for Wnus, l/f/ani and Cupid, by Tintoretto. Pen and wasli, heightened with white, 20.4 
cm. by 27.3 cm. (Staatliche Museen, Beriin) 



Plate II. Early Works by Tintoretto— II 




D — Sacra Conversazione, h\ Tintoretto. Canvas, 1.2,^ m, by 1.7 m. (M. C. A. de Riirlet) 




E — The Death oj lli)li>jernes, bv I'intorcttn. Canvas. (Prado) 
Plate III. Ivailv Works bv Tinioretto— II 





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poses — of which those of the Madonna 
and St. Elizabeth clearly betray their 
Michelangelesque origin — now no longer 
show any of that extreme strain which 
characterises the apostles in the Supper at 
Emmaus or the figures in the Woman taken in 
Adultery, whose movements are at the same time 
somewhat violent and clumsy. By this tirne 
Tintoretto has entered into the Roman language 
of form to such an extent as to enable him to 
begin to express himself in it fluently. Nay, he 
now proceeds to achieve the synthesis of Vene- 
tian colouring and Tuscan plastic form. It is 
plain that the colours now are arranged in the 
picture so that the light tints, as far as possible, 
coincide with the projecting forms, and bring 
out these still more, but without reducing colour 
thereby to subjection to plastic effect. On the 
contrary, what happens is that the plastic values 
co-operate with the colour values by securing for 
them greater possibilities of variation through 
the projection and recession from the light into 
shade, and again back into light. 

The style of the Death of Holofernes in the 
Prado at Madrid^ [Plate III, e] enables 
us to assign it to this early period, and 
even to place it definitely at the finish 
of that period. It is a closely studied, 
extremely carefully painted work, though 
perhaps for that very reason not specially 
pleasant, and has, moreover, a strangely varie- 
gated colour. Perhaps some external conditions, 
possibly the expressed wishes of the person who 
commissioned the picture, are responsible for its 
cold, strange effect. At any rate it is evident 
that Tintoretto has been at special pains to 
create something sumptuous and rich, something 
rather at variance with his own temperament, 
which was unaffected, very manly and imbued 
with a somewhat melancholy earnestness ; so that 
when he attempts to be gorgeous or festive he 
always seems heavy, and even occasionally a 
little vulgar. This holds true even for the work 
of his old age. Consider how easily the light- 
ness and gaiety of Paul Veronese eclipses Tin- 
toretto in the Ducal Palace. But another bor- 
rowed feature observable in this picture may 
have been a contributory cause of its academic 
coldness. The figure of the woman kneeling, 
seen from behind, is borrowed from Raphael's 
Expulsion of Heliodorus, and leaves us with the 
impression that the ambitious Tintoretto has 
made a conscious effort to give the composition 
as Roman an air as he could. This picture may 
be described as the least Venetian — nay, the 
least Tintoretto-like — ever painted by Tintoretto. 

With the Last Supper, in S. Marcuola at 
Venice [Plate IV, f], which bears the date 
August 27, 1547, we reach, so far as chronolog)' 

' No. 391. Now in the Depot. 



is concerned surer ground.* In comparison 
with Tintoretto's later versions of this theme, the 
composition must be described as still primitive. 
It is disposed in such a way as to conform with 
the shape offered by the canvas. It has its 
extension in width instead of being obliquely 
constructed into the depth, as is later the case. 
But if in this case Tintoretto still places the table 
in the traditional manner, parallel to the specta- 
tor and right in the middle of the picture, yet he 
does differ essentially from his predecessors inas- 
much as he makes more of his series of Apostles, 
spread out in one plane, than a mere co-ordina- 
tion of a number of isolated coloured silhouettes ; 
he compresses them into plastically complete 
groups whose effect is all the more powerful 
because together they fill the picture space, as it 
were to the point of bursting.' This extreme 
crowding of the picture, noticeable also in the 
Sacra Conversazione just discussed, and even in 
the Supper at Emmaus, is another peculiar 
feature differentiating Tintoretto from his prede- 
cessors, whose classical feeling demanded not 
only a much more lucid view of the individual 
parts- — and for that reason a much less closely- 
knit composition — but also a certain harmony 
and balance between the figures and the back- 
ground against which they are set. 

In many ways the Last Supper is still reminis- 
cent of the preceding works, but it takes us finally 
beyond the stage of the beginner's explorations. 
It is true that it still remains almost impossible 
to conceive the sudden and rapid progress which 
during the next few months led Tintoretto to 
paint the Miracle of St. Mark, a picture that 
reaches one of the summits of European paint- 
ing. But such a sudden, volcanic eruption of 
gigantic forces is quite one of the characteristics 
of Tintoretto genius.' 

6 In the eighteenth century the picture has been 
patched in the lower part and even more extensively 
above. These additions are indicated in the reproduc- 
tion. The companion piece to the Last Supper was once 
a Washing of the Feet, which is now in the Escorial. Reasons 
of style make it, however, indubitable that the Washing of 
the Feet was painted considerably later than the Last Supper, 
probably about the middle of the next decade. 

' For instance, the motive of the Apostle, seen from behind 
and leaning against the table, is based on the pose of one of 
the two Apostles in the Christ at Emmaus in Budapest. This 
harking back to motives which represent earlier discoveries, 
is often noticeable in Tintoretto, but these are hardly ever 
quite literal repetitions, but are rather variations, the later 
versions almost always being the more mature. 

8 It has not been my intention in this connection to refer 
to all the Tintorettos executed before the Miracle of St. Mark. 
In order not to be too prolix, I have, for instance, passed 
over the Assunta in the Accademia at Venice, which Thode 
has already correctly described as a comparatively early work ; 
I have likewise passed over the six Cassone panels in the 
Vienna Gallery, hitherto ascribed to Andrea Schiavone, amd 
recently referred to by myself (in the ZeiUchrift far btldende 
Kunst new series, xxxiii. 27 sqq) as early works by Tin- 
toretto. On the other hand, I cannot here treat at any 
length of the pictures which other authors, incorrectly, as it 
seems to me, regard as vouthful works by Tintoretto. Only 
briefly will I refer to some of these pictures, which, through 

287 



being wrongly assigned to the first phase of Tintoretto's 
career, have, I think, been a particular obstacle to the c'ear 
perception of Tintoretto's beginnings : Among works that could 
not possibly be by Tintoretto are three altarpieces in Vene- 
tian churches ; (i) A St. Demetrius in S. Felice, by an imita- 
tor of the master ; (2) a Christ Enthroned between 55. Mark 
and GalUis, in S. Gallo, by a minor follower of Bonifazio ; 
(3) a Presentation in The Temple in the Carmini, perhaps by 
Polidoro, as my friend Dr. Giuseppe Fiocco thinks. Genuine 
works by Tintoretto, but of much later date, are the following 



pictures : — (i) The Finding of the Cross, in S. Maria Mater 
Domini at Venice, ordered by the Scuola del SS. Sacramento, 
which was on'y founded in 1561. (2) The Miracle of St. 
Agnes, in S. Maria dell' Orto, of the end of the 'sixties. 
Scarcely earlier are also two compositions, closely akin to one 
another, one {3) the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, formerly 
in Ruskin's possession, now in the Metropolitan Museum at 
New York, and (4) Moses Striking the Rock, previously m the 
collection of Mr. Charles Butler in London, and now in the 
Staedel Institute at Frankfurt. 



GUIDO DI SAVING & THE EARTHENWARE OF ANTWERP 
BY MARCEL LAURENT 




URING the last twenty years the 
early faience of the northern Nether- 
lands, decorated, as is well known, 
in the style and in the actual colour- 
ing of Italian maiolica, has been the 
subject of several excellent studies.^ To the 
wares described in these studies, found at Mid- 
delburg. Delft, Rotterdam, Leeuwarden, 
Cologne and London, must now be added those 
discovered and preserved in Belgium. For this 
purpose it will be necessary to go back to a 
relatively early period. I propose first to study 
the pavement of Herckenrode, in Belgian Lim- 
burg, now in the Mus6e du Cinquantenaire, at 
Brussels. 

I. — The Herckenrode Pavement. 
The abbey of Herckenrode was sold in the 
fifth year of the French Republic and became the 
property of the Claes family. Later, the stained 
glass from the abbey passed in 1864 to the 
cathedral of Lichfield,'' the pavement with which 
we are dealing, in 1888, to the museum of Brus- 
sels. The tiles were already at that time mounted 
in the frames which still contain them, but others 
exactly like them still paved the floor of the in- 
firmary, a building of the seventeenth centurv. 
Neither set of tiles remained in its original 
position. 

In the Brussels museum there are fourteen 
panels, containing altogether 505 tiles; 400 are 
polychrome, the remainder decorated with spravs 
in blue of the Hispano-Moresque type; I should, 
however, hesitate to assert that these last formed 
part of the original pavement. The relative ar- 
rangement of the motives can easily be recog- 
nised : in the middle, a square tile "bearing the 
bust of a man or woman, an animal, a bird, a 
plant motive or a rosette ; surrounding this, hex- 
agonal tiles with floral designs, branches, spravs 
and bouquets together with spirals. The whole 
gimip_ofj:ile s assembled together forms an octa- 

1 For the bibliography of the subject see E. Neurdcnburg, 
Oud Aardewerk . . . in Net Nederlandsch museum . . 
te Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1917 ; B. Rackham, in Bur- 
lington Magazine, XXXIII (1918), pp. 116, 190, and XXXIV 
(1919), P- 121 ; Nanne Ottema, in Oude Kunst, 1918, pp. 
231. 255; also the recently published volume of A. Hovnck 
van Papendrecht De Roitcrdamsche plateel en tegelbakkers 
tn hun product, Rotterdam, 1920. 

- a. Bamps, Bulletin des commissions royales d'art et 
d'archiologie, XIII (1874), P- " i two panels are in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

288 



gon. All the tiles are i6 mm. thick; the square 
ones measure ii by ii cm. Most are in good 
condition. 

Attention has already been drawn by von 
Falke to the Herckenrode pavement ; he con- 
siders it to be an Italian work, imported into 
Flanders at the end of the fifteenth century.^ 
And in truth the tiles point to Italy in all their 
details, in types of figure, costume, ornament, 
drawing and colour [Plate I, a]. If the plant 
motives alone are considered [Plate I, b] the 
pavement comes very near to that of San Pet- 
ronio, at Bologna, which is known to have come 
from the Faventine workshop of the Betini 
family and to have been carried out between i486 
and 1487.* The two are very nearly identical. 
At first sight, therefore, nothing would seem 
more certain than the conclusion of von Falke. 
But it is questionable whether ornament is a 
very safe basis of comparison, being in its nature 
conservative. It is better to draw one's conclu- 
sions from the fieure and busts. 




We have here thirty-two gentlemen wearing 
gowns, caps (berets), and hats; thirty-four ladies 
of distinction have their hair confined by fillets, 

^ Von Falke, ^lammlung Richard Zschille, Berlin, igii. 
* Meurer, Italienische Majolikafliesen, Berlin, i8Si, and 
Ferrer, Fliesenkeramik, Strasburg, 1901 (after Meurer). 





.4 and B — Pavement-tiles from Herckenrcide. (Musee du Cinquantenaire, Brussels) 




C — Tlie Conversion of St. Paul. Tile picture, dated 1547. (^X'leeschhius, Antwerp) 



Plate I. Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Antwerp 



( 



t 



> 



^' 




''>i6iMttllttMMm>> 




V 





/) — Drug vases, probably Antwerp earthenware. (Musee du Cinquantenaire, Brussels) 




E — Drug vase. (Musee du Cinquantenaire, 
Brussels) 





F — Porringer. (Musee du Cinquantenaire, Brussels) 




G — Fragment of a dish. (Musee du 
Cinquantenaire, Brussels) 



H--Roman Charity. Deep dish of earthenware. (Ryks- 
museum, Amsterdam) 



Plate n. Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Antwerp 



wimples or nets. Are these details also to be 
taken as indicating tlie end of tlie fifteentli cen- 
tury ? I append a drawing (Fig. i) of tfie bust 
of a youth whose headdress seems to me very 
characteristic, as does his cloak ; he resembles 
Charles the Fifth at the age of twelve or fifteen, 
as seen on Brussels tapestries of the first third 
of the sixteenth century. Other headdresses also, 
notably a tall brimless hat, denote that the fif- 
teenth century is past. Moreover, as Mr. 
Bernard Rackham has suggested to me, it is not 
so much with the pavement of San Petronio at 
Bologna as with that dated 15 lo in the church of 
San Sebastiano, Venice, ° that the tiles from 
Herckenrode should be compared. This differ- 
ence of some twenty years may have, as regards 
the origin of the work, the most important con- 
sequences, but this question will be discussed 
later, when I have explained the real identity 
of the great Antwerp potter of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, Guido di Savino. 

II. — Guido Andries alias di Saving. 

Every historian of maiolica has read the pass- 
age in the treatise written in 1548 by Piccolpasso, 
the potter of Castel Durante, relative to the 
maiolica of Antwerp. Passing in review various 
centres of the pottery industry in Italy and 
abroad, Piccolpasso refers to the clays employed. 
" In Flanders," he says, " quarried clay {terra 
di cava) is used. I mean at Antwerp, where this 
art was introduced some time ago (gia) by one 
Guido di Savino of this place [Castel Durante] 
and is still carried on at the present day by his 
sons."^ 

There is no need to lay stress on the import- 
ance of this piece of evidence; but its interest is 
remarkably enhanced by researches conducted 
about 1886 by the Antwerp archeeologist de 
Burbure.' These researches I have been able, 
thanks to the kind assistance of M. Bisschops, 
archivist of the city of Antwerp, in part to verify, 
in part to correct and complete. 

I will here summarise the information given 
by de Burbure : From 15 13 onwards there lived 
at Antwerp a Venetian potter named Guido 
Andries. He made stoneware. He was twice 
married and had children by both wives. He 
bought in succession houses in the March^-aux- 
Oiufs and in the Rue des Peignes, in which 
place he set up his kilns. His sons and des- 
cendants continued the manufacture after him 
until one of them, Willem van Brecht, sold 
the house in 1581. De Burbure adds that this 
Guido is doubtless the same as Guido di Savino. 

' H. Wallis, Italian ceramic art, the albarello, fig. 99 — loi, 
London, 1904. 

• Li tre libri del arte del vasaio (1548), printed at Rome in 
1857 ; French translation by Claudius Popelim, Paris, 1S58. 

' L. de Burbure, Bulletin de I' Academic royale d'archio- 
logie (Antwerp), 1886, p. 152. Cf. P. Genard, Anvers d 
travers les Ages, Brussels, 11, p. -60. 



But if this is so, what is the meaning of the word 
"Venetian," seeing that Guido di Savino came 
from Castel Durante, and of the statement that 
Guido made stoneware, when Piccolpasso is 
talking of a maiolica potter? As a matter of 
fact, I have been able to establish with certainty 
that Guido Andries is mentioned in the Antwerp 
archives, with the quahfication " Italian " 
(italiaan), not " Venetian." As to the state- 
ment that follows, it is due to the fact that 
de Burbure did not find the name of Guido in the 
lists of the Guild of St. Luke (the first entries of 
the names of potters date from 1550), and that 
in his time the stoneware of the Rhine valley 
was believed to be Flemish and known as gres 
des Flandres. 

The career of the Italian, Guido Andries, 
according to the documents so kindly 
brought together for me by M. Bisschops, 
was actually as follows : From 15 12 — 
and not 1513 — onwards he was established 
at Antwerp as potbackcr, geleyerspotbacker 
(" gallipot-maker ") ; he is described as a mar- 
ried man. His wife was named Margaret Bol- 
lekens. Their domestic affairs soon prospered, 
for on March 23rd 1513 (n.s.) Guido and Mar- 
garet bought a house called the Great Eagle {den 
grooten Arend), situated in the March^-aux- 
CEufs, and on June 26th, 1520, they exchanged 
it for another, the Salmon {den Zalm), in the 
Comerpoort,* the present rue des Peignes. 
Margaret Bollekens died, probably childless' be- 
fore the month of December, 1529. As to Guido, 
he married as h's second wife Anna van Duren, 
by whom he had seven children, Lucas, Frans, 
Joris, Jan, Guido, Andries and Barbara. He 
died before November, 1541. His widow was 
again married, before 1545, to Frans Frans, 
like Guido a geleyerspotbacker, and the factory 
continued to operate without a break. This is 
proved by the fact on March i8th, 1562, Anna 
van Duren sold it to her eldest son, Lucas 
Andries, himself also qualified as geleyerspot- 
backer, who carried it on till his death between 
1572 and 1576. His wife, Gertruy Snoye, mar- 
ried again ; her husband, the potter, Willem van 
Brecht, did not carry on the craft until his 
death, and sold the house in 1581. 

The names Joris and Frans Andriessen 
were enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke in 1552. 
One of the sons of Guido Andries, Guido the 
second of that name, figures in the documents as 
koopman van geleyerswercke, geleyerspotbacker 
and potverkooper, literally " crockery mer- 
chant," gallipotmaker " and "pottery-vendor"; 

* At the end of the eighteenth century the designation 
Camerpoort was no longer understood. It was assumed to 
be derived from the word Kam (a comb), hence its present 
name. 

' Her brothers and sisters claimed the reversion of her 
inheritance. 



293 



but it will now be granted that he might be des- 
cribed as manufacturer and vendor of faiences. 
He died a short time after 1586. At that time 
numerous geleyerspotbackers were inscribed at 
the Guild of St. Luke. 

We have here a series of facts and dates which 
coincide exactly with the information given by 
Piccolpasso about Guido di Savino. We have 
on the other hand all the tiles exhibited as local 
productions in the archaeological museum (the 
Vleeschhuis) at Antwerp, notably the large tile 
picture of the Conversion of St. Paul, dated 
1547 [Plate I, c], and all the Antwerp tiles 
in the Claes Collection in that city, sorne 
of which, dated 1544, go to make up 
panels with specimens in the museum 
[Plate III, j]. All these tiles, as M. Claes 
himself has assured me absolutely, came from a 
house in the rue des Peignes, where most of 
them were found in a heap in the garden. This 
house was the location of the factory founded 
by Guido Andries. Unless we are to pretend 
that two persons named Guido, both Italians and 
both /aience-potters, followed parallel careers at 
Antwerp, unless we are to suppose that one of 
them, who, witness Piccolpasso, was well- 
known, has left us nothing, whilst the other, 
hitherto almost unknown, has left behind numer- 
ous specimens of his handiwork, including a 
masterpiece, we must admit that the two are one 
and the same individual. 

III. — The Tiles of the Antwerp Factory. 

In view of what has been established, shall we 
continue to say that the Herckenrode tiles came 
from Italy ? Is not their Italian, or more pre- 
cisely their Faventine style of decoration ex- 
plained by the origin of Guido Andries (or di 
Savino) and the date of his settlement at Ant- 
werp ? For the same reasons can we not under- 
stand why the costumes depicted on them have 
nothing Flemish about them? Again, as we 
know, the plant motives in the decoration of the 
pavement lingered on in their archaic form in 
Northern maiolica as late as the seventeenth cen- 
tuy ; is not the reason for this immediately ob- 
vious ? It is because they had been transplanted 
far from their county of origin and continued with 
little modification from generation to generation. 
Finally, it stands to reason that the nuns of 
Herckenrode would not, about 1515, give orders 
for pavement-tiles to be brought from Faenza 
which they could so conveniently obtain near at 
hand, at Antwerp. The beautiful pavement in 
the Brussels museum may therefore be regarded 
as the earliest work known to us of Guido 
Andries, alias di Savino. W^e must include with 
it a tile in the Claes Collection decorated with a 
bearded bust which bespeaks very definitely the 
beginning of the sixteenth century [Plate III, 



j] and another painted with an amorino in 
the Mus^e Meyer van den Berg, at Antwerp. 

The Conversion of St. Paul (1547) was exe- 
cuted after the death of Guido by Frans Frans, 
perhaps even by the elder sons of the latter. This 
large picture (193 cm. x 97 cm.) is based on an 
engraving dated 1545 by Enea Vico. It is 
worthy of note that with its background in bold 
blue strokes, its blue outlines and modelling, its 
lemon-yellow and ochre, and its spiral, shell-like 
clouds it recalls Nicola Pellipario of Castel 
Durante, whose manner seems to have been 
adopted by the factory. The two friezes forming 
the upper and lower borders are also Italian in 
character ; but when we come to consider the two 
lateral pilasters with their ironwork and cut 
leatherwork motives, their caryatid pedestals, 
interlacements, garlands and grotesques, we find 
a purely Flemish type of ornament ; it is the style 
employed in 1549 by Pieter Coecke of Alost'° for 
his friezes in carved wood for the H6tel de 
Moelenere, now preserved, like the tile-picture, 
in the Vleeschhuis Museum. Thus Flemish 
art, about 1545, made its influence felt in maiolica. 
In 1550 Jan, brother of Cornelius Floris, was 
enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke. He became 
so well-known that in 1563 he was summoned to 
Spain by Philip II and received from him the 
official title of " Master of the Asulejos."^^ 

Three tiles in the Musee du Cinquantenaire, 
Brussels, come from a picture similar to the 
Conversion of St. Paul, showing the border, the 
tone of blue, and the clouds of the latter. 
Amongst the tiles from the Claes Collection here 
reproduced those belonging to the same category 
will readily be recognised ; they are characterised 
by amorini, satyrs and other similar figures. 

The purely ornamental motives are character- 
istic of a whole group of pieces — in the Claes and 
Osterrieth Collections and the Antwerp, Mayer 
van den Berg, and Cinquantenaire Museums 
[Plate III, k]. They include garlands, scroll- 
work, interlacements and rosettes. There is a 
fine motive, exemplified by six tiles in 
the Antwerp museum, in which may be 
recognised the deeply-cut oak leaves of Castel 
Durante. The distinctive colours are blue for 
the outline, shading and the boldly applied 
background, ochre-yellow for the washes of the 
figures and ornaments. The green in the latter 
is very fresh, with a tendency to run. The 
characteristic by which, as it seems to me, the 
productions of Antwerp can best be identified is 
the use of canary-yellow, especially its use in 
the borders, in which it appears as a band in as- 
sociation with a band of blue. I will also draw 

'" Genard (op. cit.) is in error in attributing this style to 
Cornelius Floris. 

" Pinchart, Bulletin des commissions royales d'art et 
d'archiologie, XXI (1882), p. 369. 



294 



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attention to a motive in the borders which makes 
its appearance about 1545 in the form of a parch- 
ment scroll and later develops into a series of 
coils and small circles. The tiles of latest date 
(of the end of the sixteenth century) are house- 
signs — the Fox and the Crane and the Red Rose 
in the Antwerp Museum, the Pansy and the Ele- 
phant still built in on house fronts near the corner 
of the Longue rue neuve. 

IV. — Antwerp Pottery. 

What finally was the pottery made at Ant- 
werp ? Were jugs, dishes and drug-pots made 
during the sixteenth century in the worlvshop of 
Guido and elsewhere ? This is probable in the 
nature of the case, but there is a document to 
prove it which I owe to the erudition and kind- 
ness of M. Fernand Donnet, of Antwerp. It 
is a bill of lading of October 15th, 1531 : 

" Oliver Roland, master after God of the 
vessel named the Marie, of Cradon in Brittany, 
acknowledges receiving on board, on behalf of 
Jehan Lacombe, merchant of Bordeaux, five 
barrels of cendre gravelee,^^ which he undertakes 
to deliver at Antwerp to one Antoine [surname 
omitted], maker of paper images, dwelling at the 
Dial d la Camermorte, or, in his absence to n 
Venetian [name omitted], maker of drug-vases 
(faiseur de pots d'appothicaire), dwelling in the 
rue de Crambeporte facing the Golden Lion.'"^ 

I reserve for another occasion the study of this 
text in relation to the documents, but I wish to 
state here and now that in 1531 drug-vases, and 
therefore also bowls and jugs of various kinds, 
were being made by an Italian in the rue des 
Peignes (we recognise the deformations which the 
word Camerpoort has undergone in the French 
text. Now articles of these kinds have been 
found, intact or in fragments [Plate II, d, e, f, 
g], in great quantity at Antwerp,''' and also in 
isolated speciniens at Termonde and Herenthals. 
Are they not Antwerp productions? And among 

12 Cendre graveUe, produced by charring shoots of vine or 
preferably raw tartar or dried lees of wine, is much used 
in the fabrication of certain colours and particularly of vine- 
black (M. F. Donnet). 

13 Extract from the Bulletin de la SociHi archiologique 
de Bordeaux, III, 125. 

1^ F. and V. Claes, Annah's de la federation archiologique, 
Congres d'Anvers, 1885, I, p. 153. 



those from Middelburg, London, Cologne, etc., 
are there not many of the same origin ? This 
is a question which I have put successively to 
Mr. Rackham, whose views on this still novel 
problem were so valuable to me, to Dr. Elisa- 
beth Neurdenburg, Miss Peelen and Mr. Hudig, 
who are so thoroughly well-informed on the 
origins of maiolica in the northern Netherlands. 
All replied in the affirmative. 

From this moment how many things explain 
themselves ! Whilst tile-pavements changed in 
decoration, archaism continufd in pitchers, 
bowls, drug-vases and all kinds of pottery. 
Figures at the same time are not entirely want- 
ing, particularly that of the Virgin, a Virgin 
half Italian, half Flemish (Claes Collection). 
Geometrical and plant motives arrange them- 
celves for a slow evolution. We have here a 
development which is capable of being traced. 
Certain fine specimens, of doubtful origin, here 
find their explanation. Thus, my colleagues in 
the museum at Amsterdam could never make up 
their minds to regard as Dutch"* a fine poly- 
chrome dish in the Rijksmuseum of which the 
principal subject is the Roman Charity. It has 
a border of amorini, grotesques, vases of 
fruit and ironwork motives [Plate II, h]. 
On the back it has the accompanying mark 
below the date 1601, within a double 
border of floral scrolls and radial leaves 
similar to those on the backs of 
Sienese maiolica dishes. These floral scrolls, 
relegated to the back of the dish, are seen in their 
primitive form in the Herckenrode tiles; the 
grotesques, vases and ironwork motives are, at an 
earlier stage of their development, the Flemish 
element in the Conversion of St. Paul. Lastly, 
on the base of a charming polychrome bowl 
in the Claes Collection we find a 
mark built up in a similar fashion. 
A , Do not all these points indicate an Ant- 
^-^H werp origin? When at some future 
M\I date the history of earthenware in 
the Netherlands comes to be written, the produc- 
tions of Antwerp will provide a remarkably copi- 
ous and interesting material for the first chapter. 

'5 Verbal communication by Dr. Neurdenburg and >ir. 
Hudig. 



A FRANS GREENWOOD GOBLET 
BY SIR JOHN RISLEY 



GLASS goblet, hitherto unre- 
corded, decorated and signed by 
Frans Greenwood, appears to be 
worthy of a note in the Burlington 
Mag-^zine. Hartshorne (" Old Eng- 
lish Glasses," pp. 54 sqq.) gives some account 
of the art of etching on glass through a film of 




wax, by the action of fluoric acid upon the lines 
or stippled parts bared by a steel point, as in 
copper-plate etching. To this art, he says, 
many Dutchmen applied themselves with great 
success throughout the eighteenth century, and 
adds:. "Foremost of these artists is Green- 
wood, whose admirable works, ranging between 



297 



1722 and 1743, are now very scarce." Several 
examples of this form of glass decoration are to 
be found in the British Museum, including two 
masterpieces by Greenwood, one of which is 
illustrated in Bate's " English Table Glass " 
(No. 193). 

As already indicated, Hartshorne includes 
Greenwood amongst the Dutch engravers, and 
it would appear from his two names that he was 
of Anglo-Dutch extraction, possibly a scion of 
an English family which had settled in Holland 
and acquired Dutch nationality and ideas whilst 
retaining the English surname unaltered. How- 
ever this may be, some of his work, at any rate, 
was executed on glass of English manufacture, 
as in the case of the specimen now illustrated. 
This is, indeed, a characteristic English goblet 
of heavy " flint glass," a fine upstanding piece 
(11 J inches high), with a straight-sided bowl, 
a massive baluster stem with collars and tears, 
and a plain domed foot — obviously dating about 
the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century. The foot has unfortunately been 
broken in half and mended, but this is a com- 
paratively unimportant blemish, seeing that the 
glass is otherwise undamaged and the engrav- 
ing on the bowl, which constitutes its real 
interest, remains perfect. 

As will be seen from the illustration, the bowl 
shows a woman in a cap raising her right 



hand, and with the left holding on her lap a 
small dog of the Italian greyhound type, whilst 
by her side is a man with his face twisted into 
a rather unpleasant grin, holding in his two 
hands a cat. The fondness of the school to 
which Greenwood belonged for allegorical sub- 
jects suggests the possibility that this picture 
was intended for an allegory of married (cat 
and dog !) life, but an ordinary portrait of, say, 
a tavern-keeper and his wife, without any double 
entente, is an equal possibility, and the design 
is one of those in which different people may 
read a different story. It is for experts in 
national costume, etc., of the eighteenth cen- 
tury to pronounce an opinion as to the nation- 
ality of the dress here portrayed, but the whole 
picture seems generally to have a Dutch rather 
than an English character. 

Outside the engraving, at its bottom left-hand 
corner, is the signature " F. Greenwood fecit," 
inscribed with a diamond in flowing italics. 
The opinion may perhaps be hazarded that this 
is quite an early example of Greenwood's work, 
partly because the glass on which it is executed 
cannot well be later than 1730 and probably dates 
a few years earlier, and partly because the en- 
graving, though admirable in many respects, 
has not the fine and filmy delicacy to which 
Greenwood attained when he brought his art to 
its highest degree of perfection. 



A SPANISH-ITALIAN TRECENTO ALTARPIECE 
BY AUGUST L. MAYER 




OME time ago there passed into the 
possession of Don Luis Plandiura, 
whose house in Barcelona contains 
a most important collection of 
Spanish art of the Middle Ages, a 
large triptych from the Church of Estopifian in 
the province of Huesca. The three parts run 
up into sharp gables, the central panel 
displaying an almost life-size figure of 
a saint, possibly St. Lawrence, set against 
a gold background, with the kneeling 
donors, a knight and a priest, and their 
coats of arms, at his feet. The sides, divided 
into small panels, represent scenes from the life 
of the Saint, as well as episodes from the lives 
of other martyrs. The gables contain the 
scenes of the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and the 
Holy Women at the Grave. The inscription of 
place names on some of the scenes is very 
remarkable. Thus one reads the words "O 
Aragona " near an architectural subject, and 
"Osca," the ancient form of Huesca, still used 
in Catalonian dialect, on a town scene. 

The triptych passes as a Spanish work. I 
doubt, however, if this classification is above 
criticism. Should it be, then the piece would 



be a most important example of Spanish 
trecento painting executed under Italian influ- 
ence. It would be untrue to say that, owing to 
its unquestionable power, the piece cannot be 
the work of a Spaniard of that time. The works 
of Ferrer Bassa, a contemporary of the painter 
of our picture, are enough to prove that nothing 
can be assumed on these grounds. 

It is noteworthy, however, that the predom- 
inant Italian influence is not Sienese as in 
Ferrer Bassa's work, the derivation of which is 
easily accounted for by the relations between 
Catalonia and Avignon and France, but of the 
School of Giotto. One can hardly credit a 
Florentine influence, however. Not only those 
elements, which we shall shortly examine and 
prove to be French, are against such a supposi- 
tion, but above all the notion of placing the 
Crucifixion directly above the saint's nimbus, 
blending both subjects into one composi- 
tion. If the painter were an Italian, one would 
have to seek for his home further north than in 
Florence. 

The question of the painter's origin is com- 
plicated bv elements which are to be found in 
the pictures in the gables but not in the style of 



298 




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the main composition. The Crucifixion dis- 
closes Gothic characteristics in its sentiment as 
in its drawing, which have no relation to the 
art of Giotto and his followers. Its lineation 
and gracefulness are far removed from Giotto's 
plastic directness, his seriousness and weight, 
though in the large scene one remains aware 
of a permeating Giottesque element. The other 
scenes of the Women at the Tomb and the 
" Noli me tangere " are at any rate partly Ita- 
lian in character, particularly the figures of the 
three women and the angel, who are closely re- 
lated to the figures in the central panel. But the 
handling of the landscapes, particularlv in the 
" Noli me tangere " panel, produce a non-Ita- 
lian effect, and are reminiscent rather of French 
miniatures. It is quite possible that an Italian 
provincial artist, perhaps of North Italy, came 
to Spain by way of France and there executed 
among other things this most important work. 
But this is only a hypothesis, which can perhaps 
be upset. 

As far as the date is concerned, one might 
place the work in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, from the consideration that the painter 
cannot be regarded as a pioneer; it may, how- 
ever, be rather earlier. At any rate I believe 
that this important altarpiece is a valuable new- 
example of the School of Giotto which will 
interest both the students of Spanish and of 
Italian fourteenth-century painting. 

[Mr. A. Van de Put has kindly contributed 
the following note on Dr. A. L. Mayer's article. 
— Ed. Burlington Mag.^^zine.] 

The saint vested in a dalmatic, holding a 
palm and a book, represented in the central 
panel, is not St. Lawrence — as might be at first 

REVIEWS 

Some Contemporary Artists. Frank Rutter. 216 pn 
(Parsons). 6s. ' '^' 

Naps and Doubles.— Mr. Rutter's new book 
raises as early as on its outside wrapper 
the questions of general interest that are 
now too seldom considered in dealing with 
the writings of the so-called critiques d'avant- 
garde. In the fourth line the term " repre- 
sentative artists " is used. There is no 
such thing as d " representative artist." 
The term is a political one, and cannot 
be applied to artists at all. It is, for in- 
stance, a custom with journalists to lump 
together a certain number of painters of the 
early Victorian period as Preraphaelites. Let 
us consider merely two. There is Millais, who 
was deficient in invention and conviction, and 
Ford Madox Brown, whose every line is in- 
formed with thought and power. Can Millais 
be said to represent Ford Madox Brown ? 



supposed in connexion with the incident repre- 
sented in the middle outer compartment of the 
triptych's sinister wing (spectator's R) — but St. 
Vincent, likewise a native of Osca, who suf- 
fered martrydom under Diocletian at Valencia. 

In the dexter wing (spectator's L), we have in 
the top compartments (i) Vincent's committal by 
his parents Euticius and Enola to his vocation 
under the bishop, St. Valerius, at Osca [Plate 
II, b] ; (2) his reception of deacon's orders at 
the hands of St. Valerius, bishop of Csesar- 
augusta. This city is indicated by the inscrip- 
tion C [ivitas] Aragona [Plate II, c]. The 
beginning of their persecution is seen below, 
deacon and bishop being brought before the 
Roman Governor Datianus at Fa/eMc[ia]. 

The top compartments in the opposite panel 
show the Governor pronouncing sentence of 
banishment against St. Valerius, who retires 
to Enet (cf. "Espana sagrada," 2 ed., xxx, 106), 
here marked Anat. Those below depict St. 
Vincent's martyrdom : his being stretched upon 
a saltire cross preparatory to being torn with 
hooks (cf. the painting by J. Gasc6 in the Vich 
Museum); then upon la couch studded with 
blades (here spikes?) over a raging fire ; his sub- 
sequent incarceration and appearance when 
spied upon by the persecutors. 

Estopiiian and Enet are, alike, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Barbastro. 

The arms accompanying the donors are, 
apparently : (i) a chief; (2) a tree within a bor- 
dure cheeky or lozengy ; (3) uncertain, (i) May 
be Entenza, but identification depends in any 
case upon their tinctures. 

It seems incredible that the triptych has not 
been published by one or other of the excur- 
sionist societies of the region. a. v. de p. 



And, on the other hand, what has Ford Madox 
Brown done that he should be supposed to 
represent Millais? In politics it may be said 
that a delegate represents, for a time, half the 
voters, plus his majority, and that is all. 

We have a right to ask that those who select, 
as a career, the profession of letters should take 
a little interest in the meaning of words; as 
much, say, as a painter does in the direction of 
lines. The verb " to represent " needs an 
accusative. Whom do the painters in Mr. 
Rutter's book represent besides themselves ? 

What, moreover, is the exact meaning of 
"authoritative" information? One can only 
conclude that it means information furnished 
by the painters themselves. But the passing 
on of ex parte statements is the function of the 
interviewer, not of the critic. The paragraph 
ends by a suggestion that Mr. Rutter's ac- 



303 



quaintance " with the man as well as with his 
work " adds greatly to the value of the book. 
On the contrary, a writer with a proper sense 
of what criticism means would rather endeav- 
our, so far as possible, to avoid being hampered 
by personal contact with the authors of work 
that he proposes critically to consider. 

It is, of course, probable that the authors of 
books do not themselves dictate the paragraphs 
on wrappers intended to be thrown away. But 
they would place themselves in a stronger posi- 
tion by insisting on the absence, even on a 
paper wrapper, of compromising flapdoodle. 

These things would not be worth saying if 
it were not that trifles of the threshold have a 
certain premonitory value. We find in the 
book that, like all the critics of the van, Mr- 
Rutter cares immensely, if somewhat con- 
fusedly, that the painters of the team he 
favours should "get on," and sell their pic- 
tures, and " triumph " over the troops of 
Midian, the troops of Midian whom he con- 
ceives as prowling and prowling around in 
gilded splendour in Burlington House. It is 
a romantic conception of the function of critic- 
ism, astonishing in its innocence. Mr. Rutter 
quotes, as a slap in the eye for the troops of 
Midian, that at least four painters from the New 
English Art Club have been taken away from 
their easels and made curators of public gal- 
leries ! He congratulates himself on the "cap- 
ture " of the press by members of the New 
English Art Club. Surely all this is rather a 
compromising form of advocacy, even as 
advocacy — for advocacy it is, or politics, or 
propaganda, all perfectly permissible things. 
But it cannot be called criticism. Take the 
following paragraph : — 

These last two exhibitions have been rather embarrassing 
to the professional critic. From sheer force of habit he 
wanted to go on damning the Royal Academy as he had 
done since he first learnt to write. Yet when he looked 
around he found the galleries full of works by painters 
whom he had praised for years past at the New English 
exhibitions. He could not honestly say that all these 
artists were now painting less well than they had done ; 
and yet it went very much against the grain to have to 
admit that the Academy of the present was better than the 
Academy of the past. 

" We could not honestly say that all those 
artists were now painting less well than thev 
had done! " This amounts to an admission 
that the professional critic would like to sav 
what was not true, because the painters in 
question were not playing for the side the critic 
favours, but that he didn't dare to. I confess 
that I have a higher opinion of the profession 
of letters than to believe this. And here we 
come to the point. The critique d'avantgarde 
all over Europe has forgotten that criticism is a 
branch of literature, that it exists in and for 
itself, and that it is just as important as the art of 
painting pictures. 



If criticism aspires, as it must, to the same 
durability as painted canvas, it really must not 
deal in such false antitheses as that between 
" conception " and " execution," or set up 
such nonsensical categories as that between 
" pre-war " and " post-war " painters. Why 
not "pre-Tichborne-case" painters, and "post- 
Tichborne-case " painters? Walter sickert. 

Trionfi. By Werner Weisbach. 162 pp. + 60 ill. Berlin. 
(Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.) 

The present volume enlightens us, in a most 
welcome fashion, about a peculiarly fascinating 
province of Italian Renaissance art, treating as 
it does of the triumphal pageants which figure 
so largely among the subjects which inspired 
painters, engravers and sculptors of the period 
in question. From its association with classical 
Rome, the theme of the Triumphal Procession 
was one which inevitably appealed to the ten- 
dencies of Humanism ; and to treat adequately 
of its reflection in art, it is necessary to be exten- 
sively acquainted, not only with the several 
works of art themselves, but also with the 
literary sources and historic events with which 
they are connected — a condition this, which Dr. 
Weisbach's monograph amply fulfils. Recon- 
structions of classical triumphs, contemporary 
triumphs, legendary, mythological and allegori- 
cal triumphs, and the Christian Trionjo — there 
are the four categories, of which the main por- 
tion of the book treats: it is followed by a 
chapter of considerations on the relations be- 
between the Triumphs and the Sepulchral Monu- 
ments, and a final resume deals with the 
diffusion of the subject of the Triumph outside 
Italy. One follows Dr. Weisbach's account 
with a sustained interest in the many aspects of 
Renaissance art and civilisation generally which 
it discloses ; and several results of importance in 
their bearing on individual works of art may be 
derived from these pages. The author thus 
gives reasons for dating the Triumph of Scipio 
Africanus (not, as interpreted by Dr. Schubring, 
the Triumph of Julius Ccesar), and its com- 
panionpiece in the Mus^e des Arts D^coratifs, 
about the year 1466; and he demonstrates 
convincingly that the front of one of the 
Cassones formerly belonging to the Earl 
of Crawford, and now in the possessior 
of Viscount Lascelles, represents not the 
Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxana, 
but the Triumph of Darius (cf. Burling- 
ton Magazine, vol. xxii, pp. 196 sqq). Of 
great interest is the discovery that the two 
Bacchiaccas, reproduced on pp. 92 and 93, are 
companion pieces — Youth, by the way, is not 
in the Benson collection, but in that of Sir Otto 
Beit. Of the inspiration derived by the Vene- 
tian Cinquecento from Petrarch's Trionfi (see 
p. 88), there is, in addition to the Bonifazios 



304 



quoted by Dr. Weisbach, proof in three big 
frieze-like compositions by Andrea Schiavone in 
the Cook collection at Richmond. The book is 
all through excellently illustrated ; among the 
reproductions now for the first time published, 
perhaps the most interesting is that rare thing, 
a Venetian fresco of the quattrocento, viz., the 
Triumph of the Doge Jacopo Marcello {ob. 
1488), which forms part of his tomb in the 
church of the Frari. t.b. 

The Early Ceramic Wares of China. By A. L. Hethering- 
TON. xviii + 160 pp. ill. + 45 pi. (Benn Brothers.) 

;^3 as- 
Little more than five years have passed since 

the appearance of Mr. R. L. Hobson's Chinese 
Pottery and Porcelain was made the occasion of 
a survey in these columns of the literature of the 
subject in European languages. It is hard to 
believe that in so short a period Mr. Hobson's 
book has become unprocurable except at a pro- 
hibitive price, whilst the only other critical work 
on the subject that has been issued in the inter- 
val has also passed out of print. These facts 
are significant. The study of Chinese art 
archaeology is growing rapidly, and not less the 
interest awakened by it amongst connoisseurs. 
Only in the study of early /Egean civilisation 
can we find anything like a parallel to this phe- 
nomenon. The material for study steadily 
accumulates, especially pottery, which is at the 
same time one of the least destructible embodi- 
ments of art, and that most convenient and 
attractive to the collector. In these circum- 
stances there was clearly room for a new work 
dealing more particularly with the earlier phases 
of Chinese ceramic history; this want is well 
supplied by the scholarly book of Mr. A. L. 
Hetherington, which takes the student as far as 
the end of the medieval period, and provides a 
thorough and ably reasoned survey of all the 
early wares that have as yet come to light. 

The new work not only gathers up all that 
had previously been written on the subject, but 
also makes new and original contributions to 
criticism, many of which will meet with accept- 
ance as solutions of points hitherto obscure. A 
typical case may be cited. A class of heavy 
celadon dishes with uncrackled jade-like green 
glaze has been found widely distributed in the 
regions covered by Chinese commerce in the 
Middle .'Vges. They show characteristics, in 
their massiveness especially, approaching those 
of the recognised productions of the Ch'u-chou 
kilns in Ming times; in quality of glaze, how- 
ever, they more nearly resemble the Lung- 
ch'iian ware of the Sung dynasty, to which 
period uncritical connoisseurs are too ready to 
assign them. Mr. Hetherington's very reason- 
able suggestion is that they represent the output 
of Lung-ch'iian as modified to meet the require- 
ments of the great export trade which developed 



under the Yiian emperors. 

The illustrations are of a high standard, the 
coloured plates being better than any coloured 
reproductions of pottery that have yet been pub- 
lished in England. It is a sign of the recent 
growth of Chinese archaeology that none of their 
subjects would have been accessible if the book 
had made its appearance twenty years ago. We 
are indeed rapidly leaving behind the days 
when the Chinese were generally regarded as 
little better than barbarians with somewhat 
entertaining manners and customs, and the 
Summer Palace could be looted without a qualm 
by a western government with pretensions to be 
the most enlightened in the world. We may 
hope that nowadays Yuan-ming Yuan would be 
as safe from such outrage as Versailles or the 
Escorial. But we are slow to realise that Chinese 
civilisation differs greatly in kind but little in 
degree from our own, and to give it the serious 
attention demanded by such an admission. To 
this desirable end the study of Chinese ceramics 
and the appearance of thoughtful works of criti- 
cism such as that of Mr. Hetherington may 
contribute not a little. The reputation for 
sound scholarship in this branch of art history 
won for England by Franks and Bushell is one 
of which we may well feel proud ; we may justly 
claim that it is being well maintained in the 
present generation, and this latest contribution 
to Chinese ceramic literature is thoroughly 
worthy of its predecessors. b.r. 

Italian Renaissance Furniture. By Wilhelm von Bode. 

Translated by Mary E. Herrick. 48 pp. + 71 pi. New 

York (Hepburn). $4. 

It is nearly twenty years since Dr. von Bode 
first published " Die Italienischen Hausmo- 
bel der Renaissance," and this monograph of 
his on Italian furniture has remained until quite 
lately practically the only treatise on the sub- 
ject. During his constant journeys to Italy on 
behalf of his museum Dr. von Bode made 
himself personally acquainted with the various 
types of Italian furniture. Occasional ex- 
amples were still to be found, though in ever 
decreasing numbers, in the houses for which 
they were originally made ; but the greater part 
had to be sought for in the shops of the prin- 
cipal dealers, which Dr. von Bode made it his 
duty to visit systematically. The trading in old 
furniture resulted in its being carried from its 
native places into the larger towns where re- 
cords of its history were lost ; so that the work 
of classifying the characteristics of provincial 
types was difficult enough even at that time 
and tends each year to become harder and 
harder. No assistance in this direction was 
given by the public museums of Italy, which had 
nothing' to show in the way of furniture— a defect 
which scarcely any effort has yet been made to 
remedy. 



305 



In classifying the Renaissance furniture of 
Italy Dr. von Bode set himself, then, to a 
pioneer task. He grouped it under four main 
headings, namely, Florence and Tuscany, 
Venice and the mainland, the north-west ter- 
ritories, and Rome and Naples. Though com- 
paratively slight, and full of possibilities of 
correction and expansion, his little volume co\- 
ered the ground in an admirable manner; and 
connoisseurs and students both in England and 
America have long waited for a translation. It 
is to be feared that they will be disappointed 
with the result as now published ; for the trans- 
lation in every respect reads like the work of 
one who is very imperfectly acquainted with the 
English language. The foreword is signed by 
Bode, but it seems unlikely that the learned 
doctor, with his well-known knowledge of 
English, could have made himself actually 
responsible for the translation. h. c. s. 

The Pewter Collector. By H. J. L. J. Mass^, M.A. 
xiii + 314 pp. Illust. (Herbert Jenkins). 7s. 6d. 

Pewter worth collecting, save as old metal, is 
not common. Coming into use mainly as a sub- 
stitute for more precious metals, both for domes- 
tic and ecclesiastical purposes, it has played an 
important part in the evolution of tableware 
from wood and leather to pottery and glass ; but 

A MONTHLY CHRONICLE 

Chinese Jade. — The collection at present ex- 
hibited at Messrs. Spink and Son, King Street, 
St. James's, has recently received some interest- 
ing additions of various dates and types. Among 
them is an exceptionally large Ming bowl of 
grey jade, deeply carved with cloud, wave and 
dragon rnotives, with its original stand in dark 
wood whereon the cloud and wave motives are 
repeated. A smaller eighteenth century bowl 
shows similar design and decoration, with less 
swing and bravura. Both are good examples 
of how oriental work in jade and similar 
material, even more than in porcelain, helped 
to breed rococo art in Europe. More reticent, 
and equally good in workmanship, is a five- 
footed bowl with handles, decorated in low re- 
lief inside with a dragon design, and outside 
with scroll and lotus motives. Specially note- 
worthy are two bowls in dark green jade; one 
of the Ming period carved in relief with peach 
trees in whose foliage bats appear, the other of 
the seventeenth century with dragon head 
handles and incised conventional decoration, 
which suggests the influence of the metal 
worker [Plate]. Similar and even more 
stylized handling appears in two contemporary 
vases also of green jade, square in plan and 
massive in design, with elephant head handles. 
Other good pieces are a white jade Ming vase, 
of graceful shape, covered with an unusual 



the character of the material makes it unsuitable 
for elaborately decorated work, and the art of 
the pewterer has been almost entirely imita- 
tive, producing no characteristic or distinctive 
designs. Thus, the attraction of pewter largely 
depends on the quality of the metal, which varies 
immensely despite much regulation and super- 
vision in the past ; so that one of the first requi- 
sites for a collector is the power to distinguish 
good metal from bad. It is to Mr. Massd's credit 
that enthusiasm does not make him uncritical. 
He knows and explains what good pewter is, and 
refuses to encourage the indiscriminate collection 
of pint pots, the chief use of which he regards as 
providing solder for the repair of more interest- 
ing pieces. His book gives much useful infor- 
mation based on wide reading and first-hand 
experience. In particular, the list of pewterers 
and description of their touches is very complete. 
The chief defect is unsystematic arrangement and 
multiplication of historical details, unaided by a 
system of generalization or a good index. The 
illustrations are good but ill arranged. W. G. C. 

Christmas Illustrated Books.— Shortage of 
space has made it necessary to discuss these on 
page iv, following " Contents," in our adver- 
tisement section. 



arrangement of intertwined dragons in low re- 
lief; and a more fantastic eighteenth century 
wine vessel in the forrn of a lotus which was 
exhibited in 1915 at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club. Among the figures, a reclining sage with 
the symbolic three-legged toad is marked out 
by its excellent workmanship ; and to this 
quality is added singular beauty of material in 
two upright figures of sages in emerald green 
jade. w. G. c. 

Exhibitions. — Owing to the great pressure 
on our space we find ourselves unable 
at this late date to deal as we should have 
liked with two exhibitions that opened just too 
late to be noticed in our last month's issue. We 
refer to the important Goupil Gallery Salon 
where a large and very varied series of English 
and foreign modern pictures may be seen until 
about Christmas Day. At the French Gallery 
there is an interesting exhibition which seems to 
indicate a welcome expansion of interest on the 
part of the management. The exhibition of 
Chinese art at Whitechapel Gallery will appeal 
to our readers. At Agnew's there is a loan 
exhibition of old masters on behalf of ex-Service 
men, which not only on account of the deserving 
cause for which it stands, we strongly recom- 
mend to our readers. It is an admirable exhibi- 
tion of a kind that has become lamentably rare 



306 




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B — The Dead Christ supported by Angels, by Francesco Zaganelli da Cottignola. Panel 
by 2.03 m. Lunette of the altarpiece below. (Erskine Collection) 



T .02 m. 




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C — The Baptism of Christ, by Francesco Zaganelli da Cottignola. 
(Erskine Collection) 

Plate II. Auctions 



Panel, 2.06 m. by 1.97 



in London. Early this month an exhibition of 
water colours by J. R. Cozens will be opened at 
the Burlington Fine Arts Club. 

Corrigenda. — November issue p. 217. The 

LETTERS 

" UNIDENTIFIED ENGLISH 
EMBROIDERIES IN THE MUSEUM 
CINQUANTENAIRE IN BRUSSELS." 

Monsieur, — Dans le Burlington Magazine 
d'aodt 1922 (p. 75), sous le litre " Unidentified 
English embroideries in the Museum Cinquan- 
tenaire in Brussels," nous avons lu le tr^s int^res- 
sant article de M . George SaviUe Seligman sur les 
broderies de ce Mus^e. Nous lui serious fort 
reconnaissant de nous dire si les certitudes qu'il 
nous donne sur les orfrois anglais ont 6t6 trou- 
vtes dans un livre de I'^poque du XIIP ou du 
XIV"" si^cle, ou bien s'il les a d^couvertes dans 
un inventaire ou dans tout autre document don- 
nant ces details, ou encore s'il a vu sur beaucoup 
de miniatures anglaises de cette epoque, des per- 
sonnages a barbes multicolores ou des architec- 
tures analogues a celles representees sur les 
broderies visees? En ce cas, est-on sur que ces 
elements ne se retrouvent pas sur des enlumi- 
nures faites par des artistes d'un autre pays? 

Nous ne disons pas que M. Seligman ait tort, 
mais nous voudrions qu'il appuie ses affirma- 
tions par des documents. 

Quant aux dates qu'indique I'auteur, il 
semble qu'elles concordent presque avec celles 
notees par nous. II dit par example que I'orfroi 
(PI. II, C.E., No. 9) est du dernier quart du 
XI IP siecle ; nous le renseignons comme etant du 
XIIP-XIV" siecle. Le meme brodeur et le meme 
dessinateur (parfois c'est le meme personne) ont 
pu vivre et travailler a la fin d'un siecle et au 
commencement d'un autre, on en a assez de 
preuves sous les yeux en ce moment. 

Pour la broderie (PI. II, D., No. 10), le cata- 
logue du Musee est d'accord avec M. Seligman 
— nous nous en felicitous — on a toutefois ajoute 
un point d'interrogation apres la mention 
" anglais." 

L'auteur nous obligerait fort s'il voulait bien 
repondre k ces differentes questions. 

Isabella Errera. 

[The following is M. Seligman's reply to the 
above. — Ed.] 

Cher Monsieur, — En principe, Madame Errera 
a bien raison quand elle etaye I'identification de 
certaines broderies sur des miniatures mais, en 
fait, je ne crois pas qu'il soit possible d'operer 

AUCTIONS 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 35, New Bond 
Street, on Dec. 5, the interesting collection of pictures, chiefly 
by the Old Masters, which belonged to the late Mr. David 



woman's portrait [Plate I, b] bears Dubordieu's 
full name (not monogram), with the date 1637 
(not 1639). It was, therefore, painted six years 
later than the portrait shown on Plate I, a. 



ainsi. Les nouvelles connaissances de I'art de la 
broderie, acquises depuis 15 ans, sont incalcul- 
ables. Rock, Lady Cilford, de Farcy, Bock ont fait 
non seulement des erreurs, mais des omissions, 
que I'experience de recents auteurs due a de lon- 
gues observations et a des comparaisons attentives 
des recents auteurs ont combiees. Ainsi, pour 
1 'architecture a 5 lobes, il est vraisemblable qu'on 
retrouve, ces 5 lobes dans les arcatures de cer- 
taines miniatures fran^aises, flamandes et meme 
allemandes de ces epoques; mais, a ma fcon- 
naissance, seules, les broderies anglaises des 
XIII, XIV et XV possedent cette par- 
ticuliarite. Mon regrette Maitre, M. de Farcy, 
est absolu sur ce point. Une autre particu- 
liarite de I'Opus anglicanum c'est sur les joues 
le point (en spirale) qu'on trouve sur les joues 
des personnages et se voit egalement sur les 
broderies italiennes jusqu'^ la fin du XIV' 
mais a part ces deux pays aucun autre ne la 
possede. Ainsi les arcatures et le point en 
spirale sont des identifications certaines et elles 
sont encore plus absolues lorsque dans une 
meme broderie elles apparaissent toutes deux. 
L'eminent conservateur du Musee Victoria and 
Albert, Mr. Kendrick ecrit dans son ouvrage 
" English Embroidery." 

Among the characteristics of this English work, one 
which in itself has been considered to afford sufficient 
evidence of such an origin is found in the treatment of the 
faces. These are generally worked in a kind of spiral 
starting from the centre of the cheek. 

et un peu plus loin : 

The hair and beard are often of an unnatural colour. 

A moins d' admettre que tons les arbres de 
Jesse des XIL et XIV'' si^cles, catalogues Opus 
anglicanum sont italiens il faut admettre que 
les particuliarites qui les caracterisent et qui se 
retrouvent dans le No. 9 (excepte les 5 lobes) 
identifient cette pi^ce comme anglaise. Je serai 
tr^s heureux de connaitre une broderie fran^aise 
contenant ces particuliarites. Quant a I'epoque 
outre le costume, les plis des costume indiques 
par des traits simples fortement prononces sont 
un des caracteristiques indisrutables du XIIP ; au 
XIV*^ les plis ont une caracteristique differente. 
Je pourrai fournir encore d'autres preuves du 
bien fonde le mon article mais je crois que 
celles que je viens de presenter suffiront a refuter 
les objections presentees. 

G. Saville Seligman. 



Erskine, of Linlathen, Forfarshire, and 33, Brompton Square, 
S.VV., a well-known collector and sometime Chairman of ihe 
Trustees of the National Gallery of Scotland. A certain 



311 



numbfr of the most remarkable of the Italian pictures were 
bought in Italy in the 'forties by an ancestor of the late owner, 
Mr. Thomas Erskine. Some of the pictures are well-known 
from their appearance in public exhibitions — e.g. Sebastiano 
del Piombo's Portrait of Cardinal Enckenvoerdt (No. 72), 
and Garofalo's Portrait of the Artist as a Musician (No. 54); 
others will now be seen in London for the first time, and 
among them attention will no doubt principally be attracted 
by the two pan-els by Francesco Zaganelli [Plate 11, B and 
c], origiJially forming an altarpiece in the Church of S. 
Domenico at Faenza (Nos. 92, 93), and a noble Bronzino 
portrait (No. 21). Of pictures by artists other than Italian 
may be specially mentioned the attractive full length of 
a young lady bv Aelbert Cuyp (No. 27) [Plate I, A, p. 286], 
a fine example by that rare master Cornelis Vroom (compare 
the Burlington Magazine, December, 1919, p. 261), and a 
quite charming sketch in oils by George Romney, Child 
Asleep (No. 80). Several of the above are reproduced in the 

GALLERY AND MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 



well-illustrated sale catalogue. Dec. 8th. Chinese Works of 
Art, including several fine Sung and Ming paintings. Tang 
tomb figures and European furniture of various periods. 

Me. F. Lair-Dubreuil at the Gallery Georges Petit, 8, 
rue de Size, Paris, Dec. 4th. Among a fine collection of 
i8th century furniture and objets d'art are a number of 
pictures, including an excellent Portrait of a Man (8) of the 
1 6th century Ferrarese school. At Hotel Drouot, Dec. 6th. 
Engel-Gros collection of ancient textiles, Coptic, Oriental and 
European, with many examples of the greatest beauty and 
rarity. At Hotel Drouot, Dec. 7th. Engel-Gros collection 
of stained glass, French, German, Swiss and other schools, 
13th to 18th centuries. At Hotel Drouot, Dec. 7th. Ch. 
Haviland collection of modern paintings and drawings with a 
charming pastel Sur le Bateau (9), and the extraordinary 
telling, Les Jockeys avant la course (42), both by Degas, 
a fine Puvis da Chavannes, La Toilette (47), and three Rodin 
sculptures. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 
Print Room. 
Drawings. 

Fourteen drawings by D. Cox, R. Hills, G. R. Lewis, 

and S. Prout. Presented by J. R. Holliday, Esq. 
A. E. Chalon. R.A. Six Portraits of Malibran, Cervetto, 
Tamburini and other actors and musicians; water- 
colours. 
M. Detmold. Bellerophon on Pegasus. Pencil study for 

the artist's last etching. Presented by Mrs. Detmold. 
J. A. D. Ingres. Raphael and the Fornarina ; pen and 

sepia wash, 1818. 
J. Havard Thomas. Four pencil drawings of Italian 

peasants. 
A. Watteali. Man seated, playing the violin. Red and 
white chalk. Presented by W. Rodgie, Esq. 
Prints. 

The Master of the Banderoles. Mass of St. Gregory, 
Lehrs 66 (only one other impression known, at Halle) ; 
from the Odiing Collection. 
ZoAN Andrea. Virgin and Child after Diirer, p. 35. 
Five rare engraved portraits from the William Salt 
Library, including one of Richard Cromwell (eques- 
trian, published by P. Stent), of which only one other 
impression is known. 
Various etchings by J. Callot, L. B. Phillips, W. G. 
Reindel, W. P. Robins, and S. Vacher, and woodcuts 
by O. Bangemann, E. Lambert, and C. A. Wilkinson. 
Presented. 
Oriental Sub-Department. 

The Spirit of the Forest. Siamese painting. 18th 

century (?) 
.1 Man with a Camel. Ink and gold. Persian drawing. 
i6th century. 
Coins & Medals. 

Silver medallion of Syracuse, of the early fourth century 
B.C., by the " Unknow-n Artist." Presented by Edward 
Philips Thompson, Esq. 
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

(The items marked * are not yet on exhibition.) 
Architecture and Sculpture. 

Ivory Relief. Copy, probably early 19th century, of a 
panel in the Quedlinburg Casket. Presented by Romolo 
Piazzani, Esq. 
Head in Stone, by Modigliani. Intended as a door jamb. 

Presented by Henry Harris Esq. 
St. Anne with the Virgin and Child. Figure in painted 
oak. Lower Rhenish or Westphalian, second half of 
14th century. Bought. 
*rcMi(.! and Adonis group in wood. French; period of 
Louis XVI. Presented by J. R. Saunders, Esq., through 
the National Art-Coll'^ctions Futid. 
Ceramics. 

Wall-vase, blue and white porcelain. Chinese ; reign of 

Wan-li. Presented hy R. Arnold, Esq. 
Blue and white porcelain bowl. Chinese ; early Ming 

dynastv. Presented by Ren^ de I'Hepital, Esq. 
Blue and white porcejain jar. Chinese; early Ming 
dynasty. Presented by A. L. B. Ashton, Esq. 



Figure of a gardener, Worcester porcelain, iSth century. 

Presented by Herbert Eccles, Esq. 
Dish, Swansea porcelain. Presented by F. E. Andrews, 

Esq. 
Stained glass panel. English ; 14th century. Purchased. 
Engraving, Illustration and Design. 
*Drawings (18) of English Wall Paintings, by E. W. 
Tristram. 
Indian Section. 
A set of Thirty-two painted and gilt ivory Chessmen, made 
at Jodhpur, Rajputana, about 1800. Presented by G. A. 
Clarkson, Esq. 
Library. 

*Copy of the rare book : A treatise on Silhouette Like- 
nesses, by Monsieur Edouart. London, 1835. 
Metalwork. 
Sealing-wax Case. Brass, chased and engraved. Made 
by Virgo, of Sheflfield. English ; dated 1656. Presented 
by Miss Ethel Gurney. 
Communion Flagon. Pewter, engraved. Presented bv 

Sir C. M. Marling, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Small Sword and Sheath, the hilt of silver, cast and chased. 

English; London hall-mark, probably for 1750-1. 
Six Hunting Swards with silver hilts. English ; dating 

from 1702 to 1750. 
Coffer of Wood, covered with red velvet and bands of 
tinned iron. Italian ; i6th century. Presented by 
Romolo Piazzani, Esq. 
Caster. Silver, London hall-mark 1694. 
Pendant. Enamelled gold ; in form of a pistol. English ; 

second half of i6th century. 
Spoon. Silver with knob in form of a Moor's head. 
English ; isth century. 
Paintings. 

•Two Water-colour drawings by C. E. Holloway, be- 
queathed by the late T. Batterbury, Esq. 
Woodwork. 

Fragment of a cornice from a Devonshire screen, early 

i6th century. Presented by William Bailey, Esq. 
Fragment of tracery of a Suffolk screen, isth century ; and 
three panels carved with figures, period of Henry VIIl. 
Presented bv Frank Jennings, Esq. 
Tea Caddy, uin-shaped, decorated with curled paper work. 
Engli.sh ; late i8th century. Presented by A. G. Lewis, 
Esq. 
Ceramics and Ethnography. 

Chinese porcelain bow! of Ju type with engraved dragon. 

Presented bv .'\. L. Hetherington, Esq. 
Chinese porcelain bowl, blue and white, early Ming. Pre- 
sented by W. W. Winkworth, Esq. 
Chinese pottery bowl with " hare's fur " glaze and painted 

medallions. Sung. Presented by C. T. Loo, Esq. 
Chinese pottery vessel from Szechwan. T'ang. Presented 

bv Mrs. Elliott. 
Miscellaneous Chinese wares collected in Szechwan. 

Purchased. 
Pottery pitcher. English ; 14th century. Presented bv 
Alan O. Claughton, Esq. 



312 



CLASSIFIED INDEX TO VOLUME XLI, No. 232, JULY, TO 
No. 237, DECEMBER, 1922 

EXPLANATORY NOTE. — Cross references are given under the foUowmg headings : Architecture — Artists and Craftsmen — 
Authors (of writings included in this volume) — Carvings and Sculpture — Ceramics, Enamels and Glass — Furniture — 
Metalwork — Ownership (of objects referred to, owned (i) Collectively, by Nations, Public Corporations and Private 
Associations, (2) Individually, by Private Owners and DeaKrs) — Prints, Enc.ravings ^nd Etchings — Textiles — Titles, 
Complete List of (intmspersed in alphabetical order with the titles of the following sections. Auctions, Letters, Monthly 
Chronicle [ =M-C], Reviews). The definite and indefinite article in all languages is printed throughout but ignored in the 
alphabetical series. 



ARCHITECTURE— 

S. iMaria dell:i Pace, Rome ; Pl. 165. 
S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome ; PI. 165. 
S. Maria di Monte Santo, Rome ; PI. 168. 

ARTISTS AND CRAFTSMEN— 

Andrea di Giusto(?) Triumphs. (Mr. Walter Burns) 
PI. 105. 

The Anghiari Master. The Triumph oj Scipio Africanus 
(M. Guido Ainnot) PI. 105. 

.Antonello da Messina. Crucifixion (Antwerp Museum) ; 
Drawing (Staedel Institute, Frankfurt) PI. 271. 

Artist Unknown. Still life (Rijksmuseum) PI. 177. 

.•\vignon (School of). Crucifixion. Fresco (Chartreuse de 
Villeneuve-les-.Avignon) PI, 55 Crucifixion. Panel 
(M. L. A. Gaboriaud) PI. 52. 

Balducci (Matteo). Spring, Summer, Autumn. Painels 
(.Mr. W. H. Woodward) PI. 20. 

Baynes (Keith). Flowers (London Group) PI. 247. 

Bazzani (Giuseppe). Christ in the Garden (Prof. Podio, 
Bologna) PI. 71. 

Beale (Mary or Charles). Girl's Head; Girl with a Cat; 
Laughing Boy ; Man with a Pipe. Drawings (British 
Museum) PI. 142. 

Bell (Vanessa) a • The Frozen Pond PI. 35 ; Portrait of 
Mrs. M. PI. 3*2 ; The Seine PI. 35. 

BuNSKi. Landscape (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
U.S.A.) ; Portrait of Yuima (Mr. Tomitaro Hara) PI. 
223- 

Busch. Wood engraving PI. 187. 

Caravaggio. The Calling of St. Matthew. Detail (S. 
Luigi dei Frances!, Rome) PI. 65 ; The Conversion oj 
St. Paul (S. Maria del Popolo, Rome) PI. 159. 

Cavallino (Bernardo). St. George (Prof. A. Gualtieri, 
Naples) PI. 68. 

Clovio. Self-portrait. Miniature (Castle Ambras) PI. 195. 

Crespi (Lo Spagnolo). .St. John Nepomuceno confessing 
the Queen of Bohemia (Pinacoteca, Turin) PI. 68. 

CuYP (.Albert). Portrait of a young lady (Erskine Collec- 
tion) PI. 286. 

DiEZ. Wood engravings ; PI. 185, 186. 

DuBORDiEU (Pieter). Portrait of a Woman (Wcvrcester Art 
Museum, U.S.A.) PI. 216 ; Portrait of a Woman (M. van 
Lennep, Heemstede) PI. 216; Portrait of a Girl (M. 
Stephan von Auspitz, Vienna) PI. 219; Self-Por- 
trait (?) (Mme. .Alice de Stuers) PI. 219. 

DOrer. Landscape. Water-colour (Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford) PI. 168. 

Early Spanish School. Retablo, with Scenes from the 
Legends of SS. Sebastian and Julian Hospitator (Span- 
ish Art Gallery) PI. 192. 

English School. Triptych. 14th century (Messrs. Dur- 
lacher and Co.) PI. 11, 115. 

EupiiRONios. An Attic red-figured Cup (Sr. G. de Ferrari) 
PI. 123. 

Feti (Domenico). Elijah in the Wilderness (Staatliche 
Museen, Berlin) PI. 162. 

Florentine 5chool. Scenes from the Life of Alexander 
the Great (British Museum) PI. 2fi8. 

Fontana (Lavinia). Portrait (Sir Lionel Earlo) 41 ; PI. 40. 

French School. Holy Trinity -vith Angels (National Gal- 
lery) PI. 80. 

Frith Derby Dav. Detail (National Gallery) PI. 270. 

Gell^e (Claude). Landscape. Monochrome (British 

Museum) PI. 171. 

Giotto (School of). Scenes from the life of St. Vincent 
(Don Luis Plandiura) PI. 290, 302. 

Greco. Portrait of Clovin (Naples Museum) PI. 195. 

Greenwood (Frans). Engraved goblet, English (Sir John 
Risley) PI. 296. 

Guido di Saving. 288. 

HiROSHioE. Colour Prints; PI. iiR. 



Hogarth. Sketches for a Rake's Progress (No. i) (Sir 
Robert Witt) PI. 13. (No. 3) (Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford) PI. 13. (No. 7) (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) 
PI. 16. 

Holbein the Younger (School of). The Marchioness of 
Dorset. Miniature (Castle Ambras) PI. 195. 

LARGiLLiftuE. The Duke of Brittany and Mme. de la Mothe- 
Houdancourt (formerly Burdett-Coutts Collection) PI. 
126; The family of Louis .\IV (Wallace Collection) PI. 
123 ; La Mar^chale de la Mothc-Houdancourt (Musie 
Nationale de Versailles) PI. 126. 

Leonardo da Vinci 255. 

Lys (Giovanni). Venus and the Three Graces (Uffizi Gal- 
lery, Florence) PI. 162. 

Martinez (Jos^). Peasants Warming Themselves. 

(National Gallery) PI. S3. 

Masaccio (Studio of). The Nativity (National Gallery) 
PI. 83. 

Matisse. Landscape PI. 171. 

Morales (Luis). Head of Christ (Sir Claude Phillips) ; 
Madonna and Child (The Spanish Art Gallery) PI. 132. 

Morazzone, Crespi and Procaccini. Martyrdotn of SS. 
Ruffina and Seconda (Brera, Berlin) PI. 74. 

Niccol6 di Pietro Gerini. Mystical Subject (Earl of Craw- 
ford and Balcarres) PI. 154. 

Oberl.^nder. Wood engraving. PI. 186. 

Pellipario (Nicola). Apollo and Daphne, Maiolica plates 
(British Museum) PI. 129; Apollo and Marsyas : The 
Calumny of /Ipelles (Ashmolean Museum, O.xford) ; 
Subject from " Dialogues of the Dead " (Victoria and 
Albert Museum) PI. 129; Narcissus and Echo; Solo- 
mon adoring an Idol (Museum Corrcr, Venice) PI. 26; 
Perseus and Andromeda ; The Story of Callisto. Maio- 
lica plates (Victoria and Albert Museum) PI. 23. 

Piazzetta. Judith and Holofernes (Lazzaroni Collection, 
Rome) PI 71. 

Pietro da Cortona. S. Maria della Pace (Rome) PI. 
165. S. Maria in Via Lata (Rome) PI. 165. 

Porter (F. J.) On the Bure (London Group) PI. 247. 

Prud'hon. 28 ; La Danseuse au Triangle. Drawing (Mme. 
Deligand) ; Danseuse jouant des Cymbales. Drawing 
Mme. FoA) ; Venus au Bain (M. Ed. Desfoss^s) Pl. 29: 
Venus and Adonis. Drawing (M. le G<5n^ral Vicomte 
de la Villestreux) Pl. 32. 

Rainaldi. S. Maria di Monte Santo (Rome) Pl. 168. 

Saavedra (Antonio del Castillo y). Holy Family (National 
Gallen-v) PI. 80. 

Sicnorelli (Luca). The Virgin of Mercy (Col. Douglas 
Proby) Pl. 204. 

Strozzi (Bernardo). The Blessing of Jacob (Pinacoteca, 
Pisa) Pl. 65. 

Thiesson (Gaston). Boy's head (M. Paul Poiret) ; Woman 
reading (Mme. Gaston Thiesson) PI. 189. 

TiEPOLO. After the Bath. Detail (Royal Gallery, Berlin) 
PI. 233 ; Portrait (Mr. Max Rothschild) PI. 230. 

TiNTORF.TTO. The Adulteress before Christ (Dresden Gal- 
lery) PI. 213; The Contest between Apollo and 
Marsyas (Col. W. Bromley Davenport) PI. 208; 
Christ at Emmans (Budapest Gallery) Pl. 213; 
The Death of Holofernes fPrado) Pl. 283 ; The Last 
Supper (S. Marcuola, Venice) Pl. 286; Sacra Conver- 
sazione (M. C. A. de Burlet) PI. 282 ; Studies. 
Drawing (Christ Church Librarv, Oxford) PI. 209. 
Tnrquin and Lncretia fPrado) Pl. J70 ; Venus. Vtilcan 
and Cupid (Frnu von Kaulbach, Munich) ; Sketch for 
Venus. Vulcan and Cupid. Drawing (Staatliche 
Museum. Berlin) Pl. 282. 

Titian. Judith (Mr. A. L. Nicholson) Pl. So- St. Sebas- 
tian (Hermitage) Pl. 86. , ^ , , c- 

Titian (after). Salome with the head of St. Jolm. bn- 
graving by L. Vorsterman Pl 89. 

Van EvcK. 17; Madonna (National Gallery of Victori.i. 
Melbourne) Pl. 233. 



Van Oost the Eldek (Jacob). Two Boys (National 

Gallery) PI. 83. 
Verhout (Constantyn). Etudiant cndormi (National 

Museum, Stockholm) PI. 174. 
Verhout (attributed to). Old Man and Girl at a Table 

(Braams Collection, Arnhem) PI. 177. 
Veisen Oiwake. Colour Print; PI. 118. 
Z.AGANELLi DA CoTTiGNOLA (Francesco). The Baptism oj 

Christ, and The Dead Christ supported by Angels 

(Erslcine Collection) PI. 310. 
ZuRBAUAN. The Immaculate Conception (National G.-iUery 

of Ireland, Dublin) PI. 40 Portrait of a Child with a 

Flower (Pierpont Morgan Collection) PI. 43. 
ZVL (G. P. van). The Concert. Drawing (Brunswick 

Gallery) PI. 149; The Concert Party (M. Paul Mat- 

thev, Paris) PI. 146 ; Six Figures in a Courtyard (M. 

Victor Koch) PI. 146; The Toilet (The Earl of 

Dysart) PI. 149. 

authors- 
Baldwin Brown (G.). The origin and early history of 
the Arts in relation to Esthetic Theory in General — 
I 91; Fig. 92; —II 134; Fig. 135. 
Beazley (J. D.). .'\n Attic red-figured Cup 121 ; PI. 123. 
Bell (C. F.). Three Sketches by Hogarth 11; PI. 13, 16. 
Borenius (Tancred). Unpublished Cassone Panels — IV 18 ; 
PI. 20; —V 104; PI. 105; VI 256; PI. 268. A 
Portrait by Lavinia Fontana 41 ; PI. 40. Some Re- 
flections on the last phase of Titian 87 ; PI. 86, 89. 
A Florentine Mystical Picture 156; PI. 154. An 
Early Spanish Retablo 193 ; PI. 192. An Unrecorded 
Signorelli 205 ; PI. 204. 
Bredius (A.). Pictures by Constantyn \'erhout 175 ; PI. 

174. 177- 
Carnac (A.). Gaston Thiesson 188 ; PI. 189. 
Casson (S.). Some Greek Bronzes at Athens 137 ; PI. 139. 
Constable (W. G.). Largilliire ; an iconographical note 

122 ; PI. 123, 126. 
Christie (Archibald H.). The Development of Ornament 

from .Arabic Script — II 34; Fig. 35. 
Eden (F. Sydney). The .Arms and Badges of the Wives of 

Henry VIII 109; PI. 108. 
Edmunds (Will H.). The Identification of Japanese Colour 

Prints— IV tig; PI. 118. 
Friedlander (Max J.). The Van Eycks and their Fol- 
lowers 17. 
Fry (Roger). A Crucifixion of the Avignon School 53 ; 

PI. 52, 55. A Toad in White Jade — I 103 ; PI. 102. 

Settecentismo 158; PI. 159, 162, 165, 168. 
FuKui (Rikichiro). A Landscape by Bunsci in the Boston 

Museum 218; PI. 223. 
Gamba (Count). The Seicento and Settecento Exhibition 

in Florence 64; PI. 65, 68, 7:, 74. 
Gluck (Gustav). A Drawing bv .Antonello da Messina 270 ; 

PI. 271. 
Goiffrev (Jean). The Prud'hon Exhibition in Paris 27; 

PI. ag, 3a. 
Hadeln (Detlev, Baron von). Early Works by Tintoretto 

— I 206; PI. 208, 209, 213; — II 278; PI. 279, 282, 

283, 286. 
Holmes (Sir Charles). Recent Additions to the National 

Gallery 76 ; PI. 80, 83. A Van Eyck for Melbourne 

232 ; PI. 233. 
Jones (E. Alfred). The Lloyd Roberts Bequest of OW 

English Plate to Manchester 227 ; PI. 226. Old Plate 

at the Church Congress 275 ; PI. 274. 
Kendrick (a. v.). a Tapestry in the Murray Collection 

269; PI. 254, 268. 
Laurent (Marcel). Guide di Savino and the Earthenware 

of .Antwerp 288 ; PI. 289, 292, 2g6. 
Letiiaby (W. R.). a Fourteenth Century English Trip- 
tych no ; PI. Ill, 115. 
Loojiis (Roger Sherman). Vestiges of Tristram vn Lon- 
don 54; PI. 58, 61. 
MacColl (D. S.). French Eighteenth Century Furniture 

in the Wallace Collection — I 260: PI. 261, 264, 267. 
Marti.n (W.). Some Portraits by Pieter Dubordieu 217; 

PI. 216, 2ig. 
Mayer (August L.). Some Unknown Works by Zurbaran 

42 ; PI. 40, 43. A Spanish-Italian Trecento Altar- 
piece 2g8 ; PI. 2g9, 302. 
Mellaart (J. H. J.). The Works of G. P. van Zyl ij7 : 

PI. 146, 149. 
Mitchell (H. P.). Two English Ivory Carvings of the 

Twelfth Century 176; PI. 182, 1S3. 



PijOAN (J.). a Catalonian Fresco for Boston 4; PI. 2, 5, 

8. A Greek Glass Vase from China 235 ; PI. 250. 
Pope-Hennessy (Una). A Toad in White Jade — II 103: 

PI. 102. 
Rackham (Bernard). A New Work by Nicola Pellipario at 

South Kensington — I 21; PI. 23, 26; — II 127; PI. 

129 ; Letter 201. 
Reitlinger (Henry Scipio). The Beale Drawings in the 

British Museum 143 ; PI. 142. 
RisLEY (Sir John). A Frans Greenwood Goblet 297 ; PI. 

296. 
Schlosser (Julius). Two Portrait Miniatures from Castle 

Ambras 194; PI. 195. 
Seligman (George Saville). Unidentified English Em- 
broideries in the Museum Cinquantenaire in Brussels 

75 ; P'- 74. 77; Letter 311 
Sickert (Walter). Vanessa Bell 33 : PI. 32, 35. Diex, 

Busch and Oberlander iSo; PI. 186; Figs. 185, 187; 

The Derby Day 276 ; PI. 279. 
Tatlock (R. R.). a Tiepolo Portrait 231 ; PI. 230, 233. 

Two Pictures by Morales 133 ; PI. 132. 
Thornton (Alfred). The Significance of the Sketch 169; 

PI. 168, 171. 
Waley (.Vrthur). Chinese Temple Paintings 228. 

CARVING AND SCULPTURE— 
The Heseltine Bronzes and Majolica [M-C] 251 ; PI. 230. 
Some Greek Bronzes at Athens 137 ; PI. 139. 
TTiree-legged Toad. Chinese jade (Col. Popie-Hennessy) PI. 

102. 
Two English Ivory Carvings of the Twelfth Century 176; 

PI. 182, 183. 

CERAMICS, ENAMELS, AND GLASS— 

The Arms and Badges of the Wives of Henry VIII log; 

PI. 108. 
.An Attic red-figured Cup 121 ; PI. 123. 
A Greek Glass Vase from China 235 ; PI. 250. 
Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Antwerp a88 ; 

PI. 289, 292, 296. 
A New Work bv Nicola Pellipario at South Kensington — 

I 21 ; PI. 23,' 26 ; —II 127 ; PI. 129. 
A Frans Greenwood Goblet 297 ; PI. 296. 

FURNITURE— 
French Eighteenth Century Furniture in the Wallace Collec- 
tion — I 260; PI. 261, 264, 267. 

METALWORK— 
The Lloyd Roberts Bequest to Manchester 227 ; PI. 226. 
Old Plate at the Church Congress 275 ; PI. 274. 

OWNERSHIP (COLLECTIVE) OF OBJECTS 
ILLUSTRATED— 
Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum. .Artist unknown. Still Life 

PI. 177. Roman Charity. Earthenware dish PI. 292. 
Antwerp. Museum. Antonello da Messina. Crucifixion 

PI. 271. X'leeschhuis. The Conversion of St. Patil. 

Tile picture PI. 2S9. Tiles PI. 296. 
Athens. National Museum. Bronze Figures PI. 139. 
Berlin. Staatliche Museen. Domenico Feti. Elijah in 

the Wilderness PI. 162 ; Tiepolo. .ifter the Bath. 

Detail PI. 233. Tiintoretto. Sketch for Venus, Vulcan 

and Cupid. Drawing PI. 282. 
Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. The .iscension of Christ. 

Fresco PI. 2, 8. Bunsei. Landscape PI. 223. 
Bristol. St. Michael's Church. Secular bowl PI. 274. 
Brussels. Cinquantenaire Museum. Unidentified English 

Embroideries PI. 74, 77. Pavement tiles from 

Herckenrode PI. 289. Drug vases and porringer, 

probably .Antwerp earthenware PI. 292. 
Budapest Gallery. Tintoretto. Christ at Emmaus PI. 213. 
Canterbury. St. .Augustine's College. Cocoanut cup PI. 274. 
Chartreuse de Villen.>uve-les-Avignon. School of .\vignon. 

Crucifixion PI. 55. 
Dresden Gallery. Tintoretto. The .Adulteress before Christ 

PI. 213. 
Dublin. National Gallery of Ireland. Zurbaran. The 

Immaculate Conception PI. 40. 
Durham Cathedral. Bronze Sanctuary knocker PI. 183. 

Initials from Bible given by Bishop William of St. 

Carileph PI. 183. 
Fareham Church. Hants. Domestic cup and cover PI. 274. 
Florence. Uffizi Gallery. Giovanni Lys. Venus and the 

Three Graces PI. 162. 
Frankfurt. Staedel Institute. Antonello da Messina. 

Drii-vim; PI. 271. 



3H 



London. British Museum. Nicola Pellipario. ApoUo and 
Daphne: Apollo and Marsyas. Maiolica plates PI. 129. 
Mary or Charles Beale. Man with a Pipe; Girl's 
Head; Girl with a Cat; Laughing Boy. Drawings 
PI, 142. Claude Gell^e. Landscape. Monochrome 
PI. 171. Fragment of ivory carving from St. Albans; 
i2th century PI. 1S2. Florentine School. Scenes from 
the Life of Alexander the Great PI. 268. 

National Gallery. French School. Holy Trinity with 
Angels PI. 80. Jos^' Martinez. Peasants Warming 
Themselves PI. 83. Studio of Masaccio. The Nativity 
PI. 83. Jacob Van Oost the Elder. Two Boys PI. 83. 
Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. Holy Family PI. 80. 
Frith. Derby Day. Detail PI. 279. 

Victoria and ."Mbert Museum. Nicola Pellipario. Perseus 
and Andromeda ; The Story of Callisto. Maiolica plates 
PI. 23. Carved ivory casket. Early 14th century PI. 
58. Carved wooden casket. Circa 1350 PI. 58. 
Sicilian coverlet. Late 14th century PI. 61. Thur- 
ingian wall hanging, appliqu^. Circa 1370 PI. tii. 
Nicola Pellipario. Subject from " Dialogues of the 
Dead." Maiolica plate PI. 129. Ivory tau-head of a 
staff. 12th century PI. 182. Gloucester candlestick. 
i2th century PI. 182. The Deposition, Entombment 
Flemish tapestry. Mid. 15th century 



and Resurrection. 
PI. 254, 2b8. 
Wallace Collection. 
XIV. PI. 123. J. 
Foullet. Casket 
case PI. 261. J. 
Dubois. Cabinet 



PI. 



PI. 



Eyck. 
Mar- 

195- 
for a 
for a 



Largilli(''re. The Family of Louis 
U. Erstet. Bureau PI. 261. .^ntoine 
PI. 261. Balthaser Lieutaud. Clock- 
F. Leleu. Console table PI. 264. J. 
PI. 264. Etienne Levasseur. Com- 
mode aiud Londonderry Cabinet PI. 264. Cabinet PI. 
267. A. Weisweiler". Cabinet PI. 267. Joseph. 
Cabinet PI. 267. J. F. L. Delorme. Cabinet PI. 267. 
Madrid. Prado. Tintoretto. Tarquin and Lucretia 

279. The Death of Holofernes PI. 286. 
Marston Church, Oxfordshire. Secular cup, English 

274- 
Melbourne. National Gallery of Victoria. \ an 

Madonna PI. 233. 
Milan. Brera. Morazzone, Crespi aind Procaccini. 

tyrdom of SS. Ruffina and Seconda PI. 74. 
Naples Museum. El Greco. Portrait of Clovio PI. 
O.^ford. Ashmolean Museum. Hogarth. .4 Sketch 

Rake's Progress (No. 3) PI. 13. .1 Sketch 

Rake's Progress (No. 7) PI. 16. Nicola Pellipario. 

The Calumny of Apelles. Maiolica plate PI. 129. 

Diirer. Landscape. Water-colour PI. 168. 
Christ Church Library. Tintoretto. Studies. Drawing 

PI. 2og. 
Pisa. Pinacoteca. Bernardo Strozzi. The Blessing of 

Jacob PI. 65. 
Rome. S. Luigi del Fiancesi. Caravaggio. The Calling oj 

St. Matthew. Detail PI. 65. 
S. Maria del Popolo. Caravaggio. The Conversion of St. 

Paul PI. 159. 
St. Clemrait de Tahull. Virgin in Majesty. Fresco PI. 8. 
Santa Eulalia d'Estahon. Baptism of Christ. Fresco 

PI. 8. , ,, .. 

Santa Maria d'Esterri. The Adoration of the .Uaji. 

Fresco PI. 5. 
St. Petersburg. Hermitage. Titian. St. Sebastian PI 
Stockholm. National Museum. Constantyn 

Etudiant endormi PI. 174. 
Turin. Pinacoteca. Ciespi, called Lo Spagnolo. St. John 

Nepomuceno confessing the Queen of Bohemia PI. t)8. 
Venice. Musco Corrcr. Nicola Pellipario. Narcissus and 

Echo; Solomon Adoring an Idol. Maiolica plates PI. 

26. 
S. Marcuola. Tintoretto. The Last Supper PI. 286. 
Versailles. Mus^e .N'ationalc. Largillii-re. La Marechale de 

la Mothe-Houdancourt PI. 126. 
OWNERSHIP (INDIVIDU.AL) OF OBJECTS 
ILLUSTRATED— 
Arabras Castle. Clovio. Self-portrait. Miniature PI. I9.S- 

School of Holbein the Younger. The Marchioness of 

Dorset. Miniature PI. 195. 
.■\rnot (.^L <;uido). The .\nghiari 

Scipio Africanus PI 105. 
Auspitz (M. Stephan von, Vienna 

a Girl PI. 219. 
Braams Collection ^Aruheml. Constantyn \ erhout (attri- 
buted to). Old .Wnii and Girl at a table PI. 177. 
Burdett-Coutts Collection. LargilliiVe. The Duke of Brit. 

tany and Mme. de la Mothe-Houdancourt PI. 126. 
Burlet (M. C. A. de). Tintoretto. Sacra Conversazione 

PI. '283. 



86. 
Verhout. 



Master. The Triumph of 
Dubordicu. Portrait of 



Burns (.Mr. Walter) (?).\ndrea di Giusto. Triumphs. Two 

panels PI. 105. 
Claes Collection (.Antwerp). Dated tiles PI. 296. 
Crawford and Balcarres (The Earl of). Niccol6 di Pietro 

Gerini. Mystical Subject PI. 152. 
Davenport (Col. W. Bromley). Tintoretto. The Contest 

between Apollo and Marsyas PI. 208. 
Deligand (Mme.). Prud'hon. La Danseuse au Triangle. 

Drawing PI. 29. 
Defoss^s (M. Ed.). Prud'hon. ]'dnus au Bain PI. 29. 
Durlacher (Messrs.). English School. Triptych. 14th cen- 
tury PI. Ill, 115. 
Dysart (The Earl of), van Zyl. The Toilet PI. 149. 
Earle (Sir Lionel). Lavinia Fontana. Portrait 41 PI. 40. 
Erskine Collection. Francesco Zaganelli da Cottignola. 
The Baptism of Christ; The Dead Christ supported by 
.Angels PI. 310. 
De Ferrari (Sr. Guglielmo). Euphronios. Attic red-figured 

Cup PI. 123. 
FoA (Mme.). Prud'hon. Danseuse jouant des Cymbales. 

Drawing PI. 29. 
Gaboriaud (M. L. A.). School of Avignon. Crucifixion 

PI. 52. 
Gualtieri (Prof., Naples). Cavallino. St. George PI. 68. 
Hara (Mr. Tomitaro). Bunsei. Portrait of Yuima PI. 223. 
Kaulbach (Frau von, Munich). Tintoretto. Venus, Vulcan 

and Cupid PI. 282. 
Koch (M. Victor), van Zyl. Six Figures in a Courtyard 

PI. 146. 
Lazzaroni Collection (Rome). Piazzetta. Judith and Holo- 
fernes PI. 71. 
Lennep (M. van, Heemstede). Dubordieu. Portrait of a 

Woman PI. 216. 
Matthey (M. Paul, Paris), van Zyl. The Concert Party 

PI. 146. 
Nicholson (Mr. A. L.). Titian. Judith PI. 89. 
Phillips (Sir Claude). Morales. Head of Christ PI. 132. 
Pierpont Morgan Collection. Zurbaran. Portrait of a Child 

with a Flower PI. 43. 
Plandiura (Don Luis, Barcelona). School of Giotto. Scenes 

from the Life of St. Vincent PI. 299, 302. 
Podio (Prof., Bologna). Giuseppe Bazzani. Christ in the 

Garden PI. 71. 
Poiiret (M. Paul). Gaston Thiesson. Boy's head PI. 189. 
Pope-Heninessv (Co!.). Three-legged toad. Chinese jade 

PI. 102. 
Proby (Col. Douglas). Signorelli. The Virgtn of Mercy 

P'- 204. 

Risley (Sir John). Frans Greenwood. Engraved goblet, 
English PI. 296. 

Rothschild (Mr. Max). Tiepolo. Portrait PI. 230. 

The Spanish Art Gallery. Morales. Madonna and Child 
PI 132. Early Spanish School. Retablo with Scenes 
from the Legends of SS. Seba.itian and Julian Hospi- 
tator PI. 192. 

Stuers (Mme. Alice de). Dubordieu. Self-Portrait PI- 219- 

Thiesson (Mme. Gaston). Gaston Thiesson. Woman head- 
ing PI. 189. 

de La Villestreux (M. le G(in^ral Vicomte). 

Venus and Adonis. Drawing PI. 32. „ , , „ 

Witt (Sir Robert). Hogarth. .1 Sketch for a Rake s Pro- 
gress (No. i) PI. 13- . f, ■ c 

Woodward (Mr. W. H.). Matteo Balducci. Sprmg, Sum- 
mer, Autumn PI. 20. 

PRINTS, ENGR.WINGS, AND ETCHINGS- 

L'hommc aux deux trompettes. Raimond (M.). Fl. 26. 
The Death of Achilles. Woodcut from Ovid s Meta- 
morphoses " PI. 26. Solomon adoring an Jdol. 
Woodcut from the " Hypnerotomachia Poliphile PI. 

The Identification of Japanese Colour Prints— IV 119; PI. 

Busch, biez and Oberliinder iSo; PI. 185, 186, 187. 

TEXTILES— „,. . , .■.^„ 

Siciliain, coverlet. Late 14th century (Victoria and Albert 

Museum) PI. 61. . ~. /\-„.^,;, 

Thuringinn wall ha^nging. Applique. Circa 1370 (\ ictoria 

and Albert Museum) PI. 61. 
rnidentifi.-d English embroideries in the Museum Cinquan- 

tenaire in Brussels 7,"; : P'- 74. 77. 3"- 
A Tapestry in the Murrav Collection 269 ; PI. 2.,4. 268. 

TITLES, COMPLETE LIST OF— 

.An Attic red-fiau.cd Cup. By J, D. Beazlcy >- ^ ?'• "3- 
The Arms and Badges of the Wives of Henry VIII. By F. 
Sydney Eden 109; PI. 108. 



Prud'hon. 



Auctions— (July) 50; (September) 151; (October) 202; 

(November) 252; (December) 311; PI. 286, 310. 
The Beale Drawings in the British Museum. By Hetiry 

Scipio Reitlinger 143 ; PI. 142. 
A Catalonian Fresco for Boston. By J. Pijoan 4 ; PI. 2 

S, 8. 
Chinese Jade. W. G. C. [M-C] 306; PI. 307. 
Chinese Temple Paintings. By Arthur Waley 228. 
A Crucifixion of the Avignon School. By Roger Fry 53 ; 

PI- 52, 55- 
The Clough Collection. T. B. [M-C] 201. 
The Derby Day. By Walter Sickert 276 ; PI. 270. 
The Development of Ornament from Arabic Script — II. 

By Archibald H. Christie 34 ; Fig. 35. 
Diez, Busch and Oberlander. By Walter Sickert 180 ; PI, 

1S6; Figs. 185, 187. 
A Drawing by Antonello da Messina. By Gustav Gliick 

270 ; PI. 271. 
An Early Spanish Retablo. By T. Borenius 193 ; PI. 192. 
Early Ting Ware at S. Kensington. E. E. B. [M-C] 198. 
Early Works by Tintoretto. By Detlev, Baron von Hadein 

— I 206; PI. 208, 209, 213; — 11 278; PI. 279, 282, 

283, 286. 

Editorial — 

Adniissioti Charges at the British Museum, 53 ; " Expert- 
ising," 3; Leonardo in the Consulting Room, 255; 
The Problem of the Provincial Gallery, 155. 

A Florentine Mystical Picture. By T. Borenius 156; PI. 154. 

A Fourteenth Cemtury English Triptych. By W. R. Leth- 
aby no ; PI. iii, 115. 

A Frans Greenwood Goblet. By Sir John Rislev 297 ; 
PI. 296. 

French Eighteenth Century Furniture in the Wallace Col- 
lection— 1. By D. S. MacColl 260; PI. 261, 264, 267. 

Gallery and Museum Acquisitions (July) 50; (August) 99; 
(September) 152 ; (October) 202 ; (November) 252 ; 
(December) 312. 

Gaston Thiesson. By A. Carnac 188; PI. 189. 

A Greek Glass Vase from China. By Jos^ Pijoan 235 ; 
PI. 250. 

Guido di Savino and the Earthenware of Antwerp. By 
Marcel Laurent 288 ; PI. 289, 292, 296. 

The Hescltine Collection of Bronzes and Majolica. W. G. C. 
[M-C] 251 ; PI. 250. 

The Identification of Japanese Colour Prints — -IV. By Will 
H. Edmunds 119; PI, 118. 

Independent Gallery, R. A. Stephens [M-C] 46. 

The International Theatre Exhibition. Desmond MacCarthy 
[M-C] 47. 

Japanese Screens at Suffolk Street. L. B. [M-C] 245. 

A Landscape by Bunsei in the Boston Museum. By Riki- 
chiro Fukui 218 ■ PI. 223. 

Largilli^re : An Iconographical Note. By W. G. Con- 
stable 122 ; PI. 123, 126. 

Letters — (July) 48; (August) 99; (October) 201; (Novem- 
ber) 252; (December) 311. 
Art " Scholarship." Hugh Blaker 49. 
The Bernini Bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Rachael Poole 49. 
The Mind of Corot and his change of style. Alfred Thorn- 
ton 49. 
Nicola Pellipario. Bernard Rackham 201. 
Paint versus the Rest, R. Gleadowe 99. 
Pictures by Constant™ Verhout. A. Bredius 252. 
Unidentified English Embroideries in the Cinquantenaire. 
Isabella Errara, G. Saville Seligman 311. 

The Lloyd Roberts Bequest of Old English Plate to Man- 
chester. Bv E. Alfred Jones 227 ; PI. 226. 

The London Group. R. R. T. [M-C] 24s ; PI. 247. 

Maurice Rosenheim, F.S.A. C. H. R. [M-C] ci8. 

Monthly Chronicle— (July) 46 ; (August) 98 ; (September) 
148; (October) 201 ; (November) 245 PI. 244, 247, 250; 
(December) 306 PI. 307. 

A New Work by Nicola Pellipario at South Kensington. By 
B. Rackham — I 21 ; PI. 23, 26; — II 127: PI. 129. 

Old Plate at the Church Congress By E. Alfred Jones 
27s ; PI. 274. 

The origin and early history of the Arts in relation to 
/Esthetic Theory in general. By G. Baldwin Brown — 
I 91; Fig. 92; —II 134; Fig- 135- 

Pictures by Constantvn Verhout. By A. Bredius 175, 252. 

PI. 174, 177. 
A Portrait by Lavinia Fontana. By T. Borenius 41 ; PI. 40. 

The Prud'hon Exhibition in Paris. By Jean Guiffrey 27; 
PI. 29, 32. 



Recent additions to the National Gallery. By Sir Charles 
Holmes 76 ; PI. 80, 83. 

Reviews — 

(July) 45 ; (August) 95 ; (October) 198 ; (November) 237 ; 

PI. 244 ; (December) 303. 
The Architecture of Robert and James Adam 1758-1794. 

Arthur T. Bolton 241 ; PI. 244. 

British Heraldry. Cyril Davenport 241. 

Claude Lorraiin. Walter Friedlaender 240. 

Collectanea Variae Doctrina2 97. 

Constable, Ciainshorough and Lucas. Sir Charles Holmes 
96. 

The Early Ceramic Wares of China. A. L. Hethering- 

ton 305. 
Lcs Kmaux Limousins de la fin du XVme siicle et de la 

premii*'re partie du XVIme. J. J. Marquet de Vasselot 

199. 
English Goldsmiths and their Marks. Sir C. J. Jackson 

45- 
Etruscan Tomb Paintings. Frederick Poulsen 240. 
Greek Vase Painting. Ernst Buschor 45. 
Histoire dc I'Art depuis les premiers temps Chretiens 

jusquii nos jours. Andr6 Michel 198. 
A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Sir 

Banister Fletcher 45. 
Indian Drawings. Text by C, Stanley Clarke 97. 
Italian Renaissance Furniture. Wilhelm von Bode 305. 
Mary Davies and the Manor of Ebury. C. T. Gatty 98. 
La Miniature Flamande au Temps de la Cour de Bour- 

gogne. Count Paul Durrieu 95 
CEuvres choisis de Maitres Beiges 46. 
The Origin of the Cruciform Plan of Cairene Madrasas. 

K. A. C. Creswell 97. 
The Owen Pritchard Collection of Pottery, Porcelain, 

Glass and Books 241. 
Perspective as applied to Pictures. Rex Vicat Cole 45. 
Print Publications, 199. 

The Pewter Collector. H. J. L. J. Masse 306. 
Sculpture of To-day. Kinrton Parkes 98. 
Some Contemporary Artists. Frank Rutter 303. 
The Thousjmd Buddhas. Aurel Stein 237. 
Toskanische Maler in XIII Jahrhundert. O. Sirin 239. 
The Tyro, 200. 

Vermeer of Delft. E. V. Lucas 241. 
William Blake's Designs for Gray's Poems 198. 
The Seicento and Settecento Exhibition in Florence. By 

Count Gamba 64; PI. 65, 68, 71, 74. 
Settecentismo. By Roger Fry 158 ; PI. 159, 162, 165, 168. 
The Significance of the Sketch, By Alfred Thornton 169; 

PI. 168, 171. 
Some Greek Bronzes at Athens. By S. Casson 137 ; PI. 

'39- 
Some Portraits by Pieter Dubordieu. By W. Martin 217 : 

PI. 216, 219. 
Some Reflections on the last phase of Titian. By Tancred 

Borenius 87 ; PI. 86, 89. 
Some Unknown Works by Zurbaran. By .August L. Mayer 

42 : PI. 40, 43. 
A Spanish-Italian Trecento Altarpiece. By August L. 

Mayer 298 ■ PI. 299, 302. 
A Tapestry in the Murrav Collection. By A. F. Kendrick 

269 ; PI. 254, 268. 
A Tiepolo Portrait. Py R. R. Tatlock 231 ; PI. 230, 233. 
A Toad in White Jade— I. By Roger Fry; —II. By Una 

Pope-Hennessy 103 ; PI. 102. 
Three Sketches by Hogarth. By C. F. Bell 1 1 : PI. 13, 16. 
Two English Ivory Carvings of the Twelfth Century. By 

H. P. Mitchell 176; PI. 182, 183. 
Two Pictures by Morales. By R. R. Tatlock 133 ; PI. 132, 
Two Portrait Miniatures from Castle-Ambras, By Julius 

Schlosser 194 ; PI. 195. 
Unidentified English Embroideries, Museum Cinquantenaire. 

By George Saville Seligman 75 ; PI, 74, 77, 311. 
Unpublished Cassone Panels. By Tancred Borenius — IV 

tS; pi. 20; —V 104; PI. :os; —VI 256; PI. 258. 
An unrecorded Signorelli. By T. Borenius 205 ; PI. 204. 
A Van Evck for Melbourne. By Sir Charles J. Holmes 

232 ; PI. 233. 
The Van Eycks and their Followers. By Max J. Fried- 
lander 17. 
Vanessa Bell. By Walter Sickert 33 ; PI. 32, 35. 
Vestiges of Tristram in London. By Roger Sherman 

Loomis 54; PI. 58, 61. 
The Works of G. P. van Zyl. By J, H, J. Mellaart 147; 

PI. 146, 149. 



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