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Full text of "The Business Educator"

Volume XXXIII 



SEPTEMBER, 1927 



dumber I 



c The 

BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

PENMANSHIP ENGROSSING 
BUSINESS EDUCATION 




ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



L U Dt' iS t ed 19?! 0n it 1 ty,r^ P t t J ff"' y a " d „ August at 612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered as second-class matter 
£>ept. 6, 1923, at the post office at Columbus. O.. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Subscription $1.25 a year. 



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Twofold Design. In the preparation of the Metropolitan 
Business Speller we had constantly in mind two objects: 
first, to teach the pupil to spell, and second to enlarge his 
vocabulary, especially of words in general use. 

Classification of Words. As an aid to the memory we have 
classified words, as regards sounds, syllabication, accents and 
meaning. We have grouped the words relating to each par- 
ticular kind of business into lessons, by which the student is 
enabled to familiarize himself with the vocabulary of that 
business. We have Interspersed miscellaneous exercises in the 
nature of reviews. We have grouped words that can best he 
learned by comparisons, such as Stationery and Stationary. 

Abbreviations of states, months, railways and commercial 
terms are given in regular lesson form, and grouped alpha- 
bet ically. We regard abbreviating of almost equal importance 
with spelling. 

Syllabication and pronunciation are shown by the proper 
division of words, and the use- of the diacritical marks. The 
words are printed in bold type, and the definitions in lighter 
face, so as to bring out the appearance of the word.— an aid 

in sight spelling. 



Metropolitan 
System of 
Bookkeeping 



New Edition 

By 

W. A. Sheaffer 



You Will Like It. The text emphasizes the thought 
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complete Teachers* Reference Books, and Teachers' Manual. 



Parts I and II text is an elementary course suitable for 
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THE 
Study of Pitman 

Shorthand 

The study of Pitman 
Shorthand provides material 
assistance in the mastery of 
English. Isaac Pitman, emi- 
nent student of the funda- 
mentals of English speech, 
invented shorthand princi- 
ples that were simple, scien- 
tific and precise, and based 
them upon the structure of 
the English language. 

As a result of this, Pit- 
man Shorthand, unlike 
other systems, is a direct aid 
in the elimination of incor- 
rect syllabication, poor pro- 
nunciation, and general mis- 
use of English. 

The practicability of Pit- 
man Shorthand for the ver- 
b a t i m reproduction o f 
spoken English has resulted 
in its being almost the sole 
means of recording the pro- 
ceeding of Congresses, Par- 
liments, Courts — wherever 
accurate recording of speech 
is necessary — throughout 
the English speaking world. 

Isaac Pitman & Sons 

2 West Forty-fifth St., New York City 



Volume 33 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, SEPTEMBER, 1927 



Number 1 



THE COVER PAGE 



The beautiful cover page was drawn 
by J. D. Hague, engrosser with the 
J. V. Herring Engrossing Studio, New 
York City. This is one of the best 
drawings we have seen from Mr. 
Hague. Mr. Hague is a comparatively 
young man and we may expect great 
things from him in the future. 

WRITE YOUR NAME CLEARLY 



"Graphologist" has an important 
sound; so much so that the public 
cannot be blamed for regarding any 
pronouncement from such a source 
with respect. When the word is re- 
duced to its simplest, handwriting ex- 
pert, some of the lustre may be lost. 
But the "thou shalts" and the "thou 
shalt nots" of authority in any field 
are worthy of examination and when 
a recognized graphologist rises to 
proclaim that no one should marry 
until the penmanship of the other 
party to the intended contract is ex- 
amined, dissected and pronounced 
satisfactory or otherwise, it is time 
to look more closely into the whole 
handwriting argument. 

At any rate, clearness, ease and 
force remain the cardinal virtues of 
all writing and of these clearness 
stands first in importance. Dot your 
i's and form your q's properly. Do 
this and the experts may read your 
character all they desire with small 
likelihood of finding anything to your 
disadvantage. 

Handwriting will never be a lost 
art no matter how greatly mechanical 
means of communication develop. 
The name must be written many 
times daily by every person active in 
life and for general convenience 
should be so clearly inscribed that 
possibility of error is reduced to a 
minimum. The typewriter will never 
come into use so general that pen- 
manship can be neglected in the 
schools, where the first impulse to 
good and indifferent handwriting is 
given. As character develops, the 
handwriting is said to grow and take 
on peculiarities which attach them- 
selves to the individual for life. This 



has been advanced so often that it 
is now accepted as demonstrated fact. 
But if the basic principle of clearness 
is kept steadily before each writer, 
if he determines that each letter he 
forms shall be legible to any reader, 
his duty to himself and to others nas 
been performed, experts or no ex- 
perts. 

The above recently appeared as an editorial 
in the Pittsburgh Post. We present it be- 
cause it gives the views of the editor of one 
of the large daily newspapers on some phases 
of handwriting, and because it shows, in our 
judgment, some very good sense. 

There is a tendency on the part of some 
persons to think that the typewriter and 
other machines will soon make handwriting 
unnecessary, and that it is. therefore, a sub- 
ject that is unimportant and should be given 
little or no attention in our schools. With" 
that thought the Post Editor does not agree. 
Neither do we. But even if it were pos- 
sible to have a typewriter and an adding ma- 
chine within reach at all times, where is the 
parent who would not desire his child to at 
least learn to write his own name and the 
names of others? And in learning to write 
names the pupil necessarily learns handwrit- 
ing. 

As a rule we learn to figure with a pencil 
before we use an adding machine, and to 
write with pencil and pen before making 
use of a typewriter. The machines relieve 
the drudgery when much work is to be done, 
but even if we could carry one of each with 
us in our pocket, not one of us would _ be 
willing to try to get along without learning 
how to use pen and pencil. 

If the time ever comes when we can flash 
our thoughts on paper or some other material 
without physical effort required to write with 
a pen or with a typewriter, then it may be 
time to think of discontinuing the study and 
practice of penmanship. Until that time 
comes, it is our duty to endeavor to improve 
our handwriting and the teaching of it along 
the lines of modern demand, so that it can 
be most easily learned, written and read. And 
to accomplish these results teachers still have 
before them a task that requires their great- 
est efforts. 

Regarding Graphologists, we believe that 
some of them are making themselves ridiculous 
by claiming to be able to tell too much from 
handwriting. That one reveals himself to 
some extent in his handwriting, or in almost 
everything else he does, is undoubtedly true ; 
but to claim that handwriting reveals almost 
everything regarding the writer is far from 
being the truth. On this subject we may 
have more to say at another time. 

We trust that more newspaper editors will 
express themselves on handwriting subjects, 
for much is appearing in their papers today 
prepared by Graphologists that undoubtedly 
has a tendency to do the cause of good, serv- 
iceable handwriting no credit. 




MRS £L/ZA A/A/^ae ZAV&Z. 



It is with deep regret that we record 
the death on August 9, 1927, of Mrs. 
Eliza Ainslie Zaner, 71 South Ohio 
Ave., widow of the late C. P. Zaner, 
who was one of the founders and for- 
mer editors of The Business Educator. 

The cause of her death was pneu- 
monia, but injuries sustained in an 
automobile accident nine years ago 
and grief over the loss of her husband 
and sister, who were killed in that ac- 
cident, were contributory factors. 

Born in Liverpool, England, Mrs. 
Zaner came to Columbus when she 
was a child. She was a devoted wife 
and a great help and inspiration to 
Mr. Zaner. 

Just before her last severe illness 
Mrs. Zaner expressed a desire that her 
pains and burdens might be ended so 
that she might be privileged to catch 
the broken thread again and join the 
spirit of her departed husband. Her 
prayer was answered and Mrs. Zaner's 
remains were laid beside those of her 
beloved husband in Green Lawn Ceme- 
tery, Columbus, Ohio. 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 
By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., 
612 N. Park St., Columbus. O. 

K. W. Bloser Editor 

E. A. LUPFER ----- Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.26 A YEAR 

(To Canada, 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teachers 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copj 
must reach our office by the 10th of the month 
for the issue of the following month. 



&/i4?&a<i/neM/&d£u&&r & 



Showy Business Writing 

in Ten Acts and Fifty Scenes 

Written, Produced and Directed by C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, LI. B., Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Syracuse, New York, Public Schools. 



ACT VI 

SCENE I 

No. 1. By mastering: the o joinings in this scene, the v and \v combinations may be eliminated. Hook the o over at the top 
as if making; a c closing with a short right curve. By doing so a pear-shaped letter will be avoided. The alter- 
nating turn and point make a beautiful combination exercise. Do not offend the eye by pointing o's or looping i's. 
Count 1-2-3-1-2-3-1 to complete the group. 

No. 2. Bear in mind that the s is a trifle higher than the o. After all vowels the s is closed at the bottom except when 
preceded by an o. Count 1-2-3-4 for each o s combination. 

No. 3. Count four for each combination. If your pen-scope is not long enough to pass over the six letters, reduce the 
number to four in a group. The hand should not be lifted before completing a group. 

No. 4. There is as much rotundity in the top of the first turn of the n as there is in the second turn when the n is pre- 
ceded by the o. Angularity at the top must be eliminated to bring about a perfect exercise. Count four for each 
combination. 

No. 5. The connecting stroke is horizontal until the crossing point is reached in making the loop. Have the slant of 
both letters the same. Count 1-2-3. 

No. 6. Close the p on the line, joining it to the o with a compound curve. Count four for the combination. 

The sentence for practice containing all the combinations in this scene is: Philosophers point out monstrosities. 




^^A^^^^ 



6 /z^<^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^7^^^^y 

SCENE II 

No. 1. As all connecting strokes are the same length in the o v group you can easily judge your ability to space. Count 

four for the combination. In making the o r combination keep the point of r higher than the top of the o. 
No. 2. As w width letter write five letters to a group. Keep all terminal strokes horizontal. Count 1-2-3-4-5 

a complete group. 
No. .'',. No! ii o and the a part of the <1 are at different slants. Keep loops out of d. Count four for each com- 

binal ion. 
No. 4. If you made No. 5 in the preceding scene well this o b combination will be easily written. Watch spacing and 

slant in this exercise. Count 1 2-3-4-1-2-3-4-1-2-3. 
No. !>. 'I ii. ii o d fl cul i nation involving the ois the o f. Cross the loop as high as the i and close lower 

loop on the line. Count four for the first two combinations and five for the last one in each group. 
Review the combinations by writing: Moreover, women object to offering odds. 




4 /o-v-v-iy^r?-^ /tHs-trts-z?-' / ^7-iy-77~£^&- y /^^-i^cM^px^?--^ 



"tW 




<W¥ 




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SCENE III 

No. 1. After making a line of these groups, hide the lower loops with a blotter and see if you have five good l's to a 
group. 

No. 2. The longest compound curve in writing is from the bottom of a lower loop to the top of an upper loop. There- 
fore, practice the g h combination until you can make several lines without making points on the loops. Count 
four for each combination. 

No. 3. Make the turn part of the h as high as the crossing of the loop, keeping down strokes in all the letters uniform 
in slant. 

No. 4. After writing a line invert your paper so as to readily detect defects, as the h is the y inverted. 
Review all combinations in this scene by writing: The flight of the hypocrite was a glaring fraud. 



SCENE IV 



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^is^M^y 



No. 1. After the last scene this one should prove a pleasure. All the vowels have been repeated in the previous scenes 

so often your attention can now be given chiefly to the b. Care should be taken to curve the upstroke slightly. 

An excess of curvature causes too much width in the loop. Count 1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4-1-2-3 for a group. 
No. 2. Place the top of o exactly half way between the loops. Count 1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4-1-2-3. 
No. 3. After making a group of this exercise draw a straight line from the dot of the i to the point of the i. If this 

produces a body of a perfect t the dotting is correctly done. Only those poor in spelling dot a loop, so strive for 

sharpness in i's. Count 1-2-3 three times, dot, dot, dot. 
No. 4. This is probably the most common combination in this scene. Count four for each combination and three for the 

extra b. 
No. 5. Practice until you can make all loops the same width. 

The sentence for practice in this scene is: The barber imbibed bubbles from a bottle. 




SCENE V 

No. 1. If the initial stroke in the p is straightened the letter will have an ungraceful appearance, therefore, start the 
first group with a direct oval for ten counts and give three counts to each letter except the last, which has an 
extra count for the finish. 




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4 -^L^-fc^zy ^i^^h^c^ ^^^+^-^i^h^^ 



>/f^' 



'-/^^/^ '/ L y^^A^ 



10 



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No. 2. Close each letter on the third count. No loops at the top. Count three for each letter. 

No. 3. The dot of the i is as high as the top of the p. A fine combination on which to practice spacing. Count three for 

the p and two for the i. 
No. 4. The p is the odd letter in length of the alphabet. Therefore, give it much attention. Count three for the p and 

two for the u. 
No. 5. See that the loops of the e's are left open. Count the same as No. 3 above. 
No. 6. The second part of the p is as high as the o. Count three for the p and two for the o. 
Review combinations by writing: The pup peeped at the popper and pippin. 

(CURTAIN) 



Lessons in Business Penmanship 

Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. This course will be conducted 
from the office of The Business Educator. 

The copies for this course were written by E. A. Lupfer. 



LESSON 128 



(3*(9&£^^ 




Now we have reached signature writing. This is the 
kind of work that most pupils would rather practice at 
the beginning than the simpler forms; but unless they 
have mastered the simpler work previously presented, it 



would not be worth while to attempt to master signa- 
tures. Follow the signature through with a dry pen while 
getting the mental picture. The middle letter is so named 
on account cf the position it occupies in the signature. 



LESSON 129 





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The spaces between the capitals should appear the same 
in width. A firm, strong, continuous movement is necessary 
to join the three capitals, but after control and confidence 
are secured it is not much more difficult to join them than 
it is to make them separately. 



Good writing is the result of a combination of clear 
thinking and careful practice. Are you thinking clearly ? 
Are you practicing carefully? Join the capitals with the 
same ease and freedom that you use in making them 
separately. 



9MiB^ 



LESSON 130 





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Accurate writing is too slow for business purposes. 
Free, forceful arm-movement writing is attractive on ac- 
count of its speed and graceful lines. The production of 
good writing on paper is a matter of getting a clear men- 



tal picture of the copy, followed by the proper practice of 
the copy. Try joining the first two. then the last 
two, and finally all three. Try to make the signatures 
look businesslike in strength and boldness. 



LESSON 131 




If you find it difficult to join the capitals as here given, 
practice them for a time by uniting three of the same let- 
ter. Start with three A's, and go through the alphabet. 



<^5^W^ 




This will help you to acquire the free-swinging move- 
ment necessary to produce strong signatures. 



^ > S/u >X>itj/siUJ Ct//ua/</^ 



11 



LESSON 132 



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Depend on the arm-movement swing to carry you 
through the signatures. Some teachers advocate a slight 
action of the fingers in making some of the loop letters 
but this is not absolutely necessary, neitheT is it objec- 
tionable. 

Review exercises occasionally. Keep the capitals com- 



pact to avoid a sprawling, scribbled appearance. Make 
them businesslike rather than fancy. 

Spacing between letters should be uniform, and the 
capitals should be the same in height. Be careful about 
punctuation marks; they count for so much in business 
life. 



LESSON 133 






Be careful about the use of pens, ink and paper. A 
workman is known by the condition of his tools. Care in 
one thing presupposes care in other things. He who 



would write well must practice systematically, carefully, 
perseveringly and optimistically. 



79 



LESSON 134 




02W^^ "Tf/lM^^ 



If you have mastered the signatures in this book, you 
have laid the foundation for a good signature of your own. 
A good signature should be perfectly legible; it should 
be neat; and it should be attractive on account of the 



ease and force with which it was written. The mastering 
of a good signature is worth while because it is written 
so many times during one's life and, like the face, it be- 
comes an important matter in transactions. This is due 



LESSON 135 







to the individuality shown in handwriting, and more of it 
is shown in a signature than in almost anything else. 
Evolve a signature of your own, combining legibility and 
utility. The stranger must depend upon the legibility of 
the signature and since there is no rule for the spelling 



of proper names, each letter should be unmistakably plain. 
The banker depends upon the individuality of the signa- 
ture. Your signature should, therefore, be personal and 
characteristic. 



80 



APPLIED BUSINESS WRITING 

The following pages of applied work present numerous commercial papers, including envelope superscriptions, salu- 
tations, complimentary close, receipt, check, commercial abbreviations, promissory note, draft, trade acceptance, indorse- 
ments, journal and ledger pages, cash receipts, cash payments, balance sheet and a business letter. Students will find this 
material just what they need for advanced penmanship practice. Master the work on each page as thoroughly as you 
mastered that on each preceding page. 



Watch for the New course of Lessons in the next issue 



12 



f^Z/u ^tjBudateM (Zt/uta/tr* *§* 




81 
ENVELOPE SUPERSCRIPTION, SALUTATION, AND COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE 



/^h^^zJ^y 




c/St^c^u/^ZA^y/T^rT^^ oCe^^^d-^)^^ 



82 
ENVELOPE SUPERSCRIPTION AND COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE 








83 



f^M^&ud/n&LA'iaduta&r' & 



13 



RECEIPT 




^^Jf^-i^zt^?^/ (-*>J^<z=2-<-^c*^^^*^--*zi^7^s 



CHECK AND BUSINESS ABBREVIATIONS 



^z/^-fh 



/^ci^<^c^-^t^^^cy /t=r-zz^rLsf£y 



r-^r/f- 







85 



Miss Katherine Kapp, Supervisor of Pen- 
manship in the Muskegon, Michigan, public 
schools, held a very interesting and attractive 
penmanship exhibit in the Hackley Art Gal- 
lery. 

Much of the work was done on colored 
paper and embellished with cut>outs. This part 
of the work was done in cooperation with the 
art teachers. 

Surely every Supervisor of Writing can 
profitably hold penmanship exhibits of this 
nature. It helps to arouse interest on this sub- 
ject among the students, parents and other 
teachers. 



L. S. Dismuke, Supervis 
awing in both the Centr 
ie Grammar Schools, Mo 



ltr 



Ca., 



curing excellent resul 
A newspaper clippins 
escribing an exhibit r< 
ismuke. The exhibit . 
ie pupils in both per 
lg and created consic 
lany favorable commei 

We had the pleasure 
tuke in the 1926 Zanei 
he is a very talented, 



in both subjects, 
as been received 
ntly held by Mrs. 
tained work from 
inship and draw- 
able interest and 
from the public, 
meeting Mrs. Dis- 
l Summer School, 
tic teacher. 



Mr. William F. Frischkorn of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, is a new commercial teach- 
er in the McCann School of Business, 
Reading, Pa. 



-ithu 



Miss Frances L. Helgesen, for sev- 
eral years a shorthand teacher in the 
Steward School, Washington, D. C, 
has recently accepted a similar posi- 
tion with Bryant-Stratton College, 



14 



>y/u>3tiuj//iijjCt6u«6r & 




/£-/ ( /yr>-usLf^<z^zs Lstt'&ZZ' 



^U^ 



e^-cCc . 



W — ^ ■■ *■ - - f/.. ,...,. .^ 







Thi 



excellent business writing was written by Margaret Varga. 
Benbow is the supervisor of writing. This writing i 



i student in the Jr. High School of Trenton. N. J. Mi 
good in movement, in form and reading quality 



Miss Leona Schimel, for the last 
few years a commercial teacher in the 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin, High School, 
has recently been elected to teach in 
the High School at North Tonawanda, 
N. Y., for the coming year. 

Mr. Milton B. Styer, last year com- 
mercial teacher in the Meriden, Conn., 
FF'-'i Sc 1 ool i < new teacher in the 



Miss Aletha Parks, recently with 
the Washington Senior High School, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, will teach com- 
mercial work the coming year in the 
Port Jervis, N. Y., High School. 



Mr. Stanley Boomer, for several 
years with the High School at Detroit, 
Minn., is a new commercial teacher in 

■ i " i '. : t . j.. h"; !i school. 



Mr. Earl Sharpe of New York City 
has recently been appointed Assistant 
Professor of Business Administration 
in Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. 



Mrs. Eva Larson Connelly is a new 
(shorthand teacher in the Mankato 
Coi tmerclal College, Mankato, Minn. 



^ M^&u<ti?uM&&u*i&r & 



15 







The above specimen was written by Dolores Depree, a student in the Latrobe, Pa., High School. This girl won second pla 
in penmanship in the Westmoreland County Commercial Contest. TKe penmanship teacher of this school is Miss Lau 

Shallenberger 



PRIZE WINNING SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 
Supervisor's Contest — Philadelphia — April 27th, 28th, 29th, 1927 

Contest No. 1— SIXTH GRADE GIRLS— Specimen written by Ruth Wilhelm, St. Paul, Minnesota. First Prize. 





^_^^^£AJ, 



C^-7^!^^^-^^^i^>^^i 



^>^<2^^ <: ^e^^^>^Z^^. 



Contest No. 1— SIXTH GRADE BOYS— Specimen written by Wong Sim, Walla Walla, Washington. First Prize. 




Miss Christine Evans, a recent 
graduate of Bay Path Institute, 
Springfield, Mass., is a new teacher in 
the Brooklyn, N. Y., Secretarial 
School. 



An Ptt^ctive well printed catalog has beer 
received from Draughon's Business and Com 
me.cial Teachers Institute of Atlanta. Ceor-'- 
The catalog is b?autifully illustrated will 
photographs. Mr. H. R. Todd is President am 
Clark E. Harrison is Vice-President of thi: 
wide-awake institution. 



Mrs. E. J. McClellan has recently 
been elected to teach in the Depart- 
ment of Secretarial Science of Syra- 
cuse University. 



16 



^ <5^&u4MteM&6uxz£r & 



Supplementary Business Writing 

By C. C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teacher*, New York City 







(st^l^Z^ZZ^/^ 







'-^tLe/c 



NEWS NOTES 

Mr. H. Chandler Hunt, recently with 
the Rochester, N. H., High School, will 
teach commercial work the coming 
year in the High School at Walling- 
ford, Conn. 



Miss Katherine M. Mason, a mem- 
ber of the 1927 graduating class of 
the Plattsburg, N. Y., State Normal 
School, has accepted a position to 
teach in the Ilion, N. Y., High School. 

Miss Marea Todd of Cobleskill, N. 
Y., will be a new commercial teacher 
in the Manhasset, Long Island, High 
School, the coming year. 



Mr. Jeffrey J. Bowe of Worcester, 
Mass., is a new commercial teacher in 
the Merrill Business College, Stam- 
ford, Conn. 



Miss Pauline M. Hartshorn, last 
year with Kent's Hill, Maine, Sem- 
inary, is to be a new teacher of type- 
writing in the Bn'scoe School, Beverly, 
Mass. 



The many friends and acquaintances of H. 
A. Rencau, 2292 Myrtle Ave., Long Beach. 
Calif., will be pleased to learn that his daugh- 
ter. Miss Zanera. named after the founder of 
the Zanerian College, and a recent graduate of 
the Polytechnic High School, won in a schol- 
arship contest conducted by the Otis Art Insti- 
tute of Los Angeles. Her drawings and other 
art work which she submitted entitle her to 
attend the Otis Art Institute during the year 
1927-1928. The contest was open to all of the 
high schools of California, so that the award 
means that the young lady has unusual ability 
in that line of work. 

Another of Mr. Reneau's daughters gradu- 
ated from the Bible Institute of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Reneau. outside of his regular work, en- 
grossed more than six hundred diplomas and 
forty-one athletic certificates which add con- 
siderably to bin Income. The fact that such 
work can be done in connection with bi 
work means that persons who are qualified in 
[i - can often greatly ineri 98 
lings during the year 



Mr. Ret 




a little boy, I.elanr 


David by name, 


»ho thr. 


c months a 


nil ••■ < i the n. 


neau hoi 


ehold. Mi. Reneaa' 


blessing . 


ny and v 


*e offer our congrntu 


lations. 







Miss Ruth Stacey, last year com- 
mercial teacher in the High School at 
Falmouth, Mass., is to be with the 
Commercial High School, Providence, 
R. I., the coming year. 

Mr. S. Blake Dean is a recent addi- 
tion to the commercial department of 
the School of Commercial Sciences, 
Woonsocket, R. I. 



Mr. A. E. Caskey, last year with the 
Troy, N. Y., Business College, will re- 
turn to his former position as com- 
mercial teacher in the Wood School, 
5th Avenue and 125th Street, New 
York City. 



Miss Mary Belig is a new commer- 
cial teacher in the Bloomsburg, Pa., 
High School. 



Mr. Clarence Bol/.e, for the last few 
years commercial teacher in the 
Eureka, Kansas, High School, will 
teach the coming year in the High 
School at Kansas City, Kansas. 



&#&u4//t^&&u&&r & 



17 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 



The disposition to be in rebellion 
against all forms of law is extending 
itself to language. Certain university 
professors who yearn 
Language to be considered "ad- 

Lawlessness vanced," and a few 
"litterary" (note the 
two t's) magazines, agitated by the 
same sacred ambition, have been re- 
cently voicing their general independ- 
ence of, and contumely for the ruLes 
of grammar. They announce with 
confidence that it is perfectly all right 
and commendable for us to say "It is 
me", "He don't", "I ain't", and so on. 
These "liberated" ones demand to be 
told WHY "He doesn't" is any better 
than "He don't" or why they should 
not flout the dictum of the grammati- 
cal oppressor who insists that nomi- 
native pronouns should be used in the 
attribute. DoubtLess, it would be hard 
to make them under- 
stand, just as it would 
he hard to make Bill 
Bunker of Podunk see 
why he should not eat 
pie with his knife or 
wipe his nose on his 
napkin. Civilized man 
has adopted a goodly 
number of regulations, 
social or linguistic, for 
which there is no "why" sufficient or 
convincing to the understanding of 
those lofty souls who take joy in 
scoffing at conventions. By all means 
let them go on saying "It's me", "He 
ain't", and so on, if it adds to their 
happiness. They may also say, 
"Hadn't ort", "He's done et 'is grub", 
"I seen 'im when he done it", and 
similar barbarisms, ad libitum, if the 
practice gives delight to their liberty- 
loving souls. The offense is not jail- 
able. But let no anarchistically in- 
clined young person imagine that he 
can follow the lead of these malcon- 
tents, without being taken either for 
a boor or a nincompoop. People of 
sense and cultivation are likely to go 
on using English in accordance with 
its best usage, and as it has come 
down to us from its masters. The 
English language, in the future as in 
the past, will continue to grow whole- 
somely, and to adapt itself to newer 
needs and conveniences, but not until 
the English speaking peoples have de- 
generated into Yahoos, will our 
speech become the plaything of silly 
and irresponsible faddists. 




One of the greatest of the ancient 
philosophers plumbed the educational 
depths to the bottom, when he said: 

"Man! KNOW THY- 
MasterYour SELF!" He might 
Environment have added a hardly 

less important slogan: 



Man! KNOW THE THINGS THAT 
ARE ABOUT YOU! The traditional 
idea in education has been that of 
knowledge absorption, and, though the 
inadequacy of this idea has been 
pointed out by most modern pedagog- 
ists, it still persists all too promi- 
nently in most courses of study. Mere 
knowledge has value only as the 
things learned CAN BE USED. It 
follows that the course of study fol- 
lowed in the schoolroom should be 
adapted, as far as possible, to the en- 
vironment of the learner. For the 
learner who is to make his living 
among the shops, offices and factor- 
ies of a city, school work should have 
a very different content and direction 
from what it has for the youth of a 
sea-faring community or for those 
who are to draw their living from the 
soil. Yet those who are responsible 
for our state-wide "uniform" school 
curricula seem not to have learned 
this self-evident thing. 

There is in this principle, both an 
explanation and a justification for the 
modern commercial school. The pub- 
lic found out long before the educa- 
tors did, that efficient clerks, book- 
keepers, and stenographers, require 
special preparatory school training. 
And so it came about that for more 
than a generation the private com- 
mercial school had to fight its way to 
recognition in spite of the frank and 
often bitterly hostile opposition of 
those who had public education in 
charge. It has hardly been twenty 
years since I heard the head of the 
Department of Pedagogy of the Uni- 
versity at Ann Arbor declare roundly, 
in a public address, that there is "no 
such thing as commercial education." 
Fervently, he shouted, "What can 
there be that is educative in teaching 
people to keep books, or write short- 
hand?" 

Anything is educative that fits one 
for a definite environment. It is al- 
most true, that nothing is educative 
that does not do this. Culturally 
speaking, it does not so much matter 
WHAT we learn, so long as it is 
something we can USE, and which 
makes us THINK while learning it. 
You cannot train youth for even the 
material efficiencies of life, without at 
the same time broadening their minds 
and souls. There is both soul and 
mind culture in learning to do any 
kind of work WELL. 

There is a lesson in this principle 
for you thousands of young EDU- 
CATOR readers, who are beginning 
this new year of school work, in get- 
ting yourselves ready to win success 
in the business world. I would coun- 
sel you to "surround your job" educa- 
tionally speaking. It is not enough 



to become merely, a good penman, an 
accurate bookkeeper, or a clever and 
quick stenographer. These things 
will only settle you well among the 
rank and file, — make you but a good 
cog in the machine, — but give you 
no seat at the table where sit those 
who direct the business, and where 
salaries run into five figures. To land 
here, you must know all the why and 
wherefores of the governing business 
policy; know where and how the busi- 
ness touches the outside world at 
every point of contact. This means 
that when you land the job, your real 
studies have JUST BEGUN! 

It will be well for you to take this 
thought home with you and think it 
over. 



Was it some old classic enthusiast 
who said "See Athens and Die!"? 
Let me pass on an amended version 
of the invitation; "See 
A Land That California and— LIVE ! " 
Is "Different" I get so many letters 
from dear old friends 
in the East whom I first learned to 
know and like, when all of us had 
glossy locks and could skip up stairs 
two steps at a time, who mention that 
they have never yet seen California, 
but 0, how they would like to! Only 
the other day, one of them wound up 
his letter something like this: "How 
I wish the mills of the gods would 
let up long enough for me to go out 
there and see that wonderful country 
that you write about so temptingly!" 

Well, why doesn't he? Why not 
come on out, even if he has to chuck 
a temporary monkey wrench into the 
bearings of that same machinery? 
"Haven't time"; "can't afford it"; "no 
one to take my place", and so on, I 
suppose, — moss-grown and be-whis- 
kered excuses that for the past thou- 
sand years or so, have made people 
lose the best part of their sixty or 
seventy year allowance of life. 

Seriously, old pals, you ought not 
to let yourselves die before you see 
California, even if you are fairly sure 
of ultimately landing in Paradise. 
Something may go wrong, you 
know, besides, you will be likely to 
appreciate Paradise better, after a 
little foretaste in the way of a trip 
through California, and especially, 
through Northern California. Don't 
forget that! You haven't really seen 
California at all, till you have feasted 
your eyes on this glorious North- 
land, with its limitless forest green- 
ery, its teeming rivers, and its cool- 
ness and sylvan beauty of glade and 
glen. Down in the Southland, you 
can see what man has done to the 
desert, — and they are wonderful 
things he has done, — but up here, 
you will see what God has done with 
the mountains. 

No wonder I am writing this way. I 
am just back from a two-weeks, wan- 
dering, by auto stage through the three 

(Continued on Page 27) 



18 



jf >j//urjtiuj//itj^ C ~<6m</cr & 



Opportunities 



By C. R. McCANN, McCann School of Bus 



Hazleton, Pa. 



"Well! How did you enjoy your 
summer vacation?" is a common ex- 
pression heard in the schoolroom at 
this time of the year. With some it 
was just another summer that passed, 
while others said that it was the 
greatest summer that they had ever 
enjoyed. 

The same thing holds true in life. 
Some persons have a good time and 
succeed; others just exist from day to 
day. Have no outlook in life — glad- 
when-the-whistle-blows sort of people. 
In order to succeed in life, we must 
be alive to the opportunities that are 
before us and then go out and grab 
them. 

Let us look at some of these oppor- 
tunities that come to us. Take the 
school for instance. Most any teacher 
will tell you that the hardest thing to 
do in the classroom is to get the boys 
and girls to be workers in the school. 
To grasp the opportunities that lie be- 
fore them; to see the wonderful vista 
that lies in the not too far distance. 
In other words, to have a definite goal 
to reach in life. With some, the end 
is never reached because their day 
ends when the factory whistle blows. 

Then, too, some boys and girls can- 
not wait until they are old enough to 
get their "workin' papers" and enter 
the sweat shops of life and its stern l 
realities. Stay in school as long as 
possible because in this age, if one 
does not have an education, he will 
not get very far in life. Everyone can 
afford a common school education and 
the more "teen" age days spent in 
school, the better one is in later life. 

One may ask, "How will I know 
when my opportunity comes along?" 
This may be answered just as easily 
as asked, "Do your work thoroughly 
each day and leave nothing undone." 
The habit of procrastination or put- 
ting things off that should be done is 
one of the greatest evils that we have 
today. Many boys and girls leave their 
school lessons and go out at night 
neglecting them until the morrow and 
then give them a "hit or miss" the next 
morning and when the recitation 
comes along it is usually a miss. The 
parent does not know this until the 
end of the month when the report card 
arrives. Then the old saintly mother 
usually shields Willie from the wrath- 
ful Pa so that the first time Pa knows 
about it is when he happens to see 
the teacher by accident on the street. 
One must not neglect the little things 
from day to day but keep the slate 
clean each day as he goes along the 
highway of life. 

About this time of the year, class 
officers are usually elected in school 
and it is the concensus of opinion 
that the most popular boy in the class 
is awarded that honor. How did this 
boy get this honor? What made him 



the most popular boy in his class ? 
There are many reasons for this pop- 
ularity. Among them one might men- 
tion honesty, integrity, self-reliance, 
initiative, courtesy, and personality. 

Personality is the outward expres- 
sion of the inner self. The inner 
thoughts are expressed outwardly. If 
a person has a mean disposition, this 
is easily discerned by just looking at 
him for a short time. We can culti- 
vate a personality by practicing the 
good qualities of life in our daily 
walks of life. In other words, we can 
be what we want to be if we will but 
think and practice this idea each day. 
Just say to yourself over and over, 
"I want such and such a thing" and if 
you work hard to attain that goal, 
success is bound to be reached. How- 
ever, do not think that all you have to 
do is to say it once or twice; some- 
times it takes years and years to ac- 
complish and reach the end of the 
rainbow. 

To be the leader of anything re- 
quires much work and brings with it 
the usual criticism, opposition, jeal- 
ousy, and backbiting. So many quit 
school just because they think school 
work is hard, and laboring in the 
sweat factory is easy. Nothing is ac- 
complished easily in life. Everything 
is a battle from beginning to end. The 
human race is no different today than 
it was centuries ago. 

"What a man does not understand, 
he tends to oppose" is a truth if there 
ever was one. The world is full of 
pessimists. The optimists look upon 
the bright side of life and usually 
wear the wreath of victory. 

Leadership is not an apple that is 
given away; one must demonstrate his 
appetite for it and then show his 
neighbors that he is prepared to as- 
sume the responsibilities of leader- 
ship. The opportunity to become a 
leader might have come to Abe Lin- 
coln when he was about worn out at 
the end of the day, splitting rails; 
when Babe Ruth was wiWiout parents 
and doing his daily tasks in an Or- 
phan School; when Lindbergh was lis- 
tening to lectures in the University of 
Wisconsin on some dry subject that 
was out of date; when Noah was a 
boy; and by some one who was talk- 
ing and thinking of two things at the 
same time — one must be of a dual 
mind in order to become a College 
Professor; and when our dear, la- 
mented friend Zaner was following a 
plow over the hills of Pennsylvania. 
Opportunity comes at odd times and 
moments in everyone's life. Opportun- 
ity does not take Broadway for its 
spots, in order to knock at the portals 
of success. We never know when she 
is going to give us a slap. A great 
many of us are always looking and 



hoping that she will strike and if we 
are on the lookout, we will know when 
she does strike. 

But to get back to the story. We 
are told that Thomas A. Edison, the 
electrical wizard, was sent home one 
time by his teacher with a note to his 
mother to the effect that Tom was a 
blockhead and that there wasn't much 
use in sending him to school any 
longer. I wonder how that teacher 
would feel now, if he were living. We 
are too eages to condemn those wiio 
are slow sometimes in our endeavir 
to push the class along. But Tom had 
a mother who did not believe the 
teacher and that is a wonderful thing 
in itself. Every mother knows her 
son better than anyone else. If more 
boys and girls would listen to the 
kindly advice that mother hands ou:, 
there would be less weeping and wail- 
ing later on in life with some of those 
who think mother is old and a back 
number until they get into trouble. 

Life is just as romantic as any book 
ever written. All through history, we 
see the wonderful things of greatest 
value being done by the leadership of 
men and women who were unnoticed 
or thought very little of in their 
youth. If any teacher has ever told a 
pupil that he will never amount to 
anything in life, just let him ponder 
and think of what happened to Edison. 
But teachers of this kind are few and 
far between and thank the Lord they 
do not stay long in the profession. A 
real teacher has a wonderful oppor- 
tunity before him and yet there are 
some who look at their dwii glory first 
and these boys and girls are martyrs 
to the cause. However, that is another 
story. 

When the teacher puts on the board 
something that is new, the class usu- 
ally puts up its hands in horror and 
cries, "Oh! we can never do that prob- 
lem." We must learn to think of re- 
sponsibility as a chance to show the 
kind of stuff we are made of and an 
opportunity to be self-reliant. 

How do you like to accept responsi- 
bility? Did you ever look at yourself 
in the mirror? Were you satisfied with 
yourself? Do you wait for others to 
take the lead or are you a self- 
starter? Conditions have been made 
so easy for us today that we are in 
great danger of becoming soft. We 
have nearly everything done for us so 
that we have come to expect comfort 
and ease as a natural right. With the 
result, the moment anything goes 
against us, we start to whine and 
complain that we have been wronged. 
We should buckle up and wade right 
in and get the task accomplished and 
not whine and complain to our neigh- 
bors. Just as we exercise our muscles 
to develop them so we should exercise 
our minds in order to develop our will 
power. Wise people look upon disap- 
pointment as a lesson from which 
some valuable tilings can be learned. 
It is a great battle, this game of life, 
and it is the survival of the fittest and 
those who can stand the gaff when the 
winds blow strongest. 



<^ffi^&U&M^&&/£U&fir & 



19 




DR. FRANK N. FREEMAN, 

Professor of Educational Psychology, 
University of Chicago 

A COURSE OF STUDY IN 

HANDWRITING 

Bv Frank N. Freeman 



Purpose and Plan 

A request has come to the writer 
for a brief outline of the course in 
writing to serve as a syllabus for the 
use of superintendents, supervisors, 
principals or teachers. This article 
and the following will give such a 
syllabus. A detailed outline-for the 
first three grades covering the first 
three months of the year is given. In 
this article the outline for the first 
three months will be preceded by a 
statement of the aims, material, con- 
tents and mode of treatment for the 
grade in question. This will be fol- 
lowed by the detailed schedule for the 
first part of the year. In the second 
article the detailed schedule for the 
remainder of the grades will be given. 



OUTLINE BY GRADES FOR THE 

FIRST THREE MONTHS 

Grade I 

Aims and outcomes. — The ability to 
write all the small letters and the 
more common capitals with ease. The 
ability to write the more common 
words without hesitation. Such words 
are: a, an, and, am, boy, hand, cat, 
dog, etc. The ability to write simple 
sentences containing vocabulary 
suited to this grade, either spontane- 
ously or from copy. The ability to 
write the numbers from one to fifty 
from copy or dictation. The attain- 
ment of a fairly smooth coordinated 
movement, first of the arm as a whole 
and later with the arm combined with 
slight finger movement. 

Material s. — In the first three 
months or more mainly blackboards 
with good crayon. Later sheets of 
paper of about eight by ten inches, 
ruled with lines an inch or a half inch 
apart. Pencil with soft lead or 
crayon for writing on the paper. 

Size and style. — In blackboard writ- 
ing the small letters should be at 



zjf Qourse of Study in 
Handwriting 

For Grades One, Two and Three 

By FRANK N. FREEMAN, 
Author of Correlated Handwriting 

Weekly Outlines for 
September, October and November, 1927 



least one and one-half inches high. In 
writing at the desk small letters 
should be nearly one-half inch high at 
the beginning. Letters should be 
made in a cimple rounded style with 
a moderate slant. The alphabet writ- 
ten in this style should be placed 
permanently where the child can see 
it and refer to it in his own writing. 

Subject matter. — The words in- 
cluded should be confined almost en- 
tirely to very commonly used words 
in the child's vocabulary. The sen- 
tences should deal with subjects 
within the child's interests and un- 
derstanding. The home, the school, 
the play, the pets, and so on, are suit- 
able subjects. Sentences in the Com- 
pendium may be supplemented by 
suitable sentences growing out of the 
experiences of the children in the 
class. There should be practically no 
formal exercises. A few letter forms 
should be practiced as the child recog- 
nizes the need for improvement. 

Emphasis in method. — Emphasis is 
not on technical skill or its acquisi- 
tion. The child's aim should be 
chiefly directed to improving the 
form of his words and letters. Aside 
from good form he should learn to 
maintain a reasonably good position 
and to write with fair fluency of move- 
ment. 



OUTLINE OF EXERCISES 
Grade I 
First Month 
First week.— Back and forth retrac- 
ing exercises over drawing of candle, 
dramatized by means of the rhyme 
"Jack be nimble, etc." 

Second week. — Oval exercises dram- 
atized as rolling hoops to the rhyme 
"Roll, roll, roll your hoops, etc." 
Straight up and down retracing exer- 
cise to the rhyme "Up and down, up 
and down, this is the way to London 
Town." Element of the m retraced 
and dramatized and written to a de- 
scriptive count such as "over down" 
— "over down" and so on. The ele- 



ment of the u or w dramatized as a 
skipping rope. The letter m and two 
letter u's written without space be- 
tween. 

Third week. — The production of 
three letter e's dramatized as looping 
the loop. Combination of previous ex- 
ercises to make the word me. 

Fourth week — Review of the prev- 
ious exercises with special attention 
to backward children. 

Second Month 

Introduce the word "it". Write on 
blackboard to make sure children can 
read it. Write it again. Have the 
children trace it in the air. Have a 
few children write the word on the 
board one at a time while the others 
comment. Have the rest of the class 
write the word. In the same way in- 
troduce the word "in". 

Sixth week. — Introduce the writing 
of the words "on" and "one" on the 
blackboard. Write the word "Thanks- 
giving" on the blackboard in prepara- 
tion for the Thanksgiving festival. 

Seventh week. — Introduce the words 
"at", "am", and "man" on the black- 
board. 

Eighth week. — Spend in review, 
practicing on individual letters which 
have been introduced in the preceding 
week. Introduce the words "cat" and 
"cow" to be written on the black- 
board. Demonstrate the letter c by 
giving a full rounded swing. Illus- 
trate pauses at top of c, top of o, and 
preceding last stroke of w. 
Picture Word Books 

At this time introduce as a project 
the Picture Word Books. Each child 
makes a booklet in which he pastes 
pictures of common objects. Under- 
neath each object he writes its name. 
Third Month 

Tenth week. — Introduce at black- 
board words "dog" and "hen". In 
demonstrating the words slightly ex- 
aggerate the pauses. 

Eleventh week. — Introduce similarly 
the words "Cup", "cap" and "box" at 
the blackboard. 



20 



<5#&&u4//i^£(&u&&r & 



Twelfth week. — Introduce the words 
"cape", "boy", and "bed" at black- 
board. 

Thirteenth wee k. — Introduce the 
words "doll", "girl", "book", "tree", 
"rat", "ball" and "bat" at blackboard. 
In this word writing make use of a 
picture word book to give the writ- 
ing of words a meaning. 

Outline for Grade II 

Aims and outcomes. — The ability to 
write all the small letters, all the 
capitals and all the digits with ease. 
The ability to write the words which 
are suitable for the second grade. 
These should be very carefully se- 
lected by consulting standard lists 
based on extensive investigation of 
usage by children and adults. Such 
words as the following are suitable: 
"after", "ask", "any", "as", "away", 
"back", "baby", "ball", "bear", 
"been", "be", "big", etc. Some com- 
mon names of persons and the days of 
the week may be included. Numbers 
one to two hundred should be prac- 
ticed. The child should learn to ob- 
serve margins. His writing movement 
should attain greater fluency and 
smoothness. 

Writing m a te r i a 1 s. — Pencil and 
paper with the blackboard for sup- 
plementary use. Paper should be 
ruled with lines about three-quarters 
or three-eights of an inch apart. 

Size and style. — One spaced letters 
should be about three-eights of an 
inch or a little less in height. Style 
about the same as in the first grade. 

Content or subject matter. — See 
section on "aims and outcomes" for 
vocabulary. The subject matter may 
deal with objects and events outside 
the child's immediate environment. 
The farm and farm-life give a good 
subject matter. The class may make 
up its own sentences if care is taken 
that the vocabulary and the subject 
are suitable. 

Correlatio n. — Material may be 
drawn from the reading which the 
children do in the reading lesson, or 
their other lessons. The number 
combinations used in their number 
work should be practiced in handwrit- 
ing periods. Words used in the spell- 
ing periods should be practiced in the 
writing periods. 

Emphasis in method. — The emphasis 
should be largely on writing words, 
but a few letters and difficult com- 
binations should be isolated for spe- 
cial practice. Such combinations are 
"we", "de", "do", "oi", and "oe". A 
few exercises consisting of the same 
letter repeated at intervals of about 
one-half inch and joined by connect- 
ing lines should be given to develop 
the ideward movement of the hand. 
! hould be little formal drill and 

ion should be chiefly upon the 
form of the letter. Fluency of move- 
ment, however, should he maintained 
by keeping up good position, by ac- 
quiring reasonable speed, and by de- 



veloping a free swinging movement 
through imitation. 



DETAILED EXERCISES FOR THE 
FIRST THREE MONTHS 

Grade II 

First week. — Spend this week re- 
viewing the early exrecises of Grade 
I, in order to recover part of the 
skill lost during the summer. Use the 
horizontal and curve swinging exer- 
cises, the ovals, the m element and u 
element, the m and the repeated u, 
the e, and the letter b. These are all 
retraced exercises. Count with num- 
bers or with descriptive count. Have 
part of the words done on the black- 
board and part at the seat. 

Second week. — Continue the re- 
view, first at the blackboard and then 
at the seat. Begin with the simple 
words "it", "in", "on", and "one". As 
individuals write these words fairly 
well let them go on to the words 
"went", "give", "put", "bat", "milk", 
"dig", 'see", "her", "like", "may", 
"make", "fly", "your", "kite", "doll", 
"bed", and "let". These words may 
also be written in sentences. Watch 
the position and encourage an easy 
fluent movement. 

Third week. — Begin to practice on 
connected material. Use the sentences 
which are suggested below on make 
up sentences equally within the child's 
experience from suitable vocabulary. 
A suitable sentense to introduce a 
story about food on the farm is: "We 
have good things to eat." After prac- 
tice upon the words and the sentences 
as a whole, intensive practice may be 
given to individual letters such as the 
capital W and the small e, i, u, t 
and d. 

Fourth week. — A suitable sentence 
to continue the same general subject 
is "We eat bread and butter." Such 
a sentence should be introduced by 
appropriate conversation. Have two 
or three children write the sentence 
at the board. Have the others criti- 
cize, then let the rest of the class 
write at the board and finally at their 
seats. Single out the difficult words 
and give special practice on letters 
and easy combinations such as a, b, 
and. m, and d. 

Fifth week. — A suitable sentence is 
"We eat apples and pears." Special 
practice may be given to 1, le, ee, 
and ea. 

Sixth week. — A sentence for prac- 
tice is "We drink milk and eat eggs." 
For special practice single out such 
letters and combinations as i, j, k, g, 
f, s. and gg. 

Seventh week. — The sentence for 
this week la "Paul likes good things 
to eat," and the letters for special 
practice are P, li, h, hi, and he. 

Eighth week. — This week may be 
used for an informal review, and for 
working on special projects. Give at- 
tention to position and individual dif- 



ficulties. A suitable special project is 
a health booklet. The children may 
gather pictures of objects which rep- 
resent or suggest healthful activities, 
such as toothbrushes, milk, vegetables 
fruit, sleeping with open windows and 
so on. These pictures may be pasted 
on the leaves of the booklet and ap- 
propriate slogans or sentences writ- 
ten, such as "Brush your teeth daily." 

Ninth week. — Continuing the story 
of the farm, the following sentence 
may be used, "Tom said, 'Father, 
where do we get our food'?" Special 
practice may be given to the capital 
letters T and F, and to any words 
which give special difficulty. Such 
difficulty may be the joining of the w 
and e in the word "we." 

Tenth week. — This week is devoted 
to practicing letter combinations 
which are difficult, the word "Thanks- 
giving" and the nine digits and the 
zero. Combinations which may be 
practiced are ou, as found in the word 
"our", wh as in "where" and similar 
combinations. 

Eleventh week. — The sentence may 
be used "It comes from the farm." 
After practicing individual letters 
such as the capital I and the letter r 
and difficult words, practice may be 
devoted to the word "Christmas." 
Special practice may be given to the 
capital C. 

Twelfth week. — This week may be 
used for review or for supplementary 
practice on exercises which were not 
completed. 



OUTLINE FOR GRADE III 

Aims and outcomes. — The chief new 
aim of the third grade is to learn to 
master the pen. Give special atten- 
tion to the method of holding the pen 
and the difference between the use of 
the pen and the pencil. Give instruc- 
tions in care of the pen, method of 
taking the ink, preventing blotting 
and lightness of touch. Further aims 
are moderate increase in speed, the 
habituation to a free, rhythmic move- 
ment, enlargement of the content and 
the vocabulary and some further de- 
velopment of self criticism. 

Writing materials. — Ordinary steel 
pens, not too fine. 

The penholder should be of good size 
and the grip should be made of wood 
or cork. Pen holders shaped to the 
fingers may be used. Paper with 
good surface. About half inch ruling 
is desirable. 

Size and style. — The height of the 
Single spaced letters should be about 
three-sixteenths of an inch. Letters 
may become somewhat more angular 
ami may have slightly more slope. 
Style should remain here and in all 
grades fairly compact. 

Content. — Suitable subject matter 
for this grade is material drawn from 
the other subjects such as spelling, 
language, and numbers. As spelling 



^M^&gAi/n€M&&uwfir & 



21 



becomes prominent close correlation 
can be made between the spelling and 
the writing. Vocabulary should be 
very carefully selected. Such words 
as the following are suitable: "al- 
most", "could", "done", "hat", "here", 
"know", "some", and "once." Atten- 
tion should be given to proper ar- 
rangement of material on the paper. 
Compositions written in the English 
period may be practiced in the writ- 
ing period. The ordinary form of 
written correspondence makes a good 
subject of practice as well. The ar- 
rangement of examples in arithmetic 
merits special care and practice. 

Correlation. — Examples which were 
cited under "Content" illustrate types 
of correlation which may be used in 
this grade. The value of correlation 
cannot be overemphasized. Teachers 
should be continually on the lookout 
to find writing difficulties in other 
subjects which may be practiced in 
the writing period. The child should 
also be held up to a fair writing 
standard in the other periods besides 
the writing periods. 

Emphasis in method. — There is no 
radical change in method in this 
grade. The chief new difficulty is the 
mastery of the pen. Emphasis should 
be upon good form with somewhat 
larger amount of analysis and self- 
criticism than in grade II. Somewhat 
further practice on details of letter 
forms may be given. Few formal ex- 
ercises should be used. Attention 
should continue to be given to good 
position and to an easy fluent move- 
ment. The child should not be al- 
lowed to relax in these particulars. 



OUTLINE OF EXERCISES FOR 
GRADE III 

First week. — Devote this week to 
review and to practice on the simple 
exercises to enable the pupil to re- 
cover his command of the pencil. Give 
some of the exercises on the black- 
board and some at the seat. Such a 
sentence as "They stayed at the farm 
all day" may be used for practice. 
Such exercises as the oval, the re- 
peated 1, n. or u, or widely spaced o's 
or n's may be used. Watch posture 
and position. After a day or two of 
this sort of practice, introduce the pen. 

Second week. — The writing exer- 
cises suggested for the first few 
weeks are centered in a correspond- 
ence letter. The text of a suitable 
letter is suggested. If strict care is 
taken in the direction of the subject 
matter and the vocabulary the chil- 
dren may be allowed to write their 
own letters and select materials for 
practice from them. Write first the 
name of the month "September." 
Practice the capital S and the abbrev- 
iation, "Sept.". Then use the sentence, 
"We had a fine time in the country 
this summer." Select for supplement- 
ary practice the simple letters, i, n, 
and u and the word "in." Have sev- 
eral i's and several u's written joined 
and in succession. 



Third week. — Continue the practice 
on letters and words which are de- 
veloped from the exercise of the pre- 
ceding week. Following develop- 
ments may be used: e, n, m, me, t, 
it, and time. This constitutes one 
series. Another series may be built 
up as follows: 1, b, be, n, h, he, th, 
the. A fourth series is as follows: a, 
b, three a's joined, add, h, had. A 
fourth development is f, three s's 
joined, is, this, We. 

Fourth week. — The word "October", 
several capital letter O's, and the ab- 
breviation "Oct." Use the sentence, 
"I hope you will come to the city to 
see us sometime." Use for supple- 
mentary practice see, s, three s's 
joined, is and us. 

Fifth week. — A series of letters and 
words may be developed from the ex- 
ercises of the fourth week as follows: 
First, o, three o's joined, to, too and 
hop. Second, u, three u's joined, w, 
three l's joined, will. Third, c, three 
c's joined, come, me, and some. 
Fourth, three o's joined, three u's 
joined and three w's joined. The 
fourth series of joined letters should 
be written with a wide space between 
the letters. Space may be half an 
inch or more. 

Sixth week. — This week may be de- 
voted to the superscription of the let- 
ter and to exercises developed from 
it. The following serves as an ex- 
ample. At the top and to the right 
is written the words "Evanston,, 111." 
(abbreviation of the name Illinois). 
Underneath abbreviation for Septem- 
ber, "Sept. 5, 1928." Underneath 
and to the left are written the words 
"Dear Bob." These are to be spaced 
as in an ordinary letter. Exercises 
may be developed as follows: Capital 
letter P retraced, capital letter P 
written in the usual manner, the word 
"Bob", capital letter S, the abbrevia- 
tion "Sept.", capital letter D with the 
main body retraced, D written as or- 
dinaryily, capital O retraced, capital 
E, capital I. The capital letters B, D, 
and E may be written to the count. 
D is written to the court "one, two, 
three, four", E to the count "one, 
two, three". 

Seventh and eighth weeks. — These 
weeks may be devoted to the sub- 
scription and signature of a letter 
and to the words "November" and 
"Thanksgiving" and exercises de- 
veloped from them. The subscription 
which is suggested is "Sincerely your 
which is suggested is "Sincerely 
yours", to be followed by the name 
of the individual child. Following 
the practice on the words "November" 
and "Thanksgiving" special practice 
may be given to the capital N, capital 
T, the letters b and r and the abbrevi- 
ation for November "Nov." After 
these exercises have been practiced 
the pupils who write at a satisfactory 
quality and rate may devote them- 
selves to some special project. They 
may write one or more letters or they 
may practice on the writing of some 



other school exercise. The pupils 
whose standard is still below standard 
may spend their time on the review 
of any of the exercises of the preced- 
ing weeks. 

(Continued on Page 26.) 



PROMINENT COMMERCIAL 
EDUCATOR DIES 




WILLIAM HENRY DUFF 
President Emeritus of Duffs-Iron 
City College, Pittsburgh, Pa., for 
forty-eight years President of Duff's 
College, and son of the founder of the 
institution, was actively associated 
with Business Education for sixty- 
nine years. Also President of P. Duff 
& Sons, Inc., and of the Massillon 
Stone & Fire Brick Co. Mr. Duff was 
born in St. John, New Brunswick, on 
October 8, 1838, and died in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., May 21, 1927. His father 
founded Duff's College in 1840. Mr. 
Duff became interested in his father's 
school when a young man. In 1858 
became principal of the school and 
continued in that position until 1906 
when he retired. 

In his day he was one of the fa- 
mous penman of the country. For 
sixty-nine years he was associated in 
the work of the college which his 
father founded. He helped to build 
up one of the most prosperous busi- 
ness colleges in the country and has 
helped to train thousands of young 
men and women. He was scrupulously 
precise and accurate in all money 
matters and taught these principles 
to others. He never enjoyed spend- 
ing money on himself but loved to 
help others. In his manners, he was 
a gentleman of the old school, never 
forgetting and never relaxing his 
standards. He was kind and gentle 
and loved by all who came in contact 
with him. He was a devout Chris- 
tian. In his death the profession has 
lost one of the pioneers who has 
helped to bring commercial education 
to the high standard it is today. 



22 



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This masterpiece was written by Mr. Zaner 37 years ago to D. W. Hoff. MeadvlUf), I'.i . who kindly loaned it to us for reproduction. 



c//u '36uj//it^i (5Wuizi/{r & 



23 



The Present Status of 


Handwriting' 


Part of an address delivered before the 


Indiana State Teachers' Association by 


Joseph S. Taylor, 


District Superintendent of f'hooh, 


New York City. 



No. 6 
CONCLUSION 

Such in outline, is the present status 
of handwriting in our country. What 
about the future ? As to supervision, 
the probability is that all the cities 
will ultimately follow the example of 
those communities which are now em- 
ploying technical directors of penman- 
ship. I am recommending that in New 
York a handwriting expert be at- 
tached to the office of each district 
superintendent for assignment, at his 
discretion, to schools and classes that 
are below standard. This would insure 
satisfactory supervision at a nominal 
cost. Only twenty-four experts would 
be required to supervise the handwrit- 
ing of a million children. 

What changes the future may bring 
forth in the form or style of hand- 
writing, I would not care to prophesy. 
Our present system is pretty well but- 
tressed by scientific warrant; but 
Science itself changes its mind from 
time to time. I was vividly reminded 
of this fact during the past summer, 
while revising one of my books pub- 
lished twenty-three years ago. In the 
course of my investigations it was 
necessary to look up the present 
status of psychology. I was amazed 
to find that this science has been com- 
pletely revolutionized while I was 
asleep. If you haven't studied psy- 
chology for twenty-five years you 
won't know how to talk. You have to 
acquire a new vocabulary before you 
can even comprehend the new psychol- 
ogy of behaviorism. I remarked the 
other day to a psychological friend of 
mine: 

"I see we still have a psychology 
without a soul." 

"Oh, yes," he replied, "that is an old 
story. Psychology lost its soul years 
ago. Now it is losing its mind!" 

"We used to have a mind," says 
Will Durant, "now we are lucky if we 
retain a few instincts and one or two 
conditioned reflexes." 

In Aristotle's day science taught 
that the function of the brain is to 
cool the blood; that man has only 
eight ribs; and that a woman has 
fewer teeth than man. You know what 
a time Columbus had to convince the 
wise men of his day that the earth is 
round. In my boyhood days typhoid 
fever was regarded as a visitation of 
Providence; now it is a matter of sani- 
tation. Yellow fever was a mysterious 
plague; now it is a question of mos- 
quitos. When I was professor of 
physics in Juinata College I taught 
the students that the atom is the ulti- 
mate division of matter. Today we are 
assured that the atom consists of a 



nucleus called proton, and of elec- 
tron revolving around this nucleus 
with inconceivable speed. 

After contemplating these con- 
stantly changing views of scientific 
men, Mr. Lee Wilson Dodd recently 
recorded his bewilderment in verse. 
Addressing Science, he says: 

"I try to look sane and be humble, 
I try to accept all you say; 
But the things I knew yesterday 
crumble, 
And I know I know nothing today. 
"You tell me my mind is my body, 
As my viscera are so am I; 



When I comfort my vitals with toddy 
I drink I am thinking of rye! 

"For it seems I am simply behaving 
And my consciousness is but a 
sham ; 
Thus it isn't yours truly who's raving 
Like this — it's my Thyroid. O ! 

"If you'd only sit down for a minute! 
If your Truths didn't flow like a 
stream! 
Well, I don't think there's anything 
in it! 
I'm a dumbell — and life is a 
dream." 




24 



<^Me&uJ//uM&&uxifir & 




R. C. Rudd, 53 Russett Ave., Tor- 
onto, Canada, whose portrait and 
signature appear above, is a native 
of Canada. He is a professional pen- 
man and card writer with a wide ex- 
perience, having written cards for 
many years in Canada and in over 
half of the States in the Union. 

Many people ask him if writing is 
a gift and if they can learn to write 
as he writes. To these questions he 
answers that any normal, intelligent 
person can acquire a neat, plain, leg- 
ible handwriting, provided he devotes 
to the work the necessary time and 
study. He emphasises the fact that 
one should get the correct image in 
the mind before he can hope to pro- 
duce it on paper. He states that writ- 
ing is an equal mixture of brains and 
muscle, plus nerve energy. To the 
beginner he advises; "Let nothing 
daunt you. Be faithful and earnest 
in your study. Keep your ambition 
keen-edged. When you make mis- 
takes criticise and rectify them be- 
fore proceeding. If you are not pro- 



gressing as you expected on starting, 
don't despair for it will come in due 
time. All beginners make mistakes, 
no exceptions. The price of success 
is perserverance and rightly directed 
effort." 

"I do not think I would have ob- 
tained the confidence and skill in dem- 
onstrating before the public I have, 
had I not been fortunate in securing 
that remarkable and wonderful self- 
instructing course entitled Lessons in 
Ornamental Penmanship by the late 
C. P. Zaner. I would advise any one 
not having the means of attending a 
school of penmanship to follow the 
work given in this book." 

Mr. Rudd took up penmanship first 
because he liked penmanship and sec- 
ond because it afforded him a means 
of making a livelihood. He states 
that he has never regretted taking up 
penmanship for it has been both a 
source of pleasure, as well as remun- 
erative. 

His advice is to live a clean life 
and abstain from the use of tobacco. 

Mr. Rudd is undoubtedly one of the 
most skillful penmen in Canada. 



Miss Ella M. Howe, a recent gradu- 
ate of Boston University, has been 
elected to teach commercial subjects 
in the Randolph, Vt, High School. 

Miss Ruth Johns of Cedar Falls, 
Iowa, is a new commercial teacher in 
the High School at Brighton, Iowa. 



Miss Doris Raisty of Iowa City, 
Iowa, has recently accepted a position 
to teach commercial subjects in the 
High School at Coleraine, Minn. 



Miss Mary P. Johnson, last year 
commercial teacher in the Manning 
High School, Ipswich, Mass., will teach 
in the Leominster, Mass., High School 
the coming year. 



CORNELIUS BAYLESS 

On June 4th in the city of Dubuque, 
Iowa, at the home of his daughter, 
Mrs. Dr. Heisey, occurred the death 
of a Veteran Business School Man, 
Cornelius Bayless. 

Mr. Bayless became manager of 
The Bayless Commercial College of 
Dubuque in 1862. He was actively 
connected with its work, as proprietor 
and president, for more than fifty 
years, withdrawing from school ac- 
tivities in December, 1914. 

At the time of his death, Mr. Bay- 
less was in his 88th year. Few, if 
any, of the commercial Educators of 
his day remain with us. 

Professor Bayless was truly an 
educator: always endeavoring to lead 
his pupils into right ways of living. 

He was a great admirer of pen 
work of all kinds. While not being 
what would be classed as a profes- 
sional penman, he wrote a fine, plain 
hand and was an excellent teacher 
of business writing. 

His counsel and advice will be 
missed by many. He was quite ac- 
tive in business affairs up to within 
a short time of his passing away. 

His beloved wife and companion 
preceded him only a few months. He 
was very lonely without her, and 
seemed to wish to go also. Truly, 
each heard the kindly call of The 
Master, "Well done thou good and 
faithful servant, enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord." 




AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send 10c. A. P. MEUB, Expert Penman. 
452 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena. Calif. 




The above work deserves more than a passing glance. It is one of the r 
have received for months. The inking in of the light, graceful hair lines, 
itulate F. S. Stanley. Akron, Ohio, on his knowledge and skill in lettering 



skillfully executed specimens of lettering 
nost skillfully done. We want to con- 



<5ffl&&ud*M^&du£a&r* & 



25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 



POSITION 

Ornamental Penmanship is written in about the same position of the hand, arm, and body as in business writing. 

SUPPLIES 

Use good paper, ink, a flat top table (a kitchen table will do) and a properly adjusted oblique penholder. The 
Business Educator will be glad to furnish you with proper supplies or give you any advice in regard to supplies for 
this course. 

Limber up the arm by working on a light line running oval one or two spaces high. Then try exercise No. 1. 
Get a bold shade and a light hair-line. Swing this exercise off freely so that there are no wobbles in the lines. Keep 
the shades high. Make page after page of each exercise until you have mastered the forms of the letters and a light, 
free touch and movement. 

Study the D before attempting to make it. Notice that the first oval is horizontal and no higher than the sec- 
ond part of the D. The two parts in the body of the D should rest on the base line. Try not to shade the finishing 
oval, and keep the main shade above the crossing on the base line. 

The H is practically the same as the D, with the exception of the light hair-line connecting the two parts. The 
beginning and final ovals are about the same in size and shape. Aim for grace and beauty. Exercises 4, 5, and 6 
should be thrown off with a continuous free flowing motion. Keep the combinations compact. Frequently compare 
your work with the copy so that you can discover wherein your writing may be improved. 

No. 7. The shade on the A is similar to the shade in D. Be careful not to make the A too wide and see that 
the final oval is divided equally by the base line. 

No. 8 is a good exercise to develop the stem used in a number of letters. Try it over and over again with 
the idea of acquiring a skillful up and down motion. It is necessary to spread and release the pen quickly to get 
snappy shades. Notice the location of the shade in exercise 9. It is low down near the base line. No. 10 is the 
same as No. 9, with the exception of the beginning loop. Work for parallel effects, and keep the down stroke of the 
shade straight or nearly so. 

Before working on the W study it. Notice the space in the inside of the letter, the slant, and the formation 
of the letter in general. Don't stop practicing until you can make the letter skillfully. 

No. 13 is an excellent exercise to develop freedom and quality of line. See how regular you can make this ex- 
ercise. Notice the uniformity of beginning ovals and final ovals. Notice the even spacing of shades and parallel 
lines. 

You can master a beautiful ornamental style by following these lessons faithfully, doing plenty of work. 








Qf{Jf Of Qf. Q/: 5^5^ 



26 



(5+ 




Miss Olive Schilling, recently with 
the Park Falls, Wis., High School, has 
accepted a position to teach the com- 
ing year in the High School at Free- 
port, Illinois. 



Miss Dorothy I. Rice, last year com- 
mercial teacher in the Manasquan, N. 
J., High School, has recently been 
elected to teach in the Valley Stream, 
Long Island, High School. 



















Mannington, W. Va.. public schools is developing good business writers 

in nil grades. The above was written by Roberta Rvnd. a sixth grade pupil. 

Miss Certrude E. Burge is her supervisor 



(Continued from page 21) 

Ninth and tenth weeks. — These 
weeks are devoted to writing the en- 
tire letter which has been introduced 
piecemeal in the preceding exercises. 
This letter is as follows: 

Evanston, Illinois 
November 5, 1927. 
Dear Bob: 

We had a fine time in the country 
this summer. I hope you will come 
to the city to see us sometime. 
Sincerely yours, 

Raymond. 

The special feature which is new in 
this exercise is the arrangement of 
the entire letter upon the page. Pay 
attention to margins, position on the 
lines, position toward the middle of 
the page and general regularity and 
uniformity of appearance. In the 
tenth week give practice on writing 
the digits. They may be first written 
in a line one after the other and then 
in various combinations, according to 
the types of examples which the pu- 
pils are using in their arithmetic 
work. Let each pupil pick out digits 
with which he has particular trouble 
and practice writing them over and 
over again. 

Eleventh week. — This week may be 
devoted to writing the names and ab- 
breviations of the first three days of 
the week. A heading of the page may 
be the words "Days of the Week" 
with day and week capitalized. Then 
on successive days practice may be 
given to the words "Sunday", "Mon- 
daj ". and "Tuesday." 



^ <?M^&u<iS?uM£<£uxi£r' §> 



27 




MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17) 

hundred mile stretch running from 
the Humboldt redwoods on the north 
to the prune and apricot orchards of 
San Jose on the south. There were 
also divers meanderings along the 
new boulevards that skirt San Fran- 
cisco Bay, from Twin Peaks, Golden 
Gate Park, the Cliff House and the 
Golden Gate on through the Presidio, 
to Telegraph Hill. And it was some 
lovely friends in 'Frisco who gave me 
this treat; I did not have to travel 
"under the raucuc tutelage of the man 
•who runs the rubber-neck wagon. 

But the really sublime, the inde- 
scribable part of my faring, was the 
part of it, that carried me through the 
depths of the mighty redwoods that 
have at last been happily penetrated 
by that new auto thoroughfare, the 
Redwood Highway. Thanks to this 
several million dollar State enter- 
prise, all of you may now see this 



wonderland, more comfortably and 
cheaply than you are likely to im- 
agine. My own summer home here in 
Ettersburg, is but two hours ride 
from this Highway, where it enters 
Humboldt County from the south. 
How I hope some of you might find 
your way to our hospitable ranch! 
My friends, this little strip of the 
Tropics that runs up the Pacific 
coast of North America is worth see- 
ing. You will believe me when you 
do see it. 



F. W. Tamblyn of the Tamblyn 
School of Penmanship, Kansas City, 
Mo., paid us a visit during August. 
He reports much interest in his hand- 
writing courses. 

GREATEST PENMAN find both pleasure 
and profit in my book. 
The Real Bargain 




D L. Stoddard 



Penmanship: 



t 



PRACTICAL COURSES for beginners 
and advanced students. Preparatory train- 
ing for teaching, and ENGROSSING 
SCRIPTS taught in the shortest possible 
time, at the least expense. MASTER POSITIONS of SCIENTIFIC PENHOLDING 
for producing ADVANCED SCRIPTS C; AnPTQTrAf^TTO "\J 
a SPECIALTY. The Watchword is: C> /TL 1 lOfriLi I IWiM. 
Persona! Instruction and Lessons by Mai!. Write today. TERMS reasonable. Address 

Francis L. Tower, Artist Penman 

501 PLEASANT STREET, HAMMONTON, NEW JERSEY 

Watch for advertisement in the October issue of the Business Educator 



28 



i^MJ&ud/n^&diu&fir & 



I. W. SIMS 

Was born on a farm in Franklin 
County. 111., in August, 1885, and re- 
ceived his early education in the com- 
mon schools. His parents sold their 
old homestead and moved to Missouri, 
where he continued common school 
and High. 

While still in his teens he entered a 
Military School in California, and 
graduated with a perfect record. He 
is also a graduate of Gem City Col- 
lege, and received his penmanship in- 
structions from Prof. H. P. Behrens- 
meyer. Studied la in Chic- 

ago' University, and during the World 
War, entered the O. U. C. Ft. Sher- 
idan, 111., and was sent to the Artil- 
lery School, at Fortress Monroe. Va. 
In 1919 he married Miss Ethel Cham- 
berlain, <>f Murphysboro, and has 
three children. 

In 1915 he organized the Simerian 
Business Training School, at Marion, 
111., hut this school was discontinued, 

w hen he became President of the 
Southwestern Business College, 
Murphysboro, 111.- which position he 
■ ars. 
In 192:;, Mr. Sim- became Principal 
of Browns Busine of East 

St. I o i ' ne till remaining 

■ ool. This 
school occupied its own buildings up 
UI1 til the Tornado of March t8, L925, 
but was put oul "i business for nine 
A hen the building were sold, 
and i :ind is 

now km 

of which he is h occupies 

in the center 
of the City of Murphysboro. 



THE BISHOP BRENNAN 

ILLUMINATED TESTIMONIAL 



H. J. WALTER, Penman 

222 Portage Ave.. Winnipeg. Can. 
i mmans hip Samples, 
including your name in gold 
filigi ei -■ ' hi 50c 

lire Combinations, 
and Business Capitals, etc. 50c 



PENMANSHIP BY MAIL 

Modern, scientific course in Business Writ- 
ins by a graduate of E. C. Mills. Pen-written 
copies, red-ink criticisms, typewritten instruc- 

"An examination disclo ei thai thes are far 

bettei than i had anticipated P icl 

Bed and happilj ntent." (Signed) Frank J. 

, Mass. 
Folder sent free on request. 
J. J. BAILEY, 74 Barton Ave., Toronto, 4 Can. 



HIGH CPADE 

DIPLOMAS*^ 
CERTIFICATES. 



Catalog and Samples Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND. MAINE. 




As an educator and all round pen- 
man, Mr. Sims' work speaks for itself, 
and he believes that the Business 
Educator has been one of the chief 
inspirations in his educational career. 



text books pro- 
duce good sten- 
ographers and 
bookkeepers in 
half the time of others. Examine 
Byrne rig, dictation. 

booklet' i h lulling and 

penmanship. Descriptive price list 
mailed upon request. 

BYRNE PUBLISHING CO., 

Dallas. Texas 



DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 

,\ , a Ei 
■\,i Uph 'i- Print, II L4 for Ihe illum- 

60c 

Illumine $1.00 

Illuminal 

Btudj $10.00 

lUli price. 
GOOD WORK ASSURED 
J. D. CARTER. 740 Rush St., Chicago 




LEARN ENGROSSING 



in your spare time at home 

Thirty Lesson Plates anc 
Printed Instructions mailec 
to any address on receipt ol 
two dollars. Cash or P. C 
Money Order. 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator anc 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg 

SCRANTON, PA. 



Description 

Size of original 22x28 inches on 
vellum. Illuminated throughout in 
purple, red, blue, green and gold. The 
background of the entire border in 
burnished gold. The ornamental por- 
tions o n several shades of 

purple and dotted with Chinese white. 
Backgrounds of all the larger, initial 
letters in gold and the initials in pur- 
ple, red and blue. The line fillers in 
same coloi 3. 

The portrait rendered in natural 
flesh color for the face, cassock or 
robe, in purple inclining toward red, 
and chain in gold. Just a few touches 
of color produces the fine crop of gray 
hair as most of the hair is really the 
stock upon which the work is done 
aided by touches of Chinese white. 
The coat of aims at center of base 
rendered in gold, green, red, blue and 
purple and represents the actual her- 
aldic design of the subject's coat of 
arms as bishop. The medallion in 
lower right hand corner is the insig- 
nia of the society and is rendered in 
gold. Decorative lines on the outer and 
inner edges of the border design in 
brown. 



EW ONE-WAY 



MEMOSCRIPT Secures many good positions. 
Why not learn it and other 

and Business 
booklet sent free. 
MEMOSCRIPT INSTITUTE, Roanoke, Va. 



s-t —t£,* ri>i: w w,ir>nf\i i_-_ i_ ■ ■ 

^U^-lsMOOTH-L.NEfe^i 
-,.'- — 3/SHORT H A N Dll Classes.' Abookle 



EDWARD C. MILLS 

Script Specialist for Enffraving Purposes 
P. O. Drawer 982 Rochester, N. Y. 

tor bookkeeping illustrations. 



..i i 



unexce Mai. Perfection 



Mm iinii.ii Pen v " •. 

•' 'mi point, l nr.iss si , . . 

SVrl .'I 

i i daft, 
bj ni.nl for im 



Tour Visit to J^[cw Torl{ 

may be anticipated with more 
enjoyment it you secure 
accommodations .it the 

Maryland 

HOTEL 
104 WEST 49th STREET 
itimulc from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre \\'..r Prices) 

S 1 1 1 1 n n Room, Sitting Rimm. 

I'" li i - ii li 2 Double Bedrooms 

Pi r ate Bath with Private Bath 

( 2 persona I ( 2-4 Persons) 

$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



^MI&udSntM&Jtuxi&r & 



29 



OfiCRjqlrt 



EN 




ajiiJjflQicnibius ni the 

wish to renew to you our tokens or friendship and to attempt some expression of the respect, the a! 
lection anil the rcuercuce in which you ore regarded by the TiOill, IlaniC llll'II of litis OiUu'-.U' , 
f he .tidings of your donation to the episcopacy of T irhuuinu" caused mingled feelings of sorrou 
andjou. Sadness to realize that the bctoued uxih'ary 3 ishop of -crouton was lo leauo our midst, ha 
pinessto comprehend that our ply father the -ope hod chosen you for administering :i ioccsc 
so sacred to cucry student ot American Bistory, as (lie ?ee of irlinioud * >.--.*_ -^ _— -- __. 

f tzSjR S our first and during these years, our only .bpiriftltll Dil'l'CfUI' you liaue initiated lh 
inception, you baue-auideo the growth and the expansion 61 the oolu tame 7 ttioti -.tsuif. 
jSL^U^i iiy has been animated by your oum pulsation and its steady progress lias been aduance 
at the sacrifice of your time ano uour energy. 9 our prudence tins tempered Hie extravagant en- 
;. thusiasm of some of our Societies. Wouv counsel merited the unanimous assent of ail and 
L your uu'sdom brought about a healthful growth of ideas in the spiritual nutriment of the 
\ cjoly Qamc tyro. Jig* §t Washington, at Qcrantoir at iOilhesSarre, al ' .ittston.ai- 
: Qarbondale, at eueru conucntion city, oou haue been ourlX'dftCI* whether parading to man 
kind at large our belief in JtejlUJ CIWU?Ttis (sOiWid ([fall or in the more quiet chamberof 
our meeting halls, planninq andadoisiuo the line ofeudeoooi" fbFjjreafer jrowHi of the char 
acter and soul ofeactt indiuidual . c\v fame ■;■ ember. cS^^B—i^- ■■- 

VT^OV a recollection of you and your ideals we -haue indented these resolutions by three pi 
WtlVr ifl standards- three emblems which me hope always to carry with lis. FlfSt". yourowu por- 
\'i >? ■' trait as an aid tor remembrance and as a visualisation of the hind and pruOentDirector of the 
larqcst Society of CJatholiciQen in thejScrantnuDiocesc. J^tHttJiVour own Qoat ofSrms and es- 
pecially your chosen (Hotto-QJ 5im.Hdelis,'-Ouit Jt (IJayjSe Kiithful^a sentence that we shaH striae 
euertiT remember as a quiding principle of our own lines. Igini't), 81 e haue chosen the Oational 
Smblcm of the Solu Qamc Societies of the morld, the representation of the Mouthful hiist, 
whom you have inculcated should be our first and last thouqht mid our exemplar. tM : 
WJfflf understand that if me are faithful to the teachings of CJhrisf. mho mas truly thciDcssins, we 
id (ID -shall haue done tor uou the greatest tai'orand compensate in some small degree for the labor and 
i'jiJ&uB sacrifice you haue shown inourbehnlf :^-^^^^^-^i-<^^x^^aa;iia^sss^asts^^^^^^^ 
it) $'{tUjiu f is tender mercu measure to you many years of fruitful seruice in §>is iiincynrd. ay 
all creeds learn to looe aiiS rcucrence you in the capital city of ' irgiu in and may you reflect much 

■ qloru and prestige on the dhurrh which is euer ancient but always new. the oldest Church iii.i^. 

wmssgi @\\nsttn$om, the. Otic- ooiji- Jarttplif • anib - ppostolic- § hui(h A m*m5m>m 
The § cmutoit i occtson ~ 






^pP 




preceding page. ) 



30 



>y/u?<^u&/ie^d?diMa&r & 



^ 


yf^~ 




vSs 


In / 






m 


' / 7 \ 


v Lusfc? 




W ' 1 


\ xr •. x^giiltigs^ 




Wy J 


d3^^^P 


y v 


%*-'\L<r 


This bird doss not have a name 


but it i 


s from the pen 


of Lupfer. 







J. F. Barnhart, a former student in 
the Zanerian, now with the Board of 
Education, Akron, O., paid us a visit 
during July and made a very inspir- 
ing address to our students. Mr. 
Barnhart dsecribed a plan of stimu- 
lating interest in handwriting which 
he inaugurated in the Akron Schools. 

We all enjoyed Mr. Barnhart's visit 
very much. 



Mr. J. A. Rushing, Pen Art instructor in 
the Tyler Commercial College. Tyler, Texas, 
sent us a specimen of engrossing executed by 
one of the students, J. R. Burns. The speci- 
men is quite a creditable piece of work espe- 
cially considering the fact that the young man 
has lost all of the fingers on his right hand 
with the exception of the index finger and 
thumb. We wish that we could have passed 
this specimen on to the readers for it is in- 
deed a big encouragement to see this excellent 
work from one who is so handicapped. 



A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

Tickets and Show Cards. It l! easy to do RAPID. CLEAN CUT LETTERING with our 
. MANY STUDENTS ARE ENABLED To CONT INUE THEIR STUDIES THROUGH 
THE COMPENSATION RECEIVED RY LETTERING PRICE TICKETS AND SHOW CARDS. FOR THE 
SMALLKR MERCHANT OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical lettering outfit conslstlne of 3 Marking and 
3 Shadine Pens 1 color of Lettering Ink. FStnpte Shmv Card In colors. Instructions, figures and alphabet! 
nald 11 00 PRACTICAL COMPENDIUM OK COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERING AND DESIGNS 
100 Pages Sill, containing 122 plates of Commercial Pen 
alphabet! finished show Cards In colors, etc. — a complete 
Instructor for the Marking and Shading Pen. prepaid. SI. 
THE NEWTON AUTOMATIC SHADING PEN CO. 
Dept B PONTIAC. MICH.. U.S.A. 




jj en£o|V) t3 



It epaax 




Try the NEW AND IMPROVED MAGNUSSON PROFESSIONAL PEN- 
HOLDERS. These new penholders are being made in both the straight and 
oblique styles. They are hand made of beautiful straight grained rosewood and are given a 
polish which is second to none. Each penholder has a beautiful ivory knob on end of stem and 
they are far more useful and beautiful than many penholders selling for nearly twice the price 
we ask. Buy direct from factory at factory prices. Made by 3 generations of penholder manu- 
facturers and used by the world's greatest penmen. Established 1874. 



OSCAR MAGNUSSON 



8- 



ch pla 



h 50c 

nlaid, each 75c 



208 N. Sth St., 
Quincy. III. 
cheaper grade sold in quantities to teachers and dealers. Write for prices. 



Teachers — 

The SOUTHERN SCHOOL JOl'RNAL is an exponent of the best in 
Education. Each issue contains articles under the following headings: 

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION. 

SCHOOL SUPERVISION. 

SCHOOL TECHNIQUE AND CLASS WORK. 

SCHOOL SPORTS ANT) GAMES. 
One dollar a year Published at Lexington, Ky. 




LEARN AT H0..1E. u^KlNG SPARE TIME 
Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free. Yuur 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W. 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg.. Kansas City. Mo. 



IT IS A FACT -That you 

can set and adjust your 
holder better than anyone else. Holder and 
3 clips $2.50. R. C. KING, 823 Met. Life 
Bldg.. Minneapolis. Minn. 





tauCSi 


m 




J ^&\r^$£jjfi^£$^>J* 






An Educational Journal 


of 




Real Merit 






Regular Departments 




p 


nmanship Arithmetic Civics 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 


p 


ice $1.50 per year. Sample on 


request 




PARKER PUBLISHING CO., 




Taylorville, 111. 





THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship and 
Commercial Education 
Contains Lessons in 
Business Writing 
Accounting 
Ornamental Writing 
Lettering 
Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
rly subscription price $1.25. Special 
i tea to schools and teachers. 



club 



npl. 



req n 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

55 Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 



The 

American 

Art Student 

AND COMMERCIAL ARTIST 

A monthly magazine of instruction for 
artists, photographers, ceramic workers, 
designers, teachers, figure-painters, illus- 
trators and retouchers. The largest circula- 
tion in America of any exclusively art- 



nthth 



SUBSCRIPTION 



Established 1916 



Sample Copy. 26c 



21 Park Row, NEW YORK CITY 



<!MJ38t*U/uM&6uxi&r & 



31 



WANTED 

A good road man ; one who can enroll st 
dents for a good School in a prog 
city. Do not want a Job Hunter. If you 
know you can make good will pay salary 
or commission or both. Will furnish car. 
If you are not a producer and do not ex- 
pect to work do not answer this ad. 

T. M. PARISH, President 
Draughon's Business College 

HOUSTON. TEXAS 



Home Study: High School, Bookkeeping. 
Shorthand. Typewriting, Normal. Engneer- 
ing. Higher Accountancy, Civil Service, 
Law, and other courses thoroughly taught 
by mail. Now is the time to enroll. Bul- 
letin free. Address. Carnegie College. 
Rogers, Ohio. 




rustic jfinrjnmmnri 



'.Resolutions, (Demorials, 
t <9C5timDiiiala. }r r 2rJ£"£-Ji 

'J Jllumirr.atirwj a -£>pccialty^fe 
'-^J itllomaa ]>?itri<xrrapficJ> arte. 311'fcb 

f EHM C GHEE 



M3 East Slate Street 



3raiW«E«B Oc 



BIRDIE, BIRDIE, OH LOOK 

1 am engrossing stanzas from popular 
authors and each is decorated with the pic- 
ture of a native bird, an owl, heron or 
meadowlark in natural colors. Artistic let- 
tering. Colored decorations. A beautiful 
gift. A superb specimen of pen art, suit- 
able for framing, size 6x8 inches. Some- 
thing new and very special. Choose your 
bird— owl. heron, or meadowlark, and en- 
close $1.50. Satisfaction or your money 
back. A. L. HICKMAN 

Route 1 Wichita, Kansas 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 



Gillott's Pens 
regards Tempe 



land in the front 
Elasticity and Du 



ability 



JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field & Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 



Last month we sj 
accounting. The appli 
plicant accepted. And 

The spring fresne 



HE ACCEPTED $4500 

that one of our clients offered one of c 
nt hesitated, then suggested $4500. The 
iafs that! 
in Position Ri 



help 



s now rising. Shakespeare says: "Tl 
tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune." May 
you launch your boat> 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. (A Specialty by a Specialist) Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mas 



of high 
desired. 



ed te 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE 

dered by THE OHIO TEACHER'S BUREAU in finding for trained and 
i or those just out of college or normal school the kind of positions 
:ome direct from school officials and we recommend direct. Thousands 
of school officials all over the country can testify to the value of our direct method of 
presenting credentials of candidates for their study prior to sending anv notices to the 
candidates. The superintendent thus eliminates all candidates who do not fully meet his 
requirements. Write for booklet at once. We operate in every state. 

THE OHIO TEACHER'S BUREAU 

71 EAST STATE STREET COLUMBUS, OHIO 

TEACHERS, We Place You in the BETTER POSITIONS 

ROCKY MT. TEACHERS' AGENCY — Wm. Ruffer, Ph. D., Mgr., 410 U. S. Nat'l Bank Bldg., 
Denver, Colo. Branch Agencies: Portland. Ore.; Minneapolis, Minn.: Kansas City. Mo. 
Largest Teachers' Agency in the West. We Enroll Only Normal and College Graduates. 

Photo copies made from original. 25 for $1.50. Booklet, "How To Apply and Secure Promo- 
tion, with Laws of Certification of Western States, etc.. etc., etc.," free to members, 50c 
to non-members. Every teacher needs it. Write today for enrollment card and information. 



ALBERT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. Symes Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

535 Fifth Ave., New York City Peyton Bldg., Spokane, Wash. 

Forty-second year. We have secured PROMOTION for many thousands of 
teachers. A large percentage of these were men and women in COMMERCIAL 
BRANCHES. We need well prepared teachers for good position in high 
grade schools. Our booklet contains a message for you. Send for it. 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS — 

BUSINESS COLLEGES FOR SALE 



Splendid salaries, choice pos 
Write for free literature; st 
colleges for sale. Write for particulars — i 
Address M. S. COLE, Sec'y. 



beginning and experienced teachers w 
alifications briefly. Money making bu 



CO-OPERATIVE INSTRUCTORS ASSN. 41 Cole Bldg., MARION, 



High -Class Business College 
Instructors in Demand 

We have on file some very attractive business college openings, calling 
for high-type men and women with teaching experience. If you are 
interested in a change, write us for a registration blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



QUALITY POSITIONS 

A trained organization and contact with school 
officials in every part of the country enables us to 
place commercial teachers in the finest positions. If 
you want a better place now, or for the coming 
school year, write for full details. 



Specialists' Educational Bureau 




Robert A. Grant, President, 



Shubert Realto Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 



32 



>y/u--jtiuM'/ujjC</tKa/<r* *§* 




ok "The Courtney Contest" 



By F. B. C 

ill be 



. the wizard of Detroit, Michigan 
the Oc tober issue. We have a si 




COMMERCIAL TEACHER 

Where the Ability of an Expert 

PENMAN and ENGROSSER 

Will Be Appreciated. 

Address Box 6115. care Business Educator 

Columbus, Ohio. 



Meub's Professional 

Black Ink 

The Ink Supreme for Ornamental 
Writing and all fine Penmanship 

Made expressly for the Professional Penmen of America. 
Nothing like it has ever been on the market. An entirely new 
ready-to-use ink that will not smudge. Writes black and stays 
black. It produces rich black shades and fine hair-lines. 
Put up in a special bottle with wide opening for use of an oblique 

penholder. 50c per bottle. Mailing charge LOc extra 

SPECIAL— One Bottle of Ink and ' 4 Gross Meub's Professional 

Shading Pens sent postpaid $1.00 



A. P. Meub 



PENMANSHIP SPECIAl is I 



■152 NORTH HILL AVKN'l'K 



I'ASADKXA. CALIF. 



Mr. Brunet, 446 St. Jean Baptiste 
St., Saint Boniface, Man., whose sig- 
nature appears above is considered by 
us to be one of the finest penmen in 
Canada. He was formerly inspector in 
the schools at Winnipeg, but now has 
charge of French classes in the Mani- 
toba Summer School. 

(',. K. has a brother J. O. whom he 
acknowledges as being the better pen- 
man. The Brunet "boys" are enthusi- 
astic penmen. 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

>h« & 



(formerly the St 

Phonograph! 

A monthly magazine < 

departments of Commerc 







il Education. 
lided over by 



business 
,nd eourl 
The Only Magaz 
Single coj>y 15c. 



mmercial educ 

nistratior, 

c[ irtin 



Journal of Commercial Kducation 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia. Pa. 



<J/u>j(JfSj//ujjCW/s<:a/tr & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit, 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. AH such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 



Principles of Effective Letter Writing;, 

by Lawrence C. Lockley. Published 
by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New 
York. Cloth cover, 344 pages. 

"My own experience has given me a glimpse 
both of the letter as it is used in business, and 
of the problems that must be met in teaching 
letter craftsmanship both to students and to 
people already in business. I have taught stu- 
dents what they can learn about business and 
letters in the classroom. I have, as a corre- 
spondence counselor, tried to teach busy dicta- 
tors how to write better letters. I have worked 
as direct-advertising specialist in designing 
and executing direct-mail campaigns, and in 
directing sharpshooting campaigns. Then, too, 
I have faced the daily grind of routine corre- 
spondence. 

If, from this experience. I have been able to 
extract the essence and put it before my read- 
ers in this book, then the book will supply its 
readers with a background of information 
about letters as they are used in business, and 
will encourage and direct their own construct- 
ive thinking about letter writing and its prob- 
lems. If I have been able to do this, the book 
will be equally helpful in the business office 
and in the classroom." 

(Signed) LAWRENCE C. LOCKLEY. 



Principles of Education, by Philip R. 
V. Curoe, Ph. D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Education, Hunter College. 
Published by the Globe Book Com- 
pany, New York. Cloth cover, 160 
pages. 

This compact treatment of the principles of 
education is designed to make accessible to 
prospective teachers, teachers in service, and 
supervisors, the theoretical basis of progressive 
educational practice. The material included 
here is usually found scattered over texts in 
philosophy of education, technique of teaching, 
school hygiene, educational measurements, and 
class management. The basis of selection and 
organization might be called pragmatic, i. v., 
such as will adjust theoretical considerations 
to the stern demands of actual teaching, sup- 
ervision, and administration. 

References for substantiation of statements 
made and for further study have been inter- 
spersed in the body of the text by mentioning 
the names of the authors. In all such cases, 
the exact title and section are given at the end 
of the chapter. For self-testing, and to vitalize 
the recitation, questions have been given for 
each chapter, some requiring topical reports 
on assigned reading. In addition, a false-true 
test is given at the end of the book. 



Selections from American Authors, 

printed in the advanced state of Pit- 
man's Shorthand. Published by Sir 
Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., New 
York, N. Y. 

The contents of this book are as follows : 

The Buccaneer's Treasure (Washington Ir- 
ving). 

My Editing (Mark Twain). 

A Venerable Impostor (Bret Harte). 

The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table (Oli- 
ver Wendell Holmes). 

The Way to Wealth (Benjamin Franklin). 

The Tell-Tale Heart (Edgar Allan Poe I . 

Greatness in Common Life (W. E. Chan- 
ning) . 

The Story of a Drum (Bret Harte). 

The Procession of Life (Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne) . 

A Melting Story (Mark Twain). 

The Professor at the Breakfast Table (Oli- 
ver Wendell Holmes). 



Guide to Educational and General 
Psychology, by John P. Wynne, 
Head of Department of Education 
and Director of Teacher Training-, 
State Teachers College, Farmville, 
Va. Published by the Globe Book 
Company, New York. Cloth cover, 
85 pages. 

The present work is the outgrowth of the 
employment, foi several years, of questions as 
a basis of si udj in high school and 
work. The idea of combining such material in 
a pei niainiii form, oi asking questions and 
stilting problems I hat. are the students' very 
own, and of arranging a basis for direction 
of study and democratic discussion as a con- 
scious procedure, was suggested by the meth- 
ods em p loy ed in t h ■ ■ Ph i lose >p h v < > I Education 
by Dr. William H. Kilpatrick. Professor of 
Education. Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity. THE GUIDE TO EDUCATIONAL AND 
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY was first published 
early in 1922 as a syllabus. Every topic and 
every question has been revised many times. 
Such an organization of material has been 
made possible by the continued repetition, two 
or three times a year, of two courses— one in 
educational and the other in general psychol- 
ogy, at the Mississippi Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College. Especially helpful has been 
the work of the students in these classes in 
raising questions and formulating problems. 
In fact, many of the questions are those asked 
by the students themselves. All of them em- 
body an effort to approach the subject from 
the standpoint of the student who is taking 
his first courses in psychology. The main ob- 
jective has been 1-/ lead the student to appre- 
ciate the scientific methods of investigation. 
However, the work outlined has been found 
sufficiently comprehensive to leave him with a 
much better perspective than any course con- 
fined to a 3ingle text-book. It is flexible 
enough to offer room for the more extensive 
investigation of advanced classes and the ma- 
turer individuals of any class. 



How and Why Practice Makes Perfect, 

by Arthur G. Skeeles, Supervisor of 
Writing in Columbus, Ohio, Public 
Schools, formerly Editor, The Busi- 
ness Educator. Paper covers, 114 
pages. One of the Gregg Educa- 
tional Monographs. The Gregg Pub- 
lishing Co., New York and Chicago. 

The author attempts to analyze the factors 
which make for improvement as a result of 
practice. ''Repetition makes proficient," he sug- 
gests, rather than "Practice Makes Perfect." 
Among the points stressed as being necessary 
in order that improvement shall result from 
practice are these : 

1. Practice should be consciously directed 
during all the time that improvement is de- 
sired ; because whenever execution is allowed 
to become automatic, improvement ceases. 

2. The practice required to break habits is 
very different from the practice required to 
form new habits. This points to a different 
method in teaching writing to little children 
from the method used in improving the writ- 
ing of adults. 

3. The states of mind of the learner while 
practicing are very important. The author 
analyzes these states at some length, pointing 
out the conditions making for improvement. 

This book should be of special interest to 
teachers of handwriting, shorthand, and type- 
writing, from which most of the illustrations 
are drawn ; but as the author points out in the 
preface, the principles discussed are applicable 
"in a large measure to such 'intellectual' learn- 
ing as committing the multiplication table to 
memory, learning to solve problems in algebra, 
or acquiring skill in literary composition." 



Motion Picture Writing in Kindergar- 
ten and First Grade, by Corinne E. 
Martin, Teacher of Handwriting, 
Public Schools, Washington, D. C. 

i torial department has just received 

a nine-page pamphlet written by Miss Corinne 
result of a visit made to 
JTork and Columbia University schools 
u for id*' purpose of making a first- 
hand study of How may the department of 
penmanship contribute to the unification of 
Kindergarten and Firsl Grade." Any one inter- 
ested in this phase of the work will find much 
worth-while material in this pamphlet. Miss 
Martin maj bi reached at the Mvrtilla Miner 
Normal School, Washington, V. C. 



Applied Punctuation, by Charles G. 
Keigner, A.B., LL.B. Published by 
the H. M. Rowe Company, Balti- 
more, Maryland. Paper cover, 72 
pages. 

This book is based on an extensive quantita- 
tive study of the punctuation marks as used in 
modern writing. The punctuation marks are 
taught in the order of their frequency of oc- 
currence and difficulty of use, as determined 
by that study. Since the comma is tin- most 
frequently used mark of punctuation and the 
one which occasions the greatest difficulty. 
nearly one-half the lessons are devoted to tne 



AM ihe uses of the comma are taught first— 
i" tilt i. 'i n lessons— and the other marks are 
then taught in the order of their frequency 
and difficulty, apostrophe, quotation marks. 
on, colon, question mark, exclamation 
mark, period, hyphen, dash, parentheses, 'two 
lessons are devoted to the proper use of capital 
letters. 

Applied Punctuation is a pad of 72 pages— 
7 '-j inches by 11 inches. There are 35 lessons 
in the pad. Each lesson consists of a single 
perforated sheet. The explanatory matter is 
given on the upper part of the sheet. The il- 
lustrative sentences are printed on the lower 
part of the sheet below the perforation, and 
the Test sentences, to which the pupil applies 
the results of his study and observation, are 
printed on the reverse side of the sheet. 

The student simply inserts punctuation 
marks in the sentences in the Test, writes his 
name in the space provided, detaches the sheet 
at the perforation, and hands in his work for 
inspection. No longhand writing is required. 



Thankful Blossom, A Romance of the 
Jerseys, 1779, by Bret Harte. Print- 
ed in the Advanced Stage of Pitman 
Shorthand. Published by Isaac Pit- 
man & Sons, New York, N. Y. 



New Dictation Course by Charles G. 
Reigner. Copyright 1927. Published 
by The H. M. Rowe Company, Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

NEW DICTATION COURSE is a practice 
book for students. It contains a wide variety 
of letters representative of the literature of 
modern business ; in addition, there are many 
original articles which discuss in easy, narra- 
tive fashion matters of English, punctuation, 
and letter writing. 

The Introduction of the book contains The 
Thousand Commonest Words in shorthand and 
in print, followed by letters in which are used 
only words that are among the thousand com- 
monest. 

One of the important features of the book is 
the careful grading of its material. The stu- 
dent is led by easy steps from short and easy 
letters to longer and more difficult dictation. 
Among the features of the book that are par- 
ticularly helpful are the plans for teaching 
punctuation and developing a business vocabu- 
lary, the informative footnotes, and the short- 
hand dictionary. The Style Letters in Parts 
One and Two illustrate all forms of letter 
arrangement. 

Part Three of the book consists of letters 
and articles which are written entirely in 
shorthand. Appendix A, Punctuation, and Ap- 
pendix B. the Glossary, are an integral part of 
the working apparatus of the book. Through 
his study and practice of the material in NEW 
DICTATION COURSE, the pupil is taught to 
apply his knowledge of the "theory" of short- 
hand to the writing of connected matter ; and 
at the same time specific training is given in 
those phases of English that are directly ap- 
plicable to the transcribing of shorthand. 



34 



^MJ&u4//i^&&KO&r & 





our removal, on Cllav 1st, to 



corner v_^ of Montague St. " 

anb to mark another step in the aroroth of a 
business *bcvoteo to the practical art of engross 
ino, anb illuminating as required bo^many^ of 
the leafcino, organizations of our Cito^, 

(Expert craftsmanship anb intimteb $twitt" 

the principles on rohich this establishment was 
fbuubcb have resulteo in oner fbrtr^ y^cars of 
consistent progress anb roc bclicuc that the h 
coutinueb application of this maxim voill re^ 
suit in still greater advancement 

Qi3c take this occasion to thank our custom 
crs for past favors anb trust that roc mav^ con- 
tinue to serve them at our nciv stubio where 
improveb facilities voill enable us to meet tire 
most exacting requirements. 



3Umm*£lBatri> 




of change of lo 



Jt by the Dennis & Baird Studio. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



^ <^Me&uJS/t&i^&/£UMfcr 



35 




2/ 



pillar EnfmrMallR 




>o ..ill to wlvm tllO 



presents muv 



Greeting 



^^,' JO dii expression of rlie hyh personal esteem 
1_ dii}> tr.ironiul roaurV hi vrliicli S&rrtijcr" 

SliinwsMiuntrr 

who.«erve> as 2Ikir$fii|rfnl ULtstrr of JVslilar Yntiyr 

"KU.3118. XI: oVA.Hl, >uri.y rl* vcar I'JH is lvl> 
I J. . -tl": ...N I ...v :.. :►: j 



Hv 



f 

Kv tlw officers an^ members, otto in recognition of 
wiliutMo services Ik Ivts renVreo to ni\s to\je 

This Testimonial 

?f its appreciation or-Jiij efiorts in rlie causey 

of ?lL.isoiivv is ^aiittehillv uwur>cO. an> our r>esr- 

voislics for liis coittiimcci 

(l5miDlif.ilrl|.ii]appinrs«5 .iitti yrnajirrity. 

t1iicaao,cMlhtois.?Io\vmber S1925 

fe>/w. /'////:>/<■/■ I 

^y Soorotaxr 




Miss Gladys Christensen of Des 

Moines is a new commercial teacher 
in the Guttenberg, Iowa, High School. 

Miss Helen Ringold, for several 
years head of the Secretarial Depart- 
ment of Nasson Institute, Springvale, 
Maine, has recently accepted a posi- 
tion as head of the Commercial De- 
partment of the Sanford, Maine, High 
School. 



Miss Marion Jacka, for several years 
commercial teacher in the High School 
at Freeport, 111., and Miss Laura Ab- 
bott, last year with the High School 
at Hyannis, Mass., are two new com- 
mercial teachers in the Lansingburgh 
High School, Troy, N. Y. 

Miss R. T. Slack of Hatboro, Pa., is 
a new commercial teacher in the Mor- 
risville, Pa., High School. 




NEVER 

Such a Text for 
Commercial Students! 

Here concentrated between two coven 
moil' arithmetical training on practical 
business problems and topics than you 
get anywhere else in any one publication. 
Whether you are concerned with the mai 
agement of a school, or with that of 
single department or of a class, this book- 
will in a very short time give your gradu- 
ates a remarkable urasp of Arithmetic 
Busin. ss. 

Whether you are now usins an Arithmetic. 
or are contemplating usintr one. or adopt- 
ie, this book has a real n 
geforyou. It will bringyou BIG RESULTS. 




non-glare stock, 
i a De Luxe cloth. 
OTHER EFFECTIVE TITLES 
Practical Law By Burritt Hamilton, 
LL.B. Prepared especially to meet the 
needs of a Practical Law course ; 
pages, 29 chapters. Sample copy, net, post- 
paid % 

Practical Law Quiz Manual By BURRITT 
Hamilton. LL.B. Contains 156 pages and 
is an invaluable aid to the experienced i 
inexperienced Law teacher. Net. post- 
paid $1 

Rapid Calculation By B. B. Smith. B.C.S. 
100 lessons which are carefully graded and 
designed to teach the value of accuracy. 
Sample copy, bound in book form, net. 

postpaid $.50 

Vocabulary Method of Training Touch 
Typists By C. E. Birch. B Sci. in Ed., 
M.A. A text of 108 pages divided into five 
parts which teaches typewriting without 
waste of time on needless drill. Sample 

copy, net, postpaid $.75 

Accuracy Plus By C. E. Bincii. For £ 
vanced typist students who are prepari 
themselves to turn out a Quality typewrit- 
ten product. Sample copy, net, postpaid $.45 
Effective English and Letter Writing 
Hv Kennedy and Bridges, Specialists 
Business English. A text of 150 pages well 
illustrated, containing 47 assignments, ac- 
companied by an Exercise Pad of 80 pages. 
Sample copy of Textbook, net, postpaid $.55 
Exercise Tablet, net, postpaid $.50 

_MAII^THIS_COUPON_ 
Free Examination Offer 

Ellis Publishing Company, 
Battle Creek, Michigan. 

Send me a copy of Arithmetic for Bus 

nesa t $1.25 postpaid) and 

Within 30 days after receipt of the book 

(or books) , I will send you $ 

or return the samples. 

Please mention other titles that interest you 

Name 

School Address 

City State 



WHAT TEACHERS SAY ABOUT 

NEW DICTATION COURSE 

A Practice Book for Students 

By Charles G. Reigner. A.B., LL.B. 

Author of SECRETARIAL TRAINING, APPLIED TYPING, 
APPLIED PUNCTUATION, ETC. 

"This is undoubtedly the finest piece of literature for developing speed and accuracy in shorthand 
that has ever come to my attention. It is far superior in my estimation to anything else on the market 
today."* 

"NEW DICTATION COURSE is splendid— better than ever, and that is saying a lot."* 

"NEW DICTATION COURSE is the most popular book we have had for a long time. Our stu- 
dents are delighted with it."* 

"This is one of the best books I have ever seen on any subject. You give the student a good founda- 
tion in the drill on the One Thousand Commonest Words, and you go from the easy to the hard dicta- 
tion gradually. The information for the student about to enter the business world is invaluable. You 
have gotten right down into the seat with the pupil in this book."* 

* Names sent on request. 

Cleveland, Toledo, and Pittsburgh, with many other school systems and business schools, have al- 
ready adopted NEW DICTATION COURSE— and the book was published late in June. 

Special Teachers' Price, $1.05 

Send for our new booklet, "Maying Shorthand Teaching Resultful." 



77ns/ /-f.77Z/Jv5>tAAE/&o. 



BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 




olume XXXIII 



OCTOBER, 1927 



Number II 



The 

BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

PENMANSHIP ENGROSSING 
BUSINESS EDUCATION 




ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Published monthly except July and August at 612 N. Park St., Columbus, O.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered as second-class matter 
Sept. 5, 1923, at the post office at Columbus. O.. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Subscription $1.25 a year. 



^ tSffi^&uJ/n&tt'tsdu&i&r* 




CORRELATKD HANDWRITING COMPENDIUMS 

For Grades 1 to l> 

By FRANK N. FREEMAN and others 
List Price $1.60 dozen. Single Copies by mail 15c. 
Complete Set Compendiums by mail 80c. 
Complete Set Compendiums and Teachers' Manuals $1.50 




COMPENDIUMS and 

TEACHERS' MANUALS 

By Frank N. Freeman and Others 

"Sweeping the Country" 

This series combines the results of 
twenty years of scientific experimen- 
tation and of a generation of practical 
experience. 

For further information regarding 
the latest and most up-to-date series 
of writing books for the elementary 
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The Zaner-Bloser Company 

Columbus, Ohio 



ORDER BLANK 

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Handwriting Publishers Since 1895 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 




tu//ujjC't6uu/sr & 



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The new course for 
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Complete Correspondence Course furnished every 
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For an interesting assortment, send 10c for 
10 fine Spencerians and a complimentary cork- 
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New York City 



Book Reviews 

Descriptive Economics, by R. A. Leh- 
feldt, D.Sc., Professor of Economics 
in the University of the Witwaters- 
rand, Johannesburg. Published by 
the Oxford University Press, Amer- 
ican Branch, New York. Cloth 
cover, 112 pages. 

This is a new series of introductory vol- 
umes, designed not only to give the student 
who is undertaking a special study some 
idea of the landmarks which will guide him. 
but also to make provision for the great 
body of genera! readers who are sufficiently 
alive to the value of reading to welcome 
authoritative and scholarly work, if it is 
presented to them in terms of its human 
interest and in a simple style and moderate 
compass. 



How to Read a Profit and Loss State- 
ment, by Herbert G. Stockwell, Cer- 
tified Public Accountant (Pa. and N. 
Y.): member of the firm of Stock- 
well, Wilson and Linvill, member of 
the Philadelphia Bar. Published by 
the Ronald Press Company, New 
York. Cloth cover, 411 pages. 

This work is a companion volume to the 
author's previous work, entitled "How to 
Read a Financial Statement." In that vol- 
ume the main purpose is to explain the 
meaning of the different kinds of asset. 
liability, capital stock and surplus items, 
just as they appear in balance sheets of 
business concerns, and to show how to an- 
alyze the financial condition of merchants 
and manufacturers from their own state- 
ments as of given dates. 

But a balance sheet at a particular date 
does not show what the flow of income and 
outgo has been in the business, and whether 



the result was profitable or unprofitable, 
excepting so far as the gains and losses 
have brought about changes in the asset 
and liability items from the date of the 
previous statement. To show the flow it- 
self is the peculiar function of the profit 
and loss statement, discussed and analyzed 
in these pages. 

While a few of the larger corporations 
have for years published profit and loss 
statements in more or less complete detail, 
this has not been the general practice, but 
the complexity of modern business methods, 
entirely unknown until within recent years. 
and also the increasing number of classes 
of ownership through mergers, consolida- 
tions and affiliations of corporations, have 
brought about a growing desire on the part 
of shareholders, bondholders, bankers, cred- 
it grantors and others, as well as the man- 
agements themselves, to know more about 
the earning power of the business in which 
they are interested. More and more it is 
being realized that a study of the accounts 
of the operations of a business is very nec- 
essary in the analysis of its present condi- 
tion and its outlook for the future, and 
with that realization much more attention 
is being given on the part of concerns to 
the preparation of profit and loss, earnings 
and income statements for publication. 

It is the purpose of this volume to ex- 
plain the meaning of those statements: 
what is or should be found in them: how 
many things not usually associated with 
the profit and loss statement bear directly 
upon it; how it acts and reacts u-on the 
balance sheet: and how to analyze the 
many various kinds of profit and loss state- 
ments now issued, privately or publicly, by 
concerns of various sizes and operating in 
different lines of industry. 



Half Hours With Popular Authors. 

Printed in the Advanced Stage of 
Pitman's Shorthand, Compiled by 
A. Jeffrey Munro. Published by 



Isaac Pitman & Sons, New York. 
Paper cover, 64 pages. 

The Table of Contents is as follows: On 
Books. Life of a Happy Man, Micawber's 
Advice, Happy Go Lucky. Ignorant. Won- 
ders of Science, After the Battle of Trafalgar. 
The Quiet of Country Life. The Centipede, 
The Sweet Things of This World, Life is 
Sweet. For Services Rendered, A Queen 
Passes By, The Orphan Quotation, A Won- 
derful Morning. Oh. For A Book, A Clever 
Retort. Making Up Time. Farewell to Lon- 
don. Harris As a Singer, Lochinvar. Peter. 
A Task. Going a Journey. Ships That Pass, 
Mrs. Partington, Wasted Day, A Walk in 
Westminister Abbey. The Irish Cob, The 
Death of Nelson, A Townsman's Letter to a 
Country Poet. Mr. Jingle on Dogs, Account 
of the Great Fire of London, Time, The 
Malignant Coin. Johnsoniana. A "Mental 
Test." A Story About Coleridge. An Even- 
ing Wind. Winter, A Great Teacher. The 
Knight Without Fear. What Happened 
Down the Rabbit-Hole, and the Songs of 



(See page 33.) 



Miss 

Bussey 
positioi 



Early! 



A. Haahr. re 

High School, 
the 



:itly with the 



to tea 

in, N. J., the 
J. Currie of 

1 teacher in the 
Ark.. Business College. 

Mrs. Stella Billups of Keckul 
now teaching in the Wausau B 



High School 
g year. 
In. Neb., is a 
he Pine Bluff. 



Wa 



Wi 



Mi: 



Ma 



Ruth O. Davenport of Ne 



al teacher 



ln- 

Bedford. 
the 



Hele 



McKi: 



High School. 
,. Warren, recently with the 
High School, Honolulu, is a new 
al teacher in the Bridgeport, Conn- 
High School. 

Miss Ethel Smith of Kenton, Ohio, has 
recently been engaged to teach the coming 
year in the Pottsville. Pa., Business Col- 
lege. 



t^^&u&ned^&diMa&r & 



Zaner & Bloser Method Writing Manual 96 

THE BOOK FOR YOUR CLASSES 




Zaner and Bloser Method Writing 
Manual 96. Size 4%x8%, 96 pages. 
Price 25c each. Per dozen, $2.40 

The penmanship examples are some smaller 
in size than are those in our other similar 
work — Manual 144. 

The first ten pages contain numerous illus- 
trations, and fully explain the essentials of 



success in learning to write, such as correct 
position, movement, speed, etc. 

Then follows a very complete course of pen- 
manship copies and instruction consisting of 
135 lessons. 

In addition, it contains many pages of ap- 
plied writing, such as business forms, para- 
graphs, letter writing — a most valuable lot of 
material for advanced penmanship students. 
It is intended for use in Junior and Senior 
High Schools, Business Colleges, Parochial 
Schools, Commercial Departments and Gram- 
mar Grades ; in fact, for all schools, whether 
public or private, where a neat, legible, 
rapid handwriting is desired. It is also a 
complete guide for home students. 



Write for complete catalog of books on penmanship and penmanship supplies. 

Zaner & Bloser Company 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Metropolitan 

Business 

Speller 



New Edition 
By U. G. Potter 
McKinley High School 
Chicago 



Over 6000 w 
to Aeroplanes 
pages, attracti 



containing words pertaining 
Radio. Automobiles, etc. Complete Index, 244 
je binding, 50 cents. 



A Superior Speller 



Twofold Design. In the preparation of the Metropolitan 
Business Speller we had constantly in mind two objects: 
first, to teach the pupil to spell, and second to enlarge hie 
vocabulary, especially of words in general use. 

Classification of Words. As an aid to the memory we have 
classified words, as regards sounds, syllabication, accents and 
meaning. We have grouped the words relating to each par- 
ticular kind of business into lessons, by which the student is 
enabled to familiarize himself with the vocabulary of that 
business. We have interspersed miscellaneous exercises in the 
nature of reviews. We have grouped words that can best be 
learned by comparisons, such as Stationery and Stationary. 

Abbreviations of states, months, railways and commercial 
terms are given in regular lesson form, and grouped alpha- 
bet Icftlly, We regard abbreviating of almost equal importance 
with spelling. 

Syllabication and pronunciation are shown by the proper 
division of words, and the use of the diacritical marks. The 
words are printed in bold type, and the definitions in lighter 
face, so as to bring out the appearance of the word. — an aid 
in sight spelling. 



Metropolitan 
System of 
Bookkeeping 



New Edition 

By 

W. A. Sheaffer 



You Will Like It. The text emphasizes the thought 
the subject. It stimulates and encourages the 
power of the pupil. Pupils acquire a knowledge of the sub- 
ject as well as facility in the making of entries. It is a 
thoroughly seasoned, therefore accurate, text supported by 
complete Teachers' Reference Books, and Teachers' Manual. 

Parts I and II text is an elementary course suitable for 
any school in which the subject is taught. Two semesters 
are required in High Schools and a correspondingly shorter 
time in more intensified courses. 



Parts III and IV text is suitable for an advanced 
following any modern elementary text. We make the state- 
ment without hesitation, that this is the most teachable, 
most up-to-date, and strongest text published for advanced 
bookkeeping and elementary accounting use. 

?her unit is bound in heavy 
II of Part IV. It is a complete 
in Corporation accounting, including instructions, set of 
transactions, exercises, problems, etc. It is without doubt 
the best text for this part of your accounting course. List 
prices. Text. 120 pages. 40 cents. Supplies, including Blank 
Books and Papers. 95 cents. 



Corporation-M fg.- Vo 



paper 



EXAMINATION COPIES will be submitted upon request. 



METROPOLITAN TEXT BOOK COMPANY 



iaisu^cu CHICAG0 



<3fi^<3£uj*su?jj &6u*i/4rr* *§* 



Gregg Shorthand 

Wins Again 

In the National Shorthand Reporters 1 Associ- 
ation Speed Contest, held in San Antonio, 
Texas, on August 16, Mr. Martin J. Dupraw 
won permanent possession of the World's 
Championship Trophy, by winning the con- 
test for the third successive time. 

Tabulation of Results 






Errors at 
220 Words 
a Minute 


Errors at 

260 Words 

a Minute 


Errors at 

280 Words 

a Minute 


Martin J. Dupraw 


7 


40 


12 


Charles Lee Swem 


20 


* 


10 


Nathan Behrin 


34 


* 


22 



*Did not qualify on this test. 
MARTIN J. DUPRAW 

The World's Highest Shorthand Speed 
Records Are Held by Writers of Gregg Shorthand 

282 Words a Minute (Court Testimony) 

Charles Lee Swem — accuracy 99.29% 
260 Words a Minute (Jury Charge) 

Martin J. Dupraw — accuracy 99.69% 
220 Words a Minute (Literary Matter) 

Martin J. Dupraw — accuracy 99.81% 

(held jointly with two others) 
215 Words a Minute (Literary Matter) 

Albert Schneider — accuracy 98.32% 
200 Words a Minute (Literary Matter) 

Charles Lee Swem — accuracy 99.50% 

(Tied with one other) 

Average accuracy — 99.29 % 

All records were made in the Championship Contests of the National Shorthand 
Reporters' Association. 

The World's Shorthand Championship has been won five times in succession by 
Gregg writers. 

Six of the last seven World's Championship Contests have been won by writers of 
Gregg Shorthand. 

For Speed — Accuracy — Simplicity — Gregg leads the world. 

THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO TORONTO LONDON 



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reporting. 

This course is in charge of expert and ex' 
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from $250 a month and up. 

Beginning and advanced students can en- 
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today for free 64-page Book of Facts. 

GREGG SCHOOL 

225 North Wabash Avenue 
Chicago, Illinois 



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THE 
Study of Pitman 

Shorthand 

The study of Pitman 
Shorthand provides material 
assistance in the mastery of 
English. Isaac Pitman, emi- 
nent student of the funda- 
mentals of English speech, 
invented shorthand princi- 
ples that were simple, scien- 
tific and precise, and based 
them upon the structure of 
the English language. 

As a result of this, Pit- 
man Shorthand, unlike 
other systems, is a direct aid 
in the elimination of incor- 
rect syllabication, poor pro- 
nunciation, and general mis- 
use of English. 

The practicability of Pit- 
man Shorthand for the ver- 
b a t i m reproduction o f 
spoken English has resulted 
in its being almost the sole 
means of recording the pro- 
ceeding of Congresses, Par- 
liments, Courts — wherever 
accurate recording of speech 
is necessary — throughout 
the English speaking world. 

Isaac Pitman & Sons 

2 West Forty-fifth St., New York City 




/ta^t 




Volume 33 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, OCTOBER, 1927 



No. II 



A SUGGESTION TO YOUNG 
PEOPLE 

I have frequently said in speaking 
to my classes here, that if I had my 
life to live over again, I don't know 
what I could do that would afford 
me more pleasure, and at the same 
time a living, which, by the way, is 
about all we get out of this life — than 
the study of nice, fine penmanship; I 
enjoy it — I love it, and while I am a 
very busy man, looking after my vari- 
ous interests, yet I always find time 
to do a little lettering, practicing a 
little ornamental writing and teach- 
ing others as best I can "to push the 
pen" with ease and skill. 

(Signed) L. C. McCann, 
McCann School of Business, 
Reading, Pa. 

Mr. McCann is a successful commercial 
school man having conducted a number of 
very successful schools. Possibly very few 
school presidents write as well as Mr. Mc- 
Cann. Had he selected penmanship as his 
profession he would have made a success of 
it. financially and otherwise. Young men 
and women who are interested in penman- 
ship need not hesitate to become skillful in 
penmanship. 



A PRAYER FOR TEACHERS 

By GLENN FRANK, President Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin 



997c FOR WIATT! 

R. E. Wiatt, the widely known su- 
pervisor of handwriting in the Los 
Angeles city schools, has proved time 
and again that he is one of the most 
efficient men in this work, judging 
from the results he secures from his 
pupils. 

At the close of Miss Swope's 1927 
summer school, Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia, Mr. Wiatt sent us 212 papers 
to be examined for penmanship certi- 
ficates and out of that number, the 
work of 210 was found up to stand- 
ard. That is very nearly 100% and 
we congratulate Mr. Wiatt on the 
good work he accomplished. His pu- 
pils are also to be congratulated for 
what they have accomplished under 
his instruction. 

Mr. Wiatt reported that his classes 
were the largest he ever had. 



LORD of Learning and of Learn- 
ers, we are at best but blunderers in 
this Godlike business of teaching. 

Our shortcomings shame us, for we 
are not alone in paying the penalty 
for them; they have a sorry immoral- 
ity in the maimed minds of those 
whom we, in our blundering, mislead. 

We have been content to be mer- 
chants of dead yesterdays, when we 
should have been guides into unborn 
tomorrows. 

We have put conformity to old cus- 
toms above curiosity about new ideas. 

We have thought more about our 
subject than our object. 

We have been peddlers of petty ac- 
curacies, when we should have been 
priests and prophets of abundant liv- 
ing. 

We have schooled our students to 
be clever competitors in the world as 
it is, when we should have been help- 
ing them to become creative co-oper- 
ators in the making of the world as 
it is to be. 

We have regarded our schools as 
training camps for an existing society 
to the exclusion of making them 
working models of an evolving so- 
ciety. 

We have counted knowledge more 
precious than wisdom. 

We have tried to teach our stu- 
dents what to think instead of how 
to think. 

We have thought it our business to 
furnish the minds of our students, 
when we should have been laboring 
to free their minds. 

And we confess that we have fallen 
into these sins of the school room be- 
cause it has been the easiest way. It 
has been easier to tell our students 
about the motionless past that we can 
learn once for all than to join with 
them in trying to understead the mov- 



ing present that must be studied 
afresh eaeh morning. 

From these sins of sloth may we be 
freed. 

May we realize that it is important 
to know the past only that we may 
live wisely in the present. 

Help us to be more interested in 
stimulating the builders of modern 
cathedrals than in retailing to stu- 
dents the glories of ancient temples. 

Give us to see that a student's mem- 
ory should be a tool as well as a 
treasure chest. 

Help us to say "do" oftener than 
we say "don't ". 

May we so awaken interest that 
discipline will be less and less neces- 
sary. 

Help us to realize that, in the deep- 
est sense, we cannot teach anybody 
anything; that the best we can do is 
to help them to learn for themselves. 

Save us from the blight of special- 
ism; give us reverance for our mate- 
rials, that we may master the facts 
of our particular fields, but help us 
to see that all facts are dead until 
they are related to the rest of know- 
ledge and to the rest of life. 

May we know how to "relate the 
coal scuttle to the universe." 

Help us to see that education is, 
after all, but the adventure of trying 
to make ourselves at home in the 
modern world. 

May we be shepherds of the spirit 
as well as masters of the mind. 

Give us, O Lord of Learners, a 
sense of the divinity of our undertak- 
ing. 



NOTED PENMAN WEDS 

Mrs. Jurgen Renken announces the 
marriage of her daughter, Ruth, to 
Mr. Rene Guillard, Wednesday, the 
20th of July, 1927, in the city of Chi- 
cago. 



A new course of lessons begins in 
this issue. Have your pupils all work 
on it. 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 
By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., 
612 N. Park St., Columbus. O. 

E. W. Bloser -- Editor 

B. A. LUPFER ..... Managing Editor 



YEAR 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.26 A 

(To Canada, 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teachers 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy 
must reach our office by the 10th ot the montk 
for the issue of the following month. 



^ *!ffie&u<te'7ie^&/iMa&r % & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio >. 

Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



TO THE STUDENT 

By faithfully following this course 
you can acquire a good handwriting. 

One is considered ignorant who 
cannot use good English and everyone 
is expected to talk distinctly enough 
to be understood. It is also important 
to be able to write well enough so that 
the average person can read it. What 
a pleasure it is to listen to some per- 
sons talk and to see the writing of 
skilled penmen. 

You can get into the class of per- 
sons who speak and write above the 
average. 

This course is planned to help you 
to write better. You will find work- 
ing on this course a real pleasure and 
very profitable. Any person who will 
try, can learn to write well. 



To The Teacher 

You can make the writing lesson so 
much more interesting by improving 
your own handwriting. You need to 
be filled with the subject and have a 
reasonable supply of penmanship 
knowledge prepared for the lesson 
each day by practicing upon these 
copies. 

Supplies 

You need good but not expensive 
supplies. Working with poor supplies 
is a waste of time. 

Penholder: An all wood, finger fit- 
ting penholder is best, but a cork 
tipped holder will do. Avoid metal, 
heavy and freakish holders. Don't 
use a fountain pen in this course for 
if you learn to write with a steel pen 
you will be able to use the fountain 
pen. 



Pens: Use a medium pointed stiff 
pen. Avoid fine pointed and stub pens. 
Change your pen whenever necessary. 
You may have to change each day if 
you do a lot of writing. 

Paper: Use a smooth, hard surface 
paper with %-inch rule. Avoid the 
cheap newspaper-like kind. 

Ink: Get the best free flowing, black 
ink you can secure. Black is better 
than blue ink since you can see your 
work better. 

Blotter: It is well to hold a blotter 
underneath the hand, letting the little 
finger slide on it. This will help, to 
keep the paper clean. Of course do 
not blot your work. 

The Business Educator will be glad 
to furnish you any supplies you need. 



STUDY THE POSITIONS OF THESE THREE PENMANSHIP TEACHERS. ALL 1927 ZANERIAN SUMMER 

SCHOOL PUPILS 




of Handwriting in the Latrobe. Pa.. Public 
Schools, and who attended the Zanerian 
Summer School in 1927. here shows how to 
sit back in the chair with the back straight 
and the point of the elbows just off the edge 
of the desk. 



GOOD POSITION IS IMPORTANT 

Sit up, shoulders back. 

First lean clear back in the chair, 
then lean forward until your body is 
about half-way between the back of 
the chair and the edge of the desk. 
Place the arms on the desk so that 
the elbows extend about one-half inch 
off the edge of the desk. Do not 
cross the feet. 

First finger should curve gracefully 
and rest on the top of the holder di- 
rectly back of the eye of the pen and 



Miss Lelia 


Withers, who is Supervis 


Handwriting 


in Fairmont, W. Va„ F 


Schools, wher 


in the 1927 Zanerian Su 


School posed 


for the above to illustrat 


proper positi 


an of the hand and pen 


penholdei i>" 


nts to the right shoulder. 



Ne 



ss 


Zel 


ma 


Nesb 


tt, 


a 1927 2 






•s. 


lool 


stud 


:nt, 


enjoys pr 


.dicing 


an 


ship 


In 


iitate 


her 




nd her 


ma 


(•hi 




nile." 


Mi 


•• Nesbitt 


teaches 


.in 


Ihip 


in 


he new J 


unior High 


School. 


i ., 


stle. 


Pa. 











about one-fourth inch from where the 
pen goes into the holder. Second 
finger should curve slightly and rest 
underneath the penholder so that the 
penholder crosses at the base of the 
nail. The thumb should be placed 
against the left side of the penholder, 
and the end of the thumb should al- 
ways be back of the end of the first 
finger. The third and fourth fingers 
should be doubled under in a natural 
position. 

You may glide on the nails or on 
the flesh but not on the side of the 
hand. The knuckles should point up- 



ward and not to the right. The 
holder should point toward the 
shoulder and cross at the knuckles at 
about 45 degrees. The arm should 
roll on the muscle below the elbow. 
The wrist need not be flat but should 
not be turned to the right throwing 
the hand out of proper position. The 
paper should be placed directly in 
front of the body so that if an imagi- 
nary line was drawn from the left 
nary line were drawn from the left 
corner of the desk the line would be 
parallel to the lines on which you are 
writing. 



Copy 1. The direct compact or running oval is good to develop movement and freedom for beginners. A 
little of this work is good for professionals as well. As soon as you can make this exercise with a free motion and 
a light touch you are ready to go ahead with the next one. The teacher should count 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-20 to 100. 
Let the count be regular and soft at about the rate of 200 down strokes to the minute. 

Copy 2. Push-pull exercise develops movement especially for loop letters. Let the arm glide in and out of 
the sleeve. The teacher should count the same for this exercise as for No. 1. Do not make a machine out of your- 
self in counting. The students should learn to write without the count as soon as possible. 

Copy 3. The indirect running oval exercise is similar to No. 1. Be sure that you maintain a uniform slant 
through out. Try it again and again. 

Copy 4. A little more skill is required in retracing an oval than in making the running oval. You should 
now pay more attention to the shape of the oval, getting it 2/3 as wide as long. Get 10 exercises on the line. The 
teacher should count 1-2-3-4-5-6 for each exercise. Be sure that you keep on the track and that each exercise rests 
on the base line. 

Copy 5. Students who have trouble with slant will find it an excellent practice to make the straight line ex- 
ercise first and then surround it with the oval. You may also try making the oval first, placing the straight line 
exercise in the center of the oval. Let this exercise be a drill on slant, keeping in mind freedom of movement. 

Copies 6, 7, and 8. These exercises are the same as Nos. 1, 2, and 3, with the exception that it requires 
more skill to make them one space high. Watch quality of line and movement. Do not go too fast. Time yourself 
with a watch making about 200 down strokes to the minute. Learn to criticize your work. After making a line 
compare it carefully with the copy. Find wherein it differs from the copy and try to correct the mistake. 




10 



f^//u^6uj//icjj &/u<ra/sr- & 



Copy 9. Do not spend more time on this exercise than is necessary to acquire control of the exercise one 
space high. See if you can rest each exercise on the base line and touch the head line also. Let each exercise 
touch the preceding exercise. Is your final exercise the same width as the beginning one — 2/3 as wide as long? 

Copy 10. Our object now is to learn to make letters. So far the work has been a preparation for making 
letters. This exercise is made the same as No. 9 except that it finishes the same as the 0. This connects the move- 
ment exercises with the letter. Count 1-2-3-4-5-6-finish. 

Copy 11. It is presumed that by this time you have mastered a free, easy, swinging motion. Our object 
now is to carry this motion over into the letters. Make the exercise the same as in No. 9. Follow it immediately 
with the letter O, then repeat. This exercise can also be practiced by making one exercise and two or three Letters 
before repeating the exercise again. Sprinkle the exercise in between the letters, always keeping in mind that the 
letter must be made with the same speed and freedom as the exercise. It is not correct to make the exercise 
freely and draw the letter. Both must be made with the same easy swing. Let the teacher count: 1-2-3-4-5-6, cap- 
ital-O, etc. 

Copies 12 and 13. First make the letter a full space high. This will aid you in making uniform sized let- 
ters. After you have acquired a good letter one space high, reduce it to about % of a space high, the size of actual 
writing. In practicing this letter take up various things one at a time. You might work on the following points: 
Curve both sides evenly, curve top and bottom the same, end upward, rest each one on the base line, slant evenly. 
We would suggest that the teacher pick out various weak points from the student's work and discuss them one at 
a time. Count: 1-2, 1-2, etc. 




nnwcrn. 



VI 



13 



MS5MM^^"fia'.(2.5(2'^^ 



Copies 14 and 15. Much good can be gained by making exercises various sizes. Too little attention is given 
to small exercises. Make these two exercises Vz space high. It would be well to try them hi space high also. The 
speed on these exercises should be the same as the speed in the preceding exercises, 200 down strokes to the minute, 
and the count is therefore the same as Copy 1. 

Copy 16. Begin this exercise with the oval gradually running into an i. In the first exercise stress the roll- 
ing motion, producing a rounding turn. In the second exercise stress the down stroke. The count should be the 
same as copies 1 and 2. In counting it is well to change from a numerical count to a descriptive count. If you want 
to stress light line, substitute the word light or light line. 



14 



i mm& i ■wmmmii0^Wi 



15 
16 
17 
18 
19 




:^c&C4^^ 



20 



21 



22 :,^Z22^^ 



^ ^MJ&uJ/tieM&dtuw&r 



11 



Copy 17. This exercise is similar to 16. Stress movement in these exercises. Of course, be sure to get the 
tops sharp and the bottoms rounding. 

Copy 18 should be easy after mastering 16 and 17. 

Copies 19, 20, 21, and 22 are intended to develop the over turn. They should be worked the same as exercises 
14, 16, 17 and 18, excepting that we stress the over-motion. See what nice rounding turns you can secure at the 
top and be sure to make points at the bottom. The teacher can help the class by using a rhythmical count. There 
are special penmanship records which are helpful to both teacher and pupil. 

Copy 23. We are now ready to take up the letter A. If the student can make the letter well, it is not neces- 
sary to work on the preliminary exercises since these exorcises are given only to help develop the A. Copy 23 should 
be made without raising the pen excepting where it is necessary to dip ink or where you are getting out of posi- 
tion. Count: oval 1-2-3-4, down 1-2-3-4, etc. 

Copy 24. Make the oval and finishin same as the letter A. Count: 1-2-3-4-5, finish. 

Copy 25. This is one of the best exercises for the A. Count oval, 1-2-3-4-5-finish. This emphasizes the re- 
trace. It is especially good for those who have trouble in making a loop in place of a retrace. 

Copies 26 and 27. First of all make a legible A in a free, easy manner. The first letter is shown in a 
square. This gives you an idea of width. In the second letter we call attention to the retrace. In the third letter 
study the shape of the body. It is as wide practically at the top as at the bottom. Always have a definite goal in 
mind. The teacher can help the class much in directing the attention to various parts of letters. First explain to the 
class how the letter or part should be made. Then have each student try to master that one point. One thing at a 
time and you will make progress. Count: 1-2, 1-2, etc. 

Copy 28. In this exercise the overturn movement predominates. Glide along with an easy rolling motion. 
You will notice a uniformity of size of turns. Even the turns in the Capital A are about the same as in the small 
letter exercise. Follow the count: capital- A, 1-2-3-4-etc. 



23 



25 




Showy Business Writing 

in Ten Acts and Fifty Scenes 

Written, Produced and Directed by C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, LI. B., Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Syracuse, New York, Public Schools. 



ACT VII 

SCENE I 

This scene is an application of the combinations used in the last scene of the previous act. 

Pronounce each letter in the word as it is being written, avoiding an abrupt pause after each letter. 

This scene was written at the rate of eighty letters a minute. Keep well in mind that movement without form 
is of but little value. . 

After the required number of good letters is accomplished, write a page of the sentence given in the last scene. 
(September issue of the Business Educator.) 



12 



2 ^L^ts^^jb<4/ ^&*>l^)^L<£S ^^tyi^y^i^p^dy ^i-^c^<y^£i^iy 
4 ^A^&^z^l^ ^2^^k^^y ^h^h^^yu ^^T^^Leyu 



ACT VII 

SCENE II 
No. 1. To lift or not to lift, that is the question, in making t's. For the student it is advisable to keep the pen on 

the paper until the letter is completed. For the highly skilled a lifting can be made which produces a much 

clearer cut letter. 

In this line the pen was lifted after the right curve was made and caught with the down straight stroke, 

while in the second the pen remained on the paper until the letter was completed. 

Count ten for the "push and pull" and ten for the five uncrossed t's. 
No. 2. Count two for each uncrossed t and three for the terminal t. In every t there is an eye except in a 

terminal t. 
No. 3. The horizontal crossing of the t is cut into equal parts by the down stroke. Umbrella crossings are the 

earmarks of a novice, therefore, make short crossings. 

If you have twenty minutes to practice put ten of it on this copy. Count seven slowly for the six incom- 
pleted letters; then cross and dot. 

Count eight for the incompleted letter group. Uniform slant is necessary here to put one in a professional 

class. 

Close the a so as not to give it an u appearance. Count three for each combination. 

Straighten the back of the e or there will be a failure in the slant, when compared with the t. This is an 

excellent group for spacing. Count two for each combination. 

The o must be joined to the t with a lateral curve, to get a "clear cut" combination. Count three for 

each combination. 

Write: Toto tittered and stuttered at tea. 

2 JUMJJ^ ^LU^UJ- ^UU^UJ^- ^LLLLU- -JUMJJ- 

3 _^£^£>tj£*y ^^t^jt^y ^u^£^£sls ^^tU^t^(^_^t^c^L^cy 

4 ^^t^tk^cy^- ^C^L^t-L^f- -^C^ttyL^~ -ktlsL^A^-yt^A-sL^LA^~ 

5 ^C^L^€Z^~ ^t^ZZ^>CZ^~ ^t^Z^&CZ^- ^A^L^O-^^ _^>ZZ^- 



No. 4. 



No. 5. 
No. 6. 



No. 7. 




ACT VII 

SCENE III 
Not only is this scene given that the combinations of the previous scene may be applied in words, but that 
the s may be practiced as a terminal letter. 
Eighty letters a minute is required in this scene. 
Do not sacrifice form for speed. 
Review sentence in Scene II, Act VII. 



4 s^^&JtzyLdy ^^czJUyLdy /^d^a^t-e^dSs&t^&LSLAs 




>5ftt <^uj//i£jj Ct/utaAr* & 



13 



ACT VII 

SCENE IV 
This is the last scene of small letter combinations. 

Entertaining penmanship is not always profitable, therefore, the muscular movement exercises, the quack's 
panacea for all ills, have not been given to you. Muscular movement fans, windmills and birds have been 
"given the air", and in their places have been given the difficult combinations which must be mastered to 
become a penman. 

The day for red fire and noise is over in the penmanship world, and the high pressure vendor of penman- 
ship has written his own obituary in the words "they found me out." 
Count ten for the exercise and seven for the three d's. 

From time to time test your d's by placing a blotter over the top of the letters, striving to make a perfect 
group of a when so treated. Close the a part of the d. 
Count three for each letter. 

Pull all down strokes toward the center of your body to avoid a round joining. Count four for each com- 
bination. 

The second point of the u is as high as the first. Count nine for the group. 

This is the most important line in the scene. Siae the work, using the blotter to test the groups. If a 
test, as mentioned above, shows a group of four a's, pass on to the next group. 
Count seven for the group. All the e loops must be open. 
Count nine for the group. The sentence for practice is: He did daring deeds during the day. 



2 / s^C^z^&t<?£y /izL^L^z^oL/ ^€^c^^cC^ ^C^i^aL^tp^ c^^cO 
4 s^c&c^tzL'tst^' y^Ct^t^cOtycy y^OtA^c^t^c^ ^^t^t^c^t^cy ^tsLtsc^c&LsLs' 




,^t<7-~cL^7^/izCi?-izLy 



ACT VII 

SCENE V 
This review has in it many terminal t's, the closing strokes of which are curved. Make the t and d the same 
height. 

After practicing these six words, write the sentence in Scene IV, Act VII several times, comparing it with 
your previous work. 

-^C-c^z^- ^cOt^n^- y^^Ct^yz^ ^r^u^uf- /C^uj^ufi- s^Ot^n^- /&£/ 




6 ^Oc^nU- ^^U^rzJ^- /^^^-^2^ /€^t-?^^ /^^^^ :: - /tl^yzU- 



CURTAIN 



vith the Hack. 



arkman, for several years 
nsack, N. J.. High School, 
ercial teacher in the State 
hers, Albany. N. Y. 
St. Germain of Fitchburg, 



Mass., is a new commercial teacher ir 
Lunenburg, Mass.. High School. 

Mr. Erwin M. Keithley of Palmyra, 
consin, will teach the coming year ir 
Racine. Wisconsin, Vocational School. 

Mr. Charles F. Schoffstnll is a new 
mercial teacher in the Shamokin, Pa., 
School. 



the 



Miss Marion E. Smith, last year 
cial teacher in the Port Jervis, N. Y.. High 
School, is to teach in the Waltham. Mass., 
High School the coming year. 

Mr. L. S. Sorbo of Norfolk, Va., and Miss 
Edith Rodgers of Adamsville. Pa., are two 
new teacher in the Troy Business College, 
Troy. N. Y. 



Mr 



Illinois, is a new teacher 
lege, Huntington, W. Va. 



ith the 
sity of 
Marshall Col- 



Miss Emolyn Gross of New London, Conn., 
will teach the coming year in the Allen 
School of Commerce, Troy, N. Y. 

Miss Annie M. Wiley of Bowling Green, 
Ky., has recently accepted a position to 
teach in the Commercial Department of the 
Portsmouth, Va.. High School. 



Mi! 



vis of Gloucester, Mass., 
al teacher in the Collins- 
... High School. 



14 



^ <5^&uJ/7uM&6u*f&r & 




PRIZE WINNING SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 
SUPERVISOR'S CONTEST — Philadelphia — April 27th, 28th, 29th, 1927 

Contest No. 2 — EIGHTH GRADE GIRLS — Specimen written by Louise Browne, Binghamton, New York. First Prize. 



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Contest No. 2— EIGHTH GRADE BOYS— Specimen written by Attilio Monoca, Newark, New Jersey. First Prize. 




<z> 



Contest No. 3— HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS— Specimen writttn by Helen Shriner, Columbia City, Indiana. First Prize. 




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Contest No. 3 — HIGH SCHOOL BOYS — Specimen written by Swanhild Iverson, St. Paul, Minnesota, First Prize. 





SUBSCRIPTIONS 

Now is the time to secure clubs 
for the Business Educator. The 
more subscriptions you send, the 
better we can make the magazine. 



cial teac 
N. Y.. h 
ith t he 
Buffalo 



rd A. Shilt, for 



High School at 
accepted a posi- 
i Central High 



Zaner Pen and Ink Club. Red Lion. Pa.. High School. Mi: 
and sponsor, is in the middle front row. Mr. J. K. Grimes, 
developed and printed the photograph from which the above 
the young people won Zaner Method Penmanship Certificates. 



s Carrie C. Smithgall, t 
Supervising Principal, 
-vas reproduced. Each 



A. E. Fuller of Holley. N. Y., is a 
immercial teacher in the Academic 
chool. Auburn. N. Y. 

Rex Westen, recently head of the 
rcial work of the High School at 
, Minn., is now teaching in the Lan- 




The above happy Zane 
Jessie McCurdy, the teache 
good handwriting. 



Method Certificate winners 
, is shown at the right. Mis 



re 8A pupils in t] 
McCurdy and Mi; 



Rozelle School. East Cleveland, Ohio. 
Delia Freeborn, the principal, both belii 



16 



<5^&u4/n^<s<&u&£r & 



Supplementary Business Writing 

By C. C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teacher*, New York City 










T^Ck/ 



^^Z^<l-<^-^ez^--z-T5c^3i-< 




•^-^L-sZ--z£-£--Z-^Z-eZ-^-<l^^^ 



A SUGGESTION TO SUPERVISORS 
AND TEACHERS 

The Syracuse Sunday Herald has 
been received in which a large photo- 
graph of a penmanship class under 
the instruction of Miss Ethel Wise 
was published. The occasion for pub- 
lishing the photograph was that a 
large number of students had been 
awarded penmanship certificates. Mr. 
C. S. Chambers, Supervisor of Writ- 
ing takes advantage of opportunities 
of this kind to bring penmanship be- 
fore the public. 

It is a good idea for all teachers 
and supervisors to advertise penman- 
ship. 



ANOTHER ZANER-BLOSER 
REPRESENTATIVE 

We recently received a card from 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Huntly Sinclair, 
Goshen, Gysboro County, Nova Scotia, 
announcing the birth of Alice Louise 
Sinclair, July 22, 1927. 

Mrs. Sinclair was formerly Miss 
Florence Koehler who attended the 
Zanerian in 1924, and who later repre- 
sented the Zaner-Bloser Company in 
New Mexico and Arizona for a couple 
of years, previous to her marriage to 
Mr. Sinclair. 

THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR join 
in with the many friends of Mr. and 
Mrs. Sinclair in hearty congratula- 
tions and best wishes. 



COOPERATION 

The Findlay, Ohio, Morning Paper 
contained a fourteen inch write-up re- 
garding the penmanship work 
achieved in the Findlay Public 
Schools under the supervision of Mrs. 
Mina Lucas. Mrs. Lucas is fortunate 
in being able to secure the coopera- 
tion of the newspaper. For this co- 
operation is indeed a big help in get- 
ting the public interested in penman- 
ship work. 

Over one thousand penmanship cer- 
tificates were issued to the pupils of 
the Findlay schools. We congratulate 
Mrs. Lucas and her corps of teachers. 



i^^&u&tie^&diuxi&r & 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1. Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 




Does The It has been somewhat 

Boy Prophesmore than a half cen- 
The Man? tury since I began to 
know boys and girls as a 
teacher. I have kept 
track of a good many of them after 
they grew up. The boys who were 
from twelve to sixteen when they 
went to school to me in the seventies, 
are now in their middle sixties. And 
the aspiring young folk with college 
or teaching ambitions, who attended 
_ my academic or nor- 
mal classes in the 
eighties and nineties, 
are hardly less elderly. 
In knowing so consid- 
erable a number o f 
these pupils a s chil- 
dren, youths and 
grown-ups, I feel that 
I have had a rather un- 
usual opportunity, of observing how 
for boys and girls are prophetic of 
what they will be as men and women. 
It has been around seventy-five years 
since J. G. Holland, writing under the 
pen-name of Timothy Witcomb, wrote 
his meaty and helpful book, "Letters 
to Young Men." A thoughtful mother 
made me a present of this book on my 
sixteenth birthday. In dutifully read- 
ing it, I came across this startling 
statement: "What a boy is at six- 
teen, he is very likely to be at forty." 
At first, I was inclined to doubt it. 
Although I was at an age when my 
self-complacency had as yet, received 
but a few jars, I knew enough about 
myself to realize that I was very far 
from being what I would like to be 
and hoped to be as a man. But Tim- 
othy backed up his statement with so 
many cititions from biography, in- 
cluding men both famous and infam- 
ous, that I began to fear that there 
might be more truth in it than I had 
thought for, and seriously decided to 
mend my ways before it was ever- 
lastingly too late. 

My later and extended observation 
of boys and girls, and the men and 
women they grew up to be, have con- 
vinced me beyond question, that the 
wise Timothy was mainly right. So 
true is it, that I cannot at present re- 
call a single case of a lazy, sneaking 
rapscallion of a boy, who did not 
grow up to be a rotter or a nincom- 
poop, or both. Of course, I have en- 
countered many prankish and irres- 
ponsible boys who turned out to be 
pretty fair fellows, though boys and 
girls of this type seldom rose above 
mediocrity. It has not been my ex- 
perience, that mere mental or schol- 
astic brilliancy is reliably prophetic 
of future success or eminence. I can 
recall a number of such pupils who 



afterward, "w e n t all to pieces" 
through lack of dependable character 
and winning personality. It is high 
and enduring integrity of soul and in- 
flexible pride of character, rather 
than brilliancy of mind, that make for 
great manhood and womanhood. One 
of the most brilliant young fellows 
who ever faced me in a classroom. I 
came across years afterward, as a 
"barker" for a side-show in a cheap 
circus. A pretty girl of thirteen was 
the star pupil of a country school t... ' 
I taught back in the seventies. We 
all predicted great things for her. 
But she was vain, frivolous and cold- 
hearted. She drifted to town, became 
a popular milliner, acquired a shady 
reputation, was a correspondent in a 
divorce case, later, became a street- 
walker, and died in the Bridewell. No 
mere scholarship can avert such tra- 
gedies. The causes lie deeper, but I 
should know better now, than to pre- 
dict success for such a girl. 

But while mere schoolroom bril- 
liancy alone does not assure future 
safety or success, it is true that the 
greater proportion of "good scholars" 
get their rating through the posses- 
sion of a strong will power, and self- 
control, that not only bring them 
schoolroom success, but keep them on 
an even keel afterward. 

The chief concern of every home 
and every school, should be the eleva- 
tion of the ideals of conscience, man- 
liness and decency in the soul of 
every boy, and making the heart of 
every girl fragrant with the heavenly 
essence of gentleness, modesty and 
purity. It is the warped sapling that 
makes the crooked tree. 



The Tragedy A group of social sur- 
Of The veyors in Chicago, have 

Wrecks been trying to find out 

the reason for the many 
martial shipwrecks that 
keep the divorce courts of that strenu- 
ous city so busy trying to salvage 
them. They have arrived at the same 
conclusion that was reached some 
twenty years ago by the Department 
of Sociology of the Chicago Univer- 
sity, which tackled the same problem. 
About nine tenths of the young mar- 
tial adventurers go on the financial 
rocks. 

Most of you, may recall the answer 
of the thrifty and hopeful Widow 
Bardell, when the innocent Mr. Pick- 
wick asked her if she thought it was 
more expensive to keep two people 
than to keep one. "That depends," 



17 



said the widow, "on the persons, Mr. 
Pickwick, and whether they are care- 
ful and prudent persons, Sir." 

Doubtless, that answer still holds 
true. If the folk who set out to re- 
duce expenses by a matrimonial co- 
partnership are really "careful and 
prudent" and, perhaps somewhat un- 
selfish, as well, they are quite likely 
to make a go of it. The trouble is, 
that as the report shows, at least nine 
out of ten of the adventurers, are not 
in the least, that kind of folks. They 
belong to the class who "want what 
they want when they want it" and are 
just going to have it, regardless of 
consequences. In truth, that is mostly 
why they marry at all. Neither sta- 
tistics, nor survey reports, nor any or 
all of the several varieties of common 
sense, are likely to have any restrain- 
ing effect on such people. When they 
are "hell-bent to get married" to 
quote one of Joe Lincoln's characters, 
they are not to be held back by any 
such silly devices as addition and sub- 
traction. They embark on a shoe- 
string capital, cheerfully counting on 
the installment plan sharks to give 
them the comforts of bungalow life 
on a shanty income. With the quickly 
waning honeymoon, comes Old Man 
Trouble with his unpaid bills, and the 
turtle dove flies through the window 
and hies him for a more congenial 
clime. 

And so the divorce mills grind mer- 
rily on, and neither the outgoing nor 
the incoming grist of nitwits that 
come to the hoppers either learn or 
care anything about the great prin- 
ciple of THRIFT that might have 
provided a safe ballast for their 
wrecked crafts. 



WORLD'S SHORTHAND CHAM- 
PIONSHIP RESULTS 



Cup Permanently Awarded To Mr. Dupraw 
The World's Shorthand Championship re- 
sults were announced last night at San An- 
tonio. Tex., where the contest was held un- 
der the auspices of the National Shorthand 
Reporters' Association. The winner, a grad- 
uate of the High School of Commerce, New 
York City, where he learned Gregg Short- 
hand, was first on the 220 words a minute 
literary matter test making but 7 errors. Mr. 
Martin J. Dupraw was the only one to qual- 
ify at the 260 words a minute test Jury 
Charge making forty errors and on the 280 
words a minute test he was second with 
twelve errors. 

Mr. Charles Lee Swem, twice world's 
shorthand champion, and formerly Official 
Reporter and Stenographer to President 
Wilson, was first on the 280 words a min- 
ute test making but ten errors and was sec- 
ond on the 220 words a minute test making- 
twenty errors. Mr. Nathan Behrin was third 
making thirty errors on the 220 words a 
minute and twentv-two on the 280 words a 
minute test. The chamoionship therefore 
went to Mr. Dupraw who becomes the per- 
manent owner of the trophy. Mr. Dupraw 
has won the contest three times, is the 
present New York State Champion and fast 
year won the Open Southwestern Shorthand 
Championship. The only other Contestant 
to qualify on anv of the tests in San An- 
tonio was Miss Helen Evans of The Cregg 
School. Chicago. Miss Evans qualified on 
the (75 words a minute test with but nine- 



18 



^ <!^^&g&>uM£4&uw&r & 



JOHNNY the HOOKEY PLAYER 



By C. R. McCANN, McCann School of Bu 



His father could no nothing with 
him; his mother could do nothing with 
him; but the teacher was expected to 
make a man out of him when he went 
to school. 

A great many parents today think 
that all the correction of the boy 
should be in school. "Just wait un- 
til you go to school. Your teacher 
will take care of you," is the common 
expression heard in many homes 
when Johnny takes it into his head 
to become obstreperous. 

The subject of this little sketch is 
just like hundreds that are found in 
the homes today. Johnny Simko 
"Ruled the roost" when he was home 
and the older he became the more 
persistent he became in the Grade 
School. He was bright enough but he 
would not study and all the coaxing 
in the world would not change him if 
he wanted to be "bullish." Johnny 
learned that his teacher in the Sixth 
Grade was an easy mark. She had 
been teaching for about twenty-five 
years and learned that the easiest 
way was the best way with boys of 
this nature. Johnny soon found out 
that he could skip an hour or so and 
not be found out. In a short time he 
was the champion "hookey-player" in 
the entire school. He was the talk of 
the town and the Truant Officer — as 
he was known in the days when it 
meant something — had his troubles. 
Johnny averaged three days a week — 
playing truant. 

It was a rainy afternoon in Aug- 
ust — for there are rainy afternoons 
in this month, especially if "Mary 
went over the mountain." Johnny 
and his mother came into the office 
of the Principal of this little, lowly, 
oft-despised Business College — a 
name that has vanished like a good 
many other things in educational cir- 
cles; but that is not what I started 
out to tell you — and asked if the 
teacher could do anything with this 
boy, reciting his history amid sobs and 
tears, much to the chagrin of Johnny. 
After listening to the story, the Prin- 
cipal said that Johnny should come to 
school but that he should not treat 
his teacher as a teacher but as a big 
brother. 

In due time Johnny arrived and it 
was to be seen that he did not like 
it; but as there was a careful check 
on the time he left home and the time 
he arrived in the school room, Johnny 
had a pretty hard time of it. The 
teacher was a sort of an actor, as 
most of them are in the school room, 
and Johnny soon began to like him be- 
cause he was a big brother to him. 
Soon he was telling the teacher all 
about his hobby of trapping animals. 
It seems that the mentor had been 



born in the country and as a result 
of this could tell some mighty inter- 
esting stories of how this rabbit got 
away from his traps and how he 
found a skunk in his box-trap one 
morning when he thought he had a 
rabbit; and the consequence was that 
the teacher's mother did not let him 
come in the house to eat or sleep for 
a week. All these stories fired Johnny 
with determination to be the best 
trapper in the region and before the 
winter was over he had the reputa- 
tion of being as good as old Pete 
Berry, the champion trapper of the 
county. 

During the class in Penmanship one 
morning the teacher noticed that 
Johnny was paying particular atten- 
tion and doing very good work. The 
teacher was walking among the stu- 
dents to see just what they were do- 
ing — there are still some teachers 
who take an interest in the student's 
work — but to the consternation of 
Johnny, the teacher held his specimen 
up so all could see the beautiful move- 
ment. From that day, the teacher 
never had a speck of trouble from 
Johnny. Shortly afterward, the class 
took up Show-Card Writing and 
Johnny was soon the best — he took 
to it like a duck takes to water. In 
a few weeks, he was bringing work 
in from the outside and doing it dur- 
ing school hours. The teacher sent 
away and got courses for him and 
helped him in every way possible. It 
is true that he did not do so much 
with his Bookkeeping Course but he 
found something that he liked. 

One clay the teacher asked Johnny 
how many days he had played hookey 
since he had been attending the Blank 
Business College. In checking up it 
was found that only one day had been 
missed in ten months and that day, 
he helped his father do some neces- 
sary work. One morning, however, 
he was among the missing and when 
ten o'clock arrived, the teacher was 
beginning to think "the jig was up" 
and that Johnny had broken out 
again. Soon who should come in the 
room but Johnny — all smiles. The 
teacher greeted him with "Good Eve- 
ning, Johnny," asked him where he 
had been all morning. 

"I changed to my other clothes and 
forgot my car-fare," replied Johnny 
with a grin. 

Here was a champion hookey player 
who walked FIVE MILES to school. 
He did not turn back and stay at 
home the whole day just because he 
forgot his money for car fare. There 
are other Johnnies in school today 
who take an interest in these men of 
action. 

Johnny could draw a picture of a 



person fairly well and he asked his 
teacher if he could go to an Art 
School. Here was another problem, 
Johnny did not have any money — 
neither did his father. If one is 
really in earnest, however, to get 
something, he'll get it if he has "to 
move Heaven and Earth." Johnny 
finally landed in one of the Art 
Schools in New York City and found 
that he could help pay his way with 
his Business College course by work- 
ing during his spare time in the office 
of the college. 

After three years in school, the 
old teacher was surprised one day to 
find Johnny and another young fellow 
with him in his office. 

"Hello, Professor," said Johnny 
with his usual smile. Why boys and 
girls call the teacher Professor is 
beyond the ken of the old teacher but 
some like it and let it go at that. 
Every person who doctors corns, bun- 
ions, dances the "light fantastic toe," 
hair dresser and what-not is called 
Professor but that is neither here nor 
there which means that the bigger 
the teacher is the more common he 
is and the less he desires to be called 
Professor. 

"Bless my heart if it isn't my old 
friend Johnny Simko," replied the old 
knight of the school room. "Tell 
me," he continued, "how you made 
out at the Art School in New York 
and all about yourself." 

"Well, after I graduated from the 
Art School, I got a job on a newspaper 
as a cartoonist and then I drifted 
into the magazine work and am 
making a big thing of it but that is 
not what I came here for," was the 
answer from "Johnny the Dauber" as 
he was called bv his pals. 

"Well! Well! Well!" meditated the 
old teacher audibly. 

"Yes, and I'll never forget what you 
did for me," continued Johnny, "when 
I used to play hookey in the Public 
Schools and you had faith in me, 
stopped my hookey playing and made 
a man out of me and put me on the 
road to success." 

The old teacher's eyes filled with 
tears for even teachers have soften- 
ing of the heart once in a while; it is 
so seldom that they ever get any 
praise not even from the school- 
boards but that is to be expected. 

"Good for you Johnny," said the 
teacher, "we - teachers very seldom 
get a pat on the back that when we 
see you boys making good after 
everybody had said that you were on 
the road to ruin, my heart overflows 
with goodness and mercy toward 
those who have been under my in- 
struction." 

"One of the reasons why I came 
here today," replied our young friend, 
"was that while I was home on my 
vacation. I found this young lad with 
me in the same pickle as I was in 
several years ago. I was the cham- 
pion hookey player of the town then, 
but they tell me this young lad here 

(Continued on page 31.) 



^MJ&ud/neM'&£u&fi>r & 



19 




DR. FRANK N. FREEMAN, 

Professor of Educational Psychology, 
University of Chicago 



(Outlir 
Oct. 
Sept 



5 for Grades I. 2 and 3 for Sept., 
and Nov. were published in the 



OUTLINE OF GRADE IV 

Aims and outcomes. — Grade IV repre- 
sents a turning point in the child's 
training. As a result of his general 
physical and mental maturity and of 
the training which he has previously 
received he is now ready for rather 
intensive drill. The object of this 
drill is to refine and perfect his writ- 
ing habits. All of the fundamental 
features of writing have been intro- 
duced. Writing as a means of expres- 
sion has been established. It is now 
safe to carry on a certain amount of 
intensive drill which is not closely re- 
lated to the subject matter or mean- 
ing. There must not be a complete 
separation, however, between mean- 
ing and drill. Self-criticism should 
be increased and the child should give 
more attention than before to the ex- 
act measurement of the quality of his 
writing. 

Writing materials. — The same type 
of pen and paper should be used as 
in the third grade. The paper may be 
ruled with lines three-eights of an 
inch apart. 

Size and style. — The size of the 
writing may be somewhat reduced 
and the style may somewhat approach 
that of more mature writing. 

Content. — The necessity for inten- 
sive practice and the characteristics 
of good writing may be brought home 
to the child by making these matters 
the subject of the text material which 
he writes. Such sentences as the fol- 
lowing are appropriate: "The pen is 
grasped lightly." "The pen moves 
freely and easily." "The wrist is held 
nearly level." "The paper is tilted 
somewhat to the left." If the class is 
sufficiently independent the pupils 
may investigate the subject and form- 
ulate sentences of their own which 
deal with characteristics of good 
handwriting. As the child grows older 
the necessity of selecting vocabulary 



iA Qourse of Study in 
Handwriting 

For Grades Four, Five and Six 

By FRANK N. FREEMAN, 
Author of Correlated Handwriting 

Weekly Outlines for 
September and October, 1927 



which is within his experience is not 
so great, but still the words which he 
practices should be chiefly the most 
common words and the ones which are 
appropriate to his stage of maturity. 
The exercises may consist, to a 
limited extent, of the customary ovals 
and "push and pull" exercises but 
they should include also individual 
letters and many examples of spaced 
letter exercises. Such an exercise 
consists of writing the same letter 
with a connecting stroke but spaced 
two or three times wider than is 
usual. A good deal of special prac- 
tice may be given to capitals. 

Correlation. — Emphasis should con- 
tinue to be given to correlation of 
both types, namely, using material 
from other subjects in the writing 
periods and supervising and checking 
up on the pupils' writing in the other 
subjects. 

Emphasis in method. — As already 
indicated there should be considerable 
increase in the emphasis upon drill 
in this grade. This should include ex- 
ercises for the development of free 
rhythmic movement. This movement 
may be developed in part by the use 
of counting and in part by formal 
drills. Counting should be done not 
only on the formal drills but also on 
the simpler letters and letter combi- 
nations. Counting may be by num- 
bers or descriptive count. Writing in- 
struction should be individualized 
either by grouping according to abil- 
ity or by some form of individual at- 
tention or individual instruction. 



OUTLINE OF EXERCISES FOR 
THE FIRST THREE MONTHS 
First week. — The sentences which 
are given for practice in this and the 
following weeks summarize the im- 
portant facts and principles concern- 
ing the methods of good writing. The 
sentences for this week bring out the 
need for training in the development 
of any act of skill. Two sentences 
are "The ball player needs training" 



and "The pianist is given training." 
Give these sentences to the pupils 
first and let them write them without 
comment. After the summer vacation 
their writing will have deteriorated 
somewhat and they will recognize the 
need for improvement. They will then 
be prepared to discuss the need for 
training in the development of acts of 
skill in general and in particular in 
the case of handwriting. Use the 
sentences as a basis for a review ex- 
ercise. 

Second week. — The sentences for 
this week are "You should write well 
in school" and "The writer must have 
training." These sentences are to be 
used in the same way as those for the 
first week. After the class discussion 
about the need of training the pupils 
may summarize the conclusions in a 
sentence and use it also for practice. 

Third and fourth weeks. — The 
pupil's attention is now directed in 
each week to some specific aspect of 
writing which should be improved by 
training. For these two weeks the as- 
pect is position. The paper may be 
headed by the word "Position" and 
the sentence for practice is as follows 
"One must always take the right posi- 
tion by sitting well back in his seat." 
This and each of the other principles 
should be discussed so that its im- 
portance and reason is appreciated by 
the pupils. After practice upon the 
sentence particular letters should be 
singled out for special drill. Begin 
with the o and use the retraced oval 
drill and then the capital O. This 
may be followed by retraced drill 
with the small o's connected and 
spaced widely apart and then with a 
series of o's without retracing. This 
practice is to be followed by a few 
letter combinations and words, as fol- 
lows: os, on, th, ak, ba, ri, ack, and 
eat. 

Fifth and sixth weeks. — The sen- 
tences for these weeks also deal with 
position. They are as follows: "All 
backs should be straight" and "Al- 



20 m 

ways hold your head up." These sen- 
tences give opportunity after prac- 
tice on the sentences themselves and 
for practice on the capital and small 
letter a. Following this practice may 
be given on the combinations ac, ar, 
ai, ad, al, and ea. 

Seventh and eighth weeks. — The 
sentences for these weeks are: "Can 
you keep both arms on the desk" and 
'"'The left hand holds the paper." In- 
troduce the special practice by the re- 
traced oval and then develop the cap- 
ital C. Follow this by a succession 
of small c's and then by the letter 
combinations ic, ec, bi, bu, be, ca, co, 
cr, cl, ch and ck. Finally, practice 
should be given to the digits, both in 
ordinary sequence, and in column 
formation, and to the word "Thanks- 
giving." The digits should be prac- 
ticed from time to time not only in 
this lesson but in the following ones. 
The examples which are used in the 
number periods should be practiced in 
the writing periods. 

OUTLINE FOR GRADE V 

The aim of the practice in Grade V 
is a refinement of the skill the foun- 
dation for which has been laid in 
Grade IV. The pupil's style should 
become matured, his writing may well 
be somewhat more compact and he 
should develop an appreciation of the 
general value and uses of writing in 
the school and outside the _ school. 
This appreciation may be gained by 
a study of the uses of writing inside 
and outside the school. 

Writing materials. — The writing 
materials are the same as in Grade 
IV. 

Size and style — The writing may be 
a little smaller than in Grade IV and 
perhaps a little more compact. It 
should begin to take on some individ- 
uality and maturity in appearance. 

Content. — Two types of content are 
suitable for Grade V. In addition to 
the subject matter drawn from the 
other subjects, as in the case of each 
grade, it is appropriate for the pu- 
pils in Grade V to gather together 
specimens of forms and examples of 
writing which are used outside of 
school. Such uses as appear in ad- 
dressing envelopes, writing checks, 
making out money orders and deposit 
slips will be found useful. Examples 
will be given in the exercises. They 
may be supplemented by special pro- 
jects carried on by indiviuals or by 
the class as a whole. 

Correlation. — Specimen forms of 
correlation will be illustrated in the 
exercises. These should be supple- 
mented by examples drawn from the 
work of the particular grade. 

Emphasis in method. — The method 
which is pursued in Grade IV is to be 
continued. There is some emphasis 
upon formal drill. Formal drill 
should be introduced as the occasion 
is presented by the recognition of the 
need for improvement on the part of 
the pupil. There should be an em- 



<!M^38u4/mM&&UMfcr & 



phasis upon the development of 
rhythmic fluent movement and style 
of writing. Emphasis should further 
be given upon the analysis and self- 
criticism directed by the pupil toward 
his own writing. 

OUTLINE OF EXERCISES FOR 
GRADE V 

First week. — This week should be 
devoted to a review and to practice on 
some of the drills such as were used 
at the beginning of Grade III. Re- 
view sentences from Grade IV may 
also be used. Such a sentence is "We 
learn by trying over and over again" 
or "Each time we try we try to do a 
little better." 

Second week. — The text for this 
week introduces the general subject 
of a series of exercises in this grade. 
It is as follows: 

HOW WE USE WRITING 
During September Miss Ellis 
(the teacher's actual name may 
be substituted for this), the fifth 
grade teacher, asked the class to 
find out ways in which people use 
writing and report them to her. 
Here are some of the reports. 
This is a continuous text which of- 
fers opportunity for the study of par- 
ticular words or letters and for the 
study of arrangement on the page. 
The arrangement includes the spacing 
from the top, spacing between the 
heading and the text and the margins. 
Special types of errors may be ana- 
lyzed, such as faulty position, move- 
ment or form. Particular days may 
be taken to concentrate on particular 
faults. 

Third week— The text for this week 
may be as follows: "Handwriting is 
used in school in learning many 
school subjects, such as spelling, 
language, arithmetic, history, geog- 
raphy, and science. Reported by 
James Wilke." An actual report of 
a somewhat similar nature may be 
made by one of the members of the 
class and substituted for this text. 
Special practice may be given to dif- 
ficult parts or to certain aspects of 
the writing. Capital letters may be 
practiced by using a descriptive count. 
Formal exercises such as ovals may 
be introduced to develop lightness and 
freedom of movement. 

Fourth and fifth weeks.— The text 
for these weeks illustrate the use of 
writing in language. It is as follows: 

LANGUAGE 
James Will Grade V 

This is the correct way to use words 
"saw", "who", "did", "sit", "teaches", 
"learn." 

I saw the runner win the race but 
did not know who he was. 

Give practice in the correct use of 
these words by having children com- 
pose sentences in which they are cor- 
rectly used. Have all the sentences 
and the headings written to give 
practice in general arrangement and 



spacing. Spend a day practicing the 
new capitals L, G, T, and I. Find ap- 
propriate formal exercises to go with 
these letters. To develop free move- 
ment have the words "use" and "win" 
written to count. 

Sixth and seventh weeks. — Use the 
following sentences illustrating cor- 
rect usage. "Mary did as she was told 
to do", "Sit in a good writing posi- 
tion", "Mother teaches me to be po- 
lite", "I am trying to learn to write". 
Emphasize the correct usage and 
form. Give some practice upon the 
straight writing of the sentences call- 
ing attention to the general faults. 
Give special practice on the capitals 
M and S. Make as an object of spe- 
cial study the evenness of alignment 
of the tops and bottoms of the one 
space letters. Have the pupils draw 
a pencil line to see how many letters 
are not the right height. 

Eighth week. — The following pass- 
age may be used to represent a pu- 
pil's report. "I found a sign in the 
post office which tells how important 
good writing is in addressing letters. 
The sign directed 'write legibly the 
complete name, post office, street, and 
number. The sender should write his 
name and address in the upper left 
corner' ". Let pupils try to find and 
bring to the class signs or forms 
which emphasize good writing. This 
continuous writing gives opportunity 
for the study of general qualities 
such as neatness, spacing, evenness 
and size of letters, uniformity of 
slant. Uniformity of slant may be 
tested by drawing straight lines 
through the tall letters and then 
counting the number of letters which 
differ noticeably in slant from the 
majority. Let the pupils practice for 
a time giving specitl attention to this 
one item. Give some special practice 
also to the capital letters. 

OUTLINE FOR GRADE VI 

Aims and outcomes. — The aim in 
Grade VI should be the completion of 
the general elementary school ac- 
quirement in writing. With the com- 
ing of the junior high school, hand- 
writing is no longer required of pu- 
pils beyond the sixth grade. The aim 
should therefore be to reach a rea- 
sonable standard for general use by 
the end of this grade. During the 
course of the year the pupil's efforts 
should be stimulated by a recognition 
of the use of writing not only in the 
every day life of all persons but also 
in particular vocations. The work of 
the grade may then center in a study 
of the use of writing in various oc- 
cupations. These occupations, of 
course, are mainly the clerical occupa- 
tions. The child should in this grade 
develop sufficient self-criticism and 
watchfulness of his own writing to 
enable him to maintain a satisfactory 
quality of writing after he completes 
the grade, even though he does not 
continue formal practice. 



&&&uJ/ned^<2diu&&r' & 



21 



Writing Materials. — Writing ma- 
terials are the same as Grade V. 

Size and style. — The writing may 
become a little smaller and possibly 
a little more compact. 

Content. — The content includes the 
material drawn from the other sub- 
jects which are studied and also ma- 
terials drawn from various vocations, 
particularly the clerical occupations. 
The texts which are suggested may 
be supplemented by materials 
gathered by members or committees 
of the class from the community in 
which they live. Practice in ordinary 
script may be supplemented by prac- 
tice in lettering. 

Correlation. — Correlation is to be 
continued as before. 

Emphasis in method. — There is no 
new emphasis in method. 

OUTLINE OF EXERCISES FOR 
GRADE VI 

First week. — This week may be 
spent in review. Review may begin 
by writing a sentence drawn from the 
fifth grade such as the following: 
"Can you write this sentence in two 
minutes with an easy movement and 
with a quality of handwriting which 
is equal to the standard for the fifth 
grade?" Each pupil should examine 
his writing from the point of view of 
speed and of quality. The text 
should be written in two minutes. The 
quality should be upto the standard 
of Grade V. The pupil's position 
should be inspected to see whether it 
is satisfactory. Each pupil should re- 
mind himself of the chief character- 
istics of good writing and should ex- 
amine his own writing to see whether 
they are to be found there. 

Second and third weeks. — The text 
which is suggested for these weeks is 
the familiar one entitled "Salute the 
Flag." 



SALUTE THE FLAG 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 
of the United States of America 
and to the Republic for which it 
stands, one Nation indivisible, 
with liberty and justice for all." 

Be sure that the pupils understand 
the meaning of the words in this 
pledge and of the sentence as a whole. 
As this text is written on successive 
days attention may be given each day 
to some one characteristic. For ex- 
ample, the following may be studied. 
Smoothness and lightness of line, reg- 
ularity of slant and alignment, proper 
spacing between lines, words and let- 
ters and letter formation. Appropri- 
ate exercises should be suggested to 
correct the faults which are found. 

Fourth week. — This week is de- 
voted to practice on the first progress 
exercise for the year. This exercise 
is devoted to writing letters and 
words. The words are chosen largely 
because of the commonness of their 
use and because they represent most 
frequent writing problems. The let- 
ters and words are as follows: i, t, it, 
o, to, a, at, n, in, on, not, d, and, e, 
h, he, the, that, r, or, f, of, for, and 
are. Each child should write this 
progress exercise at satisfactory 
quality and speed before going on to 
the next progress exercise. If all of 
the progress exercises are completed 
the child will have satisfactorily com- 
pleted the course. If the individual 
method is used pupils may be allowed 
to do the exercises each at his own 
rate of speed. 

Fifth and sixth weeks. — The text 
for these weeks illustrates the right 
use of words. The heading should be 
"The Right Use of Words." The fol- 
lowing sentences contain examples of 
words which are most commonly mis- 
used: "There were some lilies on the 
pond." "Our baby has no teeth." 
"There was no room for us." "Will 



you teach me how to write?" "Tom 
said he saw William and me." "She 
and I went to the store." "I wish I 
had one of those apples." The use of 
these words should further be illus- 
trated by sentences produced by the 
pupils. Many opportunities for spe- 
cial practice are offered by these sen- 
tences. They contain a number of 
capitals. They illustrate arrange- 
ment on the page. They may be used 
as the basis for the study of regu- 
larity of slant or of alignment or of 
letter formation. In each of the ex- 
ercises to be given special practice 
should be given to the features which 
appear to need it. 

Seventh week. — The text for this 
week consists of a series of state- 
ments about habit. These statements 
apply both to handwriting and to 
other activities. The following is a 
specimen text. It may be supple- 
mented by T sentences formulated by 
the children from their own experi- 
ence or observation. 

HABIT 
What we do over and over 
again becomes a habit. Our 
habits make up a great part of 
what we are. Good and bad 
habits are made in the same way. 
We may have good habits of 
writing, speaking and acting by 
doing these things as well as we 
can all the time. 

Pick out special features for prac- 
tice. Notice the pupil's position and 
correct it if it is at fault. 

Eighth week. — This week is devoted 
to progress exercise Number 2. It 
consists of letters and words as fol- 
lows: s, as, w, we, 1, well, u, our, y, 
way, k, make, b, bad, c, can, o, over, 
p, part, q, quiet, j, joy, z, lazy, x, fox. 
This exercise should be practiced in 
the same manner as progress exercise 
Number 1. 

(Continued in November issue.) 























- . / 




J> 






This skillful ornament 


al writing is from the pen of F. B. Courtney. 





22 



<5ffiJ&u4//uM>&&u&fir % & 



REPORT OF MANUSCRIPT 
WRITING 

By H. C. WALKER 
January. 1927 

(H. C. Walker. Supervisor of Handwriting 
in the St. Louis Schools, is well known for 
his thoroughness and progressiveness. He 
is also esteemed highly by all in the pen- 
manship fraternity and we are confident 
that in making the following report to his 
Superintendent on Manuscript Writing, 
nothing but fair mindedness prevailed. 

All interested in this subject will find this 
report worthy of careful reading and re- 
flection. It seems to us the best considera- 
tion of the subject we have had the priv- 
ilege of reading and we were, therefore, 
pleased to have the privelege of publish- 
ing it.) 

This report, made in response to Superin- 
tendent Maddox's recent request, is in four 

Part One — 

(a) Conditions and purpose of the St. 
Louis experiment in manuscript wnt- 

(b) Sources from which information has 
been secured— In St. Louis; else- 
where. 

Part Two- 
Manuscript writing from 

(a) The historical standpoint 

(b) The pictorial standpoint 

(c) The mechanical standpoint 

(d) The business standpoint 

(e) The school standpoint. 
Part Three — 

Exhibits. 
Part Four- 
la) Conclusions, 
(b) Recommendations. 

PART ONE 
(a) Conditions and Purpose of the St. Louis 
Experiment. 
The so-called MANUSCRIPT, or print 
writing, for educational purposes, made its 
appearance a few years ago in the schools 
of England. Subsequently it was introduced 
into a few private schools in the United 
States. 

Because of the purported advantages of 
the manuscript writing, the primary super- 
visors of our schools, and others, requested 
permission to introduce it into six St. Louis 
schools. 

The purpose of this experiment was to 
study at close range the operation of the 
manuscript writing. 

Conditions Under Which the Experiment 
Was Conducted 

1. The schools selected were those in 
which the principals favored the experiment. 

2. The period of experimentation was to 
be of such duration as would permit of 
sufficient study of the advantages, or dis- 
advantages of manuscript writing. 

3. The children to whom the manuscript 
writing was to be taught were to use it to 
the exclusion of other forms of writing 

4. The experiment was to include both 
blackboard and seat writing, and the usual 
penmanship materials were to be used. 

5. At the beginning of the experiment the 
teachers of the manuscript classes were 
given the necessary alphabets and directions 
for instructing their pupils. 

It is now two years since the beginning 
of the manuscript experiment. While most 
of the manuscri t pupils of the experimental 
schools are now in the first and second 
grades, some (rapid promotion pupils) of 
them »re to be found mixed with cursive 
writers in the third grade. 

During this experimental period of two 
years I have endeavored to 



the 



attitude 



rd the 



ml. 



IbU 



script writing. 

(b) Sources from Which Information Has 
Been Secured. 

In St. Louis: 

My observations of the St. Louia exper- 
iment have consisted in occasional visits to 
the experimental schools to witness the use 
of manuscript writing by the pupils, and 
in conferences with the principals and 
teachers of these schools concerning their 
opinions of the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of this form of writing. In addition 
to conferring with the principals and teach- 
ers of the manuscript experimental schools. 
I have talked with principals and teachers 
of other schools about it. ao that I might 



Elsewhere: 

About two years ago the members of the 
Writing Division asked for and were granted 
permission to visit the Community School 
in St. Louis County. At that time the man- 
uscript writing had been in use in the first, 
second and third grades, to the exclusion 

In February, 1926, 1 attended the N. E. A.. 
Superintendent Meeting in Washington, and 
after the meeting spent a day in visiting 
the Lincoln and Horace Mann Schools in 
New York City. These schools have been 
the chief manuscript writing experimental 
schools in this country and pupils who 
started with manuscript writing in the first 
grade were, at the time of my visit, in the 
fourth and fifth grades. 

Before leaving St. Louis for Washington, 
I prepared two specimens, one representing 
good manuscript writing and the other good, 
present day cursive writing, and submitted 
them to twenty- five business men. who em- 
ploy office help. While in Washington and 
in New York I showed these specimens to 
thirty-five more business men. In each of 
the sixty-five instances I asked the person 
a number of questions, and recorded the 
answers. The purpose of this series of visits 
was to learn whether manuscript writing, if 
used as a substitute for cursiev writing in 
our public schools, would be acceptable in 
business. Later in this report the opinions 
of these business men are given. 
PART TWO 

(a) Manuscript Writing from the Historical 
Standpoint. 

Handwriting, like every other art, has its 
cycles of growth, perfection, and decay. A 
peculiar style of penmanship is gradually 
developed, becomes the hand of the period, 
then breaks up and disappears, being su- 
perseded by another and better system. 

From the time of the development of al- 
phabetical characters to the time of the in- 
vention of printing, handwriting ran in two 
lines — the manuscript hand, and the cursive 
hand. The manuscript hand, vertical, reg- 
ular, evenly ruled, and provided with uni- 

only. The cursive or running hand, written 

dinary business purposes. The manuscript 
hand was finally superseded by printing. 

The cursive hand. having undergone 
many changes through the years, is still in 
use. in the form of our present muscular 
movement system. 

(b) Manuscript Writing from the Pictorial 
Standpoint. 

Manuscript writing, from the pictorial 
standpoint, makes a strong appeal to the 
eye. The simplicity of letters, absence of 
joining strokes, vertical position of the let- 
ters, bold wide pen strokes and pronounced 
legibility are likely to obscure other impor- 
tant phases of penmanship. 

It appears that those who favor manu- 
script writing in the primary grades have 
had too fully in mind the pictorial side, and 
have given insufficient consideration to the 
mechanical side. 

(c) Manuscript Writing from the Mechan- 
ical Standpoint. 

It is in connection with this phase of 
manuscript writing lhat its most pro- 
nounced disadvantages appear. Manuscript 
writing is vertical. To produce this effect, 
its advocate direct that the paper be placed 
in a vertical position on the desk, and that 
the wriler make all of the downward strokes 
of the letters toward the body (the same 
as in the system of vertical writing which 
was used for many years, and abandoned). 

This position precludes the possibility of 

lli.it tin- willing .mil must constantly be 
raised and lowered in willing across the 
paper. 

Manuscript writing, or any other form of 
printing, which requires that the pen. or 
pencil be lifted for each letter, or for parts 
of letters, is much more fatiguing than the 
curaive writing, which permits of keeping 
the writing arm in restful [ osition on the 
desk, and of writing whole words without 
raising the pen or pencil from the paper. 

While vertical writing or printing favora 
legibility, slanting characters are nccesaary 
for comfort and facility in handwriting. 
Experience of the centuriea haa. therefore. 



developed a handwriting, which, in the form 
of our present day muscular movement sys- 
tem, takes into consideration and embraces 
as fully as possible all of the necessary 
elements, such as legibility, facility, com- 
fort, and conservation of health. 

Manuscript Writing from the Business 
Standpoint. 

Mr. Cocking, chairman of our Revision 
Committee, recently sent to St. Louis busi- 
ness men aquestionnaire relating to pen- 
manship. One of the questions contained in 
this questionnaire was: "Is the present 
cursive writing functioning satisfactorily." 
Thirty-six of the torty persons who returned 
the questionnaire said "Yes." This inves- 
tigation together with my personal visits to 
sixty-five business men of St. Louis. Wash- 
ington, and New York have revealed a de- 
cided preference for cursive writing. Eighty- 
five of the one hundred and five persons 
interviewed chose the cursive writing. The 
reasons given for favoring the cursive writ- 
ing were: Meets business needs; more leg- 
ible; more rapid; easy to read easy to 
write more conventional; more practical; 
more individual; neat; more natural, and 
more customary. Some of the tellers of 
banks and trust companies said they would 
not accept printed signatures. 

From the above statements it will be 
seen that at present there is a demand, in 
the business world, for good cursive writ- 
ing, and little, if any demand for the man- 
uscript writing. Would it not, therefore, be 
unwise to consider manuscript writing from 
the standpoint of replacing the cursive 
writing in all grades of our schools. 

Manuscript Writing from the School 
Standpoint. 

My visits to the manuscript schools here 
and elsewhere have enabled me to make a 
closa study of the value of manuscript 
writing as a tool of expression and to com- 
pare these results with those of the cursive 
writing. Whatever may be said of the ex- 
tent to which penmanship is used today in 
the business world, the fact remains that 
the need for writing in the school has in- 
creased, rather than decreased during re- 
causes, among which are a crowded curri- 
culum, and an increase in the number of 
subjects requiring written expression. No 
longer is penmanship taught merely for 
handwriting skill, but rather as a vehicle 
to carry forward the other subjects. A 
handwriting that meets the needs of the 
school doubtless will be satisfactory for any 
other life situation in which penmanship is 

Below are given the advantages and dis- 
advantages of the manuscript writing as I 
have been able to gather them. The so- 
called "advantages" are from books on 
manuscript writing and statements made by 
some principals and teachers. 

(Continued in November) 



Miss Edith L. Forry is a new teacher of 
typewriting in the Actual Business College. 



Car 



Ohi( 



Mr. G. C. Sherman, recently with the 
Richmond, V'a., Business College, is now 
teaching in the Fort Union Military Acad- 
emy at Richmond. 

Mr. Ralph W. Parmcnter and Mr. Milton 
L. Stahl are two new commercial teachera 
in the Steubenville. Ohio. Business College. 

Mr. J. W. McAlone of Raven Rock, N. J., 
for many years Head of the Commercial 
Department of the Vicksburg. Miss., High 
School, has accepted a position to teach in 
the High School at Shreveport, La., the 
coming year. 

Mr. Jesse L. Pellcrin. a recent graduate 
of the University of New Hampshire, will 
teach the coming year in the Newmarket, 
N. H., High School. 

Miss Lucy L. Bell, recently with The 
Castle School. Tarrytown, N. Y.. ia now 
teaching in the Atlantic City, N. J.. Buai- 
neaa College. 

Mias Margaret Dailey of Lexington, 
Mass.. wil teach the coming year In the 
High School at Rockland, Maaa. 

Misa Irene E. Hale, a member of the 1927 
graduating class of the Salem. Maaa.. State 
Normal School, ia to be a new commercial 
teacher in the llion. N. Y.. High School, 
the coming year. 



'y/u?3i>uj//uJJ&//ua6r $> 



23 



C. P. Zaner — A Portrait 

By LETTIE J. STROBELL. Pres. National 
Association of Penmanship Supervisors. 
and Supervisor of Penmanship. Pitts- 
burgh. Pa. 

Mrs. Strobell became acquainted with Mr. 
Zaner when ten of the Pittsburgh Super- 
visors attended the Zanerian Summer 
School in 1916. Mr. Zaner was an active 
member of the National Association of Pen- 
manship Supervisors for many years. It is 
indeed a pleasure to have former students 
of the Zanerian, who are now occupying 
prominent penmanship positions, speak and 
write so complimentary about Mr. Zaner 
and the Zanerian College where 60'/, of the 

National Association of Penmanship Super- 
visors received their penmanship training. 



In the portrait which I am going to 
draw I mean to illustrate character 
rather than to record personality. 
Life is glorified by a conscious aim, 
no matter how simple this aim may 
be. And the measure of the divine in 
each of us is a purpose formed and 
gripped — modified, perhaps, or en- 
larged. 

I shall use the microscope in pre- 
ference to the telescope. The soul 
can be awed and thrilled as deeply by 
the wonder of the arbutus as it re- 
sponds to the call of Spring as by the 
drift of suns that powder the floor 
or night. 

It is hopeless insincerity, untruth- 
fulness, and folly if we accord indis- 
criminate praise to those clear- 
visioned, great-hearted souls who 
have upon the whole played a noble 
part in life. You and I desire to see 
in the lives of others some sort of 
transformation, some evidence of 
patient combat with faults, some gain 
of stamina, courage, and charity. A 
human being loses his humanity and 
lovableness and becomes a statue 
when we portray his character as 
flawless. We love the saints of great 
virtues and great faults, not those icy 
super-beings who picked their steps 
daintly through the mud. St. Paul's 
persecution of the Christians and his 
thorn in the flesh make his sermon on 
charity an imperishable gen; St. 
Augustine's Confessions inspire cour- 
age to every weary but onward-press- 
ing soul; and the humanity of the 
Master Christian is made manifest by 
his pointed rebukes to hypocrites, his 
turning of the money-changers out of 
the temple, and his weeping at the 
tomb of Lazarus. So in this portrait 
I shall draw C. P. Zaner as he ap- 
peared to me. 

1 can see a figure in a light Palm 
Be^ch suit, a black bow tie, walking 



with measured steps, the head a little 
bowed, some manuscripts held firmly 
in the right hand, the face serious, 
sad. and in contemplation, the hair 
and whiskers brown, straight, and 
strong. Again I can see him seated 
in his Paige car guiding it with steady 
hand as he escorted his students on 
a tour of Columbus and its environs. 
A witi-i lemark and then a twinkle 
as we passed the Hartman farm. 




MRS. LETTIE J. STROBELL. 

"Why are these fences painted 
white?" he asked. 

"So that the blue ribbon horses will 
see the fences and not the tin Lizzies 
on the road," was his answer. 

Or I can see him again at the desk 
in the large classroom, the whole 
figure exhibiting a strange mixture of 
unaffected dignity and an almost 
shrinking shyness. The impression 
was of a man who looked at life from 
many points of view, and whose 
energies had been repressed rather 
than dissipated. Occasionally the 
sense of humor which lay at the back 
of his mind found a quiet vent. 

To no other man of my acquaint- 
ance can these words of Gibbon be 
more appropriately applied, "The best 
and most important part of every 
man's education is that which he gives 
himself." He mastered his art by let- 
ting it master him. C. P. Zaner's 
success was attained by treading the 
stony path. The financial struggles 
of his early life and the illness of his 
wife during his closing years left 
their impress upon him. Yet through 
it all, he found time to acquire a 
knowledge of literature and philos- 
ophy such as few specialists possess. 
He was the one penman who could 
converse as fluently on Schopenhauer, 




Kant, and Spinoza as on the technique 
of handwriting. He told me that the 
life of Spinoza had helped him more 
than anything else in teaching him 
patience" and fortitude. Those who 
knew him during the anxious summer 
of 1916 when Mrs. Zaner lay desper- 
ately ill, could not help marvelling at 
his courage, his calmness, his poise. 

One instinctively felt that no mer- 
cenary motive ever actuated a single 
act in his life. He placed honor and 
his art before money. 

Fortunate indeed are those who had 
the opportunity of receiving black- 
board instruction from the master — C. 
P. Zaner. His blackboard classes 
seemed to be his one restful activity. 
It was then that he alienated himself 
from the responsibility of micro- 
scopic critic and adviser. Here 
again his wit came to the fore, and 
this together with his friendly com- 
ments drew all students to him. One 
felt that his "Well done" was sincere, 
and even when he did not voice an 
opinion, his face mirrored his 
thoughts. , 

When a student left the College, he 
could not help knowing that it was 
good for him to have been there. The 
dominant character of this quiet, un- 
assuming man permeated the institu- 
tion. 

"Kings and queens are but acci- 
dents of time and chance;" statesmen 
and priests and writers are often to 
be congratulated upon their success 
just as we congratulate the worm in 
a six-ounce apple, not on its energy 
but on the size of the apple which it 
has the opportunity of devouring. 
But a man immured in a common 
round of duty, beset by obstacles, yet 
having a beauty and singleness of aim 
and succeeding in achieving this air 
is not the accident of wealth or the 
incident of social impressiveness. Of 
such as these is the world made bet- 
ter, and Charles Paxton Zaner has an 
honored place in this goodly com- 
pany. 

Miss Christine Heffernan, for sev- 
eral years a visiting instructor for the 
A. N. Palmer Co., New York City, has 
accepted a position as teacher of pen- 
manship in the Bryant-Stratton Col- 
lege, Providence, R. I. 



Mr. Hiram Groff of Enola, Pa., is a 
new commercial teacher in the Spring- 
dale, Pa., High School. 

Mr. T. W. Wauchope, recently with 
Drake's Business School, Paterson, N. 
J., is a new commercial teacher in The 
Business Institute, Detroit. 



Miss E. Pauline Conrad, a member 
of this year's graduating class of the 
Salem, Mass., State Normal School, 
will teach the coming year in the High 
School at Ludlow, Mass. 

Miss Mabel Morton of Detroit is a new 
teacher of shorthand in the University In- 
stitute. Fort Wayne. Indiana. 



24 



RESULTS OF THE "COURTNEY SIGNATURE CONTEST" 




ith. Concord. N. H.. who v 
rd. Evanston, 111., was aw: 
lent on page 7. 



nd pr 



n "The Courtney Signature Contest." 

rk on page 24. Mr. Guillard also won a priz 




MISS FLORENCE FLETCHER 

Winner of the Silver Trophy, the 
highest award in this year's Gregg 
Writer contest in shorthand penman- 
ship, in which more than 12,000 short- 
hand writers competed. 

Mis? Fletcher, 19 years of age, is a 
graduate of Roosevelt High School, 
Wyandotte, Michigan, one of the lead- 
ing high schools of the state. 

She received all of her training in 
shorthand from Miss Lola Maclean, 
director of secretarial science, Detroit 
Commercial College. 

Recently she won the "Gregg Ex- 
pert Medal" for writing 150 words a 
minute on the five minute Gregg 
Writer transcription test. 



€^jZ&%^ 



-y^^^^i^ 



- ~ * -" Vi/l i 1 -lY r uiij 



s/ g.^tt ** <Z4L~~f 



Written by D. Beauchamp. Frost Bldg., Los 

Angeles, who will contribute more of his 

work throughout the year. 



MISS FLORENCE FLETCHER 



trj 



//^^c^t«<n/«>^^ 



C^A^o-^ 



Written by E. A. Lupfer 



<5//ie>y3uj//i£jJ (S'duca&T" & 



25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 



Nos. 22 and 23 are to be made with a very light uniform touch. Retrace about 8 times. Aim for quality of 
line. 

No. 24. After retracing the upright oval 8 times without lifting the pen swing to the horizontal oval. This will 
prepare you for making horizontal ovals. 

No. 25 is also an important exercise. See that both ends are even and that the top is no heavier than the bottom. 

Nos. 26 and 27. These exercises will require considerable effort to space properly. Get down strokes an even 
distance apart and as light as possible. 

No. 28. Again keep the downward strokes evenly spaced, the thickest part of the shade should be above the 
center, and the turn at the bottom should be a hair line. Develop a snappy up and down pressure on the shades. 

No. 29 is the reverse of 28. Study the copy and see if you can make each as uniform in spacing. Roll them 
off freely. 

No. 30 is intended to prepare you to get the general shape of the stroke used in so many of the letters like 
M and N. Get the shape of the stroke without shading heavily. 

No. 31 is the same as 30 with the exception of the shade which should be low and snappy. Keep the right 
side of the shade fairly straight. Snap the shade off at the base line. 

No. 32 has a different beginning. The first oval should be horizontal. Start a little above the base line. Watch 
slant. 

No. 33 is used quite frequently by penmen. You should master it. Get full graceful beginning loops. 

Make hundreds of these exercises if necessary to make them well. 

Nos. 34 and 35 show different styles and are easy to master. Watch the parallel effect and the placing of 
shades. 

Nos. 36-37-38 and 39. These beginning strokes when thrown together so that they overlap systematically make 
a very beautiful exercise. Some of the important things to watch are spacing and parallel lines. See that all cross- 
ings are at right angles or nearly so. 

If you do not have a good penholder write to the Business Educator regarding a good holder. Possibly your 
holder can be adjusted so that it will work better. 




Mr. M. A. Albin. the well known penman 
and commercial educator will be connected 
with the Texas Business Institute, Houston. 
Texas, this coming year. 

Mr. Jacob Stratman. last year commercial 
teacher in the Winterset, Iowa, High School 
will teach the coming year in the High 
School at Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Mr, Arthur J. Sullivan of Danvers. Mass.. 
a member of the 1927 graduating class of 
the Salem, Mass., State Normal School, will 
teach the coming year in the Cumberland. 
Md„ High School. 

Mr. J. L. Baker, last year with the Actual 
Business College. Akron, Ohio, is a new 
commercial teacher in the Atlantic City, N. 
J. High School. 



High 



Mr. John J. Sexton, recently with the 
Drake. Business College, Jersey City. N. J. 
is a new commercial teacher in the Me- 
chanicsville, N. Y.. High School. 

Miss Irene L. Hapgood, for several years 
a commercial teacher in Wrenthar 
will teach the coming year in 1 
School at Billerica, Mass. 

Miss Frances Emmert of Winon 
has accepted a position to teach 
coming year in the High School 
City, Iowa. 

Mr. Henry M. Garvey, a membe 
year's graduating class of the Sale] 
State Normal School, will teach 
cial work the coming year in the Glo 
Mass., High School. 



Miss Flora Moeckel of Greeley, Colo., is 
a new commercial teacher in the Holden, 
Mo.. High School. 

Miss Maude E. Goodhue of Chicago has 
recently accepted a position to teach com- 
mercial work in the Munhall. Pa., High 
School. 

Miss Gladys Bahr, last year with the 
Marinette, Wis., High School, will teach the 
coming year in the Withrow High School. 
Cincinnati. 

Mr. Harold S. Pray of Sheboygan Falls, 
Wis., is a new commercial teacher in the 
High School at Medina, N. Y. 

Miss Page Fry of Washington. D. C, ia 
a new teacher of typewriting in Rider Col- 
lege, Trenton, N. J. 



26 



*f £^&u&niM&&uxi&r ®> 



MIDNIGHT IN THE CLASS ROOM 

By Susie Hathaway And Her Fifth 

Grade Pupils, Laurel Ave. School 

Binghamton, N. Y. 

One night as the moon looked 
through the window of the 5 B Class 
Room she was amazed to see tiny fig- 
ures running about the room and 
jumping upon the desks. After she 
had polished her spectacles and had 
looked a little more closely she found 
that these figures were the letters 
from the perception strips on the wall. 
In one corner of the room papers 
were being snatched from a boy's 
desk and scattered about. Then a tiny 
voice said, "I think it's quite dreadful 
the way John makes me look. I am 
not round shouldered. If he's going 
to use me at all, he ought to treat me 
fairly and let me stand up in the way 
that a real live letter should." 

Looking over the shoulder of the 
indignant little figure the moon saw 
the Capital A made like this: 



But A wanted to look like this: 




of my head and sometimes down on 
my ears. I don't want to look like 
Ch*ai'He Chaplin or Charlie Puffy 
either." This is what the moon saw: 



But it wanted to look like this: 




Capital 0, standing in the chalk 
tray, was rapping on the board with 
the pointer. He was calling the at- 
tention of his friends L, D and E to 
the way Mary had made him when 
she wrote October and Owen. 

I want my hair neatly parted on 
the side and not allowed to stand 
straight up on my head. I don't want 
to be over-weight or under-weight 
either." This is how he looked: 




10' under 
weight 



20'' over 
weight 



But he wanted to look like this: 



The moon felt like hiding her face 
because she was so ashamed of John 
but her attention just then was drawn 
to another part of the room by a voice 
louder than the rest. 

"I just can't endure the way these 
boys and girls use my hat. Some- 
times it is placed away up on the top 




The confusion was becoming so 
great that the moon glanced about 
the sky for a cloud behind which she 




could hide. Then suddenly Capital J 
jumped to the top of the teacher's 
desk and called all the letters to or- 
der. He said that instead of scolding, 
they'd better decide what to do to im- 
prove the situation. The plan was 
made to project some animated lines 
into the air. Whenever a pupil be- 
came careless in his use of a letter, 
these lines should be caused to circle 
about before him attracting his at- 
tention. Then these lines, one follow- 
ing another, should go straight to the 
perception strip on the wall and take 
their place there upon the misused 
letter. This process should be re- 
peated until the pupil showed greater 
care. 

When the 5 B class came to the 
room in the morning everything was 
in order and the boys and girls never 
knew just how it happened that they 
were really trying to improve their 
writing. 



A catalog with many specimens of 
penmanship has been received from 
that enthusiastic penman and com- 
mercial teacher, Frank A. Krupp, In- 
terstate Business College, Fargo, N. 
Dak. 



Mr 



Larson 



Mo., and Miss Lenora 
Mo., are two new con 
The Mankato Commerc 
Minn. 

Miss Gladys Dyer, fc 
a commercial teacher 



nelly of Springfield, 
(rown of Chillicothe. 
mercial teachers in 
al College. Mankato. 



II, 



last few years 
the Gloucester, 
cepted a similar 
High School at 



ly. 



Mass.. High School, h 
position to teach in 
West Haven. Conn. 

Miss Ellen Rosnell of East ■ 
Mass.. and Miss Dorothy Ellis of 
Mass.. members of the 1927 g 
class of the State Normal School. Sal 
Mass.. will teach the coming year in the 
High School at Westport. Mass. 

Miss Elsie J. Kunze of Easton. Md.. is a 
new commercial teacher in the High School 
at St. Michaels. Md. 

Mr. W. Guy Roseberry, for several years 
Secretary for the Sun Light Power Co.. 
Wilmington, Del., has recently accepted a 
rosition to teach in the Commercial De- 
partment of the Universal Institute, Fort 
Wayne. Ind. 

Mr. O. H. Schraaf of Shreve. Ohio, is a 
new commercial teacher in the Arnold. Pa- 
High School. 

Miss C. Aileen Snyder, recently with the 
Clairton. Pa.. High School, has accepted a 
position to teach commercial work in the 
High School at Hanover, Pa. 
. Mr. Charles D. Newbegin, for the last 
few years head of the commercial work in 
East Creenw.ch. R. I . Academy, is a new 
comm-rcial teacher in the Rogers High 
School. R. I. 

Miss Mildred K. Gardner, recently a com- 
mercial teacher in the Mapleton, Maine. 
High School, has been chosen or similar 
the new High School nt Swansea. 



Ma 



Mil 



Helen Higgins of South Pa 
new commercial teachei 



Ma 



the 



Wealhersfield, Conn.. High School. 

Miss Mary O. Andrews of Oxford, Pa.. 
will teach the coming year in the Commer- 
cial Department of the Spring City. Pa- 
High School. 

Miss Gladys A. Cunningham of Castine. 
Maine, is a new commercial teacher in 
Maine I rntr.il Institute. Pittsfield. Maine. 

Mr. Joseph J. Maney, for the last few 
years a commercial teacher in the Fitch- 
hurg. Mass.. High School, has recently ac- 
cepted a position to teach in the High 
School at Grantwood. N. J. 



>s//u 'Jtiuj/zitjj C<6ua/rr $> 



21 



THE LETTER OF APPLICATION 
By Roland F. Eberhart, Commer- 
cial Department, Monrovia 
(Calif.) High School 
For Use in Salesmanship, Business 
Correspondence, and Office 
Training Classes 



Nearly every one is required sometime to 
write one or more letters of application for 
a position. Young persons especially are 
confronted with this task after leaving 
school. If such a letter is written to the 
point and in accordance with the best us- 
age the applicant is much more likely to 
receive proper consideration than if the 
letter is unbusinesslike. 

Mr. Eberhart is here generously giving 
the readers of The Business Educator th» 
benefit of the instruction he gives his stu- 
dents in his high school classes. 

Young persons should give this subject 
some attention before being called upon to 
act. To know how to write such letters 
may save embarrassment later. 

To say what should be said, and not 
more; to arrange it properly on the page, 
spell and punctuate correctly, are some of 
the points in the letters explained by Mr. 
Eberhart. 

Then, as all are well aware, rapid. leg- 
ible business penmanship is one of the chief 
points of merit in such a letter. 



A Suggestive Outline for a Letter 
of Application: 

I. Introduction, naming the posi- 
tion for which you are applying. 
Mention how you heard of the open- 
ing. 

II. Education, experience, age, 
and other data of interest to the 
employer. State your qualifica- 
tions. 

III. References and credentials. 

IV. Conclusion. 

The following suggestions will be 
of assistance. Observe them care- 
fully. 

1. Use plain paper, of a good qual- 
ity. Business size is 8% x 11 inches. 
The envelope should match. 

2. Write on one side of the paper 
only. 

3. The letter should be typewrit- 
ten, if possible, in order to give the 
appearance of brevity. Single space 
the letter, with double spaces between 
paragraphs. If you are applying for 
a position as a clerk or a bookkeeper, 
inclose a specimen of your writing. 

4. If your letter is typewritten, 
try to limit it to one page. 

5. Be sure to cover all items men- 
tioned in the advertisement. Be frank 
but modest. Express confidence in 
your ability to fill the position. 

6. Never refer to a former em- 
ployer or instructor, unless he has 
given you permission to do so. 

7. When mentioning salary, con- 
sider carefully your ability and ex- 
perience. Also try to find out what 
salaries are paid for such positions, 
in the neighborhood where you wish 
to work. 

8. When answering a "blind" ad- 
vertisement, such as "B 121, Monrovia 
News," this address should have the 



number of the advertisement on the 
first line, the name of the publication 
on the next line, and the name of the 
city and state on the third line. Use 
"Gentlemen:" or "Dear Sir" as a 
salutation. 

9. It is very important that you do 
not crowd all your information into 
one paragraph. Facts stand out more 
clearly in short paragraphs than they 
do when packed together into long 
ones. Follow this advice in the writ- 
ing of most business letters. 

The opening paragraph of the letter 
of application is very important. The 
following paragraphs will suggest 
ways of beginning your letter of ap- 
plication: 

Please consider me an applicant for 
the position of salesman, which was 
advertised in this evening's "Mes- 
senger." 

You advertised this evening in the 
"Times" for a bookkeeper who is neat 
in his work, accurate, and dependable. 
I have these qualifications, and am ap- 
plying for the position. 

I have the qualifications which fit 
me to fill satisfactorily the position 
of stenographer in your office, adver- 
tised in the "Tribune" of February 8. 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Snell, Appoint- 
ment Secretary, Stanford University, 
has just informed me that you are in 
need of an instructor in the Commer- 
cial Department of Monrovia High 
School, and I am applying for the 
position. 

The Employment Department of 
the Remington Typewriter Company, 
Pasadena, has informed me that you 
are in need of a typist who can take 
dictation on the machine. Please con- 
sider me an applicant for the position. 

If there is a vacancy open in your 
filing department, I wish to be con- 
sidered an applicant. 



A few suggestions in regard to refer- 
ences: 

Give complete titles of persons to 
whom you refer. Indicate the position 
of each person. 

Tabulate the names of the people 
to whom you wish to have your future 
employer refer. 

Give complete addresses, and if pos- 
sible, the telephone number of each 
name you have listed. 

Select about three persons best 
qualified to write concerning your 
work, and ability to fill the position. 



Suggestions concerning the Conclu- 
sion: 

The conclusion, like the introduc- 
tion, should be brief. 

Ask for a personal interview, and 
tell how you may be reached by tele- 
phone, as well as by letter; for ex- 
ample: 

"May I have an interview with 
you, in regard to this position, at 
your office? My telephone number 
is Black 445. My address is given 
on the stamped envelope, which is 
inclosed for reply." 



205 West Palm Av 

Monrovia. California 
SX 634 December 20. 1927 

Chronicle Office. 
Menrovia. California 
Gentlemen: 

You advertised in this morning's Chron- 
icle for a stenographer who has had at 
least four years' experience. You require 
that the applicant turn our transcripts rap- 
idly, and with accuracy. I have the quali- 
fications which fit me to fill this position 
satisfactorily. 

I am twenty-four years of age. and am 
a graduate of Monrovia High School, and 
also of the Efficiency Business College of 
Pasadena. 1 have had four years' exper- 
ience as a stenographer for Smith. Brown 
and Company, hardware dealers of this city, 
and am at present the stenographer for Mr! 
James V Tuttle, a Monrovia attorney. 1 
can take dictation at 140 words a minute, 
and am able to typewrite at the rate of 80 
words a minute. A special course in Filing 
and Office Training has made me efficient 

If you desire information concerning my 
character, and ability as a stenographer. 1 
am permitted to refer you to my former 
teachers and employers below: 

Mr. A. R. Clifton. Superintendent of 

Schools. Monrovia. California 
Mr. Phillip Roberts. Manager of Rob- 
erts Business College. Pasadena Cal- 
ifornia. 
Mr. P. A. Smith, c/o Smith. Brown and 

Company. Monrovia. California. 
Mr James V. Tuttle. 112 South Myrtle 
Avenue. Monrovia. California. 

orh Wll 'n g J, Ve me P' easure to «f« y°u to 
other well-known business men of this city, 
who can give you further information con- 
cerning my character, and ability as an ac- 
curate and efficient shorthand writer. 

May 1 have an interview with you, in re- 
gard to this position, at your office to-mor- 
B°:e??3 r r 8? My tele " h °- n«»ber is 
Yours very truly, 

Albert R. Davidson 

P. S. 

The Efficiency Business College, from 
which I was graduated, is now under a dif- 
ferent management, the name now being the 
Roberts Business College. Mr. Roberts, the 
manager, was my shorthand instructor at 
the first-mentioned school. 

A. R. D. 



1020 North Sutter Street 
Stockton. California. 
February 10, 1927 
The J. N. Brown Company 
542 North Fourteenth Street 
Sacramento, California 
Attention Mr. Seth Brodd. 
Gentlemen: 

The Employment Deoartment of the Pas- 
adena branch of the Underwood Typewriter 
Company has informed me that you are in 
need of another stenographer in your Sac- 
ramento office. Please consider me an ap- 
plicant for the position. 

My educational qualifications, briefly, are 
as follows: 

I was graduated from the Commer- 
cial Department of Monrovia High 
school in June. 1925. 

In 1926 1 was graduated from the 
Bookkeeping and Shorthand Depart- 
ments of Heald's San Jose Business 
College. 

The thorough training received at these 
schools gives me confidence that 1 can: 
Take dictation accurately and rap- 
idly, as well as transcribe it in the 

Keep office affairs to myself. 

Spell correctly, punctuate and cap- 
italize properly. 

Arrange letters in the right manner 
on your letterheads. 

Fold a letter in the right way. 
File letters — and find them. 

Make out the business forms used in 
your office. 

Meet callers courteously. 

Operate your Mimeographs. Ad- 
dressograph, calculating machines, and 
other office devices. 

(Continued on page 32.) 



28 



^MJ&u4/n4M&&ua£r & 



SUPERVISOR? 

By MILDRED MOFFETT 

Miss Moffett has had wide e: 
educational work; first as a grade teacher, 
then as a handwriting supervisor, and 
later as a field supervisor. As a result of 
this experience she has acquired many ideas 
relating to handwriting some of which she 
presents in the following article. We hope 
to publish articles from her pen quite fre- 
quently in the future. 

During the past six years, serving 
as field Supervisor of Handwriting, I 
have been frequently called upon to 
talk with the large groups of elemen- 
tary teachers about improved meth- 
ods of teaching the subject. 

Many times I have been introcdued 
as the Writing Inspector. Naturally 
after such an introduction, it takes 
some time to live down the false title, 
and get to the real business of the 
hour: A lively discussion of modern 
methods of teaching, applied to hand- 
writing. 

Having been dubbed Inspector so 
many times, I began to wonder if 
Writing Supervisors in general were 
looked upon as mere Inspectors. 

Observation leads me to believe it 
is only too true in many instances. 

Many so called Supervisors send out 
elaborate outlines yearly, stressing 
one "Fetish" after another merely to 
keep teachers and pupils busy and 
stirred up to show results in the An- 
nual Exhibit. 

Each year teachers and pupils are 
called to account for certain "bad 
spots" in the writing and are in- 
formed forcefully, that something 
must be done about it. Naturally the 
teachers stress the "Fetish" desig- 
nated in the new outline. 

Of course the Inspector sees won- 
derful improvement in class rooms 
where teachers faithfully follow the 
Big Idea during that term. 

However, I dare say if the research 
department made a true survey of 
conditions ,that the Supervisors only 
defense would be the old excuse, "the 
teachers can't write and the Superin- 
tendent won't make them get a writ- 
ing certificate." Teachers don't have 
to be forced to attend the Supervisors 
classes when they know they will re- 



ceive help rather than caustic criti- 
cism. 

It seems to me that a general sur- 
vey of handwriting as to speed and 
accuracy of performance and applica- 
tion in all daily work, is the only sane 
basis for planning ways and means of 
improvement. 

Supervisors would do well to inter- 
est the indifferent teachers by calling 
upon them for some little assistance 
in tabulating results of the survey 
and soliciting some ideas from them. 

I find that all teachers are not only 
willing but eager to attend meetings 
or classes if there is the faintest pros- 
pect of getting real help. 

Remember though! She wants to 
know how to get Bobbie Evans down 
to business with a pen, and why he 
can't write legibly when, really he 
reads beautifully and is a nice child. 

It's our business fellow Supervisors 
to recognize her problem and be able 
to help her get Bobbie on the job; 
rather than to put her off with the 
statement that none of that Evans 
tribe can write — they are all freaks, 
etc., and she needn't expect much of 
Bobby. Face facts squarely — Are 
they freaks or just victims of neglect 
and poor teaching? 

The time is past when Supervisors 
can get by with a snappy, showy les- 



R. C. Rudd, Canada's 
Wiz:ard Card Writer. 
Your name beautifully 
written in various de- 
signs, styles of writing, 
including colored cards, 
inks, comics, etc. 
Set of eighteen, 50c. 

Orders Promptly Mailed 





9 Ryerson Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada 



son now and then; using the old time 
formula: 

Attention! 

Feet flat. 

Back straight. 

Everybody ready. 

Roll on your muscle. 

Show me where your muscle is. 

Ready, ready roll, roll. 

Roll with me — count with me; 

One, two, three, four, etc. 

She or he must be an able teacher 
and leader rather than a driver or 
military officer. ffcer. 

ENGROSSER 

Wanted, good letterer and illuminator, won- 
derful proposition to right man. also a be- 
ginner, good chance to learn the business 
and advancement. 

The Harris Studio 

Engrossers-Illuminators 

Designers 

Engrossers Supplies 
Send for price list 

140 S. Dearhorn St. Chicago 

DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 

Neatly Engrossed 
An Alphabet Print. 11x14, for the ilium- 

inator 50c 

Illuminated Border Design $1.00 

Illuminated Alphabet, complete for 

study $10.00 

This offer is special and less than usual price. 

GOOD WORK ASSURED 

J D. CARTER, 740 Rush St.. Chicago 

EDWARD C. MILLS 

Script Specialist for Engraving Purpose* 
P. O. Drawer 982 Rochester. N. Y. 

The driest script obtainable for bookkeeping illustrations. 

etr The Mills IVns ari' mi..-, , |l, ,| MMK Perfection 

No. 1 — For fine business writing, l gross $l.r,0; % gross 
40r. postpaid. Mills' Medial Pen No. 2— A splendid 
pen of medium fine point. 1 gross $1.25; K gross 3".c. 
postpaid Mills' Business Writer No 8— The best for 
business, 1 gross (1.25; '* cross 3>. postpaid. 1 dor. 

of cn-h nf the ah'Vfr three slvlpt of pens by mail for 4f)c. 




LEARN AT HuML DURING SPARE TIME 
Write for book. "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free. Your 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W. 
TAMBI.YN. 406 Ridge Bide.. Kansas City. Mo. 







By Arthur P. Myers. York. Penna. 



^ <5MJ&uJ/n^&&uafir 



29 



I 9 , ^BvtV^*^ 



(T 1 



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CliarlnfC 

riitrrJjinsiii! 





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in rccomtirtori of 
tp,e tuitrjnil am) 
cjjGetiralury sconces 

of- tbvOtnCV' 



lullrn 



,'i cliairnian SooarS of~ 



Wraith fcrraimncvs. 
tittb tu token of- 
nic l)tu,n, personal 
esteem aitb frafen. 
nal roquro in which 
no is nole< bv^ tne 
members of- 




i^ll clll tO W>boiU triCSC 

^9rcsoiits shall come 



g^ing- 





liiiOxTrnTrlitiiir 

jq was unanimously 

olocroo an 

of- mis £obge ano 
}'ts name nas i>ecu 
iccorboo as Sucr) t\-)iS 
sixteenth \ty or (Pcto- 
Ivi; AQ. 1^24. .-!.£. 59C4: 

fnBinir®]PI[ruTif 

/f ho nave hereunto 

[/ | Sot" our Ratios aito 

euusoo me soul of 

the iioae to -ho afhxcb. 



Album pages engr 



Studio, Chicago. 



30 



4? <5^&ud/n^&/iuxifir & 




A gem by the late W. E. De 



'Penmanship: 



! 



PRACTICAL COURSES for beginners 
and advanced students. Preparatory train- 
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for producing ADVANCED SCRIPTS C A T T <i I? A PT T O M 
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Persona! Instruction and Lessons by Mai!. Write today. TERMS reasonable. Address 

Francis L. Tower, Artist Penman 
501 PLEASANT STREET, HAMMONTON, NEW JERSEY 

Watch for advertisement in the November issue of the Business Educator. 

A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

Learn to letter Price Ticket! and Show Card». It 1) easy to do RAPID. CLEAN CUT LETTERING with our 
lmprored Lettering Peni. MANY STUDENTS ARE ENABLED TO CONTINUE THEIR STUDIES THROUGH 
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31 



JOHNNY, THE HOOKEY PLAYER 

(Continued from page 18.) 

with me has me stopped a dozen ways 
in playing truant. I remember what 
you had done for me and I thought 
that perhaps you would do the same 
for this lad." 

And it came to pass that Joe Pol- 
okie was made acquainted with the 
old teacher. 

All three clasped hands and the old 
mentor said, fervently: 

'May the Good Lord add his bless- 
ing to "the young brother as he has to 
the older brother." 

BUSINESS COLLEGE FOR SALE— Doing 
>rofitable business, in the fastest growing 
y in the Ozarks. Splendid opportunity for 
iband and wife or two young men. Address 
t 6O6, c/o Business Educator, Columbus, O. 



Tour Visit to New Yorl^ 

may be anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

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104 WEST 49th STREET 

"One minute from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre- War Prices) 

Sitting Room, Sitting Room, 

Bedroom with 2 Double Bedrooms 

Private Bath with Private Bath 
( 2 persons) ( 2-4 Persons) 

$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 



No. 1 

Principality *C^ i j 
Pen 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillott's Pens stand in the front rank as 
regards Temper, Elasticity and Durability 

JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field & Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 



With 
here are s 



this 
e of 



year. July an 
the places fo 



AUGUST BUSINESS 

ght 



Wiich 



a sub 


DOI 


mal dema 


nd 


for 


teache 


s, b 


it 


nees w 


're 


taken: H 


gh 


Sr.h 


sols in 


Mn 




J.; Me 


dina. N. Y.- 


Glouc 


ester. 


Mas 




Philadelph 


a; State 


No 


rma 


. Plattsbur 


g 



H.; Ihon. N. Y.; Ma 
Cincinnati. And these others: Dre 

N. Y.; Bliss B. C. North Adams. Mass; Potetsville, Pa.. B. C.J Wausau. Wis., Busines 
Institute; Atlantic City B. C; Cambria B. C, Johnstown. Pa. 
May we help you? 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. (A Specialty by a Specialist) Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. 




PROFESSIONAL SERVICE 



of high order is re 
experienced teache 



d by THE OHIO TEACHER'S BUREAU in finding for trained and 
those just out of college or normal school the kind of positions 
sired. Our calls come direct from school officials and we recommend direct. Thousands 
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quirements. Write for booklet at once. We operate in every state. 

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Splendid salaries, choice positions, beginning and experienced teachers wanted. 
Write for free literature; state qualifications briefly. Money making business 
colleges for sale. Write for particulars — no charge. 
Address M. S. COLE. Sec>. 

CO-OPERATIVE INSTRUCTORS ASS'N, 41 Cole Bldg., MARION, IND. 



High -Class Business College 
Instructors in Demand 

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32 



^ <5^&utin<M&&u*i&r & 



THE LETTER OF APPLICATION 

(Continued from page 2 7.) 
Act with initiative and tact at all 
times. 

My age is nineteen. I live with my par- 
^ts, at the address given above. 



J. N. B. Co.— 2. 

My training at Monrovia High School, 
and at Heald's Business College has been 
thorough, the Commercial Department o f 
the last-named school duplicating actual 
business work. 

In regard to my character and ability. I 
am given permission to refer you to: 

Mr. A. R. Clifton. Superintendent of 

Schools, Monrovia. Calif. 

Miss M. B. Thorne. c/o Commercial 

Department. Monrovia High School. 

Monrovia. California. 

Mr. J. W. Nixon. Manager of the 

Heald's Business College. San Jose. 

California. 

It will be greatly appreciated if I may 
have an interview with you. at any time 
most convenient to you. The matter of 
salary can be decided after you have had 
the opportunity of seeing for yourself what 
quality of work I turn out. 

Janet MacLean. 

P. S. 

Stamped envelope is inclosed for reply. 
If more convenient, you may reach me by 
telephone, my number being Black 445. 
J. McL. 



Open punctuation of the block form 
was used in the headings and com- 
plimentary addresses. 

The indented style of headings and 
complimentary addresses, as well as 
of paragraphs may be preferred by 
other applicants. 



The following list of words will be 
of assistance to the student who is 
writing a letter of application. A 
study of the syllabication of these, 
and of all words used in writing let- 
ters, is extremely important, and well 
worth the writer's time. 

accurate applicant 

application 



A good suggestion to the applicant: 

If, after ten days, you have not re- 
ceived an answer to your letter, send 
a courteous "follow-up letter." 

The following letter will offer sug- 
gestions: 

(Heading and complimentary address 
omitted'. 
Centlemen: 

On February 10, 1 wrote you a letter, in 
regard to the stenographic position, which 
you advertised in the Sacramento Bee. 

An interview will be greatly anpreciated. 
I am certain that I can convince you of 
my ability to fill the position with absolute 
satisfaction. 

A reply, at your earliest convenience will 
be greatly appreciated. 

Yours very truly, 

P. s. 

A stamped envelope is 'inclosed for reply. 
J. McL. 




W. G. 


Roseberry has accepted the princi- 


palship 


of the Universal Institute, Fort 


Wayne, 


Ind. Mr. Roseberry is a very skillfu 


penman. 


The above cards were written by 


him. 





Miss Letha Bogart of Millville, 


Pa., is a 


new commercial teacher in the 


Watson 


town. Pa.. High School. 





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manager 

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principal 

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salary 



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If you have difficulty in spelling 
other words, or in dividing them into 
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penmanship class. 



Mr. J. C Evans is tht 
rommercial Department i 
at Haddon Heights. N. J. 

Miss Marian S. Good" 
Mass., a recent gradua 
Mass., State Normbal School, 



the Plainville, Ma 



new head of the 
i the High School 

in of Gloucester. 

e of the Salem, 

ill teach the 



FOR THE ENGROSSER — 

RARE OLD BOOKS 



n Engr. 
ill sell 



id lllun 
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of Chill. 
Schriften Atlas . 
Grammar of Ornament 

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Illuminated Ornaments (Shaw) 48.50 

The Art of Illuminating 

(Tymms &< Wyatt) 15.00 

Illuminated Books of Middle Ages 

( Humphreys) 94.00 

These are all out of print many years 



and 



■111 

S. E. LESLIE 
3201 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 




An Educational Journal of 

Real Merit 

Regular Departments 

enmanship Arithmetic Civict 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 

rice $1.50 per year. Sample on request 

PARKER PUBLISHING CO., 

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PASADENA, CALIF. 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer 6t 
Phonographic World) 
A monthly magazine covering all 
departments of Commercial Education. 
Strong departments presided over by 
well-known teachers for those who teach 
any branch of commercial education, in- 
cluding business administration, account- 
ancy, and court reporting. 
The Only Magazine of It. Kind Published 
Single copy 15c. Annual subscription J 1 .50 

Send for Sample Copy. 
Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia. Pa. 



^i^&u&ned^&duxi&r & 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit, 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

Problems in Marketing, by Melvin 
Thomas Copeland, Ph. D. Published 
by the A. W. Shaw Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. Cloth cover, 819 pages. 

The fundamental plan of this book re- 
mains essentially the same as that of the 
first and second editions. The section on 
sales correspondence introduced in the sec- 
ond edition has been dropped, to make room 
for material of more fundamental signifi- 
cance in the theory of marketing. The sec- 
tion on the consumer's point of view has 
been discontinued as a separate section, 
but without lessening the emphasis on that 
basic concept; that point of view is devel- 
oped throughout the present volume by 
cases placed at strategic points. Aside 
from those changes in plan, which are not 
material, the differences between this edi- 
tion and the second edition appear in the 



the 



In this edition many new cases have taken 
the place of cases in the preceding edition. 
These changes reflect developments in 
theory and developments in business prac- 
tice. The theory of marketing is still 
in the early stages of formulation. Hence 
continued study is bringing to light new as- 
pects of the subject which deserves a place 
in such a volume as this. Business methods 
are undergoing particularly rapid modifica- 
tions in marketing. Experiments abound. 
New cases of significance, therefore, are 
continually arising. Under these circum- 
stances frequent revision of teaching ma- 
terial 



Nearly all the cases in this volume ha 
been recorded by the research organizati 
of the Harvard Graduate School of Busin, 
Administration. Although the cases ; 
based on actual business experience, 
most instances they have been stated un< 
disguised names, in order to avoid reve 
ing the identity of confidential informati 
with its sources. 



This Believing World, A Simple Ac- 
count of the Great Religions of 
.Mankind, by Lewis Browne, Author 
of "Stranger Than Fiction: A Short 
History of the Jews." Published by 
The Macmillan Company, New 
York. Cloth cover, 347 pages. 

Here is a really authenic and attractive 
populaization of the whole subject of Com- 
jarative Religion. The same narrative gift 
and dramatic quality are in evidence that 
won so swift and favorable a verdict from 
a large public for Dr. Browne's "Short 
History of the Jews." 

Again, he makes a story where the prac- 
tice is to make a dry treatise. He tells 
what savages believed and makes a tale 
also of what their religious beliefs meant 
and did to them. He does the same for the 
primitive Celts, the Babylonians, the Egypt- 
ians, the Hebrews, the peoples of Europe 
and the Arabs. Incidentally, he covers the 
founding of all the great living religions, 
relates their history and describes their 

Comparative Religion is a relatively new 
field of study. Not so long ago its com- 
parisons between Christianity and the other 
great religions of the world were read with 
suspicion and a hostile eye, even when done 
by a Christian scholar in good standing 
who did his best to show that Christianity 
could stand these tests and come out on 
top. But a Christian scholar who writes 
a work today on Comparative Religion is 



;ted 



be quite 



33 



ely par- 



Something of the old shock of novelty will 
be experienced in reading Lewis Browne's 
history of the world's religions. For it is 
done by a writer who has had no Christian 
axe to grind at all. 

"This Believing World" is copiously illus- 
trated with block drawings and animated 
maps done by the author on his travels in 
the Orient in search of first hand witnesss 
through conversation with learned represen- 
tatives of the various religions of the East. 



The One Thousand Commonest Words, 

written in Isaac Pitman Shorthand, 
adapted for use with "Commercial 
Course." Published by Isaac Pit- 
man & Sons, New York. Paper 
cover, 30 pages. 

The list of the One Thousand Common- 
est Words which appears in this book was 
compiled by Dr. Leonard P. Ayres, and is 
the result of careful and extensive investi- 
gation. It is published by the Russell Sage 
Foundation of New York City. In the first 
section of the book the words — in short- 
hand and letterpress — have been arranged 
in groups graded according to the intro- 
duction of the principles in the New Era 
Edition of the "Commercial Course." This 
arrangement enables the shorthand teacher 
and student to make use of this very val- 
uable list from the beginning of the course. 
It is suggested that, after the completion of 
the study of the rules in each Chapter, stu- 
dents should be drilled in the formation of 



outlines for the words in 


:he appropri- 


section. Practice of this r 


ature will be 


nd of the greatest assistan 


ce in the ac- 


rement of speed. 




n the second section the w 


ords are ar- 


ged alphabetically, with nu 


mbers to in- 


ate the Chapter containing 


the explana- 


n of the rules involved. 




(See Book Reviews on p 


age 3.) 



Two New Practice Pads in Commercial Subjects 

Cowan and Loker JUNIOR EXERCISES IN BUSINESS PRACTICE 

This pad provides ample opportunity for actual practice in those details of office work which should 
he part of every course in elementary business training. It contains a wealth of carefully graded 
exercises arranged in a convenient pad of perforated sheets which can be detached and handed in 
for correction. It is a valuable supplement to Brewer and Hurlbut's "Elements of Business Train' 
ing" or any similar course. Catalogue price, $0.72. 

Powers and Loker JUNIOR EXERCISES IN RAPID CALCULATION 

A pad of perfectly graded exercises providing practice in the fundamentals of arithmetic and 
their application to business. The exercises are practical business problems, such as bills of goods 
sold, pay rolls, sales reports, notes, and expense budgets. The pad may be used independently or 
supplementary to a textbook. For classes in junior high schools, evening schools, vocational and 
continuation schools. Catalogue price, $0.48. 

Practice Pads for the First, Second and Third Years 

Cowan and Loker EXERCISES IN BOOKKEEPING AND BUSINESS PROBLEMS 

Part I $0.60 Part II $0.56 Part III $0.56 

BOSTON NEW YORK GINN AND COMPANY CHICAGO ATLANTA 

DALLAS COLUMBUS SAN FRANCISCO 



34 



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MEMOSCRIPT Secures many good position.. 

Wh v not learn it and other 

3*<. fcw^/-v™V.Cilll subject, by mail, or attend 

Secretarial and Business 



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JSMOOTH-LINE 



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\t. *"• <VS H R T H A N D I Classes! A booklet sent free. 
X^ii7 MEMOSCRIPT INSTITUTE, Roanoke, Va. 



Bookkeeping, 
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452 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 




LEARN ENGROSSING 



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Engrosser, Illuminator and 

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SCRANTON, PA. 



Miss Henrietta Radell of New Yo 


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a new teacher of secretarial s 


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Mr. Carl Strony is a new teacher 


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eriden. Conn. 





THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship and 



Business Writing 

Accounting 

Ornamental Writing 

Lettering 

Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price $1.2 5. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

SS Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 



PENMANSHIP BY MAIL 

Modern, scientific course in Business Writ- 
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copies, red-ink criticisms, typewritten instruc- 
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"An examination discloses that they are far 
better than I had anticipated. Perfectly satis- 
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Smith. Holyoke. Mass. 

Folder sent fret on request. 
J. J. BAILEY, 74 Barton Ave.. Toronto, 4 Can. 



H. J. WALTER, Penman 

222 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, Can. 

Variety of Penmanship Samples, 
including your name in gold 
filigree script 50c 

Superb Signature Combinations, 
and Business Capitals, etc ...50c 



BIRDIE, BIRDIE, OH LOOK 

I am engrossing stanzas from popular 
authors and each is decorated with the pic- 
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meadowlark in natural colors. Artistic let- 
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gift. A superb specimen of pen art, suit- 
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bird — owl. heron, or meadowlark, and en- 
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back. A. L. HICKMAN 

Route I Wichita, Kansas 




<^&t*J//uM&6uxi&r & 



35 







iliemis 



the i««OH »f ,-ur bolV;-c> rr.au.-r an> f«ff«n>- 

tlinau 

Ray R. Glark 

en tlic 6th >di| ot" *lllai|, 1S:6. has Rsult.* in an inestimable 
fott Mil to tl« rerf&nB if car ctlu an> to the fejUlatuw 
bv^q ever which he so abln pre*#eO; an^. 

VyV'llttWS. Ike ttficicnt struitc which <\M TJ..«fUtrk has a loilliacjo 

111 rtnUcrtti for the public, hu gmul (irrsornlitu. Iu« {train simpli ri7u. 

£** his lout for hi? t'clloiu-nini :mo lus sincere UcuiltiOR Jitsl adherence ts 

the hithegl slauiuriis ct morality ana justice haue written his mimr immor- 

hi u?nn mat immemorial scroll establishes anil perpetually mainlainrb ia 

the mrinoru of rani; 

i'oui. tticrcfoir. k itrtsslsA «,/ /- » — ~</ '- »w- . 



u'he -itM clerk is ttiscjt«> nr>> «»r& l» enter this resolution 
J ■kupoiftb.e minutes ot^sai^ citii council tin> to have the 
« same published in *-*the £n2<n3cach.*i[Urnm4 5un an> to 
:n> a eertit'ieb c.-pu thereof to the survii'ina uuWJll».1Iki(iut£lark. 

XotturilracTi: 





of Califoi 
grossing 
cured the 



olut 



for 

rly six hundi 

Mr. Reneau is e 

which he turns into 

Another matter 

Leland David. 



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diplor 

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igaged 

of int, 
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are sure that Zaner 
■A in learning of his 
able to add gr 
ras, etc. He recently wrot 
ing the high school diplom 



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n other \ 
.ring his 
est to a] 
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ihows his 



fork but hi: 

1 who knew 
;ir home. Th 
best efforts. 



skill 



. Long Beach, 
i students who 1 
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ith the pen is in 

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NEVER 

Such a Text for 
Commercial Students! 

Here concentrated between two covers 
more arithmetical training on practic; 
business problems and topics than you ca 
get anywhere else in any one publicatio: 
Whether you are concerned with the mai 
agement of a school, or with that of 
single department or of a class, this book 
will in a very short time give your gradu- 
ates a remarkable grasp of Arithmetic for 
Business. 

Whether you are now using an Arithmetic, I 
or are contemplating using one, or adopt- 
ing a new one, this book has a real mes- 
sageforyou. It willbringyou BIG RESULTS. 




391 Pages 
New Topics 
New Tests 



glare stock, 
bound in a De Luxe cloth. 
OTHER EFFECTIVE TITLES 
Practical Law By Burritt Hamilton, 
LL.B. Prepared especially to meet the 
needs of a Practical Law course ; 277 
pages, 29 chapters. Sample copy, net, post- 
paid S.75 

Practical Law Quiz Manual By BURRITT 
Hamilton'. LL.B. Contains 156 pages and 
is an invaluable aid to the experienced and 
inexperienced Law teacher. Net, post- 
paid SI. 50 

Rapid Calculation By B. B. Smith, B.C.S. 
100 lessons which are carefully graded and 
designed to teach the value of accuracy. 
Sample copy, bound in book form, net, 

postpaid 3 

Vocabulary Method of Training Tou< 
Typists By C E. Birch, B Sci. in Ed., 
M.A. A text of 108 pages divided into five 
parts which teaches typewriting without 
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olume XXXIII 



NOVEMBER, 1927 



Number III 



Ihe 

BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

PENMANSHIP ENGROSSING 
BUSINESS EDUCATION 




ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



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Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, NOVEMBER, 1927 



No. Ill 



THE TREND IN PENMANSHIP 

METHODS 

By E. A. Lupfer 

Analytical Method 

Over a quarter of a century ago, 
the Analytical Method was used. It 
consisted of analyzing the letters into 
elements and principles. A student 
who could analyse a letter in class by 
giving the principles and elements of 
which it was composed was considered 
a good penmanship student. In those 
days the Analytical Method was used 
not only in penmanship but in gram- 
mar and other subjects. This method 
had considerable merit. The strong 
point was in teaching a thorough 
knowledge of form, but the weak 
point was that it produced slow, 
labored writing, and finally was dis- 
carded. An interesting argument in 
favor of this method appears in an 
old penmanship book which states 
that you should no more think of 
writing a letter before tearing it 
apart into its principles and elements, 
or of writing a word before practic- 
ing upon the individual letters, than 
you would think of learning to read 
before learning the alphabet. The 
author of that book, today would no 
doubt smile to see how these things 
have been reversed. This method was 
better suited to professional schools 
of penmanship than to grade schools. 
Fads and One-Sided Extremes 
Following this we had various fads 
and one-sided extremes, all of which 
had some good points but were weak 
in others, and were finally abandoned. 
One of the biggest things we learned 
from some of these extremes was how 
not to teach penmanship. 
Slant 
At one time slant was considered 
the principal requisite of good writ- 
ing by some. So, we had "52 de- 
grees," "vertical" and other slant ad- 
vocates. Some teachers passed around 
among their classes with a cardboard 
triangle, cut at the exact slant de- 
sired. If the writing of the pupils 
did not measure up to the slant on 
this triangle, no matter if he main- 
tained a uniform but different slant, 
his work was marked incorrect. These 
advocates of some one particular 
slant secured individuality. You can 



ATTEND THE N. C. T. F. 

See the program on page 15. 



usually recognize a student of the 
vertical system. It was discovered, 
however, that slant is not one of the 
main requisites of good handwriting. 
It was discovered that writing may 
be good at almost any slant, provid- 
ing it is uniform throughout. 
Position 

Position enthusiasts reigned for a 
time. They seemed to think that a 
good position was the only thing they 
had to work for, and that if a good 
position was mastered, the battle was 
won. They overlooked individual dif- 
ferences and peculiarities in the 
shapes and construction of the stu- 
dents' writing machinery. They tried 
to force all to write in a machine like 
position. They learned, however, 
that good position is only one of the 
many things a penmanship teacher 
must secure. As a rule pupils took 
good position in the writing class but 
did not in the other classes. Too much 
emphasis was placed on position at a 
sacrifice to other essentials. 
Movement 

Writing to be speedy, graceful and 
accurate, must be written with the 
proper kind of movement. There are 
those teachers, however, who teach 
movement to the exclusion of other es- 
sentials. They believe that if one 
gets speedy muscular movement, they 
have everything in penmanship. These 
teachers fail because movement with- 
out a knowledge of form cannot pro- 
duce good writing. They secure speedy 
movement but not controlled move- 
ment. At places where it is necessary 
to take more time and to check the 
motion they speed on, getting scrawly 
forms. In reality they spend most of 
their time on ovals and push-pull ex- 
ercises. 

Counting Machines 

You have no doubt heard some of 
the poor souls who burned up a lot of 
unnecessary energy continuously 
counting in an effort to get every pu- 
pil in the room to make a stroke 
every time she counted. These 
teachers seemed to think that pupils 



I 

could not write without counting a 
continuous tiresome count and over- 
looked the fact that pupils after leav- 
ing school have no one to count for 
them. One teacher counted for the 
word penmanship in this fashion: All 
ready, together, everybody keep up 
with the count, 1-2-3-1-1-2-1-2-3-1-2-1- 
2-1-2-1-2-3-1-2-1-2-3. It would take 
more than an expert to keep up with 
that count. You have no doubt seen 
teachers try to count for complex 
words which no one under the sun 
could follow, and if they could they 
would not be writing with a good uni- 
form movement. 

Counting is one of the best tools of 
the writing teacher when properly 
used, but has been greatly abused by 
many. Speed Demons 

We have had our speed demons in 
writing the same as in autos. The 
speed demon in writing is as destruc- 
tive to readable writing as the speed 
demon in an auto is to human life. 
A common expression was, "Get the 
movement and you will master form," 
but they never did. 

Music 

While music is very closely related 
to penmanship and will create inter- 
est and help to secure a rythmical 
movement, some teachers have used 
music to excess, believing evidently 
that a good writing lesson could not 
be taught unless accompanied by jazz 
music. Yes, jazz is the word, for 
some of the music used in writing 
lessons is as out of the place in the 
writing lesson as a bulldog is in a 
bumblebee's nest. Did students enjoy 
the writing lesson? They enjoyed the 
music even if they didn't get much 
penmanship. 

Next month we shall try to explain 
how the modern good teacher teaches. 



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eiich month. 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

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Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



Copy 29. Here we have the underturn exercise M of a space between two blue lines. In speaking of the 
small letters we call the letter u one space high. The better you get this exercise, the easier the following letters 
will be. You can work for uniformity, slant, even spacing, light line, rounding turns, sharp angles. 

Copy 30. The letter i is one of the easiest in the alphabet but one of the most abused. There is no one so 
lacking in skill who cannot dot the i correctly, but it is safe to say that nine out of ten do not dot the i correctly. 
Are you going to be guilty of this unnecessary mistake ? Study the location of the dot as shown in the first i. Make 
the beginning and ending strokes the same length and shape. Count: 1-2, dot. 

Copy 31. If you can make an i you can make a u. The important thing in making the u is to get turns at 
the bottom and angles at the top. Count: 1-2-3. 

Copy 32. In the w we take up a new point. The retrace or blind loop. To make this well, check the motion 
on the retrace. Study the shape carefully. You will see that it finishes up and does not come down to the base line. 
Unless you get the right motion you are not likely to get a good w. Swing the w along freely, checking on the re- 
trace. Count: 1-2-3, finish. 

Copy 33. This exercise prepares you for the m and n. 

Copies 34 and 35. It is absolutely necessary to get rounding turns where they belong and sharp angles 
where they belong in order to have readable writing. Let us see if we can make all the turns correctly. You will 
need to give special attention to the last top turn and also not to get too much speed in making the bottom turn. 
The second n shows that the letter is three spaces wide. Watch your beginning and ending strokes and study the spac- 
ing. For the n count: 1-2-3, and for m, 1-2-3-4. For connected n's you can count: 1-2, 1-2, etc., or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Copies 36 and 37 are combinations of letters drilling especially on turns and angles. If you would write 
legibly, learn to make distinct turns and angles. In copy 37 your attention is especially called to the uniform spac- 
ing as indicated by the small x marks. 




We shall endeavor to master the capital C. Those who have trouble in making good, legible, easy ("s will find 
Copy 38 helpful. The first exercise in Copy 38 is the oval finished like the C The second exercise is especially help- 
ful to break up the habit of starting with a straight line in place of a curve. The teacher may count 1-2-3-4-5-G 
for the first exercise and 1-2-3-4-5-capital-C for the second exercise. The first exercise shows the pupil the similarity 
of the C to the oval and the similarity of motion used in making the exercise and the letter. 

Copy 39. The teacher can spend a few minutes profitably with the pupils studying the formation and move- 
ment of the letter. We (ring mi., the letter with a curve motion and swing round the oval, rolling on the muscle 
the same as we do in exercises. We glide out of the letter freely, raising the pen while the pen is in motion at the 
height of minimum letters. Notice the parallel effect between the downward strokes. Place an oval over the ('. 
Notice that the top and bottom are about the same in roundness. Notice the size of the loop, and that the loop is 
in the center of the letter. After making several lines of C, one full space high, reduce them to % of a space. After 
you have mastered the letter try Copy 11. 

It is suggested that you use appropriate words in addition to the exercise given. Words like Cincinnati and 
Columbys are good practice words, even though you may not have worked on all of the letters. In practicing these 
exercises and words, watch spacing, slant and movement. 






39 



41 



&:&.&.&.&..&...&.&. 



&&..£>..&..&„ 




Copy 42. The idea of giving the two .exercises in Copy 42 is to teach form and movement together. First 
make the letter, then continue to retrace it with a free swinging motion. In the last exercise, make the E and without 
raising the pen, swing the oval on top of the E. If you can make a good letter E, do not spend time on the exer- 
cise. 

Copies 43 and 44. Before practicing the E, draw a line down its back to see the slant. Notice that the top 
and bottom appear to be about even, and that both the top and bottom parts from parts of good ovals. Practice 
the E in both sizes. 

Copy 45. After mastering the E, it is well to write some interesting words as well as the Eu exercise. The 
idea in giving this exercise is to present something which is easy and fits in nicely in motion. 




44 ...&..&..&. 



Copy 46. Let us see how easy w.e can run this exercise along and see how uniform we can make the grace- 
ful turns. Draw slanting lines on the downward strokes to see that they are all of the same slant and evenly spaced. 

Copy 47. You will see that the v has a round turn at the top. A sharp top makes it resemble an open o or 
ci. Keep the finish high. Your teacher can help by counting 1-2, 3, pausing slightly between 2 and 3 to encourage 
a check in the motion on the retrace. The joined letters should be written freely with a slight check in the motion on 
the retrace. Do not be guilty of making an illegible v. 

Copy 48 and 49. Two styles of x's are given. You may master only one. In the first x, make the crossing 
upward. In the second x, make the two parts touch. 

Copy 50. Some like this style of r while others prefer the other style which will be given later on. This 
style of r can resemble an x, n, u, or v. You must therefore be careful to get a rounding turn at the top, a sharp 
angle at the bottom, carefully retrace the downward stroke and keep the finish high. Check the motion on the re- 
trace. 




10 



'j//u 'JtiitjS/it jJ C~<6ua/sr & 



Copies 51, 52, 53, and 54. Here we have some simple, easy words reviewing the letters which we have had. 
See how graceful and easy you can write them. Remember your writing is of no value if it can't be read. Therefore 
see that every letter is readable. 

Copy 55. We are now taking up the D. Let us first make a line of D's to see if we can make a good D. 
The teacher may then help you to pick out some of the weak points and to strengthen them. Those who curve the 
downward strokes will find the first exercise in Copy 55 execellent. It is also well to make one straight line, then a 
letter D and another straight line and so forth. This is to break up curving the beginning down stroke too much. 
In Copy 56, you will notice that the two parts of the letter rest on the base line. Look at the copy and pick out the 
letter you like best. Study the last letter on the line. It is probably the best one. 

Copy 57. There is so much similarity between the O and the D that we find it good practice to work them 
together. Notice that both letters finish the same, upward freely but carefully. 

Copies 58, 59 and 60. Here we have some nice words for review. Be sure that you are swinging along 
freely and that you are getting all letters readable. Keep in mind slant, round turns, sharp angles, spacing, and 
above all, compare your work frequently with the copy. Have your teacher point out your mistakes. Always have 
something definite to work for. 



56 



57 




58 .,s?^^£4>?C?^-4?6^-^^ 



60 




Copy 61. These exercises will be found helpful in getting free, graceful swings in the letter c. Make them 
about half a space high. 

Copy 62. Many have the trouble of making the c look like u. To avoid this, get a wide clean loop at the 
top, come down fairly straight and make the beginning and end strokes the same in length. Notice the check in the 
motion at the top. If you would make a good c, take more time at the top of the letter than on any other part of 
the letter. 

Copy 63. The essential part of the letter is the loop. Unless you get a loop in the e it will be mistaken for i. 
The e begins and ends the same as the i. 

6i ...s&x2^^'<ossX2/^i&.^a/^& coo 



62 

63 

64 

65 
66 

67 




,^2^gZ^zZ^^Z^^^^Z^^ 



^ *!?M^&u4/n^&&uzi&r & 



11 



Copies 64 and 65. Practice these words until you can make good readable c's and es. 

Copy 66. This exercise is given to prepare you to make the letter o. Make it freely and neatly. 

Copy 67. The o must be closed at the top and must be finished high in order to get a distinct readable 
letter. No letters give us more trouble than the o and the a. Therefore finish the o high. Make the oval using a 
quick rolling motion and checking on the retrace at the top of the letter. # 

Copy 70. The a is so similar to the o that a comparison of the two letters is necessary. They begin the same 
and both have a check in the motion at the first retrace. The ovals are similar but slightly different. The main differ- 
ence is in the finishing strokes. Bring the last part of a down to the base line before you finish. Be sure that the 
a contains a good i. Copies 68 and 69 will be fine to work upon if you have trouble in making the a. The first exercise 
is especially good in developing the finishing stroke. 

Copy 71. In these words be sure that you get a distinction between the o and the a. 



Showy Business Writing 

in Ten Acts and Fifty Scenes 

Written, Produced and Directed by C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, LI. B., Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Syracuse, New York, Public Schools. 



ACT VIII 

SCENE I 

This scene of signs is the most common in the drama of business. These signs are not for the spot light, 

but the flood and foot lights combined. 
No. 1. There is not another character in penmanship requiring the same test of your ability to write parallel 

lines. Count 1-2-3-4. 
No. 2. Curve the second stroke of the check mark to give it grace. Many make the up stroke straight causing it 

to have a stiff appearance. Count 1-2. 

This is an excellent sign to teach spacing between characters. Test your ability to space by measuring the 

distance between the checks. 
No. 3. Make a above the line and the ellipse on the line. Count 1-2-3 for the first part and one for the ellipse. 

Same count for all three signs on line 3. 
No. 4. The slanting down stroke goes through the beginning of the c at the top and cuts the letter on the line. 

Count 1-2. 
No. 5. The nerve wrecking sign is made 1-2 for the s and 3-4 for the parallel lines. 

! #^^#^#^##^#####^### # #- # # #j/- 
2 ^ S- ^ y^ ^ ^S^S ^ ^ y^ ^ ^ ^^v^ ^ ^^ , 



3 <zs/„ clS„ aj„ a-J„ oi rf rf v/ c^/ oy c^/ ^v c^v 




-/<? "Jo ^/o —/o v /o /o 7 
4 fififi&pfifipfififitf&fifittfptfpfipfifi 



ACT VIII 

SCENE II 

As the great American pastime seems to be the improvement of figures, the ensemble is presented with the 

curve lines down stage and those along straight lines up stage for your study with apologies to the "Tired 

Business Man." 

The curve line figures are wide spaced and the straight line figures are normally spaced. 
No. 1. The 2 may start with a loop or check mark. Strive for uniform slant and size. Count 1-2. 
No. 2. To give the 3 a business like appearance finish it high. Count 1-2. 
No. 3. The 5 is a two part figure as it is necessary to raise the pen before completing the figure. Count 1-2-3. 

The horizontal stroke should touch the slanting straight line. Fnish the same as the three is completed. 
No. 4. Make the s part of the figure first closing with the up stroke. Close the 8 at the top. Count 1-2. 

The zero should be a perfect ellipse. See that it has the same amount of curvature on both sides. No flat 

sided zero. Count 1-2 rapidly. Avoid a pear shaped zero. 
No. 5. Keep the figure uniformally slanted making the 7 longer than the 1. Both figures are the same height above 

the line. Count 1 for the one, and 1-2 for the seven. 
No. 6. The 4 requires both down strokes to be the same slant. The longer down stroke must cut through the hori- 
zontal stroke. This being a two part figure it is necessary to count 1-2-3. No part of the 4 comes below 

the line. 

The 9 is closed at the top. The finishing stroke is closed below the line as in the figure 7. Count 1-2. 
No. 7. The 6 is the highest figure above the line. Start it with a straight line closing with a small loop. 

Count 1-2. 

Legibility is the first essential in making figures. 



12 



y/u'3ti/ij//ujjC(6ua6r* & 



i 2 2- 2- 2- 2- % 2 2- Z 2 <£ 2 2 2-222 2 ^ % 2 2 2 2% 
t333^33^3 3333^3333J3ji33^33 
3 ^-^S-^3T^^^S^JJ J SJ S S S S S S^~ ^S S^ 
* ff ///f f /f /f /f /^?^7^ 67 O O O O 






No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 



6 ^4j^4frf4j4-frf474<?4-J4q4f4f*f*t<7*ppjf4fu7*/f'f t 7*J'?>/ < 7 t * 

ACT VIII 

SCENE III 
In writing the common abbreviations use the same care as in the writing of words. 

The small letters i and s appear more than any other letters in the copy. Review these letters before at- 
tempting to write the abbreviations. 

The a being the most used in this line pursue the same method of practice as used in the copy above. 
This is a practice review of the direct oval letters, all of which appear except the E. 

Review the nine exercises leading up to the making of the nine letters in this copy before writing the ab- 
breviations. 
This may well be called a review scene. 



/c^L^Tr /Cstst^T- /tt^c^c^r /tt^zC^-' ^^^t^t^^o^za 



ACT VIII 

SCENE IV 
As ledger headings can ruin or beautify the appearance of a ledger page practice these common headings 
until you are satisfied they would leave a favorable impression on a prospective employer. 
Do not be satisfied with an ordinary product, it is the superior product that receives the "above the aver- 
age" salary. 
The best written letter gets the first interview. 

-^-aJLLdy k=^cZylL^<dy tZ^^^^ L^T^^^^^-i^k^^T^^ 



ACT VIII 

SCENE V 
This is just a little "snappy stuff" given for punctuation. 

After writing this a few times, practice using your address, and the name of a firm you would like to be 
employed by in your city. 

Write and rewrite until you feel your letter of application (in your own handwriting) would cause the pro- 
prietor to reach for the telephone. Mix a few day dreams with your ink. Probably your penmanship will 
make those "dreams come true." 






13 



<+, /f2-J, 





> '-"■, t-e*-£--?'!-c^. 



ar, <£?. , .---,• .= -< •■ _.-, 




Mr. Stoddard, who received this beautiful letter in reply to his ad in the 
B. E., states that he received letters from many foreign countries. He is an 
ardent admirer and follower of the B. E. 

"Life will hardly be worth the effort when the day comes I 
cannot afford to read THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR." 

D. L. STODDARD. 



PITMAN CHAIN SCHOOL PRIN- 
CIPAL OF ENGLAND TO 
VISIT U. S. 

Dr. Robert W. Holland, O.B.E., 
M.A., M.SC, LL.D., Principal of the 
Isaac Pitman Chain of Schools in 
England is to leave Liverpool on the 
S. S. "Aurania" October 8 to visit 
some of the leading institutions of 
learning in this country. 

Dr. Holland's address during his 
stay in New York City will be Sey- 
mour Hotel, 50 West 45th St. 



THE LE MASTER INSTITUTE 
The 192 7 Summer School of The Le Mas- 
ter Institute. Asburv Park. N. J., was a 
pronounced success. There were nearly fifty 
registrants. Twelve colleges and univi 
ties were represented in the student body 
The faculty consisted of eight professors 
Work was given in high school, college 
business administration, and secreta 
science subjects. Dr. Walter P. Steinhaeu 
is president of this institution. 



J. D. Rice, the skillful penman of the 
Chillicothe, Mo.. Business College, in send- 
ing in a list of two hundred and sixty sub- 
scriptions to the Business Educator, states 
that their school is extra large. We antici- 
pate some fine penmanship from this school 



J. A. Eubanks has been elected Super- 
visor of Writing in the Public Schools of 
Barberton. Ohio. Mr. Eubanks is a pen- 
man of considerable skill and is an excel- 
lent teacher. 



Thomas Wallace, Traveling Penman 

Mr. Wallace is termed "Rambler 
Penman." He has been teaching pen- 
manship for the past thirty years, and 
has traveled in the four quarters of 
the globe, visiting nineteen nations 
and ten seas and oceans. Mr. Wallace 
has probably taught penmanship in 
more different foreign countries than 
any other penman we know of. He 
states that the pen is a very depend- 
able source of income for those who 
are skilled with it. 



14 



^ 3^&u&'ned&&/u&z&r t & 







\ \ 



. X ,\ \ V 



\ N X 



V \ \ \ X X \\\VV.X X. x -v \ \ X. 

x \x. Ox xx Q\\X^\-sx!i N ^^n v x\< i ^ NN Q NN <Q VN \ QNX v.Q x x. \^ 



S N N 

xi\ N N ^ v 



SSh 



V X \ 

N X S \ ^ N 

\\A I s <a <a 



\ v v \ v \ 

1 *) "l 

XXX. 






I I 



■ X. X 






\N \x \ <x \\ 



v X v, 



t\t\N AAh 

x. x. O \ X. X. 



^"O I S 'o ^ l ^^ * * ^ \-) ■-)•>> 



Neat figures by R. E. McElv 



/ 2 // ^^r^^-T^tzy {%lHis 






2J/7J-7 













The above letter was written by Jeanne 
c School.. Miss Ella M. Hendrickson is 
r for a sixth grade pupil to write, since it 
cription to THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR. 



Young, i 
the Supe 



icth grade pupil in the Lake 
3r of Writing. It is quite a 
not as a specimen, but as an 



3fc*^uJ//i&tt&d(U'a&r % & 



15 



THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' FEDERATION WILL HOLD 
ITS 30th ANNUAL CONVENTION AT HOTEL BALTIMORE, KANSAS CITY 

DECEMBER 27, 28, 29, 30 



This convention promises to be one 
of the best ever held in the history 
of the Federation. For years it has 
been the hope of Mr. Chas. T. Smith 
of Kansas City that the Federation 
would one day come to his home city. 
Now that he has this opportunity he 
is doing everything to make it an 
event of unusual merit and interest. 
Mr. F. J. Kirker assures all members 
of the Federation that he has pre- 
pared a Federation program of which 
he is extremely proud. No commer- 
cial teacher will be disappointed with 
the program or with the entertain- 
ment. 

The following speakers are already 
secured to take part in the program: 

Mr. Henry J. Allen, Ex-Governor 
of Kansas and one of the best orators 
in the Middle- West. 

Mrs. Emily Newell Blair, who is 
known nationally as the leading force 
in Women's Clubs in the United 
States. 

Mr. J. C. Swift, President, Smith- 
Hemy Commission Company, a busi- 
ness man with a real message for 
commercial educators. 

Rev. Roy Rutherford, pastor of the 
First Christian Church, and recog- 
nized as one of the most brilliant pul- 
pit orators in the Middle-West. 

Dr. Paul S. Lomax, Director of 
Commercial Education, University of 
New York, and President of the East- 
ern Commercial Teachers' Associa- 
tion. 

Professor F. C. Nichols, Graduate 
School of Education, Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of a recent study of 
Office Practice. 

There is to be organized a special 
department to look after the inter- 
ests of the women of the convention. 
Miss Nettie Huff of the Huff's School 
of Expert Business Training is Chair- 
man of the Women's Auxiliary. Those 
who know Miss Huff will realize fully 
that she will do everything possible 
to make the visit of every woman to 
the convention one long to be remem- 
bered. 

The Baltimore Hotel is well adapted 
for convention uses. The rates are 
reasonable and it is well located in 
the very heart of Kansas City. There 
are a number of very excellent hotels 
right in the surrounding blocks for 
those who do not wish to stay at the 
Convention headquarters. 

The plan started by Mr. Willard 
Wheeler of the Wheeler Business 
College of Birmingham of awarding 
a Certificate to all schools where 
every commercial teacher becomes a 
member of the Federation will be 
continued. Schools wishing to secure 



such awards should send in their 
membership as early as possible to 
Mr. C. M. Yoder, Secretary National 
Commercial Teachers' Federation, 
Whitewater, Wisconsin. There were 
a much larger number of awards 
made last year than the officers of the 



Federation anticipated. If every com- 
mercial teacher could realize the 
value of becoming a member of the 
Federation the number of awards this 
year would be doubled. 

The following is a brief outline of 
the programs of the Convention: 



(b) 
(c) 
(d) 
(e) 
(f) 



NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' FEDERATION 

Hotel Baltimore, Kansas, Mo. 

December 27, 28, 29, 30 

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 27 

9:00 to 4:00 P. M. Registration. 

8:00 to 11:30 P. M. Musical Program — Reception and Dance. 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 28 

9:00 to 4:00 P. M. Registration. 

9:00 to 12:00 Federation Meeting. 

(a) Community Singing. 

Invocation. 

Address of Welcome. 

Response 

President's Address. 

Address Dr. Paul Lomex 

Director of Commercial Education, University of New York : 
President Eastern Commercial Teachers' Association 

Public School Section. 
Private Schools Section. 
Business Round Table. 
Shorthand Round Table. 
Penmanship Round Table. 
Group and Private Dinners. 
Theaters and Special Parties. 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 29 
9:00 to 12:00 Registration. 

Federation Meeting. 

(a) Community Singing. 

Address Mrs. Emily Newell Blair 

National Club Woman 

Business Meeting and election of officers. 
Announcements. 
Federation Luncehon. 

Address — "Selling Me to Myself 

Rev. Roy Rutherford 

Pastor First Christian Church 

Free to do as you please. 
Group and Private Dinners. 
Theater or Special Parties. 



1:45 P. M. 
1:45 P. M. 
3:30 P. M. 
3:30 P. M. 
3:30 P. M. 
6:00 P. M. 
8:00 P. M. 



9:30 to 12:00 



12:00 to 1:30 



(b) 

(c) 
(d) 



2:00 to 

6:00 

8:00 



5:30 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 30 

9:00 to 12:00 Registration. 

9:30 to 12:00 Federation Meeting. 

(a) Community Singing. 

(b) Address Mr. J. C. Swift 

President Swift Henry Commission Company 

Public School Section. 
Private Schools Section. 

Business Round Table. 

Shorthand Round Table. 

Penmanship Round Table. 

Federation Banquet. 

(a) Music — Entertainment. 

(b) Address Mr. Henry J. Allen 

Ex-Governor of Kansas 

(c) Awarding of 100^ Certificates. 

(d) Inauguration of Officers. 

(e) Adjournment. 

(f) Dancing. 



1:45 P. 


M. 


1:45 P. 


M. 


3:30 P. 


M. 


3:30 P. 


M. 


3:30 P. 


M. 


6:30 P. 


M. 



16 



,^//u>36uM/i£j J Cs/u+a/sr & 



Supplementary Business Writing 

By C. C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teacher*, New York City 















The above was written by Miss Rhea M. Phillips. Penmanship Teacher in the North Scranton Junior High School, 
Scranton, Pa. Miss Phillips is a Zanerian Correspondence pupil. 



jf ^/u>j$t*j//itj<>(5~t6ua/tr* & 



17 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1. Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 



The 

Prosperity 

Sunshine 




I have forgotten, if I ever knew, 
who it was who first sounded the 
slogan, "Make hay while the sun 
shines". Neither do I 
know when it was that 
the slogan was first put 
on the air. But when- 
ever, or whoever it was, 
this slogan leader, uttered a mouth- 
ful of wisdom that should make the 
author immortal. The only other 
thing that compares with it in wis- 
dom, is the equally vivid command, 
"Strike while the iron is hot." The 
one group of men who 
are sure of success, are 
those who know how 
to, and do, take advan- 
tage of fortuitous op- 
portunity, whether it 
comes in the form of 
sunshine, hot piastic 
iron, or that "tide 
which taken at the 
flood, leads on to victory." 

Ever since 1914, when our potent 
trade and industrial competitors in 
Europe threw down their tools and 
took up their swords and guns, and 
exchanged the roar of their mills and 
factories for the booming of cannon 
and the rattle of machine guns, this 
young nation of ours across the seas, 
has been pre-eminent in the econmics 
of the world. Never before in the his- 
tory of the earth, has any nation, 
from the humblest to the highest of 
its citizenry enjoyed such a lavish 
and prolonged season of prosperity. 
The wave of wealth that has poured 
in upon us from all shores has made 
of our rich men such nabobs of afflu- 
ence as to make the traditional heroes 
of opulence like Croesus and Midas 
seem like penny-in-the-slot pikers. It 
has brought to our merely well-to-do 
and middle classes, a status of luxury 
that could hardly have been dared by 
millionaires a generation ago. It has 
brought to the dinner-tables and fire- 
sides of hod-carriers and ditch-dig- 
gers luxuries and comforts unknown 
to the palaces of kings, no longer ago 
than the times of Queen Elizabeth. 
We are told authoritatively that more 
than eighty per cent of all the auto- 
mobiles on the earth are owned in 
America. That statement alone, 
blocks out the strange situation in 
which we Americans find ourselves, 
that of the richest single body of peo- 
ple the world has ever known. 

But can we count on it always be- 
ing so? Not if we read the pages of 
history with the slightest wisdom. 
Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, 
Carthage and Rome were all fabul- 
ously rich in their day. And the 



power and greatness of each of them 
in turn promised to outlast twenty 
centuries. But today, poverty and 
weakness haunt what is left of their 
proudest cities. And of many of them, 
there is not enough left to re-echo 
the nighty yelp of the jackal. Al- 
ready, signs are not lacking that the 
late war-stricken peoples of Europe 
are getting back upon their feet. 
Within even the next ten years we 
may find ourselves scratching for 
dimes where we are now shoveling in 
the dollars. 

As to what, in view of this very 
imminent possibility, should be our 
National policy, in the matter of tar- 
iffs, immigration and so forth, I know 
no more than the next man, but I am 
very sure that I see in the situation 
a guide post of admonition for the 
common man who has only his own 
affairs to direct. The signal might 
read: "GET IN THE HAY BEFORE 
THE RAIN!" It will not always be 
picnic weather. Neither will it be 
safe to count on an uninterrupted 
menu of chicken salad, oyster pates, 
layer cake and ice cream. Better di- 
vert some of the glad pay-check over- 
flow to provision against the day 
when the pay-check forgets to come. 
Nothing is so likely to discourage the 
gaunt fanged wolf, when he stands 
upon his hind legs and peers through 
the lace-curtained front door, as to 
see a fat bank-book hanging over the 
mantel. 

It would be interesting, though pos- 
sibly depressing, to know just what 
proportion of America's well-paid 
workers are still gayly picking the 
bones of each salary check, just as 
the next one arrives. And how many 
(or how few) of them will be snugly 
resting in a cozy nook up in Easy 
Street, when the next bread-line 
forms ? Worth taking a thought about, 
isn't it? 

It has been just ten years ago since 
the writer of this Meandering drop- 
ped his business as a school-book 
writer and publisher, and started out 
on a crusade to pursuade young 
American wage earners, that they 
ought to regard the job as a BUSI- 
NESS; that the PROFITS of this 
business are what they SAVE, and 
that if the business of the wage-earn- 
ing is in a healthy state, they should 
each month or week, put at least ten 
percent of the gross income in the 
bank. Well, I succeeded in persuad- 
ing a lot of them, but there were 
many more who gave the thrift idea 
the merry ha ha, saying, "We should 



worry! Let's keep on spending while 
the spending is good." 

But quite frequently I hear from 
the others. Not long ago, I got a let- 
ter from a man who lives way up 
north in a Canadian city. He wrote 
that he had listened to one of my 
thrift talks, that I gave to a lot of 
Y. M. C. A. students in Chicago, in 
the winter of 1918. Although not 
earning very much at the time, he 
decided to try the "ten per cent" plan. 
He said it had worked so well, that 
it was but a few years till he had a 
couple of thousand dollars in the 
bank. About that time, a chance 
came to him to buy into a modest 
little business. He had continued to 
prosper, and now he could draw his 
check, (and have it honored too!) for 
six figures. He had learned in some 
way, where I was, and wanted to 
thank me for the idea I had given 
him, and to which he owed all his suc- 
cess. I happen to know of a lot of 
other men who can tell the same 
story, or one quite like it. One of 
these, I may mention, is no less a per- 
son than John D. Rockefeller. Of 
course, in these days when it is al- 
most raining money, you don't hear 
much about thrift, and if you were to 
try to talk it, a lot of people woufd 
hoot you down before you could get 
started, but, — well, the fellows with 
brains and self-control enough to put 
thrift into their affairs, will not be 
the ones to stand in the bread-line 
when the next industrial slump comes, 
as COME IT MUST. 



President Wilson once intimated in 
a state paper that high-minded Amer- 
icans might be "too proud to fight." 

I doubt if it has ever 
Are We been or ever will be 

Too Proud demonstrated that any 
To Learn? considerable body of 

Americans are either too 
proud or too timid to fight, provided- 
the cause is just. But Americans, as 
well as other peoples, have often 
shown, apparently, that they are 
"too proud to learn." This Yankee 
nation has, from the beginning of its 
history shown the world newer and 
better ways of doing many things. 
And we are still showing them, 
though few of them have noticeably 
followed our example. For instance, 
in 1789, we showed them a working 
model of a democratic form of gov- 
ernment that was far ahead of any- 
thing the world had known up to that 
time, and one that has stood the test 
of time fairly well since. Later, the 
little "Yankee cheese-box" at Hamp- 
ton Roads, revolutionized sea warfare, 
and sent the crack navies of the 
world to the scrap-heap. Morse and 
Field had already eliminated distance 
as a factor in world communication. 
Still later, a pair of Ohio boys, ma- 

(Continued on Page 20.) 



18 



^ .j//ur36uj//ujj C'dsuvt/sr & 



PUPPY LOVE 

By C. R. McCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 



It comes "Once to every boy or 
girl", is the common expression heard 
among the older persons when con- 
versing about the greatest of all 
games — love. With some it comes 
earlier than it does with others but 
it is bound to come sometime or other. 
The greatest age is about fifteen and 
it is a great game while it lasts. After 
it is outgrown, one often wonders 
what it was all about but he usually 
smiles while he reminisces and yet if 
one has never been struck by this 
form of mental disturbance, he does 
not know what it is all about. It has 
been known to strike some old fools 
after they should know better but 
that is for another story. 

Mary McCarthy was one of the 
prettiest, cutest little pieces of hu- 
manity that ever paraded the side- 
walks of the little "patch" — a small 
town — in the hard coal fields of that 
great and glorious state that Billy 
Penn bought from the Indians. She 
was about as thin as a razor blade, a 
trifle under the five foot mark and 
very active upon her feet. Her black 
eyes sparkled like diamonds when she 
spoke — fairly hypnotized her on- 
lookers especially when she spoke in 
that low, well modulated voice that is 
known to so many who have been 
"over the ropes." 

Now, in every city, hamlet, "patch" 
of whatever you desire to call it, there 
are women and the smaller the popu- 
lation the more they have to say about 
things in general — especially about 
other people — never of their own 
kith and kin. Some of these "nose- 
pokers" worried more about Mary 
than her mother herself because she 
had seven children to look after and 
when a mother has that many, she 
usually has her hands full and does 
not have much time on her hands to 
gossip with the "back-yard, news 
mongrels." 

"I think Mary McCarthy is too nice 
to work," said Mrs. Brogan. 

"Hum, hum," spoke up Patrick, her 
husband, who happened to be sitting 
on the back porch with his Audio Re- 
ceivers tuned in. 

"And I'm thinkin' so meself," tuned 
in Mrs. O'Gaffney. 

"There you women go," chirped up 
Patrick. "You women," he continued 
"can certainly get news around 
quicker than old man Bell of the tele- 
phone himself." 

"You men are not so slow either," 
tuned in Mrs. Brogan who was known 
to have never lost a battle with her 
husband, Patrick Brogan. 

This last remark got under the skin 
of Patricius and with his usual Irish 
wit replied, "People in glass houses 



should not throw brick-bats" and Mrs. 
Brogan knew what Pat meant when 
he said it for she had a daughter her- 
self who did not amount to so very 
much just because the mother thought 
she was too nice to work. 

After having finished the usual 
"patch" school, Mary was sent to a 
Business College to get a Business 
Education so that she could secure a 
position and earn her own way in this 
cruel wide world of ours. This is a 
mighty good thing for any parent to 
do because he does not know just 
when his child will be called upon to 
earn her living and if the child never 
uses it, it is very useful when she 
gets a home of her own. 

However, with some parents, this is 
not needed but they think that their 
daughter should know all about how 
to greet guests — a great many are 
"jests" — about all they come to a 
home for is to see what kind of fur- 
niture, what make of silver she has 
and a million other little petty things 
that belong to women alone; how to 
talk nonsense and what knife to use 
at the table that is usually learned at 
the "finishing school" — a good name 
for such an institution. Yet there are 
those who fall for that sort of thing 
notwithstanding to the contrary and 
suppose there will always be a de- 
mand for such fountains of learning. 
In this day and age, some have made 
money "so fast" since Andy Volstead 
wrote that little law for our dear, 
Uncle Sam that those who never had 
anything before this time and now 
have all this money, and want to 
know how to act when they come in 
the presence of those who have had 
it passed down through the ages to 
them and hence, there is a demand 
for such schools. During the last few 
years books on Etiquette have had a 
large sale from just such classes of 
people. 

These fancy things do not help so- 
ciety very much in the long run and 
after they have run their course 
usually fall back in the regular mode 
of living. People soon tire of the 
"Shieks" and "Shebas" and it is part 
of their education — they soon learn 
but I am getting away from my 
pretty, little maid, Mary. 

When the Fall Term began, it was 
found in looking over their faces that 
there were others in the assembly 
room who had just as pretty faces as 
Mary. The beauty pageant at the 
well-known sea-shore resort brings 
this out very forcibly and one should 
not think too much of her beauty be- 
cause some one has said, "Beauty is 
only skin-deep after all." Beauty 
may got us by in the world for a 
while but one thinks that beauty does 
not get us by when we get older and 
over the puppy stage — brains after 
all is the judge when the final test 
comes when we take our place in the 
world. 

But to get back to my story. Mary 



was not the "Dumb Dora" that some 
would lead you to believe. She had a 
vast amount of nervous energy and 
if this is rightfully exercised, it leads 
to much good in the average boy or 
girl — right direction by those in 
command of the army found in the 
School System. 

At first, Mary had signed up for a 
stenographic course but since so many 
of her friends began the bookkeeping 
course first, she changed her mind 
which is not uncommon for girls and 
women to do — change their minds 
but since there is a halo around every 
woman's head, suppose it will always 
be thus. 

Then, too, there was another rea- 
son as we shall see later on in this 
little story. She was very quick and 
accurate at figures. The teacher 
would often have class drills in addi- 
tion — there are still a few of these 
teachers left in the ranks who use 
old-time methods but their ranks are 
thinning rapidly, possibly because 
they are afraid of the criticism that 
is pointed in their direction and not 
wanting to appear old and antiquated 
in the eyes of those who are in the 
"know." 

In Penmanship, Mary soon broke 
off the habit of using the thumb like 
an old man who has lost all his teeth 
when he eats and before long was 
writing a very legible hand. Every- 
one will not become a Zaner in the 
Penmanship Field, yet we all can be- 
come at least legible penmen. It 
seems that in this day and age that 
the subject of Penmanship is woe- 
fully weak in most of our schools. 
"The poorer one writes, the more ed- 
ucation he is supposed to possess" is 
the common acceptation of the term 
today. However, this is another story 
and deserves attention from those 
who sit high up in the educational 
field of endeavor. Not so very long 
ago a certain man who possessed a 
very good education signed a letter 
and sent it to a person who was a 
very good penman. The receiver of 
the letter could not fathom the 
signature so he turned around and 
sent it back to the owner with this 
little inscription, "Please have this 
signature translated." 

Mary did make some mistakes. She 
told the Principal of the school that 
she had had English in the "Patch" 
school which was only what is known 
today as the Eighth Grade. She 
further told him that she made 100 r ^ 
of an average during the last year in 
school and she thought she knew 
about all there was to be known about 
it and did not think it advisable to 
"take it over." 

"But, my dear Mary," replied the 
Principal, "there are English Books 
and there are higher English Books." 

The Principal was an old hand at 
the business and had heard these 

(Continued on Page 20.) 



.y/u,36/tj//itjj (5dtua/sr* & 



19 




DR. FRANK N. FREEMAN, 

Professor of Educational Psychology, 
University of Chicago 



^A Qourse of Study in 
Handwriting 

For Grades Four, Five and Six 

By FRANK N. FREEMAN, 
Author of Correlated Handwriting 

Weekly Outlines for 
November, 1927 



(See outlines in September and October 

OUTLINE FOR GRADE IV 

Ninth week. — The sentences for this 
week deal also with position and are 
as follows: "Each pupil should keep 
his paper in front of him" and "The 
paper is tilted to the left." Explain 
the reasons for these rules. Develop 
the capital E by beginning with the 
direct oval. Then practice the small 
e singly and in a series of letters 
joined. Introduce the 1 by the "push 
and pull" exercise and follow this by 
a succession of l's, then a succession 
of le's. Then write the words "let" 
and "tilt." 

Tenth week. — The next exercises 
deal with pen holding and hand posi- 
tion. Head the page "Pen Holding" 
and then give the sentence "Do you 
hold your penholder lightly?" This 
introduces the capital D which may be 
practiced first by retracing the oval 
part of the letter, then by writing the 
letter separately. This may be fol- 
lowed by practice on the small letter 
d. Test looseness of grasp by pulling 
the pen holder upward and seeing 
whether it may be withdrawn from 
the pupil's hand without too much re- 
sistance. 

Eleventh week. — The sentences are 
"Place the hand so that it rests on 
the nails of the last two fingers" and 
"Please do not let the hand turn over 
on its side." The capital letter for 
special practice is P. It may be intro- 
duced first by retracing the straight 
upward and downward stroke and by 
writing separately. The small letter 
p may also be practiced. In each of 
these exercises pay particular atten- 
tion to the feature of writing which 
is referred to in the rule. In this ex- 
ercise make a drive on hand position. 

Twelfth week. — We now begin a 
series of exercises in which attention 
is directed to movement. Head the 
page by the word "Movement" and 
then give the sentence "Be sure that 



the hand slides along the line easily." 
Introduce practice on the capital B 
carried on in a similar way as prac- 
tice on the capital P. Follow this by 
practice on the 1 and the b. Then give 
the combinations b, bad, aaa joined, j, 
g, "ag", "bag", and j. Alternate prac- 
tice on the sentences and on the let- 
ter exercises. Give some time to 
practice on the digits. 

OUTLINE FOR GRADE V 

Ninth week. — The subject for this 
week is the address on an envelope. 
Any suitable address will do. The 
following may be used. The address 
of the letter is "Mr. William P. 
Blackstone, 462 West Fortieth Street, 
Kansas City, Missouri." The return 
address to be written in the upper 
left hand corner is "James P. Wil- 
kins, 598 East Ninth Street, Memphis, 
Tennessee." Ask the pupils to make 
a list of the important items in a cor- 
rectly addressed envelope. Have them 
rule off spaces on their paper, sized 
three and one-half by six inches, and 
write the above addresses or other ad- 
dresses in this space. Make the re- 
turn address in smalLer letters than 
the sending address. Give special 
practice to the capital letters, since an 
address gives abundant opportunity 
writing such letters. Give special at- 
tention also to the arrangement of 
the material. 

Tenth week. — The following text 
may be used: "Yesterday I sent some 
money and found that good writing is 
necessary in making out a money 
order. One must be very careful to 
write names and numbers legibly." 
Special attention in the practice of 
this week may be given to the form 
of individual letters. Form of the let- 
ters may be tested by making a 
small hole in a card and placing the 
card so that it shows one letter at a 
time. If the letter can be read it is 
legible. If not it should be improved. 
Part of the time this week should be 



spent on the practice of digits. Digits 
should be written in columns and in 
various types of arrangement accord- 
ing to the form of examples which 
are used in the number work of the 
grade. 

Eleventh week. — This week may be 
spent on practice in writing money 
orders. Have the pupils secure speci- 
mens of money order blanks or rule 
their paper in the form of a money 
order blank. Let them then fill out the 
blank, each one with the name of his 
own choosing. It is to be noted that 
the writing on these blanks is smaller 
than is ordinarily used. Writing 
should therefore be especially neat 
and the numbers should be especially 
legible. The pupils may be divided 
into pairs and one member of the 
pair may fill in part of the order and 
the other the other part. They may 
then exchange their slips and criticize 
each other's writing. 

Twelfth week. — A suggested text 
for this week is as follows: "One of 
the directions given by the Post of- 
fice department is this. 'Avoid abbrev- 
iations which may be confusing or 
misleading.' I wrote to the Postmas- 
ter General's office and asked what 
abbreviations should be used." This 
text anticipates the lesson for the 
next week. In the meantime the pu- 
pils may look up a few abbreviations 
and then compare them with the ones 
which are given to them the following 
week. In practicing this text special 
attention may be given to fluency and 
ease of movement. Ease of move- 
ment is indicated by speed, lightness 
of grasp of the penholder, the ease 
with which the hand slides along the 
lines and lightness and smoothness of 
the pen stroke. Let the pupils meas- 
ure the speed of their writing by 
counting the number of letters writ- 
ten per minute. Ease and fluency 
may also be developed by using suit- 
able formal drill exercises to supple- 
ment the writing of the text. 



20 



K%fe&u&n&tt>&£u&&r & 



OUTLINES FOR GRADE 6 

Ninth and tenth weeks. — These 
weeks are devoted to a series of 
health rules. The paper should be 
headed "Health Rules." The follow- 
ing rules are suggested. They may 
be supplemented by other rules 
gathered together by the class. 
"Have fresh air when you work. 
Sleep with the windows open. 
Be out of doors much every day. 
Eat plenty of vegetables, cereals and 

fruit. 
Drink much water and milk. 
Take vigorous exercise very day. 
Sleep about ten hours each night. 
Be cheerful and do not worry." 

Each of these sentences gives op- 
portunity for a good deal of class dis- 
cussion. The main objective, of 
course, is improvement of handwrit- 
ing and a discussion of the principles 
involved in the sentences should not 
put the writing problem in the back- 
ground. Writing which deals with 
significant subject matter may give 
the child opportunity to keep up the 
quality of his writing while his at- 
tention is partly directed toward the 
meaning. This, of course, is the sit- 
uation which commonly meets the 
adult writer. Various important as- 
pects of writing may be concentrated 
upon in turn. 

Eleventh week. — The example for 
practice in this week is a tlegram. 
Members of the class may collect 
telegraph blanks in order to show the 
general arrangement of a telegram. 
The following message may be used 
for practice. 

December 24, 1927. 

To 

Mrs. W. J. Hollister, 
Washington, D. C. 
4673 McKinley St., 

Arrived safely with scout troop. 

Start for home Saturday morning. 
Fred. 

Make some study of brevity and 
clearness in writing telegrams. Let 
pupils compete in writing the brief- 
est and clearest telegram to send 
some message agreed upon. Test the 
legibility of each word by exposing 
it separately. 

Twelfth week. — We shall use here 
progress exercise Number 3. This 
contains very common words contain- 
ing all the letters and chief combina- 
tions. The list should be written in 
standard form in one and one-half 
minutes. 

About joy should 

before like than 

box not they 

can old very 

first over was 

great people which 

had quiet your 

have say zone 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 



(Continued fr 



Page 17.) 



terialized the ancient dream of Daed- 
alus, and showed men how to sail 
through the air at double the speed 
of the swiftest bird. Another Ameri- 
can, Elias Howe, trebled the leisure 
hours of women by inventing the sew- 
ing machine. Indeed, before the his- 
tory of the young nation had spanned 
its first century, the magic and won- 
der of American inventions had 
revolutionized the whole scheme of so- 
cial and industrial human life. 

In view of such a record, it was 
inevitable that Americans, as a nation 
should become rather cocky, and, in 
their self-sufficiency, ignore many 
great and important matters of prog- 
ress that were going on in the rest of 
the world. While we were forging 
ahead in mechanical and political ac- 
complishment, France apd Italy were 
outstripping us in art, Germany and 
Central Europe were excelling us in 
agriculture, and Great Britain had 
far surpassed us in the field of juris- 
prudence, and efficient government. 

In the domain of education, while 
we had originated the democratic idea 
of free schools for the common man, 
we have allowed Germany, Scandi- 
navia, and several other European na- 
tions to forge far ahead of us in the 
thoroughness and efficiency of their 
school systems. Intelligence and ed- 
ucational tests incident to our World 
War enlistments showed that we were 
lagging painfully in the matter of 
literacy, — considerably behind the 
other enlightened nations, to which, in 
this particular, we had been consid- 
ering ourselves vastly superior. We 
also lead the world in divorces and 
other forms of social vice, and we 
have around ten times as much crime 
as any other civilized land. The 
Chief Justice of our own highest 
court, has lately said that our system 
of criminal jurisprudence is nothing 
less than a national disgrace. 

Unpalatable as it may be, the plain 
truth is that we Americans, as a na- 
tion, need nothing so much as to curb 
our pride and try to mend our ways 
by trying to find out how a number 
of important matters are managed in 
some of the older and really wiser na- 
tions whom we have been in the habit 
of looking down upon. In the matter 
of industrial and commercial effi- 
ciency, we have but little to learn 
from the rest of the world, but in af- 
fairs vastly more important than 
these in their relation to human hap- 
piness and social stability, we have 
much to learn. Are we too proud to 
learn it? 



PUPPY LOVE 

(Continued from Page 18.) 

stories before the time of Mary. 

"I'm just after passing it off," con- 
tinued Mary, "and I do not think I 
should bother with it when I made 
100' c of an average last year." 

"Listen and I shall tell, went on the 
old, gray-thatched teacher. 

"I did not make quite 100% of an 
average when I finished High School 
but I was up with the best ones. I 
went away to school and had one of 
the best teachers in the country as my 
instructor ■ — thanks to my lucky 
stars — and after the examination 
held at the end of the first semester, 
he called me into his room and said, 
'You have made 56^; and I think you 
do not know very much about our En- 
glish Language.' He made me start 
all over and foget everything 1 had 
learned and I found out that I did not 
know it all and there were other 
books on English that I had never 
heard of before that he advised me to 
study. I thank my lucky stars for 
having met a man and my old teacher 
is meeting you, Mary, through me. I 
do not know it all about English and 
the more I study and learn about it 
the less I find out that I do know." 

Needless to say, Mary never both- 
ered any more about omitting the 
study of English and before long saw 
the error of her way. Mary had lived 
in a small world and really did not 
know there was such a thing as ad- 
vanced English — she was not really 
to blame as her surroundings had not 
been the most advantageous and she 
had not seen much of this old world 
of ours. 

(To be continued.) 



Norman Tower, the engrosser of 
Denver, displayed over GO pieces of 
his fine engrossing at the County 
Fairs in Eastern Colorado, where he 
was representing the Barnes Com- 
mercial School. Tower is turning out 
some very high class penwork and is 
gradually going higher in the pro- 
fession. 



U. A. Goodman, formerly of Brown's 
Business College, Peoria, 111., is to 
teach accounting in the Universal In- 
stitute, Fort Wayne, fad. 



Rene Guillard sent us a club of 140 
subscriptions. That means "The Evan- 
ston Township High School pupils, 
Evanston, 111.," are going to study 
penmanship this winter in real ear- 
nest. We hope some members of the 
class may become in time, as skillful 
as their teacher. 



Mr. Elton M. Allen, for several 
years manager of The Bristol School, 
Taunton, Mass., is now with the 
Main School of Commerce, Auburn. 



Mr. James J. Toner, recently with 
the Merrill Business College, Stam- 
ford, Conn., is a new commercial 
teacher in the Gloucester, Mass., High 
School. 



Mrs. Katheryn D. Chapman, re- 
cently with the Hackensack, N. J., 
Business School, is now teaching com- 
mercial subjects in the High School 
at Hackensack. 



tti^^&ud/n^Mi&diu&fir & 



21 




Of a]] the letters published 



'FAMOUS LETTERS" 

me is probably the most distinguished. It was prepared by Lyman P. Spe 



22 



J/u ?*5&uJ/"/iM &&i£a/sr & 



REPORT OF MANUSCRIPT 
WRITING 

By H. C. WALKER 

Supervisor of Handwriting in the 

St. Louis Schools. 

(Continued from October.) 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 

THE MANUSCRIPT WRITING 

Advantages 

1. Manuscript writing is easy to learn 
and easy to teach. 

2. Beginners need familiarize themselves 
with only one alphabet. 

3. It is beautiful, accurate, and legible. 

4. There are no difficult letter joinings. 

5. It is an aid to reading. 

6. It is an aid to language. 

7. It improves the spelling. 

8. It correlates reading and spelling. 

9. It cuts down fatigue. 

10. It economizes space. 

11. There are no failures. 

Disadvantages 

1. Manuscript writing does not represent 
a life situation; therefore, has no permanent 

2. it has no features that carry over to 
the cursive. Wherever the change from 
manuscript is made, the child starts cursive 
writing as a beginner. 

3. Pupils acquire habits which later must 
be changed. 

4. Manuscript writing, because of its 
heavy strokes, fosters tenseness of muscles 
and excessive pressure (directly opposite the 
principles taught in cursive). 

5. Tenseness of muscles and heavy lino 
cause poor body position. 

6. The straight position of the paper is 

7. Continuity of movement, which aids 
continuity of thought, is absent in manu- 
script writing. 

8. Manuscript writing is not conducive to 
ease and fluency, because of the vertical 
position, of the letters and the straight lines 
which compose them. 

9. It is labored and slow. 

10. It does not meet needs, where both 
speed and legibility are required. 

11. It loses its legibility unless it is well- 
spaced and written with deliberation. 

12. Manuscript writing in its advanced 
form (letters joined) is vertical writing. 

13. It delays study and practice in writ- 
ing the cursive penmanship. 

14. It deprives the pupils of practice and 
progress in reading cursive writing. 

15. Pupils who have started the cursive 
elsewhere (outside the school system) must 
change their writing when assigned to 
rooms where manuscript is taught. 

PART THREE 
Exhibits. 

A few sets of specimens, with explana- 
tions accompanying them, were submitted 
with this report. 

PART FOUR 
Conclusions. 

In presenting this report to which I have 
given very serious thought and study, I 
have considered the advantages and disad- 
vantages of the manuscript writing, not 
only as it affects the child's progress in 
the primary grades, but also, as it has a 
bearing on his general progress throughout 
the grade school, intermediate school and 
high school, and on his success in life be- 
yond the school. 

While some of the claims for manuscript 
writing appear to have foundation, it is 
generally conceded that its benefits are real- 
ized to the greatest extent in the first grade, 
diminish in the second, and disappear al- 
most entirely in the third grade. This is 
an admission that the advantages of man- 
uscript writing are only temporary. 

Chief among the claims for the manu- 
script writing are that it is easy for the 
primary child to learn, and that it makes 
easy the learning of reading and spelling. 
Care should be used to guard against in- 
troducing methods purely on the around 
that they are easy. It behooves us to look 
ahead to determine whether or not these 
methods, easy at the beginning, do not pile 
up mountains of difficulty later on. 

Nothing has been more noticeable in con- 
nection with the St. Louis manuscript ex- 
periment, than the plight of second and 
third grade pupils transferred from our 



manuscript schools to our cursive schools. 
Wherever found, these pupils are retarded 
in three ways: (I) In ability to write the 
cursive not having had instruction in it); 
(2) in written expression (because of hav- 
ing to discard the manuscript); and (3) 
in reading the cursive writing, (not having 
had experience with it in the manuscript 
school). 

Those who are enthusiastic about the 
manuscript writing claim that the change 
to cursive writing may readily be made. 
It will be recalled that, when the change 
from vertical to slanting writing was made 
twenty years ago. considerable time was 
required and much difficulty experienced. 
To effect the transition from manuscript to 
cursive writing would involve the following 
changes: 

(a) Vertical to slanting writing. 

(b) Straight position of paper to slanting 
position. 

(c) Heavy strokes to light strokes. 

(d) Tenseness of muscles to relaxation 

(e) Disconnected strokes to connected 
strokes. 

While under the cursive plan the begin- 
ning child learns the forms of the capitals, 
small letters and figures gradually as he 
needs them, the case is different with the 
child who has had manuscript up to the 
end of the second or third grade. Besides 
having to make the changes above men- 
tioned, he must also learn the fifty-two 
forms (capitals and small letters) of the 
cursive alphabets before he can give written 
expression to his thoughts. In addition to 
these difficult problems he is confronted 
by the even greater problem of being called 
upon to produce a considerable amount of 
written work in connection with his other 
subjects without an adequate tool with 
which to do it. Why teach a form of writ- 
ing in the first and second grades which 
within a short while must undergo a com- 
plete change? Should we not consider from 
the beginning the kind of fundamental train- 
ing that will carry the child through with 
the least waste of time? Is there not some 
question as to whether the gains made in 
the early primary by using manuscript 
writing are not offset later by the com- 
plications and disadvantages incident to the 
transition from manuscript writing to cur- 
sive writing? 

It is claimed by the supporters of man- 
uscript writing that it represents progres- 
sive education. Does not progressive edu- 
cation require a more substantial founda- 
tion than is represented by this temporary 
form of the manuscript writing? Should 
not progressive education look forward and 
not backward? Manuscript writing is very 
decidedly a form of writing which has all 
the ear marks of the former vertical sys- 
tem. The statement was recently made by 
a visiting educator from England that when 
pupils had advanced to the sixth or seventh 
grade they were permitted to join the 
strokes of their manuscript letters. The re- 
sult, of course, is vertical writing. Expe- 
rience has shown that handwriting develop- 
ment is a process of elimination. Our pres- 
ent system of cursive writing represents 
handwriting that has survived, and benefits 
that have accrued, through centuries of 
experience and study. This surviving hand- 
writing embraces certain elements which are 
essential to efficiency in penmanship. 

The cumulative results in penmanship de- 
veloped in the first, second, and third grades 
upon which we have relied in the past as 
the preparation for the development and 
use of muscular movement writing in the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, would, under 
the manuscript plan, be absent. If it were 
decided to give over to the manuscript 
writing the penmanship periods of the first, 
second, and third grades, and reserve only 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades for prac- 
tice in cursive writing, it would be neces- 
sary to teach in the fourth and fifth grades 
the fundamentals of cursive writing for- 
merly taught in the primary grades. This 
would result in a very decided retardation 
in penmanship throughout the intermediate 
grades and the high school, especially since 
the new course of study gives no place to 
penmanship on its intermediate school pro- 



The extra training of first, and second 
grade teachers in how to write and how to 
teach the manuscript writing, and the train- 
ing of third grade teachers in how to make 
the transition from manuscript writing to 
cursive writing are phases of the manuscript 
question which would involve much addi- 
tional labor. 

This comparatively recent revival of 
manuscript writing is only one of many 
attempts to develop a more simple and leg- 
ible form of handwriting by making use of 
vertical characters and simplified letter 
forms, but each attempt has met with fail- 
ure; because of the fact that other impor- 
tant features, as well as legibility, must be 
taken into consideration in the teaching of 
handwriting. The recent attempt along this 
line differs from former attempts in that 
this simplified writing is limited to the pri- 
mary grades. 

It is now about seven years since manu- 
script writing was brought to this country. 
It has gained foothold in a very limited 
number of private schools, outside of the 
two original experimental schools, the Hor- 
ace Mann and Lincoln schools of New York. 
To my knowledge no public school system 
has adopted it during this time. Is it wise 
for us to lead in the adoption of a form 
of writing, the permanent value of which is 
questionable? 

The question arises, also, as to whether 
we can afford in our primary grades, any 
more than in other grades, to introduce a 
form of writing which has repeatedly met 
with failure. 

Can we afford to start pupils with writ- 
ing habits, all of which will have to be cor- 
rected before substantial progress in pen- 
manship can be made, and a satisfactory 
tool of expression developed? 
Recommendation. 

After careful consideration of both the 
advantages and the disadvantages of man- 
uscript writing, 1 respectfuly recommend 
that it be discontinued in the experimental 
schools, and that the cursive writing bo 
taught throughout the St. Louis Public 
School System. 

I further recommend that the Penmanship 
Division cooperate further with the Primary 
Division to devise means for making the 
cursive writing as simple and as serviceable 
as possible for primary pupils; also that 
manila paper 9 x 12 inches in size, ruled 
the long way with lines an inch or more 
apart, be provided for use with Crayola in 
the first grade. 

Note: Since the preparation of this ar- 
ticle, manuscript writing has been adopted 
by the St. Louis Public Schools for use in 
the first grade (at the blackboard). The 
above report is one of nine reports sub- 
mitted to our Superintendent on this sub- 
ject. The remainder were pre ared by pri- 
mary supervisors, and by principals of 
schools in which the manuscript writing was 
used as an experiment.— H. C. W. 



HAZEL DEPLER LEAVES FOR 
MALAY PENINSULA 

Miss Hazel Depler, a former stu- 
dent of the Zanerian College and who 
has supervised penmanship in Struth- 
ers, Ohio, and who for the past year 
has been completing her college work 
in Morningside College, Sioux City, 
Iowa, will sail about November 1 for 
the Malay Peninsula, where she will 
teach in one of the English schools. 



THE CENTURY CLUB 

R. R. Reed, the energetic penman 
of Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Mich., 
sent a club of 20 subscriptions, which 
is the first installment on what he 
terms his century club for this coming 
year. We are quite sure that Mr. 
Reed will go over the mark this year 
as he did last. 



^ &/u'.j$uJ/;uJJ<5</ut-a/<r & 



23 



A Lesson in Business Writing 

Presened at the N. C. T. F., by JOHN S. GRIFFITH, 
Penman and Commercial Teacher, Englewood Business College, Chicago, 111. 



I believe 1 



nt this lesson to you better if 1 



utlin 



ny proble 



and my objecti' 



Student Material — Graduates of 2nd year high and high school graduates. Some university. 

Enrolled for — Business course — 12 months. Secretarial — 6 months. Academic sec. Admin. High school graduates and special admin, course. 

Penmanship accomplishments of students entering classes — Average. 

Classes begin 

In addition to the usual opening dates students may enter any week of year. This then, necessitates a method of presenta- 
tion best suited to the needs of beginner, intermediate and advanced pupils. 

Enrolled in Class— Average class, 150. 

Methods of presenting lessons and obtaining results 

Blackboard copies, blackboard criticism, use of copies In manual. My fresh-frompen (business and ornate) Home work 
(See Specimen No. 1). 




6 o O O OO G o oooo 



o o 



o ooooaoooo 

O & . O O C ! C CL G. O 



JZ- ^L^ ^ Z/ ^ ^y _^ ^ ^ 




C7^y<5z^zj-~c^^s / 



SPECIMEN No. I. Mr. Griffith in giving his talk to the N. C. T. F. 
his method of presenting lessons. Study the development of this lesson, 
page 24. 






24 ^ -S/u--XitM'sujjC'<//u-a/<r & 

Time of period 40 min. 5 days a week. 

Completion of course 20 weeks. Hope they are certificate winners at about 2 weeks. 85<" r pass certification. 

Styles of penmanship Set of Capitals— set of small letters — set of figures. (See Specimen No. 2. 

kj a % =s > ?/ cr^ 




T T 



SPECIMEN No 
Englewood Busmes! 



ege. Chi. 



111. 



used by Mr. Griffith, penmanship 



Quantitative results 

Students are required to complete 30 rages of cla 
student in special penmanship envelopes which 
on envelope, papers kept or destroyed as results 
g week. Special awards: 1 doz. calling car 



Objecti 
What v 



rk and 10 pages of home 

lected each week on Friday 

Summary of class prodi 

•n holders, etc., to the one 



papers retained by 



«>rk each week. CUs 

checked to ascertain re 

: or errors to govern the lessons of the fol- 

laking most improvement, neatest paper etc. 



sy style of pla 



writing and the ability to apply it on any type of 



cord. The ability to rule 



A good 
neatly. 
eek of term was this lesson given? (See Specimen No. 3 Home work 
5th or 6th week. I have selected Wednesday, having noticed the necessity of presenting the least exacting lessons to my 
classes during the first of the week, and the more difficult lessons on Wednesday. Thursday and Friday. The first of the week, 
due to outside activities much time can be profitably spent in helping students to maintain correct posture, acquire freedom 
and in arousing interest in the subject in general. In this your skill at the blackboard or with the pen plays no small part. 
Forepart of the week: movement; exercises, capital letters joining (easy signatures) and short words. Last of week: Small 
letters, words, sentences and paragraph writing. 

Letters presented prior to this lesson. O-C-A-E -D-P-B-R. o-c-a-iu-w-r-nm-x-v-r-s t d. 

Assume the correct position of the body, arms, feet and pa er. Is your hand going to glide along on the nails of the last 
two fingers. Is the fleshy part of your hand rubbing on the paper or is it poised well off the surface of the paper> Position and ready 
for Exercise No. I. Direct exercise I space, retrace 6 times. 1-2-34-5-6. 1-2-3-45-6. 1-234-5-6 change the paper. Exercise No. 
2 faster. ( V. as large as No. I) 1-23-4-5-6. three times, change the paper about 12 to a line. Exercise No. 3. Nos. I and 2 
(smaller) 1-2-3-4 three times and change twelve to a line. Board criticism of letters and letter construction. Exercise No. 4. push 
pull. 1 s ace and note the finishing line, round turn at the base line, 1-2-3-4-5-6-7- three times, change the paper. Exercise No. 5 half 
size of No. 4. Exercise Nos. 6 and 7. practice small a and t later combining them in forming d. Exercise No. 8, a »i space d 1-2-3 
three times and change. Check vour slant, change paper after each 3rd word. 

9 |. 2-3-4-5-6. Exercise No. II 1-2-3-45-6-7-8. 

10 1-2-3-4-5-6-7- dot. Exercise No. 13 and 14 for advance students. 

15 and 16 write two lines of each word. 

17 and 18 for advanced students endeavor to cut down the pacing of your writing, 
seats 106- 109- I 12-2 10-245-3 16-414-5 18 have maintained the correct position and maintained a good writing speed 



ward I 
Eight 



lijnat 



ng to write the 
es. See Specim 



No 



amenta! writing. 



t /. - - 

-' . (! 

y t ' . . ■ , ■ */* ■ ' ' 

/ . . / . , .- a. , 




Semi-ornamental penmanship by F. B. Courtney. 



. //u ■ S^/^/;/(jj C~<//u<s/</- &> 



25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 



We now take up the study of small letters. 

Nos. 40 and 53 should be studied very carefully. Take one letter or word at a time until you get it up to a 
high professional standard. It is well to shade about every other letter. Use a free movement, but more penlift- 
ings are permissible than in business writing. 




«C2 



^e^c-<f^y^z^t^^?^^tz^^yf7^^^ 








Nos. 54 to 58 are devoted to the M and N. Study the different beginning strokes, the nice parallel effects 
and the snappy shades. See how much beauty you can get into your work. Do not shade on lines which are in- 
tended to be light. Cultivate a light even pressure. 



osV 




No. 59. The X is a beautiful letter when properly balanced. See that the beginning oval is like the final 
oval. Be sure to swing freely enough to avoid a kinky line. Refer to the copy frequently. See that your ink is 
thin enough to make fine hair lines. Reload your shadee. This is done by setting the pen in the shade before it 
is dry, running more ink into it. 



26 



'j//u-*3tiuj//ujs C'<//u*i/<r & 






SPECIMEN No. I. This specimen was used by Mr. Criffith in his talk before the Notional Com- 
mercial Teachers" Federation to illustrate the kind ol specimens he expected his penmanship students 
to hand in each day. Where students prepare a specimen similar to the above every day they are 
bound to improve. 



<5MJ33ud/ned^<24/(uzi&r* & 



2/ 






a/ 








;ed by Mr. J. S. Griffith to illustrate his talk 
used by him to create interest. 



28 



fSffie&uJ/'/u-JJ Cdu^a/trr & 




New Philadelphia School, New Phila- 
delphia, Ohio. During the past six 
years he has been connected with the 
Oil City Public Schools as Director of 
Commercial Education and Super- 
visor of Penmanship. When Mr. Nel- 
son's resignation was acted upon by 
the Board of Education of the Oil 
City Public Schools, a vote of Apprec- 
iation was extended him for his ex- 
cellent record of service. 

On July 1st this year Mr. Nelson 
with two other associates from Oil 
City, P. H. Sellers, and L. C. Dodson, 
took over the active management of 
the Jamestown Business College. The 
three men are planning to give their 
entire time and attention to the 
school. The following constitute the 
new organization of the board of di- 
rectors of the Jamestown Business 
College: 

Thomas M. Nelson, Pres. 
H. E. V. Porter, Vice Pres. 
L. C. Dodson, Secretary. 
P. H. Sellers, Treas. 



THOMAS M. NELSON, 

President and Principal of the James- 
town Business College. 

Thomas M. Nelson was born near 
Rochester, Minn., May 25, 1893. He 
comes from sturdy Norwegian stock. 
Mr. Nelson points with considerable 
pride to his grandparents that braved 
the dangers, and hardships of 
pioneer life in Southern Minnesota. 

Besides a number of years in school 
experience, Mr. Nelson has had a va- 
riety of experiences in other lines of 
business. 

Mr. Nelson has completed courses 
in the following schools: 

Tobin College, Normal and Busi- 
ness. 

Zanerian College of Penmanship, 
Professional. 

(Red seal and teachers certificate). 
Office Training School, Teachers' 
Training Course. 

He took a course in Mechanical En- 
gineering and Manual Training at 
the University of Southern Minne- 
sota. This work has lead him to make 
woodworking one of his avocations. 
He also spent several summers at Val- 
paraiso University, and Bowling 
Green, Ky. Business University. 

Mr. Nelson served for some time 
under General Wood's command at 
Fort Riley and Camp Funston as a 
Sergeant. He was connected with the 
Educational Department where he or- 
ganized classes in business subjects 
for soldiers. After the Armistice he 
was transferred to the United States 
Army Reconstruction School, Fort 
Sheridan, where he taught classes for 
wounded soldiers. For this work he 
has been greatly praised by officers 
and men. 

In 1920 and 1921 he served as the 
head of the Commercial Department 
and Supervisor of Penmanship of the 





WANTED 






Position as Commercia 
by middle aged man. 
engaged in commercial 
Was for several years 
school work. 


Tea 

Form 
teach 
n pu 


:her 
erly 
ing. 
blic 


Can 

branches 


teach all cc 
. Fine credentia 


s. 


cial 


Addre 
Educato 


,s P. B.. care 
, Columbus, Oh 


Busi 


ness 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 




MAGNUM OUILLrEK 

No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillotf, Pens stand in the front rank ne 
regards Temper, Elasticity and Durability 

JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field A Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 



OLD ENGLISH FOR BEGINNERS 

By E. L. Brown, Rockland, Me. 

Old English lettering is used by 
the engrosser for headings, start- 
words, filling diplomas, etc. Many of 
our lessons are prepared for the ad- 
vanced student, but this one is for 
the beginner who has had little ex- 
perience in handling the broad pen. 
The alphabet was written with a No. 
2 broad pen with little retouching 
outside of the thin lines, therefore, 
the lettering is shown with all the 
inaccuracies that might occur and are 
often present in rapid, free hand work. 
Many penmen will not show their 
every day free hand work owing to 
a fear that their established reputa- 
tion might be effected unfavorably. 
Possibilities instead of impossibilities 
for the beginner will no doubt pro- 
duce the best results in the end. 
Outfit 

Assorted sizes of broad pointed let- 
tering pens, especially sizes 1, 2 and 
3, Zanerian ink, heavy unruled paper 
and some lead pencils, 3 and 4 H in 
hardness. 

First rule head and base lines for 
height of letters, following with prac- 
tice on the strokes in their given 
order. The first strokes taper at 
either end and are used in ten O. E. 
capitals. Use a No. 2 pen and finger 
movement. In order to make these 
strokes pointed it will be necessary 
to start the pen to the left then down- 
ward, again to the left. Practice on 
these strokes until you can make 
them with accuracy, following with 
each of the other principles. Skill- 
ful handling of the broad pen will 
come with careful thoughtful prac- 
tice. 

Next follow with the capitals — tak- 
ing up each letter separately — note 
carefully its form, character and pro- 
portions, make each stroke in order 
indicated. Uniform size and spacing 
are most important in all styles of 
lettering. Send us your work for 
criticism. 



Mrs. Helene Reiser is a new com- 
mercial teacher in the Union Institute 
of Business, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Lewis B. Clark, last year As- 
sistant Superintendent of Schools in 
Manchester, N. H., is now teaching 
commercial work in the Plattsburg, N. 
Y., State Normal School. 

A. W. Cooper, formerly of the 
Capital Business College, Salem, Ore- 
gon, is now teaching bookkeeping, 
penmanship ami arithmetic in the 
Wilson Modern Business College, 
Seattle, Wash. 

EDWARD C. MILLS 

Script Specialist for Engravino Purpose* 
P. O. Drawer SS2 Rochester, N. Y. 

The finest script nhtnlnahle fur bookkeeping Illustration!, 
It! Hi.- Mill, Pent are unexcelled Mills - Perfection 

V, 1 I r tine Imslness ivrltlns. 1 cross 81.. '.n 

DOe, postpaid vim,- m ii iv,, -, \ pinutta 

■.Hum line point, 1 cross (1.35: '.. , 
postpaid Villi' Business Writer No. 3— The hest tor 
business. 1 cross $1.85; '* gross 88c, postpaid. 1 doc. 
of each of the atmre three styles of pens by mall for 40c. 



*F <?MJ&u&n^&&ua&r & 



29 



iiimHUi(iivWoi|iniP! 




HIGH GRADE 



Diplomas^ 
certificates. 



Catalog and Samples Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND, MAINE. 



Mr. C. A. Bowes, for several years 
with the Bryant & Stratton School, 
Boston, and Mrs. Hazel Gonder, re- 
cently with the Cambria-Rowe Busi- 
ness College, Johnstown, Pa., are two 
new teachers in the Bliss Business 
College, North Adams, Mass. 

FRANCIS L. TOWER 

Studeyit of Famous Penmen 
501 Pleasant St., Boston Heights, Hammonton, N. J. 
Newly written copies with compiiMe instructions accom- 
panied by CHART. Let me tell you the secret now 
how scientific penhoklins should lie used successfully 
for the product inn of graceful large, hold, dashy and 
rapidly shaded writing, and gracefully medium, fine. 
and delicately tinted styles offhand, all of which types 
embrace the practical and most skillful, intricate lines 
of professional .-xrcutimi and control. Personal instruc- 
tion and lessons by mail. Circular FREE. Send stamp 
for fancy signatures. Watch for adv. in the Business 
Educator. Decemb er issue. 

X mas Cards 

Art written, with your 
name, assorted Xmas 
seals and greetings, and 
gold shaded. 

Per set, one dozen 55c 




R. 

9 Ryerson Ave. 



C. RUDD 




rlisticjgn ttntBsfrtg 

< .Resolutions. {Dcmurialft 
<£>D3timnniala. ^2rJ^:^ 

j£i laminating a -Specialty *& 

EHMCGHEE 

US East State Street g~r*mW£cu> Jersey 



PENMANSHIP BY MAIL 

Modern, scientific course in Business Writ- 
ing by a graduate of E. C. Mills. Pen-written 
copies, red-ink criticisms, typewritten instruc- 

"An examination discloses that they are far 
better than I had anticipated. Perfectly satis- 
fied and happily content." (Signed) Frank J. 
Smith, Holyoke, Mass. 

Folder sent free on request. 
J. J. BAILEY, 74 Barton Ave., Toronto, 4 Can. 



DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 

Neatly Engrossed 
An Alphabet Print. 11x14, for the illum- 
inator 50c 

Illuminated Border Design $1.00 

Illuminated Alphabet, complete for 

study $10.00 

This offer is special and less than usual price. 

GOOD WORK ASSURED 

J. D. CARTER, 740 Rush St., Chicago 




LEARN AT HUME DURING SPARE TIME 
Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free. Your 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W. 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg.. Kansas City. Mo. 



H. J. WALTER, Penman 

222 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, Can. 

Variety of Penmanship Samples, 
including your name in gold 
filigree script _ 50c 

Superb Signature Combinations, 
and Business Capitals, etc ...50c 



^ispl^dVerjisicm Designs 

t"' or Rare Beauty ANb^PKOPRiAlFNESS. 

Ttie^irJ^ers^dio 

(^Espectfully Seeks your FarranagE. 
YrjRK. PeNHstlvaKia. 

1 $ffJ &Srfi\AKK£7Sf. f 



A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

Learn to letter Price Tickets and Show CardB. It Is easy to do RAPID. CLEAN CUT LETTERING with our 
Improved Lettering Pens. MANY STUDENTS ARE ENABLED TO CONTINUE THEIR STUDIES THROUGH 
THE COMPENSATION RECEIVED BY LETTERING PRICE TICKETS AND SHOW CARDS. FOR THE 
SMALLER MERCHANT. OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical lettering outfit consisting of 3 Marking and 
3 Shading Pens. 1 color of Lettering Ink. sample Show Card in colors. Instructions, figures and alphabet, 
prepaid SI 00. PRACTICAL COMPENDIUM OF COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERING AND DESIGNS 
100 Pages Sill, containing 122 plates of Commercial Pen 
alphabets finished Show Cards in colors, etc.. — a complete 
instructor for the Marking and Shading Pen. prepaid, $1. 
THE NEWTON AUTOMATIC SHADING PEN CO. 
Dept. B PONTIAC. MICH.. U.S.A. 




Trade Mark 



Ci talogue free 



30 



^ <5^&ud*n^&&ua&r & 




The following are new commercial 
teachers in the High Schools of Des 
Moines: William Clark, Eugene 
Beyatt, Helen Halbersleben, Ruth Till- 
mont, Norman B. Curtiss, and Mary 
McCully. 




LEARN ENGROSSING 



Tied Ins 

ny addr 

dolla 



Cash 



mailed 
=ipt o( 

P. o. 



to . 

Money Orde 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator and 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg. 
SCRANTON, PA. 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer & 
Phonographic World) 
A monthly magazine covering all 
departments of Commercial Education. 
Strong departments presided over by 
well-known teachers for those who teach 
any branch of commercial education, in- 
cluding business administration, account- 
ancy, and court reporting. 
The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 
Single copy 15c. Annual subscription $1.50 
Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 



Meub's Professional 
BLACK INK 

The Ink Supreme for Ornamental 
Writing and all fine Penmanship 

Made expressly for the Professional Penmen of America. 
Nothing like it has ever been on the market. An entirely new 
ready-to-use ink that will not smudge. Writes black and stays 
black. It produces rich black shades and fine hair-lines. 
Put up in a special bottle with wide opening for use of an oblique 

penholder. 50c per bottle. Mailing charge 10c extra 

SPECIAL— One Bottle of Ink and !4 Gross Meub's Professional 

Shading Pens sent postpaid $1.00 



A. P. Meub 



452 NORTH HILL AVENUE 



PENMANSHIP SPECIALIST 



PASADENA, CALIF. 



Send In 



•orite Motto, Poem or Quol 
engrossed. You will admit 
:r. Superb lettering. Artii 
Up to 35 words for $1.50. 



rd fa 



i.-idil 



A. L. HICKMAN 



WICHITA, KANS. 




AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send I Oc. A. P. MEUB, Expert Penman. 
452 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena. Calif. 



F -ARTHUR RAIYERS 
^ FINE ART FJSUROSSER OP 

rinilHuinn^fithiuinial^ 

'•JIwnoriaUItyloma5.Ccr(ificn!c?.Cluirrer^ 

. BOOK PLoTti. HONOR ROLLS. TITLE PAGtS AND 
COATS Or ARMS. ElTSAK! DCSIOsMOl! MEMORIAL itsim 

j JOIUO, f»«UMtr<!>.Jll,Vl«WAM,Fll!tj!weiJ<Y.tTl. 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazino 
Devoted to Penmanship and 



Bui 



Commercial Edu 



Writing 



■ tin 



Ornamental Writing 

Lettering 

Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price » 1.25. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

55 Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 



^ <^MJ&uJ/ned^&&u&£r & 



31 



POSITION WANTED 

By Experienced 

COMMERCIAL TEACHER 

Where the Ability of an Expert 

PENMAN and ENGROSSER 

Will Be Appreciated. 

Address Box 605. care Business Educate 

Columbus, Ohio. 



THE SEASON'S HIGH SPOTS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE 


FOR 


SALE 


— Do 


ns: 




profitable business, i 


n the 


fastest 


grow 


iik- 


c 


ty in the Ozarks. Spl 


endid 


opportunity 


tor 


h 


isband and wife or two 


youn 


g men. 


Addr 




B 


3X 606, c/o Business Educator, Colu 


mbus 


O. 



Home Study: High School, Bookkeeping, 
Shorthand. Typewriting, Normal. Engneer- 
ing, Higher Accountancy, Civil Service, 
Law, and other courses thoroughly taught 
by mail. Now is the time to enroll. Bul- 
letin free. Address, Carnegie College, 
Rogers, Ohio. 



Tour Visit to 7-{ew Tori^ 

may be anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

HOTEL 

104 WEST 49th STREET 
"One minute from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre-War Prices) 

Sitting Room, Sitting Room, 

Bedroom with 2 Double Bedrooms 
Private Bath with Private Bath 

(2 persons) (2-4 Persons) 

$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



Orders Inquiries 



Can be 
?cured 




PolksReference Book 

and Mailing List Catalog 



different lines 
what your bu 
will find the 
tive customer: 
Valuable infor 



for your products 



Write for Your FREE Copy 
R. L. POLK & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



Llsl Commie 



paid to 



n obtaining a position 

$2500. Neither was a college 

; graduates of State Teachers 

many available candidates at 



During the recent season, the highest 
through this office was $4500: the highest 
graduate, in the usual meaning of the term 
Colleges. September brought numerous calls, 
various salary levels. May we help you? 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

(A Specialty by a Specialist) 
Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. E. E. Gaylord, Mg 




Try the NEW AND IMPROVED MAGNUSSON PROFESSIONAL PEN- 
HOLDERS. These new penholders are being made in both the straight and 
They are hand made of beautiful straight grained rosewood and are given a 
hich is second to none. Each penholder has a beautiful ivory knob on end of stem and 
far more useful and beautiful than many penholders selling for nearly twice the price 
Buy direct from factory at factory prices. Made by 3 generations of penholder manu- 
facturers and used by the world's greatest penmen. Established 1874. 



oblique style 
polish 
they ai 



Pi 



OSCAR MAGNUSSON 

208 N. 5th St., 
Quincy, 111. 

Also a cheaper grade sold in quantities to teachers and dealers. Write for p 



each 50c 

each 75c 

ain, each 75c 

laid, each $1.35 



Teachers — 

The SOUTHERN SCHOOL JOURNAL is an exponent of the best in 
Education. Each issue contains articles under the following headings: 

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION. 

SCHOOL SUPERVISION. 

SCHOOL TECHNIQUE AND CLASS WORK. 

SCHOOL SPORTS AND GAMES. 
One dollar a year Published at Lexington, Ky. 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

$6000 offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



Meet Us In Kansas City! Ef^ ^ 

of the "Bureau for Specialists," will be at National Commercial Teachers' 
Federation Headquarters, Baltimore Hotel, Kansas City, Missouri, Decern- 
ber 28, 29, 30. Employers seeking teachers, and teachers available for posi' 
tions in January or in September, should get in touch with us. 



dslttrJlhi? 



EDUCATIONAL BUREAU 



Shubert Rialto Bldg., 
St. Louis, Mo. 




A catalog cover prepared by Arthur P. Mv.rs of York. P( 



&&&u4/n£M'<a!</iuxi&r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit. 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

The Oxford Desk Set, comprising 
"Modern English Usage" and "Con- 
cise Oxford Dictionary", published 
by the Oxford University Press, 
New York City, N. Y. 

Speaking of the Modern English Usage, 
Christopher Morley said in his review en- 
titled "On Minding our Manners in Speech." 
"This ie a book that really could do for 
one's speech or writing what the fabled 
Book of Etiquette was supposed to do for 
the manners of the table." 

The New York Sun in reviewing the Con- 
cise Oxford Dictionary exclaimed, "There 
is not another cheap dictionary that will 
bear comparison with this admirable adap- 
tion of the Oxford English Dictionary; nor 
do we hesitate to include among cheap 
dictionaries certain much advertised works, 
many times larger and a great deal more 
expensive. The authors have done the work 
of compression most admirably and lay be- 
fore us a review of the English language 
the like of which has not been attempted 
before." 

The Oxford Desk Set is as attractive as 
it is practical. The two volumes, each 
5x7% inches, are printed in large clear type 
on fine white paper and durably bound in 
dark blue buckram with case to match. 



Accounting, by Paul-Joseph Esquerre. 
Published by the Ronald Press Com- 
pany, New York. Cloth cover, 369 
pages. 

A challenging, thought-provoking contribu- 
tion from one of the best known figures in 
American accounting. Everyone who works 
with accounts will want its keen, virile sug- 
gestions and recommendations on live, practi- 
cal questions of today. 

Paul-Joseph Esquerre needs no introduction. 
A pioneer in the field, he has fought unceas- 
ingly to prevent the shackling and stunting of 
accounting by rigid, artificial rules and cus- 
toms. 

In this new book, he has pushed far ahead 
of the old conventions. For major problems 
such as statement preparation and valuation 
procedure — problems where the methods of 
handling the facts involved vitally affect the 
validity of the information for purposes of 
management — he shows where, in his judg- 
ment, existing practice falls short and ad- 
vances new, clear-cut decisive ways of attain- 
ing the objective. 

But his book does vastly more than search 
out weak or controversial points. It helps you 
to do your own thinking — to chart out a course 
where really constructive work is required. It 
gives you confidence and support in situations 
where you yourself have felt that the orthodox 
methods were inadequate or inconsistent. 



Plainer Penmanship, by John Oswell 
Peterson, Supervisor of Penman- 
ship, Tacoma, Wash. Published by 
the Bruce Publishing Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Paper cover, 128 pages. 

This book contains selections from the more 
complete textbook entitled "Plainer Penman- 
ship for High Schools and Junior High 
Schools," which book may well be used as a 
teachers' guide in connection with the lessons 
here offered. For charts and scales to which 
diagnostic, analytical, and corrective lessons 
are keyed, the teacher or student may refer to 
the parent book. In the selection of this use- 
ful material for practice, together with its 
effective organization and presentation, a num- 
ber of advantages have been retained. 

The directions are explicit and are given in 
simple language which pupils can read and 
understand. 



The clear and ample illustrations cover many 
important points which usually escape notice. 

The movement drills — according to types such 
as rolling, pushing, gliding— are grouped with 
the types of letters in which they are used. 

The letters are grouped according to like- 
nesses. The drill on each letter is followed by 
word drill, and, finally, by a practice sentence 
in which that letter is repeated from six to 
ten times. 

Practice of each capital letter is followed by 
applying it to the more important cities, whose 
locations are also given. Capitals also are ap- 
plied to the states and their abbreviations. The 
abbreviation have been revised to conform with 
the recommendations of the United States pos- 
tal authorities. 

Those letters which are not thoroughly 
standardized are given in all current forms, 
with preferences stated. 

The selections for applied writing contain 
worth-while historical and literary content. 



New Business Speller, by Charles M. 

Miller, Principal of the Miller 
School, New York City. Published 
by Lyons & Carnahan, Chicago, 111. 
Cloth cover, 227 pages. 

Not a few new words have come into the 
language of recent years. Some old words, 
little used in past years, have come into gen- 
eral use. The latest edition of Webster's un- 
abridged makes use of some new diacritical 
characters, and makes some changes in pro- 
nunciation and definition that should be noted. 
These are the technical reasons for the ap- 
pearance of a new business speller. 

The technical reasons above enumerated are 
alone sufficient to justify the bringing out of 
a new book. There are other reasons, however, 
that have made the NEW BUSINESS 
SPELLER a practical necessity. Commercial 
education has developed. Courses are more ad- 
vanced than they were, and students are of a 
higher grade. Business men are yearly becom- 
ing more critical. 

The commercial education wave has brought 
the teaching of spelling into the high schools 
and academies. The whole field of business edu- 
cation is broader and more is required in spell- 
ing, as well as in the other branches. 

For these reasons the tendency has been to 
increase the number of words in the spelling 
books. NEW BUSINESS SPELLER has 6.000 
words, or about 1,000 words more than any 
other. So carefully have these words been 
selected, however, that every word in the 
book will be seen to be a useful one. The repe- 
tition of words has been worked out in such 
painstaking detail that, while all needed repe- 
tition for review has been given, the book is 
not bulky, nor is there any wasteful, useless 
repetition. 



The Administration of Industrial En- 
terprises, by Edward D. Jones. Pub- 
lished by Longmans, Green & Co., 
New York. Cloth cover, 618 pages. 

The present revision of this text has been a 
thorough one. As an illustration of the evolu- 
tion of the subjects dealt with, it may be said 
that the new material now presented exceeds 
in quantity the subject matter of the first 
edition. 

The purpose of this book is to present in 
compact outline a survey of the state of the 
art of business management as it exists in the 
United States, at this time. 

The treatment aims to present practice with 
reasonable fullness of detail but, wherever pos- 
sible, to deduce and formulate the general 
principles, or the philosophy, controlling ac- 
tion. 

The chief outstanding characteristic of this 
book is the inclusion, for the first time in 
such a treatise, of a full discussion of the un- 
derlying general principles of administration, 
which govern all efficient joint enterprises 
whether of a business nature or otherwise. 
The reader is earnestly advised to ground him- 
self thoroughly in these principles, for upon 
them rests the larger part of the executive 
policies and practical rules employed in busi- 
ness enterprise. This material is to be found 
in Chapters VII— The Administrative Organi- 
zation, VIII— Administration: Orders and Re- 
wards, IX — Rules of Administration, and X — 
Morale and Leadership. 



A Manual of English, by George B. 
Woods, Dean and Professor of Eng- 
lish, American University, and Clar- 
ence Stratton, Director of English 
in High Schools. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Published by Doubleday, Page & 
Company, Garden City, N. Y. Cloth 
cover, 282 pages. 

This book is concerned primarily with the 
means of communicating ideas or information. 
It is to be taken for granted that the body is 
more than raiment, that the content of a com- 
position—whether written or spoken — is more 
important than its language or its style. The 
book does not aim to supply training in think- 
ing, or to present material for discussion. Nor 
is it meant to be a complete treatise on the 
art of writing and speaking. It does aim, 
however, to stress those principles which are 
necessary to the clear and effective presenta- 
tion of ideas and to make practical the clear 
and correct use of ordinary English. 

This text is built upon the assumption that 
improvement in English comes from the con- 
sciousness of error, from a knowledge of what 
is right, and from practice in the application 
of the rules of good usage. By pointing out 
the errors most common in student English, it 
teaches the student to discover his own errors : 
by presenting brief positive statements and 
concrete illustrations of reasonable usage, it 
aims to help the student to avoid errors and to 
form correct habits. 



Latin America — Men and Markets, by 

Clayton Sedgwick Cooper. Pub- 
lished by Ginn & Company, Boston, 
Mass. 

The purpose of this book is to promote 
a clearer understanding of Latin-American 
business men, and a better knowledge of the 
trade relationship existing between the 
United States and the various countries of 
Latin America. It gives^ a concise and 

readable account of each of these countries, 
covering geography, government, currency, 
products and industries, exports and im- 
ports, transportation and communication. 
It also makes a special point of develop- 
ing a sympathetic understanding of the peo- 
ple, their history and traditions, their 
temperament, their ways of doing business. 
Those familiar with the countries in ques- 
tion agree that such an understanding is 
not only most important in the interests of 
international good-feeling, but essential for 
successful commercial relations with them. 
For, if the United States is to maintain a 
dominant position in Latin -American trade, 
our business men must learn to adapt their 
methods to Latin customers, manners, and 

The author has long been in close contact 
with the countries of which he writes, and 
has made an extended study of conditions 
in them. He has arranged his book with a 
view to its use in schools of business ad- 
ministration and in college courses in eco- 
nomics, marketing, and trade relationships. 
It will also be of special value to consular 
officers, foreign-trade executives, and all 
others who wish to be well informed about 
trade conditions in Latin America. 




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mm r o 



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The original of the above la 13x17, on pal 
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WlESE-COOVER TYPING— The Kinesthetic Way 



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New Times— New Ways 

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World 's Typewriting 
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The newly revised edition is the last word in touch typing. Especially designed 
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Over 6000 words. New lessons containing words pertaining 
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econd to enlarge his 



Classification of Words. As an aid to the memory we have 
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Abbreviations of states, months, railways and commercial 
terms are given in regular lesson form, and grouped alpha- 
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with spelling. 

Syllabication and pronunciation are shown by the proper 
division of words, and the use of the diacritical marks. The 
words are printed in bold type, and the definitions in lighter 
face, so as to bring out the appearance of the word. — an aid 
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Metropolitan New Edition 

System of 
Bookkeeping 



W. A. Sheaffer 



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EFFECTIVE 

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Typewriting Texts 

A Practical Course in Touch Typewriting 

Published in three editions: Stiff paper cover, 

120 page, $1.00. Cloth cover, 120 pages, $1.35. 

High School Edition, 208 pages, $1.60. 
By Chales E. Smith. 

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Pitman's Loose-Leaf 
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lln wink .it .i speed of 4 7 strokes per second, or 10 words 

in the minute; and finishes the fiftieth lesson with a speed 

ol 9 5 strokes per second, or 102 words a minute. 

The use of "High Speed in Typewriting" will develop 
an unusual degree ol typewriting --kill. 

Isaac Pitman & Sons 

2 West Forty-fifth St., New York City 




^^ 




Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, DECEMBER, 1927 



No. IV 




IN WHAT MONTH WERE 
YOU BORN? 



A. N. PALMER IS DEAD 

As we were going to press with this 
issue, news reached us that A. N. Pal- 
mer, president of the A. N. Palmer 
Company, author of the Palmer 
Method and editor of the American 
Penman, died on November 16 at his 
home in New York City, after a short 
illness. 

Mr. Palmer has been one of the 
outstanding characters of the pen- 
manship profession for many years. 
His passing will be mourned by a 
host of friends. The Business Edu- 
cator extends sincere sympathy to his 
family and business associates. 



GENUINE SERVICE 

Will you kindly send me a few 
sample copies of the B. E. for dis- 
tribution among my students? I am 
teaching the penmanship this year 
myself and know from past experi- 
ences that I can stir up a great deal 
of interest and really render the stu- 
dents a genuine service by putting 
this valuable publication into as many 
students' hands as p6ssible. 
W. R. Hamilton, Pres., 
The Hamilton University, 
Mason City, Iowa. 



The following well known Penmen 
were born in December, at the place 
following their names: 

1.— S. E. Bartow, Cadiz, Ohio, Dec. 
25, 1868. 

2.— T. Courtney, Snyder Co., Pa., 
Dec. 24, 1873. 

3. — A. B. Garman, Elkhart, Ind., 
Dec. 4, 1866. 

4.— J. S. Griffith, Pocatello, Idaho, 
Dec. 30, 1892. 

5. — L. M. Kelchner, Light Street, 
Pa., Dec. 8, 1862. 

6. — E. J. O'Sullivan, Loretto, Que- 
bec, Canada, Dec. 2, 1869. 

7. — A. N. Palmer, Fort Jackson, 
N. Y., Dec. 22, 18. .. 

8. — J. K. Renshaw, Carmi, Illinois, 
Dec. 15, 1869. 

9.— J. H. Smith, Durham, N. C, 
Dec. 23, 1866. 

10.— J. E. Soule, Palmyra, Me., 
Dec. 20, 1844. 

11.— H. W. Strickland, Windsor, 
Conn., Dec. 3, 1880. 

12. — Glenn E. Sprague, Middleton, 
Mich., Dec. 18, 1891. 

We want the place and date of 
birth of every Engrosser, Supervisor 
and teacher of penmanship. The year 
may be omitted if preferred. Please 
send to R. S. Collins, Pierce School of 
Business Administration, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



TEXT LETTERING 

Every student of penmanship 
should master broad pen lettering. He 
should be able to do at least several 
styles well. So much of the engross- 
ing work is done in text lettering that 
it is absolutely necessary to become 
proficient in it if he would succeed as 
an engrosser. In engrossing studios 
the beginner is started in on text let- 
tering. It is therefore a mistake to 
try to master some of the higher 
branches of engrossing before having 
mastered text lettering. Study Mr. 
Brown's lesson in this issue. 



THE TREND IN PENMANSHIP 
METHODS 

By E. A. Lupfer 

(Continued from Nov.) 

Meaningless Exercises 
During the past 15 or 20 years, 
many various exercises have been 
used, wisely and unwisely, in develop- 
ing a good handwriting. In many 
cases these exercises have been poorly- 
associated and applied to letters. To 
the student who did not see the im- 
portance of exercises they were just 
so much work. In many cases where 
exercises were over-emphasized, the 
students never really got beyond the 
exercise stage. Frequently, they made 
beautiful exercises with excessive 
speed but wrote miserably with a 
slow, labored movement. The exer- 
cises and the letters were not made 
with the same speed and therefore 
the benefit that should have been de- 
rived from the exercises was prac- 
tically lost. 

Good Teaching 

After seeing these various experi- 
ences, teachers generally have bene- 
fitted by their short-comings, and to- 
day the teacher who is wide awake 
uses a moderate amount of this and 
that device or help. By studying 
schoolroom needs and using good 
judgment, she meets the situation 
sensibly with whatever device or 
method is at her command. If she 
has ability in music, drawing, story 
telling or anything else, she can of- 
ten use it to advantage in the writ- 
ing lesson, but she must be careful 
not to overdo, or ride a hobby to 
death. She is not an extremist. 

The good penmanship teacher shows 
the pupils the essentials of form but 
does not confuse them with non-es- 
sentials. She explains and shows 
why letters are legible or illegible. 

She encourages good position, but 
does not try to force the acquiring of 
an unnatural position. She shows 
why a pupil can write well in a good 
position and why a poor position is 
detrimental to writing and health. 

(Continued on page 15) 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 

By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO.. 

612 N. Park St., Columbus. O. 

E. W. Bloser -------- Editor 

E. A. Lupfer Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1 .2S A YEAR 

(To Canada, 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the beat medium 
through which to reach business college pro 
prietors and managers, commercial teacher* 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy 
must reach our office by the 10th of the month 
for the issue of the following month. 



^ i^^&u&n&M&Jsuxi&r & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



A SUGGESTION FROM R. S. COLLINS 

"To loosen the muscles, strengthen the movement, give confidence and lighten the touch, your readers might use 
my plan 'to take out the kinks.' I drill on copies 4 and 5, page 9, (Oct. B. E.) several times daily, making them as 
high as possible, without sleeve sliding or thumb working. Begin directly in front of your nose, about 9 inches from 
the edge of the desk (as far as you can span), and make the strokes to and from the eyes, or the center of the body. 
Use a hard pencil (No. 2% or 3) on an ordinary newspaper, and see how many minutes you can work in the same 
drill without wearing through the paper. Keep the muscles relaxed and the touch very light. Count mentally on the 
down strokes, listen to the pencal say 'an' on every up stroke. About 8 to 10 counts very five seconds is fast enough for 
these muscle stretching drills. A good plan is to count six, over and over, three times on the straight line, and bring 
the hand to a full stop at the bottom on the third 6; then make the direct oval same number of counts, following with 
indirect oval, then straight line again, etc. Also learn to get control of the hand by bringing it to a full stop at the top 
after every third 6 'an'. If this helps you, tell Mr. Lupfer." 

Mr. Collins enclosed a sample of his practice in which he had covered over eight spaces. Students should cover 
about 3 spaces the first week, 4 the second week, 5 the third and 6 the fourth, etc. 

Copy 72. Loosen up the muscles by reviewing this exercise. See how easily and accurately you can make it. 

Copy 73. A combination of push-pull and oval exercises, leading up to the letter P. I would suggest that you 
do not spend more time on exercises than necessary in order to Learn to make real good letters. 

Copy 74. This is intended to develop the straight line retrace. See that you end this exercise carefully. Unless 
you do you will get a wild oval. 

Copies 75 and 76. Before practicing the P be sure that you have analyzed it carefully. Study the copy until 
you have a mental picture and then put your best effort into your practice. It is not how much practice, but how much 
effort you put into it. After you have made them one space high, bring them down to three-fourths of a space. 

Copy 77. You are becoming skillful with the pen by this time and can therefore call yourself a penman. Don't 
do so, however, until you can write the word Penman well. 




76 



77 



Copy 78. The difficult part of the B for many is the retrace. You can profitably spend some time on this 
exercise. 

Copies 79 and 80. The B should not be made too wide. Try to get fourteen to sixteen letters on a line seven 
inches long. The B is very similar to R. Get the little loop properly placed and shaped. The two large ovals are the 
same in size. Compare your work with the copy. Are you swinging these letters off freely? Wobbly lines indicate slow 
motion. 

Copy 81. This copy is easy but you should be very careful with the spacing, and see that all the turns are 
rounding and angles sharp. The little o and a should be made distinct. 

Copy 82. Remember exercises are given for a definite purpose. They are only a means to an end, therefore 
use them intelligently. They should be made with the same speed as letters. 

Copies 83 and 84. Start the R with a curve. The large oval is the same as on the P. Watch the size and loca- 
tion of the loop and see that the final stroke is swung out gracefully. The teacher can count: 1-2-3-4. Don't hesitate 
on the loop. 



^ <y/it'3(luj//iiJjC~<6ua6/- & 




Copy 85. Run this copy along freely. Let the arm roll on the muscles. Don't let the thumb "chew gum." 

Copy 86. The r begins and ends like i, but has a decided shoulder. Unless you get width to it and a distinct 
shoulder, your r will be mistaken for i. Notice that the r is made higher than the u or n. Check the motion as indi- 
cated by the check mark in the copy. The down stroke should be made straight and with considerable care. The r is 
one letter that requires care. 

Copy 87. This is a good word for movement. You will notice that there are two decided pauses in the motion. 
These pauses are at the shoulders of the r. The other letters glide along freely. 

Copy 88. The s and the r are very similar, and if not made well are sometimes illegible. Close the s at the 
bottom. Use a rocking, rolling motion. Curve the upper stroke and glide out of the letter gracefully the same as in i. 

Copies 89, 90 and 91. In these words pay particular attention to the s and r. If you can make them well, give 
your attention to some other letter which you cannot make so well. Write other similar words. Compare your work 
with the copy often. The more you study the better your writing will become. 




ULAsL<3<1?3?Z-JLA</.. 




Copies 92 and 93. So many letters begin the same as H that it is very important that vou master these exer- 
cises and the stroke itself. Get plenty of freedom and study the form. 

Copies 94, 95 and 96. The K H and X have practi cally the same beginning stroke. The second part of these 
letters begin the same, that is with left curves. Be sure t hat you get two nice compound curves in the K and that the 
second part loops around the stem. Check the motion at th e bottom of the second part of H. Be sure that the X 
closes. 



10 



92 



93 







96 



'%. 



'%.. 



Q...AP. 




^te38aJ*/t*M&&u*i&r & n 



Showy Business Writing 

in Ten Acts and Fifty Scenes 

Written, Produced and Directed by C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, LI. B., Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Syracuse, New York, Public Schools. 



ACT IX 

SCENE I 

Try writing this entire scene in one minute and 15 seconds. Do not sacrifice accuracy for speed. Strive to keep 
those two essentials hand in hand. 

After practicing this many times write a letter using the copy to open and close. 

JO*/ 

//IjuUsU/ 'C^l^uPk U^JU^T 




ACT IX 

SCENE II 

Memorize this form, then substitute one line each time starting with the first line. Each time you will write four 
lines of the scene. That is a method used to relieve monotony where there is a requirement of a large number of 
copies. 

Do not use the name of an existing bank. 






/ 



^i^Ayy^^u-C^ 




', <=^C^ i/sZZ^ls(L£~s 



Take pride in making legible figures. 

Practice this receipt in sections, substitute names and amounts. 

There are one hundred signs, figures and letters in this form, making it a good copy for timing. 



12 ^ <S#fe&u&neU><adiu&fir t & 




ACT IX 

SCENE IV 

If you practiced the combination exercises in the early acts, you will have but little trouble in the capital com- 
binations used in this act. 

Use only fictitious names in substituting in this form. Change amounts and dates so as to practice on all the fig- 
ures after memorizing this form. 



x^s 3wr^w 



ACT IX 

SCENE V 

Do not depend on printed forms with blank spaces as they are not always at hand. By committing to memory the 
forms given in this course you will have made an appreciable step in Commercial Law. 
Write, rewrite, then write again. 



//( 7 a^Uyi4xn^ 7 -~y^K^t^LS OLc^&^/o, /jlj. 




Jj^rLScL^LJy 



CURTAIN. 



&&&uA*n*dfr<£(&uxi£r* & 



13 




Zo, /?Zf. 






_^^^^j?-r?t^<i^^^-7C(C-^>^^ 











Miss Olive M. Adams, Super 
supervisors and teachers who c; 
those teachers who follows direc 
Correspondence Course she was 



sor of Writing, Beverly, Mass., is a real student of penmanship. There are very few 
write a better and more fluent style of writing than Miss Adams. She is one of 
Dns faithfully and works systematically. Upon the completion of the Zaner Method 
warded a Professional Certificate. 



.- ■'. >^ 




~f/Z/z, 



Fred Tomsits, a student in the South Bend, lnd.. Business Colleg 
cards. Anybody would be glad to get name cards and Christmas 
Burt Kelley is Mr. Tomsits' instructor. 



:, should be able to make some pin money this Chr 
:ards written as beautifully as the above. 



^ &J&u&n^&&u&6r & 










'/Cts?>2^<2/ 



X^ 






The three girls who wrote the above are Junior high school pupils in Parkersburg. W. Va, 




The above group of students from the Parkersburg. W. Va.. Junior High School won Zaner Method High School 
Certificates. Few schools in the country are getting better results in penmanship than Parkersburg. R. W. Carr is the 
supervisor who is putting the penmanship across in that city. 



<5J^&u4/n&U/<2dtuxi&r* & 



15 



THE TREND IN PENMANSHIP 
METHODS 

(Continued from Page 7) 

She secures good appearing work 
by insisting upon uniform slant and 
spacing, and that faulty forms are 
improved. 

Her counting is in such a way as 
to encourage rhythm and proper 
speed. By her counting she is able to 
direct attention to parts of the let- 
ters to be watched and improved, but 
she does not tire herself and her pu- 
pils by "whirlwind" counting, and 
continuing counting when not neces- 
sary. 

Every exercise she gives has a defi- 
nite purpose. The pupil is shown that 
purpose and as soon as it is accom- 
plished is given something else. 

A good teacher today gives consid- 
erable thought to the material on 
which the pupils practice and her in- 
structions are guided by the results 
or needs of the class. She endeavors 
to correlate her subject with the 
other school subjects. She is fami- 
liar with the work the children are do- 
ing in the other subjects and plans 
her work accordingly. 

Above all, she must be as well pre- 
pared to teach writing as well as 
arithmetic or any other subjects and 
she must give as much thought and 
time in preparing for the writing les- 
son as for any other lesson. The 
more preparation she gives to the 
teaching of handwriting, the better 
the results are and the more she en- 
joys teaching it. 

The most recent and probably the 
most valuable line of attacking the 
writing situation is through interest. 
Experiences of all previous methods 
used show that there has been a lack 
of real interest in writing itself. The 
material which was presented had 
very little meaning to the students. 
Of course, some good teachers were 
able to create interest even in lessons 
containing meaningless subject mat- 
ter, but this interest was probably 
created more on account of the per- 
sonality of the teacher than the ma- 
terial which was presented itself. 

Today, we endeavor to correlate 
handwriting with the other school sub- 
jects. Writing lessons are associated 
with language lessons in such a way 
that pupils do considerably more ac- 
tual writing and less work on formal 
and meaningless drills. Under the su- 
pervision of a conscientious teacher 
the student today learns to apply his 
knowledge acquired in the writing les- 
son and sees a real need for acquir- 
ing skill in writing. As a result the 
work carries over into the other sub- 
jects better, and in the future we shall 
no doubt hear less about the writing 
lesson not "carrying over." 




I 







of Uu rcrrnt iuslaUmrnts A JhWeoliuialit of ifvnnainj uv reprotiucet. a future of Hie l.oini of aTtSrihsu 
u.l.e hue been shot O.uon iti aerial rami' •' '■ ■ 
Jt was a srmplmt ..[ a neu.|„ fall.-. 



hat by Ike ffwmau «». urn ttkUlu&t 

ko »..•* rijl.hnn. For the allies: not new ten iMe bo look _n than nun. 
- ««■»- W»* io eumoaranre ill lubertu hen bn.11.1hl us maim letters oF protest. 
lW.ro uirr.tr to us thai Hir ,, mil* shark.* nil Hit picture. 5'omo rrfrrrr* bo uou'Uirrdhofm a< aTutifc' ©Ibre 
srnurk Ilairifirb that wr sb.mll. make a l.<r.. ,.f a lt( Her lib.' uon UiAHiota. \», oo not uuibe a lux., oF%rhch.>Ern We tell 
tbe Hue stnrn of his Uf«, .is amrraMu as En-am Jet it. 

€hc pirturr of Hl« slain initeli officer is. aftr i ull.oiilu a picture of war as it is. HW is Hir uuuilrsale Uilliuc of 
uauiu, uicn. Jlut Is tiu object of max. Uictorics aw luoasurcr. hi, slanoWw. (This isolates snapshot of a oca* ...an illustrates 
uillat it utraus la be a hero anil the uirtirn of a hero. 

jfmr nuilb si..,, war I'll taking a note about it.ru, «t peon waulo llcsilatc a mornc 
HuFiUTaaalcju, u.c cant. War is a rrrurtvnt planur iiv Hit histnru of nations, Ikere lumo brou ibrnlisl 
couie. best.umco.JtUasntbeeu. tfhatis afa.-l ..'hub must be arecplco. 

is oic lib. men. usually lln.uah not aUuaq*, a* fke resuH of ilefoat in ui. 
luftll to see that. if possible. u>r bo nob become inoi.lwo i 



s to his 






'<!!„ 



JtisHicburuatHirral 
hiaWourut.. sec thai if »ai com 

(Ihc slain iKmUshn^m 

yhi' photojuaph 
JanamJ^flinMto.V We 
the mhia porteauel. ^g*ur fuchi 

jUnrhuaircf.'Hi, 
a million anb a kalf lj>.riuan«. 

"tf>Kllf**i*hi«u,tsaKi rf .», .mm b'.-TH mere killec. I 
the iwr ha!, kisteb aue.wlono.H-. Si»t)l HioiisanS balp ear* 

TPe respect Hie FersUlas of fhosv Bill.' uncle bo t?arn c 
hi point out to them. ltmon.er.Hiat beak Mm are Hie I rift .,a.- 
of a luarHat hero Ls meiisnreti bijhi^ abilihj to«U^i hisenea^. 

We all remember lt.no at the train, nq tvui+.s the u.ntnq 
Ki.wm»t» ink ' 



ruseshallbeuietori, 

^irhire» m Viberfu mas .mbj one of fea million rlaimeo fj) .Vark in the late UK11-. 

boon shntks ueistms noin uitlo reab a'iHi eoital.LMKtnbs of Hie slaughter at Ver>uu 
.aity list? without reolUtaa rb.ii eaeb aom* of asialn soltner meant e*a.f In 
;ton u»ho inent uieot. . ^H 

^uniiaiinien unioe Hiesumewu' saeirfirctaunlliouan&aqnarcrr ^Tenrluneu ana 



the fume* BwulMiao,-. 
■libeHiatsruuisUof. 
.■,balH.e".HorihVabion' 
rn.u-.lb.U- the business, 

J taiuilit to 



:.>;!. 



>l! 



i'l a* tarn plunaea 



i en.Jt istruet. blosog nni .uiu[u(. .lii.-. Llal . 




The above beautiful piece of engrossing was executed in colors by Irwin Ogden, who 
is at present attending the Zanerian College of Penmanship. Columbus. Ohio, preparing 
himself as a professional penman and engrosser. Keep your eye on this young man. 

The above wording was taken from the August 2 7. 
Liberty Weekly, Inc. 



of Liberty, by courtesy of 




9^^-^ f. 



re specimen was written by Johnny Yoshimoto, Penticton, B. C. Canada, who 
;ss Educator Students' Ornamental Penmanship Certificate. You can look for 
rk from this young man in the future. He has the ability to become a real 



16 



y/u rjtiuM/itJJ C</fua/sr & 



Suplementary Business Writing 

By C C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teacher.. Now York City 



^ 







u£ 










^£^4/-?£~c-*^^'^ 












This specimen of business writing is the product of our good friend up in Minnipeg, Man 
C. R. Brunet, instructor in Lord Selkirk School. 



^ <54fe<!38u<i/n&M/(2diu*z&r & 



17 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 



The 

Importance 
of Skill 




Skill is the power to do things well. 
Perhaps the most important life 
guide ever put into language is the 
little three-word rule, 
DO IT WELL. When 
I first began to observe 
people attentively, I 
noticed how startlingly 
different folks are in their ways of 
doing things. Not merely work, or 
play, but in doing the things people 
do from babyhood, such as breathing, 
eating, walking, running, and the ex- 
ercise of the senses, seeing, hearing, 
feeling, and so on. Apparently, some 
people seem to be just 
natural born dubs in 
about everything they 
try to do. I often won- 
dered why it was, and 
after a while, I worked 
out a sort of philos- 
ophy to account for it. 
It appears that hu- 
man beings, unlike the 
lower animals are mostly born with- 
out any of the protective instincts. 
The young of most of the wild things 
carry on from the start with practic- 
ally nothing in the way of either 
teaching or even conscious effort. 
Most of them are able to make a liv- 
ing for themselves, almost from the 
time they leave the shell. They can 
fly, swim, catch their prey or build 
their nests without ever taking so 
much as one preliminary lesson. Not 
so with us humans. It is doubtful if 
a baby could even learn to walk with- 
out being shown. And the lower ani- 
mals seem to improve very little with 
practice. The first nest a pair of 
robins build is as good a piece of 
architecture as their tenth one. One 
thrust or mocking-bird sings as well 
as another, and all without taking 
vocal lessons. A young rooster may 
not crow quite so satisfactorily as his 
grandfather, but that is not because 
he doesn't know how. It is probably 
owing to an undeveloped glottis. A 
young hawk can soar as swiftly and 
dart upon its prey as unerringly as 
an old one. There are no Pattis or 
Paganninis or Lindberghs, or 
Michaelangelos or Babe Ruths or 
Helen Wills or Gene Tunneys in the 
animal woi'ld. 

But we poor higher-ups have to 
work under a comparative handicap. 
We can do little or nothing without 
being TAUGHT HOW, and we can do 
nothing WELL, without a lot of 
wearying practice. Our nervous sys- 
tems are simply organized that way, 
and that is all there is to it. When- 
ever, in our easy-going laziness, we 
think to "get by" through an easier 
route, we are due for a flop into the 



mud-hole of failure. Leai-ning and 
training are the price of the game, 
and there is no winning without them. 
The barren shores of the Land of 
Futility, are littered with the wreck- 
age of those who did not learn this 
fundamental truth in time. 

There is not so much difference in 
the make-up of these physical and 
mental machines of ours, but there is 
a lot of difference in the voltage of 
the electric battery of WILL POWER 
by which we make them go. It is 
pretty nearly true that a person can 
do anything that he tries hard enough 
to do. The story of most of our gen- 
iuses shows that. In fact, one wise 
thinker has said that genius, itself, 
is but "an infinite capacity for taking 
pains." It is mostly mere laziness 
that causes so many folks to go 
through the world as dubs and medi- 
ocres. 

And if all of us could only learn 
IN TIME, to do things well what a 
lot of difference it would make in our 
happiness! And we have to learn the 
difference between a thing that is 
done well, and one that is only half 
done. The Devil never invented a 
subtler formula for ruining a man 
than that easy-going label with which 
so many people tag their work: I 
GUESS IT WILL DO. 

Nothing should "do", unless you 
have put into it every ounce of skill 
that you have. And this applies to a 
lot of very simple things, that most 
people would not even think of learn- 
ing HOW to do. It would appear that 
there is a chance for skill even in 
such an instinctive matter as kissing. 
I read the other day of a movie di- 
rector, who required a pair of actors 
to kiss in a certain emotional scene 
for more than forty times before the 
camera registered just what he 
wanted. The actress, Olga Nether- 
sole, perfected a stage kiss that filled 
the theatre with erotics for a hundred 
nights. That perfected osculation 
brought her scads of money and also 
much marketable fame, such as it 
was. 

Aside from the prosperity that only 
skill is likely to bring, there is even 
a greater reward in the joy and pride 
that all of us feel in doing almost 
anything WELL. It is this joy, I 
think, rather than any mere money 
reward, that keeps the world climb- 
ing the tracks of progress. It is this 
innate "pride of accomplishment", 
whether the performers know it or 
not, that is the motive force in all 
the fields, whether of art or sport or 
business or industry. It is this joy- 
ful exhileration that skill gives, that 



mostly makes life really worth while. 
If you will read that new and won- 
derful book, of Edna Ferber's, "So 
Big", you may get a better under- 
standing of this. But if you should 
elect to allow yourself to go through 
the world as a dub, you will forfeit 
your own SELF RESPECT, which is 
about the worst form of failure and 
misery that anybody can have. Adopt 
the rule, "DO IT WELL" and see if 
it doesn't work out as I have said. 



Long ago, certain fairly close ob- 
servers of human affairs, reached the 
conclusion that a lot of youngsters 
are being sent to college, 
The who really have no business 

College there. Some of us recall 
Misfits the old story of a college 
faculty who signed a certi- 
ficate to the effect that a certain 
graduate had "completed, with honor 
the course of study required by this 
Institution", and then thoughtfully 
added, "and we know no reason why 
he should not complete the same 
course again." But these ribald 
scoffers were mostly of the laity. In 
pro-college circles, it has generally 
been assumed, as a matter of course, 
that everyone, regardless of his 
mental or temperamental limitations, 
should "get a college education", and 
that if he failed to do it, he was just 
that much out of luck. 

But now comes no less an authority 
than Dean Christian Gauss of Prince- 
ton University, who, in the October 
Scribners, pronounces a very different 
opinion. In fact, Dean Gauss, bluntly 
declares that at least one sixth of the 
American college population should 
be "fired" and sent home to find some- 
thing they are better fitted for, than 
trying to get a higher education. He 
says in effect that trying to make ed- 
ucational silk purses out of these 
sows' ears, costs their parents and 
the college endowment fund from 
$8,000 to $10,000, and that it would 
be better to save this money and put 
the misfits to other work. 

"Some of the Princeton Dean's ob- 
servations are so piquant as to 
deserve quoting. For instance: 

"I would examine the parents as 
to their fitness to have a son in col- 
lege, and most certainly, upon their 
qualifications to decide whether he 
should go there. Where parents 
fail to "pass", the matter should be 
decided by the headmaster or the 
high-school principal." 
Dean Gauss explains that many 
parents who do not really know their 
own sons, unthinkingly send them to 
college, through their acceptance of 
the popular tradition that everybody 
who can afford it, should have a col- 
lege education, whereas, many boys 
are better off without it. 

"If", he continues, " a boy does not 
enjoy study at school, he is not and 



(Co 



Page 22) 



18 



&&&u&/i^(»4&u&&r & 



PUPPY LOVE 

By C. R. McCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 



But Mary isn't the only one who 
thinks she knows all about English. 
Many years ago this writer wrote a 
little article for a magazine about the 
origin of the English Language and 
among other things said, "An Irish 
Missionary did more to Christianize 
the British Isles than any other per- 
son." This brought forth much com- 
ment from some of the laymen, espe- 
cially one who thought that some pro- 
paganda was bein used but history is 
history and it is rather hard to re- 
fute arguments when it is recorded in 
many histories and accepted as a 
truth by the learned men. So we see 
that some older persons do not know 
as much as they think they do about 
some things. There is an old saying, 
"Where ignorance is bliss, it is folly 
to be wise," and this applies to some 
of us who have passed the school age. 
Some of us have heard about the old 
owl who lived high up in the hollow 
of a giant oak — with age came wis- 
dom but what has all this to do with 
Puppy Love? 

It was not long before the entire 
class was wise to the fact that Mary 
had a terrible case on a lad who was 
as ugly as a mud fence and his face 
would have stopped an eight-day 
clock had he looked at it — the lad not 
the clock, my dear readers. It is very 
pocr business to have ugly looking 
candidates running for office these 
days. Girls will not vote for ugly 
men. What would poor "Honest Abe" 
have done if women had voted in his 
day? But when a woman becomes at- 
tached to an ugly-looking man, there 
is nothing in the world to stop her 
and then again what chance has an 
ugly looking man anyway when a 
woman gets her mind made up to have 
him. 

Robert Eggleston was about the 
same age as Mary but large for his 
age, being very thin and nearly six 
feet. It was soon "nosed" about the 
little school that Bob and Mary had 
a "case on" each other. It is very 
hard to fool the members of the class 
about such things. Many teachers 
have the opinion that they can easily 
fool the youngsters in the class but 
take a little tip — one has to get up 
early in the "marnin" if he is to suc- 
ceed. Then, too, young folks resent 
the fact that the teacher thinks he is 
"slipping something over 'em". How- 
ever, it was love at first sight with 
our two little Turtle Doves. Neither 
one had ever kept company with the 
opposite sex but as is the usual case, 
"love will find a way" and so the 
world moves. What did these two 
lovers care what the other members 
of their class said about them, any- 
way? 



Peggy O'Harra, a neighbor of 
Mary's went home and told her 
mother and her mother in turn told 
Mrs. O'Gaffney and before long it 
was news over the backyard fence. 

"I'll break every bone in his body," 
said "Jigger" McCarthy, Mary's 
father, when he heard the "news mon- 
grels blabbing away." 

"Oh! no, ye won't," piped up Pat- 
rick Brogan who had a similar ex- 
perience when he was a young lad. 

"Just let him try to bring our Mary 
home, and ye'll see if I don't," re- 
torted "Jigger." 

It is to be remembered that "Jig- 
ger" McCarthy was a great full back 
on the "Patch" football team several 
years ago and was noted for his 
prowess and since his football days 
had grown fatter and larger than 
ever. He was what men would say, 
"He was a big man." 

The School had its Annual Hallowe- 
'en Dance and since Mary lived al- 
most half-mile from the trolley, it 
was Bob's duty to "see Mary home." 
This is especially true if the young 
man in question is near the age of 
sixteen. He does not need to ask her, 
that will all be taken care of by the 
young lady who is near the age of 
fifteen. At the dance, Bob danced 
every dance with Mary and every- 
body laughted and thought they were 
having a good time at their expense 
— doubtful — because sometimes we 
think we are "kidding" the other fel- 
low, when in reality "kidding" our- 
selves. The oi'chestra leader said af- 
terwards that he had never seen so 
many encores in all his playing ex- 
perience. Mary won the prize for be- 
ing the best dressed while Bob won 
the prize among the boys. They must 
hurry for the trolley that ran to the 
"patch" because "Jigger" had told 
Mary NOT to miss the last car and if 
she did, he would know the reason 
why. 

"No, Bob, dear, this is the last car," 
spoke Mary softly as Bob was assist- 
ing her to the car. 

"I don't care if it is, I can walk 
back" came the quick answer from 
Bob. No one will ever be able to tell 
why boys do such things but they do 
them regardless of dangers. 

The McCarthy home was elevated 
more than the other houses in the 
neighborhood thus affording a better 
view of the trolley station. And when 
Mary and Bob alighted, two keen eyes 
perceived the pair of youths and these 
eyes were none other than those of 
the great "Jigger" himself. Slowly 
they wound their way toward the Mc- 
Carthy home as is usual among young 
folks. 

"Who is this young lad ye have wid 
yez?" spoke up Jigger angrily as they 
met at the gate. 

"Why, why, why — Daddy, this is 
the fellow I was telling you about — 
Robert Eggleston — this is my father," 
replied Mary falteringly. 



"What in the divil do yez mean 
coming home with our Mary at this 
hour when yez know that the last car 
has gone. Ye can't stay here in my 
house. Don't ye know that I don't 
allow her to have company." It was 
some speech for "Jigger". 

And "Jigger" was getting hotter 
and hotter under the colar with the 
result that poor Bob did not know 
what to do. 

"I was just bringing Mary home 
from the dance. I did not mean any- 
thing wrong, Mr. McCarthy," came 
the reply from Bob. 

"Jigger's" Irish temper got the bet- 
ter of him at this point and without 
further ceremony promptly gave the 
young Enoch Arden a few nice 
healthy clouts with his fist. 

"I'll teach ye to bring me Mary 
home when we do not allow it," was 
all "Jigger" would say. 

And poor Bob plod his way wearily 
homeward with his face and jaw 
swelling at each step of the way. 

The next morning in school Bob 
was the laughing stock of the class 
as the noise of the disturbance caused 
Mrs. Brogan to stick her head out the 
window and tune in on the wave 
length. News flew quickly but Bob 
did not care since he loved Mary — he 
never could love that big brute of a 
father, "Jigger" McCarthy, now. 

Days and weeks moved along 
rapidly during the Winter Term in 
the school and soon Spring came with 
all her balmy weather. Our two 
"lambs" now took nice walks during 
the noon hour and throughout the lit- 
tle city, the people would glance 
around and look at this pair as they 
passed on the street. The older per- 
sons smiled but the younger ones 
laughted outright and in derision lit- 
tle thinking that mayhap they would 
be doing the same some day them- 
selves. 

"Do you teach love making in your 
school?" spoke the cashier of the bank 
as he met the Principal one day. 

"Oh, yes," replied the mentor with 
a little smile upon his face. The old 
Principal was used to such things 
among young people while the 
Cashier might know something about 
notes, drafts, money, etc., he did not 
know humanity and especially the 
younger generation. He had forgot- 
ten his earlier days when he was a 
boy. So many of us forget that we 
were once just as bad and possibly 
worse than the young boy when we 
were young. 

"I hear ye are still running around 
with that young "Egg" — he is a bad 
egg, I'm thingin,' " spoke the head of 
the McCarthy elan one night at the 
supper table. 

"Well, I can't refuse to talk to him, 
can I when I am in the same class 
with him," replied Mary quickly. 

"If from what I am hearin' yez 
had better watch yer step, little girl, 

(Continued on Page )3) 



^ <52fa&u4/MeM<sdtu*z&r & 



19 



The Point of View of the 
Principal On Hand Writ- 
ing Problems 



By MRS. GEORGIA LACEY, Prin. 

John McCormick School, 

Indianapolis, hid. 



Address Delivered at the Indiana 
State Teachers' Association Meet- 
ing, held in Indianapolis, Indiana, 
October 20, 1927. 



There is a growing movement in 
America which puts the burden of su- 
pervision on the principal. A num- 
ber of reasons may be given for such 
investment of supervisory authority. 
We will all agree that child growth 
is the measure of supervision. In the 
parlance of the business world the 
principal's work may be called "pro- 
ducing on the job." He is free to 
change certain factors in environment 
and to set up social situations which 
permit growth. When he serves as 
production manager waste is elimin- 
ated in the matter of travelling about 
from one building to another. He is 
closer to the parents than the spe- 
cial supervisor. The principals time 
may be scheduled to do that very nec- 
essary type of thing called follow-up. 

His supervisory program can be 
based on the needs of his teachers as 
he finds them at widely differing 
levels of proficiency. His must be a 
program directing their growth and 
analyzing their errors. It is possible 
for the principal to have daily con- 
ference with his teachers. We must 
certainly look to him as the chief 
agent in building up morale. With 
such a prospectus of the principal's 
responsibilities before us it is evident 
that he must have a real vision of 
the possibilities that lie in the field of 
every school activity, and know inti- 
mately every line of work within his 
school. 

It is our purpose to consider at this 
time the principal's point of view as 
regards handwriting. 

Penmanship must be recognized as 
a fine and practical art. Only with 
such an understanding of its true 
status will the teacher enthusiastically 
"carry on." For the grade school 
child there are but two methods of 
transmitting thought, by telling or by 
writing. It is essential for him to 
master these two language vehicles 
so that he uses them automatically 
without hindrance to self-expression. 

On the other hand his style of 
speaking or writing should not be so 
individual that it becomes a hindrance 
to thought. We teach the children to 
speak correctlv. Stammering and 
lisping are evidences of individuality. 
The "newsie" is individual in his 
slang. Provincialism is also individ- 
ual, but certainly undesirable. Voices 
differ but inflection, emphasis, phras- 
ing as means of expression are the 



same. We are attempting to train 
voices to be clear and smooth so as 
not to mar thought. That speaker is 
best whose thought stands alone, the 
speaker forgotten. 

Written expression should be as un- 
obtrusive as print. The newspaper 
does not use fantastic tyDe. Hand- 
writing should be read quickly and 
easily. It must not hamper the ac- 
quiring or exiiression of thought. No 
one deserves to take the time of a 
friend to decipher hieroglyphics which 
a person develops to be eccentric and 
individualistic. This is only an evi- 
dence of egoism. The lost art of let- 
ter writing is in large measure due to 
clumsy writing. In this connection it 
might be said that fortunately cus- 
tom is making it a matter of courtesy 
to use pen instead of pencil. Much of 
our so-called scratch work done on a 
low grade of paper with a pencil is 
pernicious. No banker will permit the 
use of pencil. One Boston banker dis- 
misses anyone who uses an eraser. 

It is reported that Marshall Field 
losses six million dollars yearly due 
to illegibility. Large sums have been 
lost through failure to receive tele- 
grams and cablegrams because of il- 
legible signatures. I am told that 
the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York 
has attempted to safeguard its guests 
from their own illiteracy. When the 
guest registers, the clerk spells the 
name to a tyist who prints vh'3 name 
on a card which is pasted below the 
signature. 

Of course no two people can talk 
or write alike any more than they 
can look alike. Physiology will neces- 
sitate a certain degree of variation. 
But beauty will always consist in line, 
spacing, proportion, symplicity of 
form and color. This viewpoint 
places writing definitely as a fine art. 
In the grade school there is no doubt 
of its practical use as it must be a 
vehicle to carry all school subjects. 

As regards handwriting, then, the 
principal has a clearly defined func- 
tion: 

To give his teaching corps a clear 
cut vision of the status quo of pen- 
manship in the elementary school 
because of the demands life will 
make of it. 

To be, himself, a good penman. 
To be as expert a teacher of writ- 
ing as of reading, English, or any 
other school subject. 
To coordinate the work of his build- 
ing with the plans of the super- 
visory staff in this subject. 

To hold himself responsible for 
progressive development throughout 
the grades as measured by accepted 
standards of achievement. 

To accomplish such a program de- 
mands a two-fold plan, the first from 
the viewpoint of the needs of the 
building as a whole, the second, the 
needs of the individual teachers that 
make up the building personnel. This 
must include every teacher in the 



building, no matter what her special 
subject, as each teacher must become 
penmanship conscious. We have long 
heard the slogan, "Every teacher a 
teacher of English." It is time that 
some such emphasis be placed upon 
the teaching of writing. Personally, 
I am sold to the idea that the teach- 
ing of handwriting is three quarters 
follow up on the daily routine work 
in all other subjects and one quarter 
actual practice during the writing 
lesson. 

To write with legibility, uniformity, 
and speed is the aim m teaching pen- 
manship to elementary grade pupils. 
The method is not as essential as the 
daily devices used to make the lessons 
interesting enough to secure the ut- 
most progress possible. Writing is an 
activity which must be well motivated 
to produce the best results. Because 
it is not a subject, but an art, a tool 
of education without intrinsic thought, 
it has been taught mechanically with- 
out relation to the child's experi- 
ences, needs, and desires. Since the 
interest is not fundamentally cen- 
tered in penmanship itself, but is ac- 
tually in the devices and incentives 
used, it is necessary to show consid- 
erable ingenuity and variety to sus- 
tain interest. 

These may be divided into the 
larger aims toward which children 
work for the greater part of the 
school year, and the smaller, though 
no less important ones, which tend to 
arouse daily interest. Examples of 
the former as used in our school have 
been: to win a writing certificate; to 
make a good showing at the open 
house night meeting of the Parent- 
Teacher Club, when each child's regu- 
lar, daily work is displayed on his 
own desk as well as posted on bulle- 
tins and arranged as special exhibits; 
to be excused from the writing class 
because of proficiency; to be ap- 
pointed to take care of secretarial 
duties pertaining to room or office; 
to win a place on the room honor 
roll. Some daily incentives which 
have been found helpful have been : 
the use of a ribbon on the pen if cor- 
rect process is used, the giving of col- 
ored stars or seals, the winning of the 
coveted school stamp affixed by the 
principal herself, a paper exhibited on 
the room or corridor bulletin boarcr. 
Cumulative collections of regular, 
daily papers prepared by each pupil 
in any subject pasted on the black- 
boards or on individual writing 
charts have been most effective. 

Socializing the work through class 
criticism has done much to place the 
writing lesson on a higher plane of 
endeavor. Certain objectives, defin- 
itely established in the minds of the 
children will enable them to become 
efficient critics of their own and each 
other's work. Each child must learn 
to judge of his own proceedure, see 
his own fault, and correct It. 

(Continued on Page 22) 



20 



ft^^&ttd/neM&diua&r *§* 




t^^^r 




o u-^ 




Christmas Greetings from Angelo M. Rassu. penman and 
^grosser of Greenwich, Conn. 



CONTENTMENT 

ontentmcntKcB 
not in tbc enjov 
man of case ■ 
alifcofluxuiTMbut 
coincsonlvtobimthit 
latons and overcomes- 
tobimtbat performs 
tbc task in band and 
rape tbc satisfaction 
of work well done ■ 

***-~*nriiW tl>8car\ViLic 



This beautiful piece o 
and skillful hand of W. 
Baird Studio. Brooklyn. 



ii the fertile br 
ith the Dennis 



<*T <5^&uUn<M&&u*i&r & 



FAMOUS LETTERS 

By FAMOUS PENMEN 
In this series we have some of the most skillful letters ever written. 



*U€l/ . 



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i^//^l^t7~ZX^- 



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z^z^n^i^rL^^i 



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This we believe is the best letter ever written by C. C. Canan. It was originally prepared lor the Zanerian College catalog. 



22 



THE POINT OF MEW 

OF THE PRINCIPLE ON 

HANDWRITING PROBLEMS 

(Continued from page 19) 

It is practible in penmanship 
classes as well as various other school 
activities to group children in a given 
grade according to their ability. 
There are the usual well-known divi- 
sions, the over-average who merely 
needs direction, the average, the 
group to which we teach, and the be- 
low-average, made up of the tense 
phlegmatic, absent, disciplinary cases. 
The test of a teacher is the manage- 
ment of all three groups. It is also 
a test of supervisorship. The teacher 
must evaluate the efforts of her class 
and form her groups. No group is 
stable. Such a proceedure socializes 
and vitalizes the school. If the lower 
group is over-large, the teacher is 
stimulated. A penmanship seating 
plan is necessary. At the beginning 
of the year the children are grouped 
according to correct process. By the 
middle of the year every one should 
have the right process so that almost 
the entire emphasis may be placed 
upon product. 

The principal needs a plan, pre- 
ferably a printed form, to guide her 
observations during visits, and to 
serve as a record. This should in- 
clude at least the following items: 

Blackboards 

Evidences of motivation 

Management of materials 

Teacher's voice and manner 

Her preparation 

Administration of her plan 
Distribution of time 
Ability to demonstrate 
Speed in counting 
Rhythm 
Class criticism 

Class achievement. 

The principal must then be able to 
follow up with a demonstration les- 
son where it .may be necessary. In 
conference with the teacher he must 
find something to commend to get the 
teacher's mind in attune with his own. 
Only as many or as few points as will 
not jeopardize the teaching between 
this and the next visit should be dis- 
cussed. 

With such an understanding of the 
needs of his teachers, the principal 
welcomes the all too infrequent visits 
of the special supervisor. A brief con- 
ference before she visits the teachers 
should serve as a valuable guide in 
her work in the building on that par- 
ticular visit. 

Even more important to the build- 
ing is the conference of the principal 
with the handwriting expert at the 
conclusion of her visit. Here should 
take place a perfectly frank and open 
discussion of the success and weak- 
ness of the work jn penmanship in 
all the departments of the school, 
concluding with a formulation of new 
aims and plans. 



&^&ud//uM<24&uxz&r & 



In a brief and cursory way I tried 
to show: 

The new viewpoint of the im- 
portance of the principal as chief 
supervisory agent. 

The place of penmanship as a 
fine and practical art. 

The function of the principal as 
regards penmanship. 

The motivation of penmanship. 
As a building problem. 
In its application to individual 
schools. 
The need for expertness on the 
part of the principal in observation 
and criticism of classroom teaching 
followed by demonstration teaching. 
The coordination of the work of 
the principal with that of the spe- 
cial supervisor of writing. 
In the words of Frank P. Whitney, 
"There must be singleness of purpose 
throughout to make education count. 
There must be substantial agreement 
on, and adequate comprehension of, 
the general aims and objectives of the 
school and of each course. With thor- 
ough understanding and mutual re- 
spect established there must be cor- 
dial cooperation in achieving the 
common purpose. As a cooperative 
enterprise designed to discover capac- 
ities, to release powers, and to de- 
velop resources, to help each teacher 
make the most of himself, to gear up 
the group so that each may help the 
other, to discover and make attractive 
and effective the best practice, as 
such an enterprise it is possible that 
cooperative supervision may win joy- 
ful assent and the right to the best 
thought of the school principal." 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17) 

never will be qualified for college, or 
be happy there. If a boy does not 
care for study, a college course will 
not educate him, and will give him 
nothing worth while." 

The common sense of this should 
be obvious, and it is refreshing, and 
may be helpful to have it stated so 
frankly by one who has had Dean 
Gauss's opportunity for knowing 
about college undergraduates. If a 
boy or girl is a natural and enthusi- 
astic student, nothing finer could hap- 
pen to him or her than to spend four 
years in a good college. But for 
those who are not, and never will be 
students, a college education is about 
as useful as spectacles to a blind 
man. 

The Princeton dean's suggestion 
that parents might bo required to 
pass an examination as to their fit- 
ness to decide whether their son 
should go to college, is doubtless more 
unique than practical. All the same, 
it would be interesting to be present 
at such an "exam". I have an idea 
that a lot of the daddies would flunk 
worse than the boys. The question as 
to whether his boy is really fitted to 
take a college course, is about the last 



thing that the ambitious parent would 
consider, or would be able to decide 
rightly, even if he should consider it. 
But there is nothing to grieve over, 
even if "Junior" is not of the type to 
make a success at college. High 
scholarship is very far from offering 
the only way to honorable success and 
usefulness. If this were not true, 
what shall we say of our Washing- 
tons, Franklins, Lincolns, Edisons, 
Burbanks, and a long list of the 
world's greatest men and women who 
were never near a college? Let no 
young man bemoan his fate, if it is 
not practicable for him to go to col- 
lege. It may be, as Dean Gauss sug- 
gests, that a college education is not 
at all what he wants. Besides, if he 
is a genuine student, with the love of 
knowledge deep down in his soul, he 
will be pretty likely to get a "college 
education" without ever going to any 
college. Plenty of such students have 
done so. You can no more keep down 
a natural student than you can re- 
strain a born artist, a musician or a 
poet. And none of these is ever bene- 
fitted by decking him out in an arti- 
ficial tag. 



Is Commercial Education 


Vocational? q D n °^' e ; 


leet the re 
s of the 


modern office) Has it kept 


pace with 


progress in education and ir 


business) 


Office managers think not. 




See Bulletin No. XII- 




A New Conception of Office 


Practice 


HARVARD UNIVERSITY 


PRESS. 


Cambridge Massachus* 


;tts SOc 



ENGROSSING AND 
ILLUMINATING 

By P. W. Costello, Scanton, Pa. 

The following is a brief description 
of the accompanying set of resolu- 
tions executed in colors and gold. 

The work was done on a sheet of 
three ply Kid finish bristol board to 
fit within a frame 15Msxl9% inches. 
The large initial T was executed in 
burnished gold outlined in black with 
a background of green and red, the 
letter colors mixed with Chinese 
White. The lines in the gold were 
made with an agate point and the 
gold burnished with an agate claw. 

Both of these tools may be pur- 
chased in any up-to-date art store. 
The border was done in a wash of 
French blue and outlined with a 
darker shade of the same color. The 
outer and inner lines are of Vermil- 
lion. A thin line of gold was drawn 
through the border with a ruling pen 
and then burnished as the final touch 
on that part of the work. All but- 
tons or dots in the display lines arc 
of burnished gold and the indenta- 
tions in same, made by the aforemen- 
tioned agate point. 

All initials throughout the work 
were red or blue using one of the 
colors for the letter and the other for 
the interior. 



<!!MJ&u&n^&/iu*z&r & 



23 



££§*£ 



icffci 



jtf\ a requlav mectinq 
^ ^1 of Hie 

oarD of JQitwtora 

OF-— 



wv 




la 



hclo on The ciucnhssecono oay^ of January, ^TD. 189Z 
The following re^omhoniuasunanimoi^ly^aSopT^ asreac: 
" ijjr<iit(? ©he Board oF Directors desires to ox'pressirs 
1.1111$, appreciation of the manner in which the president 




Boutte? JlriHUE 



has conducted \i$ affairs Purina , his Hrsf year in office. 

JSOiM^ &hat The Company isfaeplu iridebtcHo thc_ 
_ presioenl For The enthusiasm and wholehearted effort or 
ijtiis iuorh,liis fairness To those associated with him ant) his 
personality which makes if a pleasure \o work uu'th him. » 

~J5\$ manyuears of experience in the business and Ins 
unselfish OeuoFioh To the best infercsfs of the (fbmparu^ar 
all times made Turn especially ualuablc at a critical rime. . 

Jf is an indication tlf fe ability that he has improueo 
the oraani^h'on both from The. manufacturing crno sdlinq 
ends of The business. 

(3ne companj^iS fortunate in hauing his leadership ano 
welierebu^exTend ourliope tor its continuance Through maiu^ 
Succeeding ^ars 1 and oursincere wishes that These years ma^ 
t)rinq "To our respected friend andpresibenbhis fui (share of: 



®$Jkm$fmtv. 




24 <S± 

BEACOM COLLEGE 

A recent number of "Wilmington," 
the Official Publication of the Wil- 
mington, Delaware, Chamber of Com- 
merce, contains a two-page article on 
Beacom College. We have condensed 
the articles and are pleased to pre- 
sent it in our columns for we know 
that it will prove of interest to others 
engaged in school work. 

Mr. Beacom has again demon 
strated the fact that successful com- 
mercial school men in general are also 
successful as business men. Surely, 
Mr. Beacom has reason to feel proud 
of his fine building, and we congratu- 
late him. 

Beacom College was established by 
Mr. Beacom more than a quarter of a 
century ago. It opened with an en- 
rollment of seven students and oc- 
cupied two small rooms. Now, the 
school occupies more than ten thou- 
sand square feet of floor space, and 
nearly a thousand students are in an- 
nual attendance. 

The fine substantial building in the 
picture is the home of Beacom Col- 
lege, which is situated in the heart of 
the business district. 

It is easily accessible from every 
point in the city and yet it is outside 
all noise and confusion. 

The building stands by itself. The 
rooms are flooded with light and air 
on all sides and fitted throughout with 
modern office equipment. No trouble 
or expense has been spared to make 
it an altogether pleasant, business- 
like place, and much thought and ef- 
fort have gone toward insuring com- 
fortable and congenial surroundings. 
The whole atmosphere of Beacom Col- 
lege is one of efficiency and complete- 
ness. 

It is a veritable hive of industry. 

Touch typewriting is a required 
subject in every course. Beacom Col- 



y/u >5t>UJ//ltJJ CWiUYl/t/- & 




W. H. BEACOM 



lege has equipped its typewriting de- 
partment with the latest models of 
standard typewriters, representing a 
value of more than twelve thousand 
dollars. 

The Office Practice section of the 
stenographic and secretarial courses 
includes definite and well-organized 
instruction in all of the activities of 
a well conducted business. 

In the equipment of the school, 
there is included adding machines, 
comptometers, billing machines, bank 
bookkeeping machines, calculating 
machines, ledged-posting machines, 
check writers, a multigraph machine 
and others. 




HF A< OM COLLEGE 



The school has twelve roomy and 
convenient classrooms exclusive of the 
executive offices and reception room. 

It is worthy of particular mention 
that Beacom College has been offering 
for several years a Course in Ac- 
countancy, which leads to the C. P. A. 
degree. 

In addition to the regular so-called 
business courses, which are compar- 
atively short to meet the demands of 
those who must prepare quickly for 
employment, there are now two-year 
degree courses of university grade. 
These special courses are broad and 
comprehensive, yet with all superflui- 
ties omitted. 

Last year 700 calls for sten- 
ographers, secretaries, teachers, book- 
keepers, accountants, or auditors 
were received, but there were not 
nearly enough graduates to go 
around. 

Admission is based upon a selective 
plan which insures a student person- 
nel of more than average mental and 
social attainment — not that it isn't a 
thoroughly democratic institution, as 
business itself is democratic. Distinc- 
tion comes only as a reward for 
scholarship. 

Many of the students every year 
come fmm Wilmington and its sub- 
urbs, which goes to prove that while 
a prophel may hi' wit limit glory in its 
own land, an honest workman isn't — 
but gradually tin' fame of Beacom 
College has spread abroad and, more 
and more, students are coming from 
a distance also — from neighboring 
and from far-off states and from for- 
eign countries. This year they came 
from six universities, sixteen colleges 
and normal schools, numerous acad- 
emies and preparatory schools, as 
well as from nearly a hundred high 
schools. 



^ <5ffi*38utin<M£<&uxifa & 



25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 



No. 60. Let us limber us the arm first by making a line of unshaded ovals. Study the location of shade 
on Q. End with a graceful oval. The loop is fiat on the liae. Don't get loop too large. 

Nos. 61, 62 and 63. Excellent exercises if you swing them off freely and lightly. Every shade should be low 
and snappy on X, and higher on Q. Avoid congested places. Get shade spaced evenly. 

No. 64. Use a rolling motion. Close s at bottom with pressure, forming neat dot. Study copy in detail. 

No. 65. Write freely but not as fast necessarily as in business writing. Shade the a and m. 

No. 66. Watch the shoulder. Get the shade high and clean. Come down straight. 

Nos. 67, 68, 69 and 70. In these review exercises see how daintily you can write. Contrast in shades and hair 
lines are necessary. Get generalities first, such as slant, height and spacing. 

No. 71. You need to be able to write figures well to do any writing for commercial purposes. Figures are 
used on the date line on diplomas, etc. 

Cultivate the habit of regular practice. Let us see some of your work. 




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By F. B. Courtney, Detroit. Mich. 



26 



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Mr. Walter 
engraved fr 





^^^t^t^^-^t^-^^-^^^OOy 



This letter was received fr 
student of the Business Educato 




W. M. Childe 



GEORGIA NORMAL COLLEGE 

A bulletin received from Georgia Normal 
College, Douglas, Ga., indicates that the 
college is in a healthy growing condition. 
Our old friend and former student in the 
Zanerian College. A. A. Kuhl. is President 
and Proprietor of the institution. After 
completing the work here, Mr. Kuhl went 
South and by close application has suc- 
ceeded in building up a school that is 
known far and wide for its good work. 

In the bulletin is a letter by Governor 
Martin, who has employed students of the 
school, highly commending the school. 



Miss Fcrrol Roberta Huyck of Cedar 
Falls. Iowa, is a new commercial teacher 
in the Aplington. Iowa. High School. 



CLUBS 

Large clubs have been coming in 
fast during the past month. We have 
received many clubs which we appre- 
ciate very much. We have received so 
many that it is impossible to mention 
the various schools in our columns. 
We, however, wish to express our 
sincere thanks to the club raisers, 
and we believe that each one will be 
happily repaid for the effort spent in 
getting up the elubs by the increased 
results secured from the penmanship 
classes. 




The above is C. R. McCann, McCann 
School of Business, Hazleton, Pa. To 
find out what kind of a fellow he is 
you should read his stories appearing 
regularly in the Business Educator. 
We are getting a great many very 
nice compliments regarding these 
stories. Mr. McCann has had consid- 
erable experience in business college 
work and is, therefore, in a position 
to write very interesting stories for 
young people entering business. If 
you have not been reading his stories 
begin now. 



The Messrs. Walter Pust 



Willa M. Dush 



.hint 



ille. N. Y.. High 



Ohio, is now 
i the Chester, 



s of Lawrence. Kansas, is 
a new commercial teacher in the State 
Teachers College at Nacogdoches. Texas. 

Miss Margaret Leet has been engaged to 
teach commercial work in the Lead. S. D.. 
Hieh school. 

Mr. Glenn Borough of Cincinnati is a new 
teacher in the High School of Commerce. 



Mr 



Edn 



Dole 

charge of the shorthi 

lege of Commerce. Ke 

Miss Mary A. AJ 



The 



Ja 

Mass.. 
and M 

lyn. N. 

Miss r 
the lohn Ada 
is this 
School 



itei 

al 
Minn.. Hieh schc 

Misses Marion 
Norma Sheinfine. 
iriel Smith. Den. 
ichers in the Heffl 

Y 

Nell Ryland, fo 



Wisconsin. 
Mazep-a, Minn., 
her in the St. 

field. 

lass.. 

School. Brook- 



ol. 

Hebert. Gr 

Springfield 



al years with 

High School. Cleveland. O.. 

- teaching in the Peabody High 

Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Walter G. Hicks, a recent graduate 

f the State Normal School. Salem. Mass.. 

. now t.aching in the Maine School of 



( ,,,, 



Isle 



Mi 



< .. 



Castle. Pa.. 



ege 



Miss Ruth E. Comctz of Wethersfield. 
Conn., a member of this year's graduating 
class of Bay Path Institute. Springfield, 
Mass., is now teaching in the High School 
at Springfield. Vermont. 

Miss Mary Armstrong and Mr. C. L. 
Higgs ore new commercial teachers in the 
Central California Commercial College- at 



Miss 


Be 


mice Jones 


s a 


new , .in 


mercial 


1. , !,• , 


lr 


the Ea 


sth 


ink 


W. Va 


. High 


School. 








Miss 


K. 


th M. Fr 
the Orle. 


-l 


M.'.s 


new corr 
s.. High 


mercial 


teacher 


School. 


Mr. . 


,.-, 


ph J. Bev 


Ins 


rece 


ntlv head of the 


comme 


cia 


1 wo.k 


in 


the 


State 


Normal 


School. 


PIvm 


N 


11 


will tec 


ch the 


. ..mill;: 


ve 


ar in the 


A 


lingt 


on. Mas; 


. High 


School. 














Miss 


Rl 


th Bortz. 


a 


grndv 


ate of S 


yracuse 


Univers 


ity 


will b 










teacher 




the Tarentt 


m. Pa.. High 


School 



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11 



MEET MISS LELAH BLACK 

Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Mendota, 111. 

While preparing as a teacher in the 
Western Illinois State Teachers' Col- 
lege, Macomb, 111., Miss Black came 
under the instruction of D. C. Beighey, 
the widely known teacher and skillful 
penman who is now director of hand- 
writing in the Indianapolis, Ind., Pub- 
lic Schools. His remarkable skill and 
way of presenting the subject ap- 
pealed to her and had much to do in 
influencing her to take up penman- 
ship as a life work. She saw in it a 
splendid future and after completing 




her normal work attended the Zaner- 
ian College Summer Schools in 1924- 
25-26. 

Miss Black taught in Keokuk, Iowa, 
and because of her excellent success 
as a teacher and her skill and train- 
ing as a penman she was able to se- 
cure her present position as super- 
visor of writing in the public schools 
of Oregon, III. Here she is rendering 
faithful service and getting good re- 
sults. 

Miss Black is a quiet, well educated 
young woman, full of penmanship en- 
thusiasm and ambition. As the speci- 
men of her work in this issue will 
testify, she swings a very skillful pen. 




^2^ L -^iL^^e/l--6'£t/z^s^^ 







^l < ^C^-^>z^ /U-^Czz^c^VE^' 



PRIZE WINNING SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 

Supervisor's Contest — Philadelphia — April 27th, 28th, 29th, 1927 
Contest No. 4 — FOR TEACHERS— Specimen written by Mrs. I. F. Haffler, Paterson, New Jersey, First Prize. 








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28 



<5M<?>J6>ujs/ujj Cs/uta/sr* & 



BALTIMORE BUSINESS COLLEGE 
An announcement recently received from 
the Baltimore Business College. Baltimore. 
Maryland, of which the prominent commer- 
cial educator. E. H. Norman is President, 
is about as modern, and we believe effective 
school advertising literature as one could 
well imagine. It contains thirty-two pages. 
6'jx9' 4 . of the finest grade of enamel 
paper, faultlessly printed and illustrated. 
The cover is richly embossed in gold. 

We like to receive such high-grade ad- 
vertising matter, both in content and in 
physical make-up. and it is a pleasure for 
us to commend it. 

The Baltimore Business College is a mem- 
ber of the National Association of Ac- 
credited Commercial Schools, an associa- 
tion of able and conscientious commercial 
school men who are raising the standard 
of the private commercial schools to such 
an extent that educators and the public 
generally are recognizing such schools in 
their special field with equal respect and 
confidence to that bestowed upon the col- 
leges and universities. As an onlooker and 
an acquaintance with many of their mem- 
bers, we unhesitatingly say: More Power to 
the N. A. A. C. S. 



A. 



BARNETT'S ADVERTISING CARD 

One of the handsomest advertising c 
we have ever received recently came 
the well-known handwriting superviso 
the Cleveland. Ohio, schools. Mr. C 
Barnett. 

In addition to supervising handwriting in 
that large school system. Mr. Barnett finds 
the time to do much work as a penman, en- 
grosser, illuminator and binder. 

The card referred to is about 4% by 7 
and a large initial the height of the type 
matter is illuminated in red. green, blue and 
gold most attractively. In fact, the card 
is such a beautiful specimen of the illumin- 
ator's and engrosser's art that anyone who 
appreciates artistic work of this kind would 
not wish to part with it. 





Well balanced and skillfully written addresses by Rene Cuillard. Evanston. 111. 



PORT HURON BUSINESS UNIVERSITY 
The catalog of the Port Huron Business 
University. Port Huron. Mich., is hereby 
acknowledged. The catalog is printed on 
buff colored paper and well illustrated with 
schoolroom scenes. All in all it shows that 



the 



nditi( 



der th 








ent 


of 


C. 


H. 


dent. 


Mr 


N 




ha 


h 


ad 


over 


expene 




in 


bu 


sine 


ss 


col 


ege 



MEREDITH COLLEGE 

An attractive catalog has been received 
from The Meredith College. Zanesville. Ohio. 
The cover page is beautifully designed and 
printed in colors. The work of the school 
is well described. It is printed on fine 

enamel stock and all in all is a very neat 
and attractive catalog. This Institution is 
prospering under the management of D. P. 
McDonald, the president. 



WANTED 

A pood engrosser, good at script 
and lettering. Splendid opportuni- 
ties for advancement. 

Address, Engrosser, 

Care Business Educator, 

Columbus, Ohio. 




By Parker Zaner Bloser. younger son of E. W. 




r/,' ^/y// • 



Is the ideal ink for penmen. Nothing finer for cardwriting and contest specimens. 

50c per bottle. Mailing charge 10c extra. 
A. P. MEUB, Penmanship Specialist, 152 North Hill Avenue, Pasadena. Calif. 



^ <!^Me&u&neM'&&uxi&r & 



29 



DESIGNING & 
ENGROSSING 



By E. L. Brown 
Rockland, Me. 



Send self-addressed postal for 
and stamps for return specii 



All students in pen art should as- 
pire to write the various styles of 
texts with rapidity and accuracy. The 
styles given for study and practice 
this month are most useful ones for 
the practical engrosser and can be ex- 
ecuted with speed and uniformity fol- 
lowing conscientious effort. 

Use Zanerian ink for all kinds of 
lettering and pens Nos. 2, 2% and 3, 



retouching and correcting inaccura- 
cies here and there with a common 
pen. Rule lines to govern height of 
letters and aim for uniform size and 
spacing. 

Send us samples of your work for 
criticism and suggestions. State at 
the same time some of your problems 
and we will endeavor to solve them 
for you. 



c^Cmer/can J?ff/uwrap6io DjZanufaeturina Company^ 

tzA>p&i(a/iisfopray; fop/an f/s to propftesq ; anb tfo/fiaifeffz 

answers mxb fzdfrfc. ^^\^^^^^d\^K^\^<\^. 




«r> 



rustic jffngmsmttij 

«f .Resolutions, {Di>mcrials. 



j^llurrcinatimj a -Specialty ■■& 



! JHplorrta& iJTitfieqrapfWc. ano 5iffcS> 

f E.H.MGGHEE 



V43 East Stoic Street 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 



No. 1 

Principality 

Pen 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillotfs Pens stand in the front rank as 
regards Temper, Elasticity and Durability 



JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field A Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 




J. HAROLD SHORT 

J. Harold Short, President of the 
Short Secretarial School of Stamford, 
Conn., is building up a school with a 
good reputation in that community. 
This school opened up this fall with 
an enrollment of more than 200 stu- 
dents. 

Mr. Short prepared for commercial 
teaching in Goldey College, Wilming- 
ton, Del., Capital College of Oratory 
and Music, and Zanerian College, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. He then had 11 years 
experience as a teacher. 

We well remember Mr. Short when 
in Columbus. He came to the Zaner- 



ian from Milton, Del., a tall youth 
full of enthusiasm and determination. 
He was a young man with an ideal 
and purpose and worked hard and 
long toward the accomplishment of 
that ideal. It is indeed a pleasure to 
see the school which he is conducting 
prosper so nicely. 

Mr. Short takes an active part in 
the social and business life of his 
community. He is a member of the 
Board of Directors of the Y. M. C. 
A., a member of the First Presby- 
terian Church and president of its 
Mens' Club. He is also a member of 
Lockwood Chapter No. 52 of Green- 
wich, where he resides. 

Mr. Short has figured prominently 
in all of the membership drives for 
the Y. M. C. A., and other campaigns. 
During the World War he served with 
the United States Army being sta- 
tioned at Fort Slocum. 

In Stanford, he is president of the 
Lions' Club, vice-president of the Con- 
necticut Business Education Associa- 
tion, secretary of the Stamford Retail 
Merchants Bureau of the Chamber of 
Commerce and secretary of the Big 
Brother and Big Sister "organization. 
He is recorder of Stamford Com- 
mandery, No. 12, Knights Templar, 
and a member of Pyramid Temple, 
Mystic Shrine of Bridgeport. 

Send In 



th 



urite Motto. Poet 
ngrossed. You l 
r. Superb letter 
ations. Up to 35 words 
dd 5c per word for each 



lg. Artistic 
or $1.50. If 
additional w< 



A. L. HICKMAN 

ROUTE 1 WICHITA, KANS. 



30 



^ £^&u4Sn^&£u&&r & 








^c*4 



sT^xy ^^^^^/z^^-^^^^ *^ 




yto ^yyi^y. 




Mr. Beighey. Di 



Indianapolis Public Schools 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship and 
Commercial Education 
Contains Lessons in 
Business Writing 
Accounting 
Ornamental Writing 
Lettering 
Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price $1.25. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

SS Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer & 
Phonographic World I 
A monthly magazine covering all 
departments of Commercial Education. 
Strong departments presided over by 
well known teachers for those who teach 
any branch of commercial education, in- 
cluding business administration, account- 
ancy, und court reporting. 
The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 
Single copy I 5c. Annual subscription $1.50 
Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal »f Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia. Pa. 





13011 


1 


The 


Texts you will eventually teach. 


Almost one half million sold — Short - 


1 ypewrlting, Dii tation., English. 


Spelling, Writing, and Bookkeeping. 


Write for descriptive price list 


Byrne Publishing Co. 


DALLAS, TEXAS 



RIDER TEACHERS 
AGENCY 

RIDER BLDG., TRENTON, N. J. 

Commercial Teachers for 

Public and Private Schools, 

Normal Schools and 

Colleges 

Free Registration Bel! Phone 8159 

All Dealings Confidential 

W. R. Murphy, Mgr. 

Distinctive Service 



THE YEAR'S HIGH SCHOOL HIGH SPOTS 



31 



WANTED 

Experienced commercial school man, 
with college education, to manage 
well-established school with faculty of 
12 members and enrollment of 500. 
Applicant must have $10,000 to invest 
in business not because school needs 
additional capital, but proprietor de- 
sires man to become associated with 
him in ownership. This splendid op- 
portunity is available only because of 
poor health of owner. Address 
Box 607, care The Business Educator, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



WELCH'S MOONLIGHT SCHOOL 

A recent letter received from Mr. 
R. B. Bankson, assistant instructor in 
Welch's Business College, Oil City, 
Pa., contains some very interesting- 
information regarding their "Moon- 
light School." We are very sure that 
it will prove of interest to those en- 
gaged in commercial education. We, 
therefore, take pleasure in quoting 
part of the letter, as follows: 

"Here at Welch's, we are conduct- 
ing 'MOONLIGHT SCHOOL' two 
evenings a week. This is for adults 
who wish to learn how to read and 
write the English language. Some of 
them have been in United States five 
years, some one year, and some but a 
few days. From this, you can see 
that it is best to have the simplest 
style of letter possible. Your style as 
shown in the writing books is all 
right for American youths learning 
arm movement, but these 'Moonlight' 
folks are grown-ups who work hard 
all day long, their hands are by no 
means nimble, and writing is labori- 
ous with them. It is most gratifying 
to see how eager these folks from 
across the Atlantic are for a bit of 
American education. Just reading, 
writing, and spelling. Some of our 
loyal dav students volunteered to do 
the teaching, and all together, this 
'Moonlight School' is the most en- 
thusiastic organization I ever saw." 

The spirit which promnts the day 
students to volunteer to do the even- 
ing teaching is surelv commendable 
and we will wager that these stu- 
dent-teachers will be amply paid for 
their efforts. The task is no doubt 
difficult, but for that reason the 
teachers will learn with the students. 



Among the best high school positions filled bv our nominees during 192 7 are Peek- 
skill. N. Y.; Cincinnati; Detroit; Port Jervis, N. Y.; North Tonawanda. N. Y. : Bloomfield. 
N. J.; Valley Stream. N. Y. ; West Haven. Conn.; Winthrop. Mass.; Arlington. Mass.; New- 
port. R. I.; Manchester. N. H.; llion, N. Y.; Medina, N. Y.; Gloucester, Mass.; Olean, N. Y. 
May we help you? 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

(A Specialty by a Specialist) 
Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. 




Try the NEW AND IMPROVED MAGNUSSON PROFESSIONAL PEN- 
HOLDERS. These new penholders are being made in both the straight and 
oblique styles. They are hand made of beautiful straight grained rosewood and are given a 
polish which is second to none. Each penholder has a beautiful ivory knob on end of stem and 
they are far more useful and beautiful than many penholders selling for nearly twice the price 
we ask. Buy direct from factory at factory prices. Made by 3 generations of penholder manu- 
facturers and used by the world's greatest penmen. Established 1874. 

OSCAR MAGNUSSON I ££ n miald,^:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 5E 

208 N. 5th St., 12-inch plain, each 75c 

Quincy 111 I ,2 - incl1 inlaid, each $1.35 

Also a cheaper grade sold in quantities to teachers and dealers. Write for prices. 

A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

Learn to letter Price Tickets and Show Cards. It Is easy to do RAPID. CLEAN CUT LETTERINO with our 
Improved Lettering Pens. MANY STUDENTS ARE ENABLED TO CONTINUE THEIR STUDIES THROUGH 
THE COMPENSATION RECEIVED BT LETTERING PRICE TICKETS AND SHOW CARDS. FOR THE 
SMALLER MERCHANT. OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical lettering outflt consisting of 3 Marking and 
3 Shading Pens. 1 color of Lettering Ink. sample Show Card In colors, instructions, figures and alphabeti 
prepaid $1.00. PRACTICAL COMPENDIUM OF COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERINO AND DESIGNS 
100 Pages 8lll. containing 122 plate! of Commercial Pen 
alphabets finished Show Cards in colors, etc. — a complete 
instructor for the Marking and Shading Pen. prepaid, tl. 
THE NEWTON AUTOMATIC SHADING PEN CO. 
Ci talogue free Dept. B PONTIAC. MICH.. U.S.A. 




Trade Mark 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

$6000 offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



Meet Us In Kansas City! 



Robert A. Grant and 
L. R. Smith, managers 
of the "Bureau for Specialists," will be at National Commercial Teachers' 
Federation Headquarters, Baltimore Hotel, Kansas City, Missouri, Decem- 
ber 28, 29, 30. Employers seeking teachers, and teachers available for posi' 
tions in January or in September, should get in touch with us. 



aSHME 



EDUCATONAL BUREAU 



Shubert Rialto Bldg., 
St. Louis, Mo. 




This interesting pencil sketch of "The Cabin" was made by A. Lee Rothwell, California, Pa 




3y J. D. Todd, Salt Lake City 



Cf/w*36uJ//u-Jl£''dui-a6r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit, 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

New Intensive Typing, by J. Walter 
Ross and Charles G. Reigner. Copy- 
right, 1927. Published by The H. 
M. Rowe Company, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 162 pages. 

This text offers a comolete and well-bal- 
anced course. The principle on which the 
keyboard exercises have been constructed is 
•Repetition with attention." The line has 
been made the unit of practice, and the stu- 
dent is never called on to write a single 
word over and over again. 

The One Thousand Commonest Words 
have been analyzed to find out what are the 

tions; the special drills are given on those 
frequent combinations. A very simple 
method of correcting errors is set up. The 
student, after he has analyzed his own er- 
rors, does certain drills given in the text. 
Those drills correct his own individual 

Part Three of the book represents some- 
thing quite new. Here there is a series of 
"Jobs" in Typewriting Office Practice. The 
student is employed in an automobile office 
and does various kinds of typewriting jobs 
typical of actual work. The instructions 
are given in narrative form. 

The original Typewriting Projects, with 
which the book concludes, develop the pu- 
pil's initiative and resourcefulness. With 
the text, the publishers provide an envelope 
containing letterheads, billheads, checks, 
and other working papers to be used by the 
pupils in preparing the Jobs in Part Three. 



Descriptive Economics, by R. A. Leh- 
feldt, D.Sc, Professor of Economics 
in the University of the Witwaters- 
rand, Johannesburg. Published by 
the Oxford University Press, Lon- 
don, England. Cloth cover, 112 
pages. 



A new series of introductory volumes, 
designed not only to give the student who 
is undertaking a special study some idea of 
the landmarks which will guide him. but 
also to make provision for the great body 
of general readers who are sufficiently alive 
to the value of reading to welcome authori- 
tative and scholarly work, if it is presented 
to them in terms of its human interest and 
in a simple style and moderate compass. 



Minimum Essentials of Mathematics, 

by Daniel W. Werremeyer, Head of 
Department of Mathematics, West 
Technical High School, Cleveland, 
Ohio, and Charles H. Lake, First 
Assistant Superintendent, Cleve- 
land Public Echools, Cleveland, 0. 
Published by Silver, Burdett & 
Company, New York City, N. Y. 
Cloth cover, 244 pages. 

The, authors of MINIMUM ESSENTIALS 
OF MATHEMATICS have endeavored to de- 
termine what mathematics is of most value 
to pupils in the ninth and tenth years, prac- 
tically to those who are not planning to go 
to college 



ithe 



for 



rooms of Cleveland high schools; it has 
been carefully revised and is now presented 
in its present form. These books, there- 
fore, are the outcome of everyday class- 
room needs and experiences. 

There is an abundance of material for 
those pupils who may desire to become pro- 
ficient in those elementary principles of 
mathematics most useful to them after they 
leave school. Moreover, its selection has 
been made so that it is possible for the in- 
dividual to prepare for college with a small 
amount of additional work in case his edu- 
cational objectives change. 



othe 



uited. Fo 



a period of thr 
ial selected for this seri 
ughly tested in the clas 



PUPPY LOVE 

(Continued from page 18) 

and if yer thinkin' of marryin' that 
young snip, I'll break every bone in 
both of yer bodies," sermonized "Jig- 
ger." 

"I'll marry him if I want to," came 
the quick Irish retort from Mary who 
had inherited much of her father's 
temper. We usually spout out when 
angry. 

"Ye will, will ye?" and with that 
Jigger started in to give Mary a lit- 
tle of the same medicine that he had 
given Bob some months previous. 

Just then the mother stopped the 
affair as mothers usually have a 
habit of doing when father starts to 
correct the child. Which is or which 
is not a good thing in some cases. A 
little corporal punishment is a fine 
tonic once in a while for the youth 
who is getting a trifle gay in this 
world. No doubt, many of the older 
readers will recall the trimmings they 
received in the old school when the 
rod was a part of the instruction. 

When Mary told Bob of what had 
happened with her father, he wanted 
to go and lick him but "discretion >s 
the better part of valor" sometimes 
but Bob's teeth just gritted as Mary 
recited how she came to have a nice 
black eye. 

That noon hour these two lovers 
did not take their accustomed stroll — 
possibly due to the scenery on Mary's 
countenance so instead they sat and 
talked and talked and talked. They 
must have decided something in 
earnest. 

(To Be Continued) 

TEACHER-AUTHOR 

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35 



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THE NATIONAL, STATE, AND LOCAL TUBERCU- 
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Announcing 
A Powerful NEW 
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BOOKKEEPING and 
BUSINESS METHODS 

By Reuel I. Lund, AB., MA., C.P.A. 
No Other 
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Bookkeeping and Business Methods gives 
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offered in a bookkeeping text. 
The student is taught the importance of 
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Bookkeeping and Business Methods is eco- 
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Motivated questions, problems and a mini- 
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Send for 30 day free examination outfit. 

ELLIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Battle Creek, Mich. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC.. RE- 
QUIRED BY THE ACT OF CON- 
GRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912, 



Of THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR, published 

monthly except July and August, at Colum- 

but. Ohio, for October, 1927. 

State of Ohio, 

County of Franklin, ss 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the 
State and county aforesaid, personally ap- 
peared E. W. Bloser. who. having been duly 

that he is the Editor of THE BUSINESS 
EDUCATOR, and that the following is. to 
the best of his knowledge and belief, a true 
statement of the ownership, management 
(and if a daily paper, the circulation), etc.. 
of the aforesaid publication for the da,te 
shown in the above caption, required by the 
Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in sec- 
tion No. 43, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
printed on the reverse of this form, to wit: 

I. That the names and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are: 

Publisher. The Zaner-BIoser Company. 
Columbus, Ohio. 612 N. Park St. 

Editor. E. W. Bloser, Columbus, Ohio. 
612 N. Park St. 

Managing Editor, E. A. Lupfer, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 612 N. Park St. 



Ma 



Fi'„'.-i 



No 



Df the total 



2. That the owners are: (Give 
and addresses of individual owners, c 

and addresses of stockholders own 

holding 1 per cent, or more 

amount of stock). 

E. W. Bloser Parker Bloser 

R. E. Bloser E. A. Lupfer 

Rebecca Bloser R B. Moore 

3. That the known bondholders, mort? 
agees. and other security holders owning c 
holding 1 per cent or more of total amour 
of bonds, mortgages, or other securities an 
(If there are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next abov 



giving the names of the owners, stock 
holders, and security holders, if any, con 
tain not only the list of stockholders ant 
security holders as they appear upon th. 
books of the company but also, in case 
where the stockholder or security holder ap 
pears upon the books of the company a 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation 
the name of the person or corporation fo 

that the said two paragraphs contain state 
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge 
and belief as to the circumstances and i 
ditions under which stockholders and 
curity holders who do not aopear upon the 
books of the company as trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other 
than that of a bona fide owner; and this 
affiant has no reason to believe that any 
other person, association, or corporation 
has any interest or indirect in the said 
stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of 
each issue of this publication sold or dis- 
tributed, through the mails or otherwise, to 
paid subscribers during the six months pre- 
ceding the date shown above is — (This in- 
formation is required from daily publica- 
tions only.) 

E. W. BLOSER (Signature of editor) 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 
2 7th day of September. 192 7. 
(Seal) EARL A. LUPFER. 

(My commission expires Jan. II. 1929) 



LEARN ENGROSSING 

in your spare time at home. 
Thirty Lesson Plates and 
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two dollars. Cash or P. O. 
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P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator and 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg. 

SCRANTON, PA. 



HIGH GRADE 



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ROCKLAND, MAINE. 



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CORDIAL CHRISTMAS GREETINGS TO YOU! 



YOU'LL BE READING THIS 

when the season of Good Will and Good Cheer is 
just around the corner. 

We're all a bit more human in the Christmas 
month. It's a time of faith and hope, kindness and 
gladness. 

Eyes gleam more brightly, hearts are lighter, 
greetings are heartier. The whole dismal crew of 
fault-finders and calamity howlers fades out of the 
picture. 

IN 1928 we're going to use this space to tell you about new ROWE texts in book' 
keeping, cost accounting, banking, arithmetic, business English, and personal development. 
Write us at any time throughout the year about problems in your commercial work. Please 
give us an opportunity to make good our word that 

ROWE BOOKS ARE GOOD BOOKS and ROWE SERVICE IS GOOD SERVICE 



IN 1927 

we published these new books and 
revisions: 

SPELLING STUDIES 
NEW DICTATION COURSE 
FIRST DICTATION 
SECRETARIAL TRAINING 
ESSENTIALS OF TYPING 
NEW INTENSIVE TYPING 
APPLIED PUNCTUATION 
WIESE-COOVER TYPING 



Tfrv /-f.>ns./T3Dusz/&> 



vo. 



BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 



Columbus, Ohio 

Geographically 
A Distributing Center 

Centrally located — East to West to 
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Picture in your mind the advantages to 

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and DISTRIBUTING CENTER 



Watkins & Eierman 

PRINTERS AND BINDERS 
42 North Front St. : Columbus, Ohio 



A Monthly Magazine for 

Bookkeepers and 

Auditors 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR, a regular 
magazine, pages size of this magazine. January 
issue contains "Is Mechanical Accounting a Suc- 
cess?"; Collections as a Basis for Computing 
Profit; Questions and Answers; STUDENTS' DE- 
PARTMENT. February issue has all of these and 
"Are Business College Graduates a Success?" 
INCOME TAX article and others. Use coupon 
below. 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR. 
1240 Engineers Bank Bids.. 
Cleveland. Ohio. 

Gentlemen : Send me a copy of your current issue. Send 
invoice for $2.00 for one year's subscription ami if 1 am not 
satisfied will return your Invoice and OWE YOU NOTHING. 

/ am a Name 

| 1 Bookkeeper Address 

□ Auditor City 

□ Office Worker State 




Published monthly except July and August at 612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered as second-class matter 
faept. B. 1923, at the post office at Columbus. O.. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Subscription $1.25 a year. 



<^MJ&u4//t^&6u&&r & 



Here Is A New Book For 

PENMANSHIP ENTHUSIASTS, SPECIMEN COLLECTORS, STUDENTS AND 
TEACHERS OF HANDWRITING 

High School which have never been equaled. They repre- 
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These splendid penmanship copies are accompanied by 
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Penmanship Methods from a practical and theoretical 
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Students of handwriting will be much interested in Dr. 
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This Complete Manual of 248 pages is beautifully 

rnw?w£^\Fnvvv\?7wfii bound in paper> and is wel1 ilIustrated - Surel v ever Y «* 

COMPLETE TEACHERS MANUAL lector of penmanship books and specimens and every pen- 

This Complete Teachers' Manual contains a series of manship student will wish one of these books for his 




penmanship copies from the first grade through the Junior library. 

Prices of the Complete Manual, postpaid -..$0.70 

BUSINESS EDUCATOR, 1 year ._ 1.25 



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$1.95 

THE ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY 

Handwriting Publishers Since 1895 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Penmanship Books for Christmas 

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Buy Christmas presents which will last a lifetime and be an inspiration to your friends. 
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The book or books you order may be sent to one party and the Business Educator to 
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Zanerian Manual of Alphabets and Engrossing $2.50) R ,l f », 0K 

The Business Educator, one year ..$1.25) Boln Ior * d ' 3 

Lessons in Ornamental Penmanship ...$1.00) „ ,. t ,», ,- 

The Business Educator, one year . $1.25J Both tor * 1,7:> 

Zanerian Script Alphabets $2.50) 

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The Madarasz Book $1.50) „ ,. , c „ „- 

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Canan Collection of Penmanship _. ...$1.50) D ,. , co - 

The Business Educator, one year $1.25J Both tor u '* 3 

BELP TO SPREAD PENMANSHIP JOY 

Canadian subscriptions 10c extra 
Foreign subscriptions 20c extra 

Write for complete catalog of penmanship boo\s and supplies. 

Zaner & Bloser Company 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



^ <5ffie&uJ/?i&lA / &/£Uxifir *h 




Bookkeeping and Accounting 

The new course for 
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BLISS PUBLISHING CO. 

SAGINAW, MICH. 




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ESTERBROOK PEN COMPANY, Camden, N.J. 



<^MJ&u4/nfM(2diKa&r & 



What Are You Good For? 

— Your Handwriting Tells 



r finger 
tter 



vhat happen 



its identify you 



you 



that 



YOU. In exactly the same way your hand 
writing identifies your inner self — youi 
character, your natural traits, and talents. 
For more than four hundred years this 
science has been developing until in a re- 
cent issue of The Magazine of Business — 
System — the President of the Simmons 
Hardware Company says that he never l 
hires a man for a position of responsibility 
having his handwriting 



alyzed. 



Because sucl 
the natural al 
proves wheth< 
be depended t 
portrait" of r 
ability for the 
shows that ev 
seem to have 



she 



tale 



WHY? 

i an analysis not only shows 
>ility of the writer, but also 
■r he is honest — if he can 
ipon. It gives a "full length 
iim. It determines his suit- 
particular job. It frequently 
en though a writer may not 
talent or ability, that it is 

be developed. Handwriting 
-your suitability for certain 
, and your chances for suc- 

you an opportunity to see 
^ou really are, and so is 



h^^O 






father founded the famous Dr. Nichols 
Sanatorium for Cancer, at Savannah, Mo, 
•Helen Nichols has chosen to be a secre- 
tary — a stenographer — in the office of the 
Sanatorium- — and is doing excellent work. 
How do 1 know? By her handwriting, 
which tells me this: 

That no matter what she does she is 
capable of concentrating — giving her 
work her whole attention ; that she 
thinks quickly and keenly ; that she has 
a sense of humor and a great deal of de- 
termination ; that she is something of a 
diplomat, and has business ability which 
is developing. So on and on through 
what would be three or four typewritten 
pages, if we analyzed her handwriting 
fully. 

Here is another letter from a woman 
who has "never had a chance." Her writ- 
ing was very poor, but I found unmistak- 
able evidence of musical talent. Here is 
what she says: 

"I have just received my analysis re- 
port from you. What you told me cer- 
tainly was exactly right. I have always 
thought and hoped that I had some mu- 
sical talent, but never felt sure enough 
to start out and study ; and I never had 



Last spring 1 l 
E. Stewart of the 
Shop of Lansing, 



id- 



port for Mary 
ry E. Stewart Sweet 
higan. At that time 
erful letter, and this 



vhat she 



ays 



''You, indeed, have my permission to 
quote from my letter. I am pleased to 
think you find something in it worth 
using. I am more than interested in 
your work." 



vhether they "fit" into hi; 



ng thi: 
le is leai 

arganizatii 



state 

n you 

al speci- 



ery en 



ation; 



Where Do YOU Fit? 

ie place, that is certain. But where? 
illy charge $5.00 for a report of this 
but — not this time. 1 spent years in 
il school work. 1 have taught 
hundreds of young men 
shorthand and bookkeeping. 1 bel 
every young man or woman who 
get ahead should be given 
agement possible. For this 
make a complete character a 
report for you, absolutely f 
vertisement costs money — a good deal o 
it — so if you will send me a dozen lines o 
your ordinary handwriting in ink, and 
send along 25c to help out on the adver- 
tising, 1 will make you a complete report 
without a cent of profit for me. I'll do 
this — but you must act now. 

What is more, if you don't feel that the 
report is worth the "two bits" all you will 
have to do is say so — and I'll return it. 

M. N. BUNKER 

Box 503 Kansas City, Mo. 

•A copy of "Cancer. Its Proper Treatment 
and Cure" — the most complete book on can- 
cer available to the public, will be sent to 
anyone interested in cancer and its cure. An 
exceedingly interesting book. Address, Dr. 
Nichols Sanatorium, Savannah, Mo. 



Metropolitan 

Business 

Speller 



Over 6000 words. New lessons contaii 
to Aeroplanes, Radio, Automobiles, etc. 
pages, attractive binding, 60 cents. 

A Superior Speller 



New Edition 
By U. G. Potter 
McKinley High School 
Chicago 



of the Metropolitan 
i mind two objects : 
lecond to enlarge hia 



Twofold Design. In the preparatic 
Business Speller we had constantly 
first, to teach the pupil to spell, and 
vocabulary, especially of words in general use 

of Words. As an aid to the m 
as regards sounds, syllabicate 

ave grouped the words relating to each par- 
ness into lessons, by which the student is 
lze himself with the vocabulary of that 
interspersed miscellaneous exercises in the 
We have grouped words that can best be 
ons, such as Stationery and Stationary. 



Classificati 
classified words, ; 
meaning. We ha 
ticular kind of b' 
enabled to famil 
business. We ha^ 
nature of review 
learned by compa 

Abbreviations of states, months, railways 
terms are given in regular lesson form, and grouped alpha- 
betically. We regard abbreviating of almost equal importance 
with spelling. 

Syllabication and pronunciation are shown by the proper 
division of words, and the use of the diacritical marks. The 
words are printed in bold type, and the definitions in lighter 
face, bo as to bring out the appearance of the word, — an aid 
in sight spelling. 



Metropolitan New Edition 

System of By 

nil • W. A. Sheaffer 

Bookkeeping 



You Will Like It. The text emphasizes the thought side of 
the subject. It stimulates and encourages the reasoning 
power of the pupil. Pupils acquire a knowledge of the sub- 
ject as well as facility in the making of entries. It is a 
thoroughly seasoned, therefore accurate, text supported by 
complete Teachers* Reference Books, and Teachers' Manual. 

Parts I and II text is an elementary course suitable for 
any school in which the subject is taught. Two semesters 
are required in High Schools and a correspondingly shorter 
time in more intensified courses. 



Parts III and IV text is suitable for an advanced 
following any modern elementary text. We make the state- 
ment without hesitation, that this is the most teachable. 
most up-to-date, and strongest text published for advanced 
bookkeeping and elementary accounting use. 
i oi 1 < i ttinn-Mfg.-Vouchcr unit is bound in heavy paper 
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in Corporation accounting, including instructions, set of 
inns, exercises, problems, etc. It is without doubt 
the best text for this part of your accounting course. List 
prices. Text, 120 pages, 40 cents. Supplies, including Blank 
Books and Papers. 95 cents. 



EXAMINATION COPIES will be submitted upon request. 



METROPOLITAN TEXT BOOK COMPANY 



37 SOUTH WABASH AVENUE 



^ -y/u -3iluM/uM C </<««/, r * 



What Is More Convincing 
Than Achievement ? 



The results obtained by teachers with a typing book prove more than all 
the theories that have been expounded since Sholes invented the "Typewriter/'' 
When these results are obtained by teachers scattered throughout the country, 
with students of varying capacities, and under varying conditions, the achieve 
ments are all the more significant. 

In the State, County, and School Typewriting Contests of the last dozen 
years, Rational trained students have won twice as many events as all the other 
methods collectively. The last World's School Championship Contest is typical. 

Proof of Outstanding Superiority 

1. The World's School Novice Typewriting Championship Contest, New 
York City, October, 1927, was won by Mr. Chester Soucek, a Rational trained 
student, who began the study of typewriting in the Corapolis, Pennsylvania, 
High School in September, 1926. Mr. Soucek's net speed was 81 words a 
minute — RATIONAL TRAINING PRODUCES SPEED. 

2. Second place was won by a Rational trained student, Miss Lucille 
Coulombe, of the Berlin, New Hampshire, High School, with a net speed of 
80 words a minute, and with but 5 errors — THE MOST ACCURATE 
RECORD MADE IN THE CONTEST. 

3. The four most accurate records were made by Rational trained 
students. RATIONAL TYPISTS WRITE ACCURATELY. 

4. Sixteen of the first 22 places were won by Rational trained students. 
RATIONAL TRAINING INSURES THE MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE OF 
SUCCESSES. 

5. Twenty-nine, or 76.3 % of the 38 competing State Champions were 
Rational trained. 

The strength of a typing method is shown by mass results. A few isolated 
successes mean little. The test of a method is its achievement in open compe- 
tition with other methods. By this, or any other test of efficiency. Rational 
Typewriting is away out in front of the procession. 

Rational Training Means — Accuracy — Speed — Success 
THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO TORONTO LONDON 



^ <5^&u&n<M&&Ma&r & 



Makes Friends Wherever Known 

The Educators Beneficial 
Association 

WOOLWORTH BUILDING, 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

A Mutual Sickness and Accident Association which 

ACCEPTS TEACHERS ONLY 

ORGANIZED 1910 

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THE EDUCATORS BENEFICIAL ASSOCIATION 
Woolworth Building, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Please mail me at once full information about your 
tection for TEACHERS ONLY. 1 understand that thi: 
quest will not put me under the slightest obligation. 

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New Times— New Ways 

Progress is inexorable. There is no 
standing still. 

The Gregg Normal Session will ac- 
quaint you with the most up-to-the- 
minute, result-producing methods of 
teaching Shorthand, Typewriting, 
Bookkeeping, Secretarial Duties, and 
related business subjects. 

The twentieth annual Summer Nor- 
mal Session of Gregg School will be- 
gin July 2 and close August 10, 1928. 
Plan to be in attendance. It will prove 
six happy weeks of inspiration and 
increased knowledge and skill. 

It is not too early to write for in- 
formation today. 

GREGG SCHOOL 

225 North Wabash Avenue 
Chicago, Illinois 



STANDARD 
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Published in three editions: Stiff paper cover, 
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By Chales E. Smith. 
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The Sixteenth edition, greatly enlarged and completely 
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Pitman's Loose-Leaf 
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cardboard, 50 cards, $1.50 a set. 
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The unique form for these Supplementary Typewriting 
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( 1 ) To provide new material for the teaching of Tran- 
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Advance Typewriting and Office Training 

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Complete in Fifty Lessons. Each lesson is divided into 
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The use of "High Speed in Typewriting" will develop 
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Isaac Pitman & Sons 

2 West Forty-fifth St., New York City 



Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, JANUARY, 1928 



No.V 



MAKING GOOD WRITING 
HABITUAL 

One's real writing is that which he 
writes while he is thinking of what 
he is writing and not of how he is 
writing. 

To make good writing as nearly 
habitual as is possible is one of the 
big problems for supervisors and 
teachers. 

Undoubtedly, one of the most com- 
mon mistakes in teaching this branch 
is to expect the work done during the 
usual formal writing period alone to 
accomplish this result. After pupils 
have gone over a course in writing 
frequently all instruction is abruptly 
dropped, and much of the good ac- 
complished in the writing lesson is 
also dropped by the pupil. Here is 
where the teacher needs to help the 
pupil bridge over his work from that 
writing which is done while he is giv- 
ing his whole thought to learning how 
to write to that done while giving his 
whole thought to what he is writing. 
The mistake is made by giving no in- 
struction after the formal writing 
lessons are ended. Undoubtedly, in- 
struction should continue until the pu- 
pil leaves school, whether that be at 
the end of his work in the elementary 
schools or in the high school, but it 
should differ from the instruction 
given previously during the formal 
writing period. The pupils' manu- 
scripts prepared in language work, 
theme writing, letter writing, mathe- 
matics, or in any other kind of writ- 
ten work should be examined and sug- 
gestions offered for improvement. 

The transition from work done with 
the entire thought on how to write to 
that done with the entire thought oc- 
cupied on the subject matter being 
written should be accomplished grad- 
ually. For a time before his formal 
writing lessons are ended the pupil 
should be given work requiring part 
of his thought and effort on how he 
is writing and part to what he is 
writing. Later on work can be given 
requiring practically all of his 
thought and effort on the subject 
matter being written. If this plan is 
followed it can be made without dis- 



couraging results but with improve- 
ment instead. 

Here pupils should be required to 
write letters of their own composi- 
tion and the teacher should dictate 
matter to them to write much the 
same as the shorthand teacher dic- 
tates to those who are learning short- 
hand. Appropriate material can be 
dictated, including sentences, para- 
graphs, short articles, and some 
problems in arithmetic to thoroughly 
establish the habit of making good 
figures. A resourceful teacher can 
think of many kinds of work to be 
done which will require the thought 
of the pupil on what he is writing in- 
stead of how he is writing. Brief 
notes or letters on subjects suggested 
by the teacher but to be composed by 
the pupil as he writes and to be writ- 
ten in a reasonable length of time will 
aid in securing the desired results. So 
will the working of problems in arith- 
metic in a certain length of time. 

Instead of drilling on movement ex- 
ercises, repetition of letters, rhythmic 
counting for letters and words, and 
handling the work as it is usually 
handled in the formal writing period 
in giving elementary instruction, it 
will now consist of bringing up the 
speed of each pupil to the required 
standard, improving arrangement on 
the page, the legibility, the neatness, 
developing a good signature for the 
pupil, seeing that a good position is 
also made habitual, and giving at- 
tention to many other things that be- 
long only to the advanced stages of 
applied writing. 

The instruction given will be differ- 
ent from that given in the usual writ- 
ing lesson, but it will be instruction 
in penmanship nevertheless, differing 
only in kind. Such instruction is very 
necessary if penmanship work is to 
be made" to carry over with the best 
results. If supervision is continued 
until the pupil leaves school, we shall 
no longer hear pupils remark that 
they wrote well while in the fifth 
or sixth grade but that while in the 
eighth grade or in high school their 
writing went to pieces. 

Even the work of those who habitu- 
ally maintain a good writing position, 



whose speed and every-day manu- 
scripts meet the required penmanship 
standard, and who may have been re- 
leased from further work in penman- 
ship, should be examined occasionally 
to maintain interest and for the pur- 
pose of suggesting further improve- 
ment. Then it is not an uncommon 
thing for some to "let down" in their 
efforts and surely it should be the 
duty of some one to detect and help 
the pupil overcome this weakness. 

Give the kind of penmanship in- 
struction required in each grade until 
the pupil is through school. Then we 
shall have a real penmanship renais- 
sance and pupils will receive the full 
value due them from this fundamental 
educational subject — one of the 
three R's. 



IN WHAT MONTH WERE 
YOU BORN? 

The following well-known penmen 
were born in November, at the place 
following their names. 

W. A. Baird, Santa Cruz, Calif., 
Nov. 14, 1882. 

E. W. Bloser, Plainfield, Pa., Nov. 
6, 1865. 

T. B. Bridges, Albany, Oregon, Nov. 
1, 1878. 

C. E. Doner, Plainfield, Pa., Nov. 10, 
1875. 

A. F. Jaksha, The Dalles, Oregon, 
Nov. 26, 1884. 

C. W. Jones, Batesville, Ohio, Nov. 
20, 1863. 

H. B. Lehman, Nappanee, Ind., Nov. 
18, 1867. 

I. W. Pierson, Mecca, Ohio, Nov. 6, 
1859. 

O. M. Powers, Table Grove, 111., 

Nov. 2, 1852. 

C. G. Price, Johnson City, Tenn., 
Nov. 30, 1868. 

J. D. Rice, Cameron, Mo., Nov. 28, 
1876. 

J. E. Sawyer, Mt. Ayr, Iowa, Nov. 
4, 1883. 

We want to hear from every en- 
grosser as well as from every super- 
visor and teacher of penmanship. 
The year will be omitted, if preferred. 
Send' to R. S. Collins, Pierce School 
of Business Administration, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 
By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., 
612 N. Park St.. Columbus, O. 

E. W. Bloser Editor 

E. A. Lupfer ----- Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.2S A YEAR 

(To Canada. 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teacher* 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy 
must reach our office by the 10th of the montk 
for the issue of the following month. 



^tJ&uJ/ntM&fata&r & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



Copy 97. If you can not make the first part well, review Copies 92 and 93 in last Month's Business Educator. 
Come down to the base line with a firm motion and stop before picking up the pen. See that the second part touches 
the first. Do not stop on the loop. 

Copy 98. This is a beautiful word to write, but watch the movement at the bottom of K, the shoulder of the 
r's and the top of a. See how gracefully you can write this word. Get the turns in m rounding. 

Copy 99. The first part of H is exactly the same as the first part of K. Curve the top of the second part. The 
beginning of" the second part of the H is very similar to the beginning of the second part of K. See that your H is 
not too wide. In making the second part, check the motion at the base line to avoid an undesirable loop. 

Copy 100. You should be able to swing this word right along. Be sure that your a's do not look like o's. The 
second part of a should come clear down to the base line before making n. 

Copy 101. See that the beginning and ending parts of the X balance in size and slope. Be sure that the two 
parts touch. 

Copy 102. Be sure that you get turns where they belong and angles where they belong. There is an angle in 
the a. Unless you have a good i in the a, it is likely to resemble 0. 



98 .A^Asi&>^k3~£^y..A^ 



100 



101 
102 



Oy ay ay ay ay ay ay ay ay ay ay ay Oy ay ay 



Copy 103. It is not necessary to work upon this copy if you can make a good letter t. It is however an ex- 
cellent exercise for developing the t, especially if you have trouble in looping the top of t. 

Copy 104. The t is like the i, extended two spaces. The important part of the t is the crossing. Nine out of ten 
can cross the t correctly, but not one in ten take time and care to properly cross it. If you do not cross the t well, 
the chances are it is because of carelessness. 

Copies 105 and 106. These words are given primarily for practice on the t, but you also need to watch the 
other letters. In writing words, be sure that every letter is legible. When all the letters in the word are covered up 
except one, that letter should be readable without the others. 

Copy 107. This exercise is given for those who have difficulty in retracing the d, and it is not necessary to 
work upon it if you can make a good d. 

Copy 108. If you can make a good a, you should have very little trouble with the d, for it is the same as a and 
t combined, without the crossing. Be sure that the d is closed. Do not go too fast on the retraces. 

Copies 109 and 110. Draw a few slant lines through your words to see that your letters are all on the same 
slant. Check your spacing and size, and see that every letter is legible. Pick out the weakest part of your work and 
endeavor to strengthen it. 



Now is the time to work for a Penmanship Certificate. Write for illustrated circular showing various 
penmanship certificates and requirements to earn each. 



103 



106 







..^z^£z^i^_^^^ . 




109 _ 



110 



Copy 111. This exercise will round out the top of the N and M. Do not make it any wider than the N or M. 
Make about three groups to the line. 

Copies 112 and 113. Start the N with a curve stroke. Be sure that the two top parts are rounding. You need 
master only one style of finish. I would suggest the last one. 

Copy 114. This sentence is an easy one to write because it contains so many short letters. Let your main 
object be to write this sentence easily and to have every letter readable. It is important in writing to make a distinc- 
tion between turns and angles. After you have written this sentence, pick out some of the more difficult combinations 
like ow, ov, on, and practice upon them separately. 







Copy 115. Be sure that you make this exercise no faster than you make the M. See how neat you can make 
the entire page. This means equal margins, uniform height and slant. 

Copies 116 and 117. The M is the same as the N with an extra turn. Roll them along with nice rounding turns 
and two angles or retraces at the bottom. Don't fail to compare your work with the copy. The average student can do 
more studying of the copy to advantage. 

Copy IIS. Without movement, writing is of very little value, therefore see that your movement is free and 
graceful. Have your teacher assist you in finding your weak places and improve them by studying and practicing. 



115 



116 



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y A 



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10 



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Copies 119 and 120. These exercises are a little more difficult than the previous exercises but are good in 
helping to develop the 1. It might be well to try the 1 before the exercises, for if you can make an 1 with a good free 
motion, it is not necessary for you to be able to make the exercises. However, most good writers are able to make 
many kinds of exercises as well as letters. One helps the othjer. 

Copy 121. The 1 should usually be three spaces high. The principal thing is to have the loop long enough to 
be distinguishable from the e. Do not get too much curve at the beginning. Notice that the turn at the top of the loop 
is similar to the turn at the bottom in size. 



119 



120 



121 




At this time of the year you will be thinking of Christmas, and a little practice on a Christmas greeting will 
be an excellent drill. Make a copy of the accompanying greeting and send it to The Business Educator. We may pub- 
lish one of the best on the Students' Page. 



£?C-J^-ez-4/ CT^Lt^T^c^i/ ; 



^ ^C*4^c<4-S^t&-e~s. 








c^JT^^z-i-Z^^^-^iS^^-i^***^-^^^ 



Dec. /fzj. 













INNI.'NORIYM 












A good writing position. Study it. 



A beautiful title page by H. W. Strickland. Philadelphia. Pa 



^ <5^&uJ£n&&&6un&r & " 



Showy Business Writing 

in Ten Acts and Fifty Scenes 

Written, Produced and Directed by C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, LI. B., Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Syracuse, New York, Public Schools. 



ACT X 

SCENE I 

Make your work clear cut by keeping the letters uniform in slant and size. 

Practice each word separately, then write the whole Cashier's Check. 

Write this form until you would be willing to submit it as your best specimen of this course. 




L^CC&AsUA^ 



ACT X 

SCENE II 

In paragraph writing the true test of your penmanship comes. Letter, word and sentence practice are the stepping 
stones to the finished product — the paragraph. 

This is a thought from a great thinker, which commends itself to penmen. 

ACT X 
SCENE III. 

Practice each capital many times before writing the whole paragraph. 

Extra practice will be necessary to write the words "papyrus" and "applied," as the loops should all be the same 
in width and length. 



12 ^ <5ffiJ38u<i//M!dA>(2d[u&&r' *§* 









'y^L^iy, 



ACT X 

SCENE IV 



This is the last scene in the final act. 



If you have followed "Showy Business Writing" through the entire show, your penmanship is better than when the 
curtain ascended in February, 1927. 

Write the H. G. Wells paragraph and compare it with your early work in the course. 

Thanks, I knew it would be. 



v^- yy^<l^A^ ^dAyU^A^ty ^Lj£<iy-szs ^CJi^y 



^y^a^riycO yrTi^z^^ 



CURTAIN. 



^MJ^tttinMiadiumfcr *§* 



13 








The above specimen was written by Mr. Crume, a student in the Findlay. Ohio. Business College. 
While his work is not quite up to the professional standard, he is to be complimented on his pen- 
manship ability and will win that coveted certificate in time. Few business college students write a 
better hand than Mr. Crume. 

Mr. E. E. Magoon is his penmanship instructor. 




rd writing at the Ferris Institute. Big Rapids, Mich. R. R. Reed, in the center, is the instructor 



14 A 

HOW TO GET BETTER RE- 
SULTS IN ALL WRITTEN 
WORK 

By Mildred Moffett 

In my many classroom visits I have 
observed one reason in particular 
why children hand in such poorly 
written papers in spelling, arithmetic, 
history, and English. 

Except in a very few instances, 
teachers have had little or no train- 
ing in blackboard writing. What is 
the result? The quality of written 
work which is constantly before the 
children is so poor that the teachers 
themselves admit it is disgraceful. 

Not onlv is it poor in quality, but 
usually it is so small that pupils who 
sit in the back part of the room can- 
not read it. In fact, to read it with- 
out eye strain they should exchange 
seats with some of the more fortunat" 
pupils who sit within twelve feet of 
th° board. 

In most instances where writing is 
offered in Teacher Training Schools 
practically no time is given to black- 
board writing. Giving a young, pros- 
pective teacher training in makinn- 
acres of formal drills on paper will 
never prepare her to put her work on 
the board before the pupils success- 
fully. A certain amount of black- 
board training is verv important. 

Not only is blackboard training 
necessary for her. if she is to be suc- 
cessful in teaching writing, but 
equally npcessarv when teaching read- 
ing, spelling, arithmetic, or any other 
school subject. Her writing should 
surelv carrv over if the work of her 
punils can be expected to do so. 

It is almost useless to emnloy a 
writing teacher or supervisor for anv 
school svstem unless the necessity of 
the closest kind of cooperatin is re- 
ouired by the Superintendent and 
Board of Education. The best wav 
to help the supervisor or spec'a! 
teacher is for every teacher in the 
school system to place a pood, leeibl" 
duality of writing before all classes at 
all times. 

In so many instances where really 
good writing supervisors are en- 
deavoring to help children to learn to 
write legibly only those teachers who 
teach writing are required to attend 
the supervisor's meetings, while the 
real offenders, the ones who persist- 
ently put illegible scrawls on the 
board, so scot-free and continue to re- 
mind the writinrr teachers that tlw 
are not successful in seeurinsr results 
wh"n it comes to written work in gen- 
eral. 

Careful examination of papers in 
various subjects many times revea's 
tin fact that the results are poor not 
onlv in writing alone. 

It would seem that we would get 
bett( > results through hearty coopera- 
tion, rather than to be forever pass- 
ing the buck. Isn't it time to wake 
u 1 1 and fare our responsibility on this 
score? Particularly now that hand- 
writing specialists have made every 
effort to make handwriting function 
through correlation with the other 



<3fe&u&neAA / &6uxi&r' & 



school subjects. 

The remedy would be easy if every 
teacher in the public schools should 
feel the necessity of preparing her- 
self to teach handwriting with the 
same understanding that she has pre- 
pared herself in other branches. 

The time has come when school offi- 
cials are demanding such training on 
the part of teachers. In fact, in some 
states they are now penalizing 
teachers who have not prepared them- 
selves to teach writing. This is done 
by paying them a lower salary than 
is paid those who have prepared. 
When a teacher presents the neces- 
sary credentials showing that she has 
properly prepared in this work she is 
advanced $5.00 a month on her 
salary. 

Teachers should not wait until com- 
pelled to act, but to begin the work 
now. A short summer term spent in 
the Zanerian College of Penmanship, 



Columbus, Ohio, during vacation will 
change indifference and apathy for 
the teaching of this branch into a 
positive joy. 

If a summer course cannot be taken 
now, then it would be well to enroll 
in the Correspondence Course given 
by the same institution, with a view 
of obtaining their Teachers' Certifi- 
cate, which is awarded for efficiency 
in both pedagogy and practice of 
business writing. 

Systematic study and practice of 
handwriting as presented in their 
Correspondence Course will not re- 
quire much time but will prepare the 
teacher to do efficient work in this 
branch. 

Then the crippled handwriting so 
prevalent in many places would dis- 
appear and free, legible writing would 
take its place, the value of which to 
the boys and girls could scarcely be 
estimated. 



A CHALLENGE 



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*4 136 


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\X . II. Ronish believes that Miss Dorothv Blair can prepare the ac 


ompa 


lying pay 


ckly or quicker than any other student. Mr. Ronish states that Mis 


s Blaii 


. ,,n prep 


1 CO ■) minutes, and desires to hear from those who can beal 


this r 


ecord. C 


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to study these signatures. 



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Supplementary Business Writing 

By C. C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, New York City 









By F. B. Courtney, Detroit, Mich. 



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17 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 




Again, I am moved to pen a mean- 
dering with a personal note in it. 
Another year has come gamboling 
into the Garden of 
Greetings Time, and then limped 

Tempered deerepitly away. Just 

With Regrets as this new and hopeful 
year was in the offing, 
a goodly group of old-time friends of 
the present scribe, and long-time 
members of the Federation of Com- 
mercial Educators, wished upon him 
a surprising and delightful Christmas 
present, in the form of an invitation 
to be their honored 
guest, at the Nineteen- 
twenty-six meeting at 
Chicago. I had barely 
accepted the generous 
invitation, with glori- 
ous anticipations of a 
wonderful time with 
the dear old boys and 
girls, when suddenly 
there came upon me an attack of ill- 
ness that, for some weeks, threatened 
to put a taboo, on my ever again see- 
ing any of the blessed old-timers. But 
the shadow partly passed, and I be- 
gan to indulge the joyous hope that 
I should be able to meet all of you at 
Kansas City, and make up for lost 
time. But, alack, and alas! the doc- 
tors refused to OK my hopes. When 
a fellow arrives at seventy-five, with 
his internal machinery in none too 
good repair, among certain other dis- 
advantages, is the annoying fact that 
he is no longer his own boss. All the 
dope was to the effect, that, even in 
my improved health, a sudden jump 
from these balmy California skies into 
the sort of weather that is likely to be 
on duty at Kansas City in December, 
would, in my unrugged state, be all 
too hazardous. It would not only be 
recklessly risky but selfishly inconsid- 
erate, as well, to take the chance of 
dampening the jolity of my old friends 
at Kansas City, by putting upon them 
the burden of sending their old guest 
home in a box. 

And thus it befell, that I am sending 
my greetings to you through the Jan- 
uary Educator, instead of doing what 
I had so fondly hoped to do: deliver 
them personally at Kansas City. There 
is also a special regret connected with 
the meeting-place itself. There is no 
other big town in this country that 
has been quite so intimately associ- 
ated with my own varied career as has 
this old town at the mouth of the 
Kaw. It was during the "Border War" 
of 1856 that my Abolishionist father, 
reformer, and idealist, cast his lot in 
"Bleeding Kansas" to help rescue the 
future Jayhawker State from the 
curse of slavery. Early in the spring 
of 1858, he brought my mother and us 
children to share his lot in his little 



prairie cabin some sixty miles south 
of Kansas City. At that time the 
terminus of the Hannibal & St. Jos- 
eph Railroad just across the Missouri, 
at Kansas City, marked the "farthest 
west" by rail in the United States. 
Father met us with his ox-team, cross- 
ing the big muddy river by steam 
ferry. That night we camped down in 
the brushy flats of the "Kaw Bottom," 
to the west, and quite out of sight of 
the straggling little town of perhaps 
a thousand or so, up on the lull, which 
at that time was all there was of the 
present big twin metropolis of Mis- 
souri and Kansas. During the decades 
that followed, Kansas City was the 
one big town and entrepot of our part 
of the country, and each year of the 
past three score, I have watched it 
grow from its humble beginnings. Its 
career is an epitome of the history of 
the great prairie West, where I was 
bred from childhood. Every man who 
is really human has in him some sen- 
timent for merely material things, so 
maybe you can imagine how I should 
like to see our old "home town" 
again. 

As I write this, the Kansas City 
meeting of the Federation is still a 
month away. I know what a corking 
good time all of you are going to 
have, and when the days come that 
shall bring you all together, I shall 
be waiting your telepathic greetings, 
from the cozy little den of my com- 
fortable ranch home up here in the 
perpetual greenery of these fir-cov- 
ered mountains. More definite greet- 
ing messages are denied me, since I 
am nearly a hundred miles from the 
nearst town where telegrams or even 
Christmas cards are available, but, 
just the same, my earnest wishes for 
a joyous Holiday season go out to all 
of you, whether of "The Old Guard" 
or not. 



In the September Educator, I had 
occasion to express myself rather 
tartly, regarding certain alleged 
Intelligentia," who have 
Social and manifested their anar- 
Moral Values chistic leanings in an 
of Language assault upon the estab- 
lished rules of good 
English. I have been gratified by re- 
ceiving a number of letters from Edu- 
cator readers, who write in strong ap- 
proval of the articLe referred to. One 
of these comes from a high school 
principal in Kansas, who states that 
he has read the article to his pupils, 
by way of an argument in favor of 
right English. He further says that 
he has noticed a tendency among his 
students, to adopt certain "liberal" 
ideas in the matter of both spelling, 
and writing. They seem to be imbib- 
ing this lately hatched flapperish no- 



tion, that unrestrained slovenliness 
in the matter of writing and speak- 
ing, is a mark of up-to-date smart- 
ness. 

This sort of reaction on young folks 
who are acquiring an education, is the 
chief harm wrought by these "ad- 
vanced" scofflaws of the newspaper 
and magazine world. As an antitode 
to their poison all of us who have a 
chance, should try to get our boys 
and girls to see the utter silliness of 
allowing their speech to degenerate 
into the gabble of vulgar nitwits. We 
should help them to see that language 
is important, for the reason that it is 
the clothing of the mind. Nobody who 
does not want to be taken for a hobo 
or a street drab, would dress like one. 
If you have enough self-respect to 
want your dress to show your re- 
spectability, all the more should you 
want to clothe your mind respectably 
by the correct habit of speech. You 
should be as particular with your 
verbs and pronouns as you are with 
your teeth, your finger-nails, or your 
collars and ties. 

There is no doubt that speech may 
be either a refiner or a coarsener of 
the soul. When we let our tongue re- 
lapse into vileness, our hearts are 
likely to follow suit. It is one of the 
perverse and unaccountable tendencies 
of our human nature, that so many 
of us develop a sort of itch to say 
daring and naughty things, whether 
swear-words or worse. It is not a 
tendency that is confined to the ig- 
norant, the stupid or the innately vul- 
gar. Some of the most offensive 
blackguards I have known, have been 
men of education, and, with the ex- 
ception of their unclean speech, men 
of refinement. For several years, I 
was a member of the Chicago Press 
Club, and nightly, in that foregather- 
ing of presumed gentlemen, I heard 
more profanity and vile talk, than one 
would hear in the lowest dive in South- 
Clark Street. One of these dirty- 
mouths was a distinguished novelist, 
another was a great editor, another a 
prominent orator, and all, or nearly 
all, were collegians. A great many of 
the world's most worth-while books, 
from Shakespeare down, are littered 
with filth, a vestige of savagery in 
the minds of these literary genuises. 

And yet, all down the centuries, 
there have been men with too much 
innate self-respect to make pigsties 
of their mouths or garbage forks of 
their pens. There are many such in 
the world today, and I believe that 
their proportion is increasing, despite 
surface indications. Otherwise, we 
should be backsliding toward the cave 
man. 

Young people sometimes imbibe the 
notion, that their speech has to be 
more or less profane, or what they 
call "spicy," to be forcible. There 
could be no greater langauge blunder. 
Expletives and slang, weaken lan- 
guage rather than strengthen it. 



(Contii 



Page 24) 



<^/ie&u>i//i&M/(5*/iuw&r & 



PUPPY LOVE 

By C. R. McCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 



They must have decided to get 
married for they both had "that far 
away" look on their faces for several 
days. Those who have been "through 
the mill" know full well what it 
means. The work of both seemed to 
improve very much — so much so 
that the old Principal began to won- 
der what was the cause of all this 
sudden improvement in each of their 
work in school. 

However, be that as it may the 
thousand-and-one things that an older 
person would ponder over carefully 
really never entered the minds of the 
two children. Bob had never worked 
real hard one day of his whole life 
because his father had supplied him 
with spending money liberally. The 
supply of ready cash by the parent 
is a bad thing sometimes. Boys 
should be made to know the value of 
money no matter how much "mazoo- 
ma" the "old lad" is supposed to pos- 
sess. One may look into the lives of 
our wealthy parents today and if they 
are of the vintage older than the 
eighteenth amendment which trans- 
lated means plain bootleggers, we find 
the parent exercising much care over 
the funds. Too many parents give 
their boys entirely too much spend- 
ing money and soon the "young lads" 
learn how to turn over the paste- 
boards, roll the African Golf Balls, 
spotting the Yellow Ball in the side 
pocket and what-not in games of 
chance. 

Speaking of chance, these young 
lads have a streak of luck and soon 
have a real roll in their pocket. He 
soon THINKS he can trim the whole 
gang and decides to quit his job and 
make his living "The easy way." The 
professional gambler lets him ride for 
a while on easy street and soon takes 
him on and the professional one loses 
for a small amount but the next time 
they play the "innocent" barely beats 
the "pro." It does not take them long 
to clean the lambs and what is worse 
now the lamb turns to hold-ups in 
order to recoup his losses. It does 
not take long now for the "wise 
lamb" to appear before the Judge for 
his lecture and if the boy has a father 
with political pull, he gets free but 
this is where many parents go and 
"get their foot into it" because the 
little angel that Mom thinks him to 
be is soon up to his old tricks again 
and it is the same thing over again. 
Among some foreign parents, the 
idea is prevalent that their son should 
have plenty of money to spend be- 
cause that is the American Way of 
doing things especially if the boy is 
the Crown Prince or first horn, 
wootsies. Bob was a little inclined to 

But to get back to our tootsie- 



all of these tricks and had the reputa- 
tion while in school of being the best 
artist in the Academy — no, not Arts — 
billiards — he was a cueist. The old 
Principal had told the students about 
the tricks employed by those who 
bleed the lambs and all the boys 
turned toward Bob and then the Prin- 
cipal knew that he was right in his 
summary of Bob's plans. Among 
other things the old teacher said that 
if he were a girl, he would not think 
of marrying a fellow if he were a 
gambler "because she would have many 
lean years and very few fat ones but 
that "was just like pounding sand in 
a rat hold — it made no impression. 

One day after class Bob accosted 
his teacher and said that he would 
speak with him privately. The old 
gray hah-ed mentor's "think-tank" be- 
gan to work and before they were in 
the little private office, he smelled 
what it was all about. So many 
young folks telegraph ahead their 
thoughts to the older persons. 

"I think I'll stop school, now" be- 
gan Bob. 

"Why stop now when you are al- 
most through with your course and 
have an excellent chance in the Bed- 
ford Manufacturing Company's of- 
fice?" replied the Principal. 

"Yes, I know that because the Pres- 
ident of the company was asking dad 
about how soon I would be through 
with my course and that he was wait- 
ing for me as he had an opening in 
his office," spoke up Bob. 

The principal thought he would quiz 
Bob a little but after a moments 
pause said, "Well, then, why quit 
school until you are through with your 
course and have your diploma?" 

"I might as well tell you because 
you already know that Mary and 1 
are getting married," spoke Bob 
rather sheepishly. 

"How are you going to keep her as 
well as yourself?" asked the Prin- 
cipal. 

"I have been looking for a job but 
have not been able to find anything 
worth while as most of the employers 
say, 'Have you a diploma?' and I am 
licked before I start," replied Bob 

"Where are you going to live?" 
queried the teacher. 

"Oh! you know it has been pretty 
hard for Dad and me since Mom died 
a year ago, as we batch it together 
and have a woman come in to clean 
the house once a week. I thought that 
Mary could fill the bill because I have 
heard of step-mothers being rather 
hard on step-children and in this way 
Dad would not have to get married 
again," replied Bob eagerly. 

"I wish you luck, Bob, but from 
what I can see about your condition, 
I think you would be better off un- 
married for a few years and first be 
able to support her in fail I 
manner before thinking of getting 
hooked up for life," answered the old 
teacher slowly. 

"Mary says she wants to go through 



with it so I guess it will have to take 
place," mused Bob eagerly. 

The Old Principal' 8 Advice 

"There are a few things that I 
think will come in handy if you will 
listen to them. No young person 
should get married until he especially 
is at least 25 years of age and has a 
position that has the assurance of 
permanency. Their minds are imma- 
ture and they do not know what they 
want. Then, too, the ideals that we 
see when we are 16 are vastly differ- 
ent when we get to be 25 and still 
different when we reach 35 years of 
age. This idea of boy-and-girl- ro- 
mance is all wrong. The girl these 
days does not have to get married as 
she did many years ago because busi- 
ness opened up for her a wonderful 
means of a livelihood. A girl does not 
need to take the first fellow who 
comes along because she is independ- 
ent and knows it. Years ago when 
women wore long dresses and put up 
their hair, it was time to get a hus- 
band. If she did not have "a man" 
by the time she was 18, she was 
doomed to be an old maid or using 
the present day parlance — ladies in 
waiting. Then, too, Bob, both of you 
will have to curb your tempers con- 
siderably. You know the Irish "fly 
off the handle" quickly and your 
"Johnny Bull ancestors" were noted 
for their bull-headedness. It will 
never be a bed of roses but when she 
is not feeling just right, you give in 
to her and the same should be true 
of you but I am afraid she is too high 
strung to give in to you. It is a bat- 
tle of give and take and the one who 
overlooks the mistakes of the other 
is the bigger of the two. If you ever 
need a friend, just come around to 
your old teacher here in school and 
I'll do all I can for you. May God 
bless and keep you under His tender 
care," soliloquized the old school- 
master. 

And so Bob and Mary were mar- 
ried quietly by Father Burns much 
against the wishes of both parents. 
She did not dare to go home and as 
Bob's father knew that his son could 
not pay even board for himself, let 
alone a young wife, let them come and 
live with him. 

I* was the joke of the neighborhood 
because Jigger McCarthy got boiling 
mad every time he was being con- 
gratulated by his friends. It seemed 
that everybody took a delight in con- 
gratulating Jigger — just to see how 
mad he would get. 

"Where are they living, Jigger?" 
asked Pat Brogan. 

"Over with his people. I'll break 
every bone in both their bodies if 
they ever come here," replied Jigger 
who was getting hot under the collar. 

"I would like to have them over for 
dinner this Sunday," spoke up Mrs. 
McCarthy, "hut Pop put his fool down 
upon it and you know how hard- 
continued on Page 24) 



^ie<38uJ*'/i*J^<3diu*i&r % *§* 



19 



TEACHING THE ALPHABET w 



[The following article is reprinted 
from the Educational Research Bulle- 
tin of November 23, 1927. It was 
written by the editor of that publica- 
tion, Dr.B. R. Buckingham, Head of 
the Bureau of Educational Research, 
Ohio State University. We suppose 
that others, like ourselves, have had 
experience with pupils who have been 
taught according to the latest meth- 
ods and are not able to find words in 
the dictionary, due to not knowing 
the order of the alphabet. We reprint 
the article here because we believe 
that it will not be well to get away 
too far from that old standby, which 
is also true, regarding some other 
good old things our grandparents 
learned. 

Dr. Buckingham has emphasized 
something regarding which we all 
need to be cautioned — in acquiring 
the new don't overlook holding- on to 
that which is good in the old.] 



"When we have no difficulty in do- 
ing- a thing we say, "Its as easy as 
ABC." The alphabet for a long time 
represented the irreducible rudiments 
of learning. The greater part of the 
surface of the old hornbook was de- 
voted to the letters from A to Z. The 
children learned these letters by trac- 
ing them, copying them, reciting them, 
and chanting them in unison. They 
learned the alphabet as a thing itself. 

No hint of the use of these letters in 
words entered to disturb the single- 
ness of this purpose. When profiici- 
ency in this meaningless task was as- 
sured, the children might take up 
such inspiring combinations as .a-b, 
ab; i-b ib; o-b, ob; u-b, ub. Were 
not letters the simplest of all lingu- 
istic elements, and did not syllables 
rightly follow upon letters as the 
simplest compounds? Words were 
clearly too hard for children to learn 
until they had been led step by step 
from the alphabet through two-letter 
symbols to longer patterns. 

Today we do things much better. 
It is certain, for example, that we are 
teaching; reading better. But, do we 
teach the alphabet better? One can't 
be sure about this. One can be quite 
certain, however, that a functional 
knowledge of the ABC's is even more 
important today than it used to be 
when so much time was spent upon 
the letters themselves. 

It is doubtful whether the full 
meaning of this is realized. We ought 
to be spending somewhat the same 
amount of school time on the alpha- 
bet as was snent on it in the days of 
our grandfathers. We ought, how- 
ever, to spend this time in a very 
different way. 

Not many schools teach the alpha- 
bet in use. Quite commonly children 
fail to use the dictionary because they 
cannot find words in it. We talk 
about the dictionary habit as a thing 
our students should acquire, yet many 
of them do not really learn to locate 



ords until they study a foreign 
language and become industrious in 
thumbing a "vocabulary." Times 
without number, children will declare 
a word is not in the dictionary when 
the real trouble is that they cannot 
use the alphabet. 

The telephone directory is the book 
now most frequently found in our 
homes. It is crowded with names in 
alphabetical arrangement. Children 
as well as adults have use for it, yet 
one is utterly unable to find a tele- 
phone number unless one has a prac- 
tical knowledge of the alphabet. 

We want our pupils to learn to use 
lists of cities in their geography 
books, lists of streets in a city direc- 
tory, and, most of all, the indexes in 
books. They can never do this as long 
as — like some children — they have 
to find Boston by looking through all 
the B's or William Randolph by scan- 
ning the R's. 

The learning of the alphabet in a 
functional way is not easy. It means 
far more than learning one's ABC's. 



It means the ability to tell the loca- 
tion of each letter in the conventional 
series in relation to any other letter. 
It means, in the case of a list, the ap- 
prehension of the place value of the 
second letter among items which have 
the same first letter, a similar appre- 
hension of the value of the third let- 
ter when the first two are constant, 
and so on. It means exercises in lo- 
cating words, names of people, and 
other verbal material, and inverse ex- 
ercises in arranging the items pre- 
sented in irregular order. 

The teachers of our grandfathers 
were right. The alphabet is import- 
ant. To be sure, it is not a necessary 
or even an effective approach to read- 
ing, but, as an instrument of high so- 
cial utility — as an organizing and 
binding device — it has greater and 
greater value as men depend more 
and more upon extensive verbal ma- 
terial. In our judgment, the alphabet 
should be restored to something of its 
pristine glory as a subject in the 
school curriculum." 



Criticism Department 

Conducted by E. A. LUPFER 

The aim of this Dapartment is to encourage students by helping them to see and 

to correct their faults. Send us material and suggestions. 




The one who wrote the accompanying specimen has considerable skill 
with the pen. However, a study of the formation of the letters would greatly 
improve this person's ornamental penmanship. We trust that our suggestions 
will help beginners. 

Notice the "G" is greatly improved by enlarging the top. The ovals and 
parallel effect in the "G" are excellent. Notice the exaggerated "g" loop in 
"Gaining." This loop and the nourish are all out of proportion. Every flourish 
should have a meaning; that is, there should be some excuse or reason for 
the flourish. If a flourish does not help, leave it off. As vou read the word 
"Gaining," the eye should immediately travel from the "g" to the "in." With 
the large loop and flourish, the eye is carried down to the "F" in "Forms," 
on the line below, making it difficult to read. Usually avoid long flourishes 
on the end of words in a sentence. Such flourishes serve better at the end 
of the line. 

This pupil should watch alignment. Note the irregular height in the 
word "movement." 

The body part of the "D" should be cut down considerable 

It is well for the beginner to study the location of shades. There should 
usually be no shade on the finishing stroke of the "g" when swung under as 
in "Downright." 

More study will help the average pupil to become a better writer. 



20 



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<r } 



</ 



■ . 



. ■ 



V 



This envelope was received from Fred S. Heath. Concord, N. H. 




R. R. Reed, the good hearted, enthusiastic penman of Ferris Instilutc. 
above signatures. The design is by Parker Zaner Bloser. 



tip top shape when he wrote the 



FAMOUS LETTERS 

By FAMOUS PENMEN 
In this series we have some of the most skillful letters ever written 







X 



/ 



/ 



y 



y 



y 



/ 



y 



S / 



S 



/ 



y 




22 



>!iffiJ^uJ//teM(2d£Kafir' & 




By H. C. Rice, Engr 



r. 95 Milk St.. Boston. Mas 



Mr. H 
in the 
College 



it Flagstaff. 



Mi 



State 



J. M. Trytten, recer 
1 at Sioux City, low: 
ommcrcial Departmc 
ing Unit affiliated ' 
Teachers College. Pa 

Luke Ross of Cam. 
Ruth I letrick of Ur 
.ew commercial teac 
lia Business College 



tly 



ith the High 
, is now Head of 
t of the Teacher 
ith the Western 
v Paw. Michigan. 

on, W. Va., and 
ontown. Pa., are 
as in the West 
it Clarksburg. 

Miss Clara Hobbs of West Branch, Iowa, 
is a new commercial teacher in the Central 
Hik.-h School. Detroit. 

Miss Esther Legge is a new teacher in '.he 
Commercial Department of the Lockport, N. 
Y., High School. 

Iowa M. Book of Mexico. Pa., is teaching 
this year in the High School at Meyers- 
dale, Pa. 



Miss Florence L. Field of Auburn. Maine, 
is a new commercial teacher in Straight 
College, New Orleans. 

Mrs. Helen W. Kalen is a new commercial 
teacher in the Crown Point, Ind.. High 
School. 

Miss Velna Carroll of Plymouth. N. H. has 
recently been engaged to teach in the Rut- 
land. Vt., Business College. 

Mr. L. L. Kerney of Port Huron. Michi- 
gan, has been engaged to teach accounting 
in the Actual BusineBS College. Akron, Ohio. 

Miss May V. Powell, recently with the 
State Teachers College at Fredericksburg, 
Va.. is now teaching in the William..;>ort. 
Pa., High School. 

Miss Mary Winston Jones is a new teacher 
in the Department of Commercial Education 
of the Colorado Teachers College at 
Greeley, 



CYRUS W. FIELD 

We have just heard from our old 
friend and former pupil, Cyrus W. 
Field, who is now in Detroit. He was 
at the head of the Shorthand and Pen- 
manship Department of a Detroit 
Commercial College for ten years. 
After leaving that school, he did noth- 
ing but write for two years and then 
went into the Policy Department of 
an insurance company, writing up re- 
ports. He states that since last Aug- 
ust he has been working up on his 
Ornamental Penmanship and if he had 
his choice, he would do nothing but 
write for the next ten years. He also 
states, "I have been offered a very 
attractive position with a large real 
estate firm, but somehow it doesn't 
appeal to me as does the penman- 
ship." Mr. Field attended the Zane- 
rian Penmanship College away back 
in 1898. 



Michigan Handwriting Supervisors 
Meet At Detroit 

The Handwriting Supervisors of the 
Ninth District met in the Banquet 
Room of the Book-Cadillac Hotel, De- 
troit, Mich., Nov. 1, 1927. 

Miss Olive MacDonald, penmanship 
instructor in the Garfield Junior High 
School, Port Huron, Mich., arranged a 
very interesting program as follows: 

9:30 a.m. Banquet Room. Book-Cadillac Hotel 
"Correlation of Handwriting with Other 
School Subjects," 

Miss Marsruerite Llewellyn of the Zaner- 
Bloscr Company, Columbus, Ohio. 
••Penmanship Methods" 

Archie Lee Dickson. Visiting Sup 
A. N. Palmer Company, Chicago, 
Exhibit 

Election of Officers 

Third Grade Demonstration Lesson Followed 
by Hound Table Discussion. 



Mr. Charles D. Newbegin this com- 
ing year will be with the Rogers High 
School, Newport, R. I. He will be 
succeeded at the East Greenwich, R. 
I. Academy by Parker Williams, a 
graduate of the Normal Department 
of the Bay Path Institute of Spring- 
field, Mass. 



The Southwestern Private Com- 
mercial Schools Association 

This is an association of business 
colleges whose aim is to promote a 
better feeling among business colleges 
in the Southwest, by bringing them 
together occasionally and to discuss 
their mutual problems with the view 
of trying to raise the standard of 
commercial education in their section. 
Their meeting of November lifl was 
well attended and from the minutes 
which we received we can see that 
they had a very interesting and help- 
ful program. 

Their next meeting will be held in 
San Antonio, Texas, in April. The 
school men of this section are to be 
complimented on this get together 
movement. 



^ <^Me&u&/KM&&uv&r & 



23 



1928 CONVENTION OF THE EASTERN 

COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION 



Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City, 
April 5, 6, and 7 



Basic Studies Series in Commercial 
Education 

The Executive Board of the E. C. 
T. A. at its meeting- in New York City 
on June 4, 1927, planned and adopted 
a professional program of great im- 
portance to American commercial 
education. 

This professional program is plan- 
ned over a period of three years to re- 
sult in the preparation and printing 
of three yearbooks in commercial edu- 
cation, as follows: 

1928 Yearbook, Foundation of Com- 

mercial Education. 

1929 Yearbook, Curriculum-making 

In Commercial Edu- 
cation. 

1930 Yearbook, Admistration and 

Supervision of Com- 
mercial Education. 

These yearbooks are to be known as 
the Basic Studies series in Commercial 
Education. The Executive Committee 
of the E. C. T. A. is to serve as the 
yearbook commission. 

These yearbooks will grow out of 
the 1928, 1929, and 1930 annual con- 
ventions. The 1928 program, for ex- 
ample, will have for its general topic 
Where Are We Going In Commercial 
Education? To answer this question 
we must determine at the outset from 
where are we starting in commercial 
education. This suggests four main 
phases of the program: 

1. A philosophy of commercial 
education to answer the ques- 
tion, what kind of business life, 
as an embodiment of best Amer- 
ican social life, should we seek 
to build? 

2. A technique of research in com- 
mercial education to answer the 
question, what method of work 
should we use to build a com- 
mercial education that fits the 
desired kind of American Busi- 
ness Life ? 

3. Research cases in commercial 
education to answer the ques- 
tion: What scientific data have 
we now available upon which to 
base a reconstruction of com- 
mercial education in keeping 
with the desired kind of Ameri- 
can Business Life? 

4. Problem in commercial teacher- 
training to answer the ques- 
tions: 

(a) How do the qualifications of 
the commercial teacher compare 
with those of other teacher 
groups, (b) What should be the 

nature of the commercial 
teacher-training curriculum that 
will prepare the kind of com- 
mercial teacher who can realize 
the social mission of commer- 
cial education in American 
Business Life ? 



All these questions will be dealt with 
at the 1928 convention in the general 
and departmental meetings. Every 
part of the program is planned so 
that it will result in a unified year- 
book of basic importance not only to 
commercial education but to the whole 
field of American education. The De- 
partment of Superintendence of the 
National Education Association dur- 
ing the past year produced a Fifth 
Yearbook that concerns the junior 
high school curriculum. Its Sixth 
Yearbook for 1928 will discuss the 
senior high school curriculum. Both 
yearbooks attempt to present the best 
theory and practice of commercial 
education. These yearbooks are of 
major importance to commercial edu- 
cators of private and public schools, 
secondary and collegiate. 

Should the commercial teachers of 
the E. C. T. A. stand by and leave 
outstanding leadership of commercial 
education to the Department of Su- 
perintendence who are more or less in- 
adequately prepared to accomplish 
alone this great task ? Should we not 
cooperate with the Department by 
having the E. C. T. A. assert its lead- 
ership through the planning of a 
series of yearbooks that will serve as 
needed supplementary material? 

The Modern Philosophy of Ameri- 
can education may be fittingly ex- 
pressed in the sentence, "The things 
boys and girls do are the things they 
learn." Commercial education is a 
doing education. Furthermore, it is 
basically an economic education and 
as such penetrates to the heart of 
life's activities and consequently 
American education. "The economic 
life is the warp of the social order.'' 
"The object of an adequate program 
of education must be an economic ef- 
ficiency, balanced by a recognition of 
the broader and more permanent in- 
terests of society and tempered by an 
unequivocal exaltation of human over 
material values." 

Thus we have in commercial educa- 
tion one of the most potent forces for 
the socialization of American educa- 
tion in keeping with a philosophy that 
will lead human achievement to a 
highest type of civilization. Commer- 
cial education should be at the heart 
of American Education, even as busi- 
ness (economic) life is at the heart 
of American life. May the commer- 
cial teachers of the E. C. T. A. co- 
operate to help realize this noble mis- 
sion of commercial education as an 
integral part of American education, 
by helping to build 1928, 1929, and 
1930 yearbooks of outstanding merit. 

Every commercial teacher may ob- 
tain a copy of each yearbook simplv 
by enrolling as a member of the E. 
C. T. A. and paying the $2.00 mem- 
bership dues. One thousand paid 
members is the goal of the 1928 Con- 



vention that will be held at the Hotel 
Pennsylvania, New York City, April 
5, 6, and 7. You are appointed as a 
member of the Membership Com- 
mittee to help get new members. Use 
the enclosed membership blanks for 
this purpose. The professional pro- 
gram that the Executive Board has 
planned should win the interest and 
cooperation of every commercial 
teacher. 

Members of the Executive Board 

Seth B. Carkin, Secretary 

Harry I. Good 

Mabel S. Hastings, Vice-President 

George L. Hoffacker 

Irvin L. Lindabury 

Arnold M. Lloyd, Treasurer 

Paul S. Lomax, President 

John A. Luman 

Alexander Pugh 

Milton F. Stauffer 

Eastern Commercial Teachers' Assoc- 
iation 1928 Yearbook. Founda- 
tions of Commercial 
Education 
Part I 

1. Purpose and Nature of the 1928 
Yearbook of the E. C. T. A. 

Dr. Paul S. Lomax, New York 
University, New York City. 

2. A Philosophy of Commercial 
Education. 

Dr. John Dewey, Columbia 
University, New York City. 
Dr. W. H. Kilpatrick, Co- 
lumbia, University, New York 
City. 

3. Commercial Education and the 
Scientific Spirit. 

Dr. Wesley C. Mitchell, Co- 
lumbia University, New York 
City. 

4. Research as Applied to Busi- 
ness: Advantages and Limita- 
tions. 

Dean Edmund E. Day, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor. 

5. Research as Applied to Educa- 
tion: Advantages and Limita- 
tions. 

Dean John W. Withers, New 
York University, New York 
City. 

Part II 

6. Commercial Section — 

a. Research as Applied to Ac- 
counting Practice. 

b. New Materials for the Com- 
mercial Teacher. 

(1) In Bookkeeping and Ac- 
counting. 

(2) In Arithmetic. 

(3) In Junior Business Train- 
ing. 

(4) In Business Practice. 

c. Summary of conference on 
classroom Teaching Problems. 

7. Economics and Social Studies 
Section — 

a. Research as Applied to 
Commercial and Industrial Re- 
lations. 

b. New Materials for the Com- 



(Continued 



26) 



24 



^ c^&utin^&&JiuMfor & 




BROWNE'S BUSINESS COLLEGE IN NEW BUILDING 

In the past half century, Browne's Business College, Brooklyn, N. Y., has 
been compelled to change location three different times in order to accommo- 
date the increased enrollment. In 1913 they moved into their present quarters, 
occupying the four upper floors at the corner of Flatbush and Lafayette Ave- 
nues. Their growth far exceeded their expectations, and are again compelled 
to seek larger quarters. 

In their new home, they will occupy the entire building over the City Sav- 
ings Bank. 

The building is of steel and concrete construction, with white terra cotta 
finish, one hundred per cent fire-proof. 

No expense has been spared to make this the very finest private school 
building in Greater New York. All the furnishings and equipment will be new 
and up-to-date and nothing that would add to the comfort, safety and con- 
venience of the student, has been overlooked. 

The same high standard of instruction and management that has merited 
the confidence and good will of their patrons for more than half a century will 
be maintained. 

They extend to you a cordial invitation to visit the College in its new 
home, No. 3 Lafayette Avenue. 




MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17) 

Mostly, men swear or indulge in other 
language coarseness because they lack 
the wit or skill to express themselves 
with purity. Theodore Roosevelt and 
Woodrow Wilson were masters of 
forcible speech, but nothing but clean 
English ever passed the lips of either, 
whether in public or private. Perhaps 
there is no greater developer of brain 
power, than the cultivation of accur- 
ate, refined and meaningful speech. 
Lincoln's marvelous mental growth is 
an example of this. He was ever 
broadening and deepening his mind 
through the study of books written in 
masterly English. His matchless 
Gettysburg Address shows the result. 
On the other hand, the habitual in- 
dulgence in coarse, impure or sloppy 
English, is both mentally and morally 
degenerative. Not all the "evil com- 
munications" that "corrupt good mor- 
als" come from without. They can 
and do "bore from within." Some 
clever and fairly decent people are 
coarse and blackguardly in their 
speech, but blackguardism itself, is 
never either clever nor decent. The 
rule is that people with keen and 
clean minds use keen and clean Eng- 
lish. That is why language is, on the 
whole, a pretty fair index of a man's 
or woman's mind and character. No 
young person who is starting out to 
win a successful way in the world 
can do a better turn for himself or 
herself than to lay hold of this truth 
and apply it. 



PUPPY LOVE 



ed (r 



Page 18) 



penman 
College has long been noted fo 
oi the finest penmen have taught in that institute 
to hold up the high standards set by these pioneer edi 
s happy because he has been granted a Zaner-Bloser 



headed he is when he gets his mind 
set upon things," continued the Mrs. 
rather sorrowfully. 

Bob got a job driving a truck and 
seemed to be making good but after a 
married life of about a year, started 
to spend his idle time in and about 
the pool-room and soon the job suf- 
fered and Bob was out of a job as is 
the usual run of affairs — one cannot 
burn th< candle at both ends for an 
indefinite time — it just does not go 
that is all there is to it. He began 
to get a streak of luck in gambling 
and was the talk of the little town 
but some of the old wise ones nodded 
knowingly and said "It is a long road 
that does not have a turn." He was 
such a nice young follow and no one 
COUld do anything with him. Finally 
Bob's father threatened to put him 
out of the house unless he mended his 
ways but after a short time Bob was 
up to his old tricks. 

Jigger McCarthy finally listened to 
the pleadings of his wife who had a 
mother's love in her breast for her 
child with the result that Mary re- 
turned to the parental home. "Bob 
could not come though" was all .Tiggcr 
would say. 

To Be Continued 



^^&ud£nM&&uxzfir' & 



25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 



Copy 71. This shows the proper pen liftings. Make the shade with a quick, snappy movement. It is necessary 
to retouch the top to get it sharp and straight. 

Copy 72. Aim for snappy shades on the t's. Study contrast between shades and light lines. Swing the flour- 
ishes off freely. As a rule only words at the end of a line have a large oval finish. 

Copy" 73. Make the letter in sections as indicated. The shade in d is made the same as in t. 

Copy 74. Get a free, graceful line, but take all the time necessary between word and pen liftings. 

Copy 75. Come down firm on the shade in p. It is best to shade the q at only one place. 

Copy 77. Here are some beautifully written words for you to imitate. See how regular and dainty you can 
get them. 

Copies 78 to 82. Here are a number of simple styles and exercises for W. Master them. Get the shade low 
and the back of shade straight. In the exercises watch spacing and get right angle crossings. 

Copies 83 to 87. Try the first line of exercises to get a snappy, bulging shade. In making the V do not raise 
pen at base line. 




26 



^ <5#fe<36uJSn€M&/iu&&r & 



1928 CONVENTION OF E. C. T. A. 

(Continued from Page 23) 

mercial Teacher. 

(1) In Economics. 

(2) In Commercial Law. 

(3) In Commercial Geogra- 
phy. 

(4) In Advertising. 

c. Summary of Conference on 
Classroom Teaching Problems. 

8. Retail Education Section — 

a. Research as Applied to the 
Retailing Business. 

b. New Materials for the Com- 
mercial Teacher. 

c. Summary of Conference on 
Classroom Teaching Problems. 

9. Secretarial Section — 

a. Research as Applied to Of- 
fice Practice. 

b. Materials for the Commer- 
cial Teacher. 

(1) In Shorthand. 

(2) In Transcription. 

(3) In Typewriting. 

(4) In Secretarial Practice. 

c. Summary of Conference on 
Classroom Teaching Problems. 

10. Penmanship Section — 

a. Research as Applied to Pen- 
manship in Business Practice. 

b. New Materials for the Com- 
mercial Teacher. 

c. Summary of Conference on 
Classroom Teaching Problems. 

11. Administration Section — 

a. Research as Applied to Cur- 
riculum Building in Teacher 
Training. 

b. New Materials for Commer- 
cial Teacher Training Institu- 
tions. 

( 1 ) In Studies of State Cer- 
tification Requirements. 

(2) In Studies of Qualifica- 
t i o n s of Commercial 
Teachers. 



12. 



13. 



(3) In Studies of Commercial 
Teacher Training Cur- 
ricula. 

(4) In Studies of Supply and 
Demand of Commercial 
Teachers. 

c. Summary of Conference on 
Research and Other Commercial 
Teacher Training Problems. 

Part III 
Business Building for Civiliza- 
tion. 

Dr. Lee Galloway, formerly 
Director of Department of 
Management and Professor of 
Commerce and Industry, New 
York University, New York 
City. 
The Future of Commercial Edu- 
cation. 

President Frederick H. Robin- 
son, College of the City of 
New York, New York City. 



N. A. P. T. S. NOTES 

By Mrs. Lettie J. Strobell, President. 

Convention Hotel 

The New Congress, Michigan Ave- 
nut and Congress Street, Chicago. 
Reservations should be made through 
Miss Gertrude Cummings, Assistant 
Manager. 

Speaker 

The Executive Committee is to be 
congratulated upon having secured 
Dr. Franklin Bobbitt, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, as one of the Con- 
vention speakers. Dr. Bobbitt is 
widely known in the field of education, 
and always brings a real message to 
his audience. 

Exhibits 

Our former President, Mr. F. J. 
Duffy, and the father of our Associa- 
tion, Mr. J. H. Bachtenkricher,, to- 
gether with the members of the Ad- 



visory Committee, have been ap- 
pointed to take charge of the exhibits. 

Since there will be no contest, more 
effort can be given to the preparation 
of exhibits. These will interest not 
only the delegates to our Convention 
but also the teachers of Oak Park and 
Chicago. 

Are You A Member of the 
N. A. P. T. S.? 

You should be in order to keep pace 
with the latest developments in the 
teaching of handwriting. For an- 
other reason, your membership will 
help to raise the teaching of hand- 
writing to a higher point of efficiency. 
New developments in teaching are 
coming rapidly and what was good 
enough for 1925 may not be good 
enough for 1928. 

For ?1. 00 you can become a member 
of the Association, and will receive a 
copy of the report of the 1928 meet- 
ing. Reports have been published of 
.the last three meetings and these pub- 
lished reports are splendid contribu- 
tions to the literature of handwriting. 
The report of the 1928 meeting will 
be something you will not want to 
miss. 

Send your name and your $1.00 to 
Miss Myrta Ely, Treasurer, Madison 
School, 10th and Minnesota Sts., St. 
Paul, Minn. 



THE COVER 

Arthur P. Myers, the young en- 
grosser of York, Pa., has moved his 
studio to 1415 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. We predict a very success- 
ful future for this progressive young 
engrosser in the city of brotherly 
love. 

His work on the cover this month 
speaks highly of his ability as a de- 
signer and of his patience in handling 
details. 




<?3^&u4//t€M£dtuxz&r* & 



11 



THE ABILITY OF ADULTS TO 

LEARN 
Theory of William James Proved 

Incorrect 

[Extensive experiments made by 
Professor E. L. Thorndike, Teachers 
College, Columbia University, support 
the conclusion that ability to learn 
rises until about the age of twenty. 
After that it remains stationary for 
some years — not a great many — and 
then gradually declines. 

Probably those of us who endeavor 
to instruct the young cannot do a bet- 
ter thing than to get that informa- 
tion across to our pupils. 

The experiments were concluded 
just recently and the result should 
now be made known. They are de- 
cidedly quickening. While persons of 
fifty, sixty, or even seventy may have 
the ability to learn, the opportunity 
or desire is often lacking. As we see 
it, the conclusion to be drawn from 
the experiments is — Learn While 
Young. An article on this subject re- 
cently appeared in "Adult Education 
and the Library," as follows:] 



"No less an authority than William 
James has said, "Outside their own 
business, the ideas gained by men be- 
fore they are twenty-five are practic- 
ally the only ideas they shall have in 
their lives. They cannot get anything 
new." 



If this be true, what of the cry 
abroad in the land for adult educa- 
tion? Happily, the conclusions of 
James are not supported by the re- 
sults of a genuinely scientific study 
which will be published in the near 
future by the American Association 
for Adult Education. 

Professor T. L. Thorndike of 
Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, has been engaged for the past 
two years in a study of the psychology 
of adult education, and at the Cleve- 
land meeting of the American Assoc- 
iation for Adult Education he pre- 
sented the results of this study. 

Professor Thorndike conducted ex- 
periments in which persons twenty- 
five years old and over, averaging 
forty-two, were compared with per- 
sons twenty to twenty-four, averag- 
ing twenty-two, in their ability to 
learn acts of skill and acquire various 
forms of knowledge. 

In learning to write with the wrung 
hand, the old and the young made 
equal improvement in the quality or 
legibility, but the old gained less in 
speed, eighteen letters per minute 
from fifteen hours of practice as com- 
pared with thirty-five letters per min- 
ute for the young. On the whole the 
old gained about three-fourths as 
much as the young. In learning 
Esperanto, an artificial laguage con- 
structed on logical principles, the old 
learned about five-sixths as fast as 



the young. Both groups learned more 
rapidly than children. In learning 
reading, spelling, arithmetic and other 
elementary school subjects, adults of 
forty-two progressed about five-sixths 
as fast as adults of twenty-two. Both 
groups probably learned faster than 
they would have learned the same 
things as children at the age of 
twelve, for they learned more per 
hour of study than do children who 
are comparable to them in brightness. 
Extensive experiments with adults 
learning algebra, science, foreign lan- 
guages and the like in evening classes, 
and with adults learning typewriting 
and shorthand in secretarial schools, 
support the general conclusion that 
ability to learn rises till about twenty, 
and then, perhaps after a stationary 
period of some years, slowly declines. 
The decline is so low (it may roughly 
be thought of as one per cent per 
year) that persons under fifty should 
seldom be deterred from trying to 
learn anything which they really need 
to learn by the fear that they are too 
old. And to a lesser degree this is 
true after fifty also. 

Professor Thorndike concluded that 
the chief reason why adults so seldom 
learn a new language or a new trade 
or any extensive achievement of 
knowledge or skill, is not the lack of 
ability, but the lack of opportunity or 
desire to learn." 



No. 1 



ORNAMENTAL GEMS 

By A. D. TAYLOR 




C\\\cahyv 



\\\S. 



28 



<!MJ&u&/t^&&u*i&r & 




Director 

H.O.GElungbr, 

i thrffiiruln? unit riir^tuDmts of rlir 
Unuui Brtrrtnary nnO 3^rindhmd 

(Tnllnir n? Driuiuirk 



©ELBETTIIVG 

J.*l->o^rcsiocnr. 'Director? ano "?1Toinrvrs of H/»e 



Interna tiunal ICuic Starii(&pit0iiiiH 
Vttiim 




express nvir warmest- felicitations aits heartiest" 
congratulations over the completion of rite 
TfZomcittotis 3uiloina. (Program undertaken bv 
venir institution, aito earnestly hope tnat- tbc. 
aooco material facilities thereby provioce- will 
oportionately ^ utcrcasc the significant contri- 
tions to tbc Science. aito^4rt of Husbandry 
attb Tiaricnltiire, -\vbicb von have so ocvorcMy_ 
bequeathed to tbe world. 

K tbcicroic_ entr<o>vcr , r , i-.I'Iyc'"lLK s £l|{juieiT 

director cf the 'T'cpartntcnt- of tivc £tocli 

Economics cf- the .international uivc $tocu 

exposition, to coitvev our salnrution airt> 

oeleaate him to represent" our institution orri- 

cialTv Ourittd the oeoication ceremonies 



'JWsfocui 




ed by the Ha 



Engr 



ig Studio. Chicago. 



NEW ZANERIAN COLLEGE CATALOG 

iins 32 pages filled with specimens of penmanship and information regarding the institution. Worth 

$1.00 as a specimen book, but free to interested persons. May be worth hundreds of dollars to you. 
Address ZANERIAN COLLEGE, Columbus, Ohio. 



^SiT > y/u ■*3C/u/'/ujj Ct//ua/<r 



29 



DESIGNING & 
ENGROSSING 



By E. L. Brown 
Rockland, Me. 



self-addressed 
n.d stamps for 



■A for 



PRACTICAL FREE-HAND 
LETTERING 

The styles shown herewith are most 
suitable for purposes requiring a rapid 
legible style and will be found useful 



for titles on diplomas. These letters 
may appropriately be called single- 
stroke letters and will require little 
if any retouching. First rule lines to 
govern height, but do not outline let- 
ters in pencil. Use Gillott No. 170 
pen and Zanerian ink, good quality of 
cardboard or heavy unruled paper. 
Study the character of these letters 
before you attempt to copy them. 
Regularity of size and spacing are es- 
sential to the most satisfactory re- 
sults. The second alphabet was made 
with a No. 3 broad pen retouched with 
a common pen. The relief line on cap- 



itals is not necessary but adds greatly 
to the finish and effect. 

The floral decoration speaks for it- 
self and may be studied as a part of 
this lesson. The spray should be pen- 
ciled very carefully first, and begin- 
ners will find it a help to suggest color 
values, and the arrangement and spac- 
ing of the lines to produce the same. 
Add strongest color with a No. 3 
broad pen, spotting in solid black here 
and there to give your drawing char- 
acter and vitality. 

All honest efforts will be criticised. 
Let us see some of your best work 
from this lesson. 







r M~ 






ms 



\ > 



) ZETTEJiwe Pf/r/rms v 




aaqe cffcae said m a in mure ta^tt 




30 Jk. 

Information Concerning the April, 

1928 Meeting of the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

of 

PENMANSHIP TEACHERS and 

SUPERVISORS 



The 1928 meeting will be held in 
Oak Park, Illinois. Oak Park is a 
residential suburb nine miles directly 
west from the Chicago Loop District. 
It is reached by taking trains on the 
Omaha Division of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railroad, by the sur- 
face lines running west on Madison 
Street, Lake Street and Chicago Ave- 
nue, from the downtown centers of 
Chicago, or using the Lake Street 
trains of the Chicago Rapid Transit 
from any station in the loop. The lat- 
ter, or Elevated, is the best and most 
convenient service as it takes but 
thirty to forty minutes to reach Oak 
Park from the Loop. 

Oak Park is a select and residential 
suburb of homes, schools, and 
churches, there being but few busi- 
ness centers and no manufacturing of 
any kind. The population is 63,000 
people, distributed over an area of 
four and one-half square miles. The 
City of Chicago joins Oak Park on the 
east and north boundaries. The sub- 
urb, however, is an entirely independ- 
ent political unit under the old New 
England village form of government 
for the past quarter of a century. It 
is the largest village in the United 
States. 

Oak Park is noted for its fine build- 
ings and church edifices. There are 
thirty churches representing all de- 
nominations. The Oak Park Club, 
costing one million dollars, has just 
been completed and the new Woman's 
Club in process of erection will be 
completed within a few months. 
Splendid auditorium facilities will be 
available in many of these public 
buildings. 

The educational system of Oak 
Park consists of elementary and sec- 
ondary schools organized upon the 6- 
2-4 plan, the Oak Park-River Forest 
Township High School operating un- 
der the Illinois Township High School 
Law. There are eleven elementary 
schools very conveniently located and 
wholly at the disposal of the visiting 
delegates for purposes of observing 
the teaching of penmanship and other 
subjects. The Oak Park Elementary 
Schools are organized upon the basis 
of the socialized curriculum, offering 
four defined courses, viz., academic 
training, the resulting abilities being 



expressed in the use of the academic 
knowledge, use of the rules of learn- 
ing, and the establishment of right at- 
titudes. 

A unique feature of the Oak Park 
schools is the fact that the first su- 
perintendent of schools, Mr. B. L. 
Dodge, was appointed in 1876. The 
second superintendent, Mr. Wm. H. 
Hatch, was appointed in 1892. The 
present superintendent, Mr. Wm. J. 
Hamilton, was appointed in 1917. It 
will thus be seen that the community 
has had but three superintendents 
since 1876 and the excellence of the 
school system is largely due to the 
continuity of policy and objectives 
thus established. 

Miss Alma E. Dorst is the Super- 
visor of Penmanship, having held the 
position since 1923. She has taken 
work in both Zanerian and the Pal- 
mer Schools of Penmanship and has 
supervised both systems. During the 
first years of her training she had 
the privilege of being a pupil of Mr. 
C. P. Zaner. Miss Dorst has had wide 
experience in her chosen line of work 
and is well qualified as a supervisor. 
Her success is demonstrated by the 
fact that during her four years of 
supervision in Oak Park the work in 
Penmanship has been greatly im- 
proved. Miss Dorst's experience in 
supervision of Penmanship covers a 
total period of ten years, six being 
outside of the State of Illinois. 

The method of supervision in Oak 
Park is termed "Call System" where- 
by a teacher calls a supervisor by 
card. This card is filed in the office 
of the Principal and is inspected by 
the Supervisor as soon as she enters 
the building. The work of the Super- 
visor of Handwriting is carried on 
without the aid of assistants directly 
under Supervisor. Each teacher is an 
assistant, having been trained for the 
work thru a teacher's training class, 
and is held responsible for the results 
of her class work. This method en- 
courages a splendid spirit of cooper- 
ation. 

Various methods of improving 
handwriting are used. Each room 
has a handwriting scale placed within 
easy access nf pupils. Three tests are 
given thruout the year and the results 
written on a chart which is placed 
where pupils may see how they rank 
with others in the class. Once a ye.T 
all notebooks, spelling blanks, etc. are 
inspected by the Supervisor. Such 
procedure helps to bring the "Cany 
Over" work up to a desired stand- 
ard and encourages the class-room 
teacher in her effort to maintain a 
high level of work. 



The Congress Hotel of Chicago has 
been selected as headquarters and the 
meetings will be held there. One day 
will be spent visiting the Oak Park 
Schools. H. C. Walker. 



AIMS IN EDUCATION 

In his inaugural address, Dr. Arthur 
S. Pease, newly elected president of 
Amherst College, Amherst, Mass., 
stated his views on the aims of edu- 
cation as follows: 

"Education, like religion, poli- 
tics and the weather, seems to be 
a subject upon which anyone, re- 
gardless of age, sex or previous 
condition of ignorance, is per- 
mitted to speak without let or 
hindrance. Some of us theorize 
at large with a vague yet none 
the less insistent dogmatism, 
while others, especially the pro- 
fessors of education, intrench 
themselves within a barbed-wire 
entanglement of pedagogical ter- 
minology." 

The Threefold Aims 
"Let me, then," he continued, 
announce my conviction that in 
education the aims are threefold; 
first, to fit us for the more suc- 
cessful practice of our respective 
callings; second, to enrich and re- 
fresh our lives with more intelli- 
gent and varied avocations; and 
third, to render us more helpful 
in our manifold relations to the 
community at large." 
Doubtless the aims of education in 
the past have shifted from goal to 
goal, and they are likely to so shift 
in the future, but to state the aims 
from time to time is a thought- 
provoking exercise and no doubt 
highly beneficial to anyone, no matter 
how well or poorly educated he may 
be. It is well for us to think of what 
we are trying to do. What is our edu- 
cational aim ? If we haven't any we 
ought to find it out. Do our aims 
agree with those of Dr. Pease ? 



rtistir (luuiissiiuj 
ana lluminatingof 

^morials^i'^iiliilitin'.v^i'rtlimoniajft 

K||iarler§ *!f-ii\ forjFrniiiiini lir-Mumi Jinnn. 

©ipliiiiuiSjintfrrtilirnlpSinaiifjiioJRllriiL 

22 JOftSl 3Hlhi>iriTl Uliliuiiiiilmi. iMuuarp 



Is the ideal ink for penmen. Nothing finer for cardwriting and contest specimens. 

f>0c per bottle. Mailing charge 10c extra. 
A. P. MEUB, Penmanship Specialist, 152 North Hill Avenue, Pasadena, Calif. 



*f <<MJ&uJi/KM&&uMfcr & 



SINCE WE LEFT THE FARM 
3y E. L. Blystone, The Penman-Poet 



Arda 

When I was young 
1 left my father's fa 
Things seemed dull ; 
And held for me no 



nd fo 
rid' lor 



Oh! boy thi: 



To dr 
You r 
Like c 



the life. 

thing doing her 



always so 
e away yo 
rer will get loneso 

the farm Til swea 



But now I've had my fill of it, 
1 wish that I could go. 
Back to dear old father's farn 
Where things once seemed so 



the 



Oh I how mv poor heart aches 
For that jood old ham and gr 
And those good old buckwhea 



Things have changed sir 
My dear old father's far 
The things I thought wi 
Now hold for me some c 

Especially that old swim 
Along the meadow creek 
Where all the boys went 
At least one day a week 

How I'd like to crawl the 
At cherry picking time, 
For things 1 hated when 
Just now I'd think were 

Hunting for those chesti 
Would fill my life with 
And with a great long \ 
Knock them off the tree. 



I have left, 
dreary then, 



trees, 
kid. 



The thing that I hav, 
I repeat, my poor heart acl 
Is that good old country sa 
And those good old buckwhe 

And then around at Hallowe 
Say did we have the fun. 
Nuts we'd crack most every 
When all our work was done 

And at those country dances 
We country lads would shine 
We'd swing those country la 
To music that was fine. 



ddle, 
!ed the 



And the 



ad at Chr 



But I was yo 
1 said to farmer Brov 
The country is too lc 
I'm going off to town 



mother stuffed, 
d foolish then. 



Mv heart it almost breaks, 
When I think of that good gra' 
And those good old buckwheat 



RIDER TEACHERS 
AGENCY 

RIDER BLDG., TRENTON, N. J. 

Commercial Teachers for 

Public and Private Schools, 

Normal Schools and 

Colleges 

Free Registration Bell Phone 8159 

All Dealings Confidential 
W. R. MURPHY, Mgr. 

Distinctive Service 



31 



POSITIONS FILLED OUTSIDE THE HIGH SCHOOL FIELD 

Besides high school positions filled in 192 7. these are some of the more imoortant insti. 



high school p 
tutions that engaged our 
School of Forestry, Bottine 
tute, Philadelphia; State N 
Adams, Mass.; Maine Schc 
help you? 



filled in 1927. these are some of the 
linees; Bryant St Stratton College, Pro\ 
N. D.; Universal Institute. Fort Wayne 
al School. Plattsburgh, N. Y.; Bliss Bus 
of Commerce, Auburn. Midyear calls a 



ant insti- 
dence, R. I.; State 
Ind.; Drexel Insti- 
ness College, North 
May we 



THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. (A Specialty by a Specialist) E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. 

Westward Ho! Alaska to New Mexico 



Enroll early for best vacancies, free e 

E. L. HUFF TEACHERS AGENCY 



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MISSOULA, MONTANA 




oblique styl 
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quantities to teachers and dealers. Write for prices. 



A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

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THE COMPENSATION RECEIVED BY LETTERING PRICE TICKETS AND SHOW CARDS FOR THE 
SMALLER MERCHANT, OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical lettering outfit consisting of 3 Marking and 
3 Shading Pens. 1 color of Lettering Ink. sample Show Card in colors. Instructions, figures and alphabeti 
prepaid !1 on PRACTICAL COMPENDIUM OF COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERING AND DESIGNS 
100 Pages 8ill. containing 122 plates of Commercial Pen 
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THE NEWTON AUTOMATIC SHAOING PEN CO. 
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POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



GOOD OPENINGS 



SPECIALISTS' 

%/ EDUCATIONAL BUREAU 



Good openings are always reported 
to us in January. September vacan- 
cies will soon be on file. If avail' 
able, write us for quality" service. 

Robert A. Grant, President 
Shubert-Rialto Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 



Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



32 



^ <!fflJ&iid/n4M&&u&&r & 



Story of the 

ASSOCIATED SCHOOLS AND 

COLLEGES OF DENVER 

Including the 
Denver College of Music, The 

Chappell School of Art, The 

Barnes Commercial School, and 

the Central Vocational College, 

Inc. 

[Combinations seem to be the order 
of the day, not only among business 
concerns, but among schools and even 
churches. 

One of the largest combinations 
among private schools that we have 
heard of is the association recently 
formed in Denver, Colo., of four of 
the leading institutions of that city. 
The Barnes Commercial College has 
long been known as one of the high- 
est grade commercial schools in the 
country and we understand that each 
of the other schools is a leader in its 
line. 

No doubt, private commercial school 
men will watch with interest the re- 
sults of this new association of 
schools, for if it proves a success, as 
we have every reason to believe that 
it will, it may mean similar combina- 
tions in other cities. 

We are well acquainted with H. E. 
and R. P. Barnes, of the Barnes 
School. They are energetic men of the 
best type and we congratulate them 
on their large undertaking. An an- 
nouncement of the plans and purposes 
follows.] 

Denver has acquired what is in 
effect a large down-town college 
through a cooperative alliance be- 
tween the Central Vocational Col- 
lege, The Denver College of Music, 
The Chappell School of Art, and the 
Barnes Commercial School, four 
highly specialized schools which are 
already well established. These in- 
stitutions will function in their co- 
operative plan under the title of The 



Associated Schools and Colleges of 
Denver. Officers elected for the first 
year are Dr. Rolland M. Shreves, 
President; Dr. Edwin J. Stringham, 
vice-president: H. A. W. Manard, 
Secretary-Treasurer. The Board of 
Directors includes, besides the officers 
named, H. E. and R. P. Barnes, 
George O. Marrs and John C. Wilcox. 

The magnitude of this educational 
organization is sensed when one 
learns that it brings into cooperative 
service a faculty of 100 teachers, an 
annual student enrollment of about 
3,000, and buildings and equipment to 
a total value of about $500,000. 

The objects of this Association are 
primarily to secure a higher degree 
of cooperation between the Institu- 
tions included in its membership, to 
more fully utilize their respective 
facilities and equipment and to avoid 
unnecessary competition and duplica- 
tion of study subjects and courses. It 
is also expected that new courses, 
made possible through this alliance, 
will attract to Denver a large num- 
ber of students who have heretofore 
been obliged to go elsewhere for cer- 
tain lines of specialized training. 
Combined courses for public school 
teachers who in addition to academic 
subjects must include music, art and 
commercial training, will be offered 
in the summer school, for which an 
extraordinary large enrollment is 
anticipated. 

A committee on joint schedules, 
credits and credentials will supervise 
the scholastic programs of the schools 
in the Association to avoid conflicts 
and duplications, and to see that the 
standards and credit requirements are 
maintained at the highest possible 
level. An Advisory Committee, rep- 
resenting the leading Universities, 
Colleges and Educational Bodies of 
this part of the country, has been in- 
vited to supervise the credit stand- 
ards of the Associated Schools. 

The first joint activity of the newly- 
formed Association will be a dinner 



meeting of the combined faculties at 
the Colburn Hotel. Leading educa- 
tors of the city and state will be 
guests, and the principal speaker will 
be C. C. Brown, Western representa- 
tive of the North-Central Association 
of Schools and Colleges and high 
school visitor for the University of 
Colorado. 

The Central Vocational College be- 
gan its new Scientific Grade School on 
December 5, 1927. 



Englewood Business College 

A choicy, rich looking catalog has 
been received from Englewood Busi- 
ness College, Chicago, Illinois. Few 
catalogs are received which are more 
convincing. 

F. B. Bellis a former Zanerian pu- 
pil is the president of this thriving in- 
stitution and our friend and former 
pupil, John S. Griffith heads the pen- 
manship department. 



A Suggestion to Business Colleges 

R. C. Bishop, Concord, N. H., sug- 
gests that business colleges mail 
monthly records of each pupil's ac- 
complishments and progress to a sel- 
ected list of prospective employers. A 
plan of this kind would be good ad- 
vertising for the business college and 
would be the means of locating many 
students. After all the success of the 
business college depends to a large ex- 
tent upon being properly located. 

Miss Eva M. Langdon of Huntington. W. 
Va.. has recently accepted a position to 
teach in Wasatch Academy, Mt. Pleasant. 
Utah. 



CONGRATULATIONS 
Mary Ada was born at the home of 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas M. Nelson, 
Jamestown, N. Y., Dec. 11, 1927. Mr. 
Nelson, "Zanerian 1920, '21, '22, '23," 
is President of the Jamestown Busi- 
ness College. 




OLD PENMEN'S CONTEST 

We are pleased to present some 
nourishing and business writing from 
1'. A. Westrope, 2215 Vine Street, 
Denver, Col., who is sixty-nine and 
one-half years of age. Mr. Westrope 
IS a well preserved man. He believes 
thoroughly in exercising and guards 
his health in every way. 

While Mr. Westrope does not fol- 
low penmanship professionally he 
finds great pleasure in working at 
penmanship as a pastime. 



_J<^2^^^>£-<Z<Z-Z<^^ 



^ ttffie&ti&MtM&diuzi&r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit. 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

A Practical Text on Bookkeeping, Ac- 
counting, Financing and Business 
Management, by the Benjamin 
Franklin Business Institute. The 
text book plus lesson material is 
$10.65 F. 0. B. Chicago. 



ths 



This material is published in loose leaf fo 
adjustable to a 3, 6. 10. 12 or 18 m 
training. Lesson charts to enable tuto 
properly direct and correct each lesson ai 
ranged to simplify training. 

Lesson material comprising mode 
ing forms, the text setting forth advantage 
and disadvantages of each, detailing wht 
and when not to use them. Student works c 
five different sets of books exactly like tho: 
used by business houses. 



By-Products in the Packing Industry, 

by Rudolf A. Clemen, Assistant Di- 
rector, Armour's Livestock Bureau 
Published by the University of Chi- 
cago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Cloth 
cover, 410 pages. 

In no branch of American Industry has a 
more significant and fascinating development 
taken place than is offered by the amazing 
ramifications of by-product manufacture in the 
packing industry. In his new book. Dr. 
Clemen describes and evaluates the entire field, 
discussing in detail products which are close 
to the everyday life of the American people, 
but about which the public has little accurate 
information. Through association with Ar- 
mour's Livestock Bureau, Dr. Clemen pos- 
sesses a vast amount of technical knowledge 
concerning the processes of manufacture, as 
well as the economic aspects of the by-pro- 
ducts of meat packing, and he has here pre- 
sented the economic and technical phases of 
the subject more thoroughly than has ever 
been done before. 

Hides and skin, wool and hair, soap, phar- 
maceuticals, fats and oils, glue, gelatin, and 
the whole range of by-products from thyroid 
glands to tennis strings have been traced 
through the stages of their manufacture and 
discussed from the economic point of view. 



"Changing Practice in Handwriting 
Instruction'*, Paul V. West, Ph.D., 
School of Education, New York 
University, by the Public School 
Publishing Company, Bloomington, 
Illinois. 

Contains suggestions and discussions based 
upon a survey of present practices and prob- 
lems in teaching handwriting. The discussions 
in the book are based upon the results of a 
very comprehensive questionnaire which was 
answered by 194 teachers, 135 writing super- 
visors and 51 special teachers of handwriting. 



Interpretation of Educational Meas- 
urements, by Truman Lee Kelley, 
Ph.D., Professor of Education and 
Psychology, Stanford University. 
Published by the World Book Com- 
pany, Yonkers-on-H u d s o n, New 
York. Cloth cover, 363 pages. 

The correct interpretation of scores deter- 
mines the real value of testing — its benefits to 
the individual child and its influence for good 
in education. Test users should know all there 
is to be known about it. 

In Interpretation of Educational Measure- 
ments. Professor Kelley throws new light upon 
the recurrent questions of the reliability, of 
the validity, and of the practical significance 
of standard test scores. His treatment is 
thorough, sane, and penetrating, as would be 
expected of one whose expert knowledge of 



statistics and wide experipence in testing have 
fitted him ideally to handle the subject. He 
goes beyond earlier descriptive and statistical 
works on mental measurement. He explains 
and illustrates the correct interpretation of test 
scores for pupil classification and guidance in 
view of the universality of error in measure- 
ment and the reliability and validity of avail- 
able tests. 



Problems in Business Correspondence, 
by Carl A. Naether, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of English, University of 
Southern California. Published by 
the McGray-Hill Book Co., Inc., 
New York. Cloth cover, 194 pages. 

There is an urgent need on the part of 
teachers of business letter writing for 
thoroughly practical and up-to-date case 
material, a need which this book of prob- 
lems is meant to supply. 

Wherever possible, the problems have 
been based on actual and important busi- 
ness transactions as they were handled sue- 
cessfully by means of letters. In most 
cases data were secured fresh from the 
letter files of numerous large, well-known 
firms with whose successful correspondence 
policies any earnest student of the subject 
should be eager to become familiar. In 
other words, the exercise material contained 
in the following pages will acquaint the stu- 
dent with the conditions under which firms 
enjoying a national reputation and engaged 
in varied lines of business transact busi- 
ness by letter, and it will thus afford him 
an intimate knowledge of the correspon- 
dence policies and practices of these firms. 



GREAT OR GOOD 



ABNER E. J. REESER. 
1503 N. George St., York, Pa. 

"Oh. how I wish I were a man. 
What wondrous things I'd do, 
I'd write such books that all the world 
Would read them through and through.' 

The fire flashed from his eyes as if 

He thought it hard to wait ; 
His mother whispered. "'First be good; 

Then, if you will, be great." 

The boy sprang from his mother's side 

With footsteps light and gay ; 
But dreams of fame were with him still 
Amid his childish play. 

Years passed away, and he had grown 

At length to man's estate ; 
Alas ! he cared not to be good. 

But only to be great. 

"He wrote : men read ; the world around 
Was rinsing with his name ; 
His early dreams had never reached 
To such a height of fame. 



Yet 



would he sigh, as if withii 
is heart felt desolate — 
f it were a weary thing 
) walk amongst the great. 



"Ye humble ones." he cried, "who tr 
The path of duty well. 
The peace of mind I may not find 
Stoops down with you to dwell. 

"I would that I had lived, like you. 
Content in low estate ; 
Oh ! could I have my life again, 
I would be good, not great." 



Home Study: High School, Bookkeep- 
ing, Shorthand, Typewriting, Normal, 
Engineering, Higher. Accountancy, 
Civil Service, Law, and other courses 
thoroughly taught by mail. Now is the 
time to enroll. Bulletin free. Address, 
CARNEGIE COLLEGE, Rogers, Ohio. 



HIGH GRADE 



Diplomas^ 

CERTIflCATES. 



Catalog and Samples Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND, MAINE. 



FRANCIS L. TOWER 

501 Pleasant St.. Boston Heights. Hammonton, H. 1. 

Newly written copies with complete instructions accom- 
panied by CHART. Let me tell you the secret now 
how scientific penholdins should he used successfully 
for the production of gracefully large, bold, dashy and 
rapidly shaded writing, and gracefully medium, fine 
and delicately tinted styles offhand, all of which types 
embrace the practical and most skillful, intricate lines 
of professional execution and control. Personal instruc- 
tion and lessons by mail. Circular FREE. Send stamp 
for fancy signatures. 




AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send I Oc. A. P. MEUB, Expert Penman, 
452 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena. Calif. 




LEARN AT HOME DURING SPARE TIME 

Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free. Your 
name on card if you encloBe stamp. F. W. 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg., Kansas City. Mo. 




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Regular Departments 

ship Arithmetic Civics 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 

rice $1.50 per year. Sample on request 

PARKER PUBLISHING CO., 
Taylorville, 111. 



34 



*± f^J^uJ//i^^(^uw^r & 



N. Y. GREGG SHORTHAND 

TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION 

"Writing shorthand at 220, 260, and 280 
words a minute. Martin J. Dupraw provided a 
sensation for the teachers of the New York 
City Gregg Shorthand Teachers' Association 
who met at the Hotel Pennsylvania on De- 
cember :j. Mr. Dupraw also addressed the 
conference on speed development in shorthand 
as it can be applied through the school course. 
Easy flowing writing with little attention to 
actual speed, he advocated, as speed naturally 
follows. 

Harold H. Smith, assisted by student- from 
the Haaren High School, gave a most interest- 
ing demonstration of the possibilities of music 
in the teaching of typewriting. Various 
rhythms — slow, medium, and fast— were dem- 
onstrated, and he showed how drills in type- 
writing must be practiced to strict rhythm in 
order to establish finger control. 

The Question Box brought forth much dis- 
cussion and it has been decided to carry this 
as a regular event at each meeting of the 
Association. 

The meeting was presided over bv Thomas 
G. O'Brien, proprietor of Drake's Business 
Schools. 

The next meeting of the New York City 
Gregg Shorthand Teachers' Association will be 
held February 18, 1928. 



PENMANSHIP IN MINNESOTA 

The Minnesota State Penmanship 
Association held an interesting meet- 
ing on Nov. 11 at Minneapolis. The 
following subjects were discussed with 
much interest. 

Penmanship 
Mabel Cottingham, presiding 
Modern Trends in Handwriting— 15 minutes — 
Lily Maddux. Supervisor of Writing. Teach- 
ers College, St. Cloud. 
Professional Gleanings from the N.A.P.S. Con- 
vention in Philadelphia- MO minutes — F. J. 
Duffy. Supervisor of Writing, Duluth Public 
Schools. 
Correlation of Spelling and Penmanship in the 
Primary Grades— 20 minutes— Jessie E. Al- 
drich. Supervisor of Writing, Sioux Falls. 
South Dakota. 
American Mail Service and Legibility — 20 min- 
utes— Chas. J. Moos. Postmaster, St. Paul. 
Handwriting in Business and Professional Life 








1 


The 


Texts you will eventually teach. 


Almost one-half million sold — Short- 


hand, Typewriting, Dictation., English, 


Spelling. Writing, and Bookkeeping. 


Write lor descriptive price list 


Byrne Publishing Co. 


DALLAS, TEXAS 




If you write poor and with diffi 
culty. I con sho 
steady your ne 

cl tin ns-prinl Send 
for FREE BOOK, "How To Become an Ex- 
perl Penman." which explains my Method of 
Teaching Penmanship by Mail and what stu- 
dents have done by taking my courses. 
Your name will be elegantly written on a 
card if you enclose stamp to pay postage. 
SEND TODAY before you forg.t it 

T. M. TK\ IS. 

BOX 2SC CHILLICOTHE, MO., USA 



—15 minutes— H. M. Temple, Certified Pub- 
lie Accountant. Temple Webb Co., St. Paul. 

Business. 

Measurinj; the Results of Penmanship Instruc- 
tion—Paul A. Carlson, State Normal School. 
Whitewater, Wisconsin. 



THE N. A. P. T. S. CONVENTION 

HEADQUARTERS, CONGRESS 

HOTEL, CHICAGO 

The members of the N. A. P. T. S. 
will be pleased to learn that the Ex- 
ecutive Committee has chosen the 
Congress Hotel as the headquarters 
for our 1928 Convention, April 25, 26, 
27. After having given careful con- 
sideration to the accommodations of- 
fered by numerous Chicago hotels, it 
was decided that the Congress is 
more nearly ideal in every respect. 
The quiet, refined and exclusive at- 
mosphere of this hotel meets the 
needs of educational and professional 
groups. 

Because of Chicago's central loca- 
tion, it will draw a large delegation 
from all parts of our country. Every 
supervisor and teacher of handwriting 
should plan to attend the 1928 Con- 
vention. A splendid program is be- 
ing prepared by the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Send In 

your favorite Motto. Poem 



ed. Yo 
:r. Superb let 
Up to 3 5 wor 
>er word for e; 



•ill admire it 
ing. Artistic 

for $1.50. If 
, additional wc 



add 5c i 

A. L. HICKMAN 

ROUTE 1 WICHITA, KANS. 

EARN $1.00 TO $2.00 HOUR 
SPARE TIME 



is. Every town has marke 
Scientific, practical coursi 

Titers contribute to coursi 
$1000.00 in prizes. Mille 

r fourth lesson. Get fre 



Making sho 

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mak.-s care 
information. 

BOTTS BUSINESS COLLEGE 
Botts Building Guthrie. Okla 



Your Visit to 'HewTorX 

may he anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

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"One minute from Broadway" 

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$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



FOR SALE 

Two very large scrapbooks each 
containing hundreds of beautiful 
specimens of pen work represent- 
ing the skill of the greatest pen- 
men of the past forty years. These 
are The Original Fielding Scho- 
field Scrapbooks. 

$250.00 each. 
A. McINTYRE, 2249 Cranston St. 
Meshanticut Parh. Cranston, R. I. 



Kenilworth Inn 

ASHEVILLE, N. C. 

SPECIAL WEEKLY RATES 
Spend Your Spring Vacation 
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special weekly rate for your family - 
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Further information upon request 

ROSCOE A. MARVEL, Mgr. 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship and 
Commercial Education 
Contains Lessons in 
Business Writing 
Accounting 
Ornamental Writing 
Lettering 
Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price $1.25. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

SS Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer 6: 
Phonographic World) 
A monthly magazine covering all 
departments of Commercial Education. 
Strong departments presided over by 
well known teachers for those who teach 
any branch of commercial education, in- 
cluding business administration, account- 
in. v. ind court reporting. 
The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 
Single copy 15c. Annual subscription $ 1 .50 
Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 



<j^w&u&/ie^&&u&/tr' *§* 



35 








This specimen v 
The corner decoratic 



itten by C. H. Spryer, 7701 Frankstown, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
e by Parker Zaner Bloser. 




LEARN ENGROSSING 

Thirty Lesson Plates and 
Printed Instructions mailed 
to any address on receipt of 
two dollars. Cash or P. O. 
Money Order. 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator and 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg. 

SCRANTON, PA. 



EDWARD C. MILLS 



DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 

Neatly Engrossed 

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The Business Educator 

Penmanship and Commercial Education 
Volume XXXIII FEBRUARY, 1928 Number VI 




Published monthly except July and Aueust at 612 N. Park St., Columbus, O.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered as second-class matter 
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Zanerian Summer School 



For Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students 

Each year during the summer a special intensive six weeks' course (usually from July 5 to August 13), is given in 
Modem Handwriting Methods for Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students. This course gives teachers and those 
with limited time a chance to prepare during vacation period to teach handwriting and to improve their skill in plain 
business handwriting or in any of the other branches of penmanship anil Lettering. Many teachers have attended as 
high as five or six summer terms. A number of nationally known instructors are employed each summer to present 
latest in methods to our summer school pupils. 



The following are some of the men and women who have been instructors in Zanerian Summer Schools: 

A. G. Skeeles, Supervisor of Writing, Columbus, Ohio. 



C. E. Doner, .Massachusetts State Normal Schools. 

D. C. Beighey, Supr. of Writing, Indianapolis, Ind. 
H. L. Darner, Stanton Motor Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
C. Spencer Chambers, Supervisor of Writing, Syracuse, 

N. Y. 
Alma E. Dorst, Supervisor of Writing, Oak Park, 111. 
Elizabeth Landon, Supervisor of Writing, Binghamton, 

N. Y. 
J. A. Savage, Supervisor of Writing, Omaha, Nebr. 
Frank H. Arnold, Supervisor of Writing, Spokane, Wash. 
Dr. Frank N. Freeman, Prof. Educational Pcychology, 

University of Chicago. 
C. C. Lister, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, 

Brooklyn. 



Helen E. Cotton, Supervisor of Writing, Schenectadv, 
N. Y. 

Adelaide Snow, Teacher, Riverside High School, Mil- 
waukee. 

Harriett Graham, Supervisor of Writing, Springfield, O. 

A. M. Hinds, Supervisor of Writing, Louisville, Ky. 

Agnes E. Wetherow, formerly Representative of the 
Zaner-Bloser Company. 

Tom Sawyier, formerly Director of Writing in Indian- 
apolis and Milwaukee. 

Dr. W. O. Doescher, Prof. Psychology and Philosophy, 
Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. 



iNJXdVi 



SCHEDULE AND COURSE OF STUDY FOR ZANERIAN SUMMER SCHOOL 

July 5 to August 13. Students may enroll earlier to take additional work. 

METHODS OF TEACHING PENMANSHIP 



8 


00 to 


9 


00- 


Pi a 


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of 


Teach 




Penma 


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PRACTICE OF TEACHING PENMANSHIP 



n,. 






is is quite interesting e 
'en with a two- fold purpose. One i 
lashy. graceful handwriting, and th 
ictice it, teaching. 
Model lessons are given and criticisms 
ith the view of training pupils to p 



jder 



tions in this 

Many pr 

just the dri 

teaching. Y 



lems will be \ 
you need to 
w.ll find the 



ny practic 
ked 



,1 ide 



Drills 



.I,,., 1,1.- sugge 



i\ help. 



rk twice each 


day. Crit 


struct ion a are 

-from-the-pen 
rking models 
thod of instr 


given for 
copies ar 
and show 
jction ena 



BUSINESS PENMANSHIP. ANALYSIS 
AND THEORY 

We inspect each pu-ril's 
offered and suggestions ant 
ment. and when needed fr 

which give pupils the best working models and show the 
actly how to proceed. C 

give each pupil the help which is best suited to him i 
particular needs. 

This personal interest in pupils is one of the things 
has helped to make the Zanerian the unique scho< 
Students come to the Zanerian from all parts of the cou 
get our personal criticisms and Instructions. They hav 
the means of developing America's finest penmen. It in- 
spiration to see the instructors dash off beautiful cop 
the common remark by students. Seeing work execute* 
fully creates in students a desire to improve as nothi: 
will. A feature of the Zanerian Summer School is the pi 
helpful interest shown by our teachers in every student. 



rin 






and supervisors. Discuss 
manship for all grades. I 
manship; Methods of Pi 
Specimens According to 
Small Children, and vari< 
Writing and the new Cor 



sting and helpful 



Lies; Outli 
:imely prol 
ed Handwi 



for teachers 
School Pen- 
nd Private School Pen- 
it in g Surveys; Grading 
es; Large Writing for 
lems of Arm Movement 
ting. 



The blackb. 



BLACKBOARD WRITING 

aid is one of the best tools and every teacher 



PSYCHOLOGY 



Psychology, five hou 
mental principles of the 
scientific and philosophic 
behavior. The course w 
in..l./..tion and the mot, 
writing. 

NOTE: This course 
direction of Capital In.' 
Hours credit for the sat 
be given by Capital Uni' 

PREREQUISITE: Cr. 



tubje 





A study of the 



study of habitati 
the psychology 



>f hand- 



•q« 



Will be given in o 

v,..lv. Columbus. 

sfactorv completion of this course will 

•ers.ty. This credit will be transferable. 

.duation from first grade High School 



/. VNERIAN ROl'ND TABLE 



skillful teache 



isors. The oppor- 
at the round table 
tures of the Sum- 



A pa«e from the new Zanerian Catalog. Write for free copy if you arc interested in either residence or corre- 
spondence work in the Zanerian College of Penmanship, Columbus, Ohio. 



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^An Improved Approach to 
Bookkeeping 

Rational Bookeeping and Accounting introduces the subject of bookkeep- 
ing by means of an arithmetical treatment and logical correlation of ( 1 ) the 
fundamental accounting equation, (2) account construction and closing, and 
(3) statement preparation. 

The Fundamental Accounting Equation: This is elaborated into a quantitative sum' 
mary of assets, liabilities, and capital at the beginning of an accounting period and of 
increases and decreases in each of these three elements during the period. Horizontal 
addition and subtraction are required to calculate the amount of each asset and liability 
at the end of the period. 

Vertical addition reveals total assets, total liabilities, and capital, both at the begin- 
ning and at the end of the period, as well as total increases and decreases in each during 
the period. When completed, the summary or formula provides a complete picture of the 
causes and effects of changes in assets, liabilities, and capital during an entire accounting 
period. 

Account Construction and Closing: Using the same transactions that are summi- 
rized in the accounting equation, the student is next taken through a thorough drill in 
the construction and closing of asset, liability, and capital accounts. For purposes of 
gradation, only asset and proprietorship items are introduced at first. The quantitative 
summary required in the first step not only visualizes and motivates this drill in account 
construction and closing but also serves as a complete check on each account so con- 
structed and closed. 

Statement Preparation: From the account constructed in the second step statements are next pre- 
pared and the quantitative summary again serves as a complete check on them. For purposes of 
gradation, only the Balance Sheet is introduced at first but very soon the element of profit and loss 
is included and the preparation of a Statement of Profit and Loss is required. 

A critical examination and thoughtful consideration of the method of approach and of the whole 
underlying teaching plan will convince you that an adoption of Rational Bookkeeping and Account- 
ing will provide you with an indispensable tool in your bookkeeping classroom. 

Are you fully satisfied ivith the text you are now using? Are you convinced that it is the most 
efficient tool available for your own and your students' use? If not, you are cordially invited to ex- 
amine Rational Bookkeeping and Accounting. 

THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO TORONTO LONDON 



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New Times— New Ways 

Progress is inexorable. There is no 
standing still. 

The Gregg Normal Session will ac- 
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minute, result-producing methods of 
teaching Shorthand, Typewriting, 
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^^m^mmr-\ 



Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, FEBRUARY, 1928 



No. VI 



THE IMPORTANCE OF 
PENMANSHIP 

Handwriting will long remain one 
of the fundamental educational 
branches in our schools and colleges; 
and especially in the ele- 
In the mentary schools, where 

Educational pupils' advancement de- 
World pends to a considerable 
extent upon their written 
work. In fact, all through school from 
IB to A.B. or LL.D., the one who can 
write freely, easily, legibly and rap- 
idly has a great advantage over one 
who is handicapped with poor or slow 
penmanship. A good handwriting un- 
mistakably is of great value and of 
much importance in the educational 
world. 

But it need not analyze according 
to the standards set by the old time 
penman or copy books. If it is written 
with freedom and ease, is neat, and 
unmistakably plain in form it is good 
writing. 

It is readily seen that in the busi- 
ness world it is also very necessary 
and of great importance to be able to 
write freely, legibly and 
In the rapidly. We believe all will 
Business admit that every person 
World should at least learn to 
write his signature neatly, 
possibly with a touch of individuality, 
and in a way that leaves no doubt as 
to what each letter in it is; that is, it 
should be perfectly legible. Now the 
importance of being able to write 
one's signature is not questioned by 
anyone, because signatures are re- 
quired in practically all kinds of busi- 
ness transactions; but to learn to 
write a signature requires a certain 
amount of penmanship study and 
training. 

Writing machines relieve the drudg- 
ery when much written work is to be 
done. Yet one cannot have a machine 
with him at all times and it is there- 
fore readily seen that to be unable to 
write with a pen or pencil would be a 
serious inconvenience and prove of no 
small loss financially. In fact, writing 
with pen or pencil is the best training 
for one preparing to properly dictate 
to a stenographer or to a dictation 
machine, just as the ability to figure 
with a pencil is the best possible pre- 
liminary training for one who intends 



using an adding machine. 

In the social world the importance 
of penmanship is also readily seen. 
How cold a social letter would seem 

if written on the typewriter, 
In the including the signature. Here 
Social is where individuality, the 
World characteristics of the personal 

touch of the writer, possibly 
counts most. The value of the numer- 
ous manuscripts written by the great 
personages in the various fields of en- 
deavor in the past would be practi- 
cally worthless if they were not hand 
written. In fact, it would be difficult 
to state in which sphere penmanship 
is of most importance — The Educa- 
tional, The Business or The Social — 
for in the first and second it would be 
impossible to get along without it and 
in the third we believe no one would 
be willing to give up at least the per- 
sonal signature to a social letter for 
a cold typewritten one. 

It is stated that many good things 
must pass away, but at present hand- 
writing has such a firm hold that no 
one can predict its passing. It should 
be better today than ever before, since 
machines relieve the strain of too 
much writing, and all should take 
suffcient pride to do the writing that 
is necessary in an efficient and effect- 
ive maimer. 



When thinking of trying to make 
something beautiful we should not 
overlook the wonderful possibilities of 
the ready and willing good old steel 
pen. 



BEAUTY 

The yearning for it, the desire to 
express and possess it, are some of 
the greatest civilizers of mankind. For 
who can make beautiful things and 
cultivate beauty in any of the various 
arts or in literature and not be en- 
nobled by it? 

AH of us should endeavor to ex- 
press or create beauty to the extent 
of our ability, some in one field and 
some in another. 

He who fills a page with well ar- 
ranged free, legible business script or 
figures, has created a beautiful page. 

The beauty that can be expressed 
with the pen alone has as yet only 
been hinted. Think of the designs in 
engrossing, pen flourishing, fine pen- 
manship and of the various kinds of 
pen drawings that can be executed if 
we but had the ability to do this work 
as it is bound to be done by others in 
the future. 



FAMILIARIZING PUPILS WITH 

THE HISTORY OF FAMOUS 

PENMEN 

"In our Junior High School, only 
those pupils of average or low grade 
penmanship are obliged to study the 
subject. As you can imagine, inter- 
esting such a group is not an easy 
matter. I have formed a Penmanship 
Club where all those who are inter- 
ested are learning lettering and an 
appreciation of good handwriting and 
famous writers. I am also planning 
to use the Business Educator to in- 
spire my students to win more cer- 
tificates later in the year." 

The above is quoted from a letter 
received from Miss Evelyn E. Faulds, 
Supervisor of Penmanship in the Pub- 
lic Schools of Lexington, Mass. 

Teachers can create interest in good 
handwriting by familiarizing pupils 
with the lives and work of America's 
best penmen. Penmen have had much 
to do with the development of com- 
mercial education in this country. 
Much material can be gathered from 
the Business Educator for such a 
project. The series, "Famous Letters 
by Famous Penmen," now running in 
the B. E. contains work from many of 
the finest penmen. 



COURTESY 

"Courtesy is the one medium of ex- 
change which is accepted at par by 
the best people of every country on 
the globe. It is sentiment cloaked in 
reasonable and businesslike expression 
— the embellishment that adds tone 
and harmony to matter-of-fact routine 
— the oil which lubricates the machin- 
ery of commercial good-fellowship 
and promotes the smooth running of 
the many units of an organization. 

Courtesy radiates a spirit of good 
feeling that we are not working en- 
tirely for what we get out of work in 
a material way, but for the pleasure 
of polite transaction and friendly as- 
sociation as well. Life is not too short 
and we are never too busy to be 
courteous." 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 

By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., 

612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O. 

E. W. Bloser -------- Editor 

E. A. Luffbr ----- Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.25 A YEAR 

(To Canada. 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teachers 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy 
must reach our office by the 10th of the montfc 
for the issue of the following month. 



^^&u&/i^&&uu£r & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



122 

123 .^J!t^??zJLf.^cL&7^ 

124 -^l^^gd^ 

To the Teacher: Practice each lesson before class if only for a few minutes and you will secure better results. 

Copy 122. Make the b same as the 1 except the finish which is like v. Avoid making it too wide at bottom. 
Be sure that b does not look like li or le. Check the motion on the retrace. Count: 1-2, finish. 

Copies 123-124. See what part of your work is weak by studying the copy; then drill on that part. If it is 
loops, you need more work on loops and loop exercises. Two important things to consider in writing are ease of exe- 
cution and the ease with which your product can be read. 



126 



127 



Copy 125. Every exercise should have a definite purpose. This exercise helps to round out the bottom turn. 
It also helps on the retrace. Count: loop-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8, finish. The comma after 8 denotes a pause. 

Copies 126-127. The V is about the same as small v except that it starts like capital H. It is very important 
that the letter be finished high or it will look like U. A common tendency is to make it too wide. See that the bottom 
is rounding. 

Copy 128. Some like this finish on the V. One way of finishing a letter may be a little more beautiful than 
another, but the finishing stroke is not an essential and does not affect the reading qualities. Count: 1-2-3. Swing off 
freely with arm movement. Don't let the fingers "chew gum." 



129 
130 
131 
132 







^ 



a^lA^a^t/../. 



Copies 129-130. The beginning and ending strokes are the same as in V. The W also is much like U. Keep 
it narrow, free and graceful. Get two turns at the bottom, and a turn, angle and a retraced finish at the top. Keep the 
finish high. Count: 1-2-3-4, finish. Keep the down strokes on the same slant and avoid twisting the compound curve too 
much. 

Copy 131. This style contains three angles. The beginning stroke is exactly the same as in H. The spaces in 
the letter should be uniform. Finish about two-thirds as high as first part. Count: 1-2-3-4. 

Copy 132. Heads up, and shoulders back. Study the copy carefully and don't be afraid to do plenty of work. 



Now is the time to work for a Penmanship Certificate. Write for illustrated circular 
showing various penmanship certificates and requirements to earn each. 



Copy 133. It is well to dissect letters and work on the parts. Curve the up stroke well and make the down 
stroke straight. Try it with the arm, but if you can make it easier and better by using a little finger movement, do so. 
Some are more successful one way than another. Much depends on the individual. 

Copy 134. The h is a combination of 1 and n. Get the loop full, an angle at the bottom and two turns on the 
finishing part if you want to make a plain letter. Count: 1-2, 3-4 or 1, 2 giving a very slight pause at the angle. 

Copy 135. The k and h are very similar; in fact, many k's resemble poor h's because the break in the back 
of the last part is not definite enough. In the k make the second part taller than minimum letters and close the little 
loop. Count: 1-2, 3, 4. Notice the pauses at the angles. 

Copies 136-137. Shift the paper a number of times so that all down strokes can be pulled straight towards 
the center of the body, thus maintaining a uniform slant. Frequently review the things you are weakest in. 




Copy 138. Get a nice, graceful loop. Review copies 92 and 93. Be sure that the angles at the top are sharp 
and the turns at the bottom rounding. Keep the exercise rather compact. Count: loop-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8. 

Copies 139-140. Make the U as fast as you made the exercise. Cure the last part gracefully to the right. The 
U begins like M and N and ends like A. Count: 1-2-3 or loop-down-finish. 

Copy 141. Are you in the correct position? You can not get a good movement unless you are. See how easily 
you can learn to write this sentence. Pay special attention to turns and angles. Study the v in movement. 



138 ' 

139 "^T)")'" . — .~........ 





Copies 142-143. The Y begins like U and finishes like j. Bring the second part up high and don't let it get too 
far from the first part. Count: 1-2-3-4. No finger movement is advisable on capitals. 

Copy 144. Study the w's. Study each word separately before writing the sentence. 

Review copies given in previous lessons. Back numbers containing all lessons so far published can be secured. 



10 



t^MJ&ud/m^&faaz&r & 



SUPPLEMENTARY COPIES for 
PENMANSHIP PRACTICE 

Copies were written by Francis B. Courtney, Detroit, Mich. Instructions were written in the office of 

the B. E. 



INTRODUCTION 

The copies and instructions in this course were prepared with the view of stimulating interest in good writing, to 
present pupils with accurate inspiring copies, and to help pupils rightly estimate the value of good penmanship. In 
connection with these copies pupils should study and practice on the lessons in business writing now appearing in this 
magazine and which were begun in the October issue. You can still secure back numbers containing all the lessons 
of that course. 

Spend a few minutes each day on improving your penmanship. 




Good penmanship is a recommendation, not alone because it is good in itself, but because its by-products or qualities — 
application, neatness, perseverance, system, attention to details, etc., one or all invariably accompany it. Business men have 
noted this fact and therefore consider a good hand a guarantee of other desirable qualities. The thinking, the writing, the engrav- 
ing the printing, and the distributing of these little, skillful, graceful, truthful sermonettes have cost no small amount of money. 
They were gotten out for your benefit, and for the general good and improvement of penmanship. Opportunity, it is 
aid, knocks at every one's door once. This is your opportunity to recognize the importance and ^need of better penman- 
ship. Will you pass it by, or take advantage of it? In the language of the day, "It is up to you." 



c^^Lcst^S* 






-^Z^z^^^ef^i/^L-f^Cc 



£-^z-^-r 



And there is no other so little or poorly taught as writing in our public and high schools, colleges and universities. After 
all, reading, writing, and arithmetic are the things which should be taught more thoroughly than any other studies. Spelling, 
lential, as good penmanship makes bad spelling conspicuous. Writing is not secondary to any other, and should not 
receive secondary attention. Less written work in the public schools and more teaching of writing should be our war crv. 



^ ^^&u4//i^(2diuxi&r 



11 




Masters of some one thing are in demand ; not "jack of all trades and masters of none." People who can do something well 
ire educated more practically than are those who know a little of everything and who are unable to do much of anything. Education 
nowadays means able to do, as well as able to know. Knowledge applied is true worth. Head and hand co-operation accomplishes 
that which is impossible by either alone. Writing is a mental and manual art, therefore doubly valuable and desirable. 




These same young men wonder "why " others get the plums they have been desirous of picking without seriously questioning 
their own abilities, either mental or physical, and endeavoring thereby to find the real reason. Poor penmanship itself is not alone 
in the way, but it stands sponsor for other weaknesses as well, such as carelessness, inattention to details, lack or loss of nerve (not 
sand), inability to concentrate mind and muscle to the task at hand, and other evils or neutralizing forces which defeat progress and 
plum getting. Get a good handwriting and advancement will follow. Try it and see. 



2-Z--^<^£--Z5e---l^-i^/<S^-2^<£<i''*2-<^-^ 



Writing and money are two mighty factors in modern civilization. Newspapers give great headlines to the latter, and people 
misinterpret its true value. The former is rarely mentioned, but it is used to chronicle the world's events, to measure its forces, and 
to compute its wealth. The time is past when one may succeed without the former, and the time is near at hand when one must 
write well to succeed well. The great mass of humanity strives too much for the one and too little for the other. Do you see the 
point — grasp the situation ? 



12 



^ <?ffiJ&uJ/'/utiS&6u*z&r' & 




Positive, not negative, qualities force things to the front. Winsome, not whinesome, characteristics characterize those who 
achieve things Put more push in your writing, and less doubt in your ability to learn, and you will have half acquired the art of 
writing well. Hesitation defeats when confidence achieves. Writing is an acquired rather than a natural art. Therefore work with 
a vim and lines will strengthen and pulsate with gracefulness. See those above. 



PRIZE WINNING SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 
SUPERVISOR'S CONTEST — Philadelphia — April 27th, 28th, 29, 1927 

Specimen written by Miss Mary Smoleroff, Newark, New Jersey. Second Prize. 




Contest No. 5 — FOR MEMBERS — Specimen written by Mrs. Emma G. Myers, Brid^eton, New Jersey. First Prize. 
ft 






^ <!^&u4*n4M&&UMfor & 



13 




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The above cards were written by 
F. J. Smith, 10 Parker St., Holyoke, 
Mass. 

Mr. Smith is a graduate of New 
York University School of Accounts 
and Finance and has taken post grad- 
uate course in the College of the City 
of New York and in Columbia Uni- 
versity. Previous to that he attended 
the College of Pennsylvania. At the 
present time he is an accountant. Mr. 
Smith not only enjoys penmanship, 
but finds it a help in his accounting 
work. 



Send wor\ in blac\ in\ for the 
Students' Page. 



i *. it cm ." ■ f>»\ 




-_- D n was prepared by Madge 
ke College, Perth Amboy, N. J., 
ihip teacher. 








The above was written by Miss Felishe Saroiberry. an eighth grade pupil in Washing- 
ton School. Bakersfield. Calif. This work was taken from an 80-page regular class note- 
book which was filled with problems of arithmetic, arithmetical rules and drawings, all 
equal to this reproduction. The work was therefore prepared with no thought of having it 
engraved. Her teacher in arithmetic. Miss Myrtle Weaver, states that the arithmetic is as 
good as the writing. 

Miss Joyce Massey has been her writing teacher for the past two years and Miss 
Neva C. Fessenden is Supervisor of Handwriting in the Bakersfield Schools. Miss Saroi- 
berry's work plainly tells the story of her previous good instruction. 

It is a positive delight to receive a notebook like it, for the results it shows approach 
our ideal objectives in this work. Turn where vou will in the book, the work is neat, per- 
fectly legible, and shows that it was written rapidly. Miss Saroiberry writes a somewhat 
smaller hand than most persons write, but considering that she maintains a high degree of 
legibility, no criticism can be offered as regards its size. In fact, if one can write a small 
hand and maintain legibility such as she maintains, it is to be preferred to a larger hand. 

We congratulate Miss Saroiberry, her teachers, and her supervisor on the results 



14 



y/u ^Jt£j//ujj C</uiu6r* & 






The above easy graceful specimen of business writing was written by Alyce Vetter. a student in 
the Grand Island, Nebr., Business College. A. L. Dunn. President. We have had the pleasure of be- 
coming well acquainted with the penmanship teacher of that institution, Mr. McDonough, for he 
spent about a year in the Zanerian College of Penmanship. 



6Au^^^^ ^U^A^y 



■c^y 



//^^j^ ^^<^^4y 



CJ&S-C4S&ZS 'W^L^A^lS 



Here we have signatures of Junior High School pupils of Mannington. W. Va. They are better signatures than 
the average Junior High School student writes. 

Miss Certrude Burge. who sent us the signatures, is a very enthusiastic supervisor and teacher of handwriting. 
When she attended the Zanerian Summer School last year she brought a number of other teachers with her. In fact 
there were seven teachers from West Virginia at the Zanerian last summer specializing in handwriting. 




The above was written by Shigehiro J. Gotch in far away Tokicho-Tokigun. Gifu, Japan. The 
entire package of specimens which we received from him was equally as well written. He is headed 
for the top in penmanship. 



^ < : y/w*j£uJ//ujj &6uu/</- & 



15 



Report of The National Commercial 
Teachers' Federation 



The 30th annual^ convention of the 
National Commercial Teachers' Fed- 
eration held in the Hotel Baltimore, 
Kansas City, Missouri, Dec. 28- 
29-30, 1927, proved to be one of the 
largest, from the standpoints of mem- 
bership and attendance, and one of 
the most successful, from the stand- 
points of social and educational 
value, the Federation has ever held. 
A total of 764 members were enrolled 
of whom 350 paid their membership 
due;- in advance of the convention. Of 
the 764 members, 583 were in attend- 
ance at the convention. Forty-one 
states were represented. Missouri led 
in the number of members enrolled, 
with 136, but Kansas was first in the 
number of members present, with 114. 

It was truly a meeting of the east 
and the west, the north and the south. 
Kansas City lived up to its slogan, 
"The Heart of America, The City 
That Welcomes the Visitor." The As- 
sociation of Commerce cooperated in 
every way possible in making the con- 
vention at Kansas City a genuine 
success. 

The officers of the Federation and 
of the departments and round tables 
together with the local committee ar- 
ranged some of the strongest pro- 
grams of social and educational con- 
tent which have even been prepared 
by any previous set of officers and 
committees. The general program in- 
cluded addresses from many promi- 
nent business and professional men 
and women of the country. A full re- 
port of these addresses will be pub- 
lished later. The department pro- 
grams proved to be most interesting 
and instructive. The session rooms 
were crowded at each meeting. The 
Round Table programs were full of 
thought provoking problems which 
created lively and valuable discussion. 

The Federation took action on sev- 
eral items of importance indicating 
growth and progress. In the regular 
session of the Federation, they auth- 
orized the publication of a quarterly 
bulletin to carry its proceedings and 
news to the members. From the above 
figures it will be noted that approxi- 
mately one-sixth of the members find 
it impossible to attend the sessions. 
This bulletin will reach these mem- 
bers as well as others who care to re- 
view and preserve the excellent ad- 
dresses delivered at the sessions. 
This bulletin will reach them, and 
is designated also to serve many more 
commercial educators who may be- 
come interested if it is known they 
can keep in touch with the new things 



in commercial education through such 
a bulletin. 

The whole meeting seemed to be 
permeated with the idea of research 
and service in the field of education. 
Through the acceptance of the gen- 
erous offer of Mr. Willard J. Wheeler 
of a prize of $50.00 to the person do- 
ing the most effective piece of re- 
search work during the year, the 
Federation has indicated its desire to 
serve in a very definite manner. 

The executive committee received 
invitations from many cities to en- 
tertain the 1928 annual convention. 
After carefully considering the many 
invitations, the committee voted to 
hold the 1928 convention in Detroit, 
Michigan. The exact days were not 
fixed, but the meeting will be held as 
usual during the last week in Decem- 
ber. The new officers and committees 
are planning to make the 1928 con- 
vention even larger and more success- 
ful than the 1927 convention. The 
following is a list of the new officers 
for the ensuing year: 




CHARLES T. SMITH 

Kansas City Business College, the 

New President of the N.C.T.F. 



Officers of the Federation Depart- 
ments and Round Tables 
For 1928 



Federation Officers 

Chas. T. Smith, President 

Kansas City Business College, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 
J. Walter Ross, First Vice President 
South Hills High School, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
Nettie Huff, Second Vice President 



Huff's School of Expert Business, 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Charles A. Faust, Treasurer 

1024 N. Robey Street, Chicago, 
Illinois. 
C. M. Yoder, Secretary 
State Teachers College, Whitewater, 
Wisconsin. 

Public Schools Department 
Lloyd L. Jones, President 

Bureau of Child Accounting and 
Statistics, Board of Education, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
E. O. Zelliot, Vice President 

Roosevelt High School, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 
Elizabeth Smellage, Secretary 

Brown High School, Dallas, Texas. 
Private Schools Department 
Mr. S. J. Shook, President 

Topeka Business College, Topeka, 
Kansas. 
Miss Cunningham, Vice President 

Huntington, West Virginia. 
Anne Durbin, Secretary 

Brown's Business College, Decatur, 
Illinois, 1295 West Main Street. 
Shorthand-Typewriting Round Table 
C. A. McKinnev, Chairman 

Winfield High School, Winfield, 
Kansas. 
W. C. Maxwell, Vice Chairman 

Champaign High School, Cham- 
paign, Illinois. 
Miss Laura Hubbell, Secretary 
South High School, Omaha, Neb. 
Business Round Table 
C. D. Moore, Chairman 

Langley High School, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 
Florence Wingert, Vice Chairman 
East Side High School, Kansas City, 
Kansas. 
Adelaide Hakes, Secretary 

Gregg School, Chicago, Illinois. 
Penmanship Round Table 
R. R. Reed, Chairman 

Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Mich- 
igan. 
M. E. Tennis, Secretary 

Illinois Business College, Chicago, 

Illinois. 
College Instructors' Round Table 
Catherine F. Nulty, Chairman 

University of Vermont, Burlington, 
Vermont. 
Gertrude Bers, Vice Chairman 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 
Nebraska. 
Jane E. Clem, Secretary 

State Teachers College, White- 
water, Wisconsin. 



Have your pupils work on the two 
courses in business writing in the B.E. 
and see the results. 



16 



j//u 'JGum/ujj C t/tuu/sr & 



Supplementary Business Writing 

Br C C LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, New York City 




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a-zLs <!Z~-&CS 'c 



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s&rLs '<&^w^- t?-<^t^OcZ<7-t?-^£/^£4st^c~sL 



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Simple signatures for the beginners in ornate to imitate. Study proportion and shapes of letters. 



^ <5^&u4/M*M6<&ua&r & 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 




The past century has known three 
outstanding figures in the cause of 
good writing, ■ — Piatt R. Spencer, 
Charles Paxon 
A. N. Palmer, Zaner, and Austin 

An Appreciation N. Palmer. There 
have been other 
great penmen, of course, but measured 
by their influence on the penmanship 
of their generation, there will be few 
to dispute the supremacy of these 
great names. Even were I competent 
to the task, I should not feel like mak- 
ing the sudden passing of Mr. Palmer 
the occasion for any 
comparison of the pro- 
fessional merits of 
these great leaders. 
What I would do, is to 
offer some intimate 
personal impressions of 
the interesting man 
who has left us, gath- 
ered during my nearly thirty years of 
association with him. 

Mr. Palmer's career from boyhood 
up is an interesting story, even to 
those who might not care particularly 
about his achievements as a penman 
and teacher. And the story carries 
in it a fine lesson for every youth of 
character who would learn the value 
of steady, tireless and enthusiastic de- 
votion to a working ideal. It is the 
story of a life, dedicated with un- 
changing persistence to a single earn- 
est purpose. Such lives have a high 
value, quite apart from the relative 
importance of the purpose itself. 

Some time ago I had occasion in a 
reminiscent Meandering to refer to a 
rather picturesque but important pen- 
man and school-man named G. A. 
Gaskell, who, back in the seventies, 
held forth at Concord, New Hamp- 
shire. This fine penman and teacher 
became known to practically every 
teacher of writing in the country, and 
to many students of writing, as well, 
through the dissemination of an out- 
fit of beautifully written copies, with 
an accompanying Manual of Instruc- 
tions, which the author called "Gas- 
kell's Compendium," and which he ad- 
vertised widely through the "Youth's 
Companion," and other popular per- 
iodicals. At that time, I was an en- 
thusiastic young Kansas public school 
teacher, and I got hold of one of these 
"Compendiums", and at once became 
a devoted disciple of Mr. Gaskell, and 
his method. I promptly "junked" the 
old-time copy-books I had been using, 
and for a number of succeeding 
years, used the "Compendiums" ex- 
clusively in my work. 

Well, to this Concord school of Mr. 
Gaskell, about that time, came Austin 
Palmer, a bright-faced, canny Yankee 



boy, with a burning ambition to be a 
penman. Probably the boy was not 
over-endowed with this world's goods. 
At any rate, he found it convenient to 
pay his thrifty way through the 
school as Mr. Gaskell's janitor and 
chore boy. He appears to have been a 
good and steady student, leaving the 
school, not only a good penman, but 
deeply bitten with Gaskell's own en- 
thusiasm in the cause of good writ- 
ing. Later on, I do not remember 
just when, he became the penmanship 
teacher in the late Samuel A. Good- 
year's business school at Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. Here, young Palmer 
held his own so well, that later, when 
Mr. Goodyear embarked in the busi- 
ness of publishing commercial school 
books in Chicago, the young writing 
mastc r was enabled to purchase the 
school at Cedar Rapids, and conduct 
it thereafter, as his own enterprise. 

When I came east in 1895, to take 
my place in the ranks with the late 
Charles Ellis, author and publisher, 
at Battle Creek, Mich., I began meet- 
ing at the conventions, the popular 
young penman of Cedar Rapids. He 
was already publishing his "Western 
Penman", but I think, was not yet 
publishing penmanship texts. I found 
him, from the start, an interesting 
fellow and we became good friends. 
In 1900, my good friend and co- 
worker, Charley Ellis, having passed 
away, I severed my connection with 
the Ellis Company, and formed a co- 
partnership with Mr. Goodyear, Mr. 
Palmer, and T. S. Metcalf, (a Cedar 
Rapids printer) , under the name of 
the "Goodyear-Marshall Publishing 
Company." Until the retirement of 
Mr. Palmer, from this company some 
two years later, to give himself 
wholly to his penmanship publications 
I was in almost daily association with 
him, and thereafter, for several years, 
was a regular contributor to his 
monthly, the name of which had been 
changed to the "American Penman." 

I soon found that Mr. Palmer was 
a most unusual man, with a number 
of diverging, but vivid and outstand- 
ing personal characteristics. He had 
a keenly alert, and quickly absorbent 
mind, learning little from books, but 
much from men and observation. No 
student in the ordinary sense, he 
leaped rather than plodded, but 
looked where he leaped and made few 
mistakes. He was a ready and accur- 
ate judge of men, and had a keen nose 
for efficiency and loyalty in choosing 
his lieutenants. He was thrifty and 
acquisitive, as are most Yankees, and 
drove good bargains, but was person- 
ally generous, and with no hint of the 
miser in him. He was no puritan, but 
clean-minded as a child, and without 



17 



the least tendency to be a sport or a 
bounder, which was more than could 
be said of some others in our ranks 
in those days. I recall that once, dur- 
ing one one of our Chicago meetings, 
a select squad of prurient-minded ones 
made up a party to go on an obser- 
cation tour by night down among the 
slums of South Clark Street. That 
was during the mayorality regime of 
the elder Carter Harrison, and things 
were about as vile and "open" in that 
plague-spot of vice as they well could 
be. The next day, W. N. Ferris, C. P. 
Zaner, Mr. Palmer and I were lunch- 
ing together, and I think that L. L. 
Williams of Rochester, was also pres- 
ent. It transpired that none of us 
had been invited to join the night 
party. I felt rather proud of the com- 
pany I was in. 

I shall probably meet with some dis- 
agreement, when I go on record here 
with the opinion that Mr. Palmer was, 
fundamentally, an artist. I do not 
mean, of course, that he was a creat- 
ive artist, in the sense of artistic ac- 
complishment. He never aspired, or 
even cared to be a "pen artist", and 
none would think of ranking him as a 
penman, with men like Zaner, or 
Madaraz, or Courtney, or Spencer. 
But there are many men in this world 
who are artists at heart, though they 
may never have wielded a brush or 
drawn a line. It is not technical ac- 
complishment, but a deep and abiding 
sense of the beautiful, whether in 
nature or art, that makes the real art- 
ist. It was instinctive with Mr. Pal- 
mer to like and enjoy with the en- 
thusiasm of a child, the things that 
are fit and charming in form and 
color. It was this in him that, as a 
boy, drew him to Mr. Gaskell's beauti- 
ful writing. It was shown in his in- 
stinctive good taste in respect to 
every material thing about him, 
whether it might be the arrangements 
of a dinner-table, the correct details 
of his wardrobe, or the appointments 
of a school room or a business office. 
I once visited him shortly after he had 
bought his new home in Pasadena. I 
found him deeply absorbed in rear- 
ranging the shrubbery, and other fea- 
tures of the place in order to bring 
them into harmony with his sense of 
artistic fitness. At first, I thought 
that Mr. Palmer's penchant for "nice 
things" in the way of dress, was in- 
spired by a mere love of display, but 
I soon found that this was not it at 
all. He basked in the genial and ar- 
tistic sense of having nice things 
about him for their own sake, and 
quite regardless of what other peo- 
ple might think about them. 

Mr. Palmer liked to talk about his 
accomplishments and his material pos- 
sessions, but he did it with the naive 
enjoyment of a child, although, to 
those who did not know him, it often 
seemed snobbishness. As a matter of 
fact, there was nothing whatever of 
the snob in him. He did not know 
how to "freeze" inferiors, which is the 
unmistakable ear-mark of a snob, but 

(Continued on Page 18) 



18 



tM4?<Sou&/it£4A &6/atifcr' & 



PUPPY LOVE 

By C. R. MeCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 



"Come on and have one on me, I'm 
just after celebratin' fer me daughter 
Mary has a little lady at me house," 
spoke up Jigger in the little speak- 
easy at it was known in those days. 

"Sure and I will," came the quick 
retort from each of the 'guests' as- 
sembled in the little shack run by 
Widow Hogan whose husband had 
been killed several years before by a 
fall of top rock. She was trying to 
make ends meet and the distillers 
dropped a few gallons of their good 
"liker" and her friends came and sat 
around the old stove and had a "wee 
nip now and then." The authorities 
knew of her place but nothing was 
ever said or done by them because the 
coal company owned the authorities 
and Mrs. Hogan behaved herself bet- 
ter than a great many who had license 
to sell spirituous liquors. Very sel- 
dom did anyone ever leave her home 
"worse for the wear" because she was 
a woman of few words and usually 
the men knew when she said NO 
MORE — they knew she meant what 
she said — and she needed the money 
worse than several saloon keepers 
who had pianos, diamonds and jew- 
elry for their wives. If all saloon 
keepers would have run their business 
as Widow Hogan ran her speak-easy, 
little harm might have been done. 
But then what would the bootlegger 
have done to make his pile today if 
everybody had tried to be honest and 
not try to "hog the works." 

Jigger was proud as a peacock and 
his chest was swelling at each drink. 
Even Widow Hogan "took one" on the 
new arrival which was against her 
usual wish but this was the first time 
Jigger had been a grandfather and 
as grandfathers are not made every 
day, it was right and fitting that 
proper ceremonies should take place 
as was the custom in the " 'ould 
countree." 

Everything went along swimmingly 
until some one asked Jigger if he had 
seen his son-in-law lately and then he 
lost his temper completely. This was 
just what was wanted by the different 
fellows — to get Jigger going and 
have some fun at his expense. 

"No, and I don't want to sec him 
either," came the quick as well as 
heated reply from Jigger. 

"How would you feel, if you were 
in his boots and you were his son-in- 
law," laconically asked Dennis 
Brogan. 

The crowd laughed at this question 
in order to get Jigger going for he 
was a terror when he lost his temper 
and especially so when he had a few 
"under his belt." 

"I'll break every bone in his body," 
was all he would say. 



Widow Hogan "smelled a rat" that 
a fight would be brewing if it kept 
up much longer and she pulled down 
the curtain which meant that she ad- 
dressed them in this manner: 

"Ye can all go home now because 
there is work at the mines tomorrow 
and if ye stay here much longer some 
of yez will not be able to get up in 
the mornin' and then yez will be 
blamin' me and then I'll get chased 
and what will ye do without Widow 
Hogan's speakesy?" 

And they all knew she meant every 
word she said because she was able 
to back up her arguments with a 
healthy clout over the head and she 
was known to have held her own with 
several men who got fresh. 

It had been a rather strenuous day 
for Jigger as he "wound himself over 
the lea" but with the help of his 
friends he was able to navigate over 
the rough sea. He did not cause any 
trouble at the house as he knew he 
must get up in the morning and his 
wife never called more than once ■ — 
especially if he had been out a little 
late the night before. 

"I came to see my wife and little 
daughter," spoke Bob at the door the 
next morning, "and I wish Jigger 
would be a little easy on me," he con- 
tinued rather dolefully. 

"He said that you should never step 
a foot on his doorstep again and you 
know what he means when he says 
that," came the reply from his 
mother-in-law who had a mother's 
heart and knew how badly Bob 
wanted to see his little baby. 

Jigger was reading the evening 
paper and heard Bob's voice or at 
least he thought he recognized the 
voice. 

"Didn't I tell ye I would break 
every bone in yer body if ye ever 
came around her again?" interrupted 
Jigger at this point as he looked out 
the door over his wife's head. 

At this point Bob turned away rap- 
idly because he knew from experience 
that Jigger carried a healthy clout in 
each fist and he wasn't afraid to use 
the fists either. His heart was broken 
for he loved his wife dearly and tears 
were streaming down his cheeks when 
he thought of the new baby that was 
his and could not see. No one will 
ever know what went thru his mind, 
only Bob and his God above him but 
it was the turning point in his life. 

"Well, have you seen your baby 
yet?" spoke up the crowd as Bob en- 
tered a saloon after leaving Jigger's 
home. 

Bob went on to reiterate what had 
taken place to which the crowd 
laughed and said that if Jigger was 
their father-in-law, they would show 
him who was boss especially if a little 
baby had come to greet them. 

"It's all right to talk but go and 
do it," came the answer from Hob. 

In a short time they all had quite 
a few drinks which came fast and 



furious and Bob seemed the "Worse 
for the wear". 

In due time Mary was up and 
around and as usual some of the 
neighbors were anxious to tell her all 
they knew about her father refusing 
Bob's admittance to the house while 
she was in bed. How Bob had wanted 
to see the baby and how he had 
started to drink and had drifted away, 
telling those about him that he would 
never come back again. 

This got Mary's Irish temper 
aroused and she wanted to get the 
gossip straight. 

"Dad, is it true that you refused 
Bob to come in the house while I was 
sick in bed?" asked Mary. 

"Sure, and I told him I would break 
every bone in his body if he ever came 
around here again," came the reply 
from the irate father. 

This broke Mary's heart and she 
got into a careless, haphazard way of 
doing things in life and the bulldog 
personality of the father was the 
means of iuining two lives as we shall 
see later on in the story. 

(To Be Continued) 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17) 

was always kindly and democratic to 
everybody about him, from the janitor 
up. He could put up a good fight for 
his convictions, and could be resent- 
ful, and mildly vindictive, where he 
thought wrong had been done him, but 
there was not a taint of' cruelty in 
him, and he was physically gentle, al- 
most to the point of effeminacy. I 
never knew him to display anger or 
be threatening or violent, no matter 
what the provocation. When imposed 
on, he was more likely to register 
sadness than indignation. His sense 
of fitness never allowed him to forget 
that he was a gentleman. 

Such, I think, is a just estimate of 
the qualities that marked this inter- 
esting co-worker who has left us sud- 
denly, and who was known to so many 
of us for such a length of years. He 
led a blameless life, as men's lives go, 
and through his useful work, left the 
world better than he found it. He 
was a very human man, and unique in 
many ways. It will be many moons be- 
fore we shall look upon his like again. 



Mr. T. M. Watson of Providence is a 
new commercial teacher in the High 
School at Leominster, Mass. 

Mrs. Fritz Heil of Amsterdam, N. 
Y., has recently been elected to teach 
commercial subjects in the Glovers- 
ville, N. Y., High School. 

Mr. Ralph Goss of Montague, Mass., 
IS a new commercial teacher in the 
Nicholas County High School, Sum- 
mersville, W. Va. 

Miss Lydia M. Landis, recently with 
the Lebanon, Pa., High School, is now 
teaching in the Westmont-Upper 
Voder Higli School, Johnstown, Pa. 



^ <5^&uJi/i^&/iuxi&r 



19 



Aims and Possibilities of The N. A. P. T. S. 

By F. J. Duffy, Supervisor of Handwriting, Duluth, Minn. 



The fable of the bundle of sticks 
is often employed to drive home the 
advantage of united effort as con- 
trasted with the weakness of dissoc- 
iated endeavor. 

Taken singly, the fagots were 
easily snapped asunder; but when the 
several pieces were gathered into one 
compact group, they resisted the 
greatest efforts put forth to break 
them. By this object lesson the dying 
father sought to teach his sons that 
by standing together they would be 
invulnerable against all attempts to 
create disaffection among them. 

However, were each to go his own 
way, indifferent to the fate of his 
kinsmen, all would easily fall prey to 
the wiles of designing persons; and 
the small patrimony, accumulated by 
dint of great toil and sacrifice, would 
soon be dissipated. 

We might apply this fable of the 
sticks to our own profession, consid- 
ering the benefits which accrue from 
an organization comprising practic- 
ally every penmanship teacher and 
supervisor, with conditions prevalent 
where no such comprehensive assoc- 
iation is in existence. 

It is quite natural for a person to 
regard his wage-earning position as 
the object of his most serious atten- 
tion, and the sphere of his greatest 
achievement. Such an attitude is im- 
perative and entirely creditable; but 
to stop here is to fail to fulfill the 
highest obligation to one's profession, 
and to deprive oneself of opportuni- 
ties to render valuable services to 
one's fellow workers, at the same time 
receiving inestimable help and en- 
couragement in turn. 

In all ages there have lived those 
who have insisted upon the right to 
work out their own destinies, oblivi- 
ous to the fate that might befall 
those appearing contemporaneously 
with them in life's great arena. Hap- 
pily, the outstanding personages in 
all history have not included many 
such selfish characters. 

The events that have determined 
the progress of the world, changing 
it from a place of almost impossible 
living conditions to the present mar- 
velous theater of human activity, owe 
their origin to the supreme efforts of 
myriad numbers, working in concert 
for the amelioration of .evils to which 
the human race has been exposed. 

The stricture has been laid upon 
specialists as a class that they know 
or care comparatively little about 
matters beyond the limits of their 
own particular calling. That they 
are inclined to neglect opportunities 
to exchange ideas with workers in 
other subjects, content to revolve in 
their own narrow orbits, complacently 



unconcerned as to the investigations 
and discoveries being made in other 
fields. Such a state of mind is sub- 
versive of the highest service which a 
person can render, and proves a bar- 
rier to the widest publicity which 
should be accorded the professional 
achievements of the best authorities 
in any subject. 

The unity that ought to character- 
ize all educational effort should never 
be lost sight of by those engaged in 
the various departments of instruc- 
tion. Beyond the limits of our own 
particular activities, we should view 
our contribution to the development 
of the child's latent abilities as an es- 
sential part of the entire scheme of 
cultural growth, a contribution which 
has value only as it works in harmony 
with the labors of others likewise em- 
ployed. 

Granted that our theories are in ac- 
cord with the accepted tenets of cur- 
rent educational practice, there must 
be more than sporadic, isolated at- 
tempts to make effective what we be- 
lieve to be right. Here is where a 
strong organization, comprising vir- 
tually the total number of those en- 
gaged in any one profession, per- 
forms an office impossible for true 
members to accomplish separately. 

We are all necessary to the estab- 
lishment of such a body, fellow- 
workers. We must affiliate with the 
Association, we must follow its de- 
velopment, and must contribute the 
best of which we are capable in or- 
der to render it a forceful agent for 
the promulgation of correct views con- 
cerning our own subject. 

Participation in the activities of a 
live organization proves a decided 
benefit to one. The necessity of de- 
fining one's views in terms that ad- 
mit of no confusion or misinterpreta- 
tion is excellent discipline. It leads to 
clearer thinking, more orderly presen- 
tation of one's views, and a deeper in- 
sight into the technical details of on'e 
craft. 

Instead of shunning opportunities 
to be heard on any issue, we should 
welcome such occasions; for the ex- 
perience we undergo in selecting 
from our stock of ideas those which 
most fully express what we wish to 
convey, gives us a degree of versatil- 
ity and confidence not possible of ac- 
quisition by any less vigorous means. 

The knowledge which years of ex- 
perience have given supervisors and 
special teachers of penmanship should 
prove adequate to enable them to 
formulate the most feasible and suc- 
cessful methods of teaching the sub- 
ject. 

The ill-advised remarks of some un- 
informed person have often been re- 



peated until the quotation has been 
given prominence out of all propor- 
tion to the standing of the author, or 
the significance of the statement. It 
is easier to echo the sentiments of 
someone else than to take the trouble 
to think out one's own opinions con- 
cerning any topic. 

It is one function of an organiza- 
tion created with a view of furthering 
the interests of its founders to com- 
bat expressions and propaganda inim- 
ical to the profession which they rep- 
resent. It is an additional obligation 
to adduce all available evidence show- 
ing the validity of such profession, in 
a manner which will carry convic- 
tion. 

The possibilities of the N. A. P. T. 
S. have been barely demonstrated as 
yet. Just enough has been accom- 
plished to indicate what may be done 
by continuing the rate of progress 
made during the past year. Let us 
not be too easily satisfied. Let not the 
encouraging reports given out at the 
Philadelphia convention lull us into a 
false sense of well being. 

The estimate which "outsiders" 
place upon our work will be no 
greater than the value at which 
teachers and supervisors themselves 
appraise it. We must persuade the 
world of the genuineness of our con- 
victions concerning the importance of 
good penmanship, omitting no oppor- 
tunity to raise our voices in its be- 
half. 

The example of other zealous mem- 
bers will prove infectious; the desire 
to add your bit in elevating our pro- 
fession to a higher level will take 
root; and before you realize the fact, 
you will be eager to emulate the ex- 
ample of the most ardent members 
in their efforts to secure the largest 
returns from our calling. Wherefore, 
do not hesitate to join the N. A. P. 
T. S. By so doing you signify your 
approval of what the organization is 
trying to achieve, thus giving encour- 
agement to those already enlisted to 
carry on. 

The present is a time of great ac- 
tivity in educational circles. The 
eligibility of current methods and 
subject matter is being considered 
carefully to discover what may be re- 
jected, what may be added. In the 
zeal for elimination of all material 
held obsolete, some essential things 
may also be included in the matter 
discarded. 

It is necessary to safeguard the in- 
terests of our own subject, to see that 
too great inroads are not made by 
educational iconoclasts. Some as- 
sults have already been launched, and 
if we allow these to go unchallenged, 
it will be assumed that the attacks 
were justifiable, and more will follow. 

The need for a strong, efficient or- 
ganization in our ranks was never 
more imperative than now. We are 
strong enough numerically to con- 
serve the interests of our subject, if 



20 



*f <5^&u&niM&&uxi&r & 



we take proper measures. Disor- 
ganized strength, however, will never 
answer. We must unite, presenting 
a solid front to maet whatever issues 
may arise. 

If the membership last year in- 
creased from two hundred to eight 
hundred, or four fold, there is no rea- 
son why at least a two-fold growth 
should not be made, giving us six- 
teen hundred registered members by 
the time of the next convention. 

This will necessitate the best exer- 
tions of every one enlisted under the 
penmanship association banner, vigor- 
ous, continuous effort from now until 
the later part of April. Are you will- 
ing to do this ? Do you regard your 
occupation highly enough to make the 
sacrifice asked in the name of higher 
professional standards and accom- 
plishments? 

Then to the work, all true cham- 
pions of good handwriting! Bend 
your energies right manfully to the 
task, and let the results show with 
what degree of zeal you have labored. 
When the roll is called next spring at 
Oak Park, let there be a response 
which will waken the echoes of the 
assembly hall, proclaiming in no un- 
certain tones the earnestness of our 
purpose and the loftiness of our 
ideals. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

OF 

PENMANSHIP TEACHERS AND 

SUPERVISORS 



Arthur G. Skeeles, Secretary 
Columbus, Ohio 



"How about members?" 

Well, when this was written, Jan- 
uary 10, 1928, membership cards had 
been issued to only 60 persons for 



1928. This is fewer than were mem- 
bers at this time last year. But the 
campaign for members is being hand- 
led differently this year, and reports 
are coming to the Secretary more 
slowly. To offset this, the teachers 
of each state will be canvassed more 
thoroughly than was possible last 
year. The final result should be far 
ahead of that of last year. 

Several states have already done 
well. South Carolina, Utah, Vermont 
and Wyoming have each enrolled as 
many members for 1928 as in 1927. 
We expect each of these states to 
have several times as many members 
this year as last. Oklahoma and 
Georgia already have half as many 
members as last year; Delaware, two- 
thirds as many; Missouri, four-fifths 
as many. 

To date, the prize for increase in 
membership must go to Montana, 
from which state Miss Nell Somers, 
Great Falls, reports three members 
for 1928, besides herself. This makes 
four times as many as were mem- 
bers from Montana in 1927. What 
state will break that record. 

"How about the leaders of last 
year?" New Jersey is leading at 
present, as she did at this time last 
year, with sixteen members; Indiana 
four; New York, five; Ohio, two; 
Pennsylvania, five. 

There are indications that several 
state committeemen are working 
busily but are saying nothing; pre- 
paring to put it all over other states 
in the final count. 

If your state committeman hasn't 
invited you to become a member, or 
doesn't know you are interested, 
send your dollar to Miss Myrta L. 
Ely, Treasurer, Madison School, St. 
Paul, Minn. 



CONVENTION ITEMS 
H. C. Walker, St. Louis 

The Program of the 1928 meeting 
of the National Association of Pen- 
manship Teachers and Supervisors 
will be one of the best our Associa- 
tion has had. 

Mrs. Strobell writes: "Now that we 
have a live constitution, we can, in 
our large conventions, be assured of 
reduced rates, if we have a sufficient 
number of delegates." 

April 25, 26. and 27 are the dates 
of the 192S meeting. Oak Park, 111., 
is the place of the meeting, and Con- 
gress Hotel, Chicago, 111., is to be 
headquarters. Reservations should be 
made early. 

There never was a time when 
teachers and supervisors of Penman- 
ship needed to rally and give their 
support to penmanship more than 
now. The April meeting should be by 
far the largest and best in the Asso- 
ciation's history. 



WEST VIRGINIA PENMANSHIP 

TEACHER SUCCEEDS AS 

AN AUTHOR 

We received a newspaper clipping 
from Clarksburg, which comments 
very highly upon a Christmas Story 
written bv Miss Elizabeth D. Wolf, 
118 Ridenbur St., Clarksburg, W. Va., 
who for some years has taught in 
West Virginia schools as a grade 
teacher and as a special teacher of 
Penmanship. Miss Wolf is now taking 
work for a degree in the Salem Col- 
lege, where she has become inter- 
ested in literary work. She is editor 
in chief of the college paper, Green 
and White, and is a member of al- 
most all the journalistic clubs and or- 
ganizations. 

Miss Wolf began to specialize by 
attending the Zanerian College of 
Penmanship Summer School. As a 
teacher she has met with more than 
ordinary success. 



^L^^-^i 




Specimens and a letter written i 


i his dashy, 


rapid business writing as shown 


above have been 


received from R. S. Miller, Penman i 


i Albany, N. 


Y., Business Colle K e. Mr. Mill-, 


will be surprised 


when he sees this letter reproduced. 









S/if^u^/uxidduat/sr & 



21 



FAMOUS LETTERS 

By FAMOUS PENMEN 
In this series we have some of the most skillful letters ever written. 





^^^^<%?^>^fe^^^^^ 




'i-fe^n^ia^Lj 



/ ' 







it High School, St. Louis. Mo. This cut 



ade about 20 ye 



WANTED Mr. Ralph S. Rowland, last year 

Young men or women to learn lettering. Good chance to become fine penmen. fl\^i™™^\^J^ 

Address Box 609 



Care Business Educator, Columbus, Ohio. 



head of the Commercial Department 
of the Charleroi, Pa., High School. 



22 



^^&uJ/?ieM&&uxi&r & 



"How Can We Get More High School Pupils 
to Use Arm Movement In all Their Writing?" 

By Virgil C. Graham, High School Winfield, Kansas 

Address delivered at the N. C. T. F. 



Mr. Chairman and Fellow Teachers — 

As a young penman, I have looked 
forward to this privilege of getting 
acquainted with the pioneers and en- 
thusiastic teachers in the field of pen- 
manship. 

I feel a bit out of place just now, 
however, trying to bring something 
before a group of teachers, many of 
whom are more experienced in the 
field of handwriting than myself. 

Let me state to begin with that my 
choice of this subject was not because 
I felt so able to discuss it, but simply 
because I felt the problem was one of 
the big problems confronting all 
teachers of penmanship. Most of all 
I am wishing to get some expression 
from some of you older teachers 
along this line. 

According to psychologists, habits 
are formed as a result of repeated 
acts. Since this is true it seems to 
me that somehow, we should work out 
a penmanship program that will 
cause pupils to use arm movement 
enough to develop the habit of doing 
so. I feel sure that not a very large 
per cent of pupils will use arm move- 
ment all together unless the penman- 
ship program is tied up with all of 
the other subjects. If tre pupils are 
permitted to use arm movements in 
class drill work and the teacher 
knows what not in other subjects, we 
can not get satisfactory results in 
arm movement writing. In other words 
work out a scheme whereby the 
pupils, writing in other subjects can 
be graded by the teacher, and the 
grade to be averaged into the regular 
class work grades. Then, you will find 
pupils exercising care in the writing 
of themes and note-books, letters and 
so on. 

It is true and very encouraging 
that many pupils break over into the 
arm movement habit without any 
special insistence on the part of the 
teacher. Some see the advantage 
clearly and want to use arm move- 
ment as soon as possible. Others, 
however, do not care as to how they 
write for other teachers as long as 
they make copies which satisfy the 
teacher in the writing class, and they 
are able to get by in their other writ- 
ing. Many of these pupils make ex- 
cellent arm movement copies in class, 
but for some reason or combination of 
reasons use finger or wrist movement 
outside. 

I sometimes say to pupils who are 
writing their drill copies in class with 
a good movement: Do you use arm 
movement when writing your English 
themes? Or, — Do you write your 
note-book outlines with arm move- 



ment? The replies sometimes are 
like these: Oh! No, I couldn't, they 
would look not good enough. Or, I can't. 
Pupils seem to work only for the 
present result, and do not want to 
write, possibly a little poorer form 
for a short time, in order to do the 
thing correctly and in the end be far 
ahead in quality and speed along with 
the other advantages. 

Another hindrance along this line 
is the idea of penmanship as a sep- 
arate subject, a failure to realize that 
it is the basis of expression in all 
written work in other subjects. 'Tis 
true that many pupils are able to 
change this attitude as a result of 
their own thought or the teacher's ex- 
planations. 

Whether it should be or not, the 
fact remains, that a high per cent of 
work done in school by pupils is for 
a grade. It is a deciding factor for 
many. 

My idea is not to make the grade 
the big idea, but to use where neces- 
sary the leverage to be obtained 
through a plan of grading whereby 
the pupils' penmanship grade will be 
an all inclusive grade, thereby caus- 
ing a much greater number to use 
arm movement in all their writing. 

At present I am using a plan of 
grading as follows: 

1. Outside of regular class drill 
copies, each pupil is given a grade on 
his writing in other classes. Of 
course this cannot be very accurate, 
but it brings about the results desired, 
which are, more arm movement, 
neater themes and notebooks, pride 
in writing, a feeling of its importance 
and eventually a movement habit. 

To do this I secure from some 
teacher of other subjects, the note- 
books handed in to the other teacher. 
A grade is given for the quality of 
writing, and entered in my grade book 
to be averaged in with other grades. 
When the pupils return to my classes 
I read the grades of all and tell them 
which notebooks I graded. Under- 
stand that the pupils do not know to 
which teacher I may go for their note 
books, which causes them to be care- 
ful in all of the work. 

I cannot forget the first day of my 
instituting this plan. I announced in 
the classes that near the end of the 
six weeks period 1 was going to ar- 
range with one of their teachers to 
secure and grade one of their note- 
books. That announcement caused 
great excitement and dozens of ques- 
tions. Some pupils asked if they 
might he permitted to recopy their 
notebooks. Some said that the ones 



they were keeping were entirely too 
poor for me to see. Eyes bulged and 
there was a considerable squirming. 
This plan pleased the teachers very 
much, and the co-operation has been 
100<;. The teachers have remarked 
to me many times as to the great im- 
provement in the neatness and quality 
of writing on papers and notebooks 
received. 

2. I go a bit further, and do not 
give a grade of more than a C. to 
anyone who does not use arm move- 
ment at all times where possible to do 
so, no matter how good the form or 
how legible the writing. In other 
words, i put a price on arm move- 
ment writing and cause the pupils to 
consider it a worth while and neces- 
sary attainment. In the past two 
years I have had four classes which 
were 100% in the use of arm move- 
ment. 

My conclusion is that most high 
school penmanship pupils can and will 
use arm movement — if we fan scheme 
somehow to get the results. 

As a matter of reward and honor 
to those using arm movement regu- 
larly I issue arm movement certifi- 
cates, and have arm movement writ- 
ers' rows in each class. At the first of 
each grading period the arm move- 
ment writers try for seats in their 
rows, the best writer taking No. 1, 
etc. The pupil in No. 1., serves as 
class secretary, checks the roll, re- 
ports absences, etc. These may be 
considered as just incentives, but I 
mention them because they help to 
bring about the results desired. 



RIDER COLLEGE TO ERECT FINE 
NEW BUILDING 



Rider College is to be enlarged by 
the addition of a new wing to their 
already large, fine school building. 
Arrangements are also being made 
for the establishment of a University 
Place including dormitories and other 
buildings. Initial outlay for the new 
building will be approximately $350,- 
000. Work will be started as soon as 
possible. The building will he named 
after Thomas J. Stewart, founder of 
the Stewart Business School, now 
called Rider College. 

While the officers of Rider College 
have for some time felt the n< 
additional space, the 53 per cent in- 
crease in the freshman class this year 
necessitated prompt action. The col- 
lege enrollment is now more than 
2,000. Students come not only from 
New, Jersey, but also from many 
other states and foreign countries. 
Thirty-one states and 12 foreign 
countries are now represented. The 
students of this school spend about 
.$305,000 to $405,000 for lodging, 
clothing and other necessities. 

This remarkable growth speaks well 
for their instruction and the conscien- 
tious efforts of the proprietors and 
teachers of this most prosperous in- 
stitution. 



&/i^&u4//i€d£&du&z&7~ & 



23 



Interesting Facts About the Field of 
Penmanship and Engrossing 



A Paper Read Before The National 

Commercial Teachers' Federation 

Penmanship Round Table 



Kansas City, Mo., Dec. 30, 1927 



By Norman Tower, Engrosser and 

Penman, Barnes Commercial 

School, Denver, Colorado 



The importance of the national con- 
vention which we are attending here 
this week cannot be over-estimated, 
because its principle purpose is the 
betterment of commercial education 
by means of cooperation. 

The commercial courses taught in 
commercial schools today are doubt- 
less of great value to young people. 
The commercial teacher is persuaded 
from a wide practical experience that 
if all parents fully realized the actual 
investment value in a strong commer- 
cial course for their children, many 
more young people would take advan- 
tage of commercial education. 

It is of course evident that hand- 
writing is used almost as universally 
for expressing thought as is speech. 
The usefulness of handwriting to 
every man, woman and child in the 
home, in school, and in business ranks 
it first in importance among subjects 
taught. It also plays an essential part 
in almost every subject taught in pub- 
lic and commercial schools. 

Penmanship is, therefore, of greater 
importance than it seems to be and 
deserves a great deal of consideration. 
Its field of application is wide and 
profitable. Its use is not restricted to 
business writing only, but includes 
several special branches, as well as 
many useful styles of lettering. A few 
of these styles are in quite general 
use. 

American business writing, based 
upon arm movement, is the most prac- 
tical system, embodying legibility, 
speed, gracefulness of line, ease in ex- 
ecution. It is artistic and beautiful 
in appearance. It can be easily 
taught, analyzed, studied, practiced 
and executed, as shown by the many 
excellent specimens by leading pen- 
men, as well as the splendid results 
attained by teachers and lovers of this 
fine art. 

The individual who becomes a pen- 
man is usually the penmanship stu- 
dent who studies and practices more, 
works harder, and keeps forging 
ahead until he attains a high degree 
of excellence. Penmanship schools 
have standards of attainment for their 
pupils, and credits are given only 
when such standards are attained. 

We cannot but compliment the 
earnestness of students, the whole- 
hearted efforts of teachers, and the 
marvelous results attained bv stu- 



dents of penmanship in the compar- 
atively limited period devoted to pen- 
manship in the schools. 

By reason of the enormous volume 
of business transacted daily, the com- 
mercial world would be seriously 
handicapped without the use of the 
typew-riter and the printing press. 
While the press has its place for vol- 
ume printing and the typewriter is in- 
dispensable for its speed, still hand- 
writing has its supreme distinction in- 
asmuch as it is used by nearly every- 
body, anywhere, at any time with pen 
or pencil. 

Many young people study shorthand 
and become stenographers. Competi- 
tion is less in the penmanship field 
than it is in other commercial fields. 
The demand for people who write a 
plain, legible hand is increasing, and 
the applicant who writes a better hand 
usually secures the better position. 

But why is the average person to- 
day a poor writer? Is it lack of tal- 
ent in the nation that is responsible 
for the poor quality of writing notice- 
able in business everywhere? It is 
reported that Marshall Field and Com- 
pany lose a large volume of business 
annually due to illegibility. Likewise, 
some business enterprises, large de- 
partment stores, institutions and 
others, have found it necessary to sub- 
stitute for penmanship the use of 
light-line lettering; even some of the 
schools are experimenting with manu- 
script writing in search of improve- 
ment. 

Reports and articLes about manu- 
script writing often remind me of 
Pollvanna's answer, in the famous 
story, "The Glad Game." She was 
asked if she were glad that she had 
received crutches as a Christmas pres- 
ent. She replied, "Of course, I am 
SO GLAD, because my legs are all 
right and I do not need them." It is 
a once meritorious style but like Polly- 
anna's crutches, is not needed under 
modern conditions. 

The average person in business is 
in the same situation as the average 
pupil in a class. In public schools 
penmanship is taught in certain 
grades, or a certain length of time 
and then discontinued. In commer- 
cial schools the subject is taught to 
students who take it about one period 
a day for, generally, an uncertain 
length of time. 

It is evident that lack of talent is 
not responsible for poor handwriting. 
The ability of students varies consid- 
erably, some are quick and others are 
slow. They cannot all learn the same 
thing to advantage in the same length 
of time. By comparison we find that 
the difference between success and 
failure in penmanship is, to a great 



extent, staying with the subject un- 
til it is mastered. Doesn't this fact 
lead us to conclude logically that the 
average student should attain a cer- 
tain degree of excellence rather than 
w-ork on a schedule of time? 

Having devoted several years to 
study, analysis, execution and instruc- 
tion in penmanship and several styles 
of lettering, I believe, it is possible to 
have most of the students, if not all, 
excel in penmanship and thus increase 
the quantity of good-quality penman- 
ship by means of cooperation. This 
desirable result can be achieved only 
by setting a definite standard of at- 
tainment for all students alike, just 
as standards are required in arith- 
metic, spelling, bookkeeping, short- 
hand, etc., instead of only a daily 
period for a certain length of time. 
This will, no doubt, ultimately culmin- 
ate in satisfaction for the school, and 
the teacher who can inspire students 
to success. Thereby the commercial 
student will become properly equipped 
to better meet the needs of the mod- 
ern business world. 

Mr. Tower exhibited at the conven- 
tion a collection of eighty copies of 
his engrossing — Resolutions, Memo- 
rials, Testimonials, etc., prepared for 
framing and in album form; also, 
copies of Diplomas, Certificates, Mot- 
toes, Poems, and other specimens. 



PROGRAM OF THE INDIANA 

COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' 

CONFERENCE 

Ball Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 

February 25, 1928 

9:15 A. M. 

Auditorium (New) 

"Some Problems of the Teacher in 
Getting Results in Typing" — D. D. 
Lessenberry, Vice-Principal Busi- 
ness High School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Special Music. 

Pre-Bookkeeping Courses — Their 
Scope and Content. 

"Junior Business Training" — Elvin S. 
Eyster, North Side High School, 
Fort Wayne. 

"Business Arithmetic" — John Don- 
nelly, Shelbyville High School. 

Informal Discussion led by Speakers 
and Teachers. 

12:00 M. 

Luncheon in College Cafeteria, Lucina 
Hall. 

1:15 P. M. 
Auditorium. 

"Bookkeeping: Why, When, What, 
How?" — Walter B. Minnich, Muncie 
High School. 

"Eliminating the Non-Essentials in 
the Teaching of Shorthand" — D. D. 
Lessenberry, Vice-Principal Busi- 
ness High School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Round Table Discussion. 

Note: Mr. Lessenberry will give dem- 
onstrations following each lecture. 
Vernal H. Carmichael, Muncie, 

President. 
C. A. Murray, Bloomington, 

Vice-President. 
Kreszentia Siegwart, Muncie, 

Secretary. 



24 



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FORMAL OPENING OF THE CHIL- 

LICOTHE BUSINESS COLLEGE'S 

GYMNASIUM-AUDITORIUM 



The Chillicothe Business College 
formally opened its new Gymnasium- 
Auditorium with a big school party 
the evening of December 6, followed 
two evenings later by a big house- 
warming and reception for the towns- 
people, many of whom contributed 
financially to the building. This new 
recreational unit of the school's six 
buildings is one of the best and most 
complete in the state of Missouri. It 
is built of velour mat brick with white 
mortar joints and artificial stone trim. 
The dimensions are 82x140 feet. The 



first floor contains a large library and 
study hall, a banquet room, three 
large rooms for boys and girls and 
for visiting teams. The upper or main 
floor contains a large cloak room, 
offices for both the coach and athletic 
manager and the gymnasium proper. 
Permanent built-in bLeachers and 
a mezzanine floor give a seating ca- 
pacity of 1800. The gym floor pro- 
vides for a basketball court 50x90 
with a 22-foot ceiling. A stage 30x20 
with a complete stage equipment en- 
ables the large room to readily be 
converted into an auditorium, 1200 re- 
movable seats being provided for the 
gym floor. These seats together with 
the bleachers and balcony make pos- 



sible a seating capacitv of 3000. The 
cost was $60,000.00, a third of which 
was financed by the business interests 
of Chillicothe, Mo., in an intensive 
campaign sponsored by its local 
Chamber of Commerce early last 
spring. The college although inde- 
pendently or privately owned has been 
admitted in its athletic activities to 
the Missouri State Conference and 
competes for championship honors in 
all major sports. The necessity of 
such a building to keep up its athletic 
standing together with the encourage- 
ment and help given by its citizens 
caused the school's management to 
decide upon and carry through such 
an elaborate and very unusual build- 
ing undertaking for an exclusive busi- 
ness school. The institution was es- 
tablished in 1890 by Allen Moore, Sr., 
as a private Normal and conducted as 
such until his death in 1907, since 
which time his sons, Allen, Jr., and 
Roy, have conducted it. In 1908 the 
sons dropped the teachers' training 
courses and made the institution a 
boarding business school. Three years 
ago the Main College Building burned, 
but the management met the crisis by 
converting a building erected a few 
months before into a school building 
and named it Commerce Hall. A dor- 
mitory was also converted into a 
school building. The support given the 
college in Chillicothe, a city with a 
population of only 6772, is remarkable 
but the school with a yearly enroll- 
ment of over 2500 drawn from thirty 
states is unquestionably the big indus- 
try of the city. 



sad 





$h\$ Certifies 3fat /«, ~ w/-/~///// 

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'///// A'////'r/ //r/Jjrs/ r/ J"// j/'u/r/// / i'///w //'///< /I /j fttfrrrr//f/ //"t 



A diploma prepared in the engrossing department of the Zancrian College of Pen- 
• lumbus, Ohio, by W. L. Newark. 



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25 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 

By L. M. KELCHNER, Seattle, Wash. 



Copy 87. Notice how the up stroke is curved and about where it changes from the connective slant to almost 
the main slant. A common fault is slanting the up stroke too much. Make the loops rather long at first. You will find 
mine about four times the height of the small letters. Make the down stroke faster than the up stroke and as near 
straight as possible. For careful and accurate work I advise raising the pen on the down stroke. Some prefer raising 
it at about the crossing, others raise it just before making the narrow turn at the base line. You will notice I have made 
a swell in the line just below the crossing. This gives strength and force to the down stroke. Keep the loops uniform in 
height and slant. Look carefully after the slant, for the down strokes are long. If you master this copy, you have 
practically mastered all the loop letters above the line. 

Copy 88. Use same number of words on a line as in copy. See that the loops correspond in slant with the small 
letters. Do not be in a hurry to change to another copy too soon; in other words, do not scatter your practice too 
much. This applies to all the copies. One copy thoroughly learned and mastered is worth a dozen poorly begun. 

Copy 89. The loop is made the same as for the "1." Last part is finished like "v." Make the down strokes 
quick and straight. 

Copy 90. Uniform height, slant and spacing for the loops. 

Copy 91. Pause at the bottom of the down stroke and finish the "h" the same as small "m" or "n." Avoid 
shading the loop. Notice the small oval for the last part of the "k" at top. 

Copy 92. Place the same number of words on a line as copy. Use a free movement in making the flourish for 
last part of the words. 




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Copy 93. Use a good, free movement. Remember the heaviest part of shade should come in center of down 
stroke. A common fault is shading it too low at first. Some prefer raising the pen on the down stroke right at the 
base line at the bottom of the shade. I would not advise you to do so, unless you can make them much better. Retrace 
angle at top a trifle on last part. All oval round and full. 

Copy 94. Make capital, then write small letters. Rather close spacing between small letters. See that your 
small letters correspond in slant with the capital. Smooth and fine hair lines. 

Copy 95. This exercise can be made without raising the pen. Study the copies carefully and write at least 
fifteen lines of the exercise before you change. 

Copy 96. Make the last oval large, and I w-ould advise you to raise the pen as you finish the oval. Place pen 
back at the end and make small oval to come as near in center of large oval as possible. 

Use a good movement, short, dashy shades and fine hair lines. 

Copy 97. Study this exercise carefully before you attempt to make it. If you get tangled up in making the 
exercise at first, take a dry pen and trace over lines of copy a few times. This will help you to learn the exercise. It 
may be new to quite a number of you. Notice the shape of last oval in each letter, also the parallel liaes at top. 

Inject some life, vigor and dash in your movement and work without losing that ease and grace which are 
necessary to secure fine, even, smooth hair lines and smooth, dashy shades. 




26 



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DATES IN DOCUMENTS 

By Elbridge W. Stein 

Examiner of Questioned Documents 
15 Park Row, New York City 



IThe examiner of questioned documents in demand to- 
day does not rely on guesshtg, but on scientific tests and 
investigations, including mechanical, chemical, historical, 
etc. He possesses the bent of mind of a sleuth, the sjiirit 
and will of a painstaking, scintific approach of his sub- 
ject, and the ethics of one who supports only the truth 
revealed by his examination. The work is highly techni- 
cal, and very interesting and profitable for those ivho are 
adapted to it and are properly equipped and prepared 
for it. 

One of the younger men in this field whose ability and 
success have already won for him an eriable reputation is 
Elbridge W. Stein, the author of the following interesting 
article. 

Some years ago Mr. Stein prepared himself as a profes- 
sional penman by taking a course in the Zanerian Col- 
lege of Penmanship, Columbus, the value of ivhich he re- 
fers to in his letter that follows. After teaching and ex- 
ecuting penwork for some years he took up the detection 
of forgery and devoted only part of his time to it. Now 
his services are in such demand that lie finds it difficidt 
to satisfy all who wish to engage him. 

Note the following interesting news and words of wis- 
dom for those who think of preparing in his line of ivork 
which we quote from a recent letter from him: 

"I have just returned from Neiv Orleans where I had 
been on an important engagement. This accounts for my 
delay in answering your letter. 

I have been very busy this year and many important 
matters have come my ivay. It is a fact, however, that 1 
could never have gone so far in this direction without my 
knowledge and study of the actual execution of handwrit- 
ing. I am sure that in many ways the practice and teach- 
ing of handwriting is one of the very valuable founda- 
tions for this work. The mistake that has been made by 
quite a few teachers of handwriting is that they treat tin 
foundation as tlie finished structure."] 

A written or typewritten date in a document may of 
itself mean nothing as indicating the actual period of 
time that the document has been in existence. 1 It is well 
known that fraudulent documents are not usually prepared 
until the necessity for their use arises, and that time is 
often many years after their date. Forged wills are writ- 
ten after the testator's death and after one who hoped 
to be the "chief beneficiary" learns that he is not to share 
in the distribution of the estate.- Suspicious deeds sud- 
denly appear when oil has been discovered on the prop- 
erty. Spurious confirmatory letters and other written 
documents of doubtful origin are thrust into the trial of a 
lawsuit at the last minute to bolster up a losing fight. 
Manifestly the interests of justice would be greatly ad- 
vanced if the date of preparation of documents of a sus- 
picious character could be positively shown. It would also 
defeat many high-banded attempts to legalize a fraud and 
would send some dishonest claimants scurrying to keep 
out of the penitentiary. Fortunately there are cases in 
which the weird and unnatural birth of fraudulent docu- 
ments can be discovered and exposed. 

It is not always possible to determine the exact date 
when a document was written, but it can sometimes be 
positively proven that it could not have been in existence 
on the date it bears. This proof, while not fixing a definite 
age, conclusively demonstrates that the document cannot 
be genuine. 



L 



^his AGREEMENT between Jos 

February 8th, 1885 for a p 

sale of FARM LANDS and th 

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La^jv Bl^nfe: 

[treefc, New 



uncertai 



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uncertai 



Ireet 



4 



^Mnlt: 



New Yi 



uncertai 



The position ol the tail of a comma on 
a will exactly above the space between 
the "n" and "c" in the printed word 
"uncertainty" helped to prove that the 
will could not be genuine. 



Documents pur- 
porting to be old, 
but which in fact 
are young, usually 
exhibit some physi- 
cal traces of their 
youth. This is true 
because the forger 
finds it difficult to 
reconstruct condi- 
tions and find ma- 
terials that will 
conform in every 
detail with those or 
five, seven or ten 
years ago. As Em- 
erson s a i d, "A 
rogue can find no 
den in the world to 
hide him. Some 
damning circum- 
stance always 
transpires." So it 
is with the making 
of a fraudulent 
document for which 
a fictitious age is 
claimed. Some slip 
i\ en though slight, 
is usually made 
and it' it is found 
and properly inter- 
preted, it will strip 
the false thing of 
neer of sin- 
cerity. ■ 

In the Oliver Will 
C B s e, 214 New 
York Supplement 



1 Rowe vs. Henderson Naval Stores Co.. 143 Ca. 746; 85 So. 97; 
roussard vs. Cuidry. 127 La. 708; 53 So. 964. 
I In re Olivers Will. 2 14 New York Supplement 154. 



:i Tucker Co. vs. Cahagan. 6 Fed. (2nd) 407 (Del); State vs. 
ummer. 200 N. W. 20 <N. D). 



<!^MJ&u4/nM&&uzifir % & 



21 



154 (1926), the tail of a printed comma which the forgers 
failed to cut off when they cut a strip from the top of the 
will form helped to establish that the form was not 
printed for more than a month after the date of the will. 
This damaging fact assisted in setting aside the will as a 
forgery and was also instrumental in causing the chief 
beneficiary and the two witnesses to fall into the toils of 
the criminal law. 

As the naturalist can reconstruct the entire skeleton of 
a prehistoric animal from one bone, so can a complete 
fraudulent operation be sometimes determined from a 
small yet significant factor, provided it is discovered and 
understood. A small particle of black typewriter ink on 
the top of two purple typewritten characters in the codicil 
to a will uncovered the fact that a large bequest to the 
writer of the codicil had been inserted quite a period of 
time after the main part of the codicil had been written. 
It also disclosed that a black ribbon had been taken off 
the typewriter and an old, worn, purple ribbon put on im- 
mediately before the addition to the codicil was made. 
The history of the work done on this particular typewriter 
established the fact that no black ribbon had been used on 
it before the date of the execution of the codicil. 

(To be continued) 





ELBRIDGE W. STEIN 



A Dennis specimen. 



The cover page this month is by H. S. Blanchard, Los 
Angeles. This is one of the pages in Fascinating Pen 
Flourishing. 



ELLIS 



kvkkeping (Bourses 
3 QommerciafOexts 

Ellis Publishing Co 

I Educational ^Publishers J 

I BATTLE CREEK. MICHIGAN _ I 



PIONEER TEACHER DEAD 

George Hampton Mohler, 69, for 
the last nine years, professor of Eng- 
lish and Penmanship at Midland Col- 
lege, Fremont, Nebr., died December 
8 from a major operation. Mr. Moh- 
ler was one of Nebraska's pioneer 
teachers, having taught 44 years. 

J. A. Savage, who informed us of 
his death, writes: "Another old pen- 
man is gone. Was fine penman and 
expert at filling diplomas. Has 
trained thousands of Nebraska teach- 
ers to teach writing." 





SOUTHERN ACCREDITED BUSI- 
NESS COLLEGE ASSOCIATION 

This Association recently met in 
Chattanooga and held a very interest- 
ing meeting. The next meeting will be 
held at Jacksonville, Florida. H. E. 
Byrne of the Byrne Commercial Col- 
lege, Dallas, Texas, was re-elected 
President, W. H. Haddock of Jackson- 
ville, Florida, was elected Vice Presi- 
dent, and Mr. J. L. Gilbert of John- 
son City, Tennessee, was re-elected 
Secretary and Treasurer. From the 
program we received they had a very 
lively and instructive meeting. 



FRANCIS L. TOWER 

501 Pleasant Street, Hammonton, N. J. 



Spare Moments, by Char 
"vertising department of the 
with Mr. Hill's high class en; 
sponsibilities in his present 
to do a little pen work. The 
preparing various advertisem 



. Hill, a 1908 Zaneriar 
Publishing Company, 
ing. While Mr. Hill's t 
: with the Ellis Publi: 



hip a 
Mail. 



isiness Writing. Oman 
id Copper Plate Script. 
Write for information. 



28 



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to tfic u>orfo tlie duimdep 
of ^a$fimdtoa,an$ ihour 
Amorican inalftatfonr ' 
fiad done noHimo cl$c , tliat~ 
alone woufo fiavg entities 
tficm totfio vc5 pcct of man- 
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Rend Mr. Brown's instructions on following page. 



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29 



DESIGNING & 
ENGROSSING 



By E. L. Brown 
Rockland, Me. 



Send self-addres 



ed postal for criticism, 
for return specimens 



This lesson as a whole is a little 
more advanced than those given in 
the past few months, comprising ex- 
amples of lettering, pen drawing and 
designing. We feel quite sure, how- 
ever, the beginner as well as the more 
advanced students will find something 
helpful and interesting in the lesson. 
For instance the portrait is a study in 
expression and tone values — the eagle 
wreath and ribbon may be studied as 
an exampLe of pictorial designing and 
the lettering furnishes a variety of 
simple useful styles for various en- 
grossing purposes. 

In designing a page, balance of 
masses is the first matter for atten- 
tion — for instance the most important 
and interesting parts are: the portrait, 
wreaths and eagle, and these must be 
properly placed for a pleasing effect. 

Make your drawing from one-third 
to one-half larger than the copy, and 
devote careful attention to portrait 
study. Aim for strong, characteristic 
features, which are as important in 
any portrait as a good likeness. Sug- 
gest all color values and as far as 
possible, the quality and spacing of 
the lines necessary for the proper 
effect of light and shade. Use a fine 
pen on the face varying the direction, 
spacing and thickness of the lines. Be- 
gin on the shadow side of the face 
first. Use Zanerian ink and cardboard 
or heavy unruled paper. 

Washington was a most command- 
ing personality of American history 
and his memory will be honored and 
respected for all time, and it is alto- 
gether fitting on the anniversary of 
his birth to recall the character and 
ideals of this great national character, 
affectionately referred to by every boy 
and girl as the "Father of his 
Country." 

The eagle as the national bird gives 
the design a patriotic flavor, and with 
the wreath and ribbon makes a deco- 
rative bit of study. Pencil very care- 
fully using 4H hard pencil. Study the 
pen technique with care. Notice the 
graceful, airy effect of the ribbon. Use 
thickened lines more closely spaced for 
darkest shadows, and sometimes cross- 
hatched lines as shown on body and 
wing of eagle; fine openly spaced 
lines for high lights and half-tones. 
Another style of wreath is shown at 
top of design. The lettering aside 
from the word "America" was first 
laid in roughly for the spacing, with 
lines ruled to regulate height. Fig- 
ures and word "America" were first 
penciled, then "ruled" with T square 
on drawing board, and finally finished 
with a common pen. 



The engrossing text was written 
with a No. 2 J 2 lettering pen and also 
the two lines over portrait. Regu- 
larity in the size and spacing of the 
lettering must be observed. The four 
lines at right of eagle design were 
written with a common pen. Study 
character of this style with critical 
care. 

Send us some of your work for 
criticism, and remember that good 
materials are absolutely necessary if 
you would attain the best results. 




The following is a brief but inter- 
esting account of the life and work 
of John R. Eye, Vice-President and 
Secretary of the Dunsmore Business 
College, Stanton, Virginia. 

We always delight in examining 
penmanship specimens Mr. Eye sends 
us for certificates for they run uni- 
formly high in grade. 

Mr. Eye is greatly interested in 
good penmanship and his enthusiasm 
for the work is contagious. He sees 
to it that each pupil has a good pen- 
manship text. 

We quote from a recent letter: 

"The writer was born and raised in 
West Virginia, became interested in 
penmanship when about 14 years of 
age, wanted to attend the Zanerian 
Art College (I believe it was called 
then) at that time but was unable, 
financially, to do so. Attended nor- 
mal schools in West Virginia and Vir- 
ginia, and taught in public and high 
schools in the two states for several 
years. Graduated from Dunsmore 
Business College in 1916 with degree 



of Master of Accounts. Served in the 
Infantry in the World War, and start- 
ed teaching, as Principal of the Com- 
mercial Department in Dunsmore 
after the close of the war in 1919. 
Have been officially connected (part 
owner, part manager) with Dunsmore 
Business College for seven years, and 
during that time have had charge of 
the penmanship department. Do pen- 
manship and engrossing work in this 
community and have learned almost 
all I know about it from Zanerian 
books^ 

At the beginning of the session of 
1921-22, we decided to change the sys- 
tem of penmanship we were teaching 
in Dunsmore. The manual we were 
using was excellently written, but we 
realized that we needed more than 
just a 'manual.' We wanted a system 
that had back of it some awards that 
would inspire the student to keep go- 
ing. This was perhaps the biggest 
factor that induced us to select the 
Zaner Method. Six years of experi- 
ence has taught us that you have an 
excellent system, and we never hesi- 
tate to recommend it to anyone who 
asks us about penmanship. We like 
it and intend to continue it. 

During these six years that we 
have used the Zaner system, our stu- 
dents have won 892 certificates of the 
various grades, ranging from Business 
Educator to Teachers' Certificates. 
During the present session (1926-27) 
that is, since last September, our stu- 
dents have won 138 Certificates of the 
following grades: 65 Business School; 
51 Advanced; 17 Business Educator, 
and 5 Teachers'. This has been done 
out of a total enrollment of about 145 
students. 

This year we will run considerably 
above the thousandth certificate of the 
Zaner Method. Our students learn to 
write a nice, legible business hand, 
that is very often the passport to a 
good position or substantial promo- 
tion, and we hear lots of nice com- 
ment about this good writing." 



Earn $1 to $2 an 
Eam while you 
entitk-. thorough 
in learn by Botts 
2o leading card writers 
rs. Catalog B Free. 

S01TS COLLEGE ?r£T? QMRIIOM 




HIGH GRADE 



DIPLOMAS*™ 
CERTIHCATES. 



Catalog and Samples Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND, MAINE. 



30 



<5^&i£j//uM&&u&6r & 



CAIN SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS 
OPENS A NEW SCHOOL 



This organization, which has been 
conducting the well known educa- 
tional institutions: West Virginia 
Business College, Clarksburg, W. Va.; 
West Virginia Business College, Fair- 
mont, W. Va.; Office Training School, 
Greensburg, Pa.; Office Training 
School, Jeannette, Pa.; announces the 
opening of a new school, Office Train- 
School, in Uniontown, Pa. The new 
school is to have M. M. Flemming as 
its Manager and Principal. Mr. Flem- 
ming has had excellent training and 
experience for this work. He attended 
both the Marion, Ind., Normal and 
Business College. He taught Short- 
hand in the Ogden, Utah, Business 
College and Shorthand and Bookkeep- 
ing in the Ohio Military Institute, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Was Manager of the 
Vincennes, Ind., Business College, and 
the Kokomo, Ind., Business College. 
Taught Bookkeeping and Shorthand 
in the Miller School of Business, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and was Principal of 
the Office Training School, Greens- 
burg, Pa. He has also had practical 
experience in office work. Mr. Flem- 
ming states that they have started 
the school with an enrollment of about 
sixty students. 

This chain of schools is backed by 
T. B. Cain, C. G. Shafer and a very 
well selected corps of assistants. J. W. 
Kliewer, a former Zanerian, is Princi- 
pal of their school in Fairmont, West 
Virginia. 

The new school, like the other 
schools in this organization, will use 
Zaner Method Penmanship. 

WANTED: Young man of ability and 
character in an Engrossing Studio. 
Fine opening with a future to a first- 
class penman. Give desired informa- 
tion as to qualifications, etc., sending 
samples. Address Artist, care The 
Business Educator, Columbus, Ohio. 



AGENTS WANTED 

to take orders for Visiting Cards. 
Big commission given. Agent's 
Outfit sent postpaid for 50c (worth 
$1.50). With this outfit it is easy to 
secure orders. 

T. M. TEVIS, 
Bos 25-C, i hillicothe, Mo., U.S.A. 



ART SKETCH 

A stanza of poetry in superb pen lettering 
illustrated with a nature sketch, drawn with 
a pen and tinted in natural colors. Some- 
thing new, original, unique. Size 6x8 inches, 
suitable for framing. Just say "Send sketch" 
and enclose a dollar bill. 

A. L. Hickman, Route 1, Wichita, Kas. 




in rlistic 3£nanTitfiimt 

U *f JRe9olutfon9.{Di'rnorial<f. 



; ' Jlluiuinating a -Specialty *l» 






P 



RACTICAL^ 1 

AYING vJP I 

WORK 4th editic 
= rintedSamples 
(kf.o Catalog IOc 



*f\ 



j^j iulomao 3?it&o_arapfk-& <mo SUUb 

t E.H.MCGHEE 

143 East State .Street ^Jrecton.'Hcui Jersey 




H. J. WALTER, Penman 

222 Portage Ave,, Winnipeg, Can. 

Variety of Penmanship Samples, 
including your name in gold 
filigree script - 50c 

Superb Signature Combinations, 
and Business Capitals, etc -50c 



LEARN AT HOME DURING SPARE TIME 
Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man," and beautiful specimens. Free. Your 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W. 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg.. Kansas City. Mo. 





LEARN ENGROSSING 

in your spare time at home. 
Thirty Lesson Plates and 
Printed Instructions mailed 
to any address on receipt of 
two dollars. Cash or P. O. 
Money Order. 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator and 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg. 

SCRANTON, PA. 



DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 
NEATLY ENGROSSED 
Ten Lesson Course in Diploma Script. 

Lettering and Designing $10.00 

Ten Lesson Course in Illuminating and 

Border Designing $10.00 

A beautiful Illuminated Design for 

your Scrap Book $ 1.00 

A fine Ornamental Script Specimen.... 25c 
J. D. CARTER. Deerfield, 111. 



AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send IOc. A. P. MEUB, Expert Penman. 
*S2 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena. Calif. 



rlistir [upswing 

•mil IliiiuiimtiiuK - 

n|tMnoriale^Sfe>olulion'jj» fe-tirnonialii 
Ep arlera jglr.forJjaming m -Mmm Jotm. 

' Uiliiiiii!S. 1 ,mCprlilifnli , 5n,.ui r . 1 ,uiJnllrii. 

f.it.|l'arlv5iin 

22 West m ih&lrari jBHIminglori, iMiuuirr 




RICHARDSON, Buffalo. Ky. 



lam Lincoln's 
book for sale 
during the last 



Chambers' "Funnygraphic" Writing 



Budget No. 1 

by Leota Domigan Chambers and C. Spencer Chambers will bo oil" of the 
March 1, Vx>s. It is intended for use by teachers of writing in High 
Schools, Business Colleges, Parochial Schools, Commercial Departments and 
Grammar Grades, who are desirous of vitalizing their lessons. A million 
smiles for $1.00 in the U. S. and $1.50 in Canada. Limited edition. 

C. Spencer Chambers 

Department of Education Bldn-. Syracuse) N. v. 




'j n^= 



Is the ideal ink for penmen. Nothing finer for cardwriting and contest specimens. 

50c per bottle. Hailing charge 10c extra. 
A. P. MEUB, Penmanship Specialist, 152 North Hill Avenue, Pasadena, Calif. 



^ £^&uJ/n<M&&uxi&r & 



31 



PENMAN? 

I AM open for immediate em- 
ployment by high-class Busi- 
ness College. Unusual teach- 
ing skill and experience. All- 
round commercial man and suc- 
cessful solicitor. Even tempered 
and congenial. Address "FZ2" 
Care Business Educator 
Columbus, Ohio 



IN NEW ENGLAND STATE CAPITALS 



Experienced 


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Addr 


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Care The Business 


Educator, Colun 


ibus, 


Ohio 



WANTED : Penman, good at engross- 
ing resolutions, filling diplomas, etc. 
Send samples, stating age, experience 
and salary wanted. Will return sam- 
ples. Fine opening for one who is 
looking for a future. 

C. L. RICKETTS 
First National Bank Bldg., Chicago. 




An Educational Journal of 

Real Merit 

Regular Departments 

Penmanship Arithmetic Civic 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 

Price $1.50 per year. Sample on reques 

PARKER PUBLISHING CO., 
Taylorville, 111. 



Your Visit to T^ew Yor\ 

may he anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

HOTEL 

104 WEST 49th STREET 

"One minute from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre-War Prices) 

Sitting Room. Sitting Room, 

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Private Bath with Private Bath 

(2 persons) (2-4 Persons) 

$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



teaching 



folio 



schools indicated ii 

hool; Burdett Coll 

Business College. Concord: High School. Montpelier: 

ercial High School; Bryant-Stratton College. Hartford: Morse College 

nployed in dozens of other New England cities, and in hundreds of 

of our great country. May we help you? Cood gardeners prepare earl 



High 



Clerical School; 
1. Providence: 



THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. (A Specialty by a Specialist) E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. 

Westward Ho! Alaska to New Mexico 



Enroll early for best vacancies, free e 

E. L. HUFF TEACHERS AGENCY 



Dept. 7 



lal and college graduates. 

MISSOULA, MONTANA 



^Sj^^B Magnusson Professional Pen Holders are used by the world'* great, -i p, n 
^^aw men and teachers of penmanship. They are hand-made of the finest rose- 
>od and tulipwood and given a beautiful French polish. The inlaid holder with the ivorv 
ob on stem, is the most beautiful as well as the most useful holder made. The light 
ight. correct balance and Behrensmeyer adjustment, make Magnusson Holders superior. 
ide by 3 generations of penholder manufacturers and used by the world's leading pen- 
:n. Straight or Oblique — state which. 



Made by 3 gen 

c *— light or Oblique — i 

(SCAR MAGNUSSON 

208 N. 5th St., 
Quincy, 111. 

Discounts in quantiti. 



h plain grip, each 75c 

h inlaid grip, each 75c 

h plain grip, each 75c 

h inlaid grip, each $1.35 



nd dealers. 



A PROFITABLE VOCATION 

er Price Tickets and Show Card!. It Is easy to do RAPID, CLEAN CUT LETTERING with our 
IB Pens. MANY STUDENTS ARE ENABLED TO CONTINUE THEIR STUDIES THROUGH 
THE COMPENSATION RECEIVED BY LETTERING PRICE TICKETS AND SHOW CARDS. FOR THE 
SMALLER MERCHANT. OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical lettering outfit consisting of 3 Marking and 
3 Shading Pens, 1 color of Lettering Ink, sample Show Card In colors, Instructions, figures and alphabets 
prepaid $1.00. PRACTICAL COMPENDIUM OF COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERING AND DESIGNS 
100 Pages 8x11. containing 122 plates of Commercial Pen 
alphabets finished Show Cards In colors, etc. — a complete 
Instructor for the Marking and Shading Pen, prepaid. SI. 
THE NEWTON AUTOMATIC SHADING PEN CO. 
logue free Dept. B PONTIAC. MICH.. U.S.A. 




Trad 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

$6000 offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



You Want 




a satisfactory position. Let the "Bureau for Special- 
ists" help you get it. Employers and teachers, get 
our quality service. 



Robert A. Grant, President 
Shubert-Rialto Bldg., St. Louis, 



Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



32 



^/i^&ad//t^&&u*z&r & 




^T <!M*&irt/n<M&/iuxi6r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 



but especially 
to commercial 
special educati 
ness subjects. 
reviewed in th< 
give sufficient 



our readers to determi: 



re interested in books of merit, 
n books of interest and value 
teachers, including books of 
inal value and books on busi- 
All such books will be briefly 
se columns, the object being to 
ption of each to enable 



its 



silue. 



General Business Training, by Ernest 
H. Crabbe and Clay D. Slinker. 
Published by South-Western Pub- 
lishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cloth cover, 314 pages. 

This book is designed for all pupils be- 
ginning the study of business. As the future 
experience of these students will vary greatly, 
particular care was taken to select, from the 
great field of business, information which will 
be most valuable to the group as a whole. No 
subject was included until after it was meas- 
ured by the question: "Will this information 
be valuable to all or a great majority of the 
class?" This basis of selection resulted in the 
including of material that is useful alike to 
the pupil who continues the study of business, 
the pupil who continues in school but studies 
other than business subjects, and the pupil 
who takes a job at once. It resulted in the ex- 
cluding of a detailed study of highly special- 
ized positions in large organizations since each 
of them will be occupied by only a small per 
cent of the entire class. 

Business forms and methods common to all 
types of businesses and to the affairs of in- 
dividuals are described, illustrated and used in 
exercises. Business communications, including 
the writing of letters, the use of the tele- 
phone, telegraph, and filing devices, are fully 
discussed. A training in thrift and an intro- 
duction to bookkeeping are given through a 
study of the budgets and records of individ- 
uals, families and organizations. In several 
chapters discussions of different business or- 
ganizations give pupils an understanding of 
the services they render to society and how an 
individual or business may most profitably use 
them. Finally, there is a discussion of busi- 
ness vocations, the securing of a position and 
the securing of promotion. These chapters are 
valuable to all pupils but particularly to those 
who will seek employment and promotion in 
the future. 



Twentieth Century Touch Typewrit- 
ing, by D. D. Lessenberry, B.C.S., 
and Elizabeth A. Jevon. Published 
by the South-Western Publishing 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cloth 
cover, 239 pages. 

This book is the product of a long and in- 
tensive study of the processes involved in 



learning to typewrite. The materials for in- 
struction have been thoroughly tested in the 
classroom of the author and of many other 
teachers interested in the elimination of waste 
effort in the teaching and the learning of 
typewriting. 

A definite lesson plan has been clearly indi- 
cated, and the materials of instruction ar- 
ranged in accordance with the methods 
evolved through recent pedagogical and psy- 
chological studies. The thought content of the 
sentences and the paragraphs used for prac- 
tice material will commend the text to all 
teachers and pupils who appreciate the broad 
educational possibilities of a course in type- 
writing. All the words of tbe Ay res "One 
Thousand Most Frequently Used Words" are 
used in the practice material given in Part I. 

Part II. which is devoted chiefly to the 
study of the correct forms of business letters, 
has the entirely new feature of presenting 
budgets of letters which show all correspond- 
ence relatine to a complete business transac- 
tion. In this way, something of the actual 
office atmosphere may be sensed, and office 
procedure may be definitely traced and clearly 
understood. 

Speed drills based upon a scientific analysis 
of the Ayres "One Thousand Most Frequently 
Used Words" are given. These drills, based 
upon the actual letter sequences, give added 
facility and speed in the automatic grouping 
of letters and the automatic writing of words. 

Parts III and IV continue the use of 
budgets of related letters and provide a con- 
tinuous drill on letter writing. Each budget is 
based on the correspondence of an actual busi- 
ness or professional office and shows the 
method used in solving a real business prob- 
lem. Since business and legal forms are intro- 
duced as parts of budgets, their purpose is 
fully indicated by the accompanying letters. 
Thus pupils are taught not only how to fill 
out these special forms, but also how to use 
them in completing business transactions. 



Laughter, by Theodore R. Ernst, New 
York City. It is pocket size, con- 
tains 300 pages, and costs but $2.00. 

In this book you will find a wide variety of 
funny stories — proven laugh-producers suited 
for any function. They have been taken from 
many magazines, hundreds of periodicals, and 
clipped from thousands of stories. 

With your experience you know that nothing 
pleases any audience more than a good story 
or a clever anecdote. The chances are a hun- 
dred to one that the man who is greeted with 
the most applause the moment he gets on his 
feet owes his popularity to his stock of laugh- 
producing stories. 

If you are called upon unexpectedly to say a 
few remarks you are never at a loss for an 
appropriate story to win your audience. Or 
in preparing speeches you will find it invalu- 
able. 




for FREE BOOK, "How To Become an Ex- 
pert Penman," which explains my Method of 
Teaching Penmanship by Mail and what stu- 
dents have done by taking my courses. 
Your name will be elegantly written on a 
card if vou enclose stamp to pay postage. 
SEND TODAY before you forget it. 

T. M. TEVIS, 

BOX 25C CHILLICOTHE, MO., U.S.A 




uvmiiMaa^ 



<? 



TEACHERS 

The fifth edition of Byrne Type- 
writer Shorthand is just off the press. 
This system is the stenographic mar- 
vel of the age. Printed notes from 
any standard or portable typewriter. 
Also written with pencil. Most rapid, 
legible shorthand in use. Easy to 
learn, more and better letters per day 
and less fatigue. Write for particulars. 

Byrne Publishing Co. 

DALLAS, TEXAS 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer & 

Phonographic World) 

A monthly magazine covering all 

departments of Commercial Education. 

Strong departments presided over by 

well-known teachers for those who teach 

any branch of commercial education, bl- 



ind 



r.'po 



The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 

Single copy 15c. Annual subscription $ 1 .50 
Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 







abcbefg6ijfttmnopq&tatnt)x^ 

r. l£S^56?890 r. 

This alphabet was made by Arthur P. Meyers, the engrosser of 1415 Locust St., Philadelphia. Pa. 



&ie^ud/n€M><2du£afir t & 





JR8BL 

I fourscore and fteuenyratf ojjo our fathers broaght forth, 
upon this ronttnpnt a ncwnafion.fonrciupdinlibcrtu.ntid 
dedicated to rhcpropostiHon that all men are created equal 
Jiowwe arcengaqcd in aqrenf c iuil mar tpslinq uihcrhcr mat 
nationornnu nation so concerned andso Dedicated ran long 
endure. () e are met- on a qteat battlefield of fhatwar. II f hauc 
rometo oedicatca portion of that field as o finalrcstino; place 
forthoseuiho here aauc their liner- that that nation mmhtliuc. 
Jt is alto gether fitniia and proper that me should DO this. 



1 lit ill a loRiPrctCiir-c.uic rannol Mitati'.uicciiiinotcou 
seaiitc.iue cannot hallow this qrouiicV^lu* prow meuliuiiu) 
mid dcad.tuho filnuiaJciHuTi'liuiie consecrated it fonuwof our | 
pomer to add ordetractjhc world will liHlcnotciiorlonqraiiciii 
lierwIiutwesQuheix'bnriffaiiiu'uiuloriietwluittlieyilfdlim'. 

tis tonis,theliuinpithcrto be dedicated hereto the im 
finished worh i.uhictYthcu who fouqhtherchaue thus mr so 
noblu aduanc edjltis rather for as "to he here dedicated to the 
grealtask remaining before us,that from these honored dead 
wetahe increased dcuotion to that muse fonuhidifhcuqaiie 
thelast full measure of dcuotion.that weherchiahlujwoluVthot 
fbesedead shall not haue died in unin ; that this nation under 

§ | | shall hauc a neiu birth of freeoomnhu* that 

f oucrnmentof ftp irople,bu the leople,for 
the | eople, shall not perishTrom ihe jartfi. 






m 



\X*\ 



- ■■ ■ r ^^ w ^M» T iM M ^ii M HMmii mmmp jU _tj=LI 



See Mr. Costello 



the following page 



*f <5^38uJ//teM&&u*i£r 



35 



LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG 

ADDRESS 

Illuminated by P. W. Costello, 

Scranton, Pa. 



A short description of the accom- 
panying specimen of illumination will 
be helpful to the student in assisting 
him to a better understanding of what 
the original looks like. Photography 
has its limitations, and as the repro- 
duction of a piece of color work by 
this process can only be given in 
black and white, most of the beauty 
of an illuminated scroll is lost. This 
piece of work was executed on a sheet 
14x18 inches. The center of the outer 
edge of border is in gold, flanked on 
either side by a pale wash of crimson 
and the inner edge of border is also 
in gold. The backgrounds or rather 
the interiors of the spirals throughout 
the border are also in gold. The capi- 
tals "A" and "L" in the line "Abra- 
ham Lincoln" are gold with a pink in- 
terior, and the lower case letters in 
two shades of French Ultramarine 
shaded with green. The line "Address 
at Gettysburg" in two shades of ver- 
million mixed with Chinese white. 
Capital "F" in word "Four" in gold 
with pink interior. All of the other 
capital letters in the body work of 
the address are alternately red and 
blue in two shades with red interior. 
The word "God" is in two shades of 
blue with gold interior, also the caps 
in the last two lines. The lower case 
letters in the same two lines are in 
two shades of vermillion mixed with 
Chinese white. The lower case letters 
in the second paragraph are in blue. 

The colors used in the leafy border 
design are various shades of red, blue 
and green. They are distributed in 
rotation throughout the entire design. 
Wherever the leaves turn over the 
color changes. The trailing branches 
from which the leaves spring is in 
two shades of green and the dots 
sprinkled throughout the border are 
of burnished gold. 

A line was ruled through the gold 
bands on the inner and outer edges 
of the border with an agate point and 
the dots along this line were made 
with the same tool. 

The whole illumination is provided 
with a buff back ground washed over 
the waterproof ink layout, and before 
any of the colors or gold were ap- 
plied. This treatment adds a beauty 
and richness to the work, which must 
be seen to be appreciated. 

EDWARD C. MILLS 

Script Specialist for Engraving Purpose* 
P. O. Drawer 982 Rochester, N. Y. 

The finest scriDt obtainable for bookkeeping illustrations, 
etc. The Mills Pens are unexcelled. Mills - Perfection 
No. 1— Fur fine business writing, 1 gross $1.50; % gross 
40c, postpaid. Mills' Medial Pen No. 2 — A splendid 
pen of medium fine point, 1 gross J1.25; >4 gross 35c, 
postpaid Mills" Business Writer No. 3— The best for 
business, 1 gross $1.25; H gross 35c. postpaid. 1 doz. 
of each of the above three styles of pens by mail for 40c. 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 



-v* m jy . No. 604 E. F. 
t?Z0+Y.T s xs%) Double Elastic 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillott's Pens stand in the front rank as 
regards Temper, Elasticity and Durability 

JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field A Co., Inc., Sole Agent. 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship arid 
Commercial Education 
Contains Lessons in 
Business Writing 
Accounting 
Ornamental Writing 
Lettering 
Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price $1.25. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

SS Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 




PolksReference Book 

and Mailing List Catalog 



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Write for Your FREE Copy 
R. L. POLK & CO., Detroit, Mich. 

Lamest City Directory Publishers In the World 

Mallins List Compilers— Business Statistics 

Producers of Direct Mail Advertising 



"The Text You 
Have Wanted 
for Years'' 

BOOKKEEPING 

and 

BUSINESS 
METHODS 

By Reuel I. Lund, A.B., M.A., C.P.A. 

Here is a new text just from the 
press which gives you the 
latest standards and require- 
ments in bookkeeping instruc- 
tion. 

Throughout the book the pri- 
mary aim has been to lay a 
solid foundation for advanced 
business study. 

There are 36 chapters, each of 
which covers one major topic. 
These major topics are then 
divided into 331 sub-topics. 

All topics are grouped into three 
parts of 12 chapters each; 
each part concerns itself with 
the Single Proprietorship, 
Partnership and Corporation. 

Carefully graded thought ques- 
tions and short building prob- 
lems follow each chapter for 
practice and class discussion. 

Six laboratory sets are used, 
three of which require busi- 
ness papers. The transactions 
of these are illustrative of 
the latest American Business 
Practice. 

Sent (to teachers only) for 30 days 
free examination on memorandum at 
a special introductory price of $1.25 

ELLIS PUBLISHING CO. 

Educational Publishers 
BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN 



Don't knock-Don't boast-Don't use big words 



Tell the story clearly, sincerely, modestly, in a homely, neighborly fashion — 
that's our idea of advertising 



Seven times during the school year we publish our vis- 
itor, THE ROWE BUDGET. Each issue contains up-to- 
the-minute news about commercial education; a selection 
from the chapters in our forthcoming book, "The History 
of Commercial Education"; papers and discussions by suc- 
cessful teachers; and announcements of new ROWE 
books. 

Does THE ROWE BUDGET come to your desk? If 
not, just send us your name and address; then you'll get 
the paper regularly — at no cost to you. 

ROWE BOOKS ARE GOOD BOOKS 

AND 

ROWE SERVICE IS GOOD SERVICE 
""//TEX /-f.>?7S./T3>USzy&0. 



■/* 



<\ 



NEW DICTATION COURSE 

A Practice Book for Your Students 
CONTAINS 

1. The Thousand Commonest Words with 
shorthand outlines and 50 letters made up 
entirely of those words. 

2. Real letters for practice — no "beg to ac- 
knowledge receipt of" stuff. 

3. Practice articles that stress English, punc- 
tuation, and letter arrangement. 

4. An effective plan for broadening the stu- 
dent's business vocabulary. 

5. A Shorthand Dictionary of nearly 5000 
outlines. 

Net price, $1.05. Let us tell you how you 
can inspect the book at our expense. 

^o ^r 

HARLEM SQUARE 
BALTIMORE MARYLAND 



Columbus, Ohio 

Geograph ically 
A Distributing Center 

Centrally located — East to West to 
T^orth to South. Transportation lines 
radiate to all points of the compass. 



Picture in your mind the advantages to 

YOU to use this city as your PRINTING 

and DISTRIBUTING CENTER 



Watkins & Eierman 

PRINTERS AND BINDERS 
42 North Front St. : : Columbus, Ohio 



A Monthly Magazine for 

Bookkeepers and 

Auditors 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR, a regular 
magazine, pages size of this magazine. Recent 
issue contains "Is Mechanical Accounting a Suc- 
cess?"; Collections as a Basis for Computing 
Profit; Questions and Answers; STUDENTS' DE- 
PARTMENT. February issue has all of these and 
"Are Business College Graduates a Success?" 
INCOME TAX article and others. Use coupon 
below. 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR. 
1240 Engineers Bank Bide.. 
Cleveland. Ohio. 

Gentlemen : Send me a copy of your current issue. Send 
Invoice for $2.00 for one year's subscription and if I am not 
satisfied will return your invoice and OWE YOU NOTHING. 

/ am a Name 

|~*| Bookkeeper Address 

□ Auditor City 

□ Office Worker State 



Volume XXXIII 



Penmanship and Commercial Education 
MARCH, 1928 



Number VII 




Published monthly except July and August at 612 N. Park St., Columbus. 0.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered 
Sevt. 5. 1923. at the post office at Columbus. O.. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Subscription $1.25 a year. 



d-class matter 



«af <5ffi^&u&ned&(£>°du£a&r % 



Zanerian Summer School 



For Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students 

A special intensive six weeks' course beginning July 5 will be given in Modern Handwriting methods for 
Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students. This course gives teachers and those with limited time a chance to pre- 
pare during vacation period to teach handwriting and to improve their skill in plain business handwriting or in any of 
the other branches of penmanship and lettering. Many teachers have attended as high as five or six summer terms. 
A number of nationally known instructors are employed each summer to present latest in methods to our summer 
school pupils. 

The following are some of the men and women who have been instructors in Zanerian Summer Schools: 



C. E. Doner, Massachusetts State Normal Schools. 

D. C. Beighey, Supr. of Writing. Indianapolis, Ind. 
H. L. Darner, Stanton Motor Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
C. Spencer Chambers, Supervisor of Writing, Syracuse, 

N. Y. 
Alma E. Dorst, Supervisor of Writing, Oak Park, 111. 
Elizabeth Landon, Supervisor of Writing, Binghamton, 

N. Y. 
J. A. Savage, Supervisor of Writing, Umaha, Nebr. 
Frank H. Arnold, Supervisor of Writing, Spokane, Wash. 
Dr. Frank N. Freeman, Prof. Educational Pcychology, 

University of Chicago. 
C. C. Lister, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, 

Brooklyn. 



A. G. Skeeles, Supervisor of Writing, Columbus, Ohio. 

Helen E. Cotton, Supervisor of Writing, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

Adelaide Snow, Teacher, Riverside High School, Mil- 
waukee. 

Harriett Graham, Supervisor of Writing, Springfield, O. 
A. M. Hinds, Supervisor of Writing, Louisville, Ky. 
Agnes E. Wetherow, formerly Representative of the 
Zaner-Bloser Company. 

Tom Sawyier, formerly Director of Writing in Indian- 
apolis and Milwaukee. 

Dr. W. 0. Doescher, Prof. Psychology and Philosophy, 
Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. 



ijsyjjg^Jl 



SCHEDULE AND COURSE OF STUDY FOR ZANERIAN SUMMER SCHOOL 



July 5 to August 13. Students may enroll earlier to take additional work. 

METHODS OF TEACHING PENMANSHIP 

tensely 



8:00 to 9:00 — Practice of Teaching Penmanship. 
9:00 to 10:00 — Business of Penmanship, Analysis and Th 
10:00 to 11:00 — Methods of Teaching Penmanship. 
1:00 to 2:00— Blackboard Writing. 
2:00 to 3:00 — Business Penmanship, Analysis and Theo 
3:00 to 4:00 — Psychology. 
4:00 to 4:30 — Roundtable Discussion. 



PRACTICE OK TEACHING PENMANSHIP 
rap 



Th 



is is quite interesting t 
given with a two-fold purpose. One i 
a dashy. graceful handwriting, and th 
practice in teaching. 

Model lessons are given and criticisms 
ith the view of training pupils to p 



Drills are 

i executing 

s to give the pupils 



the 



Teache 



adez 



any pr 



il ide 



tions in this clat_. 

Many problems will be worked out in these classes. They are 
just the drills you need to put life into your writing and your 
teaching. You will find them interesting and a real help. 

BUSINESS PENMANSHIP, ANALYSIS 
WD THEORY 



W >■ inspect each pupil's work tw 
offered and suggestions and insiruc 
ment, and when needed fresh frorr 
which give pupils the best workint 
actly how to proceed. Our method 
give each pupil the help which is 
particular needs. 

This personal interest in pupiU 
has helped to make the Zanerian I 
Students come to the Zanerian fror 
get our persona) criticinms and i 
the means of developing America's 

ation to see the instructors d 

common remark by students. 

desire 



h day. Criti 
tions are given for 
-the -pen copies ar 
models and show 
of instru. 
beat suited to hin 



.nd hi; 



r 



fully 




eates ii 


1 


ud< 


in-. 


will 


\ 


feature 


ol 


the 


Ai 


helpf 


il 


nterest 


-h. 




by 



is one of the things which 
e unique school it is today, 
all parts of the country to 
e been 
finest penmen. "It is an in- 
sh off beautiful copies. " is 
Seeing work executed skill- 
to improve as nothing else 
>ol is the personal, 
y student. 



impr 
er Sc! 



This is a 
and supervi 
manship for all g 
manship; Method 
Specimens Accor 
Small Children, a 
Writing and the 



sting and helpful class for teachers 

scussions are given on Public School Pen- 

les. Normal. Rural and Private School Pcn- 

3f Presentation: Writing Surveys; Grading 

ding to Scales; Outlines; Large Writing for 

nd various timely problems of Arm Movement 

new Correlated Handwriting. 



BLACKBOARD WRITING 

The blackboard is one of the best tools and e\ 
should be a good blackboard writer. 

Instructions and drills are given, and pupils are 
to practice as much as possible on the board. The 
ation. 



nspi 



PSYCHOLOGY 



Psychology, five houi 
mental principles of the s 



nd the 



ubject 
1 princ 



ator factor 



study of the funda- 



IB 



NOTE: This course will be giv« 
direction of Capital University, Coin 
Hours credit for the satisfactory CO 
be given by Capital Universitv. This 

PREREQUISITE: Graduation fro 
or its equivalent. 



study of habitation, auto- 
l the psychology of hand- 



the 



SemMter 



our school 
, Ohio. Two 
on of this course will 
It will be transferable. 
st grade High School 



Among the si 
experienced and 
tunity of knowing 
is one of the most 
mer School. 



ZANER1 \\ Kin ND I \i:i.l 

students in the Za 
killful teacher 



»n College are always many 
d supervisors. The oppor- 
th them at the round table 
ble and 'enjoyable features of the Sum- 



A page from the new Zanerian Catalog. Write for free copy if you are interested in either residence or corre- 
spondence work in thr Zanerian < oliege of Penmanship. Columbus. Ohm. 



^ ^fflj&u&/i&y&&&uw&r & 




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STANDARD 
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Pitman's Loose-Leaf 
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Revised Edition including Regents' Tests. On 
cardboard, 50 cards, $1.50 a set. 

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Adopted by the 7^.ew Tor\, Philadelphia. Rochester 
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The unique form for these Supplementary Typewriting 
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(1) To provide new materia! for the teaching of Tran- 
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Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, MARCH, 1928 



No. VII 



Eastern Commercial Teachers' 
Association 
PROGRAM 

April 5, 6, and 7, 1928 

Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City 

GENERAL SESSION 

1. Purpose of Nature of the 1928 
Yearbook of the E. C. T. A. 

Dr. Paul S. Lomax, New York 
University, New York City. 

2. A Philosophy of Commercial Edu- 
cation. 

Dr. John Dewey, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City. 
Dr. W. H. Kilpatrick, Columbia 
University, New York City. 

3. Commercial Education and the 
Scientific Spirit. 

Dr. Wesley C. Mitchell, Columbia 
Uuniversity, New York City. 

4. Research as Applied to Business; 
Advantages and Limitation. 
Dean Edmund E. Day, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

5. Research as Applied to Educa- 
tion; Advantages and Limitation. 

Dean John W. Withers, New York 
University, New York City. 
Business Building of Civilization. 
Dr. Lee Galloway, formerly Di- 
rector of Department of Manage- 
ment and 

Professor of Commerce and In- 
dustry, New York University, N. 
Y. City. 
7. The future of Commercial Edu- 
cation. 

President Frederick H. Robinson, 
College of the City of New York, 
N. Y. City. 
SECTIONAL MEETINGS 
Commercial Section: Chairman 
Simon J. Jason, Administrative As- 
sistant, Walton High School, New 
York. 

ADDRESSES 
1. Research as Applied to Account- 
ing Practice^ — 2:15-2:45. 
Prof. Roy B. Kester, Columbia 
University, N. Y. C. 
New Developments for the Com- 
mercial Teacher — 2:45-3:00. 

(a) In Bookkeeping and Ac- 
counting. Mr. Lloyd L. Jones, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(b) In Arithmetic 3:00-3:15 
Prof. G. M. Wilson, Boston 
University. 



6. 



2. 



3. 



(c) In Junior Business Train- 
ing 3:15-3:30 
Mr. S. B. Carkin, Principal, 
Packard School, New York 
City. 

(d) In Office Practice. 

Mr. Norman C. Wolff, In- 
structor in Charge of Office 
Appliances, Central Commer- 
cial Continuation School, New 
York City. 

Conference Hours on Research 
And Other Classroom Problems. — 
3:45-4:45. 

(a) Should we expect classroom 
teachers to be research workers? 

(See Chap. X of Buckingham, 
Research of Teachers, Silver, 
Burdette and Company, 1926). 
Mr. C. A. Speer, Bay Path Insti- 
tute, Springfield, Mass. 

(b) What are some important re- 
search problems that such teachers 
may help to solve? 

Mr. John F. Robinson, Burdett Col- 
lege, Boston, Mass. 

(c) Should business documents and 
practice be taught separate and 
distinct from accounting or as part 
thereof? 

Miss Mildred Bentley, Chairman 
Dept. of Accounting and Commer- 
cial Law, Girls' Commercial High 
School, Brooklyn, New York. 

(d) Should business arithmetic be 
taught separate and distinct from 
Accounting or as part thereof? 
Mr. Harry Kessler, Chairman, De- 
partment of Accounting and Com- 
mercial Law, Textile High School, 
New York City. 

(e) How much accounting should be 
taught in secondary schools? 

Mr. Edward Kanzer, Chairman, De- 
partment of Accounting and Com- 
mercitl Law, James Monroe Hgih 
School, New York City. 

(f) How much of the teaching of ac- 
counting should be practical and 
vocational and how much of it 
should be cultural and theoretical? 
Mr. S. B. Koopman, Chairman, De- 
partment of Accounting and Com- 
mercial Law, Theodore Roosevelt 
High School, N. Y. C. 

(g) What place has mathematics in 
the Commercial Curriculum? 

Mr. Harry M. Schlauch, Chairman. 



Department of Mathematics, High 

School of Commerce, New York 

City. 
Secretarial Section: Chairman Ethel 

A. Rollinson, Columbia University, 

New York City. 
Address: Research as Applied to 

Office Practice 2:15-2:45 

Mr. W. H. Leffingwell, President 

Leffingwell-Ream Company, New 

York City. 
Addresses : Research Materials for 

the Commercial Teacher 2:45-3:00 

1. In Shorthand. 

Mrs. Earl W. Barnhart, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

2. In Transcription 3:00-3:15 
Mr. Clay D. Slinker, Director of 
Business Education, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

3. In Typewriting 3:15-3:30 
Dr. Frances Moon Butts, Director 
of Placement, Business High School 
Washington, D. C, and National 
Secretary, The Department of Busi- 
ness Education, National Education 
Association. 

4. In Secretarial Practice 3:30-3:45 
Miss Dorothy C. Briggs, Head of 
Secretarial Courses, Temple Uni- 
versity, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Conference Hour: 

1. Commercial Education Associa- 
tion of New York and Vicinity. 
Dr. Edward J. McNamara, Presi- 
dent. 

(a) Should we expect our class- 
teachers to be research workers? 
Mr. John V. Walsh, Morris High 
School, New York City — 15 min. 

(b) What are some of the import- 
ant research problems such 
teachers are helping or may help 
to solve? 

Speaker to be announced. 

(c) What bibliography — books, 
magazines, articles, research ser- 
vice of business and schools — 
is available for commercial 
teachers and stenographic and 
secretarial training? 

Mr. Conrad Saphier, Chairman 
of Committee. 

2. What results have been obtain- 
able from the measurement of sec- 
retarial prospect along intelligence, 
social, economic, and interest lines? 



(Co 



Page 21.) 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 

By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO.. 

612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O. 

E. W. Bloser .-----.. Editor 

R. A. Litpfer ..... Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.2S A YEAR 

(To Canada. 10c more: foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change- of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teachan 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Co»j 
must reach our office by the 10th of th« 
for the issue of th« following month 



<5^&u4/M4M&£uxi&r & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 




Study and 



ite this position. Notice the slant of the holder, the 



id light grip on the holder. 



Copy 145. Use the push-and-pull movement. Count: start-l-2-3-4-5-6-finish. For the second exercise count: 
swing-down-l-2-3-4-5-6-finish. Watch the size of oval. Get it rounding and graceful. 

Copy 146. Turn the copy up-side-down and you will see that the last part resembles small d. Count: 1-2-3. 
Retrace up to the base line. Close p at base line. 

Copy 147. This style is used by many because it is easy and speedy. Study it carefully; then use it if you 
desire. The loop should be about the same size as other lower loops. Are you sure your penholding is correct? Bet- 
ter compare your position with the illustrations presented at the beginning of this course. 

Copy 148. Close the p's, and watch the spacing before p's. Test your slant by drawing lines through the down 
strokes. 



145 



14C 




2 - p 



o p 



^^^^^L. 



<....^LJz^L^2y.. 



147 



■■■i^^i^- ■^--^^-■^W^- 



148 



.^p^c^^z^<?<i^:.. . .^p.scjbjh.<£/. 



4^2?^.. 



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Copy 149. Here is a new exercise and a good one. Master it. Count: round 1-2-3-4-5 down 1-2-3-4-5 finish. 
For the second one count: round-l-2-3-4-5-capital-J. After making the oval swing into the straight line exercise with- 
out raising the pen. 

Copies 150-151-152. Start at base line and swing to the head line with a left curve; then finish like Y. 
The top part of J should be larger than the bottom. Come down straight and avoid too much curve on up strokes. 
Get freedom and ease into your work. 



149 

150 
151 
152 




Copy 153. This exercise develops the bottom part of I. Count l-2-round-l-2-3-4-5-finish. By this time you 
should have acquired a free arm movement. Use the fingers very little. 

Copies 154-155. The I begins like J and ends with a leftward swing, finished with a dot or a connective 
stroke. The upward stroke should be well curved and the downward stroke or back should be rather straight. Count 
1-2. Some pupils make the I backwards which is incorrect. 

Copy 156. Study and practice are the only things which will make you a good writer. Watch slant and be- 
ginning and ending strokes. Are you careful with punctuation marks? 



153 







Copy 157. Notice the direction of arrows. Keep this exercise compact and narrow. Do not raise the pen 
in going from straight line to oval exercise: Count down-l-2-3-4-5-round-l-2, etc. 

Copy 158. The top of A is the same as i and the bottom is like J and Y. Note carefully the size above the 
base line. Count: 1-2-dot. 

Copy 159. Turn the copy up-side-down and see what the y looks like. Some make the y too wide. How are 
yours? Count: 1-2-3. Penholder points towards shoulder. Hand glides over paper. 



157 



158 




159 



160 



6rZ7r£sC<£/. 



10 



^/le&u&n^&fa&i&r & 



SUPPLEMENTARY COPIES for 
PENMANSHIP PRACTICE 

Copies were written by Francis B. Courtney, Detroit, Mich. Instructions were written in the office of 
Number 2. the B. E. 



^^T'T^Z^P—^C^^Z 









That's it • it's the effort that counts rather than the practice. The latter only shows the quality of the former. The effort to 
secure precision in form makes precise forms possible. Accurate forms are objectifications of inward efforts— projected impulses- 
materialized visions or mental images See clearly, think definitely, will firmly, act quickly, and the result will be high grade and 
graceful. Mere practice squanders time, ink, pens, and paper. Right practice invests these things in a good handwriting which 
bears dividends for life. 




The business world is needing, and consequently demanding, more and better writing than ever before in the world's 
history. As a consequence, more young men and women are today learning to write well than in any time in the past. 
Writing is therefore something more than an accomplishment; it is a modern' business necessity. Incentive seems to be a 
necessary part of effort; the price or worth of an article is measured bv the effort required to secure it. Writing is not 
lightly won or cheaply sold. 






And no other art so schools the eye and hand to accurate details as dors the art of writing well. This is doubtless the 
secret why business men desire good penmen. They know they are masters of technical details and therefore hold within 
themselves the key to the mastery of other details in office routine. Begin today to be a genius— the kind that is made, 
not born. 



<5^&uJ/n*M&&uv&r & 



11 



<^-z?-^ tZ^-t>C^i> 



-?<-yi^/z^t-£di^^L^? / z^r 



t%y/z^^z?--zsc^-i 



-Z~Z7^C-^Z^Z^7^- 






■C^^t^Cy^h^&^t^^Z- 



' — ^-^J^eZ^C-e^C- 






Everybody admires good penmanship. It is an art that the humblest citizen as well as the most learned can and does 
appreciate. It is perhaps the most beautiful, when well executed, of any of our useful arts. It serves the double purpose of 
pleasing and earning. It is thereby doubly valuable, being at one and the same time accomplishment and necessity. Its cost 
is a few months' time and effort, its value is a life's service in beauty and business. 




Think less of labor as such, and more of it as a means of expression and accomplishment, and labor will then become 
"dignified" and pleasant. Think of it as being a mental, moral, and physical necessity for true living and manhood, and it will then 
be a delight and benediction. Never consider "practice" drudgery, else the above graceful, skillful, serviceable lines will never be 
possible. Become enthusiastic over your practice, or be content to be a poor penman, a poor excuse, and perhaps a pauper. The 
skill displayed, the point made, and the moral penned should spur you on and forbid the fatal end. 




To confine one's attention to the task at hand, to stick to detail, and to be thorough, means sometime to be master. Such 
qualities are in demand. Coupled with the ability to "compare" and to "combine" means sometime to be the head of some 
one or more vast enterprises. Today is the time to begin that preparation. In writing, in mathematics, in grammar, in spelling 
be accurate, be particular, be sure. See how precise the writer has been with height and slant of letters, how regular with 
the spacing between words, and how particular about the dotting of ;"s and crossing of t's And he has been neither slow nor 
cramped with execution, showing that dispatch and care are not inconsistent. 



12 



^ <!^J&u&/uM&&uafi?~ & 



^Z^-z^^i-^ 



^^t^C^z^tP- 



-z*~^- — o-zz~ 



Deception will sooner or later cause not only friendship, but business confidence as well, to founder. People do not lik v 
j.-umblers, nor will they tolerate for any considerable length of time "sorry mouthed " people. No one has a moral right to be 
gloomy, for by so being they cast gloom over others. Cheerfulness is success, m People by their poor penmanship cast gloom 
over the faces and souls of those who have to read it. Shall I go on or have I said enough ? 

PRIZE WINNING SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 
SUPERVISOR'S CONTEST — Philadelphia — April 27th, 28th, 29th, 1927 

Specimen written by Mr. Clarence Lyon McKelvie, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Second Prize. 




Specimen written by Mr. Thaddeus Emblem, Elmira, New York. Third Prize. 



Vi 



a^ 




<~^Z-<-^--C4*sC^— 



'^L-£_^Cs~^2~^*>-jb-r 




tC^ 7Zr^^/lJL^J, 



<^z?--^~rs^ , ^y 7 




€^ 



By A. M. Wonnell. Cincinnati, O.. the skillful, wall known sup* 



>y/u>36tsj//ujjc~</ui«/</^ & 



13 




The above was made by Irwin Ogd' 
letters, the different panels and leaves \ 

Mr. Ogdei 



tudent in the Za 
very painstaking, careful student. 



College of Penmanship, Columbus. Ohio. The background, initial 



14 



. y/u .jGuuS/ujj C W/ua/sr & 



Cff/ftn///r/t amvmtmjC&i «t //>< vmom&rh /run. amd eve/u 

/ 



//osea BaJ/ou 



Written by Miss Velmah Lynn, who is attending the Zanerian College of Pe 
write this style as well as Miss Lynn. 



anship. Columbus. Ohio. Fe 











The above specimen was written by A. E. Reeser, 1503 N. Ceorge Street. York. Pa. 



THE 







Tcbruartj 192.8 



Zancr-$\o$cY Company, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



The above sketch was made by T. C. Patterson, an in- 
structor in the Chillicothe, Mo.. Business College. Mr. Pat- 
terson states that he finds a very large demand for engross- 
ing and drawing and advises persons interested in this work 
to prepare in it. 






S / 



r 



■ 






■nse^CslusCt/ 



■ 



The above beautiful letter « 
gan. who is a skillful penman. 



d from W. H. Mor- 




Lord Selkirk School. Winnipeg. Man.. Can. 



y/it rjtiuj//ujj C'duiw/tr* & 



15 





ight til 



The 

*tly 
Both alphabets 



By PARKER ZANER BLOSER 
round retraced alphabet above was made with a vigorous, continuou: 
g the companion alphabet below it. 

re purposely made quite large in order to cultivate considerable scope 
amount of practice on large forms like these with a free, forceful movement 
pid. legible handwriting. 

many penmanship teachers in the past have made a mistake by drilling too mu 
t practically all will agree that a proper attempt to make these alphabets at I 
se, cannot prove otherwise than highly beneficial. 

The same may be true of the numerous other exercises: all are good if not overdone a 
Then letters of both medium and very small sizes can also be practiced with splendid re 
There are some teachers who believe in making exercises of words and sentences by writing th 
1 and then without retracing. Try this plan also. Each no doubt has its merits. 
P. Z. had never before tried the retraced alphabet and was surprised at the control 



No dc 
believe 



vement, and if properly practiced will 



ach of movement. 

y helpful to penmanship students 



certain movement exercises. Ho 
ght time in the students' penmanship 



f properly pract 



fid.- 



t the right time. 
and over again by retracing 
movement its practice gave 



Ne 



nth look for the 



all letters and figures retraced and othe 



16 



^MJ&u&n^&&ua£r & 



Supplementary Business Writing 

By C C. LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teacher*. Nevr YoTk City 



^^^^^^tl^^^^^-i^C^C-^Z- 1^^<^l4^-z-<^l^^ZsL^?--z^C^^ 





^ ^^38u&n^&&u&&r & 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 




If you could examine the result, 
when the present meanderer ex- 
presses himself through the medium- 
ship of a pen (which, 
Why Be a happily, is but seldom) 
Penman? you would decide that he 
must have his nerve with 
him, when he sets out to write an ar- 
ticle on writing. The folks who had 
the job of teaching me to write my 
mother tongue, made at least two mis- 
takes: first, they did not teach me 
young enough, and, second, they did 
not go about the job in 
the right way. But the 
fact that I was thus 
"spoiled in the making" " 
although it effectually 
kept me from becoming 
a real penman, does not 
keep me from being 
tremendously interested 
in the cause of good 
writing, and the fact that I never 
succeeded in becoming even a fair 
penman myself, has not kept me from 
scoring a fairly good half-century rec- 
ord as a teacher in boosting said 
cause, whenever opportunity offered. 
Even now, as I am enlivening my de- 
clining years teaching this little coun- 
try school out here in the California 
mountains, every one of my kiddies 
from the youngest up, has daily prac- 
tice with the beautiful Zanerian 
script, which is officially adopted in 
this state. Furthermore, the older 
ones all have back numbers of the 
EDUCATOR in their desks, and 
whenever there is a slack time be- 
tween lessons, with nothing more ur- 
gent in hand, these magazines are 
brought out, and the youngsters have 
fun practicing some of the beautiful 
forms that have been put on the 
pages by such pen wizards as Lupfer, 
Doner, Mills, and others of the gal- 
axy of stars. 

I began doing this sort of thing 
away back in the seventies, and I 
mention it here just to show you 
where my heart is, and make it clear 
to you, perhaps, that I have done 
some thinking myself on the educa- 
tional and social value of good writ- 
ing, and how to learn to do it, even 
though my own personal penmanship 
is chiefly useful as a "horrible ex- 
ample" to show my pupils vividly how 
not to do it. I never taught a school 
yet, in which I did not feel that I had 
failed unless I had turned out at 
least a dozen pupils who could write 
better than the teacher. 

In most schools, I have found a 
group of young folk, who had begun 
to do a little thinking for themselves, 
who were asking such questions as 
these: "Why bother so much about 
mere writing? If a person's writing 
can be read, what difference does it 



make, whether it is pretty or not? 
Isn't the time spent in doing these 
movement exercises, 'Spiral spring' 
stuff, and other crlycues, mostly 
wasted? Are they any good except 
to people who are going to be profes- 
sional penmen"? And, then they gen- 
erally wound up with this clincher: 
"There was Ben Franklin and Wash- 
ington, and Lincoln and Horace 
Greeley and Teddy Roosevelt ; none of 
them could write much, but they all 
seem to have rung the bell." 

It was not always easy to answer 
these hecklers effectively, especially, 
as there are a lot of people outside 
the school circle who have pretty 
much the same attitude toward good 
writing. There ARE a lot of great 
names in the world whose owners 
could not even write the names them- 
selves so they could be read by any- 
one unfamiliar with them. Get hold 
of any collection of famous poems and 
other literary gems, that have been 
printed in facsimile, and see how 
many of them you can read without a 
typed translation. As penmanship, 
most of the stuff does not score much 
above the Third Grade. Obviously, 
you can't prove the efficacy of good 
writing from the great names in lit- 
erature , or politics or the profes- 
sions. Even lawyers, doctors and edi- 
tors, whose writing, one might think, 
would have to be accurate, as a rule, 
write abominably. If the case had 
to rest here, the advocates of good 
writing would lose their cause. But 
it does not rest here. 

To begin with, the great men who 
could not write decently were not fa- 
mous or successful BECAUSE they 
could not write, but in spite of the 
fact. Nobody but a hopeless notwit 
would argue that it is an advantage 
for a man to be unable to write well ! 
On the other hand, history is full of 
instances in which the ability of a 
man to write well has been the mak- 
ing of him. There was Alcuin, the 
great teacher at the court of Charle- 
magne, who would never have been 
heard of by the great emperor, but 
for the beautifully illuminated manu- 
scripts that the young monk had 
turned out at the monastery at York. 
A more recent instance, is that of 
Jefferson. He was the youngest and 
least important of the five men ap- 
pointed to draft the Declaration of 
Independence, and he was given the 
job of making the first and subse- 
quent drafts of the immortal docu- 
ment, because he was the only mem- 
ber of the committee who was a good 
penman. It was because young Jef- 
ferson was handy with the pen, that 
his name has come down to us as the 
"author" of our great liberty charter. 

But the cause of good writing 



17 



rests on a broader basis yet. It is 
agreed among mankind, and has been 
so agreed since the dawn of civiliza- 
tion, that all things that are to be 
done at all should be done WELL. 
Why should so important a matter as 
writing be an exception to this law? 
What would be thought of an artist 
or a draughtsman or an architect, 
who should ignore technic, and do his 
work "any old way" so long as it was 
done? Or how far would a musician 
get, who should conclude that it does 
not matter whether he sings or plays 
in tune or out of tune? The argu- 
ment for good writing is the same as 
that for any other good work. There 
waaa time when the world's art and 
music and literature was crude and 
poor, but that time went by. The 
coming of men like Raphael and 
Michelangelo and Drurer and Rubens 
changed all that. The love of beauty 
and harmony is inate in the human 
soul, and the exquisite penmanship of 
men like Spencer, and Zaner and 
Madaraz, is already influencing the 
writing of this generation, just as 
the unprecedented beauty of the 
brush work of the great artists of the 
Renaissance revolutionized the art of 
Europe, in the Fifteenth Century. 
People are coming to appreciate the 
beauty and elegance of good writing, 
just as they are acquiring a better 
taste in dress, home decoration, and 
mannerly conduct. We are likely, to 
reach a period before very long when 
one will be as ashamed of crooked, 
crabbed, ugly "hen-track" writing, as 
he is of bad English, boorish man- 
ners, slouchy dress or any other 
badge of social inferiority. 

Despite the advent of the typewriter, 
and the stenographer and the dicto- 
phone, all of us will have to go on do 
ing more or less writing with the pen. 
It will be some time, before such inti 
mate matters as love letters, messages 
of condolence, inscriptions in gift 
books, and signatures will be type- 
written or dictated to a stenographer. 
And the better that people learn to 
write, the more beautiful penmanship 
there will be, and the more our hearts 
will be gladdened by the writing of 
our friends that we are proud to keep 
because of its being a thing of beauty. 

There are other and more important 
considerations, of course. The ability 
to handle a pen deftly in the matter 
of drafting important and private 
documents, making headings and in- 
terlineations, and drawing up legible, 
pen-written statistical summaries for 
the Chief will continue to be the best 
recommendation for an efficient 
clerk or under-secretary. Every big 
business administrator knows that 
the man who is careful and accurate 
with a pen, is likely to be careful and 
dependable in other matters. 

There is a wide and still broaden- 
ing field, also for good teachers of 
penmanship, who are, themselves good 
penmen. The American people are al- 
ready "sold" on the idea of good 
writing in the schools, and it is more 
and more being keenly demanded in 

(Continued on Page 32) 



*!3^&u&/ieM'&&u+?&r & 



PUPPY LOVE 

By C. R. McCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 




"Did yez hear that Mary Mc- 
Carthy's bahy died this morning?" 
spoke up Mrs. Brogan to Widow 
Hogan in the village store. 

"Some one said the other day that 
the little creature did not receive the 
same attention as it did before Bob 
went away," came the quiet answer 
from Widow Hogan of Speak-easy 
fame. 

"I'm thinkin' that Jigger is to blame 
for a whole lot of this trouble. He is 
a regular divil when he gits goin'. 
Just imagine him preventin' Bob from 
seein' his own little child. If more 
parents would invite their girls to 
have their fellows 
home and treat them 
better, there would be 
less weepin' and wail- 
in' and gnashin' of 
teeth later on when 
it is too late. In- 
stead many drive 
their children to do 
the very thing the 
parents don't want 
them to do by telling them the oppo- 
site. I told my girls to bring their 
fellows home all they wanted to and 
I think they turned out about as fine 
as the next ones. They all got men 
with good jobs around the mines and 
I told them that if they couldn't get 
along with their husbands that they 
should not come back home and pester 
me about their little scraps. The idea 
of Jigger always yellin' so everybody 
could hear him, 'I'll break every bon c 
in yer body.' then makin' poor Bob 
the laughin' stock of the town. This 
would drive anybody to drink. They 
say he has gone completely on the 
rocks since he left the town. No one 
knows where he is." 

This was a long speech for Mrs. 
Brogan to make, but she had been a 
close neighbor and knew that Widow 
Hogan had heard the other side of the 
story in her speakeasy, from the lips 
of Jigger. 

Time went on swiftly and weeks 
passed into months and it was whisp- 
ered about the little town that Mary 
was not the girl she had been. She 
seemed to have lost hold of herself 
completely. In other words she had 
started to drink and carouse around. 
This was soon aired by the women 
folks and when the village gossips 
gather the scandal — not much left 
for those who are in the frying pan — 
they are doomed whether innocent or 
guilty. And women have the reputa- 
tion of being catty. The nature of n 
woman seems to thrive upon go LB 
Old Jigger had been hearing some 
things and one night as Mary came in 
a little later than usual, was down 
stairs to meet her. 

"Where have yez been so late 



Mary?" inquired the paternal an- 
cestor. 

"I was at the dance and we missed 
the last car, so one of the boys 
brought me home," quickly replied 
Mary. 

This was an old one for Jigger and 
has been used thousands of times be- 
fore and no doubt will be used thou- 
sands of times after this affair has 
ceased. 

"Mary, I'm hearin' things about 
yez," interrupted Jigger. 

"Now what have I done? Are you 
listening to all those old clucks in the 
Patch about this and that? If I am, 
you have driven me to it," replied 
Mary hotly as she had her father's 
temper. 

She had hardly spoken the last 
word when Jigger "opened up" on her 
with a right and crossed it quickly 
with his left and Mary was listening 
to the birdies that sing so sweetly 
for the defeated prize fighters. 

"I'll never have a daughter of me 
own speaking to me that way," was 
all Jigger would say when Mon heard 
the racket and hurried down the 
stairs. 

The next morning Jigger went to 
work at the mines and Mary did not 
get up until nearly noon. Her mother 
thought she needed a little rest after 
the night before. 

Mary had not been sleeping after 
those terrible blows but was busy 
packing her few belongings and came 
down all dressed and ready to take 
the train for a large city. 

"Now where are ye goin' me 
pretty lady?" inquired the mother. 

"Mother, I can stand some things 
but I can't stand this treatment that 
I get off Pop any longer. I am go- 
ing to the City and I'll always think 
kindly of you, Mother dear, but that 
old scamp will drive any child to 
drink if she listens to him," was the 
reply from Mary. 

With that she was off and caught 
the train and in a few hours was in 
a large city where many other girls 
have gone — some never to return — 
but one wonders sometimes why a 
girl takes this attitude. 

When a girl gets down and out, it 
is very hard for her to stage a come- 
back. There is an old saying, "They 
Never Come Back." It is a trite ex- 
pression if there ever was one. If a 
boy tries to make a comeback, he is 
received with open arms and every- 
thing is done to help him succeed but 
just let a girl try it and women espe- 
cially delight in stepping on her and 
driving her still deeper in the mire. 
This is one of Life's problems and 
will always be the same. 

Manx- fathers drive their children to 
the very thing this old Jigger has 
done, little thinking of the harm they 
air < 1 < >i ii l-- at thf time. It is true that 
children need 'li cipline but there are 
many ways in which this may be ac- 
complished. Sometimes fathers do 
more harm than cood. Every child 
i- a ilinVivnt problem — no two i u 
be treated alike. Old Jigger had 



driven Bob to drink and ruin and his 
own daughter was fast stepping in 
that direction — all because he was 
too bull-headed to think of other per- 
son's likes and dislikes. 

After two years of the "pace that 
kills" life, Mary accidently ran into 
Bob. Neither recognized the other at 
first for they both had changed so 
much and had seen so much of the 
bitter life that saps the life blood. 

"Mary, why don't you quit this life 
and straighten up?" spoke Bob rather 
feelingly. 

"You are a fine example to preach 
to me!" came the fiery answer. 

"I know it, but, I have seen more 
than you and I love you too much to 
see you go on the rocks as I have 
done. There is no hope for me. I hav 
suffered the ravages of disease and 
booze all because your old man 
couldn't see me. Maybe I was wrong 
but he could have helped me right my- 
self," sermonized Bob. 

"Maybe you are right, Bob, I'll turn 
over a new leaf and start life all over 
again — all for you," answered Mary 
thoughtfully. 

With that Bob took her to Sisters 
of Mercy where she was to start all 
over again. Bob kissed her cheek 
tenderly as he left her. Little did she 
know that would be the last time she 
would ever see him again. The next 
morning he was found floating in the 
muddy waters below the falls. 

Mary soon reclaimed herself be- 
cause she became associated with 
persons who were of the finer caliber 
morally and she soon secured a posi- 
tion as a stenographer in a large In- 
surance Company's Office. She had 
brushed up for about six months in 
a Night School the work she had al- 
most completed in the little Business 
College back home. Promotion came 
fast because she still remembered 
what the old teacher had told them 
one day in Salesmanship — "Hard 
work never hurts anyone — especially 
if he wants to succeed." 

Later Mary married one of the ex- 
ecutives of the office in which she 
worked and today she is a respectable 
married woman, living in a city far 
distant from her birthplace. She 
never went back home and long ago 
her parents gave her up as dead. Pos- 
sibly the reason was the dreaded 
words. "I'll break everv bone in ver 
body." The End 



R. R. REED 

The new chairman of the Penman- 
ship Department of the National 
Commercial Teachers' Federation. 

Mr. Reed is the penmanship 
teacher in the Ferris Institute. Big 
Rapids, Mich. Our readers arc famil- 
iar with Mr. Heed's skill with the pen. 

Mr. Reed is already working on 
nc\t year's meeting and desires the 

cooperation of all. Mr. Reed is a 
mighty fine man for the position, and 
the nexl meeting will go across with a 
bang if everyone gives him their sup- 
port. 



^ ttMJ&udS/i^&Jiu&fir* & 



19 



The Growth of the National Asso- 
ciation of Penmanship 
Supervisors And 
Teachers 

CLARA RedeCKER, Supervisor of Pen- 
manship, Rock Island, Illinois 



The National Association of Pen- 
manship Supervisors was organized 
in Chicago, December, 1913, by a 
group of leading supervisors, and the 
first meeting following the organiza- 
tion was held in St. Louis, May 4-6, 
1914, with Mr. J. H. Backtenkircher 
of Lafayette, Indiana, acting as presi- 
dent. From the standpoint of its 
present size, the meeting was not 
large, with only sixty delegates from 
various sections of the country in at- 
tendance. But to those who had but 
recently entered the field, it filled a 
great need in all its varied features 
— social, discussions, lectures ex- 
hibits, and the great privilege of vis- 
iting the school rooms to see work in 
progress among the children. 

This meeting "set the pace" for 
succeeding ones, which have all fol- 
lowed its general plan of organiza- 
tion, that of aiding teachers to secure 
practical help in everyday work. Sub- 
sequent meetings were held in Cleve- 
land, 0., (1915), Ft. Wayne, Ind., 
(1916), Chicago, 111., (1917), Benton 
Harbor, Mich., (1922), St. Louis, Mo, 
(1924), Cleveland, 0., (1926), and 
Philadelphia, Pa., (1927). Leaders 
of the Association have included the 
following well-known persons in the 
penmanship field: T. W. Emblen El- 
mira N. Y.; C. A. Barnett, Cleveland, 
; Elmer G. Miller, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Laura J. Breckenridge, Lafayette, 
Ind • H. C. Walker, St. Louis, Mo.; 
F. O. Rogers, Ft. Wayne, Ind.; Ella 
M Hendrickson, Lakewood, O.; Frank 
J Duffy, Duluth, Minn. Mrs. Lettie 
J. Stro'bell, Pittsburgh, Pa., is the 
present incumbent. 

During the World War, meetings 
were discontinued, and at the Benton 
Harbor meeting (1922) the plan of 
holding biennial conventions was 
adopted. This plan was followed un- 
til the Cleveland meeting (1926) 
when it was deemed advisable to re- 
turn to the former plan of annual 
meetings. 

Among the several conventions of 
the Association, all of which have had 
very helpful features, th eTenth An- 
niversary meeting held in St. Louis 
in 1924 has outstanding character- 
istics. It will be remembered as hav- 
ing featured debates by advocates of 
various methods of teaching primary 
writing, followed by free and kindly 
discussions. Dr. Frank Freeman of 
Chicago University, who has done a 
great deal of investigating in the sub- 
ject of handwriting was present and 
gave the principal address. 

At all of the conventions a promi- 
nent feature of the program has been 
an address by the Superintendent of 
Schools or his assistant. The music 



departments of the several cities have 
graciously entertained at the ses- 
sions. Teachers whose rooms we have 
visited have given us a hearty wel- 
come, and the spirit among delegates 
has been one of complete harmony 
and good feeling. This seems to me 
to be the influence that will live long- 
est and yield the greatest returns in 
the entire organization. 

The main purpose of the organiza- 
tion has been the inter-change of 
ideas relating to the teaching of pen- 
manship. The N. A. P. T. S. repre- 
sents all methods but exploits none; 
anyone may freely express his views, 
and his listeners may reserve for 
their own use such ideas and devices 
as they consider helpful. The pur- 
poses of the Association can be listed 
under four heads: 

1. The establishment and main- 
tenance of efficient and respon- 
sible supervision. 

2. The improvement of educational 
conditions. 

3. The advancing of correct pro- 
cedure for teaching hand- 
writing. 

4. Conducting discussions of the 
problems of organization, ad- 
ministration, and supervision. 

During the fourteen years of its ex- 
istence, the Association has grown 
from a membership of sixty in 1914 
to seven hundred ninety-three in 1927. 
At the Philadelphia meeting in April, 
1927, a new Constitution was adopted. 
In order to include all teachers of 
penmanship, as well as supervisors, 
the name of the Association was 
changed to National Association of 
Penmanship Teachers and Super- 
visors. 



The 1928 convention will be held in 
Oak Park, Illinois, April 25-27. Meet- 
ings will be held at the New Con- 
gress Hotel, Chicago; a day will be 
spent visiting the schools of the larg- 
est village in the United States — Oak 
Park, where Miss Alma E. Dorst, is 
Supervisor of Handwriting. Those 
who are following the affairs of the 
Association predict a profitable 
meeting. 



National Association of Penmanship 
Teachers and Supervisors 

Several of the outstanding speakers 
and their subjects for the April meet- 
ing N. A. P. S. are: 

Dr. Paul V. West— New York Uni- 
versity — "The Supervisor as a Leader 
of Research." 

Dr. A. S. Barr— University of Wis- 
consin — "The Development of Ob- 
jective Procedures in Classroom Su- 
pervision." 

Professor Franklin Bobbitt — Uni- 
versity of Chicago — "General Prin- 
ciples of Supervision as Applied to 
the Work of Supervisor of Penman- 
ship." 

Mr. Glen Hoffhines— of Harris 
Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago — 
"Practical Penmanship from a Prac- 
tical Point of View." 

Miss Luella Chapman — Buffalo 
State Teachers' College, Buffalo, N. 
Y. — "The Responsibility of the Pen- 
manship Instructor in Teacher Train- 
ing Institutions." 

There will be interesting discus- 
sions by some of the most outstand- 
ing penmanship supervisors in the 
United States on Prevalent Penman- 
ship Problems. 

A. Lucilla McCalmont, 
Chr. of Executive Com. 










<^£<*>ftl> / 




ove letter was wr 
prings, Garfield C< 
writing, but is quite skillful 
had Superintendents with as i 



:n by Mr. S. B. Potter, who is Supt. 
Colo. Mr. Potter is not only skillful 
ornamental, as well. We wish that 
ch penmanship skill as Glenwood Sprii 



20 



^ <!3^&u&'/uM&&u*i£r % 4§* 



Why Arm Movement Writing 



[This article which appeared in the 
Latrole Bulletin was written by 
Laura Shallenberger, Supervisor of 
g in the public schools of Lat- 
robe, Pa. This article is one of a 
series of articles prepared by the 
teachers of the public schools of Lat- 
robe with tlie view of familiarising 
with the work being done in 
the various subjects in the public 
schools. 

Supi rvisors of handwriting over the 
country could do much toward in- 
creasing interest in handwriting by 
informing the public of the work they 
are doing. 

Miss Shallenberger is an enthusiastic 
Zanerian Jiaving received her penman- 
ship training in the Zanerian Col- 
lege.} 

Is writing essential? You may fre- 
quently hear it said that since the 
advent of the typewriter and its very 
general use, handwriting has lost its 
significance. But the makers of steel 
pens tell us that they manufacture 
and sell more steel pens than ever be- 
fore. Because the writing machine 
has become so common, handwriting 
must be done more acceptably than 
before. 

Not only is good writing needed in 
the commercial and social life, but it 
is needed in the school life. Writing 
is one of the most important studies 
in school life because it is used in the 
recording of all other subjects. To be 
educational, it must be free and rapid. 
The hand must keep pace with the 
thought movement, or it is not real 
writing. The need of good writing 
in the first eight years of school life 
is well worth the effort it takes to 
master it; afterwards, it is a business 
and social asset — it is never a liabil- 
ity. The hygenic position acquired 
while practicing arm movement writ- 
ing, alone pays for the time spent in 



teaching this subject. 

Arm movement writing means good 
healthful posture, straight spinal col- 
umns, eyes far enough away from the 
paper for safety, and both shoulders 
of equal height. It is impossible to 
do good arm movement in twisted, un- 
healthful positions, or with stiff and 
rigid muscles. But poor body posi- 
tion and cramped muscles usually ac- 
company finger movement writing. 

In finger movement the letters are 
formed by the action of the thumb 
and first two fingers, while the hand 
is moved forwards in a series of jerks 
after the formation of every three or 
four letters. This cramped position of 
the hand, which is caused by holding 
the pen or pencil too lightly and by 
the desire of the writer to make as 
many letters as possible before mov- 
ing the hand, is very tiresome to the 
writer and usually results in uneven, 
unsymetrical, and often illegible 
writing. 

Arm movement writing is writing 
in which the power to write comes 
from the muscles above the elbow. The 
movement is controlled by resting the 
arm on the muscle pad in front of the 
elbow and on the tips of the third and 
fourth fingers. 

Why teach arm movement writing? 
What are its advantages ? Two of 
these have already been mentioned: 
(1) a healthful body posture with re- 
laxed muscles (2) conservation of 
eyesight. Other advantages are, ease 
in writing and beauty of form. The 
muscles above the elbow are large and 
strong, with abundant power to move 
the pen without being tired. Because 
of this abundant power, the handwrit- 
ing is (1) smooth and graceful; (2) 
swiftly executed; (3) uniform in 
slant: (4) easy to read. The aver- 
age person who has not been taught 
arm movement writing, writes at only 



a fraction of the speed which is pos- 
sible to most of those who have been 
taught arm movement. 

Most persons who are cited as 
rapid finger-movement writers, are 
those who were once trained in arm 
movement and who acquired through 
this training the position of the hand 
and arm which makes possible the 
speed they attain. They use, also, a 
considerable amount of arm move- 
ment. Arm movement writing does 
not mean that the fingers have no 
part in forming the letters. Few 
teachers of writing would insist that 
*the fingers should do nothing but hold 
the pen. A method of writing by 
which the arm muscles are used for 
the fundamental movements, with the 
fingers slightly assisting in the form- 
ation of letters, is productive of bet- 
ter results than a method that makes 
use of the fingers alone; a little finger 
movement is used by most arm move- 
ment writers. 

It has been clearly demonstrated 
that w-hile high school students and 
many eighth grade students can learn 
readily from the same methods of in- 
struction as used in teaching penman- 
ship in business schools, these same 
copies, instruction, and method do not 
secure such good results when ap- 
plied to the lower grades. Just as in 
other subjects it is a mistake to try 
to teach all ages of children from the 
same text, so it is a mistake in teach- 
ing writing. Nearly all psychologists, 
primary supervisors and students of 
primary education, are agreed that 
large writing for little children is 
best for health and easiest to learn. 

Some people seem to think writing 
is a gift. It is no more a gift than any 
other branch of study. Anyone under 
normal conditions can acquire a free, 
easy and legible handwriting, if he is 
willing to devote a little of his spare 
time to practice. The way one writes 
is largely determined by how he 
wishes to write. If the desire is 
strong enough the writing will im- 
prove. 




By H. J. Walter. 



3te&trt/n^&6Ka6r & 



Eastern Commercial Teachers' 
Association 

iContinued from Page 7.) 

Dick Carolson, La Salle Extension 
University, Chicago, 111. — 5 min. 

3. What is the technique employed 
for measuring stenographic output 
in the classroom? 

Speaker to be announced. 

4. What is the technique employed 
for measuring stenographic output 
in business? — 10 min. 

Mr. William Harned, Head of the 
Shorthand and Typewriting depart- 
ment, Columbia University, New 
York City. 

5. What is being done or might be 
done to stimulate a closer relation- 
shin between the classroom and the 
office in the matter of such stand- 
ards and measures of efficiency? 
Miss Maude Smith. Chairman of 
Shorthand Department, Yonkers 
School of Commerce. New York. 

6. Just where is the line of demark- 
ation between secretaries and 
stenographei-s? What shou'd be the 
essential difference in training? 
??? 

7. Dr. E. G. Coover, Author of 
Wiese-Coover Tynewritinq- Text, 
and Prof, of Psychology. Standard 
University, will speak on a subject 
which he will select. 

Economics, and Social Studies Sec- 
tion: Chairman, Lewis A. Rice. 
Commercial Education, State of 
New Jersey. 
Address: Research as Applied to 
Commercial and Industrial Rela- 
tions. 
Martin Dodge, Manager, Industrial 
Bureau Merchants' Association of 
New York City. 2:15-2:45 

Addresses: Research Materials for 
the Commercial Teacher. 

1. Economics and Research. 
Willford I. King, Ph. D.. Research 
Staff of the National Bureau of 
Economics Research, New York 
City 2:45-3:00 

2. Marketing and Research. 
William G. Schneider, Research De- 
partment, Copper and Brass Re- 
search Association, New York 
City 3:00-3:15 

3. New Materials in Commercial 
Law. 

William R. Curtis, Atlantic City 
High School, Atlantic City, New 
Jersey 3:15-3:3- 

4. Development of the Port of New 
York — An Example of Geographi- 
cal Research. 

Billings, Wilson, Deputy Manager 
in Charge of Port Development, 
New York Port Authority 3 :30-3 :45 
Conference Hour on Research and 
Other Classroom Problems — 3:34- 
4:45 — Five Minutes Presentation 
by Murray L. Gross, West Phila- 
delphia H. S., Administration, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; W. L. Kreibel, 
Pierce School of Business Adminis- 
tration, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Lo- 
label Hall, Bay Ridge High School, 
New York City; Arnon W. Welch, 



Esq., New York City; William 0. 
Taylor, High School of Commerce, 
New York City; Mathew A. 
Lynaigh, White Plains High School, 
White Plains, New York, and 
Others. 

Administration Section: Chairman, 
Dr. E. G. Blackstone, University of 
Iowa, Iowa City. 

Address: Research as Applied to Cur- 
riculm Building in Teacher Train- 
ing. 

Dr. Ambrose L. Suhrie, New York 
Univ., New York City 2:15-2:45 

Addresses: Research Materials for 
Commercial Teacher Training In- 
stitutions. 

1. In Studies of State Certification 
Requirements 2:45-3:00 
Mr. J. O. Malott, Specialist in Com- 
mercial Education, Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Department of Interior. 

2. In Studies of Supply and Demand 
of Commercial Teachers 3:00-3:15 
Mr. John J. W. Neunew, Theodore 
Roosevelt High School, New York 
City. 

3. In Studies of Commercial Teacher 
Training Curricula 3il5-3:30 
Mr. Herbert Tonne, Lafayette Jun- 
ior High School, Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. 

4. In Studies of Comparative Quali- 
fications of Commercial Teachers 
and other Teacher Groups. 

Miss Elizabeth Baker, Commercial 
High School, Atlanta, Georgia. 
Conference Hour on Problems of 
Commercial Teacher Training: 

1. What are the steps in the process 
of determining occupational oppor- 
tunities in a given city? 3:45-4:00 
Prof. F. G. Nichols, Graduate 
School of Education, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass. 

2. What steps should be taken to se- 
cure recognition for commercial 
teacher training courses in colleges 
and universities? 4:00-4:15 
Dr. Edward J. McNamara, Princi- 
pal, High School of Commerce, N. 
Y. C. 

3. How many years of training be 
required for the adequate training 
of commercial teachers? 

Mr. Clinton A. Reed, Supervisor of 
Commercial Education State De- 
partment of Education, Albany, 
New York. 

4. What books, magazines, and re- 
search services of business and 
schools are available for commer- 
cial teacher training research 
workers? 4:25-4:35 

5. What are some important research 
problems that need first attention 
in commercial teacher training? 
Mr. John V. Walsh, Morris High 
School, New York City. 

Retail Education Section: Chairman, 
Dr. Norris A. Brisco, New York 
University School of Retailing. 

Address: 1. Research as Applied to 
the Retail Business. 
Miss B. Eugenia Lies, Director of 
the Planning Department, R. H. 
Macy & Company. 



21 



Addresses 

1. Research Materials the Retail Ed- 
ucation. 

Dr. David Rankin Craig, Assistant 
Professor, The Research Bureau for 
Retail Training, University of 
Pittsburgh. 

2. Symposium on Retail Education. 
"Making Store Contracts" 

Miss Margaret Jacobson, West 
High School, Rochester, New 
York. 

"Placement of Students" 
Miss Maude McCain, Theodore 
Roosevelt H? S., New York City. 
"How the Teachers of Retailing 
May Assist the Merchant in Train- 
ing His Employees" 
Miss Grace Griffith, Elmira Free 
Academy, N. Y. 

"Progress of Retailing Education in 
High Schools in 1926" 
Miss Isabel Graig Bacon, Special 
Agent, Retail Store Education, Fed- 
eral Board for Vocational Educa- 
tion. 

PENMANSHIP SECTION: Chair- 
man, John G. Kirk, Director of 
Commercial Education, Philadelphia 

Public Schools, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Address: Needed Research in the 
Teaching of Penmanship in Commer- 
cial Schools 2:15-2:45 

Dr. Paul V. West, School of Edu- 
cation, New York University, 
New York City. 
Addresses: Research Materials for 
the Commercial Teacher. 

1. In Penmanship 2:45-3:00 

Clarence S. McKelvie, Director 
of Handwriting, State Teachers 
College, West Chester, Pa. 

2. In Handwriting Scales 3:00-3:15 
Speaker to be announced later. 

3. In Teaching of Penmanship 

3:15-3:45 

Dr. Frank N. Freeman, Profes- 
sor of Educational Psychology, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 
Illinois. 
Conference Hour on Research and 
Other Teaching Problems 3:45-4:45 

1. Should we expect classroom 
teachers to be research workers? 

Dr. Joseph S. Taylor, President, 
New York Society for the Ex- 
perimental Study of Education, 
formerly District Superintendent 
of Schools, New York Public 
Schools, New York City. 

2. What are some important re- 
search problems that teachers may 
help to solve? 

M. A. Travers, Director of Hand- 
writing, Elizabeth Public Schools, 
Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

3. What books, magazines, and re- 
search services of business and 
schools are available for teachers of 
handwriting? 

Michael J. Ryan, Instructor in 
Penmanship, The Peirce School 
of Business Administration, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

4. Problems for Discussion. 

a. What standards of form in 
penmanship are practical and 
(Continued on Page 22) 



22 



<5/fe&uA/?uM &&&&&?* & 



Primary Writing 
By Mildred Moffett 



IMiss Uoffet's plea that the child 
should be given as fair a start in 
handwriting as he is given in read- 
ing, he being entitled to the latest re- 
sults of scientific research in this 
branch as well as in other branches, 
is to the point and should receive con- 
sideration. Why discriminate against 
one branch in favor of another? 
Where handwriting is given similar 
attention to that given other branches 
similar results are secured]. 



Primary Writing the country over 
is such a variable quantity, uncertain 
in fact, that I question seriously 
whether most Primary Teachers cor- 
rectly view the purpose of the daily 
writing performance. 

As near as I have been able to de- 
termine by casual conversation and 
class room visits with Primary 
Teachers many of them have the er- 
roneous idea that it is impossible for 
a child to learn to write freely dur- 
ing the first two years. The various 
school exercises which our crowded 
curriculum forces them to have the 
children write. 

Recently through scientific study of 
the Child's Way of learning to write, 
we find that if the same care and at- 
tention to individual instruction is 
employed in the teaching of Writing 
that is now almost universally true 
in teaching Primary Reading, there 
need be no doubt in the mind of any 
teacher about her pupils being able to 
learn to write fluently enough to 
serve the daily lesson needs after the 
first three or four months in school. 

Where children are encouraged to 
believe they can learn to write "real 
words" and later use them in writing 
stories we are securing results that 
would to some folks be almost unbe- 
lievable. 



Where the beginning lessons are 
properly handled during the first two 
or three months, the average and 
above average child, as well as some 
of the weaker ones, will be able to 
greatly increase their writing vocabu- 
lary through the use of vocabulary 
cards now available for associate use 
with the text. 

Many pupils whose interest in some 
types of "Busy Work" lags percept- 
ibly after the first few days will play 
with their vocabulary cards profit- 
ably day after day with increased in- 
terest, thereby adding to their writing 
vocabulary and strengthening their 
reading and spelling vocabularies. 

If the writing is properly pre- 
sented during the first two months in 
the first and second grades you are 
safe in presenting to your pupils, the 
vocabulary or dictionary box, which 
ever you may choose to call it, ex- 
plaining the use of the cards care- 
fully. Some may need and want your 
help occasionally but many will in 
their play time master the new words 
independently for most part. The 
writing period may be used to help 
them overcome any little difficulties 
encountered. 

Here is one message I should like to 
broadcast so that every teacher and 
superintendent might hear and profit 
thereby : 

Until the act of writing has been 
fixed through the establishment of 
correct habits of visualization and 
motor control it is unwise to ask chil- 
dren to COPY selections from the 
blackboard or text, particularly when 
words entirely out of the child's range 
of vocabulary are included. 

Since we do not expect children to 
read fluently, selections which contain 
words of which they have no knowl- 
edge is it reasonable to expect more 
of them in writing? 

Let us teach the act of writing 
words as thoroughly as we do reading 
and the results of the right kind will 
surely follow. 



Getting Form 



By J. H. BACHTENKIRCHER. 
Lafayette, lnd. 

I have observed that many pupils 
do not make the standard r well, not 
because they do not konw the correct 
form, but because they do not put in 
the necessary strokes and checks of 
the pen to give it the correct form. 
Not enough attention is given to the 
strokes and the time and blend neces- 
sary to make it. 

As a device for overcoming these 
defects I have the pupils "block out" 
the letter showing the number of 
moves the pen must make. (See first 
and second letters in above illustra- 
tion). 

I find pupils making excellent im- 
provement in the form of this letter 
and it is carrying over. I should like 
to know what the reader of the B. E. 
thinks about such "doins" 



Miss Catherine E. Giles, of LeRoy, 
N. Y., has recently been appointed to 
teach commercial work in the Strath- 
moor High School, Detroit. 

Dorothy Mae Fordyce of Parkers- 
burg, Iowa, is a new commercial 
teacher in the Atlantic, Iowa, High 
School. 

Mr. Gilbert S. Harold of New York 
has recently been appointed commer- 
cial instructor in The Drexel Institute, 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. E. H. Gunther of Columbus, O., 
is a new commercial teacher in the 
High School at Lockport, N. Y. 

T. M. Tevis, Chillicothe, Mo., fav- 
ored as with some of his beautifully 
written cards. The cards are mounted 
in a folder and have a very Veautiful 
appearance. The cards are well 
worth a place in any one's scrapbook. 



Eastern Commercial Teachers' 
Association 

(Continued from Page 21) 

attainable? 

Raymond C. Goodfellow. Di- 
rector of Penmanship, New- 
ark Public Schools, New 
Jersey. 

b. What are the measurable 
elements that determine leg- 
ibility in writing? 

Elizabeth Langdon, Super- 
visor of Handwriting, Bing- 
hamton Public Schools, 
Binghamton, New York. 

C. What standards of position 



in writing are practical ami 
measurable? 

Speaker to be announced 

later. 

d. What are the standards of 
movement that are practical 
and attainable? 

C. C. Lister, Director of 
Penmanship, Maxwell 
Training School, Brooklyn, 
New York. 

e. How can good results be se- 

in quality, speed, and 

movement without the use of 

formal drills in developing 

movement. 

Harry Houston, Supervisor 



of Penmanship, New Haven 
Public Schools, New Haven, 
Conn. 

f. Can pupils effectively grade 
their own handwriting prod- 
uct? 

Ethel M. Weatherby, Super- 
visor of Handwriting, Cam- 
den Public Schools Camden, 
Mew Jersey, and Instructor 
in Methods of Teaching 
Handwriting, Palmer School 
of Business, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

g. How can teachers be eco- 
nomically trained to use a 
Handwriting Scale? 

Lucille A. McCalmont, Su- 
pervisor of Handwriting, 
Utica Public Schools, Utica, 
New York. 



^T <^38u&n^&&ua&r & 



23 



Ancient Systems of Writing 

By A. C. EVANS, Pasedena, Calif. 



"The invention of writing and of a 
convenient system of records on paper 
has had a greater influence in uplift- 
ing the human race than any other 
intellectual achievement in the career 
of man. It was more important than 
all of the battles ever fought and all 
the constitutions ever devised." 

Breasted's Ancient Times, 
Ginn & Co. 

Had you been in the train of "King 
Tut" as he journeyed through his 
realm some 3300 years ago, you 
would have noticed two men , carry- 
ing between them a small box with 
leather handles, and perhaps another, 
who carried ink wells or a small desk 
with ink pots inserted in the top. 
Each would probably be carrying, 
slung over his shoulder a pot of water 
and a palette, in the cavities of which 
he kept his black and red ink. Along 
with the rest of his outfit would be 
the reed pens which he carried in a 
holder. These were the Egyptian 
scribes, for the Egyptians had 
learned to write long before King 
Tut -ankh-Amen was laid in his tomb. 
A. H. Sayce, the noted authority on 
ancient civilizations says, — "The most 
remote antiquity to which we can go 
back was already acquainted with a 
perfected system of writing. It was 
used for literary purposes before 
Abraham was born in Ur o f the 
Chaldees." 



While there were no schools, such as 
we have today, in which young men 
might learn to be scribes, they could 
enter the offices of their fathers and, 
by imitating the work done there, 
learn to handle business forms cor- 
rectly, for, as Wells points out in 
his Outline of History, writing was 
at first chiefly business writing. A 
father would be pleased to have his 
son become a scribe after him, for, 
while they were badly paid, they 
were free from military service and 
forced labor. Their lives were safe 
and they no doubt enjoyed some dis- 
tinction as they were placed in a 
class with the nobles and priests. 
So, after some old pedagogue had 
taught a boy the alphabet, he would 
take up his practice in the office of 
his father or of some friend. Some 
of these exercises are still preserved 
and show the corrections written on 
the margin in a bold dashy handwrit- 
ing. 

Flinders Petrie calls the Egyptian 
writing the most beautiful in the 
world. You would expect to find a 
high civilization reflected in the 
handwriting of the people and Egypt 
was no exception. Considerable 
skill could be developed in the Egypt- 
ian writing as it was done with ink 
upon the pressed papyrus plant, which 
permitted freely flowing strokes, 
quite in contrast with the stone or 
clay of the Babylonians. (See illus- 



i, ■ . $&&& 


















■ . -tfswztnrr ^Wff&l 


N- {*^,p^*0. 




1 !*&5w&tBMlttB3 



Babylonian Clay Tablets 
Society, Washington, D. 



Reproduced by per 



an of Records of the Past Explor 



trations.) The papyrus plant grew 
abundantly along the swampy water 
of the Nile and in other Mediter- 
ranean countries as well. Egypt 
was the chief source of supply. 
This plant grows to a height of ten 
or twelve feet and is several inches 
thick. The inner layers were used 
for the finer paper. Strips were cut 
lengthwise and laid side by side, with 
overlapping edges, upon a moistened 
table. Then another layer was placed 
crosswise of this and the whole 
pressed together, after which it was 
exposed to dry. After this it was 
beaten and then polished with a shell 
or ivory. Ten or twenty of these long 
sections were joined to make a roll. 
Upon this smooth surface the Egyp- 
tian scribe wrote with ink made prob- 
ably from some vegetable gum mixed 
with soot. His pen was a reed cut so 
as to make a blunt point. "The Egyp- 
tian had thus made the discovery 
that a thin vegetable membrane of- 
fers the most practical surface on 
which to write, and the world has 
since discovered nothing better. In 
this way arose pen, ink, and paper. 
All three of these devices have de- 
scended to us from the Egyptians, 
and paper still bears its ancient name 
'papyros' but slightly changed." 
Breasted. 

Babylonian writing developed in 
a quite different manner from that 
of the Egyptians because the Baby- 
lonians wrote upon clay or stone with 
a stylus. "On papyrus or parchment 
it is easy to make curved forms, but 
on clay, which was the all available 
material in the Babylonian plain, im- 
pressing lines is far neater than 
scratching them up, and the handy 
tool for making such impressions was 
a slip of wood with a square end. 
Hence all the curves tended to become 
four or five sided outlines and all the 
detail became built up of little lines 
tapering off to one end or digs with 
the corner of the stylus." (Flinders 
Petrie). 

Maspero (Illustration 1) tells us 
that the Babylonians scribe was edu- 
cated in somewhat the same manneT 
as the Egyptian. "He learned the 
routine of administrative or judicial 
affairs, the forms for correspondence 
either with nobles or ordinary people, 
the art of writing, of calculating and 
of making out bills correctly. The 
scribes were always provided with 
slabs of a fine, plastic clay, carefully 
mixed and kept sufficiently moist to 
take easily the impression of an ob- 
ject, but at the same time sufficiently 
firm to prevent the marks once made 
from becoming either blurred or 
effaced. When a scribe had a text to 
copy or a document to draw up, he 
chose out one of his stabs, which he 
placed flat upon his left palm, and, 
taking in the right hand the triangu- 
lar stylus of flint, copper, bronze or 
bone, he at once set to work. The 
instrument in early times terminated 
in a fine point, and the marks made 

(Continued on Page 32.) 



24 



^ 3fe38u4/n^<2diuxzfir & 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 

By L. M. KELCHNER, Seattle, Wash. 



Nothing will help you so much in the way of improvement in penmanship as the ability to practice and con- 
fine yourself to one thing at a time. Do not scatter your practice too much, and do no careless, indifferent, hap- 
hazard practice, for every minute of such work makes you a poorer penman instead of a better one. From my 
personal observation I have found the above to be a serious drawback to nearly all beginners at first. You cannot 
afford to squander your time and energy in this way. If you cannot give it the critical study and painstaking, sys- 
tematic practice, you had better devote your time and energy to something else. You must like the work and delight 
in the practice of it to realize the best results. 

You can recall now one thing that you are quite skillful or adept in, one thing in which you are superior to the 
rest of your friends or chums, I care not what it may be, in athletics or games of any kind, which requires dexterity 
or skill? That will be what you like and love in doing. Inject the same life, snap, vim, vigor, dash, energy and spirit 
as you do in your games. If you will do this I am confident you will be delighted with your progress and improve- 
ment from time to time. 

INSTRUCTIONS 

Do not use quite so much finger movement in making loops that extend below the base line. Some prefer 
making them entirely with the muscular movement. See to it that you make them full, as it will help to make them 
plain and legible, and in no way does it detract from the grace and beauty of the form. 

Copy 98. Keep the down stroke as near straight as possible. Have the crossing come on base line. If you 
raise the pen in making the loop below the base line, do so just as you complete the letter. 

Make as wide spacing as in the copy. There is a tendency to make the loops too long below the line. Go 
fast enough to secure delicate but firm, smooth lines. 

Copy 99. Place the same number of words on a line as in the copy. Uniform slant and spacing. Take pains 
in dotting your i's and crossing the t's. Study, compare, and criticise. 

Copy 100. Make first part same as the small "a". Loop same as the "j." If you shade the down stroke for 
the loop, let it be a very light shade. You can make it without, if you prefer. I occasionally shade mine, as it adds 
strength and force to the down stroke. The down strokes must be made rapidly. 

Copy 101. Look well to your spacing in all words. They will not look well unless uniform. 

Copy 102. Make the first part of the "y" round at the top. See that both down strokes are on the same 
stant. Good, free movement and fine hair lines. 

Copy 103. Make the first down stroke straight, and form an angle at the base line. Curve the down stroke 
for the loop. Use a free movement. Don't slight any of these loop letters. 

Copies 104 and 105. Same matter on a line, as in copy. Where words are ended with a flourish, make the 
flourish with a free movement. 










Copy 106. The swell for the shade in first down .stroke should come at the center. Make the turn rather 
narrow but round at base line. Have the crossing for the loop come on the base line. Make the angle for the last 
part at the top. Free and graceful rotary movement. . . 

Copy 107. Curve the down strokes. Notice how the loop is made at the base line. Some prefer raising 
the pen at the base line in making this letter. I would not do so unless it will help you to make the letter better. 
Write from fifteen to twenty lines of each copy before you change. Make the letter about the same size as copy, 

Copj ION. You ran raise the pen at the bottom of shaded stroke if you wish on this exercise. See to it 
that you get the lines joined if you do raise the pen. Good, free movement. Mine were made purely with the mus- 
cular movement. 

Copy 109. Raise the pen at the bottom of the last down stroke, and make it as nearly square at bottom as 
possible. Don't shade the second down stroke too heavily. You must use a good, free movement for this exercise. 
Don't give it up if vou do not get it just right at first. It may be new to some of you. 

Copy 110. You can raise the pen at the bottom of shade if you like. Do not have the swell in shade to come 
too low. Smooth shades and fine hair lines. Free, rotary movement. 



<^Me&uJ/n^&&uwfcr & 



25 




The Harris Studio 

Slrnuuialft 
"■ (j^timunial** 

$run*osseo anb Jllmumafco 

on £Paper; Sbccpskin orVclIum 

for fJramhuj or jAikum Sh?rnt 

^Desigixeb, $iujravcb 

Phone CENtral 5105-5122 
1403 Marquette Building 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



ing Studio. Chii 



Reduced Railroad Rates 

To Supervisors' Meeting, Chicago 

When this is written, February 14, 
reduced fares have been granted on 
railroads covering practically the en- 
tire United States. The reduction is 
on the Certificate Plan, which pro- 
vides that if 250 railroad Certificates 
are presented at Chicago, we shall 
ride home for half fare. 

We can do it, if members will do 
these three things: 

First, urge a large attendance at 
the Chicago meeting. You could well 
afford to go and pay full fare; but 
the reduced fare means that much 
more money in your pocket. 

Second, go by train. Even though 
you might prefer to go by automobile, 
will you not consider those of us who 
live too far away to drive, and go by 
railroad? Every Certificate counts, 
provided the going fare is not less 
than 67c. You people in Illinois and 
Indiana and Wisconsin please remem- 
ber this. 

Third, ask for a Certificate when 
biii/ing your ticket. It would be well 
to ask your ticket agent about rates 
and Certificates ten days before the 
date for the meeting. (He may not 
have notice of the reduction for a 
short time yet.) Ask for a Certifi- 
cate even though you expect to re- 
turn by another route and will not 
use it. 

If any questions come up, write 
or wire the Secretary, Arthur G. 
Skeeles, 270 E. State St., Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Boost the Convention. 

Come to Chicago. 

Ask for a Certificate. 



A circular has been received from 
Howard and Brown, Rockland, Me., 
illustrating the beautiful diplomas 
which this company makes. Mr. 
Brown's work is always very beau- 
tiful. 



26 



>J/u '3tiuj//iijj (^Vdua/sr* & 



DATES IN DOCUMENTS 

By Elbridge W. Stein 

Examiner of Questioned Documents 
15 Park Row, New York City 



[Mr. Stein's first article appeared in our February issue. IV c 
have a limited number of copies of that issue on hand.] 
ARTICLE No. 2 

No definite and exact rule can be laid down by means 
of which all the age-telling things in a document can be 



of twenty-: 




■•1924" dated water mark in the paper of a contract dated 
1917 

found. Occasionally there are perfectly obvious things 
that can be discovered by any one who will look for them. 
A dated water-mark-' in the paper on which a document is 
written, of a later year than the date in the document, re- 
quires merely a proper inspection of the document by- 
transmitted light to discover it. However, many of the 
things which point the way to the detection of tlie actual 
age of a fraudulent document are not easily found and 
must be searched for with painstaking diligence. It should 
be understood that the age-indications in a genuine docu- 
ment are consistent with the time it was written, and the 
same searching examination of it will reveal that the ma- 
terials used in its preparation and the physical traces of 
conditions at that time will point to the actual date it 
bears. 

Signatures often have a date significance. A signature 
on a document may not belong to the year in which the 
document is dated. There are many writers whose signa- 
tures go through an evolution, and while the main char- 
acteristcs of the writing remain permanent, there will be 
perceptible, fixed changes in superficial parts of it. Five 
years may show unmistakable modifications in a signa- 
ture. These changes are the result of various causes; oc- 
cupation, necessity for more rapid writing, physical de- 
bility from disease, accident or old age, or an intentional 
change made by the writer. The date on a United States 
warrant for the payment of monev had been fraudulentlv 
changed from 1879 to lSSfi, but during this interim the at 
testing official had so changed his signature that it was 
unmistakable that he had not signed the warrant in 1886. 

The date of a document may also be shown by tin 
tern or style of the handwriting or by the nationality 
which the writing discloses. When the writing in a document 
shows the nib marks of a steel pen and also shows the 
effects of the use of a blotter and it is dated in the era 
of the goose-quill pen and the sand shaker, there can be 



but one conclusion as to the genuineness of its date. 

The age of a part of a document 5 is frequently a vital 
question. Alleged alterations, 6 interlineations or addi- 
tions 7 make it desirable to know when certain parts of a 
document were written in relation to the time when other 
parts were written. Some of these inquiries relate to the 
folding 8 or creasing of the paper, erasures 9 of all kinds, 
rubber and other stamp impressions, seals, punch holes, 
typewriting, and other writing with a pen. A microscopic 
examination of ink writing over a fold in the paper will 
reveal which was there first, especially if the folding has 
broken the paper fiber. 1 " It can sometimes be determined 
which of two ink lines was put on the paper last; 11 also 




Paper 



:,til 



7 Bass vs. Sebastian. 160 HI. 602. 
»- Bacon vs. Williams. 79 Mass. 525. 

H Ward vs Wilcox. 6t N. J. Eq. 303; 51 Atl. 1094; Swan vs. 
OTallon. 7 Mo 231; People vs. Dole. 122 Calif. 486 

whether an ink line is on top of typewriting or the type- 
writing is on top of the ink; whether an erasure preceded 
or followed ink writing;'- or whether ink writing was 
added to a document before or after a rubber stamp im- 
pression was put on it. These important facts are some- 
times the cardinal points in a case. The sequence of ink 
writing and pin or punch holes, or a seal impression may 
tell the comparative ages of two parts of a document. In- 
dentations in the paper or ink off-sets from other writing, 
as well as the identification of the writer may be im- 
portant elements in fixing the date when a document was 



teath. 23 N. H. 410. 
Ahlers. 189 Pa. 138; Otey vs. Hoyt, 47 N. 
215 New York Supplement 230; 



White. 77 Pa. 26. 
.. Draper. 88 Ma 
I. Blanchard. I I; 



a. 434; Sharon vs. Mill. 26 Fed. 337. 
Mich. 37; In re Ho kins. 172 N. Y. 



360; Wenchell 

19 Hawkins % 
355; Bridtfman 



vens. 30 Pa Superior 527. 

nes. 52 Ky. 257; Dubois v.. Baker. 3 

jrey. 52 Vt. I; 20 All 273. 

82 So. 758 (Flor.l. 

71 Iowa 442; 32 N. W. 420; Willii 

90 Atl. 500. 






^ ^fe&u&n^&dtuw&r & 



2> 



prepared. Some of the investigations regarding the se- 
quence of writing give an inconclusive and unsatisfactory 
result but there are many instances in which the facts can 
be determined with positiveness 13 and shown to a jury in 
a way that the least qualified member can understand 
them. 

"How old is the ink in a signature or other writing?" 14 
is a frequent question. In fact, it seems as though ink- 
is generally considered as the chief source of information 
concerning the age of a document, and in some cases it 
does tell the story. 15 The chief basis for determining the 
age of an ink line is its change in color after it is put 
on the paper. 111 It is common knowledge that ordinary 
commercial ink is blue when first written and it gradually 
becomes darker until its final depth of color is reached. 
This darkening process is rapid for the first few weeks 
and then continues more slowly for several years. The 
color of an ink line can now be definitely measured by ac- 
curate scientific instruments and even slight changes in 
color can be detected, so that if a document purporting 
to be ten or fifteen years old contains ink writing that is 
still changing to a darker color during a period of a few- 




Natural changes in a business signature between 1912 and 1926 

months, it is positive proof that the document is not as old 
as it purports to be. It will be seen that if anything defin- 
ite concerning the age of a document is to be derived 
from the ink alone, there must be an opportunity to ex- 
amine the ink early in its actual life on the paper, and 
also to make later inspections at regular intervals. 

Dilute hydrochloric acid, chloride of lime or other bleach- 
ing liquids will remove the color from an ink line, and 
upon the theory that an old writing will react to a bleach- 
ing chemical more slowly than a recent writing, there 
are those who claim to be able to determine the age of 
any writing. It would be a most valuable achievement 
if this could be done, but a thorough investigation of the 
methods shows that the results are not sufficiently ac- 
curate to be of value. A few zealous advocates of this 
chemical bleaching process make the extravagant claim 
that they are able to distinguish between, and actually 



tell, the age of a writing three years old and one written 
three years and four months ago. Such a claim is pre- 
posterous and when testimony of this character is pro- 
posed, the witness should be given some actual problems 
that are parallel with the question in the case on trial. 
There is about every court house abundant writing the 
exact age of which is known and which would make a fair 
test for the witness who assumes to determine the age 
of an ink line by bleaching it with chemical solution. If 
the tests are properly submitted to him, the unreliability 
of his methods can be demonstrated. The best evidence 
of the lack of confidence in 
this method by the witness 
himself is the fact that on 
some flimsy pretext or other 
he will refuse to make the 
test in court. There is no 
way to determine the age of 
typewriting or of a pencil 
mark by chemical tests. 

Typewriting opens up an 
entirely new field from which 
to determine the age of a 
document. 17 It is not gen- 
erally understood how signi- 
ficant and positive this infor- 
mation may be. A Civil War 
contract written on a type- 
writer could not be genuine 
because no practical type- 
writer was in use until many 
years after the war was 
over. In like manner there 
is a date before which no 
document could have been 
written on any of the various 
kinds of machines that have 
been put on the market. A 
document can be dated too 
early to have been written on 
an L. C. Smith, a Royal, an 
Underwood, a Woodstock or 
any other typewriting ma- 
chine. 1 s It is obvious that a 
machine could not be used be- 
fore it was made. 

None of the typewriters of the present day came into 
use as a perfect unit but, like automobiles, have been de- 
veloped through the years by a series of progressive 
changes and improvements. A larger number of these 
improvements affected the work done by the machine in 
a pronounced way, so that when the effect caused by the 
change is understood it can be determined definitely 
whether a document was written on a typewriter before 
or after certain significant factory changes were made. 




gage" 


added to a re< 


after 


the signature 


written 


and after it 


folded. 


1. Shows the 


in the 


fold of the pa 


2. Shtn 


re the fold broke 


ink 


in the signatur 



(To be 



ed) 



15 In re Gordon's Will. 50 N. J. Eq. 397; 26 Atl. 266. 
IB In re Caitland. 112 N. Y. Supplement 718; Savage 
103 Va. 540; State vs. Smails. 63 Wash. 172. 



i vs. Walsh, 19 1 Mich. 
2nd Natl. Bank. Mich. 



252. 
State 



Zanerian College of Penmanship 

SUMMER SCHOOL 

For Teachers, Supervisors, Penmen and those who desire to improve their Handwriting or Methods of Teaching. 

Write for illustrated catalog. 

Zanerian College, Columbus, Ohio. 



28 



^ <Me&trtt/t^&6uv&r & 



DESIGNING & 
ENGROSSING 

By E. L. Brown 
Rockland, Me. 

Send self-addressed postal for criticism, 
and stamps for return specimens 



We present this month another les- 
son for both the beginner and the 
advanced student, including pen draw- 
ing and some very practical free- 
hand alphabets, suitable for marking, 
titles for diplomas, showcards, etc. 

A thorough knowledge of the form 
and character of the letters is abso- 



lutely necessary in order to make 
clean, snappy letters without tracing 
a pencil drawing, in other words, 
free-hand. The first two alphabets 
were written with a Gillott No. 170 
pen, after ruling lines to govern the 
height. The shade or color on first 
alphabet gives it a certain degree of 




V 



JUL master Pen J&ttcrm q 






TojEDve/iniwrKaTjiBVLi Fj6NTwesiv ffemevmrne. 



^ <!!MJ&uJ/neM'(2diuxi&r % & 



29 



character, while the lines of second 
are generally uniform in thickness 
giving added speed in execution. 

Always use Zanerian or other black 
ink and avoid writing fluids for fine 
lettering. The word "Resolved" was 
first carefully pencilled, including the 
spray of oak, the latter giving a fine 
decorative effect, desirable for many 
purposes. The third alphabet was 
made with a No. 2Y 2 lettering pen. 
Finish this style with a common pen, 
including relief line. Make a hun- 
dred copies if necessary to note im- 
provement. Continued practice will 
lead to speed and accuracy, when 
close attention is given to the form 
and character of the letters. We will 
repeat what we have said many times 
before, that uniform size and spacing 
are most important factors in letter- 
ing. Avoid carelessness — do your 
best at all times. Be critical — write 
— compare with copy — rewrite until 
improvement is made. 

Spray of Oak 

This is an interesting study and de- 
serves close attention. Make a pen- 
cil drawing first, aiming for har- 
mony, balance, and color values. A 
Gilott 170 pen was used for color 
values in leaves and branch, and a 
courser pen for panel background. 
Observe the thickness and direction 
of lines used in the different tone 
values. Use solid black where neces- 
sary for the proper effect, and added 
strength and character. 

This same design would be effective 
in wash and those advanced in brush 
and color work might use wash in- 



stead of lines for developing light and 
shade values. Soft, delicate tones are 
more desirable for engrossed resolu- 
tions, but line drawings make better 
printing plates for general purposes. 
Send us some of your best efforts 
for criticisms and suggestions — either 
the pen drawing or the lettering, or 
both. 




Emblem of the National Commercial 
eachers'_Federation submitted by the Pen- 
lanship 













The above breezy, speedy letter was received from Mr. H. W 
ship teacher in Rider College, Trenton, N. J., and gives a fail 
style which he uses in his every day correspondence work. 



CRITICISM DEPARTMENT 

J. A. Francis — Your ornamental 
penmanship is beautiful. We appreci- 
ate your compliment regarding our 
ornamental course. You can become 
a high class professional penman. 
Some of your capitals are really pro- 
fessional. 

Use ruled paper. Penmen use reg- 
ular ruLed paper or rule pencil lines 
which can be erased. This will enable 
you to write straight and to center 
your attention on other details. 

See if you can snap the tops of t's 
and d's off straight, making the letter 
neater. Open up the small e's and 
get a little more hook on your c's. 

We hope to see more specimens 
from you. 



MISS HARRIS' FLORIDA SCHOOL 



One of the 



H 



d Id 



a 1 1 1 



atalo 
;s fr 



which 
l Miss 



Florida School. Miami, 
chool conducted by Miss Julia Fill- 
larris for girls. The school is limited 
which permits a close contact of the 
with the faculty. Miss Harris is 
conducting a school of high standing and 
caters especially to people who spend their 
winters in Florida. The delightful climate 
and beautiful scenery are skillfully pre- 
sented. 



pupils 



NEWS NOTES 



Miss Willa M. Dush, recently with 
the Gloversville, N. Y., High School, 
is now teaching in the Kansas State 
Teachers College at Pittsburgh. 

Miss Adeline Shemwell of Washing- 
ton, D. C, is a new commercial 
teacher in the Union High School, 
Turtle Creek, Pa. 



THE HAUSAM SYSTEM OF PLAIN 
PENMANSHIP, COMPLETE, is the 

most thorough treatise on the Ped- 
agogy of Plain Penmanship pub- 
lished. It is cloth bound, 6x9 
inches; contains more than 300 
pages; nearly 400 illustrations; 
more than 200 questions and ans- 
wers on Pedagogy, Position, Move- 
ment, Capitals, Small Letters, Num- 
erals, and a complete course of 140 
lessons in Plain Penmanship. All 
copies ordered by April 1, 1928 will 
be beautifully inscribed with the 
names of the purchaser and author. 
Price $3.50 

THE HAUSAM SYSTEM OF PEN- 
MANSHIP has been re-adopted the 
third time for all the schools of 
Kansas. Beautifully illustrated. 
Catalog free. 




Box 558A 



Emporia, Kansas 



30 



^ ^ffi/z^uJ/MGiS &/uca£r* & 




C-t^<s-~P : -t--£^&rz^£~s$^s' ^cZ--£z^^i^~ 




The above specimen was written by Mrs. Lettie Page Trefz. Assistant Supervisor of Hand- 
king, Indianapolis, lnd.. Public Schools. Mrs. Trefz attended the 1927 Zanerian Summer School. 



FRANCIS L. TOWER 

SOI Pleasant Street, Hammonton, N. J. 



ship and Copper Plate Script. Per- 
r Mail. Write for information. 




$1 to $2 

while i 

■. thorough (No check 
irn by Holts 
card writ. 
B Free. 



Funnygraphic" Writing. Budget 
In the U.S.A. $1.00, in Can 



BOTTSCOUfGK,;'/ GUTHRIE. DMA 



C. SPENCER CHAMBERS 
!if Education Bldg., Syracu; 




Is the ideal ink for penmen. Nothing finer for cardwriting and contest specimens. 

50c per bottle. 'Mailing charge 10c extra. 
A. P. MEUB, Penmanship Specialist, 152 North Hill Avenue, Pasadena, Calif. 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 

(formerly the Stenographer & 
Phonographic World) 



A monthly _. 
departments of Com 
Strong depa 
•veil-known tel 
any branch of 
duding bu 



I Education. 

ided over by 

for those who teach 



ancy, and court reporting. 
The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 
Single copy 15c. Annual subscription $ 1 .50 
Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 


America's Handv 


writing Magazine 


Devoted to Pe 
Commercia 


nmanship and 
Education 


Contain! Lessons in 




Business Writin 
Accounting 
Ornamental Wri 
Lettering 


1 

ting 


Engrossing 
Articles on the 
Supervision o 


Teaching and 
Penmanship. 


Yearly subscription 
club rates to sch 
Sample copies sent t 


price $1.25. Special 
ools and teachers. 
>n request. 


THE A.MERH 


AN PENMAN 


55 Fifth Avenue 


NEW YORK 




An Educational Journal of 

Real Merit 

Regular Departments 

enmanship Arithmetic Civics 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 

rice $1.50 per year. Sample on request 

PAREEB PUBLISHING CO., 
Taylorville, III. 



^ *!!ffle&uJ*'/uM&&Ka/h~ 



31 



SOLICITOR WANTED— Capable, experienced 
field man wanted by large, prosperous com- 
mercial school located in large Middle West 

fall or could use really capable man the 
year round. Address x. y, z, care Business 
Educator, Columbus, Ohio. 

POSITION WANTED 

Thoroughly experienced Commercial Instruc- 
tor and School Manager desires a position. 
Good penman and highly successful penman- 
ship instructor. Experienced in field work 
and school advertising. Would buy or lease 
school. Address Box 610. Care Business 
Educator, Columbus. Ohio. 

WANTED 

Young men or women to learn letter- 
ing. Good chance to become fine 
penmen. 

Address Box 609 

Care Business Educator, 

Columbus, Ohio. 



A NEW PENMANSHIP 
ASSOCIATION 

At Christmas time in Oakland, 
California, there was a new organiza- 
tion formed under the name of "West- 
ern Supervisors' Penmanship Associa- 
tion" which includes the following- 
states: California, Oregon, Washing- 
ton, Montana, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, 
New Mexico, Arizona and Wyoming. 

The officers of the association are : 

R. E. Wiatt, President, Supervisor, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Helen M. Roberts, Vice President, 
Deputy Supt, San Francisco, Calif. 

Myrtle Palmer, Secretary-Treasurer, 
Supervisor, Oakland, Calif. 

The first meeting will be held in 
Oakland, Saturday, April 21, in the 
Ethel Moore Memorial Building, 121 
East Eleventh St. 

The Business Educator offers hearty 
congratulations on the birth of this 
promising young Westerner and not 
only hopes for its health and success 
but predicts that it will grow strong 
and powerful, and accomplish great 
good in the cause of handwriting. 

The Westerners are noted for their 
progressiveness and it is not surpris- 
ing that the handwriting teachers and 
supervisors of that Great Western 
Empire should desire an organization 
through which they can exchange 
their experiences and work out their 
problems. 

We hope to be able to keep our 
readers informed regarding its prog- 
ress and the work it accomplishes. 



NEW ZANERIAN COLLEGE 
CATALOG 

Contains information regarding the 

REGULAR WINTER TERM 

SUMMER TERM 

CORRESPONDENCE COURSES 

It's free to interested persons. 

ZANERIAN COLLEGE 
Columbus, Ohio 



SIGNS OF SPRING 



Written Februi 
Detroit; Lockport, 
Atlanta. Philadelph 
Oregon. By the tir 
receiving $1800 whi 
positio 



Within the last f 
Springfield, Mass 
West Virgi 



lin two weeks calls have 
ew York, Pennsylvania. C 
ad this, calls will be coming fast. Today a mai 
ailed with us writes that he is now getting $3900 
g $3000 when he enrolled in 1925, ■ 
r him. May we help you? 



i the las 
ites tha 



aid $4300. We got the place fo 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS* AGENCY 

Prospect Hill. Beverly, Mass. (A Specialty by a Specialist) E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. 

Westward Ho! Alaska to New Mexico 

Normal and College graduates needed. Splendid calls all departments. Free enrollment 

E. L. HUFF TEACHERS AGENCY Dept. 7 MISSOULA, MONTANA 




lagnusson Professional Pen Holders are used by the world's greate 
nen and teachers of penmanship. They are hand-made of the fines 
and tuhpwood and given a beautiful French polish. The inlaid holder with the 
Knob on stem, is the most beautiful as well as the most useful holder made Th 
weight, correct balance and expert adjustment, make Magnusson Holders si. 
Made by 3 generations of penholder manufacturers and used by the world's leadin 
men. Straight or Oblique — state which. 



g pe 



OSCAR MAGNUSSON 



208 N. Sth St 

Q 

Discounts 



8-inch plain girip, each 50c 

8-inch inlaid grip, each 75c 

12-inch plain grip, each 75 c 

12-inch inlaid grip, each $1.35 





two dollars, Cash or P. G 
Money Order. 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator ant 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg 

SCRANTON, PA. 



LEARN AT HOME DURING SPARE TIME 
Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free. Your 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg., Kansas City. Mo. 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



Teachers 



Specialists: 

%/ EDUCATIONAL B U R E A U 



zmntry. 



Get a choice position through us — any part of the 
Openings in business schools, high schools, colleges — now or 
r September. Half of the state universities have selected 

our candidates. Highest type of service. 

Employers report your vacancies. Write us 

now. 

Shubert-Rialto Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 



Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



32 



^ <y/u>36t<j//ujjC"t6u«/</- $> 



ANCIENT SYSTEMS OF 
PENMANSHIP 

(Continued from Page 23.) 

by it when it was gently pressed upon 
the clay were slender and of uniform 
thickness; in later times the extrem- 
ity of this stylus was cut with a 
bevel, and the impression then took 
the shape of a metal nail or wedge." 
They wrote from left to right along 
the upper part of the tablet, and cov- 
ered both sides of it with closely writ- 
ten lines, which sometimes ran over 
on to the edges. When the writing 
was finished the scribe sent his work 
to the potter, who put it in a kiln 
and baked it, or the writer may have 
had a small oven at his own disposi- 
tion, as a clerk with us would have 
his table or desk. The shape of these 
documents varied and sometimes 
strike us as being peculiar: besides 
the tablets and bricks we find small 
solid cones, or hollow cylinders of 
considerable size, on which the kings 
related their exploits or recorded the 
history of their wars or the dedica- 
tion of their buildings. This method 
had a few inconveniences but many 
advantages. These clay books were 
heavy to hold and clumsy to handle, 
while the characters did not stand 
out well from the brown, yellow, and 
whitish background of the material; 
but on the other hand, a poem, baked 
and incorporated into the page itself, 
ran less danger of destruction than 
if scribbled in ink on sheets of papy- 
rus. Fire could make no impression 
on it; it could withstand water for 
a considerable length of time; even 
if broken the pieces were still of use; 
as long as it was not pulverized, the 
entire document could be restored, 
with the exception, perhaps, of a few 



signs or some scraps of a sentence." 
"The inscriptions which have been 
saved from the foundations of the 
most ancient temples, several of which 
date back forty or fifty centuries are 
for the most part as clear and legible 
as when they left the hands of the 
writer who engraved them or the 
workmen who baked them. It is ow- 
ing to the material to which they 
were committed that we possess the 
principal works of Chaldean litera- 
ture which have come down to us. 
Poems, annals, hymns, magical incan- 
tations; how few fragments of these 
would ever have reached us had their 
authors confided them to parchment 
or paper, after the manner of the 
Egyptian scribes! The greatest dan- 
ger that they ran was that of being 
left forgotten in the corner of the 
chamber in which they had been kept, 
or buried under the rubbish of a 
building after a fire or some violent 
catastrophe; even then the debris 
were the means of preserving them, 
by falling over them and covering 
them up. Protected under the ruins 
they would lie there for centuries, till 
the fortunate explorer should bring 
them to light and deliver them over 
to the patient study of the learned." 
Maspero's Dawn of Civilization 
(Reprinted by special permission of 
the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge and The Sheldon Press — 
London). 

Great numbers of these Babylonian 
tablets have been found and are now 
kept in our museums. At the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania is the oldest, 
dating back to 4500 B. C. The library 
of Assurbanipal is estimated to have 
had 30,000 tablets or books, varying 
from an inch to a foot in length. 







felttttjt \vu rtlwogs an 
,alnut><mcc of ?$$c<t(tl> 

loa^s of *prospcrtt\\ 



\ 



Just three years and two months ago, Lawrence F. Klarquist was a 
i in the Zanerian College of Penmanship. Columbus. Ohio, battling 
with turns and angles and all the other details which confront students try- 
ing to master penmanship. 

The above specimen of lettering and color work shows that Mr. Kl«r 
quist is today one of the finest engrossers in America. He is with th« B. C. 
Kassell Studio of Chicago. 

We hope that we may have the pleasure of presenting more of his high 
class work to our readers. 



The Second Chicago 

Summer School 

of Correlated 

Handwriting 

will be held at 

LEWIS INSTITUTE 
Chicago, 111. 

JUNE 25 to JULY 27 

The instructors will be 

FRANK N. FREEMAN 

and 

A. M. HINDS 

For further information address, 

THE ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY, 

Columbus, Ohio 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17.) 

every up-to-date community. Study 
the careers of the young supervisors 
of writing who in recent years have 
taken important positions in hundreds 
of our cities, and see if the profession 
they have chosen has not been worth 
while. 

So, you busy boy or girl anywhere 
from Vancouver to Florida, or from 
Maine to Arizona, who are using up 
quires of paper weekly, making your- 
self a better writer, don't get discour- 
aged, or let anybody tell you that you 
are wasting your time. Have you 
ever noticed how many birds there 
are whose chief mission in life seems 
tobe to stick around and tell hard 
workers that their work is not likely 
to amount to anything? Of course, 
we go ahead and pay no heed to them, 
but, just the same, we would like to 
chuck them through the window. So, 
keep at it. For anything you know, 
there may be the making of a super 
penman in you. At your age, neither 
Spencer nor Zaner nor Doner could 
have guessed what he was to accom- 
plish. But even though you don't get 
to t lu- top, you are still mastering an 
accomplishment, that is sure to bring 
pleasure and satisfaction, and may 
bring success and fortune. 

Make 'Em Laugh! 

A course of lessons for pub- j 
lie speakers, writers, teachers. V 
students. By Jack Pansy. 
Nothing like it ever before 
offered. Surprisingly helpful. 
Complete course. 10 lessons, 
$2 .00; sample lesson 25c. 

YARBROUGH SALES SERVICE 
Distributors Adona, Ark. 

DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 
NEATLY ENGROSSED 

T»n Lesson Course in Diploma Script. 

Lettering and Designing $10.00 

Ten Lesson Course in Illuminating and 

Bord.r Designing $10.00 

A beautiful Illuminated Design for 

your Scrap Book $ 100 

A fine Ornamental Script Specimen.... 25c 
J. D CARTER, Deerfield, III. 




dtiT ty/urj£>tAJ//i{Jj&/uta6r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit, 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

The Yellow Book of The Macy Con- 
troversy and The Credit Question, 

by E. C. Riegel. Published by the 
Riegel Corporation of New York, 
225 West 34th St., New York City, 
N. Y. Cloth cover, 220 pages. 

The Table of Contents of this book is as 
follows: Author's Preface, The Ethieal Bird 
of Advertising — a Poem, The Better Business 
Bureau Challenges Macy's, Macy's Make Re- 
joinder and Resign, Survey Shows Macy's 
Prices 14(»(}, Higher, Newspapers Suppress 
the Facts. The Evil of the Cash Fallacy. 
Crafty "Store of the Thrifty," Macy's Cute 
Prices and Private Brand Trick, The Venalitv 
of the Press. The Fallacy Bund. The Effort to 
Smoke Out Macy's, Macy's Sidestep. The Ap- 
peal to the Press, The N. Y. Advertising 
Club Tested. Stores Prove Mute Defenders of 
"Truth in Advertising." The Better Business 
Bureau Turns Tail, National B. B. B. Ap- 
prised, The Better Business Bureau Indicted, 
Harmonious Conclusion, From Coin to Credit, 
Commercial and Consumer Credit, What Is a 
Cash Business? Cash is Credit, What is Cost? 
A New Factor in Cost Accounting, What is 
Credit Cost? What is it That Passes for 
Credit Cost, Net Credit Cost, What is the 
Cost of Discredit? Consolidating Past Para- 
graphs, Comparative Economy of Cash and 
Credit. The Installment System, True Install- 
ment Credit, Comparative Expenses of Open 
Account and Lease Plan Installment Sales, 
Why the Credit Dollar is Worth More than 
the Cash Dollar, The Consumer, the True 
Credit Grantor. The Consumer, the True 
Debtor and Creditor, Will the Worm Turn? 
The War Between Cash and Credit, Credit- 
Craft. The Liberation from Capitalism. A New 
Retail Credit Practice, A New Wholesale 
Credit Practice, Consumer Bank Credit. The 
Wage Draft System. Address to the Associ- 
ated Retail Credit Men of New York, Cash 
and Carry Costs More Than Credit and Deliv- 
ery, Harvard Research Vindicates Credit. 



Bookkeeping and Business Methods by 

Reuel I. Lund, A.B., M.A., C.P.A. 
Published by Ellis Publishing Com- 
pany, Battle Creek, Mich. 

This book is designated for High Schools 
and Junior Colleges. Throughout the work 
a basis has been laid out for uniting the 
efforts of our leading commercial educa- 
tional thinkers toward a common under- 
standing of what American Business Prac- 
tice means to economics and business. 

Both the text and laboratory material 
cover a wide range of theoretical prin- 
ciples; in order, first to provide the stu- 
dent with a complete set of guide posts for 
every need; and second, to train the stu- 
dent in the correct analysis of new situa- 
tions. 

Each chapter of the book covers one 
major topic which is divided into sub- 
topics. The major topics are then grouped 
into three parts of twelve chapters each, 
which deal with the three types of business 
organization. Following each chapter, a 

series of thorough questions and building 
problems have been provided for class dis- 
cussion. 

In addition to this, there are six practice 
sets, two with each section. Incoming and 
outgoing business papers are used so that 
the pupil will understand the use of credit 
forms, but this is discontinued at a point 
where the student senses a need for the 
knowledge of accounting principles. 

In organizing the framework of this 
course, three objectives were keot in mind; 
first, to stress organization rather than 
practice sets and to improve the modified 
balance sheet approach by simplification; 
second, on the one hand, to provide voca- 
tional training which would be immediately 



applicable in business, while on the other, 
to correlate the theory and practcie with 
what is now taught in universities and 

Although the text has been prepared 
primarily for group instruction, it is be- 
lieved that the material is easily adaptable 
to the tutorial method used in private 
schools. Standardized tests are being pre- 
pared for each of the three sections of the 
book. 

This notable contribution is printed in 
two colors. The first practice set includ- 
ing books of original entry. incoming 
papers and outgoing forms, together with 
filing envelopes, etc. 

Teachers of bookkeeping will find this 
course right up to the minute for a solid 
foundation for beginnings and advanced 
bookkeeping instruction. 



ely. 



Practical Compendium Pen Lettering 
and Designs, by F. H. Newton, Pon- 
tiac, Mich. Published by the New- 
ton Automatic Lettering Pen Co., 
Pontiac, Michigan. Paper cover, 
100 pages. 

All the alphabets and designs are accom- 
panied with complete instructions, giving 
in detail the steps necessary in building up 
the particular alphabet or design illus- 
trated. 

This volume contains 148 plates of 
Alphabets. Designs. Show Card Layouts, 
etc., some of which are printed in colors, 
showing a variety of color effects. 

The arrangement of copies and exercises 
are especially graded for Schools and for 
the home student, and will be found invalu- 
able for the experienced card writer. 



Beauty and Health, by Lois Leeds & 
Hilda Kaji. Published by J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cloth cover, 397 pages. 

There is beauty in every woman — but all 
too often it is greatly marred, or entirely 
hidden by easily remediable defects. Yet 
every woman knows it is there — if she can 
only bring it out. And here, at last, is an 
opportunity to become that ideal. Every 
woman has a different beauty problem — no 
one solution is a panacea for all. Each 
must study her own problem and find her 
own remedy. This book was written for 
just that purpose, to help find that remedy. 
It takes up so many points, and each so 
minutely — that every beauty-seeker will 
feel that it is speaking directly to her and 
discussing her own individual problems. 
The book is complete, u-J-to-the-minute and. 
all in all, a really indespensable book for 
every woman's boudoir. Diet, weight con- 
trol, posture, exercise — all determine wheth 
trol, posture, exercise — all determine 
whether or not a woman deserves to be 
called beautiful. Each of these factors en- 
ters into the common-sense, helpful dis- 
cussion. And many others just as import- 
ant, too — massages, the daily beauty pro- 
gram, summer beauty problems, make-up. 
special complexion problems ,care of the 
hair, the hands, problems of personal ap- 
pearance, etc. Lois Leeds has had so much 
experience and has had so many oppor- 
tunities to learn that her book covers more 
points — and each point more thoroughly — 
that do most "beauty" books. 

Management of Personal Income, by 

L. J. Chassee, Secretary, Student 
Loan Information Bureau, under 
the auspices of the Association of 
University and College Business 
Officers of the Eastern States, as- 
sisted by Ethel C. O'Neill. Pub- 
lished by the A. W. Shaw Company, 
Chicago, 111. Cloth cover, 154 
pages. 

Many budget books have been issued in 
an attempt to induce individuals to save, 
but little has been published to point out 
definitely, specifically, the ways of con- 
trolling personal income, and of apportion- 
ing it to the various expenditures — in a 



word, of spending your 

Here in this useful manual, he... 
laid down specific rules to follow in plan- 
ning your financial life. There are budget 
programs outlined for every one — the busi- 
ness man, the professional man, the sal- 
aried man. the business woman, the profes- 
sional woman, and the student. To mere 
record-keeping this book devotes little at- 
tention, but in the strategy of getting 
ahead financially — in managing your dol- 
lars for best results— it will be found in- 
valuable. 

Byrne Typewriter Shorthand, by 

Harry Edward Byrne. Published by 
the Byrne Publishing Co., Dallas, 
Texas. Paper cover, 45 pages. 

One can see by beginning with the first 
lesson and glancing through the text that 
Typewriter Shorthand is very easy to learn 



print, be 






iter Shorthand 



r 


nsta 


rice. 




line of 




tha 


id n 




-.ill 


transscr 


be intc 


ot 


type 


-vritin 


S- 


A studer 


t writ 


ds 


a n 


linute 




l the tyr 


ewrite 


able 


to 


take 


dii 


tation in 


Type 



be same number of strokes per minute, 
e rate of 1 80 words per minute. A 
3rd operator would take 120 words per 




AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send I Oc. A. P. MEUB, Expert Penman, 
4S2 N. Hill Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 




-u [NKTPEO.S! 



rtifiticj£nijnmsing 

°f Resolutions. {Bvmurials. 



jplumiuatinij a Specialty ■£* 
^y iplomua Vith\,_q- rap !Wt. ant. 5ilYcS> 




I 



E.H.MCGHEE 



143 "East Siatc .Street 




for FREE BOOK, "How To Become an Ex- 
pert Penman," which explains my Method of 
Teaching Penmanship by Mail and what stu- 
dents have done by taking my courses. 
Your name will be elegantly written on a 
card if you enclose stamp to pay postage. 
SEND TODAY before you forget it. 

T. M. TEVIS, 

BOX 2SC CHILLICOTHE, MO., U.S.A 



34 



fjffi^&uJSn&U'&t&uu&r & 












NEW BUILDING FOR BURDETT 
COLLEGE 

About July 1. 1928, Burdett College 

will move into its new home, 156 
Stuart Street, Boston. It will be the 
fourth time since it was founded in 
1879 that progressive methods and 
growth in attendance have compelled 
the institution to move. 

A new five-story building of .steel 
and cement construction and Tudor 
style of architecture, specially de- 
signed for school purposes, with many 
artistic exterior features, provides the 
institution with unusual facilities for 
many years to come. The location 
was chosen with a view of being near 
transportation facilities, in a growing 
section and having a maximum 
amount of open space surrounding the 
building. This new Burdett College 
Building is the consummation of both 
our ideas and ideals. Nearly two 
years of study and planning- have been 
given to building details and facilities 
in order that Burdett students may 
have every modern convenience con- 
ducive to their physical well-being and 
have an educational environment that 
will arouse their best mental effort. 

An outstanding feature will be the 
large area of window space. Many 

indows assure every classroom 
of a maximum amount of light. The 
new college building is bounded on 
three side. and on the 

fourth side has large light and air 

An important feature in any 
well-regulated school is the color 
effects. Classroom walls will be tinted 
and seats located with a view of h&\ 

Student get natural light from 
the proper direction with" 
thus avoiding eye strain. 

Acoustic properties are also being 
given special attention, Pictures and 
statuary will be placed throughout 
the school where thej besl -'<\i\ an 
artistic touch; in fact, Burdett Col- 
as aimed to have the 
body surrounded with a wholi 

and inspirational envii oi 



will aid each student in obtaining the 
highest degree of efficiency. Safety 
factors have been studied and will be 
installed, such as welled-in steel 
stairways with abrasive treads, roomy 
steel electric elevators of the latest 
design, drinking bubblers, sanitary 
appliances, and checkroom facilities. 

An innovation, and perhaps the first 
used in any school, will be a radio 
loud-speaker in eve r y classroom. 
I e loud-speakers will be connected 
with a radio and microphone in the 
executive offices. The cellege believes 
that in having such facilities it can 
supplement the work of the institu- 
tion with addresses of speakers of na- 
tional reputation and educational pro- 
grams of value. Then, too, the same 
radio facilities may lie used by- 
speakers from the college office « tier 
a full assembly is inconvenient. 

Burdett College is proud of its new 
home and extends a most cordial wel- 
come to present students, alumni, par- 
ents and friends to come and see the 
now school to be located on the third, 
fourth and fifth floors of the new- 
building, which, by the way, will be 
known as the Burdett College Build- 
ing. 



TEACHERS 

The fifth edition of Byrne Type- 
writer Shorthand is just off the press. 
This system i- the stenographic mar- 
vel of the age. Printed notes from 
anda i d or poi table I j pew riter. 
ai o .'■ i iiten v, it ii pencil. Most rapid, 
k; ii e. Easy to 
learn, more and better letters per day 
and less fatigue. Write for particulars. 

Byrne Publishing Co. 

DALLAS. TEXAS 



100 Page 

TEXT BOOK 
COMMERCIAL 

Pen Lettering 

20,000 NOW IN USE 

SPECIALLY GRADED FOR SCHOOL AND 

HOME STUDENT 



SS^^ 



IS3 



VXVXVWVCOCaeVClUM 










A- 



&ufo?0n*$lr0r*tfP«ti 







II,,, bo >k i- ., on commercial 

II tains 100 pages 7 1 .. x 10 1 ... 

illustrating 148 plates of Commercial Pen 
Alphabets. Designs, Show Card Layouts. 
Corners, Borders. Scroll Designs, etc., with 
instructions for each — also large 
list of about 2000 Advertising Phrases, 
invaluable to card writers and suitable for 
Show Cards. Posters, etc. (Some of the 
Alphabets and Show Cards are printed with 
,,,!,,, |,1, ,!,-•. showing .1 variety of attractive 

Price i IV Bid i $100 

(Special rate in dozen quantities to schools) 
Send for our Lettering Supply Catalog lists 

'11 •.,,■ - It, V., II. Mis slvl's ,,| I .■tl.TMIg IVlls. 

19 shades ol Lettering Ink and many other 
Items vital In teaching Commercial Letter- 

inn. f!ii« catalog will be mailed free upon 

n quesl 

Newton Lettering Pen Co., 

Dopt. 27. Pontine. Mich.. I . s. \. 



^ <^&u&/iM&Jiu*i&r & 



35 



Orders - Inquiries 



Can be 

?cured 




Polk's Reference Book 

and Mailing List Catalog 



different lin. 
what vour b 
will find the 



for 



produe 



Write for Your FREE Cony 

R. L. POLK & CO., Detroit, Mich. 

Largest Cllv Directory Publishers in the World 

Hailing: List Compilers— Business Stalisties 

Producers of Direct Mail Advertising 



Tour Visit to J-{eivY or\ 

may be anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

HOTEL 

104 WEST 49th STREET 

"One minute from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre- War Prices) 

Sitting Room. Sitting Room, 

Bedroom with 2 Double Bedrooms 
Private Bath with Private Bath 

(2 persons) (2-4 Persons) 

$5 per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



HIGH GRADE 



EDWARD C. MILLS 



Script Specialist fo 
. O. Drawer 982 



Engraving Purposes 

Rochester, N. Y. 



Diplomas^ 

CERTiriCATES. 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillott's Pens stand in the front rank as 
regards Temper. Elasticity and Durability 



JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field & Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 



—<.£$&+— 



The finest script obtainable for bookkeeping Illustrations, 
etc. The Mills Pens are unexcelled. Mills' Perfection 
No. 1 — Fur fine business writing, 1 gross $1.30; *4 gross 
40c, postpaid. Mills' Medial Pen No. 2 — A splendid 
pen of medium fine point, 1 gross $1.23; •£ gross 33c, 
postpaid Mills' Business Writer No. 3— The best for 
business, I gross $1.23; M gross 33c, postpaid. 1 doz. 
of each of the above three styles of pens by mail for 40c. 



Catalog) and Samples Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND, MAINE. 



ART SKETCH 

A stanza of poetry in superb pen lettering 
illustrated with a nature sketch, drawn with 
a pen and tinted in natural colors. Some- 
thing new, original, unique. Size 6x8 inches, 
suitable for framing. Just say "Send sketch" 
and enclose a dollar bill. 

A. L. Hickman, Route 1, Wichita, Kas. 



Columbus, Ohio 

Geograph ically 
A Distributing Center 

Centrally located — East to West to 
7\{ortri to South. Transportation lines 
radiate to all points of the compass. 



Picture in your mind the advantages to 

YOU to use this city as your PRINTING 

and DISTRIBUTING CENTER 



Watkins & Eierman 

PRINTERS AND BINDERS 
42 North Front St. : : Columbus, Ohio 



A Monthly Magazine for 

Bookkeepers and 

Auditors 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR, a regular 
magazine, pages size of this magazine. Recent 
issue contains "Is Mechanical Accounting a Suc- 
cess?"; Collections as a Basis for Computing 
Profit; Questions and Answers; STUDENTS' DE- 
PARTMENT. February issue has all of these and 
"Are Business College Graduates a Success?" 
INCOME TAX article and others. Use coupon 
below. 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR. 
1240 Engineers Bank Bldg.. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Gentlemen : Send me a copy of your current issue. Send 
invoice for $2.00 for one year's subscription and if I am not 
satisfied will return your invoice and OWE YOU NOTHING. 

/ am a Name 

I 1 Bookkeeper Address 

□ Auditor City 

□ Office Worker State 



"The Ample Speech! The Subtle Speech! 
Apt for the Need of All and Each." 



The BIG PROBLEM in business training is ^S^ 
ENGLISH. Shorthand and typing, for instance, 
are tools. Those tools are used on language. 

Pupils can be taught to use correct English 
through drill of the proper kind. Discussions on 
technical grammar don't help a bit. 



We're glad to tell you this month about a 
w book just off the press, which will solve 



e ic gidu iu ieii yuu ui 
new book just off the press, 
four English problem 



*\, 



APPLIED ENGLISH 
ESSENTIALS 

By CHARLES G. REIGNER 

This is not a grammar, remember, neither is it 
a book on composition or rhetoric. Its modest 
aim is to teach youngsters to speak and write 
English correctly. 

There are fifty lessons. The student under- 
scores or fills in words in the exercises. Those 
exercises represent the plain, everyday language 
of speaking and writing. 



*\* 



■^T 



APPLIED ENGLISH ESSENTIALS and APPLIED PUNCTUATION go together. 
They contain the minimum of tal\ and the maximum of effective doing. 



T/fce? f-f.'yn/./TdouLrzy&o. 



HARLEM SQUARE 
BALTIMORE MARYLAND 



Correlated Handwriting Penmanship Records 

Make Writing Lesson Interesting 




No. 1 



flA (top). How to Become a Good Writer. A lecture by Dr. Frank N. 

Freeman. 
[IB (reverse side). Oval and Push-Pull Exercises 

f2A (top). Count 1-2, a, c, d, e, g, i, 1, o. A, C, O. Count 1-2 3 4, 
k, m, r, w, B, F, G, H, K, M, R, W, X. 



>B (reverse side). Count 1-2-3, b, f, h, j, 
E, J, I, L, N, P, Q, S, T, U, V, Y, Z. 



P. q. 



y, z, D, 



Set of two double faced records, postpaid, net. $3.00 

Either record 1 or 2 will be sent singly for, net, postpaid $1.75 



Correlated Handwriting; Records are convenient 
to handle. These two records provide vocal and 
musical counts for making all the capitals, small 
letters and exercises and are therefore adapted 
to any method of writing. The label on each 
record indicates the letters or exercises for which 
it is intended. 

The use of these fine Penmanship Records in 
your classes will help to develop ease, speed and 



relaxation, and make the writing class a source 
of great interest and enthusiasm for both teach- 
ers and pupils. 

A TYPICAL TESTIMONIAL 

"The n coi d Ived and ! Rnd that they 

stimulate much Interest, Thi children elap for joy 
when tin- i tells around. Some who 

never cared for writing, now crave t.» write." 

ton, K> Miss Eunice Simpson. 



Get a set of these records and see the change which takes place in your 
writing classes. 

Write for complete catalog of penmanship supplie 

Zaner & Bloser Company 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Volume XXXIII Number VIII 

APRIL. 1928 




Published monthly except July and August at 612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O.. by The Zaner-Bloser Company. Entered as second-class matter 
Sept. 5. 1923, at the post office at Columbus. O.. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Subscription $1.25 a year. 



* 



1928 Zanerian Summer School 




MISS MILDRED MOFFETT, 

Representative and Traveling in- 
structor of The Zaner-Bloser Com- 
pany, will give work in Methods. 



diss Moffett. She has 
/riling in the schools of 
and Springfield. Ohio, 
ing instructor she has 
istrations in thousands 
throughout the United 
has appeared before 
>s of teachers at in- 




\\. o. DOESCHER, I'h.D., 

Professor of Psychology and Phil- 
osophy. Capital University. Colum- 
bus. Ohio. 

Dr. Doescher will again teach 
Psychology in the Zanerian Sum- 
mer School. Two hours college 



scholar and an exti 
sympathetic teacher. 



Six Weeks Beginning July 5 
INSTRUCTORS 




ting. Spokan.-. 
throughout the 
f the foremost 



FRANK H. ARNOLD. 

Supervisor of Hand 
Washington, is know 
United States as one 

of the most entn 
speakers in the penm 

It is with pleasure 
thai Mr Arnold 



bly he is one 
nthusiastic. forceful 
•nmanship profession. 

II be with us for two 



,11 



beginning July 16. and 
tt least ten lectures. It will 
i trip across the continent to 




FLOSSIE C. CAIN, 

Supervisor of Writing. Rocky River. 
Ohio, is a penman and teacher of un- 
usu.il skill She has a pleasing person- 
ality and has had splendid training and 
experience. She will be one of the ta- 
in the Zanerian Summer School. 




R. B. MOORE 

Secretary of The Zaner-Bloser Com- 
pany, a man who has traveled ex- 
tensively in the interest of penman- 
ship and who has appeared before 
many thousands of teachers, will 
give work in Methods of Teaching 
the Zanerian Summer School. 



Mi 



M. 



spei 



ikes 



especially well qualified to 
: to the Zanerian students the 
latesl in penmanshi >. 




MR. K. A. LUPFER, 

cipal. Zanerian College, wll 
I be one of the regular 
:tors in the coming Sun 



MRS. MINA 1. 1 i IS, 

Supervisor of Writing. Findlay. 
will aid pupils in securing 
room and board and assist in any 
way possible to make pupils com- 
fortable. 



Write for Catalog. 

Zanerian College of Penmanship 



Columbus, Ohio 



^M*f&uJ//t&M/&/iuxi&r & 





Bookkeeping and Accounting 

The new course for 
Resident and Extension Wor\ 

Complete Correspondence Course furnished every 
teacher or prospective teacher at a very nominal charge. 

Now is the time to investigate for next year. 

BLISS PUBLISHING CO. 

SAGINAW, MICH. 




FOR 2 GENERATIONS EXPERTS 
HAVE CHOSEN SPENCERIANS 

Men and women who teach penmanship 
know from years of experience how wide is 
the range of points offered in Spencerians. 

The present day freedom in style of writing 
has developed rapidly, but the variety of de- 
sign of our fifty different styles has fulfilled 
every requirement. 

From the testimony of pen experts we 
adopted the slogan, "Spencerian Pens Are 
Best." They outwrite and outlast ordinary 
pens. 

Send 10c for our assortment of 10 selected 
Spencerians and a complimentary cork-tipped 
penholder. 



Spencerian Pen Company 



349 Broadway 
New York City 



Metropolitan 

Business 

Speller 



New Edition 
By U. G. Potter 
McKinley High School 
Chicago 



Over 6000 words. New lessons containing words pertaining 
to Aeroplanes. Radio. Automobiles, etc. Complete Index. 244 
pages, attractive binding, 50 cents. 



A Superior Speller 



Twofold Design. In the preparation of the Metropolitan 
Business Speller we had constantly in mind two objects : 
first, to teach the pupil to spell, and second to enlarge his 
vocabulary, especially of words in general use. 

Classification of Words. As an aid to the memory we have 
classified words, as regards sounds, syllabication, accents and 
meaning. We have grouped the words relating to each par- 
ticular kind of business into lessons, by which the student is 
enabled to familiarize himself with the vocabulary of that 
business. We have interspersed miscellaneous exercises in the 
nature of reviews. We have grouped words that can best be 
learned by comparisons, such as Stationery and Stationary. 



te 



Abbreviations of states, 
in regula 
ard abb re 



months, railways a 
lesson form, and grouped alpha- 
iating of almost equal importance 



betically. We r 
with spelling. 

Syllabication and pronunciation are shown by the proper 
division of words, and the use of the diacritical marks. The 
words are printed in bold type, and the definitions in lighter 
face, so as to bring out the appearance of the word. — an aid 
in sight spelling. 



Metropolitan 
System of 
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New Edition 

By 

\V. A. Sheaffer 



You Will Like It. The text emphasizes the thought side of 
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complete Teachers' Reference Books, and Teachers' Manual. 



elementary course suitable for 
bject is taught. Two semesters 
are required in High Schools and a correspondingly shorter 
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Parts I and II text is 
any school in which th 



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Progress is the process of adjusting ourselves to 

chancing conditions. We are living in a changed world 
demanding new ways for doing old things. The Gregg 
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teaching commercial subjects. 

At the Gregg Normal you will come in contact with 
outstanding personalities in the teaching profession and 
you will be inspired by new ideas. You may be pulled 
out of the rut that shackles many teachers. Your im- 
agination will be revived. Your mental faculties will be 
stimulated to greater activity with the result that your 
everyday routine will lose its eroding sameness. 

Every summer the attendance represents practically 
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Courses are arranged for the experienced teacher as well 
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An unexcelled Placement 
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The Gregg Normal Session begins July 2 and closes 
August 10. 1928. Plan now for six wonderful weeks 
of pleasure and profit. Special bulletin tells more — 
write for your copy today. 

Gregg School 

225 North Wabash Avenue 
Chicago, Illinois 



CHICAGO 

Summer School 



Will Be Held at 

LEWIS INSTITUTE 
Chicago, Illinois 

June 25 - July 27, 1928 

Faculty 

FRANK N. FREEMAN, Ph. D. 

and 

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For further information address 

THE ZANER-BLOSER CO. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



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The BOOKKEEPER and AUDITOR, a regular 
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"Rational Typewriting comes nearer covering every 
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examined/' writes one of the thousands of enthusiastic 
teachers of Rational Typewriting. 

Overwhelming proof of the correctness of Rational pedagogy is found in the re- 
sults of the 1927 World's School Novice Typewriting Championship Contest. 

The World's School Champion was Rational trained 
Winner of second place was Rational trained 
The four most accurate writers were Rational trained 
Of the 38 competing state champions, 76.3 were Rational 
trained 

The unrivaled success of Rational Typewriting for the past 25 years is due to 
the fact that its instruction is not confined to one or two phases of typewriting 
technique. It covers every phase. 

A critical analysis of Rational Typewriting will reveal to you: 

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The completeness of its subject matter 
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to them a "service" that is unparalleled in the field of typewriting instruction. 

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was thoroughly revised and rewritten in 1927 and is now published in six different editions — 
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All topics are grouped into three parts 
of 12 chapters each; each part con- 
cerns itself with the Single Propri- 
etorship, Partnership and Corpora- 
tion. 

Carefully graded thought questions 
and short building problems follow 
each chapter for practice and class 
discussion. 

Six laboratory sets are used, three of 
which require business papers. The 
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More than 1,400 reporters 
were members of the National 
Shorthand Reporters' Associ- 
ation in 1926. 

Nearly 1,300 of this number 
write Pitman. 

Less than 150 use one of 11 
different systems. 

Almost a year was required to 
complete this survey. 



Pitman Shorthand was invoitcd by Isaac 
Pitman in 1837. The dftellence of tiie 
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that today — 90 years after — 9 out of 
every 10 reporters are Pitman writers. 



Isaac Pitman & Sons 

2 WEST 45th STREET, NEW YORK 



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PROGRESS IN PENMANSHIP 

Great stridi made in the teaching oi handwriting, New 

methods and new devices are being used. New interest is being cre- 
ated .i' >ie being securd. 

Attend the 1928 Zanerian Sumnn : nd join in thi 

gressive movement tor better handwriting. 



Volume XXXIII 



COLUMBUS, OHIO, APRIL, 1928 



Number VIII 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PENMANSHIP 
SUPERVISORS AND TEACHERS 

ALL MEETINGS AT CONGRESS HOTEL, CHICAGO, ILL. 



Wednesday, April 25, 9:00 A. M. 



Music 

Boy's Glee Club, Lindblom High School, Chicago 
Address of Welcome 

Mr. William J. Bogan, Acting Superintendent 
Schools, Chicago 
Response 

Mr. Elmer G. Miller, Director of Commercial 
Education, Pittsburgh 
President's Address 

Mrs. Lettie J. Strobell, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Principles of Supervision as Applied to the 
work of Supervisor of Penmanship 
Mr. Franklin Bobbitt, The University of Chicago 
Moment of Silence in Memory of the late Austin 

Norman Palmer 
Violin Solo — Memories — Cadman 
Miss Lillian Bushman, Supervisor of Penman- 
ship, Burlington, Wisconsin 
1:30 P. M/ 
Violin Solo — Fr. Seitz's Concerto No. 1 in D Major 

Miss Lillian Bushman, Burlington, Wisconsin 
The Development of Objective Procedures in 
Classroom Supervision 
Dr. A. S. Barr, University of Wisconsin, Madison 
The Responsibility of the Penmanship Instructor 
in the Teacher Training Institution 
Miss Luella Chapman, Director of Penmanship, 
State Teachers College, Buffalo 
Practical Penmanship from a Practical Point of 
View 
Mr. Glen Hoffhines, Harris Trust and Savings 
Bank, Chicago 



Thursday. April 26, 8:45 A. M. 

Visiting Oak Park Schools at Work, under the di- 
rection of Miss Alma E. Dorst, Supervisor of 
Handwriting, Oak Park, Illinois 
6:30 P. M. 
Banquet 

Mrs. Lettie J. Strobell, Toastmaster, Pittsburgh 
Friday, April 27, 9:00 A. M. 
Applied Writing in Junior High Schools 

Miss Mamie Eppler, Supervisor of Penmanship, 
Fort Worth, Texas 
The Supervisor as a Leader of Research 

Dr. Paul V. West, New York University, New 
York City 
Problems for Discussion: 

The Service of Good Penmanship 

Miss Ema Virginia Prusha, Supervisor of 
Penmanship, Virginia, Minnesota 
What books, magazines and research services 
are available for teachers and supervisors 
of penmanship? 
Miss Olive A. Mellon, Supervisor of Writing, 
Atlantic City 
How can the cooperation of teachers of other 
subjects in platoon schools be secured by 
the supervisor of handwriting? 
Miss Myrta L. Ely, Supervisor of Handwrit- 
ing, St. Paul, Minnesota 
Existing Handwriting Scales 
Dr. Paul V. West, New York City 
Business Meeting 

Mrs. Lettie J. Strobell, President 
Reports of Chairmen of Committees. Election 
of Officers 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

Mr. W. J. Hamilton, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and Miss Alma 
E. Dorst, Supervisor of Handwriting, 
extend a cordial invitation to members 
of the National Penmanship Associ- 
ation, to visit the Public Schools of 
Oak Park, Thursday, April 26. 



All written subjects will be pre- 
sented in order to show the visitors 
how our penmanship work is being- 
carried over. Visitors will be inter- 
ested in seeing the individual teaching 
methods employed; in noting the posi- 
tion of pencil holding in First and 
Second Grades; the Star System and 



the various incentives employed to 
encourage good penmanship. 

All schools will be open and vistors 
will be divided into groups. Each 
group may visit two schools, one in 
the morning and one in the after- 
noon. 

(Continued on Page 19.) 



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR 

Published monthly (except July and August) 

By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., 

612 N. Park St., Columbus. O. 

E. W. Bloser -------- Editor 

E. A. Lupfek ----- Managing Editor 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.25 A YEAR 

(To Canada, 10c more; foreign, 20c more) 

Single copy, 15c. 

Change of address should be requested 
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the 
old as well as the new address. 

Advertising rates furnished upon request. 



The Business Educator is the best medium 
through which to reach business college pro- 
prietors and managers, commercial teachera 
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy 
must reach our office by the 10th of the month 
for the issue of the following month. 



<^&&i^'/i^ &&£*&&?* & 



Lessons in Business Writing 

By E. A. LUPFER, Columbus, Ohio 
Send 15 cents in postage with specimens of your best work for criticism. 



Copy 161. This will test your ability to use a rolling movement. No finger acting. Crossing comes in cen- 
ter. Both ends are even. Count: down-up or 1-2. 

Copy 162. The Q begins like M and N and ends with a graceful swing to the right. The loop at the bottom 
should be horizontal, narrow and smaller than top loop. Count 1-2-3. Watch the beginning stroke. It curves produc- 
ing a parallel effect. 

Copy 163. The Z begins like Q but has a finish like small z, and the loop on the base line is smaller and is 
not horizontal like in Q. Count: 1-2-3. Back is fairly straight. Draw slant lines down the back of copy of your 
letters for comparison. 

Copy 164-165-166 should be thoroughly mastered. Do not be afraid to review frequently. 



162 



163 



164 



165 



166 




C?) <57) ^ (7~\ (?) <^\ 6h 







Copy 167. This first part of z is the same as n, so it is well to practice on the top turn or n exercise, finish- 
ing with a loop. Count: one for each turn and one for the loop. 

Too much counting is not good. Give most of your time and attention to penmanship and not to counting. 
Counting is only one of the many helps we can employ and should be used only when it will assist in getting better 
writing. 

Copy 168. Notice the full loop and the crossing. The count is: 1-2. 

Copy 169. The g is a combination of a and j. Study a and j and g will be easy to make. Close it at the top. 

Copy 170. The slant of your writing will be determined greatly by thfi slant of your loops; therefore, be care- 
ful that you get the proper slant to them. Give attention to the connective stroke between z and e. 



168 •' 

169 ■ 




Copy 171. See how much grace you can get into this drill. If you can make S, G and L well you need not work 
on this exercise. Count: 1-2-1-2. 

Copy 172. You will learn much about this letter by studying it carefully before practicing it. Trace over the 
copy with a dry pen. 

Copy 173. The G begins and ends the same as S. Notice the parallel effect between beginning and ending 
strokes. Keep the second part high, about two-thirds as high as first part. Count: 1-2-3. 

Copy 174. This is the most beautiful letter. Study the graceful compound curves. The loops should be long 
and narrow. The top one larger than the bottom one. You should work only on the style you like best. 

Copy 175. These words are easy. See how much vim you can put into the work, and don't become discouraged. 
Winning a good hand may mean a better position for you. 



172 



173 



174 





\...c^L?LjLs<C<£sCS / -- 



Copy 176. These exercises are to strengthen the down strokes of q and f. 

Copy 177. Be sure that every q you make contains a good a closed at the top. How about your movement? 

Copy 178. Get upper and lower loop the same in size. Keep the crossing high. Close the lower loop on the 
line and not above. Comparison of your work with the copy will frequently help you to locate your mistakes. 

Copies 179-180. These words will test your ability to maintain a uniform slant. They are not beautiful words 
but are excellent for drill. 




176 




10 



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Figures. Neglect of figures may mean many expensive mistakes. The copy given is only a suggestion as to 
arrangement and combinations. Make pages of figures. 



/ 2 X.2 Si, 



7 r 

/ M J. .4/.. / .4^ . /. .44-. /. ±/.. /.. .4*< ./. 4^y. 4^. /. 4^ .4. 4*<. /. 44'. /. .4^-S. .44V. 4^.4. .44 '. /. A<- S . ^r 

./.A /.. d./..d./..(o../.C ! ../..C./..6../..C./--C.-/..C.y..C.y...C../...C/. .£,./..£./..&./. Ay. ... 

/..-Z../..2../..* - 2...y..2~.t.2.../...l2,.S..2.../.JL./..2../.3L.y._+ 

./.J.7J./.l./'J. J /.i../J7.J../J../.J../j./. 1 i../J./.J.yj./J../i./J./.- 

y..sjry^_/.^j_j^y.jry..jr.y.-jr-y.jzu^/--^-t-^..y^ 
y..?..y...7.u?.j. 7 .-s. 7 ..y 7 ../^^ 

j..o.y.-Qy-.o.y..Q..y..a.y.ay..o.y.ny-jo.y..a.y..ay..a./My.ay..a.y..a./..o.y.a./.j2./..a. . 
y.r.y'T./ ^j..£:y.^y..sr.j..^.y..r..y..^.y..r./.jr../..^./..sr:/..gr./..i:/..r.y..sr.y sr./.sr.i . 



Copy 181. The capital stem is important. It is a compound curve made with a bold sweep of the arm and not 
the fingers. It ends with a dot above the line. 

Copies 182-183. You can have your choice, but be sure to master one style. Remember the one who can write 
better than the other fellow is likely to get the job. 

Copy 184. If you have mastered all copies this far you should be able to win a Certificate of Proficiency. 
Write a specimen containing the following material and send to Zaner & Bloser, Columbus, Ohio: 

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP-QRSTU VWXYZ 

abcdefghijklmnojqrstuvwxyz 

This is a specimen of my plain business penmanship such as I acquired by following the lessons given in The 
Business Educator and as a student in the (School), (City). 

(Present date) 
(Student's Name) 



181 



182 



183 




^z£..tefL....C^? tot. 



184 



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11 



SUPPLEMENTARY COPIES for 
PENMANSHIP PRACTICE 

Copies were written by Francis B. Courtney, Detroit, Mich. Instructions were written in the office of 
Number 3. the B. E. 




Business education is needed by the preacher and poet in order to get along without petty financial annoyances. The 
painter as well as the novelist needs a knowledge of business because both must live and possess at least the common 
necessities of life without which there is not much joy. Business education enables its possessor to earn a living without 
unnecessary effort and worry, and to devote extra time and energy to one's desires, be it in poetry, painting, preaching, 
plowing, politics, or penmanship. 





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Is there any other acquisition within the reach of everyone as highly appreciated by not only its possessor but by all, as 
the art of writing well? Is there any other art as valuable and as long serving as the art of writing well, time to learn it con- 
sidered ? More time is now wasted in the public schools in premature and inefficient teaching than is necessary to write legibly, 
rapidly, and well. Inefficient teaching is not now an excuse for your failing to learn to write well in a reasonable length of time. 



m 



va 



VA 



TWA 



VA 



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Economy is not the only mother of wealth, important and true as it is, but it is also the mother of just appreciation and 
relative value of essentials and non-essentials, of wants and needs, of gloss and gold, of true or false living. Economy leads to 
careful discrimination between good and poor, true and apparent worth, character and reputation, water and whiskey, food, 
stimulants, luxury and dissipation. 



12 



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Energy, general qualification, and skill in penmanship are the three safe, sure stepping stones to prosperous positions. Not 
energy alone, not intelligence alone, not skill alone, but all combined make for success. Skill in writing is the product of in- 
telligent energy, therefore good writing means intelligence, energy, and skill, the three factors so necessary to advancement. 




And cheerfulness radiates from acts as well as from the countenance. Good penmanship radiates sunshine and therefore 
cheerfulness because it throws off waves of gracefulness and harmony; poor penmanship annoys. Annoyances shorten life and 
rob it of many delights. Does your penmanship gladden or becloud the countenance and spirit of the reader? Radiate sun- 
shine in act as well as in words ; in writing as well as in talking. 




It's simply a matter of even exchange; a matter of balance as it were. Is your account square, or is it on the debit Bide? 
Begin early to place something to your credit. A good handwriting is a valuable asset which no young man or woman can well 
omit placing to his or her credit in the account of life. It brings dollars to its possessor and radiates joy to all who read it, 
for good writing gives pleasure to both writer and reader. 



<y/u '* 5stiuJ//i4 "JJ C ~<6ua/</- & 



13 





West of 
i. Arnold 
i sketchi 


the R 
Hartm 
ng sho 


lucator a 


a prof* 
nd be 


lphabet 
J. 


was m 



College. Trenton. N. J., has five star students in John L. Cadwalader. 
C. Sirak, and John P. Wildmann. Their specimens of lettering, flourish- 
arked ability. It would pay these young people to take up penmanship 
n. We hope some day that they may be regular contributors to the 
>nally known, 
by Arnold Hartman. a student of H. W. West, in Rider College, 















mpft 


<^s 




















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One of the best means of securing a free 
arm movement and a strong quality of line 




B 






Bj 
















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is to make movement exercise designs. 




































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These designs are enjoyed by pupils. If 








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you want to strengthen your movement try 








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making a movement exercise design. 




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When making a design do not copy some- 


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( ia 


, one else's design, but creat your own. This 




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' 7 












a will make the work more interesting and 


&tf$hfft[ 


MMM 




fit 












Wmmm 


gk has a tendency to get you to swing the ex- 
BSk ercises off with a little more freedom. 

WmS The desi S n to the left was made by Mar- 






























jafliy £aret Colquitt. Mountain City Business Col- 




P»wyH 




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93W lege, Chattanooga, Tenn., Frank McKenzie 
K' Secretary, where Zaner Method is being 
















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s 




f used. 

We will be pleased to receive designs 
from other pupils in other schools. We do 
not advise spending any more time on this 
kind of work than is necessary to establish 
a free swing. Actual writing is preferred to 
exercises, after a good swing has been es- 
tablished. 












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14 



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The above was written b 
Method Correspondence Cou 




CORRELATING WRITING AND 
SPELLING 

Without doubt the best package of 
spelling papers received by us during 
the past few months has been re- 
ceived from John S. Griffith, penman 
in the Englewood Business College, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

The entire package of about one 
hundred ami fifty specimens shows re- 
markable high standard in spelling 
and in penmanship. This school is 
correlating penmanship and spelling 
in an ideal way. 

The specimen to the left by Louise 
Johnson shows the high average this 
class maintains in writing the regular 
spelling lesson. We congratulate this 
school on its fine spellers and writers. 



We have just received some fine 
sepcimens from L. A. Platz, l"(i East 
Brighton Ave., Syracuse, N. Y. We 
hope to be able to publish some of 
his work in the Business Educator 
before long. 



MIDNIGHT OIL 



Students' Prints is the title of a 
school paper prepared and printed by 
the students of The Busine I" ti 
id Institute Conservatory, 5040 
•Joy 1M., Del 

The paper is gotten up in a very 
ting way. It contains an honor 
roll of students who have won Zaner- 
1'enmanship (Yrtiiieatcs. At 
the bottom of the list of names is this 
question: "Who will be the next to 
receive these awards?" 

We surmise that many of the In- 
stitute pupils are burning midnight 
oil to get their names on that list. 



LEFT-HANDED QUESTIONNAIRE 

Atlantic City Public Schools 

1927 - 1928 

The following is the report from 

the questionnaire sent out to the first 

grade teachers of this city, including 

thirty-two rooms, concerning the left 

handed problem. 

1. Total first grade enrollment 
—1,173. 

2. Number of children showing 
left handed tendencies at beginning 
of year — 85. 

3. Number of children who changed 
from left hand to the right hand — 73. 

4. Number remaining left-handed 
—12. 

5. Numbers of cases where chang- 
ing from left to right hand proved 
injurious to child. — None. 

G. Number of cases where the 
writing of the changed writers does 
not compare favorably with the right- 
hand writers — 9 cases. 

7. Number of poor writers among 
those remaining left-handed — 8 

8. Number of teachers who think 
it wise to change the left-handed 
child except in most extreme cases — 
28 out of 82 teachers. 

9. Number of teachers. who 
through their previous experience as 
teachers, have noticed that changing 
to the right hand proved injurious t" 
the child — None. 

10. Numbi of the left- 
handed children, win. an 

— 9 cases. 

This, in my i stimation is a very in- 
teresting reporl of the left-handed 
situation in our first grades. I know 
it will not only be of interest to the 
of this city, 
but to those of other cities as well. 
OLIVE A. MELLON 

Supvr. Handwriting, 
Atlantic City Schools. 



7fflJ&u4//ieM/<2drKO&r & 



15 





& 7^7 



By Parker Zaner Bloser. 

The value of fairly large letter forms like these, first retraced and then not, is in the strength or force and control 
of movement their practice gives. Making them large requires a strong arm movement, and to be able to swing the 
pen in retracing to follow closely the same path each of the eight retraces requires considerable control. 

Give the retraced letters a good trial and then try the others. 

Sets of the capital letters appeared in a previous number of the B. E. 

If one could follow exactly the same path in making the retraced letters, he would have a control of the movement 
of the pen similar no doubt to that which Babe Ruth has in handling his bat. 



10 



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Supplementary Business Writing 

By C. C LISTER, Maxwell Training School for Teachers. New York City 







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17 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

By CARL MARSHALL, Route 1, Box 32, Tujunga, Calif. 




I have received a letter from one of 
the best known and most successful 
teachers of penmanship in this coun- 
try, a man, too who is 
Penmanship a pen artist of high 
is Changing ability. The letter is so 
interesting and its 
points so significantly important, that 
I give a few excrepts from it. As 
it is a private letter, its author shall 
be unnamed. He says: 

"It seems to me that people value 
some lines of penmanship less and 
less. Really, for many lines of pen 
work, there is more demand today 
than ever before. Un- 
questionably, there is 
more pen work in the 
nature of resolutions 
and fine work done 
than ever before, and 
there is no reason why 
this demand should not 
constantly increase 
Any young man who 
wishes to follow pen work, has a bet- 
ter opportunity today than years ago. 
But the styles have changed. There 
is less of the flourishing, and more of 
the lettering and engrossing. 

"But the point I am getting at is 
this: Some penmen, express the idea 
that penmanship is going. This is a 
wrong mental attitude, psychology, or 
whatever you want to call it. Of 
course, we do not want to fool our- 
selves, but I can see no reason for 
any of us getting in that frame of 
mind. What penmen should do, is to 
wake up and modernize their work, 
getting away from the impractical. 
Look at the immense amount of com- 
mercial art in the high class maga- 
zines. Very much of this work might 
be classed as engrossing. Anyway, 
these fellows who are howling about 
there being 'no money in penmanship' 
might greatly increase their income 
by learning a few different styles of 
commercial lettering, and being able 
to do a little drawing in connection 
with their penmanship." 

Of course, in this letter, my friend 
has in mind the outlook of the person 
who makes fine pen work a business, 
but the points he makes are of equal 
interest to the rest of us. It may be 
all right for the man who is merely a 
pen artist, and not a teacher, to find 
out that he can make more money by 
devoting himself to the art side of 
pen work, engrossing, commercial art 
lettering and so on, but it will be dis- 
tinctly a bad thing for teachers of 
general writing to get it into their 
heads that good writing is "going", 
and that the writing teacher's profes- 
sion does not pay. No doubt it is 
true that there is a constantly lessen- 
ing demand for the services of the 
old-time "writing master", whose 



chief distinction was the ability to 
"flourish" curlycued capitals or swans 
and deer with spiral spring "in- 
ards", and who knew little else about 
teaching writing. For one, I am 
rather glad that this type of alleged 
"penmen" are finding the pickings 
rather more meagre than they used 
to be. They never did render much 
service to the cause of either educa- 
tion or art, and the "passing" of 
their stuff will not hurt anybody 
much. 

The truth seems to be that there 
are two entirely distinct fields of 
work for the people who are known 
broadly as "penmen". The one is the 
field of art, the other is the field of 
education. The pen artist will nat- 
urally find that the scope and char- 
acter of his work will have to vary 
with the changing fashions in pen 
art. Yesterday it was scroll-work 
and flourishing; today, it may be en- 
grossing and ornate lettering, that 
call for artistic taste and draughts- 
manship. Fashions in art have al- 
ways been capricious. Ten centuries 
ago, the illuminated manuscripts of 
the monks, were regarded as the 
height of art. The recent demand 
for engrossing and fancy and elab- 
orate lettering for advertisements 
and so on, referred to in my friend's 
letter, might be considered as a sort 
of reversion to the old art of the 
monks, some of whom were known to 
have given a whole week to the draw- 
ing and coloring of a single initial 
letter. Some of these might almost 
be considered miniature paintings. 

But the teaching and popularizing 
of good writing in our schools, is an 
"artistic temperament" does not al- 
ways go well with the teacher's work, 
altogether different job. The teacher 
who does this, does not need to be an 
"artist", in fact, it may be a disad- 
vantage to him. It seems that the 
"artistic temperament" does not al- 
ways go well with the teachers' work. 
We all know that some of our finest 
penmen have been but indifferent 
teachers of writing. One of the very 
best teachers of writing that I ever 
saw in a classroom, was, himself, but 
a very ordinary penman. What the 
good teacher of writing needs is the 
knack of getting his pupils to appre- 
ciate good writing, to want to learn 
to do it, and how to do it. 

Very possibly, this work will not 
"pay" as well as the work of an artis- 
tic engrosser. No teacher wins the 
reward either in money or fame that 
is accorded to genius. But it is prob- 
able that penmanship teachers today, 
draw rather better salaries, both ac- 
tually and relatively, than they ever 
did. Piatt R. Spencer, the elder, who 
was not only a great pen artist, but 



a great teacher as well, did not make 
much money out of his little writing- 
schools in eastern Ohio. I can find 
no falling away from the interest in, 
and the demand for good writing 
teachers in our public and private 
schools. Surely, there is no discover- 
able "passing" of interest in efficient 
writing among our business schools, 
either public or private. And, after 
all, this is of vastly more importance 
than the needs of the comparatively 
few who are qualified to be artistic 
penmen. 

On the whole, I think the general 
situation holds nothing to discourage 
the young man or woman, who has 
the ambition to become a good 
teacher of writing. And there is and 
will likely continue to be a demand 
for thousands of these, and at fair 
compensation, as teachers' wages go, 
where there is employment for one 
super pen artist. 

The people of southern California 
and those of Texas, and Arizona, are 
very much stirred up at this writing, 

over the Congressional 
Education proposal to put Mexican 
and Labor immigration on the quota 

basis, the same as it is 
applied in the case of immigrants 
from Europe. The farmers say, and 
with apparent truth, that the sudden 
cutting off of the Mexican labor sup- 
ply, which will result from the pro- 
posed law, will seriously cripple the 
farming industry throughout the 
whole Southwest. They say, and with 
equal truth, that the footloose young 
Americans in their communities will 
not do the low class work that the 
farmers require of the Mexicans, and 
which the latter are quite willing to 
do. It is a big question and with 
many angles, industrial, social and 
diplomatic. But the situation also 
raises an educational question. Is our 
American school system, of which we 
have been so justly proud, working to 
disqualify our student output from 
doing the so-called "low" work of put- 
ting in crops and cultivating and 
marketing them? Are we Americans 
ready to adopt the policy of import- 
ing foreign labor to do all our rough 
work, while we allow our soft-handed 
young fellows from the high schools 
and colleges, who feel themselves to 
good for this "low" work, to confine 
themselves to the few white-collar 
jobs that are to be had? All the 
maxims of political economy are 
against such a policy. And the les- 
sons of history are also against it. 
That was what brought the downfall 
of Greece and Rome. All solid and 
prosperous nations have always had 
to do their own work, and are doing 
it still. We do not hear of England 
or France or Germany, or any other 
modern European country, importing 
their labor from abroad. It is only 
through exceptional conditions, and 
conditions that cannot be expected to 
persist, that the idea of labor impor- 

( Continued on Page 18.) 



18 



d^ *!%^&t&'/i£M&/fa'i&r % & 



PRIDE 

By C. R. McCANN, 

McCann School of Business 

Hazleton, Penna. 



wad some Power the giftie gie us 

To see oursels as ithers see us! 

It wad frae monie a blunder free us, 

An' foolish notion: 
What airs in dress an' gait wad 
Lea'e us, 

An' ev'n devotion! — Burns. 

Many who have read this little 
verse of poetry by that canny Scot, 
Bobby Burns, know nothing of its in- 
ception and origin. 

It seems that there was a lady in 
the village who thought that because 
her father had a little more of this 
worldly lucre than some of her neigh- 
bors, she was just a trifle better than 
they were. Possibly her mother had 
told her that she should not play with 
the other children because their 
fathers were day laborers. 

The older she grew, the more her 
nose pointed toward the celestrial fir- 
mament. Finally it became common 
gossip around the village that she was 
"stuck-up" and there was good rea- 
son, too. When she walked, she 
looked as if she were walking upon 
eggs. In her own mind, she did not 
belong down here on earth with all 
the sinners — her home was among 
the angels in Heaven. 

On this particular splendid, sunny, 
Sunday morning, she was in church 
communing with her God. Bobby 
Burns knew her well and knew all 
about what the other women of the 
village said and thought, for he was 
a "hale fellow well met" and as a re- 
sult found out many things that other 
fellows did not know. He sat in the 
seat just back of her. The sermon 
was not particularly interesting and 
as the Parson raised his voice to a 
high pitch in order to warn his sleep- 
ing parishioners that his sermon was 
coming to a close, Bobby opened his 
eyes and "for the life of him," could 
not believe what he saw. There was 
a large louse crawling leisurely over 
the lady's hair and hat. Now, Bobby 
was a Scot and it is alleged that he 
engaged in a "wee nip now and then" 
but he assured himself that he was in 
his right senses. He then went home 
and wrote his famous little ode, "To 
a Louse." 

It is reputed that there are several 
«>f Miss Pride's relatives living today 
but Hiey have learned — some of them 
— to cover up their defects to a 
greater degree than their ancient rel- 
ative. 

Don't stalk along the streets as if 
you are superfine, distilled wonder of 
imeprial Idueblood — Cod fish artisto- 
cracy. There are others who are just 
as fine as you; others just as good 
as you; others just a little finer than 
you; others a little better than you. 
The writer of this once knew a lit- 



tle girl whose mother had come from 
Continental Europe and wishing to 
keep up the custom of her native land, 
wore a colored shawl over her head 
in place of a hat. The little girl 
grew up and when she became older 
did not wish to go to Church with her 
own mother because of this shawl. 
One should never be ashamed of one's 
own mother because she is the best 
friend that lives. The girl after- 
wards saw the mistake when she grew 
older. "With age comes wisdom," 
but it is hard to swallow our pride 
when we are young; and sometimes 
when we get older, too. 

"Well, the Cahill's have a new 
automobile and I don't see why we 
can't have one. Pop makes as much 
around the mines as Mr. Cahill and if 
they can buy one, we can have one, 
too." This is the usual speech used 
by the female specie of the home — 
especially when she is in a coaxing 
mood. 

The husband is accustomed to the 
wiles of women and rather than of- 
fend her, goes down to the automobile 
agency and inquires about the prices, 



self much like the fly about which 
Aesop wrote. It seems that this fl\ 
was a proud fellow. Feeling tired and 
not caring to exercise, he found a seat 
upon the axle-tree of the chariot 
wheel. As they galloped along rather 
briskly, he puffed up and said, "What 
a dust do I raise!" 

Pride is a good thing to have — 
provided one does not go to excess 
with it. 
"0 wad some Power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as ithers see us!" 




C. R. McCANN. 

etc., but mind you the lady of the 
house has had the "tree planted" long- 
before "hubby" arrives. It does not 
take the automobile salesman long to 
discover this good prospect with the 
result that a car is sold. The Finance 
Company is brought into play and a 
mortgage is put upon the property. 
"The Cahill's car is not so nice as 
the new car that Mike Flynn just 
bought," pipes up a distant relative of 
Mike's wife, and the Flynns are all 
happy — for the time being. 

We all have a certain amount of 
pride but most of us learn before we 
get very far in life. 

We all make mistakes ami none of 
as should think we are better than 
anyone else because there will surely 
be another person to take our place. 
We see this every day in all lines of 
sport. Sometimes we think we know 
abject very well but soon someone 
ask; us a question and for the life of 
us, we are unable to give an answer. 
Then we start to rave and rant over 
the affair. Why? Because our pride 
«en hurt. The writer of this 
article lias been exposed to the teach- 
ings of some of the best teachers of 
English in this land yet he makes 
mistakes. 

It takes criticism to put us in our 
place but always be sure when critic- 
ising that you yourself do not make 
mistakes. Because if you do, you 
may stir up much dust and find your- 



MENTAL MEANDERINGS 

(Continued from Page 17.) 

tation got its start in our country. 
The idea cannot endure. We cannot 
go on indefinitely bringing in ignorant 
undesirable outsiders to do our rough 
work, without serious danger to the 
political ideals upon which this Re- 
public was founded. There is no kind 
of honest, useful work, however 
rough, that should be too "low" for 
any red-blooded, decent American 
boy. If our schools are sending our 
young people out with the notion that 
their education makes it a disgrace 
to do rough work, the method and 
teaching of the schools will have to be 
changed. Such an education will 
prove a curse rather than a benefit. 

If the rough work is not adequately 
paid for, raise the pay, even if the 
rest of us have to pay more for the 
labor product. We cannot afford to 
have an under-paid labor peonage in 
this country whether in the mines, 
tin 1 shops or the farm. Nor can we 
afford to educate any boy to the idea 
that any sort of useful work 
neath him, merely because he lias had 
given to him something in the way of 
an education. We still have a few 
silly parents who send their children 
to school in order that they "won't 
have to work" when they grow up. 
These parents have a lot to learn 
about human life and the human soul. 
Work, — useful work — is the finest 
thing we have, and it is equally fine, 
whether done with the hand or the 
brain. 

Let every school help the boys, and 
the girls too, to get rid of the snob- 
bish idea that any work is beneath 
them because it is "low". When this 
is done, and the farmers and other 
employers learn to give their 
workers decent and pleasant working 
conditions, and good pay, they will 
not need to howl for the privilege of 
bringing in undesirable aliens to do 
their work, whether they come from 
Mexico or elsewhere. There will be 
plenty of young Americans to do it. 



Ira T. Ellis, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Delaware, and a former 
student of Beacom College, has been 
employed to teach in the Beacom Col- 
lege, Wilmington, Delaware. 



A. P. Myers, with whose work our 
readers are familiar, is now located 
at 516 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, 
Mil., where he has established an En- 
grossing Studio. 



^ <!ffie>3&u&/t^£'diuzz&r & 



19 



THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF 

PENMANSHIP SUPERVISORS 

AND TEACHERS 

(Continued from Page 7.) 

Arrangements have been made with 
a motor bus company to call at the 
Congress Hotel for visitors, Thursday 
morning, 8 o'clock. This arrangement 
will enable the delegates to have a de- 
lightful sightseeing trip enroute to 
Oak Park. 

ALMA E. DORST, Supervisor. 



The rates at the Congress Hotel 
are as follows: 

Single room with detached bath 
$3.00 per day up. 

Mr. Franklin Bobbitt of The Uni- 
versity of Chicago is well known for 
his outstanding arguments supporting 
supervision. "The Supervision of 
City Schools" though one of the erli- 
est discussions, advances sound prin- 
ciples which are valuable to super- 
visors at present. The members of 
the Association may expect a schol- 
arly treatment of the problem of Su- 
pervision. 

Dr. Barr of The University of Wis- 
consin is well known for the contribu- 
tions he has made to the educational 
world especially in "Visiting the 
Teacher at Work" by Barr, Ander- 
son and Bush. His treatment of 
"Objective Procedures in Classroom 
Supervision" will be thorough and 
comprehensive. 

Miss Luella Chapman is thoroughly 
equipped to give an interesting and 
understanding discussion of the 
teaching of penmanship in Normal 
Schools and Teachers Colleges. For 
several years past she has done ex- 
cellent work in the Buffalo State 
Teachers College, Buffalo, New York. 

The Association is particularly 
fortunate in securing the services of 
Mr. Glenn Hoffhines of The Harris 
Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago. It 
will be most inspiring to have a 
banker's point of view of the present 
day need for good handwriting in the 
business world. Mr. Hoffhines is 
especially well prepared to bring us 
a practical message. 

Miss Mamie Eppler of Fort Worth, 
Texas will make a valuable contribu- 
tion in the discussion of "Applied 
Writing in Junior High Schools." 
This is one of the biggest problems 
confronting supervisors of Handwrit- 
ing today. Miss Eppler is especially 
well qualified to discuss this topic dis- 
cerningly and will bring to us the 
heritage of a successful experience in 
Fort Worth. 

Dr. Paul V. West has approached 
the subject of Handwriting from the 
angle of research. His address, "The 
Supervisor as a Leader of Research," 
will be of unusual interest, for mor - e 
and more, educators are receiving 
much benefit from investigation. His 
address will be one of the high spots 
of the convention. He has also 
kindly consented to briefly discuss, 
"Existing Handwriting Scales." 



Three superior supervisors, Miss 
Myrta Ely of St. Paul, Minnesota, 
Miss Olive A. Mellon, Atlantic City, 
N. J., and Miss Emma V. Prusha of 
Virginia, Minnesota will each give a 
ten minute discussion of important 
problems in handwriting. 

Mr. William J. Bogan, Acting Su- 
perintendent of Chicago Public 
Schools, sounds the keynote of the 
convention by giving us a cordial wel- 
come. 

Because of the exceptional ability 
of Mr. Elmer G. Miller, Director of 
Commercial Education in Pittsburgh, 
to make a splendid speech, he has 
been assigned the response. 

Mrs. Lettie J. Strobell as President 
has devoted herself unreservedly to 
the best interests of the organization. 
We shall look forward with keen in- 
terest to her message. 

Our Secretary, Mr. Skeeles, in- 
forms us that all railroad associa- 
tions, except the New England group, 
have granted reduced fares to our 
delegates, provided 250 attend the 
convention. You can help to meet 
this condition by your presence. 

A. LUCILLA McCALMONT. 



WHAT ABOUT A CONVENTION- 
THEATER PARTY? 

Several requests have come to the 
President of the N. A. P. T. S. ask- 
ing that a theater party be planned 
for the evening of Wednesday, April 
25th. The Assistant Mnaager of the 
Congress Hotel will be pleased to ar- 
range for such a party. If more than 
sixty should decide to attend the 
theater, a special rate will be given. 
Those desiring to attend please notify 
Miss Laura Jane Breckenridge, 212 
Tinkler Street, Lafayette, Indiana. 



NATIONAL PENMANSHIP ASSO- 
CIATION MEETING EXHIBITS 



Specification 

All mounts should be 22"x28" in 
size and approximately a uniform 
gray tone. All mounts are to be hung 
three deep vertically and should be 
tied together (before sending) in 
three places with gray tape approxi- 
mately the same tone as mounts used. 

Labeling 

Label each mount on the back, up- 
per right-hand corner. Name of 
Supervisor, City and State. 

Notification 

To prevent loss when the exhibits 
are sent, please notifv Miss Alma 
Dorst, 960 North Blvd., Board of Edu- 
cation, Oak Park, 111., how many boxes 
or packages are sent, how shipped, by 
mail or express, and date of ship- 
ment. State whether you wish your 
exhibit returned. 

Shipping Directions 

All exhibits must be sent prepaid. 
Boxes should have the top screwed 
down and, if possible, hinged. 

Each box or package must be 



clearly labeled with shipping and re- 
turn address. RETURN LABELS 
carefully filled out, should be placed 
in an .envelope and fastened to the in- 
side of the box cover, to be used in 
marking the box fastened to the inside 
of the box cover, to be used in mark- 
ing the box for return shipment at 
close of exhibition. 

A list of number of rows sent 
should be placed inside the box in the 
envelope with the return label. This 
will be used for checking with the 
list previously sent to Miss Dorst. 

All exhibits should be in Chicago at 
the Congress Hotel on or before April 
17, 1928. Congress Hotel, S. Michigan 
Blvd. and E. Congress, Chicago, 111. 

Return of Exhibits 

No exhibits will be returned unless 
such a request is made by the super- 
visor at the time of notification. 

All exhibits returned will be sent 
collect by the Exhibit Committee. 

Help of exhibitors in taking down 
the exhibits will be greatly appre- 
ciated. 

ALMA DORST, Oak Park, 111. 



The Profession Loses a Strong 
Supervisor 




Gertrude E. Burge, Supervisor of 
Writing in the Mannington, W. Va., 
Public Schools, died February 22, fol- 
lowing a brief illness. 

She was a graduate of the Mounds- 
ville, W. Va., High School, West Lib- 
erty Normal and the Zanerian Col- 
lege of Penmanship, Columbus, Ohio. 

Miss Burge was considered one of 
the best penmanship supervisors in 
the United States. She was an en- 
thusiastic supporter of all movements 
for the betterment of handwriting in 
the public schools, and she was con- 
tinually endeavoring to perfect her 
own execution, having attended the 
Zanerian College of Penmanship at 8 
different times. 

The instructors in the Zanerian and 
all connected with the office of the 
Business Educator have lost a very 
close friend and co-worker. 



20 



diT ^^&u^/i<M&Ju£a&r & 



Side Lights on Penmanship 
History 



By ARTHUR G. SKEELES. Supe 



of Handwriting. Coli 



Marvelous Method Brings Rapid 
Improvement 

"To all who are anxious to accom- 
plish in a few weeks, what is now, 
according to the old systems of pen- 
manship, imperfectly acquired in two 
or three years, the method here laid 
down will be found a valuable and 
useful acquisition. 

"To produce the command of the 
arm, so necessary to free writing, I 
find it expedient in the beginning to 
tie up the fingers, in order to prevent 
the motion of the joints — I tie a piece 
of tape, about eight inches long, 
round the first and second fingers, 
and the first joint of the thumb, with 
the pen held betwixt them, the pupil 
in consequence is compelled to move 
the arm to form the letters. 



hand, the consequence would be that 
the pupil would seldom or ever obtain 
any one of the movements completely 
from the natural tendency every one 
has, (especially those who have 
learnt the old methods of writing), of 
using the thumb and first and second 
fingers." 

Sounds modern, doesn't it? Save 
for the punctuation, it might be an 
announcement from some present-day 
supervisor, announcing how to secure 
"one hundred percent arm movement 
in a week." 

But the paragraphs quoted were 
written and published more than a 
hundred years ago. They are taken 
from "Lectures on the Art of Writ- 
ing," by J. Carstairs. The copy be- 




This is a halftone of an illi 
on the Art of Writing, published 



which appeared 



"In like manner, the third and 
fourth fingers are tied up, that they 
may be kept in their position. I tie 
tape to them also, so as to bring 
them sufficiently under the hand, that 
the surface of the nails may run on 
the paper; — this is done by taking a 
piece of tape and tying the middle of 
it just immediately between the nails, 
and the first joints of the third and 
fourth fingers, then with the two 
ends of tape, bring the fingers under 
the hand, so as to admit the tape to 
hi fastened round the wrist. The 
chief intention of tying the Upper 
fingers and thumb, is to hinder the too 
i motion of them when the pu- 
pil is endeavoring to learn the larger 
movements. Each movement our lit to 
be acquired distinctly and correctly. 
Now if the fingers were allowed to 
move, while the learner is acquiring 
the larger movements of the arm and 



fore me is the Fifth Edition, dated 
1822. There had been other editions 
before 1815, for this testimonial is 
from the Antijacobin Review, October 
1815: "Mr. Carstairs is very different 
from our modern quacks, who kill 
where they profess to cure, inasmuch, 
that he 'not only promises, hut pen 
fur in a wonders. He professes to teach 
men who write a bad hand, to write 
a good hand in six lessons; and, we 
are assured, he had fully succeeded 
in accomplishing his object." 

Of his own system he says (page 
38): "Notwithstanding the reforma- 
tion that I have affected in the Art 
of Writing, and the facilities I hav< 
afforded in its tuition, I indulge in no 
chimerical views, uncertain specula 
tions, or fanciful experiments: my 
improvements will stand the ti I ■ 
the most rigid examinations, and re- 
quire only to be exhibited to the ob- 



server, to be admitted and under- 
stood." 

From which we learn that J. Car- 
stairs had a good opinion of himself, 
and that the exercise known as 
"blowing your own horn" is at least 
a hundred years old. 



A. D. Wilt, Senior, veteran Business 
Educator now living in New Canaan, 
Conn., hopes to attend the Eastern 
Commercial Teachers' Association in 
New York City, April C, 7, and 8. 

For many years Mr. Wilt has been 
very active in both commercial school 
and a.-sociation work and we know it 
will be a real pleasure for the mem- 
bers in attendance to welcome this 
pioneer among them. 

Mr. Wilt writes under date of 
March 8: 

"I am now eighty-six and am in 
excellent physicial condition but in 
consequence of a capital operation 
several years ago my 'radius' is 
somewhat limited but I hope to have 
the great pleasure of attending the 
convention and meeting the younger 
men and women who have succeeded 
us pioneers and who have so splen- 
didly maintained the high standards 
of our profession. 

I think I am the oldest Business 
Educator in the country. I was for 
fifty-four years at the head of the 
Miami Commercial College of Day- 
ton, Ohio, now successfully con- 
tinued bv Mr. W. E. HarbottLe." 



Miss Pearl Abbott, last year with 
the Emmerton School, Swansboro, N. 
C, is now teaching in the Merrill 
Business College, Stanford, Conn. 

Mr. (). T. Swanson, recently with 
the Connellsville, Pa., Business Col- 
lege, is a new teacher in Strayer's 
Business College, Philadelphia. 



Massachusetts' second State Short- 
hand and Typewriting Contest will be 
held on May 26 at the College of 
Practical Arts and Letters, Boston 
University. Dr. Eldridge of Simmons 
College will be in charge of the short- 
hand section. Full particulars as to 
rules and regulations will he gladly 
furnished to any one who will write to 
Mrs. Marion F. Woodruff, Glouchester 
High. School, Glouchester. 
Slate Contest Chairman: Miss Mary 
deSloovere, Bartlett High School, 
Webster, Mass., Assistant Chairman 
or Orton E. Beach, Lowell High 
School, Lowell, Mass.. Publicity M 
ager. 

It is hoped that every school in the 
of Massachusetts «ill enter at 

I WO contestants. 



RIDER COLLEGE IU LLETIN 

A profusely illustrated bulletin has 
been received from Rider Ci 

on, N. J. This institution is do- 
ing a wonderful work in the East for 
commercial education. 



<£" &/&&uJ/niM&&Ka&r & 



21 



Mistranscribing Shorthand Notes 



Mr. Matthew A. Moosbrugger, Na- 
tional City Bank, New York City, in 
addressing the New York City Gregg 
Shorthand Teachers' Association said 
that mistranscribing of shorthand 
notes by stenographers was among 
the most costly of errors perpetrated 
in the business world — costly be- 
cause of the stenographer's time in 
making corrections, the time of dicta- 
tor in supervising and catching the 
errors, and very often the time of the 
executive who has to sign the letter. 
To this must be added the cost of 
stationery "consumed by errors" — the 
wasted letterheads, carbon copies, en- 
velopes, etc. For these reasons, any 
contribution that can be made to elim- 
inate errors is highly important. 

"While the general type of young 
people entering business is constantly 
higher yet there is room for improve- 
ment", he said, "and to develop ex- 
perienced stenographers and secre- 
taries should be the goal." 

To eliminate errors on the part of 
stenographers, correlation of short- 
hand and typewriting should begin 
early in the course and continue all 
through it instead of learning the var- 
ious subjects (shorthand, typewriting, 
English, etc.) as separate units and 
correlating them when a complete 
knowledge of each is arrived at. 

While the business man is not in- 
terested in what system of shorthand 
is employed or what typewriter is 
used, he is vitally interested in know- 
ing how long the matter dictated is 
going to take before the finished prod- 
uct is laid before him. The typewriter 
carriage must be constantly on the 
move, turning out the letters, reports, 
statements, etc. Four things are 
needed to accomplish this: (1) Short- 
hand speed plus readable notes (2) 
Typewriting speed plus ability to read 
notes (3) Knowledge of English, and 
(4) Judgment. 

Judgment is important. It is doing 
the right thing at the right time. 
While teachers cannot supply brains 



they can develop judgment, he 
thought. 

The speaker raised the question as 
to whether or not it would be better 
to begin typewriting several months 
before shorthand is taught so that 
typewritten transcription can begin 
with the very first lesson of short- 
hand. 

No doubt, smooth, even dictation is 
necessary to develop shorthand writ- 
ing, but he insisted that students or- 
dinarily go into the business world 
with that sort of preparation only and 
he rocommended what may be termed 
a "business laboratory," where actual 
business conditions are simulated as 
closely as possible. While he left the 
pedagogical technique to be deter- 
mined by the teachers, he suggested 
that exercises should be established 
to develop every phase of the work 
from the simplest operation to the 
most complicated and varying condi- 
tions. He deprecated such things as 
the use of blank sheets of paper for 
transcribing business letters and sug- 
gested that the smooth, lullying, 
sleep-producing, monotonous drone so 
often practiced in classrooms should 
give way to bright, business-like, even 
erratic, dictation as the student gets 
in the business world. 

In the imaginery business labora- 
tory, or finishing class, students 
should be dictated to separately, in- 
terrupted in their work by further 
dictati on, their judgment developed 
by being given cablegrams, telegrams, 
and things of that sort so that they 
can determine relative values of these 
various items and know which one to 
complete first, second, etc. "This fin- 
ishing class should not be a forty-five 
minute period. Business does not work 
in forty-five minute periods! It should 
be a whole-day affair." 

With closer unity throughout the 
course and the establishment of such 
a secretarial training course as has 
been suggested, he believed boys and 
girls will be better fitted to assume 
the responsibilities of their calling. 



LITTLE BROWN HANDS 

Abner E. J. Reeser 
They drive home the cows from the 
pasture, 
Up through the long shady lane, 
When the quail whistles loud in the 
wheatfields 
That are yellow with ripening 
grain. 
They find in the thick, waving 
grasses, 
Where the scarlet-lipped straw- 
berry grows; 
They gather the earliest snowdrops, 
And the first crimson buds of the 
rose. 

They toss the new hay in the 
meadow ; 
They gather the elder-bloom white; 
They find where the dusky grapes 
purple 
In the soft-tinted October light. 
They know where the apples hang 
rippest 
And are sweeter than Italy's wines; 
They know where the fruit hang the 
thickest 
On the long, thorny blackberry 
vines. 

They gather the delicate sea-weeds, 

And build tiny castles of sand; 
They pick up the beautiful sea- 
shells, 
Fairy barks that have drifted to 
land. 
They wave from the tall, rocking 
tree-tops, 
Where the oriole's hammock-nest 
swings ; 
And at night-time are folded in 
slumber 
By the song that a fond mother 
sings. 

Those who toil bravely are strongest ; 
The humble and poor become great; 
And so from these brown-handed chil- 
dren 
Shall grow mighty rulers of state. 
The pen of the author and statesman, 

The noble and wise of the land, 
And the palette and brush of the 
artist 
Shall be held in the little brown 
hand. 





y ' \ ^^-c^c^^^c^t-^-, 



The 

We doubt 






Df handwriting 

ndents generally took more 

Mr. Potter attended the 

edited to the start he recei 



the pen of S. B. Potter. Supt. of Schools. Garfield County, 
another superintendent in the United States who can eqt 
ly the penmanship work would be better 



superintendents, f< 
in their own handwriting, 
rian College of Penmanship 



pd Springs, Colo. 

bove. We are always glad to 

bout the country if superin- 



22 



>5?fe&giJ/n£U/&&uxifir & 



Ancient Systems of Writing 

By A. C. EVANS, Pasedena, Calif. 



INSTALLMENT II 

Ancient Writings — Continued 

Like the Egyptian and the Baby- 
lonian the Chinese writing is very 
ancient. About 4,600 years ago the 
Chine.^e discovered the process of 
making India ink, which should prop- 
erly called Chinese ink. Nothing bet- 
ter has ever been made, in a writing 
fluid, and for centuries no European 
succeeded in making anything so good. 
This india ink is now prepared in 
beautifully decorated cakes or sticks. 



clouds and as forceful as a startled 
snake." (Ferguson). Chang Chi is 
in the humblest places, there were no 
writing schools in which they might 
learn. Perhaps they followed an ap- 
prenticeship similar to that of the 
scribe in Egypt or Babylonia. That 
they learned is well attested by many 
splendid specimens which are pre- 
served to our time. The writer was 
judged by the quality of his stroke. 
The stroke of one writer "is described 
as having been as light as fleeting 



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TWO EXAMPLES OF "KEUl'LAK" WK1T1M. 



Reprinted with permission from "Outli; 
published by the University of Chicago Press 



se Art" by John Fe 



The writing fluid is made by grind- 
ing off a portion and mixing with 
water. The Chinese were also the 
first to invent paper, 123 B. C, 
but originally they wrote upon bam- 
boo with a stylus. Inscriptions 
were also made upon bronze ves- 
sels. The brush came into use 
about 200 B. C. and has been used 
continually since that time, paper 
and silk being the two materials 
for receiving the ink. The two arts, 
writing and drawing, have ever 
been as one in China; the writer and 
the painter using the same brush and 
ink. 

H. S. Blanchard, that wonderful 
flourisher and illuminator of Los 
Angeles, when asked where he had 
acquired his remarkable skill, replied, 
"I learned most of it upstairs in my 
room with the door shut." It must 
have been in some such manner that 
the Chinese learned to ply the brush. 
While it is true that reproductions of 
the script of the masters were made 
and scattered over the country to be 
Used as copybooks by beginners SO 
nscription was not wanting even 



said to have turned the waters of a 
pond black by frequent dipping of the 
pen. Styles were named after leading 
writers as we speak of the Mills style 
or the Courtney style. The Chinese 
have had their A. D. Taylor and L. 
Madarasz, whom succeeding genera- 
tions have tried in vain to imitate. 
"However, lacking in appreciation of 
the delicate intricacies of writing, we 
westerners may be, it is well for us 
to remember not only that this branch 
of art is more highly honored in 
China than any other, but that its in- 
fluence has been more widespread." 
"A great idea well expressed is most 
valuable to the world, but in China 
its influence is enormously increased 
when it is transmitted to others by 
means of artistically written char- 
acters. Thus writing, by the wide in- 
fluence which it exerts, Justine for 
itself its rank as the crown of art in 
China." 

Reprinted with permission from 
Outlines of Chinese Art by John Fer- 
guson, published by the University of 

:o Press. 
Besides the papyrus of the Egyp- 



tians, the clay of the Babylonians, and 
the bamboo, paper and silk of the 
Chinese and Japanese, many other 
kinds of writing material have been 
used at various times and in different 
countries. The wood and bark of 
trees were used very early but natur- 
ally no very ancient specimens are 
preserved. We know that the Romans 
occasionally used the inner bark of 
the lime tree, because our word li- 
brary comes from the Latin "liber", 
the inner bark of a tree. In India 
palm leaves have been the most com- 
mon writing material for centuries. 
Stone was used by the Egyptians for 
their hieroglyhics and by the Chinese 
possibly earlier even. Ten stones have 
been preserved in China, dating back 
to about 2351 B. C. Stones are still 
used for inscriptions in our modern 
cemeteries. The Hebrew scriptures 
were written on prepared goat skins. 
The Koran was first written on 
shoulder bones of sheep and kept in 
a chest belonging to one of Moham- 
med's wives. The Greeks used oyster 
shells and pottery for some of their 
records. In Pliny's time some Ro- 
mans used lead but as lead could be 
easily changed, brass took its place. 
Gold, silver, and copper have been 
used for ceremonial writings in 'India 
and China. The Eskimos used wal- 
rus ivory. Mexican manuscripts have 
been found which are done in bright 
and varied colors with a feather pen- 
cil on prepared skins or fibrous paper 
made from the maguey plant. The 
Spanish bishops made bonfires of 
carvings, statues, wood paintings, and 
of priceless pictures on native paper 
and deer skin. So, writing, being a 
universal art, man has found the ma- 
terial in his natural surroundings and 
at different times and places he has 
used various substances to perpetuate 
his ideas. 

Papyrus was the most practical of 
these, being relatively inexpensive 
and easy to prepare. Remember, 
however, that papyrus is not paper. 
Neither does it afford the splendid 
smooth writing surface which vellum 
has. In addition it is brittle so that 
some of the old books have been pre- 
served only by placing leaves of vel- 
lum (prepared calf-skin) at intervals 
between the sheets of papyrus. Vel- 
lum was rather expensive, however, 
so we are especially fortunate today 
to have for writing purposes a suh- 
stance which is inexpensive and which 
at the same time gives an ideal writ- 
ing surface. 

Although the Chinese invented 
paper many centuries ago it did not 
come into use in Europe until about 
f he time of the Crusades. When the 
Arabs conquered Samarcand in Turk- 
early in the 8th century, A. D. 
paper was being made there and the 
Arabs spread the art throughout 
the eastern Mediterranean countries, 
which were then under their emit ml. 
The Mohammedans captured Byzan- 
tium, Jerusalem, Alexanderia, Car- 
thage, Spain, and were finally checked 
at Tours in France. Saracenic cult- 



df M^&u4intM&&uvtir & 



23 



ure was introduced throughout this 
vast conquered territory and the 
manufacture of paper was encour- 
aged. It was carried to Greece and to 
Sicily and in 1276 paper mills were 
set up in Italy. During the two fol- 
lowing centuries the cities of Italy 
furnished the paper for southern 
Germany. Paper was introduced into 



can waste baskets every day, their 
spirits would be greatly troubled. 
When you 'sit down to write your next 
letter, think of your pen, ink and pa- 
per, as well as the letters which you 
use, as part of your great heritage 
if the ancient Egyptians or later 
Greeks could see the amount unused 
or half-used which goes into Ameri- 




ched leathe 



of Pentateuch in Sama 
By permission of Smith 



Spain by the Mohammedans a full 
century earlier than that and France, 
for some time received her paper 
from there. Later the Spaniards car- 
ried the art of paper making to 
France. "In the second half of the 
14th century the use of paper for all 
literary purposes had become well es- 
tablished in all western Europe; and 
in the course of the 15th century it 
gradually superseded Vellum." ( En- 
cyclopedia Britannica). By the time 
the first printing press was put into 
operation a supply of paper was 
available. 

Neither papyrus nor vellum would 
have answered the purpose and you 
may easily imagine how much room 
the Boston Library would occupy if 
the books were printed on the Baby- 
lonian clay tablets. The first paper 
manufactured in England was in 1685 
and the first paper mill in the United 
States was built in 1690 near the 
city of Philadelphia. High grade 
papers for writing purposes are made 
from linen rags. Cheaper grades are 
for the most part of wood pulp. The 
finest paper and vellum in the world 
is now manufactured in Japan, and 
mav be obtained from the Japan 
Paper Co., 109 East 31st St. New 
York. They are importers of high 
grade papers from China, Japan, 
Korea, France, Italy, England, Bel- 
gium, Spain and Sweden. Paper can 
be obtained today to meet the most 
exact requirements. The ancient 
scribes would marvel at the choice of 
fine writing paper, which is on display 
in the modern stationery store. Paper 
is now such a common article that. 



from the past. Of that alphabet I 
shall speak in the next installment. 



GOLDEY COLLEGE 

Goldey College was established in 
1886 by H. S. Goldey. Five students 
attended the opening session. A 
single room was used which served 
for both schoolroom and office. The 
rapid growth soon made it necessary 
to secure additional rooms, and in 
1890 the office and commercial de- 
partment were removed to the sec- 
ond floor and the old quarters were 
fitted for instruction in shorthand 



and typewriting, which subjects were 
then becoming popular. 

During the next few years, in- 
creased attendance brought about 
more development and other expan- 
sions, among them being the incor- 
poration of the school in 1895. In 
1913, all the additional available 
space in the Institute Building was 
engaged, but this again proved in- 
adequate. Finally, in 1914, the pro- 
vision of quarters especially planned 
for business school work was under- 
taken, and in 1916, the new Goldey 
College Building, shown herewith at 
Ninth Street at Tatnall, was com- 
pleted and occupied. 

This institution enjoys a national 
reputation for thoroughness and re- 
liability. Its large student body an- 
nually represents several states and 
frequently includes young people 
from the West Indies, Central and 
South America. Since its founding, 
between 30,000 and 35,000 students 
have attended Goldey College. 

The college is ever on the alert for 
new and improved methods and has 
become one of the leaders in business 
college teaching. 

It is the mission of Goldey College 
to train young people as stenogra- 
phers and bookkeepers, and to train 
them to make the knowledge of busi- 
ness principles so thorough that grad- 
uates will succeed rapidly and be 
fitted to be the business leaders of 
tomorrow; to advise, guide and help 
its graduates in entering upon suc- 
cessful careers; to encourage integ- 
rity, industry and ambition; to aid 
in 'character building and developing 
self-reliance; to upbuild manhood and 
womanhood; to train its students to 
be punctual, and to form proper 
habits and associations, as well as to 
observe the rights of others. 

These things have placed the name 
of Goldey College in high esteem 
among the people of Wilmington, 
Delaware, and all who have become 
acquainted with this institution. 




Goldey College, Wilmington, Del., 
lilding. "A building which has been pla 



ed especially for bu 



24 



f^MJ&u&M^&diuMfrr & 



LESSONS IN ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP FOR BEGINNERS 

By L. M. KELCHNER, Seattle, Wash. 



INSTRUCTIONS 

A certain indefinable clash and vigor is essential in the ornamental style. A slow cramped movement will produce 
stiff, heavy, clumsy and awkward forms. A free, easy and elastic movement will produce graceful and harmonious 
forms. 

Study your movement, try to secure as perfect control of the hand and arm as possible, and by so doing you will 
secure more perfect and graceful letters. 

You should spend from ten to twenty minutes' time on some easy preliminary movement exercises in starting 
vour practice in order to limber up the writing muscles. 

Copy 111. All the shade should come below the base line. Keep the down stroke about straight and have 
the up stroke for loop cross at base line. Notice how lound and full the turn is at the top. 

Copy 112. Don't make the part for the top too wide; horizontal oval at base line. The heaviest part of the 
shade should come down near the line. Tip the oblique part up a little if you have trouble in getting the shade too 
high. 

Copy 113. Make the capital, then write the small letters for each word. I advise raising the pen after 
making the capital. 

Copy 114. Make this exercise without raising the pen. This will test your movement. It must be free m 
order to secure the fine, smooth lines. 

Copy 115. You have a chance to raise the pen after making each letter, and I would advise you to do so. 
You have some parallel lines to watch in this exercise. 

Copy 116. Start to the right and swing back to the left in making this exercise, and join three without 
raising the pen. This is the most difficult exercise on the page. Free, rotary movement. 

"There is no substitute for thoroughgoing, ardent, sincere earnestness." 




Copy 117. This letter is considered the most difficult of the loop letters. Use the combined movement. Make 
the down stroke rapidly, as it will help you to keep it straight. If shaded at all the shade should come on the lower 
loop. I raise the pen in making the last up stroke for the loop just at the base line. Uniform slant and spacing. Don't 
slight this letter. Master it. 

Copy 118. These words are given to follow the preceding line of the f exercise. In most of the long winds I 
would advise you to raise the pen. Watch spacing. 




t&Wr? 







'y/u , *3&uJ*/u&i , &&un&?~ & 



25 



Copies 119 and 120. Same number of words on a line as copy. Go fast enough to secure fine, smooth hair lines. 
Uniform slant and spacing. Try and arrange your spacing so that the loops will not touch. I would advise you to 
write fifteen to twenty lines before you change to another copy. Hold yourself down to your best efforts all the time. 
No careless or indifferent practice. 

Copy 121. This line is given to alternate with copy line 122. I would advise you to raise the pen every three 
or four letters. Most of our fine penmen for accurate work raise the pen often in writing words, and some go so far 
as to raise the pen on nearly every down stroke, but I do not think this advisable. 

Copy 122. In writing these words see how near you can make the loops correspond in height and slant. 
Write about "the same size as copy. 

Copy 123. Make this principle entirely with the muscular movement. You must have freedom and dash to 
your movement. The heaviest part of the shade should come at turn just as it touches the base line. Tip the oblique 
part of the hokLer up a little. This will help you to get the shade low. Make short shade. Oval should be rather large 
and horizontal. Drop and raise the pen while the arm is in motion. Master this stem and you will have very littLe 
trouble with the letters that are to follow. 

Copy 124. Let them lap like copy. Make the same number as in copy and see how near you can keep them 
to the same height and slant. 

Copy 125. Make the stem first. See to it that you use a free movement in making the stroke over the top. 
Shade about as heavy as copy and make the shade quickly. No finger movement. 

Copy 126. Free movement in making the capital. Make the small letters fast enough to secure smooth lines. 
Uniform spacing. There is a tendency to make too close spacing in such words as "receive," words where the letters 
are narrow at top. 




Copy 127. Just like copy 125, except the horizontal cross stroke, which should come at one-half the height of 
the letter. 

Copy 128. Uniform slant and spacing. Retouch the t's and d's at top. 

Copy 129. You have two exercises for this letter. Make the stem exercise first. Then the cap for exercise 
over the top. Place as many in group as copy. You have a chance to pause at each angle. Stop long enough to catch 
your balance in order to make the following stroke well. 

Copy 130. Make this exercise without raising the pen. 

Copy 131. Make stem part first. Notice double horizontal oval at bottom, also parallel compound curve at top. 
Do not be in too much of a hurry to change on these exercises, as it sometimes takes a page or two in order to learn 
the combination. All capitals must be made with a free movement. Small letters only fast enough to insure smooth 
lines. 




26 



^ &J&tt&n<M&&uxi£r & 



DATES IN DOCUMENTS 

By Elbridge W. Stein 

Examiner of Questioned Documents 
15 Park Row, New York City 



(Mr. Stein's first article appeared in our Februarx issue. We 
have a limited number of copies of that issue on hand.) 

ARTICLE No. 3 

So simple a thing as the number of characters on a line 
of written matter may determine that the document could 
not have been written at the time alleged in it. The dis- 
covery of these significant facts in a document is the diffi- 
cult task, their proof is a matter of demonstration. 

A document under investigation may admittedly have 
been written on a particular machine and the problem is to 
determine whether it was written at the time it was 



iSK UK /fr " ** ^ ' ' 





tol National Bani 




An addition to a check after it had been cancelled 

and returned from the bank. Note where the 

ink ran around the cancellation punch hole and 

through the hole to the back of the check 




J 






Fraudulent date of cancelled check shown by 
change from an old to a new Cumminga cancella- 
tion punch 



H' State v». Swank, 99 Ore. 571. 






20 Grant vs. Jack. 116 Me. 342; 102 All. 


18' 


Stat 


iter. 30 Utah 442. 






21 Kerr vs. U. S.. 1 1 Fed. (2nd) 227. 






2S In re Hamlin's Will, 208 N. Y. Supplei 


lenl 


799. 



claimed to have been written. The truth or falsity of such 
a claim can be proved provided sufficient typewriting writ- 
ten on the identical machine alleged to have been used can 
be procured. A typewriter actually writes its own history 
from day to day in the work it does. The condition of 
the ribbon; new or old; heavy or light; blue, black, purple 
or red with all of the intermediate conditions make up 
many pages of this history. Broken, battered or worn 
type; imperfect alignment; uneven type impressions; typo 
"off its feet"; faults in the shifting or ribbon mechanism; 
individuality of the operator; 1 '' rebounds; and repairs add 
to the volume and all point back to accidents, misuse 
and the gradual approach of old age.-" From this his- 
tory, it can be determined whether a document was writ- 
ten on the particular typewriter at the time alleged.- 1 

Natural wear of the type alone has been found suffi- 
cient to fix the period during which a disputed document 
was written, ami when all of the other qualities in type- 
writing, which help to establish the date of a typewritten 
paper, are found and properly interpreted, these facts 
often constitute the most positive and conclusive evidence. 
The contents of a document often has a bearing on the 
question of its age. Original receipted bills for jewelry 
purchased were produced by a claimant in order to estab- 
lish the amount of an insurance loss. One of these bills, 
dated in 1917. contained a printed telephone number not 
assigned to the dealer until 1920. This slight prophetic 
activity made an embarrassing situation for the claimant. 
Street locations;-- names of states, 28 towns, persons or 
organizations; births; deaths; marriages; divorces; inci- 
dents; events or accidents to which reference is made in 
any way alone may reveal the actual age of a suspecteil 
document. 

Highly significant age indications may be shown by eye- 
lets, stamps, seals 
or bindings and 
these parts of a 
suspected <1 o c u- 
ment should never 
be overlooked in an 
investigation of its 
genuineness. Ap- 
parently insignifi- 
cant and irrelevant 
enclosure in letters 
somel imes have the 
most \ ital bearing 
on the solution of 
t h e question of 
their date of pre- 
paration. A news- 
paper clipping en- 
closed in a letter 

which was intended 
to show blood rela- 
tion to a .lead man 

heirship to his estate, had printed on th< de of 

i lipping an advertisement of the opening night 
Music Master w i th David Warfield playing the lead- 
ing role. The all' i if the letter was man) 
net'., re this play was ever produced. Anarchronisms like 
. when 'exposed in court, render yeoman service to 

confound the instigators of fraud. 



tf 



rks a definite 
hanged letters 
any genuine di 



wandall (N V i 
ite, 155 Pa. 456; Allen 



State. 3 Humphrey 



Strickland. 129 S. W. 801 (Ark). 

49 Ml mi 7 <V l i. 



^/w^uJi'/u^&/iu&fcr & 



27 



Anything that enters into the material construction- 1 
of a document or of its alleged history after being pre- 
pared may in some way become a factor in determining 
its age. Printing, 2 '' lithographing, ruling, numbering, per- 
forations, cutting or trimming, tearing, burning, crump- 
ling, discolorations,-' 1 revenue stamps, postage stamps,- 7 
or code letters may contain the additional evidence which 
confirms a suspicion that a document is not genuine be- 
cause it is not as old as its date seems to declare. The 
detailed story regarding the preparation, execution, dis- 
covery, custody, or care of a document may, when properly 
analyzed, disclose some inherent and ridiculous improb- 
ability 28 as to the time these various things occurred. 

All crooks do not carry guns and black jacks, some of 
them assume an air of respectability and by means of 
fraudulent documents as- 
sisted by perjury, at- 
tempt through the courts 
to steal on a wholesale 
plan, even entire estates. 
The age of these fraudu- 
lent documents is often 
their most vulnerable 
point; 29 this is where 
they expose their heel. 
Lawyers, executors and 
trustees who have the 
duty of passing upon 
claims represented by 
documents should exam- 
ine them with the ut- 
most thoroughness for 
all these evidences of im- 
maturity. Fortunately, 
scientific methods of ex- 
amination 30 do much to 
rend the veil of obscur- 



BATE SHOWN Br W£An 



a 


a 


g 


§ 



Smith type whic! 

signific 



ity which hangs over spurious documents and compels 
them to stand forth emblazoned with the scarlet letter of 
fraud. 31 



27 Lyon vs. 

2S Martson 



r, 147 N. E. 251 (III.), 
ckwick. 248 Pac. 930 (Calif). 



JOTally vs. Cross, 124 Ala. 567; 26 So. 912; Lafrentz vs. 
anaugh. 166 111. App. 306; Putnam vs. McCormick, 159 Iowa 
140 N. W. 880. 

30Moye vs. Herndon, 30 Miss. 10. 

31 Hirshfield vs. Dana, 223 Pac. 451 (Calif); Borkhein vs. 
hein, 223 Pac. (Calif); Baird vs. Shaffer. 168 Pac. 836 (Ka 
In re O'Connor's Estate. 179 N. W. 401 (Neb.). 



A/etv 
Machine. 



Same 
Machine 
■Jkn.Z,'/3. 



cPcime 
Machine 
Feby.'zZ. 



Same. 
Machine 

Mty/z'zs\ 



From 
Disputed 
Contraci 




Dated 
M4K0E 




THE C. C. T. ASSOCIATION 



The Central Commercial Teachers' 
Association will be held in Cedar 
Rapids, la., May 3, 4, 5, 1928. An in- 
spiring program is already in process 
of formation and those interested in 
business education are assured a 
profitable session. 

The officers for the ensuing year 
are: 

President, T. A. Blakeslee, Lincoln 
School of Commerce, Lincoln, 
Nebr. 
Vice President, P. L. Greenwood, 
Roosevelt High School, Minneap- 
olis. 



Secretary, W. F. McDaniel, Fort 
Dodge Business College, Fort 
Dodge, la. 
Treasurer, R. M. Phillips, Capital 
City Commercial ColLege, Des 
Moines, la. 
The executive committee consists of 
the president, together with G. W. 
Puffer, Fountain City Business Col- 
lege, Fond du Lac, Wis.; W. D. Wig- 
ent, Gregg Publishing Co., Chicago; 
and W. C. Henning, Cedar Rapids 
Business College, Cedar Rapids, la. 

The Central District comprises the 
states of Wisconsin, Illinois, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. 



GEORGE C. FINLEY PASSES 
AWAY 



George C. Finley, 49, Clarksburg, 
W. Va., was a public school teacher 
and later connected with the Elliott 
Commercial College of Wheeling. In 
1902 when the Clarksburg, West Vir- 
ginia, Business College opened, Mr. 
Finley was engaged to conduct the 
school. In 1905, he purchased the es- 
tablishment. The Clarksburg school 
was the foundation of the present 
West Virginia Business College now 
under the management of T. B. Cain 
and his associates. 



28 



*f <<MJ&u<l/n*M&&uxz&r & 



DESIGNING & 
ENGROSSING 



By E. L. Brown 
Rockland, Me. 

elf-addressed postal for 



nd stamps fc 



spe 



LETTERING AND FLOURISHING 

(See Cover Page.) 
First of all this will be classed as a 
decorative design, embracing a style 
of pen art much in vogue thirty years 
ago, but one that has now fallen into 
disfavor among modern pen artists 
and engrossers. We present off-hand 
flourishing from time to time feeling 
that it is a most valuable exercise for 
developing grace, harmony, balance 
and color values in decorative pen 
art. All these principles must be de- 
veloped and perfected and are always 
present in the best and most pleasing 
examples of engrossing and design- 
ing. Analyze a specimen of flourish- 
ing and you will find that it is far 
from being a "hit or miss" piece of 
work, but instead a combination of 
thoughtfully arranged light and 
shaded lines, where the factors of 
symmetry, balance and color have re- 
ceived close attention. A most inter- 



exercise and a highly valuable 
one for those who would excel in off- 
hand pen work as applied to engros- 
sing, especially the flourished texts 
on diplomas and resolutions. 

Size of original drawing 12 'j x 17. 
The heavily shaded lines of the oval 
must be properly placed first ■ — pen- 
cil one, trace and reverse for other 
side. Lay off in pencil the most im- 
portant lines remembering that those 
lines are to be followed only in a gen- 
eral way in the off-hand pen work. 
Very few of the lines should be drawn 
with a slow finger movement. Use 
free flowing black ink and the whole 
arm movement. Study arrangement 
of strokes very carefully. A few 
ornaments on some of the strokes will 
enhance the effect of the design. The 
Old English words "Business Educa- 
tor" must be pencilled with care, as 
the line must be centered and the 
spacing and size of lettering must be 
uniform. Broad lettering pens Nos. 
2 and 2|/2 were used on the rest of 
the lettering which may be written 
free hand and re-touched with a com- 
mon pen. 

Now we are anxious to know how 
many of you in the younger genera- 
tion of penmen, if any, are interested 



in artistic pen flourishing. Let us see 
some of your work — our suggestions 
are freely and gladly given to all who 
will take the time and pains to send 
us samples of their very best work. 



Mr. Paul D. Schenck, formerly 
Principal of the Erie Business Col- 
lege, is now Manager and Principal 
of the Youngstown Business College, 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Mr. Schenck is a graduate of West- 
minster College, New Wilmington, 
Pa., and also attended Zanciian Col- 
lege of Penmanship, Columbus, Ohio. 



Allen C. Spangler, teacher in the 
Penna. Business College, Lancaster, 
has recently been awarded a Profes- 
sional Penmanship Certificate. We 
are in hopes of publishing some of his 
work later. 



School for Sale or Lease 

iusiness college in a splendid location in 
sconsin. Well advertised. Cood reputa- 
1. Well equipped. Excellent territory. 



,t..r. i slumbu 




Signatures by John S. Griffith. Penman in Englewood Bus 
ornamental penmanship, for they are some of the best we 



rth studying by 



<5(fc*3Bu4Stie4A / (2diuM/h~ & 



29 





• y y 



s^z-^zzz-y^/ 




The above was written by W. N. Ferris to D. T. Ames, which evidently went with one of his contributions to the old 
Penman's Art Journal away back in the 80's. 

We regret to learn from the newspaper dispatches that Senator Ferris is now confined to his hotel in Washington with 
an attack of pneumonia. We hope that his vigorous health will enable him to speedily recover. He is now 75 years of age. 
Senator Ferris was recognized as one of the fine penman some years ago and he is one of the few penmen to be elected 
to the United States Senate. 

The heading, famous Letters," was prepared by R. R. Reed of the Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Michigan. 

Just as we were going to press we received word that Senator Ferris passed away. 




y^W3^^/fs^s6M 'Mm^L 



W. W. Karlen, Vilas, S. D., is a brother of A. J. and L. W., who are both Zanerians 



30 



^ ^v^i/^Jcf^s^r 




4 






tvery year about this time Mr. 
and he always gets out his oblique 
lost over the previous year. 

Taking inventory of our ability 
practice, and, judging from the resu 
of trim. He writes remarkably well 1 



Heath of Concord 
pen to see how 

as well as our 
Its above. Mr. H* 
or a man 62 year 



?f age. 



ry good 
he pink 



GOOD MATERIALS 

When you see pen work of any de- 
scription done by first-class penmen 
or engrossers, examine the quality of 
the material used. You will find that 
they use the best. They could not do 
a good job with poor materials, 
neither can a beginner. Our advice 
is to secure the best possible mater- 
ials for they are the cheapest in the 
long run. 

Much work which reaches our desk 
from those who are practicing from 
work presented in The Business Edu- 
cator is on poor quality of paper and 
the results are unsatisfactory. Our, 
cry is, Use Better Matt rial. 



A school paper has been received 
from Miss Lena Scally, Penmanship 
and Science teacher in the Central 
High School, Elkhart, Ind. Miss 
Scally organized a writing club which 
meets regularly every Tuesday and 
Thursday after school. 

Thirty-six of the members have won 
penmanship certificates and the class 
as a whole is very enthusiastic over 
the club and penmanship. 



AUTHOR OF SHORTHAND DIES 

Isaac S. Dement, 72, nationally 
known inventor and shorthand writer, 
died January 11th, at Dayton. Mr. 
Dement became famous as a writer of 
Pitman shorthand, having once held 
the speed record. 

Later he invented his own system 
of shorthand and became the author 
of a series of text books. 

As he grew older, he became an in- 
ventor of mechanical devices. At one 
time he was in charge of the inven- 
tion department of the National Cash 
Register. He also had a similar posi- 
tion with another company in Chi- 
cago. 

For the past ten years he has been 
dividing his time between teaching 
shorthand and experimentation. 



A letter has been received from O. 
A. Hoffman, President of Hoff- 
mann's Milwaukee Business College, 
stating that they have opened up a 
new school in Memphis, Tenn., and 
that they are quartered in what is 
considered to be the finest office 
building in the South. 




WINKTFBO.1! 

calling cards si. no. 



Miss ( hristine Howell, last year 
with the Donovan Business School, 
Hackensack, N. J., has recently ac- 
cepted a position in the High School 
at Castine, Maine. 



PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN 
COMMERCIAL EDUCATION 

One course deals with the High School Comme 
considers methods of teaching junior business trai 
and business writing. 



At Harvard University, 
July2-Aug. 11 



ial Curriculum 
rig. bookkeeping, b 



F. G. NICHOLS, Lawrence Hall, Cambridge, Massachusetts 




■J ^/„6 — 



Is the ideal ink for penmen. Nothing finer for cardwriting and contest specimens. 

50c per bottle. Mailing charge 10c extra. 
A. P. MEUB, Penmanship Specialist, 452 North Hill Avenue, Pasadena, Calif. 



HAVE YOU SEEN THE 

Journal of 
Commercial Education? 



(for 



Pho 



rly the Sic 



*ph. 



aphic World) 



ill 



depa 



monthly magazine co\ 

rtments of Commercial Education. 

3ng departments presided over by 
well-known teachers for those who teach 
any branch of commercial education, in- 
cluding business administration, account- 

The Only Magazine of Its Kind Published 

Single copy 15c. Annual subscription $ 1 .50 

Send for Sample Copy. 

Journal of Commercial Education 

44 N. 4th St. Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

America's Handwriting Magazine 
Devoted to Penmanship and 



Business Writing 

Accounting 

Ornamental Writing 

Lettering 

Engrossing 

Articles on the Teaching and 
Supervision of Penmanship. 
Yearly subscription price $1.25. Special 
club rates to schools and teachers. 
Sample copies sent on request. 

THE AMERICAN PENMAN 

55 Fifth Avenue NEW YORK 




An Educational Journal of 

Real Merit 

Regular Departments 

enmanship . Arithmetic Civic* 

Geography Nature-Study 

Pedagogy Primary Construction 

History Many others 

rice $1.50 per year. Sample on request 

PARKER PUBLISHING CO., 
Tavlorville, III. 



<^/u?&uJ//i^A&/uaz&r & 



31 



WANTED 

All-round Commercial Man, Strong Pen- 
man and capable of handling Junior Ac- 
counting. Also man to take second posi- 
tion in commercial department. A good type- 
writing teacher with University training. 
Address Box 611. 
Care Business Educator, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



An experienced woman commercial teacher de- 
sires position in Business College or business 
department of school. Am prepared to teach 
Gregg Shorthand, Typewriting, Bookkeeping, 
Model Office Practice. 

Address BOX 612, 
Care The Business Educator, Columbus, Ohio. 



Special Summer Sessions 

EIGHT WEEKS BEGINNIN G JUNE 25 

Prominent Sp ecialists Coming 

Dean Taylor (N.Y.U.), Dr. Fournier. 
(Princeton). Dr. Poffenberger (Colum- 
bia), Frederick Kissinger, C. P. A. 
(Temple), E. H. Crabbe (Harvard), 
Martha Bowen (Gregg School), Dr. 
Partch (Rutgers), Dr. Fred Smith. Edi- 
tor National Vocational Guidance Maga- 

Submit statement of your college work 
for evaluation toward Bachelor's or 
Master's degree in commerce. 

Salary increments depend on collegiate 
status. 

Full information on request. 

RIDER COLLEGE, Trenton, N. J. 



Orders-Inquiries 



Can be 
; cured 




Polk's Reference Book 

and Mailing List Catalog 



different lines of business. No matte 
what your business, in this book yo 
will fin-d the number of your prospec 



Valu 


inle informa 


ion is also gfiven a 


how 




the mails to se 


ordei 


s and inquir 


ies for your prod 



Write for Your FREE Copy 
R. L. POLK & CO., Detroit, Mich. 

Largest Citv Directory Publishers in the World 

Mailin: List Compilers— Business Statistics 

Producers of Direct Mail Adiertisiiie 



NEW ZANERIAN COLLEGE 
CATALOG 

Contains information regarding the 

SUMMER TERM 

REGULAR WINTER TERM 

CORRESPONDENCE COURSES 

It's free to interested persons. 

ZANERIAN COLLEGE 
Columbus, Ohio 



SEPTEMBER OPENINGS 



rted. 



ha\ 



from Massachusetts, 
>f rising sap. We'll 
Write today. 



Already September positions are bein 
New York, Rhode Island, Ohio, Iowa, and Oregon — just the first s 
be "sugared" before you realize that you are not in line for your sh; 

THE NATIONAL COMMERCIAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Prospect Hill, Beverly, Mass. (A Specialty by a Specialist) E. E. Gaylord, Mgr. 

Westward Ho! Alaska to New Mexico 

Normal and College . graduates needed. Splendid calls all departments. Free enrollment. 

E. L. HUFF TEACHERS AGENCY Dept. 7 MISSOULA, MONTANA 




1 Pe 



n Holders are used by the world's greatest pen- 
and teachers of penmanship. They are hand-made of the finest rose- 
wood and tulipwood and given a beautiful French polish. The inlaid holder with the ivory 
knob on stem, is the most beautiful as well as the most useful holder made. The light 
weight, correct balance and expert adjustment, make Magnusson Holders superior. 
Made by 3 generations of penholder manufacturers and used by the world's leading pen- 
men. Straight or Oblique — state which. 



OSCAR MAGNUSSON 



208 N. 5th St., 
Quincy, 111. 

Discounts 



S-i 




ch 


SOc 


s- 


nch inlaid grip, e 


ich 


75c 


lZ-i 


nch plain grip, ea 


ch 


75c 


12- 


nch inlaid grip, e 


»ch 


$1.35 



quantities to teachers and dealers. 





two 

Money Order. 

P. W. COSTELLO 

Engrosser, Illuminator ant 

Designer 

Scranton Real Estate Bldg 

SCRANTON, PA. 



LEARN AT HOME DURING SPARE TIME 
Write for book, "How to Become a Good Pen- 
man." and beautiful specimens. Free- Your 
name on card if you enclose stamp. F. W. 
TAMBLYN. 406 Ridge Bldg.. Kansas City. Mo. 



POSITIONS FOR TEACHERS AND BUSINESS 
COLLEGES FOR SALE 

$6000 offered for a man, others at $4000, $3000 and $2500. 
Write us your needs, ask for our free booklet. 

Co-op. Instructors Ass'n, Marion, Ind. 



Teachers 




Get a choice position through us — any part of the country. 
Openings in business schools, high schools, colleges — now or 
for September. Half of the state universities have selected 
~~ our candidates. Highest type of service. 
Employers report your vacancies. Write us 
now. 
r^ff 1 i j ^^ll Shubert-Rialto Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 




Do You Want a Better Commercial 
Teaching Position? 

Let us help you secure it. During the past few months we have 
sent commercial teachers to 26 different states to fill attractive 
positions in colleges, high schools and commercial schools. We 
have some good openings on file now. Write for a registration 
blank. 

CONTINENTAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY 



52 



<^^&uJ/m*M &&&&&' & 



NOTICE 

The second printing of Chambers' 
"Funnygraphic" Writing is off the 
press. Order today. Keep the kid- 
die? smiling. 

In the U.S.A., $1.00; in Canada, 
$1.50. (No checks.) 

C. SPENCER CHAMBERS, 

Supervisor of Writing, 

1121 E. Genesee St., Syracuse. N.Y. 




/or FREE BOOK. "How To Become „„ 
pert Penman." which explains my Method of 
Teaching Penmanship by Mail and what stu- 
dents have done by taking my courses. 
Your name will be elegantly written on a 
card if you enclose stamp to pay nostaee 
SEND TODAY before you forge? it. ° 9tage - 

T. M. TEVIS, 

BOX 2SC CHILUCOTHE, MO.. US.A 



FRANCIS L. TOWER 

501 Pleasant Street, Hammonton, N. J. 
Lessons in Business Writing, Ornamental 
Penmanship and Copper Plate Script. Per- 
sonal or Mail. Write for information. 



DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES 
NEATLY ENGROSSED 

Ten Lesson Course in Diploma Script, 

Lettering and Designing $10.00 

Ten Lesson Course in Illuminating and 

Border Designing $ | 00 

A beautiful Illuminated Design for 

your Scrap Book $ )-00 

A fine Ornamental Script Specimen.... 25c 
J. D. CARTER. Deerfield, III. 

THE HAUSAM SYSTEM OF PLAIN 
PENMANSHIP, COMPLETE, is the 

most thorough treatise on the Ped- 
agogy of Plain Penmanship pub- 
lished. It is cloth bound, 6x9 
inches; contains more than 300 
pages; nearly 400 illustrations; 
more than 200 questions and ans- 
wers on Pedagogy, Position, Move- 
ment, Capitals, Small Letters, Num- 
erals, and a complete course of 140 
lessons in Plain Penmanship. All 
copies ordered by April 1, 1928 will 
be beautifully inscribed with the 
names of the purchaser and author. 
Price $3.50 

THE HAUSAM SYSTEM OF PEN- 
M WSHIP has been re-adopted the 
third time for all the schools of 
Kansas. Beautifully illustrated. 
Catalog free. 




jfifjliuufslllfinii 



Jksistant $ccrctoq> of the Ijkrarir, 
toliteh occurred en ttye tenth instant. 
Jty: committee presented ttje following: 

Jit amusterious anfc nrooiDentwlwmj, 
our esteemed frienu, 

lateitesistanf Secretary of the (Dhio 
State <$oar& of3%riculture, has been 
remoneo from our miDst therefore^ 

be it KftMtetife; (Tltar, 

itisroith profound sorrow that me 



Simple, effective page fr 



1|B|| rustic Xngnmsimj 

'''■'lb > °f Resolutions, 4lh'imiriala. 
<r>rstiiiumial5. &2* 

■ jlluniiuatincj a £:>pc*:iolty -^» 
-J^iplonua ^?itno,nari'^ ->^ s Zitkb 

t E.H.MCGHEE 



Make 'Em Laugh! 



jf le 



for pub- 




US Eaot SUU i'Uc.t 



HIGH GRADE 



Diplomas^ 
certificates. 



\i»\ :..-„s a 



Emporia, Kansas 



Catalog and Sample! Free 

HOWARD & BROWN 

ROCKLAND. MAINE. 



lie speakers, writer 
students. By Jack Pansy. 
Nothing like it ever before 
offered. Surprisingly helpful. 
Complete course. 10 lessons. 
$2.00; sample lesson 25c. 

YARBROUGH SALES SERVICE 
Distributors Adona. Ark. 



TEACHERS 

The i on <>f Byrne Type- 

writer Shorthand is just off the press. 
This system is the stenographic mar- 
vel of the age. Printed notes from 

any standard or portable typewriter. 
Also written with pencil. Most rapid, 
legible shorthand in use. Easy to 
Learn, more and better letters per day 
and less fatigue. Write for particulars. 

Byrne Publishing Co. 

DALLAS. TEXAS 



^ £ffiJ&u4//i^&&u&&r & 



33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Our readers are interested in books of merit, 
but especially in books of interest and value 
to commercial teachers, including books of 
special educational value and books on busi- 
ness subjects. All such books will be briefly 
reviewed in these columns, the object being to 
give sufficient description of each to enable 
our readers to determine its value. 

1928 Tax Diary and Manual, by Pren- 
tice-Hall, Inc., 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City, N.Y. Flexible bind- 
ing, 212 pages. 

The Tax Diary and Manual is the simplest 
tax handbook on State taxes yet devised. It 
provides a daily tax reminder for all dates 
upon which tax reports, returns and pay- 
In addition to the daily tax calendar the 
Manual contains an outline of all State Cor- 
poration. Inheritance and Income Taxes. 

Corporation Taxes. States require corpor- 
ations to pay an income, capital stock, 
sales, franchise or other special taxes and 
fees. Initial taxes last year varied from $3 
to- $10, which taxes on capital increases 
were as low as one-tenth of \pf n on $1,000 
up to $50. The Manual gives an outline of 
taxes imposed on corporations by each 
state. 

Penalties. Corporations doin^ business in 
states without qualifying may be denied the 
right to maintain or defend suits in courts. 
In 1927 many fines of $10 to $1,000 were 
imposed for every transaction made. The 
Manual tells what penalties are imposed by 
each State upon unqualified corporations. 

Inheritance Taxes. Approximately 45 
States exact taxes on inheritance and of 
that number the majority impose a tax upon 
transfers of corporate stock and upon bonds 
and mortgages. Some states allow deduc- 
tions to be made for taxes paid other states 
from gross estates. The Manual includes 
tax rates for each state and for each class 
of beneficiary. 

Exemptions. Inheritance taxes permit 
various classes of beneficiaries exemptions 
ranging from $100 to $75,000 and asses the 
taxable properties at rates varying from \c' r , 
to 40^. The Manual makes clear what ex- 
emptions are allowed residents and non- 
residents. 

come taxes varying from \c r on $1,000 to 
<y<~r on excess over $12,000. The Manual 
contains a digest of all personal income 
taxes for all states. 

The Diary pages have been revised, and 
include approximately 700 changes in tax 
dates relative to returns, reports and pay- 
ments. This Diarv will prove even of greater 
value than the popular editions of 1926 and 
1927. 



Fascinating Pen Flourishing, edited 
by E. A. Lupfer, Principal, Zaner- 
ian College of Penmanship. Pub- 
lished by the Zaner-Bloser Com- 
pany, Columbus, Ohio. 

This book contains masterpieces from the 
pen of the world's greatest masters in the 
art of flourishing. These reproductions 
typify their conception of beauty, their 
ideals and their imagination. 

In presenting this work the aim of the 
publishers has been to hand down to pos- 
terity the best that these masters have pro- 
duced and also to present their work in 
such a. way that the ambitious youth who 
desires can by careful study acquire a 
knowledge of, and skill in. this art. 

The work reproduced in this book comes 
from the pens of the following: C. P. Zaner. 
W. E. Dennis, H. S. Blanchard. H. B. Leh 
man. H W. Flickinger, L. M. Kelchner. E. A 
Lupfer, C. C. Canan. E. K. Isaacs. H. P 
Behrensmeyer, H. L. Darner. E. L. Click. R 
S. Collins. L. Madarasz, M. B. Moore. L 
Faretra. E. L. Brown. F. B. Courtney, Field 
ing Schofield, G. A. Gaskell. A. W. Dakin, 
Clinton Skillman. Lyman P. Spencer. J. A. 
Wesco. 

If you are a teacher of penmanship, you 
can increase your penmanship skill, your 
standing in the eyes of your pupils, and 
your ability to waken ambition in students 
by learning to flourish skillfully. c 



How To Apply For a Position, by 

Maurice H. Weseen, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Business English, The 
University of Nebraska. Paper 
cover, 75 pages. 

Sooner or later nearly every worker faces 
the task of writing a letter of application. 
Numerous people have found this to be their 
first practical job of writing. When you face 
that job what are you going to do about it> 
The purpose of this book is to help you to 
answer this question. 



How To Make Linoleum Blocks, by 

Curtiss Sprague. Published by 
Bridgman Publishers, Pelham, N.Y. 
Stiff binding, 64 pages. 

This is the most complete and instructive 
book on this interesting subject ever pub- 
lished. A Handbook of great value to every 
Teacher. Art Student. Letterer and Engrav- 
er. Not onlv are the mechanical essentials 
of Linoleum Block Printing explained, but 
the beautiful illustrations by well known 
artists make this a worthy addition to any 
library. 



Applied Business Correspondence, by 

Herbert Watson. Published by the 
A. W. Shaw Company, Chicago, 111. 
Cloth cover, 599 pages. 

In the Course Mr. Watson brought to- 
gether the results of many years of experi- 
ence of the correspondence experts of the 
Shaw organization and several years of 
work which had been undertaken prepara- 
tory to publishing a course in business cor- 
respondence which would adequately reflect 
this experience. To this unique background 
he added the lessons crystallized during the 
years he had himself specialized in selling 
and business correspondence. Mr. Watson 
was formerly in charge of the mail sales de- 
partments of the A. W. Shaw Company, has 
been similarly connected with other con- 
cerns, and has for a number of years main- 
tained, in New York, offices as an advertis- 
ing and sales specialist. 

The Course in Business Correspondence 
amply justified the expectations which this 
unusual background warranted. Its s 
uncovered a demand for a similarly com- 
prehensive treatment of the subject, but 

the detailed developments only possible in 
an extended course. The publishers decided 
to supply this demand by drawing together 
into this book the necessary text from the 
Course itself. 

To the reader not interested in undertak- 
ing a supervised course in business corre- 
spondence, this book therefore supplies sev- 
eral of those distinctive characteristics of a 
course of study ordinarily not to be ex- 
pected of a book. It contains complete ma- 
chinery for the application, step by step, of 
its exposition. The division in the treatment 
is in fact so marked that the portion of the 
text providing specific application can be 
skipped, and the exposition alone — in itself 
a complete book on business correspondence 
in the usual sense of the, expression — read 
for purposes of review or coverage of the 
subject in the usual way. 

ARTHUR P. MYERS 

Gives correspondence instruction in Business 
Writing. Artistic Writing, Card Writing. Bird 
Flourishing, Engrossing, Illuminating. Draw- 
ing and an eminently comprehensive course 
in Commercial Designing, consisting of Head 
and Figure, Fashion Illustrating. Perspective. 
Composition. Historic Ornament, etc. No 
printed copies — all hand work. 

Address ARTHUR P. MYERS. 

Studio. 516 N. Charles St.. Baltimore. Md. 



EDWARD C. MILLS 

Script Specialist for Engraving Purposes 
P. O. Drawer 982 Rochester, N. Y. 

The finest srrinl obtainable for bookkeeping illustrations, 
etc. The Mills Pens are unexcelled. Mills Perfection 
No. 1 — For fine business writing, 1 gross $1.50; *4 gross 
40c. postpaid Mills' Medial Pen No. 2 — A splendid 
pen i.i medium fine pnint. 1 gross $1.25; V* gross 3"»c, 
postpaid Mills' Business Writer No, 3 — The best for 
hiisjnes«. 1 emss $1.25: % gross 35c, postpaid. 1 doz. 
each of the above three styles of pens by mail for 40c. 



Gillott's Pens 

The Most Perfect of Pens 



■■■ e» «a » ■ .« . No. 604 E. F. 
«»6_04 EF V? 1 Double Elastic 
'~" ^?£*~J C Pen 




No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 

Gillott's Pens stand in the front rank as 
regards Temper, Elasticity and Durability 

JOSEPH GILLOTT & SONS 

SOLD BY ALL STATIONERS 

Alfred Field & Co., Inc., Sole Agents 

93 Chambers St. NEW YORK CITY 




e by mail. Earn $1 to $2 an 
are lime. Earn while you 
Easy, scientifil-. thorough 
Anyone can learn by Botts 
Method. 25 leading card writers 
ributors. Catalog B Free. 

BOTTS COUffiEIXS GUfflRIEOKlA 




AN ORNAMENTAL STYLE. My course in 
Ornamental Penmanship has helped hun- 
dreds become PROFESSIONALS. Send for 
proof. Your name on cards, (six styles) if 
you send 10c. A. P. MEUB, Expert P< 
452 N. Hill Ave.. Pasadena. Calif. 



Tour Visit to l^[ew Tor\ 

may be anticipated with more 
enjoyment if you secure 
accommodations at the 

Maryland 

HOTEL 

104 WEST 49th STREET 

"One minute from Broadway" 

REDUCED RATES 
(Pre-War Prices) 

Sitting Room, Sitting Room, 

Bedroom with 2 Double Bedrooms 
Private Bath with Private Bath 

(2 persons) (2-4 Persons) 

!jo per day $7 per day 

HAROLD E. REYNOLDS 
Proprietor 



34 



d*T <!ffi<?*3&uJ//i€JS 'dMharih* 







■ ■ 



\V. 11 Morgan, the penman of Avondale, W. Va., wrote the above 




2? %&£ 



DlliuOtS 



lirnrimlriiranti ^mrrrtinr (pitirr nf && 

Outr of Thanks' tmnmi to.Hmtl|rr 

Ijjrnru Mnntrr 

Ihtftgr of tlir pvitltah-^innt-iit" iTiutk vCniinty.'illlinnis 




c'Uo officers uno montrcrs oP 

hi nut it ¥ntujf 1Kb. 4. GwwW) 

'.Protective Ovber oP fcllis, hcrer-v 
iks imi» 




ress «=j 



> rrjanks caw yrohjMtjfc .♦<x 
; masterful aiiv kyntirul yfj)) 
at rlic TUcmerial Services. ■■ 



to von tlvMr sincere Hi 
aryrrecijrion for rn< 
n-OItttioil von^clivcrev 
vPecemter tlPCS of tKose -rvUo t\tssc>_ on. Jt" will ever be 
tin inspiration ttriO gutba to flie rorhmaro ones rrescnrr 

ThieTrstinuiuial is tenw> to v™ U (fijtyauM 

ll'lll>lir aa a sliaUt- token or- its fraternal tagaxb artf 

pcrSOTUtl esteem for von. 

(iil'flt intocr rlie seal op th? £ocMc anb rl->c ngnaiura. 

pf- the fecalttto Anlcr jii> everetarv 
tr>« seventeenth \tv or" 'JVconibcr: 
nineteen l-unte-roc* twenty-five . 







({ccA^iJ 



&JL, - 




97 



VARIETIES 
LETTERING 
PENS 

Shading Pens 




Shading Pens Make a Mark of Two Shades 
at a Single Stroke of the Pen, From One 
Color of Ink (Sizes 00 to 8) 



Marking Pens 



i 00 cfc 

Marking Pens Make a Solid, Plain Mark, 

strong. Full Strength of Color of Ink used 

(Sizes 00 to 8 1 



19 




SHADES 
LETTERING 
INKS 



An Ideal Lettering Ink 
for the Marking, Shad- 
ing, Soennecken and 
Speed Ball Lettering 
Pens — Flows f reel v. 
gives a clear-cut shade 
:idedly 



the 



The 



Inks 



This beautiful resoluti. 



prepared in th<- Harrif Studio. Chicago, by C. L. Cook. 



ict of 48 
years' experimenting 
with Lettering Inks, 
and they are to be re- 
lied upon. The Ink is 
put up in wide-mouthed 
I -oz. screw-capped bot- 
tles — 19 shades. 



lOO PAGE TEXT BOOK 

COMMERCIAL PEN LETTERING AND 
DESIGNS. (FIFTH EDITION) 100 pages 
8x11. containing 148 plates of Commercial 
Pen alphabets, finished Show Cards in 
colors, etc.. prepaid. One Dollar. 

A Profitable Vocation 

in letter Price Tickets and Show 
Cards. It is easy to do RAPID. CLEAN- 
CUT LETTERING with our improved Leter- 
\1 \\Y STUD1 NTS ARE I \ 
UE THEIR STUDIES 
THROUGH THE COMPENSATION RE- 
CEIVED BY LETTERINC PRICE Tit kl rS 
\\l) SHOW ( VRDS, FOR MERIIIWIS 
OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL HOURS. Practical 
outfit consists of 3 Marking and 
i,;: Pens, Lettering Ink. sample Let- 
tering in colors, instructions, figures and 
alphabets prepaid $1.00. 
(Special rate to schools) Send for our 

Supply i ataiog which II 
si/'-s iii various styles "I Lettering Pens, 
19 shades of Lettering Ink and man 
items Vll • This 

catalog will be mailed free upon request. 

Newton Lettering Pen Co., 

Dept, 27-D. Pontiac, Mich.. U. S. A. 



^ <^MJ,38uJ//ieM&&u*i£r & 



35 



PENMANSHIP SUPPLIES 



Prices subject to change without notice. Cash should accompany all orders. 

All goods go postpaid except those listed to go by express, you to pay express 

charges. Of course, when cheaper, good listed to go by express will be sent by parcel 
post, if you pay charges. 



Pens 

Zanerian Fine Writer Pen No. 1. 
1 gr.__$1.75 % gr.__* .50 



1 doz 



# .20 



Zanerian Ideal Pen No. 2, Zanerian Medial Pen 
No. 3, Zanerian Standard Pen No. 4, Zanerian 
Falcon Pen No. 5, Zanerian Business Pen No. 6. 

1 gr. ..#1.25 U gr... . .# .40 1 doz. .. ... # .15 

Special prices in quantities. We also handle Gil- 
lott's, Hunt's, Spencerian and Esterbrook's pens. 
Write for prices. 

Broad Pointed Lettering Pens. 

1 Complete set (12 pens) #0.35 

z doz. single pointed pens .15 

2 doz. double pointed pens .30 

1 doz. single pointed, any No 25 

1 doz. double pointed, any No 60 



Pen Holders 



Zanerian F 

1 1 ; : inches 

Zanerian Fine 



ine Art Oblique Holder, Rosewood: 

__jfl.25 8 ... inches#1.00 

Art Straight Holder, 8 inches ... #1.00 

Zanerian Oblique Holder, Rosewood: 

IVA inches # .75 8 inches ? .65 

Zanerian Expert Oblique Holder, 7% inches: 
1 only... #0.20 1 doz #1.25 <' z gr...... #6.50 



doz. 



!: doz. 



.... .75 <A gr 3.50 1 gr. 

Excelsior Oblique Holder, 6 inches: 

_. # .15 1 doz..._. #1.20 



.70 



gr- 



3.00 



1 gr 



12.00 



#5.50 
10.00 



Zaner Method Straight Holder, 7' 2 inches: 

1 only .... # .15 1 doz .# .60 !: gr. .... #2.65 

'■ doz. _ .40 % gr _ 1.50 1 gr 4.80 

1 Triangular Straight Holder, 714 inches... #0.25 

1 Correct Holder, hard rubber, 6 J 4 inches .25 

1 Hard Rubber Inkstand .70 

1 Good Grip Penpuller .10 

1 Inkholder for Lettering .10 

Cards 

White, and six different colors: 

100 postpaid, 30c; 500 express (shipping weight 2 
lbs.), #1.00; 1000 express (shipping weight 4 lbs.), 
#2.00. 

Flourished Design Cards: 
With space for name. Two different sets of 12 each. 
Every one different. 
1 set, 12 cards # .15 6 sets, 72 cards # .40 

Joker or Comic Cards 
1 set, 12 cards # .15 6 sets, 72 cards... . .40 

Write for complete Pe 



Papers 

Zanerian 5-Ib. Paper (wide and narrow rule): 
1 pkg. of 240 skeets by express #1.50 

Zanerian 6-lb. Paper (narrow rule) : 
1 pkg. of 240 sheets by express #2.00 



Zanerian Azure (Blue) Paper: 
1 pkg. of 240 sheets by express 



#2.00 

Zaner Method No. 9 Paper (%-in. rule, 8xl0'/2 ) 

1 pkg. of 500 sheets, not prepaid # .85 

100 sheets by mail postpaid . .50 

Zaner Method No. 15 Paper ( ! 8 -'n- rule, 8x10',): 
1 pkg. of 500 sheets, not prepaid #1.50 

Inks 

Zanerian India Ink: 

1 bottle # .40 1 doz. bottles express #4.00 

1 bottle Zanerian Gold Ink .25 

1 bottle Zanerian White Ink 30 



Arnold's Japan Ink: 

1 bottle, 4 oz. postpaid 

1 pint by express 

1 quart by express 



# .50 

. .75 
. 1.15 



Zanerian Ink Powder: 
1 quart package # .30 

6 packages or more, per pkg., net — # .22 '/i 

Zanerian Ink Tablets (both red and black): 

1 quart box, 32 tablets # .30 

6 boxes or more, per box .25 



Fine White Cardboard 

White Wedding Bristol: Size 22Y 2 x28'/ 2 : 

6 sheets, postpaid # .90 

12 sheets, postpaid 1.65 

2 sheets by mail, postpaid .50 



Large Sheets of Paper 

Ledger, 16x21 — 28! 2 -'b. stock (smooth surface): 

6 sheets by mail, postpaid — # .65 

12 sheets by mail, postpaid 1.10 

hip Supply Catalog 



THE ZANER-BLOSER CO., Penmanship Specialists Columbus, Ohio 



Zanerian Summer School 



For Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students 



A ,-pecial intensive six weeks' course beginning Jul 
Supervisors, Teachers, Penmen and Students. This course g 
pare during vacation period to teach handwriting and to im 
the other branches of penmanship and lettering. Many teac 
A number of nationally known instructors are employed 
school pupils. 

The following are some of the men and women who hav 

C. E. Doner, Massachusetts State Normal Schools. 

D. C. Beighey, Supr. of Writing, Indianapolis, Ind. 
H. L. Darner, Stanton .Motor Company. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
C. Spencer Chambers, Supervisor of Writing, Syracuse, 

N. Y. 
Alma E. Dorst, Supervisor of Writing, Oak Park, 111. 
Elizabeth Landon, Supervisor of Writing, Binghamton, 

N. V. 
J. A. Savage, Supervisor of Writing, Omaha, Nebr. 
Frank H. Arnold, Supervisor of Writing, Spokane, Wash. 
Dr. Frank N. Freeman, Prof. Educational Pcychology, 

University of Chicago. 
C. ( . Lister, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, 

Brooklyn. 



y 5 will be given in Modern Handwriting methods for 
ives teachers and those with limited time a chance to pre- 
prove their skill in plain business handwriting or in any of 
hers have attended as high as five or six summer terms, 
each summer to present latest in methods to our summer 



e been instructors in Zanerian Summer Schools: 

A. G. Skeeles, Supervisor of Writing, Columbus, Ohio. 

Helen E. Cotton, Supervisor of Writing, Schenectadv, 
N. Y. 

Adelaide Snow, Teacher, Riverside High School, .Mil- 
waukee. 

Harriett Graham, Supervisor of Writing, Springfield. O. 

A. M. Hinds, Supervisor of Writing, Louisville, Ky. 

Agnes E. Wetherow, formerly Representative of the 
Zaner-Bloser Company. 

Tom Sawyier, formerly Director of Writing in Indian- 
apolis and Milwaukee. 

Dr. W. O. Doescher, Prof. Psychology and Philosophy, 
Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. 



i^APIGVM 



SCHEDULE AND COURSE OF STUDY FOR ZANERIAN SUMMER SCHOOL 

July 5 to August 13. Students may enroll earlier to take additional work. 

METHODS OF TEACHING PENMANSHIP 

ely 



8:00 to 


9:00— Practice of Teaching Per 


■manship. 


9:00 to 


10:00 — Business of Penmanship. 


Analysis and Th 


10:00 to 


1 1 :00— Methods of Teaching Pe 


rmanship. 


1 :00 to 


2:00— Blackboard Writing. 




2:00 to 


3:00 — Business Penmanship. A 


lalysis and Theo 


3:00 to 


4:00 — Psychology. 




A 00 to 


4:30— Roundtable Discussion. 





rv 



PRACTICE OF TEACHING PENMANSHIP 



Thii 



two-fold purpose. One is improi 
dashy, graceful handwriting, and the other i 
ractice in teaching. 

Model lessons are given and criticisms a 
ffered with the view of training pupils to pr 



active. Drills are 
to give the pupils 



receive many practical ideas 



Many pi 
just the dr: 
teaching. \ 



able 



ns will be worked out in thest 
3U need to put life into your 
ill find them interesting and i 



They ar 
and you 



BUSINESS PENMANSHIP, ANALYSIS 
AND THEOR1 



nd 



We inspect each pupil' 
offered and suggestions ar 
ment, and when needed fr 
which give pupils the best 
actly how to proceed. Our 
give each pupil the help \ 
particular needs. 

This personal interest i 
has helped to make the Za 
Students come to the Zanei 

of developing Ai 



ach day. 
are give 



s one of the thing; 
unique school it is 
ill parts of the cou 
auctions. They hav 



itry to 



the 



iftl 



the 



fully creates in students a desire to improve 
Mil \ feature of the Zanerian Summer Schoo 



:uted skill- 

^thing else 



iting and helpful class for teachers 
and supervisors. Discussions are given on Public School Pen- 
manship for all grades. Normal. Rural and Private School Pen- 
manship; Methods of Presentation; Writing Surveys; Grading 
Specimens According to Scales; Outlines; Large Writing for 
Small Children, and various timely problems of Arm Movement 
Writing and the new Correlated Handwriting. 

BLACKBOARD WRITING 

The blackboard is one of the best tools and every teacher 
should be a good blackboard writer. 

Instructions and drills are given, and pupils are encouraged 
to practice as much as possible on the