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Full text of "Burmese self-taught : in Burmese and Roman characters, with phonetic pronunciation (Thimm's system)"

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THE CELLAR DCCK SKCP 




18O9O WYOMING 
DETROIT. MICH. 48221 
U.S.A. 



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yiARLBOROUGH's SELF-TAUGHT SERIES-NO. 25. 



Burmese SelMaugt\t 

(IN BURMESE AND ROMAN CHARACTERS) 
WITH 



PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 

(THIMM'S SYSTEM.) 



BY 



R. F. St. A. St. JOHN, Hon. M.A. (Oxon.), 

Author of " A Burmese Reader." 
'Sometime Lecturer on Burmese, Universities of Oxford and Cambridge). 




REGISTERED 



E. MARLBOROUGH & Co., 51, OLD BAILEY, LONDON, E.G. 

1911. 

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



PREFACE. 



rHIS manual of Burmese is designed to serve the doubla 
purpose of a text-book for students, missionaries, officers, 
civil servants, etc., and a handbook for tourists, travellers, 
and other temporary visitors to Burma. 

For those whom the pleasures of travel or the calls of trade 
and commerce bring into touch with native Burnians, a very 
extensive and comprehensive vocabulary of necessary and useful 
words is supplied nouns, verbs, adjectives and other parts of 
speech together with corresponding collections of colloquial 
phrases and sentences of an equally practical and useful 
character. These are all classified under subject-titles for easy 
reference, and the phonetic pronunciation of the Burmese words 
is added in a third column, in accordance with Marlborough's 
popular phonetic system. Thus, a tourist, traveller, or trader, 
with no previous knowledge of the language, can readily make 
himself understood amongst the Burmese by means of this 
volume. 

On the other hand, the opening section, pp. 9-23, and the 
outline of Grammar, pp. 107-126, will meet the additional 
needs of students and all who desire a closer acquaintance with 
the language. 

The method of presenting the English words and sentences, 
the Burmese equivalents, and the phonetic pronunciation of the 
Burmese words, side by side, will not only enable the book to 
be used by stray visitors to the country, but assist those who 
intend to make Burma their ^here of work and enable them 
to learn the language in the only way in which it ought to be 
learned. 

The underlying idea of the system of phonetics employed is 
that each sound in the Burmese language is represented as far as 
possible by a separate phonetic sign, and consequently each sign 
(letter or combination of letters) must always be pronounced in 
the same manner. 

A few of these signs are necessarily of a more or less 
arbitrary character, and the introduction of the tone or accent 
marks adds a certain amount of strangeness to them. The 



18211 6 



student will do well therefore to read the scheme of phonetics 
with great care, this being the key to the correct pronuncia- 
tion of the Burmese, as represented in the third column of 
the Vocabularies and Conversations. 

Burmese, or, as the people of Burma call it, Myanma 
hbatha (the language of the Myanma), is the speech of a 
considerable and powerful tribe, closely connected with the 
Tibetans, which, prior to A.D. 1000, over-ran the valley of the 
Irrawaddy River, and adopted Buddhism and the alphabet of 
its sacred books which were written in Pali, "an alphabet 
founded on the ancient characters of India. [The Burmese call 
themselves Ba/tma/i, and this word has nothing to do, as some 
suppose, with Brahman, which word exists in Burmese as 
Byahma/ma/t. It is a natural corruption of Mra/mmaA. The 
original name of the tribe was MraAn, which in Pali became 
Mra/mrnoA, plural Mra/mma/t pronounced quickly Ba/tma/t.] 

The language is monosyllabic and agglutinative, having neither 
conjugation nor declension ; so that, in almost every instance, 
its composite words can be taken to pieces and the power of 
each part clearly shown. At the outset it would seem that it 
consisted of monosyllabic roots which denoted either a sub- 
stance or an act, such as dog, iron, fire, stone, do, run, stop. 
From the verbal root came a verbal noun, which was formed 
by prefixing " a " (&K) to the verb root; simple verb roots were 
used to denote case, mood, tense, and also other parts of speech. 

As Burmese has adopted words from the Pali language, all 
the letters of the alphabet are in use, but for pure Burmese 
words those classified as cerebral, and one or two others, are 
not used. 

The Author is indebted to Mr. Po Han, B.A., a native of 
Burma, for valuable assistance in reading the proofs of the 
work, and has himself spared no pains to make it thoroughly 
accurate and reliable, and capable of proving a practical guide 
to the spoken tongue, and a valuable introduction to the study 
and mastery cf the language. 

London, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

" A GLIMPSE OF BUBMA " 7 

THE ALPHABET AND PBONUNCIATION 9 

Preliminary Notes ... 23 

VOCABULARIES : 

Animals, Vegetables, Minerals, etc. : 

Animals, Birds, and Fishes ... ... 29 

Fruits, Trees, Flowers, and Vegetables 83 

Minerals and Metals 28 

Reptiles and Insects 32 

Colours 36 

Commercial Terms 68 

Correspondence 70 

Countries and Nations ... 64 

Cooking and Table Utensils 52 

Government Departments 76 

House and Furniture, The ... 56 

Legal Terms 65 

Mankind: Relations ... 41 

Dress and the Toilet ... 53 

Food and Drink 49 

Health 47 

Human Body, The 43 

Physical and Mental Powers, Qualities, etc. 45 

Military Terms 71 

Musical Instruments 61 

Numbers : Cardinal, Numeral Auxiliaries, Ordinal, Collective and 

Fractional, etc 78-83 

Parts of Speech : 

Adjectives 83 

Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions 100 

Verbs 89 

Auxiliary or Modifying Verbs 97 

Examples (of Auxiliary Verbs) ... 99 

Professions and Trades ... ... ... 59 

Religion 73 

Society and Government 75 

Times and Seasons ... ... 36 

Town, Country, and Agriculture 89 

Travelling 61 

World, The, and its Elements 25 

Land and Water 26 



OUTLINES OF BURMESE GRAMMAR: PAGE 

The Adjective 118 

The Adverb 122 

Affixes, Closing 121 

Continuative 119 

Euphonic 120 

Auxiliary Verbs, A few common 122 

The Construction of Burmese Sentences 123 

Illustration of the Construction and Pronunciation of Burmese... 124 

The Honorific Form 119 

The Interrogative 117 

The Negative, Use of 117 

The Noun 107 

Oratio Obliqua 118 

Polite Modes of Address 126 

The Pronoun 110 

The Verb 115 

Model of 122 

Substantive 119 

used as a Noun ... ... 121 

CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES AND SENTENCES : 

Correspondence, Post, Telegraph, and Telephone 140 

Health 133 

Idiomatic Expressions 127 

Meals 132 

Planting 154 

Post 140 

Public Works 150 

Shopping 145 

Shooting and Fishing 146 

Telegraph 140 

Telephone 140 

Time 136 

Times, Seasons, and Weather 138 

Town, In 143 

Travelling : 

Arrival in the Country 155 

Railway ... 159 

Useful and Necessary Expressions 127 

BURMESE HANDWRITING : The Lord's Prayer in Burmese 163 

The Romanized form with the English words interlined 164 

MONET, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES : 

Money : Burmese Money, with the English and American Values 165 

English rnd American Money reduced to Burmese 165 

Weights 166 

Measures of Length ... 167 

,, ,, Capacity 167 

Square Measure 168 

Measures of Time 168 

POSTAL KATES L68 



Extracted front an article by Dr. Francis E. Clark in the CHRISTIAN WORLD 
of February 3rd, 1910. by kind permission of the Editor.] 



T is not too much to say that Burma contains more of 

interest than any equal section of the Indian Empire. 

Many people think of Burma as a part of India, and the 
Burmese as Indians, but they are no more Indians than the 
Chinese are Americans. To be sure, Burma is a province of 
the Indian Empire, though it ought to be as much a separate 
dominion as Australia or Canada. 

It is a three days' journey on a fast steamer from Calcutta 
to Rangoon ; and when one reaches the latter city he finds 
people of a totally different race, different language, different 
customs, different complexion, different costumes and different 
religion. 

He finds that he has exchanged the sun-parched fields of 
India, where famine always stalks behind the labourer, for the 
well-watered meadows of the Irrawaddy, where in December 
the luxuriant fields of rice wave their heavy tasselled heads, 
and where all the year round and the century through famine is 
unknown. 

Instead of the straight-featured, thin-limbed, agile Aryans 
whom he left in Calcutta, the traveller finds in Rangoon, 
three or four days later, round-faced, jolly, plump Mongolians, 
with slant eyes and yellow skins, and the merriest of black, 
twinkling eyes. 

Instead of the three-and- thirty million gods, whom he saw 
worshipped in Benares, he finds no god in Rangoon, but only 
the placid, unwinking, half-smiling image of Gautama Buddha, 
who, five hundred years before Christ, attained to Nirvana, 
and whose image is to-day worshipped by one-third of the 
human race. 

In India, one finds temples carved with all sorts of curious 
and often hideous figures of everything that is in heaven 
above and the earth beneath and the waters under the earth. 
In Burma, graceful, slender pagodas, often encrusted thickly 
with gold leaf, and rising from fifty to three hundred feet in 
the air, are seen ; and everywhere, in every stately pagoda 
and every little jewelled shrine, the same image, calm, unseeing, 
immovable to earthly joys or sorrows, Gautama, as he attained 
the Icng-sought Nirvana. 



8 

Next to Bombay and Calcutta, Kangoon is the busiest port 
in the Indian Empire. Here are great godowns, or wholesale 
storehouses, filled with the choicest wares and products of the 
East, large department stores, . . . public buildings, post-office, 
custom-house, &c., that would do credit to any city in the 
world. Here, too, is a beautiful public park, charming lakes, 
an extensive Zoo, all in the heart of the city. 

The spot to which all travellers' paths converge in Ban- 
goon is the Shwe Dagon Pagoda, the most sacred spot in all 
the Buddhist world. Up a long flight of stone steps we walk, 
on either side of which are chattering vendors of curious 
wares silks and lace and gongs of brass, huge cheroots, 
eight or ten inches long, and as large round as your two 
thumbs, which contain tobacco enough for a family smoke, 
oranges, mangoes, jack-fruit and papaws, jade ornaments and 
tinsel jewels indeed, almost anything that a Burman would 
want to eat or wear or bedeck himself with. 

At the top of the steps a gorgeous, glittering sight indeed 
strikes the eye, for there rises a great and graceful column of 
gold, a hundred and fifty feet above the vast platform on 
which it is built, and which itself rises one hundred and 
seventy feet from the ground. The pagoda is very wide at the 
base, and tapers gradually to a ball-shaped top, on which is 
a crown of solid gold and jewels alone worth a round half- 
million dollars. 

All around are little pagodas, or shrines, clustering close 
to the base of the parent, and each vying with all the others to 
show itself the richest and most bejewelled. 

In the great pagoda is a huge Buddha, so covered with 
gold and gems that the covetous public is kept away from it by 
strong iron bars, while all the lesser shrines have other images 
of the placid saint, and some of them many, but all with exactly 
the same expression of ineffable content. 

A multitude of other sights, odd, beautiful, bizarre, but all 
interesting, attract the traveller, 

On the road to Mandalay, 

which lies some twenty hours' journey up the Irrawaddy. They 
are well worth the notice of anyone who can wander from the 
beaten tracks of travel long enough to enjoy them. 



BURMESE SELF-TAUGHT. 



THE ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION. 



THE alphabet used by the Burmese is of Indian origin and 
came to them through Buddhist monks. It is commonly called 
Pali. It consists of thirty-two consonants and eight primary 
vowels. There are three diphthongs, and the vowel sounds 
are further modified by final consonants. 

Only twenty-five of the consonants are used in Burmese 
words, but the whole are put into requisition for words 
borrowed from the Pali. 

As the Burmese (except the Arracanese branch) cannot 
pronounce the letter r they substitute y for it, so that y is 
represented by both r and y, and they are often interchanged 
in writing, though it has been agreed that certain words shall 
be written with r and certain with y. 

What is generally known as romanization, i.e. the trans- 
literation into Roman characters, when applied to Burmese 
does not answer, so there are many systems of representing 
the sounds of the language in use, viz. those of Judson, Latter, 
Chase, Tawseinko, and the Government, or Hunterian. 

The plan adopted in this work, however, is to give the words 
in the native character throughout, and instead of attempting 
to romanize the characters, to add the phonetic pronunciation 
of the words in accordance with the following scheme, which 
is based upon Marlborough's system of phonetics. 



10 



CONSONANTS. 1 



Roman- 
ized 
form. 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetics 
used. 



When initial like k in kite ; when 
final sometimes like t and some- 
times k: after a word ending with 
a vowel or nasal as g in gate 2 . . . k. t, g 
hk When initial before y like ch in 

chair', when following a vowel or . . hk 

nasal like j in joint ch,j 

Like g in gate-, never final; with y 

ikely in joint or jig g, j 

hg Not used in Burmese words ; like g 

in gate ; when final mute g 

gn Asinagraos^cwiththeaswallowed . . gn 

When final like n or ng n, ng 

ts When final like t in pit ; changes 

to ts, z, t 

hs Like 8 in see ; after vowel or nasal 

changes to z s, z 

z As z in zebra', when final like t 

z J in pit z, t 

ny Like ny in Bunyan ny 

Whenfinal sometimes like nmpin; . . n 
sometimes a simple ee sound as in . . ee 

bee, and sometimes as eh eh 

t When initial as t in ten or (when 

following) d in den t, d 

When final something between t 

and p and k final t, p, k 

ht When initial ht or (when following 

a vowel or nasal) d in den . . . . ht, d 

d When initial as d in den d 

When final, between t and k . . . . t, k 
hd As d in den d 

1 The Cerebrals are omitted as they are not used for Burmese and 
correspond with the Dentals. a See para. (/), p. 22. . 



11 



Roman- 
ized 
form. 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetics 
used. 



n 



hp 
b 

hb 
m 



1 

w 

1 

th 



When initial as n in not ; when 

final as n in hen and sometimes 

slightly like ng after o n, ng 

When initial as p in pen ; changes x 

to b in bed p, b 

When final same as for oo . . . t, p, k 
When initial hp; when following 1 

a vowel or nasal b hp, b 

Initial like b in bed ....... b 

Initial sometimes as b in bed ; . . b 

sometimes as hp hb, hp 

Wheninitiallikem; when final like 

n or ng m, n,ng 

When initial as y in yet, when 

final eh y, eh 

When initial y, when final as eh . . y, eh 
Initial as I in let', when final mute ... 1 
Initial as in English ; medial as 88; 

final mute w, 65 

When used in Pali derivatives like 

English I -. 1 

Initial as th in thin . th 

Changes after final vowel or nasal 

to thin that ; as final or medial t '"* 
As initial h in English : may be 

placed before all consorantswhich 

have not an aspirate form ; if final 

mute h 

Used instead of $ n or 6 m ; . . . . n 

with G r KD aiv becomes like k . . . . k 



NOTE. It is impossible to give examples of the way in which ts, ht, 
hd, hp, and hb are to be pronounced as initials, but the student must 
endeavour to sound the letters together in their written order, for ts, 
ht, and hp. Hd and hb are merely a stronger d and b. 

1 The words ' following' and ' changes ' refer to rule (/.), p. 22. 



12 



VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 

Burmese. Romanized. Pronunciation. 



Phonetics. 



33 


a 


Like a in father but short . 


&h 


33D 


a 


a in father 


ah 


gj|.a8 


i 


i in machinery but shorter 


ee 


oousS 


ee 




ee 


fn 
8ll33 


u 




06 










8ll3D 


u 


oo in 6oo 


oo 


t t 








GIIG33 


e 






33 


e 


the first e in there 


eh 


G33D 


aw 






G33$ 


aw 


Longer and drawn out . 


aw 


33 


o 




oh 


Oo 








3^8 


6 


Deeper and long drawn out 


oh: 


38 

ol 


6 


Sharp and short 


oh 


1 
6 


w 


Like oo in foot, or Welsh w 


66 


A* 


w 




oo 


A 









VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS WITH FINALS. 

3Do5 a/* followed by k is like e in let. 

os>8 aA followed by ts is like i in pit. 

338 &h followed by gn is like i and e in tin and ten. 

33gS ah followed by ny is like ee or in or eh. 

338, 33o5, 33$, 33, 33 ; a,h followed by any of these 
retains its sound as a in can't (aA). 

oSS. oSoS, 38^, sSS ; i (ee) followed by these consonants is 
like ai in bait (ay). 



1 33 cannot be used with 



13 



, spoS, 3^$, 3^5, 3^; u (oo) followed by these, like o in 
bone (oh). 

3soS e as first e in Mere (eh). 

G3soo5, G D ; ea followed by k or gn, as ow in ////# (ow). 

3^o5, 3^6 ; iu followed by k or gn, like i in pine (i) 

The alphabet is classified as below. Every consonant con- 
tains an inherent a (aA) which has to be pronounced with it 
until killed by the mark c (thaAt= strike or kill) placed over 
it, or until it is modified by a final. 1 

Thus oo k must be kaA until it is killed o5, and it then 
has the sound of i he final t in let. 



U utturals 


oo kaA 


o hkaA 


o gaA 


tr> hga^ 


c ngaA 


Palatals 


o tsaA 


oo hsa/< 


o> dzaA 


<^j hdzah 


co nyaA 


Cerebrals 


^ ta^ 


g htaA 


QJ da.h 


o hdaA 


oo naA 


Dentals 


oo tah 


co htaA 


3 daA 


hdaA 


<?, niiA 


Labials 


o paA 


o hpa^ 


o baA 


oo hbaA 


Q maA 


Liquids 


co yaA 


S| raA 


co laA 


o waA 


S N&^ 


Sibilant 


oo tha// 










Aspirate 


co ha^ 











The oo hts is pronounced as s. 

The oo hb is often used instead of o hp. 

o) hdz is exactly the sume as Q> clz and only used in one 
common Burmese word. 

The cerebrals with to hg and g 11 are only used in words 
derived from Pali. 

The cerebrals are essentially Indian, Pali, or Sanskrit. 
The Burmese cannot differentiate them from the dentals, 
1 See under ' Final Consonants', p. 18. 



14 



and so pronounce them when used, and also the liquid 11, 
in the same way as the dentals. 

The o g and oo hg are pronounced the same. 

c is pronounced like ung-aA, low down in the throat, and 
when aspirated nothing can describe it. 

G| r is not pronounceable by a Burman (except the Arra- 
canese branch) but is pronounced as oo y and the two letters 
are interchangeable. 

Every letter which has not an aspirate form can be aspirated 
by the addition of the sign for oo hah written under it; thus 
$ naA when aspirated is written j^ hnaA, co la/t oo, hlaA. When 
oo yah and G| yaA are aspirated they become og> ^ shaA. 

oo has two sounds as th in thin and th in that. 

Neither oo nor oo can take the aspirate. 

Certain consonants are capable of combination with the 
others so as to be pronounced as one This is done by means 
of a secondary form as shown in the following table : 



Consonants 


OO 


S| 


o 


00 


oo + o 


GI + O 


po + oo 


Second forms 


11 


c 


6 


J 


d 


c 


JJ 


Consonants (conf.) 


G] +OO 


+ 00 


Gj + 00 + a 




Second forms (cont.) 


C 


A 


G 





The force of these combinations is best shown with the 
consonant o ma//, which alone can take the whole. 

maA ^] mya^ Q myaA ^ mwa^ ^ hmaA 
gj myooaA myooaA (like mew-aA) 
51 hmyaA (g hmyaA g hmwaft 13 hmyooaA 
(g gnyaA and DO nyaA have the same sound and are inter- 
changeable. 



15 

In addition to the final consonants there is also the sign , 
called GOoScooSooS thaySMayStin, which is written above a 
consonant and has the power of tinal n, as 00 = 00$ ka/fen. 
When used with the diphthong GSSD aw it has the power of 
final k, as G33O = G33Do5 owk. 



VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 
There are eight written vowels and three diphthongs. 

Short vowels : 33 a/j go ee g 66 
Long vowels : 333 a A opf ee 00 G ay ab eh 
Diphthongs : (cS or G33D a\v G(C^D or cssS aw sj ok 
To unite these vowels and diphthongs to the various con- 
sonants certain secondary forms are required which are usually 
called symbols. 

3D iiA being inherent in every consonant has none. 

33D ah . . . . o or ] as oco kaA ol waA 

co ee ..... as c8 kee 

c^ ee . . . . Q as c8 kee 

CJ) 

g 66 ..... t as o^ koo 

^oo ..... n as o^ koo 

G ay ..... G as GOO kay 

sb eh . . . . as ra keh 

(o^ aw .... G D as GOOD kaw 

cQo aw . . . G 5 as cooS kaw 

o oA . . . . ? as c^ koh 

The forms g^ c^j" g are as a rule used only for Pali words, 
the vowel aa with secondary forms being used instead, 
thus : 38 ee 38 ee 3^ 66 3^ oo. 

The vowels can thus be united to all the consonants and 



16 

double consonants in the same way, and, it will be observed, 
replace the inherent 3D ah. 

The two forms D and 1 for long sJi are to prevent confusion. 
If D were used with o wa/t it would become oo ta/<, so we 
must use 61 waA. 

NOTES ON COMBINED CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. 

The y sound when joined to another consonant must be 
sounded as much as possible with it ; (09 cq] are kya/i, not 
ky-aA. (g hkyaA is cha//. (g jaA. 

Some combinations are very easy, as 

51 SP $ fi ft 111 G fl 
03 ogp o| o cojl og||i ccg &c. 
sha/i shaA shee shee shoo shoo shay 
The consonant o waA in combination is sumetimes a con- 
sonant and sometimes a vowel. 

<g is hmwa//, but gj is myooaA (me\v-aA). 

NOTE Ky, gy, &c., are sounded in all shades from k and y to ch in 
church and j in judge. 

Some examples of Consonants combined with Vowel 
symbols : 

VOWELS. 

o \\kiih ol hkaA 8 hkee 8 hkee sj hkoo ^ hkoo GO hkay 5 hkeh 
^nyaA ODnyaA ^nyee ^ nyee (^nyoo QnyooGX>nyay 
o paA ol paA 8 pee 8 pee c^ poo 9 poo GO pay o peh 
Cj yaA cp yah j yee ^yee $ yoo ^)voo ccjyay ^ yeh 
O waA ol wah 8 wee 8 wee (^ woo ^ woo GO way b weh 



17 

DIPHTHONGS. 



col gaw coTgaw 
GOD tsaw co5 tsaw 
GOOD taw cooS taw 



tsoh 



GOOD taw cooS taw o^ toh 
GCX)D yaw cooS yaw 08 yoh 



GC! gnaw ccTgnaw ^ gnoA 
col daw coTdaw ^ dcA 
GOOD thaw GOoS thaw oS^thoA 
col hpaw coThpaw ^ hpoA 



COMBINED CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS. 

OQj kyaA oqp kyaA o^i) kyee o^j kyee ooj[ky6o aj||[ kyoo 
GOOJ kyay c^ kyeh @ kya/i (^D kyaA (c kyee ^ kyee 
Q kyoo Q kyoo c(og kyay @ kyeh. 1 

^] chaA ^JD chaA ^ chee ^ chee sj|| choo ^]|| choo G^] chay 
^j cheh (g chaA (go chaA ( chee ^ chee choo (^ choo 
G chay (^ cheh. 

y pwa^ gl pwaA pwee pwee G pway ^ pweh. 
o^ IwaA 033 IwaA c lwee c Iwee cog Iway c^j Iweh. 
(In this last combination the A almost amounts to oo.) 

ghgnaA go hgnaA p^ hnyee p^^hnyoo cp^Dhnyaw pjjhnyo/t 
c^ hlaA C^D hlaA c hlee c hlee (^ hloo c^ hloo GC^ hlay 
c hleh. " 

t ____ 
kyoo-ee 

' 






$p hnwaA <gD hmwa/j ogo hlwaA cog hlway oo hlweh. 

1 Hky, gy with the vowels are sounded in many shades from k and g 
to ch in church and j in judge, and no rule can be given. With the vowel 
e (ay) the sound of the vowel varies, as G(Q chay is often pronounced as if 
it were che and GOOlo kyay; a-< kyee;. 

n 



5{ i kyoo-aA 
kyoo-eh. 


\ 
2P i yv -* 

^i I kyoo-aA 

t2 D ) ' 



18 

cgj is pronounced in two ways hlyaA and shaA; so 
we get 



SP G $P 

Occasionally one finds the combination of Q yaA 6 waA 
and j haA, but it is pronounced with Q yaA omitted, so that 
hmwaA. 



FINAL CONSONANTS. 

Other vowel sounds are obtained by means of a final 
consonant. 

A consonant is made final by placing over it the mark *, 
which is called cooS thai (thaAt, kill). It is so called because 
it kills the inherent 33 aA. 

Thus, oooo is kata, but oooS is kat. 

oooo is kaka, but ODoS is ket. 
GOOD is law, but ccoDoS is /ow&. 
c^ is to, but o^S is /aiw^ or ting. 
ooo is tatsa, but coS is //. 

The same thing occurs when two consonants come together 
in a foreign word of more than one syllable, and one consonant 
is written under the other; thus, 

og hdamm&A, law (pronounced daAmaA). 

punnaAs, a Brahmin (pronounced poAnnaAs). 
hbanda//, property (pronounced hpadaA). 

This is also allowable in a few Burmese wcrds which have 
become stereotyped ; as, 

8g for 8$o maynmaA, a woman. 
This word also shows another rule as to the interchange 



19 



of final o rruiA and $ na^. The final 8 is considered heavier 
than $ and is equal to $%. When two Ps come tog-ether thus 
gg, as in ccjgg, the first 1 changes to n, so instead of loollaA 
we get lo/mla/j. 

Though several consonants are written as final, there are 
really only four final sounds, viz. k, t, ng, n. 

Final consonants are very indistinct, and not only is the 
inherent 33 a/< killed, but the consonant itself is almost 
done away with, and it is almost impossible to say whether 
the sharp, abrupt sound is k, t, or p. 

The effect of final consonants on the preceding vowels is 
shown in the following table : 





Combined with vowels and \v. 




Final consonant. 


aA 


,.,. 


66 


oh 


aw 


w 


Power. 




3D 


s? 


e 


^ 


G3DD 


O 




o5k 


et 






ik 


owk 






8 ng 


in 






ing 


owng 






8 ts 


it 














e 9 


eh 












This final has three 
















sounds, 88, eh, in. 


oS t or 5 p 


ftftt 


ayk 


ofck 






65t 


As in root. 


$ n or 5 ni 


aftn 


ayn 


oftn 






66.; 


The S makes the 
















vowel heavier. 


o5 y 


eh 















These sounds should be practised with all the consonants; 
thus, 

0006 ket ooS kin 008 kit oogS kee. 



oooS kaM 008 kaAt oo^ kaAn ooS 



B 2 



20 

oo kaAn oo ka/ms oooS keh. 

d$o5 kik cS king. 

c8oS kayt 08$ kayn. 

0^5 or opoS koAk oj> or o^ kqhn ooS 

ogoS or ogS koot og or og koon ogS koon. 

No matter what consonant or double consonant begins the 
word, the vowels always remain as above ; thus, 

coS sin 06 win ojS chin ogS twin <j|S shin. 
08 tsit 0& nyit S chit c^S hlit ^|S hrnyit. 

In the following combination some words seem to end 
with t and some with k : 

a8o5 sayt 0808 tayt ^]o$ chayt 808 mayt. 
oS5 ayk ^[o5 yayk c85 layk 0806 thayk. 
cx^8 loAk sooS so//k q|8 choAk ^oB hgnoAk. 

O waA is w with all consonants without a final, except 
nyaA oo yaA C) yah, when it takes the vowel sound, as 
^ nyooa^ g[ yooaA. 

g| hmyaA ^ hmyee ^][ hmyoo G^ 1 hmyay. 

og kwaA gwee. Gg gnwny c^j kyoo-eh. 

In certain words taken from the Pali we find a final 
quiescent consonant 

cj!o5 koA 8oS moh ^ moA. 
^o5 boA ^c5 hpoh (^oS jo/i. 

The double oo tha/< is written ooo and pronounced tth, 
as oooooo kiiAt-thaA-paA or kth as in gooo^ o/tk-thoAn. The 
Pali pronunciation of these would be kassapa and ussun. 



21 



TONES OR ACCENTS. 

There are three tones : 

(a) The ordinary (unmarked), as (gS myin, to see. 

(b) The abrupt, (a small circle written under the word), 
as (tjS myin, lofty, tall. 

(c) The prolonged heavy tone, (two small circles follow- 
ing the word), as QSs myins (or myeens), a horse. 

The light accent may be used with final GJ ay, 33 eh, 
GOOD aw, 3&! o/t, or a mute nasal consonant, as oo^ kaAn. 

The heavy accent may follow 33D ah, sS ee, 3^ oo, GOD ay, 
33 eh, 3^ oh, and the mute nasal consonants, as ooSo tin, 
oq$s toAnS. 

By means of these accents, or cadences, three distinct 
meanings can be given ; as, 

myin, to see ; myin, tall, high ; myinS, a horse. 

PHONETIC CHANGES. 

(a) When a final consonant is followed by a nasal it 
is assimilated ; as, 

088006 ayk-met, to dreavt, becomes ayn-met. 

o owk-inay, to long for, becomes owng-may. 
nit-na/i, to be aggrieved, becomes nin-na/?. 

(ti) Sometimes the vowels 06 and oo are elided ; as, 
c^Gj^oS poo-ya/i-bik, a note-book, becomes paA-yuA-bik. 

(c) The letters oo baA, o paA, and o muh are inter- 
changeable ; as, 

ooc8 htaA-bee, a petticoat, becomes hta/i-nice. 

hdaAo-pyu//, a bandit, becomes hd;i/o-mya/?.. 



22 

(d) Words beginning with oo and oo take the initial con- 
sonant of the following syllable; as, 

6o-hmin, a cave, becomes o/m(m)-hmin. 

oo-hnowk, brains, becomes 6/ms-hnowk. 
oo-hkowng, head, becomes o/ik-hkowng. 

(e) The final nasal of the first syllable is sometimes 
dropped; as, 

^- oooS sa/m-pin, hair of the head, becomes saA-bin. 
oools ta^n-hkaAs, a door, becomes tuh-gahl. 
oo6o paAn3-peh8, a blacksmith, becomes pa^-beho. 1 

(/) When a word ending with a vowel or nasal precedes 
another so as to form as it were a polysyllable, and the initial 
consonant of the following word is one of those in columns 
i and 2 on p. 13, it must as a rule be changed to the 
corresponding consonant in col. 3 or col. 4; thus, 
oo6(gS sin-chin, to consider, becomes sin-jin. 
^S^gDOOooD? hpyit-hkeh-tsooaA ta/?-kaA becomes hpyit- 
likeh-zooaA tu/t-ga/i3. 

NUMERALS. 2 
1234567890 

oj993570(30 
These figures are used exactly like the English figures. 

WHITING. 

Burmese is written from left to right, .but there is little 
use for punctuation as the sentences punctuate themselves. 
A full stop may be represented by u and to divide para- 
graphs ii H is used. 

1 The heavy accent on the first word is often dropped in compounds. 
8 See p. 78, rnfl p. 114. 



23 

ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMON USE. 
G| for GgS ee at the end of a sentence, or of. 
cS ., c(opS jowng, because. 
cS coooSs kosvngs, good. 
,. ^.o5 hnik, in, at. 
$ G$ yooay, and. 
Cj cogSscocoSs lee: gowngs, 6oM and; the aforesaid. 

oqcoS loolin, a bachelor. 

8 written over as in OOGOD for ooSscooD thim: baw, 
a ship. 



PRELIMINARY NOTES. 



The foregoing page;-, 9-22, should be carefully read and the 
phonetic equivalents of the Burmese characters noted. Practice in 
copying the characters themselveswill soon enable the student to read 
and write the words and phrases in the following lists, which he is 
also recommended to learn by heart, repeating them aloud with the 
aid of the phonetic spelling in the third column. 

PRONUNCIATION. It will be noticed that the values of the vowels 
in the Pronunciation column are not always the same. This is caused 
by euphony, as, for instance, in ' ah-nah-ibhi' . This is the correct 
transliteration, but the pronunciation is 'aA-naA-x-oA;'. 

TONES OB ACCENTS. For the proper appreciation and correct 
use of these, the student is recommended to avail himself of every 
opportunity of getting native tutorial assistance. They are usually 
indicated in the phonetic pronunciation, which of course would be 
imperfect without them. In the Burmese text they are always 
shown, but some do not appear in the 'pronunciation' column. The 
reason is that when words are run together as compounds, the heavy 
tone is often rejected and the ictus thrown on to the last word. 

For instance, ODGpS ta/t-ya/t: (law), when turned into 'civil law' 
by the addition of o ma/t, becomes ooqpSo taA-ya/i-mah'. 



24 

The heavy accent : is supposed to be inherent in the vowel 
3D eh:, unless superseded by the light accent, and is not, as a rule, 
written. Therefore cx> leh is properly lehs. We find it written, 
however, with cr>8i 5>8 and one or two other words. 

THE USE OF THE HYPHEN. It has been the custom in trans- 
literating Burmese words to put a hyphen indiscriminately between 
every syllable and the next ; thus 

TViee-aA-yaAt-hma/t-gna/i-aA-yin-taA-hkaA-hmya/t-maA-yowk-ti-r//- 
hpoos-boos. 

This seems a very senseless method as it shows nothing. In 
this work, only those syllables which are really connected together 
in a composite manner are so joined, and the above sentence would 
be written as under 

Thee SA-yaM-hmaA gna/t a/t-yin tSA-hkfiA-hmySA ma/t 

This place - in I before one-time- even (once) -not 

yowk-tsaA - hpoos-booS. 

arrive (assertive affixes). 

It was found, however, that this plan could not always be strictly 
adhered to, as the syllables of some composite words required proper 
division, for example, it would not have been possible to write the 
word aA-ya/tt as a/iy;1/<t. 

The hyphen has therefore been used in two ways (a) to connect 
words which form polysyllabic expressions ; (6) to separate syllables 
that might be mispronounced if written as one word. 

HINTS ON ADDKESSING A BuitMAN. Do not raise the voice or 
shout, and speak slowly and distinctly. 

Be careful not to drop the aspirate. There is a great difference 
between p and hp, t and hi, but no practical difference between 
b and hb, d and hd. 

Be very careful to differentiate the sounds ay and eh; for instance, 
33GO a^-may is mother and osyS aA-inehs is game', coo hlay canoe 
and C^goS hleh; a cart. In the latter case there can be no mistake 
if the proper numeral auxiliary is used; thus GOjOOoSs hlay-taA- 
zinj and ajgSsooSs hlehs-ta/t-scee:. 

Remember the rule as to change in consonants (p. 22, /). 



VOCABULARIES. 



The World and its Elements. 



English 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



air 


GCO 


lay 


cloud 


o5so8S 


moAs-dayn 


cold 


f-\ r* 
C* 'OColl r ?3G 33 
O 


ay-jins, aA-ays 


comet 


(goSoogS 


kyeh-taA-goon 


darkness 


^o5 


mik-chins 


dew or fog 


$5iid8o 3 $S 


IminS, seeS-hninS 


dust 


33$$ll C^OO 


dA-hmoAn, hpoAk 


earth 


GgllGg8 


myay, myay-jees 


earthquake 


G S@ 3C 3 S 58 


myay-jees hloAk chins 


east 


33C.1 


aA-shay 


eclipse (of sun) s$(cgo5(go 


nay-kyaAt-chinS 


- (of moon) 


cogo553 


laA-kyaAt-chins 


tire 


a 


mees 


tlame 


aso^ 


meez-shaAn 


frost 


c8s5 


sees-geh 


hail 


^oSsoS^ 


m6As-/Aee3 


heat 


33^ 


aA-poo 


light 


SDCOSS 


aA-lins 


lightning 


c-gjcSoS 


shaAt-tsit 


moon ; new, full 


con oooc8n cog^ 


laA, la h-t Ait, laA-byee 

*> o 


moonlight 


COCODg 


laA thaA-jins 


north 


G305 


myowk 


planet 


B'^5 


joA 


rain 


^6^ 


moAs yooaA jmS 



26 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


rainbow 


ooooS 
oo v 


thettaAn 


shade, shadow 


33^05 


aA-yayk 


sky 


^05GOODSOO 


moAs-kowngs-gin 


snow 


^oS'^S 


moAs-bwin 

O 


south 


GOODS 


to\vng 


star 


t > o 

goS 


kyeh 


sun 


G$ 


nay 


thunder 


^oSsg^gSs 


moAs-choAns-jins 


water 


G| 


yay 


weather 


^053GCO 


moAs-lay 


west 


33G$D05 


aA-nowk 


wind 


GCOO^oSgSs 


lay-tik-chins 


Land and Water. cg^Sccji* 


bay 


uScooSGOoofico? pinleh do\vng-i>;way 

o CO 1 O O O o** 


beacli 


oScoo5cx)5 


pinleh-kaAnS 


bog- 


8cg 


ts;iyn-myay 


canal 


0% GgDS 


toos-myo \vngs 


cape 


33 9 


aA-gnoo 


cave 


OD 


koo 


chasm 


GSJ1DOO 


jowk 


cliff 


OOQoGol OD 


kaAns-zowk 


coast 


o8cOC^ODo^D 


pinleh-kaAnS-naA 


creek 


GQIDS2 


chowngs 


current 


G?) Co 


y ay-zee i 


ebb 


GQ ^O 


vay-jyaA 


flood (of the tide) 


GQ OOo5 


yay-det 


foam 


32JgoS 


aA-hmyoAk 


forest 


GOOD 


taw 



27 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


hill 


GOOD8 


towng 


hillock 


GOOD88 
T 


towng-boA 


hill-top 


GOOD8o3o5 


towng-clayt 


ice 


GGjb 


yay-geh 


island 


oojs 


kyoon: 


lake 


338211 3^8 


in:, ing 


land 


O0$8 


ko/ms 


marsh 


g$c 


noon-:riyay 


moor 


og8g8 


Iwin-byin 


mountain 


GOOD8|3 


towng-jees 


mud 


& 


shoon 


range of hills 


0}$8a>$8 


ko^ns-da^ns 


range ofmountains 


GOOD88 


towng-yoAs 


river 


8 


myit 


rock 


GOOJDOS 


kyowk 


sand 


GO 


theh 


sand-bank 


GOOD8 


thowng 


sea 


o8coo5 


pinleh 


shingle 


GOOIDOOOG^O 


kyowk-tsaA-yit 


spring (water) 


GQ So 


yay-tsaAns 


storm 


^0^88 


moAn-ding-s 


stream 


Gp8 OOGCOS 


chowngs-ga/tlay; 


tide 





dee 


valley 


? 


ching 


water, fresh 


GG l 


yay-joA 


salt 


CG|C$ 


yay-gnaAn 


waterfall 


GG)OOg$ 


yay-taAgoon 


water-tank (dug) 


GG|OD? 


yay^gaAn 


wave [reservoir 


/^Q X O I. f^Q X /-y-\ ,Q O 

CAJOo Ii LAJOoUU VJo 


hlings, hlings-ta'i-boAs 



28 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


well 


GGjOgSs 


yay-dwins 


whirlpool 


GGl bs 


yay-wehs 


Minerals and Metals. oloS oogg[j>8 copoS KX^S^JJSU 


alum 


GttpoS^g 


kyo \vk-c bin 


amber 


oooSs 


paA-yins 


antimony 


OG.PO58S 


hkaA-nowk-tsayn 


arsenic 


8 


tsayn 


borax 


COo5(sp3 


let-chaAs 


brass 


cgsol 


kyay.-waA 


bricks 


3^o5 


oAk 


bronze 


cgs| 


ky ays-nee 


cement 


33OGOO 


insgaAday 


chalk 


GfolCJ 


myay-byoo 


clay 


G(QGO? 


myay-zees 


coal 


GC9]D058|GC^ 


kyowk-mees-Mway; 


copper 


G@| 


l<y ays-nee 


coral 


ODAD 


thaAdaA 




ab 




crystal 


GOOlDOO OOCOCo 


kyowk-thtiAlin: 


diamond 


OGOOIDo5 


tsayn-jowk 


emerald 


s 


myaA 


flint 


QoOOO<2CO|Do5 


mees-gaAt-kyowk 


glass 


O$H O$ 


hpaAn, hma/m 


gold 


G 5l 


shway 


gravel 


GCXJ)DO5OS)6 


kyowk-tsaA-yit 


iron 


o5 


thaAn 


lead 


5o 


hkeh-maA 


lime 


9S 


htoAns-byoo 


marble 


GcqDoS|^ 


kyowk-hpyoo 



29 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


mercury 


3l 


paAdaAs 


mortar 


oogoS 


tha/t-yoot 


opal 


009 ?p 


maAhooyaA 


ore 


ooggicapoS 


thaAttoo-jowk 


pearl 


(fob 


paAleh 


petroleum 


GQ$ 


yay-naAn 


ruby 


GOQIDOO^ 


kyowk-nee 


salt 


CODS 


saAs 


sand 


do 


theh 


sapphire 


IOOD 


neelaA 


silver 


GO, 


gnway 


soda 


gDOODS 


pyaA-zaAs 


steel 


06008 


thaAn-maAnee 


stone 


GOOJDOS 


kyowk 


sulphur 


oo| 


kaAn 


tin 


oo(3 


thaAn-byoo 


zinc 


006 


thoot 


Animals, Birds, and Fishes. ooDigo5icl83s^|8^J8a 


animal 


OOD8 


thaAs 


barking deer 


<? 


jee 


bear 


oo56 


wet-woon 


bird 


coo 


hgnet 


buffalo 


ooj 


kyoo-eh 


bull 


38083 


naA-htees 


calf 


gOSOOGCO'o 


nwaAs-gaAlay; 


cat 


S@D6 


kyowng 


chicken 


[OOOOOOGOOo 


kyet-kaAlay: 


cock 


fooooo 


kyet-hpaA 



30 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


colt 


ODGC03 


myins-gaAlayS 


COW 


OS 


n\vaA;-maA 


crab 


o$$3n 9g$g3 


gaAnaAns, paAzoon- 


crow 


o53cos 


kyeesgaAn; [byafo 


dog 


G8 


hkway: 


dove 


gi 


J6A; 


duck 


oSsdb 


woomsbeh 


eagle 


6c^ 


woonloA 


eel 


ofo$g> 


gnaAs-shin 


elephant 


006 


sin 


elk 


0006 


thaAmin 


fish 


els 


gnaAs 


fowl 


( ' c 

(o5 


kyet 


fox 


cgcgg 


myay-gways 


game 


33ci 


aA-meh 


goat 


o8o5 


sayt 


goose 


C$8011 C$l 


gnaAnJ-maA, (gander) 


hare 


oq 


yoAn [gnaAnS-boA 


hen 


KoSo 


kyet-maA, or kyemma A 


hog-deer 


3Qo5 


da Ay eh 


hoof 


gl 


hkwaA 


horn 


S ! 8 


ooS-joA 


horse 


gi 


myin: 


leopard 


cxjaSooS 


kyaA-Mit 


mane 


CO^OD 


leh-zaAn 


mongoose (ichneu- 


Ggol 


mwaybaA 


monkey [mon) 


G^DOS 


myowk 


mouse 


goS 


kyooet 


mullet 


CX)CCOS 


kaA-baAlooS 



31 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


otter 


4 


hpyaAn 


owl 


goSa^? 


hgnet-soA: 


, horned 


o8io}o5 


dees-doAU 


ox 


DS(S 


mvafo-byee: 


oyster 


OO^OOGD 


kaA-noo-kaA-maA 


parrot 


OJ|o5aj}Ggj2 


kyet-too-yooays 


partridge 


ol 


hkaA 


paw 


cooS 


let [ma/i 


peacock, hen 


G3lityl C31880 


do\vng;-boA, downg:- 


pheasant 


G|8 


yit 


Pig 


ooS 


wet 


pigeon 





\\koh 


porcupine 





hpyoo 


quail 


<t 


gnoAngs 


rabbit 


OD8o GOODCX{$ 


thimsbaw-yoAii 


rat 


(go5 


kyooet 


red deer 


006 


saAt 


rhinoceros 


(3 


kyaAn 


sheep 


0^ 


thoAs 


snipe 


cgo5 


myny-woot 


sparrow 


ODODGCO8 


tsaA-gaAlays 


starling 


O>G)o5 


zaA-yet 


stork 


^fi 


byings-byoo 


swallow 


^oGggoSl CjJogDS 


moA:-zway-hgnets 






pyaAn-hlwaAs 


swan 


G^C$2 


shway-gnaAn; 


tail 


33^ 


aA-myeeS 


tiger 


oqp 


kyaA: 


tortoise 


o85 


layk 



32 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


turkey 


cjoSaoS 


hnet-sin 


turtle 


08 5 ii ocoo5 c8S 


layk, pinleh-layk 


vulture 


coSsoo 


laA-da/i 


wild ox 


S 


tsing 


wing 


33GOOD6 


aA-towng 


wolf 


GOODGg8 


taw-gways 


Reptiles and Insects. 


ant ogioooSoo 


J\0 W^-/WW1/UII 

paA-youet-sayt 


(white) 





cha/t ' 


bee 


9JD8GOODS 


pyaA;-gowng 


beetle 


G$OGS}|8^3 


nowk-chyees-bofo 


bug 


^S'So 


kyaA-boAs 


butterfly 


c88QD 


layk-pyaA 


caterpillar 


jj 


hkoo 


centipede 


0058G^|D3 


kins-chee-myaAs 


cobra 


GgcODD 


mway-howk 


crocodile 


QGO^jDCo 


mee-jo\vng: 


firefly 


SsB^oG 


poAs-tsaynS-byoo 


flea 


G2GC^8 


hkwayj-hlay. 


fly 


OD6GODD8 


yin-gowng 


frog 


bis 


hpaA: 


house lizard 


38GQJD5 


ayn-hmyowng 


large house lizard 


GODDoSc^ 


towk-teh 


insect 


^SGODDS 


poAs-gowng 


leech 


gc5 (large) c^p 


kyoot, hrnyavy 


mosquito 


g 


chin 


sand-fly 


goS 


hpyo^k 



33 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


scorpion 


OoSsgSGODO 


kins-myeeS-gowk 


silkworm 


8 


pohl 


snake 


eg 


mway 


snake (poisonous) 


cgs^g 


mway-zoAs 


spider 


2 


pin-goo 


wasp 


$Be 


naA-jeh 


worm 


08 GOODS 


tee-go WHO- 



Fruits, Trees, Flowers, and Vegetables. 1 



almond 
amherstia 
asparagus 
banana (commonly 
called 'plantain') 
banyan 
beans 
beetroot 
bouquet 
cabbage 
capsicum 
carrot 

castor-oil plant 
citron 
cocoa-nut 
cucumber 
custard apple 
date 



GOOSOD 
ODPgoS 



c^oS 
goSoj 



OOgDS 



1 See Note following this 



ba/idaAn 
thawka/i 
kaA-nyoot 
hgnet-pyaw 

nyowng 
peh 

moAn-laA-oo-nee 
pa^ns-ging 
thimsbaw moAn-laA 
gna^-yo^k 
moAn-laA-oo-waA 
kyet-soo 

showk-thaA-hkwaAs 
6Ans 

thaA-hkwaAs 
awzaA 

tsoombaAloon 
list, p. 35. 



BURMESE S.-T. 



34 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


door i an 


38S)g3 


cloos-yins 


fern 


GOqjDO$0$8 


cyowk-pa^ns 


fig 


ooo; 


thaMipaAns 


fir (-tree) 


cos^3oS 


;itins-yoos-bin 


garlic 


goSog^g 


kyet-th5on-byoo 


grape 


OCjjS 


tsaAbyit 


ironwood 


Cjj58ooo^8 


pyinS-gaA-doAs 


jack 


8$sJ 


paync-lmeh 


kernel 


33CO 


aA-saAn 


leaf 


33|05 


iiA-yooet 


lemon 


GJpoSqg 


showk-chin 


lily (water) 


@ D 


kyaA 


lime 


ooocp 


tha/imbaAya^ 


maize 


GgDC8<^8 


pyo\vng;-boos 


mango 


oo<sjo5 


thaA-yet 


mulberry 


30D06 


po/iS-zaA-bin 


mushroom 





hmoA 


mustard 


fe 


moAn-nyins 


onion 


L ~j O 


kyet-thoon-nee 


orange 


cSScoS 


lay m maw 


palmyra (pal ) 


oo5s 


htaAns 


papaya 


OD8'.G00308? 


thimsbaw-MeeS 


peas 


o 


peh 


pepper (blacKj 


C^OSGODDSS 


gnuA-yo//k-koungi 


pine-apple 


^>^oS 


naA-na^t 


plum 


8.8 


zee: 


potatoes 


G^jDoSg 


myowk-6o 


pumpkin 





hpaA-yo/m 


radishes 


(^COD 


moAn-laA 



35 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


raisins 


oqjSoSsG^poS 


tsaA-byit-thees-jowk 


rose 


^88o8o$8 


hnin:-zee-baAn: 


talipat (palm) 


GO 


pay 


tamarind 


o^aflgSs 


maA-jee: 


teak 


Ogj8 


kyoon: 


tomato 


OGl303g 


hkaA-yaAns-jin 


water-melon 


o3| 


hpaA-yeh 


willow 


^oSsoo 


m6A;-maA-hkaA 


yam 


ctjpoScolSs 


myowk-hkowng: 



NOTE. The following list gives the words which must be 
placed after the name of a plant or tree in order to 
distinguish the part of the plant to be indicated. Thus, 
8>8oS a plant-tree, 8>o8o a plum, S>?g)o5 a plum-leaf. 



bark 

blossom 

branch 

flower 

fruit 

heart 

leaf 

plank 

plant 

root 

seed 

shoot 

sprout 

stalk 

stalk of fruit 

stump 



"s)5 



33GO 



aA-hkowk 

aA-pwin 

aA-hket 

paAn: 

aA-thees 

aA-hnit 

aA-yooet 

pyeen 

aA-pin 

aA-myit 

aA-tsay 

aA-nyoon 

aA-hnyowk 

aA-y6A: 

aA-hnyaA 

aA-gnoAk 



86 



Colours. ooGCpSssooS; ii 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


black 


ogSsii $o5 


mehs, net 


blue 


D 


pyaA 


brown 


A 


nyoA 


crimson 


GJG|$ 


yeh-yeh-nee 


dark 


$ 


nyoA 


green 


8S 


tsayn: 


grey 


GolSgOoS 


hpowng;-woot 


pink 


0$8$ 


paAninoo 


red 


1 


nee 


scarlet 


GOgoGOgSf 


htway:-dway:-nee 


violet 


$oj|5rcflS 


nee-kyin-jin 


white 


fi 


hpyoo 


yellow 


ol 


wa 



The above are really intransitive verb roots and must be 
so used. Words implying a tendency towards a colour are 
formed by prefixing 'khaAt' and reduplicating; thus, 

ooSolol hkaAt waA-waA, yellowish. 



33O 



Times and Seasons. 

(For Conversations, see pp. 136-40.) 

afternoon 
beginning 
century 

dawn, daybreak 
day (24 hours) 
day (12 hours) 
Sunday 



Monday 



moon:-lweh aA-chayn 

aA-tsa^ 

hnit-pnwng: 



yet 

nay 

TaA-nins-gaA-nway 

TaA-nins-laA 



37 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Tuesday 


33 Ol 


In-gaA 


Wednesday 


OgOOo 


BoAk-daA-hoos 


Thursday 


(033000C003 


KyaA-thaA-baA-dayS 


Friday 


GCODoSgD 


Thowk-kyaA 


Saturday 


OG$ 


TsaA-nay 


day after to-morro\v 


cooofg 


thaA-bekkaA 


day before yester- 


COCjjG^ 


taA-myaAn nay 


daytirne [day 


C% 3D^ 


nay aA-chayn 


early 


GO! GO") 


tsaw-zaw 


end 


saaqS 


aA-s6Ans 


evening 


gcfc 


nyaA-nay [aA-chayn 


forenoon 


g3GCOg533i]$ 


moons maA-teh-hmee 


fortnight 


OOODGCOSQOO 


seh-lays-yet 


half-an-hour 


^DGJOOOOD 


naA-yee taA-wet 


holiday 


$ G $ 


pweh-nay 


hour 


^P%[ 


naA-yee 


last month 


Og$5GODDCO 


loon-geh-MaAv-laA 


last night 


OGipO 


maA-nay-nyaA 


last year 


Q&OOO 


maA-hnit-kaA 


Lent 


o") 


waA 


midnight 


oo8cbl5 


thaA-gowng 


minute 


^,8 


meenit 


month 


CO 


laA 


months, English 






January 


C5>$0]^| 


ZaA-naA-waA-yee 


February 


GOOqol ^ 


Hpay-boo-waA-yee 


March 


]o5 


MaAt 


April 


GO^ 


Ay-paA-yee 


May 


GO 


May 



38 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


June 


24 


Zoon 


July 




Zoo-ling 


August 


GODOCD 


AA-gik 


September 


OOOQQOCOOD 


Set-tin-baA 


October 


G33Do5dSOOD 


Owk-toAs-baA 


November 


$OSCOD 


No^-wim-baA 


December 


ScoSooD 


Dee-sim-baA 


months, Burmese ' 






March 


000^8 


TaA-goos 


April 


ODSC} 


KaA-so^n 


May 


$oqi 


NaA-yoAn 


June 


olc^ 


WaA-zoA 


Intercalary 


qo8ooo]o^> 


Doo-tee-yaA WaA-zoA 


July 


olcolS 


WaA-gowng 


August 


GOD500C05 


Taw-^aA-lins 


September 


ooooSsogjc^ 


ThaA-din:-joot 


October 


OD$GOODS<^8 


Ta^-zowng-moAns 


November 


& oo oooo 


NaAdaw 


December 


o o 
3COCO 


Pyah-thoh 


January 


^s^ 


TaA-boA-dweh 


February 


OOGOISS 


TaA-bowngs 


morning 


o^o5, or $$co 


maA-net, or naAn-net 


night 


83 


nyaA 


noon 


ySoODpS 


moons-teh 




O \^Ct 


o 


season 


DOD 


oodoo 


, cold 


GOODSggO^ 


sowngS-oodoo 


, hot 


c ss 


nway-oodoo 


1 These months are lunar, and therefore about every third year there 


is an extra month put in, called D65t66yaA, or 'second ' W&hzoh. 



39 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


season, rainy 


8o5po^ 


mo^J-oodoo 


second, moment 


OOD 


hkaAnaA 


sunrise 


G^OgoScODCO 


nay-htwet-kaAla^. 


sunset 


G^OSODDCO 


nay-win-ka/(laA 


time 


OODCOII OSS)] 


ka^laA, a/t-hka/i 


to-day 


>c* 


ya/^-nay 


to-morrow 


$o5(c)$ 


ma/t-net-pyaAn 


to-night 


se3 


ya/i-hkoo-nya/i 


twilight, dusk 


GOc8GOOo6n OO^e 


way-lee-way-lins, seeS- 


week (seven days) 


sjj^SQoS FOOD 


likoo-hnaA-yet [zah 


year 


jt& 


hnit 


yesterday 


OG% 


ma/t-nay 


yesterday morning 


OGfcO$o5 


maA-nay-maA-nct 


Town, Country, and Agriculture. 


bank 


C8 


myay-yo^S 


bank (edge) 


0063 


kaAnl 


brick house 


o^o5 


tik 


bridge 


OO^OODS 


ta/i-da/iS 


building 


33GOOD6 


aA-sowng 


bush, shrub 


gii gc^cS 


choAn, cho/ni-bo/ik 


cemetery 


ooSs^Ss 


thins-jin: 


corn 


ool8 


tsa/i-baAs 


country, the 


GO^JSGODD 


kyees-daw a 


court-house 


^3 


yoAns [nwaAs-yoAii 


co\v-house 


^8006809081 D8^ 


nwa/iS-tin; -go/ik, 


1 GOqji G(^I GSfli GJQ are sometimes kyay. chny, and sometimes 


kyee, chee. 



40 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


crop 


cooSogoS 


leh-dwet 


custom-house 


33G003o5o5o5 


a^-kowk-tik 


ditch 


Gg3S8 


myowngs 


farm 


COoSoOD 


leh-yaA 


farmer 


cooSoq8ooo); 


leh-lo^k-thafanaA8 


fence 


06811 (^ 


win:, chaAn 


field 


COOSODD 


leh-ya^ 


flock, herd 


33^11 33338 


a^-tsoo, fih-ohk 


foot-path 


GCOSS 


chee-laAns 


forest 


GOOD 


taw 


garden 


gOolgS 


ooyin 


gate 


03$ OJ3 


ta^-ga^S 


grass 


go5o8 


myet-pin 


harvest 


00~l8[o5o03CO 


tsah-bafo-yayk-kaAlaA 


hay 


go$Goj3o5 


myet-chowk 


hedge 


e8oo$ 


tsee:-daAn: 


house (wooden) 


335 


ayn 


hut 


aSSoqoSn db 


ayn-goAk, teh 


inn 


oooSsd} 


hta^mins-zing 


labourer 


O^C^n 330)500038 


koolee, a^-lo/ik-thaA- 


land, soil 


eg 


myay [maAs 


log 


0080^8 


thit-to/ms 


manure 


G^305GSJ|8 


nowk-chee? 


market 


G^J8 


zay; 


mile 


^S 


ming 


mill 


goSa^ 


kyayt-so^n 


pagoda 


GOoSlI COGpS 


zaydee, hpaA-yaA: 


place, spot 


33C)8 


&h-yaht 


pasture 


O38O3JO5 


tsaA-jet 



41 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


plough 


COOJII Cg$0^8 


hteh, htoon-doAns 


police-station 


sU 


htaAnaA 


prison 


GOOOS 


htowng 


rice (plant) 


GOODoS 


kowk 


road 


CoSg 


laAnS 


school 


ODOoScOtpSS 


tsaA-Min-jowngS 


shed 


ODSSO} OS 


tinSgoAk 


shop 


3S 


sing 


street 


oS5co8co8 


ayn-daAnS-laAns 


town 


6 


myoA 


village 


90 


yooaA 


waterfall 


GC|OD$ 


yay-taA-goon 


wheat 


%ools 


joAn-tsaA-baAs 


Mankind: Relations. oj}^J8cfcoo5o868u 


aunt 


8(0^811 ScOgSlI 33^8 


mee-jees, miee-dways, 






aA-yees 


baby 


o ^CXDGCO8 


no A-zo A-ga A- 1 ay I 


boy 


O^OOGCOS 


loo-gaA-lays 


brother 


gB 33Sc^B G018 


nyee, itkoA, mowng 1 


brother-in-laAv 


GCX)DO5(3 


yowk-hpa/a 


child 


33OOGCOSII OJJCOS 


aA-kaA-lays, thaA-gneh 


cousin 


^ GOO So II 33 Sc^ 


nyee-daw, itkoA-daw 


daughter 


0083 [cooS 


thaAmees 


daughter-in-law 


G80 


chway;-maA 


family (lineage) 


33cJ|g33^C^ 


aA-myoAs-aA-hnweh 



1 GODC mowng, is used by women to designate a brother, and is also 
commonly used as a prefix of men's names indicative of equality ; 
thus, GODCGCODOO Mowng Lowk = Mr. Lowk. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



father 


33GOII 33OII OOII 


aA-hpay, aA-hpiiA, 




oogSs 


hba/, hkaA-mehs 


father-in-law 


coooogo 


yowk-hkaAmaA 


gentleman, Mr. 


cooSn o(Soo 


tha/t-hken, hken-byaAs 


girl 


88OOGCO3 


mayns-kaAlay? 


grand-daughter 


cg8o 


myay;-ma/i 


grandfather 


330^1' C 


a/i-hp6As, \)6h' 


grandmother 


330203 


aA-hpwaAs 


grandson 


G 


myays 


husband 


008 


lin 


husband's sister 


GOOOSO 


yowngs-maA 


lady, Mrs. 


OOooii 33Q5oil 


thaA-hken-maA, ah- 




ooSii oo 


shin-maA, meh, maA- 


maid 


33(^1 


aA-pyoA [maA 


man, a 


GOOOOJOS 


yowk-yaAs 


man (h uman being) 


9 


loo 


marriage 


coo5oo568 


let-htaAt-chins 


married man 


338G0008GOOOO|DS 


ayn-downg yowk-yaAs 


married woman 


5 


ayn-downg may n: ma A 


mother 


33GOII 33 


aA-may, aA-mee 


mother-in-law 


GOODOQoSg 


yowk- hkaAmaA-may n- 


nephew 


S 


too [maA 


niece 


ooo 


too-maA 


old man 


C^33> 3305@S 


loo-oA, JiA-hpoAi-jeeJ 


old woman 


33Gg 


aA-may-jees 


parents 


wOO 


meebaA 


people 


OOQiOo 


thoo-myaAs 


person [or 


09 


thoo 


single man, bachel- 


^4 


loo-byoA 



43 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


single woman 


33c) 


a^-pyoA 


young lady, Miss 


S^SlI 


mee-shin 


sister 


338011 $o 


a/i-ma/i, nyee-maA 


sister-in-law 


ooSasi cocoSoO 


hkeh-maA, yowng:- 


son 


OC08 


thaAs [ma/i 


son-in-law 


ocoSooS 


thaA-met 


step-father 


ODGOg^ 


baA-dways 


step-mother 


Scogs 


mee-dways 


step-son 


33000500D3 


aA-htet-thaA; 


uncle 


OOJO^SlI OOGOgSlI 


baA-jee;, baA-dvvay: 


widow 


q_sjSG 


mohk-sbh:-mah 


widower 


q_3^ 


mohk-sohz-boh 


wife 


OOOD8 


maA-yaAs 


wife's sister 


ooSo 


hkeh-maA 


woman 


QQO 


maynS-maA 


The Human Body. o^c^aaSl^DJi 


ankle 
arm 


0^0$ 

cooScelSo 


hpaA-myet 
let-rnowng; 


back 


GgDaj^8 


kyaw-goAn: 


beard 


^08 o5 


moo-sayt or moAk- 


blood 
body 


yL 


thways [sayt 
koh-kahy&h 


bone 


3D8 


a^-y6A; 


bowels 


i 


oo 


brain 


33G|,DC^ 


6An;-hnowk 


cheek 


olg 


paA; 


chest 


G)oo5 


yin-ba^t 


chin 


GOoGO 


mays-zee 



44 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


complexion 


33GGp8 33Oo8o 


aA-yowng aA-sins 


ear 


$3 $33105 


na/<2, naA-yooet 


elbow 


OOGOODSooS 


taA-downg-zit 


eye 


^jo58 


myet-tsee 


face 


^JoSjO 


myet-hnaA 


finger 


cooScojoSs 


let-chowng: 


flesh 


330038 


aA-thaAs 


foot 


G 


chyay, or chee 


forehead 


W* 


naA-hpoo: 


hair (of head) 


0008 


saA-bin 


hand 


cooS 


let 


head 


5/- /"V"\ ^ O 11 /~*'"\I^O 
^AyW^OoH \e> ^J | _/O 


oAk-hkowng:, gowngs 


heart 


^Sc^s 


hnit-loAn; or hnaA- 






loAn: 


heel 


cgocj-oS 


chyay-hpaA-hnowng 


jaw 


ol8^o5 


paA-chayt-yoA: 


joint 


3300o5n 3300S 


aA-set, a^-sit 


kidneys 


GgooSoDoS 


kyowk-kaAt 


knee 


^ 


doos 


leg 


GGOODo5 


chyay-dowk 


limb 


cScSasSl 


koA-ingaA 


lip 


at 08062 


hnaA hkaAn: 


liver 


3300S 


aA-thehs 


lungs 


330C^oS 


aA-soAk 


moustache 


^oBo68Gg8 


hnaA-hkaAn:-mway: 


mouth 


00611 5oS' 


paA-zaAt. hkaA-dwin: 


nail 


COOSOOD^S 


let-theh: 


neck 


cop^o 


leh-bin: 


nose 


J,DG01 


hnaA-hkowngS 



45 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


rib 


*! 


naAn-yoAs 


shoulder 


0^8 


paA-hko/m! 


side 


$GC58 


naA-bays 


skin 


33GGIII OOD'cGCl 


aA-yay, thaA-yay 


skull 


pQOQDCoQ 


oAk-hkowngs-goon 


spine 


0(03288 


kyaw-yoA: 


thigh 


GolSa^S 


powng-loAnj 


throat 


COgSGSpSS 


leh-jowngs 


thumb 


cooSo 


let-maA 


toe 


cgcgpSS 


chyay-jowngs 


tongue 


ogp 


shaA 


tooth 


QgD8 


thwaA; 


whiskers 


olSGgS 


paA-mwayS 


wrist 


cooSooS 


let-sit 


Physical and Mental Powers, Qualities, &c. 


8 
age 


U.'V-u-' v.*-! ww >. J v-u-/ \a \/-/iw- 
^i CO L -U I 


aA-thet-aA-yooeh 


old 


eooDo5(cs 


aA-thet-kyee:-jins 


anger 


33go5ll G31CO 


aA-myet, daw^AaA 


art 


33OOo5opOD 


aA-taAt-peenyaA 


breadth, width 


33^>H [aOO 


aA-naAn, byet 


character (good) 


3300GG) 


aA-thaA-yay 


childhood 


09006 338 


thoo-gneh-aA-hpyit 


depth 


^oSgSs 


net-chin: 


dislike 


Oj^SoDoSgSS 


maA-hnit-thet-chin: 


disposition 


OOGOOD 


thaAbaw 


fear 


^s^lgSs 


tsoAs-yayn-jins 


foolishness, folly 


coloou ^o5g8o 


mawhaA, mik-chin: 



46 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


gentleness 


oSSciggSs 


thay n-m way-jin: 


goodness 


GOCoSggSS 


kowng;-jin: 


greatness 


gigS^ 


kyee:-jin: 


hatred 


^sgS 


moAns-jin: 


height 


d?o533Gj5gS: 


ko^-aA-ya/tt-myin-jin: 


honesty 


8o$GgDSS3 


tsayt-hpyowng-jin: 


honour 


qa$33COGG|i83 


go/m-a^thaAyay-shee- 


intelligence 

& 


e3 DCo5 


nyaAn [jin: 


jy 


oS8GgDo58 


\voon:-myowk-chi n : 


judgment (faculty) 


3oSSei$oog 


sin-jin-yaAn-thaAttee 


knowledge 


oSysaoooS 


thay ppa/m- ah-taht 


laughter, a laugh 


|05S 


yeh-jin: 


length 


335)p5l. 33p8 


aA-shay, aA-lyaA: 


love 


sj|6Ss 


chit-chin: 


mind 


8o5 


tsayt 


patience 


OD^308 


thees-hka'm-jin: 


pleasure 


S~* f "\1 ^\ f^ f \ |-^\O^ 

'^y \J\ \J \0 \cJ eJ W O 


pyaw-mway-jin: 


politeness, cour- 


qj||cj1ii GCODooooS 


pyoo-hgna//, law-kaA- 


tesy 


[gODCcS 


woot [nyaAn 


reason (faculty) 


008SOOOSGODD 


sin-jin-daAt-thaw- 


science 


330Do8o^DD 


aA-taAt-peenya// 


senses, the 


G03$D 


way da fin a// 


feeling, touch 


G02Sg 


tway-jins 


hearing 


^D8g3288 


na/^-kyaAs-jin! 


seeing, sight 


o c oc^^ 

gs^ 


myin-jin: 


smelling, smell 


$S3 


naAnJ-jins 


tasting, taste 


g^o5s8 


myee:-zaAn;-jin: 


shape 


^OOgJOD^ 


po/m-tha/ida//n 


size 


33C5 


doodeh 



47 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


smell (odour) 


4 


a^-na^n 


smiling, a smile 


gsgSs 


pyo/ms-jin; 


sneezing, a sneeze 


GQjgg 


chee-jins 


sorrow 


SoS^gSs 


tsayt-poo jin: 


speaking, speech 


c(cpgoii oooD8 


pyaw-jins, tsaA-o-aA;- 


strength 


3338 [ G Dq|o5 


hkoon-aAs [pyaw-jet 


stupidity 


eD30)So$8gS 


nyaAn-toAn;-jinS 


surprise 


33G33Dg8 


a^n-aw-jins 


taste (of a thing) 


33CJOD 


a//ya//thAA 


thickness 


q 


doo 


thinking, thought 


oocQCofoco 


htin-hma^t-chin: 


thought, a 


ooooocfo OQ 


tsayt-htin-jet 


voice 


3300^ 


a^-tha^n 


weakness (quality) 


33D8^^8g8 


a^S-nehs-jin! 


wisdom 


0DD 


peenyaA 


youth (quality) 


cgGOODC33g)oS 


pyoA-/Aaw-aA-yooeh 



Health. 



abscess 

accident 

ague 

ambulance 

aperient 

asthma 

bandage 

biliousness 

blister (of the skin) 

boil 

bruise 



33^,D8 



ing-naA [chin: 

maA-taw taA-saA hpyit 



loo-naA sowng-ya// 
woons-hno/ik-say: 



kya/tt-tsees-ya/t 
thehs-jee-naA 
ii^-hpowng; 
aA-naA-zayn; 



48 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


burn 


S:GCX>DS$D 


mee;-lowng-naA 


cancer 


33$D3^8 


aA-naA-z6A: 


chemist's (shop) 


GOOSES 


says-zing 


chicken-pox 


GttpoSg^D 


kyowk-hpyoo-naA 


cholera 


CODCO^D GGpol 


kaAlaA-naA yawgaA 


cold 


^DGOS^D 


hnaA-zays-naA 


contagion 


33^D0^85 


aA-naA-koos-jin: 


cough 


c;pS8sj$:> 


chowngs-zoAs-naA 


cramp 


GpS8:pg88 


nyo\vngs-nyaA-jin: 


diarrhoea 


oScq]$D 


woon;-jaA-naA 


disease, illness 


33$DGGpo] 


aA-naA-yawgaA 


doctor, physician 


GOOBOOtOS 


say:-thaAmaAs 


dysentery 


GOgSoloSSO^D 


thways-baA-\voonS-jaA- 


exhaustion 


33D80^88 


aA:-koAn-jin: [naA 


faint, to 


8$SGODOD^ 


mayns-maw-^/iee 


fever 


CJ)D8^,D 


hpyaA;-naA 


fit 


OOOS^D 


tet-naA 


fracture 


338o5)86s 


aA-y6As-ky6As-jin: 


headache 


GOICSC^OS^D 


gowngs-kik-naA 


hospital 


0^300$ 


thoo-naA-daAn 


ill, sick, to be 


^.DOO^ 


naA-/Aee 


indigestion 


330D8^Gg8 


aA-tsaA; maA-kyay-jin: 


inflammation 


3DOOD(,;8: 


aA-tha/iS-poo-jinS 


insanity 


33^)8^3 


aA-yoos-naA 


itch 


OOD8$D 


yaAs-naA 


lameness 


G0g?88 


chyay maA-tsoon:-jin: 


leprosy 


^* D 


noo-naA 


measles 


OOSOOC^^D 


wet-thet-naA 


medicine 


GOOSoli 


say;-waA: 



49 



English. 



Burmese. 



P renunciation. 



nurse 

ointment 

pain 

paralysis 

piles 

pill 

poison 

prescription 

quinsey 

rheumatism 

ringworm 

scald 

sickness 

smallpox 

sprain 

tonic 

unwell, to be 

well, to be 

WOUnd 33 $333 SOD 

Food, Drink, and Smoking. 



3Q Y 1Q C o 



loo-na^-dayns 
hpaA-yowngS-jet 
na^-jins 
lay-jaw-thay-naA 



aA-sayt 
says-peenyat 



doo-laA-naA 

pwayS-naA 

yay-boo-lowng-jins 



kyowk-powk-naA 
a^-kyaw-myet-chinS 



(For Conversations, see p. 



appetite 
beverages 

beer 

coffee 

lemonade 

milk 

3 of cows 

soda-water 

BUKMESE an. 



[GOOD 



tsaA; thowk-yaAn thaA- 
thowk-tsaA-yaA [baw 
joAn-yee 
kaA-hpee-yee 
showk - chin - yee - 
noA-yee [hpyaw 
naA-noA 
beelaAt-yay 

D 



50 

English Burmese. Pronunciation. 


tea 


COoSooS^eS 


lah-hpet-yee 


water 


G6^ 


yay 


wine 


O Ol O Q DO 


tsaA-byit-yee 


bread 


O^ll GolSoO^ 


moAn, -po \vngs- mo An 


boil, to 


,0000 pb 


pyoAk-thee 


bottle 


ocoSi 


paAlins 


butter 


GOODOOS 


htawbaAt 


cake 


(& 


moAn-jo/i 


cheese 


8$5 


dayn-geh 


chicken flesh 


(cxjoSooDS 


kyet-thaA; 


cinnamon 


00803)^2 


thit-kyaA-boAi 


cook, to 


goSoog 


chet-thee 


cream 


|a8 


noA-zee 


curd 


|5 


noA-geh 


curry 


0062 


hin: 


eggs 


(0306 g 


kyet oo 


fish, dried 


clto^poS 


gnaAs-jowk 


, fresh 


cls85o 


gnaAs-zayns 


flour 


O^ e pDo5 


moAn-nyet 


fruits 


33082^33 


aA-thees-niyaA: 


fry, to 


GO^jSoOoS 


kyaw-/Aee 


ginger 


O]6o82 


jins-zayns 


honey 


Si 026 !^ 


pyaAs-yee 


hungry, to be 


OODgoSoog 


saA-moot-thee 


ice 


GGjb 


yay-geh 


jam [food) 


08 


yoA 


meals' (cooked 


J3^,8 


aA-naAt . 



1 Breakfast, lunch, and supper are simply morning, afternoon, and 
night meals, but the word 33OD aA-tsaft is used instead of 



51 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


breakfast 


$$OOGD 


naAnet-tsaA 


luncheon 


^^odooD 


moons-lweh-zaA 


supper 


gDOD 


nyaA-zaA 


meat 


3300DS 


aA-thaA; 


beef 


.D2CDS 


nwaAs-/AaA: 


fat 


3308 


aA-see 


kidneys 


copoScoS 


kyowk-kaAt 


mutton 


oSOOD2 


th6As-/AaAs 


pork 


OO50OD2 


wets-thaAs 


veal 


apSCDGCOgOODS 


nwaAj-gaAlayS-/AaAs 


mustard 


^l>2 


moAn-nyin; 


nutmegs 


oooS8(p5o8g 


zaAdaykhpoA-^AeeS 


oil 


a8 


see 


pepper, black 


C<)O$GOODSo 


gnaA-yoAk-kowng i 


3 red 


CQoS 


gnaA-yoAk 


pickles 


OD^5 


thaA-naAt 


pudding 


ti^GOID 


moAn-byaw 


rice, boiled 


00y62 


htaA-mins 


rice, unboiled 


00$ 


saAn 


roast, to 


OD6oOjD 


kin-^Aee 


salt 


COD? 


saA: 


sauce 


0$) 


tsaA-meh 


smoking 


G002GOD30563 


says-thowk-chinS 


cigar 


GSOo85 


says-layk 


matches 


8qS 


mees-jit 


pipe 


GOOSOO? 


says-daAn 


tobacco 


G008 


says 


tobacco-pouch 


GOOSsSoS 


says- ay k 


soup 


33g5c)g 


aA-pyoAk-yee 


D 9 



English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


spirits 


33^05 


aA-yet 


sugar 
thirst 
tooth-pick 
under-done, to be 
vegetables 


QoqjoS 0003 o5 [ 

OOCoQOO foDOO 


yay-gnaAt-chin: 

maA-kyet-taA -jet- 
hins-yuet [shee-Mee 


venison 


3<SJo5oC08 


d&h-jeh-thsihl 


vinegar 
well-done, to be 


fY"M Cj\ / "Y"^ ^Y^ 
^ J^J\ \ JJ \-*J K^^ 


pofaiJ-yee 
kyet-thee 


Cooking and Table Utensils. 



(For Conversations, see pp. 132, 145. 



basin 

canister 

coffee-pot 

corkscrew 

cup 

dish 

dish-cover 

filter 

fork 

glass, tumbler 

jar 

J u g 

kettle 

knife 

ladle 

lamp 



OpS3S 

L_ j ^ 

OGpg 



CODE 



thaAn-byoo-boAn: 

kaA-hpee-hkaA-yaA: 

wet-oo 

hkwet 



yay-zit 
hkaA-yins 



tsin-6As 

hkaA-yaAs 

yay-nways-6A: 



yowk-choA 
mee:-ayn 



53 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


lid 


33(^8 


aA-hp6An; 


mat 


<2P 


hpyaA 


mortar 


acjS 


so/ms 


oven 


GOISS^ 


powngs-boA 


pail 


GG|9$8 


yay-boAns 


pestle 


9)S G & 


kyaA-bway 


plate 


90D@D8 


paA-gaAn-byaAs 


salt-cellar 


OODSgoS 


saAs-gwet 


saucepan 


3oSa}8 


deh-6As 


scales 


^$gS 


chayn-gwin 


serviette 


cooSoqoSoo] 


let-thoAk-paA-waA 


sieve 


oo^ol 


saA-gaA 


spoon 


)g 


zoons 


strainer 


083^8 


tsit-6As 


table-cloth 


ODSgoSS 


tsaA-bweh-ginS 


teapot 


cooSooScj^ocpS 


laA- hpet-yee-hkaA- 


tray 


coSo^S 


lim-baAns [yaAs 


water-bottle 


ccjocoSs 


yay-paA-lins 


wine-glass 


0?00098GCCOD05 


hpaAn-gaA-d6An- 






chyay-dowk 


Dress and the Toilet. 33ooSoosoD 5.8 ooSG|Sg8u 


(For Shopping, see p. 745.) 


bath (room) 


GCJ^SO^ 


yay-choAs-gaAns 


bootlaces 


oS^Sgs 


hpaA-naAt-kyoAs 


boots 


c^o5c8^8 


boot-hpaA-naAt 


bracelet 


COoSGOODoS 


let-kowk 


braces 


GoiaSC^gsgD 


bowmbee kyoAs-byaA 


breeches 


"1 Co_S Q 
GOICoCOOO 


bowmbee-doA 



54 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


brush 


oo5^c8? 


wet-hmin-bee: 


brush, nail- 


cooSoopSsoSs 


let-theh;-bee; 


, tooth- 


ogD8o^o5o5^o5 


thwaA: t ik-taA-boot 


buckle 


OSoOGoloS 


tee-gaA-bowk 


button 


(0908 o8s 


kyeh-^Aee: 


button-hook 


(f^oSoSoGOODoS 


kyeh-thee:-gowk 


cap 


80^8 


oAk-htoAk 


cloak 


Oo5oO33&] 


woot-loAn-inSjee 


clothing, dress 


33Oo8 


aA-woot 


coat 


33 & 


injee 


collars 


cooSooS 


leh-baAt 


comb 


*~\F^o 

\J Jo 


bee: 


corsets, stays 


c^oSogjoSas^ 


koA-jaAt-inJjee 


drawers 


G80GolS8o3 


chway;-gaAn-bowm:- 


dress, gown 


oloOGp 


gaAgaAyaA [bee 


eye-glasses 


^jo5^ 


myet-hmaAn 


frock-coat 


33&^pS 


insjee-shay 


garters 


Gg5opS8gj3 


chay-zoot tseeS-joA: 


gloves 


cooSgS 


let-tsoot 


handkerchief 


cooSo^Sool 


let-king-haA- waA 


hat 


o^ggso^S 


thoAs-oAk-htoAk 


jacket 


330^ol8o$ 


in:jee-hkaA-doA 


jewellery 


OO^SOD 


taA-zaA 


linen [ror 


^05 00^3300^ 


piksaAn-aA-hteh 


looking-glass, mir- 


tf 


hmaAn 


material (dress,&c.) 


33000^ 3308S 


aA-hteh aA-layk 


calico 


8o5 


payt 


cloth 


cop^oooS 


thaAgaAlaAt 


flannel 


oongcooS 


thaAgaAlaAt 



55 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


fur 


OODSG^S 


thaAs-mwayS 


lace 


434 


zaA-noo 


leather 


OODSGGJ 


thaA-yay 


muslin 


GODOjflp 


lay-loo-zaA 


satin 


d 


hpeh 


silk 


? 8 


poA; 


velvet 


oog^ol 


kaAdeebaA 


wool 


oJ3Gg3 


thoAs-mwayS 


needle 


338 


aAt 


overcoa 


8330^ 


pyin-insjee 


parasol 


088 


htee; 


petticoat 


co8Sn cq^gS 


htaAmayn, loAn-jee 


T^in Q 


co 08338 


tweh-aAt 


UJLLIB 


o 




pocket 


38 o5 


ayk 


pocket-book 


9 050D3^05 


hmaAt-tsaA-oAk 


purse 


cxoic^aSoS 


thaA-yay-ayk 


pyjamas, jacket 


00388338^ 


nyaA-ayk-inSJee 


trousers 


posSScolSloS 


nyaA-ayk-bowmbee 


razor 


00809^8 


thin-doAnS 


ribbon 


^g838 


poAs-kyoAs-byaAs 


ring 


cooSgS 


let-tsoot 


scissors 


00080(038 


kaAt-kyee: 


shawl 


ooooS 


taA-bet 


shirt 


00^0)3 


kaAmbeezaA 


shoes 


G^88 


chee-nins 


skirt 


o^^oS 


loAn-jee 


sleeve 


33 CO CO OO 


insjee-let 


slippers 


G^c8 808^.8 


shay-doAs-paA-naAt 


soap 


OoSfoD 


satpyaA 



56 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


socks 


G6 


chee-zoot 


spectacles 


$089$ 


myet-hmaAn 


sponge 


G l 


yay-hmoA 


stockings 


Ggo$ips 


chee-zoot-shay 


stud 


33o8oll (cgoSoSs 


ii^-thees, kyeh-Mee; 


suit (clothes) 


coooS^ 


aA-woot-tsoAn 


tape 


ODj8(S8(oD8 


j aAt-kyoAs-byaAs 


thimble 


33^5COOS5 


aA-choAk-let-tsoot 


thread 


8 


chee 


tie, neck-tie 


s& 


leh-jyoAs 


tooth-powder 


OO3oOO OO Q^y 


thwaAo-tik-hmoAn 


towel 


ooo5o^5ool 


let-thoAk-paA-waA 


trousers 


Gol68c8 


bowmbee 


tunic 


o^oS 03633 o| 


koA-kyaAt-insjee 


turban 


G018G0158 


gowngS-bowngJ 


umbrella 


oSscooS 


htees-let 


undervest 


Gg803SO^ 


chways-gaAn-insjee 


veil 


Qj]o5jO<^8 


myet-hnaA-hpoAn: 


waist cloth (native) 


^Q^S 


paA-soAs 


waistcoat 


CO o5 0^330^ 


let-to A-insjee 


walking-stick 


qoS 


doAk 


watch 


^D^o5 


naA-yee-gwet 


waterproof (coat) 


GHogoSaaag 


yay-maA-ts66t-in:jee 


The House and Furniture. GSScgSsaoqSsaGsxoSn 


(For Shopping, see p. 145.) 


apartment 


caSSoSs 


ayn-gaAn; 


armchair 


O^CODSO^SjIpS 


kaAlaA-hting-shay 


bathroom 


G|80 


yay-choAs-gaAn: 



57 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


beam 


GCpoSlI OC}Sll @38 


yowk, htoAk, kyaAs- 


bedclothes 


sSScpoSs [GOO 


ayk-yaA-gins [maw 


bedroom 


sSSqpoSs 


ayk-yaA-gaAn? 


bedstead, bed 


SfooS 


tikaA-din 


blanket 


oooococScolS 


LhaAgaAlaAt-tsowng 


blind 


33 OgoSsa ODD 


aA-kweh-aA-kaA 


bolster 


"^ O rt o O 

G 1 Cooc^oQ pO 


gowngs- 6Ans-shay 


bolt 


oSsoqS 


minS-doAk 


book 


033^8 


tsaA-oAk 


box 


OoSoOO 


thit-taA 


brick 


3^oS 


6Ak 


broom 


OD$go5opS8 


taA-byet-tsees 


candle 


OGODDSgC^S 


hpaA-yowngs-ding 


candlestick 


OGOODSSC^Ss} 


hpaA-yowngs-ding- 


carpet 


GOoScol 


kaw-zaw [goAn 


ceiling 


^o5j^D@o5 


myet-hnaA-jet 


chair, seat 


OC^ GODSONS 


kahlaA-hting 


chest of drawers 


330^800803311 ooo 


aAn-doAs-thittaA, maAt- 




OOoSooSoOD 


taAt-thittaA 


clock 


ooSoooS^^ 


maAt-taAt naA-yee 


couch 


GCOJ3S8Sp^CX)S 


lyowngs-yaA-hkaA-din 


counterpane 


OoSSoSS 


tins-dayn 


cradle 


c^ooS 


paA-hket 


curtain 


00,0038000 


kaAlaA-gaA 


cushion 


3^811 <J 


hmee-6Ans, hpoAn 


dining-room 


OOoS8038o5 


htaA-minS-zaAs-gaAnt 


door 


oools 


taA-gaAs 


door-way 


ooolscoloS 


taA-gaA-bowk 


(leaf) 


oool3g|o5 


taA-gaA-yooet 



58 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


door-sill 


cool9 


taA-gaA-hkoAn 


eaves 


33J8g$3 


aA-m6A;-zoon: 


floor 


(rg6 


kyaAn; 


storey 


38600811 33008 




ayn-zin, aA-sin 


garden 


goolgS 


66-yin 


grate 


8^ 


meeJ-boA 


hall (entrance) 


08063 


win-gaAns 


hand-basin 


o>oq 33809 


zaA-loAn, in-doAn 


hinge 


OQQD 


paAttaA 


house 


33011 


ayn 


, brick or stone 


o^oS 


tik 


key 


GOOD 


thaw 


kitchen 


oo8;9]o5^ 


htaA-minj-jet-yoAn 


lamp 


83386 


mees-ayn 


latch 


o5oho3|8 


taA-gaA-jin 


lock 


GOOOsSS 


thaw-ayn 


mat 


OID 


hpyaA 


mattress 


GO Gp 


mway-yaA 


mirror 


9 


hmaAn 


mosquito-curtains 


8000^8 


chin-downg 


padlock 





thaw-g-aA-lowk 


piano 


0$83CX;DS 


tsaAnJ-daA-yaA: 


picture 


^Sc^$ 


yoAk-poAn 


pillar 


G ^Ql ^ OO OOO 


kyowk-ting 


pillow 


G018338 


gowngs-6/m; 


post 


0060^8 


thit-ting 


punkah 


O t\r^ or^^r^ 

"l W^OX/^^O 


yaAt-towng 


quilt 


GO! 8 


tsowng 


rafters (bamboo) 


338 


aA-chin 



59 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


rafters (wood) 


qtoS 


yaA-neh 


roof 


33^3 


aA-m6As 


room 


330S8 


aA-hkaAn; 


screen 


O^CODSOOD 


kaAlaA-gaA 


sideboard 


OoSoDoSooSoOD 


maAt-taAt-thittaA 


smoke 


8S8 


mees-goAs 


sofa 


CODOg$ 


thaA-loon 


soot 


^0880 


kyaAt-hkoAs 


spark 


SoGoloS 


mees-bowk 


stairs, steps 


GOJOCO8 


hlay-gaAs 


table 


ODSg 


tsaA-bweh 


thatch 


oooSoooSii 3oo5 


thekkeh, daAnee-bet 


tile (of roof) 


396(^08 


oAk-kyoot 


vase 


oioooDS 


hpaAn hpaA-laA: 


verandah 


OGCODoSa^ 


hkaA-lowk-sweh 


wall 


cocS8n ^ 


taA-ding;, naAn-yaAn 


water-closet (w.c.) 


GG|33 


yay-ayn 


window 


goo88Golo5 


paA-din;-btwk 


writing-desk 


ODGG^ 


tsaA-yay: goAn 


Professions and Trades. cooS^ojxpssoooS^DSn 


(For Shopping, &c., see p. 145.) 


actor 


Q>Do5oDeD8 


zaAt-thaAmaA: 


ambassador- 


ODOOO^ 


thaAn-taA-maAn 


architect 


SoOOOODSOGp 


payttaAgaA-saAyaA 


attorney 


G.ftGS 


shay-nay 


baker 


wEoogS 


moAn-^Aeh 


banker 


co^oS^S 


baAn-tik-tsoAs 


barber 


OOOQDOD^ 


sattaA-/Aeh 



60 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


blacksmith 


ofsd 


paA-beh 


boatman, head 


GCgOflgS 


hlay-thoo-jees 


, under 


GO^OODS 


hlay-/AaAs 


bricklayer, &c. 


o$8 ^00002 


paAn:-yaAn-thaAmaAs 


broker 


OD8 


pweh-zaAs 


butcher 


00080^200038 


thaAs-htoAs-thaAmaAs 


carpenter, joiner 


OOo5oO008 


let-thaAmaAs 


carter 


ojpSsoooog 


hlehs-thaAmaAs 


clerk 


OOGS18 


tsaA-yay: 


cook 


3^803 g 


6As-thoo-jees 


cowherd 


08GOQJDS 


nwaAs-jowngs 


dogkeeper 


G8o8$8 


hkways-dayn; 


doorkeeper 


o 


taA-gaA-zowng 


engineer 


OoSoOGp 


tset-saAyaA 


fisherman 


00 cl 


taA-gnaA 


gardener 


googoooS 


oo-yin-^Aeh 


grasscutter 


go5^o5oooD8 


myet-yayk-thaAmaA: 


goldsmith 


G^|0$c88 


shway-paA-dayn 


groom 


[SSo88 


myin:-dayn: 


hunter 


oa8s 


moAk-soAs 


husbandman 


oooSooSoooDo 


leh-loAk-thaAmaA* 


interpreter 


OOODo(o 


tsaA-gaA-byaAn 


jailor 


COODSjjS 


htowng-hmoo; 


musician 


05*800500008 


tee;-hmoAk-thaAmaAs 


nurse 


33OOGC08o3$8 


aA-kaA-lays-dayn: 


pleader 


G^G$ 


shay -nay 


policeman 


330,008811 Cfoo8ooo8 


aA-hmoo-daAn;, poolit- 


potter 


3^8o3$2 


6A;-dayn: [thaAs 


printer 


^600008 


poAn-hnayk-thaAmaAs 



61 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


servant 


33GO33OIII 3DOOl8 


aA-tsay-aA-paA, aA- 






hkaA-zaAs 


shoemaker 
shopkeeper 
smith 
tailor 


c8$oSoi| SoDGDo 


hpaA-naAt-choAk-thaA- 
sing-/Aeh [maAj 
paA-beh 
aA-choAk-thaAmaA: 


teacher 
washerman 
wet-nurse 


SOGp II GOOjOSsSD^p 

ooloogS 
Jo8$8 


saAyaA, kyowng:-saA- 
hkaA-waA-^Aeh ly^^ 
ngA-daynJ 



Musical Instruments. 

big drums 008011 ogS 

clarionet 
flute 

gong (big) 
guitar (a sort of) 
harmonicon 
harp [drums 
set of graduated 
do. gongs 
trumpet 
violin OOGOOD 



paAt-maA, tsee 

hneA 

paA-lway 

mowng: 

mee-jowngs 



tsowng: 
tsee-win : 
kyays-zee-wins 
taA-boAs, hnyin: 
taA-yaw 



Travelling. 

(For Conversations, see p. 159.) 
aback 

"t, 

abaft s8o,D peh-zee-hmaA 

alongside, to come a8o5oopS sik-thee 



anchor 



kyowk-soo: 



62 

English Burmese. Pronunciation. 


anchor (to cast) 
arrive (to) 


G oqp o5 ao 8 sy oo (:& 

GGpoSoOgS 


kyowk-sooS chaA-Mee 
yowk-thee 


awning 


G$90DD)OS 


nay-boo-ga^-yooet 


ballast 


OOGC&>080D8 


thimsbaw-woons-zaA; 


berth 


sSScp 


ayk-yaA 


bill 


OD8G|S8 


tsaA;-yins 


boat 


00CO$ 


thaAm-baAn 


bow 


8 


oo; 


buoy 


GoTGp 


bawyaA 


cabin 


ey~\*~\f\Q 1 /-y-\ ?*\ T\ 1 ^"r* ^ 

o*/ vWo 1 UL/ \s ^L/ v.J-wO 


aA-hkaAns [saAn-joA 


cable 


C fT^I ^ Cj) f} I I (j^ n 1 1 


kyowk-soos-jo/i?,htayt 


captain 


ODG^DO^gS 


thimsbaw-thoo-jeej 


cargo 


oc^$ooooS 


koAn-zaA-leh 


carriage (vehicle) 


C)OOD 


yaA-htaAs 


change, to (train) 


GgoSSODg 


pyowngs-//iee 


compass 


3^ O G Ol ^ O 33 O 


ayn-hmyo\vng-ayn 


crew 


^V\ /^ ^>**i "N ^\"^ "^ C_ ^1 "^ ^ 
\*AJ \O \J+J *S \J^J JO Wl ^ D 


thimbaw-#AaAs-myaAj 


deck 


OO y o O OO 


ko/mS-baAt 


depart, to 


OgoSogDSOD^ 


htwet-thwaAs-Mee 


dock 


OOGOODOq)2 


thimsbaw-jins 


embark, to 


OOG05DOD0500^ 


thim8baw-tet-Mee 


engineer 


ooSoocp 


tset-saA-yaA 


fathom 


33 CO 


aA-laAn 


flag 


33CO 


aA-laAn 


forward 


8 9 D 


oo;-hmaA 


gangway 


GOJOODSGoloS 


hlay-gaAs-bowk 


hand-lead 


GG[oS8b 


yay-zaAns-geh 


harbour, port 


OOG05D385 


thimsbaw-zayt 


helm, rudder 


cooSo 


tet-maA 



63 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


hold 


o~\ r* <~v\ ^ r^ i\ 

sJO \0 N-/^ J W f O 


thimsbaw-woons 


keel 


GGp 


ay-yaA 


label [bark) 


C850D 


layk-tsaA 


land, to (disem- 


OOGo5jS80D^ 


thimsbaw-sins-/Me 


landing-stage, pier 


OO^ODDS 


tU-dah'o 


load, to 


O^OoSoDg 


woon-tin-Mee 


unload 


aj^OO^ 


koAn chaA-^Me 


lascar 


OCODOS 


hkaA-la/i-^ee 


mast 


gjoSo^S 


yooet-ting 


oar 


ooSoooS 


hkaAt-tet 


paddle 


GC^SODOS 


hlaw-det 


paddle, to 


GOjSoDg 


hlaw-^Aee 


passenger 


83olGODD^ 


tsees-paA-Maw-thoo 


pilot 


Qlc8 


maAlayn 


prow 


ODGO$D8g]$8 


thimbaw-oos-joons 


punt-pole 


C^80] 


toAs-waA' 


quay 


a8o5 


sayt 


rope 


ggs 


kyoAs-jees 


rudder 


oooSo 


tet-maA 


sail 


[o5 


yoo-et 


sailing-ship 


g|o5c^o5oDGCOD 


yooet-tik-thimsbaw 


seaman, sailor 


ODGo5jCOD8 


thimsbaw-^AaAs 


ship 


COGOD 


thimsbaw 


start, to 


c^o5oo^ 


htwet-thee 


steam-boat, -ship 


8SOOGO5D 


mees-thimsbaw 


steersman 


ooo5oc^8 


tet-maA-ging 


stern 





peh 


thwart 


OD| 


kaAn 


tiller 


cooSoo^S 


tet-maA-jin 



64 



Countries and Nations. 

NOTE. The Burmese have some few stereotyped names 
for people they have known long. For new ones the name 
or sound is caught and adapted. For country add (y^ pyee, 
and for people ocjc^js loo-myoAs. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Africa 


ooycScoj^S 


KaAppaA lee-joons 


America 


QOGQ^OO 


AA-may-yee-kaA 


Arracanese 


G)^8 


YaA-hking 


Bengalee 


ooSolo? 


Bin-gaA-lee 


Burman l 


QgD or OOQD 


MyaAn-maA, or BaA- 


China 


COQofapS 


TaA-yoAk-pyee [maA 


Chinese, the 


OO^SCO^S 


TaA-yo^k-loo-myo^s 


English, the 


338 00806 co cSJ3 


IngaA-layk-loo-myoA: 


Europe 


gGGpO 


6o-yaw-paA 


France 


OC|$oS 


HpaA-yaAn-zit 


Germany 


900$ 


ZaA-maA-nee 


Holland 


GOODCO 


Haw-laAn 


India 


g?oo 


Ayndee-yaA 


Japan 


0)0$ 


Zah-pahn 


Jew 


000^8 


YaA-hoo-dee 


Malay 


ooj|[3 


FaA-shoo; 


Mussulman 


00 


PaA-thee 


Persian 


o")c[o8 


PaA-yaA-thee 



1 The word MyaAnmaft is seldom used though it is the classic name. 
The original tribe was Mra/m or Mya/tn, which was converted by the 
monks into the Pali form Mra&nmfi/t, which by natural law became 
"B&hm&h. The Arracanese branch of the family retain the form 
Mra/tnmaA. 



65 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Portuguese 


CSQCOJ 


BaA-yin-jee 


Shan 


Qo 


ShaAns 


Siamese 


oS'OSTCo 


YoAs-daA-yaA; 


Talaing 


ODC6,, ^ 


TaA-lings, Moon 


Legal Terms. oocps^SoSa^Scpn 


accused, the 
acquittal 


COGpoO 

33 (q 8 og o5 (g 8 1 n 


taA-ya/t-hkaAn 
aA-pyit-hloot-chin;, 


action 


ODSpoO 


ta/i-yaAs-hmoo 


agent 


o^oSoDSoooS 


koh-zaA-hleh [joAk 


agreement, an 


COGOODOJOD^5 


thaAbaw-doo-tsaA- 


answer 


33GII C^cg^joS 


u/i-hpyay, htoo-jay-jet 


appeal, to 


330^000^ 


aA-yoo hkaAn-Mee 


arrest, to 


oS?d3oogS 


hpaAns-zees-Mee 


attachment 


oSSa^gGj^cooS 


thay ns - y oAn : - yaAn - 




OoSoD 


let-hmaAt-tsaA 


attest, to 


oooScooooo^ 


thet-thay hkaAn-/Aee 


authorize, to 


33GOgOO^ 


aA-hkwin pays-/Aee 


award, to 


8Gj0$aDgS 


tsee-yin-hpyaAt-thee 


bail 


33DOOGO6S 


aAmaA-gaAn pays-jins 


bailiff 


^D8llC^CoS 


naAzee, beelit 


bond (for loan) 


CgCqSOD^S 


gnway - chyay: - tsaA - 


case (suit) 


33$ 


aA-hmoo [jo/ik 


charge, to 


oo^oopo 


tsoot-tsweh-Mee 


complainant, the 


ooooo 


tsoot-tsweh-^Aoo 


contract, deed 


OD^|5 


tsaA-joAk 


conviction, a 


3afc8co8g8s 


aA-pyit pays-jin: 


costs 


OOGpoOQOO 


taA-yaAs-zaA-yayt 


BURMESB S.-T. 



66 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


court (civil) 


OOGp8o|l8 


ta/t-yaA-maA-yoAn: 


court (criminal) 


GpO)OoS8 


yaA-zaA-woot-yoAn: 


damages 


/"* (~\~\\ \ i'"* /* 
\^ ^-'M -* W V 


yaw-gnway 


decision (of case) 


8s)Sojo5 


tsee-yin-jet 


decree 


o O v) O v) Ol OO 


deegaAree-tsee-yin-jet 


defend, to 


Og o5 ODD G ol 8 


kweh-gaA-tsowng- 




GfpoSoOoS 


showk-the'e 


defendant (in a suit) 


OOGpSO 


taA-yaA-hkaAn 


deposit : on 


33oS5ojo5 


a A-tsit-h k a An -j et 


document 


ODCO$8ll oSoSoOOD 


tSti^~QR/in o lfivk-ti lc6B~ 


evidence 


CO OO G OO CO OO Oj OO 


thet-thay-htwet-chet 


execute, to (a deed) 


co oSyoS 0^800 pS 


let-hmaAt-h 6A:-/Aee 


(a judgment) 


o8Si^6oo8oogS 


thayns-liiig-payWAee 


fee (of office) 


ogo3' 


koons-boA; 


fine (penalty) 


GCOj53]ci5 


yaw-d " An 


fraud 


oSScopS^ 


layn-lee-hmoo 


grant 


33^800803^8 


aA-ping-bay;-tsaA-joAk 


guardian 


O3$8o8$80^ 


htayns-thayni-^Aoo 


heir 


33G5 


aA-mway-gaAn 


illegally 
information, to give 


COSpOo(Q8 


ting-pyaw-.'Aee [hpyin 


informer 


O^SOO$8G003C^ 


ting-daAn:-^Aaw-/ oo 


inheritance 


33Gggg3 


aA-mway-oAktsaA 


interest 


330^8 


aA-t6A: 


inventory 


gg30gpS80DG)S8 


oAktsaA-pyitsee;-tsaA- 


jail- 


GOODC 


htowng [y m: 


judge, the [trict) 


OOGp8C^gS 


taA-yaAs-thoo-jee: 


jurisdiction (dis- 


8c)S^ 


tsee-yin-zoo. 



67 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation 



jurisdiction(power) 

law-suit 
non-suit, to 
oath, to take an 
pardon, to 
penal, to be 
perjury 

petitioner 
police-office 

officer 
- station 

proof, to give 
prosecute, to 
prosecutor, plain- 
punishment [tiff 
robbery 
seal, a 
sentence, a 
sign, to 

(by mark) 
statement (written ) 
sue, to 

suit 

summons (ofcourt) 

testator 

theft 

thief 



00 



oo o5 GOO 



tsee-yiri-bing-//iaw 

aA-hkwin 

taAs-yaAo-hmoo [thee 
aA-yoo- maA-shee soA- 
kya^n; king-Mee 
chahn'-thah pays-Mee 
da/in-hkaAn-dik-thee 
m aA-ho Ak-maA-hm aAn- 

thet-thay-hkaAn- 
showk-thoo [jins 

poolit-yoAns 



thet-thay-pyaA-^Aee 



aA-pyit-daAn 

loo-yoo-hmoo 

taA-zayt 

tsee-yin-jet 

let-hmiUt hto 

kyet-chee ht6As-/Aee 

yays-htaAs-jet 

taA-yaAs-tsweh-soA- 

aA-hmoo [Mee 

thambaAn-zaA 



hkoAs-hmoo 
thaA-hko//s 



\thoo 



E 2 



68 


English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


trial 


oS G @D88 


tsit-kyaw-jins 


verdict 


sqSgoS^joS 


s6An:-hpyaAt-cbet 


will 


GOOOO$8OD 


thay-daAnS-zaA 


witness 


oooScoo 


thet-thay 



Commercial Terms, 
account 



, money 

, to settle an 

acknowledgment 

agent 

arrears 

assets 

bank 

bankrupt, to be 

bearer 

bond, a 

broker 

brokerage 

buyer 

cargo 

charter a ship, to 

company 

confiscate, to 
contract, a 
cost price 



Gg 



OO 



o^ccocSnoq^ocooS 



o8S8oa.oogS 

330^8 



gn way-ts a A-y in : 

gnway 

hpyay-saAt-thee 

woon-hkaAn-jet 

koA-zaA-hleh 

kyaAn-gnway 

kyooays- saAt- yaAn- 

baAn-tik [oAktsaA 

kyooays-myee-goA 

maA-saAt-hning-^Aee 
let-shee-/Aoo 
tsaA-joAk 
pweh-zaAs 
pweh-gaA 

weh-/Aoo [zaA-leh 
woon-zaA-leh, koAn- 
thim:baw tsaA-joAk- 

h nm-hgnaAs-/Aee 
koAmbaAnee, koAn- 

bet-tsoo 

thayn:-yoo-/Aee 
gaAdee-zaA-joAk 
aA-hp6A: 



69 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


creditor 


cgsftS 


kyooayS-shin 


custom-house 


33GOX>o5cjo5 


aA-kowk-tik 


customs duties 


33GOCOo5 


a/i-kowk 


damage 


330g8Cj(o5g58 


a^-kyo^s-pyet-chins 


debt 


Gg^llg 


kyooays, myee 


debtor 


gooS 


myee-zaAs 


deliver, to 


3S)8GO8OOp^ 


aAt-pay:-MSS 


exports 


o^oSoo^ 


htoAk-koAn 


firm, a 


oq$oo5j 


koAn-bet-tsoo 


imports [of 


OgSStt^ 


thwini-go^n 


introduction, letter 


330pjS3.G080D 


a A- kyoons-hpweh 


market 


Cfl8 


zays [pays-zaA 


market price 


C3$$8 


zays-hno^ns 


partner 


ooSoSoo, 


hpet-tsaAt-thoo 


pay, to 


G0800500DS 


pays-saAt-thee 


price 


330?8 


aA-hp6As 


price-list 


33C^30DG)S: 


aA-hp6A:-tsaA-yino 


receipt 


G^OO 


pyay-zaA 


rent 


glgo 


hguaAs-gaA 


retail, to 


coo5c8cp82oopS 


le t-lee-y o w n gs-Me8 


salesman, seller 


GC[OS0^ 


vowngs-Moo 

v O 


unload, to 


O^ODpS 


woon-ch ah-thee 


warehouse 


^GOODSllO^GOO.DS 


goAdowng-, koAn- 


weight 


33^ [o?o5 


a^-chayn [hlowng-dik 


wharf 


a8o5 


sayt 


wharfage 


a8o5o 


sayt-hkaA [thee 


wholesale, to sell 


colo5sflccp5*oo 


hpowk-chaA-yowngS- 




or~o5oo 3 Q6p& 


let-kaA:yowng-s-Mee 



70 



Correspondence. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



address 


9303C8S 


hmaA-zaA-layk 


blotting-paper 


g5|8og9|[ 


hmin-hnayk-tsekkoo 


date 


G $. 


nay-zweh 


dead letter office 


COGODOooS 


tsaA-May-dik 


envelope 


ODsSoo 


tsaA-ayk 


fasten, to 


OOOOOpS 


hkaAt-thee 


immediate 


33CQjS33 


a^-lyin-aA-mya^n 


ink 


OCQpO 


hmin-yee 


inkstand 


983^8 


hmin-6As 


letter, note 


Q3O3II GQQp3O3 


hmaA-zaA, myittaA-zaA 


letter-box 


3OOOOOOOD 


det-thittaA 


note-paper 


COGQoOOpll 


tsa/i-yays tsekkoo 


packet 


330^8 


aA-hto^k 


pen 


OOGCODII oSop 


ka^lowng, hmin-daAn 


penknife 


OODSOOGO08 


daA:-gaAlay: 


pencil 


boo 


hkeh-daAn 


post-office 


305^8H ODC^oS 


det-yo/ais, tsa^-dik 


quire 


330gDJ9^S 


aA-hlwa/i hn aA-seh-lay S- 


ream 


330^3900 


a/t-hlwa^lays-yaA [ja/tt 


seal, a 


00088 


ta/i-zayt 


, to 


oosSSooSoopS 


taA-zayt hkaAt-thee 


sealing-wax 


^05|IOOG053^05 


chayt, thim8baw-jayt 


sheet 


330^3 


aA-hlwaA 


signature 


ODOS^OS 


let-hmaAt 


telegraph, to 


Gg8^?8o5o3D5 


kyays-naAnS yik-thee 


urgent 


09j8g?g3 


lyin-rnyaAn-zouaA 


writing-materials 


03GQ8G|$33p 


tsaA-yays-yaAn aA-yaA 



71 



Military Terms. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



accoutrements 


oSoo$aco 


tsit-tiiA-zaA 


ammunition 


booS 


hkeh-yaAn 


anvil 


GO 


pay 


arms 


coo5$o$ 


let-net or len-net 


arsenal 


co5$o5d^o$ 


let-net-tik 


artillery 


33GD05^ 


aA-myowk-tsoo 


attack, to 


c^oSoogo 


tik-thee 


battery (fort) 


cfaocoooS 


myay-gaA-doAk 


bayonet 


G00$o5g5c 


thay-naAt-tsoot-hlaAn 


bomb 


$3 


boAns 


- shell 


cj$8ao 


boAns-zaAn 


breach of gun 


33GgDo5G)8 


aA-myowk-yins 


brigade 


cai 0080 


thoo-veh-daAt-tsoo 


bullet 


ODjpOGO 


kyee-zee 


camp 


OD80$8 


tsaA-hkaAns 


cannon 


GQcfoDOO 


aA-myo\vk 


ball 


33GD0500? 


aA-myo\vk-saAn 


captain 


OOGpSCO 


taA-yaA-boA 


cartridge 


OoSGCXDD8 


yaAns-downg 


cavalry 


[o5o8oOo5 


myins-zeeJ-taAt 


colonel 


OOGOODCOCO 


taA-htowng-boA 


division 


oj^oo8jgs 


thoo-yeh-daAt-tsoo-jee: 


drum 


s 


tsee 


drummer 


o^o8sooD3 


tsee-tee;-th aA rn a A: 


fascines 


00680^8 


htins-zees 


fight, to 


oSc^oSoogS 


tsit-tik-thee 


fosse 


CO[o 


kyoAn; 



72 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


furlough (leave) 


aagS 


aA-hkwin 


general 


^oSq|5 


boh-johk 


guard (house) 


ooSsco 


kin:-deh 


guide 


coSsg 


laAns-byaA 


haversack 


og o5 3808 


Iweh-ayk 


hospital 


^ D ?! 


loo-naA-yo^n 


helmet 


OGODoS 


hkaA-mowk 


infantry 


G3og 


chyay-theh 


lock of gun 


GOO$o5a33S 


thay-naAt mec:-ayn 


magazine 


ooSodBoS 


yaAn;-dik 


major 


dSopoco 


gn&As-yah-boA 


mallet 


COOOQ OO 


let-yik 


mine 


cgogSg 


myay-dwin: 


mutiny 


Cj>OD(5c3 


poAn-kaAn-jin: 


officer 


O C* COD 

Scon oosco 


bo^, tsit-boA 


outpost 


0088008 


kin:-daAt 


picket (peg) 


ooSgi^n 


thit-choon, tsoh 


platform 


06 


tsin 


1 >owder 


oo5?oo5 


yafai: 


rammer 


0^800 


hto/tJ-daAn 


regiment 


006 


taAt 


rifle, gun 


Soooooiicoo^oS 


yik-paAt, thay-na^t 


barrel 


QOOCOOGfoDCo 


yik-paAt-pyowng: 


cock 


GODS? 


mo \vngs 


stock 


o5oo$33S 


yik-paAt-ayn 


sentry 


30G018 


;iA-tsowng 


soldiers 


0800^11 00 CO OOD8 


tsit-thee, taAt-tha/t; 


(European) 


coTop 


gaw-ya/j 


sword 


ODSCQoS 


claA-lweh 



73 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


shovel 


O^gSsgDS 


too:-yooins-byaAs 


stockade 


008008 


thit-taAt 


town wall 


m 


myoA-y6As 


trigger 


cooSc^S 


let-hloAk 


war 


08.1 oSo^oS8 


tsit, tsit-tik-chinS 


Religion. 330^003003 n 


ascetic 


^OCjfGOoS 


hpoAs-thoo-daw 


begging-bowl 


00808 


thaAbayt 


bell (large) 


GOlSSGCODSS 


hkowng:-lowngs 


(small) 


COOSSCOOSS 


see;-lee: 


books 


033^8 


tsaA-oAk 


sacred (Bible) 


ODjSSlI 800008 


kyaAn:, peedaAkaAt 


Buddha 


oqcpSogSn c^g 


hpaA-yaAs thaA-hken, 






boAk-daA 


Buddhist religion 


CJgOODOOD 


boAkdaA-baA/AaA 


cemetery 


oofia^jS 


thin:-jin 


Christian 


0]800DS 


hkaA-yit-yaAn 


Christianity 


OS|800DOO^ 


hkaA-yit-baAMaA 


church (Buddhist) 


ooeiSo 


thing-haA 


(other bodies) 


33008G005 


aA-thinS-daw [yaAt 


(building) 


O^OgDO>Cj5 


thoodaAmmaA-zaA 


clergyman 


OOSpllOgDOOGp 


saA-yaA, daAmmaA- 


coffin 


OOCOD 


taA-laA [saA-yaA 


congregation 


O^OODOS 


paA-yayk-thaAt 


convent (for nuns) 


OOSO^GOOSGO^JOSS 


meh-thoo-daw-jowngs 


corpse 


33GCOD 


aA-lowngs 


Creator, the 


0$Oo88GOo5ftGOOD 


hpaAn-zin;-daw-moo- 




oqcpgcgS 


#Aaw-hpaA-yaA:-thaA- 






hken 



74 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


cross 


cooSolsco8o8 


let-waAs-giiAt-ting 


fast, to 


330DG5pSoOj3S 


aA-tsaA showng > -/Aee 


fast-day 


gCfoSGfc 


56boAk-nay 


festival 


G fc 


pweh-nay 


funeral 


OOOD 


maA-thaA 


of monk 


9 S @ 8 S 


hp6Ans-jee:-byaAn 


funeral rite, to per- 


OoSgoSoOgS 


thin-joA-Mee 


ghosts [form 


G & 


taA-say 


God 


a^epSogS 


hpaA-yaAs-thaA-hken 


heaven 


^05811 GOO38008 


moAs, kowngs-gin 


heU 


c^ 


gnaA-yeh 


hermit 


G)GOOO 


yaA-thay 


image 


^Saj 


yoAk-too 


monastery 


GOOpcS 


kyowng: 


precincts 


GOOjDSooSoS 


kyowngs-dik 


monk 


Qoo$oii cq^o^o 


yaA-hiaAn;, hpoAns-jee: 


monk's dress 


ODC6 


thingaAn: 


nun 
pagoda 


QoSoOGOoS 

coc8n oqcps 


meh-thoo-daw 
zay-dee, hpuA-yaA; 


pray 


2900038800^ 


soo-downg:-/Aee 


probationer 


GQDS^SlI OO3OGOD 


mowng-yin, thaAmaA- 


preach, to 
religion 


OOCpgGOD3p5 
CO300^,3GCOS 


taA-yaA; haw-/Aee [nay 
thaA-MaA-naA-daw 


rest-house 


Q>^8 


zaA-yaAt 


scholar [ings 


030DJ 


taA-beh 


supernatural 1 be- 


$o5ll G3O 


naAt, daywaA 



1 The 'ndht' is a supernatural being answering to the fairy or kelpie. 
Dewah is the Pali name connected with Lat. deus. They are supposed to 
be everywhere and have to be appeased by small sacrifices. The ndgalil 
lirea in the water and underground and corresponds to the drak or dragon. 



75 


English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


supernatural ser- 


$o]8 


naAgaAs 


umbrella [pents 


082 


htees 


water-tank 


G|OD$ 


yay-gaAn 


weathercock 


go5$38 


hgnet-maA-naAs 



Society and Government. 338qoS$SsDsp8o8 

i 1 J 1 o L Jl ot 



circle (division of 

a district) 
, head man of 
citizen 
commissioner 

assistant do. 

deputy do. 
forest officer 
judge 
king 
kingdom 
landowner 
lessee of fishery 
magistrate 

(of town) 
minister of state 
peasant 
people 

prince, princess 
province, division 
queen (own right) 

(of king) 



338: 



0^ 



GOgSGODDOODS 
oSOODll 8Q 



tik 

tik thaA-jee8 
myoA-MaAs 
woon-shin-daw min:- 
woon-dowk-daw-min8 
aA-yay:-biag-min: 
thit-taw woon-dowk 
taA-yaA-maA thaA-jees 
shin-baA-yin 
ning-gnaAn 
myay-shin 
ins thaA-jees 
yaAzaAwoot-min; 
myoA woon 
aA-twin; woon 
kyayJ-daw-^AaAs 
pyee-^Aoo pyee-/AaAs 



neh, hkaA-ying [mees 

baA-yin-maA 

mee-baA-yaAs 



76 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


revenue 


33 


a^-hkoon [jees 


secretary 


ODG^SlI ODGG}8(o^3 


tsaA-yayS, tsa/i-yays- 


secretary (chief) 


33OgS8OGOODC>5 


a/i-twin: woon-dowk 


timber-forest-con- 


ooScolSs 


thit-gowng: 


tractor [trate 






township inagis- 


3fc8 


mygh-ohk 


village constable 


gpGolSS 


yooa^-gowngS 


elder 


gpCijgg 


yooaA-loo-jees 


villager 


gpODDSl (f.) gpofl 


jooa.h-thahs, (f.) yooaA- 


i 


Moo 



Government Departments. 



Accounts 

Cadastral Survey 
Civil 

Customs 

Education 

Foreign 

Forest 
General 

Home 

Jail 

Judicial 



Gnway-dik-yays htaA- 



Leh-yaA yays htaAna/i 
yays 



AA-kowk yays 
Peenya^i yayS htafaiafa 



yays h 
Thit-taw yays 

y 

A/t-yaAt-y aAt yays 

hta^naA [na/< 

Ning-gnaAn yays htaA- 

AA-kyins yays hta/ma/t 

Ta/ya/<s yaAzaA-woot 

yays hta/aiaA 



77 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Legislative 

Military 

Police 

Postal 
Public-Works 

Revenue 

[ment 

Revenue Settle- 
Telegraph 



Govt. Prosecutor 

do. Translator' 
Supt. of Govern- 
ment Printing 



gocoggo* 



0006 



OopaAday-pyoo htaA- 
Tsit yay; htaAnaA [naA 
YaAzaA-woot yay; 

htaAnaA 

TsaA-dik yay; htaAnaA 
Ning-gnaAn-dwet-loAk- 

sowne; yav; htaAnaA 

O v v 

AA-hkoon-daw yay; 

htaAnaA 

Kyay;-ding htaAnaA 
Kyays-naAnS yay- 



-hmoo- 
lik shay-nay [byaAn 

*s 

A/i-ts6A;-yaAtsaA-daw- 
AA-ts6A;-yaA 
hnayk-tik-oAk 



ORIENTAL LANGUAGES. 

The attention of the student is drawn to the fact that MARLBOROUGH'S 
very popular SELF-TAUGHT SERIES now includes the following manuals 
of the languages of the East, viz. 



SELF-TAUGHT. 



BURMESE \ 

PERSIAN 

ARABIC (SYRIAN) > ', 



HINDUSTANI 
HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR 
TAMIL 

TAMIL GRAMMAR 
JAPANESE 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR J 
(The two books of each of the above lan- 
guages are also bound in one volume.) 

The Series also includes RUSSIAN and most other European languages. 



SELF-TAUGHT. 
EGYPTIAN (ARABIC) 
TURKISH 

Others are in preparation. 



Catalogue free from 

E. MARLBOROUGH & CO., 51, OLD BAILEY. LONDON, E.G. 



78 



The Cardinal Numbers. 



(For Grammatical Notes, see, p. 114.) 



Burmese words. Pronunciation. 


1 


O 


008 


tit (or taA in composition) 


2 


J 


$8 


hnit (or hnaA in composi- 


3 


9 


o$S 


thoAns [tion) 


4 


9 


GC08 


lay: 


5 


3 


els 


gnaAs 


6 


(9 


G30$ 


chowk 


7 


1 


o&S 


hkoo-hnit 


8 





j i 


shit 


9 


e 


0?g 


k6As 


10 


00 


oooooS 


taA seh 


11 


00 


oooooSj^SooS 


taA seh hnin 1 tit or seh-tit 


12 


J 


ooaoo5j>Sj>8 


taA seh hnin hnit 


13 


09 


ODOOOS^SO^S 


taA seh hnin thoAn; 


14 


09 


OOOOG5j>SGCO 


taA seh hnin lays 


15 


0*j 


ODOOoSj^SclS 


taA seh hnin gnaAs 


16 


oS 


OOOOoSj^8GDoS 


taA seh hnin chowk 


17 


07 


OOOOCW&CO&S 


taA seh hnin khoo-hnit 


18 


oo 


ooooo5j,8^S 


taA seh hnin shit 


19 


3 


oooooS^So^S 


taA seh hnin koAs 


20 


J 


&OOOOJ 


hnit seh or hnaA seh 


21 


J 


>OOOCX)S)COOO 


hnit seh hnin tit or hnaA 

O 


30 


90 


o^SsooS 


thSAns zeh [seh tit 


40 


9 


GOOSOOoS 


lays zeh 


50 


3 


clssooS 


gnaAs zeh 


1 The &8 hnin, and, may always be left out. 



79 


ur e Burmese words. Pronunciation. 


60 


Go 


GDo5ooo5 


chowk seh 


70 


7 


Ofi>ooo5 


hkoo-hnit seh 


80 


00 


5l8soo5 


shit seh 


90 


(30 


0^800 o5 


koA; zeh 


100 


OOO 


OOGp 


taA yaA 


101 


ooo 


OOGp^SooB 


taA yaA hnin tit 


110 


000 


OOGpOO5X)o5 


taA yaA taA seh 


200 


JOO 


3,8ep 


hnaA yaA 


1,000 


oooo 


OOGOOD53 


taA htowngs 


10,000 


ooooo 


OOGOOD88 


taA thowngs 


1,000,000 


ooooooo 


OOOO^o 


taA thaAn 


A. D. 1910, ogoo, taA htowngs koAs yaA taA seh. 


Numeral Auxiliaries. 1 


Burmese. Pronunciation. Meaning. Use. 


332 


aA-oos 


That which is first 


Forrational beings 






or chief 




33GOODS 


aA-kowng 


An animal 


For brute beasts 


33G@D68 


aA-kyowngS 


An extended line 


For extended 








things, like roads 


330^53 


aA-kwins 


A ring, circle 


For rings, nooses, 








&c. 


339 


aA-hkoo 


(Uncertain) 


For things which 








cannot be de- 








scribed 


339)5 


aA-chaAt 


A flat thing 


For flat and thin 








things, like mats 



1 See p. 114. 



80 

Burmese. Pronunciation. Meaning. Use. 


K>Cp58 


aA-chowngs 


A bar 


For things long 








and straight, as 








needles 


K>g$S 


aA-hkoons 


(Uncertain) 


For words 


3305S 


aA-isin: 


From o8s tsin:, to 


Things long and 






extend in a line 


straight, as spears 








and boats 


3382 


aA-tsees 


What is ridden on 


A s horses and carts 


33GO"]8 


aA-tsowng 


(Uncertain) 


Writings, books 


330^ 


aA-soo 


(Uncertain) 


For pagodas 


33GOOD8 


aA-sowng 


A building 


For houses, roofs 


3300$ 


aA-taAn 


An interval 


Things occurring 








at intervals of 








space or time 


33OOpS 


aA-hteh 


A piece of cloth 


For clothing 


33o8 


aA-pin 


A plant 


For plants 


33O)8 


aA-paAs 


Meaning is uncer- 


For deities, eccle- 






tain, but proba- 


siastics, and per- 






bly from olspaA;, 


sons in power 






to be separate 




33@D 


aA-pyaAs 


Flat things 


As boards 


33005 


aA-hpet 


A side 


For things usually 








in pairs, as hands 


33OOO5 


aA-let 


A hand 


Weapons, tools, or 








what is used in 








the hand 


330^8 


aA-16An: 


What is round 


Things round or 


aoogoS 


aA- th well 


What is slender 


As rivers [cubical 


GOODOS 


yowk 


An old root, mean- 


For ordinary men 






ing uncertain, but 


and women 






used in connec- 








tion with men. 





81 

Examples. 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Three men 


OjfOqSGCODoS 


Loo thoAns yowk 


Five trees 


ooSoSclSoS 


Thit-pin gnaAs bin 


Six dogs 


G8GD05GODDS 


Hkways chowk 






kowng 


Four rupees 


36~lGCOo(oDo 


DingaA lay? byaA. 


Two objects of 


oqp8j,So^ 


H pa Ay a A: hnit soo 


worship 






One cart 


cggSsooBs 


Hlehs taA zee: 


Four canoes 


GCCjiGOOSoSo 


Hlay lays zins 


A table 


ODSgoO^ 


TsaA-bweh taA hkoo 


Three monks 


^OD$8086l8 


YaAaAns thoAns bfiA: 


Two fingers 


CO o5 G SJJD So j^S 


Let-chowng; hnaA 




cqoSs 


chowngs 


A word 


OOOD8COg$3 


TsaAgaAs taA hkoon: 



Ordinal Numerals. 

(For Grammatical Notes, see p. 115.) 



first 

second 

third 

fourth 

fifth 

sixth 

seventh 

eighth 

ninth 

tenth 



ogo 
qo8cx> 
0008 OD 



oogo 



3COO 



doo-tee-yaA 
taA-tee-yaA 



pyin-tsa^-maA 

stiA-htaA-maA 

thaAt-taA-maA 



naA-waA-maA 
daA-thaA-maA 



URUESK 9.-T 



English. 



82 

Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



ay-ka/i-daA-thaA-ma/i 
dwaA-daA-thaA-maA 



eleventh Goooooo 

twelfth gloooo 

The above are all Pali words, and are not used beyond 
twelve. Being polysyllables they ought not to be divided, 
but the hyphen is used to assist pronunciation. 

Collective and Fractional Numbers. 



all 


333209311 oSoSSs 


couple, a 


$>S^n ooqn oo^ 


double 


&OOO 


dozen, a 


SOOu&OO 


fifth, a 


cls^Ssoo^Ss 


firstly 
once 


oooin oo5j$n ooo^n 


one-half 


ooooS 


exactly half 


oooSooS 


pair, a 
part, portion 
quarter, fourth 
single [part 


33^58 

00806 
oo^oogSs 


third, a 


D^SODS2 


threefold 


00200 



i, hkaAt-thayn; 
hnaA-hkoo, ta/j-yaAn, 



seA-hna/j-hkoo 
gnafa-biugs taA-bing: 
a/i-oos-zoAns 
taA-hkaA, taA-jayn, taA- 

hpaAn, taA-lee 
ta^-wet 
htet-wet 
a/i-tsoAn, 



taA-zayt 
taA-goo-dee: ' 
thoAns bingstaA-bingS 
thoAns-za/i 

1 Wliere O is not used above as the numerical affix, it will be necessary 
to use the proper affix given at pp. 79-81 instead 

Also instead of 8c ping a portion, one may use q po/m, heap, or <p tsfio, 
collection. 



83 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


three-quarters 


ODoOOO 


thoAnl-zayt 


three-sevenths 


oaSooooQ 


hkoo-hnaA - boAn- 






thoAns-boAn 


twice 


j8ol 


hnaA-hkaA [hnaA-zoo 


two -sixths 


GfQOODQQD&OO ' 


chowk -tsoo -hmaA 


whole, the 


3306^11 330^3 


aA-k6An, aA-loAns 



Adjectives (Intransitive Verb Root*). 1 SGOOOO^OII 
GOOD Maw must be added to each if used in front of 



a noun. 



(For Grammatical Notes, see p. 113.) 



able (capable) 

awake 

bad (wicked) 
(unsound) 
base 

beautiful, hand- 
beloved [some 
big 
bitter 
blind 



oo oS ii co o5 i 6 ii 



oqoS 



ol 



tiiAt, taAt-hning, taAt- 

tsoons 

noAs-nay, noA: 
soA; 

maA kowngs 
yoAk 
hlaA 
chit 
kyee; 
hkaAs 
kaAns 



1 Adjectives are often used in pairs to prevent mistake. Thus, 
$ o5 net means deep, not shallow ; it also means to be dark. 



net-neh means intellectually deep, profound. 
CO hlaA, handsome and also very. So to prevent mistake we may say 
COO hlafcbafc, handsome, o paft by itself means shiny. 

F 2 



84 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


blunt 


008 


toAn: 


bold, brave 


Gill Gj)S 


yeh, yeh-yin 


bright 


G@DS 


pyowng 


broad, wide 


ODJOS 


kyeh 


careful 


0008(^0008 


thaAdee pyoo-daAt 


careless 


0008006 


thaAdee lit 


cheap 


sao^S^ 


aA-hpoA: choA 


clean 


0811 oSfo^oSii OD| 


tsin, tsin-kyeh, thaAn- 


clear 


(cgoSooS [ftc'g 


kyee-lin [shin: 


clever 


oSgD 


laymmaA 


cold 


flS 


chaAn: 


comfortable 


OOoSoOD 


thet-thaA 


cool 


Go GOO? 


ay: 


corpulent 


Oil C^S 


waA, hpy6h? 


costly 


3DCJS(08 


aA-hpoAs kyee: 


crazy 


fi)8D ogoSii 8o5^)8 


yoo:, thoot, tsayt-yoo: 


cruel 


s)o5oo5 [coloS 


yet-tset [powk 


damp 


0^88 


hting: 


dark 


Q 00 DC II O OO II PSY 


hmowng, mik, nyoA 


deaf 


o^o>*>\O|| ^.^^ cicoi? 


naA: pi n2, naA: lay: 


dear (in price) 


ODO^Sgs 


aA-hpoA: kyee: 


deep (not shallow) 


$00 


net 


(of purpose) 


^oS"^ 


net-neh 


different 


38^3811 (GD8ll OOi 


chaAs-naA:, kweh- 


dim 


a* 


hmoAn [byahs, htoos 


dirty 


DOS 


nyit 


dry 


GQ^II GgDoS 


thway, chowk 


dull (of weather) 


33 (_ 


oAn 

o 


dumb 


33 


aA 



85 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


dusty 


<|OOH <$0j 


hpoAn-htaA, hpoAn- 


early 


GOD 


tsaw [htoo 


easy (to do) 


ogoS 


Iweh 


empty 


ogoScoS 


loot-laAt 


even 


gSgDD 


nyee-nyaA 


false 


00} OS IIOO$ 


maA-hoAk, maA-hmaAn 


far 


GO8 


ways 


few 


$8n 5|D8 


nehs, shaA; 


fine (excellent) 


GOCoSogoSu (aoS 


kowngs-myaAt, myaAt 


(in quality) 


G^jOII X>o5 


chaw, nyet 


fit (for) 


G0o5ccq]5 


taw-Iyaw 


flat 


gDSlI gl 


pyaAs, pyaAn 


foolish 


^oSn j>8 


mik, hnaAnS 


fortunate 


OOGODDS8 


kaAn-gowngs 


free 


ooSsogoS 


kin:-loot 


fresh 


00^811 008 


laAnJ, thit 


full 


e*$ 


pyee-zoAn 


gay 


^ScO^glloSSGgDoS 


shwin-laAns, woons 


general, usual 


QScco 


hpyit-lay [myowk 


gentle 


%& 


noos-nyahn 


glad 


<^&col 


sh win-la An s 


good 


GOODS 


kowngs 


grand 


6goS 


myin-myaAt 


great 


@8ll (P.) OOOD 


kyees, (P.) maAhaA 


happy 


^jSSODD 


chaAns-^AalA 


hard 


OD 


maA 


- (difficult) 


oo5b 


hket-hkeh 


(disposition) 


gSsooSs 


kyaAni-daAns 


heavy 


GCOo 


lays 



86 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


high 


gs 


m yi n 


honest 


GDSoo5u 3CODS 


hpyowng-maAt, yoA;- 


hot 


fl 


poo [MaAS 


hungry 


goSoSoS 


moot-thayt 


ill (unwell) 


$DII QOD 


naA, maA-maA 


important 


OflggoS 


gaAyoo pyoo-bweh 


just 


GD005 


hpyowng-maAt 


lame 


cgogSs 


chyay maA tsoon: 


large, vast 


gsojioS 


kyees-kyeh 


last 


G^DoSsog 


nowk-soAns 


late 


G$Do5a}J 


nowk-kyaA 


lazy 


f M r^ II f M r* O W 

wlwoll UI Oobl 


pyin:, pyin:-yee 


lean 


O O f~~S* 

0^.11(00 


payn, kyoAn 


light (not heavy) 


GO] 


paw 


light (not dark) 


coSs 


lins 


like 


9 


too 


little (small) 


coSn OOGCOS 


gnehs, kaAlayS 


long 


Sl^ 


shay 


(of time) 


@D 


kyaA 


loose 


oogSn cgpS 


maA kyaAt, chovvng 


low (in place) 


8 


nayn 


(in spirits) 


^8co5s 


hnyoAs-gneA 


many 


C^JDS 


myaAS 


mild 


^8^11 oSScg 


nooS - nyiiAn, thayn - 


muddy 


G^DoS 


nowk [mway 


natural 


ODOODOII ^>8<^ 


thaAbaAwaA, na/ig-(jA 


near 


|n $D3 


neeS, naAS 


new 


008 


thit 


nice, tasty 


fJC _ Q 

OOOll QOQODQ 


sayn, aA-yaA-/AjiA shee 



87 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


old 1 (not new) 


GOOD 


howng; 


open 


9$ 


pwin 


- (gaping) 


00 


ha h 


patient 


OOgSoO 


thees-hka^n 


pleasant 


OODII OODOOD 


thaA, thaA-yaA 


poor (not rich) 


aoSlGj 


sins-yeh 


pour (in quality) 


ei 


nyaAn 


poor (to be pitied) 


*V\ ^ *"V ^ / "Y^ f "\ i 

<^XJ Cp <J Vy-V ^J*J 


thti^na/ij-bweh 


possible 


8| 


hpyit-ning 


pretty 


C^HOOSODOS 


hlaA, tin-deh 


private (secluded) 


sSoSo^c^ 


sayt-kweh 


(personal) 


C^o5j>5oDDs}c 


koA-hnin thah sing 


probable 


6 C0 1 OQ II K3 O 
Co Ij 


hpyit-laAttaAn, hpyit- 




[COODSS 


kowngs 


proud 


SoSgSllGOoSGoS 


tsayt-myin, htaw-maw 


pure, clean 


o[cQo5ii ooSQo 


tsin-kyeh, thaAn-shin: 


quick, swift 


coicn [o 


lyin, rayaAn 


quiet 


8coo5 


gnyayn-thet 


(scarce) 


|Dol8 


shafo-bafo 


raw 


83 


tsayn: 


rich 


goSo 


kyoo-eh-waA 


right, true 


O^ll O3C)5 


hma^n, hoAk 


ripe 


op5 


limeh 

o 


rough 


foiQg 


kyaAn; 


round 


0^8 


loAns 


rude 


s ii sg 


ying, yingo-byaA 


sad 


806^11 oSo^.^8 


tsayt-poo, woon; neh: 



1 Old (in age) 3^11 



is used only for inanimate 



things, except in the tense of/orro*r, like French ancien. 



88 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


safe, secure 


oqpj[ 


loAn-choAn 


sharp 


oo o5 


htet 


(of sound) 


$ 


tsoo: 


short 


Cfy 


toA 


(of time) 


o(op 


maA kyaA 


short (in stature) 


4 


poo 


silent 


o3o5d8o5 


tayt-sayt 


slow 


Gj8n goSe^Si 


hnay:, hpyay:-hnyin: 


small 


CoSlI GCOo 


gnch, thay: 


smooth 


Gqpn Cg8 


chaw, pyay-byit 


soft 


GCflOII ftSgD 


pyaw, nooS-nyaAn 


sour 


91 


chin 


square 


OCqG|$38 


tsaAdooyaAn: hpyit 


straight 


Q 3 


hpyowng 


strange (curious) 


OJSOO$8 


htoo:-zaAn: 


strong 


wScODII 33Do(cSo 


tsoon;-maA, aA:-kyee: 


stupid, dull 


pODCtSooil oBSoQCS 


nyaAn - htoAn, hting:- 


sufficient 


GCODoS 


lowk [hming: 


sweet 


4 


choA 


smelling 


GO? 


hrnway: 


tall 


33<S]5 (38 


aA-yaAt-myi^ 


thick (stout) 


ocjoS 


toAk 


, dense 


qj8 


pyit 


thin 


o]8n ocjjS 


pfiA:, maA pyit 


thirsty 


GGJCOS 


yay-gna/it 


tough 


cflg8n ^85 


p^ins, hking-gaAn 


ugly 


^33^80^^11 009 


iiA-yoAk soA:, maA hlaA 


useful 


ODO^o5n oaajj^ 


aA-tho/^ns win, aA-ky6As 


usual 


Scco^ 


hpyit-lay sheo [shee 



89 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


valuable 


33O3aOOOOM 33O3o 


aA-hp6A: htik, aA- 




00$ 


hpo/iS taAn 


various 


Oj}8:>8ll 330CJSOCJS 


htoos-jaAj, aA-htoo:doo: 


warm 


G$8ll 3^o5 


nways, ik 


weak 


3DD2$p5ll ^j^H GO! 


aAnehS,cheh-neh, paw 


wet 


^H ^goS 


tsoAj tsoA-zoot 


willing 


BoSol 


tsayt-paA 


wise 


ODODg 


pyinyaA shiee 


wrong 


09$ 


maA hmaAn 


(erroneous) 


^DSCg 


hmaAS-lweh 


young 


OO *"\~\ f*r\ f* ( i^ 
OvOw ky^ WX>M/ 


aA-thet gneh 



Verbs. OO^OODB 

(For Grammatical Notes, see p. 115.) 

[Most of the Intransitive Verbs will be found with the 
adjectives. oogS /Aee to be added to each.] 



To accept (agree) 


o?5 


woon-hkaAn 


(receive) 


00^ 


hkaAn-yoo 


s , ache 


o^oS 


kik 


acquire 


G^llGjS 


yaA, yaA-mee 


add 


Gol5 


powngs 


admire 


^.800 o5 


hnit-thet 


admonish 


Oft 


sSAmmaA 


adore (trust in) 


o^SogoS 


koAs-gweh 


advance 


COoOOOO 


t6A:-tet 


aid 


7^ 


koo-nyee 


.. answer, reply 


O^G^jll g$GgD 


htoo-jyay, pya//n-pyaw 


applaud 


^8^5? 


chees-moons 



90 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To appoint 


O^OODS 


hkaAn-htaAs 


approve 


80603 


tsayt-too 


arise 


ooii intr. COGOII tr. 


htaA, htaA-zay 


arrange 


cflSooS 


pyin-zin 


arrive 


GGpoSli 3uo5 


yowk, sik 


ascend 


oo oS 


tet 


ask 


COS 


may; 


., - (demand) 


GOOD53 


town^-S 


assemble 


QGOoii tr. or intr. 


tsoo-ways 


.. avoid 


G$pS 


(dfewng 


awaken 


|3n |8Gao5 


hnoAs, hnoA;-zaw 


bathe 


G<3|q]sii intr. 


yay choAs 


be 


[qSii 


hpyit. shoe 


beat 


o5 cfoSii jfcS 


yik, poAk, hnet 


begin 
,) believe 


oq [ G 92 M intr. 


aA-tsaA pyoo 
yoAn 


bend 


go5n tr. ggoSn 


hnyoot, nyoot, k\vay 


bind 


^oSlI 9]^GJD5 


chee, chee-hnowng 


bite 


cooo 


kik 


blame 


33(00000 


aA-pyit tin 


blow 


QoS 


hmoAk 


(as wind) 


COOO 


tik 


boast 


olgD 


waA-kyoftaA: 


boil 


IOOOU O OO 


pyoAk, diet 


borrow 


GQjoclo [on tr. 


chee-hgnaA; [ n P?^ 


break 


oojjH intr. n (n 


kyoAs, hkweh, hpyoA. 


bring 


OOCODll UQ^H GOODS 


yoo-laA, yoo-g'eh, 


build 


GOODOS [ojjll tr. 


sowk [sowng-yoo 


burn 


SsccoDSii intr. 


mees lowng 



91 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To burn (set fire to) 


&$ 


mees shoA 


bury 


Gg@(o5 


myay-hmyoAk 


button 


33^033005 


insjee-Mee: ta/it 


buy 


oo5 


weh 


call 


coT 


hkaw 


carry 


GOODII ooS 


sowng-, htaAn: 


(on head) 


)o5 


yooet [mee 


catch 


oSa8sii 0828 


hpa/mS-zees, hpaAns- 


change 


cgaSsitn^r. c^i- 


pyowng!, leh, leh-hleh 


climb 


cooS [cbo^cSu tr. 


tet 


consent 


OOGOODOJ 


thaAbaw too 


cook 


goS 


chet 


cough 


GD88S^S 


chowngj soA: 


cover 


a^ 8n c| 


ohk, hpoAn: 


dance 


oo 


kak 


decide 


092c^ 


<6An:-hpyaAt 


deny 


6soo5 


g-nyins-peh 


., depart, go away 


Ogo5cDo 


htwet-thwaA: 


descend 


OoSSU ODoS 


sin?, thet 


desire, wish for 


0^11 C^9j5 


loh, loA-jin 


do, make 


6" "^^ 


pyoo, lo^k 


draw, pull 


cc 


sweh-gnin 


dream 


aSSooS 


ayn-met 


drink 


GOODOS 


thowk 


dress 


330050C^ 


aA-woot woot 


dwell, live 


9* 


nay 


eat 


CDS 


tsaA: 


endeavour 


g}80D3 


kyofa-zaA8 


escape 


ogo5 


loot 



92 

English Bm-mese. Pronunciation. 


To expel 


&COQCO 


tinin-htoAk 


extract 


OO 


tinoAk 


fall 


OOJII CO 


kyaA, leh 


feel (by touch) 


08 


tsaAn: 


find, feel 


G 92 


tway 


finish 


330000811 (8G<o 


aA-tsaA thaAtj pyeej- 


follow 


cc|o5 


lik [/ay 


forbid 


gSoODg 


myit-taAs 


forget 


GOGCOJO 


may-lyaw 


frighten 


GD05C3| 


chowk-hlaAn 

o 


get 


[11 G|8 


yaA, yaA-mee 


give 


GOSlI 338 


payJ, aAt 


go 


CD8 


thwaAs 


g in 


06 


win 


go out 


ogc^ 


htxvet 


govern 


3^ 5 ^8 


oAk-tsoA: 


grow 


O^8ll gDS 


toAs, pwaAs 


hang 


OgODDS 


sweh-htaAs 


hate 


O8 


m6Ans 


hear 


(^D8 


kyaAs 


help 


00 


maA-zaA 


hide 


goSoooS 


hwet-A^aA? 


(oneVself) 


C^^SG^ 


p6Ans-nay 


hire 


gls 


hg-naA; 


hold 


d^8 


king 


hope for 


G^jScoS 


hmyaw-lin 


intend 


g 


kyaAn 


join, tr. 


oooS 


set 


joke 


OJODS 


kee-zaA; 



93 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To jump 


q$i 9$<g:>| 


hkoAn, hkoAn-hlwaAs 


keep 


O^OCOS 


yoo-htaA: 


kill 


0008 


thaAt 


kindle (fire) 


8s^ 


mee; hnyeS 


know 


08 


thee 


laugh 


C^OS 


yeh 


learn 


ooS 


thin 


lend (or borrow) 


GSflS 


chee: 


let (permit) 


338C02 


aA-hkwin pay! 


let (or hire) 


9!: 


hgnaAs 


let go 


cgoS 


hloot 


lie down 


38811 o5*cq8G$ 


ayk, tohn'-\ohn% nay 


lift 


^11 Q 


chee, maA 


light 


og$8 


htoon: 


listen 


^D 


naA 


live (be ah've) 


3300 O5ft5 


aA-thet shin 


lock 


GOOOOoS 


thaw hkaAt 


look for 


@^51 D 


kyee-shaA 


loosen 


GCgjO 


shaw 


lose 


33G9pO$OII jj8 


aA-pyowk hkaAn, 


love 


9)8 


chit [shoAn: 


mark 


OoSllOoSoODo 


hmaAt, hmaAt-htaAs 


marry 


cBSsfo^oii cooS 


htayn:-myaAn8, let- 




008 


htaAt 


(of a woman] 


GOOD5j,880 COOS 


sowng-hnin:, let-htaAt 


meet 


GOjg [OO 8 


tway-kyoAn 


measure 


C^8OgD 


ting:-htwaA 


mix 


GGpG^.3 


yaw-hnaw 


move, tr. 


C ^ 


shway 



94 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To need, want 


c^ 


\oh 


obey, listen 


$DGCOD 


naAs htowng 


offend 


$DGOil GjpS^oS 


na/i-zay, hnowng-shet 


., open 


8 


hpwin 


., order, com mane 


33^GOgH 9DOOD3 


aA-mayn-pay:, hma^- 


own 


?s 


ping [hta^s 


(confess) 


cfcpS 


hpyowng 


pack up 


cc^S 


hto/ak 


., pick up 


GODDoS 


kowk 


place, put 


ODD 11 008 


htaA:, tin 


( in ) 


opSsn oopS 

o r j 


thwin, hteh 




play 


OOODo 


kaA-zaA; 


plough 


CD^ 


htoon 


., pluck, pick 


ogc^ 


soot 


pour out 


C^$8ll GCOD83B ^ 


thoons, lo\\iigi, hgneh 


,, praise 


$gSg 


chees-moon: 


prepare, repair 


oiSooS 


pyin-zin 


press 


Soon 8 


hnayk, hpee 


push 


02$8n 0^8 


toons, htoA? 


quench 


cooScg 


tha/it-hpyay 


reach 





hmee 


read 


ooS 


hpaAt 


reap 


^oS 


yayk 


receive 


coooou 6(JO 


let-hka/m, hka/m-yoo 


reckon, count 


GQOOOO 


yay-twet 


refuse 


Ssoo| 


gnyins-zafai 


regret 


jj>OG(OD 


hnaA-myaw 


remain 


C^ 


nay 


(behind) 


05]^G[S 


kya^n-yit 



95 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To remember 


^oSSl. ODOSCJ 


hmtiV/t-mee, thaAdee 


repay (give 


g$cgD 


pyaAn-pays [yaA 


rest [back) $DG$n <S|SG<s> 


naA?-nay, ya//t-nay 


retreat [back 


sc^oScgDS 


soAk-thwaAs 


,, return, come 


o 
$COD 


pyaAn-laA 


(go back) 


(o$O3DS 


pyaAn-thwa/iS 


ride 


8 


tsees 


rob 


Q^Cq 


165-yoo 


rub 


goSnc^oS 


poot, tik 


run 


cg 


py avs 


save (deliver) 


oooSooS 


keh-tin 


say, tell, speak 


cgDu s^ 


pyaw, soh 


scatter 


g8ii g^ 


kyehs, hpyaAn 


see 


g 


myin 


seek 


1 D 


sha/t 


sell 


GGpSo 


yowngS 


serve (as ser- 


33OOO8 


aA-hmoo htaAnS 


sever [vant) 


oS 


hpyaAt 


sew, stitch 


QJ[S 


cho/tk 


shake 


c^8 


hloAk 


sharpen 


%$ 


chyoon 


shave 


06^08 


saAn yayk 


shine, intr. 


33GpSc^o5 


aA-yowng htwet 


show (point 


(yii goDii ^?g 


pya/t, pya/j-thaA, 


[out) 




[hnyoon-pyaA 


sign (letter, &c.) 


cooS^o8o^s 


let-hmaAt hto/iS 


sit down 


o8 


hting 


slash 


SfoS 


hkoAk 


sleep 


j^Scq|5 


ayk-pyaw 



96 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To smell, tr. 


33^,, ^8 


aA-naAn yaA, naAnt 


, intr. 


33|ogoS 


aA-naAn-htwet 


sneeze 


G 9I 


chee 


sow (seed) 


g 


kyeh 


spoil, tr. 


tgoSoSg 


hpyet-see* 


spread 


oSgo^jSs 


hkins-kyin: 


sprinkle 


8 


hpyaAnS 


squeeze 


258 


hnyit 


stand 


G]8 


yaAt 


steal 


^811 ^00, 


hkoAs, hk6A;-yoo 


surround 


0$8G[ 


woons-yaAn 


swallow 


4 


myo/i 


swell 


GSpS 


yowng 


swim 


GQOO8 


yay kooJ 


take 


og 


yoo 


off 


gjc5 


choot 


teach 


ooS^j 


thin-chaA 


think 


00811 80800811 ^o5 


htin, tsayt-htin, hmS,At 


throw 


(oo 


pit 


away 


oSfoo 


tsoon-pit 


touch 


ooii oo 


htee, toA 

" 


translate 


(oc8 


pyaAn zoA 


travel 


OQ80ODS 


hkaA-yees-thwaA: 


tread 


^Sg 


nin: 


understand 


^>DoODpS 


naA: leh 


unpack 


33OOOK3p5 


aA-htoAk hpyay 


use 


0^8G00^8 


thoAnS-zowng 


wail, cry 


^GOgjSlI ^ 


g-noA-jways, gnoA 


wash 


COOS 


say: 



97 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


To wash clothes 


GOjS 


shaw 


the face 


^joSjOOoS 


myet-hnaA thit 


weigh, tr. 


$$ 


chayn 


will, be willing 


BoSollI ODGOODCQ 


tsayt-paA, thaAbaw-too 


wipe 


oqoS 


thoAk 


work 


OoS 


loAk 


wrap up 


ooS^jSii 008 


htoAk-yit, htoAk 


write 


.GC|80DD8 


yay:-thaAs 


yield, give way 


JD8GCg]0 


a.hl shaw 



Auxiliary or Modifying Verbs. 

These verbs are chiefly used to modify the mode of the 
principal verb, and follow between it and the affix of tense. 



able, possible, to be 
accustomed, 

skilled, to be 
at leisure, to be 
attain, to 
averse, loth, to be 
cause, to 

come to an end, 
continue [be spent 
cruel, unfeeling, to 
dare, to [be 

deserving of, to be 



or 



S 
ft c 

oooS 



GODS 



GO 



hning or ning 



hmee 

pyinJ 

tsay 

koAn 

nay 

yet 

woon 

htik 



1 Qo5 yet, with a negative has the force of being * incapable o/', or 
'without the heart' to do a thing, as ^o5G|o5^o maA yik-yet-hpool, 
(I) have not the heart to beat (him). 

BURMESE S.-T. G 



98 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


desire, to 


SflSlI cQ 


chin, loA 


difficult, to be 


58 


hkehJ 


direct, to be 


^e 


teh 




do 'again, to 





pyaAn 


easy, to be 


OgoSll OOD 


Iweh, thaA 


exceed, to 


09$* 


loons 


happen, to 


8 


mee 


obtain (must) 


S 


yaA 


practicable, to be 


@s 


hpyit 


pretty, to be (very) 


99 


hlaA 


proper,good, to be 


GOCo5n OO5 


ko \vngs, thin 


revolve (remain) 


,6 


yit 


right, to be (ou^ht) 


338 


aAt 


shun, to 


di db 


hpeh, beh 


sufficient, to be 


GCODoS 


lowk 


suitable, to be 


go5n cpu oo 


hpweh, yah, ta/in 


try, to [to 


08 


tsaAn: 


turn back (repeat), 


4 


toAn 



99 



E camples. 



Burmese. 


Pro- 
nuncia- 
tion. 


Prino 
pal 
Verb. 


Auxiliary 
and Affix. 


Pronunciation. 


Force. 


O^S 


koAn 


COO 


OO^ 


thay koAn byee 


^M ite dead 


GOODS? 


kowngj 
jin 


GgD 

ooS 


GOODSSOO^ 


lm~ m * 


proper to say 
desire to buy 


0g 


UWn: 


008 


05801 


hpiiAt tsa/tnj-bah 


endeavour to 
read 


oo o5 


taAt 


06 


00080D^ 


win daAt-thSS 


accustomed 
to enter 


00$ 


taAn 
htik 


s 

GOO 


o^oSoo^ 


py65 daAn-<A88 
ihay dik-thgg 


_/? to do 

iv or thy of 
death 


1 


nay 
hnlng 
pyaAn 


oqoS 
OgD8 
COD 


(o^oopS 


lo&k nay-^ASS 
thwaAS hning-/A28 


continued do 
aWs to go 

again comes, 
return 


1 


yaA 


6 


QOpS 


P y6ya A -m 6S 


do 


cp 


yaA 


0| 


cpoog 


hka/jii-yaA yaA-/A8fe 


should obtain 


9 


toA 


ocS 


C^OD^ 


weh loA </*66 


w f*A to buy 


ogoS 

GCODOS 


Iweh 
lowk 


s 

OD8 


ogc5oo^ 


myin lweh-^AS8 


easy to see 

sufficient to 
eat 


<9 


hla/i 


^D3 


<^e 


inya^J hlaA-<A6S 


rery many, to 
be 




ooS 


w68n 
thin 


OgDS 

9i 


00600^ 


thwa/t? w55n-/t6e' 
yoo fAin-fAfS 


dare to go 

^< (ought) to 
take 



100 



Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



about (nearly) 


0n GCODOS 


hka/m, lowk 


(concerning) 


s^Scf 


sing yooay 


above (more than) 


GOOjSlI CO 05113300^ 


kyaw, det, aA-loon 


abundantly 


goSogD 


kyooeh-waAzooaA 


according to 


5,6 33 >3 II J,S 330^11 


hnin aA-nyee, hnin aA- 




330^5 


too, aA-ting 


across 


CX>coll G^DOS 


kaAn-laAn. showk 

o o 7 


afresh 


33008 


aA-thit 


after 


G$DC>5^D 


nowk-hmaA 


afterwards 


G$DO$G,pS 


nowk-nowng 


again 


000$ 


taA-hpaAn 


against (in opposi- 


00403)800 o 


saAn-jin-bet 


ago [tion) 


330OO5OO 


aA-htet-kaA 


all (of) 


33330^8 


aA:-l6An: 


at once, sud- 


^5o>, 


yoAkhkaAneh 


almost [denly 


oq 


165 


alone, solely 


oSoSoSoii ooooopSo 


koA dees,taA-hkoo dee: 


aloud 


33o6oojc5o3 


aA-thaAn kyeh-loA 


already 


33G|S0001 


aA-yin taA-hkaA 


also, too 


cooS 


lee: [dwin 


although 


cgcoDSii cgcpogS 


thoh-thaw, ^AoA-yaA 

O ' * 


altogether, quite 


330^$ 


aA-koAn 


always 


33oggo5ll 33@ 


aA-tsin maA pyaAt, aA- 


and (nouns) 


j^S 


hnin [myeh 


(verbs) 


4 (D 


yooay 


anywhere [about 


OOOJ33QOO30 


beh aA-yaAt maA so A 


around, round 


OOP oopS 


paAt-leh 



101 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


as 


6b 08 


o-eh-MoA 




o SI 


3 O O 


as much, as many 


gfa 


ee-hmyaA 


as soon as, imme- 


goSgSs 


chet-chins 


at [d lately 


9311 JoSi () 


imaA, hnik 


at first 


33^203893 


aA-oos-zoAnS-hmaA 


at last 


G$30533893 


nowk-soAns-hmaA 


at the most 


339)3803893 


aA-myaAs-z6AnS-hmaA 


at once 


oeoloooSs 


taA-hkaA-dees (or ta,h- 






gaA-dehs) 


at present 


OOSJ93 


yaA-hkoo-hmaA 


because 


C@38aGOOOG@3S 


jowng, Mawjowng 


before (time) 


33^800 


aA-yin-gaA 


(place) 


33 G |93 II 00 


aA-shay-hma/j, htaAn 


behind [neath 


0^30693 


nowk-hmaA 


below, under, be- 


G3330S93 


owk-hmaA 


besides 


cSfqS 


laA-gowngS-pyin 


better 


ooof 


thaA-yooay 


between 


08(033893 


tsaAt-kyaAs-hmaA 


, among(st) 


330080^3 


aA-twins-hmaA 


beyond 


3303^93 


aA-16on-hmaA 


but 


cgepogS 


MoA-yaA-dwin 


by means of 


O o ' O o 


ahs-hpyin, hpyin 


by the side of 


33^30311 0000693 


aA-naA-hmaA, ttiA-bet- 


by turns 


oocgpooDj 


taA hleh-iaA [hrnaA 

O v L 


certainly 


006339$ 


aykaAn aA-hmaAn 


close to 


oo8 


kaAt-yooay [jowng 


consequently 


o533Gg3S8Gg3^ 


htoA aA-kyowngs- 


daily 


GfcOgSlI C^CQSS 


nay-zin, nay-ding 


doubtless 


ooo|| 


dwee-haA maA shee 



102 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


down (direction) 


G33DoScg 


owk-thoA 




(position) 


G33Do5o.D 


owk-hmaA 


during 


ogogS 


tsin-dwin 


early, betimes 


GODGOD 


tsaw-zaw 


either ... or ' 


CogSGOODSS Cogs 


laA-gowngs laA- 




GooD8s qS cS 


gowng: 


elsewhere 


3808 


aA-chaAs-/A6A 




*l 


o 


enough (of) 


GOODOSCSSOS 


lowk-owng 


even if 


oaj)S 


bin-hlyin 


everywhere 


33G|5o^S8 


aA-yaAt-ding: 


exactly 


COOqpgD 


thay-jaA-zooaA 


exceedingly 


003Cg$gD 


thaA-loon-zooaA 


except, prep. 


CODSf 


htaAs-yooay 


far, distant 


GOSgD 


ways-zooaA 


for, conj. 


aacgDSs^D 


aA-kyowng:-h maA 


, prep. 


33H C 


aA-hpoA, boA 


formerly 


33ClSc 


aA-yin-gaA 


forward 


< *[^$ 


shay ^AoA 


from 


oon ^ [3306 


r 
gaA, hmaA J_t8in 


fully 


O^oSgoSl! 33CXJ$ 


tik-yik, aA-koAn aA- 


hardly 


000 


maA-hmee-daA- hmee 


heedlessly, in ad- 


33508000 


aA-hmaAt taA-meh 


here [vertently 


000^93 


dee-hmaA 


herewith 


oogSj^Sooog 


^Aee-hnin taA-gwaA 


hitherto 


OO^O^SG33D8 


yaA-hkoo ting-owng 


how, like 


oopSooaJ 


thte geh-thoh 



1 NOTE. COpSoGOODSo COpSoGOOoSo commonly written c8 

cS is used for ; eithtr or ' and ' loth and '. cSo by itself is used for 

or ^ 

'the aforesaid ' or ' ditto '. OD hnik is usually written g and G^ yo6ay Qj . 



103 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


how much? 


oooScccooS 


beh-lowk 


however 


oScooScopSs 


/A6A-^Aaw-leeS 




o~l I J 





if 


cgjS 


hlyin 


in 


2 S 


dwin, hnik 


in front, before 


33G^OO 


aA- shay-gaA 


in future 


G-pSoCOCO 


nowng-kaAlaA 


in order to 


gin c)G33}6 


AgnaA, yaA-owng 


in the n.idst of 


33COG5 


aA-leh-hnik 


indeed 


33ooo5if 


aA-keh-yooay 


ir.side 


33036205611 cr>^D 


aA-twinS-dwin, deh- 


instead of 


33033 


aA-tsaAs [hmaA 


into 


dbcg 


deh-MoA 


just as 


ooobq^ 


thaA-geh-^oA 


just now 


0006 


yaA-hkin 


lately 


ODG$ e OO 


taA-nay-gaA 


less 


003CC)5 


thaA-yooay gneh 


likewise 


?*^ 3a J 


htoA-neeS-doo 


little by little 


Q i <>C -, 
OoOpO? 

1 L J 


zoAs-zin? 


long ago 


Og$GCogGOD3333l 


16on-lay-byees-/Aaw 


merely 


oooSoooS 


thet-thet [aA-hkaA 


more 


003 


thaA-yooay 


moreover 


c^66 


leeS-gowngS-pyin 


much 


4]D3 


myaA;-zo6aA 


mutually 


33^6^63 


aA-chinS-jinS 


near 


33?C 


aA-neeS-//.oA 


never 


ODOI^O 


taA-hkaA-hmyaA-maA 


nevertheless, not- 


oo^oSGOoSco^S 


maA-hoAk thaw-lees 


withstanding 






next to 


33^302 


aA-nee-z6Ans 



104 
Englieh. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


not 





maA 


not at all 


33<3}SSOOD05 


a/i-hlyin? maA-hoAk 


not yet 


OOJoScODg 


maA hoAk thay; 


now 


ODD 


yaA-hkoo 


nowadays 


00^330! 


yaA-hkoo aA-hkaA 


nowhere 


oooS^Doo^oS 


beh-htnaA maA-hoAk 


of 


4 


ee (abbreviated form of 






CgS which is never 


off 


33GOTOD 


aA-paw-gaA [used) 


often 


cogSgS 


aA-kyayn;-jayn! 


on, upon 


raGoT^D 


aA-paw-hmaA 


on account of 


GJopS 


jyowng 


on the left 


cooSoooS 


let-weh-bet 


on the right 


COOSOODOOS 


let-yaA-bet 


once 


oooloopSsn ooc8 


taA-gaA-deA i , taA-lee 


only 


ODD 


thah 


opposite 


^]o5j0^88sjS 


myet-hnaA-chinS-zing 


or, otherwise 


o^oo^oS 


thoh -maA-hoAk 

o 


outside, out of 


asfoSoD 


aA-pyin-hmaA 


over (above) 


33COOO<^D 


aA-htet-hmaA 


possibly 


K3OGOODCoK3OOpS 


hpyit-kowngJ hpyit 


presently 


OO^oS 


yaA-hkoo-bin [mee 


probably 


OC^oS GOODSSOD 08 


hoAk-kowngs hoAk- 


purposely 


0008 [o^ 


htaA-min [mee 


quickly 


saoDjSn ?g? 


aA-lyin, myaAn-myaAn 


rather, preferably 


ODD^330^goDgj,5 


thaA-yooayaA-loA shee- 






Mee-hnin 


, somewhat 


OoSll GOOSCODS 


hkaAt, taw-daw 


repeatedly 


330?ODCXKX> 


aA-hpaAn-taA-leh-leh 



105 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


save, excepting 


OOD8|J 


htafo-yooay 


since, prep. 


G$D05 


nowk 


, conj. 


oSfcjoo) 


^oA-hpyit-yooay 


so, thus 


?c 


htoh-thoh 


so much 


gfgji c% 


ee-hmyaA, hto^-hmyaA 


some 


OO^OO^GOOD 


taA-zo^n taA-hkoo-thaw 


somehow 


OO^OO^GODD^oBg 


taA-zo/m-ta h hkoo-Maw 




[o3D8i 


[neeS-aAs-hpyin 


sometimes 


ODoloOGOO 


taA-hkaA taA-lay 


soon 


^DSogD 


mya^S maA-kyaA [meh 


straightway 


^o5qjS8ll CogDSO 


chet- chins, a^-chaA8 


suddenly 


^So>> 


y o Ak-h kaA-neh 


sufficiently 


GCODoSGSSDS 


lowk-owng 


that, conj. 


G33DS 


owng 


then 


cSaaolS 


htoA a^-hka^-hnik 


thence 


C^OO 


hoA-gaA 


thenceforth 


OOoO^ 


htoA-hmaA tsaA-yooay 


there 


o8D 


ho '.-hmaA 


therefore 


C^G@DS 


htoA-jowng 


throughout 


OOGQDOOCOo 


ta^-showk-lo/m: 


(by means of) 


33DE8 


aAs-hpyin 


till, until 


c^ScoasS 


ting-owng 


to 


OLJH O^lt 33D8 


thoA, koA, a/iS 


together with 


3,8330^ 


hnin-aA-too 




too, also 


C0^8 


lees 


too much 


Og?8 


loons 


towards 


cgii d8c 


ihoh, see-thoh 

O y O 


under 


G33D05^D 


owk-hmaA 


unexpectedly 


33^080008 


aA-hmaAt ma/t-htin 



106 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation, 


unless 


O CQ|8 


maA (verb) hlyin 


up, upwards 


33GoTcgll33000$cg 


aA-paw-MoA, aA-htet- 


(of river) 


5DDC 


nyah-thoh [thoA 


weekly 


^5,8^0$ oogS 


hkoo-hnaA-yet taA-jayns 


well 


GCDDSSGOCO62 


kowngs-gowngs 


when ? 


ODo5GOOD33o]cb 


beh-^aw-aA - hkaA leh 






(or beh-doA-gaA leh) 


whence 1 


oooSooobii oooSoS 


beh-gaA leh, beh-zee- 




ooob 


gaA leh 


where ? 


oooS^Dobn oooSaS 


beh-hmaA leh, beh- 


\ceded by a verb) ] 


(pOD 


zee-hmaA leh 


wherever (pre- 


GCOGpGp 


lay-yaA-yaA 


whereupon 


o^cggS^ 


htoA-MoA-hpyit-yooay 

o o X v *> o * 


whether, if 


QSeo 


h pyit-tsay [kaAla/* 


while, whilst 


o^^Solii^ogcoDro 


doAnS-gaA, shee-zin- 


why ? 


^,^oSGgD6bli 


beh-hneh-jowng leh, 




OODgc^CO 


baA-pyoo-loA leh 


willingly 


OOGODDO^gD 


thaAbaw-too-zooaA 


wisely 


cSgDgD 


layrnmaA-zooaA 


with 


j5ll j^ODOg 


hnin, hnin-ta/j-g\vaA 


(by means of) 


5 1 ? 11 


hnin, hpyin 


without (absent) 


ogdbi oo1o> 


maA-shee-beh, maA- 






piiA-beh (any other 






verb can be substi- 






tuted for shee or paA) 


(outside) 


gS^DII O^D 


pyin-hmaA, paA-hmaA 


yearly 


j,8og 


hnit-tsin 


yet (conj.) 


cgcooSco^g 


Mo/i-Maw-lees 


, adv.) 


G008 


Mays (follows the verb) 



1 A-" 



OODoGCOGpCp thwaAj-lay-ya/t-ya/i, wherever (he} goes. 



OUTLINES OF BURMESE GRAMMAR. 

THE NOUN. 
Gender. 

All nouns in Burmese are without gender unless they have 
the affix denoting male or female attached. 

The feminine affix is always o maA. 

The masculine affix varies. 

G3 hkway, dog ; GgSo hkwaySmaA, dog (female) ; c8c83 
hkwaysdeeo, dog (male). 

(ogoS kyet, fowl; (o^oSo kyetma^, hen', (cgoSo kyet 
hpa/i, cock. 

For human beings there are a few diiferences ; thus, 

ojf loo, man; cocoo^pS yowkyaAs, a man (as distinguished 
from woman) ; 8g maynoma^, woman. 

In some cases it is only necessary to designate the 
female ; as, 

ogj kyoon, a slave; ogjo kyoon-maA, a female slave or 
servant. 

gpocoS yooa/i-Ma^s, a villager (maie). 

g)Doo jooah-thoo, a villager (female). 

oSs rnins, a governor; oSsooccoS MinSkaAdaw, a 
governor's lady. 



108 

Classification of Nouns. 

Nouns may be divided into three classes : i. Simple, 
2. Abstract, 3. Compound. 

1. The simple noun is a monosyllable denoting some 
object. 

2. The abstract or verbal noun is formed from a verb- 
root by prefixing the syllable a,h ; thus, 

V. oqoS loAk, to do, make. N. 330^08 a,h-\ohk, work. 
V. cp yaA, to be suitable. N. sacp a,h-yah, what is suitable, 
a thing, place. 

NOTE. It is commonly stated that there are other forma- 
tions, such as (388 chins, goS chet, $o5 hpweh, but as a 
matter of fact it is not so, for these affixes are themselves 
merely abstract nouns which have dropped the aA in com- 
position ; thus, (S8 pyoo-jins is Q pyoo (to do) + a,h-chint 
(action) which has been derived from the verb kyin, to do. It 
may be said that there is no verb kyin: (to do], but the rules 
of the language allow of a verb hkyin (or chin) (to be done], 
though it is now obsolete. 

3. The compound noun is formed by uniting verbs and 
nouns in various ways ; thus, 

gp yooaA, a village + ocoS tha^S, son = villager. 

008 laAns, a road + (y pyaA, to show = guide. 

c$ nay, to dwell + 088 ayn, a house = a dwelling-house. 

0^8 Ming, to sit + 3o<sp (aA)-yaA, place = a seat. 

QSs myinS, horse + tsee, to ride + o^ thoo, person + 
| yeh, bold = a horse-soldier. 

To the above classes must be added a class containing 
nouns adapted and taken from other languages. 



109 

Number. 

The plural of nouns is formed, when necessary, by adding 
myaA: (to be many], or c$ dgh (a short form of c^ tofo, 
to increase}, or the two combined, q^ do^ is generally con- 
nected with animate beings. Thus, 

oSS ayn, a house; sSS^DS ayn-myaAs, houses. 

oj loo, a man ; o^^jDg loo-myaA: or o^o^ loo-doA, men. 

An indefinite plural is also formed by reduplication of the 
noun ; thus, 

33^jJ8 aA-my6As, a kind; oa^^jjg a#-my6A:-myoAs, various 
kinds. 

33C[S aA-yaAt, a place; 33^8^8 aA-yaAt-yaAt, various 
places. 

Case. 

The sign of the nominative case is co^ thee and follows 
the noun but is often dispensed \vith. 

GgSoogS hkwaysMee, a dog or the dog. 

All other cases are denoted by affixes of case, which are 
sometimes called ' postpositions '. They are, 

Objective c^ goA. 

Genitive <^j ee, of (generally omitted). 

Dative 33D8 ahi, to; gl hngaA,/or ; o^ tho^, to ; c^ goA, to. 

Ablative oo gaA, ^ hma^, from ; j^S hnin, together with. 

Instrumentative J>8 hnin, with; QS hpyin, by means of; 
G(^D kyowng, on account of, because of. 

Locative o^S twin, in; $o5 hnik, at; ^3 hmaA, at, as 
regards; ooS weh, at. 

NOTE. j^oS hnik is usually written . 



110 

Besides the above simple affixes of case, there are a number 
of auxiliary words used between the noun and the affix in 
order to denote more clearly relationship or position. 

Being verbal nouns, their real form would have the verbal 
QO a,h prefixed, but in composition this is omitted. 

386 coT^D ayn-baw-hmaA, house (of) upper part-at = upon 
the house. 

oSQ6^ ayn-byin-hma^, house-ouiside-from.** from out side 
the house. 

A list of these is given at p. 97. 

The sign c^j ee has been given as the genitive but it is 
usually dispensed with, the first of two nouns being (except 
when in apposition) in the genitive case and always pro- 
nounced with an abrupt tone, which is sometimes denoted 
by the sharp or abrupt accent o , which kills even the heavy 
accent : ; thus, 

oSs^joocroD mins-ee-hbaAndaA (king-of-property) becomes 
min:-hpaMaA, the king's property. 

THE PRONOUN. 

There are five primitive personal pronouns. 
Sing, cl gnaA, I. 



008 thin, thou. 
080 mins, thou. 
$8 nin, thou. 
o thoo, he, she. 



Plur. cl 08 o-naA-doA O r 08 doA, we. 

o l O o o 1 o ' 

0080$ thln-doh, ye. 
0880$ mins-doA, ye. 
$q^ nin-doA, ye. 
0008 thoo-doA, they. 



It is rude to use cl gnaA and $8 nin, so, for the sake of 
politeness, a number of other forms are in general use. 
For I the usual form is ogj^S kyoon-ohk, humble servant. 



Ill 

Sometimes it is 3OOpj5 aA-kyoon-oAk, and for a woman 
OOJQ kyoon-maA, shortened to oojo kyaA-maA. 

opjGOo5 kyoon-daw, your royal slave, and ogj $0008^8 
kyo6u-daw-my6As, your race of royal slaves, is used by 
persons petitioning a person in authority. 

For thou or you the common form is cooSoSs mowng-mins. 

Speaking to some one older than one's-self one would use 
oS(opS hkin-byaAs, Mr., Sir. 

To a priest or some one in authority c^oScooS k6A-daw. 

The third person o^ thoo (literally person} is always used 
for male or female but, if necessary, o^o thoo-maA may be 
used for she. 

Terms of politeness in general use are given at p. 127. 

The Relative Pronoun. 

There is no relative pronoun like Who, but the position 
is expressed by a participial form of the verb ; thus, ODooS 
GOOD ojj tsa/i-thin-^Aaw thoo, writing-teaching-person = the 



person who teaches, or coSSG^poSogDoGcroo^ laAn;-showk- 
thwaAS-Maw-thoo, road-pass along-going-person, the man who 
is going along the road. 

In this last example the participial GOOD thaw (or sometimes 
oog5 thee) is used with two verbs : others might be added. 

The Reflexive Pronoun. 
k6A-ding, or c^oS koh, self; thus, 

gnaA-koA-ding, or rather ooj5c^o5o6|S kyoon- 
o/ik-koA-ding, I myself. 

88 meemee, one's-self, himself, herself; thus, 
SScgS meemee hkways, one's otcn dog. 



112 

The Interrogative Pronoun. 

oooS (or 3sooo5) beh (aA-beh) or beh. 

oooSo^ beh-Moo, Who ? 

ODD baA (contr. for oooScro beh-haA), What ? 

oooSooSs beh-Minj, Which ? 

oooSccoDoS beh-lowk, //OM> much ? 

ooo5j>> beh-hnitj //ow many? 1 

The Negative. 

' No one ' is expressed by using the Int. pronoun with 
^j hmyaA, even, and o ma^, not ; thus, 

oocSc^^jo^ beh Moo hmya/* maA shee, Who even not 
is = There is no one. 

ogj^5ooD^)ooq8^3 kyoonoAk baA hmyaA mriA loAk hpoos 
1 what even not do = I am doing nothing. 

The affix (^ hpoos is a strong one often used with o maA. 



Demonstrative Pronoun. 

~ 08 htoA 

CM) ee 

this. 08 hoA 

ODW Mee I P . 

ooSs ym: j 

S and c^ are colloquial, and always precede the noun; as, 

I3 D ^ ^ ee ^y wn g> 

htoA wet, that pig. 



beh-hnit (final t scarcely pronounced) can never stand alone 
but is always preceded by the subject of inquiry and followed by the 
proper numeral affix (pp. 79-81); thus, (qSoOOo5j|>8GOOD5^jOo6b inyins 
beh-hilit kowng sht6-tha/;-leh, horses how many animals are there r 
= How many horses are there 9 



113 

The Compound Relative. 

not'Sa 

h, what-thing-not- 



say, whatsoever. 

Q& is an old form of oooS. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

There are a few imported adjectives which have been taken 
from the Pali and which do not follow the general rule, but 
the real adjective is the verb-root which may be used before 
or after the noun ; thus, 

COODSGOODCO kowne:-Maw-loo ) 

\ a good man. 
loo-gowng; J 



Adjectives imported from other languages and a few 
anomalous Burmese forms are always placed before the 
noun, without the conjunctive particle GOOD Maw ; thus, 

OOOD oSs (o^3 maAha^ mini jees, a governor of a province. 

OOOD ma^haA is a Pali word meaning great, 08 min; is 
a person in authority, and (3)3 kyees, the Burmese to be 
great, used as an adjective. 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 

The comparative is made by the use of the verb OOD thaA, 
to surpass or exceed, coupled to the descriptive word by 
the conjunction G g| yooay (always written g) ; thus, 

oooqj(cBoGOOD33S thaA-yooay kyeel-Maw ayn, a surpassing 
large house, a larger house. 



BURMESE 8.-T. 



H 



114 

The Superlative degree is formed by prefixing oo aA, tc 
the verb and adding a^S s6Ans, to be extreme ; thus, 
nwaAs-aA-gneh-z6Ans, the smallest ox. 



The Numeral Adjective. 

Cardinals. A list of these is given on p. 78, and here 
it will be sufficient to show how they are used. They run 
from one to ten and are perfectly regular. The word for 
ten, however, is used as a demonstrative affix. 

The Burmese cannot say as we do 'one ox', but are 
obliged to use a descriptive affix (see pp. 7981) after the 
number ; thus, instead of saying ' one ox ', they must say 
' ox one animal', and so on till they come to ten, when the 
affix for animal (or whatever it may be) is dropped and the 
affix for ten takes its place ; after that the affix of kind is 
used again till the next ten is reached, and so on to one 
hundred, when a new numeral affix denoting 'hundred' 
comes in ; thus, 

yowk, being the affix for man; we have 
loo taA yowk, man-one-man. 
loo gnaAs yowk, man-five-men. 

c^oooo J>5 loo tiiA seh, man-one-ten. 

o^oqaoo5j>8oDGCQDo5 loo taA seh hnin taA yowk, man-one- 
ten-with-one-man, eleven-men. 

And so on till twenty, when it is 

loo hni(t) seh, man-two-ten. 
^SooGOCoo5 loo hni(t) seh hnin taA yowk, men- 
two-tens-and-one-man, twenty-one men. 

The j|>6 hnin (and, with) is often dropped. 



115 

Ordinals. Up to ten the Pali ordinals are in general use, 
but after that one must have recourse to the verb G^DO 
myowk, to raise ; thus, 

oooooSo^SG^DoSGOCDGO^ taA seh thorns myowk thaw hlay, 
the i$th boat. 

THE VERB. 

The verb is a monosyllable without any particular form 
and never changes. It may be transitive or intransitive. 

Transitives are often formed from intransitives by aspirating 
the initial consonant; as, c^oS pyet, to be destroyed] (|jo5 
hpyet, to destroy. 

Verb-roots may be strung together so as to form a com- 
plete idea; as, GOODSsaji^oSooSoo^S htowngs-htoo-poAk- 
hkaAt-thee, to give a good beating. All the verbs signify 
a different way of hitting. 

Sometimes a noun and a verb are compounded to form 
one idea; thus, to be glad is expressed by o8s woons, the 
belly + c(^Do5 myowk, to be raised. 

The Plural. 

There are two affixes, (03 kya& and o^ koAn, to express 
the plural number, but they are not often used ; thus, 
ooq8aDD8(c^ooj:>5 thoodoA thwaAs-jyaA-Mee, they (are) going. 

Voice, Moods, and Tenses. 

Voice, moods, and tenses have to be expressed by affixes 
(which were once verbs) and auxiliary verbs. 

Voice. 

The passive voice is formed by the verb o hkafai, to bear 
or suffer, with the principal verb in a noun form ; thus, 

H 2 



116 

^o5 yik, to beat. 

33$ oS ooogS aA-yik hkafai Me, a beating to bear, i.e. 
to be beaten. 

Moods. 

The verb-root by itself may be Infinitive or Imperative. 
All other moods, except the Indicative, are shown by 
auxiliary verbs signifying power, permission, &c. 
The Indicative Mood is denoted by affixes of time. 



Present T. ODgS Mee. 

GJ ee. 

Past { pyee. 

Future egS mee. 



33 



Future 3 aAn mee. 



cog3 (or 000833) laAt aAn. 
Pluperfect b[^ geh-byee. 

o^s(^ hboos-byee. 
Past Perf. jj.8^ hnin-byee. 

Though the simple root can be used Imperatively, there 
is a large number of modifying affixes : GSJJ chay, ccoo law, 
and GOOD taw, simply imply command. 

j>8 hnin, and coS lin, used after o maA, not, are prohibitive. 

o) paA is entreating and always used in polite language, 
either by itself or with other affixes. 

GO tsay is causative or precative as ogDSco thwafo-zay 
let him go. tsoh, used only for ist pers. plur., as ^^2^ 
thwaAs jyaA-zo, let us go. 

b hkeh is generally used with the verb COD laA, to come, 
and implies motion towards one's-self. 

o8o5 lik (to follow) is harsh and implies motion from. 

8 oAngs is an affix that signifies return or recurrence; as, 

coSol^S pays bah ohm, please give (it me) again. 

ocosSoGODD thwafo 6Ans daw, qo and return, used for 

o O o * & 

' good-bye '. 



117 

INTERROGATIVE. 

The Burmese do not alter the tone of the voice when 
asking a question, but use certain affixes, at the end of the 
sentence, with a tone of assertion. 

GCOD law, and $gS? nees, are those used formally in writing, 
but colloquially COD la/<, and do leh, are used ; COD \ahl is 
used for all ordinary questions ; as, 

oo6(^o^coD thin pyoo mee lahz, thou do will ? = mil 
you do it ? 

But if the sentence begins with the interrogative pronoun 
oocS beh, who, or any of its compounds, then do leh must 
be used ; as, 

oooS^D^oocb beh hmaA shee thah leh, where is (it) 1 

0^2 doAns is also used colloquially in place of cx> leh. 

THE USE OF THE NEGATIVE. 

The only word for not is o mah, and it immediately precedes 
the principal verb ; thus, 

ogj^SoogDSgjSo^S kyoonoMc mah thwahi jin boos, I not 
go wish, I do not wish to go. 

The boo; at the end is a strong assertive affix generally 
used with not, and if the sense of never is required o tsa/< 
must be placed before it : 

cloogDSo^S gnah m&h thwaAs z&h hpoos, I never went. 
To make it still stronger we may double the ^2 and say 
oogDoO^So^S mah thwafo zah hpoo; boos 

Before is expressed by placing hmee, and oS hkin, after 
the verb ; thus, 

OGGpo5 mah yowk hmee, before (he) arrived 
oc(cpoS mah pyaw gin, before (he) spoke. 



118 

Without is expressed by placing ob beh after the verb; thus, 
o(ycx> maA pyoo beh, without doing (it). 

Yes and No. There is no direct negative like the English 
No, but the verb cxpoS hoAk, to be true, is used ; thus, 

oooScogS hoAk thee, or cqcoob hoAk-keh, it is true, yes. 

00^08^8 maA hoAk hpoos, z/ is wo# /me, no. 

(^saSoogSooqoS pyoo aAt Aee maA hoAk, do proper to not 
true, it is not proper to do. 

ORATIO OBLIQUA. 

This is shown by the verb cq hoo, to my, followed by the 
verbal conjunction gj" yooay and a verb expressive of saying 
or thinking. Generally the speaker is designated first 
followed by the ablative postposition OD kaA ; thus, 

o^ocoGOODS8o^8oje|s^ooS thoo gaA maA ko.\vngs boo: 
hoo yooay soA thee, him from not good saying says, 
i. e. he says (or said) it is not good. 

Sometimes instead of O^G| the short form of the verb 
o^ hoo is used without e|, as 

o^ooocoD^So^oSoojDS thoo gaA mah laA hning hoo 
hmat thee, him from not come able say thinks, he thinks 
(that) he cannot come. 

In conversation cj \gh is used instead of cxj> hoo, and some- 
times the sentence is still further shortened by the use of 
oogS deh ; thus, 

ooooDC^SoogS thoo la/t rnee deh, he will come he says. 

This oog> deh is simply a short form for oogS thee, the 
assertive affix of the omitted verb s^ soA, to say, or c(cp pyaw, 
to speak. 



119 



THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 

There are two substantive verbs, 

(c8 hpyit, to be, to exist. 

^ shee, to be, whicb is used in the sense of 'have', the 
postpositions 'to' or 'at' being expressed or understood, 
as, o^oogS thoo-shee-^ee ^^jjsogS thoo-hmaA shee-Mee, 
to him there is, or he has. 

Thus, 

j5 loo taA-yowk shee-Mee, man one (there) is. 
thoo-hmaA shee-Mee, to him is, or, he ha". 
gS th'm loo-mik hpyit-thee, you a fool are. 



THE HONORIFIC FORM. 

The honorific form is used for very high personages and 
consists of cooS taw, the honorific affix, and <ft moo, to do ; 
thus, 

os(o^GGpo5GOO$<jj(e) mins-jees yowk taw moo byee, the 
governor has arrived. 

In this case ^ moo is considered the principal verb, and 
to make the negative, ma/< must precede it and the finjil 
affix be left out ; thus, 

GGpo5GOo5Q<jf yo\\k taw maA moo, (the governor) does not 
arrive, or has not arrived. 

CONTINUATIVE AFFIXES. 

These take the place of the participle and join clause to 
clause in a sentence. 

c]j yooay and cq]o5 lyet are what we call present. 
hlyin and coo5 //*aw are what we call past. 



120 

c(ycx}]oSagD8oo(:S pyay lyet thwaAs /Aee, running (he) 
goes. 

oqp3c^o5g}s)GOD5i ODSJojogS kyaAs kik-yooay yaA-tha\v- 
tsaAs-jyaA-mee, tiger biting having-got (we) shall eat, i.e. (we) 
shall eat (what ive) got from the tiger's killing. 

coo$jcg(c^cgji (9(3 ;)C) E taAt-kyaA byees-hlyim pyaAn- 
jyaA-Mee, skilled (pi.) having-h'nished (they) returned, i.e. 
having completed their education they returned (home}. 

EUPHONIC AFFIXES. 

These are used after verbal roots in conjunction with 
affixes of mood, tense, and number, but they can be dispensed 
with, and it is impossible to lay down rules as to their use. 
The commonest are GOO lay, eg chyay, cooS laAt, 5 kheh. 

Examples. 

GOO lay is one of the most common. It is almost always 
used in the future compounded with the future affixes 33 &hn 
and ogS mee, and takes the form of c85ogS laytnmSe (GCO 
3D ) It i g frequently used with the past tense ; ogos(^ 
thwaAs byee, (he) has gone, is correct, but ogDGCo( thwaA: 
lay byee is better. 

o) paA, the polite affix, is in constant use : it is correct 
to say ogDSGOOo thwaAs daw, go; but ogDSolccoc) thwaAs baA 
daw is better. GOI chay is sometimes used with future 33 aAn 

O JJ J o 

and becomes ^j chayn, as ajj>833O^agD3Gj|GOo5iGqpo5G|^]5 
o^ thoo hnin aA-too thwaAs jay /Aaw pyowk yaA jayn mee, 
If he goes with (A'm) he must be lost : both jay and jayn have 
no meaning- and may be omitted, they merely round off 
the sentence. So, in oqolo^ooo^oSGSjjOOgS thoo paA-goA 



121 

po^k lik chay thee, (he) smote his cheek, both o^oS lik and 
csfl chay have really no effect. 

c^oS lik (lit. follow) is not always euphonic but conveys 
a certain amount of meaning- and is used with transitive verbs. 

cooS laAt is common and mostly used with cooS thaw ; 
as ogDoCooScooS thwaAs la^t thaw, having gone. It gives the 
idea of 'happened'. Sometimes with fut. 33 aAn; as, oogg 
laAttaAn; ogDS cogg will go (probably}. 

CLOSING AFFIXES. 

These are used occasionally at the end of a sentence to 
give it stronger force. The principal are, 

oojDSs dee; = subst. verb ^ODJ^> shee-^ee, to be, is. Not 
used colloquially. 

g tsooaA or zooaA intensifying. 

c$S naw, soliciting acquiescence, as ogDoGOOoogSc^S 
thwaA? daw mee naw, / will go, shall I ? 

GO! paw, implies ' of course ' in answer to a question. 
ogDSo^coDg thwaAs mee lah, Are you going ? ogDiogSco] 
thwaAs mee paw, / shall go, of course. 

THE VERB USED AS A NOUN. 

The verb may be used either in its radical form or with 
its affixes of mood and tense as a noun, and in such cases 
is governed by postpositions ; as, 

c^oogSo^QSo^jS pyay-Mee-goA myin-hlyin, runs-to-see-if, 
having seen the running. 

ogoof^o^ htwet pyees-hmaA, come-out-finish from, i.e. 
after (he) had come out. 



122 



THE ADVERB. 

The adverb proper ends in 1 zooaA, but there are six 
different kinds of adverbs. Those in common use are given 
on pp. 100106. 

MODEL OF VERB. 

Infinitive oq5oo>S loAk-thee, to make. 

Indie. Pres. clco^oogS gnaA lo/ik-thee, / make, or, 

cloo^G^oojDS gnaA loAk nay-^Aee, / am making. 
Past cloqSiboogS gnaA loAk-hkeh- thee, I made. 
Pres. Perf. clo^8[ gnaA loAk pyee, / have made. 
Past Perf. clo^8^8(^ gnaA loAk-hpooS-byee, I had made. 
Future clcoSopjB gnaA loAk-mee, / mil make. 
Fut. Perf. clco^^ScSSojDS g-naA loAk-pyees-lfiym~mee, I shall 

have made. 

Potent. Pres. c1oq5^6oo^ gnaA lo/*k hning-^Aee, I can make. 
Potent. Perf. clcq8^S(<^ g-niiA loAk hning-byee, I could have 

made. 
Potent. Past Perf. clo^ScocoSo^ gnaA loAk kowngs-byee, / 

might have made. 
Imperative G^GOOO loAk-taw, make. 

loAk-tsay, let (hini) make. 
loAk-kyaA-zoA, let u? make. 

D loAk paA-daw, p/ease make (if). 



A FEW COMMON AUXILIARY VERBS. 

cl 0^89] 600^ gnaA loAk chin-Mee, I uix/i to make. 
cl oqSooSoogS g-naA lo/tk thin-/Aee, / ouijht to make. 

gnaA loAk taAt-thee, / am wont to make. 
gnaA loAk woon-/Aee, / dare make. 



123 



g-naA \ohk yaA-/Aee, I must make. 
cl eo^5oog5 gnii/i tsaA loAk thee, / begin to make. 
clo^Ss^oogS gnaA loAk nay-/Aee, / am making. 
clcg8GOooj:S gnaA loAk tsay-Aee, / cause to make. 
clo^SbiogS g-naA loAk hkeh-Aee, / seldom make. 
clccj>5c|oo>S gna^ lo/ik loA-^/<ee, 7 wish to make. 

>S gnaA loAk tsaAnj-mee, / wi// ^ry to make. 
gS gnaA loAk yaA-Mee, f shou'd make. 
^ jS^naA loAk pyaAn-mee, J ^<;^// re-make. 
thay koAn-byee, (They] are quite dead. 
oj^S thay dik-tliee, (He) is worthy to die. 
S pyoo Iweh-^Aee, (It) is easy to do. 



NOTE. In the above cl gnaA has been used for /for 
the sake of brevity. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF BURMESE SENTENCES. 

1. The principal verb is always at the end of a sentence 
but followed by the modifying verb and the closing affix, 
if any ; thus, 

oc^ cooSs coSoogS 
He rice eats 

c") OOo5S CD? |[SoOgS 

I rice eat can 

2. If there is an adverb of time it must commence the 
sentence; thus, 



Yesterday I town-to went 



124 

3- After the adverbs of time another clause may be intro- 
duced ; thus, 

$o5o$l 2J8 333 2)8l Oo8 33S C^ COD Q^S 

To-morrow I, at leisure if, thy house to come will 
4. The following is a typical sentence : 

33ol 1 GOODSS GOOD CO, j>8 GODDoSc^ COoS 

That time at, good l man two 
(08 OODS fro cooS Gco5 cQ coSs cboS cb 

*2Ji OL o *- J ' o o| 

town-to go 3 happen 4 having 5 water (of) hole into fall over 

ODjs| GCOb GOO (^ 

dropping 6 died 

Illustration of the 
Construction and Pronunciation of Burmese. 



GOODgp=>G$GCOD(j>>OOOD33O5 8 GOOD 
OO^OOoQSl 33OOj^DOOGpjq](l 0^ 33 
8 SoGOODS^S I 33 C^CO pS 800^8 G00 GOOOG^oSl 
qOoSoO 
ell 

(ttpQS CCOGOoS I (JiOOOD^C^DSC^fggDC^ o888G|l CODS GOODCf QgDS 



I COi 33 



1 Instead of GCODSSGCODC^ one might put CO.GOODS8 (see p. 113). 
" GCODoS numeral affix (p. 80). C^ plural affix (p. 109). 

. 8 (m plural affix for verbs (p. 115). 4 CooS euphonic verbal affix 
(p. 120), gives an idea of unexpected suddenness. 

6 GOoS past continuative affix (p. 119). 6 || continuative affix (p. 119). 

7 5 GCO (^f past closing affixes (p. 121). 



125 



Phonetic Pronunciation and Literal 
Translation. 1 

HtoA aA-hkaA, DoAnneeweehtaA yooaA-hnik nay-Maw 
That time, Dohnneeweehtah village-in dwelling 

ZoozaAgaA aA-mee shee-Maw PoAnnaAs-tfAee, aA-hloo-goA 
Zoozdhgah name having Brahman, alms 

hleh-leh hkaAn - AaA-hpyin, aAthaAbya/i taA-yaA yaA-ee. 
going about receive by (means of), coins 100 got. 

HtoA aAthaAbyaA taA-yaA-goA, mee-mee maA sowng hning, 
Those coins 100 self not carry able, 

ah-\oh lee; ma/ ting- thayl Mavy-jowng 1 , yooaA taA-hkoo 
desire also not attainted) yet because, tillage one- 

dwin, ta/i-yovvk-thaw PoAnnaA; ayn - hnik iiht - htaAs-yooay, 
in, one (a) Brahman's house at give - put - ting, 

taA-hpaAn aA-hloo hkaAn - ^Aaw-aAn-hgnaA, aA-yaAt taA-baAs- 
again alms receive in order to (for), place other 

thoh hleh-leh thwaAs-byaAn-ee. HtoA ZoozaAgaA 
to going-about went again. That Zoozahgdh 

PoAnnaAj - Mee, aA-hloo thwaAs hkaAn-yooay, taA-baAs 
Pohwwdh: alms go receiv - ing, other 

aA-yaAMinik, hnit - laA aA-sheh ky aA-my in 2 - lay - Maw, 
place - at, years- months long long - tall (having been). 

oAksaA-goA thayns-yooay htaA;-Aaw- PoAnnaAs - thee, 
the money taking charge of keeping Brahman (nom.), 

th6An:-zaAJ-hnin-y66ay koAn-lay-ee. 
use - eat 3 had consumed. 

1 For Idiomatic Translation, see over. 

2 Myin is lit. ' tatt,' but is often coupled with kyah, ' long in time. 1 

3 &6 hnin, prior past tense affix. 



126 

\feKomaiic Translation. At that time, a Brahman 1 named 
Zooz&AgaA, who dwelt in a village named BoAnneevreehtaA, 
by going about and receiving alms, amassed one hundred pieces 
(of silver). Not being able himself to carry those pieces, and 
because his desires were not yet satisfied, leaving- them at the 
house of another Brahman in a certain village, he again wan- 
dered about to other places in order to receive alms once more. 

That ZoozaAgaA, the Brahman, having been for months and 
years begging alms in other places, the Brahman who had 
taken charge of ZoozaAgaA the Brahman's wealth, had (before 
he, Z., returned) made away with and used it all up.] 



POLITE MODES OF ADDRESS. 

When one addresses a Burman it is rude to use the ordinary pronoun. 
If his position in society is known he should be addressed by the term 
that denotes his position, if not, one must generally suppose him or her 
to be 'the supporier of a monastery', GCODSoOOOCO Kyowng!-taAga/(fem. 
GCCjpSo33O Kyowngj-a/t-mafc), or 'founder of a Pagoda', GQtfpoOOOCO 
Hpa&yafcS-ta/iga/i!, or simply as o(3p or oSfpoDS Hkin-byaAS (a short 
form of OGOCODGpo Master, object of reference). If the person ad- 
dressed is a teacher or person of learning, he should be called OOiTO 
Sa&ya/t. In talking to a priest or teacher, instead of saying ' I ', one 
should use OOOgScOoS TaAbeh-daw (scholar), and call him cSoScOoS 
Ko-daw, or OOGpcOoS Sa/*ya7& - daw. To a person in authority a 
Burman would always designate himself as OQI^GOOO Kyoon-daw 
(Royal servant), but an Englishman would say ' KyoonoAk'. 

OOGOoS KaAdaw means lady and is used for the wives of honourable 
persons, as SOOGOo5 MinS ka/zdaw, OOQpOOGOoS Sa/tyaA kiiMaw, 
for the wives of magistrates and teachers. 

The word OOOOD taA-gaA, which is used above, is a corruption of the 
Pali word oloOOOD dflA-yaA-kaA, a giver; the feminine is OOOODO ta&- 
gaA-ma/t. 

1 The proper word for Brahman is Byahmahnah, but the Burmese usually 
use the word QCK?3> PoAnnaAj, which is a word of doubtful derivation. 



127 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES AND 

SENTENCES. 1 

Useful and Necessary Idiomatic Expressions. 

CjpSgD 33Oq8C>S GCODO OCO8 00 o5<^]D8ll 
English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 



Thank you (sel- 
dom used) 
Yes 
No 

Bring 
Bring that 
Give me 

Give it him 
Do (you) under- 
stand 1 [stand 
(I) do not uncler- 
Send (it) to me 

Tell me 

Tell him 

Can you tell (me)? 

Can you speak 



G OOJ8<>:8CO5 ol CO o3 

oooSoln cooBb 

QOOc 

oo^ol 



CODS 



COCODo 



Kyays-zoos tin-baA- 



MoAk-paA or hoAk- 
MaA-hoAk-hpoos, maA- 

hoAk-paA 

Yoo-geA-baA [baA 
HoA-dins-goA yoo-geh- 
KyoonoAk-koA pays- 

baA 
Thoo-goA pays-lik-paA 



p. 



English ? ^,^^ 

1 See 'Hints on addressing a Burman', p. 24; 
126. 



NaAs maA leh-boo: 
KyoonoAk httiAn-/AoA 

poA-lik-paA [baA 
KyoonoAk-koA pyaw- 
Thoo-goA pyaw-lik-paA 
Pyaw ning-baA-me8- 

laAs 
IngaAlayk tsaA-gaA; 

taAt-thaA-laAs 
' Polite Modes of Address ', 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Is there any one 


336088 oocoScooS 


IngaAlayk tsaA -gaAs 


here who speaks 


GCODOC^OOCODS 


taAt-thavv-thoo shee- 


English ? 




^AaA-lah; 


What do (you) 


OO3G(cpOOCO!! COD 


BaA pyaw-MaA-leh, 


say? 


a^cocb 


BaA soA-^AaA-leh 


Ask him (inquire) 


CC^GO0iol 


Thoo-goA mays-zaAns- 


Ask for (demand 


GOCoSSolGCOD 


Towngs-baA-da\y [baA 


Speak loudly [it) 


cojoScojoScgDol 


Kyeh-jeh pyaw-baA 


Never mind 


3aOgo5o[o]aj3 


AA-twet maA she'e'-baA- 






boos 


What is to be done? 


**Y" "^ f C ~\ O*\ r* r\*\ r\"~\ 
^J-^ \_J%^OO OL?\Jw 


BaA pyoo /Ain-^AaA-leh 


Why? 


CODgcgcO 


BaA pyoo-loA leh 


What is it? [ter? 


CODCO 


BaA leh 


What is the mat- 


ocog8oocb 


BaA hpyit-thaA-leh 


Do (you) hear? 


(crpSCOCODS 


KyaAs-/AaA-laAs 


I understand, Sir 


pSCogoOoSl OC^Gp" 


NaAs leh-Mee.,hpaAyaAs 


Carry this 


oocS oo DC^ co 8s ol 


Thee haA-goA htaAns- 






baA [l aw 


Take that 


CO CO 3 CO CO O~l G COO 


HtoA haA-goA yoo-baA- 


Take (it) away 


COCODoOSoS 


Yoo-th\vaAs-lik 


Make haste ! 


33 CO! fool 


AA-lyin pyoo-baA 


Come quickly 


g$g$coo5 


MyaAn-myaAn laA-geh 


Take care ! 


co c8 fool 


ThaAdee pyoo-baA 


Listen ! 


^DoGCODSol 


NaAs htowng-baA 


Come in ! 


oSolccoo 


Win-baA-daw 




<* 





Come here ! 


copSc^coDb 


Dee-goA laA-geh 


Come back ! 


g^CODb 


PyaAn laA-geh 


Call my servant 


COJ|80^COGC08C 


KyoonoAk loogaAlayj- 


(boy) 


coTol 


goA hkaw-baA 



129 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Take this note 


aDgSoDC^ c6c$ 


J^ee tsaA-goA htaAn- 


to- 
Bring back an 


ss 


^AoA yoo-th \vaAs-baA 
PyaAn-zaA-goA yoo- 


answer 




geh 


Stand still a mo- 
ment 


oa^olgs 


HkaAnaA yaAt-nay- 


Go away (rough) 
Go away (polite) 
Good-bye * 
Too soon 


3QDoC8o5 
O'OoOlGODO 
ODDoSSGODO 

o V_> o 


ThwaAs-lik 
ThwaAs-baA-daw 
I h\vaAs-oAnS-cla,v 
OoS-loons-^Aee, tsaw- 
loons-Mee 


Too late 


G^DoSa^j^Soog 


Nowk-kyaA loons /Ae6s 


Very well (good) 
What do you want? 
How do you do?) 
Are you well ? j 
I am well 


f\~} f ) I f^\ PO^o 


Kowngs-baA-byee 
BaA loA-jin-thaA-leh 

MaA-baA-ee-laA: 
MaA-baA-ee 


Much obliged 

There is nothing 
Nothing is the 
matter 
No trouble at all 


GODQjo(c3<)CQo 
Gf>3CQOOOpOfej 


Kyayszoo; kecs-hlaA- 
byee [boos 
BaA-hmyiiA maA shee- 
BaA-hmyaA maA hpyit- 
hpoos 
Hnowng-shet- tsa A-yiiA 
maA shee 


Who is there ? 


dB^oocfiojjjgcocb 


HoA-hmaA beh-/Aoo 






shee-/AaA-leh 



1 The person who pays a call on leaving says Og 
thvva/iS-<la\v-mee-na\v, I will go? and the person in the house replies 
thwa/tS-6/jnSdaw, Go and return. 



BURMESE S.-T, 



130 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



It is I 

What is the news? 
There is no news 

Do you know for 

certain ? 
Go in front 
Follow 
Go home 
Go to the post 

office and ask for 

my letters 

Let us start 
Wait 

Bring my horse 

Saddle it 

Call the interpreter 
[man say ? 
What does that 
He says he cannot 

find the horse 
He thinks some 

one has stolen it 

Is it possible ? 



ol 

oooSoSooSgGjoocb 
oooSoSooSs^josj 



GOO 



OO^ODGOODoS^SC 

oojSc^ ooSoooS 



KyoonoAk-paA, kyoon- 

dJhv-baA [leh 

Beh thaAdin; yaA-thaA- 
Beh thaAdin: hmyaA 

maA yaA 
AykaAn aA-hmaAn 

thee-MaA-laA? [daw 
AA-shay-MoA-thwaA; 
Novvk-thoA lik-paA 
Ayn-MoA thw.As-daw 
TsaA-dik-thoA thwaAj- 
yooay kyoonoAk tsaA- 

myaAs-goA towng;- 

baA [zoA 

Htwet-thwaAs-jaA- 
Nay-baA-6An:, tsowng 

baAs 
KyoonoAk myin: - goA 

voo-geh 

HkoAns-hnee: tin-baA 
TsaA - gaA - by aAn - goA 

hkaw baA [MaA-leh 
IIoA loo baA pyaw - 
Myins-goA maA tway 

hniiig boos, deh 
TaA - zoAn-taA-yowk- 

hko A yoo - tha A - lo A 

htin-^Aee [laAs 

Hpyit-hning-baA-mee 



131 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


It is his fault 


CX^338CO 


Thoo aA-pyit pay 


He is sorry 


oco^cSsolcocS 


Thoo woonS-neh:-baA- 






thee 


He must get me 


c^ogj5cgS8oo 


Thoo kyoonohk -hpoA 


another horse 


GOODSftDGOSC) 


myin: taA-gowng 


Who is paddling 


oc] G co, cc^ co o5 ocj 


HoA hlay-goA behMoo 


that boat ? 


ccoScocb 


hlaw-/AaA-leh 


Is it a man or a 


GOCOOCJDSCODSlSg 


YowkyaA; laA;, mayn:- 


woman ? 


COD8 


maA laA: 


It is a woman 


SgGO 


MaynjmaA bay 


It is a woman l 


Sgcol 


MaynsmaA baw 


Well done ! 


GOCOSSGO 


Kowngs bay 


How fortunate 


CO o5 OD G OO^S CO jS 


Teh kaAn kowng:-#Aee 


It is a fact 


CO gS 00333^ $GO 


Thee haA aA-hmaAn 






bay [hnin 


Don't be angry 


8o8os8oo]&S 


Tsayt-maA-soAs -baA- 


How beautiful 


cooSo^oo^cc^ 


Teh hlaA-Mee, goA 


Be silent ! 


o8o5o8oSc^ 


Tayt-tayt nay 


Long ago 


^~^ r r c 
[OODC^gf LS 


KyaA hlaA byee [Mee 


Shameful 


^oSoGpGOCoSS 


Shet-tsaA-yaA kowngz- 


Are you not a- 


05|050CJ3COD3 


MaA shet-hpoo:-laA: 


shamed ? 






(You) are to blame 


3D (y S COS OGp 


AA-pyit-tin-zaA-yaA 




GOODSoCOcS 


kowng:-/Aee 


Get up ! 


co c^ o5 ii (polite) 


HtaA-Hk, htaA-baA 




cool 





1 I. e. how could you think otherwise? 



I 2 



132 



Meals. 

(For Vocabularies, see pp. 49-53.) 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Breakfast (dinner, 


oooSsojSsgsg 


HtaAmins pyin-pyee:- 


or supper) is 




byee 


ready 






Is the tea made ? 


cooSooS GjDSco.8 


LaA-hpet-yee loAk- 




Kjo/GCODS 


pyees-byee-laAs 


Do you drink 


CO D (3 G) pb G CO D OC' 


KaA-hpee-yee thowk 


coffee \ 


CO o5 00 CODS 


taAt-thaA-laAs [thee 


This milk is sour 


^t^loSt^S 00 ^ 


Thee noA-yee chin- 


Bring me an egg 


(oooogcocoSojco 


Kyet-66 taA-loAn; yoo- 


Must I boil the 


(^ o5gc8 (o o5 Q o jS 


Kyet-66-goA pyoAk- 


egg? 


CODS 


yaA-mee-laA; 


Fry me two eggs 


(cgoSgj^OqSGODjS 


Kyet - 66 hnaA - loAn; 




G08o] 


kyaw-pay:-baA 


This butter is ran- 


OOjS GOODOOS GOODS 


2'Aee htawbaAt howng- 


cid [butter 


0800 o5 


zaAt-#Aee [6Ans 


Bring some other 


GCODOo5co,6bS 


HtawbaAt yoo-geh- 


We want more tea- 


co oS o o5 GI cS (^ oo ? 


LaA-hpet-yee-paAg-aAn- 


cups 


i]DSO^GC020DD5 


myaA; loA-Mayj-A8 


Remove the dishes 


CfCoSgD^DSO^OC; 


PaAgaAn- byaA;-myaA:- 




O^DSGOOD 


goA yoo-thwaAj-daw 


Cook some pork 


pODC^O CO CODS 


NyaA-zaA-boA wet- 


curry for dinner 


ooSs^oScoSol 


thaAs bin: chet-pay:- 


I 


baA 



133 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Take care to boil 
the rice well, too 


co o 6 8 08 co pSs 

I V i 

GOODSoGOCoSo 

o^oS 


HtaAmin:-goA lee: 
kowng:- go wn gs naAt- 
owng thaAdee pyoo 
lik 


Change the plates 
Give me a clean 


(f oo^]D8c^ cbc^ o5 
ol 


leh-lik-paA 
TsaA - b weh - daA: - hnin 


knife and fork 

Give me a glass of 
water 


;:it2 


hkaA - yin : a A - thit- 
koA yoo-geh 
Yay taA-hkwet p;iys- 
baA 


Pour out the tea 

How many are 
coming to din- 
ner ? 


GOSol 

GCoODoCODGQoCXJ 


LaA- hpet-yee-goA 
hng-eh pay:-baA 
Beh-hnaA-yowk htaA- 
mins tsaA:-laA-mee- 
leh 


I think there will 
be eight persons 


CQQ O GOOD Oj COD 


Loo-shit-yowk laA- 
mee-loA htin-baA- 
thee 



Health. 



Are you well ? 
I am well 
I am very ill 
I am not very well 



(For Vocabulary, see p. 47.) 




AA-loon nah-bah-thee 
KowngJ-gowng: maA 
maA-booS 



English. 



134 

Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I hope you will 
soon be better 



Do you sleep well ? 
I sleep pretty well 



I have caught a cold 

I feel sick 

Send for a doctor 

I want to see a 
doctor 

She (or he) has a 
cough 

Where is the chem- 
ist's shop ? 

How far is it from 
here ? 

You must drink 
this 

Have you any 
brandy (spirit) ? 

I can eat nothing 

I can swallow no- 
thing 



333S8 GOCOSSOD 
CODS 



GOO80OOD3>8 GOO 

JI c oQ 



GOoOOCO 



G) o5 ji[ 



HkinbyaA; 
myaAn kyaAns-maA- 
yaAn kyoon-daw 



AA-ayk 



Taw-daw kowngs- 
gowng; ayk-paA- 



HnaA-zees-naA shee- 
Ahn jin-^Aee 
SaysthaAmaAi-goA 

hkaw-Hk 
Saystha/nmaAs - hnin 

tway-jin-Mee 
Thoo-hmaA chowng:- 

zo^5-naA shee-Mee 
Says -zing beh-hmaA- 

leh 
Dee-gaA beh-lowk 



Dee haA-goA thowk- 

yaA-mee 
ByaAndee-aA-yet shee- 



BaA-hmyaA m&h tsaA: 

hning-boos 
Tah - zohn t&h- hkoo- 

hmyaA maA myoA 

hning-boo: 



135 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


My head aches 


ogj$5colS8d?o5 


KyoonoAk gowng: 




oo pS 


kik-thee 


My foot is swollen 


OOJ5GGGpSG$ 


Ky oonoAk chee 




oopS 


yowng-nay-^Aee 


I cannot get up 


QOoHSoloOo 


MaA htaA hning-baA- 






boos 


May I get up ? 


00 OJ 8 OOJ 8 OO ^8 ol 


HtaA-jin-hlyin htaA- 




00 COOS 


hi i ing-ba A-M;ih-la As 


Give me a cup of 


co o5 o o5 G| pS oo g o5 


LaA-hpet-yee taA- 


tea 


GOSol 


hkwet payS-baA 


I have been ill 


$DG$OOOo6[8t,)o5 


NaA-nay- 1 daA thoAn: 


three days 


$(? 


yet shee-byee 


Give me a bit of 


tjooBoScoSo) 


MoAn taA-zayt pays- 


bread 




baA 


I must wash my 


OOJ^S COOS GOO8C) 


KyoonoAk let says- 


hands 


opS 


yaA-mee 


I have washed my 


[3o5 &Dc8oo8b[o 


Myet-hnaA-goA thit- 


face 




hkeh-byee 


There is no soap 


Oo5[oDo8 


SaAtpyaA maA-shee 


It is not good to 


Qj88GOOD33ol 


ChaAn!-/Aaw aA-hkaA- 


go out when it 


sagScgo^DSo^o 


hnik aA-pyin-MoA 


is cold 


G OODSSO^S 


thwaA;-boA-maA 

O 






kowngs-boos 



1 The COD da/t is a contraction of OOpS th&e (the verb affix) and ODD haA, 

a thing, which is often used in colloquial and might be translated 'the fact 
of being ill has been three dayc '. 



136 



Time. 33^^11 co~lu OCOCOH 

(For Vocabulary, see p. 36.) 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



What time is it '( 


oo o5 j> 8 $ 3^ G co 3 o5 


Beh-hnaA naAyee 




^oocbn 000633 


lowk shee-/MA-leh, 




^0060 


or Beh aA-chayn 


Ten minutes past 


^8^S 9J S8 


Hkoo-hnaA naAyee- 


seven 


$8GCODo5$OOjS 


hnin hkoo-hnaA 






meenit - lowk shee - 






thee 


It has just struck 


uoqdbri?8$D[c&g 


YaA-hkoo-beh koA:- 


nine 




naAyee htees-byee 


The clock is strik- 


$DCX^c88c$Cg 


NaAyee yiiA-hkoohtee: 


ing 




nay-/Aee 


A quarter past one 


g$8c80C>$Dljj>S 


Mouns-lwehs taA-naA- 


(afternoon) 


oosSoS 


yee-hnin taA-zayt 


Half-past four 


0$C>5CC08$:>^ 


Ma/met lays-nfiAyee 


(morning) 




g\veh 


A quarter to eight 


QS^oQoooooSs 


Shit-naAyee maAt tin; 


At what time ? 


oooSssq] 9ODcx!> 


Beh aA-chayn-hmaA leh 


It is noon 


g^80D^33^^gS 


Moon;-deh aA-chayn 




ODOS 


hpyit-thee 


Wake me at mid- 


oo|8Gol8noj^8c 


Tha/i-go\vng kyoon- 


night 


9^1 

jioOl 


oAk-koA hnoAs-baA 


I will jrctup at six 


O^oScgDoS^D^ 


MaAnetchowk-naAyee- 


in the morning 


^DOOolo^ 


hmaA htaA-baA-mee 



137 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


He will arrive at 


X>G %c"l 8 ^D^ Og 


NyaA-nay gnafa-na^- 


half-past five in 


GCODoSo^GGpoS 


yee-gweh lowk thoo 


the evening 


oloSSojDS 


yowk-paA-laym-mee 


I shall dine ex- 


g^c^^8^D^o8o8 


NyaA-nay hkoo-hnaA- 


actly at seven in 


OOJ5cOoS800S 


naAyee htee-hdSe 


the evening 


OOS 


kyoonoAk htaAmin : 






tsaAs-mee 


What month is it*? 


oooScooooScooo 


Thee lah beh l&h leh 


What day (of the 


00 oS OO G 000 G %OO 


ThigaA- nay bah nay 


week) is to-day? 




leh 


What day of the 


OO oS 00 G %OO o5 jf 8 


ThigaA-nay beh-hnaA 


month is this? 


^oSG^OO 


yet-nay leh 



NOTE. The Burmese date is 638 years after the Christian 
era. Therefore, in order to get the Burmese year, we have to 
subtract that number from our year. Both eras are used, and, 
to distinguish the one from the other, the word oo^gsiS ThekkaA- 
yit is placed before the Burmese date; thus, 0033^8 oj 7 j = 
A.D. 1910. Both Burmese and English months are used, and 
often the two together, in documents. 

The month is divided into two parts, coaoi laA-zafais, (he 
waxing y and coQp^GO^jS laA-byee-jaw or coaqoS laA-zoAk, the 
waning. The full moon, co(yp|> laA-byee, falls on the fifteenth 
of the waxing ; the coog o5 la^-gweh (hidden moon) falls on 
the fourteenth or fifteenth of the wane. The days of worship 
are the full moon, eighth of the wane, the hidden moon, and 
the eighth waxing; otherwise the days of the \veek are not 
observed, though noted. (The Englishman observes Sunday, 
the Burman does not.) 



138 



Times, Seasons, and Weather. 



(For Vocabulary, see p. 36.) 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



This day week 


OD^GfcOD^oS 


TAee nuy-gaA hkoo- 




e* 


hnaA-yet nay 


That was three or 


:xj8GCo8C)a5GCODo5 


ThoAn: lay:-yet lowk 


four days ago 


m 


shee-byee 


To-morrow fort- 


$o5o$CfcG$Do5 


Net-hpaAn - nay nowk 


night 


cooSccoScjoS 


seh-lay:-yet 


At about this time 


00^33^$GCODOS^D 


YaA-hkoo aA-chayn- 






lowk-hmaA 


In a month's time 


CO ^ C OD CO CO 


YaA-hkoo-nay-gaA 




GCOD oS 


taA-laA lowk 


The first of next 


CO^COD O^COCO 


YaA-hkoo laA-mee-laA 


month 


^o5c% 


taA-yet nay 


In (after) six weeks 


OOG^OOCOCOj^S 


YaA-nay-gaA taA-laA- 




OOo5GCO8G|o5 


hnin seh-lay:-yet 


On the last day of 


coqcoogoSfc 


YaA-hkoo laA-g\veh- 


the month 




nav 


At the end of this 


COgScOtt^D 


TAee laA goAn hmaA 


month 






Towards themiddle 


3>$0~)^CO 0^)^05 


ZaAnaAwaAyee laA seh- 


of January 


G^GCODOS 


gnaAs-yet nay lowk 


In the course of a 


^ j> 8c|o5330gSg 


Hkoo-hnaA- yet aA- 


week 


Og8 


twin:-dwin 


From time to time 


33C3$0$ 


AA-hpaAn-baAn 



139 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


From one day to 


ODG%COOOGfccg 


TaA-nay-gaA taA-nay- 


another 




thoh [^Aay: 


A few days ago 


C%C|o5o(OGOOS 


Nay -yet maA kyaA 


A short time since 


OODC0051 tpS(t} 


KaAlaA maA shay- 


[ago 




byee [^Aayj 


Scarcely two days 


5>SG}o5oJ;JGoo3 


HnaA-yet maA shise 


A month ago 


oooo@ 


TaA-laA shee-byee 


It is full moon 


^ G ^SOD^ 


LaA-byee-nay hpyit- 


Last year [last 


Q5&OO 

J 1 


MaA-hnit-kaA [thee 


The year before 


ooqj 


TaA-myaAn-hnit 


It is not long since 


Of fV"\ -N t~* /YN s~V~\ O 
| ' -4 -J \a \J^ ^-rf O 


MaA kyaA Mays boo; 


Long ago 


goc^g 


KyaA-hlaA-byee 


Once in (three) 


(O0,g) G|050001 


(ThoAn;) yet taA-hkaA 


days 






Theheat of the sun 


c^^ooJSo^S 


Nay poo loA maA 


is unbearable 




hkaAn-hning-boo; 


I am very warm 


00053^(^00^ 


Teh ik-thee 


I am afraid it will 


^>58 PtS 


MoAs yooaA-mee,ts6As- 


rain 


oooS 


thee 


Did you see the 


C3|c^o6og6oo 


ShaAt-tsit-koA myin- 


lightning? 


CODS 


MaA-laA; 


I heard the thun- 


^ 068(3800 o^(opS 


M6Asch6An:-thaAn-goA 


der 


boo^ 


kyaAs geh thee 


How it pours ! 


ODo5^D53)DOog 


Teh moA; yooaA-/Aee 


Would you like an 


cSscQojSoocoDS 


Htees loA-jin-/AaA-laA; 


umbrella? 




[tsoA-byee 


I am wet through 


33005^]D05^! 


AA-woot-myaA; tsoot- 


Look at the rain- 


oo 06 o5 c^ (CT) ^ c^ o5 


ThettaAn-goA kyee- 


bow 


ol 


lik-paA 



140 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


It is growing very 
cold 


ccx&artcoxog 


Teh ay: la/j-Mee 


It is very dirty 
It is very windy 
The wind is in the 
east 
The dust is terrible 
How bright the 


oooSccoc^ oSocoS 

GOD 33G|OC>5 CO 
CODOOJD5 

OOoScOOCDODgS 


Teh shoon myafa-Mee 
Teh lay tik-thee 
Lay a^-shay bekkaA 
la/i-thee 
Teh hpoAn hta^-Mee 
Teh laA th&h-thee 


moon is 






The sky is over- 
cast, so I think 
it will rain 




M6A: oAn-loA moA: 
yooaA-mee-loA, htin- 
Mee 


The stars are bright 


fo3o5^po33COCO$3 


Kyeh-myaA: aA-hloon 
htoon:-lin:-Mee 


It will be fine to- 
morrow, I think 


<3> OO C5 5> G & OO DO P^ 

ooSoopS 


Net-hpaAn nay thaA- 
mee, htin-/Aee 



Correspondence, Post, Telegraph, and Telephone. 



(For Vocabulary, see p. 70.) 



Have any letters 
come this morn- 
ing ? 

No, none have 
come yet 

He ought to be 
here by now 



cx> 



OCODOGGpoSGOOS 



YaA-hkoo maA-net 

tsaA-myaAs yowk- 

pyee-laA: 

la^ maA yowk 

May: boo: 
ThooyaA-hkoodee-goA 

yowk-thin-byee 



English. 



141 

Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I have heard 


OO^OOS^O (D8CL 


TaA-zoAn taA-hkoo 


nothing 


GODSONS 


hmyaA maA kyaAs- 


Has the mail 


COSSSOOGOOD 

L 


TsaA-boA mee:-thim:- 


steamer arrived "? 


GGpoSj^CODo 


baw yowk-pyee-laA: 


Go and see if the 


aoScGpoSoDgSo 


Det yowk-thee maA 


mail is in 


GGpc6oOC^OgD8 


yowk - thee - go A 




(rv^ ^o T 


,i _ii -j ' v 




1322 ' 


inw3.nl Kyee-za/in; 






baA 


Are there any let- 


Og|$8cODCj]D8$00 


KyoonoAk-hpoA tsaA- 


ters for me ? 


COD8 


myaAs shee-/AaA- 






laA: 


I have not received 


ODODGCoSgiOGjOaS 


TsaA taA - zowng- 


any letter 




hmyaA maA yaA-boo: 


Please post this 


00(ODCJODC^05 


TAee tsaA-goA tsaA- 


letter 


OD&OODCb CpOO^S 


clik thit-htaA-deh- 




c^oSol 


hmaA hteh-lik-paA 


Please forward my 


Ogj$8oD<j|D8d} 


KyoonoAk tsaA-myaA;- 


letters to ... 


c^oSol 


goA poA-lik-paA 


Please weigh this 


OOpOODCOajfj^OQoOl 


TAee tsaA-goA chayn- 


letter 




zaAns-baA 


I want some note- 


ODGQ8Q O pO [I CO 


TsaA-yay:-yaAn tsek- 


paper 


^SOD^S 


koo loA-jin-Mee 


Give me an enve- 


OD33OOOQGO8ol 


TsaA - ayk taA-hkoo 


lope 




pay;-baA 


Where is the ink? 


^3^200 C^^DCO 


Hmin-6Aj beh-hmaA 






leh 


Lend me a piece of 


56|5oc^|[OD5 


Hmin-hnayk tsek-koo 


blotting-paper 


G08ol 


taA-chaAt pay:-baA 



142 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Get me some 

stamps 
Tell him to wait 

I will send a reply 
later 

Can I send a tele- 
gram? 

How much is the 
postage on these 
letters? 

I am just going to 

read it 
Can you lend me a 

pencil ? 

What is your tele- 
phone number? 
My number is 

Put me through 

to 

Line engaged 
Ring up (Mr. 

Smith) 1 



ol 



o 



o5 ^ (y co 8 ol 



33 



03 oS 



08 (op?|. o") oSoo o5 

GODDoScQ 



OD 



& 



aOOODOoSo^OOODo 

ol 



TaA -zayt- gowngs- 

myaAs pays-baA 
Tsowng nay-loA thoo- 

goA pyaw-baA 
Nowk-hmaA pyaAn- 

zaA poA-baA-mee 
Kyayj - naAn: yik 

hning-baA-mee-laA; 
TAee tsaA-myaAs aA- 

twet tsaA-boA-gaA 

beh-lowk pays-yaA- 

mee-leh 
YaA-hk5o-beh hpaAt- 

paA-mee 
HkeA - daAn t a A - 

chowngs hkaAnaA 

hgnaAs-baA 
Hken byaA; naAmbaAtf 

beh-lowk leh 
KyoonoAk naAmbaAt 

hpyit-paA-Mee 
go A thweh-payj- 

baA 

LaAn: maA aAs-baA 
(MistaA SaAmit)-goA 

tsaAgaAx-pyaw- 

thaAn-joA-hnin pyaw- 

baA 



This is translated ' Speak to Mr. Smith with the telephone.' 



143 



In Town. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Where shall we 


OOI 8 08 OO C)5 08 33 


KyoonoAk-doA beh- 


go"? 


COjSogDoGjScb 


goA aA-leh-thwaAs 






mee-leh 


Let us go to the 


ODC^oScgcODSgg 


TsaA-dik-thoA thwaAs 


post office 




jyaA-zoA 


Where does this 


OOpScoSoDoSGGp 


TAee laAns beh yowk- 


road go? 


oSoocb 


thaA-leh 


Go up the street 


CoSSC^cfjoSogDS 


LaAnS-goA Hk-thwaAs 


Is it far from here? 


OOgSoDOgDGOSCO 


Dee-gaA kwaA-ways- 




CODS 


MaA-laAs 


Show me the way 


coSso^go") 


LaAn;-goA pya^-baA 


Turn to the right 


CO C>5 COD O o5 C^ 


Let-yaA-bet-thoA hleh- 




COc5cO_D3Cc]o5 


thwaAs-lik [thwaAs 


Turn to the left 


co o5 b o o5c$ oo gS 


Let-weh-bet-thgA hleh- 


Go straight on 


G^ogcOgScogcODS 


Shay-/AoA teh-deA 

o^ o o 




ol 


thwaAs ba^ 


Second turning to 


COoSoODO o5^ D^ 


Let-yaA-bet-hmaA 


the right 


c8coco8sc^o^o5 


dooteeyaA laA.n:-goA 






lik 


Cross the road 


CoSSC^OJgogDS 


LaAnJ-goA kooS- 


[is...? 


[^ coco 


thwaAo [MaA-leh 


In what street 


oooS 0088036 


beh laAns-dwin shee 


Please tell me the 


- 0GCpo5G33D5 


Ao/t yowk-owng 


nearest way to... 


oa^SacJ coSsc^ 


aA-nee:-z6An: laAn:- 




GgDol* 


goA pyaw-baA 



144 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Is this the way 


ooeScoSsdJc^oS 


T//ee laAns-goA lik- 


to . . . ? 


OJjS O^GGpoS 


hlyin MoA-yowk- 




JSologSco:* 


hning-baA - mee- 


Do you know 


F. opSo3o8ooj8 


F. thaAhken - goh 


Mr. F.? 


OOCOD8 


thee - kyoon: - tk&h - 






laA: 


I do not know 


0080^8 


MaA thee-boo: 


I know him well 


O^GCXOSSGODDSS 


Thoo-goA kowngj- 




opjSoOopS 


gowngs kyoon:-#/iee 


Who is he ? 


oScooooScoco 


HtoA loo baAloo leh 


He is an old friend 


OjSoScCgCGODSS 


Thoo maytsway 




(ooolooco 


howngs hpyit-pfiA- 






^Aee 


Where does he 


OqOOoSQDG^ODCO 


Tlioo beh-hmaA nay- 


live ? 




/AaA-leh 


He lives close by 


opiS 8 388 .833 S 


(Kyoono/ik ayn-hnin) 


(my home) 


s-* o / \ 1 /*v\ *^*\ 
v (i> w 1 ^A^ h^*^ 


aA - nee: nay - baA - 






thee 


Is Mr. F. (Mrs. F.) 


F. 008 (F. 0080) 


F. thaAhken (thaA- 


at home? 


GSSogS^OOOODS 


hken-maA) ayn-dvvin 


I must go 


OOJ^SogDSolGODO 


KyoonoAk thwaA:- 




eoS 


baA-daw-mee 


Good-bye (go and 
return) 


GOOD) 


ThwaA:-6Ans-law (or 
da\\) 


What is the name 


o^co8o^ooo5^o5 


HtoA laAns-goA beh- 


of that street? 


GoToocb 


hneh hkaw-MaA- 






leh 



English. 



145 

Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Which road must 

I take ? 
(You) are out of 

the way 



Shopping. 

Howmuch is this? 



It is too much 
Send them at once 
I wish to buy 
(I) will take this 

(I)want some calico 
Show (me) some 

ribbons 
This colour is too 

dark 
Have you any that 

is narrower than 

this? 

What is the price 

per yard ? 
It is faded 

It is too fine 
This is right 



330^0 (o^3 OOjlS 



C^ O^ ol O j5 



00? 



C>5 OOjS 



ODDGOOD68 



Beh laAns thwafo-yaA- 

mee-leh 
LaAn; hmaAs byee 



BURMESE S.-T. 



T/iee ha.h aA- 

beh louk leh 
AA-hpGAs kees-Mee 
Chet-chins po//-lik-pa^ 
Weh-jin-Mee 
Thee haA-goA yoo-baA- 

mee 

Payt weh-jin-Mee 
PoAs kyo^s-bya/t taA- 

choA pyaA-baA 
Ee aA-yowng nyoA- 

loons-^Aee 
Ee kyoAs-byaA; det 

byet-gneh - thav? 

ky6As-bya,/; shee- 

thayl-thah-lahl 
TaA-gik hlyinaA-hpoA: 

beh-lowk leh 

u 

AA-yowng hmayn- 
theQ 

w 

AA-hloon nyet-noo/ASe 
Thee hah kowngs-Mee 

K 



146 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


What are they the 


00 G| OJ 330^800 OS 


TaA-yaAn hlyin aA- 


pair? 


GCODoSdo 


hpoA; beh-lowk leh 


Have you any silk 


So 9 a8o r ^j D G GpSo 


P6A:-paAs6A:-myaA: 


'putsoes for sale? 


^ODCODJ 


yowng:-yaAn shee- 


I will inquire and 


Gg,$8cO*o6^|(D8 


KyoonoAk may:-tsit- 


let you know 


G 1 O 3 OO OO O jOj 


yooay kyaA;-pyaw- 






lik-mee 


I will give five 


Cu OQ ( > 'j G o O I o O^)l O 


HtoA ha/(-boA gnway 


rupees for it 


G08og 


gnaA:-jaAt pay;-mee 


Take this watch to 


g5)$D^0$C9jS 


Ee naAyee-gwet-koA 


be mended 


* 3 J G 3O J C OO OO o 


pyin-yaA-owng yoo- 




o^oSol 


thwaAs-lik-paA 


Can you give me 


3^]80D05)5c33?8 


DingaA: taA-jaAt-koA 


change for a 


8o]gcOD8 


aAni hning-baA-mgg- 


rupee ? 




laA: 


I have no change 


338G|$tt^ol 


A/mS-yaAn maA-shee 






baA 


I have no coppers, 


o5c6ooli)Qo5 


PisaAn maA shee-biiA, 


only four -anna 


GOODD^OIOD^ 


maAt tsee /AaA shee- 

o 


pieces 




baA-/Age 



Shooting and Fishing. 



Is there any shoot- 
ing or fishing 
here? 



1 Tho garment worn by men round the waist ; some are very handsome. 



a/t-ya/it hnik aA- 
meh; pit hkin:, 
hgnaA? hmyaA:-gin 



147 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Can you find me 
a hunter? 

I will send you a 
hunter to show 
you game? 

What game can 
you show me ? 

Do you wish to 
shoot deer or 
birds 1 



There are plenty 
of hog deer in 
the jungle and 
sometimes one 
finds hares and 
pigs 

Snipe are found 
in the rice fields 
and duck and 
teal in the lake 



0. sBoOOGOOD C>5 J}08 



G33D 8 ^ S$ 8 OO 
GOOD C>5 O^ GOT 



OOoS OOoSl 3S|o5l 
CO08II Cjo5jD8O^ 



GOOD ob Q,D3 C| o5 33 

'*"V*^ * II f~*[^ 
<^AJ K- ' II \-i^_/O 



cooS 



0880^ 



MoAksoAs taA - yo\vk 
shaA; pays hning- 
baA-mee-laAs 

y 

AA-mehs-goA hnyoon- 
pyaA-yaA-owng 
moAks6As taA-yowk- 
koA hkaw-pays-mee 

Beh aA-meh;-my6A:- 
myaA:-goA pyaA 
hning'-baA-mee-laA: 

SaAt, thaAmin, daA- 
yeh, jee-myaAs-goA 
pit- chin-MaA-laAs ; 
hgnet-myiiAs-goA 
pit - chin - th&h - 
laA: 

Taw-deh-hmaA daA- 
yeh aA-hloon myaAs- 
thee ; laA - gowngs- 
pyin taA-hkaA-taA- 
lay yoAn-hnin taw- 
wet-myaA; tway- 
daAt-thee 

Leh- byin- deh-hmaA 
myay - woot - myAA:- 
paw-^Aee; ins -deh- 
hmaA wooms-beh- 
hnin tsitsaAlee - goA 
tway-laym-mee 

K. 1 



148 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Is the jungle very 


GODDC^gDftSoOoS 


Taw myaA: -zooah 


thick? 


OOCOD8 


shoAk-ta/it-tha^-M % 


The tree jungle is 


OO S GOOD O Q 8 OOn 


Th.it -taw maA-shoAk- 


not thick but 


08 cp 008(080088 


hpoos; ^5A-yaA-dwin, 


there is tall grass 


g 0$ GOOD j) 


myit-kaAnj - hnik 


near the river 


00 jpS 


myet-taw shSe-Mee 


How many guns 


G OO $ 08 OO o5 j>8 


Thay-na^t beh-hnaA- 


have you ? 


cooSgoooS 


let shee-MaA-leh 


I have three 


j>So^8^GOO^o5oOS 


HnaA-lo^ns-byoo-thay- 


double-barrel 


coo5j>S8o5oo5 


naAt thoAns-let-hnin 


and a rifle 


oocooSgoogS 


yikpaAt taA-let shee- 


This gun is a 


ODgGOD*oSG*Do5 


Thee thay-na^t nowk- 


breechloader 


0^3coO$o58ol 


htoA: - th^,y-naAt 




000$ 


hpyit-paA-Mee 


How many cart- 


o^og oSoSSob^D 


Htoh Iweh-ayk - deh- 


ridges have you 


008 8 GOODS 00 OS 


hma& yaAn: - downg 


in that bag? 


5,8098010000 


beh-hnaA-loAnS paA- 






th&h-leh 


Put sixty cart- 


o^ooSooDobgDooSs 


HtoA thit-taA-deh- 


ridges into that 


GOODS So GOOD OO 


hmaA yaAns- downg 


box 


oogSo^oS 


chowk- seh-lowk 






hteh-lik 




You have hit 


aooB oo G ooDS o^ 


Sa^t taA-gowng-goA 


(shot) a red deer, 


9$olgcS 


hma^n-baA-byee, 


Sir 




thaAhken 


It cannot go far, 


GGOOD05@8C 


Chay-dowk kyo^S \gh 


for its leg is 


G08gDOCgD8|S 


way-zooaA m&h 


broken 


008 


thwa^:-hning-boo: 



149 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation 


A teal has fallen 


06 O oSoO GOOD 8 


TsitsaAlee taA-gowng 


in the grass near 


a^ostpgoSoS 


Ing-naAs-hrnaA myet- 


the pond 


obcgogjGOog 


pin-deh-MoA kyaA- 






lay-byee 


There are some 


olSGOODOb^OGODD 


Wa As - daw- deh - hmaA 


jungle- fowl in 


goS^psgoooS 


taw-jet-myaAs shee- 


the bamboos 




thee 


Can you catch 


(11 f* *\( ~\r* f~Y~\ r"* f** 1 
vAJ \& oJI ^) \_f o {J-jt O Vx 1 O 


HtoA chowngs-dwin 


fish in that 


^D8CQJDJSOD 


gnaAs - myaAs -goA 


stream ? 


OOD3 


hmy aA2 - hning-/ Aa A- 


What is the best 


^JDSOD 3D GOODSS 


HmyaAs - zaA aA - 


bait? 


s^8ooc6oo8co 


kowngS-zoAns beh- 






fAins leh 


Bring a rod and 


5|D80000oS^5JD 


HmyaAs-daAn-taA-ziiiS- 


some bait with 


ODaDgajOODra 


hnin hmyaAs-zaA 


you 




aA-choA yoo-laA- 


The best bait is 


05J,SGCOD05^D 


Tee-hnin lowk-myaAs 


worms and mag- 


Q!DgOD3DGOOoS 


hmyaAs-zaA aA- 


gots 


aqSgSoooS 


kowngs-zoAns hpyit- 






thee 


If you cannot get 


CjS3o5oG)gSoOj 


LaA-gowngs-goA maA 


them, use paste 


^^88C0^ ~ 


yaA - hning -hlyin, 






moAn-zayns goA 






thoAns 


You cannot hunt 


OoSogoOjSoOJDS 


Sin maA shee - hlyin, 


tigers without 


^JDSO^OO^OSJS 


kya Ao-myaAs-goA 


elephants 


Of 


maA lik-hniog-boo: 



150 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


You can watch 


0033 ol OO 6 o GOT 


NyaA aA-hkaA thit-pin- 


for them at 


030o8o893GO~18 


baw- gaA lin - zin 


night on a stage 


G$J8oOpS 


hmaA tsowng - nay - 


in a tree 




hning-Mee 


It is, however, 


eg Gp 03 8 3303 08 


7%oA-yaA-dwin, i\h- 


weary work and 


o$8g^(2o^o5 


hloon pim-ba^ns- 


the mosquitoes 


oopj> 


yooay chin kik-thee 


bite 






How long have 


00 pS 0^ OS Ob ^3 


J%ee tik - hteh - hmaA 


you lived in this 


G$00p5o0300o5 


nay-/AaA-ha/* beh- 


circle ? l 


G003o5g3@00 


lowk kyfiA-byee-leh 



Public Works. 

Come here with 
your hoe 



Do not dig there 



Dig wider 

How many men 
arc wanted to 
cut the jungle ? 



OOgSo^CODOD 



OOJ a5c333oO l 8 

c^oS 

G003 Q o5 G] G333 



33 



0^^0000 



Powk-toos-goA yoo- 
yopay dee-goA laA- 

g eh 
HoA-hmaA maA too:- 

hnin 
Kyeh-owng too:-lik 

Taw hkoAk - yaA - 
owng loo beh-hnaA 
yowk aA-loA shee- 
MaA-leh 



1 NOTE. oSo5 tik, generally translated circle, corresponds to our word 
'hundred' in the divisions of a county. The word COD hah, thing, which 
occurs in the last sentence, is a very common colloqiral idiom and 
corresponds to our word fact. 



151 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Six men are 
wanted for road 
work 

Send three men 
to help the car- 
penters 



Take seven men 
to build the 
bridge 

What kind of soil 
is it there '( 

It is sandy, Sir 



you 
stiff 



Where did 
find this 
clay? 

This ground is ex- 
ceedingly hard 

The hoe will break, 
so get a pickaxe 



Remove the stones 
with a crowbar 



G (go o5 G oco o5 cj 



GOD D OS 



GODDoS 



ooc 



co 



OO G 33C OOG 



col 



00 



9 6 8jS 0^8 



LaAn; lo/<k-yaAn loo- 
chowk-yowk loA-jin- 
thee 

Lettha/jma/t:-myfiA ;- 
goh koo-nyee-yah- 
owng loo - tho/tn: - 
yowk - ko/i hloot- 
lik 

TaA-daA; sowk-yaAn 
loo hkoohnaA-yow T Iv 
hkr.w-thwa/!i;-da\y 

HoA-hmaA beh my ay 



leh 
Theh - myay mya/js - 

baA-Mee, thaAhken 
1'Aee myay-zay;-go/t 

beh-hmiiA tway-Ma/- 

leh 

myay a^hloon- 

daA-ya/i 



Powk-too: kyoAs-mee 
tsofo-loA po\vk-too:- 
yoo- 



Kyowk-myaA: - goA 
tha/jn- taA-y coins - 
hnin too;-swaA-lik 



152 

English. Burmese Pronunciation. 


Blast the rock 


GOOID OOKZJoOOCQOo 


Kyowk - kees - goA 




^SooloSg 


yaAns - hnin hpowk - 






hkweh 


Putaside all stones 


33 GOOD o5 33 3 8 a 8 


AA-sowk aA-GAn:-hnin 




L- J" e 





fit for building 


GOoSGOODGODJDoS 


taw-^Aaw kyowk- 




q]D8CODC3o5^D^ 


myaAs-goA taA-hpet- 




cfoSoS 


hmaA tsoo-poAn-lik 


The space is not 


OOD8Q G $QD 


HtaAs-yaAn nay-yaA 


sufficient 


GCODoSo^S 


maA lowk hpoo? 


Level 30 ft. fur- 


G GCOD 05 


Pay thoAns-zeh lowk 


ther back 


q$Do$GdS}ie 


nowk - AoA toAs - 




gDDGSSDSgoqS 


yooay nyee-nyaA- 




ol 


owng pyoo-loAk-paA 


Whenlcalledyou, 


OoSo^ GOTOODCOOOD 


jPAin-goA hkaw kaAlaA 


why did you not 


gdj o GOo.8cocb 


baA-pyoo-loA maA 


answer ? 




htooS-/AaA-leh 


As the ground is 


G^ssog^Gc^jooogS 


Myay aA-hloon pyaw- 


very soft you 


j>SqjggD8Cp8 


^Aise-hnin pyeen- 


must lay planks 


o^oSojS|opS 


byaAs- myfiA:-goA 






hkins-chaA-yaA-mee 


Bring the cord 


33G330DJD05^05 


AA-chay aA - lyfiA - goA 


and pegs for lay- 


^s)$(c3So$o5 


hmaAt-chaA-yaAn 


ing out the foun- 


^]D8COOO 


kyoAs-hnin paAnet 


dation 




myuAs yoo-geh 


Must this work 


OD0^330^500G% 


TAee aA-loAk yaA-nay 


be finished to- 


J8G330SC^8C) 


pyees - owng loAk - 


day ? 


OOSCODS 


ya^-mee-laA: 


There is not 


ODpSoDgjoSc^SoD 


TAee thaAyoot-twin 


enough sand in 


OGODDoSo^g 


theh maA lowk hpoo: 


this mortar 







153 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


There is too much 


00 g|o5 02606^ (jp8 


ThaAy dot- twin htoAns 


lime in it 


og^SoopS 


myaA;-loons-^Aee 


The lime is not 


/^^"O f\ r* /~v\ ~\ ^ O *">"* 1 1 

CQoG G OOOCoODoll 


HtoAn: maA kowngs 


good. What 


oo 8 3 a oo CD CQ 


boos ; beh htoAn:- 


kiln did it come 




boA-hmaA leh 


from? 






The plastering 


336GOOO^6oops^o 


IngaAday king-#Aee 


must be done 


GOOGOOOjOOjogG] 


hmaA, thay-May 


carefully 


opS 


chaA-jaA pyoo-yaA- 






mee 


Unless the timber 


OO 8 ODD 80^ G^|> 


Thit-thaAs-goA yay- 


is properly earth- 


GOOo68GOOo68o 


naAn kowngs-gowngs 


oiled the white 


oqoS o^]6 (Q^J^O 


maA thoAk-hlyin 


ants will eat it 


000500808Q05 


chaA-myahs tet-tsaAs- 






laymmee 


W T hite ants do not 


ooiS8oo8s)6g|6o oo 

oJ j* u 


Kyoon-^Ait-hnin pyins- 


eat iron-wood or 


0^8^JOS0008 


gaA-doAs chaA-myaA: 


teak 


00080^8 


maA tsuAs-daAt- 






hpoos 


Will you have 


o^ooS ^600 o5 


DaAnee-bet-hnin thek- 


thatch or shin- 


0006^8 op^ 0008 u 


keh moAs-mee-laAs ; 


gles on the roof? 


cgoo^oSoj g 


/AoA-maA-hoAk, py- 




3^5 ^oS^ 6^8 


een oAk-kyoot-hnin 




OpS 0008 


moAs-mee-lriA: 


Tiles are difficult 


;35o5^o5^jD8ooc5 


OAk-kyoot-myaAs teh 


to obtain 


|OOOpS 


yaA-geh-^Aee 


Bring ine the com- 


O2$ol5,6<sgc^68 


KoompaA-hnin myay- 


pass and chain 


o6(^8o^a^ccoo^> 


ding-thaAn-j6A:-goA 






yoo-laA-geh 



154 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


I forgot them and 


CQGCOJOC^Ggo^g 


May-yaw-loA myay- 


left them in the 


^1 0,0 ooj $cj SG $ 


ding 1 -yoAn - hmaA 


works office 


cooS 


kyaAn-yit nay-Mee 


Planting. ooo5^o5g:i 


How many coolies 


CC> 08 CO o5 j> S 


Koolee beh - hnaA - 


have you? 


GOODoS^COCb 


yowk shee-/AaA-leh 


How long have 


Oflcgcoososs 


Thoo-doA mowng- 


they worked 


oS ^ D Oq o5 OO COD 


min:-zee-hmaA loAk 


with you ? 


oo o5 G co o o5 


thaA-haA beh-lo\vk 




gofco 


kyaA-byee-leh 


Are they good 


GQCq 050^8^005,6 


AA-loAk-koA weeyee- 


workers ? 


co.o5ooo5 (2)00 


yaA-hnin loAk-taAt- 




COD8 


kyaA-^AaA-lah: 


Muster the coolies 


335 $0:0,00308^08 


Ayn-naA:-hmaA koo- 


near the bunga- 


C O^Scf OOD8 


lee-myaA:-g( A tsoo- 


low 


c^oS 


y6An:-yooay htaA:-lik 


How much pay 


Crjc8ojD800C^o5 


Koolee-myaA: taA-goA- 


does each get a 


OQjSG^S8330 


hlyin nay-ding: aA- 


day ? 


oo o5 ccoo o5 G| 


hkaA beh-lowk yaA- 




co o5 oo oo 


daAt-thaA-leh 


Each man must 


O^oScOGCODoS OO 


Koolee-taA-yowk taA- 


dig forty holes 


G^COjSogSSGCOS 


nay-hlyin twin: layJ- 


a day? 


OOo58crjgG|OoS 


zeh zee too:-yaA- 






mee 


Do not pull up the 


330SCOGC080JOS05 


AA-pin -gaAlay: - 


young plants 


o^^ojoS^S 


myaA:-goA sweh- 






yooay maA-hnoAk- 






hnin 



155 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Mark the places 
where they are 
to dig the holes 

Trample the earth 
down in plant- 
ing 

Go and fetch the 
plants from the 
seed-beds 

Take up the plants 
with the earth 

After planting 
them give them 
plenty of water 



3DOS tfl 
OODCO 



goSsoo 330600 

G CO SCjjD O^OJ32 



o^GG) GOODO 



l'\vin: too:-yaA-mee- 

nay-yaA-myaAs-g-oA 

hmaAt-pyaA-lik 

s-goA tsik- 
myay-go/( 

chee-hnin hnayk- 

nin:-lik 
Py6As-gin:-gaA aA-pin- 

gaAlay:-myaA:-goA 

thwaA: yoo-geh 
AA-pin-goA myay paA- 

owng hnoAk-paA 
Tsik-pyee:-hmaA yay 

kowng:-gowng; 

lowng:-yooay pays- 

lik 



Arrival in the Country. (y^og 

(For Vocabularies, see p. 61.) 



Here is my lug- 
gage 

Where is the cus- 
tom-house 1. 

Bring that trunk 
to the custom- 
house 

I have nothing 
dutiable 



ooj )jj5o 000 o5 ooj 



3D G ODD o5 O^ 05 

oooSipcb 

C^GOOO^D 33G OOD OS 



33GOOD 

ool 



KyoonoAk woon-zaA- 

leh dee-hmaA shee- 

Mee 
AA-kowk-tik beh- 

hmaA leh 
HoA thittaA aA-kowk- 

tik-thoA yoo-gch 

AA-kowk-hk\veh-yaAn- 
oAksa/t miiA paA 



156 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Here are (take) my 


G2j$5coo9jp8aa 


Kyoon o^k thaw-myaAs 


keys 


olcooo 


yoo-baA-daw 


Call a carriage 


C^OOD80D88GoTo] 


Ya^hta^o taA-zees 






hkaw-baA 


There is no car- 


G|OOD80D88gjo||ol 


YaAhtaAs taA-zees- 


riage 




hmyaA maA shee-baA 


What is the fare 


O^ 33 O OO o5 


thoh aA-hkaA beh- 




to 1 


cccooScb 


lowk, leh 


Tell the driver to 


C)OOD8fl30 d}. 


YaAhta^s -hmoos - goA 


take me to 


GGD8ogD8(^ o 


thoh mowngs- 




c(cp 0^060] 


thwa^s-loA pyaw- 






Hk-paA 


Tell him to drive 


8 2 GI oo D 8 oj o g 


MeeS-yaAhtaAs-yoAn- 


quickly to the 


gGOD88C^ o GgD 


thoh mya^n-myjiAn 


railway station 


oSoSol 


mowngS-loA pyaw- 






lik-paA 


He says the bag- 


0OC005GC08C8 


Woon-zaA-leh lays- 


gage is too heavy 


QDg$S38GCoT 


loons - thee - hnin 


(for a carriage), 


gDOoSG|QoDgg 


hlehs-baw-hmaA-tin 


it must be put 




yaA-mee, deh 


on a cart 






You must take it 


@t(cgogD8G)$88 


Pyee-myoA- thoh 


to the station for 


G[OODSCCXJC3gD8 


thwaAs-yaAn mees- 


Prome, not that 


Gj OO II O O.J o O OO 


ya^htaAs- yoAn-goA 


for Pegu 


i^v-\ ^v\ Q V f\ s~Y~\f"\f\~\ O 

^7V * "^ 1 T T 1 ^-^V ^ ^TT 1 


yoo-thwaAs-yaA- 






mee; PaAgoAs- 






mygh-thqh htwet- 






yaAn yohn-thoh 






ma,h yoo-yaA 



157 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I wish to catch 
the steamer that 
goes from Pro me 
to Bamaw 



When does the 
steamer start ? 

Please show me 

my berth 
Is this berth taken? 



I will engag-e the 
whole cabin 

Put this bag in the 
cabin 

What is the num- 
ber of your cabin ? 

What is the fare ? 

How many days 
is it from Prome 
to Bamaw ? 

Are the mosqui- 
toes troublesome 
(do they bite)? 



ggSgoOOOGGDg 



GOOD 8 



oocb 

g$ 5 ' 

coJoSol 



Ic^oo^ 



OO 



GOOD 
CODS 



co^olooS 



[6 



5 



ogSco 
o^ oS co 



oS 



oo 



CODS 



Pyee-myoA-gaA BaA- 
maw - myoA- thoh 
th wa A : - thaw - mee i - 
thims-baw-goAhmee- 
owng thwaAs-jin-^Aee 

Mees - thimsbaw beh- 
aA-chayn -lowk 
htwet-thaA-leh 

KyoonoAk aA-hkaAns- 

goA pyaA-lik-paA 
Thee aA-hkaAns-goA 

taA- zoAn-taA-yowk- 

kaA yoo-byee-laAs 
KyoonoAk taA-hkaAnj- 

loAnS-g-oA yoo-baA- 

mee 
TAee ayk-koA aA- 

hkaAn;-deh-hma A 

htaAs-lik 
A/i-hkaAns naAmbaAt 

baA leh [leh 

KaA-doA-gaA beh-lowk. 
Pyee-myoA-gaA BaA- 

maw-myoA yowk-- 

owng beh-hnaA yet 

lowk shee- mise-leh 
Chin kik-taAt thaA- 

laAs 



158 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


They do not bite 


GOODSSgOjgor^oS 


Sowngs oodoo-hnik 


in the cold sea- 


c^ii^eiggafgooD 


maA kik-hpoos; moAs 


son only in the 


o^oScooSoogS 


oodoo-hnik MaA kik- 


rains 




taAt-thee 


Have they mos- 


ooGC&xpgSccoDS 


Thiniobaw-hmaA chin- 


quito curtains on 


^ OO CO D 8 II O^ 


do wng shee-#AaA-laAs; 


board, or should 


c c o 
O O^ O O CO S\ $ 


MoA-maA-hoAk, weh- 


I buy them ? 


GODDSSOOSCOO? 


yaAn kowngS-mee-laAs 


They had better 


S:ooco53tt>3o;g: 


MeeJ- thimsbaw-gaA 


be bought in 


gtjpSgDaaoqSocp 


sins-byee:-hmaA 


Rangoon as they 


COp5j,SG) $09g 


myaAz-zooaA aA- 


will be useful 


OgSoC^CjiGODDSg 


th6An:-kyaA-^Aee- 


after leaving- the 


w^ 


hnin YaAngoAn- 


boat 




myoA-dwin weh- 






yaAn ko\vng;-mee 


What do you call 


gSc^ooStp^aogS 


Myit hoA-bet-hmaA 


that pagoda on 


oqcp 8 c^ oo o5 j> oS 


shee-Me hpaA-yaA:- 


the other side of 


GOTOOCO 


goA beh-hneh hkaw- 


the river ? 




^AaA-leh 


Where is the 


G^OqCX^opgOOoS 


Shway-DaAgoAn hpaA- 


Shway DaAgoAn 


U3CD 


yaA; beh-hmaA, leh 


Pagoda ? 






Can you buy me 


OO]S58[oCo GOODC^ 


KyoonoAk-hpoA myins- 


a good pony 1 


OOGOODCCO OO5 


gowng: taA-gowng- 




|5ol 0^003 


goA weh-hning- baA- 






mee-laA; 


Do they shoe the 


[268 tjjDo8 OO OD 


Myin:-mya/iS - go A 


ponies ? 


oooSoocoDS 


thaAn-hkwaA taAt 






thaA-laA; 



159 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Saddle the pony 


g8c^$8!8a>8b 


Myins-goA koAns-hnee: 




ol 


tin-geh-baA 


(1) wish to engage 


[ogDC^ OO GCO8OO 


B a A m a A loo-gaA- 


a Burmese ser- 


GOOD o5o3 c] 8 3| 


lay; taA-yowk-koA 


vant 
What wages does 
he ask? 


00 

co o oo oScooDoS 

GOODSSOOOO 


hgnaAs-jin-/Aee 
LaA-gaA beh-lowk 
towng:-MaA-leh 



NOTE On arrival in the country a servant is required. 
It is usual to engage a native of India who speaks English. 

The Railway. S^ooDScoSsii 

(For Vocabulary, see p. 61.) 
English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 



To the station 


88^0038^ 


Mee s-ya/ihtaAj - yoAn- 






goA 


Here is my lug- 


Gg|$So $>(: 


KyoonoAk woonzaAleh 


gage 


cpj-jooeS 


dee-hmaA shee-/Aee 


I wish to register 


ooj$8o$ocopSc^ 


KyoonoAk woonzaA- 


my luggage 


^S^ 5 ^ 800 ^ 


leh-goA 1 ree-jit-tsaA- 


for - 




ree loAk-chin-Mee 


The luggage is 


0$33|^OOpS 


Woon aA-chayn poA- 


over weight 




thee 


Get my luggage 


OOJ^5oCO^G08ol 


KyoonoAk woon-goA 






yoo-payS-baA 


Here is the ticket 


oo o5 ^o5 oo ^ yo^ 


Ijet-hmstAt dee-hma/i 



1 In foreign words it is often necessary to use Q rah as r and not y. 



160 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


How many pack- 


33CC>5 CO o5 jf OCJ 5 CO 


AA-htoAk beh-hnaA- 


ages are there ? 




^toAk, leh 


Where is the wait- 


GODS>S8COo5oDcb 


Tsowng-gaAn; beh- 


ing-room ? 




hmaA, leh 


Where is the book- 


cooS^oS 0^1 co o5 


Let-hmaA/-hkaAn- 


ing office ? 


ODCO 


yoAn beh-hmaA 2 leh 


Where is the re- 


COgoSSOOoSQDCO 


TsaA-bweh-gaAn: beh- 


freshment room ? 




hmaA, leh 


Where is the lava- 


G <^> 3 CO G CO o CO QD 


Nowk-hpay; 3 beh- 


tory ? 


CpCQ 


hmaA, leh 


Where is the train 


O^OCOSGOODG) 


goA thwaAs-/Aaw- 


for ? 


0038030593$ 


yaAhtaAs beh-hmaA 




COCO 


shee-MaA-leh 


Are you going by 


CK>g$S|033g$Seco8 


AA-myaAn-yaAhtaAs- 


the express ? 


OpScODS 


hnin thwaAj-mee-laAs 


Show me a time- 


33^^Q)OOJD80go5 


AA-chayn-zaA-yaA8- 


table 


o?gol 


g'wet-koA pyaA-baA 


When does the 


C|COD8COO5 GCOO 


YaAhtaAs 4 behda\y 


train start ? 


og 060000 


ht\vet-thaA-leh 


Can I book through 


OC^ G CO D oS 


goA dowk-showk- 


to? 


G^DOSCOOS^OS 


let-hmaAt hkaAn- 




6&oo co3 

p 


ning-^AaA-laAi 



1 Here is an example of the noun spoken of being used as its own 
numeral auxiliary instead of one of those given on pp. 79, 80. 

2 The verb 8 sh8i$ is often omitted. 

nowk-hpayS really means the back precincts of a house, 



i. e. rear. 

* OOO5GCOO beh-daw is a contracted form of OQo5cCOD33ol beh 



161 



Enlish. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



A first- (second-) 


C^OgQ (^0800) 


goA P aA-htaAmaA 


class single ticket 


COO 8 CJDOODoCO OO 


(dootieeyaA) daAns 


to - 


goScoGODSccD? 


aA -th waAs -let- hmaA t 






taA-zowng, la As 


Return ticket 


3300D333C005 


AA-thwaAs-a^-pyaAn- 




ooS 


let-hmaAt 


How much is it ? 


OOOD GODDOQOO 


Beh-lowk, leh 


We want a sleep 


3SoGj C] COD SOOI ^ 8 


Ayk-y a/m-y aAhtaA ; 


ing carriage 


oScSoopS 

t 1 dj 


kyoonoAk - doA loA - 






thee 


A non - smoking 


G008C880GOODOS 


Says-layk maA thowk- 


compartment 


G^tODDCjOODS 


yaA-Maw-yaAhta/iS 


Is this the train 


OO^GlCODS CO 


TAee yaAhtaAs goA 


for ? 


OOD 8 G) $ <S\ OO 


thwaAs-yaAn yaA- 




CODS 


htaAs, laAs 


Do I change any- 


occtcpcp93qQK>: 


TaA-nay-y a A -yaA - 


where ? 


GD8^0^COD3 


hmaA yaAhtaAs 






pyowng-yaA-mee-laAs 


Where must I 


c8cODoQc)OoS 


goA thwaAs-yaAn 


change for ? 


QD Q CODSG^DSoQ 


beh-hmaA yaAhtaAs 




tt^CO 


p yowng 1 - yaA - mee- 






leh 


Is this seat en- 


OD^O^ScpC^C^g 


TAee hting-yaA loo 


gaged ? 


CODS 


yoo-byee-laAs [boos 


There is no room 


G^GpO^S 


Nay -yaA maA shee- 


Call the guard 


OoS^GoTol 


GaAt-boA-goA hkaw- 






baA 




i 


The train is just 


G|CODSCglCX)Ogo5Qg 


YaAhtaAs yiiA-hkoo- 


going to start 




beh htwet mee 



BUKMESE 8.-T. 



162 

English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Open the door 


c6ol8$ol 


TaA-gaA; hpwin-bfiA 


Open the window 


gooSg^So) 


PaA-dinS hpwin-baA 


Here is the station 


SSCICOD^COCSOD^J 


Mee-yaAhtaAs-yoAn 


Do we stop here ? 


COCjS 


dee-hmaA shSe-Mee 
Dee-hmaA yaAt-thaA- 






laAs 


Do \vealigh there? 


COcScpOoSS^OcS 


Dee-hmaA sins-yaA- 




CODS 


mee-laAs 


D o we changecar- 


009DC(003ScgD5 


Dee-hmaA yaAhtaAs 


riages here ? 


G)QCSCOD3 


pyowng:-yaA-mee- 






laA: 


How long do we 
stop here ? 


CO j$^ DOO oS G COD o5 
(ttpCjSoOCd 


Dee-hmaA beh-lowk- 
kyaA yaAt-thaA-leh 


Five minutes 


C |oQ$O 


GnaAs meenit 


My luggage is lost 


OgrtSoScCjpoS 


KyoonoAk woon 


When it arrives 


G fep CrS G OCO 33 S>] 


Yo A\ k - 1 haw- a h - h k a A 


forward it on 


oo ool 


goA poA-baA 


to- 






Give meyour ticket 
[To superior] 
[Do. to inferior] 
Here it is [To su 
perior] 
[L)o. to inferior] 


O C [CO D 8 CO OO O CO 
GOSol 

08200 oS^oScoS 


HkenbyaAs let-hmaAt 
payS-baA 
Min: let-hmaAt pay; 
Dee-hmaA baA 

Dee-hmaA 



163 
Specimen of Burmese Handwriting. 

rayer. 



[Burmese is written from left to right, and the written characters are 
a copy of the printed ones, more or less close according to the skill and 
care of the writer. See p. 22.] 



CV77? <? < 



', cfey 



(' 



\J rtfli > 

O7GB 97 s / 



U 

* The transliteration with the English words interlined is given on the 
next page. 



164 
The Lord's Prayer. 



Transliteration of the Burmese words with the English translation. 

Kowngs-gin-boAn-hnik shee-daw-moo-Maw aA-kyoonoAk-toA 
In Heaven which art our 

aA-hpaAi koAdaw-ee naAmaA-daw-aAs yoA-May-lays-myaAt- 
Father, Thy name to hallowing 

chin? shee-baA-zay-Aawu ning-ngaAn-daw tee-dcnvng-baA-zay- 
be ; Kingdom come (lit. may be es- 

Mawu aA-loA-daw-#Aee kowngs-o-ins-boAn-hnik pyee-zoAn-thaA- 
tablished) (and) will in Heaven is fulfilled 

geh-/AoA myay-gyee:-baw-hmaA pyee-zoAn-baA-zay-Mawn 
as on earth may be fulfilled ; 

aA-thet-mway;-lowk-Maw ah-sah-goh aA-kyoonoAk-to/i-aA; 
life nourish sufficient food to us 

ya^nay payS-thaAnaA; - daw-moo-bfiAn Thoo-taAbaA:-Mee 
this day give ; (by) others 

aA-kyoono^k-toA-goA pyit-hma/<s-//jaw aA-bpyit-mya^J-g-oA 
against us committed trespasses 

aA-kyoonoAk-to/i hpyay-hloot-thaA-geh-/AoA aA-kyoonoAk-toA-ee 
we forgive as our 

aA-pyit-myaAs-goAhpyay-hloot-taw-moo-baAii aA-pyit-thw ays- 
trespasses forgive': into tempta- 

zowng-ya/i-/AoA maA lik maA paA-zay-beh nuiA-kowngs- 
tion without leading from evil 

/Aaw-aA-Amoo-aA-yaA-hmaA keh-hnoAk-ta\v-moo-ba/iii aA- 
things deliver (us). 

kyowngs-moo-gaA; ning-ngaAn-daw-hnin hpoAns-taAg-oA; 
For (these reasons) ; kingdom and glory 

1 aAnoobaw-daw-/Aee aA-tsin-aA-myeh koA-daw-hnik shee-daw- 
(and) power for ever and ever tothee are. 

moo-ee-tha/idee: 2 u aAminii 
Amen. 

1 A^n66baw is a Burmanised Pali word. 

8 ThaAdeeS is a very strong assertive affix which implies 'for certain '. 



165 



Money, Weights and Measures. 



Money, ofilju 

The present coinage of Burma is the same as that used throughout 
British India. 

BUKMESE MONEY WITH THE ENGLISH AND AMERICAN VALUES. 

(Subject to the fluctuations in the rate of exchange.) 
NOTES. English Bank-notes and Drafts are current. 
GOLD COINS. The English sovereign and half-sovereign are current 
and are not subject to the fluctuations in the rate of exchange. 

SILVER COINS. 
Burmese. English. American. 



i rupee 



8d. 

2d. = 
NICKEL COIN. 



33 cents. 
16 . 



i anna = 



2 cents. 



BRONZE COIKS. 

Burmese. English. American. 
\ anna = - 2 d. = i cent. 

Also | anna, and T \ anna. 



16 annas = i rupee. 
15 rupees = i. 



ENGLISH AND AMERICAN MONEY REDUCED TO BURMESE. 

Rupees. Annaa 



| anna = 6 pies, 



Dols. 


Cents. 


250 


o 


125 


o 


5 





25 





20 


o 


15 


o 


5 


o 


2 


50 


I 


25 


I 







62* 




50 




25 




6 




2 




I 




0} 


pies, 


x anna 



750 





375 


o 


150 


o 


75 


o 


60 





45 


o 


15 





7 


8 


3 


12 


3 


O 


i 


H 


i 


8 




12 




6 




3 




t 



3 P'es. 



166 



Certain words applicable to the old system still come into use. 
The Rupee is called OQlS kyaM. 
| Rupee ., cloQo gnaftS-mooS. 

i ,, ,, QOO ma/jfc. 

J- ., 08 mooS. 

rV ,, (anna) ,, 5 pe h. 
' 1*2 Anna (P ie ) ^8 ping. 
NOTE. The mark over a numeral also denotes ooS thit and 08 pi. 

Rs. 506 n 7 || 2 = ^o(s ^ j, 506 rupees, 7 annas, and 2 pies. 
All copper coins, however, are designated as oo5o5 pi-sa7m. 
Correctly speaking the rupee (eight-anna piece) should he GCOcQS 
layS-mooS, but the old Burmese OO|8 kyaftt was worth more than the 
Indian rupee. 

The numeral affix for all coins (except the rupee) is [oD8 pyah', and for 
the rupee OO|8 kyaftt. 

OoSoOGCOofoDo pi-s-a/m layJ-bya/S, four pies. 
OoloGCOoODlS dinga^S layS-jii^t, four rupees. 
Eight annas may be either QOO shit-peh, or c]O gna'tS-mooS. 
Four annas GODoC) layS-beh, or OOOD5 ta/j-ma/tt. 

Before the country was annexed there was no coinage and silver was used 
by weight; the Burmese 'kya/tt' is said to have been 252-75 grs. Troy. 

Weights. 33Gco3n 

The weights start with the OlScglo chin-yoouyS, still used by silver- 
smiths. It is a small red seed of which there are two kinds, O|G<oJo 
chin-yooayS, Abrusprecatorius, GQK73o yooayS-jeeJ, Adinanthera pavonina. 

2 OlScOo chin-yooayS = i G^o^o yooa}'-jcoS. 

3 Gg^(c$|8 yooay-jeeS = i c) peh (pea). 
2 o peh = i <^ moo?.. 

2 OS mooS = i QOO ma/it. 

4 008 ma/it = i OCflS kya/tt. 

5 cr^jS kyaftt = i ^o5 boft. 

20 o5 boA = i ScODD paykthafc, or 

a/t-hkwet. 



167 

The paykthaA viss or hkwet is 3 T Vff lb. avoirdupois, or about 3 Ib. 2 oz. 
Tho term OoS hkwet is substituted for SoGOD paykthaft in connection 

with any capital number above ten ; as, 33Oo5jj>8cOo5 aft-hkwet-hnaft- 
seh, 20 viss. 

In abbreviated writing 



One peh is b. 

9- 



One mooj is 



One ma/tt is D. 
One kyaAt is 8. 



Measures of Length. 

The best to start from is the 33Oo8 aft-thit or finger's-breadth. 

c)30o6 n&hl-th\i (5 thit) = OO^oStM-moAk (fist with thumb 

shut down). 
J|S 008 shit-thit (8 thit) = OO^ oS taA-mik (fist with thumt 

stuck out). 

OOo5j>Boo8 seh-hna/j-<Ait (12 thit) = OOOgD (aA-htwaA v span). 
|>SoOD hna/j-htwaA (2 htwaft) = C3OCOODS ta/t-downg (cubit) 

CCOSGOODC layS-downg (4 cubits) = OOCO ta/j-la/tn (fathom). 
oaScCODS hkoo-hnaA-downg (7 

cubits, sometimes 8 cubits) = ODOOD taA-ta*. 

OODCOGOOD ta/itaA-htowng (1000) = OOoSStafc-ding. 
The c8 5 ting is very nearly two English miles. 
Now the English measures are generally used and understood. 

Measures of Capacity. 

O OODoS i tsa/i-leh = (i pint). 

9 OCOoS 4 tsafc-leh = o (y^S i py66 (half-gallon). 

J (opS 2 pyge = o OQoS i tsa/j-yoot (i gallon). 

J Og^OD 2 tsa/j-y65t = o 8o5 i tsayt (2 gallons). 

J 8o5 2 tsayt = OQ i hkweh (half-bushel). 

J ^ 2 hkweh = o OoSo i tin: (2 bushel baskets). 



168 

Square Measure. 

The English acre (QOO aykaft) is now the standard, but the Burmese 
had what they called a c"hoo8o(c3 gna&S-dinS-jeh, or 'five basket sow', 
which was also called oo5 peh and equalled 1200 square cubits or 
1.75 acres 

Measures of Time. 

English measures of time are prevalent, but the old unit was the $DQ 
naft-yee, which was probably the Pali $D na/jdee, or, $38 na&llee, 
a measure of capacity used like an hour-glass or water-clock. These' 
vessels varied in shape, but the Burmese counted 60 to the 24 hours. 

Formerly day and night were divided into four periods each, distin- 
guished by beat of drum. The single beat, OOOI o5oo ta/-jet-teeS, was at 
9 o'clock in the morning; the double beat, S>8o|o5o8o hnaft-jet-teeS, at 
12 noon ; the GOoOjoScOo thoTmS-jet-teeS at 3 p.m.; and GCOoOIOOOOo 
layS-jet-tee: at 6 p.m. 

Amongst the country people time was calculated in various ways, such as 
'first cockcrow ', (o^oSSoOO^ kyet-ooS-doon, about 2 a.m. (r^oS^GoT 
kyeh-nee-baw, when the red star rises (morning); 3DDQQDOOOO a'tyoTm-det, 
dawn ; OOGoSsSooSoS thaft-gneh-ayk-sayt, children's bedtime; COc$CCp8 
6j loo-byoA-hleh-jayn, young man's courting time. 33DQOD or more 
correctly 33QC1D is the Pali 33QGC03D Aruno, Aurora the daicn. 

The expression COoSiO^oOOCOoOjoS hta/nninS-o&S-taft-lo/tuS-jet, the 
time it takes to boil a pot of rice, is often used to denote a short time, and 
there are many others too numerous to mention. 

Postal Rates. 

The rates of postage between Burma and the United Kingdom are as 
follows, viz, 

From Burma to the United Kingdom : LETTERS, I anna (id.) per \ oz. 
POSTCARDS, i anna, reply 2 annas ; PRINTED PAPERS, \ anna per 50 grammes 
(|d. per 2 oz., about). 

From the United Kingdom to Burma: LETTERS, id. per oz. ; POST- 
CARDS, id.; PRINTED TAPERS, \d. per 2 oz. 



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