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Full text of "Burmese self-taught (in Burmese and Roman characters) with phonetic pronunciation. (Thimm's system.)"

PL 

3933 

S3 

1911 

MAIN 




UCB 









1 




I 



MARLBOROUGH'S SELF-TAUGHT SERIEQ 



Burmese SelNTaugt\t 

(IN BURMESE AND ROMAN CHARACTERS) 
WITH 

PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 

(THIMM'S SYSTEM.) 



BY 



R. F. St. A. St. JOHN, Hon. M.A. (Oxon.), 

Author of " A Burmese Reader." 
Sometime Lecturer on Burmese, Universities of Oxford and Cambridge) 




Printed and Made in Great Britain 

E. Marlborough & Co. Ltd., 49a & 51-53, Old Bailey, 
LondoH) »E.C4 ,,, 

[all i^IOHTs KESfcP.VE2>,^ 



"] 



LETCHWORTH 

THE GARDEN CITY PRESS LTD., 

PRINTERS. 



Second Impression 
1936 



CARp-rsiTIER 



" P/.3T33 

^3 



PREFACE. 



1^ 



''PHIS manual of Burmese is designed to serve the doubk 
J- purpose of a text-book for students, missionaries, officers, 
civil servants, etc., and a handbook for tourists, travellers, 
and other temporary visitors to Burma. 

For those whom the pleasures of travel or the calls of trade 
and commerce bring into touch with native Burmans, a very 
extensive and comprehensive vocabulary of necessary and useful 
words is supplied — nouns, verbs, adjectives and other parts of 
speech — together with corresponding collections of colloquial 
phrases and sentences of an equally practical and useful 
character. These are all classified under subject-titles for easy 
reference, and the phonetic pronunciation of the Burmese words 
is added in a third column, in accordance with Marlborough's 
popular phonetic system. Thus, a tourist, traveller, or trader, 
with no previous knowledge of the language, can readily make 
himself understood amongst the Burmese by means of this 
volume. 

On the other hand, the opening section, pp. 9-23, and the 
outline of Grammar, pp. 107-126, will meet the additional 
needs of students and all who desire a closer acquaintance with 
the language. 

The method of presenting the English words and sentences, 
the Burmese equivalents, and the phonetic pronunciation of the 
Burmese words, side by side, will not only enable the book to 
be used by stray visitors to the country, but assist those who 
intend to make Burma their ^bere of work and enable them 
to learn the language in the only way in which it ought to be 
learned. 

The underlying idea of the system of phonetics employed is 
that each sound in the Burmese language is represented as far as 
possible by a separate phonetic sign, and consequently each sign 
(letter or combination of letters) must always be pronounced in 
the same manner. 

A few of these signs are necessarily of a more or less 
arbitrary character, and the introduction of the tone or accent 
marks adds a certain amount of strangeness to them. The 

ivii.B5iJo3 



student will do well therefore to read the scheme of phonetics 
with great care, this being the key to the correct pronuncia- 
tion of the Burmese, as represented in the third column of 
the Vocabularies and Conversations. 

Burmese, or, as the people of Burma call it, Myanma 
hbdtha (the language of the Myanma), is the speech of a 
considerable and powerful tribe, closely connected with the 
Tibetans, which, prior to A.D. 1000, over-ran the valley of the 
Irrawaddy Eiver, and adopted Buddhism and the alphabet of 
its sacred books — which were written in Pali, an alphabet 
founded on the ancient characters of India. [The Burmese call 
themselves Ba/aiia/i, and this word has nothing to do, as some 
suppose, with Brahman, which word exists in Burmese as 
Byahma/maA. It is a natural corruption of Mra/mma/i. The 
original name of the tribe was MraAn, which in Pali became 
Mra/mmoA, plural MraAnma/i — pronounced quickly BaAma^.] 

The language is monosyllabic and agglutinative, having neither 
conjugation nor declension ; so that, in almost every instance, 
its composite words can be taken to pieces and the power of 
each part clearly shown. At the outset it would seem that it 
consisted of monosyllabic roots which denoted either a sub- 
stance or an act, such as dog, iron, fire, stone, do, run, stop. 
From the verbal root came a verbal noun, which was formed 
by prefixing " a " {&h) to the verb root ; simple verb roots were 
used to denote case, mood, tense, and also other parts of speech. 

As Burmese has adopted words from the Pali language, all 
the letters of the alphabet are in use, but for pure Burmese 
words those classified as cerebral, and one or two others, are 
not used. 

The Author is indebted to Mr. Po Han, B.A., a native of 
Burma, for valuable assistance in reading the proofs of the 
work, and has himself spared no pains to make it thoroughly 
accurate and reliable, and capable of proving a practical guide 
to the spoken tongue, and a valuable introduction to the study 
and mastery of the language. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

"A Glimpse OF Burma " 7 

Thk Alphabet and Pronunciation 9 

Preliminary Notes .„ 23 

Vocabularies : — 

Animals, Vegetables, Minerals, etc. : 

Animals, Birds, and Fishes ^ 29 

Fruits, Trees, Flowers, and Vegetables 83 

Minerals and Metals 28 

Reptiles and Insects 32 

Colours 36 

Commercial Terms 68 

Correspondence 70 

Countries and Nations ... 64 

Cooking and Table Utensils 52 

Government Departments 76 

House and Furniture, The ... 66 

Legal Terms ... 65 

Mankind: Relations 41 

Dress and the Toilet 63 

Food and Drink 49 

Health 47 

Human Body, The 43 

Physical and Mental Powers, Qualities, etc. 46 

Military Terms 71 

Musical Instruments 61 

Numbers : Cardinal, Numeral Auxiliaries, Ordinal, Collective and 

Fractional, etc 78-83 

Parts of Speech : — 

Adjectives 83 

Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions 100 

Verbs 89 

Auxiliary or Modifying Verbs 97 

Examples (of Auxiliary Verbs) 99 

Professions and Trades ... 69 

Religion 73 

Society and Government 76 

Times and Seasons 36 

Town, Country, and Agriculture 89 

Travelling 61 

World, The, and its Elements 25 

Land and Water 26 



6 

Outlines op Burmese Grammar: — pagk 

The Adjective 113 

The Adverb 122 

Affixes, Closing 121 

„ Continuative 119 

„ Euphonic 120 

Auxiliary Verbs, A fev7 common 122 

The Construction of Burmese Sentences 123 

Illustration of the Construction and Pronunciation of Burmese... 124 

The Honorific Form 119 

The Interrogative 117 

The Negative, Use of 117 

The Noun 107 

Oratio Obliqua ... ... 118 

Polite Modes of Address ... 126 

The Pronoun 110 

The Verb 115 

Model of 122 

„ Substantive 119 

„ used as a Noun 121 

Conversational Phrases and Sentences: — 

Correspondence, Post, Telegraph, and Telephone 140 

Health 133 

Idiomatic Expressions 127 

Meals 132 

Planting 154 

Post 140 

Public Works 150 

Shopping 145 

Shooting and Pishing 146 

Telegraph 140 

Telephone 140 

Time 136 

Times, Seasons, and Weather 138 

Town, In 143 

Travelling : 

Arrival in the Country 155 

Railway ... 159 

Useful and Necessary Expressions 127 

Burmese Handwriting : — The Lord's Prayer in Burmese 163 

The Romanized form with the English words interlined 164 

Money 165 

Woights 166 

Measures of Length 167 

,, ,, Capacity 167 

Square Measure 168 

Measures of Time 168 



"A GLIMPSE OF BURMA" 



\ Extracted from an article by Dr. Francis E. Clark in the Christian World 
of February 3rd, 1910, by kind permission of the Editor.^ 



IT is not too much to say that Burma contains more of 
interest than any equal section of the Indian Empire. 

Many people think of Burma as a part of India, and the 
Burmese as Indians, but they are no more Indians than the 
Chinese are Americans. To be sure, Burma is a province of 
the Indian Empire, though it ought to be as much a separate 
dominion as Australia or Canada. 

It is a three days' journey on a fast steamer from Calcutta 
to Rangoon ; and when one reaches the latter city he finds 
people of a totally different race, different language, different 
customs, different complexion, different costumes and different 
religion. 

He finds that he has exchanged the sun-parched fields of 
India, where famine always stalks behind the labourer, for the 
well-watered meadows of the Irrawaddy, where in December 
the luxuriant fields of rice wave their heavy tasselled heads, 
and where aU the year round and the century through famine is 
unknown. 

Instead of the straight-featured, thin-limbed, agile Aryans 
whom he left in Calcutta, the traveller finds in Rangoon, 
three or four days later, round-faced, jolly, plump Mongolians, 
with slant eyes and yellow skins, and the merriest of black, 
twinkling eyes. 

Instead of the three-and- thirty million gods, whom he saw 
worshipped in Benares, he finds no god in Rangoon, but only 
the placid, unwinking, half-smiling image of Gautama Buddha, 
who, five hundred years before Christ, attained to Nirvana, 
and whose image is to-day worshipped by one-third of the 
human race. 

In India, one finds temples carved with aU sorts of curious 
and often hideous figures of everything that is in heaven 
above and the earth beneath and the waters under the earth. 
In Burma, graceful, slender pagodas, often encrusted thickly 
with gold leaf, and rising from fifty to three hundred feet in 
the air, are seen; and everywhere, in every stately pagoda 
and every little jewelled shrine, the same image, calm, unseeing, 
immovable to earthly joys or sorrows, Gautama, as he attained 
the Icng- sought Nirvana, 



8 

Next to Bombay and Calcutta, RaDgoon is the busiest port 
in the Indian Empire. Here are great godowns, or wholesale 
storehouses, filled with the choicest wares and products of the 
East, large department stores, . . . public buildings, post-office, 
custom-house, &c., that would do credit to any city in the 
world. Here, too, is a beautiful public park, charming lakes, 
an extensive Zoo, all in the heart of the city. 

The spot to which all travellers' paths converge in Ran- 
goon is the Shwe Dagon Pagoda, the most sacred spot in all 
the Buddhist world. Up a long flight of stone steps we walk, 
on either side of which are chattering vendors of curious 
wares — silks and lace and gongs of brass, huge cheroots, 
eight or ten inches long, and as large round as your two 
thumbs, which contain tobacco enough for a family smoke, 
oranges, mangoes, jack-fruit and papaws, jade ornaments and 
tinsel jewels — indeed, almost anything that a Burman would 
want to eat or wear or bedeck himself with. 

At the top of the steps a gorgeous, glittering sight indeed 
strikes the eye, for there rises a great and graceful column of 
gold, a hundred and fifty feet above the vast platform on 
which it is built, and which itself rises one hundred and 
seventy feet from the ground. The pagoda is very wide at the 
base, and tapers gradually to a ball-shaped top, on which is 
a crown of solid gold and jewels alone worth a round half- 
million dollars. 

All around are little pagodas, or shrines, clustering close 
to the base of the parent, and each vying with all the others to 
show itself the richest and most bejewelled. 

In the great pagoda is a huge Buddha, so covered with 
gold and gems that the covetous public is kept away from it by 
strong iron bars, while all the lesser shrines have other images 
of the placid saint, and some of them many, but all with exactly 
the same expression of ineffable content. 

A multitude of other sights, odd, beautiful, bizarre, but all 
interesting, attract the traveller, 

On the road to Mandalay, 

which lies some twenty hours' journey up the Irrawaddy. They 
are well worth the notice of anyone who can wander from the 
beaten tracks of travel long enough to enjoy them. 



BURMESE SELF-TAUGHT. 



THE ALPHABET AND PEONUNCIATION. 



The alphabet used by the Burmese is of Indian origin and 
came to them through Buddhist monks. It is commonly called 
Pali. It consists of thirty-two consonants and eight primary 
vowels. There are three diphthongs, and the vowel sounds 
are further modified by final consonants. 

Only twenty-five of the consonants are used in Burmese 
vvoids, but the whole are put into requisition for words 
borrowed from the Pali. 

As the Biumese (except the Arracanese branch) cannot 
pronounce the letter r they substitute y for it, so that y is 
represented by both r and y, and they are often interchanged 
in writing, though it has been agreed that certain words shall 
be written with r and certain with y. 

What is generally known as romanization, — i.e. the trans- 
literation into Eoman characters, — when applied to Burmese 
does not answer, so there are many systems of representing 
the sounds of the language in use, viz. tho^e of Judson, Latter, 
Chase, Tavvseinko, and the Government, or Hunterian. 

The plan adopted in this work, however, is to give the words 
in the native character througho\it, and instead of attempting 
to romanize the characters, to add the phonetic pronunciation 
of the words in accordance with the following scheme, which 
is based upon Marlborough's system of phonetics. 



10 



CONSONANTS.' 



Bur- 
mese 
Charac- 
ters. 



oo 



ex) 



00 



O) 



& 



CX) 



cx> 



Roman- 
ized 
form. 



hk 
g 

ta 






ht 



hd 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetics 
used. 



l^. t, g 



hk 



When initial like k in A;i7e ; when 
final sometimes like t and some- 
times k: after a word ending with 
a vowel or nasal as g in gate ^ . . 

When initial before y like ch in 
chair: when followinsf a vowel or 
nasal like y in ^om^ ch,j 

Like g in gate; never final; with y 
like^' in^'om^ or/i^ g, j 

Not used in Burmese words; like g 
in gate ; when final mute g 

As in a^nosf/c with the a swallowed . . gn 

When final like n or ng n, ng 

When final like t in pit; changes 
to 2; ts, z, t 

Like s in see ; after vowel or nasal 
changes to s, z 

As z in zebra; when final like t 
in pit z, t 

Like Tiy in Bunyan ny 

When final sometimes like 7iin^i7i; . . n 
sometimes a simple ee sound as in . . ee 
bee, and sometimes as eA eh 

When initial as t in ten or (when 
following) d in den t, d 

When final something between t 

and p and k final t, p, k 

When initial ht or (when following 
a vowel or nasal) d in den . . . . ht, d 

When initial as f? in (^6 J^ d 

When final, between t and A; . . . . t, k 

As d in den d 



1 The Cerebrals are omitted as they are not used for Burmese and 
correspond with the Dentals. ' See para. (/), p. 22. 



11 




Pronunciation. 



Phonetics 
used. 



eh 
eh 
. 1 



When initial as n in not ; when 
final as n in hen and sometimes 

slightly like ng after o n, ng 

When initial as p in pen ; changes ^ 

to h in 6e<i p, b 

When final same as for co . . . . t, p, k 

hp When initial hp; when following ^ 

a vowel or nasal h hp, b 

b Initial like h in heel ....... b 

hb Ji'itial sometimes as h in bed ; . . b 
sometimes as A^j hb, hp 

m When initial likem; when final like 

n or TKj m, n,ng 

When initial as y in yet, when 

final ell 

When initial y, when final as eh . . 
Initial as I in let; when final mute . 

w Initial as in English ; medial as d6\ 

final mute w, 66 

1 When used in Pali derivatives like 

English I 1 

th Initial as th in ildii . th 

Changes after final vowel or nasal 

to th in that ; as final or medial, ^ . . . t 

As initial h in English : may be 

placed before all consonantswhich 

have not an aspirate form ; if final 

mute h 

Used instead of § 72, or 5 m ; . . . . n 
with G3^D cau becomes like h . . . . k 

Note. — It is impossible to give examples of the way in which ts, ht, 
hd, lip, and hb are to be pronounced as initials, but the student must 
endeavour to sound the letters together in their written order, for ts, 
ht, and hp. Hd and hb are merely a stronger d and b. 

1 The woitis ' following' and ' changes' refer to rule (/.), p. 22. 



12 



VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 
Burmese. Romanized, Pronunciation. 



Phonetics. 




Like a in father but short . 

„ a in father 

„ i in machinery but shortei* 

„ ee in feet 

„ 00 in foot 

,, 00 in boot 

„ a in holiday . . . . 

„ the first e in there 

aic as in paw 

Longer and drawn out . 

Like m go 

Deeper and long drawn out < 
Sharp and short . . . . , 
Like 00 in foot, or Welsh w 
Like 00 in spoon. 



ah 
kh 
ee 
ee 
56 

00 

eh 
aw 
aw 
oh 

ohl 
oh 

00 
00 



VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS WITH FINALS. 

33o5 aA followed by k is like e in let. 

3d8 a.h followed by ts is like i in pit. 

osS Sih followed by gn is like i and e in tin and ten. 

33^ aA followed by ny is like ee or in or eh. 

335, 33oS, 33^5 338, 33 ; Sih followcd by any of these 
retains its sound as a in ca)iH (a^). 

3S5, gSoS, j^I, 3S§ ; i (ee) followed by these consonants is 
like ai in bait (ay). 



33 cannot be used with ^, 



13 



3^S, 3^o5, 3^5, 3^5, 3^; u (66) followed by these, like o in 
bone [uh), 

3oo5 e as first e in /Aere (eh). 

G33Do5, G33dS ; ea followed by k or gn, as o^^; in how (ow). 

G^oS, 3^8 ; iu followed by k or gn, like i in pine (i) 

The alphabet is classified as below. Every consonant con- 
tains an inherent a (ah) which has to be pronounced with it 
until killed by the mark ^ (thaAt = strike or kill) placed over 
it, or until it is modified by a final. ^ 

Thus OD k must be ka^ until it is killed — oS, and it then 
has the sound of the final t in let. 



G utturals 


oo kah 


o hkaA 


o gaA 


oo hga/i 


c ngsih 


Palatals 


o tsaA 


oo hsixh 


O) dzaA 


€ij hdzah 


S nyaA 


Cerebrals 


^' tU 


g htaA 


^ dah 


o hdaA 


CUD nkh 


Dentals 


cx> taA 


00 htaA 


3 dah 


o hdaA 


^ naA 


Labials 


o paA 


o hpaA 


o hU 


00 hbaA 


o maA 


Liquids 


oo yaA 


s| rU 


CO laA 


o waA 


gua 


Sibilant 


00 ihah 










Aspirate 


o:) hkh 











The 00 hts is pronounced as s. 

The CO hb is often used instead of o hp. 

ty hdz is exactly the same as O) dz and only used in one 
common Burmese word. 

The cerebrals with do hg and g 11 are only used in words 
derived from Pali. 

The cerebrals are essentially Indian, Pali, or Sanskrit. 
The Burmese cannot differentiate them from the dentals, 
* See under * Pinal Consonants ', p. 18. 



14 



and so pronounce them when used, and also the liquid 11, 
in the same way as the dentals. 

The o g and ex) hg are pronounced the same, 

c is pronounced like ung-a^, low down in the throat, and 
when aspirated nothing can describe it. 

G| r is not pronounceable by a Burman (except the Arra- 
canese branch) but is pronounced as oo y and the two letters 
are interchangeable. 

Every letter which has not an aspirate form can be aspirated 
by the addition of the sign for CX) h&h , written under it; thus 
^ nkh when aspirated is written ^ hna/i, od laA eg hlah. When 
oo yah and G| yah are aspirated they become c^ ^ shah. 

00 has two sounds as th in thin and th in that. 

Neither oo nor oo can take the aspirate. 

Certain consonants are cnpable of combination with the 
others so as to be pronounced as one. This is done by means 
of a secondary form as shown in the following table : — 



Consonants 
Second forms 


OO 

U 


C 


o 
6 


oo 

J 


oo + o 


G[ + 

Q 


oo + oo 

Ji 


Consonants (cont.) 
Second forms (cont.) 


€) +00 

c 


o + oo 


S + ^ + 6 





The force of these combinations is best shown with the 
consonant o ma^, which alone can take the whole. 

o ma^ c^ myah g myah ^ mwah ^ hmah 

g) myooaA g myooaA (like mew-ah) 
^ hmya^ Q hmyaA g hmwaA |o hmyooaA 
§ gnyaA and ^ nyah have the same sound and are inter- 
changeable. 



15 



In addition to the final consonants there is also the si»n », 
called GOO§coD§oo6 thay8^Aay8tin, which is written above a 
consonant and has the power of final n, as o6 = oo5 kaAn. 
When used with the diphthong g33D aw it has the power of 
final k, as G33o = g33Do5 owk. 



VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 
There are eight written vowels and three diphthon^o. 

Short vowels : 33 a/f S!^ ee g 66 
Long vowels : 3D3 aA g]f ee § oo G ay i» eh 
Diphthongs : Q or G33D aw g(^d or G3d5 aw 3^ oh 
To unite these vowels and diphthongs to the various con- 
sonants certain secondary forms aie required which are usually 
called symbols. 

3D ah being inherent in every consonant has none. 



33D ah . 
g? ee. . 

gjee . 
g 66 . . 

g on . . 

G ay . . 
£» eh . 

(^ aw . 
g(^o aw 
3^ oh . 



o or 1 as ODD kiih ol wah 

® as c8 kee 

® as c8 kee 

^ as cq koo 

^^ as cx^ koo 

G as GOO kay 

"" as cx) keh 

G — D as GOOD kaw 

G — 5 as GOoS kaw 

^ as o^ koA 



The forms g^ ^ g § are as a rule used only for Pali words, 
the vowel 33 with secondary forms being used instead, 
chus : — 38 ee 3B ee 3^ 66 3^ 00. 

The \owels can thus be united to all the consonants and 



16 

double consonants in the same way, and, it will be observed, 
replace the inherent 33 Ah. 

The two forms D and ^ for long a/^ are to prevent confusion. 
If 3 were used with o waA it would become oo ta/z, so wc 
must use ol wa//. 

NOTES ON COMBINED CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. 

The y sound when joined to another consonnnt must be 
sounded as much as possible with it ; [§ "^ are kya/*, not 
ky-aA. (§ hkyaA is chaA. {q ydh. 

Some combinations are very easy, as — 

S[ S9 ^ §[ "^ S\\\ ^^ 

c^ ccp c^ ^ o^[ c^ll GC^ ^c. 

shaA shaA shee shee shoo shoo shay 

The consonant o waA in combination is sometimes a con- 
sonant and sometimes a vowel. 

^ is hmwa//, but gj is myooaA (mew-aA). 

Note. — Ky, gij, &e,, are sounded in all shades from k and g to ch in 
church and j in jxtdge. 

Some exaNiples of Consonants combined with Voivel 
symbols : — 

VOWELS. 

o hkaA ol hkaA 8 hkee S hkee ^ hkoo ^ hkoo go hkay 5 hkel 
^nyaAf^DnyaA^nyee ^nyee ^nyoo gj^nyooG^nyay ^nyel 
o paA ol paA 8 pee 8 pee ^ poo (^ poo go pay c) peh j 
G| yaA Gp vaA ^yee ^ yee ^ yoo ^ yoo GG|yay ej yt h 
o waA o1 wah 8 wee 8 wee c^ woo <^ woo go way b weh 



17 

DIPHTHONGS. 



col gaw coTgaw ^ goA 

GOD tsaw GoS tsavv ^ tso^ 

GOOD taw GOoS taw c^ toh 

GOOD yaw GooS yaw o^ yoA 



Gcl gnaw GcTgnaw ^ gnoA 
ggI claw GoTdaw ^ doA 
GODD thaw GooS thaw o^thoA 
Gol hpaw GoThpaw ^ hpoA 



COMBINED CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS. 

OQj kyaA oqi^ kyaA o^ kyee o^ kyee o^[ kyoo cq\[ kyoo 
Goqn kyay c^ kyeh ^ kyaA (§D kyaA (^ kyee Q kyee 
@ kyoo @ kyoo G^ kyay g kyeh.^ 

^ chaA ^D chaA ^ ciiee ^ chee sj][ choo ^|| choo g^] chay 
^ cheh § chhh §D cha^ (§ chee § chee § choo § choc 
G§ chay (§ cheh. 

^ pwaA ^1 pwaA § pw^ee § pwee g^ pway ^ pweh. 
og IwaA c^D IwaA o§ Iwee c§ Iwee GC(g Iway c^ Iweh. 
(In this last combination the ^ almost amounts to 56.) 

ghgnaA ^d lignaA ^ hnyee ^[hnyoo G^Dhnyaw ^hnyoA 
c^ hlaA c^D hlaA c^ hlee c§ hlee (^ hloo (^ hloo gc^ hlay 
c§) hleh. 

^ [ kyoo-aA ^^ kyoo-aA ^ kyo6-ee ^?§! [ kyo6-ay 



^ 



kyou-eh. 



^0 hnwaA go hmwaA c^d hlwaA cog hlway c§ hlweh. 

* Hky, gy with the vowels are sounded in many shades from k and g 
to ch in church andj in judge, and no rule can be given. With the vowel 
e (ay) the sound of the vowel varies, as G§ chay is often pronounced as if 
it were chee and GOqjo kyays as kyeeS. 



JURMESK S.-T. 



18 

eg is pronounced in two ways — hlyaA and shaA; so 
we get 

^^IshaA ^^^Ishaw ^[shoA. 

Occasionally one finds the combination of Q yaA ^ waA 
and J hah, but it is pronounced with Q yaA omitted, so that 
(q hmyoo-ah = ^ hmwaA. 

FINAL CONSONANTS. 

Other vowel sounds are obtained by means of a final 
consonant. 

A consonant is made final by placing over it the mark ^, 
which is called oooS that (thaAt, kill). It is so called because 
it kills the inherent 33 Sih. 

Thus, O0O3 is kata, but ooo5 is kat. 

cncyD is kaka, but ooo5 is ket. 
GOOD is law, but gcodoS is lowk. 
c^ is to, but 0^8 is taing or ting, 
ooo is tatsa, but ooS is tit. 

The same thing occurs when two consonants come together 
in a foreign word of more than one syllable, and one consonant 
is written under the other ; thus, 

og hdammaA, law (pronounced daAmaA). 

9^d3 punnaAs, a Brahmin (pronounced poAnnaAs). 

oocTOD hbandaA, property (pronounced hpadaA). 
This is also allowable in a few Burmese words which have 
become stereotyped ; as, 

8g for 8§oQ maynSmaA, a woman. 
This word also shows another rule as to the interchange 



19 

of final Q mah and ^ na^. The final S is considered heavier 
than 5 and is equal to 58. When two Fs come together thus 
^, as in cq^, the first 1 changes to n, so instead of l6611a/« 
we get loAnla^. 

Though several consonants are written as final, there are 
really only four final sounds, viz. k, t, ng, n. 

Final consonants are very indistinct, and not only is the 
inherent 33 aA killed, but the consonant itself is almost 
done away with, and it is almost impossible to say whether 
the sharp, abrupt sound is k, t, or p. 

The effect of final consonants on the preceding vowels is 
shown in the following table : — 





Combined with vowels and w. 




Final consonant. 


kh 


ee 


66 


oh 


aw 


w 


Power. 




3D 


g? 


e 


3^ 


G33D 


O 




o5 k 


et 






ik 


owk 






S ng 


in 






ing 


owng 






S ts 


it 














^, 


eh 












This final has three 














sounds, ee, eh, in. 


o5 t or p 


liht 


ayk 


ohk 






66t 


As in root. 


5 n or 5 ni ® 


a/m 


ayn 


ohn 






66n 


The 6 makes the 
vowel heavier. 


cSy 


eh 















These sounds should be practised with all the consonants; 
thus, 

cooS ket od8 kin ooS kit oo^ kee. 



ODoS ka^t od5 kaAt cx)? kaAn ooS kaAn. 



B 2 



20 

o5 kaAn oojs ka/ms cx)o5 keh. 

c^oS kik c§6 king. 

c8o5 kayt c8^ kayn. 

0:^5 or cxpoS koAk o^^ or c^ kohn oqiS ko^n. 

ogoS or c^5 koot og^ or og koon c^5 koon. 

No matter what consonant or double consonant begins the 
word, the vowels always remain as above ; thus, 

006 sin o£ win ^6 chin ogS twin ^8 shin. 
oS tsit ^S nyit §8 chit oj8 hlit i^h hmyit. 

In the following combination some words seem to end 
with t and some with k : — 

d8o5 sayt 08 o5 tayt §o5 chayt 8o5 mayt. 
3S5 ayk ^oS yayk c85 layk o8o5 thayk. 
cxj5 loAk ac^oS sohk ^[5 choAk ^oS hgnoAk. 

o waA is w with all consonants without a final, except 
Q3 nyaA od yaA Cj yaA, when it takes the vowel sound, as 
^ nyooaA g| yooaA. 

^ hmyaA ^ hmyee ^[ hmyoo g^ hmyay. 
c^ kwaA § gwee eg gnway ogj kyo6-eh. 

In certain words taken from the Pali we find a final 
quiescent consonant — 

c^c£ koA ^&>5 moh ^^ moA. 
^o5 boA d^oS hpoA |§aS joA. 

The double 00 thaA is written ooo and pronounced tth, 
as cooDoo kaAt-thaA-paA or kth as in goo^ oAk-thoAn. The 
Pali pronunciation of these would be kassapa and ussun. 



21 



TONES OR ACCENTS. 

There are three tones : — 

(a) The ordinary (unmarked), as Q8 myin, to see. 

(b) The abrupt, (a small circle written under the word), 
as ^8 my in, lofty, tall. 

{c) The prolonged heavy tone, (two small circles follow- 
ing the word), as g6o myin: (or myeens), a horse. 

The light accent may be used with final G33 ay, j^ eh, 
G33D aw, 3^ oh, or a mute nasal consonant, as od^ ka^n. 

The heavy accent may follow 33D ah, 3S ee, 33 00, C33 ay, 
i» eh, 3^ oh, and the mute nasal consonants, as ooSs tin, 
cx^Js toAn:. 

By means of these accents, or cadences, three distinct 
meanings can be given ; as, 

myin, to see ; myin, tall, high ; myinS, a horse. 

PHONETIC CHANGES. 

(a) When a final consonant is followed by a nasal it 
is assimilated ; as, 

{^5qo5 ayk-met, to dream, becomes ayn-met. 
G^^DoS^Q owk-may, to long foi', becomes owng-may. 
^8.?>D nit-naA, to be aggrieved, becomes nin-naA. 

{b) Sometimes the vowels 06 and 00 are elided ; as, 
c^Gj^oS p66-yaA-bik, a note-book, becomes paA-ya^-bik. 

(c) The letters 00 baA, o [mh, and q maA are inter- 
changeable ; as, 

ooc8 htaA-bee, a petticoat, becomes htaA-mee. 
olsg hdaA8-pya^, a bandit j becomes hdaAS-my^^. 



22 

(d) Words beginning with oo and oo take the initial con- 
sonant of the following syllable; as, 

g^8 oo-hmin, a cave, becomes o^n(m)-hmin. 
^oGj>DoS oo-hnowk, brains, becomes 6An5-hnowk. 
§8go18 oo-hkowng, head, becomes oAk-hkowng. 

(e) The final nasal of the first syllable is sometimes 
dropped; as, 

0608 sa^n-pin, haii^ of the head, becomes saA-bin. 

ODols ta^n-hka^s, a door, becomes ta^-gaAS. 

o§cOo paAnS-peho, a blacksmith, becomes paA-beho.^ 
(/) When a word ending with a vowel or nasal precedes 
another so as to form as it were a polysyllable, and the initial 
consonant of the following word is one of those in columns 
I and 2 on p. 13, it must as a rule be changed to the 
corresponding consonant in col. 3 or col. 4; thus, 

ooS§S sin-chin, to consider, becomes sin-jin. 

QSbgDOOooDo hpyit-hkeh-tsooaA ta^-kaAS becomes hpyit- 
hkeli-zooaA ta/i-ga^S. 

NUMERALS. 2 
1234567890 

oj99^S70(30 
These figures are used exactly like the English figures. 

WRITING. 
Burmese is written from leit to right, but there is little 
use for punctuation as the sentences punctuate themselves. 
A full stop may be represented by u and to divide para- 
graphs II II is used. 

' The heavy accent on the first word is often dropped in compounds. 
' See p. 78, p.nd p. 114. 



23 

ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMON USE. 

(^ for G^ ee at the end of a sentence, or of, 
^? 5? g^d6 jowng, because, 
g6§ „ goodSs kowngs, good. 
§ „ ^o5 hnik, in, at, 
§ „ G.g| yooay, and. 

Cj5 „ co^oGoodSo lee; gowngs, 5oM — and; the aforesaid, 
cx^S „ cx^coS loolin, a bachelor. 

^ „ £ written over as in oogoSd for ooSsgood thim: baw, 
a ship. 



PRELIMINARY NOTES. 



The foregoing pages, 9—22, should be carefully read and the 
phonetic equivalents of the Buimese characters noted. Practice in 
copying the characters themselves will soon enable the student to read 
and write the words and phrases in the following lists, which he is 
also recommended to learn by heart, repeating them aloud with the 
aid of the phonetic spelling in the third column. 

Peonunciation. — It will be noticed that the values of the vowels 
in the Pronunciation column are not always the same. This is caused 
by euphony, as, for instance, in 'a^-na^-zo/iS". This is the correct 
transliteration, but the pronunciation is ' aA-naA-z6/iS'. 

Tones or Accents. — For the proper appreciation and correct 
use of these, the student is recommended to avail himself of every 
opportunity of getting native tutorial assistance. They are usually 
indicated in the phonetic pronunciation, which of course would be 
imperfect without them. In the Burmese text they are always 
shown, but some do not appear in the 'pronunciation' column. The 
reason is that when words are run together as compounds, the heavy 
tone is often rejected and the ictus thrown on to the last word. 

For instance, ooGp§ taA-yaAs (Jaw), when turned into 'civil law' 
by the addition of Q maA, becomes OOGp§Q taA-yaA-mah'. 



24 

The heavy accent : is supposed to be inherent in the vowel 
K) eh:, unless superseded by the light accent, and is not, as a rule, 
written. Therefore (Xi leh is properly lehs. We find it written, 
however, with (X)o i b8 and one or two other words. 

The use of the Hyphen. — It has been the custom in trans- 
literating Burmese words to put a hyphen indiscriminately between 
every syllable and the next ; thus — 

7%ee-aA-yaM-hma/i-gijaA,-aA-yin-taA-hka^-hmyaA-ma^-yowk-tsaA- 
hpoo:-boos. 

This seems a very senseless method as it shows nothing. In 
this work, only those syllables which are really connected together 
in a composite manner are so joined, and the above sentence would 
be written as under — 

Thee ah-yaht-hmah gnhh aA-yin tiiA-hkaA-hmyaA ma^, 

This place - in I before one-time-even (once) not 

yowk-ts^;^- hpoo;-boo:. 

arrive (assertive affixes). 

It was found, however, that this plan could not always be strictly 
adheiedto, as the syllables of some composite words required proper 
division, for example, it would not have been possible to write the 
word aA-}aAt as aAyaAt. 

The hyphen has therefore been used in two ways — (a) to connect 
words wliich form pol} syllabic expressions ; (6) to separate syllables 
that might be mispronounced if written as one word. 

Hints on addressing a Burmax. — Do not raise the voice or 
shout, and speak slowly and distinctly. 

Be careful not to drop the aspirate. There is a great difference 
between p and hp, t and ht, but no practical difference between 
b and hb, d and hd. 

Be very careful to differentiate the sounds ay and eh; for instance, 
33GQ a^-may is mother and 3308 aA-meh; is game; qqo hlay canoe 
and c^goS hlehs a cart. In the latter case there can be no mistake 
if the proper numeral auxiliary is used; thus GCOODoSo hlay-taA- 
zin: and c^^2od8§ hleh:-ta^-zees . 

Remember the rule as to change in consonants (p. 22,/). 



VOCABULARIES. 



The World and its Elements. ooo8sgg8^So1o5;j|D3» 



English 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


air 


GOD 


lay 


cloud 


^o5§o85 


mo^s-dayn 


cold 


cgS^II 33G336 


ay-jins, aA-ays 


comet 


goSoDg? 


kyeh-ta/t-goon 


darkness 


^o5§£8 


mik-chin; 


dew or fog 


j[»58iio8.'j,58 


hnin8, see8-hninS 


dust 


333^$ll(^o8 


aA-hmoAn, hpoAk 


earth 


G@Hcg@8 


myay, myay-jees 


earthquake 


Ggg8C35§6^ 


myay-jees hloAk-chins 


east 


^<^§[ 


aA-shay 


eclipse (of sun) 


G^(§o8g8§ 


nay-kyaAt-chinS 


— (of moon) 


Co(^ODgSS 


laA-kyaAt-chins 


fire 


§8 


mees 


flame 


88C^ 


mees-shaAn 


frost 


d83b 


sees-geh 


hail 


^oS^oSi 


mohi-theel 


heat 


33 (^ 


a^-poo 


light 


330d88 


aMinS 


lightning 


c^o5o8 


shaAt-tsit 


moon ; new, full 


coil CO3-81I ODg^ 


laA, X^h-thii, la^-bye§ 


moonlight 


COOODgSS 


la^ tha^-jin; 


north 


cgDoS 


myowk 


planet 


6^ 


]oh 


jrain 


^oSsa^gss 


mohi yooaA jinS 



26 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


rainbow 


DDOD? 


thettaAn 


shade, shadow 


SD^OS 


aA-yayk 


sky 


^o5oGOOd5oOo5 


moAs-kowngs-^in 


snow 


^^.g6 


moAs-bwin 


south 


good6 


towng 


star 


goS 


kyeh 


sun 


G^ 


nay 


thunder 


^oSBgsgSs 


moAs-choAnS-jinS 


water 


GG| 


yay 


weather 


^dSSgco 


m6h%-\aj 


west 


33G^Do5 


a^-nowk 


wind 


GCOO^o5g5^ 


lay-tik-chin? 


Lan 


d and Water, g 


g^5GG|U 


bay 


o£coo5gcdo8gc^ 


pinleh downg-gway 


beach 


o8coo5oo58 


pinleh-kaAns 


bog 


8Sg(q 


tsayn-myay 


canal 


CC^ GgD63 


tooS-myowngS 


cape 


33 (j^ 


aA-gnoo 


cave 


^ 


koo 


chasm 


G^DOS 


jowk 


cliff 


0062 GOI oS 


ka/ms-zowk 


coast 


o6cOC^OD§8^D 


pinleh-ka/inS-naA 


creek 


GQ|D6g 


chowngs 


current 


GG|83 


yay-zeeS 


ebb 


GG|g 


yay-jyaA 


flood (of the tide) 


GG|OOo5 


yay-det 


foam 


33go5 


aA-hmyoAk 


forest 


GOOD 


|taw 



27 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


hill 


G0335 


towng 


hillock 


good6§ 


towng-bo^ 


hill-top 


good6c6o5 


towng-dayt 


ice 


GG|b 


yay-geh 


island 


o2j$s 


kyoons 


lake 


3380 U 3^5 


ins, ing 


land 


o95§ 


koAns 


marsh 


§?G^ 


noon- my ay 


moor 


o26§8 


Ivvin-byin 


mountain 


good5[o58 


towng-jees 


mud 


i 


shoon 


range of hills 


cr^^loD^B 


kohui-dMnt 


range ofmountains 


goodS^S 


towng-yo/iS 


river 


@5 


myit 


rock 


GoqiDoS 


kyowk 


sand 


do 


theh 


sand-bank 


good8 


thowng 


sea 


o6coo5 


pinleh 


shingle 


GOq|Do5oG|8 


kyowk-tsa^-yit 


spring (water) 


G^^OSS 


yay-tsaAns 


storm 


^?o^6s 


moAn-dings 


stream 


g^dSs oogod? 


chowngs-gaAlayS 


tide 


§ 


dee 


valley 


4? 


ching 


water, fresh 


G^q 


yay-joA 


— salt 


G€|c5 


yay-gnaAn 


waterfall 


GG|0D§$ 


yay-ta^goon 


water-tank (dug) 


GG|00§ 


yay-ga^n 


wave [reservoir 


c§88ii c§82o5§g 


hling:, hlings-ta' -bo/iS 



English. 



28 

Burmese. 



Pronimoiation. 



well 
whirlpool 



GQbS 



yay-dwin: 
yay-weh: 



Minerals and Metals. oloS oo^ 


[5»8 GoqjDoS satjs^ 


alum 


GOqiDoS^g 


kyowk-chin 


amber 


oodSs 


paA-yins 


antimony 


OG^3a58S 


hkaA-nowk-tsayn 


arsenic 


8^ 


tsayn 


borax 


coo5@d8 


let-chaAs 


brass 


g(3oo1 


kyays-waA 


bricks 


3;^o5 


ohk 


bronze 


G@8| 


kyays-nee 


cement 


33(5gOO 


in:gaAday 


chalk 


^SS 


myay-byoo 


clay 


cgGCg 


my ay-zees 


coal 


GCr^Do582GOg8 


kyowk-mees-^Away 


copper 


0@S| 


kyay:-nee 


coral 


°^Si' 


thaAdaA 


crystal 


QcrpcS ooorSs 


kyowk-thaAlinS 


diamond 


SJccqDoS 


tsayn-jowk 


emerald 


@ 


myaA 


flint 


8§oo6go:^do5 


mees-gaAt-kyowk 


glass 


o?n ^5 


hpaAn, hmaAn 


gold 


^^ 


shway 


gravel 


GOqjDoSoSjS 


kyowk-tsaA-yit 


iron 


OD 


thaAn 


lead 


5o 


hkeh-maA 


lime 


^^§ 


htdAn:-byoo 


marble 


GO^DOSQ 


kyowk-hpyoo 



29 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


mercury 


@3l8 


paAdaAs 


mortar 


OD§|05 


tha^-yoot 


opal 


ocq^ 


maAhooyaA 


ore 


oo^lGcy^odS 


thaAttoo-jowk 


pearl 


c^cx> 


paMeh 


petroleum 


CG|^ 


yay-naAn 


ruby 


G0q|Do5| 


kyowk-nee 


salt 


0038 


saAs 


sand 


00 


theh 


sapphire 


?03D 


neelaA 


silver 


^2 


gnway 


soda 


(yDODDS 


pyaA-zaAs 


steel 


ooooS 


thaAn-m^Anee 


stone 


GO^DOS 


kyowk 


sulphur 


OD^ 


kaAn 


tin 


^S 


thaAn-byoo 


zinc 


C^S 


thoot 



Animals, Birds, and Fishes. 


DODSigoSiclsoo^st^s 


animal 


cx)D8 


thaA: 


barking deer 


-? 


jee 


bear 


oo56 


wet-w66n 


bird 


goS 


hgnet 


buffalo 


^ 


kyo6-eh 


bull 


^DSo88 


naA-htees 


calf 


^d3odgco2 


nwaAs-gaAlays 


cat 


giQd8 


kyowng 


chicken 


JC^OSOOGCOS 


kyet-kaAlays 


cock 


goSc3 


kyet-hpa/i 



30 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


colt 


gSSOOGCOS 


myins-ga/ilays 


COW 


§D§0 


nwaAs-maA 


crab 


O^JSlI C^§?@3B 


gaAnaAnSj pa/izooii- 


crow 


ogscojg 


kyeesgaAns [byaAs 


dog 


G§S 


hkways 


dove 


g^ 


joAs 


duck 


oSso) 


woomsbeh 


eagle 


64 


woonloA 


eel 


c"lS5lS 


gnaAs-shIn 


elephant 


oo£ 


sin 


elk 


a-)o£ 


thaAmin 


fish 


cl8 


gnaAs ; 


fowl 


(§(^ 


kyet 


fox 


GgGg3 


myay-gways 


game 


RDfr^ 


a^-meh 


goat 


ScS 


sayt 


goose 


cSoQII c52(| 


gnaAnS-maA, (gander 


hare 


oq5 


yoAn [gnaAns-bo/ 


hen 


goSo 


ky et-m a A, or ky emma/ 


hog-deer 


3G|o5 


daAyeh 


hoof 


8l 


hkwaA 


horn 


S'S 


002-joA 


horse 


gSs 


my ins 


leopard 


o^d8oo8 


kyaA Mit 


mane 


CO^QO 


leh-za/m 


mongoose (ichneu- 


Ggol 


mwaybaA 


monkey [mon) 


G4|Do5 


myowk 


mouse 


go5 


kyooet 


mullet 


ODc8a^3 


kaA-baAlooS 



31 



Ensrlish. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



otter 

owl 

— , horned 

ox 

oyster 

parrot 

partridge 

paw 

peacock, — hen 

pheasant 

pig 
pigeon 

porcupine 
quail 
I rabbit 
rat 

red deer 
rhinoceros 
sheep 
snipe 
sparrow 
starling 
stork 
swallow 

swan 
tail 
tiger 
tortoise 



OO^OOOD 

cocS 

G3l63<^ll G3168Q 

§ 

oo68qcx)Do:^5 

(§o5 

oo5 



0^3 
gQo5 

ODOOGCOS 



3d(§§ 

c^5 



hpyaAn 

hgnet-soAs 

dees-do^k 

nwaA:-byees 

kaA-noo-kaA-maA 

kyet-too-yooays 

hka^ 

let [ma/i 

downgs-bo^, downgs- 

yit 

wet 

hko^ 

hpyoo 

gno^ngS 

thimsbaw-yoAn 

kyooet 

saAt 

kya^n 

thoAs 

myay-woot 

tsa/i-ga^lays 

zaA-yet 

byings-byoo 

moAs-z way-hgnets 

pyaAn-hlwa//s 
shway-gnaAns 
aA-m)ees 
kya//S 
lavk 



s^ 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation 


turkey 


go5oo8 


hgnet-sin 


turtle 


c85ii oEcocS c85 


layk, pinleh-layk 


vulture 


C08800 


laA-daA 


wild ox 


§6 


tsing 


wing 


33G00d8 


aA-towng 


wolf 


GOQDGgS 


taw-gways 


Reptiles and Insects. 


c8S02^,^OgDSGODD00D2j>5^^ 


iGOOD84|OSll 


ant 


og^oSaSoS 


paA-yooet-sayt 


— (white) 


§ 


chaA 


bee 


c^dSgoodS 


pyaA:-gowng 


beetle 


C^OG^i^S 


nowk-chyeeS-boAs 


bug 


@5^§3 


kyaA-boAs 


butterfly- 


oSSQd 


layk-pyaA 


caterpillar 


St 


hkoo 


centipede 


oo8sg§q^d§ 


kins-chee-myaAs 


cobra 


GgcOOD 


mway-howk 


crocodile 


8GOq]D88 


mee-jowng; 


firefly 


§88$8@ 


p6As-tsayn2-byoo 


flea 


g^2gc^§ 


hk way s-h lays 


fly 


cx)Sgooo8 


yin-gowng 


frog 


ols 


hpaAs 


house lizard 


3S6gqjdS 


ayn-hmyowng 


large house lizard 


GOODoSob 


towk-teh 


insect 


^IQCOOS 


poAs-gowng 


leech 


goS (large) g^d 


kyoot, hmyaw 


mosquito 


@8 


chin 


sand-fly 


S^ 


hpyoAk 





83 




' English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


scorpion 


ooSsj^sgooo 


kins-myees-gowk 


silkworm 


§^^ 


poAs 


snake 


-§ 


mway 


snake (poisonous) 


cg^S 


mway-zoAs 


spider 


^§^ 


pin-goo 


wasp 


^©^ 


naA-jeh 


worm 


o8godd6 


tee-gowng 


Fruits, Trees, Flowers, and Vegetables.^ 




33o8lJDo88lo5Sl33^ 


2^8.. 


almond 


olol$ 


ba^da/m 


amherstia 


GOOSOO 


thawka/i 


asparagus 


oopgoS 


ka^-nyoot 


banana (commonly 


^oSgc^d 


hgnet-pyaw 


called ^ plantain^) 






banyan 


g^d8 


nyowng 


beans 





peh 


beetroot 


^CODg§ 


moAn-laA-66-nee 


bouquet 


o?3§8 


paAnS-ging 


cabbage 


OOS^GOQO ^COD 


thimsbaw mohnAah 


capsicum 


C^C^ 


gnhh-yohk 


carrot 


^CODgo] 


moAn-la^-oo-wa^ 


castor-oil plant 


(^oScxj^ 


kyet-soo 


citron 


G^DoSoOgDS 


showk-thaA-hkwaAs 


cocoa-nut 


S^^^o 


oAns 


cucumber 


OD§D3 


thaA-hkwaAs 


custard apple 


gQ>D 


awzaA 


date 


§5oo§ 


tsoombaAloon 


• S€ 


e Note following this h 


St, p. 35- 


BURMESE 8.-T. 




c 



34 



EnglisV,. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


doorian 


(^Bo-|gs 


dooS-yinS 


fern 


GO^DoSoJS 


kyowk-paAiiS 


fig 


ooojs 


thaA-hpaAnS 


fir (-tree) 


oo8§^2o5 


htins-yoos-bin 


garlic 


(§o5c^?§ 


kyet-thoon-byoo 


grape 


04j8 


tsa/ibyit 


ironwood 


c^8sooo^§ 


pyins-gaA-doAs 


jack 


8?5> 


payiio-hneh 


kernel 


3300^ 


aA-saAn 


leaf 


33^ o5 


aA-yo6et 


lemon 


G5:|Do5^g 


showk-chin 


lily (water) 


@D 


kyaA 


lime 


o5e)Gp 


tha/imba/^ya^ 


maize 


g@d88(^§ 


pyowngs-boos 


mango 


00€jo5 


tha^-yet 


mulberry- 


§S0Do8 


p6/iS-zaA-l)in 


mushroom 


§ 


hmoA 


mustard 


^e38§ 


moAn-nyins 


onion 


goScx?$? 


kyet-thoon-nee 


orange 


c^SgqS 


lay m maw 


palmyra (palm) 


oo68 


hta^ns 


papaya 


odSsgoodoSs 


thimsbaw-MeeS 


peas 


o 


pell 


pepper (black) 


c^oSgoodSs 


gna/i-yo//k-koung;- 


pine-apple 


^^o5 


naA-na/it 


plum 


a§ 


zees 


potatoes 


G^JDoSg 


myowk-o6 


pumpkin 


o^ 


hpaA-yoAn 


radishes 


^coo 


mohnAkh 



35 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


raisins 


oc^6aS§G^DoS 


tsa^-byit-thees-jovvk 


rose 


3.8?38o?§ 


hnins-zee-baAnS 


talipat (palm) 


GO 


pay 


tamarind 


Q^Cr^^S 


maA-jees 


teak 


^5? 


kyoons 


tomato 


OG|5gQ9,g 


hka^-yaAnz-jin 


water-melon 


^l 


hpaA-yeh 


willow 


^o5':QO 


mo/^s-may^-hkaA 


yam 


GQ^DO^QOIS? 


myowk-hkownuS 



Note. — The following list gives the words which must be 
placed after the name of a plant or tree in order to 
distinguish the part of the plant to be indicated. Thus, 
§)8o8 a plum-tree, 8)?o33 a /plum, 8>3'g)o5 a plum-leaf . 

aA-hkowk 

a/i-pwin 

aA-hket 

pa^ns 

aA-thees 

a/z-hnit 

a/i-yooet 

pyeen 

a/i-pin 

aA-myit 

a/i-tsay 

a/i-nyoon 

a/i-hnyowk 

Q,h-ydh% 

a^'hnyaA 

a^-gnoAk 

C 2 



bark 


:^Golo5 


blossom 


^y? 


branch 


ODD oS 


flower 


of^ 


fruit 


330S3 


heart 


3Z)^0 


leaf 


33$] oS 


plank 


9lS 


plant 


33o6 


root 


33^8 


seed 


33GO 


shoot 


3^SS 


sprout 


33G^O 


stalk 


33§8 


stalk of fruit 


33^D 


stump 


33qo5 



S6 



Colours. 33GCp833006stl 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


black 


Q^SlI ^o5 


mehs, net 


blue 


6^ 


pyaA 


brown 


^ 


nyoA 


crimson 


w 


yeh-yeh-nee 


dark 


^ 


nyoA 


green 


85s 


tsaynJ 


grey 


GOISSOOS 


hpowngs-woot 


pink 


o?§^ 


paAnsnoo 


red 


s 


nee 


scarlet 


GOgScOgSl 


htwayJ-dway:-nee 


violet 


|cq|5o9|6 


nee-kyin-jin 


white 


6 


hpyoo 


yellow 


ol 


wa 



The above are really intransitive verb roots and must be 
so used. Words implying a tendency towards a colour are 
formed by prefixing *khaAt^ and reduplicating; thus, 

ooSolol hkaAt waA-waA, yellowish. 
Times and Seasons. go:jiODicjo5i4.D^i33§St^D3« 

(For Conversations, see pp. 136-40.) 



afternoon 

beginning 

century 

davsrn, daybreak 

day (24 hours) 

day (12 hours) 

Sunday 

Monday 



J>8Gol8sOOGp 

oo^5g§ 

OO^SSCOD 



moons-lweh a^-chayn 

aA-tsaA 

hnit-powng: tahyah 

mo/iS-lins-zaA 

yet 

TaA-ninS-gaA-nway 
Ta//-nins-laA 



37 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Tuesday 


33^1 


In-gaA 


Wednesday 


^(^093 


BoAk-daA-hoos 


Thursday 


[^DDDOGOD? 


Kya^-thaA-baA-day: 


Friday 


GODDoS^O 


Thowk-kyaA 


Saturday 


OC^ 


Tsa/i-nay 


day after to-morro^\ 


C^COrg 


thaA-bekkaA 


day before yester- 


OO^j^G^ 


taA-myaAn nay 


daytiine [d;iy 


G^^ 33^5 


nay aA-chayn 


early 


goIgoI 


tsaw-zaw 


end 


33^8 


a/«-s6AnS 


evening 


K'^. 


nya/i-nay [aA-chayn 


forenoon 


^$SQOD^§3S^§ 


moon: maA-teh-hmee 


fortnight 


ooo5gco3G|o5 


seh-lays-yet 


half-an-huur 


^D^OOOOS 


naA-yee ta^-wet 


holiday 


§G^, 


pweh-nay 


hour 


p^ 


naA-yee 


last month 


OgJ^GOODCO 


loon-geh-Maw-laA 


last night 


QG^.0O 


maA-nay-nyaA 


last year 


0|)Sc7D 


ma/i-hnit-kaA 


Lent 


ol 


waA 


midnight 


oo53go16 


thaA-gowng 


i 
mmute 


8^6 


meenit 


month 


CO 


la^ 


months, English 






January 


o^^o!^ 


ZaA-na^-waA-yee 


February 


coa;^ol §[ 


Hpay-boo-waA-yee 


March 


«1o5 


MaAt 


April 


Go^ 


Ay-paA-yee 


May 


GO 


May 



38 



Euglish. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



June 


^l 


Zoon 


July 


c^.c^S 


Zoo-ling 


August 


333^--^ 


AA-gik 


September 


son^ooSooD 


Set-tin-baA 


October 


G33Do5o^500D 


0wk-t6As-baA 


November 


|o8oOD 


NoA-wim-ba^ 


December 


SsoSoOD 


Dee-sim-baA 


months, Burmese^ 






March 


cx;a^§ 


TaA-goos 


April 


cozq% 


Ka/z-soAn 


May 


^(x{l 


NaA-yoAn 


June 


olc^ 


WaA-zo^ 


Intercalary 


qC^ODO^Q^ 


Doo-tee-ya^ WaA-zoA 


July 


oIgqIS 


WaA-gowng 


August 


godSodcoSb 


Taw-MaA-lins 


September 


ODxSsogjoS 


Tha/^-dins-joot 


October 


oo|good6q^^8 


Ta^-zowng-m6//nS 


November 


§>o5qco5 


Na/^daw 


December 


(qdo^oS 


PyaA-Mo/i 


January 


^§^ 


TaA-boA-dweh 


February 


o5go16§ 


Ta/z-bowngs 


morning 


Q^oS, or |.^o5 


ma A -net, or na^n-net 


night 


B 


nyaA 


noon 


g?800^ 


moons-teh 


season 


e^ 


oodoo 


— , cold 


GOOD^'gO^ 


sowngS-oodoo 


— , hot 


c§e^ 


nway-oodoo 



* These months are lunar, and therefore a 
is an extra month put in, called DooteeyaTi, or 



bout evei-y third year there 
• * second ' Wa/jzoA. 



39 



English. 


Burmese. 




Pronunciation. 


season, rainy 


^^iQCq 




mo/<;-ood66 


second, moment 


OOD 




hkaAnaA 


sunrise 


G^C^OSOODCC 




n ay-htwet-kaMa^ 


sunset 


G^o5oODCO 




nay-win-kaMa/^ 


time 


OODCOII 3D0I 




kahlah, a^-hkaA 


to-day 


COG^„ 




ya/^-nay 


to-morrow 


cor 




ma^-net-pyaAn 


to-night 


OD9P3 




ya^-hkoo-nya^ 


twilight, dusk 


GOC^GOCoSli 


ao^8 


way-lee-wa} -hnS, sees- 


week (seven days) 


95>S€|o5 


OOD 


likoo-hnaA-yet [zah 


year 


j8 




hnit 


yesterday 


t)G^„ 




!naA-nay 


yesterday morning 


OG^Q^o5 




iiiaA-nay-maA-net 



Town, 


Country, and Agriculture. 




gl g]DJ)8cop5oqo5Gp33G(^D6Sll 


bank 




G@§S 


myay-yoAs 


bank (edge) 




00§3 


kaAnS 


brick house 




c^oS 


tik 


bridge 




OO^OODS 


taA-da^S 


building 




33GOOd5 


a^-sowng 


bush, shrub 




g" S^^ 


cho^n, choAn-bo^k 


cemetery 




oo6s^68 


thins-jins 


corn 




ool8 


tsU-haht 


country, the 




go^Sgood 


kyees-daw ^ 


court-house 




gs 


yohnt [nwaAs-yoAn 


cow-house 




j^DScoSsoc^oSii ps^ 


nwa^s-tins -go/ik. 


.1 GOq|. g[09i 


GQji G§ are sometimes kyay. chay, and sometimes 


kyee, chee. 









40 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


crop 


cooSogoS 


leh-dwet 


custom-house 


33GOODo5o^oS 


a^-kowk-tik 


ditch 


gQ^Ss 


myowngs 


farm 


COoSuOD 


leh-yaA 


farmer 


coc^cxjSodqIs 


leh-lo^k-tha^ma/i8 


fence 


o5§ll g 


wins, chaAn 


field 


COoSoDD 


leh-yaA 


flock, herd 


33f^ll 333^^5 


a/^-tso6, M-ohk 


foot-path 


GgcoSg 


chee-la^ns 


forest 


GOOD 


taw 


garden 


goolg 


ooyin 


gate 


co^oll 


ta^-ga^5 


grass 


@o5o8 


myet-pin 


harvest 


ooIb^oSooood 


tsah-ba^s-yayk-ka^laA 


hay 


goSc^poS 


myet-chowk 


hedge 


o^8oo§8 


tsees-da/ms 


house (wooden) 


335 


ayn 


hut 


3S6o:^o5ii Ob 


ayn-go^k, teh 


inn 


oo«6s3^6 


hta^mins-zing 


labourer 


o^c8ii 33a:^5oooD§ 


koolee, aA-IoAk-tha//- 


land, soil 


.g ^ 


myay [ma//s 


log 


0060^8 


thit-to^ns 


manure 


g^do5gs^8 


nowk-chees 


market 


GCgS 


zays 


mile 


^6 


ming 


mill 


goSa^ 


kyayt-soAn 


pagoda 


G00811 oc^cp: 


zaydee, hpa^-yaAs 


place, spot 


33^5 


Sih-yajht 


pasture 


oooo:^o5 


tsaA-jet 



41 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


plough 


oooSii c^^o^S 


hteh, htoon-doAns 


police-station 


g"^^ 


hVdhnU 


prison 


good8 


htowng 


rice (plant) 


GOODoS 


kowk 


road 


OD^l 


la^ns 


school 


OD^kjSccqiDSs 


tsaA-/Aiii-jowng§ 


shed 


ooSsoc^oS 


tinSgoAk 


shop 


=^6 


sing 


street 


qSSoo^ScoSs 


ayn-da/ai2-laAns 


town 


§ 


myo/i 


village 


^^ 


yooa^ 


waterfall 


GG^ODg? 


yay-ta^-goon 


wheat 


9l[ools 


jo^n-tsa/<-ba^s 



Mankind: Relations. oj^^^sc^cooSoS §88 



aunt 



baby 

boy 

brother 

brother-in-law 

child 

cousin 

daughter 

daughter-in-law 

family (lineage) 



S8oOGCO§ 

ol- °l 

CXj^00GCO8 

^11 GsSc^U Gol8 

GCX)Do5o 

3300GCO2II O^C'-^ 

^godSsi! gdSc^ 
oo88 [gooS 



mee-jees, mee-dways, 

aA-yees 
noA-zo/i-gaA-layS 
loo-ga/i-lays 
nyee^ itkoA, mowng^ 
yowk-hpaA 

aA-kaA-lays, tha^-gneh 
iiyee-daw, itkoA-daw 
thaAmee; 
chwayS-maA 
a/i-myo^S-aA-hnweh 



' GOdS mowng, is used by women to designate a brotlier, and is also 
commonly used as a prefix of men's names indicative of equality; 
thus, GQ38gcoDo5 Mowng Lowk = Mr. Lowk. 



42 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


father 


33GOII 3DC3II OOll 


aA-hpay, a^-hpa//, 




OQ^3 


hba//, hkaA-mehs 


father-in-law 


GCX)D(^Q 


yowk-hka^ma^ 


gentleman, iMr. 


ODoSlI qS^DS 


tha/z-hken, hken-'«3yaAs 


girl 


SJSOOGCOS 


mayns-kaAlays 


grand-daughter 


cgso 


myayS-maA 


grandfather 


3QO§8ll C^3 


aA-hp6^s, hoht 


grandmother 


330gD2 


a/i-hpwa^s 


grandson 


Gg§ 


my ays 


husband 


co5 


lin 


husband^s sister 


good£§q 


yowngs-maA 


lady, Mrs. 


oooSqii 33^6011 


thaA-hken-maA, a^- 




ooSii oa 


shin-maA, meh, ma/i- 


maid 


^q 


a^-pyo// [maA 


man, a 


GOODO^OS 


yowk-yaAs 


man (human being) 


^ 


loo 


marriage 


CO oScx)5g6§ 


let-htaAt-chins 


married man 


oS 5 G 00d6 G ODD O^J DS 


ayn-downg yowk-ya^s 


married woman 


gSSgoodS 8q 


ayn-downg maynSmaA 


mother 


3DGOII 3d8 


a^-may, a^-mee 


mother-in-law 


GCX)DOgQSg 


yowk- hkaAmaA-may n- 


nephew 


^ 


too [maA 


niece 


CXj^Q 


too-maA 


old man 


0^3^11 330^8 gS 


loo-oA, aA-hp6As-jees 


old woman 


33GQg3 


aA-may-jees 


parents 


Sod 


meebaA 


people 


CXJ^DS 


thoo-myaAs 


person [or 


^ 


thoo 


single man,bachel- 


^4 


loo-i)y()A 



43 



Engli.h. 


Burmese, 


Pronunciation. 


single woman 


3^q 


a^-pyoA 




young lady, Miss 


8^6(1 


mee-shin 




sister 


336«II ^Q 


M-ma/i, nyee-maA 


sister-in-law 


OC^Qil GODdSoQ 


hkeh-ma/-!, yowngs- 


son 


ODD8 


tha/iS 


[maA 


son-in-law 


ODDlQcS 


thaA-met 




step-father 


OOGC^i 


baA-dways 




step-mother 


3gc^? 


mee-dways 




step-son 


3D00 0500D§ 


aA-htet-tha/iS 




uncle 


Oog^ll OOGOgSlI 


ba^-jees, baA-dways 


widow 


^^i^ 


moAk-soAs-maA 




widower 


nm 


mo^k-s6/iS-boA 




wife 


O00D8 


ma^-yaAs 




wife's sister 


ooSo 


hkeh-maA 




woman 


85q 


maynS-maA 




TheH 


[uman Body, a 


;^(^3381(^Dg(l 




ankle 


o^oS 


hpa^-myet 




arm 


cooSgqISs 


let-mowrigs 




back 


G^DCX^^l 


kyaw-g6//ns 




beard 


4^q8o5 


moo- say t o/- 


mo^k - 


blood 


GC^8 


thways 


[sa^t 


body 


c^oSooooo 


koh-kahjah 




bone 


3D§8 


U-johi 




bowels 


3^ 


00 




brain 


33GJ>Do5 


oAns-hnowk 




cheek 


0>o 


\)B.h% 




chest 


G)6oo5 


yin-ba/«t 




chin 


go8go 


inays-z'^e 





44 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


complexion 


33GGp8 33008e 


aA-yowng aA-sins 


ear 


4,dSii ^DSg|o5 


na/zs, naA-yooet 


elbow 


oogoddSodS 


taA-downg-zit 


eye 


^o58 


myet-tsee 


face 


^cSp 


myet-hnaA 


finger 


cooSg^dSs 


let-chowngs 


flesh 


3300D8 


a^-tha//S 


foot 


eg 


chyay, or chee 


forehead 


n^^ 


na^-hpoos 


hair (of head) 


o6o8 


sa^-bin 


hand 


cooS 


let 


head 


gGogoSsii GolSs 


oAk-hkowngs, gowngs 


heart 


^Scx^8 


hnit-l6//ns o?* linaA- 
lohni 


heel 


Gg0G5>DS 


chyay-hpa/-!-hnowng 


jaw 


ol§§aS§8 


pa/i-chayt-yoAs 


joint 


3330 o5li 33005 


aA-set, a/z-sit 


kidneys 


g[^do5oooS 


kyowk-kaAt 


knee 


g» 


doos 


leg 


G§G00Do5 


chyay-dowk 


limb 


C§ 0533^1 


koh-ing'i/i 


lip 


j^oSo62 


hnaA hka/m: 


liver 


3300^8 


aA-thehs 


lungs 


o^sx^oS 


a/«-so/ik 


moustache 


^o5oS§Gg3 


hna/i-hka^n s-m ways 


mouth 


ooSii 6o§62 


paA-zaAt, hkaA-dwin: 


nail 


CO o5 00^8 


let-thehs 


neck 


co^oSs 


leh-bins 


nose 


3>DGol68 


hna/i-hkowng; 



45 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


rib 


I§S 


na^n-yoAs 


shoulder 


o§§ 


pa^-hko/ms 


side 


^G03 


na^-bays 


skin 


33GG||| 00D£GG| 


a^-yay, tha^-yay 


skull 


Pg.-^dSs^ 


o/fk-hkowngs-goon 


spine 


G(gD§§ 


kyaw-yo^S 


thigh 


Gol5c^3 


powng-l6/«ns 


throat 


co^g^dSs 


leh-jowngs 


thumb 


cooSq 


let-maA 


toe 


gQg^dSs 


chyay-jowngs 


tongue 


C^D 


shaA 


tooth 


C^DS 


thwa^s 


whiskers 


olSGgS 


paA-mwayS 


wrist 


cooSodS 


let-sit 



Physical and Mental Powers, Qualities, &c. 

^Dc£ OO^C^COS G Cr^^C^ 8;^D3 II 



age 

- old 

anger 

art 

breadth, width 

character (good) 

childhood 

depth 

dislike 

disposition 

fear 

foolishness, folly 



3D00 0533§|05 
3300o5g8g88 
GsQoSlI GgIoO 
3300o5o^D 
33|li (go5 

QaaDGG) 

^o5§88 
Qj.8ooo5§88 

OOGOOD 
^8^5§S§ 

gqIooii §o5(g8i 



a^-thet-a^-yooeh 
a^-thet-kyees-jins 
aA-myet, dawMa^ 
a^-ta/it-peenya^ 
a^-na^n, byet 
a^-tha/j-yay 
thoo-gneh-a^-hpyit 
net-chin 5 

ma^-hnit-thet-chins 
tha^baw 
tso^s-yayn-jins 
mawhaA, niik-chins 



46 



English. 


Burmese, 


Pronunciation. 


gentleness 


o85.^g5i 


thayn-mway-jiiio 


goodness 


g(X)d8?§88 


kowngs-jins 


greatness 


@gSB 


kytes-jins 


hatred 


(^$sg88 


nioAns-jins 


height 


d^o533Gj5^S§S3' 


ko^-a^-\ a//t-myin-jins 


honesty 


8c^g@d8§88 


tsayt-hpyowng-jin; 


honour 


C^a533COGS|^g8o 


go//n-a/uha/?,yay-shee- 


intelUgence 


^DC£ 


nyaAn [jins 


joy 


oSScg^oS^Si 


woons-myowk-chi n t 


judgment (faculty) 


oo8g6o-|^oog§ 


si n-j i n -y a/in-tha/it tee 


knowledge 


c8§330OoS 


thay p pa// n- a//-taAt 


laughter, a laugh 


s|o5g88 


yeh-jins 


length 


33G|p5(l 3DC<^D3 


aA-shay, a/^-lya/iS 


love 


9jSgS8 


chit-chins 


mind 


8o5 


tsayt 


patience 


oo^BogSs 


thees-hka/m-jins 


pleasure 


GC|l5G„gg8E 


pyriw-niway-jins 


politeness, cour- 


C^lliglll GCODODOoS 


pyoo-hgnaA, law-ka/?- 


tesy 


[^oe£ 


woot [nya/in 


reason (faculty) 


30 8 g 8 OD oS G oo D 


sin-jin-daAt-thaw- 


science 


3300o8o^D 


a^-taM-peenyaA 


senses, the 


G03^D 


wayda/ina^ 


feeling, touch 


G02g8g 


tway-jins 


hearing 


^DS^DggSS 


naAs-kyaAs-jinS 


seeing, sight 


g8g88 


myin-jins 


smelhng, smell 


^6^g88 


naAnS-jins 


tasting, taste 


g^3oS3gS8 


myeeS-zaAnS-jinS 


shape 


^ODC^D^ 


po/zn-tha^da/m 


size 


q3o5 


doodeh 





47 




English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


smell (odour) 


■3^4 


a>h-nsihn 

o 


smiling, a smile 


g8§68 


pyo/ms-jins 


sneezing, a sneeze 


GQ|§82 


chee-jins 


sorrow 


8o5(jj)g88 


tsayt-poo jiiiS 


speaking, speech 


GgD§£3ll OCODS 


pyaw-jins, tsa/^-ga^s- 


strength 


§$333§ [g^D^oS 


hkoon-aAs [py^w-jf: 


stupidity 


^DCoSo^^gSS 


nya^n-toAns-jins 


surpiise 


35G3SDg58 


a//n aw-jins 


taste (of a thing) 


32^0D 


a//ya//thiA 


thickness 


R 


duo 


thinking, thought 


oo8^o5§53 


hlin-hmii/it-chin; 


thought, a 


5^oSooSgo5 


tsayt-htin-jet 


voice 


33CO? 


a^-thaAn 


weakness (quahty) 


33DS^^§g8§ 


aAs-nehs jins 


wisdom 


O^D 


peenya/i 


youth (quality) 


cgGOOD3Qg|C^ 


pyo/i-//^aw-aA-yo6eh 




Health. a^§2QD(: 


^.^Sii 


abscess 


3^8^3 


ing-na/« [chins 


accident 


QG0050030g8g68 


maA-taw tiU-sa/ihpyit 


ague 


OC^Il^DS^D 


toAn-byaZ/S-na/i 


ambulance 


a^^^DGOODScjc 


loo-naA sowng-ya// 


aperient 


o5§^o5goo8 


woons-hno/ik-says 


asthma 


0$3^D 


pa/ins-na/i 


bandage 


(^So^gGp 


kyaAt-tsees-yaA 


biHousness 


OD^^G§^0 


thehs-jee-na/i 


blister (of the skin) 


33Gol63 


a^-hpowngs 


boil 


3Q^d86§ 


aA-naA-zayns 


bruise 


3300DSg(^<?,D 


aA-thaA-jay-na/« 



48 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


burn 


§;godd6^d 


mees-lowng-naA 


cancer 


33^D3^3 


ah-usih-zdht 


chemist's (shop) 


cooSs^S 


sayS-zing 


chicken-pox 


GcqDcSl^^^D 


kyowk-hpyoo-na^ 


cholera 


OQDCO^D GGpo] 


kaAla/^-na^ yawga^ 


cold 


j)DG03^D 


hna^-zays-na/i 


contagion 


33^D0^§g6§ 


a^-naA-koos-jins 


cough 


g^d8§c^;^d 


chowngs-zoAs-naA 


cramp 


GgODSs^DgSS 


nyowngS-nyiiA-jinS 


diarrhoea 


0§3cq|^D 


woons-jaA-naA 


disease, illness 


3D^DGGpol 


aA-na/i-yawga^ 


doctor, physician 


G203aDQD8 


says-tha/ima^S 


dysentery 


GOgSoloSSO^^D 


thways-baA-woonS-ja^- 


exhaustion 


33D8o^gS8 


aAs-ko^n-jin: [na^ 


faint, to 


85§GODOO^ 


may n s-ma w-Mee 


fever 


C5|D8^D 


hpyaAs-naA 


fit 


OOoS^D 


tet-naA 


fracture 


3D§So^S@SJ 


aA-yoAs-kyoAs-jinJ 


headache 


GolC8C^o6^D 


gowngs-kik-naA 


hospital 


CXj^^DOO^ 


thoo-na/i-daM 


ill, sick, to be 


^DOO^ 


nah-fhee 


indigestion 


330D80g(^(§88 


aA-tsaAs maA-kyay-jin: 


inflammation 


3300D8(j;g6s 


aA-tha/iS-poo-jin: 


insanity 


K>^§^D 


aA-yoos-naA 


itch 


OD38^D 


yaAs-naA 


lameness 


G§o§58g82 


chyay maA-tsoons-jinS 


leprosy 


^^^ 


noo-naA 


measles 


OOSOOOS^D 


wet-thet-naA 


medicine 


G303ol2 


says-waAs 



r-. 

P 


49 




English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


nurse 


CC^^dS^% 


loo-na/^-dayns 


ointment 


ogoodSs^oS 


hpaA-yowngS-jet 


pain 


$D§S8 


na^-jins 


paralysis 


godg(^dgod^d 


lay-jaw-thay-naA 


piles 


gSSOO^oS-^D 


my in s-tha A-y ik-na^ 


pill 


G0080C^§8 


says-loAns 


poison 


333808 


aA-sayt 


prescription 


GOOSo^oS 


says-peenyat 


quinsey 


3^2C^^D 


o^ns-lweh-naA 


rheumatism 


O^ODD^D 


doo-laA-naA 


ringworm 


G^S^D 


pwayS-naA 


scald 


GG|(f^GODD8§83 


y ay-boo-lo wng-jins 


sickness 


335g88 


aAn-jin; 


smallpox 


GOq|Do5Golo5^D 


kyowk-powk-naA 


sprain 


33GgDgo5§63 


aA-kyaw-myet-chinS 


:ouic 


33DSC^3G002 


aAs-to^s-zays 


mwell, to be 


qqIoo^ 


maA-ma^-Mee 


veil, to be 


qIoo^ 


maA-/Aee 


vound 


33^D33303 


aA-na/i ah-ssih 



Food, Drink, and Smoking. 

(For Conversations, see 

ippetite od8goodo5g|§oo 

GOODoSoGp [good 

0008 <^^ 

G^D05^gs|§GC^S 



beer 

coffee 

lemonade 

milk 

— 5 of cows 

soda-water 

BURMESE S. T. 



c8odoSgg) 



33O033G00Do54JDSll 
P- 132.) 

tsaAs thowk-yaAn thaA- 
thowk-tsaA-yaA [baw 
joAn-yee 
kaA-hpee-yee 
showk - chin - yee - 
noA-yee [hpyaw 
nsih-noh 
beela^t-yay 

D 



50 



English 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


tea 


cooSooSg)^ 


lah-hpet-yee 


water 


GG| 


yay 


wine 


09jSg|^ 


tsaA-byit-yee 


bread 


<^|ll — Gol 68(^1 


mo/m, — powngS-moAu 


boil, to 


gsoD^ 


pyoAk-thee 


bottle 


oodSs 


paAlin; 


butter 


GOODOOS 


htawbaAt 


cake 


m 


mo/m-jo/i 


cheese 


8^5 


dayn-geh 


chicken flesh 


goSoODS 


kyet-thaAs 


cinnamon 


Oo8c75J§2 


thit-kya^-boAi 


cook, to 


^OSOD^ 


chet-thee 


cream 


o?^ 


noA-zee 


curd 


I^ 


noh-geh. 


curry 


od82 


bins 


eggs 


©^ g 


kyet 00 


fish, dried 


cIsg^jdoS 


gna/iS-jowk 


— , fresh 


c>o85§ 


gnaAs-zayns 


flour 


^|^o5 


mo§n-nyet 


fruits 


33086C^D3 


a/i-thees-niya^s 


fry, to 


GO^SOD^ 


kyaw-/Aee 


ginger 


^8i85s 


jins-zayns 


honey 


c^o2G|^ 


pya/iS-yee 


hungry, to be 


OODgoSoD^ 


sa/i-moot-thee 


ice 


GG|5 


yay-geh 


jam [food) 


^4 


yoh 


meals' (cooked 


33^5 


U-nUt 



1 Breakfast, lunch, and supper are simply morning, afternoon, and 
night me;ils, but the word 330D Sih-isiih is used instead of 33<^0. 



51 



Enghsh. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


breakfast 


|.^oSoD 


na^net-tsaA 


luncheon 


g?§dgOD 


moons-lweh-zaA 


supper 


^03 


nyaA-zaA 


meat 


3303 Dg 


a^-thaA; 


beei 


^DlODOl 


nwaht-fhahi 


fat 


33 q8 


sih-see 


kidneys 


GcqDcScoS 


kyowk-ka^t 


mutton 


0^20332 


ihohi-thaht 


pork 


Oo50033 


wets-thaAs 


veal 


^3gOOGC020338 


nwaAs-ga^lays-^AaA; 


mustard 


q^Si 


moAn-nyins 


lutmegs 


0)3c/38[_o5333 


zaAdaykhpoA-/Aees 


3il 


q8 


see 


pepper, black 


c^o5gcx)362 


gna^-yoAk-kowng i 


- red 


c^oS 


gna/i-yoAk 


sickles 


00^5 


tha^-naAt 


juddinn; 


^^G^jO 


moAn-byaw 


•ice, boiled 


00062 


htaA-mins 


•ice, unboiled 


00$ 


saAn 


•oast, to 


00600^ 


kin-/Aee 


;alt 


0032 


saAs 


.auce 


CQ 


tsaA-meh 


moking 


G002G033o5§88 


says-thowk-chin? 


cigar 


G008c85 


says-layk 


matches 


§8^6 


mee^jit 


pipe 


GOOSOO^ 


sa\§-da/ai 


tobacco 


GOOS 


says 


4 tobacco-pouch 


gooSjSoS 


says- ay k 


Dup 


3D55G)g 


aA-pyoAk-yee 



D a 



52 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. i 


spirits 


33€|a5 


aA-yet 


sugar 


Od[§38 


tha^-jaAs 


thirst 


GG|Co5g88 


yay-gnaAt-chins 


tooth-pick 


O^D2(§DSqo5 


thwa.hl-}khl-dohk 1 


under-done, to be 


O0q|o5 OOOqj oS ^ 


maA-kyet-ta^ -j^t- 


vegetables 


oo6Eg)o5 [OD^ 


hins-yuet [shee-/Ae© 


venison 


3Gjo5oD3§ 


dsih-yeh-thsihi 


vinegar 


¥^S 


poAns-yee 


well-done, to be 


cqcSoD^ 


kyet-thee 



Cooking and Table Utensils. 

Og|o5^6G|| 33 0:^0 33 GOO 3 8 II 
(For Conversations, see pp. 132, 145. 



basin 


o>o^c^oo^ 


zaA-l6An-paA-ga/m 


canister 


d5§|ic^s 


thaAn-byoo-boAn t 


coffee-pot 


OOD§Oop 


kaA-hpee-hka^-yaAs 


corkscrew 


ooSa^ 


wet-00 


cup 


§o5 


hkwet 


dish 


9035@33g3 


pa^-ga^n-byaA:-jees 


dish-cover 


C^OD$3;j»6 


paA-gaAn-oAk 


filter 


GG|o8 


yay-zit 


fork 


Qo5 G|83 


hkaA-yin; 


glass, tumbler 


O^CTDCq^l 


hpaAii-gaA-doAns 


jar 


og33q3 


tsin-oAs 


jug 


OGpg 


hkaA-ya^s 


kettle 


GG|G§23^S 


yay-nways-oAs 


knife 


cool 


daAs 


ladle 


GODDOS^ 


yowk-cho/i 


lamp 


83(^5 


mees-ayn 



53 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


lid 


33(|3 


a^-hpoAnS 


mat 


9JD 


hpyaA 


mortar 


^l 


s6/ms 


oven 


G0l5§^ 


powngs-bo^ 


pail 


GCj(^$3 


yay-boAns 


pestle 


^S^o^ 


kya^-bway 


plate 


(^oo§gD3 


paA-gaAn-byaAs 


salt-cellar 


OOD^goS 


saAs-gwet 


saucepan 


3o53^3 


deh-6A; 


scales 


«?§s 


chayn-gwin 


serviette 


cooScx^oSool 


let-thoAk-pa^-waA 


sieve 


so^qI 


saA-gaA 


spoon 


^52, 


zoons 


strainer 


oS^? 


tsit-oAs 


table-cloth 


C)DSgo53 


tsaA-bweh-ginS 


teapot 


COoSooSCj^OGpS 


laA - hpet-yee-hkaA- 


tray 


coSo?3 


lim-ba/ms [yaA; 


water-bottle 


cG|oco83 


yay-pa^-lins 


wine-glass 


0?CX)0^3g§CCX)Do6 


hpa^n-gaA-doAnS- 
chyay-do^yk 



Dress and the Toilet. 33ooSoo 


JooD 3.5 oo6g|6§63u 




(For Shopping, see p. 


145.) 


bath (room) 


GG|^3S>$3 


yay-choAs-ga/ins 


bootlaces 


S^b^s 


hpaA-naAt-ky6As 


boots 


c^o5o8^5 


boot-hpaA-na^t 


bracelet 


odoSgoodoS 


let-kowk 


braces 


GolSscSgsgD 


bowmbee kyoAs-byaA 


breeches 


GolSacScB 


bowmbee-doA 



54 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


brush 


oc6^6c8§ 


wet-hmin-bees 


brush, nail- 


cooSoo^og8o 


let-thehs-bees 


— , tooth- 


ogD§o^a5o5^o5 


thwa^S-tik-ta^-boot 


buckle 


oSooGoloS 


tee-gaA-bowk 


button 


go5o8^ 


kyeh-ZAees 


button-hook 


(^oSoSsgoddoS 


kyeh-thees-gowk 


cap 


gsoc^S 


oJik-hiohk. 


cloak 


Oo5o^3D^ 


woot-loAn-inojee 


clothing, dress 


330oS 


aA-wo6t 


coat 


33S§ 


injee 


collars 


OD^OOS 


leh-ba^t 


comb 


S% 


bee: 


corsets, stays 


c^oS 0^0833^ 


koA-ja^t-insjee 


drawers 


GgSOGol88o8 


chwayS-gaAn-bowms- 


dress, gown 


oloDGp 


gaAgaAyaA [bee 


eye-glasses 


4)o5^§ 


myet-hmaAn 


frock-coat 


33^^^ 


insjee-shay 


garters 


G§g5o^8QB 


chay-zoot tseeS-jo/^S 


gloves 


cooSg5 


let-ts66t 


handkerchief 


ODo6c^8ool 


let-king-baA-waA 


hat 


^8g3a^5 


tho/iS-oAk-htoAk 


jacket 


GS^olSo^ 


in:jee-hkaA-doA 


jewellery 


00^003 


taA-zaA 


linen [ror 


^o5 00533 00^ 


piksaAn-ixA-hteh 


looking-glass, mir- 


31 


hmaAn 


material (dress,&c.) 


33 00^33 c£5 


aA-hteh aA-layk 


calico 


8c^ 


payt 


cloth 


cx)^coo5 


tha/iga Ala/it 


flannel 


ooogcooS 


thaAgaAlaAt 



55 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


fur 


OOD3Gg2 


tha^S-mways 


lace 


V^ 


za^-noo 


leather 


OOD§GG| 


tha^-yay 


muslin 


CODCX^^qO 


lay-loo-zaA 


satin 


t^ 


hpeh 


silk 


?^ 


poAs 


velvet 


OD^ol 


kaMeebaA 


wool 


O^BG^^ 


thoAs-mways 


needle 


335 


ay^t 


' overcoa 


g533^ 


pyin-insjee 


parasol 


088 


htees 


petticoat 


OoSSfl C^Qj^ 


hta/minyn, lo/m-jee 


pins 


o^oSodS 


tweh-a^t 


pocket 


aSoS 


ayk 


pocket-book 


^cBoDB^CO 


hmaH-tsaA-oAk 


purse 


CXDD3gG|33o5 


thaA-y ay-ay k 


pyjamas, jacket 


^33533^ 


nya^-ayk-insjee 


■ — trousers 


^3S5go16so8 


nya^-ayk-bowmbee 


razor 


odSoi^^S 


thin-do^ns 


ribbon 


§^gig.S 


p6/«S-ky6^S-bya/iS 


ring 


coo5§5 


let-tsoot 


scissors 


ooo5g(^3 


ka^t-kyees 


shawl 


ooooS 


taA-bet 


; shirt 


OO^Q)3 


kaAmbeezaA 


shoes 


G§^63 


chee-nins 


skirt 


oq?^^ 


loAn-jee 


sleeve 


33(^COo5 


insjee-let 


slippers 


G^C^30&^5 


shny-do^s-pa^-naAt 


soap 


ooSQd 


satpyaA 



56 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


socks 


Ggg6 


chee-zoot 


spectacles 


4jo5^? 


myet-hma^n 


sponge 


cci§ 


yay-hmoA 


stockings 


GggO^^ 


chee-zoot-shay 


stud 


c33o8?ii go5o8s 


ti/i-thees, kyeh-ZAees 


suit (clothes) 


33005^ 


aA-wo6t-tsoAii 


tape 


ojSgsg^s 


jaAt-kyoAs-byaAs 


thimble 


33^[6oDa5§5 


aA-choAk-let-ts6ot 


thread 


M 


chee 


tie, neck-tie 


03^g§ 


leh-jyoAs 


tooth-powder 


C^D^O^ 083^1 


thwaAs-tik-hmoAn 


towel 


cooSoc^Sool 


let-thoAk-paA-waA 


trousers 


G0l6§C^ 


bowmbee 


tunic 


C^o5ogj533^ 


koA-kya/d-insjee 


turban 


GolSSGolSS 


gowngs-bowngs 


umbrella 


o68coo5 


htees-let 


undervest 


Gg85338§ 


chwayS-gaAn-insjee 


veil 


Qija5j,D(|3 


myet-hnaA-hpoAnS 


waist cloth (native) 


C,.^8 


imh-soh' 


waistcoat 


COc6c^33^ 


let-to A-insjee 


walking-stick 


qoS 


doAk 


watch 


^D^§05 


naA-yee-gwet 


waterproof (coat) 


GC[Qgo533^ 


yay-maA-tsoot-insjee 



The House and Furniture. 

(For Shopping, see 



apartment 

armchair 

bathroom 



3S6o5s 

G<S|g80§ 



3SS eg 5 330^8 33 G COdS II 
P- I45-) 

ayn-gaAnS 

kaMa^-hting-shay 

yay-choAs-gaAii: 



57 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


beam 


GGpoSlI CX^SlI Qd5 


yowk, hto^k, kyaAs- 


bedclothes 


sSSspoSs [gqo 


ayk-yaA-gins [maw 


bedroom 


3S5ipo5§ 


■- 
ayk-ya^-gaAns 


bedstead^ bed 


s^ooS 


hkc4A-din 


blanket 


oooocoo5go15 


tha^ga^la^t-tsowng 


blind 


33C^o533 0DD 


a^-kweh-aA-ka// 


bolster 


GOI 633^8^^ - 


gowngsoAns-shay 


bolt 


o6§oq5 


mins-do/ik 


book 


033;^ 5 


tsaA-o^k 


box 


00600D 


thit-taA 


brick 


3;^oS 


ohk 


broom 


oo^goSo^S 


ta^-byet-tsees 


candle 


ogoodSso^S 


hpaA-yowngs-ding 


candlestick 


ogcx)d63o^69 


hpa^-yowngs-ding- 


carpet 


gooSgoI 


kaw-zaw [goAn 


ceiling 


c^o5j>D@o5 


myet-hnaA-jet 


chair^ seat 


O^ GODSONS 


kahla^-hting 


chest ol drawers 


350^3O06oODII Qo5 


aAn-d6As-thittaA,maAt- 




ooo5oo5god 


taM-thittaA 


clock 


QOS 00084,3^ 


maM-ta^t na^-yee 


couch 


GC^oSiG^^CoS 


lyowngs-yaA-hkaA-din 


counterpane 


oo8so86 


tins-dayn 


cradle 


9s)oS 


paA-hket 


curtain 


o^codSood 


kaAla^-gaA 


cushion 


§3^811 ^ 


hmee-oAns, hpoAn 


dining-rooiy 


ooo68od8o58 


hta^-mins-zaAs-gaAn: 


ioor 


o5o]8 


ta^-gaAs 


ioor-way 


o5ol8Golo5 


taA-gaA-bowk 


- (leaf) 


oos)l8g|o5 


taA-gaA-yooet 



58 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


door-sill 


oools^ 


taA-gaA-hkoAn 


eaves 


33^^258 


aA-moAs-zoons 


floor 


gSs 


kya^ns 


storey 


3S6oo5ll 3300S 


ayn-zin, a^-sin 


garden 


gCX)l^ 


oo-yin 


grate 


68^ 


mees-boA 


hall (entrance) 


oSoSs 


win-gaAns 


hand-basin 


OjO^II 336o§ 


zaMoAn, in-do/ai 


hinge 


^©^ 


paAttaA 


house 


335.1 


ayn 


— , brick or stone 


^oS , 


tik 


key 


GOOD 

o 


thaw 

o 


kitchen 


ooo8s^o5^ 


htaA-mins-jet-yo/m 


lamp 


^%s^ 


mees-ayn 


latch 


ooolscx^S 


taA-gaA-jin 


lock 


GODOOSS 


thaw- ayn 


mat 


qjD 


hpyaA 


mattress 


G^^Gp 


mway-yaA 


mirror 


^§ 


hmaAn 


mosquito- curtains 


§8': oodS 


chin-downg 


padlock 


GOOOOGCODo5 


thavy-gaA-lowk 


piano 


0^830032 


tsaAnS-daA-yaAs 


picture 


^5^? 


yoAk-poAn 


pillar 


GcqjDoSo^S 


kyowk-ting 


pillow 


Gol68338 


gowngs-oAns 


post 


oo6c^8 


thit-ting 


punkah 


g^5good8 


yaAt-towng 


quilt 


G0l8 


tsowng 


rafters (bamboo) 


33g8 


aA-chin 





59 




English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


rafters (wood) 


Q[S?(£ 


ya^-neh 


roof 


33^3 


a^-mo^s 


room 


33S)6§ 


a^-hka^ns 


screen 


o^codSood 


kaAlaA-ga^ 


sideboard 


QoSoDoSooSoOD 


ma^tt-taAt-thitta^ 


smoke 


83^8 


mees-goA; 


sofa 


OODOg? 


thaA-loon 


soot 


^^i 


kyaAt-hk6^5 


spark 


83go1o5 


mees-bowk 


stairs, steps 


cc^oodS 


hlay-ga^S 


table 


OD3g 


tsa^-bweh 


thatch 


OOoSoooSlI 3§oo5 


thekkeh, daAnee-bet 


tile (of roof) 


335goS 


oAk-kyoot 


vase 


oJo^d; 


hpa^n hpa^-laAs 


verandah 


OGCODoSa^ 


hkaA-lowk-sweh 


wall 


oo5o^88;i |g[ 


taA-dings^ naAn-yaAn 


water-closet (w.c.) 


GGJuSS 


yay-ayn 


window 


(qoo6§go]o5 


paA-din?-bowk 


writing-desk 


ODGC)39 


tsaA-yays goAn 


Professions i 


ind Trades, coc 


65^0^033 OOo5(^D3 


(F. 


3r Shopping, &c., see \ 


>• 145- ) 


actor 


Q>3o5oOOD3 


za^t-thaAmaAs 


ambassador 


o5ooq| 


thaAn-taA-maAn 


architect 


BoopoODOOSp 


payttaAga/i-saAyaA 


attorney 


G^G^ 


shay-nay 


baker 


^SOD^ 


moAn-/Aeh 


banker 


OD?c^a5^2 


baAn-tik-tsoAs 


barber 


QO^DOD^ 


sattaA-/Aeh 



60 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


blacksmith 


o%%o 


pa^-beh 


boatman, head 


GC^Oj^gS 


hlay-thoo-jees 


— , under 


GC^OODS 


hlay-/AaAs 


bricklayer, &c. 


o^8g|ooqd2 


paAns-yaAn-tha^ma^j 


broker 


goDS 


pweh-zaAs 


butcher 


ood30^3coqd3 


thaAs-htoAs-tha^maAs 


carpenter, joiner 


COo500O38 


let-thaAmaAs 


carter 


c^^8oood3 


hlehs-tha^ma/iS 


clerk 


ODGSjg 


tsaA-yays 


cook 


3^Saj@ 


oAs-thoo-jees 


cowherd 


^o^oQcrphl 


nwaAs-jowngS 


dogkeeper 


Gg3o8$8 


hkways-dayns 


doorkeeper 


o6oi8Gol8 


ta^-ga^-zowng 


engineer 


OoSoOGp 


tset-saAya^ 


fisherman 


oocl 


taA-gna^ 


gardener 


gODgoD^ 


66-yin-/^eh 


grasscutter 


goS^oSoDODS 


myet-yayk-tb aAmaAs 


goldsmith 


G^O§o085 


shway-paA-dayn 


groom 


g6ic6§8 


myins-dayns 


hunter • 


^# 


moAk-soAs 


husbandman 


cooSo^5ooqd3 


leh-loAk-thaAmaAs 


interpreter 


OOOD8g5 


tsa^-gaA-byaAn 


jailor 


GCX)d£^3 


htowng-hmoo; 


musician 


o§'8^oSooqd3 


tee:-hmoAk-tha/ima/iS 


nurse 


33COGC08o8§8 


aA-kaA-lays-dayns 


pleader 


G^G^ 


shay-nay 


policeman 


33^0058ll C^Co8oDD8 


aA-hmoo-daAns, poolit- 


potter 


48d8$2 


oAs-dayns [tha^s 


printer 


cJ|5oood3 


poAn-hnayk-thaAmaAs 



61 



• English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


servant 


33G0330lll 33S>olo 


aA-tsay-a^-paA, aA- 
hka^-zaAs 


shoemaker 


c8^o8^|5ooqd! 


hpaA-naAt-cho/ik-thaA- 


shopkeeper 


^Sco^ 


sing-^^eh [ma/iS 


smith 


o'iob 


paA-beh 


tailor 


33^[5oOODB 


aA-cho^k-thaAmaAs 


teacher 


so&pii go^d8?oo?p 


sMyah, kyowngs-saA- 


washerman 


ooloopS 


hkaA-wa^-^Aeh [yaA 


wet-nurse 


|o853^ 


noA-dayns 


Music 


al Instruments. 


cSs^oScpii 


big drums 


ooSqii o^ 


pa^t-maA, tsee 


clarit)net 


> 


hneA 


flute 


^Gcq 


paA-lway 


gong (big) 


G0I68 


mowngs 


guitar (a sort of) 


Sgo^dSs 


mee-jowngs 


harmonicon 


o^cols 


paAt-taA-lay^s 


harp drums 


GC16§ 


tsowng; 


set of graduated 


o^^6. 


tsee-wiii 5 


do. gongs 


G^^O^^^S 


ky ays-zee- win; 


trumpet 


ob^lw ^68 


tsih-hdht, hnyinS 


violin 


00 G ODD 


taA-yaw 



Travelling. gsooGoSDiiGo^asDSgSD^soQDsgSsn 

(For Conversations, see p. 159.) 



aback 
. I abaft 

^ 1 alongside, to come 
. anchor 



G^Do5c§ 



nowk-thoh 
peh-zee-hmaA 
sik-thee 
kyowk-soos 



62 



English 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


anchor (to cast) 


GO^DoSstj^o^OO^ 


kyowk-soos chaA-/Aee 


arrive (to) 


ccpoSoo^ 


yowk-thee 


awning 


G^^OODgjoS 


nay-boo-ga^-yooet 


ballast 


OOGo53o6§C33 


thimsbaw-woonS-zaAs 


berth 


aSScp 


ayk-yaA 


bill 


0D3G|£§ 


tsa^s-yins 


boat 


oo5oo§ 


thaAm-baAn 


bow 


iJo 


oos 


buoy 


GoTcp 


bawyaA 


cabin 


33o58 [o85a5g3 


a^-hka^ns [saAn-;6^ 


cable 


Gn9jDo53c:^(_8(^§ii 


kyowk-soos-joA2,htayt- 


captain 


OOGoSDCX^gS 


thimsbaw-thoo-jees 


cargo 


OLJ^OODOS 


koAn-zaMeh 


carriage (vehicle) 


GjOODB 


yaA-htaAs 


change, to (train) 


g^dSsoo^ 


pyowngs-/Aee 


compass 


sb^G^oSoSS 


ay n-h m y o \^ ng-ay n 


crew 


oogo5dood§4j33 


thimbaw-^AaAs-mya/jo' 


deck 


o^JSooS 


ko^nS-baAt 


depart, to 


OgoSo^DSOO^ 


htwet-thwaAs-^Aee 


dock 


ODGOODOqjSS 


thimsbaw-jins 


embark, to 


OD G oSdOO o5 CO ^ 


thim8ba\v-tet-/Aee 


engineer 


OoSoOGp 


tset-saA-yaA 


fathom 


3QC6 


a^-laAn 


flag 


33 o5 


aA-laAn 


forward 


§8^3 


oos-hma/i 


gangway 


GC^OCOoGoloS 


hlay-ga^S-bowk 


hand-lead 


GG|oS8b 


yay-zaAns-geh 


harbour, port 


ODGO§3085 


thimsbaw-zayt 


helm, rudder 


oooSo 


tet-maA 



63 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


hold 


odgoSdoSs 


thimsbaw-woons 


keel 


GGp 


ay-ya^ 


label [bark) 


C650D 


layk-tsaA 


land^ to (disem- 


odgoSjooSsod^ 


thimsbaw-sins-/Aee 


landing-stage^ pier 


OO^OODS 


ta^-daAs 


load, to 


0^00800^ 


wo6n-tin-/Aee 


— unload 


o^^aD^ 


koAn chah-ihee 


lascar 


OCODOS 


hksih-\hh-thee 


mast 


a^^s 


yooet-ting 


oar 


0080006 


hkaAt-tet 


paddle 


GC^SOOOS 


hlaw-det 


paddle, to 


GC^SOO^ 


hla\v-/Aee 


passenger 


88o1gOOD3CJ| 


tsees-pa/i-Maw-thoo 


pilot 


olc85 


maMayn 


prow 


COG0§DgSgj5§ 


thim?baw-oos-joons 


punt-pole 


o^§o]8 


tohl-wah' 


quay 


a8o5 


sayt 


rope 


&& 


kyo^s-jees 


rudder 


oooSq 


tet-maA 


sail 


gl^ 


yo6-et 


sailing-ship 


g|o5c^aSooGOQD 


}ooet-tik-thimsbaw 


seaman, sailor 


OOGOOJOODa 


thimsbaAV-//^aAs 


ship 


oogoSd 


thimsbaw 


start, to 


OgoSoD^ 


htwet-tliee 


jteani-boat, -ship 


8ooogo5d 


mees-thimsl);iw 


Jteersinan 


oooSqo^S 


tet-ma/i-ging 


Jtern 


9 


Peh 


-hwart 


oo§ 


kaAn 


iller 


oooSoo^S 


tet-ma^-jin 



64 



Countries and Nations. c§88(5^5>Scxf^^?^32n 

Note. — The Burmese have some few stereotyped names 
for people they have known long. For new ones the name 
or sound is caught and adapted. For country add g^ pyee^ 
and for people cxj^S loo-myoAs. 



English. 


Burmese, 


Pronunciation. 


Africa 


00908 ogjjs 


KaAppaA lee-joons 


America 


33GO^OO 


A^-may-yee-kaA 


Arracanese 


«l^8 


Ya^-hking 


Bengalee 


006 olo^ 


Bin-gaA-lee 


Burman^ 


ggD or OOQD 


Mya^n-maA, or BaA- 


China 


oo^5^^ 


TaA-yoAk-pyee [maA 


Chinese, the 


co^Scx^^^ 


Ta^-yoAk-loo-myoAs 


English, the 


336oc£o5c^^3 


IngaMayk-loo-myoAs 


Europe 


gGCpo 


Oo-yaw-paA 


France 


(3G[$o8 


HpaA-yaAn-zit 


Germany 


0)Dq| 


ZaA-ma^-nee 


Holland ' 


GCX)DCO§ 


Haw-la^n 


India 


^go3 


Ayndee-yaA 


Japan 


0)0? 


Za^-pa^n 


Jew 


oDa^§ 


YaA-hoo-dee 


Malay 


ocx^|[3 


Pa^-shoos 


Mussulman 


oo§ 


PaA-thee 


Persian 


o1<S|o§ 


PaA-yaA-thee 



* The word MyaAnmafe is seldom used though it is the classic name. 
The original tribe was Mrahn or Mykhn, which was converted bj the 
monks into the Pali form Mra/jnma/i, which by natural law became 
Ba^ma^. The Arracanese branch of the family retain the form 
Mrkhnmsih. 



65 



English. 


Buimcse. 


Pronunciation. 


Portuguese 


o^6<| 


BaA-yin-jee 


s' Shall 


9>S2 


Shawns 


s Siamese 


o^^oqpS 


YoAs-daA-ya^S 


, Talaing 


OOC^SSlI g? 


TaA-lings, Moon 


Legal Terms. ooqp§j)f 


^oSa^Scpii 


accused, the 


ooi;p36 


taA-\ a/i-hkaAn 


acquittal 


3D (q 6 C2 GO g 8 2 II 


aA-pyit-hloot-chlns, 




^6§ooD:.o§gc^ 


chaAns-//iaA-pays-jin5 


action 


00^.83^ 


ta^-yaAs-hmuo 


agent 


C^oSoD^C^oS 


koh-zaA-hleh [joAk 


agreement^ an 


OOGOODCXj^OD:^[5 


thaAbaw-doo-tsfiA- 


answer 


3Dcgli CX^cg^oS 


aA-hpyay, htoo-jay-jet 


appeal^ to 


330^600^ 


a^-yoo hkaAn-/Aee 


arrest, to 


06308800^ 


hpa^ns-zees-/Aee 


attachment 


oS8^SG|5coo5 


thayns-yo/ms-yaAn- 




^o5oD 


let-hmaAt-tsaA 


attest, to 


ooo5goo5oo§ 


thet-thay hkaAn-/^ee 


authorize, to 


33§6gO§00^ 


aA-hkwin pays-/Aee 


award, to 


8c|6go6oo^ 


tsee-yin-hpya^t-thee 


bail 


SDDOOGOSgSs 


a^maA-gaAn pays-jinS 


bailiff 


^d8iic8co8 


naAzee, beelit 


ibond (for loan) 


GgG^ODSJj^S 


gnway - chyays - tsaA - 


case (suit) 


33^ 


a^-hmoo \johk 


charge, to 


g5§CO^ 


ts6ot-tsweh-/Aee 


complainant, the 


^Sg^ 


tso6t-tsweh-/^oo 


contract, deed 


ODS^|5 


tsaA-jo^k 


conviction, a 


ssfoScoSgSs 


aA-pyit pays-jins 


costs 


ooGp8o^o6 


ta^-yaAs-zaA-yayt 


aUKMESK 8.-T. 




E 



English. 



66 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



court (civil) 
court (criminal) 
damages 

decision (of case) 
decree 
defend, to 

defendant (in a suit) 

deposition 

document 

evidence 

execute, to (a deed) 

— (a judgment) 

fee (of office) 

fine (penalty) 

fraud 

giant 

guardian 

heir 

illegally 

information, to give 

informer 

inheritance 

interest 

inventory 

jail 

judge, the [trict) 

jurisdiction (dis- 



co Gp8o^8 

GpQ)Oo5^3 
GCqjSGg 

8Gj6q]o5 

f^cSoDDGolS 

OOGpSO 

0D005§II o3o§OOOD 

CO oSGOOOgoS^ oS 

coo5^o5o^3oD^ 
o85s^6go8co^ 

GcqjSolcoS 
c^5co^^ 

33^8gOoODS^[^5 

o85§oS?§d:;^ 

33Gg5 

ooospSoogS 

0^8oO$8GOODa^ 

33GgggD 

330^8 

ggDOg^80DG)88 

GOODC 

OOGp8CXj^(^8 

8e)6t^ 



ta^-yaA-ma^-yoAn: 

ya^-zaA-woot-yoAns 

yaw-gnway 

tsee-yin-jet 

deega^ree-tsee-yin-jet 

kweh-gaA-tsowng- 

showk-thee 
taA-yaA-hka^n 
aA-tsit-hka An -jet 
tsaA-daAnSj layk-hkee- 

taA-zaA 
t h e t-thay-htwet-chet 
let-hmaAt-ht oAs-ZAee 
thayns-bing-pays-/Aee 
koons-boAs 
yaw-daAn 
layn-lee-hmoo 
aA-ping-bays-tsaA-joAk 
htayns-thayns-Moo 
aA-mway-gaAn 
maA-taA-yaA;-MaA- 
ting-pyaw-/Aee [hpyin 
ting-daAn:-/Aaw-^ .00 
aA-mway-oAktsaA 
aA-toA; 

oAktsa A-pyitsee s-tsa A- 
htowng [y'^^' 

taA-yaAs-thoo-jees 
tsee-yin-zoo. 



67 



English. 



Bui 



Pronunciation 



jurisdiction(povver] 

law- suit 
non-suit, to 
oath, to take an 
pardon, to 
penal, to be 
perjury 

petitioner 
police-office 

— officer 

— station 
proof, to give 
prosecute, to 
prosecutor, plain- 
punishment [tiff 
robbery 

seal, a 
sentence, a 
sign, to 

— (by mark) 
statement (written) 
sue, to 

suit 

summons (ofcourt) 

testator 

theft 

thief 



oq|Ssc^6oo^ 

Qj58000GO§00^ 

gIoSqo^oSoo^ 

00:^5 QQ? 00 o5 GOO 

6(g63 

G5|Do5o^ 

<^co8^S 
(^00833^0063 

oooSgooQoo^ 

OOGpS^OO^ 
OOGpSO^ 

33(yS3la5 

q5c88 
8g^6^o5 
cooS^oSo^Soo^ 
(^oSg§o^§oo^ 

GG|§00D3^oS 
OOGpSgO^OO^ 
333^ 
OOgloD 

coooo§oOOooo§o:jj 



tsee-yin-bing-^Aaw 
aA-hkwin 

o 

taA:-yaA8-hmo6 [thee 
aA-yoo-maA-sheesoA- 
kyaAns king-/Aee 
chgihnt-thB.h pays-Mee 
da^n-hka/m-dik-thee 
maA-hoAk-maA-hmaAn- 
thet-thay-hkaAn- 
showk-thoo [jins 

poolit-yoAn: 
poolit-aA-hmo6-daAn: 
htahnsih 

thet-thay-py hh-thee 
tah-yahz-\)j66-thee 
t3ik-jSih-\oh 
aA-pyit-daAn 
166-yoo-hm6o 
taA-zayt 
tsee-y in-jet 
let-hma/it ht6A;-/Aee 
kyet-chee htoAs-Mee 
yays-htaAs-jet 
taA-yaAs-tsweh-soA- 
aA-hmoo [Mee 

thambaAn-zaA 
thay-daAns-zaA- htaAs- 
hkoAs-hmoo [^Aoo 

thaA-hko//: 

E 2 



68 



English. 


Bui-mese. 


Pronunciation. 


trial 


o8g^d§83 


tsit-kyaw-jins 


verdict 


sx^ggoS^loS 


soAnS-hpyaAt-chet 


will 


C00O0$8OD 


thay-claAno-zaA 


witness 


odoSgoo 


thet-thay 


Commercial Terms. nr^^ogcSsp^SoSs^SGcoDoooDSii 


account 


CgOD'^SS 


gnway-tsfiA-yin: 


^— , money 


.g 


gnway 


— , to settle an 


cgsoSoo^ 


hpyay-saAt-thee 


acknowledgment 


o^5^a5 


wo6n-hka/in-jet 


agent 


o^c^odSc^oS 


koA-zaA-hleh 


arrears 


Oq]$G2 


kyaAn-gnway 


assets 


Gg^005Gl5egD 


k yooays - saAt - yaAn - 


bank 


ooJo^oS 


bd^n-tik [oAktsaA 


bankrupt, to be 


Gg8(§C^OQo5|6 


kyooayS-myee-goA 




CX)^ 


maA-saAt-hniiig-/Aee 


bearer 


cooS^o^ 


let-shee-/Aoo 


bond, a 


0D^|5 


tsa^-joAk 


broker 


§ODS 


pweh-zaAs 


brokerage 


gs) 


pweh-gaA 


buyer 


oo5o^ 


\veh-/Aoo zaA-leh 


cargo 


o5«jco35iioc^$ococ^ 


\vo6n-za/i-leh, koAn- 


charter a ship, to 


OOGo5DOD^[53>Sgl8 


thimsbaw tsaA-joAk- 




OD^ 


hnm-hgnaAs-^Aee 


company 


ojigaBii o:^§c3o59 


koAmbaAnee, koAn- 
bet-ts66 


confiscate, to 


o86sa^oD^ 


thayn:-yoo-/Aee 


contract, a 


O08(0DOi|5 


gaAdee-zaA-joAk 


cost price 


Uo?s 


aA-hp6As 



69 



English. 


Eurmese. 


Pronunciation. 


creditor 


Gg§^8 


kyooays-shin 


custom-house 


33GOODo5o^o5 


a^-kowk-tik 


customs duties 


GQGOODOS 


aA-kowk 


damage 


3Da^§c^o5@6s 


a^-kyo/iS-pyet-chins 


debt 


cg^iig 


kyooays, myee 


debtor 


goDS 


myee-zaAs 


deliver, to 


335g0800^ 


aAt-pays-^Aee 


exports 


cqcrSnq^ 


htoAk-ko^n 


firm, a 


oc^$oo5^ 


koAn-bet-tsoo 


imports [of 


^S§a^$ 


thwins-goAn 


introduction, letter 


330gjS^,^G030D 


a^-kyoons-hpweh 


market 


G^S 


zayS [payS-za/i 


market price 


Gcg2^$? 


zays-hno/ins 


partner 


ocSoSoq 


hpet-tsaAt-thoo 


pay, to 


goSooSdo^ 


pays-saAt-thee 


price 


3303! 


a^-hj)oAs 


1 price-list 


330^'^OD^5: 


aA-hp6As-tsaA-jino 


1 receipt 


g(qod 


pyay-zaA 


irent 


5ISO 


hgnaA;-gaA 


1 retail, to 


COoScSGGpSoOD^ 


let-lee-yowngS-MeS 


salesman, seller 


GS|o6§a^ 


yowngs-^Aoo 


unload, to 


O^gOD^ 


woon-chaA-^Aee 


warehouse 


^GooD6iia:^?Gc^~'6 


goAdowng, koAn- 


weight 


3D§5 [o§o5 


aA-chayn [hlowng-dik 


wharf 


s8^5 


sayt 


wharfage 


o8o5o 


sayt-hkaA [thee 


wholesale, to sell 


Gol o5^ GGpSSOO^ 


hpowk-cha^-yowngs- 




orcco5ooD2cGp68 


let-kfi^syowngs-Mee 




ODgS 





70 



Correspondence. oDODGo^DODGG|8oo^j.83^SGpfi 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


address 


^DODOSS 


hmaA-zaA-layk 


blotting-paper 


95|5oQ9|[ 


hmin-hnayk-tsekkoo 


date 


G^.§ 


nay-zweh 


dead letter office 


ODGOOO^oS 


tsaA-May-dik 


envelope 


odgSoS 


tsaA-ayk 


fasten, to 


ooSoo^ 


hka^t-thee 


immediate 


SDcqSs^g? 


a^-lyin-aA-mya^n 


ink 


^6g|^ 


hmin-yee 


inkstand 


^6c^§ 


hmin-oAs 


letter, note 


^DODIl GQ^DOD 


hma^-zaA, myittaA-zaA 


letter-box 


3o5coSoOD 


det-thitta^ 


note-paper 


ODGG|§0^|| 


tsa^-yays tsekkoo 


packet 


330^6 


aA-htoAk 


pen 


oogcodSii ^8op 


kaMowng, hmin-daAn 


penknife 


cx)d2oogco8 


da/iS-gaAlays 


pencil 


boo 


hkeh-daAn 


post-office 


3o5§8ll ODC^oS 


det-yo^ns, tsa^-dik 


quire 


33C^DJ9^5 


aA-hlwa^ hna^-seh-lays- 


ream 


3DC^D900 


a^-hlwaAlays-yaA [jaAt 


seal, a 


o5a85 


ta^-zayt 


— ,to 


ood85oo5oo^ 


taA-zayt hkaAt-thee 


sealing-wax 


^o5iioogo5d5°^ 


chayt, thim8baw-jayt 


sheet 


33C^D 


a^-hlwaA 


signature 


cooS^^oS 


let-hma^t 


telegraph, to 


G@8^$8§oSoD^ 


kyays-na/ms yik-thee 


urgent 


CX^8g?§D 


lyin-myaAn-zo ah 


writing-materials 


ODGG)8G|?33 Gp 


tsa^-yayS-yaAn aA-yaA 





71 




Military Terms. c8 


^^^SEGpn 


English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


accoutrements 


oSooJoOD 


tsit-taA-zaA 


i . . 
! ammunition 


bo3§3 


hkeh-yaAn 


1 anvil 


GO 


pay 


arms 


cooS^oS 


let-net o?' len-net 


arsenal 


coo5^o6o^o5 


let-net-tik 


artillery 


3Dq{^DcS^ 


aA-myowk-ts6o 


attack, to 


cf^cSco^ 


tik-thee 


battery (fort) 


GgoOO^oS 


myay-ga^-doAk 


bayonet 


GOO^oSgSc^ 


thay-na^t-tsoot-hlaAn 


bomb 


c^Ss 


boAns 


— shell 


c^5§^? 


boAns-zaAn 


breach of gun 


33GgDo5s]88 


aA-myowk-yins 


brigade 


O^GjOD5fj) 


thoo-yeh da/jt-tso6 


bullet 


^S-9 


kyee-zee 


camp 


ODo'oJS 


tsa^-hkaAns 


cannon 


33GgDoS 


aA-myo\vk 


— ball 


33GgDo5oO? 


aA-myovvk-saAn • 


captain 


OOGp^oS 


taA-yaA-bo^ 


cartridge 


oo6ogood5 


ya^ns-downg 


cavalry 


§6883008 


myins-zees-ta^t 


colonel 


oogoodS^oS 


ta^-htowng-boA 


division 


^^^SC^@§ 


thoo-yeh-daAt-tsoo-jees 


drum 


og 


tsee 


drummer 


o^o88odqd3 


tsee-tees-thaAmaA: 


fascines 


oo6§o^§ 


htins-zees 


fight, to 


oSo^oSoo^ 


tsit-tik-thee 


fosse 


cx^is 


kyoAn: 



72 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation, 


furlough (leave) 


3=8§ 


aA-hkwin 


general 


Pc6q|5 


boA-joAk 


guard (house) 


cr^Sodb 


kins-deh 


guide 


coSsg 


la^ns-byaA 


haversack 


c^oSaSoS 


Iweh-ayk 


hospital 


C^^D^ 


loo-naA-yoAn 


helmet 


OGODOS 


hkaA-mowk 


infantry 


Gg3D^ 


chyay-theh 


lock of gun 


GOO^o588335 


thay-na^t mees-ayn 


magazine 


oo8§o^o5 


yaAns-dik 


major 


clScp^oS 


gnaAs-yah-boA 


mallet 


coo5^o5 


let-yik 


mine 


cgogSs 


myay-dwins 


mutiny 


C^|03$g83 


po^n-ka^n-jin; 


officer 


^cSn oSSoS 


hoh, tsit-boA 


outpost 


ooSsooS 


kins-da^t 


picket (peg) 


OdS^IJiI § 


thit-choon, tso^ 1 


platform 


06 


tsin 


powder 


ooSeooS 


yaAn; 


rammer 


0^300 


htoAs- da/in 


reg-iment 


008 


taAt 


rifle, gun 


^oSooSllGOO^oS 


yik-paAt, thay-na/it 


— barrel 


^oScoSgQdSs 


yik-paAt-pyowngs 


— cock 


godSs 


mowngs 


— stock 


goSooSiSS 


yik-pa^t-ayn 


sentry 


33GC]5 


aA-tsowng 


soldiers 


OSOO^IICOOSODDS 


tsit-thee, taAt-thaAs 


— (European) 


GoTcp 


gaw-yaA 


sword 


O33ogo5 


daA-lweh 



73 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


shovel 
stockade 
town ^^all 

trigger 


odScoS 

oooSocS 

0811 o8o^o5g88 


toos-yooins-byaAs 

thit-ta^t 

myoh-\6h% 

let-hloAk 

tsit, tsit-tik-chinS 






ascetic 

begging-bowl 
bell (large) 

— (small) 
books 

— sacred (Bible) 
Buddha 



Religion 

oo8c^ 

goISsgcodSo 

oo^?co^8 

oq|8oii 8^ooo5 



Buddhist religion 
cemetery 
j Christian 
1 Christianity 
church (Buddhist) 
— (other bodies) 
j — (building) 
I clergyman 
|cothn 

congregation 
convent (for nuns) 
corpse 
Creator, the 



C^gOODODO 

O€|So00$ 
QS|8oODOO-> 

300oSoGOo5 

0:j)0gDG)^5 

SOSpiiO^DOOGp 

00 ODD 

O^ODDOS 

QOSOOGOOS GOfiJI 080 

33G01oSo 



SSO^OODOODll 

hpoAs-thoo-daw 

tha^bayt 

hkowngs-lowngS 

sees-lees 

tsaA-oAk 

kyaAns, peedaAkaAt 

hpaA-ya^s thaA-hken, 

boAk-da^ 
boAkdaA-ba^/^a^ 
thins-jin 
hka^-yit-yaAn 
hka^-yit-baA^AaA 
thinghaA 

aA-thinS-daw [ya^t 
thoodaAmmaA-zaA 
saA-ya/i, daAmmaA- 
taA-laA [saA-yaA 

paA-yayk-thaAt 
■' meh-thoo-daw-jowngs 



aMowno-s 



c3$ooS8goo5<j^good hpaAn-zinS-daw-moo- 



OC^GpoCgS 



Maw-hpaA-yaAs-1 liaA- 
hken 



74 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


cross 


cx)oSol§oo6o§5 


let-wa^S-ga^t-ting 


fast, to 


330DG^d6oO^ 


aA-tsa^ showng-/Ae§ 


fast-day 


gc^oSc^. 


ooboAk-nay 


festival 


§G% 


pweh-nay 


funeral 


QOOD 


maA-thaA 


— of monk 


o^^geg 


hpo^ns-jees-bya^n 


funeral rite^to per- 


odB\^c8co^ 


thin-j6A-/Aee 


ghosts [form 


OQ^S 


taA-s:iy 


God 


cqGpS(^8 


hpa^-ya^s-th aA-hken 


heaven 


^d5§ii goodSsooS 


moAs, kowngs-gin 


hell 


c^ 


gnaA-yeh 


hermit 


G)Ga:>3 


yaA-thay 


image 


^bcq 


yoAk-too 


monastery 


goqjdSs 


kyowng: 


— precincts 


go^dSso^oS 


kyowngs-dik 


monk 


€|aD$8ll oc^^sgs 


ya^-haAns, hpoAnS-jee: 


monk's dress 


OOo5?8 


thingaAnS 


nun 


ooSo^cooS 


meh-thoo-daw 


pagoda 


GOc8ii oqcpS 


zay-dee, hpaA-yaAs 


pray 


3C^GOOd6800^ 


s6o-downgs-/Aee 


probationer 


godS^jSii oddogod 


mowng-yin, tha^maA- 


preach, to 


00€p2GODDp5 


tah-yahi haw-/Aee [nay 


religion 


ODDOD^DQCOS 


t h a A- thsih-ii a A-daw 


rest-house 


Q)G|5 


zaA-yaAt 


scholar [ings 


o:^"^ 


taA-beh 


supernatural^ be- 


^oSll G30 


na^t, daywaA 



1 The 'nahi' is a supernatural being answering to the fairy or kelpie. 
Dewah is the Pali name connected with Lat. deus. They are supposed to 
be everywhere and have to be appeased by small sacrifices. The ndgahl 
lives in the water and underground and corresponds to the drak or dragon. 





75 




English. 


Burmese, 


Pronunciation. 


supernatural ser- 


^olS 


iiaAg-aAs 


umbrella [pents 


088 


htees 


water-tank 


GGjOoJ 


yay-gaAn 


weathercock 


5o5«<?.ds 


hgnet-maA-naAs 


Society and 


Government. 33^3G|Q8§j,S33Gp^cg 


circle (division of 


c^oS 


tik 


a district) 






— , head man of 


c^oSo^ga 


tik thaA-jee§ 


citizen 


,§ODDS 


myoh-thkhl jeeS 


commissioner 


o5^8GOD5o83gB 


w66n-shin-daw mins- 


assistant do. 


o5goodo5god5q6§ 


woon-dowk-da\v-min8 


deputy do. 


33GG|2^8q68 


aA-yays-bing-mins 


ibrest officer 


od6goddo$goodo5 


thit-taw woon-dowk 


udge 


ODGp8oD:j^gs 


ta^-yaA-maA tha^-jees 


!dng 


^^^^s 


shin-baA-yin 


dngdom 


?8c 


ning-gna^n 


andowner 


Gg5|8 


myay-shin 


essee of fishery 


336scx^g^ 


in° tha^-jees 


nagistrate 


€pO)OoSo6o 


yaAzaAwoot-minS 


— (of town) 


goS 


myoA woon 


ninister of state 


3303820? 


a A- twins woon 


)easant 


GO^I^GOODOODo 


kyays-da\v-MaAs 


people 


6^^S^^^^ 


pyee-Moo pyee-/AaAs 


)rince, princess 


o8oODDall Q8oC§i 


mini-thaht, mins-/AaA 


)rovince, division 


^oSii 0^8 


neh, hkaA-ying [mee 


[ueen (own right) 


o:jG|8o 


baA-yin-maA 


- (of king) 


Sc^GpS 


mee-baA-yaAs 



76 



English. 



Bui 



Pronunciation. 



revenue 
secretary 
secretary (chief) 
timber- forest-con- 
tractor [trate 
township magis- 
village constable 
— elder 
villager 



gq; 



ODGG|§ll ODgG|§(^2 
330g6oO§GOODo5 

ooSgoISo 

gjDGolSS 

g|DCX)DBn (f.) <^Dzq 



aA-hkoon [jeeJ 

tsa^-yays, tsaA-yayS 
aA-twins woon-dowk 
thit-gowngS 

myo^-oAk 
yooaA-gowns:; 
yooa^-loo-jees 
j663.h-th'dhi, (f.) yooaA- 
thoo 



I 



Government Departments. 33^<s)GG|8gD^> 



Accounts 

Cadastral Survey 
Civil 

Customs 

Education 

Foreign 

Forest 
G eneral 

Home 

Jail 

Judicial 



GgG^o5GG|§gD^ 

COcSGpGG|2gD^ 
OOGp80GG|3gD^ 

QQGOODo5GC|8gD4> 

O^DGG|3gD^ 

^5cg38GG)8gD^ 

OoSGOODGS|8gD^ 
33G[8G|5G^8gD^ 

^6cGC|8gD^ 

330q]^8GG|3gD4, 
CO GplG^(hO'jS GG^l 



Gnway-dilv-yayS htaA 

naA 
Leh-ya^ yays hta/ma^ 
Thhyah-mah yay 

htahns^h 
AA-kowk yays hta^naA 
PeenyaA yayS htaAna^s 
Ning- gnaAn-chaA 

yays htaAnaA 
T hit- taw yays litaAnaA 
AA-yaAt-yaAt yay 

hta^naA [na/ 

Ning-gnaAn yays htaA 
AA-kyins yays hta/^nay 
Ta/iy a// 5 ykh zaA-woot 

yays hta/maA 



n 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Legislative 

Military 

Police 

Postal 
Public-Works 

Revenue 

[ment 
Revenue Settle- 
Telegraph 



Govt. Prosecutor 

do. Translator 
Supt. of Govern- 
ment Printino- 



<o5GS|2gD^ 
GpC&.Oo5G-|'gD^ 

^6 C O^ OSOC^S G 000 8 
GG)ggD^ 

gI^Sc^S^d^ 

G[f^84>^§GG|SCjD<?, 



33^2 G) 33^0^ o5 G^ 
3D^8G)ODGOc5(c5$ 

a. 5 



Oopa^day-pyoo htaA- 
Tsit yays htaAna^ [naA 
YaAza^-woot yays 

hta/aiaA 
TsaA-dik yays hta^naA 
Ning.gnaAn-dwet-loAk- 

sowng yays litaAnaA 
A^-hko6n-daw yays 

litfiAnaA 
Ky ays-ding htaAnaA 
Kyays-na^iiS yays- 

hta//-naA 



AA-tsoAs-yaA a^-hmoo- 

lik shay-nay [byaAn 

Kh-\ sohi-jsih tsaA-daw- 

A/i-ts6As-yaA poAn- 

hnayk-tik-o/ik 



78 



The Cardinal Numbers. ocdd$2c^d^5»533q^u 

(For Grammatical Notes, see p. 114.) 

Burmese Burmese words. Pronunciation, 

character. 



1 





2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


J 
9 
9 

D 


7 
8 


7 




9 
10 


00 


11 


00 


12 
13 


09 


14 
15 
16 


09 


17 


07 


18 


00 


19 


^a 


20 


JO 


21 


J^ 


30 


90 


40 


90 


50 


30 ; 



coo 

GCOS 

els 

G§Do5 

^2 

ODOOC^ 

ooooo5j)SooS 

O330o5j)8j)8 

ODOoo5j)6a^8 

0030o5j>5gco8 

oDaDoS|>8cl8 

ooooo5|>69j>S 

O0£Dc5^8^6 

ooao £^6c8^ 
j)8aooS 

J)63035j)Soo8 

odSoooS 

godSoocS 

clsoooS 

1 The a8 hnin, and, may 



tit (or taA in composition) 

hnit {or hnhh in composi- 

thoAns [tion) 

lay: 

gnaAs 

chowk 

hkoo-hnit 

shit 

kdhi 

taA seh 

taA seh hnin ' tit or seh-tit 

taA seh hnin hnit 

taA seh hnin thoAns 

o 

taA seh hnin lavs 
taA seh hnin gna^S 
tah seh hnin chowk 
taA seh hnin khoo-hnit 
ta^ seh hnin shit 

o 

taA seh hnin kohl 
hnit seh or hmxh seh 
hnit seh hnin tit or hna/ 

o 

thoAns zeh [seh til 

lays zeh 
2:naAs zeh 

always be left out. 



Burmese 
character. 



79 



Burmese words. 



Pronunciation. 



60 


(so 


GgDo5ooo5 


chowk seh 


70 


70 


C^J)SSDC^ 


hkoo-hnit seh 


80 


00 


5|6£Do5 


shit seh 


90 


QO 


C^SCOC^ 


kohl zeh 


100 


000 


00 Gp 


taA yah 


101 


000 


ooGp^SooS 


tkh yak hnin tit 


110 


000 


OOGpOOOOC^ 


taA yfiA taA seh 


200 


J 00 


j;)SGp 


hnhh yah 


1,000 


0000 


oogcod5§ 


taA htowngs 


10,000 


00000 


OOGODOSS 


taA thowngs 


1,000,000 


0000000 


0000 5>2 


taA tha^n 



D. 1910, 0(30o, taA htowng"? koAs yaA taA seh. 



Numeral Auxiliaries} 



Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Meaning. 


Use. 


3D§S 


aA-oos 


That which is first 
or chief 


For rational beings 


33GOOd6 


aA-kowng 


An animal 


For brute beasts 


33g(3d68 
330g83 


aA-kyowngs 
aA-kwins 


An extended Hne 
A ring, circle 


For extended 
things, like roads 

For rings, nooses, 
&c. 


3^9 


cU-hk66 


(Uncertain) 


For things which 
cannot be de- 
scribed 


3S9]5 


aA-chaAt 


A flat thing 


For flat and thin 
things, hke mats 



* See p. 1 14. 



80 



Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Meaning. 


Use. 


qqg^dSs 


aA-chowngs 


A bar 


For things lonj; 
and straight, as 
needles 


33§^§ 


a^-hkoons 


(Uncertain) 


For words 


33082 


aA-isins 


From oSs tsins, to 


Things long and 






extend in a hne 


straight, as spears 
and boats 


33§2 


aA-tsees 


What is ridden on 


Ashorses and carts 


33G0l6 


aA-tsowng 


(Uncertain) 


Writings, books ! 


3DQ^ 


aA-soo 


(Uncertain) 


For pagodas 


3DCQ038 


aA-sovvng 


A building 


For houses, roofs 


33005 


ah-tkhn 


An interval 


Things occurring 
at intervals of 
space or time 


3300f^ 


a/i-hteh 


A piece of cloth 


For clothing ' 


33o8 


aA-pin 


A plant 


For plants 1 


33olS 


a/i-pa/iS 


Meaning is uncer- 


For deities, eccle- 






tain, but proba- 


siastics, and per- 






bly from olspaAs, 


sons in power 






to be separate 




33(yD8 


aA-pya^S 


Flat things 


As boards i 


33005 


aA-hpet 


A side 


For things usually 
in pairs, as hands ' 


33COo5 


aA-let 


A hand 


Weapons, tools, or j 
what is used in , 
the hand 


330^8 


Sih-\6hn% 


What is round 


Things round or. 


330go5 


a^-thweli 


Wliat is slender 


As rivers [cubical 


GOODOS 


yowk 


An old root, mean- 


For ordinary men 






ing uncertain, but 


and women 






used in connec- 








tion with men. 





81 



Examples. 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Three men 


a;^3^8GooDo5 


Loo thoAn: yowk 


Five trees 


oo6o8c]8o6 


Thit-pin gnaAs bin 


Six dogs 


GgScgDoScoODS 


Hkways chowk 
kowng 


Four rupees 


G^lcCOggDS 


DingaA layJ byaA» 


Two objects of 


0C^Gp§j,S0Cj^ 


Hpa^yaA; hnit soo 


worship 






One cart 


c^^§oo8s 


HIehs ta^ zee: 


Four canoes 


GC^GCOSoSa 


Hlay lay: zin: 


A table 


032^00 C^ 


TsaA-bweh iU hkoo 


Three monks 


C[oo58a^8ol3 


YaMAn: thoAn: baA: 


Two fingers 


CO o5 G ^d8§ J.S 


Let-chowng: hnaA 




g^dSs 


chowng: 


A word 


OOODSOOgJS 


TsaAgaA: taA hkoou: 



Ordinal Numerals. 3s833ogc^[oGooDOD^DoaDD^l 



(For Grammatical Notes, see p. 115.) 



first 
second 
third 
fourth 
fifth 
sixth 
seventh 
ighth 
ainth 
:enth 

BUKMESB 3.-T 



qo8oo 
C00800 

QOgO 
33gQ 
300Q 



paA-htaA-maA 

doo-tee-yaA 

taA-tee-yaA 

tsaA-doAk-htaA 

pyin-tsa^-maA 

saA-htaA-maA 

thaAt-taA-inaA 

aA-htaA-tnaA 

naA-waA-maA 

daA-thaA-niaA 



English. 



83 

Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



ay-kaA-da^-thaA-maA 
dw3.h-dsih-ihsih-mah 



eleventh googooo 

twelfth §1 30D0 

The above are all Pali words, and are not used beyond 
twelve. Being polysyllables they ought not to be divided, 
but the hyphen is used to assist pronunciation. 

Collective and Fractional Numbers. 

33GG[33C^oSog5^£2qjDS«^c^COODOOOD2gjD2 



all 


33320^811 o5oS62 


aAs-lo^ns, hkaAt-thayn: 


couple, a 


|>Ss^ll ooqii 00^ 


hnaA-hkoo, taA-ya^n, 


double 


§)8oo 


hnaA-saA [taA-zoAn 


dozen, a 


ooo5j.8s^ 


seA-hna^-hkoo 


fifth, a 


cl8§68a3§S8 


gnaAs-bings taA-bing: 


firstly 


Gsgsa^S 


aA-oo5-z6An: 


once 


oooliioo^$ii OOo?" 


taA-hkaA,taA-jayn,taA- 




OC08 


hpaAn, taA-lee 


one-half 


ODOoS 


taA-wet 


exactly half 


oooSooS 


htet-wet 


pair, a 


33^11 33q 


Sih-tsohn, ah-ysihn 


part, portion 


33§68 


aA-pings 


quarter, fourth 


od8o5 


taA-zayt 


single [part 


00^00^0 


taA-goo-dees ^ 


third, a 


c48§8§OD§82 


thoAns-bingstaA-bings 


threefold 


o^Sao 


thoAns-zaA 


1 Where O is not used above as the numeri< 


jal affix, it will be necessary 


to use the proper affix given at pp. 79-81 inst< 


3ad. 


Also instead of ^80 ping, a portion, one may 


use Cf pohn, heap, or <J tso6, 


collection. 







83 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


three-quarters 


093808 


thohnt-zajt 


three-sevenths 


95>5(^a^84 


hkoo-hnaA-boAn- 
thoAns-boAn 


twice 


^^o) 


hnhh-hkah [hna^-zoo 


two -sixths 


G§3o5«^^33.59 


chowk -tsoo -hmaA 


whole, the 


330^? II 330^3 


aA-koAn, aA-l6Ans 



Adjectives (Intransitive Verb Roots).^ Scoooo^oa 



GOOD Maw must be added 


to 


each if used in front of 


a noun. 






(For Grammatical 


Notes, see p, 113.) 


able (capable) 


00 oSii 00 
oooSgSs 


^1 


;6.. 


taAt, taAt-hning, taAt- 
tsoons 


awake 


^§(5^11 fo 






noA: nay, nohi 


bad (wicked) 


^^. 






sohz 


— (unsound) 


ogoodSs 






maA kowngS 


base 


09 o5 






yoAk 


beautiful, hand- 


^ 






hlaA 


beloved [some 


# 






chit 


big 


@8 






kyees 


bitter 


ol8 






hkaA: 


Wind 


00^8 






kaAns 



* Adjectives are often used in pairs to prevent mistake. Thus, — 
^ cS net means deep, not shallow ; it also means to be dark. 
^C&% net-neh means intellectually deep, profound. 

CO hWi, handsome and also very. So to prevent mistake we may say 
ego hl&hhskh, handsome. O pa/j by itself means shiny. 

F 2 



84 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


blunt 


0^8 


toAns 


bold^ brave 


2j„ ^^5 


yeh, yeh-yin 


bright 


g(^d8 


pyowng 


broad, wide 


cqcS 


kyeh 


careful 


ooo8(^oooS 


thaAdee pyoo-daAt 


careless 


O3o8co8 


thaAdee Ut 


cheap 


3^^iq 


aA-hp6As choA 


clean 


0811 o6(^o5ii oo| 


tsin, tsin-kyeh, thaAn- 


clear 


@^co5 [^bi 


kyee-lin [shins 


clever 


cSgD 


laymmaA 


cold 


q]§§ 


chains 


comfortable 


OOOSOOD 


thetthaA 


cool 


Gil GQOS 


ays 


corpulent 


0.1 egg 


wAh, hpyohS 


costly 


330^808 


3ih-h[)6hi kyees 


crazy 


^§11 ogoSii 8oS^§ 


yoos, thoot, tsayt-yoos 


cruel 


GjoSooo [go1o6 


yet-tset [powk 


damp 


0^63 


htings 


dark 


g^dSii ^oSii ^ 


hmowng, mik, nyoA 


deaf 


^D§o8§ll ^38GC0§ 


nhhl pin2, na^s lays 


dear (in price) 


3DO?Sg8 


aA-hp6As kyees 


deep (not shallow) 


^o5 


net 


— (of purpose) 


^a5>> 


net-neh 


different 


gDS^DSlI C§§^§ll 09; 


chaAs-naAs, kweh- 


dim 


3f? 


hmo/ni [byahs, litoos 


dirty 


^8 


iiyit 


dry 


GOgll G§DaS 


thway, chowk 


dull (of weather) 


c4(_ 


oAn 


dumb 


33 


a// 



85 



r English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


dusty 


C3001I <^cq 


h[joAn-hta^, hpoAn- 


early 


GOD 


tsaw [htoo 


easy (to do) 


ogoS 


Iweh 


empty 


o^oScoS 


loot-laAt 


even 


s& 


nyee-nyaA 


false 


QO^oSiiyt^^ 


maA-hoAk, maA-hmaAn 


far 


GOS 


ways 


few 


^^811 9,D8 


nehs, sha^s 


fine (excellent) 


goodSdQoSu goS 


kowngs-myaAt, myaAt 


— (in quality) 


cgoii ^o5 


chaw, nyet 


fit (for) 


gooSgo^S 


taw-lyaw 


flat 


@D3ll g^ 


pyaAs, pya^n 


foolish 


^o5.. ^$8 


niik, hnaAnS 


fortunate 


oo^oodSs 


kaAn-gowngS 


free 


oo65(^oS 


kins-loot 


fresh 


co^Sii oo8 


laAns, thit 


full 


s^^ 


pyee-zo^n 


S^J 


^8co^2iio58GgDo5 


shwin-laAnS, woons 


general, usual 


QSgco 


hpyit-lay [myowk 


gentle 


r^^ 


noos-nyahn 


glad 


g5oD$3 


shwin-la^ns 


good 


good88 


kowngs 


grand 


s?@^ 


myin-myaAt 


great 


g3ll(P.) QODD 


kyees, (P.) ma^ha^ 


happy 


q]§8oDD 


cha/ms-/AaA 


hard 


QD 


maA 


— (difficult) 


oo5b 


hket-hkeh 


— (disposition) 


(05620088 


kyaAnS-daAnS 


heavy 


GC03 


lays 



86 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation, 



high 

honest 

hot 

hungry 

ill (unwell) 

important 

just 

lame 

large, vast 

last 

late 

lazy 

lean 

light (not heavy) 

hght (not dark) 

Uke 

little (small) 

long 

— (of time) 
loose 

low (in place) 

— (in spirits) 
many 

mild 

muddy 

natural 

near 

new 

nice, tasty 



g§ 

goSoSoS 

G§Og6§ 

(^8oq|o5 

G^DoSogi 

9|58ll c^Ss^ 

85iig 

Gol 

coSs 
°^ 

CoSlI ODGCOS 

^8co5§ 

4|D2 

.^8^11 o86g^ 

G^DOS 

OOOODOII ^8^ 
|§II ^Dg 

oo8 

a8§ll 33C|00^ 



hpyowng-ma^t, yoAs- 

poo [thkhl 

moot-thayt 

II a^, msih-inah 

gaAyoo pyoo-bweh 

hpyowng-maAt 

chyay maA tsoons 

kyees-kyeh 

nowk-soAns 

nowk-kyaA 

pyins, pyins-yee 

payn, kyoAn 

paw 

hn: 

too 

gnehSj kaAlayS 

shay 

kyaA 

mah kyaAt, chowng 

nayn 

hnyoAs-gneA 

myaAo 

nooo - nyaAn, thayn - 

nowk [mway 

tha^baAwaA, na^goA 

nee8, naAS 

thit 

sayn, aA-yaA-MaA shee 



87 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


old^ (not new) 


goodSs 


howngs 


open 


2? 


pwin 


— (gaping) 


OO 


Mh 


patient 


oo^?6 


thees-hkaAn 


pltasant 


OODII CODODD 


thaA, thaA-ya^ 


poor (not rich) 


OoSiGj 


sins-yeh 


poor (in quality) 


s 


nya^n 


poor (to be pitied) 


OO^D^C^oS 


thaAna^;-bweh 


possible 


@S|S 


hpyit-ning 


pretty 


c^iiOoSoooS 


hla^, tin-deh 


private (secluded) 


sBoSo^c^ 


sayt-kweh 


— (personal) 


d^C^J>5oDDQ^C 


koA-hnin ihah sing 


probable 


§8oD2^ii gS 


hpyit-laAttaAn, hpyit- 




[goodSs 


kowngs 


proud 


8oSg8llGOo5GoS 


tsayt-myin, htaw-maw 


pure, clean 


o8go5ii oD^^^Si 


tsin-kyeh, thaAn-shins 


quick, swift 


a^8ii g? 


lyin, myaAn 


quiet 


(§5oDC^ 


gnyayn-thet 


— (scarce) 


5|38ol3 


sha^S-baA; 


raw 


858 


tsayns 


rich 


go5o 


kyo6-eh-waA 


right, true 


^Jii ojoS 


hmaAn, hoAk 


ripe 


9^ 


hmeh 


rough 


g§s 


kya^ns 


round 


c^s 


lohn'o 


rude 


§6s,, §Si@ 


ying, ying2-byaA 


sad 


8c^(j^ii o58^^8 


tsayt-poo, woons nehs 



* Old (in age) 3^11 3300 o5 (^3. GOOd68 is used only for inanimate 
things, except in the sense of former, like French ancim. 



88 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


safe, secure 


^^Jl 


loAn-choAn 


sharp 


<x>o5 


htet 


— (of sound) 


1^ 


tsoo: 


short 


^ 


toA 


— (of time) 


0@D 


maA kyaA 


short (in stature) 


9 


poo 


silent 


c^oSsSoS 


tayt-sayt 


slow 


GJ'?fl §^=25^2 


hnays, hpynys-hnyinS 


small 


CoSlI G008 


gnc'h, thays 


smooth 


G9JDII G@g8 


chaw, pyay-byit / 


soft 


^'■-^9" %^^ 


pyaw, nooS-nyaAn 


sour 


^s 


chin 


square 


OO^G)^8g8 


tsaAdooyaAns hpyit 


straight 


g@dS 


hpyowng 


strange (curious) 


cqizo%% 


htoos-zaAn; 


strong 


^SSODII 33D8g§ 


tsoonS-maA, aAs-kyee; 


stupid, dull 


^DCoSo^n o^S§§83 


nyaAn - htoAn, htings- 


sufficient 


GCODoS 


lowk [hmings 


sweet 


4 


choA 


— smelling 


G^8 


hmways 


tall 


33G)5 (28 


aA-yaAt-myin 


thick (stout) 


oc^o5 


toAk 


— , dense 


C^8 


pyit 


thin 


olSlI QC^5 


pa/(t5, maA pyit 


thirsty 


GG|Co5 


yay-gnaAt 


tough 


C^g8n ^86 


p^ins, hking-gaAn 


ugly 


33^6q^^II 009 


2ih-yohk sohi, maA hlaA 


useful 


330^8o5u 330^3^ 


aA-tho>^ns win, aA-ky oAs 


usual 


§6gco^ 


hpyit-lay shee [shee 



English. 



89 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



valuable 


330^?0^c6u 33o5B 


a^-hpoA; htik, aA- 




00$ 


hpoAs taAn 


various 


cx;^S§D§ii 3DOC2?a;^3 


htoos-jaAs, aA-htoosdoos 


warm 


c^oii 3^aS 


nways, ik 


weak 


33D2^p5§ll Qj^ll Gol 


aAsneh2,cheh-neh, paw 


wet 


^., §g^ 


tsoh, tsoA-zoot 


willing 


8^ol 


tsayt-paA 


wise 


O^Dg 


pyinyaA shee 


wrong 


0^5 


maA hmaAn 


— (erroneous) 


^D2C§ 


hmaAS-lweh 


young 


3300 0SC(^ 


aA-thet gneh 



Verbs, oo^oodu 

(For Grammatical Notes, see p. ii5-) 

[Most of the Intransitive Verbs will be found with the 
adjectives. 00^ thee to be added to each.] 



To accept (agree) 


o^o 


woon-hka^n 


„ — (receive) 


ocq 


hkaAn-yoo 


„ ache 


c^c^ 


kik 


„ acquire 


G|ll G|8 


yaA, yaA-mee 


„ add 


Gol6s 


powngs 


„ admire 


j)Sooo5 


hnit-thet 


„ admonish 


^'i 


so^mmaA 


„ adore (trust in) 


r^sogc^ 


koAs-gweh 


55 advance 


C^803o5 


to^s-tet 


„ aid 


^^ 


koo-nyee 


5, answer, reply 


O^G^Il g?Gg0 


htoo-jyay, pyaAn-pyaw 


„ applaud 


^§^§S 


chees-moons 



90 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


To appoint 


O^OODS 


hkaAn-htaA: 


„ approve 


8o5o;| 


tsayt-too 


„ arise 


0011 m/r. 00 GO II /r. 


htaA5 htaA-zay 


„ arrange 


(^5qo8 


pyin-zin 


55 arrive 


GGpo5li Q^o5 


yowk, sik 


,5 ascend 


00 o5 


tet 


55 ask 


GOS 


mays 


55 — (demand) 


goodSs 


towngs 


,5 assemble 


«^GOoii /r. or m/?\ 


tsoo-ways 


,5 avoid 


g5id8 


showng 


„ awaken 


|§ii |8goo5 


hnoAs, hnoAs-zaw 


55 bathe 


gG|g^Sii in/r. 


yay choAs 


. be 


§s«§ 


hpyit5 shee 


55 beat 


^oSii c^oSii j;»o5 


yik5 poAk5 hnet 


55 begin 


3D0g 


aA-tsaA pyoo 


55 believe 


o^ \_Qcr^\\ intr. 


yoAn 


55 bend 


^oSii ^r. egoSii 


hnyoot, ny66t5 kway 


,5 bind 


91^" ^^g5>d5 


chee, chee-hnowng 


,5 bite 


c^c^ 


kik 


,5 blame 


33gSoo6 


aA-pyit tin 


,5 blow 


3^o5 


hmoAk 


,5 — (as wind) 


o^oS 


tik 


,5 boast 


olgDS 


waA-kyooaAs 


,5 boil 


goSu^joS 


pyoAk, chet 


55 borrow 


G^Sgls [(3U /r. 


chees-hgnaAs [hpeA 


55 break 


o:g§u m/r. §ii gii 


ky6AS5 hkweh, hpyoAj 


,5 bring 


O^OODII 0^5ll G00d8 


yoo-laA, yoo-geh. 


„ build 


GooDoS [o^ii ir. 


sowk [sowng-yoo 


5, burn 


88gcx)d6(i intr. 


mees lowng 





91 




English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


ro burn (set fire to) 


n 


mees shoA 

o 


« bury 


G@@L05 


myay-hmyoAk 


„ button 


33^o8800?> 


in:jee-Mee:taAt 


„ buy 


oo5 


weh 


„ call 


GoT 


hkaw 


„ carry 


ccodSh ooSj 


sowng, htaAnS 


5, — (on head) 


^^ 


yooet [mee 


„ catch 


oS838§ll oSsS 


hpaAnJ-zees, hpa^ns- 


„ change 


gI^dSoU intr, <X)ii 


pyowng;5 leh5 leh-hleh 


„ climb 


00 o5 [obc^c^ii tr. 


tet 


„ consent 


ooGOOoo:} 


thaAbaw too 


„ cook 


j^oS 


chet 


„ cough 


Gg38S0^8 


chowng; soA: 


„ cover 


3;^5ii <\ 


ohk, hpoAn: 


„ dance 


oo 


kaA 


„ decide 


o^sgoS 


soAns-hpyaAt 


„ deny 


gSSooS 


gnyin:-peh 


„ depart, go away 


OgoSogDS 


htwet-thwaA: 


55 descend 


ooSsii ODOS 


sin:, thet 


55 desire, wish for 


c^ii c^9|5 


I0A5 loA-jin 


55 do, make 


§.. cx^S 


pyo65 loAk 


55 draw, pull 


c§c8 


sweh-gnin 


55 dream 


335«c6 


ayn-met 


55 drink 


GOODOS 


thowk 


55 dress 


33oo5oo5 


aA-woot woot 


„ dwell5 live 


G^ 


nay 


5, eat 


OD§ 


tsaA: 


55 endeavour 


@IOD8 


kyoAs-zaA? 


5, escape 


c§o5 


loot 



English 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


To expel 


j;)6cx^oS 


hiiin-htoAk 


„ extract 


joS 


hnoAk 


„ fall 


oq|ii cx) 


kyaA, leh 


„ feel (by touch) 


063 


tsaAnS 


„ find, feel 


^^ 


tway 


„ finish 


3DOOOo5ll (§oGO 


aA-tsa^ thaAt, pyees- 


,, follow 


c^qS 


lik [zay 


„ forbid 


gSoODS 


myit-taAs 


„ forget 


GQGOqjO 


may-lyaw 


,, frighten 


C§3 05C^| 


chowk-hlaAn y 




5. get 


^„ciS 


yaA, ya^-mee 


,, give 


GOSlI 3^5 


pays, aAt 


5? go 


OgDS 


thwaAs 


.? go in 


06 


win 


„ go out 


GgoS 


htwet 1 


„ govern 


3^ 5 ^8 


ohk-isoh% 


„ grow 


0^811 gDS 


to As, pwaA; 


„ hang 


0§00D8 


sweh-htaAs 


„ hate 


^^s 


moAnS 


„ hear 


@DS 


kyaAs 


„ help 


00 


mkh-zsih 


„ hide 


go5oo38 


hwet-hthht 


„ — (one's-self) 


c^58c^ 


p6AnS-nay 


„ hire 


gls 


hg-naAs 


,. hold 


of^S 


king 


„ hope for 


Gg|ScoS 


hmyaw-lin 


„ intend 


^ 


kyaAn 


„ join, tr. 


00 o5 


set 


„ joke 


0§€)D3 


kee-zaAs 



93 



r English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


■ To jump 


^In 9?c^D5 


hkoAn, hkoAn-hlwa/ti 


„ keep 


0^0033 


yoo-htaA: 


„ kill 


00 oS 


thaAt 


,5 kindle (fire) 


§^^^ 


mees hnyee 


„ know 


o3 


thee 


„ laugh 


Gjc5 


yeh 


„ learn 


oo6 


thin 


„ lend (or borrow) 


G^2 


chee; 


J, let (permit) 


33^8co2 


aA-hkwin pays 


„ let (or hire) 


9ls' 


hgnaAs 


„ let go 


c^oS 


hloot 


„ lie down 


sSSii o^Sc^Sg^ 


ayk, tohni-Wint nay 


„ lift 


^11 o 


chee, msih 


„ light 


og53 


htoon: 


„ listen 


^D 


naA 


„ live (be alive) 


JQODcS<^B 


aA-thet shin 


5, lock 


GOOOOOS 


thaw hkaAt 


„ look for 


(§^?1^ 


kyee-shaA 


„ loosen 


GC^D 


shaw 


„ lose 


33GC^Do55li £3 


aA-pyowk hka/m. 


„ love 


qj5 


chit [shoAnS 


„ mark 


qoSii^c^ood2 


hmaAt, hmaAt-htaAs 


„ marry 


c8 S 3 g ? 8 II CO o5 


htaynS-myaAnS, let- 




cd5 


htaAt 


5, — (of a woman) 


good8j>83d cooS 


sowng-hninS, let-htaAt 


„ meet 


<^93@ b^^ 


tway-kyoAn 


„ measure 


O^SSC^D 


tings- htwaA 


„ mix 


GGpG^D 


vaw-hnaw 


„ move, /r. 


c^ 


shway 





94 




English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


To need, want 


<^ 


loA 


„ obey, listen 


^d8cood8 


naAs htowng 


„ offend 


^.DGoii g5.d85|o5 


naA-zay, hnowng-shet 


„ open 


85 


hpwin 


„ order, command 


33§§G08II ^DOODS 


aA-mayn-pay:, hmaA 


55 own 


§8 


ping [htaA 


55 — (confess) 


g@d8 


hpjowng 


,5 pack up 


a^5 


htoAk 1 


„ pick up 


GCTODOS 


kowk 


55 place5 put 


ooDSii od8 


htaA:, tin 


(in) 


ogSaii 00^ 


thwinS5 hteh 


,, play 


CXJODS 


ka^-zaA: 


,5 plough 


0§5 


htoon j 


,5 pluck, pick 


agoS 


soot 


55 pour out 


c^§8ii ccodSsii g 


thoons, lowngJ, hgnel 


55 praise 


§8^§§ 


checo-moon: ^ 


„ prepare5 repair 


c^8oo8 


pyin-zin 


55 press 


|o5i. 8 


hnayk5 hpee 


55 push 


02$§ii 0^8 


toonS5 htoAs 


55 quench 


OOOlGg 


thaAt-hpyay 


5, reach 


§ 


hmee 


55 read 


ooS 


hpaAt 


,5 reap 


qos 


yayk 


55 receive 


cooSoii oa^ 


let-hkaAn, hkaAn-yoo 


55 reckon, count 


CG|0205 


yay-twet 


55 refuse 


@88CD? 


gnyins-zaAn 


,5 regret 


J>SGgD 


hnaA-myaw 


55 remain 


G^ 


nay 


^ — (behind) 


O^^G[8 


kyaAii-yit 



95 



English. 

To remember 
„ repay fei 
„ rest [back) 
„ retreat [back 
„ return, come 
„ — (go back) 
„ ride 
„ rob 
„ rub 
„ run 

„ save (deliver) 
„ say, tell, speak 
„ scatter 
J, see 
„ seek 
„ sell 

„ serve (as ser- 
„ sever [vant) 
„ sew, stitch 
„ shake 
„ sharpen 
„ shave 
„ shine, intr, 
5, show (point 
[out) 
„ sign (letter, &c.) 
„ sit down 
„ slash 
„ sleep 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



•ive 



^ooSii ooo8g| 

g?G§D 

(q$cod 
88 

G@8 

oocSooS 
G^Dii a^ 
g8,. @§ 

@8 

^^ 

GGpSS 
33^0068 

§^ 
QJ(5 

33GGp6c^o5 
gl) goDll ^5g 

coo5^o5o^8 



hma'it-mee, thaAdee 

pyaAn-pays [yaA 

naAs-nay, yaAt-nay 

soAk-thwaAs 

pyaAn-laA 

pyaAn-thwaAs 

tsees 

loo-yoo 

poot, tik 

pyays 

keh-tin 

pyaw, soA 

kyehs, hpyaAn 

shaA 
yowngs 

aA-hmoo htaAnS 
hpyaAt 
choAk 
hloAk 
chyoon 
saAn yayk 
aA-yowng htwet 
pyaA, pyaA-thaA, 
[hnyoon-pyaA 
let-hmaAt htoAs 
hting 
hkoAk 
ayk-pyaw 



96 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


To smell, tr. 


33|G|II ^5s 


a^-naAn yaA, naAns 


,, —',intr. 


334ogo5 


a^-na^n-htwet 


„ sneeze 


G9j 


chee 


„ sow (seed) 


g 


kyeh 


„ spoil, tr. 


c^o5o82 


hpyet-seeS 


„ spread 


o6Eoqj6s 


hkins-kyins 


„ sprinkle 


§S8 


hpyaAnS 


„ squeeze 


^s 


hnyit 


5, stand 


ci5 


ya/it 


„ steal 


^8„ ?8oj 


hkoAs, hkoAs-yoo 


„ surround 


0§8G[ 


woons-yaAn 


„ swallow 


^ 


myoA 


„ swell 


csp8 


yowng 


„ swim 


GG^OJS 


yay kooS 


,5 take 


^ 


yoo 


„ -off 


gj^ 


choot 


5, teach 


od6^ 


thin-chaA 


„ think 


ooSii 8o5ooSii ^oS 


htin, tsayt-htin, hmaAt 


„ throw 


g8 


pit 


„ — away 


sISS 


ts66n-pit 


„ touch 


c8»c§ 


htee, toA 


„ translate 


§§4 


pyaAn zoA 


„ travel 


o^So^dS 


hkaA-yees-thwaA: 


„ tread 


^68 


ninS 


„ understand 


^DSOD^ 


naAs leh 


„ unpack 


33095§5S 


aA-htoAk hpyay 


„ use 


OqSGOOIv'b 


thoAnS-zowng" 


„ wail, cry 


^GCg,^» § 


gnoA-jways, gnoA 


„ wash 


COOS 


says 



97 



English 



To wash clothes 

, — the face 

, weigh, tr. 

, will, be willinif 

, wipe 

, work 

, wra|) up 

, write 

, yield, give way 



BursiiPse. 


Pronunciation. 


G(^5 


shaw 


4]oSj>Doo5 


myet-hnaA thit 


^5 


chayn 


80S0I1I OOiOODO^jl 


tsayt-pa^, tha/ibaw-too 


oc^oS 


tho^k 


095 


lo^k 


oc^5g)6ii a^5 


htoAk-yit, htoAk 


.GGJSOODB 


yayr-thfiAs 


33DoGCg|0 


aAs shaw 





Auxiliary or Modifying Verbs. 

These verbs are chiefly used to modify the mode of the 
principal verb, and f )llow between it and the affix of tense* 



able, })Ossible,to be 


|6 or |6 


hning 07' 


ning 


accustomed, 


0000 


ta^t 




skilled, to be 








at leisure, to be 


33D8 


a^: 




attain, to 


§ 


hmee 




averse, loth, to be 


C^Si 


pyins 




cause, to 


GO 


tsay 




come to an end. 


^$ 


koAn 




continue [be spent 


G^ 


nay 




cruel, unfeeling, to 


c|o5i 


yet 




dare, to [be 
deservino- of. to be 





woon 
litik° 





1 Qc^ yet, with a negative has the force of being 'incapable of\ or 
without the heart' to do a thing, as q^o5g|o5c^8 ma/i yik-yet-hpooS, 



{1) have not the heart to heat (him). 

BURMESE S.-T. 



G 





98 




English. Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


desire^ to 


^8.. di 


chni, ioh 


difficult, to be 


58 


hkehs 


direct, to be 


^^ 


teh 




do again, to 


§s 


pya^n 


easy, to be 


ogoSii ODD 


Iweh, thaA 


exceed, to 


og§§ 


loons 


happen, to 


8 


mee 


obtain (must) 


=1 


yaA 


practicable, to be 


@S 


hpyit 


pretty, to be (very) 


^ 


hWi 


proper, good, to be 


GC03S311 otS 


kowngs, thin 


revolve (remain) 


^S 


yit 


right, to be (ought) 


338 


ut 


shun, to 


dii 6b 


hpeh, beh 


sufficient, to be 


GCODOS 


lowk 


suitable, to be 


^C^ll Gpll Oo5 


hpweh, J ah. Wm 


try, to [to 


c§3 


tsaAnS I 


turn back (repeat), 


^ 


toA.jL 



99 



Examples. 



,o5 



Pro- 
nuncia- 
tion. 


Princ - 

pal 
Verb. 

GOD 


koAn 


kowngS 

t,sa7ins 


GgD 

oc^5 

C306 


taAt 


06 


ta/m 
htik 


6 

GOO 


nay 

lining 

pyaAn 


oc^oS 

OgDS 
COD 


yaA 


§ 


yaA 

Iweh 
lowk 


5.1 

oo5 

@s 

(0D2 


hla^ 


QJD5 


w66n 
thin 


OgDS 



Auxiliary 
and Affix. 


Pronunciation. 


Force. 


"??§ 


thay koAn byee 


quite dead 


GOODSdOog 


pyaw-gowngS-^Agg 


proper to say 


^60D^ 


weh jin-^Aeg 


desi're to buy 


oSaol 


hpaAt tsa/inj-bah 


endeavour to 
z'ead 


OOODOO^ 


win daAt-thgg 


accmtomed 
to enter 


ooJoogS 


py65 daAu-^Agg 


^^ to do 


C^OSOD^ 


ihay dik-thgg 


100 r thy of 
death 


G4)00^ 


lo/ik nay-agg 


co?i«i»aetodo 


ISOD^ 


thwaAS hning-Z/igg 


a6/e to go 


gJoD^ 


la/i bya/m-^/igg 


a^ai» comes, 
return 


G|Q^ 


pygg yaA-mgg 


must (got to) 
do 


GpOD^ 


hka/jn-ya/i yaA-^gg 


should ohisdn 


O^OD^ 


weh \oh the^ 


wish to buy 


OgoSoD^ 


myin Iweh-^Agg 


easy to see 


GODDoSoO^ 


tsa/iS lowk-thgg 


sufficient to 
eat 


C^OD^ 


inyaAs hlaA-^//ge 


tery many, to 
be 


003^ 


thwa/tS w66n-agg 


dare to go 


odSo:^ 


yoo ^/iin-^Aeg 


^^ (ought) to 
takq 



G 3 



100 



Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions. 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



about (nearly) 
- — (concerning) 
above (more than) 
abundantly 
according to 

across 

afresh 

after 

afterwards 

again 

against (in opposi- 

ago [tion) 

all (of) 

— at once^ sud- 
almost [denly 
alone, solely 
aloud 

already 

also, too 

although 

altogether, quite 

always 

and (nouns) 

— (verbs) 
anywhere [about 
around, round 



0^,n GCODOS 



GCqjSlI C»o5ll33O0 5 
goSogD 

330^8 
Oo|cO^JI G^3o5 
GQOoS 

g^do5g.^d5 
ooo£ 

330005CX) 

3300cq|c5c:^ 

33G|8oOol 

co^8 

c^godSii cScpc^S 

330:^§ 

330.^Qgo5ll 33(q 

Gogi" (i) 

OOo533C|5q3§ 

ooSoopS 



hka/in, lowk 
sing yooay 
'cyaw, det, aA-loon 
kyooeh-wa/izooa// 
hnin a^-nyee, hni-j a^ 

too, aA-ting 
kcihn-lahn, showk 
aA-thit 
nowk-hmaA 
nowk-nowng 
ta^-hpaAn 
sa^n-jin-bet 
aA-htet-ka/i 
a^s-loAns 
yoAkhkaAneh 
loo 

koA dees,taA-hkoo dee 
a/i-thaAn kyeh-loA 
aA-yin ta^-hkaA 
lees [dwn 

Ihoh-ihkWj thoh-ja./ 
aA-koAn 
aA-tsin maA pyaAt, a/ 
hnin [niye 

jooay 

beh aA-yaAt maA soA 
DaAt-leh 



101 



English. 


Burmese. 




PronuReij^tiow. 


as 


^^ 




geh-thoh 


as much, as many 


gT^ 




ee-hmjah 


as soon as, imrae- 


qioSgSs 




chet-chins 


at [d lately 


^Dii |o5ii Q 




hma^, hnik 


at first 


3Dg2Q^§tjO 




a/i-oos-z6/aiS-hma^ 


at last 


g^doSo^Sqd 




nowk-s6^nS-hma/i 


at the most 


33C^D§ac^§Q3 




aA-myaAs-z6Ans-hmaA 


at once 


rjoloD^S 




taA-hkaA-dees {or taA- 
gaA-dehs) 


at present 


OOS^^D 




yaA-hkoo-hma^ 


because 


g^dSugodoc 


@=s 


jowng, Mawjowng 


before (time) 


33G|5oO 




aA-yin-ga^ 


— (place) 


33G„5|9D1I o5 




aA-shay-hmaA, htaAn 


behind [neath 


G^DOS^D 




nowk-hmaA 


below, under, be- 


GGQDOS^D 




owk-hmaA 


besides 


qS@8 




laA-gowngS-pyin 


better 


ODDf 




thaA-yooay 


between 


o5(^d8^:» 




tsaAt-kya/iS-hmfiA 


— , among(st) 


330388^3 




aA-twins-hmaA 


beyond 


33(^^^D 




aA-l66n-hmaA 


but 


C§Gp0^8 




/AoA-ya/i-dwin 


by means of 


33D§§S!I gS 




ahs-hpyin, hpyin 


by the side of 


33^DQDII 00(3 


oS^D 


dh-nhh-hmiJi, tiA-bet- 


by turns 


0009^0:^ 




ta/i hlch-jaA [hmaA 


certainly 


Go633C^§ 




aykaAu aA-hma/m 


close to 


odS^ 




kaAt-yooay [jovvng 


consequently 


0^33g(^d8§ 


=@=c 


htoA aA-kyowng'S- 


daily 


G^^O^ll G^„0^86 


nay-zin, nay-ding 


doubtless 


80008 




dwee-ha/i ma/i shee 



102 



Ergli&h. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


down (direction) 


G33Do5c§ 


owk-thoA 

o 


— (position) 


G33Do5^D 


owk-hraaA 


during 


O^OgS 


tsin-dwin 


early, betimes 


GODC^OD 


tsaw-zaw ; 


either ... or ^ 


co^SgoodSs — cogs 


laA-gowngs — laA- 




GOO^SSii q8 — c^8 


gowngs 


elsewhere 


33g3Sc:§ 


kh-chhhi-thoh 


enough (of) 


GCODoSg33d8 


lowk-owng 


even if 


o8c^S 


bin-hlyin 


everywhere 


33G|5o^88 


aA-yaAt-ding; 


exactly 


GOD^DgD 


thay-jaA-z66aA 


exceedingly 


ODDC^JgD 


thaA-lo6n-zo6a/i 


except, prep. 


OODSI 


htaAs-yooay 


far, distant 


GOSgD 


ways-zooaA 


for, conj. 


33c[^d88^D 


aA-kyowngS-hmaA \ 


— , prep. 


32§n c§ 


aA-hpoA, boA 


formerly 


33C|6oO 


aA-yin-gaA 


forward 


=§!=§ 


shay thoh 


from 


OOP ^ [sDoS 


o;-aA, hmaA [tsii 


fully 


C^o5§o5d 33CX^5 


tik-yik, aA-koAn aA 


hardly 


ǤOD^ 


maA-hmee-daA-hmee 


heedlessly, in ad- 


3S^o8oDO 


aA-hmaAt taA-meh 


here [vertently 


OD^S^D 


dee-hmaA 


herewith 


OD^j^SoDOg 


^Aee-hniii taA-gwaA 


hitherto 


00£JC^8g3Qd8 


yaA-hkoo ting-owng 


how, like 


^^^^ 


/Aee geh-/AoA 



1 Note.— 0D^!G00d88 CO^§gOOd82 commonly written (^5 

c8 is used for * either — or ' and ' both — and '. ^8° by itself is used fo: 
^the afmesaid ' or ' ditto \ 2 o5 hnik is usually written § and Q^ yooay ^ 



103 



Engilish. 



PronunciatioD. 



how much? 


coo5gcodo5 


beh-lowk 


however 


C^GOOSCO^S 


thoh-thAw-leel 


if 


C^S 


hlyin 


in 


03^" § 


dwin, hnik 


in front, hefore 


33G^OO 


dh-shaj-gsih 


in future 


g.?.d6oodco 


nowng-kaAM 


in order to 


gill G)G3306 


hgna.h, jah-owng 


in the r. idst of 


33COo5§ 


aA-leh-hnik 


indeed 


33O0o5^J 


a^-keh-yooay 


ii.side 


Sac^SSOgSlI OD^D 


aA-twins-dwin, deh- 


instead of 


330DS 


aA-tsaAs [hmaA 


into 


<^^ 


deh-//ioA 


just a> 


oocr)C§ 


tha^-geh-MoA 


just now 


cx)o8 


yaA-hkin 


lately 


OOG^^OO 


ta^-nay-gaA 


less 


OOD^CCS 


tha^-yooay g-neh 


likewise 


C^^^BO^ 


htoA-nees-doo 


little by little 


^.>0gS 


zohi-zint 


long" ag;'0 


C\g§GCo(§?G00D330l 


loon-lay-byees-Maw 


merely 


oooSoooS 


thet-thet [a/i-hkaA 


more 


OOD^ 


tha^-yooay 


moreover 


S6g8 


lees-gowng'S-pyin 


much 


C^DSgD 


myaA:-zooaA 


mutually 


33Dj6B^88 


aA-chinS-jins 


near 


ssl^c^ 


ah-neei-thqh 


never 


COol^Q 


taA-hkaA-hniyaA-maA 


nevertheless, not- 


QfJCjicSGOoScO^B 


maA-hoAk thaw-lees 


withstanding- 






next to 


33^060 


aA-nee-z6/mS 



104 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


not 


Q 


mSih 


not at all 


3^(^8goa^o5 


a/i-hlyins ma^-hoAk 


not yet 


qcx^oSgoco 


mail ho/ik thayS 


now 


ODS^ 


ya/z-hkoo 


nowadays 


ooq^Qo) 


ya^-hkoo aA-hkaA 


nowhere 


COOS^DQCX^OS 


beh-hma^ ma^-hoAk 


of 


4 


ee (abbreviated form of 
G^ which is never 


off 


33GoToO 


aA-paw-gaA [used) 


often 


3Dg5g5 


aA-kyayns-jaynS 


on^ upon 


33GoT^D 


aA-paw-hmaA 


on account of 


GgD8 


jyowng 


on the left 


cooSbooS 


let-weh-bet 


on the right 


COOSOODOOS 


let-ya/i-bet 


once 


OOol 00^811 CXDc8 


tU-gU-deht, iU-\ee 


only 


GOD 


thhh 


opposite 


^o53.D^l880^8 


myet-hna^-chinS-zing 


or, otherwise 


cgocx^oS 


thoh-vci'^h-hohk 




outside^ out ol 


gqQS^d 


aA-pyin-hma^ 


over (above) 


3300oS^^D 


aA-htet-hmaA 


possibly 


f^^QCOoBll^^Q^ 


hpyit-kowngs hpyit 


presently 


00^08 


ya/i-hkoo-bin [mee 


probably 


CX^oS GOOdSSO^ CO 


hoAk-kowngs hoAk- 


purposely 


ooq8 [^ffi 


hta^-min [mee 


quickly 


3^cq\B\\ g?g? 


a^-lyin, myaAn-mya^n 


rather, preferably 


00D^3QC^^00gj.J 


tha^-yooayaA-loA shee- 
thee-hnin 


— 5 somewhat 


008" gooSgooS 


hka/it, taw-daw 


repeatedly 


33(3?00(X)CO 


a/i-hpaAn-ta^-leh-leh 



lo; 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


save^ excepting 


cr)D8^ 


htaAs-yooay 


since, prep. 


G^DOS 


nowk 


— , conj. 


^§^i 


MoA-hpyit-yooay 


so, thus 


^^ 


htoA.-MoA 

o 


so much 


gj^" c^^ 


ee-hmya/i, htoA-hmyaA 


some 


OO^OO^GOOD 


ta/i-zo^n taA-hkoo-thaw 


somehow 


O3^00S^GO3D^^8 


ta/i-zo/ni-taA hkoo-Maw 




[33DSg9 


neeS-aAs-hpyin 


sometimes 


OOoloOGCO 


ta^-hkaA ta/i-lay 


soon 


4jD8QgD 


mya^S ma/^-kyaA [meh 


straightway 


^o5qj6§II 33@D2Q 


chet- chins, a/«-chaA§ 


suddenly 


^5o>> 


yoAk-hka^-neh 


sufficiently 


GCODo5g33d8 


lowk-owng 


that, conj. 


G3Dd8 


owng 


then 


O^SDolg 


htoA a^-hkaA-hnik 


thence 


C^OD 


hoA-gaA 


thenceforth 


^^i^i 


hto^-hmaA tsaA-yooay 


there 


C^^D 


hoA-hma^ 


therefore 


c^g@d5 


htoA-jowng 


throughout 


OOG^DoSc^S 


taA-showk-loAns 


— (by means of) 


3DDe§8 


a^S-hpyin 


till, until 


o^8g3^d8 


ting-owng 


to 


0^11 C^n 33D8 


thoA, koA, a/iS 


together with 


J> 8-330^ 


hnin-aA-too 


too, also 


co^8 


lees° 


too much 


Og?8 


loons 


towards 


c§ii q8c§ 


thoA, see-thoh 


under 


CGQDOS^D 


owk-hma/i 


unexpectedly 


3Q^o5oGo8 


aA-hmaAt maA-htin 



106 



Ensilish. 



Biu'inese. 



Pronunciation. 



unless 

up, upwards 

— (of river) 

weekly 

well 

when ? 

whence 1 

where ? 

[ceded by a verb) 
wherever {jjre- 
whereupon 
whether, if 
while, whilst 
why ? 



o5c§ 



willing 



ly 



wisely 

with 

— (by means uf j 

without (absent) 



— (outside) 
yearly 
yet {conj.) 
— y adv.) 



O CQ'8 

33 G0T08 113300 

qj.5g|oSod(^§ 
goodSoGOOdSs 

00o5gCXiD33q1cX) 

oooSoooDii ooo5o8 

oocx) 
ooc^^-'Dcbii oooSsS 

GCOGpCp 

mm 

(^8go 

o^ §0 o] II ^o ^ ooD a-) 
obj>o5G(^D6ooii 
coogc^cx) 

COGOODO^gD 

c8g3gD 

j)6ii j;)6ooog 

Q^CX)il Qold:) 



[c^codii o^d 
cSgooSod^o 

G00§ 



umh {verb) hlyin 
aA-paw-MoA, aA-htet- 
nyah-thoh [^^9^ 

hkoo-hn a^-3-e t ta^-j ay n: 
kowngS-gowngs 
beh-Maw-aA - hkaA leh 

{or beh-doA-gaA leh) 
beh-ga^ leh, beh-zee- 

gaA leh 
beh-hmaA leh, beh- 

zee-hma^ leh 
lay-va^-yaA 
htoA-MoA-hpyit-yooay 
hpyit-tsay [ka/daA 
do/in 2 -ga A, shee-zin- 
beh-hneh-jowng leh, 

baA-p3^oo-loA leh 
tha^baw-too-z66aA 
laymmaA-zooa/^ 
hnin, hnin-ta/i-o'waA 

o •' o o 

hnin, hpyin 

ma;^-shee-beh, maA- 
pa/i-beh {any other 
verb can be substi- 
tuted/or shee or pah) 

pyin-hma/i, pa^-hmaA 

hnit-tsin 

thoh-thavr-leeZ 

o 

thayi {follows the verb) 



A-', ODDjGCOopGp thwa/iS-lay-ya/i-ya/;, wherever {he) goes. 



OUTLINES OF BURMESE GRAMMAR. 

THE NOUN. 
Gender. 

All nouns in Burmese are without gender unless they have 
he affix denoting male or female attached. 

The feminine affix is always q ma/^. 

The masculine affix varies. 

Ggo hkway, dog \ Gg^Q hkwaysma^, 6?o^ (female) ; cgScSs 
ikwaysdeeS, dog (male). 

(^o5 kyet, fowl; (^o5o kyetma/i, hen] (^aSo kyet 
ipa^, cock. 

For human beings there are a few differences ; thus, 

oj^ loo, man; goddo§jd§ vowkyaAs, a man (as distinguished 
Tom woman) ; 8g maynSma^, woman. 

In some cases it is only necessary to designate the 
iemale ; as, 

ogj$ kyoon, a slave; ogj^Q kyoon-ma^, a female slave or 
servant. 

g|DC03o jooah-thhhz, a villager (maie). 

§)Doo yooaA-^Aoo, a villager (femah). 

oSs mins, a governor; oSsoogooS MinSka/zdaw, a 
lovernor^s lady. 



108 

G/as!,nficafio?i of Noam. 

Nouns may be divided into three classes : i. Simple, 
2. Abstract, 3. Compound. 

1. The simple noun is a monosyllable denoting some 
object. 

2. The abstract or verbal noun is formed from a verb- 
root by prefixing the syllable a/i ; thus, 

V. cc^oS XoKk, to do, make. N. 330^06 aMoAk, work, 
V. Gp yaA, to be suitable, N. 33cp sih-ysLh,what is suitable^ 
a thing, place. 

Note. — It is commonly stated that there are other forma- 
tions, such as gSs chins, ^oS chet, ^cS hpweh, but as a 
matter of fact it is not so, for these affixes are themselves 
merely abstract nouns which have dropped the aA in com- 
position ; thus, (9§S8 pyoo-jins is (^ pyoo (to c?o) + a^-chins 
{action) which has been derived from the verbkyin, to do. It 
may be said that there is no verb kyins {to do), but the rules 
of the language allow of a verb hkyin (or chin) {to be done), 
though it is now obsolete. 

3. The compound noun is formed by uniting verbs and 
nouns in various ways ; thus, 

g|D y66a/«, a village + od38 thaAS, son = villager. 

C08 laAns, a road + g pyaA, to shoiv = guide. 

c^ nay, to dwell + 3SS ayn, a house = a dwelling-house. 

0^8 hting, to sit + 33GJD (aA)-ya/i, place = a seat. 

(q68 myinS, horse + 88 tsee, to ride + o^ thoo, person -f- 
^ yeh, bold = a horse-soldier. 

To the above classes must be added a class containing 
nouns adapted and taken from other languages. 



109 

Number, 

\ The plural of nouns is formed, when necessary, by adding 
j4)DS myaAs {to be matiy), or c§ dqh (a short form of c^ 8 to^s, 
to increase), or the two combined, c^ doA is generally con- 
I nected with animate beings. Thus, 

gSS ayn, a house; qSSqjdS ayn-myaAs, houses. 

oj loo, a man ; cXj^^Oo loo-myaAs or o^c^ loo-doA, me?i. 

An indefinite plural is also formed by reduplication of the 
noun ; thus, 

33^8 hh-myohz, a kind; 33<^^^o ah-mydht-Tnyoht,va7'ious 
f kinds. 

33G|5 a^-ya^t, a place; 3^^b^b a/i-yaM-ya/it, various 
, places. 

Case. 
The sign of the nominative case is oo^ ^Aee and follows 
the noun but is often dispensed with. 

Ggoco^ hkwaysMee, a dog or the dorj. 

All other cases are denoted by affixes of case, which are 
sometimes called ^postpositions^. They are. 

Objective c^ goA. 

Genitive (^ ee, o/" (generally omitted). 

Dative 3308 aAs, to; 9I hnga//,/or ; eg thoA, to : o^ goh, to. 

Ablative 00 gah, ^ hmhh, f7'om ; J>6 hnin, together ivith. 

Instrumentative 3.6 hnin, with; g8 hpyin, by means of; 
g(^dS kyowng, on account of, because of. 

Locative 038 twin, in; |o5 hnik, at; ^3 hmaA, at, as 
regards; oo5 weh, at. 

Note. — ^oS hnik is usually written §. 



110 

Besides the above simple affixes of case, there are a number 
of auxiliary words used between the noun and the affix in 
order to denote more clearly relationship or position. 

Being verbal nouns, their real form would have the verbal 
33 aA prefixed, but in composition this is omitted. 

3S6 GoT^D ayn-baw-hmuA, house (of) upper part-at = w/?o» 
the house. 

c^5g5^ ayn-byin-hma^, house-outside-from =/rom ow^sic^e 
the house. 

A list of these is given at p. 97. 

The sign qj ee has been given as the genitive but it is 
usually dispensed with, the first of two nouns being (except 
when in apposition) in the genitive case and always pro- 
nounced with an abrupt tone, which is sometimes denoted 
by the sharp or abrupt accent ^ , which kills even the heavy 
accent % ; thus, 

oSoC^oooDD mins-ee-hba^ndaA (king-of-property) becomes 
mins-hpa^daA, the king's property. 

THE PRONOUN. 
There are five primitive personal pronouns. 



i 



Si7i(/. c1 gnaA, I. 

008 thin, thou. 
q8o mins, thou. 
^6 nin, thou. 
Ojl thoo, he, she 



Flur. clc^gnaA-doA orc^dioh^we, 
oo6c§ thm-doh, ye. 
o5oC§ mins-doA, ye, 
^Sc§ nin-doA, ye. 
o^c^ thoo-doA, they. 

It is rude to use cl gnaA and ^6 nin, so, for the sake of 
politeness, a number of other forms are in general use. 
For I the usual form is o^|S kyoon-oAk, humble servant. 



Ill 

Sometimes it is ssogij^S ah-kyoon-ohk, and for a woman 
^^o kyoon-ma^, shortened to o^q kysih-mah. 

ogj^GCoS kyoon-davv, yoin^ royal slave, and ogj^^ooS^S 
ky(juii-da\v-my6^s, yoiir race of royal slaves, is used by 
persons petitioning a person in authority. 

For thou or you the common form is gqd8o6o mowng-mins. 

Sneaking to some one older than one's-self one would use 
oS^Do hkin-byaAs^ Mr., Sir. 

To a priest or some one in authority o^oSgooS koA-daw. 

The third person cxj^ thoo (Hterally person) is always used 
for male or female but, if necessary, oj^q thuo-maA may be 
used for she. 

Terms of politeness in general use are given at p. 127, 

The Relative Pronoan. 

There is no relative pronoun like Who, but the position 
is expressed by a participial form of the verb ; thus, ododS 
GOOD o:^ tsaA-thin-//zaw thoo, writing-teaching-person = the 
oerson who teaches, or co53g^oo5c^DoGOddo:j^ laAns-showk- 
thwaAo-Maw-thoo, road-pass along-going-person, the man who 
is going along the road. 

In this last example the participial good thaw (or sometimes 
00^ thee) is used with two verbs : others might be added. 

The Reflexive Pronoun. 
c^oSc^S koMing, or c^oS koh, self; thus, 
clc^c^o^5 gna^-ko/^-ding, or rather ogj^Sc^oSo^S kyoon- 
oAk-koA-ding, I myself. 

38 meemee, one's-self, himself, herself; thus, 
8SGg§ meemee hkwayS, one's own docj. 



112 



The Intei'rogathe Proitovn, 

cxDoS (or 33aooS) beh (aA-beh) or beh. 

oooScx^ beh-Moo, Who ? 

ooD ba/i (contr. for oooSood beh-ha/^), IVhat ? 

00080062 beh-//iins^ Which ? 

oooSgodooS beh-lowk. How much ? 

cocS^h beh-hnitj How many ?^ 

The Negative. 

^No one' is expressed by using the Int. pronoun with' 
^ hmva^j even, and q ma/<, not ; thus, 

oooSo:^^o^ beh thoo hmya/i ma^ shee, Who even not 
is = The7'e is no one. 

ogj^5ooo^QCC^5^o kyoono//k ba^ hmyaA ma/i loAk lipooS 
I what even not do = i am doing nothing. 

The affix ^o hpoos is a strong one often used with q mah. 



The Ltmonsirative Prononn. 

c^ee ] "^^'^^ ] 

^' , \ this. c8 hoh [ that. 

ODpb Mee o . 

"^ ^ cx>8§ yms J 

OD^ and c^ are colloquial, and always precede the noun; as^ 

00^ g(^o8 thee kyowng, this cat. 

c^ooS htoA wet, thai pig. 



1 (X)fX)S>5 beh-hnit (final t scarcely pronounced} can never stand alone 
but is always preceded by the subject of inquiry and followed by the 
proper numeral affix (pp. 79-81) ; thus, g6£OOo5j)SGOOo8_^Co6o myinS 
beh-huit kowng sheC-tha/«-leh, horses how many animals are there 
= How many horses are there ? 



113 



The Compound Relative, 

Q^39QS^mee-Moo-maA-soA,\vhat-person-not-say,i«?Ao5oet/er. 
Q^oo^33Gpos£J inee-thee-aAyaA-maA-soA, what-thing-not- 
say, tvhatsoever. 

o^ is an old form of oooS, 

THE ADJECTIVE. 

Til ere are a few imported adjectives which have been taken 
from the Pali and which do not follow the general rule, but 
the real adjective is the veib-root which may be used before 
or after the noun ; thus, 

goddSoGoodco kownf>;S-//^aw-loo ] , 

'^ \ a good man. 

oj^GOODcS loo-gowngs J 

Adjectives imported from other languages and a few 
anomalous Burmese forms are always placed before the 
noun, without the conjunctive particle good Maw ; thus, 

QOOD q6o (c§3 maAhaA mins jees, a governor of a province. 

Qooo ma/ihaA is a Pali word meaning great, 060 mins is 
a person in authority, and ^§ kyees, the Burmese to be 
greatf used as an adjective. 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 

The comparative is made by the use of the verb ooo tha^, 
to surpass or exceed, coupled to the descriptive word by 
tiie conjunction G„g| Yogay (always written g)) ; thus, 

ooo4(^iGOOD335 tha^-yooay kyees-Maw ayn, a surpassing 
large house, a larger house. 



BUUMESK 8.-T. 



H 



114 

The Superlative degree is formed by prefixing 33 aA, tc 
the verb and adding sx^S s6/^ns, to be extreme \ thus, 
§,Do33Co5o^s nwa^s-a^-gneh-zoAns, the smallest ox. 

The Numeral Adjective. 

Cardinals. A list of these is given on p. 78, and here 
it will be sufficient to show how they are used. They run 
from one to ten and are perfectly regular. The word for 
ten, however, is used as a demonstrative affix. 

The Burmese cannot say as we do ^one ox ^5 but are^ 
obliged to use a descriptive affix (see pp. 79-81) after the 
number ; thus, instead of saying ^ one ox \ they must say 
'ox one animaP, and so on till they come to ten, when the 
affix for animal (or whatever it may be) is dropped and the 
affix for ten takes its place ; after that the affix of kind is 
used again till the next ten is reached, and so on to one 
hundred, when a new numeral affix denoting ^ hundred^ 
comes in ; thus, 

GOODoS yowk, being the affix for man; we have 

cxjjOOGOODoS loo ta/« yowk, man-one-man. 

c^c^SgoodoS loo gna^s yo^^k? man-five-men. 

c^oooo'jS loo ta^ seh, man-one-ten. 

o:j^oooo('^j>8ooGCODo5 loo ta/i seh hnin taA yowk, man-one- 
ten-with-one-man, eleven-men. 

And so on till twenty, when it is 
cxj^j)6ooc^ loo hni(t) seh, man-two-len. 
o:^^j)6ooo5j)5ooG003oS loo hni(t) seh hnin taA voaK, men- 
two-tens-and-one-man, tiventy-one men. 

The ^^ hnin (and, with) is often dropped. 



115 

Ordinals. Up to ten the Pali ordinals are in general use, 
[ibut after that one must have recourse to the verb gQdoS 
Imyowk, to raise ; thus, 
I ooooo5o5oG§3o5GCODGcg taA seh thorns myowk thaw hlay, 

the i^th boat, 

THE VERB. 

The verb is a monosyllable without any particular form 
and never changes. It may be transitive or intransitive. 

Transitives are often formed from intransitives by aspirating 
the initial consonant; as, c^o5 pyet, to be destroyed] cjjoS 
hpyet, to destroy. 

Verb-roots may be strung together so as to form a com- 
plete idea; as, goodSsocjc^oSooSod^ htovvngs-htoo-poAk- 
hka^t-thee, to give a good beating. All the verbs signify 
a different way of hitting. 

Sometimes a noun and a verb are compounded to form 
one idea; thus, to be glad is expressed by 068 woons, the 
belly + cgooS myowk, to be raised. 

The Plural. 
There are two affixes, (^ kya/i and o^ ko^n, to express 
the plural number, but they are not often used ; thus, 
cX|^c:^ogD3(^oo^ thoodoA thwaAs-jyaA-/Aee, they {are) going. 

Voice, Moods, and Tenses. 
Voice, moods, and tenses have to be expressed by affixes 
(which were once verbs) and auxiliary verbs. 

Voice. 
The passive voice is formed by the verb 6 hkaAn, to bear 
or suffer, with the principal verb ia a noun form ; thus, 

11 2 



116 

§o5 yik, to beat. 

33§oS ooo^ aA-yik hka^n Mee^ a beating to bear, i.e. 
to be beaten, \ 

Moods, 

The verb-root by itself may be Infinitive or Imperative, i 
All other moods, except the Indicative, are shown by 
auxiliary verbs signifying po^Yer, permission, &c. 

The Indicative Mood is denoted by affixes of time. I 



Present T. oo^ th^e. 

cf ee. 
Past (§ pyee. 

Future o^ mee. 

33 aAn. 



Future ^60^ aAn mee. 

cogg (or cooSoS) la^t aAn. 
Pluperfect b[^ geh-byee. 

cxj^s^ hboos-byee. 
Past Perf ^8(§ hnin-byee. 

Though the simple root can be used Imperatively, there 
is a large number of modifying affixes : g^ chay, gcoo law, 
and Gooo taw, simply imply command. 

j)8 hnin, and co6 lin, used after o maA, not, are prohibitive. 

ol paA is entreating and always used in polite language, 
either by itself or with other affixes. 

GO tsay is causative or precative as ogDSGO thwa^S-zay 
let him go. § tso^, used only for ist pers. plur., as ogD§^§ 
thwa^s jyaA-zo, let us go. 

5 hkeh is generally used with the verb cod la A, to come, 
and implies motion towards one's-self. 

c^o5 lik (to follow) is harsh and implies motion from, 

§0 oAngS is an affix that signifies return or recurrence; as, 

Go§ol§3 pays baA oAns, please give {it me) again. 

ogDo^oGOOD thwaAs ohm daw, go and return, used for 
'good-bye \ 



117 

INTERROGATIVE. 

The Burmese do not alter the tone of the voice when 
asking a question, but use certain affixes, at the end of the 
sentence, with a tone of assertion. 

GcoD law, and ^^5 nees, are those used formally in writing, 
but colloquially cod§ la//3, and cx) leh, are used ; cod8 la^s is 
used for all ordinary questions ; as, 

ooSI^o^codS thin pyoo mee laht, thou do will ? = ivill 
you do it ? 

But if the sentence begins with the interrogative pronoun 
oooS beh, who, or any of its compounds, then cb leh must 
be used; as, 

oooS^D^oocb beh hma^ shee tKiJi leh, where is {it) ? 

0^0 do^ns is also used colloquially in place of cb leh. 

THE USE OF THE NEGATIVE. 

The only word for not is o ma^, and it immediately precedes 
the principal verb ; thus, 

ogj|5QOgDo^6cxj^3 kyoonoAk ma^ thwa^S jin boos, I not 
go wish, I do not tvish to go. 

The boo: at the end is a strong assertive affix generally 
used with not, and if the sense of never is required o tsa^ 
must be placed before it : — 

cloogDSoc^S gna^ ma/« thwa//S za/i hpoos, I never went. 
To make it still stronger we may double the ^S and say 
oogD§oc^8cxj^§ nmh thwaAs zaA hpoos boos 

Before is expressed by placing § hmee, and o6 hkin, after 
the verb ; thus, 

OG€roo5§ ma^ yowk hmee, before {he) arrived 
ogQdoS ma^ pyaw gin, before {he) spoke. 



118 

Without is expressed by placing cx) beh after the verb; thus, 
o(^:b mkh pyoo beh, without doing {it). 

Yes and No. There is no direct negative hke the English 
No, but the verb oqoS hohk, to be true, is used ; thus, 

a^oSco^ ho^k thh^, or oqoScx) hoAk-keh, it is true, yes, 

ocx^oScj^o maA hoAk hpoos, it is not time, no. 

(^ 33800^00:^ o5 pyoo a^t thQQ maA hoAk, do proper to not 
true, it is not proper to do. 



1 

I 



i 



ORATIO OBLTQUA. 

This is shown by the verb cq hoo, to say, followed by the 
verbal conjunction ^ yooay and a verb expressive of saying 
or thinking. Generally the speaker is designated first 
followed by the ablative postposition 00 kaA ; thus, 

ooocoGOODSoOqoOj^^o^co^ thoo gkh — maA kowngs boos 
— hoo yooay soA thee, him from — not good — saying sa^'S, 
i. e. he says {or said) it is not good. | 

Sometimes instead of (^^ the short form of the verb' 
OD hoo is used without ^, as 

ODODOCOD^So^^oSoD^ thoo gaA maA laA hning hoo — 
hmat thee, him from — not come able — say thinks, he thinks 
{that) he cannot come. 

In conversation c^ \oh is used instead of o^ hoo, and some- 
times the sentence is still further shortened by the use of 
00^ deh ; thus, 

ODCODO^oo^ thoo \dJi mee — deh, he will come he says. 

This 00^ deh is simply a short form for 00^ thee, the 
assertive aflix of the omitted verb 3§ soA, to say, or ego pyaw, 
to speak. 



119 



THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 

There are two substantive verbs, — 

(c8 hpyit, to be, to exist. 

^ shee, to be, which is used in the sense of ^have', the 
postpositions ^ to ^ or 'at^ being expressed or understood, 
as, a^^oo^thoo-shee-Mee = ^^^^o^g§ thoo-hma^ shee-Mee, 
to him there is, or he has. 

Thus, 

c^oOGODDoSsjoo^ loo ta/i-vowk shee-//iee,man one (there) is. 
o^^o^OD^ thoo-hmaA shee-/^ee, to him is, or, he has, 
oo6cxj^§o5Q5oD^ thin loo-mik hpyit-thee, you a fool are. 

THE HONORIFIC FORM. 

The honorific form is used for very high personages and 
consists of GOoS taw, the honorific affix, and <^ moo, to do ; 
thus, 

o68^3GGpo5GooS^(§ mins-jees yowk taw moo byee, the 
governor has arrived. 

In this case <^ moo is considered the principal verb, and 
to make the negative, o muh must precede it and the final 
affix be lefl out ; thus, 

GGpoScooSo^ yowk taw mah moo, (the governor) does not 
arrive, or has not arrived. 

CONTINUATIVE AFFIXES. 

These take the place of the participle and join clause to 
clause in a sentence. 

^ yooay and cq]o5 lyet are what we call present. 
c^6 hlyin and goo5 ^Aaw are what we call past. 



120 

c(5o:^o5ogDSoo^ py^y b'^^ thwaAs ^^ee, running {he) 
goes. 

oq]DSc^o5^G|GOo5i odS^q^ kya/iS kik-yuoay yaA-thaw- 
tsaAs-jya^-mee, tiger biting having-got (we) shall eat, i.e. (ive) 
shall eat {what tve) got from the tiger's killing, 

oooSj^l^cC^Si (y5(^x>^ ta^t-kya/i byees-hlyini pyaAn- 
jyaA-Mee, skilled (pi.) having-finished (they) returned, i.e. 
having completed their education they returned {home). 

EUPHONIC AFFIXES. 

These are used after verbal roots in conjunction with 
affixes of mood, tense, and number, but they can be dispensed 
with, and it is impossible to lay down rules as to their use. 
The commonest are gco lay, g^ chyay, cooS Wit, 5 kheh. 

Ea!a?nples. 

GCO lay is one of the most common. It is almost always 
used in the future compounded with the future affixes 33 a^n 
and o^ mee, and takes the form of c86o^ laymmee (gco 
33 o^). It is frequently used with the past tense ; ogo8(^ 
thwaAs byee, {he) has gone, is correct, but c^dSgcoJ^ thwaAs 
lay byee is better. 

o) paA, the polite affix, is in constant use : it is correct 
to say ogDSGODo thwaAs daw, go ; but o^dSoIgodo thwaAs hhh 
daw is better, g^ chay is sometimes used with future 33 aAn 
and becomes ^§ chayii, as ocj|^8330^ogD3GS^GCo5iG(^Da5G|^5 
Q^ thoo hnin aA-too thwaAs jay /Aaw pyowk ya/i jayn mee, 
If he goes with {h'm) he must he lost : both jay and Jayn have 
no meaning and may be omitted, they merely round off 
the sentence. So, in cx:^o]c^c^o8c^o5g^dd^ thoo paA-goA 



121 

poAk lik chay Mee, (Jie) smote his cheek, both o^o5 1ik and 
G^ chay have really no effect. 

c^oS lik (lit. foil oiv) is not always euphonic but conveys 
a certain amount of meaning and Is used with transitive verbs. 

cooS la^t is common and mostly used with gcoS thaw • 
as ogDBcooSGCoS thwaAs la^t thaw, having gone. It gives the 
idea of 'happened'. Sometimes with fut. 36 aAn ; as, co^^ 
laAttaAn; ogDo cogg will go [probahly). 

CLOSING AFFIXES. 

These are used occasionally at the end of a sentence to 
give it stronger force. The principal are, — 

00^8 dees = subst. verb ^od^ shee-^Aee, to be, is. Not 
used colloquially. 

g tsooaA or zooaA intensifying. 

G<?.S naw, soliciting acquiescence, as ogDScoooo^G^S 
thwaAs daw mee naw, I icill go, shall I ? 

Gol paw, implies ' of course ' in answer to a question. 
c^DSo^coDS thwa/^s mee laA, Are you going ? c^dSo^go] 
thwa^s mee paw, / shall go, of course, 

THE YERB USED AS A NOUN. 

The verb may be used either in its radical form or with 
its affixes of mood and tense as a noun, and in such cases 
is governed by postpositions ; as, 

c@OD^o^g6c3]8 pyay-Mee-goA myin-hlyin, runs-to-see-if, 
having seen the running. 

ogo5!§8^^ htwet pyees-hmaA, come-out-finish from, i.e. 
after {he) had come out. 



122 



THE ADYEHB. 

The adverb proper ends in §1 zooa^, but there are six 
different kinds of adverbs. Those in common use are given 
on pp. 100—106. 

MODEL OF VERB. 

Infinitive oq5oo^ loAk-thee, to make. 

Indie. Pres. cloc^Soo^ oriaA lo/ik-thee, 7 make, or, 

cIoc^Sg^oo^ o-naA loAk nay-^Aee, / am making. 
Past c'locjSooo^ gnaA lo^k-hkelv/^ee, I made, 
Pres. Perf. c]o:^5(§ g-naA loAk pyee, I have made. 
Past Perf. c1oq5(j^8(5 gnaA loAk-hpooS-byee, 1 had made. 
Future c1 0:^80^ gnaA lo^k-mee, I uill make. 
Fut. Perf. c1o:^6(§2c8§o^ gnaA loAk-pyees-laym-mee, I shall 

have made. 
Potent. Pres. cloc^S^Soo^ gnfi^ loAk hning-Mee, I can make. 
Potent. Perf. clo:^5|5(§ gna^ loAk hning-byee, I could have 

made. 
Potent. Past Perf. c]oq5GooD6^(§ gnaA loAk kowngs-byee, / 

might have made. 
Imperative o:|5good loAk-taw, make. 

o:^5go loAk-tsay, let {him) make. 

a:^5(^§ loAk-kya^-zoA, let us make. 

o:^5o1good loAk pa/i-daw, please make {it\ 

A FEW COMMON AUXILIARY VERBS. 

clcc^S^jSoo^ gnaA loAk chin-Z^iee, I tvish to make. 
c1oq5oD8oo^ gna^ loAk thin-/^ee, I ought to make. 
clcc^5ooo5oo^ gna^ lohk taAt-thee, I am wont to make. 
cl 0:^8000^ gnaA loAk woon-/Aee, I dare make. 



)1 



123 

:c1o:^5g|od^ gnkh \o/ik jvih-thee, I must make. 
clocx^Soo^ gnah tsaA \ohk thee, I begin to make. 
cIcc^Sg^oo^ gnaA \ohk nay-thee, I am making. 
c1cq5gooo^ gnaA loAk tsay-thee, I cause to make. 
clcc^Sboo^ gnah lohk hkeh-Mee, / seldom make. 
cloc^Sc^oo^ gnah lohk ioh-thee, I wish to make. 
cloq5o6oO^ gnah lohk tsaAns-mee, / tvill try to make. 
cloc|5cpOD^ gr\ah lohk yah-thee, I should make. 
cloc^5(y^o^ gnah lohk pyaAn-inee, I will re-make. 
GOOor)5(§ thay koAn-byee, {They) are quite dead. 
GOOO^oSoo^ thay dik-thee, {He) is worthy to die. 
^cooSoo^ pyoo Ivveh-^Aeej {It) is easy to do. 

Note. — In the above cl gnah has been used for / for 
the sake of brevity. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF BURMESE SENTENCES. 

1. The principal verb is always at the end of a sentence 
but followed by the modifying verb and the closing affix, 
f any ; thus, 

ocj^ ooq6s odSoo^ 
He rice eats 

cl ooo5s odS |Soo^ 

I rice eat can 

2. If there is an adverb of time it must commence the 
lentence ; thus, 

QG^,CO cl gc§ C^^S?>(§ 

Yesterday I town-to went 



124 

3. After the adverbs of time another clause may be intro- 
duced ; thus, 

^oSo?l ^^S 3DD8 C^5l OoS 338 C^ COD Q^ 

To-morrow I, at leisure if, thy house to come will 

4. The following is a typical sentence : — 

0^ joq] §1 goodSs good cq j.8 gooooSc^ 00^ 
That time at, good ^ man two - 

(§c§ ogoS g cooS GOoS CG| 0^52 dbc§ c^ 

town-to go ^ happen^ having^ water (of) hole into fall over 

Cqi<^ GOob GOO (^ 

dropping^ died 

Illustration of the 
Construction and Pronunciation of Burmese. 

0^33olll ^|8g330^^ GOOO^O^G^ GO00(j>)OO003OQ^ ^ GOOD 

(^^dSoo^i 3^cqc^c^^^co^Qo:>{^E\ 3oo0(§DO0Gpe|(^n 0^3300 

goOOGpC^I 88QG0O05^8l3OC^CO^§QC^6G00SGO0OG(^o6lg|D 
COqO06oOGO00oSGO00C^^0S3S5g3o500D§^lO0O$30C26GO0030 
5I I 30G|5 OOolScgc^^OO^OgD 8 g ? 4ll 

0^(;>)O OODC^g^OS 00^ GOC^O OgOSj^l 00 ol § 30 G| 5§ 13.8 I OOl 3051^ f 
go g8 ceo GOoS I (>)OO0DC^^D SqjggDC^ o56sg) ■ 000 8 GCOOC^g^OS 

oo^io4§oo§j)8^o::^?GOoc^ii 

1 Instead of GOOoS^GOOOCXj^ one might put o:;^GOOd88 (see p. 113). 

* GODDc6 numeral affix (p. 80). ^ plural affix (p. 109). 

8 fm plural affix for verbs (p. 115). * OO08 euphonic verbal affix 
(p. 120), gives an idea of unexpected suddenness. 

* GOoS past continuative affix (p. 119). « ^ continuative affix (p. 119). 
' 5 GOO C^ past closing affixes (p. 1 31), 



1 



125 



Phonetic Pronunciation and Literal 
Translation.^ 

Hto^ a^-hkaA, DoAnneeweehta/« yooaA-hnik nay-Maw 
That time, Dohnneeweehtah village-in dwelling 

"Zooza^ga^ a^-mee shee-Maw PoAnnaAs-Mee, a^-hloo-goA 
Zoozdhgdh. name hav'ng Brahman, alms 

hleh-leh hkaAn - thkh-h^yin, a^thaAbya/i ta^-yaA yaA-ee. 
going about receive by {means of ), coins lOO got. 

HtoA a/ithaAbyaA ta/i-ya^-goA, mee-mee maA soung hning, 
(Those coins loo self not carry able, 

i>h-\oh lees nul/i ting M/ayS Maw-jowng, yooaA ta/^-hkoo 
desire also not attain{ed) yet because, village one- 

Idwin, ta^-yowk-thaw Po^nna^S ayn - hnik a/«t- hta^S-yooay, 
in, one (a) Brahman^ s house at give - put - ting, 

ta^-hpaAn a^-hloo hkaAn - Maw-a^n-hgna^, aA-yaAt taA-baAs- 
again alms receive in order to [J'or), place other 

thoh hleh-leh thwaAs-bya/^n-ee. HtoA ZoozaAga^ 
to going-about went again. That Zoozdhgdh 

Vohnudihi - thhQ, aA-hloo thwaAs hkaAn-yooay, ta^-ba/iS 

Fohnndhi alms go receiv - ing, other 

iA-yaA^hnik, hnit - la^ a^-sheh kya^-myin^ - lay - Maw, 
place - at, years-months long long - tall {having been), 
jAksaA-goA thayns-yooay htaAs-Maw- Po^nna^S - Mee, 
\ the money taking charge of keeping Brahman {hom.), 

;h6^ns-zaA5-hnin-yooay koAn-lay-ee. 
use - eat ^ had consumed. 

^ For Idiomatic Translation, see over. 

2 Myin is lit. ' tall,^ but is often coupled with kyah, ' long in time: 

'5)5 hnin, prior past tense affix. 



126 

[Idiomatic Translation. — At that time, a Brahman^ named 
Zoozahgah, who dwelt in a village named DoAnneeweehtaA, 
by going about and receiving alms, amassed one hundred pieces 
(of silver). Not being able himself to carry those pieces, and 
because his desires were not yet satisfied, leaving them at the 
house of another 1; rah man in a certain village, he again wan- 
dered about to other places in order to receive alms once more. 

That ZoozaAga/i, the Brahman, having been for months and 
years begging alms in other places, the Brahman who had 
taken charge of Zooza^gaA the Brahman's wealth, had (before 
he, Z., returned) made away with and used it all up.] 



POLITE MODES OF ADDRESS. 

When one addresses a Burman it is rude to use the ordinary pronoun. 
If his position in society is known he should be addressed by the term 
that denotes his position, if not, one must generally suppose him or her 
to be * the supporter of a monastery', GO^dSSOOOOD Kyowngl-tsihgsihfjem. 
CCqjD6o33Q Kyowngs-a/j-mM), or 'founder of a Pagoda', oqGpoOOOOD 
K^khjahZ-WigSih, or simply as oScjjDS or o6(^Do Hkin-bya/iS (a short 
form of OOOCCOGpo Master, object of reference). If the person ad- 
dressed is a teacher or person of learning, he should be called OOGTO 
Sa^ya^i. In talking to a priest or teacher, instead of saying 'I', one 
should use OOO^GOoS TaAbeh-davv (scholar), and call him O^oSgOoS 
Ko-daw, or OOGpGOoS Shhyah -da,w. To a person in authority a 
Burman would always designate himself as OOI^gOdS Kyoon-daw 
(Royal servant), but an Englishman would say ' Ky66no/«k', 

CX>GOo5 KaTidaw means lady and is used for the wives of honourable 
persons, as q8°OOGOoS MinS ka/jdaw, OOGpOOGOoS Sahjhh ka/idaw, 
for the wives of magistrates and teachers. 

The word OOOOD ia.h-gah, which is used above, is a corruption of the 
Pali word oloDOOD dah-jah-kah, a giver; the feminine is OOOODQ ta^i- 
gsih-mah. 

^ The proper word for Brahman is Bydhmdhndh, but the Burmese usually 
use the word QCg^o, PotenaTi;, which is a word of doubtful derivation. 



127 



CONVEESATIONAL PHEASES AND 

SENTENCES.! 

Useful and Necessary Idiomatic Expressions. 

Q^D3g0J3O^8o5GO0DOO0D§0Oo5-<^D8ll 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


IThank you (sel- 


GOqjScj^SOoSoloO^ 


Kyays-zoos tin-baA- 


dom used) 




thee [hl^gh 


Yes 


o^oSolii ojoSb 


IIoAk-paA or hohk- 


No 


Qcr^d^cqln qcx^oSoI 


MaA-ho^k-hpoos, maA- 
hoAk-paA 


Bring 


oj^bol 


Yoo-ge^-baA [baA 


Bring that 


c^a)8sc^a^5ol 


HoA-dins-goA yoo-geh- 


Give me 


OgJ^5c^G08ol 


KyoonoAk-koA pays- 
baA 


Give it him 


cx^c^GoSo^oSol 


Thoo-goA payS-lik-paA 


Do (you) under- 


^dSco^oocodS 


NaA; leh-/MA-laA5 


stand *? [stand 






(I) do not under- 


^DSoco^apS 


NaAs maA leh-boos 


Send (it) to me 


ogj^Soocggo^oSo"] 


KyoonoAk htaAn-^Ag^ 
po^-lik-paA baA 


Tell me 


OgJ^So^cgDol 


KyoonoAk-koA pyaw- 


Tell him 


o:^c^G§DC^o5o1 


Thoo-goA pyaw-lik-pa^ 


Canyon tell (me)1 


gQd^SoIo^oddS 


Pyaw ning-baA-mee- 

laAs 
Inga/ilayk tsaA-gaAs 


Can you speak 


3D 8c8 5 OO Do oo o5 


English ? 


00CO3§ 


taAt-thaA-la^s 



* See 'Hints on addressing a Burman , p. 24 
p. 126. 



Polite Modes of Address', 



128 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Is there any one 


3D 8 c8 5 OOOD3 00 06 


Iiiga/iiayk tsaA -gaAs 


here who speaks 


GOOOO^^OOCODo 


ta^t-thaw-thoo shee- 


English 1 




Ma^-lahs 1 


What do (you) 


oodg@doo(X)' cod 


BaA pyaw-^^a^-lehj 


say? 


Q^ODCb 


BaA so^-MaA-leh j 


Ask him (inquire) 


Oi:^G^GOSO§gol 


Thoo-goA mayS-za^ns- 


Ask for (demr.nd 


goodSsoIgood 


Towngs-baA-daw [baAi 


Speak loudly [it) 


oi^oSoqioScgoo] 


Kyeh-jeh pyaw-baA 


Never mind 


GDOgoio^oloj^S 


AA-twet mah shee-ba/i- 

boos 
BaA pyoo thin-thah-leh. 


What is to be done? 


003§Oo8oCC^ 


Why? 


oodQc^oo 


BaA pyoo-loA leh 


What is it? [ter? 


OOOCX) 


BaA leh 


What is the mat- 


ooDgSoo 6b 


BaA hpyit-thaA-leh 


Do (you) hear ? 


^DSOOCODS 


KyaAs-/AaA-laAs 


I understand, Sir 


<?,D3aDgooo5i O^Gp" 


NaAs leh-/Aee,hpn AyaAs | 


Carry this 


OO^OODC^Oo6Sol 


TAee haA-goA htaAns- 
baA [daw 


Take that 


C^OODC^ 0^0] GOOD 


HtoA haA-goA yoo-baA- 


Take (it) away 


O^DgOSC^oS 


Yoo-thwaAs-lik 


Make haste ! 


3Doqi£gol 


AA-lyin pyoo-baA ! 


Come quickly 


g5g?OOD5 


MyaAn-myaAn laA-geh 


Take care ! 


ODC^gol 


ThaAdee pyoo-baA j 


Listen ! 


^DoGCOdSoI 


NaAs htowng-baA 


Come in ! 


oSoIgooo 


Win-baA-daw 


Come here ! 


oo^n^coo5 


Dee-goA laA-geh 


Come back ! 


g^ODDb 


PyaAn laA-geh 


Call my servant 


ogj§5o:j^aDGOD8c^ 


KyoonoAk loogaAlays- : 


(boyJ 


GoTol 


go A hkavv-baA 



129 



Engli-^h. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Take this note 


oo^oDO^ — a5'x^ 


r^ee tsa^-goA — hta^n- 


to — 


a^ogo'ool 


thoh yoo-thwa^S-baA 


Bring back an 


g^ODC^O^b 


PyaAn-zaA-goA yoo- 


answer 




geh 


Stand still a nio- 


QOD^iSG^olgS 


Hka^naA ya^t-nay- 


ment 




ba^-oAnS 


Go away (roiigli) 


CX^DlC^cS 


Thwa^s-lik 


Go away (polite) 


OgDoolcCOD 


Thwa/iS-ba^-daw 

o 


Good-bye ^ 


O^Oo^oGOOO 


Thu iih%-6hni- d aw 


Too soon 


gS02^SCX5§,ll2 0D3g?S 


Oos-loons-/Aee, tsaw- 




OD^ 


loons-Mee 


Too late 


G^D050^C^?83D^ 


Nowk-kya^ loons theet 


Very well (good) 


goddS8o1(§ 


K w n g S-b a^- by e e 


Whatdoyouwaiit^ 


ooDc^^Soccb 


Ba^ lo/ijin-tha^ Ich 


How do you do?) 
Are you well ? J 


odoIc^codS 


MaA-baA-ee-la/iS 


I am well 


ODolc§ 


xMaA-baA-ee 


Much obliged 


G0^2(>-Sg2C^g 


Kyayszoos keeS-hla^- 
byee [boo; 


There is nothing 
Nothing is the 




BaA-hmyaA maA shee- 
BaA-hmyaA mah hpyit- 


. matter 




hpoos 


No trouble at all 


Gj>D8^oSo^pQ^ 


Hnowng->het-tsa^-yaA 
maA shee 


Who is there ? 


C^^D.^DC^C.-^^OOra 


HoA-hmaA beh-Moo 
shee-/M^-leh 



* The person who pays a call on leaving says ODOoQCODQ^G^S 
fch\va^(S-daw-mee-naw, I ivill go? and the person in the house replies 
OgDSg^GOOD thwMS-o/mSdaw, Go and rdurn. 

BUKUBSB S.-X J 



130 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



It is I 

What is the news ? 
There is no news 

Do you know for 

certain ? 
Go in front 
Follow 
Go home 
Go to the post 

office and ask for 

my letters 

Let us start 
Wait 

Bring my horse 

Saddle it 

Call the interpreter 

[man say ? 

What does that 

He says he cannot 

find the horse 
He thinks some 

one has stolen it 

Is it possible 1 



OgJ^5olll Ogj^GOoS 

o] 

00 uS 08008 S G| OOCQ 

ooo5o8oo58^oo] 

Go633^§o8o0O3D3 

3QG^0§O^D?G0OO 
G^Do5c§0^o5ol 

gS^c^d^dSgodo 

ODC^o5c^O^02| 
02J^6 0DQ^33C^ 

goodSsoI 

G^olSol) GODCol 

02j|5@88c^a;^5 

s^58|soo8ol 

OOOD§(y^C^GS>Tol 
C^'OjOOOGgDOOcb 

g8§o^oG02|8a^8 

OO^OOGOOOo5880^ 

oo^cijco8oo^ 
(^8^8o1q^odd2 



KyoonoAk-paA, kyoon- 1 ] 
daw-baA [I eh 1 

Beh thaAdins yaA-thaA 

Beh thaAdins hmya/ 
maA yaA 

AykaAn aA-hmaAr 
thee-MaA-laAs [da^ 

AA-shay -/AoA - th waAs 

o*' o 

Nowk-thoA lik-paA 
Ayn-/AoA thvviiAs-daw 
TsaA-dik-thoA thwaAs- 

o 

yooay kyoonoAk tsaA- 
myaAs -goA towngs - 1 
baA [zoAl 

Htwet - thwaAs - jaA - 
Nay-baA-oAns, tsowng 

baAs 
KyoonoAk myins - goA 

voo-ffeh 
HkoAns-hnees tin-baA 
TsaA - gaA -byaAn-goA 
hkaw baA [/AaA-leh 
HoA loo baA pyaw - 
Myins -go A niaA tway 

hning booSj deh 

TaA - zoAn-taA-yowk- 

hkoA yoo - thaA - loA 

htin-/Aee [laAs 

Hpyit-hning-baA-mee 



131 



English. 


Buruiese. 


Pronunciation. 


It is his fault 


o^sagSco 


Thoo aA-pyit pay 


He is sorry 


3:j^o6§^^?oloo^ 


Thoo woon;-neh;-baA- 
Mee 


lie must get me 


^^^^^6^°^ 


Thoo kyoonohk-hpo/i 


another horse 


G OOd8^DGOoS| 


myins ta^-gowng 




-S 


sh a/i -pay s-yaA-mee 


Who is paddling 


O^QC^C^OO C^D^ 


iloh hlay-goA beh^Aoo 


that boat ? 


GC^SOOCX) 


hlaw-ZAa^-leh 


Is it a man or a 


GOODO^DSODDSlSg 


YowkyaAs laAs, mayn?- 


woman ? 


CODS 


mah Isihi 


It is a woman 


SgGO 


MaynsmaA bay 


It is a woman ^ 


SgGo] 


MaynsmaA baw 


Well done ! 


goodSsgo 


Kowngs bay 


How fortunate 


ooo5o6good6§oo§ 


Teh ka/m kowngs-/Aee 


It is a fact 


OD^COD3D^^QO 


Thee haA aA-hmaAn 
bay [hnin 


Don^t be angry 


8o5q38§o15>5 


Tsay t - maA - sohi -baA- 


IIow beautiful 


OOoSo^OO^G^ 


Teh hWi-thee, goh 


Be silent 1 


o8o5o8oSc^ 


Tayt-tayt nay 


Long ago 


gDC^g [OD^ 


KyaA hlaA byee [Mee 


Shameful 


^o5 OGp GOOD 8 § 


Shet-tsaA-yaA kowmgs- 


Are you not a- 


o^o6aj^scoD8 


MaA shet-hpoos-laAs 


shamed ? 






(You) are to blame 


33 g 8 OO 8 Gp 


AA-pyit-tin-zaA-yaA 




good88oo^ 


kowngs-Mee 


Get up ! 


CO c^ o5 II (polite) 
cool 


Hla/i-lik, hiU-hah 



^ I. e. liow could you think otherwise? 



I a 



132 
Meals. ooq58od3g[^d83ii 

(For Vocabularies, see pp. 49-53.) 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Breakfast (dinner, 
or supper) is 
reacly 

Is the tea made ? 

Do you drink 

coffee *? 
This milk is sour 
Bring me an egg 

Must I boil the 

Fry me two eggs 

This butter is ran- 
cid [butter 

Bring some other 

We want more tea- 
cups 

Remove the dishes 

Cook some pork 
curry for dinner 



ooo8§c^5s(§3(§ 



cooSooS Gi^cq^ 

(§8,gcoD3 

OOoSoOCODo 

go5gOOC^8a^6o 
goSgc^goSsiog 

CODS 

(^o6gj)8c^3Gca^5 

OC ^ GOOD O oS G OOD 8 

o5oo^ 
GcoDoa5a^6o§8 
coo5^3a5^]^c^oo$ 

t^DSC^GODSOD^ 

O^DSGODD 
pOODcBoODODDS 

oo88go5Go8ol 



HtaAmins pyin-pyees- 
byee 

La^-hpet-yee loAk- 

j/yees-byee-la/iS 
KaA-hpee-yee thowk 

taAt-tha^-la^s [/Aee 
Thee noA-yee chin- 
Kyet-oo ta^-l6/ais yoo- 

geh 
Kyet-06-goA pyoAk- 

ya^-mee-laAs 
Kyet - 00 hnaA - loAns 

kyaw-pays-baA 
Thee htawbaAt howng- 

zkht-thee .. [oAns 
HtawbaAt yoo-geh- 
LaA-hpet-yee-paAgaAn- 

myaAs loA-Mays-Mee 
PaAgaAn ■ by aAs- myaAs- 

go/i yoo-thwaAs-daw 
NyaA-zaA-bo/i wet- 

thaAs hin; chet-pays- 

baA 



133 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Take care to boil 


00 Q 6 8 C^ CO ^g 


Li ta^mins-go^ lees 


the lice well, too 


good6sgcx)d58 


kowiig^-gowigs naAt- 




^6g33d8oOo8[^ 


owng thaAdee pyoo 




c^o5 


lik 


Change the plates 


C^CTD^'^DSC^COC^OS 


Fa A ga hn-mj ahl - g oh 




ol 


leh-lik-paA 


Give me a clean 


OD8go"lBj>6oo5G|68 


Tsa/i - b weh - da As - hnin 


knife and fork 


33ao8r^aj^6b 


hkaA - yins a A - thit- 
koA yon-geh 


Give me a glass of 


G<S|oogaSGo8ol 


Yay taA-hkwet pays- 


water 




baA 


Pour out the tea 


coo5oo5Qg5r/Jg 


LaA- hpet-yee-goA 




GCool 


hngeh pays-baA 


How many are 


ooo5j.Sg(X)3o5oo 


Beh-hnaA-yowk htaA- 


coming to din- 


o61(Od8codo^6o 


mins tsiiAs-laA-mee- 


ner ? 




leh 


I think there will 


cq<^ 6goodo5cod 


Loo-shit-yowk laA- 


be eight persons 


o^c^ooSoloo^ 


mee-loA htin-baA- 

o 

thee 



Health. o^^2qd(§8s^83^8good33g(3d83ii 

(For Vocabulary, see p. 47.) 



Are you well ? 
I am well 
I am very ill 
I am not very well 



coyc 



O0<J\ 

33Og§<?.D0]00^ 
GOOD 60 GOO060 O 

oDo:j^8 



MaA-ee-laA: 
MaA-baA-ee 
AA-loon naA-baA-/Aee 
KownsS-gowiigs maA 
maA-boos 



English. 



134 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I hope you will 
soon be better 



Do you sleep well ^^ 
I sleep pretty well 



I have caught a cold 

I feel sick 

Send for a doctor 

I want to see a 
doctor 

She {or he) has a 
cough 

Where is the chem- 
ist's shop ? 

How far is it from 
here "? 

You must drink 
this 

Have you any 
brandy (spirit) ? 

I can eat nothing 

I can swallow no- 
thing 



G^ScoSoloO^ 

3D3S5 G 00^6 §00 
ODD! 

gooSgcoSgoodSo 
good883S5o1oo§ 

J)DG08^D^OO^ 
335^600^ 

gcoSooodS c^goT 
c§o$ 

GOOS 0DQDJ>8 GOg 

o:j^^DG(gD68s§8^D 

GOOoS^8oOo5^D(X> 

00^00 CO oSgood oS 
goSoooo 

00 ^ OOD C^ GOO o5 
g^§30qo5^O0ODD8 
OOD^ 0008^80:^8 

oo^oooyjQ^ISo:;^? 



HkinbyaAs mya^n- 
myaAn kyaAns-maA- 
yaAn kyoon-daw 
hmyaw-lin-baA-/Ae5 

A^-ayk kowng8-/fM^- 
hUs 

Taw-daw kowngs- 
gowngs ayk-paA- 

Hna^-zees-naA shee- 
AAn jin-/Ace 
SaysthaAma/iS-goA 

hkaw-lik 
SaysthaAmaAs - hnin 

tway-jin-/Aee 
Thoo-hmaA chowngs- 

zoAs-naA shee-Mee 
Says -zing beh-hmaA- 

leh 
Dee-gaA beh-lowk 

wayS-MaA-leh 
Dee haA-goA thowk- 

yaA-mee 
ByaAndee-aA-yet shee- 

/AaA-laAs 
BaA-hmyaA niaA tsaAs 

hning-boos 
TaA - zoAn taA- hkoo- 

hmyaA maA myoA 

hning-boos 



135 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


My head aches 


Ogj|5GOl6§ c^oS 


Kyoono^k gowngs 




OD^ 


kik-thee 


VTy foot is swollen 


C^^ScgGGpSc^ 


Ky onoAk chee 




OD^ 


yowng-nay-/Aee 


[ cannot get up 


o 00 1 Soloes 


Ma^ htaA hning-ba^- 
boos 


Vlay I get up 1 


00 qj 8 C^ 8 00 ^8 o] 


Hta^-jin-hlyin htaA- 




OOODD8 


hning-baA-Mah-laA; 


orive me a cup of 


CO oSooSc^^oogoS 


La^-hpet-yee ta^- 


tea 


coSol 


hkwet payS-baA 


[ have been ill 


^D G^ooDo^8e|aS 


NaA-nay-^ dah thoAn: 


three days 


m 


yet shee-byee 


Give me a bit of 


^oo8o5goSo1 


Mo^n ta^-zayt pays- 


bread 




baA 


[ must wash my 


OgJ^S COoS GOOoG] 


KyoonoAk let says- 


hands 


"^ 


yaA-mee 


[ have washed my 


go5j)Oc^oo85(§ 


Myet-hnaA-goA thit- 


face 




hkeh-byee 


rhere is no soap 


Oo5@DQg 


SaAtpya^ maA-shee 


[t is not good to 


^5SGOD333o1§ 


Cha/mS-Maw a^-hkaA- 


go out when it 


33@Sc§0233C§Q 


hnik aA-pyin-MoA 


is cold 


goodSso:;^? 


thwaAs-boA-ma^ 
kown^s-boos 



1 The GOD dah is a contraction of 00^ thee (the verb affix) and ODD haA, 
% thing, which is often used in colloquial and might be translated * the fact 



yf being ill has been three day;. 





136 




Time. 33^?ii sdoIh oodoom 


(For Vocabulary, see p, 36.) 


English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


What time is it '{ 


OOo53)6^D^GCODo5 


Beh-hnaA na//yee 




^ooraii oooSgq 


lowk shee-^//iU-lehj 




qi^oooo 


or Beh aA-chayn 
shee-/^aMeh 


Ten minutes past 


s^j>8^D^j)8^ j>88 


Hkoo-hnaA na^yee- 


seven 


4>6gcodo5^oo^ 


hnin hkoo-hna^ 
meenit-lowk shee- 
Mee 


It has just struck 


OD2^C^C^g^D^c8'c|5 


Ya^-hkoo-beh koAs-, 


nine 




naAyee htees-byee 


The clock is strik- 


,^d^cx)^o8sg^od§ 


NaAyee ya^-hkoohtee: 


ing 




nay-/Aee 


A quarter past one 


^$§(^§00^D^^5 


Moons -Iwehs ta^-naA- 


(afternoon) 


ocsSoS 


yee-hnin ta^-zayt 


Half-past four 


Q^oSGCOS^D^^g 


MaAnet lays-naAyee 


(morning) 




gweh 


A quarter to eight 


^S^d^qoSodSs 


Shit-naAyee maAt tins 


At what time ? 


oooSas^^^Dc^ 


Beh aA-chayn-hmaA leh 


It is noon 


<il%o^^3^qi(^h 


Moons -deh a^-chayn 




OD^ 


hpyit-thee 


Wake me at mid- 


oojg GolSngj^Sc^ 


Tha/i-gowng kyoon- 


night 


ISol 


oAk-koA hnoAs-baA 


I will get up at six 


o<?. o6g§do5^d^ 


MaAnetchowk-naAyee- 


in the morning 


^DOOolo^ 


hma/i hta/i-ba^-mee 



137 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



He will arrive at 
half-past five in 
the evening 

I shall dine ex- 
actly at seven in 
the evening 

What month is it 'i 
What day (of the 

week) is to-day? 
What day of the 

month is this? 



GCODoScx^GGpoS 

ogj^ 5 CO 08 Sods 
00 ^ CO 00 o5 coco 

00 ^ 00 G ^,00 3 Q ^^cb 
00 ^ 00 G ^^00 oS J) 8 

cioSg^^co 



NyaA-nay gna^s-na^- 
yee-gweh lowk thoo 
y owk-p a^-1 ay m-mee 

NyaA-nay hkoo-hna^- 
na^yee htee-hdee 
kyoono/ik htaAmins 
tsaAs-mee 

Thee la^ beh la^ leh 

Thio-aA- nay bah nay 
leh 

ThigaA-nay beh-hnaA 
yet-nay leh 



Note. — The Burmese date is 6^S years after the Christian 
era. Therefore, in order to get the Burmese year, we have to 
subtract that number from our year. Both eras are used, and, 
to distinguish the one from the other, the word 00^ ®^8 ThekkaA- 
yit is placed before the Burmese date; thus, oo^<s|8 oj*^ j = 
A.D. 1910. Both Burmese and English months are used, and 
often the two together, in documents. 

The month is divided into two parts, co30$8 laA-zaAns, the 
ivaxing, and coQ^go^S laA-byee-jaw or coac^oS \kh-zohk, the 
waning. The full moon, cog^ laA-byee, falls on the fifteenth 
of the waxing; the coogoS laA-gweh {hidden moon) falls on 
the fourteenth or fifteenth of the wane. The days of worship 
are the full moon, eighth of the wane, the hidden moon, and 
the eighth waxing ; otherwise the days of the week are not 
observed, though noted. (The Enghshman observes Sunday, 
the Burrnan does not.) 



138 



Times, Seasons, and Weather. 

gO:^l33^$4]D§J)S^o5SGC033G(^D68D 
(For Vocabulary, see p. 36.) 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


This day week 


oo^g^,oo'^5>6g|oS 


TAee nay-gaA hkoo- 




c^„ 


hnaA-yet nay 


That was three or 


o^SgcoBcjoSgcodoS 


Tho/aiS lays-yet lowk 


four days ago 


M@ 


shee-byee 


To-morrow fort- 


^o5o$G^,G^Do5 


Net-hpa/zn-nay nowk 


night 


cdo5gco2G|o5 


seh-lays-yet 


At about this time 


OOS^3Z)§5gCODo5^D 


YaA-hkoo aA-chayn- 
lowk-hmaA 


In a month^s time 


00 S^ G ^^ 00 00 CO 


YaA-hkoo-nay-gaA 




GOOD oS 


Wi-\sih lowk 


The first of next 


OD^OOO O^ODOO 


YaA-hkoo laA-mee-laA 


month 


g|o5g^„ 


taA-yet nay 


In (after) six weeks 


OOG^, OOCOCOJ»8 


YaA-nay-ga^ ta^-laA- 




ooo5goo8g|o5 


hnin seh-lay:-yet 


On the last day of 


OOi^COOgoS^^ 


YaA-hkoo laA-gweh- 


the month 




nay 


At the end of this 


00^00 OC^I^D 


Thee Isih gohn hmah 


month 






Towards themiddle 


C>>^ol ^O0O^G[o5 


ZaAna^waAyee laA seh- 


of January 


G^^GOODoS 


gnaAs-yet nay lowk 


In the course of a 


^3.8^105330268 


Hkoo-hnaA-yet aA- 


week 


036 


twins-dwin 


From time to time 


330?^S 


AA-hpaAn-baAn 





139 




English. Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


^'rom one day to 


00G^O0O3G^^C§ 


Ta^-nay-gaA ta^-nay- 


another 




thoh [thsLyz 


V few days ago 


g^^gjoSwQdgod^ 


Nay-yet mah kjah 


V. short time since 


CODC0Q^^\§ 


Ka^laA maA shay- 


^ago 




byee [_thay% 


karcely two days 


j>6<S|o5q^qooS 


HnaA-yet mah shee 


V month ago 


a3cx)^@ 


Ta^-laA shee-byee 


[t is full moon 


oog^G^^gsoD^ 


La^-byee-nay hpyit- 


L«ast year [last 


QJ>8oO 


iMaA-hnit-kaA [thee 


Phe year before 


ooc^^S 


TaA-myaAn-hnit 


;t is not long since 


qQdgodScxj^S 


Mkh kyah Mays boos 


:.ong ago 


^^c^\§ 


KyaA-hla/i-byee 


3nce in ("three) 


(O^s) GjoSoOol 


(Tho/ms) yet taA-hkaA 


days 






Pheheatofthesun 


G^(^c^Qb'^8cq% 


Nay poo \oh mah 


is unbearable 




hka/m-hning-booS 


'. am very warm 


ooo53^o5oo,o5 


Teh ik-thee 


'. am afiaid it will 


^aS§g|D0^^2 


M6AsyooaA-mee,ts6As- 


rain 


OD^ 


thee 


3id you see the 


C^o5o8c^ §8 00 


ShaAt-tsit-koA myin- 


lightning? 


CODo 


Ma^-laAs 


'. heard the thun- 


^o58g§OOG^(c^DS 


M oAschoAnS-thaAn-go/t 


der 


boD^ 


kya^s geh thee 


low it pours ! 


ooo5^o5sg|ooo^ 


Teh mohi yooah-thee 


/Vould you like an 


o88o3q|6ooodd8 


Htees loA-jin-/AaA-laAs 


umbrella? 




[tsoA-byee 


; am wet through 


30005c^DS§05^(§ 


AA-wo6t-myaAs tsoot- 


Liook at the rain- 


ooo5o5c^[c;^§o^o5 


ThettaAn-goA kyee- 


bow 


ol 


lik-paA 





140 


^ 


English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 1 


It is growing very 


oooScsaScoDODg 


Teh ays \nh-thee 


cold 






It is very dirty 


COcS^^D^oOD^ 


Teh shoon mjahl-thee 


It is very windy 


odoSgcoc^ oSoooS 


Teh lay tik-thee 


The wind is in the 


GOD 33 G^OOS OO 


Lay aA-shay bekka^ 


east 


CODOD^ 


la/i-/^ee 


The dust is terrible 


ooo5(^oooo^ 


Teh hpo^n hta^-Mee 


How bright the 


OOoScOOODOO^ 


Teh laA thaA-Mee , 


moon is 






The sky is over- 


'^ti5839cg^o58g|D 


Mohl ohn-\oh moht 


cast, so I think 


O^C^OOSOD^ 


yooa^-mee-loAj htin- 


it will rain 




thee 


The stars are bright 


@a^^D3330g502$3 


Kyeh-niya/iS M-hl66n 




coSSoo^ 


htoons-hn;-/Aee 


It will be fine to- 


^o5o$G^ODDOgS 


Net-hpa/m nay thaA- 


morrow, I think 


OOSOD^ 


mee, htin-Mee 



Correspondence, Post, Telegraph, and Telephone. 

(DDGG|8g(^o6oJ)8odo^o5ic(^8^^o^833s(^d5o4Jd8ii 
(For Vocabulary, see p. 70.) 



Have any letters 


OD s^ ^ o5 D t;j D B 


Ya^-hkoo mah-net 


come this morn- 


Gtpo5^COD8 


tsaA-mya/iS yowk- 


ing ? 




pyee-laAs 


No, none have 


Q COD QGGpoSc 008 


Ma^ \a.h maA yo^yk 


come yet 


098 


tha.y% boos 


He ought to be 


cxj^ OD j:^ OD ^ C^ 


Th 00 yM-\] koo dee-go A 


here by now 


GGpo5DD8f§ 


yowk-thin-byee 



141 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


I have heard 


O0^0OS^yQ(c^D8G| 


TaA-zo^n taA-hkoo 


nothing 


Qo:,tcqo 


hmya^ mah kya^S- 
ya/<-/Aays-boos 


Has the mail 


od8§Soogood 


TsaA-bo^ mees-thims- 


steamer arrived '? 


GGpo5j§COD8 


baw yowk-pyee-la^s 


Go and see if the 


OoScGpoSoD^Q 


Det yowk-thee maA 


mail is in 


GGpoS00§C^OgD8 


yowk - thee - go A 




g^o68ol 


thwaA; kyee-zaAns 
baA 


Are there any let- 


c^^5c^:d4_P§^od 


KyoonoAk-hpoA tsaA- 


ters for me ? 


CODo 


myaAs shee-/AaA- 

IriAs 


I have not received 


OD00GO36^QG|OOS 


TsaA taA - zowng - 


any letter 




hmyaA mM yaA-boos 


Please post this 


OO^ODC^ODO^oS 


Thee tsixk-gok tsaA- 


letter 


•ooSooDcb^ooo^ 


dik thit-htaA-deh- 




c§o5ol 


hmaA hteh-lik-paA 


Please forward my 


Ogj^5oD4jD8c^§ 


KyoonoAk tsaA-myaAs- 


letters to . . . 


o^oSol 


goA poA-lik-paA 


Please weigh this 


O3^03C^^$068ol 


TAee tsaA-goA chayn- 


letter 




zaAns-baA 


I want some note- 


0DGS]8€[?0^|[C^ 


TsaA-yays-yaAn tsek- 


paper 


^60D^ 


koo loA-jin-^Aee 


Give me an enve- 


OD3S500^GO8ol 


TsaA-ayk taA-hkoo 


lope 




pays-baA 


Where is the ink? 


^Sg^SoooS^dc^ 


Hmin-oAs beh-hmaA 
leh 


Lend me a piece of 


56|50Cg,|0D§5 


Hmin-hnayk tsek-koo 


blotting-paper 


GO80I 


taA-chaAt pays-baA 



142 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Get me some 

stamps 
Tell him to wait 

I will send a reply 
later 

Can I send a tele- 
gram? 

How much is the 
postage on these 
letters 1 

I am just going to 

read it 
Can you lend me a 

pencil ? 

What is your tele- 
phone number? 
My number is — 

Put me through 

to — 
Line engaged 
Ring up (Mr. 

Smith)! 



CC385GQl68<^D3GOi 

of 
G^Do5^(y $(0d8o1 

g(^s^58§o5^6o1 
od^oco'jSgcodoS 

GOoGjQ^C^ 

uo^cx)oo5olo2§ 

5oooog^d68ocdd 
91801 

06 (^ D 3 1 ol o5 CO o5 
GCODoScO 

c^.^6|.olo5gSol 
— c^ogoSccSol 

035'Q33D§ol 
ygOODOoSc^OOODo 
G(QD00g8j,SGgD 

ol 



Ta^ - zayt - gowng;- 

myaAs pays-baA 
Tsowng nay-loy? thoo 

goh pyavr-ba/i 
No wk - hmtxA py a An ■ 

zaA poA-baA-mee 
Kyays - na^nS yit 

hning-baA-mee-laAs 
Thee tshh-mjahz Sih 

twet tsd.h-hoh-ga>h 

beh-lowk pays-yaA 

mee-leh 
YaA-hkoo-beh hpa/^t- 

paA-mee 
HkeA - da^n t a A - 

chowngs hka^iia^ 

hgnaAs-baA 
Hken byaAs nahmhahi 

beh-lowk leh 
KyoonoAk naAmbaM 

— hpyit-paA-^Aee 
— goA thweh-pay 

baA 
LaAnS maA aAs-baA 
(MistaA SaAmit)-goA 

t s a A g a A S - p y a w- 

thaAn-joA-hnin pyaw- 

baA 



1 This is translated 'SpeaK to Mr. Smith with the telephone.' 



143 



In Town. §o2633g(^d6§33gp 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Where shall we 


02J^5C^OOOSC^33 


KyoonoAk-doA beh- 


gol 


cogogDSogcx) 


goA a^-leh-thwaAs 
mee-leh 


Let us go to the 


ODCr^o5c§C^DS(c^§ 


TsaA-dik-thoA thwaAs 


post office 




jyaA-zoA 


Where does this 


OO^CoSo-JoScGp 


Thee laAnS beh yowk- 


road go? 


o5oo:x) 


thaA-leh 


Go up the street 


co53 c^o^oS o^d8 


La/mz-guh lik-thwa/^s 


Is it far from here? 


OOgSoOC^DGOSOO 


Dee-gaA kwaA-ways- 




CODS 


thrih-lUi 


Show me the way 


co68c^gol 


L'dhnl-^oh pya/«-baA 


Turn to the right 


OO c8 COD O cS cB 


Let-yaA-bet-tho/i hleh- 

J o 




O^^C^DSO^OS 


thwaAs-lik [thwaAs 


Turn to the left 


coc/iooo5c§o^^ 


Let-vveh-bet-thoA hleh- 


Go straight on 


Go51^o5^oo§c^D3 


Shay-^Aoy^ teh-deA 

0.' o o o 




ol 


thwa/iS hhh 


Second turning to 


CO o5 CO D O o5 ^ D J^ 


Let-yaA-bet-hmaA 


the right 


CBODCO^IC^C^CS 


dooteeya/i lihn%-goh 
lik 
LaAns-goA koos- 


Cross the road 


co68c^nr^8ogDS 


>...? 


^^ODC^ 


thwaAS [thuh-leh 


In what street 


— oooScoSg og^ 


— beh la/ms-dwiii shee 


Please tell me the 


cgGGpo5G33D8 


— thoh yowk-owng 


nearest way to... 


33^8a^ co68c^ 


aA-neeS-z6/mS lahnZ- 




G[yDoll» 


goA pyaw-ba^ 



144 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Is this tiie way 


OO ^ CO 6 8 c^ c^ o5 


T/iee laAiis-goA lik- 


to ... ? 


C^6 O^GGpoS 


hlyin — fhoh-yowk- 




_|6o1q^coo8 


hning-bfiA - mee- 


Do you know 


F. c^Sc^oSogjSs 


F. thaAhken - goA 


Mr. FJ 


oooooS 


thee - kyoons - thhh - 


I do not know 


QoSo^S 


MaA thee-boo; 


I know him well 


o:^c^gcx)o58gooo88 


Thoo-goA kowngs- 




ogj §800^5 


gowngs kyoonS-Mee 


Who is he '? 


o^ccjooc^c^cb 


HtoA loo ba^loo leh 


He is an old friend 


O^8o§GSgGOO0 88 


T li o m a y t s w a y 




g8oloo^ 


howngs hpyit-paA- 
thee 


Where does he 


oCj^oooSqdg^ooc^ 


Thoo beh-hmaA nay- 


live ? 




thU-\eh 


He lives close by 


C^^53S8j>S30|8 


(KyoonoAk ayn-hnin) 


(my home) 


G^oloO^ 


Sih - nee; nay - baA - 

thee 


Is Mr. F. (Mrs. F.) 


F. ^S (F. cgSo) 


F. thaAhken (thaA- 


at home? 


3S6026_^ODOOD§ 


hken-ma/?) ayn-dwin 
shee-thiih-Irihi 


I must go 


Ogj^5c^08olGODD 


KyoonoAk thwaAs- 




og 


baA-daw-mee 


Good-bye (go and 


c^o8§8gooo (or 


ThwaAs-oAns-law (or 


return) 


good) 


^^^}) 


What is the name 


C^oo68o^ooo5j)o5 


HtoA la/ms-goA beh- 


of that street? 


GOTOOOO 


hneh hkaw-^AaA- 
leh 





145 




1 English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 


Which road must 


OOoSco68C^D8G|Q 


Beh laAns thwa/<s-yaA- 


I take ? 


g<x 


mee-leh 


Tou) are out of 


co6§^d3(§ 


La^ns hma^s byee 


the way 






Shopping. a^S^jDSog^^^o^SP" 


Howmuch is this? 


00^ OD D 330^ 500 'j5 


Thee haA a.h-hpdht 




GCODcScb 


beh-lowk leh 


It is too much 


3Q0^8g?00^ 


Ah-hpoh'o keet-thee 


Send them at once 


^o59j68§c^oSol 


Chet-chins po/i-lik-pa/i 


I wish to buy 


ooS^Soo^ 


Weh-jin-/Aee 


'(I) will take this 


OD^OODC^O^olog^ 


Thee haA-goA yoo-baA- 

mee 


(I)want some calico 


8oSod5^8oo^ 


Payt weh-jin-Mee 


Show (me) some 


§8g8gDOO^@ol 


Pohz kjohi-hysih Wi- 


' ribbons 




choh pya^-baA 


iThis colour is too 


a5|33GGp6e§C§?B 


Ee a^-yow^ng nyoh- 


dark 


oog 


\oon%-thee 


Have you any that 


gJgsgoscooSgoS 


Ee kyo/iS-byaAs det 


is narrower than 


coScoDogsgoB 


byet-gneh - Maw 


thisi 


^G00800CO08 


kyoAs-byaAs shee- 
thayZ-thhh-Wiz 


What is the price 


oof] oS C^8 300^8 


Ta/i-gik hlyina^-hpo/zs 


per yard ? 


oocSgodooScX' 


beh-lowk leh 


It is faded 


33GGp8§$00^ 


AA-yowng hmayn- 
thee 


It is too fine 


33C^5^a5^00^ 


AA-hl66n nyet-noo thee 


This is right 


00^ oo OGOOO 68 


Thee hah kowngs-Mee 




OD^ 




BURMESE 8.-T. 




K 



146 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation, 


What are they the 


OOGjCgSsSO^SOOC^ 


Ta/i-yaAn hlyin aA- 


pair 1 


GCODoScX) 


hpoAs beh-lowk leh 


Have you any silk 


^§93^3^DgCGp68 


P6/iS-paAs6 h%-mji\h z 


^putsoes for sale? 


C|53oocod8 


yowngs-ya^n shee- 
thah-l^hi 


I will inquire and 


02j|5goSo8^^d3 


Kyoono^k mays-tsit- 


let you know 


cgDC^oSo^ 


yooay kyaAs-pyaw- 
lik-mee 


I ^vill give five 


o^cjODC^G^cl8a^5 


HtoA hhh-hoh gnway 


rupees for it 


go8q^ 


gnaAs-jaAt pays-mee 


Take this vv^atch to 


g5)^D^§o5c^9|6 


Ee naAyee-gwet-koA 


be mended 


G|G3Qd8 OqO^Do 


pyin-yaA-owng yoo- 




c^oSol 


thwa/iS-lik-pa^ 


Can you give me 


3 61g00 0^5c^335§ 


Dinga^s taA-jaAt-koA 


change for a 


^8o1o^cod3 


aAns hning-ba^-mee- 


rupee '? 




laAs 


1 have no change 


335BG|5«^o1 


Ahni-jsihn maA-shee 
baA 


I have no cojjpers^ 


^oSoOogolllQoS 


PisaAn maA shee-baA, 


only four -anna 


GOOOD^oloO^ 


maAt tsee ^AaA shee- 


pieces 




baA-Mee 



Shooting and Fishing. 



G^O^oclollO^oSlQSll^D^Oj^Glnr^^Soll 

oo^33<^5§330^8 2%ee aA-yaAt hnik aA- 
(q8o6oicl8^DS mehs pit hkins, 
0828000038 hgnaAs hmyaAs-gin 

shee-^AaA-laAs 

' The garment worn by men round the waist ; some are very handsome. 



Is there any shoot- 
ing or fishing 
here ? 



147 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



Can you find me 
a hunter? 

II will send you a 
hunter to show 
you game? 

What game can 
you show me ? 

Do you wish to 
shoot deer or 
birds ? 



There are plenty 
of hog deer in 
the jungle and 
sometunes one 
finds hares and 
pigs 

Snipe are found 
in the rice fields 
and duck and 
teal in the lake 



Go3|.6olo§co3i 

G33d6^3^oOO 
GOOD cS 0^ GqT 
GOoQpS 

OOOS 00081 3C|oSl 
(^C=^D8C^(qS 91800 

cooSii goS^joSo^ 
(yS^8oocoo§ 



GOOO 00 ^03 G| o5 33 

QSoOol OOGCOO^ 
j)SGO30oa5^0D 
GOO OO 06 00^ 



oooSQ8ob^OG[^ 
oc8^o3go]oo§ji 
3o8ocb^oo6oc5b 

J)8o8oc^C^G02 

c8§o^ 



MoAkso/iS taA - yowk 
shaAs pays hning- 
baA-mee-laAs 

Ah-mehi-goh hnyoon- 
pyaA -yaA- owng 
mo^kso^S taA-yowk- 
koh hkfiw-pays-mee 

Beh aA-mehs-myoAs- 
mya^s-goA pya^ 
hning-baA-mee-laAs 

S6jht, tha/^min, daA- 
yeh, jee-mya/iS-goA 
pit- chin-/Aa/i-la^S ; 
hgnet-myfiAs-goA 
pit - chin - thah - 

Taw-deh-hma^ daA- 
yeh aA-hloon mya^s- 
thee ; laA - gowngS- 
pyin tah-hkhh-tsih- 
lay yo/^n-hnin taw- 
wet-mya^s tway- 
da/it-thee 

Leh - byin - deh -hmaA 
myay - woot - myaAs- 
paw - thee ; ins - deh - 
hmaA wooms-beh- 
hnin tsitsaAlee - goh 
tway-laym-mee 
K 3 



148 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Is the jungle very 


GOODt^D§gD£5oOo5 


Taw myaAs-z66a/i 


thick ^ 


OOCOD8 


shoAk-taM-thaA-laA s 


The tree jungle is 


00 5gO3DQ^^50^?ii 


rhit-taw ma/i-sho,^k- 


not thick but 


C§Gp026gSoo63 


hpoos; MoA-ya/i-dwin, 


there is tall grass 


§ g oS GODD § 


myit-kaAns - hnik 


near the river 


OD^ 


myet-taw shee-Mee 


How many guns 


G 00 ^ o5 00 c£ J>S 


Thay-naAt beh-hnaA- 


have you ? 


cooS^oooo 


let shee-Ma^-leh 


I have three 


j)8oqsgGoo^o5o^s 


HnaMoy^nS-byoo-thay- 


double-barrel 


ooo5^8§o5oo5 


na/ft thoAns-let-hnin 


and a rifle 


oocooS^oo^ 


yikpa/it taMet shee- 
Mee 


This gun is a 


00 § Gr\->^ o5 G ^0 o6 


TheQ thay-na^t nowk- 


breechloader 


c^8coo^o5g8ol 


hibhi - thay-na^t 




oo^ 


hpyit-pfiA-Z^ee 


How many cait- 


c^ og o5 sB 5'db ^ 


HtoA Iweh-ayk - deh- 


ridges have you 


oo88gooo6ooo5 


hma^ yaAns - downg 


in that bag? 


j>SooSolooc^ 


beh-hna^-lo^ns paA- 


Put sixty cart- 


o^ooSooodb^oooSs 


HtoA thit-taA-deh- 


ridges into that 


good8(socoodo6 


hmaA yaAns- downg 


box 


oo^o^oS 


chowk- seh- lowk 
hteh-lik 


You have hit 


OOOS 00 G OOOSC^ 


SaAt taA-gowng-goA 


(shot) a red deer. 


^§ol(Bcg8 


hma^n-ba/i-byee, 


Sir 




thaAliken 


It cannot go far. 


G§G00005[§§C^ 


Chay-dowk kyoA; \qh 


for its leg is 


GCggOQa^OS^S 


way-zooaA maA 


broken 


o^s 


thwa/iS-hning-booS 





149 




' English. Burmese. Pronunciation 


A teal has fallen 


08 o oSoo goodS 


Tsit>aMee ta/z-go\vng 


in the grass near 


3^8^D8^Dga5o6 


ing-na/iS-hma/i myet- 


the pond 


cbc§oc^Gco(§ 


pln-deh-^AoA kyaA- 
lay-byee 


IThere are some 


olo GOOD CO 'cJD GOOD 


Wa^S - daw- deh - hmaA 


jungle-fowl in 


@05'<ilD§||Dr^ 


taw-jet-mya/iS shee- 


the bamboos 




/Aee 


Can you catch 


O^G^oSSOgS cl8 


HtoA chowngs-dwin 


fish in that 


C^DgC^QjD8|6aD 


gnaAs - myfi^s -go/i 


stream ? 


C0D3 


hmy a/io - hning-//ia/i- 
l:i//S 
Hmya^s-za^ a/<- 


What is the best 


^D80D 33 GOOdSS 


j bait? 


3^^ooo5oo8§cx) 


kowngs-zo^ns beh- 
th\n% leh 


! Bring a rod and 


^d]o6ooo6'J)5q!d8 


HmyaAs-da^n-taA-zins- 


some bait witli 


ODGSsgOj^ODDOD 


hnin hmya/ts-za^ 


yuu 




a/.!-choA yoo-laA- 
geh 


The best bait is 


08j>CG0DD06fe(JD8 


Tee-hnin lowk-mya/^s 


worms and mag- 


o!D8odqqcodd68 


hmyaAs-zaA aA- 


gots 


S^SgSoD^ 


kowngs-zo/ms hpyit- 
thee 


If you cannot get 


Cj83C^QG)^8c^6 


La^-gowngs-go^ ma^ 


them, use paste 


t^4853c^3^S 


yaA - hning - hlyin, 
moAn-zaynS goA 
tho/ms 


You cannot hunt 


00 8 Q^ cgS oqjD8 


Sin ma/^ shee-hlyin, 


tigers without 


t^DSC^OC^o5|8 


kya^2-myaAs-go/^ 


elephants 


0^3 


ma^ lik-hni ig-boos 



English, 



150 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



YoM can watch 
for them at 
night on a stage 
in a tree 

It is, however, 
weary work and 
the mosquitoes 
bite 

How long have 
you hved in this 
circle ? ^ 



^33 ol OO S 08 GoT 
OOCo8o£^DGo]8 
G^|8cO^ 

c8 Gp Og 8 33C^ £08 

o §8^g8c^ oS 

00 ^ o^ oS db ^D 
G,?.oo^oooooc:6 
GOooo5|^o[Bcb 



NyaA aA-hka/z thit-pin- 
baw- gaA lin - zin 
hmfi/i tsowng - nay - 
hning-/Aee 

Tho h - yRh - d win , a A- 
hloon pim-ba^ns- 
yooay chin kik-thee 

Thee tik - hteh - hmra 
nay-/^a^-ha/^ beh- 
lowk kyaA-byee-leh 



Public Works. Ggc^Ssioo^GooooSGooosDopc^Ds 



Come here with 
your hoe 

Do not dig there 

Dig wider 

How many men 
are wanted to 

cut the jungle ? 



o1o5or^8c^a;^§ 
oogSo^ooooo 



i.OQ 



^ 



Oqi C^ G 30 3 8 O^ 

c§oS 

GOOD S|^C^ G| G30d8 
CXj^ 00 o5 J) 8 G 00 3 oS 

3oo^>^oora 



Powk-toos-go/^ yoo- 
yooay dee-go^ laA- 
geh 

HoA-hmfiA maA toos- 
hnin 

o 

Kyeh-owng toos-lik 

Taw hkoAk - ya/i - 
owng loo beh-hnaA 
yowk a/i-lo/i shee- 
Ma/i-leh 



^ Note.— oBoS tik, generally translated circle, corresponds to our word 
'hundred' in the divisions of a county. The word 000 hii/i, thing, which 
occurs in the last sentence, is a very common colloquial idiom and | 
corresponds to our word fact 



151 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


[Six men are 


CO 5 8 o:^ 5 Q 5 o^ 


La^ns lohk-jahn loo- 


wanted for road 


GgDoScODDoSc^ 


chowk-yowk loA-jin- 


work 


^8CX)^ 


thee 


Send three men 


COo5oOQDS^op§C^ 


LetthaAmaAs-myaA s- 


to help the car- 


a^^SjG3D06c^ 


go^ koo-nyee-yah- 


penters 


a^ § GOO D o5 c^ 


owng loo - tho/ais- 




c^o8c^o5 


yowk- ko^ hloot- 
lik 


Take seven men 


o5ood§goodo5g|5 


Ta/i-da^s sowk-ya^n 


to build the 


C(^^^ S GOODo5 


loo hkoohna^-yowk 


bridge 


GoTogDSGODD 


h k a w - thwa i^ s- d a w 

o 


'What kind of soil 


C^^DOQcScgt^g^ 


Ho^-hma^ beh myay 


is it there 'i 


oora 


myo^s shee-thsih- 
leh 


It is sandy, Sir 


COGg^DSoloO^ 


Theh - myay mya/iS - 




^^ 


baA-//^ee, tha//hken 


Where did you 


OO^GgoOSC^OOC^ 


Thee myay-zays-goA 


find this stitf 


^DGOgOOCX) 


beh-hmaA t\x^j-t/mh- 


clay ? 




leh 


This ground is ex- 


OD^G{^3DCq^COGp 


Thee myay a/ihloon- 


ceedingly hard 


QDoloO^ 


daA-yaA ma^-ba^- 
thee 


The hoe will break. 


Gol oS 0^8(^8 O^ 


Powk-toos kyoAs-mee 


80 get a pickaxe 


^8C^G0lo50r^30^8 


tsoAs-lo^ powk-toos- 




00 CO oSc^O^CT) 


l6Ansta/i-let-ko/i yoo- 
geh 


Kemove the stones 


G0^3a5<^D8C^ 00 


Kyowk-myaAs - goh 


with a crowbar 


^^glS°i>§o^§^ 


thaAn-taA-yooins- 




c^oS 


hnin toos-swaA-lik 



English. 



152 



Burmese. 



Pi-onunciation. 



Blast the rock 



Putasideallstones 
fit for building 



The space is not 
sufficient 

Level 30 ft. fur- 
ther back 



Whenlcalledyou, 
why did you not 
answer ? 

As the ground is 
very soft you 
must lay planks 

Bring the cord 
and pegs for lay- 
ing out the foun- 
dation 

Must this work 
be finished to- 
day ? 

There is not 
enough sand in 
this mortar 



GOqj3o5g8C^OO§3 

j.Sgo1o5§ 

33 GOOD o5 33 § o ^ 8 

god5goddgo^do5 

00D8CJ 5 G ^G| D O 
G 0;^OGCODo5 

^dg33d6(^o:]5 
ol 

Oo6c^ G OTOODCOOOD 

gc^^oojsooco 

C^S)68^G|o^ 

3Dg(^3do:^do^^o5 
^G|$g8|>8o^o5 

OD ^ 3S o:^ 5 OO G ^„ 
g8G3Do8oq5Gj 

q^cod8 

OO^ODgloSogSoQ 
OGCODoSo^g 



Kyowk - kees - goA 
ydhni - hnin hpowk- 
hkweh 

AA-sowk a^-6^ns-hnin 
taw-//iaw kyowk- 
mjiiht-goh ta^-hpet- 
hmfiA tsoo-po^n-lik 

HtclAs-yaAn nay-yaA 
maA lowk hpoos 

Pay thoAns-zeh lowk 
nowk - thoh tdh%- 
yooay nyee-nya^- 
owng pyoo-loAk-paA 

Thin-goh hkaw ka^laA 
baA-pyoo-lo^ ma^ 
htoos-^MMeh 

My ay aA-hl66n pyaw- 
Mee-hnin pyeen- 
hjkhz- mjiihz-goh 
hkins-chaA-yaA-mee 

A^-chay aA-lyaA-goA 
hma^t-chaA-yaAn 
kyo^S-hnin paAnet 
myaAs yoo-geh 

Th.e a/i-loAk yaA-nay 
pyees - owng loAk - 
ya^-mee-la^s 

TAee thaAyoot-twin 
theh msih lowk hpoos 



153 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



There is too muc h 

lime in it 
The lime is not 

good. What 

kiln did it come 

from? 
The plastering 

must be done 

carefully 

Unless the timbei- 
is properly earth- 
oiled the white 
ants will eat it 

White ants do not 
eat iron-wood or 
teak 

Will you have 
thatch or shin- 
gles on the roof? 



Tiles are difficult 
to obtain 

Bring me the com- 
pass and chain 



oogjo8o^8o^£^3S 



338GOOd^6oO^^O 

00 8 000 S O^ GG||, 
GCTOoSSGOOoSiQ 

ooc^cgiSg^J 
ooo5oo§o8§Q^ 



OS 



ogj$8oo83>S(^6§oo 
c^ 8 g^oSoooS 
)o5o^8 



00( 



3§c3o5j>8ooo5 

OOo5§8 O^COOB II 

qgoo^oSc^ g 
3Sj-5 (^o5 j;)888 

0^0008 

3:;?^ o8 (^o5<^ d8oooS 

G|500gS 

c^^ol j;>Sg[^o^88 
ogsc^o^ 



oo 



)CODCyD 



Tha/iyoot-twin hto/ais 
myfiAs-loon %- thee 

Htoy^ns mkh kou ngs 
boos ; beh htoAns- 
bo^-hmaA leh 

Inga^day kiug-^Aee 
hmah, thay - thaj 
chuA-ja^ pyoo-yaA- 
mee 

Thit-thaAs-go/i yay- 
naAn kowngs-gowngs 
mah thoAk-hlyin 
chaA-myahs tet-tsfiAs- 
laymmee 

Kyoon-Mit-hnin pyins- 
gah-ddht chaA-myaAs 
maA tsfiAs-daAt- 
hpoos 

Da/mee-bet-hnin thek- 
keh moAs-mee-laAs ; 
/AoA-maA-hoAk, py- 
een oAk-kyout-hnin 
moAs-mee-lfiAs 

( ) Ak-ky oot- my aAs teh 
yaA-geh-/Aee 

KoompaA-hnin myay- 
ding-thaAn-joAs-goA 
voo-lfiA-geh 



154 



English, 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I forgot them and 
left them in the 
works office 



GQGCX^OC^Ggo^SB 
^ QD Cr^ §G| 8g ^ 

oops 



May- yaw-loA myay- 
ding-yo^n- hmaA 
kvaAn-yit nav-/Aee 



Planting. ooScS^oSgSsii 



How many coolies 

have you? 
How long have 

they worked 

with you ? 

Are they good 
workers ? 

Muster the coolies 
near the bunga- 
low 

How much pay 
does each get a 
day ? 

Each man must 
dig forty holes 
a day? 

Do not pull up the 
young plants 



Oj^ c8 OD o5 J) 6 
G OO D qS ^ DO CO 

o^c^godSoSs 

oS^OCC^oSoOOOD 
00 o5 G CO D cS 

gof§cX) 

330qoS C^ 8 ^O0J)5 

a^oSoo o8 (^oo 
coos 
336^os^oo:j^c8(^o8 
c^ "J^^ 8 gJoo 8 
c^oS 

Cr| c8 OJ 8 GO C^ c5 
C^6g^^O^£o30Q 
00 C^ GCOO o5 G[ 

oooSoocb 

o^ o8 00 G ooo o5 oo 

G^^C^jSogSSGOOS 
OOC^8or^oG|QpS 

30o6oOGC08(^0 8c^ 

^lo^oSj-S 



I 



Koolee beh - hnaA - 
yowk shee-^AaA-leh 

Thoo-doA mowng- 
mins-zee-hmaA lo^k 
thaA-haA beh-Iowk 
kyaA-byee-leh ■ 

A h -loAk - koA weey ee - 
yaA-hnin loAk-taAt- 
kyaA-MaA-lahs 

Ayn-na/iS-hmaA koo- 
lee-mya^S-goA tsoo- 
yoAnS-yooay htaAs-lik 

Koolee-myaAs taA-go/i- 
hlyin nay-dings a.h- 
hkaA beh-lowk yaA- 
daAt-thaA-leh 

Koolee-taA-yowk taA- 
nay-hlyin twins lays- 
zeh zee toos-yaA- 
mee 

\h - pin - gaAlays - 
myaAs-goA sweh- 
yooay maA-hnoAk- 
hnin 



155 



English. 



Bui-mese. 



Pronunciation. 



I^Mark the places 
where they are 
to dig the holes 

Trample the earth 
down in plant- 
ing 

'Go and fetch the 
plants from the 
seed-beds 

Take up the plants 
with the earth 

After planting 
them give them 
plenty of water 



Og Co O^oGjQ^G^ 
003CO gQc^G§ 



c5|)8o8S00 33o8oO 

G CO S^jD Scraps 

33oSc^g(qo1g33d6 
^o5(83^GG|G0036b 

goodSsgcodSs^ 

GOSC^oS 



Twins toos-yaA-mee- 
nay-yaA-mya/iS-goA 
hma^t-pyaA-lik 

AA-pin-myaAs-go^ Isik- 
kaAla,/^, myay-go/i 
chee-hnin hnayk- 
nins-lik 

Pyo/iS-ginS-ga^ a^-pin- 
ga/ilay s - m y a As - g o A 
thwa^S yoo-geh 

Ah-p'm-goh myay pa/i- 
owng hnoAk-pa/i 

Tsik-pyees-hmaA yay 
kowngs-gowngs 
lowngs-yuoay pays- 
lik 



Arrival in the Country. g^o^ScGpoSooDcoii 

(For Vocabularies, see p. 6i.) 



Here is my lug- 
gage 

Where is the cus- 
tom-house '? 

Bring that trunk 
to the custom- 
house 

I have nothing 
dutiable 



ogj|5o5ocooScx)^ 



^D^ODj 



3Q G OO 3 o5 d^ o5 

oooSc^Dcb 

G^GOO^D 33G GOD o5 
3QGOCOo5§G|5gg"l 



KyoonoAk woon-zaA- 

leh dee-hmaA shee- 

fhee 
AA-kow^k-tik beh- 

hmaA leh 
Ho/i thittaA a/i-kowk- 

tik-thoA yoo-geh 

AA-kowk-hkweh-yaAn- 
oAksaA maA paA 



156 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Here are (take) my 


Ogj^SGODOC^DSo;^ 


KyoonoAk thaw-mya^s 


keys 


oIgooo 


yoo-baA-daw 


Call a carriage 


G|cod8oo88goTo1 


Ya^hta^8 taA-zees 
hkaw-bfiA 


There is no car- 


G|0ODSO388^Q^o1 


Yahhtiih'o ta^-zees- 


riage 




hmyaA maA shee-baA 


What is the fare 


O^ 33 O 00 oS 


— thoh aA-hkaA beh- 

o 


to—1 


GCODoSc^ 


lowk, leh 


Tell the driver to 


G) 0008^3 c^—o^ 


YaAhta^s -hmoo; - go^ 


take me to — 


GOD 8 8 0^0 8 0^^ 


— thqh mowngs- 




gQdc^oSoI 


thwaAs-loA pyaw- 
lik-paA 


Tell him to drive 


a 2 C| 00 D 8 ^ o^^ g 


MeeS-ya^htaAs-yo^n- 


quickly to the 


(§GQD6 8C^^GgD 


thqh mya^n-mya^n 


railway station 


c^c^ol 


mowngS-loA pyaw- 
lik-paA 


He says the bag*- 


o$oooo5god8c^58 


VVoon-zaA-leh lays- 


gageistoo heavy 


OD^^S c^^SgooI 


loons - thee - hnin 


(for a carriage), 


^dooSg^o^oo^ 


hlehs-baw-hmaA-tin 


it must be put 




ya/i-mee, deh 


on a cart 






You must take it 


g^§c§c§D3q?8s 


Pyee - m yg A - thqh 


to the station for 


ClCODS^C^O^CgDS 


thwaAs-ya/in mees- 


Prome, not that 


C|«g„6c^S§c^„ 


yaAlitaAs- john-goh 


for Pegu 


c^oSg^?^c§qo^g] 


yoo- thwa// s-yaA- 
mee; PaAgo/iS- 
mjqh-thqh htwet- 
yaAn john- thqh 
maA yoo-yaA 



157 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



I wish to catch 
the steamer that 
goes from Pro me 
to Bamaw 

When does the 
steamer start ? 

Please show me 

my berth 
Is this berth taken'? 



T will engage the 
whole cabin 

Put this bag in the 
cabin 

What is the num- 
berofyour cabin? 

What is the fare ? 

How many days 
is it from Prome 
to Bamaw ? 

Are the mosqui- 
toes troublesome 
(do they bite)? 



O^^C^D§ GOOD §8 
OOGo5oC^|g3O08 

82OOG0§0O0 OSOO 

^$ Goooo5og o5 

00 CC 

o^^5 33063 c^ g 

o^oSol 
oogaooSso^ 00^00 

GOOD a5 ooaj^ |§ 

ODOS 

ogj^5ooo58o^8c^ 

co^ 38 o5c^ 30063 

ob^DcooSo^oS 

30 o6i 1 0"] o5 00000 

[do 
oo:^oooo5GODDa5 

g^"^O0O0GQ0(| 
GGpoSG30D6oOOO 

JiScjoSgooooS^I 
y^co 
g 6 c^ o5 0008 00 
0008 



Pyee-myg^-gaA BaA- 
maw - uiyoh - thoh 

^ o o 

thwaA :-//zaw-mees- 

thims-baw-go^ hmee- 

owng thwaAs-jin-^Aee 
Mees-thimsbaw beh- 

aA-chayn - lowk 

htwet-thaA-leh 
Kyoono^k a^-hkaAns- 

go^ pyaA-lik-paA 
Thee ah - hka^ms - goh 

taA- zoAn-ta/i-3^owk- 

kaA yoo-byee-laAs 
KyoonoAk taA-hkii/ms- 

lo^ns-goA yoo-bfiA- 

mee 
Thee ayk-koA a^- 

hkaAns-deh-hma h 

hta^S-lik 
A'l-hka^^nS nahmhaht 

hnh leh [leh 

Ka^-doA-gaA beh-lowk. 
Pyee-myoA-gaA Ba^- 

maw-myoA yowk- 

owng beh-hna^ yet 

lowk shee-mee-leh 
Chin kik-taAt thaA- 

laAs 



158 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



They do not bite 
in the cold sea- 
son — only in the 
rains 

Have they mos- 
quito curtains on 
board, or should 
I buy them ? 

They had better 
be bought in 
Rangoon as they 
will be useful 
after leaving* the 
boat 

What do you call 
that pagoda on 
the other side of 
the river ? 

Where is the 
Shway Da^goAn 
Pagoda ? 

Can you buy me 
a good pony 1 



Do they shoe the 



ponies i 



oogoSd^dqSgoodS 

^OD ODD 8 II O^ 
Q OC^ 5 O ' j5 o| 5 
GX)d6oO^ JCDS 

8soogq5oooso6§(§s 
^4ID?^D33a^8cq]D 

o^8oo5s|5qood58 
QpS 



g8 J^OOS^D^OO^ 

GOTODCQ 
G ^3 (| O^op 5 CO o5 

O^j|5§g88G00D83 

oogoodSo^ OC^ 

|Colo^,COD 

g 8§4|D8C§OD§D 
OOo5cOCX)D8 



Sowngs oodoo-hnik 
mkh kik-hpoos; moAs 
oodoo-hnik th^ch kik- 
ta/it-thee 

Thimobaw-hma/^ chin- 
downg shee-/Aa/i-laAs; 
thqh-mhh-hohk, weh- 
ya/iu kowngs-mee-la/iS 

Mees - thim sbaw - gaA 
sins-bj^ees-hmii A 
myaAs-zooaA aA- 
th6Ans-kyaA-?!Aee- 
hnin YaAngoAn- 
myoA-dwin weh- 
ya^n kowngs-mee 

Myit ho/i-bet-hmilA 
shee-/Aee hpa/i-yaAs- 
goA beh-hneh hkaw- 
thiih-leh 

Shway-DaAgo/m hpaA- 
yhhl heh-hnvdh, leh 

KyoonoAk-hpoA myinS- 
gowngs tili^-gowng- 
goA weh-hning-baA- 
mee-laAs 

Myins-m yaAs - goA 
thaAn-hkwaA taAt 
tha/i-laAs 



I 



159 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Saddle the pony 


g68c^a:^5^|^03&5 


Myins-goA koAns-hnees 




ol 


tin-geh-baA 


(I) wish to engage 


[3g3CXj^ COGOD800 


Bahmah loo-ga^- 


a Burmese ser- 


GCX)Do5c^C^l3^6 


lays ta^-yowk-koA 


vant 


OD^ 


hg-na^S-jin-Z/iee- 


What wages does 


CO o 00 o5 GCooaS 


La^-ga/i beh-lowk 


he ask? 


GOO08§OOO0 


townas-//iaA-leh 



No'JE — On arrival in the country a servant is required. 
It is usual to engage a native of India who speaks EngHsh. 



The Railway. §?g|oooScoS3h 

(For Vocabulary, see p. 6i.) 
English. Burmese. Pronunciation. 



To the station 

Here is my lug- 
gage 

I wish to register 
my luggage 
for — 

The luggage is 
over weight 

Get my luggage 

Here is the ticket 



8i^[0O0o^C^ 

C^^_5o5o03^X'^ 

(jO^^Oog 
02J^5o?COD^C§ 

o533^5§00^ 
OgJ^So^C^Oj^GOSol 

COoS^oSoO^^D^ 
00 pS 



Mee s -yaAhta/iS - yoAn- 

goh 
KyoonoAk woonzaAleh 

dee-huiah shee-Mee 
KyoonoAk woonzaA- 

leh-goA ^ree-jit-tsa/^- 

ree loAk-chin-^/^ee 
Woon a^-chayn poA- 

thee 
KyoonoAk woon-goA 

yoo-pnyS-baA 
Let-hmaAt dee-hmaA 

shee-Mee 



* In foreign words it is often necessary to use Q rah as r and not y. 



160 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


How many pack- 


330C^5o3o53>a^5cX) 


A^-htoAk beh-hnaA- 


ages are there ? 




1 htoAk, leh 


Where is the wait- 


godSoSsodc^^dco 


Tsowng-ga^ns beh- 


ing-room ? 




hmaA, leh 


Where is the Oook- 


COoS^oS 6^00 c^ 


Let-hma^^-hkaAn- 


ing office ? 


ODCX) 


yoAn beh-hma^^ leh 


Where is the re- 


oD§o8sooo5^Dc6 


TsaA-bweh-gaAns beh- 


freshment room ? 




hmaA, leh 


W^here is the lava- 


Q^OcS GOO8 CO o5 


Nowk-hpays^ beh- 


tory ? 


^OCQ 


hnmh, leh 


Where is the train 


C^CgD8GODDG| 


— goh thwahz-lli'dw- 


for — ? 


00 D 8 OD o5 ^ D ^ 


ya^htaAs beh-hmaA 




ODCO 


shee-^/iaA-leh 


Are you going by 


33g§(^OOD2j>8ogD§ 


A/i - mya/i n - ydhhtdh 2 - 


the express ? 


Q^CODS 


hnin thwaAs-mee-laAs 


Show me a time- 


33^5Q)Oq|D8 0go5 


AA-chayn-za^-ya^8- 


table 


c^§ol 


gwet-koA pya^-ba/i 


WMien does the 


C|OOD8COC^ gooo 


Ya^htaAs ^behdaw 


train start ? 


C^oSoDC^ 


ht\Aet-thaA-leh 


Can Ibookthrongh 


0^ G CXD D o5 


— goh dowk-showk- 


to ? 


G^DOSCOOS^OS 


let-hmaAt hka/m- 




6|8oDCOD8 


ning-MaA-laAs 



' Here is an example of the noun spoken of being used as its own 
numeral auxiliary instead of one of those given on pp. 79, 80. 

^ The verb 8 shee is often omitted. 

^ G^Do5gO08 nowk-hpayS really means the back precincts of a house, 
i. e. rear. 

* ODC^GODO beh-daw is a contracted form of 00oSg00D33o] beh 
f/iaw-a/i-hka/i. 



161 



English. 



Burmese. 



Pronunciation. 



A first- (second-) 
class single ticket 
to — 

Return ticket 

How much is it ? 
We want a sleep- 
ing carriage 

A non - smoking 
compartment 

Is this the train 
for — ? 

Do I change any- 
where ? 

Where must I 
change for — ? 



[s this seat en- 
gaged ? 
rhere is no room 
'^oXl the guard 

rhe train is just 
going to start 

BURMESE S.-T. 



— c^ogQ (qc8oD) 

Oo58 33C^DSCOo5 

^o6oogod8cods 

OOC^GCODoSoo 

3S5Gj§G|OOD:OgJ^5 

gooScSSqgoodoS 

6|GOODGjOOD8 

00^G|00D8 C^ 

OgD8C) 5 ^ood8 
COD8 
CCG^GpGp^DqoODS 

g|2368^o^cod8 
^dg^oodsg(5d68G| 

COD8 

G^GpQ^OtjjS 

ooSo^c^GoTol 



go^ paA-htaAmaA 

(dooteeyaA) daAns 

aA-thwaAs-let-hma^t 

taA-zowng, la^s 
AA - thwaht-sbh - py a^n- 

let-hmaAt 
Beh-lowk^ leh 
Ayk-yaAn-yaAhta^S 

ky oono^k - do A lo A - 

Mee 
Says-layk maA thowk- 

yaA-/Aaw-yaAhtaA: 
2%ee yaAhtaAs — goA 

thwaAs-yaAn yaA- 

htaAs, laAs 
TaA-nay-yaA-yaA- 

hmaA yaAhtaAs 

pyowng-yaA-mee-laAs 
— goA thwaAs-yaAn 

beh-hmaA yaAhtaAs 

p y o wng s-yaA-mee- 

leh 
TAee hting-yaA loo 

yoo-b\ ee-laA; [boos 
Nay-yaA maA shee- 
GaAt-boA-goA hkaw- 

baA 
YaAhtaAs yaA-hkoo- 

beh htwet-mee 

L 



162 



English. 


Burmese. 


Pronunciation. 


Open the door 


oools^Sol 


TaA-ga^S hpwin-baA 


Open the window 


gooSs^Sol 


PaA-dins hpwin-baA 


Here is the station 


88G[OOD^CO^^D^ 


Mee-yaAhta^S-yoAn 




OD^ 


dee-hmaA shee-/Aee 


Do we stop here ? 


OD^Q^D€|500COD8 


Dee-hmaA ya^t-thaA- 
laAs 


Do we alight here? 


00^^D005§G[Q^ 


Dee-hmaA sinS-yaA- 




CODS 


mee-laAs 


D we chanq-ecar- 


od^<^o^codIgQoB'o 


Dee-hmaA vaAhtaAs 


riages here ? 


GjO^CODS 


pyowngs-yaA-mee- 
lay^S 


How long do we 


co§^9Dooc£gcodo5 


Dee-hmaA beh-lowk- 


stop here ? 


(§DG|80Dcd 


kyaA ya/it-thaA-leh 


Five minutes 


cl88^8 


GnaAs meenit 


My higgage is lost 


0gj^50?GC^Do5 


Kj^oonoAk woon 




OgDSOD^ 


pyowk-thwaAs-Mee 


When it arrives 


G Gp o5 G 00 D 33 ol 


Yowk-thaw-aA-hkaA 


forward it on 
to — 
Give me your ticket 


o^§ol 


— goA poA-baA 


s)6gD8ooo5^o5 


HkenbyaAs iet-hmaAt 


[To superior] 


G080'] 


payS-baA 


[Do. to inferior] 


o5oodoS^o5go8 


Mins let-hmaAt pays 


Here it is [To su 


OO^^Dol 


Dee-hmaA baA 


perior] 






[Do. to inferior] 


OD^^D 


Dee-hmaA 



163 

Specimen of Burmese Handwriting. 



The LorcVs Prayer.* 



[Burmese is written from left to right, and the written characters are 
a copy of the printed ones, more or less close according to the skill and 
care of the writer. See p. 22.] 

* Tlie transliteration with the English words interlined is e;iven on the 
next page. 



V 



77^ 



164 
The Lord's Prayer, 



Transliteration of the Burmese words with the English translation. 

KowngS-gin-bo^n-hnik shee-daw-moo-/Aaw hh-kjoonohk-toh 
In Heaven which art our 

aA-hpa^i koAdaw-ee naAmaA-daw-a^s joh-thay-layz-mjMt- 
Father, Thy name to hallowing 

chins shee-baA-zay-/^awii ning-ngaAn-daw tee-downg-ba^-zay- 
be ; Kingdom come (lit. may be es- 

thsiww sih-\oh<\siW-thee kowngS-gins-boAn-hnik pyee-zoAn-thaA- 
tablished) (and) will in Heaven is fulfilled 

geh-thoh myay-gyeeS-baw-hmaA pyee-zoAn-ba^-zay-/Aawii 
as on earth may be fulfilled ; 

aA-thet-mways-lowk-/Aaw a^-saA-go^ aA-kyoonoAk-to^-aAs 
life nourish sufficient food to us 

ya^nay pays - thaAna^S - daw- moo- baAii Thoo-taAbaAs-/Aee 
this day give ; (by) others 

aA-kyoono/ik-toA-goA pyit-hma^s-^Aaw aA-hpyit-myaAs-goA 
against us committed trespasses 

aA-ky oonoAk-to A hpy ay-hl6ot-tha A-ge h-thoh aA-ky 56 n o A k -to A-ee 
we forgive as our 

aA-pyit-myaAs-goA hpyay-hloot-taw-moo-baAii aA-pyit-thways- 
trespasses forgive : into tempta- 

zowng-y ah-thoh maA lik maA paA-zay-beh maA-kowngS- 
tion without leading from evil 

/Aaw-aA-Amoo-aA^-yaA-hmaA keh-hnoAk-taw-moo-baAu aA- 
things deliver (us). 

kyowngS-moo-gaAs ning-ngaAn-daw-hnin hpoAns-taAgoAs 
For (these reasons) ; kingdom and glory 

^aAn66baw-daw-/Aee aA-tsin-aA-myeh koA-daw-hnik shee-daw- 
(and) power for ever and ever to thee are. 

moo-ee-thaAdees^B aAminii 
Amen. 

* A^noobaw is a Burmanisecl Pali word. 

2 ThafedeeS is a very strong assertive affix which implies 'for certain *. 



165 



Money, o^lsu 

The present coinage of Burma is the same as that used throughout 
British India. 

The Monetary Unit is the Rupee, which, at the time of going to press 
(July 1936), is stabilised at Is. 6d. 

Notes are issued by the Government of India for 5, 10, 20. 50, 100, 500 
and 1,000 Rupees. 

A Lak or Lakh equals 100,000 Rupees. 



Silver Coins Nickel Coins 


Bronze Coins 


Rupee 8 Annas 


^ Anna 


8 Annas 2 


I » 


4 „ 1 Anna 




2 „ 




An Anna is ^th part of a Rupee. 




i Anna=6 pies. I Anna=-3 pies 




A Pie is ^th part of an Anna or xf^nd part 


of a Rupee. 



166 



Weights. 33Gco3ii 

The weights start with the ^Scg^o chin-yooayS, still used by silver- 
smiths. It is a small red seed of which there are two kinds, ^Scf^l? 
chin-yoonyS, Alms precaior his, GQlj^B yooayS-jeeS, Adinanthera ixa-onina. 

2 ^8gQo ehin-youiiyS = i Gg|5^§ youa\-jeuS. 

3 Gg|3g8 yooay-jeeS - i O peh pea). 
a O peh = I ^° nir.oS. 

a q8 mooS = i QOO ma//t. 

4 OoS ma;it = I Oqj8 kya7it. 

5 C7^5 kya/it = i ^cS hoh. 

2o 8c£ bo/i = 1 8d30D payktha;^, of 

G30oS a/i-hkwet. 



The payktha^ viss or hkwet is S^^^nr ^^' avoirdupois, or about 3 lb. 2 oz. 
The term 000 hkwet is substituted for 8 0003 payktha^i in connection 
th any capital number above ten j as, 33Qo5j>8oOo5a^-hkwet-hna;» 



wi 

sell, 20 viss. 

In abbreviated writing 

One peh is b. 

One mooS is r>. 



One ma/it is 5. 
One kya/it is 8. 



167 



Measures of Length. 

The best to start from is the 330o8 a/i-thit or fitiger's-bre.idth. 

c1dOo5 gnlihl-thii (5 thit) = 00(^ oSta/i-mo/ik (fist with thuml 

shut down). 
j|8 Od8 shit-thit (8 thit) = Od8 o5 ta/i-mik (fist with thumt 

stuck out). 
0Oo5j)SooS seh-hna/i-^/iit (12 thit) = OOOgD taWitwa^i ,span). 
§>5oOD hna.h-Yiivfa.h ; 2 htwa/i) = OOGOOdS ta^i-downg (cubit) 

GCO8G00d6 layS-downg (4 cubits) = ODCO ta/i-la^n (fathom). 
O&6g00DC hkoo-hna/i-downg (7 

cubits, sometimes 8 cubits) = OOOQD iAh-i'^h. 

OODOOGCDdS taAta^-htowng (1000) = OOo86taA-ding. 
The c86 ling is very nearly two English miles. 
Now the English measures are generally used and understood. 

Measures of Capacity. 

O OCOoS I tsa/j-leh - (i pint). 

9 OCOcS 4 tsa/i-leh = O (^^S i pyd6 (half-gallon). 

J (q^ 3 pyee = O OgjoS i tsM-ydot (i gallon). 

J OQoS 2 tsa/i-yo6t = o OoS i tsayt (2 gallons). 

J 8o5 3 tsayt = O Q I hkweh (half-bushel). 

1^2 hkweh = O 0060 1 tinS (2 bushel baskets\ 



168 
Square Measure. 

The English acre (GoO ayka/i) is now the standard, but the Burmese 
had what they called a cIoOOCokS gna/«S-dinS-jeh, or 'five basket sow', 
which was also called oo5 peh and equalled 1200 square cubits or 
1.75 acres. 

Measures of Time. 

English measures of time are prevalent, but the old unit was the ^Z>G\ 
naA-yee, which was probably the Pali ^Do na/idee, or, ,^08 naMlee, 
a measure of capacity used like an hour-glass or water-clock. These 
vessels varied in shape, but the Burmese counted 60 to the 24 hours. 

Formerly day and night were divided into four periods each, distin- 
guished by beat of drum. The single beat, 00S)| oSooS ta/i-jet-teeS, was at 
9 o'clock in the morning; the double beat, &Bo|o5o88 hna^-jet-teeS, at 
la noon ; the o5o^oSo88 thS/inS-jet-teeS at 3 p. m. ; and CCOS^oSc^c 
layS-jet-tee? at 6 p.m. 

Amongst the country people time was calculated in various ways, such as 
'first cockcrow \ ^oS^SOgJ kyet-ooS-do6n, about 2 a.m. (^C^|goT 
kyeh-nee-baw, when the red star rises {vaornmg)', 33DQCt5oOo5 a^iyo/in-det, 
dawn; CXj^G oSsS 5 08 o5 thM-gneh-ayk-sayt, cMrfrm's berf^me; COc§CO^ 
S% loo-byo^-hleh-jayn, young man's courting time. SSDQCoS or more 
correctly 33^CoS is the Pali GS^GODD Aruno, Aurora the dawn. 

The expression OOoSSs^oOOCOBOjoS hta/iminS-d/iS-ta/i-lo/inS-jet, the 
time it takes to boil a pot of rice, is often used to denote a short time, and 
there are many others too numerous to mention. 



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