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^ndf . 


Bus Transportation 


Jntiunrv to December, l^f2^ 

McGraw-Hill ('.ompany, Inc 

Tenth .\\cnuc at 1 nirt> -ivtii ^trm 
New York City 


H . 1 > 


Instruction for Use of Index 

THIS index is essentially a subject index, not an 
index of titles. Articles treating a number of dif- 
ferent subjects are indexed under each of them. 
Wherever the article relates to any particular trans- 
portation company or to matters applying to a particu- 
lar city or state, a geographical reference is made. 
Groupings are made under the name of the city in 
which the main office is located. City, state or foreign 
affairs appear under the names of the city or state or 
foreign country involved. 

References to the activities of associations closely allied 
to the bus transportation industry are given under the 
names of the various organizations. Proceedings of 

other associations and societies are indexed in general 
only in accordance with the subj'ect discussed. Short 
descriptions of machine tools appear only under tfie 
heading "Repair shops and equipment" and are not 
indexed alphabetically. 

In the subject index, if there is a choice of two or three 
keywords the one most generally used has been selected, 
cross references being supplied. Below will be found 
a list of the common keywords used in the index to this 
volume. This list has been subdivided for convenience 
into thirteen groups, but the group headings, shown in 
capital letters, do not appear in the index unless, like 
"Fares," they appear also in the small type. 

Classified List of Keywords 

Accidents .and Accident Legal 

Pre\ENTION Franchises 

Accidents Safety work Regulation 

Equipment of Buses 
Axles Body Brakes 

Chassis Engine 

Electrical equipment 

Transmission (gearset) 


Fare collection 

(including apparatus) 

Financial and Statistics 

Market conditions 
Statistics Taxes 


Maps of bus routes 
Snow remo'val ' OTraffic signals Employees Wages 




Inspection of buses 


Maintenance practice 

Purchases and stores 

Repair shops and equipment 

Road service 

Tests of buses and equipment 

Book reviews 




Combinations of operators 

Fuels, and fuel economy 


Record forms 




Overhead contact system 
Repair shops and equipment 
Terminals and waiting stations 

Traffic and 


Competitive relations 

Freight and express 

Merchandising transportation 


Public, Relations with 

Schedules and time-tables 

Traffic investigations 

Traffic records 

Traffic signals 

Types of Vehicles 

Electric storage battery buses 
Gasoline electric buses 
Motor buses 
Service trucks 
Steam driven buses 
Trollev buses 


January 1-60 

February Cl-11-1 

March : 115-166 

April 167-214 

May 215-264 

June 265-314 

July 315-362 

August 363-410 

September . 41 1-458 

October 459-506 

November 507-554 

December . . 555-602 

Appll. .lliotln .'.■.. I. 111. U..i I 

— ^ Id 

— : a •600 

— ' * mmenU on :M 

A-,^... ..iliui.,. 

— Aii\iii.» i»eeiiamnof in<liviilual j--«»UiUuii i 
— Ci- ..prralion belwt!«m c<4wrnlial. Commt-nlft on 

— FU.nda iwe Motor Trucic AwodaUon oi 

— LiHl of 45. 101. 1-14, lOH. 24S 4-lfl. 5W1 

— Xfw York (*•« Auto Bub AtsocUtion of New 

Yurk Sliit«) 
— Orfffoii rM*f Automotive Carriim" A^^fxialion 

' — YirGTinia i mm Motor Bui AMoelatluii ot 


— ii 
— M 

.1 t.i.U 1..^ . 

u OQ. s«a 


• w York Stat**: 

AtXTtleon. S. D. 

— AbtTd«'«'n Motor Transit Co.; 

Op«*ralion sturlcil, 207 
AccidiMits : 

— Automobile at'cidents, 104 
— Cart'IfsMiwjs. Comments on. 286 
— Collision ill Seattle. Waah., 105 
— Overturned bus. *Z72 

— Basis for farc-i. Comments on. 287 
— Classiliealion in California. 210 
— Cla^'silication in Providence. 173 
— CIa>^iti<-aticMi in Yonnj:s(own. 175 
— CIa'*sin. .4liuii of A K U A.A.. 526 
— D.-tt-rmininp oosl [Rtaderl. c340 
— Furms useful. [Swintl. •576 
— Gross items only, 215 
— Standardized method needed. Comments on. 

138: [Swim]. 2S0 
Advertising laee also Publicity t; 
— Hillside Bus Assn.. 219 
— Methods used in Newburph. N. Y.. •329 
— Terminal maintained by. 563 
Air Service. Comments on DifOcultles. 681 
Akron. O.: 
— Bus discussed. 46 
— Bxis operation ordinance. 57 
— Northern Ohio Traction & Lifi:ht Co.: 

Bus operation [Blinn]. •OB 

Cost analysis. 55 

— Place for buses. 531 
Albany. N. Y.: 

— Woodlawn Improvement Association St Trans- 
portation Co.: 

Fare increase, 159 

Receivership. 210 
Aldrich. W. M. (see Syracuse. N. Y.) 
Alliance. O.: 
— Cox Transportation Co.: 

Receivership, 159 
Allied B^s Association : 
— Organization. 478. 494 

Amerif-an Association of State Highway Offlcials: 
— Office in WashioBlon. 147 
American Electric Railway Association: 
— Bus exhibits at convention. 457. •519. Com- 
ments on. 532 
American Good Roads Congress: 
— Thirteenth conpress: 

Procram, 48 
American Road Builders AsH*n.: 
— Officers nominated. 151 
Amsterdam. N. Y. : 
—Bus line to Ballston. N. Y., 108 

— Analysis of future. ^320: Comments on. 339 
— Ball Kame special. 306 

— Buses operate with railways flooded. •514 
— Buses replace New Jersey railways. •411: 

Comments on. 436 
— Chicafro traffic [Ritchie]. 352. 383: Com- 
ments on. 388 
— City service: 

Brattleboro. Vt.. 550 

Comments on. 190 

Everett. Waph.. "459 

Middletown. Ohio. 'CIS 

Newbureh. N. Y., •103. 257. 469. 533 

Small cities [Taylor]. c535 

Stre-ator. III.. 595 
— Community bus line in East York. Pa.. 545 
— Co-ordination advocated [Hardincl. 352: Com- 
ments on. 338 
— Co-ordination with rail facilities. 82: 

[Emmons], 238: [Kennedy]. 253: [Lane]. 

c288: [Reeves]. 527; Discussed by. A.E. 

R.A.. 526 
— Development in 1922. 10; Comments on. 34 
— Diseussed by U. S. Chamber of Commerce. 688 
— Far East development [Irvine]. 147 
— Field for company operations [Jacksonl. 121 
— Field for trolley-bus fQueeneyl. 203 
— Field of individual operator [Jackson]. 121 
— Free service from parkinp space 26 
— Growth. Causes of [BoUum]. 251 
— Growth of bus operation by railways. 482: 

Comments on. 486 
— Hijrh-KTade coach ser^'icc [Seelyl. 96 
— Metropolitan service compared. "23 
— Open air ridinjr. Comments on. 241 
— Oullyinpr section of Detroit. ^223 
— Pacific Electric Ry.. ^229 
— Printinc company buys bu<i, 271 
— Problems of motor industry. 351 
— Railways' activities. 353. 402. 448. 482. 495. 

•.545. 593: Comments on. 486 
— Recojrnition abroad. 447 
— Relation of motor trucks to railroads 

[Barnes], 146 
— Pnhool buses in Tennessee. 420 
— Sircpingr service announced. 594 
• — Stag-es and buses. Comments on. 89 

— O't'.'b. r nuitink'. 

Insurance and mow removal. 544: Com 

m. r:t f.'i '.vt» 

Au! Asfl'n.: 

.NinUT r..|H ■*.-.■ I I'-n ,t;t.-t. 447 

Automotive Carrier^' AH>^>eliition of Oreron : 

— ActivitK-fl. 160 

Automotive Industry growth. 575 

Automotive SImplifltKl Practice Committ»-e: 

— Plans. 299 


— Double retluction: 

Huik type. "292 
— Flint, lipht-duly rear axle. *37 
— Roller bi'arinits. HufTmann. •245 
— Russel axlo n-modeled. ^93 
— Typc^ US4KI on hum-n. 42. 94. 144. 196. S46. 

296. 346. 394, 442. 490. 540. 580 
— Underslunir worms for Fareol coache*. •393 



Bairpatro cbt-rkinfr in California. 

Ballimorp Md.; 

— Baltimoro Transit Co ■ 

Jan. -June rpiwrl. 697 
Bay Cities Tran<»it Co. (8«e Santa Monioa, Gal > 
Biniraman & Rj'ynolda feee Pott»town Pa ) 
Bloomincloii. III.: 
— Riltcr Motor Bub Co.:] by steam roads, 206 
Blue Ridre Transportation Co.: (ice Haceni' 

town. Md.) 

— .\j)li rTitllors. Looli-type. •2n."i 
— Bali iM'.irinirs for earryinF, •345 
— Body buildi>r»' Ans'n.. American. 308. 447 
— Bus seals. Water protector, •233 
— Constni'-tion to reduce cost, •"O 
— Desijrn and construction in California. *^lo 
— iDevelopnirnls in 1022, '15 
— Door bumper. .\diU!*t.ible. •SHS 
— Double ditk with internal stairway. •187 
— F.inB for bu(*e«. *205 
— Hciler Xobie floor, •.537 
— Heater. Repister type. Linendoll. •204 
— Lone sedan type with radio, '441 
— Lyon, Three compartment charabanc type, 

— Mirrors advocated. 25 
— Paterson. for hotel service, '40 
— Plymouth. Streetcar type, •OS 
— Pneumatic bus, Parker ^342 
— Seals fold for handlinir express. •SSS 
— Seats, Wc.ither protection for, •232 
— Sedan type. Specifications. '15 
— Speedometer. Heavy duty, '430 
— Statistics of desiBTi. •IS 
— Stewart & Stevenson Ijrpe. •S 
— Street car tjix-. Specifications, •lo 
— Taxicib construction [Bcrsie], 230 
— Tops with rollers used in Tosemite 
— T\-pical, •IS 

— Ventilator with rrill rerulation, ^402 
— Viser for automobiles. •SOG 
— Window raising device, ^03 
Book reviews: 
— .Automotive limition systems, by E. 

soliver & G. J. Mitchell, 4S5 
— Automobile pattern draftinr, by F, X 

— Handbook of automobiles, 100 
— His-hway research projects, by W. K. Hatl. 407 
— Motor IranBportatlon of merchandise and 

passenirers. by Percival White. .310 
— Motor vehicle transportation by H. C. Spurr, 

—Railroads — Ratca, Service, Mana«ement by H, 

B. Vanderblue and K, P. Bnnress, 278 
What, when and where for the moloriit bv 

F. Wenlel. 407 
Boonton. N. J.: 
— Boonton Xew.irk Bus Co.: 

Receiver sells. 109 
Boro Buses. Inc (sec Red Bank. N. J.l 
Boston. Mass.: 

— Auto show. Buses at. •I?? 
— Boston El.valed Ry. : 

Bus service. 30, 50. 250 
— Marsters Tourinr Airency: 

Limousine type buse«. •173 
Boulevard Transit Co, (sec Minneapolis Minn. I 
Boulevard Transit Co, (see Omaha. Neb I 
Bradford, Pa : 
— Latham Motor Bus Lines: 

Snow flirhtinr. •137 
Brakes and brakinff e<iulpmenl 
— Air system •3n, 488 
— Four wheel l>-pc, ^242 
— Front wheel on licht ch,as«l8. •Ssa 
— Hydraulic. Horace type •2n7 
— Hydraulic success in California. 'SB. 


L. Con- 

1 rrur mxle bouc4iw. *6K4 

a Kiui I 

llUi ■ 


— ll ' 

— T 

jU Co Ifcc ; 

Kr : 

, o 



■•Bu- ■ ....,,.1..., 

— Adranlun 

tWauonl. ciau 


Caltlomlk Motor Canlen' Arn'o: 

— Anti\:..l mf.tiTik' lol 

Call • 

— 11 . -1 «», »&, 

— (' 'roller and bus (Pooliusl M» 

— »i -l. for 1922, 307; (RcwWI. 


— T 

— \ 


« quevtlonM. 501 
(Tr^rl.I c.1.', 358 


.od. Cal t 

Co. (M* »••• 

Cambrldre' Transpoitallon Co. («■ CUrksrUll. 

O I 
Capital Bus Line (see Oil 
Capital Traction Co, (see • I" < 

!^'»'"'- .. ... . ...... 


— r 

— I' 
— 1. 

— K 

— M 

— Six - 

— Bpecifl 




— S'' 

— Ste.-.-irj* ?y-' 

>t« type. •»? 


>r. •529 

.KM, 'tM 



— rniversal ]<' 

— Wisconsin *l[ 

— Worm p-ar t.r .i\ »nr, • .;.. 

Cheyenne Wyo : 

Bti" •'•ttI.^ proposed, 15. 

(-' ■ ■ r Coach Co ■ 

propoMd. •■■•Ort 

■>iiii 1. ,..-. |S.-hwmb), 'SO? 


■ •:'! 
!c •221 
nl- nts on • 
.-leer. •42- 

— ' . 3M 

'compellll'.ii ' not t.-.•^»l.^i. 3i^. CommenU 
on, 3.38 .«*,- 

Service and equipment 'XKl 
ChlcMO Korth Shore k Milwaoke* Rr <•» 

Hithwood. ni ) 
China- ... 

— Bus scrvl'^ "- 
— Horr Konr ' 
— Kalraji rnra 

— Kwonctunr T- w - •• - - • 
— Shanirhal system planned. 4»< 
— Sxe*-how bus plans. 382 
Cln~ ' 

Clt; ■ 

Clark. ;.ij.-.-. w Va 
— Remolds Tall Co • 

Meetinr competition ".31 

'.. •415 

>ile>Lro. ni ) 

Abbreviations : •niuBtrated. c Communications. 




[Vol. 2 

ClarksviUe. O. : 

— Cambridgre Transportation Co.: 

Record cards. "417 
Clayton. N- Y.: 
— Dailey's Bus Service: 

Bus with clerestory roof. •470 

Fare collection method. 'SSI 

Heavy duty plow, *'.Hi:i 

Waiting" room. •418 
Cleveland. Ohio : 
— Clf*-''"lanH-Akr<>n BU'^ C>. 

Operating: rules. *oo5 
— CIevel;ind-\ uuiit^stown Bus Co. : 

Fare collection system. *117 
— Union Motor Stage Terminal: 

All bus routes invited, 354 

Arrang-ement and routes from. •555 
— W"nH*-r T'^nr (yt America Co. : 

Incorporates, 109 
Clutch I see Chassis) 

Poloradi Moto'- Wav (see Denver, Colo.) 
Colorado. State of 
— Buses declared utilities: 
— Highway on raihoad bed, 4*25 
— 'Safety measure. 161 

Columbia Slag-e Lines (see Portland. Ore.) 
Columbus. O. : 
— Zanesville & Dayton Transportation Co.: 

Incorporation. 1 .10 
Combination of operators : 
— Advantages. Comments on. 240 
— Basis of National Auto Transit Co.. *o 
— Detroit association. 120 
— Suocess in Elizabeth, N. J.. •327 
— Watertown. N. Y.. 252 
Community Traction Co. i see Toledo, O.) 
Competitive relations: 
— Buffalo. N. Y., 51. 401 

— Bus in traffic [Lane]. <280: [Emmons]. 238 
— Co-ordinating aspects [Lee], 81 
— Co-ordination in California. [Pontius] , 588 
— Coupon-bus plan blasted, 54 
— De Luxe service in Minnesota, 453 
— Illinois railway blames buses. 499 
— London bus companies. 305 
— (Meeting' unfair pompetition. 531 
— New Jersey tangle. 411. 475. 513; Comments 

on. 436. 533 
— D^ii,.^n,>^ „ff,^,.,, J 09. '^OO. 499 
— Schenectady jitney situation, 305. 403, 452. 

50U. 551 
— Space require<l by vehicles. [Turner]. 277 

322: [Ritchie]. 352. 383: Comments on. 

— Trollev and bus for New York compared 

[Beeler], "73 
— Trucks aid to railroads [Bamesl. 146 
— Washington operators discuss. 400 
— Weehawken. N. J., ferry. 52 
Concourse Bus Co. (see New York City) 
Connecticut Motor Stage Ass'n . : 
— Annual meeting, 544, 590 
Connecticut Motor Transportation Co. I see New 

London, Conn.l 
Cox Transportation Co. (see Alliance. O.) 




Dailey's Bus Service (see Clayton. N. Y.) 

Daiibury Conn.: 

— Danbury & Bethel Street Ry, : 

Bus service and equipment, •467 
Danielson. Conn. : 
— Interstate Bus Line : 

Service and equipment . ^571 
Davenport. la. : 
— Bus ordinance. 110 
— Tri-City Ry.: 

Bus plans. 453 
Dayton, Hamilton & Cincinnati Rapid Transit 

Co. (see Middletown. O.) 
Dayton, Ohio : 

— City designates routes. 599 
De Luxe Bus Line (see El Dorado. Kan.) 
De Luxe Line (see Minneapolis. Minn.) 
Denver. Colo. ; 
— Colorado Motor Way: 

Operation [James I, c581 
— Denv)T-Ste;imbuat Springs Line 

Franr-hisc granted. 54; Comments on, 3-4 
— Paradox Land St Transport Co. : 

Operation su<'<'essful. •3.32 
—Rocky Mountain Parks Transportation Co. : 

Advertising bus service. 26 
Detroit. Mich. : 
— Detroit Motorbus Co.; 

Annual report. 259. 550 

Extension of service. 154 

Prize crews rewarded. •59.3 
— Ford workers traffif problem [Bibbins] •561 
— Rational Auto Transit Co. 

Metluuls and routes, ^5 
— R<'d Star Motor Drivers' Ass'n.: 

Plan and fees. 120 
— Wi)lvcriiic Transit Co.: 

Methmls and service. ^221 
Dubuque, la. : 
— ■Terminal provided by Chamber of Commerci'. 

DuUith. Minn ■ 
— -White Bu."* Lines 

Winter serviee. •372 
Dunthorpe — Rivera Line (see Portland. Ore.) 

Eastern Wisconsin Electric Co. ( see Fond du 

Lac. Wis.) 
East Avenue Bus Line (see Rochester, N. Y) 
East St. Louis. III.: 
— East Si. Louis Ry.: 

Crosstown bus service. 105 
East York. Pa.: 
— East York Comnundty Bus Line: 

Voluntary contributions for support. 545 

El Dorado, Kan.: 

— De Luxe Bus Line : 

Service of. 570 
Eleelrieal equipment for buses: 
— Ignition 

Magneto and generator combined, 

Magneto with distributer. '91 

Types on buses. 42. 94. 144. 196, 

296. 346. 442. 490. 540. 586 
— Lighting: 

Generator and Magneto combined. ^193 

Generator and switchbox. Remy. '140 

Headlighting improvements [Falge and 
Brown]. .349. •49;i 

Planning and instaKation [Lee and Fessen- 

den). "273 

Spot light, Auto-Reelite. '40 

Spot-light, with reflector, ^245 

Spot light in windshield. '441 
— Motive power 

Pour motor trolley bus. •290 
— Types on various buses. 196. 246. 296. 346. 

394. 442, 490, 540. 586 
Electric storage battery buses: 
— Lansden type in Danbury, •467 
Elizabeth. N. J.: 
— Elizabeth Avenue Bus Owners' Ass'n.: 

Traffic increased. ^327 
Elmira. N. Y.: 
— Elmira Walkins Line: 

Bus replaces railway. 501 
EI Paso, Tex.: 
— El Paso and Los Angeles Stage Line Co.; 

Permit sought, 161 

— Bonus systems for safety and courtesy. o4'- 
— Co-operation sought in Chicago, 221 
— 'Driving strain problem [Gleason], c341 
— 'Good drivers necessary, Comments on, 340 
— May party of Fifth Ave. Coach Co.. 303 
— Recreation quarters in Chicago garage 

[Schwab]. 507 
— Selection and training. •431 
— Vacations and wage increases. 
- — ^Vacation trip as reward. '593 
— Watches important, 174 

— Clutch for Paris buses. '142 
— Continental, Model 6-B, •538 
— Details for bus service. 43. 94, 

396. 346. 394. 442. 490 
— Film of. 553 

— Filter for straining gasoline. ^143 
— Governor. K. P. Products Co.. ^193 
— '(lovernor. McCanna, "91 
— Governor. Throttle balance for. ^39 
— ^Hercules, Model O, ^293 
— Hitxh compression characteristics [Hollo way. 

Huebotter and Young], 148 
— High power for mountain districts, 583 
— Lycoming, Model C. ^343 
— Midwest, six cylinder. '38 
— 'Piston light weight. '441 
— Piston ring, two part, '585 
— Radiator, coohng capacity [Lockwood]. 149 
— Steam drive for bus. •SSI 
— ^Tuning up valve. ^438 
— 'Waukesha four cylinder, '143 
Engineer in public affairs [Gaetani], 98 
England ( see Great Britain ) 
Everett. Wash. : 
— Puget Sound International Railway & Power 


Bus operation success. ^459 

Fare collection: 

— Closed system, •ll" 

— Duplex system. •326. •331 

— Experience in Cmcinnati. O.. ^415 

— Light-weight box. Ohmer. ^141 

— Pay-enter-leave in New London, •463 

— Ortonville (Minn. ) Transportation Co.. 

— Problem to be studied, comments on, 13 

— Register for buses. •244 

— Single punch required. '575 

— Springfield fare box. 92 

— Stores sell tickets without commissions. 

— Tickets for Kansas City Line. •466 

— Weekly passes abused. 499 

— -Workmen's tickets [Roller], •I 

Fares : 

— Costs as basis, Comments on. 287 

— 'Florida, 70 

— Increase sought in Washington, D. C. 

Denied. 454 
— Inter-State Bus Line, ^571 
— New Jersey question, Comments on 


144. 196. 246. 
540. 586 


Rochester N. Y. (East Avenue Bus Cn.l. 115 
Fifth Avenue Coach Co. (see New York City) 

— Buses substituted for trolleys. 469 
— California buses. 55 
— Deferreii iiayment on buses [ Mclnt.vrc 1 . 325 ; 

[Swan 1 . 237: [Farmer] . 250; [Mclntyrel. 

— Depreciation charges, 405 
— Divisions of Chicago Motor Coach Co.. 135 
— M(>tin- bus credit corporation. 263 
— I 'art 1(1 pa ting stock issued. 250 
— Receiverships : 

Alliance, Ohio, 159 

Dayton. Hamilton & Cincinnati Rapid Tran- 
sit Co.. 454 
— Responsibility of bus purchaser. [Mclntyre], 

335: [Swan], 327 
— Stock dividend. Comments on, 88 
— Stock sales to customers. •323 
Fixtures (sc^e Body) 
Florida Motor Transportation Co. (sfc Miami. 

Florida. State of: 
— Association (see Motor Truck Association ol 

Florida ) ; 
— Routes and service in. ^05 

Fond du Lac, Wis.: 

— Eastern Wisconsin Electric Co.; 

Inierurban bus service. 257 
France ; 
— ^Paris ; 

Bus service compared. •23 

Clutch for buses, ^142 

Six-wheel bus details. •220 
Franchises : 

— Purposes of [Blanchard], 203 
— Richmond, Va.. terms, 53 
Freight and express: 
— Improves public relations. •oOO 
— Profitable business for bus lines. Comments 

on, 487 
— Seats fold out of way. •585 
Fresno. Cal. : 
— Valley Transit Co. 

Oversize tires economical. 362 
Fuels and energy economy : 
—"Anti-knock" gasoline. 264 
— Discussed by S. A. E., 349 
— Future prices of [Lewis] , 313 
— Gasoline, quality better. 578 
— Gasoline, Volume change with temperature. 

— Hints on reducing quantity, 285 
— New fuel announced. 171 ' 

— Research on . 81 

— Steam driven bus economical. '381 
— Trolley buses in Toronto [Forsyth]. •ISl 
— 'Trolley bus power. 416 
— Tulsa. Okla [Hilburn]. 200 
Fuel tank control. *9t) 

Garages ( see also Repair shops ) : 

— Cleveland-Akron Bus Co., '5.55 

— Concourse Bus Line. New York. •Ol 

— Chicago. 200 buses. [ Schwab 1. '507 

— Efficient storage in [ReinholdJ. c534 

— Equipment in Youngstown. O.. 130 

— Fifty bus size, Providence, '179 

— Plan of Kentucky Carriers. ^463 

Gasoline-electric buses : 

— 'Frost Smith double-deck. "123 

Gasoline rail buses: 

— Nevada. Cahfornia & Oregon R.R.. *oi55 

Georgia Motor Bus and Transportation Ass'n 

— Annual meeting. 102 

Germany : 

— Bus service compared, ^23 

Great Britain ; 

— Birmingham : 

Double deck trolley buses, 
— Bradford: 

Trolley bus costs, 598 
— Bus evolution, 63 
— -Leyland single deck bus, 
— London : 

Bus competition, 155. 355 

Bus service compared, '23 

London General Omnibus Co. 
Activities of, 355 
Annual report. 453 
Development of buses [Shave I, 399 
Low level bus developed. '325 
Magneto testing. 417 

Traffic problem, 450; [Wooton] 
— London-Liverpool road proposed. 

on, 533 
— News from. 51. 105. 155, 307. 

355, 403. 450. 496. 547. 595 
— Trolley bus. front wheel drive. •ISl 
Greeley. Col, : 
— .Bus competition, 155 
Groton & Stonington Traction Co. (see New 

London, Conn.) 





256, 306. 


Hagerstown. Md. ; 

— Blue Ridge Transportation Co.: 

Co-operation with railway. 50(! 

Fare ticket and receipt. 575 
— Bus line transaction. 357 
Hamilton, O. : 
— iBuckeye Transportation Co.; 

Stock issue desired. 50 
Hamilton. Ont.. Can.; 
— United Lines. Ltd. : 
Harrisburg, Pa.: 
— Home-made oil filter. 513 

Headlights (see Electrical equipment for buses* 
Healers (see Bodies) 
Highland Park. Mich,: 

— Tratfic study at Ford plant [Bibbms], •;iHl 
Highway Commission appointments, 3f>3 
Highways: . .- t 

— Association (see Amerwan Association ol 

State Highway Officials) 
— Bridge capacity. Comments on, 88 
— Colorado Midland roadbed to be used. 42o 
— Common sense rules for. 426 
— Comi)arative tests of vehicles, •O 
— Cost apportioned to benefit. Comments on. 533 
— DcvcIormi'Mt proposals. 591 
— Engli.-^b-spi aking road congress proposed. 5.>3 
— Federal Aid System : 

Exphuiation. 351 

Federal regulation. 8, 132 

Road program, 185 
— International Road Association. 151 
— Lecture course on, 531 
— Maintenance help. Comments on. 241 
— Methods of state financing. 217 
— Motor road proposed in England. Comments 

on. 533 
— 'Motor transportation. International. 447 
— 'Requirements for construction. ^22 
— Requirements for safety. 47 
— Road Builders Ass'n. (see American Roan 

Builders' Association) 
— Six-wheelcrs reduce stresses. •539 

Abbreviations : •Illustrated, c Communications. 

■ January-December, 1923J 


Hiu'^huu>> irunlinut-d) : • 

— Solt roads ovt-n-tmii- by WM •438 
— State remuval of »now. Cummentit on. 4H7 
— Street o<-N-ui»;iii«'y o£ varioui* vehtcle*. 

[Turner I. .T,"J 
— Tranriportalion munaiped by railroad men 

( Reeves 1. :i:>l 
Hig-hwooU. 11).: 
— Chicasro. Ni>rth Shore & Milwaukee Ry.: 

M.iintciiaiK-e by railway men. {Cordelll. 


Fettler buueK liicreajM-d. IttK 
Hillside Bun Atinn. ti*ee West New York. N. J.) 
Hollaiul Mieh.; 
— Service Bun Line; 

Winton rebuilt utage. •2m> 
Houston. Tex- : 
— Houston-Galveston Trans. Co.: 

BathiiiK' t>eiu'h sen'lee. 40- 
Hudson County Bus Owners' Ass'n.: 
— Aelivitiee. -JO* 

nUnols. State of: 

— #tailway seeks ubandnnnieiit iluf ti» busif*. 490 

Indiana Bu!i Owners' Ass'n : 

— Aetivitiefi, ir>n 

— Onranization. 1*7 

InOiunupoti-^. Ind.: 

— SiK-ed n'Kulatton for buses proposed. 501 

Indiana. Stale of: 

—Bus fM'r\'U-e and rejrulation. *'ISI 

— Hiirhwa>'s aid buses. -HI 

— LeKislation opposetl. l.'iO 

— Taxes may nurease rates. ''08 

Indiana. Columbus & Eastern Traction Co. (see 

Sprinpfleld. Ohio) . 
Inspe»'tion of bu>*<*s: 
— Aceidents in Wichita. Kan.. •C7'2 
— Calif*>niia Tran-»il Co.. practice. 107 
— Ppaotice in mountains, •315 
Insurance (nee also Keirutatinn I : 
— Akron, O., requirements, r>7 
— Lowerinir rales. Comnu-nts on, *287 
— Michu'an interurbans" plan, j 
— ^New York plans. 300. 369 
— Ohio men to form insurance company. 301 
— Ohio Motor Mutual Insurance Co.. 554 
— Ohio retniinnients, 'Zf\0 
International Ry. i f*ee Buffalo. N. Y.) 
Inter State Bus Line. < see Danielson. Conn t 
Interurban Bus Ass'n. (see Muskeiron. Mich.) 
Iowa Motor Transportation AssjociaTion: 
— CrK^anization. Ib'Z 
Iowa. Slate of: 

— RegTilation advocated lEbyl. 204 
— Unreasonable law over-ruled. 260 

Jack, (gee Repair shops and ei)uipment> 

Jacksonville. Fla.: 

— 'Municipal buses considered. 157 

Jamestown. N. Y. : 

— Jamestown Street Ry.: 

Bus trial. 54 

New bus line. 155 
Japan : 

— Bus ser\-ioe [Irvine], 147 
Jefferson Highway Transportation Co. (see 

Minneapolis. Minn. ) 
Jersey Cily, N. J.: 
— South Hudson County Boulevard Bus Owneri" 


Fare controversy. lOfl. 154 

Kansas City. Mo.: 

— Suburban Stag'e Lines: Service and equip- 
ment. •465 
Kentucky Carriers (see Louisville. Ky.) 

Lake Shore Motor Bus Co. (see Toronto, Can.) 

Lakert-lothe-GuIf Hitthwaj- Ass'n. : 

— Offii-er-* elected, 250 

Latham Motor Bus Lmes (see Bradford. Pa.) 

Lefral : 

— Competition and convenience. 358: Comments 

on. 338 
— Local consent petroactive. 211 
— Interstate bus lines not subject to double 

license fee, 455 
— Speeding defined. 310 
Legislation pendmp. 211 
Linnton Transit Co. < see Portland. Ore. I 
London < see Great Britain) 
Lone Beach. Cal.: 
— Bus wrvice improvements. 2.57 
Los Anpeles. Cal. : 

^Applicants (or Holly woo<i lines. 108 
— Buses rc'^'ommendcd in report. 232 
— -Bus system proposed. 104 

— Franchise sousrht by three interests. 153. 20.5 
— Los Anpeles Motorbus Co.: 

Plans for service. .302. 353 

Service started. 453 
— Motor Trans t Co.: 

Bas-eace cheokinc. 574 

Dual tires improve service. •119 
— Murrieta Mineral Hot Springs Auto Stajje Line; 

R<»ules (i\U'Stionr<l. 52 
— Pacific Elffotric Land Co.: 

Additional feeders. 50 

Sen-ice of. •220 
— Pacific Electric Railway: 

Bus desipn and oonstniction. ^515 

"Cloverlite" sipnals used. ^582 
— Pickwick Stapes: 

Ba^rpagv checkmir. ^574 

Control of Or'con Lines. 548 

Orepon revokes permits. 500 

Lof. \ icuiilinunl I : 

■ 4»»ed to Siin Praiieiti-o. 127 
<[i uf thrre lUlM. 1U9 

— RctvicD^uai uu bu»e«. 256 
— rnitrtl Staire«: 

New roule applied for. 200 
LouiMian^ Motor TramiiMirtation Ltmeue: 
— Organization. 543 
Loui-'ViHc Kv ■ 

— K. ■ • 

- barn-d. 501 

.-- Miient. •464 

— Loui»viOi'-L«*xiiiifton BU4 Line: 

0|M-ra(luli filarted. 20t( 
Lubrication : 

— ComprrH*«l .. - '4H8 

— Dilulion Pr.-\ . loh 1 , 559 

— Filterini: craiii Mniuich wa«le. 513 

— Kilter preHH (..r r. . uiiiiiitf nil ^582 
— Mlleuk'r baHlH in California •Id? 
^nRedainilnir crunkcaite oil. '243 
— Spring cover an aid. ^39 
— Wanier Oil-Gal. "SBO 

Motor CoAdrli Uat^ 



— Hr. 
— Wi 





Mahaiioy City. Pa : 
— 6<'l>uylkill TraiiKiMirtBlioii Co.: 
St-rvii-** anil tNjuilimenl. *27 
.Malia-. Slulo of: 
— ^HUH tH'rniit n-fUHttl. 45"! 
Miiinh-ii.'diiH* pr:ii-tl»t- : 
— AkniM O [Bhnnl. (HI 
— Kuctiirs ciiUTiiiif ILa S<-*huniI. 
— Milwiiiilnf. Win. •4T:. •.'.(IT 
— Newark. N. J . '-IT-J 
— Repair men only make adjuuttneiiu. •ill 
— V'aniish r«'<4Uireinenti*. 81 
Maiden. Mai*.**.: 

— Huh operaton* controversy. 157. 20.^ 
MapH uf bur* routes; 
— California Traiwlt Co.. 1117 
— Chark-aton. W. Va.. l.'tii 
— Chhak-o Motor Coaeh Co.. H'"!. .'.11 jlill 
— Ohii'ai.'o. Went Suburban Trannportiillon Co.. 

— Clevelaml. I'nion Motor Sta«e Terminal, iiall 

— Connecticut, liiter State Bun Line. 571 

— Florida. 64 

— Indiana. 283 

— London, 25 

— Miami Fla.. OH 

— Michiu-.m. National Auto Trannlt Co.. 5 

— Middletown. O.. 215 

— Milwaukee. Wl«.. 480 

— Minnesota. 18(1 

— New Vork. Fifth Ave. Coach Co.. 360 

— Oreiron. .'11 

— Paris. 2.". 

— Pasadena. Cal.. 2.30 

— Richmond Rapid Trannlt Corp.. .'i.l 

— Tennessee'. 234 

—Utah. 3311 , ^ ,,„, 

— Waterlowii. iN. Y.) Trannportatlon Co.. •4.;i 

— West Virirmia. 133 

— Wisconsin Motor Bus Line. 4K1 

— .Wheeliriir. W. Va.. 134 

— Yountstown. O.. 129 

Market conditions: 

— American Motor Truck Co . n'Opivershlp. oO.» 

— Aulomobilei*. 113 

— Automobile commodities 1 Howell 1 . 83 

— Automotive industry ifrowth. 575 

— Automotive parts. 447 

— Bus company formed. 457 

— Body manuf.acturcr. 2113 

— Bus orders. 409 

— Cotton (Howell I. 83 

— Credit house for buses. 2(13 

—Gasoline. BO. 113. 165. 214. 2(13. 313. :illl. 

409 457. .505. 55.1 HOI 
— Iron and steel (Howell). 83 
— Paint [ Howell] . 83 
— Rubb«T I Howell. 1 83 
— Oil refineries. 410 
— Tires. (10. 113. 165. 214. 2113. 381. 409. 

457. 506. 553. 601 
— Trucks. 301 

— Victor Motors. Contract of. 
— ^White Motor Co.. 553 

Marsters Tourinir Acency (sec Boston. Mass. I 
Mason Cily Iowa.: 
— Red Ball Transportation Co.: 

Buses opposed. .551 

Permit CTanIe<l. •.599 
— Star Tninsportation Co.: 

Onlinance overruled. 260 
Massachusetts. State of: 

— Railways permitted to operate buses. .09 
Memphis. Tenn : 

— Municipal terminal proiiosed. 53 
Men-handisinir transportation : 
— Electric sietl in Seattle Wash.. •.>"' 
— Flowers assist businei^s iretiinr. Comments on. 

— Ne<'essar>'. Comments on. .3.39 
— Route siKiis aid. Comments on. 4Hil 
Portland Ore. posters. '435: Comments on. 

— Siirhtsc'cinir bus methods. Comments on. 4.3. 
— St Li>"ls. Mo. 352 
Miami. Fla: 
— Florida Motor Transportation Co.; 

Ser\ice and equipment. '70 
Michiir:iri State of; 
— Bus rckillation rules. 551 
— Competition not a f.-ictor. .500 
— Cros.s country buses. ^87 
.Michiiran Hiehway Transportation A.»s'n.: 
— Annual mcctinir. 592 

— <Meetinir in Lansing. Mich.. 152. 198. 202 
Middletown. O.: „ . __ .. 

— Dayton Hamilton 4 Cincinnati Rapid Transit 

Bankruptcy. 454 
— Henry's Transportation Co.: 
Entire urban Iraflic. •215 

MlnneaiHtlle Minn.: 

— Il^iiilt-v-ini Transit Co : 

T. • ■ ■ 'im 

— D. 

*- rqulfMnrlil *lt4 

— Jell •' ' ' -1 Co 


Mir.»- •:17-: 

. M•IT!l^^I^!^l Line; 
of VIrvInU; 

• I IH 

Co. Ijrps* 127 

iiiudi-r u~.; ■' . •1211 


Canadian t» ■ r. ^tK 

Flat. <ine-iii 

Hoover t». •HI 

Inillana t». •IM 

l^-ylantl, <■'■• 
K.istor>- tw' 

Mor^land !■ ' - ■ 

Nl.otfara 1-.* • » » 

Pier.-.- Amc "H? 

R.-bulll Wlu; • 

Six whr<-l 111 l"«ri. • :';u 
Wachun-tt. Mu.lel K. •2-12 
—Double deck 

Chic.icc. TviH- Z • 

Development in 1 ' • 

C..-i'lr<. rlr.irl- Iht. 'JM 


.. •.ItM 

titlon •M" 



ExhiMil- ,i ., r. ■.. 

Comments on. .'.:i'i 
— Exhibits at automobile ahois* ^77 

P0-,.i>r.. ..t .I...U-T. 't'..nili.' 11 

={••:. .... MT 

— Ini. ■ m r*r 

lyi- •' 

Bender body on White ch»s»i«. •KJ 

Ca.lillac chassis for twenty i.assrntfers •4*1 

California Transit Co •l.n '570 

Characl(»rlsti»-T. for mountainous ro»o 
(Femandesl c .341 

• Ch.inllcl.-.-r" sixteen p«»s«-nr.— •■'' 

F.II.-.-01 •461 ^465 

Fr»-mont .-...ii-h •'M4 

F W t' ■<' • ■- ' ■" 

(Jarfo- 'ler i*le. *3ill 

Ootfr .nH *<*» 

Hol.k.- . 

Intcmalioi...l l»rlre i>»»sn«TT. 

McKay Mi«lel 214 •.'144 

M.-nomlnee with NIacara boily. •5.T7 

R.-l>uiit R<-o '280 

Rebuilt Winlnn '■•»•> 

SeliLn Witt. ' 

Six whi-el Ii 


ritimate !.» ■ ;'• 

Tops down ' .._,^ 

Whilfl.-l.l » •■'• •» 

— Limousine tyi- ..... 

F..lrewater 11. j. 1. ll-.t. ; u rvlcr 'Jll.. 

Home comforts ^419 ..,,» 

IndlTldual chair, in Younrrtown •319 

Larce windows In Fasrol '291 

Mack five comp.^nmrnt. •H* 

Mohawk III 'IT- 
— 8pe.-in.-ntlon. ■>( >' '•• J^S •* 

296 .346 .394 '" ^^" 

— Stages and buses. ' 89 

— Typlc-il •.56' 

Motor Transit Co. lace Los An«»le«. C»l I 
Motor ini'-ks- 

— Field for II>«rI 81 , .,« 

— Relation to railroads. IBamesl. 14" 
Miinicioal ow"er*hip 

Re.o'ts in 6 citle. 512 

MurHeta Mineral Hot 9ortn<» Auto Slase Ijoe 

isee Los Antrles Call 
Ml'sVeson Mt-b ; 

— 'Interurban Bus Assn.: 
ActlTltles. 151 


Nashua N H ; _ 

— Bus system proposed -"8 
Nassau Bus Line if New York r.iv 
National Automobile Body Bull-' 
—Annual convention. 49 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communication*. 



IVol. 2 



National Automobile Chamber of Commerce: 

— New Tork meeting. 250 

— Truck committee secretarv. 544 

National Auto Transit Co. (see Detroit. Mich.) 

National Higrhway Traffic Assn.: 

— Annual meeting. •298 

— Highway problems discussed. 47 

—California Association to help. 46 

National Motor Transport Assn.: 

—State organizations encoiu-ag-ed. 45 

Newark. N. J.: 

— Bus operations. Report on. 159 

— Bus service in railwav strike, •475 

— New Jersey Transportation Co. : 

Bus service soug^bt. 257 
— Public Service Ry. : 

Decrease in riders, 513 

Offers to purchase buses, 448. Comments 
on. 437 
— Public Service Transportation Co.: 

Bus routes planned in Camden. .353 
Newburg'h, N. T.: 
— Hud.snn Transit Corp. : 

Bus extension planned, 106 
— Newburgrh Public Service Corp.: 

Buses better patronized. 469 

Bus supplanting- trolley. 60. •103. 257 

City service. Comments on. 533 
— Touring- oar buses outlawed. 211 
New Jersey. State of : 
— E-us ser\-ine in railway strike. ^411. 

Comments on. 436 
— Established lines favored. 54 
— Permits transferable. 57 
— Transportation problem. •411. •513- 

ments on. 437. 533 
New Jersey Bus Transportation Assn : 
— ^Annual meeting-. 102 
New London. Conn. : 
— Connecticut Motor Transportation Co ■ 

Methods of. 503 

Fare collection system •ll? 
— Groton & Stonington Traction Co : 

Buses and cars alternately, ^461 
New Orleans. La.: 
— Bus permit sought. 255 
New York City: 

— Bronx opposes trackless trolley. 303 355 
— Bus controversy. 407. 452 
— Buses ^o to Albany to aid legislation. *205 

— Bus service compared with Europt^an cities. 

— Concourse Bus Co. : 

Bankruptcy. 549 

Franchise granted. 259 

Routes and maintenance methods 'fil 

Service resumed. 304 

Litig-ation, 156 
— Fifth Ave. Bus Securities Com.: 

Purchase offer accepted 56 
— 'Fifth Avenue Coach Co.: 

Conductors badg-eg effective 22 

Cross revenue. 406 

Historical exhibit. ^401 

Maintenance facilities •375 

May party. 303 

Savins- fuel. 285 

Snow fighting methods. •369: Commenta 
on. 389 

Vacations and wage increases. 404 
— ^Local consent required. 211 
— *^^"'i*'P^' buses exempt from damage suits. 

— 'Nassau Bug Line: 

Permit grant^'d. 155 
— New York Transportation Co.: 

Annual report. 357 
— Pelham Bay Parkway tra^^kless trolley route 

enjoined. 303. 355 
— Safety measures, 543 

—-Transportation systems proposed [Beeler] •72 
New York. State of: 
— Association (see Auto Bus Association of 

New York State) 
— Funds for snow removal sought 497 
— Home rulf question. 205 289 
— Priority rights ruled out. 57 
— Mutual insurnncf law. 359 
— Snow removal. •363 497 
Niacrara Falls. N. Y. : 
— BuHcs advocated. 548 
Northern Ohio Traction & Lig-ht Co 

Akron. O.) 


Oakland. Cal.: 

— California Transit Co.: 

Maintenance of stages, 'le?: Comments 

on. 191 
Six-whe<;l stage developed. •265 

— City operates buses. 549 

Ohio Motor Bus Owners Assn.: 

— Annual meeting: 
Plans. 544 
Proe(?iedlnK"s. 590 

— Insurance plans. 301 

Ohio. State of: 

— BuH lepialativc plans. 102 

— RcKulatory law. 260. 309. 406. 431. 455. 
500. .55] 

— Speeding: defined. 310 

— Sunday school buses. 106 

— Transportation by buses. 357 

Omaha. Neb.: 

— Boulevard Transit Co.: 
Service Increased 150 

Orcgron Auto Staere Terminal Co. fsee Port- 
land. Ore.) 

Orearon. Stale of: 

— Association, (see Automotive Carriers* Asso- 
ciation of Oregon) 

— Bus mileace Bxcater than railroads. 118 

— Routes and service. "SI 

Ortonville, Minn.; 

— Ortonville Transportation Co.: 
Fare system. •119 

Ottawa. Can.: 

— Capital Bus Line: 

Duplex ticket used. '320 
Overhead contract system : 
— Toronto construction [Forsyth], •131. 189 

Pacific Electric Land Co. (see Los Ang-eles, Cal.) 
Paradox Land & Transportation Co. (see Denver 

Pasadena. Cal.: 

— City bus system plan defeated. 54 
Paterson. N. J.: 
— Bus patronag-e in 1923. 158 
Paving- : 

— Deflection tests at Pittsburgh. Cal.. '9 
— Tests of. '4 

Pennsylvania Motor Bus Owners' Assn.; 
— Organization completed. 98 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. (see Young-s- 

town. O.) 
Pennsylvania R.R. ; 

— Train service curtailed due to buses, 109 
Pennsylvania Rapid Transit Co. (see Phila- 
delphia. Pa.) 
Pennsylvania. State of: 
— Call and demand rigrhls. 260 
— "Common carrier" term questioned. 307 
Peoples' Motor Bus Co. (see St. Lo\us, Mo.) 
Peninsula Rapid Transit Co. (see San Fran- 
cisco. Cal.) 
Petersburg-, Va. : 
— Virginia Railway & Power Co.: 

Trolley buses. *379 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 
— 'Bus franchises sougrht. 53. 207 
— Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Bus franchise granted. 303 

Bus plans. 402. 449. "SQO 

Bus service started. 495 
— Pennsylvania Rapid Transit Co.: 

Trolley buses ordered. 331; Started. 546 

W. Va.) 
Phoenix. Arix.: 
— Union Auto Transportation Co. : 

Service and equipment. •560 
Pickwick Stages (see Los Angeles. Cal.) 
Pocahontas Transportation Co. (see Welch. 

W. Va.: 
Port Arthur. Tex.: 
— Port Arthur & Port Neches Bus Line; 

Buses for. ^8 
Port Jervis, N. Y.: 
— Port Jervis Traction Co.: 

Bus franchise soug-ht. 50 
Portland, Ore. : 
— Advertising: stage travel. •435: Comments on. 

— Columbia Stage Lines: 

Depreciation charg^es. 405 

Inquiry by commission. 259 
— Dunthorpe-Rivera Line: 

Rebuilt Reo bus. •280 
— Linnton Transit Co. : 

Annual report. 210 
— Oregon Auto Stag:e Terminal Co.: 

Express business from. ^566 

Financing and fees. 268 

Loud speaker used. 574 
• — IPortland-Salem-Albany Stage Line: 

Service of. '33 
Pottstown. Pa. : 
— Bing-aman & Reynolds: 

Methods used [Roller]. •I 
Providence. R. I.: 
— United Electric Rys.: 

Bus operating data. 173 

Bus permit granted. 154 

Fifty bus garage. '179 

Jan. -July report. 499 

- — Daily advertisment pood. ^559 
— Methods of Wolverine Transit Co.. •223 
— Railroads co-operate, 26 

— Route sigms important. Comments on. 486 
Pul>lic. Relations with: 
— Chicago Motor Coach Co.. 221 
— Conductors' badges effective, 22 
— Courtesy developed. •29 
— Express business aids, •566 
— Historical exhibit in New York. ^407 
— Knowledge of connecting schedules. Com- 
ments on. 436 
— St. Louis service praised. 497 
— Service to patrons [Roller]. •! 
— Terminals an asset [Carmalt], •276: Com- 
ments on. 287 
Public Service Ky. (see Newark. N. J.) 
Puget Sound International Railway & Power 

Co. (see Everett. Wash.) 
Purchases and stores: 
— Basis of purchases. Comments on. 35 
— Stockroom of California Transit Co.. •167 


Radiators (Bee Engine) 

Rahway. N. J.: 

— Bus line to parallel railway. 104 

Railways. Bub operation. 482: Comments on. 486 

Railways, compared with buses for New York 

City IBeeler]. •72 
Randolph. N. Y.: 
— Randolph-Jamestown Bus Co.: 

Doughnut tires tried. 434 
Record forms: 

— ^Barometer of earnings [Swint]. •576 
— Cincinnati Motor Bus Co., 415 
— Cleveland Akron Bus Co.. ^555 
— Daily and trouble reports, Younerstown. O.. 

— Defect and Inspeolion. [Cordell]. "445 

Record forms (continued): 

— Express business, •SOG 

— Items for. 30 

— Louisville. Ky.. •463 

— Minneapolis Line, •Si 

— Red Star Transportation Co., 417 

— -Rochester. N. Y. (East Avenue Bus Co ) 'llS 

— Shellacking cards desirable. 331 

— Traffic, oil and gas. "216 

— Washington Rapid Transit Co.. ♦183 

— Watertown Transportation Co.. ^421 

— Wisconsm Motur Bus Lines. •567 

— Yosemite Transportation System. "SIS 

Red Ball Transportation Co. (see Mason City 

Red Bank. N. J.: 
— Boro Buses. Inc.: 

Service increase. 54 
Red Star Motor Drivers' Ass'n. (see Detroit 

Regulation of buses: 
— Advantages [Blanchard]. 202 
— Advocated for Iowa [Eby]. 204 
— Cities adopt, 455 
— Colorado Commission decides. 57 
— ■"Common carrier" term questioned 307 
— Convenience limitation. Comments on. 338 
— Davenport. la.. 110 

— Elevating bus business. Comments on. 190 
— Federal-aid roads by federal government 132 
— Fundamentals of [Blanchard], 47 148 
— 'Florida. 65 

— History on railroads. 272 
— Indiana. 284 

— Interstate authority question. 161: 600 
— 'Legislation proposed. 161. 309 
— Michigan. 199. 551 
— Michigan Commission permits competitive 

lines, 500 
— Milwaukee, Wis., 406 
— Minnesota. 189 

— New York City, buses irresponsible 161 
— Notes on. 110 
— Ohio: 260. 309. 406. 431 
— Omaha. Neb.. 455 
— Oregon, .31 

— Permits transferable in New Jersev 57 
— Priority not factor in New York. '57 
— Review of California decisions, 49 
— Size and speed limits in Quebec. 110 
— Taxi service disguise ended in Cahfomia. 110 
— Tennessee, 234 
— Trend of [Kuykendall]. 28. 86 
— Utah rStoutnour], •333 
— Washington law upheld. 211 
— -West Virginia. 133 
Repair shops and equipment: 
— Brake relinintr machine "244 
— Chain hoist. Electrical. "194 
— Commercial repairs also. "215 
— Cylinder boring with honing tool, •396 
— Drill and grinder. Portable, •il 
— Electric hoist. "295 

— .Equipment for Concourse Bus Line, ^61 
— Facilities in Newark, N. J., and Milwaukee. 

Wis., '472 
— Jack. Ball-bearing. '195 
— Jack, Gear type. ^41 
— »Tack, Heavy-duty, ^195 
— Jack. Heavy-duty dolly. ^342 
— Jack, with folding handle. ^194 
— Oil filtered through waste. 512 
— Oil reclaiming apparatus. '243 
— Planning facilities, ^375 
— Practise of California Transit Co.. •167: 

Comments on. 191 
— Preparation for winter. Comments on. 533 
— Railway men on buses. [Cordell 1. ^444 
— Record cards shellacked. 331 
— 'Saw. Universal bench. ♦390 
— Service to buses [Fielder]. 252 
— Steel plate trolley. ♦538 
— Washing set. Lavato, ^195 
— Weaver press for high-speed, ♦il 
— Wheel pullers. Crane, •192 
— Wheel puller for heavy duty. ^295 
— lYosemite Transportation System. ^315 
Reynolds Taxi Co. (see Clarksburg. W. Va.) 
Richmond. Va,: 
— Bus competition. 156 
— Richmond Rapid Transit Corp. : 

Franchise granted. ^53 

Weekly passes withdrawn. 499 
Ritter Motor Bus Co. (see Bloomington. 111.) 
Road Ser\nee: 

— Emergency wagon used in New York, ^61 
— Troubles classified. •315 
Rochester. N. Y. : 
— East Avenue Bus Line: 

Bus service in storm. 107 

Equipment, route and fare system. •IIS 
— New York State Rys.; 

Trolley buses planned. 332 
— Rochester Railways. Co-ordinated Bus Lines: 

Buses ordered. 257 

New line started, 401 

Plans for service. 156 
— White Rapid Transit Co.; 

Bus rebuilt. '270 
Rocky Mountain Parks Transportation Co. (see 

Denver. Col,) 
Rockfnrd. Ill : 
— Rockford Traction Co.: 

Bus route changes. 1,57 
Roller bearings. Hoffmann. •345 

St. Louis. Mo.: 

— Peoples Motor Bus Co.; 
Permits sought, .')51 
Popularity of. 448 
Service complimented. 497 
Service started. 303 
Traflfie increasing. '352 

— Unitetl Bus Transit Corp.: 

Service plans. 50. 105. 255 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications. 

January-December, 1923] 



Safety work: 

— (Always be careful. Coaimente on. '^80 

— Aunty J. Walker. •5-12 

— Bunus sysltrma. 542 

— Bus .'iMratur should aid. Comiueiite ou. 101 

— Br I. II. 185 

— Or. r, 542, Corumeiita uii. 286. 487 

— Cr. H) Colorado. 101 

— Feu. It r.iiii.i ■ r. Pohliff. •3U0 

— Four wht'< I brukt>«. Uincuatted by S. A.E.. 348. 

Coiiiiiiriitd on. 340 
— Good dnvtTB nt^vsuary. Commentd on. 340 
— National Hih'hway TralUc Assn. discussed. *208 
— New York City. 543 
— Rules in Camden. N. J.. 151 
Saeinaw. Mich,: 
— Bus plans. 402 
— KranehitM! granted. 350 

— litdependent bun system voted against. 205 
— Rail way- tuiH -ly.-ttem ilefealed, 257 
—•Transportation prupoisaJs. 107. 157 
Salisbury. Md.: 
— Shore Tranuit Co.: 

Service sturted. 150 
San Diegro. Cal . : 
— San Dieeo Electric Ry.: 

Bus feeders increased. 108 

Bufwg to replace some rail lines. 304 
San Francisco. Cal,: 
— Municipal bus line. 108 
— Peninsula Rapid Transit Co : 

Hydraulic bnikes sn<<'esrtful. •267 
— San Francisco Municipal Ry.: 

Brake drums reinforced. 189 
San Jos^. Cal.: 

— San Jose Stace Report. •418 
Santa Monica. Cal.: 
— Bay CitieB Transit Co.: 

Franchise Kranted. 157: Referendum sought. 

Santa Rosa. Cal.: 

— Santa Rosa - Pt-taluma - Sausalito Auto Stagre 

Courtesy essential. 'SO 

Service of. •21 
Schedules and time-tables: 
— Board for announcing. •203 
— Chicag^o Motor Coach Co.. 125 
— Conneotinir schedules should be known. Com- 
ments on. 43fi 
— Descriptions imluded. 26 
— Form of. Comments on. 532 
— Inter State Bus Lmr. •571 
— Modifying to atfrei* with traflic in Chicago. 125 
— New York Association plans, 589 
— Penn.'*ylvanlaOhio Coach Lines. •175 
— Samples used in Reading. I*a. (RoUerl. •! 
— ^kip lops used in Toronto. Onl.. *olS 
— Storm duficulties overcome. 103. 107 
Schenectady. N. Y.: 

— Bus controversy. 305. 403. 452. 500. 551 
SchuvIkiU Transportation Co. <3ee Mahoney 

City, Pa.) 
Seats (see Body) 
Seattle. Wash. : 

—Bus accident fatal to three. 105 
Service Bus Line (see Holland. Mich.) 
Shore Transit Co. (see Salisbury. Md.) 
Snow removal: 

— Advance preparation. Comments on. 3S8 
— Bradford. Pa., plowing. ^137 
— Duties of stale. Comments on, 487 
— Fifth Ave. Coach Co.. •369: Comments on. 389 
— Fighters ( Desmond 1 . 368 

— Funda soupht in Albany County. N. Y.. 497 
— Minnesota difficulties, ^372 
— Passenger car plow. •374 
— Plows in New York State. 'SOS: Comments 

on. 389 
— Plow rented. •SeS 

— Responsibility for. Comments on. 580 
— Rotary snow broom. Fox, •SOS 
— Scraper gnowplow. ^539 
— State law sponsored by Association in New 

York. 544 
Society of Automotive Engineers: 
^-<Cleveland meetiner on transportation. 237. 

— Metropolitan section meetinff. 248 
— New York. January meeting". 80. 148 
— New York. March meeting, 253 
— Production discussed. 40 
— Summer meeting: 

Plans. 301 

Proceedings. 348. ^397; Comments on. 340 
Sonoma. Cal.: 
— Vallenti & Steurmer: 

Cadillac chassis for stage. '433 
South Hudson County Boulevard Bus Owners' 

Assn. *see Jersey City N". J.) 
South New Berlin. N. Y.: 
— J. A. Wild & Son: 

Rented plow. •368 
Spain : 

— Cordoba usee Leyland buses. •426 
— Dcvclopmenta in bus service. 26 
Speedometer (see Body) 
Sprine-flcld. Mass.: 

— Independent operators opposed. 157 
— Springfield Street Ry.: 

Bus operation permitted. 104 

Bus service increase. 258 
Springfield. Ohio: 
— Indiana. Columbus & Ea«ttem Traction Co.: 

Bus service started. 255 
Springs (see Chassis) 
— Advantages [Clarkson]. 218. Comments on. 

— Battery dimensions. 252 
— Educational work planned. 351 
— Head and tail lights. S. A E 80 
— Maintenance reduction by TLa Schuml. 248 
— Standard parts advocated. 201 
Star Transportation Co. <see Mason City. Iowa) 

—Analysis of possible bus operation. "SIO 
— ^Body design. *15 

Stattaties (continued): 

— Far.B lii 

— Oih-ratuiK 

Akron ' • 



12. 04. 144. 100. 
. : 40U. 54U. 5HU 

mnl. 00 
lUiU^,> ExprvM IBcbum], 248 

Md .■|1I7 

llaHi» of unlU I Reader I. 340 

Califiiruiu in 1022. 307: t Reader I. 3IU. 
3;.7. 507 

Cliicuffo M.»!or Bu§ Co. 1019-22. 160 

Conipar' ' " ' r| , 72 

DaiilMi; . ■.: 

Detniii Co.. 550 

Liruitoi. I o.. 21*J 

Londuii dc >ii-ni-r»l Omnibui Co., 453 

Munn-ipal l*un Iine8, 512 

Newark. N J , 150 

Now London. Conn 402 

Providencf, R 1.. 173 490 

Railway companlua, 525 

Tn.Ili-y bus Einrliuh. 50H 

Wasblnrton Railway & Electric Co.. 400 

Washington Rapid Tranall Co.. 406 
— Passengen* in Nrw Jerm-y during strike. "47 
— Refill bus developmeiUB, 52. 107, 15M. 2i'- 

25H. 304. 350. 404. 451. 408. 548. 505 
— R^iute^ 111: 

(''■■> .tiiiid ^555 

Florida, es 

Indiana. 283 

MinneMuta. 188 

National Auto Tranall Co.. 5 

Oregon. 31 

Tennesjwe. 235 

Utah. 337 

West Virginia. 136 
— Street wpace of buses and trolley cars [Tur- 
ner! . 277. 322 
— Tralllc at Ford factory IBibbinsl. 'oOl 
— Traflic in New Jersey. 414 
— Traffic in Ohio. 357 
— Trouble ilassifled. 'SIO 
Stanton, Va.: 
— Towns Bus Line: 

Sleeper service announced. 594 
Steam driven buses: 
— PaEe. Beck & White. Model. •381 
Steering Gear (see Chassis) 
Stores <Bee Purchasea and stores) 
Strealor. Ill : 

— Bupes r»'place trolleys. 505 
Suburban Stage Lines (see Kansas City. Mo.) 
Switzerland : 

— Government buses profitable, 132 
Syracuse. N. Y.: 
— Waller M. Aldrich: 

Plow on passenger car. ^374 

Tacoma. Wash.: 

— Hospital line. Applicants for. 157 

— Tar-oma Union Stage Lines: 

High tiro mileage. *285 

— Base on costs. Comments on. 532 
— California situation [TrarlB]. c35. 358 
— Equitable for automobile. Comments on. 24o 
— Federal on privately owned buses. 405 
— 'For hirt-" tax. Comments on. 580 
— Fundamentals of, 591 
— Gasoline tax. 161. 410 
— May cause increased fare. 208 
— Rctiuction O^jmments on Mellon plan. 580 
— Trend of [Kuykendalll. 28. 85 
— Youngslown. O.. requirements. 128 
Taxicab <-onstruction [Bersie]. 239 
Tennessee. SlalM of: 
— Bus service. '233 
— School buses. 420 
Terminal and waiting stations: 
— A<Ivrrlisinir >v-v^ nupporls. 503 
— Chamber of Commerce provides. 302 
— Cleveland bus lines. 354 

— lE.-ononileal layouts rCarmalH. •276: Com- 
ments on. 287 
— Financing at Portland. Ore.. 268 
— Loud speakiT announcing. 574 
— Santa Clara depot. •21 
— View.s of wveral. '418 
— Terminal u-st-d. 208 
TVsts of bufti'S and equipment : 
— Magnetos by L. G. 0.. •417 
—Power consumplion of trolley bus. 410 

— Air center. ^192 _ . , ^„ 

— Balloon tvpc discussed. 348: IHalc]. •30. 
— Daylon. Douirhnul. ^440 

—Doughnut typo used. 434 

— Dual tires on stages improve wrvlcr. "ii»» 

— Dual versus single I Abbott 1. 284 

— Heating problem. 313 

— Heavy-duty. Mason. ^306 

— Inflation of [Smith]. 444 

— (Practice in California Transit Co.. 107 

— Rims slandardirctl for doughnul Itn-s •5W.» 

— Selling of, di-'cussed. 45 

— So'id. Non Skid tread •5.s.-. 

— Solid. Trimming of. •Ol 

— Tractor tnnd. ^441 

— Type and sire for bn--^. *-■«"■•- *i '-JJ*"- 

"46 296 340 391 J 42 »00. 540. 5K« 
— Washington. 50.000 miles. •285 
Toledo. O.: 
— Community Traction Co.; 

Bus service. 64. 104. 156 
Toronto, Can.: 
— Lake Shore Motor Bus Co.: 

Winter service. •.371 
— Toronto TranHpnrtntton Commission : 

Skin stop U!»rd. ^51 8 

Trolley bu** operation [Fon»vthl. 'ISl. IH» 
Town* Bn- Line i «ee Staunton. Va ) 

Trafll'* itirwttration'r- 

— k*ltuyo ul bua iRiu-bJoj. •jt&ji: Cticamrou 

Tr:»fri. (..-ir.)- 

Kcwburvh i«9 

- 1 « 

fl.rVrrllt.- •>N-j 

.m*^*T«, 374 


• - 



* ,1.-,ihV .'. 

•> - 

J \l--r 








" 'n llDt^ controrrrttr. 211 

— Lu» oiA:atlu)t fflllbum), flOO 
Twin SutF Os. h Elrt'lrlr Co (ttm Hratli- 
Vt I 


Union Aut't Tran.lMjrtAlton Co < .- 

tTnllay] Bu« Tninnt Tnrp '^n- ^• < 
t7nlti-d Elf»^trl<- Ry- '■ n i i 

Unlln) Un«. Ltd ' I Can ) 

Unlli-*! StnCT-» (nr^ ' 
UnitftJ Trafuport.*:.'... ^.-^ <w. v%'a«blairtoo 

D C) 
rtnh. Slalr of: 
—Bua terriot and recnUUoa (Stoatnour). *33a 

Vallenti & Steunnrr laee Sonocna CaJ i 

Van^^uver, n C 

— Bniixh Col '.V : 

Bui oiH 108 

Van Dykf 1 i>^ ian> Bufla'- 

N Y 1 
VIrrinIa Rallwajr * Powrr Co. (•»» Prt«T«bar». 

Va 1 
VInrinla. Stalv of: 
— A'uiH'iaiioD iter Motor Btu Aaaoctsll 




— Chlcaro Motor r-- > '■ ■• •' 

— S.ali- for Fifth ■ 

Walllnc •lallons ( - 

Waahiniftrtn Auto r - . >n 

— LerlHlatlon ronildcnxl, I'J'J 

— Wildrat op<Tator« dlacUMird. 400 

Waahlntton D r 

— Capital Tr L 

IlllA IlH' IM 

— Waahlnrli-' v ElrcMr Co 


». r.i 

— Waol •■•ll Co.: 

Fi: DmiKi -IM 

M . -3 


\\ r 

— ■. ■MI 
Wal.;hi3 ul ^ZL^l importance. 1T4 
Watrrtown. S. T.: 

— Wftlert-.-^rn T.nw-rl'Tr Cotwnha4rrn Bua JJnf: 

Sri iicnt. •303 

— Wat.- le: 

Wat<Tl<r«r, 1 r . -: .i liM.n Oo. : 

Enir>ln>-r«<« and mcthoda. *421 
WM-h-awken N* J, : 
^11 ... ' , .r,.d at frrrr. S2 
W ' I : 

— TranMnortatton Co, : 
xtfTicM 450 

Wi.t N. A York, N J : 
— Hlll'tdr Hu» Awn 

M -v -•. .tnd rfluipmeot. 'SIB 
%V. n.: 

.pplant trol!cT». *^ 
V. .n Trannportatlon Co. 'x* Chlc««o. 

Wr«t Virrtnla. Slate of: 
— Run rtiuteo and ol>eratlon. *13S 
— Bus profpoclJ. 434 
— Aluminnin. Whlteomb. 38 

lull ,'..v..- f.-r —ft n.TN •ino 

it' -.le. •14" 

_ , :llT«. 'Si^f 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications^ 




[Vol. 2 

Wheels (continued) : 

— Six-wheeler construction and operation. •529 

— Small rim type exhibited. 79 

— Types used in buses. 42. 94. 144. 196. 24b. 

396 346. .394. 44":. 490. 540. o86 
White Rapid Transit Co. (see Rochester. N. T.) 
Wichita. Kan.: 
— Bridgeport Bus Serv'ice : 

Publicity. '559 
— Bus operation in flood. '014 
— Wichita-Valley Center Line: 

Service increase. 306 xt tt- i 

Wild J A & Son (see South New Berlin. N.Y.) 
Wisconsin Motor Bus Lines (see Milwaukee. 


Wisconsin. State of: 
— Bus regulation law deleated. 3.-)9 
Wolverine Transit Co. (see Detroit. Mich.) 
Wonder Tour of America (see Cleveland. O.l 
Woodlawn Improvement Association & Trans- 
portation Co. (see Albany. N. Y.) 

York. Pa.: 

— York Transit Co.: 

Additional permit soug-ht, 452 
Yosemite Valley: 
— Yosemite Transportation System: 

Service, equipment maintenance. 

Younestown, Ohio: 

— Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. : 

Bus service to Warren [Seely]. 96 

Service rendered. "ITS 
— Young-stown Municipal Ry. : 

Bus operation. 'ISS 

Service by buses increased. 207. 496 
— Youngstown & Suburban Ry.: 

Luxurious cars with individual chairs. 

Zanesville & Dayton Transportation Co. 
Columbus. O.) 


Abbott. R. D.: 

— .Dual vs. single pneumatic tires. .;S4 


Barnes. Julius H.: 

— Transportation keyed to production. 146 

Beeler. John A.: ^ .-.« 

— Trolleys favored for surface transport, 'i^ 

Berriman. A. E.: 

— Bus developments. 547 

Bersie. Hugh G.: 

— Taxicab body construction. 239 

Bibbins, J. Rowland: 

— Traffic at Ford factory. '561 

Blanchard. Arthur H.: 

— Highway transport franchises. 47. 202 

Blinn. AC: ^ , .„„ 

— Urban motor bus operation and cost. '89 

Brown. W. C: ,.,..., -.i, 

Better headlamps and their adjustment (with 

R. N. Falge). '493 
— Suggestions for better headlighting I with 

Falge). 349 
Bollum. H. L.: 
— Cause of bus growth. 251 

Carmalt. L. J. : . , * .- 
Intercity bus lines need local terminal stations. 

Chase, Herbert : 

— Modern steering systems. l.)0 
Clarkson. C. F.: .,„ 

— The bus and standardization. .;18 
Collins. J. F.: 
— Double-deck buses. 44 

Conlon. Leo F.: . a> ■ 

— Improved schedules greatly increase trathe in 

Elizabeth. '327 
Cordell. Henry: 
— North Shore operation, '444 


Desmond. John: 

— The snow fi&hters. 368 

Ebv C W ■ 

— R*f8T.ilation of motor vehu-les in Iowa. 204 

Emmons. CD.: , . . . 

>-ordinatins' motor bxis and electric railway. 


Falge R N * 

Better headlamps and their adjustment (with 

W. C. Brown). '493 
Suggestions for bettor headlighting (with 

Brown) 349 
Farmer. Henry: 

— Financing sales on deferred payment plan. -ioO 
Femandes. Guillermo: 
— Es.sential characteristics for a small bus. 

Fessenden. G. R. : . , - . m 

— Electrical equipment for bus service (with T. 

L. Leo) '273 
Fielder. R. E.: 
— Service problems. 253 
Forsyth. W.: 

— Trolley Bus operation in Toronto. 'IJl 
Franklaiid. E. : 
— The idr-al in bus design. c534. 

Gaetan!. Gelaslo: 

— The engineer in public affairs. 98 

Gleason. A. L. : 

— A problem for solution. e341 



Irvine. W, I.: 
— -Far East using 

bus service. 147 

Jackson. Walter; 

— Individual and company applications of the 

motor bus. 1*^1 
James. R. W. : 
— Good words from the mountains, cool 


Kennedy. Willam P.: , . , . . . 

Trolley buses and flexible vehicles for street 

railway service. 253 
Kuvkendall. E. V.: 
— The trend of bus regulation. 38 

L,ane. F. Van Z.: , 

— Co-ordinating bus and electric railway. cZSS 

La Schum, Edward: 

— Fundamentals of fleet operation, 248 

Lee. Elisha: 

— Motor transport and our railroads — a problem 

in co-ordination. 81 
Lee. T. L.: .,^ „ 

— Electrical equipment for bus service (with t.. 

R. Fessenden ) . '373 
Lewis. Warren K.: 
— ^Dollar gasoline chimera. 'SIS 
Lockwood. E. H.: 
— Cooling capacity of radiators. ^149 


Mclntyre. George : 

— Finance companies demand assurance 01 a 

good risk. 235 
— Financing bus sales on the deferred payment 

plan. c341 
Myers. Cornelius T. : ,. i, ■ 

— Progress in construction of motor-bus chassis. 


Parish. William F.: 

— Remedies for oil dilution. 559 

Pontius. D. W.: . „ ,., 

Co-ordination of trolley and bus in California. 


Queeney. J. A.: 

The field of the trolley bus. 203 

"Reader" : 

— Determining bus operating cost and profits, 

Reeves, Alfred : 

— Does rubber endanger the rails? 537 
— 'Railroad men as transport managers, 351 
Reinhold, F. E.: 

— Improvement in garage storage. 534 
Ritchie. John A.: 

— 'Buses downtown in Chicago. 352 
— Place of the bus in city transportation. 383 
Roller. Bert G.: .... 

— Getting bus patronage in the smaller cities. •! 

Schwab. Martin C: _ 

— How 300 buses are put under one roof. ♦d07 

Seely. Garrett T. : 

— The use of the interurban bus. 96 

Shave. G. J. : ^. , „„„ 

— .Development of L. G. O. motor vehicles. 399 

Smith. Howard: 

— ^Development of transportation depends on 

tires, 444 
"Spectator": ,^ 

— Bright future for bus business in West Vir- 
ginia. 434 
Stoutnour. Warren: , . j 

— What motor bus regulation has accomplished 

in Utah. '333 
Swan. Lawrence: 

— ^How buses can be bought on time, 2'_, 
Swint, Roy H.: ^ . ,, 

— Drlver-to-offlc? forms serve as barometer ol 
bus line earnings. '576 

Systematic cost accounting will cut operating 

costs. c389 

Taylor. E. P.: 

— Small city operation. co35 

Travis. W. E. : 

— Taxes and franchises. c35 

Thirlwall. J. C. : . ,„„. _ 

— Trolley bus made real progress in iy..i. 7 


Watson. E. E.: 

— rThree years of bus operation. cl.l9 
Wooton. Paul: . ^ , ,„„ 

— First-hand observations in London. 04^ 

Young. G. A.: ... 

Engine behavior under high compression with 

HoUoway and Huebotter) 


Bibbins. J Rowland . 
Birmingham. J. A. . 
Blair. Lewis H, ... 
lilakely, Stephens L. 
Brush. George S. . . . 
Bryant. E. L 

Cameron. David . . . 
Colford. J. E 

Dodd. James J 

Davidson. Bernard . . 
Dimmiek. R. S. ... 
Dukes. R. C 

England. Howard H. 

Flaherty. John N. . 
Eraser. Ivor 

. 163 
. 4.''>6 
. •313 
. ^456 
. •552 

. ^360 
. ^408 

. 112 

. fti)4 

. •ns 

, . 505 
. 164 

McGreevy. N. H 

McKay. William J 

Moreton. B. Foster . . . . 

Moser, Herbert C 

Mallahey. Joseph W. . 
Murphy. Grayson M. P. 

.... '456 
. . . .•361 


.163. 212 



Newton. M. H *^^ 

O'Hrien, W. L ;«"0 

Odell. Benjamin B ^-^-^ 


Peartree. E. J.. Jr. 
Pollock. Gilbert K. 

Reese. William D. 
Rhinock, Joseph L 

Halo. J. C: . .„„_ 

— Shoeing a car with low pressure air. •Sg, 

Harding. Warren G.: 

— Transport evolution. 352 

Ililburn. B.: „„„ 

— Motor tins experience In Tulsa. Okla.. 200 

Howel John C: „„ 

— Antomobile commodities in 1923. 83 
Ho\lowa.v. J. H.: . , . .. 

— Engine behavior under high compression (with 

Hucb<)ttcr and Young). 148 
Huebotter. H, A.: , , ,.^ 

— Engine behavior under high compression (with 
Hollow.v and Young), 148 

Geer, F, H 

Hertz, John A 

Higgins L. G, . . . . 

Howell. F. D 

Hull. E. V 

Jacobs. Ralph L. . 

Keenan. Vincent E, 
KiUeen. William P. 

Lee, Gordon 


. .600 


. 213 



Sanborn. Ralph W. . . 
Schultz. Helen M. . . 

Seelv. Garrett T 

Soidelman. George L. 
Smith. C. Monroe . . . 

Snead. J. L- S 

Spark. Ralph M 

Street. CD 

Tomczaek. Frank J. 
Thorn. Wray T 

Wales. Prince of 
Watson. Matthew 
Wotton. Edward . 








Abbrcvintions: •Illustrated, c Communications. 

New York, January, 1923 

Getting Bus Patronage^ in llu^ 
Smaller (.ities 

By Bert G. Roller 

I.inkinj,' Ip With Leading Department Stores at Each End of a Lonu- 

Distance Route Has Proved Profitahle to I'ennsylvania Line— llnu 

the Zone System and Cash Fare Receipts Work Out — Drivers Handled 

on a Common-Sense Basis 

THE BUS LINE that accommo- 
dates — gives real service — and 
is always on the job, is the one 
that wins. So reason Bingaman & 
Reynolds, owners and operators of 
the Reading-Pottstown and Potts- 
town-Spring City bus lines, with 
headquarters at 119 Franklin Street, 
West Reading, Berks County, Pa. 
Hence, they are extremely careful to 
see that their vehicles are in good 
condition, which means good mechan- 
ics, as well as good buses; that the 
buses are kept on the road, which 
predicates good drivers; that there 
are reserve drivers constantly on 
hand in case of emergencies and that 
they are good "salesmen" and know 
their regular patrons by sight, board- 
ing point and destination and, if pos- 
sible to do so unobtrusively, by name. 
Common sense, in fact, has guided 
all the doings of the partners since 
they started in business in July, 
1921, with two buses running be- 
tween Reading and Pottstown. For 
instance, they did not arbitrarily 
establish a bus stand, terminal or 
starting point and then try to induce 
customers to come there to board 
their buses. They scouted around 
until they found where the most 
people of bus riding tendencies in 
Reading and Pottstown came to- 
gether most frequently in each of 
these centers of population and then- 
they established their starting points. 
That was almost half the battle at 
the start, for customers were there, 
ready to ride and did not have to 
be sought out and importuned. 

In Reading, this local point is in 
front of the large department storr 

of C. K. Whitner & Company, on 
Penn Street, near Fifth Street, the 
central ganglion of foot and vehicular 
traffic. In Pottstown, the "concourse" 
for bus riders is in front of the larg- 
est department store in that place, 
or Dives, Pomery & Stewart's. A 
master stroke of shrewdness on the 
part of the bus operators was shown 
in the arrangement they made with 
each of these department stores, 
whereby these estaolishments not 
only permit but invite and welcome 
the bus patrons to use their waiting 
rooms as a bus terminal, post 
placards printed at their own ex- 

Type of 6h.s, seating twenty-seven pan- 
sengers, used by Bingaman & Reyno'ds. 

pense in the entry ways of the Ktorea 
and print and distribute the buji 
lines' schedule cardH. shouldering the 
cost and using the reverse «ide of 
these cards for their own advertise- 
ments. This arrangement, of coume, 
virtually establish -i ,■ particular 
bus lines as the i ' : and quasi- 

official transporluiioii iigencies for 
these important stores into and out 
of which hundreds, if not thouiiands, 
of patrons pour daily. 

Reading, in its "metropolitan" dis- 
trict, has a population of approxi- 
mately 110,000 and, includintr the 
suburban area, has 125, "' 'it- 

ants. It is a center where \ - m 

many other towns and cities come 
in large numbers daily. It is notice- 
able that the taxicabs "lay ofT' the 
department store field; that is, they 
do not encroach in an aggre.ssive 
way. and the buses do not even 
resort to the artifice of having a 
stand "across the way" from the 



Vol.2, No.l 

leading hotel, the Berkshire, or other- 
wise apparently seek to take in tow 
possible long-distance "fares" of the 
cab companies. 

Bus Fleet of Four Units 

About all that the bus operators 
have to do is to obey the traffic regu- 
lations and adhere to the rulings of 
the State Public Service Commission, 
once they have received their certifi- 
cate of public convenience. The city 
doesn't concern itself with the details 
of operation. 

The present Bingaman & Reynolds 
bus fleet consists of four units — 
three Sterlings, two of which seat 
comfortably twenty-seven passengers 
apiece and the third twenty-one pas- 
sengers, and a Mack, seating twenty- 
five. Three of the buses are in con- 
stant use over the routes, while the 

a 5-cent fare for each zone where a 
workman's fifty-trip ticket is pur- 
chased, and the ticket is sold to school 
children au the rate of 3A cents per 
zone for fifty trips, or twenty-five 
round trips. Such tickets, ordered 
from the bus driver, are good until 
used, that is, until the last one of 
the numerals, from 1 to 50, border- 
ing the card, which is pink, has been 
punched out, when it must be sur- 
rendered. The holder's name is writ- 
ten in on a dotted line, and on the 
face of the ticket is distinctly stated 
that it is not transferable. Each 
ticket bears a serial number. As the 
ticket is the same for workmen and 
school children, the company has a 
rubber stamp which it uses on the 
back, which reads: "Not Good on 
Saturdays, Sundays or holidays." 
The children's ticket has all these 

fourth, when not on a route, is open 
to chartering. 

There are two buses, at least, 
always on the Reading-Pottstown 
route, which is traversed in an hour 
and five minutes under ordinary 
traffic conditions ; and one bus, ordi- 
narily, on the Pottsdown-Spring City 
run, which usually takes but forty- 
five minutes. Three of the buses are 
equipped with Sewell wheels and the 
fourth has pneumatic tires. The bus 
interiors are heated through the 
exhaust of the engines, and a battery 
controls the lighting system direct. 
There are four dome lights in each 

Fare Seven Cents per Zone 

The buses are run on the "pay- 
enter" plan, through a zone system. 
The regular cash fare is 7 cents per 
zone on the Reading-Pottstown line; 
but on the Pottstown-Spring City 
line, however, there is, in addition. 

In the ijtuayi' terminal at West 
Reading at the end of the run 

conditions, while the word "Saturday" 
is crossed out on the workmen's 

Where no trip ticket is bought 
and the customer pays a cash fare, 
the driver hands him a "cash fare 
receipt," in the form of a yellow 
ticket, 2 in. long by 1 in. wide, which 
the passenger retains until he is leav- 
ing the bus, when he returns it to 
the driver. The ticket has a line read- 
ing: "Always Insist on a Receipt." 
Holding such a receipt not only pro- 
tects the customer, hut also aids the 
driver, especially where there is a 
crowd boarding the vehicle, enabling 
him to keep a check on the number 
of fares paid. On the reverse of this 
tiny ticket are listed the seven zones 
on the trip, with the word "Up" at 
the head of the column, and "Down," 
at the bottom, to indicate the direc- 

tion in which the passenger is going. 
When the passenger gets his ticket, 
the driver punches the proper word, 
"Up," or "Down," and the zones 
through which he will pass to arrive 
at his destination, the customer pay- 
ing the proper amount of fare for 
the number of zones to be passed 
through. When a passenger boards 
a bus at any point in one zone and 
rides into another zone, of course 
two zone fares will be collected. 

The cash fare receipt ticket is so 
diminutive that the wonder is more 
passengers do not lose them; but 
the company asserts that very few 
do so. They have, for the most part, 
become accustomed to asking for and 
delivering up these receipts, and 
queries among both drivers and pas- 
sengers tend to show that they do 
not consider it much bother, but 
rather in the light of a protection. 
The driver rings up the fare on the 
register, and tickets, register read- 
ing and cash must tally at the run's 

According to the company, the 
arrangement of the workmen's and 
children's fifty-trip or twenty-five 
round-trip ticket operates to better 
advantage on the line than would a 
straight commutation ticket. 

In all the buses, route cards or 
time-tables are placed where passen- 
gers may conveniently read them. 
Drivers are not permitted to start 
ahead of schedule time. 

Between Reading and Pottstown 
seven round trips are made on week 
days. On Saturdays, Sundays and 
holidays an extra trip is made each 
way. On the Pottstown-Spring City 
line seven trips constitute the daily 
schedule, except on Sundays when 
the early morning trip is taken off. 

It should be explained that Potts- 
town is in Montgomery County, 
Reading in Berks County, Spring 
City in Chester County and Royers- 
ford in Montgomery County. It is 
18 miles from Reading to Pottstown 
on the bus route and about 10 miles 
from Pottstovni to Spring City. It 
is necessary to cross a bridge over 
the Schuylkill River to get to Royers- 
ford from Spring City, and the bus 
starts from Royersford, not Spring 
City, as will be noticed in the time- 
table, in coming into Pottstown. 

Buses not working on routes — 
usually there is not more than one 
in reserve — are, as already men- 
tioned, open to chartering. They may 
take parties on sightseeing tours, 
which is not infrequently the case in 
summer; or they may haul crowds to 
picnics, baseball games, lodge meet- 

January, 1923 



ings, or the like. A bus on a trip 
like this may not run many miles in 
a day, but on tourist trips, specially 
chartered, the company has sent a 
bus out on a three-day journey. 
Usually not more than 100 miles is 
made in a day by a chartered bus 
for any occasion. Runs, however, 
have frequently been made as far as 

Charges for chartering a bus are 
not by the head, as is the case with 
some companies, but at the rate of 
$1 a mile. While care is e.xercised 
not to overload a bus for such ex- 
peditions, not infrequently camp- 
stools are placed in the aisle when 
the destination is the same for the 

lines. A "silk special" for the benefit 
of the Reading hosiery mills is main- 
tained between New York and Read- 
ing, by way of Allentown. 

The garage at West Reading is 
equippe<l with plenty of the lighter 
kinds of tools and work benches for 
making adjustments and minor re- 
pairs on the vehicles, and a ser\'ico 
car also is kept here, ready to start 
at a moment's notice for any point 
on the routes in case of an accident. 

Fifty-tiif) ticket is popular 

.1 «l,l. h 


Tlii.s non-truii.sf' r:ilil. 
biii'iltTftl by nuin- . 
puiM-hfil out by T 
to workmen ut tl ■ 

anil to .si-huol rhiMi<u al Uti i .iL> •<[ .: : 
cents a zone. It 1h Htaniped on tli«- bitek. 
showing it Is KoofI for use by workmen on 
111! ilay.-i ixeept Siunlay.s and holldayii ami 
Booil fur sdiool trips on all days but SnI- 
urtla>s. .<iiiHla\s anil lioUtlass, 

Each bus is carefully inspected at 
the end of Us run and cleaned, oiled 
and grea.sed in plenty of time to make 
the next trip in pro|jer shape. The 
repairs most often necessary are 
those to the springs, and therefore 
this end of the repair isen'ice ha« 
been thoroughly cultivated and pre- 
pared for, so that enough extra 
springs are on hand in case of emer- 
gencies. Spring lubrication with 
special penetrating oil that works iLi« 
way rapidly between the Kpring 
leaves is a specialty here. "The 
bu8e.s must be kept on the road," is 
the slogan and watchword. 

Various experiments with tire* of 
different makes were tried before 

12 13 14 IS 16 17 






42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 



Pottstotcn-Spring City bus line timr- 
table. On the back is printed the ad- 
vertisement of a business concent ivhose 
store the buses pass. 

entire party chartering the vehicle. 
The company owns its commodiou-^ 
brick garage in West Reading, which 
is also the headquarters for a motor 
express business conducted by the 
concern. Here is the permanent 
home of at least two buses ; another 
is kept in a garage at Royersford 
and another in a public garage at 
Pottstown. The activities of the 
company's motor express business 
undoubtedly help to draw customers 
for the bus lines, and vice versa, 

BiNGAMAN & Reynold s Bus Line 


From To 

Bm A'c 




».1t.-i' *l 


TIckcU j Reciflcr 






^,,^— — "^ 

V V^P \ 


\'^M^^^^ \ 






Operator's trip report form and 
cash fare receipt 

The driver turn.s In one of these report." 
at the olTlri- at the end of his trip. Cn.«h 

each one being a good advertisement fare rec^ ii.t tkkcu. ticket s totnK reKi.-- 

„ ,, 1, ~, , ter reailincs and casth tally. The rash 

tor the other. The motor express fare rec. i|.t i.« a tiny ticket punche.1 for 

runs bet^veen Reading and Philadel- ^;.^rer°"v;.'frr%he'?>'um°be;"'o?"":nV.''v,'l" 

phia and Reading and New York {;?--'^;J,;!',',;?,'."j{' m*ght*appear"to"b.' "t nTsI specified duties to perform on .sched 

Citv, between which points there is Bilance. '.<maii as it is. the pa.s.«enc.r .".i- ule time. The buses are so quartered 

much trafiic, especially in textile ?um iV'^tk^ drive^ron'^eavinrthrbus" '" that, at the end of the day's runs. 

Reading-Pottstoicn bus litie time-table. 
The rererse side of f/iin also carries the 
iidrertisemrnt of a local merchant. 

the company decided in favor of 
Sewell wheels for all but one bus. 
Two expert mechanics are on hand to 
look after the needs of the buses. 

The company has six drivers — one 
for each bus and two in resen'e for 
shifts — whom it employs on a 
straight wage basis, allowing a small 
bonus, however, in the case of extra 
trips and special charter runs, pro- 
I'ided that the business uvrrants it. 

The men are handled on a common- 
sense plan, in which there is neither 
paternalism nor far-fetched attempts 
to conciliate. They are not "bawled 
out" on every provocation, nor are 
they coddled. They are handled 
strictly on the ba-^is of what they 
are — paid employees with certain 



Vol.2, No.l 

they go to a garage in the driver's 
home town, which arrangement is 
obviously the most economical one 
possible. The early-shift driver is 
ready early in the morning to take 
up his work. 

In summer the company generally 
puts on two extra men, because of 
the more frequent opportunity for 
chartered trips over a long distance, 
which otherwise would disturb the 
shifts and make them too long. 

In summer each man on regular 
duty has four trips each way, or 
eight trips in his day's work. The 
trips are so divided that the Potts- 
town driver and the Reading driver, 
for instance, are at home at the end 
of their day's run. 

The company prides itself on hav- 
ing only courteous and thoughtful as 
well as expert and careful drivers. 
They are trained to be on the alert 
for possible passengers and even blow 
their horn, or whistle if a "regular" 
patron is a trifle tardy when they 
are arriving at the point at which 
they are accustomed to pick him up 
at a certain time. The bus riders 
greatly appreciate thoughtfulness of 
this kind, which is no small factor in 
building up good will for the com- 
pany and the bus business in general, 
if only because it is diametrically 
opposed to the usual street railway 
methods. Hence, the bus drivers 
actually get and weld business to the 
company. ^ 

Each driver is supplied with daily 
"Operator's Trip Reports," a white 
form, 3] in. x 5i in., a slip being 
used for each trip. This form con- 
tains spaces for entries to be filled 
out as follows: 

Point of starting to point of desti- 
nation; number of bus and date; 
trip time, whether morning or after- 

Apparatus used to make initial 
record of irregularities of the 

noon, including designation of trip; 
time of starting and time of finish- 
ing; register readings and tickets 
punched by zones, with total for 
each ; number of packages carried 
to accommodate passengers ; number 
of tickets sold, and totals; and calcu- 
lations and remarks. Each driver 

makes a neat bundle of his cash fare 
receipt tickets at the end of his run, 
and the ticket sales total, register 
reading total and money taken in 
must check up with them. The oper- 
ator signs his name at the bottom of 
the bus form before turning it in at 
the office at the end of his run. 

Traffic Tests Begin at Arlington 

T'^RAFFIC has been started on the 
circular track of the Bureau of 
Public Roads of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, at the 
Arlington Experiment Station, in 
the experiment to determine the 
cause of waving in bituminous sur- 

Electrically driven device used in 
concrete wear test. 

faces. The track is composed of 
twenty-seven sections of asphaltic 
concrete of different mixtures. 

Before starting the traffic, profile 
measurements of the surface were 
taken at frequent intervals with the 
autographic profile device especially 
devised for the purpose. These will 
be repeated from time to time as the 
tests progress, in order to determine 
the rate of formation of inequalities 
in the surface. 

It is also planned to study the flow 
of the bituminous concrete under 
traffic. This will be done by noting 
the movement of brass plugs placed 

in the surface, both in the upper and 
lower portions. 

At present traffic is being confined 
to a path 24 ft. wider than the dis- 
tance between the outside edges of 
tires in order to obtain an accelerated 
test. This will also leave a space 
on the track for investigation under 
summer temperatures. 

The wear test on the circular track 
consisting of sixty-one sections of 
concrete and located at the outside 
edge of the bituminous track has also 
been commenced. In this test con- 
crete made of many different mate- 
rials and mixes is being subjected to 
a traffic of two solid rubber-tired 
wheels loaded with 600 lb. per inch 
of width of tire (about that of a 
5-ton truck) and traveling at 20 
m.p.h. This device is guided by 
wheels traveling on rails; it is elec- 
trically driven, the power being 
transmitted to one of the wheels used 
to represent the traffic which will 
make this wheel act as the drive 
wheel of a truck. 

On both the bituminous and the 
concrete wear test, traffic will run 
continually during working hours, 
but from the nature of the tests 
thousands of trips and a considerable 
period of time will be necessary be- 
fore much data are secured. 

Circular track for bitunmious- 
surface tests. Track for con- 
crete shown at outside. 




Mieliijjjaii Corporation 
Builds Business lor lii<li\ i<lucil Owners 

OPERATING out of Detroit, 
.Mich., to Lansing, Jack.son, 
Toledo and other points is a 
system of touring cars that fur- 
nishes a striking example of the po.s- 
sibility of selling transportation by 
the organization of owners of indi- 
vidual vehicles. 

The National Transit Company, 
Inc., which has its main waiting 
room at 212 Bagley Avenue, Detroit, 
is responsible for this development. 
It started in 1922, when several 
Michiganites conceived the idea of 
uniting the "hiring car" owners, 
who had been operating independ- 
ently. The pui-pose was to furnish 
regular schedule service to the cities 
and towns in southern and central 
Michigan. It is proposed to expand 
operations into other sections as fast 
as organization and waiting room 
facilities can be built up to the 
standard required. 

The plan which has been worked 
out is original in many respects. All 
vehicles are owned and maintained 
by their drivers. The National 
Transit Company, while it helps the 
drivers to secure better prices on 
supplies, is mainly an agency for the 
sale of transportation. 

The most important provision of 
the contract the company has with 
each owner-driver is regarding rev- 
enue. The income from passengers 
is divided so that 80 per cent goes 
to the owner, and the remaining 20 
per cent to the company. In return 
for its 20 per cent the National 
Transit Company sells the service 
and provides passengers. This is 
done through terminals and waiting 
rooms in the various cities where 
there are agents, and in other cities 
by arrangements with porters at the 
principal hotels. 

The company has general supervi- 
sion over the operation of the cars, 
makes the schedules, determines the 
rates of fare to be charged, sells 
tickets at its waiting rooms, and 
makes a daily settlement with each 
driver for his share of the business. 

The owner-driver must report 
thirty minutes before his scheduled 
leaving time, and must maintain his 

of Touriiiit (iars 

The Corporation Uaiulk's 
Sale of Transportation and 
Supervises Operation Over 
Regular Routes I'nder 
Fixed Schedules— Pick-l'p 
Service Is Maintained in 
Principal Cities 

car in first-class operating condition. 
Not only the running gear but the 
general appearance on the outside 
and the interior must be kept up. 
The owner-driver is required to 

:.j uwner-driver. The federal 
car-for-hire tax is $10 and the 
Michigan state tax averageM at^mt 
$18 for seven-pa.s.senger touring i;ir^. 
Then the driver have a chauf- 
feur's license from the state, ihia 
costing $2.50 a year. 

Another advantage that the drivcr.s 
have is in the purcha.'se of Huppin--. 
The company maintains contrarts 
with wholesaier.s no that tires, gas- 
oline, lubricants and other supplies 
can be purchased at wholesale rate.s. 
Special orders are i.nsued by thi? 
company on specified dea'' 
through these the owners -, ■ 
per cent discount on tires, gaAoline 

[ \^'/ ."»j -^^ ' -' ' ^-'^ 
.*■ — — ■-, 


.-111 Til Bf-\D 

Routes covered by Michigan system of touring cars operated 
on scheduled service 

bond his car both for personal liabil- 
ity and for damage to property 
through collision. The liability in- 
surance is in the amount of $2,500 
for accident to any one person or 
$10,000 for injuries in any one 
accident. Property damage to the 
amount of $1,000 is carried. This 
costs t)u' drivers about $180 a year, 
which is paid monthly in advance. 
Most of the policies, it is .«aid, are 
written by the Central Mutual In- 
surance Company of Detroit. 

The expenses of all vehicle taxes 
and licenses are likewise borne by 

at 2 cents a gallon off the curb 
price, and accessories at from 30 to 
40 per cent of list price. 

When the service was started in 
April, 1922, seven routes were oper- 
ated, covering about 464 miles 
of highway and requiring 125 cars 
for the daily schedules. Later on, 
twenty-five more vehicles were added 
for the 60-mile route to Toledo. The 
latest route, to Adrian. Mich., 
branches off the Detroit-Jackson 
route at Ann Arbor. As shown on 
the accompanying map, most of 
the routes radiate from Detroit, 



Vol.2, No.l 

NV 7600 

From - -. 



: N? 7600 

i ^"^ JUN2r»92^ 

; The National Auto Transit Co. 

I Main Office and Terminal 

J 212 BafeleyAve., Detroit, Mich. 


' From, ,, . to 

1 Driver's No . Name 

1 Soldby.. Cheek«a 

Form of ticket used in waiting rooms. Size 21 x 5i in., bound in hooks 
with perforation at edge 

although Lansing-Jackson and Flint- 
Port Huron do not touch Detroit at 
all. The accompanying table indi- 
cates that 186 cars are now being 
operated over 668 miles of route. 

The plans for extension contem- 
plate scheduled operations from De- 
troit all the way to Chicago. The 
map shows only lines contemplated 
as direct extensions of existing 
routes; on the north through Flint 
to Saginaw and Bay City, on the 
west beyond Lansing to Grand 
Rapids, and on the southwest 
through Jackson, Kalamazoo, to 
South Bend, Ind. 

On all the routes now in operation 
there is competition, and as a result 
of its experience the company is in 
favor of a restricted franchise so 
that only sufficient service will be 
provided for the traffic offered. In 
addition to the free-lance operator, 
running touring cars on a for-hire 
basis, steam railroads and electric 
interurbans provide service over 
most of the routes. 

The waiting rooms which provide 
terminal facilities at Detroit and at 
Flint, Jackson, Toledo, Lansing and 
Port Huron of course draw business. 
Whenever possible the agents there 
sell tickets, of the form shown, to 

passengers before they board the 
cars. There are two reasons for 
this: First, it lessens the chance of 
dishonesty on the part of the driver 
by decreasing the amount of money 
handled ; second, passengers who re- 


National Auto Transit Co. 

autos hourly to flint lansing. Huron and Toledo 

MAIN Orrice and w«tt.f.<i room 

2(2 bagley avenue 

Detroit. Mich. 




Card handed out by driver, and 
said to be best traffic builder. 

serve places and buy tickets in ad- 
vance for particular trips are not 
likely to change their minds and 
travel by other routes. 

Newspaper advertisements are 
carried in local papers. Printed 
time-tables are distributed at points 
where people congregate, especially 
in the hotels throughout the ten-i- 
tories served. The best business 
getter, it is said, is the small card 
illustrated here, which the drivers 
issue to each passenger. This in- 

Route Statistics for National Transit Company, Inc. 


of Headway, 
Vehicles Hours 

Normal Outside 

A.M. P.M. 





Time, One-Way 

Hr. Min. Fare 

Detroit to; 


Ann Arbor, . . 




Port Huron . . 


Ann Arbor to: 

Brinhton.. . . 
Flint to: 


Long Lflkc. . . 

Port Huron. . 
Lansing to: 


(o Round trip fare $5.50. (6) Round trip fare $ I. 













1 on 






2 00 







2 65 






(a) 3.00 




















I. 00 













(6) 0.65 













I. 00 

forms the passenger of the existence 
of the National Transit Company, 
of the fact that he is traveling in 
one of its vehicles, and also makes 
him acquainted, so to speak, with the 
driver of the vehicle. This means 
of advertising, it is believed, has 
done more than any one thing to 
build up the business. 

Uniform Basis of Fares 

All fares are figured on a charge 
of 3.25 cents a mile, with a minimum 
of 25 cents. Round-trip tickets at 
a reduced rate ai'e not sold except 
between Detroit and Lansing, and 
Flint and Long Lake. On these two 
routes it is thought necessary to 
promote the return traffic. On the 
first, people are likely to come back 
by other means of transportation, 
while on the second many travelers 
return in privately-owned passenger 
cars that may be making the trip, 
with the resulting loss to the Transit 

The cars take in from $130 to $150 
for a week of seven days, and as 
they cover about 125 miles daily, the 
income is around 16 cents per mile. 
On the 20 per cent basis the com- 
pany gets 3 cents per mile for its 
labor. The operating expense for 
gasoline, oil and tires is only 3.5 
cents a mile, thus leaving 10 cents 
to the driver for profit, after meet- 
ing other charges. 

The traffic during the summer 
months was about 100 passengers a 
day from each of the six waiting 
rooms. With an average fare of 
$2.25, this gives a daily revenue of 
$1,350, which is equivalent to about 
$500,000 annual revenue. For the 
whole year it is estimated the rev- 
enue will amount to $750,000, this 
including the income from the sale 
of confectionery, papers and cigars, 
at the waiting rooms. 

In all the operations so far stand- 
ard seven-passenger touring cars of 
the better class have been u.sed. 
These include Cadillacs, Packards, 
Marmons, Studebakers, and others, 
and appear to be the best form of 
vehicle to start the service. It fre- 
quently has happened that not only 
two but hree or four cars have been 
sent out, when only one had been 
scheduled. As this traffic becomes 
permanent, it is planned to put on 
inclosed buses to take care of it. 

The officers of the National Transit 
Company, Inc., are C. S. Stiles, pres- 
ident; B. C. Elliott, vice-president; 
M. C. Dopp, secretary, and 0. E. 
Watkins, treasurer and dispatcher. 




Trolley Bus Made l{vn\ Progress 

in 1922 

By J. C Thirlwall 

Railway Engineering Department, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

The Author Shows That. While the Aiiureuate Niimlter of lUises 

ActuallN I'lil Into C'lmimi.ssion Last Year Was Small, There Were 

Evidences of Widespread Interest in This \ ehicle 

TO THOSE of us who believe thai 
the trolley bus offers a distinct 
improvement in trackless transpor- 
tation, the past year has given both 
hope and disappointment. Several 
installations were made and satis- 
factory results are reported from 
each, but the number was smaller 
than was anticipated and the total 
of buses yet in service is not im- 
pressive. There is good reason to 
believe, however, that 1923 will see 
a material increase in the use of this 
electrically driven vehicle. At the 
present time there are in service in 
this country and in Canada thirty- 
six trolley buses, operating on about 
30 miles of route. 

New York Installation Leads 

The largest installation is that 
made by the city of New York on 
Staten Island, with 15.5 miles of 
route and fifteen buses. Seven of 
these buses, on 6 route-miles, have 
been in service since October, 1921 ; 
the other eight went into commis- 
sion a year later, on a new 9.5-mile 
route. Construction is well under 
way on a third route at City Island, 
and seven buses will shortly be placed 
in service there. 

The buses now in operation seat 
thirty passengers and weigh about 
12,000 lb. They are driven by two 
25-hp. railway motors and have a 
K-63 controller. Current is brought 
to the controller through a foot- 
operated line breaker, so that the 
operator can instantly shut off power 
by releasing the foot switch. The 
line breaker is also interlocked with 
the emergency brake so that if the 
latter is applied the breaker opens 
and power is cut off from the motor 
circuit. The use of the hand control 
for speed changes has proved sim- 
pler and easier to handle than the 
gear shift used on gas buses and 
has been entirely satisfactorj' to the 
operators. A single-pole collector of 
the slider type has been adopted, and 
the overhead on all three routes was 
designed for this type of collector. 

All three routes serve as e.xten- 
sions and feeders to e.xisting rail 
lines. The territory served was for 
the most part open country, through 
which it would have been diflicult to 
justify the cost of laying rails, but 
the regular, fast service given by the 
trolley buses has proved so depend- 
able and satisfactory that a great 
infiu.x of population has occurred and 
houses are being built adjacent to 
the lines at a really amazing rate. 
The result has been that riding has 
steadily increased, and the buses, 
which are about the largest single- 
deck cars used anywhere, are kept 
fairly full on fifteen-minute head- 
ways, and are showing earnings of 
more than 20 cents per mile on a 
5-cent fare. 

Seven of the buses have been in 
service for about fifteen months. At 
the end of the first year's operation, 
which included e.xperience through 
several severe snow and sleet storms, 
and operation for several months on 
a road that Was torn up for repaving, 
the Commissioner of Plant and Struc- 
tures, Grover A. Whalen, publicly 
stated that the trolley buses were 
operating for less than 19 cents per 
mile as compared with a cost of 
nearly 28 cents for gas buses run- 
ning under the supervision of his 
department. The latter are consider- 
ably smaller and lighter, on an aver- 
age, than the trolley buses. His 
own records indicated a lower oper- 
ating cost for the trolley buses than 
the safety cars on the Staten Island 
rail lines, also operated by the city. 
He concluded by saying: "I feel I am 
warranted, therefore, in asserting 
that the Department of Plant and 
Structures has developed in the track- 
less trolley system a means of pas- 
senger transportation more econom- 
ical than any yet conceived." 

That Mr. Whalen and the city engi- 
neers are satisfied as to the superi- 
ority of the trolley bus over the 
self-propelled t>'pe is evidenced by 
their request for an appropriation 
to add about one hundred more miles 

of trolley-bus routes, requiring about 
one hundred more buses. It is ex- 
pected that this program will be 
carried out during 1923. 

Ontakio Tries Out the 
Tbolley Bus 

Early in 1922 four trolley buses 
were puf into service on u route 1.5 
milts long in a Huburb of Toronto, 
acting as an extension of a line of 
the street railway, pasKengers trans- 
ferring between« ., ' , .-t 
cars. These seat t-, ,. 

use two standard 25-h\>. railway 
motors, and have automatic control. 
That is, the control comprises a 
contactor group with motor-driven 
setjuence switch, and a maater con- 
troller, operated by the dr! t. 
The collector is of the w ;.v, 
and standard overhead construction 
is used for the two trolley wires. 

Ten-minute service is given by 
these buses, and it is reported that 
their operation has been entirely 

In May, 1922, Windsor followed 
the example of her neighboring city 
and put into service four trolley 
buses of similar size and equipment, 
on three routes ag^'l. ,jt 

5 miles in length. Al. .-s 

are feeders to the existing .street rail- 
way lines and exchange tninsfera 
with the rail system. The operators 
repoi-t that they have :■ .-d 

regular service with rem;i . w 

delays or interruptions to .service, 
and state that this form of trans- 
portation is well adapted for use in 
outlying sections where the traffic is 
normally light. 

Baltimore E.xtends Range of 
Trolley-bus Service 

A route about 6 miles long in one 
of the Baltimore suburbs had been 
served by gas buses for some time. 
On Nov. 1, 1922. at the reque«t of 
citizens who desired th«' ■«■€ 

of permanent operation oy 

the erection of an overhead structure, 
three trolley buses were placed in 

These buses operate on a half- 
hour headway at a schedule speed 
greater than 14 m.p.h., with stops a 
little lei^s than 1 mile apart. These 
buses have a somewhat smaller seat- 
ing capacity than those used in New 
York and Canada, seating twenty- 
two pa.'ssengers. They carry* two 
25-hp. motors with automatic, foot- 
operated control. Two trolley poles 
with swivel mounted wheels are used, 
and standard overhead trolley con- 




Vol.2, No.l 

struction. The normal power con- 
sumption is approximately 1 kw.-hr. 
per bus-mile, and the maximum, with 
heaters and lights on, about 1.5 kw.- 
hr. The receipts on this line are 
reported to have materially increased 
since the trolley buses went into 

Smaller Installations Elsewhere 

A feeder route about 1 mile long, 
on which a single trolley bus runs, 
has been in service in Minneapolis 
for about six months, and we under- 
stand that another bus is being built 
in the shops of the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company. The first bus uses 
two railway motors and the auto- 
matic foot-operated control. 

The Los Angeles Railway for sev- 
eral months has had one trolley bus 
seating twenty - nine passengers, 
equipped with two railway motors, 
and a foot-operated non-automatic 
contactor control. However, no 
regular operation has been attempted 
with it, and the operators have made 
no announcement of what they pro- 
pose to do. 

One bus has been running on a 
feeder route in Norfolk for several 
months, as an experiment to sound 
out the attitude of the public and 
city officials to the proposal of the 
Virginia Railway & Power Company 
that trolley bus routes be operated in 
several sections of the city. Nego- 
tiations are going on between the 
railway company and the City Coun- 
cils in Norfolk, Richmond, and 
Petersburg for a fairly large use of 
these vehicles, which the railway 
officials believe to be well suited to 
the proposed service. If their plans 
mature, they will probably put about 
forty buses into service in the three 
cities during 1923. Two have been 
ordered for Petersburg, to give a 
similar demonstration to that now 
being given in Norfolk and which 
was also given in Richmond a year 

Rochester Plans Trolley Bus 
Line for 1923 

The city authorities in Rochester, 
N. Y., have recently granted the New 
York State Railways the right to 
construct a 5-mile trolley bus route, 
to serve as a crosstown connection 
for several rail lines. Six to ten 
buses will be required and operation 
will probably begin early next 

Several other railway companies in 
the Western and Southern states are 
now contemplating the use of trolley 
buses for extensions to their present 

i-ail service, and installations will 
probably be made in a few months. 

While the number of trolley buses 
yet placed in service on this side of 
the Atlantic is small, the results so 
far obtained have been encouraging 
to the pi-oponents of their use. No 
excessive maintenance has developed ; 
the electric equipment has stood up 
about as well as on rail cars, and the 
predictions that considerable econ- 
omies in power and maintenance as 
compared to the gas engine drive 
should be secured have been verified. 

In another year when the addi- 
tional installations that are planned 
are in actual service, considerably 
more data should be available as to 
costs and performance. Longer ex- 
perience may show, as some of us 
are beginning to think now, that the 
manufacturers of electric apparatus 
have been too conservative and have 
been over-motoring the buses and 
gearing them for too high a speed. 
A single-motor drive, with a simple 
rheostatic controller, may replace the 
double motor and contactor group 
that has been preferred by the ma- 
jority of operators. More experi- 
menting will probably result in an 
agreement on what type of collector, 
single or double pole, wheel or slider, 
should be standard. But the trolley 
bus, as an adjunct to the street rail- 
way, has come to stay. 

sui-veys that are being made are for 
the purpose of formulating eventually 
regulations which are to apply on 
Federal aid roads. Another object 
being sought is a better basis for the 
determination of license fees for 
motor vehicles. Mr. MacDonald ex- 
plained that uniform regulations for 
the entire country are not practi- 
cable. In a sparsely settled agricul- 
tural state, he said, heavy truck 
traffic should not be allowed. Trucks 
of a lighter type can be used where 
the chief need is to provide a good 
highway for passenger cars. In in- 
dustrial sections it is advisable, he 
explained, to go the expense of con- 
structing roads which will stand very 
heavy truck traffic. 

Regulations for Federal Aid 
Roads Pending 

ACCORDING to Thomas H. Mac- 
/\ Donald, chief of the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Public Roads, the bureau's 
study of a full year's traffic over 
highways in Connecticut and other 

Texas Line Uses Home- 
Built Bus 

ANEW line between Port Arthur 
and Port Neches, Tex., is using 
the first bus body built in the south- 
ern part of Texas. This is mounted 
on a White chassis, as shown in the 
accompanying photograph. The body 
has space for eighteen passengers 
and weighs only 2,785 lb. It was 
built by C. Jim Stewart & Steven- 
son, Houston, Tex. 

The framework is of hardwood 
with 3-in. angle-iron reinforcements 
for each sill and crossbar. The 
cross-sills are 4-in. angle iron. 
These are separated from the chassis 
frame by a 1-in. strip of hardwood, 
which breaks up the vibration and 
shock which would otherwise be 
transmitted through the iron sills. 
The roof panels are poplar, covered 
with 12-ounce white duck. 

Texas-built body mounted on White chassis 

January, 1923 


Com[)aralivr DrfUclioii 1\'sts 
Favor the iMolor Shine 

I'avenient Dellet-tions Observed on Te«;t 
Koad lender Truck, Tdurini; Car anc' 
Stage — Static. Moving and Impact Tests 

ASKKIES of road tests have 
l)een carried out at Pittsburg, 
Calif., under the joint direc- 
tion of the U. S. Bureau of Public 
Roads and the California Highway 
Department to determine the com- 
parative amount of pavement deflec- 
tion caused by several types of ve- 
hicles. A comparison as between the 
ordinary touring car, the typical 
motor stage with a load of fifteen 
passengers, and a solid-tired truck 
was made. The truck was e.xactly of 
the same total weight as the loaded 
stage. Each vehicle also had the 
same weight distribution on the 
front and rear wheels. The results 
of the tests indicate that a pneumatic 
tired 200-in. wheel base motor stage 
with a full live load of fifteen pa.s- 
sengers causes less deflection in an 
8-in. concrete slab than does a 2-ton 
165-in. wheel base solid-tired truck 
of equivalent dead weight loading. 
The accompanying series of curves 
in which the results are depicted 
graphically show that the deflections 
caused by the truck range up to a 
maximum of more than twice those 
caused by a stage of exactly the same 

weight. Quite unexpectedly the tests 
also showed that the use of air- 
pressure shock absorbers materially 
increased the pavement deflections 
when making the impact test. 

Pavement deflections were resid by 
the use of rods whose tops were em- 
bedded in the concrete pavement and 

■ -iorbers showed different de- 
in the impact test. To 
eliminate any differences that might 
be due to the individual cars, tests 
were then run using the same car 
several time.s successively with and 
without air pressure in the cylinders 
of the shook absorln-rs. These com- 
parisons were made in several runs, 
in addition to those shown in the 
accompanying diagrams, always with 
the result that greater deflections 
were recorded when the shock al>- 
sorbers were in use. 

The method of making the impact 
test was to lay across the pavement 
a plank 2 in. thick and to vary its 

Weights and Dimensions of Vehicles Used in Comparative Tmts 


Chalmers totirinff car . 

Twivton tnjolc 

.-Vlfbor 9taxc line bus. 

Welch t 





on Front 

A lie 


tin near 


ll'c ur<l»i 


ol Vih, 

n\ Width 
littr Tf 

(hit... <li 

U2 4 



whose lower ends extended down into 
tunnels beneath the roadway, where 
movements of the rods were read 
accurately by means of micrometer 

Attention was first directed to the 
effect of shock absorbers when 
stages of the same weight distribu- 
tion and differing only in the use of 

•A detailed description of methods of 
making tests on this road was published In 
t.HtiiHti viiifi \i ws-lC'rord, Dec. »9. 1921. 
page 104$, and in the issue of .lunr' 29. 
1922, page 1066, there appeared an *-x- 
tended report on the effect of heavy traffic 
on the concrete pavement. 


£ O.OIS 
^ 0.000 




LEGEND for -the three »eH of turve»_ 
Chdlmer* Touring Car 

— -■ ?-+ori Truck 

— — Stage without ftir in Front or RearN-^ck Abiorberft ' 

Stage witti Hormal Air in Shock Absc-bcr^ 





Showinff deflection under impact and for static and moving toads 

distance from the deflection rods 
until positions were found where the 
vehicles passing over this oljslruc- 
tion and dropping to the pavement 
again gave a maximum rod reading 
for each of the several spei-ds at 
which deflections were to Ix- recorded. 
The edge of the plank presented to 
the approaching vehicle was beveled 
off to a feather edge to allow the 
vehicle to rise up on it easily. In 
all records shown in the accompany- 
ing cur\es, the wheels on one side of 
all the vehicles were kept over rwl 
No. 9, nearest the pavement edge. 

The curves shown herewith are 
typical of the several runs made a i<l 
were selected to show, in a general 
way, the materially greater deflection 
of the concrete under the impact of 
a truck, even though its ' • ht 

and weight distribution -ii- 

tical with the motor stage. The 
truck used was of the standard 2-ton 
type, with wheelbase, tire and spring 
etiuipment typical of such trucks. 

Another point brought out by con- 
tinuous traflfic tests indicated that 
the surface wear of concrete paving 
due to rubber-tired vehicles was 
negligilile. Even after more than 
3,000,000 tons of heavy trucks had 
passed over the pavement surface 
there was practically no wear; paint 
marks before this traffic began were 
still plainly visible. 

The work at the Pittsburg test 
highway was carried out under the 
joint direction of the United States 
Bureau of Public Road.-< and the Cali- 
fornia State Highway Commissio-, 
with Lloyd Aldrich and John B. 
Leonard in direct charge of testa. 




High Spots in the Bus Industry 

First Real Development Came in 1922 — 

Coming Year Will Be Featured by Organized Capital 

and Better Service 

BUSES we have had for many 
years, but the bus industry as an 
industry was born the past year. 
Prior to 1922 it was difficult if not 
impossible to buy a real bus. The 
general conception of a bus in both 
the public mind and the operator's 
mind was a truck chassis, with a 
body usually put together by some 
local wagon builder. The year has 
brought forth a variety of real bus 
designs, chassis and bodies, designed, 
manufactured and sold by respon- 
sible manufacturing agencies. Cer- 
tainly it is true that no great part 
of the public or even of the bus oper- 
ators were in touch with these de- 
velopments before this past year. 
There is no more striking evidence 
of last year's development in the bus 
industry than a comparison of the 
vehicles available today with those 
available twelve short months ago. 
What is true of the chassis and body 
alone applies equally to the parts, 
and equipment, and in some measure 
also to accessories. Bus terminals, 
except in a few isolated places, were 
practically unknown in 1921. To- 
day they dot the map at every impor- 
tant transportation center. 

It is only during the past year that 
the public has begun to recognize the 
existence of the industry by provid- 
ing legislation for its regulation and 
protection. Prior to 1922 the man 
who invested his capital in a bus 
route was subjected as a rule to the 
unrestricted competition of any one 
who wanted to put his money into 
the same route. Now in many states 
the man entering the business se- 
cures assured rights that protect his 
investment as long as he performs 
his part of the contract with the 
public. This protection, while not 
yet universal, exists in some form in 
twenty-one states. 

Public interest toward transporta- 
tion by bus awoke during the past 
year. The old jitney was tolerated — 
the modern bus is welcomed as a 
luxurious necessity. The rubber 
urge, as it has been called, is well- 
nigh universal, and bus transporta- 
tion has brought rubber tires into 
the life of the masses. The public 
has demanded more and more bu.s — 
the demand is still growing, and so 
long as the service given by bus oper- 

ators caters to this demand the bus 
industry will expand. 

The attitude of public utility oper- 
ators toward the bus has changed — 
the leaders of thought in the electric 
railway field now recognize the place 
of the bus in the business of passen- 
ger transportation. They are chang- 
ing from an attitude of hostility to 
one of open-minded receptiveness, 
and many of them realize that they 
must operate buses or work hand in 
hand with independent bus oper- 

Keynotes of Success 

The bus operator, too, has a 
broader horizon. He has begun to 
see that uncontrolled competition is 
as bad for him as for anybody else. 
He has found, for example, that com- 
peting with an electric railway may 
be less profitable than finding a route 
where competition does not exist. He 
has begun to see that the keynote of 
success in any part of the trans- 
portation business is in giving the 
public what it needs, and that co- 
ordinated transportation almost in- 
variably meets the public demand. 
He has learned to work with existing 
transportation agencies, just as they 
have learned to work with him. Dur- 
ing the past year the bus operator 
has developed into something more 
than mere running of buses — he has 
developed in sense of public service. 
He has found that regard for the 
comfort, safety and convenience of 
the public builds business and in- 
sures the future stability of his 
investment. While this is by no 
means 100 per cent true in the indus- 
try, the thought has been planted 
100 per cent in the minds of the 
leaders of the industry and is grow- 
ing among the others. The industry 
has begun to organize itself, local 
pools, county and state organizations 
have sprung up and taken definite 
form, and a national organization 
has likewise been formed. 

The financial world has discovered 
the industry. It is no longer neces- 
sary for an operator to go into the 
business on a shoestring if he con- 
trols a legitimate bus enterprise. 
Capital on satisfactory tei'ms can be 
secured to finance the development 
of sound bus businesses. 

Vol.2, No.l 

As we look back over the high 
spots of the year in our field, we can- 
not but marvel at the important de- 
velopments that have taken place in 
so short a time. Not only has a 
great industry been born but it has 
grown amazingly. It has organized 
itself from within, and by its youth- 
ful soundness and vigor has drawn 
around it from without the organized 
forces which it needs for stability 
and progress. 

Bus transportation has already 
gone far, but it has only just begun 
to go. 

Great Progress Predicted 

If we can judge the future by the 
past, 1923 will show progress that 
will make the surprising record of 
1922 puny indeed. 

With the public, the manufactur- 
ing field, the bus operators, the 
utility interests and capital all awake 
to the possibilities of the industry, 
only extreme conservatism can set an 
upper limit to its progress. Certain 
it is that the operator will see great 
strides on the part of equipment 
manufacturers, and the present stage 
of transition will develop well- 
defined standards. The bus of the 
future will better meet the condi- 
tions under which it operates. There 
will be more opportunity for dis- 
criminating choice in equipment. The 
intercity bus will be designed for 
intercity use, the urban bus for city 
use, the small town bus for small 
town use. 

Where Greatest Growth Will Be 

Many more electric railways will 
operate buses in 1923. While this 
will work a hardship on some inde- 
pendent operators it will ultimately 
be a blessing in disguise to those who 
are sufficiently wide-awake to trans- 
fer their operations where they are 
needed. As a matter of fact, the 
greatest development will be in the 
conmiunities now without rail trans- 
portation, where rail transportation 
never would pay. This is not saying 
that conflict between the rail and the 
highway will cease in 1923. It will 
diminish, but it will go on until the 
old law of the survival of the fittest 
settles the argument. The transpor- 
tation facility which gives the great- 
est number of people the kind of 
service they want will survive. The 
bus never can completely supplant 
the electric railway, nor can the 
electric railway completely suppress 
the bus. Each has its legitimate 
field; time will fit each into its own. 

January, 1923 




One of the less startlinK develop- 
ments, but perhaps one of the most 
important of all, will come through 
the dawning realization of the inter- 
dependence of all bus operators. 
There will be a more general realiza- 
tion of the fact that the industry as 
a whole can grow no faster than do 
the individuals that compose it. 
There will be more interchange of 
thought, a freer giving of experi- 
ence for the common good, a growing 
desire to help, and by helping to 

make the receiving of help possible. 
Such co-operation is needed to de- 
velop the best standards of practice, 
standards for measuring operating 
and maintenance costs, which in- 
volve uniform accounting systems 
and other cost-accounting methods. 
Such co-operation will give an impe- 
tus to studies of trallic How and the 
fitting of schedules to traffic demand 
so that service can be given when 
and where it meets the common 
needs of the public and the operator. 

The year l^efoi. .-r 

buses and better : <• 

will be ui)erated under the protection 
and regulation of the public. They 
will be on a more profitable basis, for 
the intelligent operator and for the 
larger part of the public. 

The bus, in it^ 1 

types, IS not only : • it 

is here to grow into the industrial 
and .social life of the entire nation, 
and bus transportation will rank as 
one of the truly great industries. 

Proirress in 

Construction of Motor-Bus Chassis 

By Cornelius T. Myers 

comfortable, and at time ex- 
hilarating. This is being fur- 
nished by the motor bus, and is being 
received with enthusiasm in all parts 
of the country. Steadfastly and 
consistently for some two years back 
the possibilities in this field have 
been urged on the motor truck in- 
dustry by the National Automobile 
Chamber of Commerce, by the 
Society of Automotive Engineers, by 
the editors of automobile journals, by 
the operators of motor bus fleets, and 
by municipal authorities. 

It is too early in the development 
of motor transportation properly to 
evaluate the progress or to say along 
just what lines the greatest trend of 
development will be. But one can 
say without fear of contradiction 
that there is now a general recogni- 
tion of its possibilities by the public 
at large, and that this recognition is 
rapidly growing in street railway 
circles. The automotive industry 
itself has not only comprehended 
these possibilities, but has studied, 
labored and produced in a remark- 
ably short time, vehicles to fill the 

Motor truck builders have for 
years back turned out in small 
quantities modifications of their 
standard chassis that were more or 
less suitable for bus service, and for 
the time filled the demand that ex- 
isted. One local transportation com- 
pany over a term of years has de- 
signed and built vehicles which were 
particularly adapted to its service 

After graduating from Stevens In- 
stitute in 1900 and holding engi- 
neering positions with several makers 
of mechanical equipment Mr. MyeiB 
became successively c'nief mechani- 
cal engineer of the General Motors 
Company, chief engineer General 
Motors Truck Company, and chief 
engineer the Timken-David Brown 

In 1917, Mr. Myers, then a con- 
sulting engineer in Detroit, was 
made chairman of a committee of 
the Society of Automotive Engineers 
co-operating with the U. S. War 
Department in the design of the 
I .!i rty Motor Trucks. He is now 
.. insulting automotive engineer, 
and is a member of such organiza- 
tions as the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. Institution 
of Automobile Engineers of England 
and the Society of Automotive 

conditions, and which in connection 
with capable personnel demon- 
strated the great possibilities for 
bus travel in our big cities. Under 
the stimulus of repeated suggestion 
and urging, motor truck builders in 
all parts of the countrj' have turned 
a large part of their attention to the 
production of chassis for mass- 
passenger transportation, with the 
result that there is on the market 
today a wide range of vehicles. 

It is true that some of these 
chassis are but slight modifications 
of those which had been produced 
for motor truck service. But they 
have at least served the first de- 
mand, and where carefully operated 
they have demonstrated locally the 
advantages of bus service. 

On the other hand. •• 

number of new chu -d 

especially for passenger transport, 
have been placed on the market ; and 
others are either being announced 
or are well under way. Parts manu- 
facturers have sensed the oppor- 
tunities and have done splendid work 
in the development of engines, axles, 
gear boxes, etc., as well a.s minor 
details, all of which have been de- 
signed with a view to meeting the 
particular conditions of bus service, 
so far as conditi<>n< inuld },e 

Chassis Is Foundation 

The body of a bus is practically all 
that the general public notices. But 
the chassis, with its thousands of 
details and its many engineering 
features, is the foundation of the 
job. In the chassis we find the re- 
.■^ult of the painstaking engineering 
study and experience of thousands of 
engineers in the automotive indus- 
trj'. With a large available fund of 
knowledge these engineers have put 
together various units and essential 
details in various ways, each en- 
deavoring to produce a chassis that 
will give a desired performance un- 
der certain conditions or classes of 

Local conditions will have a con- 
siderable l)€aring on the type of 
body and chassis to be u.sed. De- 
tails, too, entirely suitable for one 
set of conditions might be of doubt- 
ful or negative value in other cases. 
It may even happen that if 


- BUS 


Straight frame construction on this Model 50 bus chassis. (White.) 

all the details of a chassis are not 
the best suited to the conditions, or 
if they have certain undesirable 
features, an intimate knowledge of 
their limitations will point to a 
means of offsetting them to some 
degree. Skillful operation is half 
the problem in any event, but per- 
fection of detail is essential to con- 
tinued successful operation. 

Some Fundamental Details 
OF Design 

As to design features, we first 
note that the desire to draw cus- 
tomers and serve them well has de- 
veloped the low-hung body with an 
easy step for entrance and exit. A 
number of details enter into the 
accomplishment of this important 
feature : 

1. Both front and rear axles must 
be designed so as to permit the use 
of a low frame, and a generous 
spring deflection. 

2. The rear portion of the frame 
should contain a "kick-up" or arch 
over the rear axle, to afford the 
spring action mentioned in the pre- 
vious paragraph. 

3. Wheels and tires of moderate 
diameter are necessary to reduce the 
height of the step. 

A number of chassis now have the 
above features, some affording re- 

markably low steps and body plat- 

Once a traveler has been picked 
up and is being carried rapidly to- 
ward his destination, our chief 
thought is for his safety. This is 
mainly accomplished by a low center 
of gravity, a wide gage and adequate 
controls — it being taken for granted 
that the various parts of the chassis 
are sufficiently strong to carry the 
loads for which it is designed. Here 
we must consider: 

1. Brakes and their linkages. 
These must be absolutely adequate 
to skid the wheels under ordinary 
conditions, but be capable of smooth, 
easy and noiseless application. They 
must be durable and easy of adjust- 

2. Steering mechanisms must be 
durable and absolutely dependable, 
easy of operation, capable of short 
turns, and free from wheel wabble. 

3. Pedals, steering wheel, levers 
and seat must be in proper relation 
to afford comfort to the driver. 

4. Wide gage, low bodied axles are 
important for stability, seating room 
and short turning radius. 

Double-deck and some high-speed 
buses have a wide gage, as well as a 
low center of gravity. These features 
should become universal in these 
types of bus. The wide gage and 

- ^'"'^'S^if^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 

R*^^ ^'^ 


^^^^V:> ^^^^^^^^^^B|||^^^^H ^^^^H 

Single-decker for city service. (Fifth Avenue Type J.) 

Vol.2, No.l 

small wheel also give a smaller wheel 
housing and better seating capacity 
over the rear axle. 

Considerations of Comfort 

Comfort for the passenger, when 
he is seated, is the next bid for bus 
popularity. In the chassis this is a 
matter of skillful design in combin- 
ing and adapting the many features 
that enter into the riding qualities 
of the vehicle : 

1. The type, size and quality of 
tires have a decided bearing on com- 

2. The springs should be easily de- 
flected for light loads and stiff enough 
to prevent bumping at full loads, but 
they should not be permitted to grow 
stiffer while in service. 

3. Axles, tires and wheels should 
be of minimum weight. 

4. The rear axle should be located 
fairly well to the rear of the body. 

5. Gear noises, squeaks and rattles 
of all kinds must be suppressed as 
far as possible. 

6. Engine vibration must be mini- 

During the past year there has 
been a marked improvement in 
chassis as measured by these quali- 
fications. The problems involved 
are difficult and the ideal is still some 
distance ahead of us. 

Cutting Operating Costs 

From the standpoint of operating 
economy a long list of details can be 
mentioned, but chief among them 

1. Light weight, because the maxi- 
mum power required is a direct 
function of the total weight to be 

2. The proper relation of engine 
power, weight, tire size, and gear 
reduction must be established, and 
this is a difficult problem. 

3. The over-all engine efficiency is 
of great importance and is affected 
by many different factors, such as 
average load, carburetion, internal 
friction, design characteristics and, 
finally, the skill and care with 
which the engine is manufactured. 

4. The gear-box ratios must suit 
the operating conditions. 

5. Clutch and brakes must be 
"easy," effective and durable. 

6. Automatic lubrication of all 
parts where rubbing or sliding ac- 
tion takes place is very important. 
This will not only reduce attention 
costs but will reduce wear and re- 
pairs, and suppress many a squeak 
and groan. 


7. The tires must be adequate in 
size and of a type best suited to the 
operating conditions. 

In reviewing the chassis now on 
the market it can be said that 
;hough marked improvement has 
been made in the past year, there is 
still much to be attained on the score 
of weight reduction, on the relation 
of engine size to bus weight and 
speed, on engine efficiency, chassis 
lubrication, and some of the other 
points just mentioned. However, 
there are some notable exceptions 
which reveal well balanced designs, 
much careful thought and consid- 
erable initiative in execution. 

Evolution of Bus 

Our buses are combinations, in 
varying proportions to suit different 
conditions, of the passenger car and 
the motor truck, and the way for 
them has been laid by the wonderful 
development of these branches of the 
automotive industry in years gone 
by. First came the passenger car 
(at one time called pleasure car, and 
not always so pleasing, at that) and 
demonstrated the enormous value of 
swift, mobile, immediately available 
highway travel. Then came the 
motor truck to take up the loads of 
industry and apply to them the time- 
saving, cost-reducing element that 
its predecessor had demonstrated. 
Now, with the experience of both 
types of vehicles, we have the knowl- 
edge and experience that have en- 
abled us to attack and solve the much 
more exacting service of moving com- 
mercially human freight. Without 
a doubt the past year has demon- 
strated this to the country at large. 

Manifestly, for the good of all con- 
cerned, well recognized similar con- 
ditions should be served by equip- 
ment with similar characteristics, the 
component parts standardized as 
much as possible. Much knowledge 
and e.xperience is already available 
on both sides, and the coming year 
will likely see it take some form as 
a basis for procedure. 


Accessibility in a motor bus chas- 
sis is of great importance, for when 
wear takes place and repairs have to 
be made, many valuable hours may 
be saved if the damaged parts can 
be reached with ease and replaced 
without disturbing others. It must 
be recognized that some parts are 
more exposed to wear than others. 
Certainly care should be devoted to 
protecting these as much as possible, 




B"s chasKts leith canliiun ivheiln and ntructiiriil uteri uKril f" 
over rear wheeU. (Master.) 



but the design should render them 
easy of for adjustment or re- 
placement. Much attention has been 
paid to these features in motor truck 
construction, and recent bus chassis 
bear evidence that more and more 
consideration is being given to them. 
On many chassis, however, there is 
room for improvement in the ar- 
rangement of steering gear, clutch, 
and other parts near the rear of the 
engine. There is little enough elbow 
room here anyway because of the 
proximity of the dash and its equip- 

The pneumatic tire is the best type 
for bus service and it is coming into 
greater and greater use. For service 
at high speeds or over rough roads 
it has no equal, although the writer 
believes that the standard inflation 
pressures are too high to give the 
most comfortable riding. Except in 
the smaller sizes, however, pneu- 
matics are as yet too expensive, and 
are too large in diameter to be widely 
used. The new sizes to be used with 
20-in. rims overcome the disadvan- 
tage of large diameters. If they can 
be made to give greater mileage and 
at lower inflation pressures, they 
should come into extended use, except 
for large buses on smooth streets. 

The cushion tire is rapidly gaining 
favor, and justly so. In combination 
with cushion wheels, cushioned 
springs or lubricated springs, it gives 

an effect very nearly as good as the 
giant pneumatics with their high 
air pressures. Solid tires give the 
lowest tire cost per mile, and for 
heavy buses on well paved streetJi 
they afford very fair riding qualities 
with a well designed spring suspen- 
sion. The bus offers a big field for 
tire development, and doubtless that 
industry has plans now for giving 
us more servicable tires. Parts 

Cushion wheels are l)eing used on 
several chassis, but they add weight 
at a point where it is least desired — 
underneath the springs. Little or 
no reliable data on the actual .ser>'lce 
value of such wheels have lK*en 
published, though many strong 
claims are made for them. More 
facts would be welcome. 

The spring suspension is a difficult 
problem. On the latest chassis the 
springs are long, flat under load, and 
allowed as great as po.ssible a clear- 
ance before "bumping" takes jilace. 
The compound spring with varying 
rates of deflection seems the l)est 
at present. One manufacturer holds 
the ends of the springs in rubber 
cushions to help damp out vibration; 
another supplies the springs con- 
stantly with very small amounts of 
oil, not only rendering them more 
flexible, but keeping them so. 

The axles, front and rear, that are 

City f>l'>< f" cnrrij ttrrntlf-jniw jKlfst lu/t r t< m sht^(-i>li 

hudy. (Fageil.) 




Vol.2, No.l 

used for passenger cars or trucks, 
will in few cases best serve bus chas- 
sis. Some manufacturers have axles 
that are fairly suitable, some have 
developed special axles for their par- 
ticular chassis, others have purchased 
specially designed axles from parts 
manufacturers. Front axles are low 
to keep down the height of the frame ; 
they should be more carefully de- 
signed than the usual truck axle or 
they will not permit easy steering. 
The Elliott type is almost universally 

Three types of rear axle are in 
use; worm drive, internal gear and 
double reduction at the axle center. 
Worm drive, with its advantages of 
silence, simplicity and ruggedness, 
is the most popular. Internal gear 
axles, affording low spring seats, 

arrangements. A study of this 
should be undertaken for the benefit 
of all chassis and body manufac- 
turers. It is a more complicated 
subject than appears on the surface, 
but the variations possible make it 
all the more important that some- 
thing should be done on the matter. 

Steering gears vary considerably 
in type, and most of the types are 
represented in our motor bus chassis. 
The layout of the steering mecha- 
nism is of great importance. Many 
things besides the gear itself enter 
into the ease of steering and affect 
the life of the actuating parts. The 
accessibility of other parts may also 
be affected. Any attempt to discuss 
these features calls for an article 
in itself. 

Brakes, too, are a large subject. 

tend with. The single plate type 
seems to be most favored, although 
the multiple disk is popular. The 
single plate clutch scores on sim- 
plicity, low inertia effect, weight and 
ease of replacement. 


In gear boxes there is still a ten- 
dency to use whatever happens to be 
available in the way of construction 
and gear ratios. In many cases the 
available unit serves very well, but 
routes, schedule and maximum loads 
call for careful consideration in each 
particular case. There is but one 
instance of the use of silent chains 
in the gear box — all the rest being 
of the conventional spur gear type. 
One spur gear box offers seven 
speeds, and in a few instances these 

smaller differentials, lighter centers 
and somewhat lighter total weights, 
come next. The internal gear type 
has become more popular due to im- 
provements for retaining the lubri- 
cant in the internal gears, the use 
of better tooth forms, better detail 
design, and more accurate workman- 
ship than has usually been accorded 
this type of axle in the past. Axles 
with the double reduction at the cen- 
ter have fewer adherents, but they 
are used by well known and substan- 
tial concerns. 


Controls must be simple, rugged, 
and as few as possible in number. 
Their arrangement will bear a great 
deal of study, and several chassis 
show the results of this. Sooner or 
later a considerable amount of stand- 
ardization should take place, so that 
emergency drivers will not have to 
take charge of buses with unfamiliar 

Goodwin-Guilder chassis designed 
for bus service. 

The accepted arrangements seem to 
be double brakes on the rear wheels 
for chassis under 25-passenger ca- 
pacity. For chassis above this capac- 
ity a pair of brakes on the propeller 
shaft and another set on the rear 
wheels finds more favor. For high- 
speed buses the front wheel brake 
offers possibilities if simple and 
effective operating mechanisms can 
be developed. 

One high-speed interurban chassis, 
which is one of the notable develop- 
ments of the year, is equipped with 
air brakes. This seems like adding 
complications to a chassis, but in 
view of a speed of .'iO m.p.h., more 
than a comfortable effort on the part 
of the driver is necessary in making 
a sudden reduction in speed. 

The clutch of most motor buses 
has unusually hard service to con- 

might be useful. Three, or four 
speeds at most, will cover nearly 
every requirement, however, and 
simplicity recommends them. The 
lubrication of gear boxes is a subject 
that will bear some discussion, but 
at a later date. 


To discuss engines and their acces- 
sories is out of the question in the 
present article. Both poppet and 
sleeve valve engines are used in bus 
service. That either will predomi- 
nate in the long run is unlikely, for 
the development of engine details is 
constantly taking place and no one 
can predict which type will improve 
the faster. Very reliable and effi- 
cient engines of both types are in 
service. The four-cylinder engine has 
the advantage of the six-cylinder in 
weight, space occupied, friction 
losses, fuel economy, repairs and 
first cost. The six-cylinder engine 

January, 1923 




is smoother running than the four- 

In general, many features of 
chassis design will be influenced by 
what the public will pay for the ser- 
vice rendered. The two most notable 
offerings of the year — one at the 

Atlantic seaboard and the other at 
the Pacific — have been based on the 
belief that Americans will pay any 
reasonable sum for a real service 
well rendered. They show pains- 
taking effort to cover essential re- 
quirements, and at the same time 

take a forward step in air 
transportation. In both, th. 
and body are well co-ordinated, and 

though they differ in apr - and 

detail each is a well co' fort 

to afford more rapid ana iaU-r bus 

Bus Bodies Took Bij* For>\ar(l 


<'s 111 


Two Types Well Defined — Many Details Improved — Notable 
.\dv;inces in Linhtinu and lleatinK — Seating Idr Trallic Keciuire- 
ments — How Beauty Helps Ihe Bus — Enter the Assembled 
Body — Workinjf Toward Standardization — A Look Ahead 

WHEN Bus Transportation 
wa.'* started, one year ago 
this month, the body-build- 
ing part of the industry was in the 
ABC stage. Good bodies were being 
made, it is true, and these have 
proved a foundation. But in gen- 
eral the bodies sold a year and more 
back were only a beginning. They 
included the barest essentials, what 
the body makers call the shell, but 
it was largely up to the bus operator 
to finish the job, and install the fit- 
tings and equipment required for a 
complete unit of transportation. 

During the past year there have 
been great improvements. Such 
fundamentals as the framing, panels, 
roofs, have been put together to give 
better service. More important is 
the progress with fittings or body 
equipment. At the service of the 
operator are now a host of devices 
designed for the bus body. It would 
be foolish to say that devices for 
providing light, heat, ventilation, and 
for fare collection, are perfect. 
There is .still much to be done with 
these and other essential fittings. 
What has happened in 1922 is that 
the work of many specialized manu- 
facturers has been made available to 
bus operators. 

Body builders now have much more 
to do than finishing a shell. Their 
work also includes the assembling of 
many different types of equipment, 
supplied either as part of the stand- 
ard construction, or as extras at the 
demand of the man who acts in 
response to the needs of the riding 

As a vehicle for local transporta- 
tion, the bus has two ancestors. One 

is the trolley car, relatively slow, of 
sturdy design and to a considerable 
extent collision-proof, built for fre- 
quent changing of load, and for use 
in crowded city streets. The other 
is the i)leasure automobile, of com- 
parative light construction, and de- 
signed to carry the same passenger 
load at high speed for long distances. 

Bus bodies particularly show traces 
of descent from both these ancestors. 
In fact, there are now two well- 
defined types, which stand apart 
mainly through their method of 
handling passengers. The clear-cut 
recognition of these types, which we 
may call the street car and sedan, is 
one of the outstanding events of the 
past year. Development of bus busi- 
ness, in different localities and un- 
der different conditions, has forced 
this recognition on the operators, and 
the body builders have of necessity 
followed the lead of their customers. 

Each type is built in many sizes, 
and with important differences in 
construction. But each has its own 
fundamental characteristics. 

The street-car body is designed for 
frequent interchange of passengers, 
with a service door at the front for 
passengers, an aisle the full length, 
and an emergency, or sometimes a 
service, exit at the rear. As shown 
in the drawing on page 19, the 
seating arrangement varies with the 
nature of the business handled. This 
type is for work in densely settled 
districts, on routes limited in length. 
It must pos.sess certain details of 
construction, as has been realized 
more and more during the past year. 
Strength was a feature of 1922 
street-car bodies. Turn under or 

swell sides to gain clearance in city 
traffic, rub rails and bumpers for 
protection from the trolley car and 
motor truck crowd — these are some 
of the details found es.sential, and 
incorporated in recent designs. 

The .sedan Ixnly provides a .seal 
for every pas.senger. A development 
of the closed automobile, it in essen- 
tially for long distance travel. Seats 
as a rule are of full-cross construc- 
tion, each with at least one door for 
passengers. Features are the up- 
holstered seats as used in the sedan 
or limousine type of automobile, and 
facilities for carrying light Ijaggage. 
The sightseeing element often enters, 
so that recent designs have sides 
with a high proportion of observa- 
tion area, which can be thrown open 
during good weather. Since the 
sides, sometimes both of them, are 
practically all doors, it has been 
found necessary to take door control 
from the passengers. In one of 
these todies a system of levers con- 
nects all the door handles to the 
front, where only the driver can 
operate them. 

These outlines give the general 
characteristics of what have been 
termed the street-car and sedan 
types of bus bodies. In many re- 
spects the two t>'pes are similar, so 
that in the following review it is 
proposed to discuss such matters as 
framing, panel materials, roofs, 
lighting, heating, ventilation, seat- 
ing, and fare collection, for the two 
tyi>e3, and to point out the outstand- 
ing developments of the past year. 

Under-frame construction to secure 
low floors, and all-steel frames are 
undoubtedly the most important de- 




Vol.2, No.l 

l-'dij, o/ .S((/« /;/ B}is in Western stage service 

Packard Twin-Six, with sedan-type bus bodii 

velopments in the foundation of the 
axis body. By building the longi- 
tudinal .sills into the floor, and 
using metal extensions riveted to the 
frame members, it has been possible 
to keep the platform level down so 
that it is only the thickness of the 
floor above the frame. 

All-steel framing, built up of 
structural angles or channels and 
pressed-steel posts, is the result of 
the entrance of rail-car builders into 
the industry. This construction con- 
forms in its general details to that 
developed for electric railway rolling 
stock, and has the advantage, it is 
held, of safety, strength and dura- 

Even when the conventional hard- 
wood is used for the greater part 
of the framing, there is a tendency 
toward a composite construction. 
Structural steel sills are alternated 
with those made of wood, and roof 
bows and sills even are plated with 
steel strip, to secure the strength of 
the metal and the deadening property 
of the wood. Or an underframe of 
steel may be mounted on a hardwood 
strip, to break up vibrations and 
shocks that might otherwise be 
transmitted from the cha.ssis to the 

Better floors were shown on many 

Shell of thirty-passenger Model 
bus body, ready for chassis. 

bodies. An example is a floor half 
lapped to keep out dust and fumes, 
but with a slight clearance between 
the boards to allow for expansion 
due to weather conditions. Wear is 
kept down by safety tread on the 
steps, and by grooved (slatted) 
boards in the aisles of street-car 
bodies. These may be covered with 
linoleum under the seats, although 
carpet is being used for sedan types. 

In Roof Construction 

The tendency is toward the arch 
form of roof, although a modified 

Mack 6»x Itotli/ during cinixtrnc- 
tioii. Metal corner braces shown. 

monitor or cupola construction is 
sometimes used, on account of its 
ventilating possibilities. The cupola 
roof as used on street-car bodies has 
small windows on the sides only, and 
sweeps down in graceful curves to 
join the main part of the roof at the 
front and rear. Many of the pres- 
ent-day buses are fitted with stan- 
chions, attached between the roof 
bows and the floor. These may pre- 
vent the adjustment of the roof to 
contortions caused by road inequal- 
ities, but are useful when standees 
are the rule. Where good illumina- 
tion is needed, it is becoming the 
practice to line the ceiling with a 
wood veneer or composition mate- 
rial, which can be painted to give a 
smooth surface that will reflect light 

For sedan types, especially in 
smaller passenger capacities, a pad- 
ded top is used. Roof bows are 
covered outside with duck, and 
inside with velour, whipcord or 
motorcloth to harmonize with the 

Panel Materials 

The table accompanying this 
article indicates that sheet steel is 
the panel material used by the 
greatest number of bodies listed, 

Frame of body shown at left, 
with posts a nd roof bows in place. 





with sheet aluminum, wood veneer, 
and fiber board following. 

Progress in panel materials dur- 
ing the year has consisted mostly in 
the direction of their application — 
better painting and better insula- 
tion. Outside the steel sheets are 
sand blasted, and treated so the 
paint will stay put. Success in this, 
it is said, is due to the combined 
efforts of the body and paint mak- 
ers. Inside the sheets are also beiii^r 
given better care. One builder uses 
corkboaid covered with linoleum. 
The corkboard is cemented to the 
inside of the panel plates, and is 
intended to prevent rumbling or 
squeaks. This coating may also 
serve as an insulation, to retain the 
heat in the body during cold weather. 
Other forms of wadding, or wood 
veneer, may be used for the same 

Doors and Windows 

Opening and closing the bus door 
has been receiving considerable at- 

Interiors of typical bus bodies. 

Top — Street-car type, with cross 
s€at3. Liphtinff from bowls in ad- 
virtuiinii racks. Scat backs alumi- 
num. lAtnrrican.J 

Center — Another street-car body for 
trolley-bus service. Open lights, Pull- 
man toindotcs, scats to form loadino 
well at front. (Brill.) 
Bottom — Dc luxe example of sedan- 
type body. Dome lights, ventilators, 
clothes hooks onside posts. (Bender.) 

tension, with more needed, and to 
come. The perfect door-opening 
mechanism has yet to show its head, 
although some creditable designs 
have been developed during the year. 
If the operators are any judge the 
tendency will be toward simplicity, 
light from overhead on the step, and 
a solid lower panel in the door. The 
step light works — sometimes. The 
wireglass lower panel has proved of 
no great utility, and it is too often 

When it comes to doors for the 
sedan-type bodies, closed automobile 
construction has led the way, and 
still is followed to a considerable de- 
gree. Something stronger is needed, 
however. Solid-framed doors, work- 
ing on triple offsets, with handles 
inside and out to assist the passen- 
gers entering and leaving — these 
appeared last year on a few jobs. 
Another feature, already referred 
to, is designed to prevent passen- 
gers opening the doors when the 
vehicle is in motion. The driver 
may do this by a system of levers, 
or by a key for each door. 

The old year saw many detail 




Vol.2, No.l 






















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January, 1923 

improvements in window construc- 
tion. In many street-car models the 
campaiKn for quiet operation has 
been directed to both glass and sash. 
Glass is set in felt, rubber or in 
metal sash to eliminate rattle and 
breakage. Anti-rattlers are used to 
hold the windows tit'ht at any posi- 
tion and thus overcome sash rattle. 
So much for the general details 
of body construction. In addition 
there are to be considered the hijih 
points of such matters as lighting, 
heating, ventilation, and seating 

Advances in Lighting 

The lighting inside the bus, par- 
ticularly the street-car type, has fur- 
nished one of the notable advances 
of the year. Interior lighting, of 
course, is not purely a body matter, 



should not be provided, but so far 
it seems that the trattk and sched- 
ules have not made it neces.sary. 

There is a tendency to relieve the 
lighting system, or rather the source 
of the current used for lighting, of 
part of its work. Some operators 
prefer a separate dry battery for the 
passenger signaling system, or to 
substitute a mechanical arrange- 
ment. Many new buses have a gong 
placed over the driver's head, which 
passengers can ring by pulling a 
cord carried along each side of the 

Heating also has advanced. A 
year ago operators were often com- 
pelled to install home-made systems, 
to get sufficient capacity. Now the 
market affords several tj-pes of heat- 
ing devices, in adequate sizes. One 
can buy a piping system complete, 


of automatic ventilators, mounted 
along the center line of the roof, 
with outlets projecting above, and a 
grill or register in the ceiling. 
These require no adjustment for 
rain, snow or wind. 

Seaung Arrangements 

Several typical arrangements of 
seats are shown in the accompany- 
ing drawing. This ii 
three general tyi)es foi 
bodies — two longitudinal seats for 
frequent-stop, standee service; croM 
seats placed uniformly on each side 
of a straight central aisle for the 
longer trips; and a combination of 
the two kinds of seats for service 
of mixed characteristics. One of 
the steps forward of 1922 is the bet- 
ter selection of seating arrangement 
to meet traffic requirements. 

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since the source of current is tied 
up with the chassis. But our friends 
the generator makers have begun to 
turn out units of large capacity, so 
that something more than a few 
4-cp. bulbs, plus the essential ex- 
terior lights, can be kept going. 
The illuminating engineers have also 
interested themselves in the subject, 
and fixtures have been developed 
suitable for use on even the largest 
bodies. The frosted domes, or the 
various types of reflectors, mounted 
with 16-cp. or larger bulbs on a pol- 
ished ivory or white ceiling to get 
full value from the lighting system, 
now provide even reading light, in 
spite of road vibrations. 

Lighting in the sedan bodies is 
usually a safety measure, with a 
fixture overhead or at the edge of 
each seat, for passenger use during 
exit and entrance. There is no rea- 
son why the ceilings should not 
present a surface to reflect light, 
and why sufficient illumination 

Slitting layouts for street-car 
bodies. As suggested by Bus 
Bcdy Corporation. 

with steel tubes, straights, elbows 
and couplings, valve and control 
mechanism, and even the perforated 
guards to protect the passengers. 

The bus reqaires larger units than 
those used for pleasure automobiles, 
and these are supplied in the heel- 
board type for street-car bodies, and 
in registers set flush in the floor of 
sedan installations. 

A recent development is the use 
of hot-water heating in buses, in- 
stead of the exhaust type. The new 
systems consist of pipe coils, fed 
with hot water tapped off from the 
outlet of the engine cylinders. 

Ventilation and heating go to- 
gether, although the former must 
act to remove gaseous or fuel fumes 
in warm weather when heat is not 
required. Perhaps the most inter- 
esting development is the wide use 

Sedan bodies use the seats as 
braces to support the sides, which 
would otherwise consist of inde- 
pendent pairs of po.sts, joined per- 
haps by a light roof. These .seats 
are often open underneath, giving 
space for legroom and for light bag- 
gage. The double-deck springs, cov- 
ered with imitation leather or 
fabrics, follow automobile practice. 

Be,\uty and the Bus 

The appearance of the bus has re- 
ceived a great deal of attention dur- 
ing the first year of Bus Trans- 
portation. The effects of this are 
shown l>oth in structural form and 
in the color scheme, inside and out- 
side. Carefully studied has been 
the value of appearance in getting 
business, as well as its effect on de- 
sign and maintenance. 

Advance in structural form is 
most commonly indicated by the 
turnunder body. The straight-line 
design is light in weight and easy 


to build, but it looks like a plain box 
set on wheels. Appearance is much 
improved, however, with a moderate 
turnunder or swell at the sides and 
rear. The turnunder has practical 
value also when the bus works in 
heavy traffic, since rub-rails can be 
used to take the blows of colliding 
vehicles, and the added clearance is 

Front covers are being made with 
curved quarter lights or with win- 
dows set on an angle to remove 
the square effect. This construction 
makes for better looks and also gives 
the driver a better view at the sides 
of the road. Another detail in con- 
struction typical of many street-car 
bodies is the metal skirt placed 
around the lower edge of the body. 



on bodies of the street-car type. It 
consists of a leather substitute mate- 
rial, supplied in a variety of colors, 
which is cemented to panels, roofs 
and other exposed parts. This finish, 
it is claimed, keeps its appearance 
and form for years under all kinds 
of weather and road conditions. It 
will not check, crack, or chip off. 
The application is comparatively 
simple; first, the body is thoroughly 
cleaned, and then the material is 
smoothed on, using specially pre- 
pared cement. 

The body builder contents himself 
with furnishing certain essential 
fittings that enter into the construc- 
tion, and adds others according to 
agreement reached with the buyer- 
operator. Thus interior lighting 

All-steel frame twenty-five passenger body. Kuhlman, on Pierce-Arrow chassis 

Long skirts are not yet the fashion 
on all buses, but where applied they 
hide the underneath mechanical 
parts, and the body looks lower and 
closer to the ground. 

The interior finish of street-car 
bodies is showing signs of settling 
down to a mahogany or other dark 
trim up to the top of the windows, 
with the ceiling in light oak, ivory 
or white, to give the best light- 
reflecting surface. 

The color schemes for the outside 
are tending to become somber, or at 
least restful, in their effect on the 
eye. Bus men who take advantage 
of every business-getting refinement 
are passing by colors of the alarm- 
clock variety. The call of color is 
not required with vehicles operated 
on a time schedule. Dark finishes, 
especially at the top of the bus, 
blend easily into the background, 
usually somber or neutral in tone. 
This has the advantage that it keep.s 
the body from looking top-heav>-, 
and so it appears safer to the pas- 

A finish developed for pleasure 
automobiles has recently been ap- 
plied, it would seem to advantage. 

fixtures, buzzer system, advertising 
racks, windshield, heating and venti- 
lating equipment may be installed, 
although the two last are extras on 
many of the smaller bodies. On 
larger bodies, there may be fur- 
nished running lights at the front, 
danger signal at the rear, rear- 
vision mirror for the interior, cur- 
tain back of the driver, tool box 
under seat of body, and tire carrier 
at rear. Classed as extras as a rule 
are illuminated route signs, wind- 
shield cleaners, fare collection de- 
vices, window guards and curtains, 
and baggage carriers. 

Fittings or Details of Equipment 

The very use of all these fittings 
is a sign of the better service given 
by bus oporator.s. And the majority 
of them have been devised particu- 
larly for use on the bus. Here is an 
indication of the varied mechanical 
ability and the wide manufacturing 
experience brought into play by the 
growth of the bus induati\v. 

The year 1922 has seen great ad- 
vances in the construction of bus 
bodies. Some of the evidences of 
this progress have been referred to 

Vol.2, No.l 

briefly in the foregoing paragraphs. 
Now to consider the effect of the 
large increase in number of bodies 
produced, undoubtedly the largest in 
any twelve-month period to date, on 
builders' methods and organizations. 

With the Body Builders 

There are two distinct and sep- 
arate tendencies that appear from 
a study of 1922 activities in the in- 
dustry. The first is the production, 
in a single shop, of bodies in quanti- 
ties. It would be a mistake to say 
the production of identical bodies 
in quantities, for even the large 
builders must maintain a consider- 
able degree of flexibility in their 
designs, so they can fit a variety 
of chassis from different sources. 
These large builders have been 
successful in adapting modern 
manufacturing methods to the con- 
struction of bus bodies, to the extent 
that only a small amount of special 
fitting is required for each chassis. 

The second tendency, to be dis- 
cussed presently, is the assembling, 
usually in a small shop, of up-to- 
date bus bodies. There is no clear 
line between the two types of bus 
production, any more than there is 
in the automobile industry where 
the same or similar tendencies have 
been at work for a number of years. 
But we can at least survey some of 
the causes and effects that accom- 
pany the two tendencies. 

Quantity production has been 
worked out to the greatest extent 
by builders who concentrate on a 
small number of chassis makes. It 
is then possible to make up so-called 
standardized units or parts, such as 
posts, sills, windows, doors, and hold 
them in stock until orders are re- 
ceived. The operator can suit his 
ovm taste in details of equipment, 
and still get the benefit of the lower 
costs that are secured. Another ad- 
vantage, still to be realized, is that 
the standardized parts may be sup- 
plied for repairs at a price that will 
meet the competition of the local car- 
penter or body maker. 

By thus building bodies for a 
given chassis, the job of fitting and 
mounting is enormously simplified. 
Done for one chassis, of course, it 
is done for all. Under-frame con- 
struction, fit between dash and chas- 
sis hood, correct load distribution, 
these can be settled with the re- 
quirements of chassis and body 
given due consideration. 

The quantity methods of produc- 
tion have worked out well when the 





body maker is in the same locality 
as the chassis factory, or within 
driving distance of the operator's 
route. With the present high 
freight rates a drive of several hun- 
dred miles is often considered the 
best method of delivery. When 
chassis and body are made in the 
same place, then the complete bus 
can be shipped by freight at prac- 
tically the same cost as the chassis 

It has been said that one of the 
tendencies shown in 1922 was the 
assembling of bus bodies. Like his 
brother in the motor-truck field, the 
builder of assembled bus bodies is 
in a strong position to specialize, 
and make a body for this chassis 
today and for one entirely difTcrent 
next week or month. He has every 
opportunity to put good workman- 
ship into his product, and to develop 
and use his own special features of 
construction. All the materials and 
specialized fittings are his at a rea- 
sonable price, perhaps higher than 
the builder who buys them in 
quantities, but still within bounds. 

A Look Ahead 

Nineteen-twenty-two has not re- 
vealed any radical changes in 
construction or in method of manu- 
facture, at least as measured in 
terms of commercial production. A 
number of such developments have 
been tried out, with results that 
only the test of wide use will de- 
termine. Among them are the ap- 
plication of a special body built for 
light-duty service, so as to fit a re- 
modeled truck chassis of a widely 
used make; a take-down design, also 
for light-duty service, consisting of 
units that can be assembled where 
the body is to be used; and finally a 
single or joint frame structure foi- 
chassis and body, in which the pres- 
ent chassis frame members and the 
body sills and posts will be com- 
bined in the one unit, up say to the 
lower edge of the windows. 

Perhaps the most important dc 
velopment of the last year, certainly 
the most far-reaching, is the general 
tendency toward body standardiza- 
tion. This does not mean that bus 
bodies are all alike, or that they ever 
will be, in passenger capacity or in 
details of construction. But there 
is evident a remarkable similarity in 
bus bodies, a definite recognition 
that there are a fairly small number 
of kinds of service, and that these 
can be adequately satisfied by a 
comparatively few types of bodies. 

It means undoubtedly that the ex- 
perience of thousands of operators, 
all over the country, is beginning to 
crystallize into definite requirements 
of construction. The process is just 
starting, but already it has gone far 
beyond the CDiulition (gone far, let 
it be said, in a short time), when 
each and every body was a distinct 
and different example of the art. 

If the experience of other busi- 
nesses can be taken as a guide, then 
types or designs will liecome fewer 
in number, so that each one can be 
turned out in larger quantities. 
This is a movement that will come 
more and more as bus transportation 
grows. The industry will thus U- 
the cause of, and will also be the 
gainer from, the kind of standardi- 
zation that can be passed on to the 
operator in the form of lower prices, 
lighter weights, better quality, and 
greater durability. 

California Line Maintains 
Hourly Service 

THE Santa Rosa-Petaluma-Sausal- 
ito Auto Stage Company, uses 
twelve buses to furnish hourly sei-v- 
ice over a .50-mile route. The terri- 
tory includes a number of small 
towns in upper California, from the 
city of Santa Clara to the town of 
Sausalito, across the Golden Gate 
from San Francisco. The roads are 
good concrete throughout, but with 
many hills and turns. In one stretch 
of 12 miles there are Ifi.*? Iiirns. 

The schedule provides for a bus 
every hour from Santa this 
arriving at Sausalito two hours and 
fifteen minutes later. The first 
southbound bus leaves Santa Clara 
at G:30 in the morning, stops only at 
the five towns en route, and makes 
the trip in two hours. The others 
stop on signal as required. 

Returning, the last northbound bus 
leaves Sausalito at 10:50 p.m., ar- 
riving at Santa Rosa at 1 :05 the 
next morning. For Sundays and 
holidays a special trip is made, leav- 
ing Sau.salito at 12:20 in the morn- 
ing. The round trip fare is $2 with 
$1.40 rate one way, and a 25-cent 
minimum fare. 

The bus terminal at the Union 
Stage Depot, Santa Rosa, is shared 
by another line which makes four 
round trips a day inland to Sacra- 
mento. The two lines put out a 
joint time-table, showing schedules 
and connections at different points 
with other bus lines. 

The interior of the Santa Clara 
Union Stage Depot is shown in the 
accompanying view. The buses drive 
through the depot building, which is 
located on a corner, and take pas- 
sengers directly from the waiting 
room. The building is one story 
high. Separate ticket offices are pro- 
vided for the two lines, and the 
waiting room has a stand for 
magazines and for .«oft drinks, and 
a checking room for baggage. 

The equipment used on the Santa 
Clara-Sausalito line consists of 
twi-lvt- Mndt-I l.^-l.^ White buses. 

Inside loading of passengers the title here. Interior of Santa Clara Depot 




Vol.2, No.l 

Requirements for Highway Construction 

Government Engineers Study Traffic Conditions — 
Widths Should Vary with Speed of Vehicles — Shoul- 
ders Recommended for Adjustments or Repairs 

PROPER widths on straightaways 
and on curves, types of shoulder 
construction necessary, and the gen- 
eral methods of building Portland 
cement concrete roads are taken up 
in bulletin No. 1077, prepared by 
engineers of the Bureau of Public 
Roads, and issued by the Department 
of Agriculture. 

All trunk line roads and roads of 
primary state systems, "according to 

the minimum width of pavement 
should be 20 ft. Layouts of two 
roads are given in the accompanying 

The thickness of pavement re- 
quired depends upon the traffic. For 
average conditions of soil a thick- 
ness of 8 in. is believed desirable for 
traffic up to and including 150 trucks 
per day. Near large cities where a 
large volume of heavily-loaded truck 

the added width should be consistent 
with the provision that has been 
made on the straightaway portion. 
A greater factor of safety is desir- 
able on curves, so that if the clear- 
ance allowed on the straight portion 
is from 3 to 3 J ft., it is believed that 
a minimum of 5 ft. should be pro- 
vided on the curves. It is now gen- 
erally agreed that the increased 
width should be added to the inside 
rather than the outside of the curve 
and that it should continue for prac- 
tically the entire length of the curve. 
Shoulders should be not less than 
5 ft. wide, and 6 or 7 ft. is preferable. 
On single-track pavements they 
should be wide enough to provide for 

the bulletin, should be constructed 
to accommodate two lines of traffic, 
whether the necessity for such a 
width exists at the time of construc- 
tion or not. When funds are the 
controlling factor, it may be desir- 
able to construct a single-track pave- 
ment and make provisions for widen- 
ing it later when the volume of 
traflic justifies the expense. 

The character of vehicles, together 
with the clearance necessary for 
safety in passing, will largely deter- 
mine the width of pavement for 
double-track roads. For slow-speed 
traffic, such as trucks, a clearance of 
3 to 3i ft. is necessary for safety, 
while for high-speed automobile 
traffic at least 5 ft. should be pro- 
vided. At an average speed of 30 
m.p.h. it is unreasonable to expect 
the driver of an automobile to drive 
with the wheels closer than 1\ ft. 
to the edge of the pavement. For 
trucks at an average speed of 1.5 
m.p.h. this distance should not be 
less than 13 ft. on account of the 
great width of the rear wheels. 
Inasmuch as a certain amount of 
truck traffic is to be expected on all 
main country roads, the minimum 
width of pavement for this class of 
road should be 18 ft. Where the 
frequency with which trucks pass 
each other becomes a big factor, as 
in the neighborhood of large cities, 

Widths of road required for safe 
passage. View at left, passenger 
car passing truck. View at right, 
truck passing truck. 

traffic is to be expected, the thick- 
ness should preferably be 9 in., and 
under very unusual conditions a 
thickness of 10 in. may be necessary. 
On curves the roads must be 
widened because the vehicle occupies 
a greater width of pavement than on 
straightaway. In widening curves 

safety of passing vehicles and must 
be composed of material which will 
support them satisfactorily. On a 
double-track pavement the shoulders 
should be wide enough to allow for 
irregular and unexpected actions by 
inexperienced drivers or frightened 
animals. Where the volume of traffic 
is large they should permit automo- 
biles to turn out onto the shoulders 
for minor adjustments or tire re- 
pairs without blocking the traveled 

Conductors' Badges Proving Effective 

THE neat green and gold badges 
on the breasts of the Fifth Ave- 
nue coach conductors are beginning 
to show their value in promoting 
better relations with the public. 

"It's this way," explained one of 
the conductors the other day, "the 
passenger who wants to be iileasant, 
and the one who wants to kick, both 
find the name plate convenient. Peo- 
ple use conductors' names all sorts 
of ways. One will ask: 'Will you 
please let me off at the next cor- 
ner, Mr. Jones?' Then there is the 
woman who wants to ask a favor, 
such as being let off in the middle 
of a block near her front door. She 
begins by saying, 'Mr. .Tones, may I 
trouble you just this once to stop,' 

etc. The passenger seeking a priv- 
ilege usually makes sure of your 
name plate right away. If he is 
particularly mad he drops the Mr. 
'See here, Jones,' he says, 'I'll report 
you for this.' 

"What proportion of them mention 
the name? Just now I should say 
there was about one to every coach- 
ful, say fifty passengers. But the 
regulai- customers are beginning to 
catch on. After they get to know us 
they usually smile or nod. Later 
they will wish us a 'Good morning.' 
or a 'Good night.' Since the name 
plates have come in they add our 
names, 'Good morning, Mr. Jones,' 
and more of them are doing it every 
day."— The Neiv York Times. 

January, 1923 



New York, Londoiu Paris and R< rliii 
Bus Coiidilioiis (^oin parcel 

Two extended reports on tran- 
sit conditions in London, 
Paris and Berlin as compared 
with those of New York have re- 
cently been submitted to the New 
York Transit Commission. One is 
by Daniel L. Turner, consulting en- 
gineer of the commission, and is 
based on observations made by him 
during a trip last summer. The 
other, which includes also comments 
on transit conditions in Glasgow 
and Haml)urg, was submitted by 
Robert Ridgway, chief engineer of 
the commission, and is ba.sed on a 
trip made by him during the sum- 
mer of 1921. An abstract of Mr. 
Turner's report, in so far as it relates 
to rapid transit lines and tramways, 
is being published in current issues 
of the Electric Railway Journai. 
The following facts in regard to bus 
transportation are taken from Mr. 
Turner's report and the maps show- 
ing the bus routes in London and 
Paris are from Mr. Ridgway's re- 

In New York, London and Ber- 
lin double-deck buses are operated. 
• In Paris they are all single-deck 
buses. Paris operators seem to 
think that the double-deck bus re- 
quires too much time to load and un- 
load from the upper level. The 
double-deck buses are not permitted 
on the Paris .system. In New York, 
and possibly in some of the other 
cities, the bus lines are experiment- 
ing with closed top buses and the 
Fifth Avenue Coach Company is 
experimenting with a single-deck 
type of bus. Just as is the case with 
the tramway cars in London and 
Paris, the lines all stop at designated 
stopping points to load and unload 
passengers. In New York all buses 
stop at every cross street, but they 
stop at the far side of the crossing, 
not at the near side, as the trolley 
cars do. At the stopping points in 
London and Paris, the same kind of 
information with respect to the op- 
erating routes is displayed as in the 
case of the tramway lines — that is, 
the number of the routes stopping at 
the particular point are indicated, 
and in Paris numbered tickets are 
used to permit each passenger to 
board the buses in the order of his 

This Is an Extended Re- 
view of Reports to the New 
York Transit Commission. 
Rased on Iteeent Inspec- 
tions— The Extent of iius 
Service and Methods of 
Operation in These Large 
Cities Are Compared 

The capacity of the double-deck 
buses used in New York is fifty-one 
seats, and no standing passengers 
are permitted. In London, the .seat- 
ing capacities of the principal types 
of buses are thirty-four, forty-six 
and fifty-four respectively, and five 
passengers are permitted to stand. 
In Paris the single-deck buses .seat 
twenty-eight, sixteen first class in 
the front of the bus and twelve sec- 
ond class in the rear, and permit ten 
passengers to stand. These passen- 
gers, however, all have to stand on 
the platform of the bus. The Paris 
buses are peculiar in that passen- 
gers do not board and disembark by 
means of a side step, but by means 
of a step on the rear of the plat- 
form. It is almost impossible, there- 
fore, to get off a Paris bus while it 
is in motion. Paris has developed a 
successful six-wheel bus. A num- 
ber are now being built. It is a 
single-deck bus, and it carries 
twenty first class, twenty second 
class, seated passengers, and eight 
standing, a total of forty-eight pas- 
sengers. Its general plan is the 
same as the four-wheel vehicle, but 
its capacity approaches the New 
York and London double-deck buses. 

In Berlin the buses seat thirty- 
six and six are permitted to stand 

On all of the bus lines, therefore, 
e.xcept in New York, that is on those 
in London, Paris and Berlin, a few- 
standing passengers are permitted, 
but the number is limited. There is 
some advantage in this, in that it 
gives a passenger an opportunity to 
get on a bus and in a very few blocks 
obtain a seat. Frequently it has 
been noted that the Fifth Avenue 
buses refuse to receive passengers 
at one stop, and at the very next 

stop, a block away, they unload 
three or four passengent. Two or 
three pa.s.Kengers might be permitted 
to stand on the rear platform of the 
Fifth Avenue buMe.s without serious 
inconvenience to the other paasen- 

The speeds on all of the bus lines 
do not differ materially front those 
on the tramway lines. Their aver- 
age speed must conform to the gen- 
eral traffic conditions in the streeta 
traversed. The Fifth Avenue bus 
routes do not operate all through the 
night. It is the only transit service 
in New York that does not furnish 
all night .service. The service is 
shut off from 2 a.m. to 6:30 a.m. In 
London the operation is suspended 
on the bus lines from midnight to 
about 7 or 8 o'dfxk in the morn- 
ing. In Paris it is suspended from 
1 o'clock to 6 o'clock in the morning. 
The practice in Berlin is not known. 

There is one other important 
feature of the bus operation in Lon- 
don which must be mentioned here, 
and that is the Chiswick works o/ 
the London General Omnibus Com- 
pany. These are the overhaul works 
or repair shops for the entire bus 
fleet. The works extend over 31 
acres of ground, of which the build- 
ings cover more than half. In these 
shops the methods of quantity pro- 
duction and manufacture are ap- 
plied to the maintenance, repairs and 
renewals of the buses. It is here 
that the motor bus is reborn every 
year. The plant will accommodate 
under pressure 120 vehicles weekly, 
and when under full swing, two 
thousand workmen are employed. 
The effect of the opening of this 
plant has been that the overhaul of 
the buses has been centralized, stand- 
ardized and speeded up to four times 
its former pace. The v. ce 

is so effective that a br^ in 

the bus ser\'ice is rare nowadays. 
In 1920 the loss of mileage was only 
three miles in 10,000, a percentage 
of 0.03. Approximately at the end 
of the year's sen'ice, the bus is taken 
to the shops and completely dis- 
mantled. All of its parts that can 
be continued in use are put into 
first-class order. Where new parts 
are neces.sar>' they are provided. 
From the accumulated parts a new 




Vol.2, No.l 

bus is assembled. That is, at the 
end of each year, after a service of 
about 30,000 miles, an entirely new 
bus is produced, the parts being 
practically all interchangeable. 

This was a most unusual plant. 
Nothing else like it was seen. In 
fact, it is believed there is nothing 
else like it in the way of a main- 
tenance plant. 

Direction Signs Numerous 

In London and Paris a great 
many maps and direction signs are 
used on the buses to help passengers 
to know what route to take. The re- 
sults are very good. The disposi- 
tion in these cities, not only on the 
bus lines but on the other transpor- 
tation lines as well, seems to be to 
furnish as much information as pos- 
sible, inside and outside of the buses, 
for the convenience of their pas- 
sengers. Both in London and in 
Paris, pocket bus maps, giving all 
of the bus routes, are easily obtained, 
free in London and by purchase in 

In London, Paris and Berlin the 
transit conditions are different 
psychologically from those in New 
York. The mental attitude of pas- 
sengers toward the operators of the 
transit lines is different. They are 
more amenable to suggestion and 
control than they are here. They 
expect to have information fur- 
nished in such a way that they can 
conveniently use it. They seek it for 
themselves. And from our view- 
point, the strange part about it is 
that they endeavor to be guided by 
the directions given. They are will- 
ing to do what they are told to do. 
The painted white lines on some of 
the London Underground station 
platforms illustrate this. These 
guide lines indicate the limits within 
which the passengers are expected 
to form queues, so that they may 
board the trains in the order of 
their arrival, and in an orderly man- 
ner. And they do it. We would 
have to mark out such spaces with 
2-in. pipe railings and then have 
policemen on hand to compel the 
formation behind the railings. 

Dealing with traftic problems un- 
der .such conditions, where everj'- 
body plays the game and follows the 
rules, is very different from the situ- 
ation we have to confront, where you 
cannot tell anybody to do anything, 
but where every one does as he 
likes — or where the conditions are 
such that it is necessary so to ar- 
range matters physically that people 

have to do what you want them to do. 

As shown in the accompanying 
tables there is great variation in the 
development of the various means of 
transit in the different cities. 

The bus lines route-miles refer to 
the miles of street traversed by the 
bus routes, not the summation of 
the trip mileages of the several bus 

The tramway and bus route mile- 
ages together, in New York City, 
aggregate 657 miles of route. In 
other words, there are 657 miles of 

Table I — Municipal Surface Line 
Mileage — Tramways and Buses 

. — Tramway Lines — . 

Route- Single-Track Bus Lines 

Miles Miles Route-Miles 

New York 632 1,264 25 

London 155 310 253 

Paris 155 310 104 

Berlin 110 220 15 

street traversed by trolley and bus 
routes. On the theory that every 
citizen should not be more than i 
mile away from a rapid transit line 
or i mile from a surface line, New 
York City should have about 1,000 
miles of tramway and bus routes. 
Its tramway and bus systems to- 
gether in the aggregate, therefore, 
have been developed to about 65 per 
cent efficiency. The tramway sys- 
tem in New York City is an impor- 
tant element in the transit scheme, 
but the bus system at the present 
time plays an insignificant part. 

The tramways of Municipal Lon- 
don, included above, are only those 
tramways operated by the London 
County Council; that is, within the 
County of London. This system 
does not serve all of London County. 
It pretty generally traverses the area 
south of the Thames and also that 
area in northeast London not cov- 
ered by the rapid transit system. 
The tramway system does not route 
into and through the business 
center. This is a small area about 3 
square miles north of the Thames. 
But it would be a doubtful policy to 
extend the system into this area for 
here the greatest vehicular conges- 
tion in the streets exists, and the 
tramway lines would undoubtedly in- 
tensify this congestion. 

The bus system on the other hand 
is the only comprehensive system in 
London. That is, it serves the en- 
tire municipal area both north and 
south of the Thames. It operates 
into the center and out into the 
outermost limits of the county. It 
is the most convenient system of 
transit in London. But it parallels 

and competes with the tramway sys- 
tem. Tramways and buses should 
supplement each other — not compete 
against each other. To do this is a 
community waste. 

There are about 144 route-miles 
of tramways in extra London, and 
some bus lines, just how much bus 
route the figures do not show. 

In municipal London the tram- 
way and bus routes together amount 
to 408 route-miles, whereas theoreti- 
cally, the area of municipal London 
could be conveniently served by a 
surface system made up of tram- 
ways and buses, consisting of only 
370 route-miles. As now developed, 
therefore, the London system has 
reached about 110 per cent efficiency. 
In other words, from a convenience 
point of view, there are more sur- 
face facilities than necessary. The 
competition between the tramways 
and buses accounts for this in a 

In Paris, as in London, the tram- 
ways do not traverse the central 
business area. The extent of this 
area, however, is not as great as in 
London. It is only about 5 mile in 
area, and is about 1 mile long by 
about I mile wide. As the situation 
is understood, in Paris it is not pro- 
posed to have the tramways enter 
this area. On the contrary there is 
an inclination to remove the tram- 
ways from the more congested street • 
areas and replace them with buses 
on the theory that the tramways 
cause more congestion than the 
buses do. The area outside of the 
Paris fortifications, as well as the 
area inside, is served by the tram- 
ways. Routes of the urban system 
to some extent extend out into the 
extra area, and then there is an 
outside system which begins at the 
fortification line and extends fur- 
ther out. This latter system is 
partly used as feeders for the rapid 
transit lines, but not for the same 
fare. But the buses in Paris operate 
almost entirely within the fortifica- 
tions. The tramways and buses do 
not compete. The two systems are 
operated by the same company. 

In the city of Paris the tramway 
and bus routes aggregate 259 miles. 
Theoretically, from the convenience 
standpoint, Paris ought to have 
about 100 miles of tramway and bus 
routes, so that the tramway and bus 
systems of Paris have been de- 
veloped to about 259 per cent effi- 
ciency. In Paris, therefore, capacity 
requirements now determine the ex- 
tent of the tramway and bus sys- 





terns — instead of convenience — just 
as is the case with its rapid transit 
system. There is an extensive sys- 
tem of tramways in extra Paris, 
about 167 route-miles. 

In Berlin the aggregate routes 
of buses and trams amount to 125 

the capacity standpoint. Mure facili- 
ties arc needed because of the much 
greater density of population in the 
areas being compared. In Berlin 
the reason for the lack of rapid 
transit facilities is that Berlin haa 
depended largely upon its King-Bahn 

are charged on the bus lines in Lon- 
don, Paris and Berlin. In London 
the fares vary from lid i 2.8 cents) 
for a ride of two stages of i mile 
each, or a mile in total distance, to 
14d (26 cents) for a ride of twenty- 
seven stages or 13J miles total dis- 


miles in the municipal area. But 
there are about 240 miles of 
route in the extra area. Municipal 
Berlin only requires 90 miles of 
transit facilities, trams and buses, 
from the standpoint of convenience 
of access. It actually has 125 miles, 
so that the surface facilities have 
been developed to 137 per cent effi- 

From the foregoing it appears 
generally that New York is under- 
supplied both with rapid transit 
facilities and surface facilities. Lon- 
don is under-supplied with rapid 
transit facilities, but over-supplied 
with surface facilities. Paris is over- 
supplied both with rapid transit 
and with surface facilities. Berlin is 
greatly under-supplied with rapid 
transit facilities, but is over- 
supplied with surface facilities. In 
talking about being over-supplied 
with facilities, however, we are 
speaking only from the convenience 
of access point of view. In the case 
of Paris, the average population 
density is 151 people to the acre, so 
that the facilities are no longer 
being supplied from the standpoint 
of convenience of access, but from 

Bus roiitex in London and Paris. 
The former cani'es nearly four 
times the passengers each year. 

and Stadt-Bahn and some other 
steam railroad facilities as a substi- 
tute for rapid transit facilities. The 
same thing may be said about Lon- 
don, so far as rapid transit facilities 
are concerned. South London and 
northeast London are dependent en- 
tirely upon steam railroad suburban 
service for rapid transit facilities. 

Fares and Other Statistics 

As far as New York is concerned, 
i*. must not be forgotten that we 
have been dealing with New York as 
a whole. Richmond and Queens are 
almost entirely unprovided with 
facilities. If the transit conditions 
in Manhattan, Brooklyn and the 
Bronx were analyzed separately, the 
picture would be a very different 
one. But the figures are not avail- 
able to permit this to be done at this 
time. In this connection if we con- 
sider the new Berlin, the same 
figures would likewise be ver>' ma- 
terially altered. 

As shown in Table II zone fares 

tance. In Paris the i'.\ 
and second class are, i • 
for one stage, 40 centimes and 25 
centimes; two stages, 55 centimes 
and 40 centimes; three stages, 70 
centimes and 50 centimes. In Berlin 
as in London there is only one class. 
The fare last summer, for one .stage 
was 5 marks; for two stages, 7 
marks, and for three stages, 8 marks. 
Table III gives statistics of bus 
trafl^c in the four cities mentioned. 

Table II- 


of Fare Charged 



Statistic,'; of Bu.s TraBic 
Available Years 



Transit Trolley 
Flat Flat 
. Zone Zone 
Flat Zone 
Zone Flat 




Kew York 

Ntunber of Percentage 
Pawenners o( Total 
in Millions Local Traffic 
.51 2 
. 932 43 





. 246 21 
.21 4 

Use of Mirrors Benefits 

THE American Automobile A-sso- 
ciation in a recent statement ad- 
vocates the use of mirrors, which 
will show the automobile driver at a 
glance the condition of trafl[ic imme- 
diately behind him. It is pointed 
out that the mirror, mounted at the 
left side of the windshield on the 
open car or screwed to the frame of 
the closed car in the same position, 
calls immediate attention to any 
vehicle approaching from the rear 
and often avoids a collision with the 
resultant damage and possible loss 
of life. 

Fifteen states and the District of 
Columbia have adopted laws requir- 
ing the use of mirrors, and the move- 
ment is spreading to other states. 
It is believed to be only a matter 
of a few years before the majority 
of the states will have enacted sim- 
ilar legislation, covering all types of 
motor carriers. 




Vol.2, No.l 

Railroads Advertise Bus Service 
ill National Park 

Co-operation With Operator Results in Na- 
tion-Wide Distribution of Bus Literature — 
Railroad Booklet Tells Bus Story in Full 

THE Rocky Mountain Parks 
Transportation Company, Estes 
Park, Col., distributed 100,000 of its 
illustrated tourist folders for the 
1922 season. In 1921 the edition, 
though big, was much smaller — 
60,000 to 70,000. And only four 
years or so ago, folder advertising 
was largely an experiment, with only 
one railroad co-operating in distribu- 

Now, railroads all over the country 
co-operate. The company's service 
is represented in summer tariffs of 
all railroads, and ticket agents any- 
where wall provide transportation 
through to Estes Park, or over the 
company's "circle trip" which takes 
the tourist into the Rocky Mountain 
Park through one gateway and out 
another. Bus transportation of the 
type supplied by the Rocky Mountain 
Parks Company can be expected in 
the future to appear numerously in 
collections of tourist and travel 
literature. For years ticket offices 
and hotels have had the literature of 
steamship lines and railroads. Now, 
the world is to have bus line litera- 
ture. What is this literature going 
to be like? 

The folder put out by the Rocky 
Mountain Parks Company this year 
is printed on a sheet 13 x 14 in. in 
red and black ink and folds to make 
sixteen pages. The covers are the 
same bright red used on the com- 
pany's twelve-passenger automobiles. 
Note the word "automobiles." This 
folder does not use the word "bus." 
Travelers into Estes and the Na- 
tional Parks are there to see things, 
and the word "automobile" carries 
the right suggestion. 

The little folder is a model of con- 
densation. Here is how the sixteen 
pages are divided: 

Two pages — map showing com- 
pany tours. 

Two pages, headed "Rocky Moun- 
tain National Park." Opening the 
folder, the reader encounters a 
general description of the park. At 
the foot is shown a group of loaded 
company automobiles, ready to start 
on their trips. 

The description closes with the fol- 
lowing, in italics: "Leave Chicago 
Saturday evening and be in Rocky 

Mountain National Park for lunch- 
eon Monday. You will notice that 
our autos leave Denver at 8 a.m.; 
you can get aboard at the Union 
Station; our agent will direct you." 

The feature trip of the company, 
the "two-day circle trip," is given 
three pages. Two of these pages 
describe the trip. The third page 
contains the schedule for the "circle 
trip" only. 

Two pages are headed, "How to 
Reach the Rocky Mountain National 
Park." This gives the reader direc- 
tions for obtaining tickets, and 
recites particulars concerning bag- 
gage, stopovers, Pullman reserva- 
tions, etc. Next come the daily 
schedules between Denver and Estes 
Park, and between other points 
covered by regular service. These 
also occupy about two pages of the 

Full Directions Given 

Two pages of the folder describe 
the tours in Rocky Mountain 
National Park. These take tourists 
into the National Park, Estes Park 
(just outside the park) being the 
starting point. Four small maps 
illustrate these tours, which vary 
from 16 to 85 miles in length. 

Information about the head- 
quarters of the company, location of 
Denver office, and photographs taken 
in the park fill up the remaining 
three pages. 

From all of the foregoing, it will 
be seen that this little folder accom- 
plishes a great deal. It serves as a 
time-table; it gives information con- 
cerning fares not usually found in 
time-tables; it informs the reader 
concerning baggage and other regu- 
lations; it contains photographs of 
the company automobiles in attrac- 
tive mountain settings; in addition, 
it gives nutshell descriptions of com- 
pany tours. 

A small folder of this character 
cannot do everything. Its pictures, 
its bits of description, may not be 
sufficient to rouse the reader to the 
point of desire, although a more 
elaborate booklet might. The com- 
pany considered such a booklet but 
bas not issued it. 

The Colorado & Southern railroad, 

however, has used a splendid book- 
let on the park, 32 pages and covers, 
with a wealth of pictures and de- 
scription. In it is included full in- 
formation on the Rocky Mountain 
Transportation Company tours. On 
the colored cover is a mountain road 
sketch, containing one of the bright 
red twelve-passenger automobiles of 
the Rocky Mountain Parks Transpor- 
tation Company. This booklet is be- 
ing distributed all over the country. 
It contains a map of the territory 
much larger than that in the R. M. 
P. T. Co.'s own folder, and on this 
tours of the company are shown 
printed in red ink. 

Thus, in 1922, is bus transporta- 
tion into, out of, and in, the Rocky 
Mountain National Park being ad- 
vertised. One of the most significant 
features of the whole story is the 
co-operation between railroad and 
transportation company. The former 
understands how much more at- 
tractive automobile transportation 
makes the park to the traveling 

And as the public realizes the 
convenience of such transportation, 
it can be depended on to visit the 
park in rapidly increasing numbers. 

Bus Developments in Spain 

THE motor bus is forging to the 
front as a factor in Spain's 
transportation system, according to 
recent reports which indicate that 
the bus is gradually supplanting the 
horse-driven stage coaches. Inade- 
quate railway facilities provide an- 
other reason for the development of 
motorized traffic In the Malaga 
district alone, it is estimated that 
more than sixty buses are in service. 
Bus companies have also recently 
been formed in the cities of Madrid, 
Barcelona and Valencia. Tillings- 
Stevens motor buses are used on 
many of these lines. 

Holiday Service in Chicago 

DURING the holidays, several 
large Chiciigo depai'tment stored 
operated a system of free buses to 
carry shoppers from the public park- 
inq space in Grant Park to the stores 
in the Loop District. The service 
was installed for the benefit of 
women shoppers who drive their 
own cars. Parking space for auto- 
mobiles in the downtovin section was 
at a premium because of the strin- 
gent police restrictions in effect. 



January, 1923 

S<*1iiivlkill Con lit V 
Has lins Fc'cdrr Sctn ice 

i'ennsN Kania liUerurban l{ail\va\. Through 
Subsidiary (."onipany. Operates Buses With 
Drive on the Front and Uear Whi't-N 


THE Schuylkill Transportation 
Company, which, as announced in 
the August issue (page 453) of Bus 
Transportation, is owned by the 
Schuylkill Railway, now has six 
twenty-nine passenger buses in oper- 
ation on two lines in Schuylkill 
County, Pa. One runs from Ma- 
hanoy City 11 miles east to Tamaqua. 
The second line is 10 miles long from 
Lakeside Park, about half way be- 
tween the terminals of the first route, 
to McAdoo. The operating center 
and the garage are at Mahanoy City. 
Schedules are arranged so that the 
bus connects with the interurban 
from Pottsville; the fares are sepa- 
rate, however, and no transfers are 

The equipment consist of chassis 
made by the Four Wheel Drive Auto 
Company, Clintonville, Wis., on which 
are mounted steel bodies built by the 
G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. The chassis are of the 3- 
ton type adapted to bus service, 
while the bodies are the Kuhlman 
all-steel type, with slight alterations 
required by the chassis construction. 
Complete with all equipment, such as 
fare boxes and heaters, the vehicles 
weigh about 9,700 lb., of which 6,500 
lb. is represented by the chassis. 
The speed is kept down to 25 m.p.h. 

by a governor. Other general data 
are given in the accompanying table. 
As .shown in the photographs, the 
driver's position is at the right, and 
above the engine. It was necessars 
therefore to place the door back of 
the driver's position. This gives 
space for an extra seat, which faces 
backward opposite the service door. 
The entrance step is of the folding 
type; this is connected with the out- 
ward folding door so that both are 
controlled by the one lever. 

.Main Dimensions of Schuylkill Ku-i^ 

WTieelbase 156 In. 

Wheel KaKC : i rear 56 In. 

Turning circlu. aiamclcr 80 ft. 

Loading lielght, floor, at passenger 

»fnlr:inc<- ; 411n. 

Ovcr-aU Kngtli of body along 

chas-sis frame liO ft. lOi In. 

HfiKht. top of floor to celling 

center 6 ft. 3 In. 

Width of body at seat cushions. 6 ft. 10 In, 
Extreni. w i Ith. at l.ii.rboard. . 7 ft. 7 J In. 

The ; • I • includes dome 

lights mounted on each side in the 
space provided for advertising cards, 
an Ohmer fare register, roof ventila- 
tors, and a khaki curtain back of the 
driver. Two Perfection heaters, new 
type, are mounted underneath the 
front seats. 

Pair o/ F.W'.D. buses, with fuel 
tank under frame, and interlock- 
ing door-and-step mechanism. 


Interior of Kteet body uted for 
Schui/lkilt biuie*. thawing far* 
collection, lighting artd ventilat- 
ing equli>ment. 

Complete electrical e(|uipment. 
starting and lighting, is u.ned. Each 
of the .seven dome fixtures is 
illuminated by a 21-cp. bulb. At the 
service door is a 2-cp. step light, and 
a green bull's-eye is mounted at the 
front end of the body, as shown in the 
view of the facing buses. Push but- 
tons for a buzzer system are mounted 
on the side window posta. 

It will be noted from the layout, ea 
well as from the interior view, that 
a vertical aluminum stanchion is 
placed at the left of the .ser\ice-door 
opening. This has a cross railing 
for the use of entering passengers. 
Another aluminum stanchion is 
placed at the rear between the longi- 
tudinal seats. 

The tires used are of the Overman 
cushion make, 37 x 6 front and rear, 
mounted on special artillery felloes. 
The principal chassis feature, how- 




Vol.2, No.l 

Plan view of twenty-nine-passenger Kuhlman body. 
Four passengers carried on seat back of driver 

ever, is the four-wheel-drive con- 
struction. From the engine, which 
has four cylinders, 4f x 5i in., power 
is transmitted through a multiple- 
disk clutch, and a three-speed trans- 
mission of the jaw-clutch type. In 
this construction the gears are al- 
ways in mesh instead of being 
shifted, and speed changes are made 
with jaw clutches consisting of six 
teeth that engage at the same time. 
The rear end of the transmission is 
connected by a 5-in. silent-type chain 
to a differential placed under the 
transmission. The purpose of this 

extra differential is to compensate 
for the different distances covered 
by the front and rear axles. From 
this differential, drive shafts lead to 
both front and rear axles. These are 
of the full-floating type with bevel- 
gear drive. The front axle has uni- 
versal joints at each end so that the 
wheels can be moved for steering. 
Two sets of brakes are provided, both 
of the contracting type. The emer- 
gency is on the rear wheels, and the 
service (foot) brake is mounted on a 
cross member directly in the rear of 
the transmission. 

The Trend of Bus Regulation 

By E. V. Kuykendall, Director 

State of Washington, Department of Public Works, Olympia, Wash. 

In States Without Bus Regulations Moderate Statutes Patterned 

After Those in Force in Other States that Require Proof of Necessity 

and Convenience Are Likely of Enactment. Highway Maintenance 

Charges Will Be Cared For by Taxes on Gasoline Purchased 

bus is expanding in such a rapid 
manner and is becoming such a 
vital part of the transportation 
scheme of the country that its regu- 
lation is forcing itself upon the at- 
tention of legislators everywhere. 
Substantially half the states of the 
Union have already provided some 
form of regulation for automotive 
transportation; and it now appears 
probable that, when the winter ses- 
sions of the legislatures have com- 
pleted their labors, at least two- 
thirds of the states will have pro- 
vided some measure of regulation 
for motor vehicle transportation. 

In every community will be found 
a class of persons who favor such 
legislation as will foster and en- 
courage motor transportation and at 

the same time another class will be 
found who look upon it as a traffic 
destructive of highways and a 
menace to rail transportation. 

In those states which require a 
certificate of public convenience and 
necessity as a prerequisite to the 
establishment of motor vehicle op- 
eration almost all hearings develop 
the fact that these two antagonistic 
groups exist everywhere, except of 
course in communities having no 
other established modes of transpor- 

We often hear such argument as 
this: "We have spent large sums of 
money building highways and we 
don't want them torn up by heavy 
auto trucks and stages." Another 
individual in the same community 
will reason thus: "We have been 

taxed to build good roads and we de- 
sire the fullest use possible from 
our investment. If you deny us a 
bus line, you will deprive us of one 
of the substantial benefits that 
should follow the construction of 
good roads." The two men who ex- 
press these opposite views may even 
be neighbors engaged in the same 

As the average legislator reflects 
the views of his constituents, it is 
but reasonable to assume that the 
legislatures now in session or about 
to convene will be composed partly 
of individuals who favor such legis- 
lation as will tend to foster and 
stabilize automotive transportation 
as well as those who will seek to cur- 
tail and restrict it. The result will 
be the enactment of statutes mod- 
erate in character and similar to 
those in a majority of the states al- 
ready engaged in the regulation of 
this mode of traffic. 

Sentiment for a Highway Tax 

There is a growing sentiment that 
motor transport companies should 
be made to contribute a substantial 
sum for the use of the highways. 
The railroads of the country are es- 
pecially insistent upon legislation 
looking toward the accomplishment 
of such purpose. The damage to 
highways by motor vehicle opera- 
tions subject to regulation has been 
exaggerated in some quarters. The 
stages and trucks engaged in a com- 
mon carrier service and subject to 
regulation do less damage to the 
highways as a rule than the private 
trucks operated by companies in con- 
nection with their own enterprises, 
such as logging companies, oil com- 
panies, creameries, condensaries and 
fuel companies. 

It should be borne in mind that all 
private trade operations will entirely 
escape a tax such as a percentage 
of gross operating revenue levied 
against common carrier trucks and 
stages, though their loads will 
average heavier and their use of 
the highways will average tenfold 
greater. In my own state (Wash- 
ington) there are about 235 trucks 
in service by regulated companies, 
while about 31,941 truck licenses 
have been issued, so that there are 
nearly fourteen times as many 
trucks used by private individuals 
and companies upon the highways as 
there are by regulated concerns. To 
impose any form of tax in the na- 
ture of compensation for use of 


highways upon regulated concerns 
alone would be unjust, and the 
revenue thus derived would be 
trifling in comparison with a tax 
that would reach all commercial 
users of the highways. 

The use of the roads by oil com- 
panies, loggers, etc., which deliver 
their own products or raw materials 
is no less mercenarj' or commercial 
than that of the regulated stage or 

Again, the regulated common car- 
rier stage or truck is required in 
most states to furnish a bond or in- 
surance policy to indemnify the 
public in case of death, personal in- 
jury or damage to property caused 
by any act of negligence on the part 
of the operator. This insurance 
costs from $50 to $150 in the case of 
a truck and from $100 to $800 per 
annum in the case of a stage, gradu- 
ated in most instances according to 
capacity. The individual trucker es- 
capes this requirement of the law. 
To impose additional burdens upon 
regulated companies, which private 
concerns making a larger use of the 
highways escape, would be unfair 
and would tend toward evasion of 

Furthermore, in my own state and 
in some other states, certain fees 
are exacted from auto transporta- 
tion companies to assist in defraying 
the expense of regulation. Such 
fees are exacted from motor vehicle 
concerns and not from rail lines or 
other utilities on the theory that, 
having the free use of highways 
built and maintained by the public, 
such companies enjoy a certain ad- 
vantage which justifies the exaction 
of such fee.s. There is perhaps 
nothing unfair in requiring motor 
vehicle companies to pay the cost of 
their own regulation, even if similar 
fees are not collected from other 
regulated utilities; but, if some addi- 
tional tax is imposed on top of fees 
for regulation and the cost of com- 
pulsory insurance, from which un- 
regulated vehicles are exempt, the 
result will be inequitable and illogi- 

Viewed from the standpoint of 
fairness, and simplicit>' and economy 
of administration, the gasoline tax 
seems the most practicable method 
of requiring the users of highways 
to contribute in exact proportion to 
the use they make of the public 
thoroughfares. Such a tax is paid 
by unregulated trucks hauling heavy 
commodities, as well as by vehicles 
operated by regulated companies. 



If it should be the purpose of 
legislatures in states which have not 
yet tried the experiment of bus 
regulation to protect the railroads 
from bus competition, this could be 
more effectually accomplished by 
prohibiting the establishment of bus 
transportation in territory already 
served by rail. Some states already 
have such provision. No act regu- 
lating bus transportation should Ix' 
enacted without the certificate of 
convenience and nii-essity feature. 
Under such a provision, the regu- 
latory body can exercise its judg- 
ment in excluding auto companies 
from fields already adequately served 
by railroads, and work out a policy 
that will co-ordinate the transpor- 
tation systems of the country to the 
interests of the public. 

Furthermore, every argument fa- 
voring the certificate of convenience 
and necessity, as regards the es- 
tablishment of utilities generally, 
applies with added emphasis to the 
institution of motor bus and truck 
transportation, because of the small 
investment necessary to enter this 
field. It is the only means of guar- 
anteeing to the public continuous, 
safe and efficient auto transporta- 
tion. Without it, fly-by-night op- 
erators would skim off the cream of 
the business in the summer, when 
operation was cheap and pleasant, 
and, on the approach of winter, 
would abandon service, and go into 
some other line. There would be no 
incentive to investment in substan- 
tial equipment, through fear of such 
fair-weather, cut-throat competition. 

In some states consideration is 
being given to the idea of placing the 
regulation of auto transportation in 
some board or officer other than the 
establi.shed regulatory body. To do 
so would be an unpardonable blunder. 
No other board is equipped with the 
engineering and accounting force or 
has had the training and experience 
necessary to the efliicient regulation 
of this traffic. From a regulatory 
standpoint, the same principles ap- 
ply to auto transportation that are 
applicable to other utilities. To 
lodge the regulation of this char- 
acter of traffic with any other board 
or officer would be wasteful and il- 
logical. It would require such other 
board or officer to employ experts, 
engineers, accountants and clerks 
and train them for this work, while 
the state regulatory body already 
has trained forces engaged in the 
same character of service already 
on the payroll. 


Culiforniu Syctnii iif 
(llifckiiif; DrixTis 

THE buses used on the Santa 
Husa - Petaluna - Sausalito stages 
have a large numeral painted on the 
rear, as shown in the photograph. 
The purpose of this is to furnish an 
easy means of identification, so that 
motorists on the road can report any 

William Curtis, the owner of the 
company that is operating these 
buses, >>elieves in cultivating good 
will among all users of the highway. 
His drivers must live up to the un- 


- -I VIA 



WAY mm 

The number is for identificatton 
purposex, as a check againat 

written courtesy, as well as to all the 
laws of the road. In case they do 
not, the public is invited to report 
the number of the car and the time 
of the day directly to Mr. Curtis. 

The picture also shows a combina- 
tion rear boot and tire rack. Two 
latches are provided for the door, 
one of the tiipered refrigerator t>'pe, 
which clamps it shut and prevents 
play or rattling, while the other is 
simply a snap to make sure that the 
door does not fly open if the other 
latch should fail. These boots are 
wider at the bottom than at the top so 
that gravity also holds the door shut. 

The automatic stop signals are at 
the top of the boot, in a prominent 
position so that they are clearly 
visible to cars approaching from the 
rear. It will l)e noticed that no locka 
are provided either on the boot or 
the tires. are usually omitted 
on Western stages and bu.<«es, since 
experience has shown that baggage 
and tires are free from unauthorized 




Vol.2, No.l 

Bus Service in Boston 

Careful Records Compiled by the Boston Elevated Railway Indicate 
an Operating Cost of About 35 Cents a Bus-Mile— Twenty- 
five Passenger Buses in Service for Almost a Year 

WHILE the Boston Elevated 
Railway has put in service only 
a few buses as yet, it has in contem- 
plation several other lines where it 
believes that buses would be more de- 
sirable than trolley cars. These cases 
are either on an existing line with 
light traffic where the track is worn 
out and would have to be removed if 
trolley service is continued, or they 
are on new routes where the expected 
traffic is light. 

The bus line started! by the 
Boston Elevated Railway began oper- 
ation last February and runs over a 
route from Union Square, Allston, 
about 2 miles west to Watertown 
Arsenal. Formerly there was a sin- 
gle-track car line over the greater 
part of this route, but about a year 
ago the city decided to repave a con- 
siderable portion of the street on 
which this track was laid. This 
meant that the company would have 
to put in new tracks if it wished to 
retain its car service, and even to 
extend the line if it desired to give 
through service into Watertown. At 
that time the line carried about a 
thousand passengers per day. The 
matter was taken up with the resi- 
dents along the route, and it was 
found that a bus service would be 
just as satisfactory to them, so the 
tracks were taken up and the bus 
service was substituted. 

Electrics' Headway Used 

Four buses are used on this serv- 
ice, two for regular service, one for 
spare and one extra during the rush 
hours. The headway is the same as 
formerly with the electric cars, 
namely, every seven or eight minutes 
during the morning and evening 
peaks over a portion of the route and 
every fifteen minutes at other hours 
during the day. 

Another route was established the 
first of the year in Walden, where 
buses take the place of trolley cars 
for part of the route. Here also the 
company was faced with the alter- 
native of laying new track or putting 
on bus service and concluded that the 
traffic on the line was not enough to 
justify the cost of new track. This 
line will run a bus every ten minutes. 
Three buses will be required with 
one spare. Two or three other bus 

lines are being considered, including 
several crosstown and feeder routes 
in new territory. 

Since buses have been operated by 
the Boston Elevated Railway, care- 
ful statistics have been kept of their 
daily performance. One policy fol- 
lowed has been to keep the cost of 
operation as far as possible distinct 
from that of the electric railway 
system. For this reason the buses 
are not stored in a carhouse of the 
company but in a commercial garage, 
which makes a storage charge of $30 
a month per bus. For the services 
at the garage for inspecting, oiling 
and cleaning, the company pays in 
addition a dollar a day. Oil and gaso- 
line are charged in the operating 
expense account at the market rate, 
which in Boston during November 
and December was 26 cents per gal- 
lon, with engine oil at 30 cents a 

One-Man Car Wages Paid 

The operator is paid the (same 
wages as the motormen on the sur- 
face cars, namely, the base rate of 63 
cents an hour, but with the usual 
8-cent bonus for a one-man car, mak- 
ing a total of 71 cents an hour. To 
this, in the accounts, must be added 
the cost of an "exti'a" or "cover" man 
on the list, so that actually the labor 
cost for the bus is carried on the 
books of the company at 83 cents per 

Depreciation on the bus is figured 
on an assumed life of four years, 
based on the actual list price of the 
bus, less the cost of the tires. The 
depreciation on tires, arbitrarily 
assumed, is IJ cents per mile, ad- 
justed from time to time, so far as 
is possible, within the life of the 
tires. Other overheads included in 
the bus accounts are as follows: 

Supervision. This is assumed to 
be the same as the average per car 
of all the surface cars of the company 
in 1921, or $0.02386 per car-mile. 

General and MisccUaneous. This 
includes the salaries and expenses of 
the general officers and clerks, gen- 
eral office supplies and expenses, law 
expenses, relief department expenses, 
pensions and gratuities, miscel- 
laneous general expenses, injuries 
and damages, insurance, stationery 

and printing, and is charged per bus- 
mile at the average cost of the 
surface line cars in 1921, or $0.03469 
per car-mile. 

The daily records are kept on a 
form carrying the following heads: 


Day of week 

Total miles operated 

Total hours in service 

Total revenue collected (cash) 

Passengers carried 

Uasolme burned (gallons) 

Engine oil burned (quarts) 

Miles per gallon of gasoline 

Miles per quart of engine oil 

Maintenance of equipment 

Inspecting, oiling and cleaning 

Repair labor 


Reserve for repairs 

Depreciation on bus 

Depreciation on tires 


Engine oil 
Conducting transportation 


General and miscellaneous 
Garage and state registration 
Total operating costs (a summation 

of the previous operating costs) 
Interest and taxes 
Total cost 
Average per mile 

Passengers carried 

Cash and revenue collected 

Total cost 
Actual cost of tires to date 
Trouble, repairs, replacements and 

Number of trips missed 

Taxes are 2 per cent per annum on 
the list price of the bus. 

Interest is figured at 6 per cent per 
annum on half the list price of the 
bus, throughout its depreciated life. 

These figures show that the buses 
now in use on the Allston line vary in 
gasoline consumption from 4.5 to 8 
miles to the gallon, according to the 
season of the year and the type of 
bus. Their average speed, including 
stops and layovers, is about 10 m.p.h., 
and the average cost of operation is 
about 35 cents per mile up to this 
time, though they have been in oper- 
ation so short a time that it is almost 
impossible to tell what the ultimate 
repair cost will be. 

The receipts are about 18 cents per 
mile, but the line is a heavy transfer 
line. The fares charged ai-e the same 
as on the surface cars, namely, 10 
cents when transfers are given to and 
from the connecting surface car lines ; 
otherwise the fare on the bus alone 
is 5 cents. The buses have seats for 
twenty-five passengers and their 
average run is 120 miles a day or 
840 miles a week per bus. 

The equipment of the Allston bus 
line consists of one Mack, two White 
and two Republic-Knight buses. 

January, 1923 




Interests of the people of Orejjon are best served, llu- I'liMic Sirv iii- Cominission helicves. by 
classifying? "for-hire" \ehitlt's the same as stajjes and j(rantin« no e\cUisi\e rijjhts to a 

specified route 

iii^Its First Yrar of l\<'miliilinu^ 
Motor Stage ()|M'ralioii 

THE Public Service Commis- 
sion of Oregon was plunged 
into the business of regulat- 
ing motor carriers without much 
warning when a bill pa-ssed the Leg- 
islature and was signed by the Gov- 
ernor on Dec. 27, 1921, whei-eby all 
motor vehicles operating as common 
carriers would be subject to com- 
mission regulation on and after Jan. 
1, 1922. Several months later two 
of the three commissioners were re- 
called and replaced by two new com- 
missioners, whence it is apparent 
that internal affairs of the commis- 
sion have required considerable at- 

T>p.i^OP^ \,yoJ^^«• 

leiUion. However, not only has the 
regulatory act affwting motor car- 
riers been put into effect and 
thoroughly tried out, but a very 
definite policy on the regulation of 
stage and bus operation has been 
worked out to suit conditions ob- 
taining in Oregon. 

Two factors that have an impor- 
tant bearing on motor carrier reg- 
ulation in that state are the low 
average density of population and 

Numerous ranges scatter Oregon 
bus lines. Most of thevi are 
' . ,s( of the Cascade Mountains. 

the radically difTerent character of 
territory and of the Cas- 
cade Mountains. The diviHion of the 
state by the mountain.s, wi'' 
ant difference in climatic c 
is very similar to that in \Va.'»hinK- 
ton. described in Bl's Transporta- 
tion for November, 1922. In point of 
population densit>', however, Oregon 
has considerably than half the 
number of people per s(|uar' 
compared to the State of \'. 

With an area of 95,607 square 
miles, Oregon hfis a total population 
of 783,389 or 8.2 per s(iuar.- mil.-. 



Vol.2, No.1 

If the population of Portland, which 
the 1920 census gives as 258,288, be 
deducted, the density for the re- 
mainder of the state becomes 5.4 per 
square mile. There are in the state 
eleven cities of more than 5,000 pop- 
ulation and three of more than 
10,000 population. 

The Cascade Mountains divide the 
state by a north and south height 
of land attaining elevations up to 
10,000 ft. The westerly slopes are 
heavily timbered, the valleys are fer- 
tile, the rainfall is heavy, so that 
irrigation is not generally required 
and areas suitable for agricultural 
development are comparatively close 
to their natural markets. In this 
western section of the state the high- 
ways have been i-emarkably well de- 
veloped and a comparatively large 
percentage of the mileage has been 
hard surfaced. 

On the east side of the mountains, 
however, where the rainfall is light 
and the climate generally colder, the 
roads are chiefly unpaved with the 
exception of the one main route of 
the Columbia River valley. More- 
over, because of the sparsely settled 
condition of eastern Oregon and the 
correspondingly low tax revenue, the 
prospect for immediate road de- 
velopment is not good. 

Before this season's road work 
was done a statement from the 
Oregon State Highway Commission 
gave the mileage of highways in 
Oregon as follows: 



Improved earth 

Unimproved earth . . . . 

825 miles 

.... 6,000 miles 
.... 16.000 miles 
19.000 miles 

In the sparsely settled areas of 
eastern Oregon much of the stage 
business is the outgrowth of mail 
contracts. These contracts are 
usually made for a period of one 
year, and because of the fact that 
widespread advantage of the parcel 
post system is taken, the routes are 
usually covered by trucks which 
handle a considerably larger amount 
of ingoing supplies and outgoing 
produce than they do passengers. 

This is particularly true in sec- 
tions not reached by railroads or in 
sections where the railroad route is 
indirect, and hence freight rates are 
proportionally higher than parcel 
post ; the former being based on 
mileage and the latter being based 
on "zone" distances which are 
measured in an air line. Most of 
the supplies, groceries, etc., that are 
sent into this region are packed in 

Motor Stage Routes on Record with the Oregon Public Service 
Commission Oct. 1, 1922 



Portland-McMinnvUle viaNewberg. , 
Portland-McMinnville via Hillsboro. 




Portland -Seaside 

Portland-Hood River , 

Portland-California State Line. 


Salem-Mill City 





Eugene-Cottage Grove. . 


Grants Pass-Roseburg. . 

Grants Pass-Waldo 

Med ford- Ashland 

Medford-Central Point. 

Med ford-Grants Pass 

Eugene-Bel knap 

Alsea-Corvaliis , 



Myrtle Point-Bancroft. . . . 


Monmouth-Independence . 
Sheridan-McMinnville. . . . 
North Bend-Marshfield. , . 


Scappoose-Portland . . . 
Birkenfeld-Clatskanie . 

Medford-Klamath Falls 

Klamath Falls-Pelican City. 

Klamath Falls-Chiloquin 

Klamath Falls-Crater Lake. 

Klamath Falls-Lakeview. . . . 

Pilot Rock-Pendleton 

Pendleton-Wash. State Line. 

Umatilla-Pendleton . . . . 


Union-La Grande 



Coquille-Marshfield . . . . 
Coquille- Myrtle Point. , 
Handon-Port Orford. . . 
Tillamook-Manhattan . 
Cannon Beach-Seaside. 


Bend-Klamath Falls. 

53 Vale-Ontario 

54 iPortland-Gov't. Camp. 


56t Portland-Damascus. . . . 

Portland-Silverton . 
Hood Rivcr-The Dalles. 
Hood River-Parkdale. . . 
Baker-La Grande 

Hoaglin-Roseburg. . , . 
Independence-Orville . 



0) 0) 






































































1.50 1.50 












2J dayi 



































1 50 


























9 rotind trips daily 

3 round trips daily 
Daily 8 a.m. to 

8 round trips daily 
6 round trips daily 
I trip daily 

6 round trips daily 

4 round trips daily 
2 round trips daily 
4 round trips daily 
] round trip daily 

1 round trip daily 
Twice daily 
1 round trip daily 
1 round trip daily 
I round trip daily 
I round trip daily 
6 round trips daily 
3 round trips daily 

1 2roundtripsdaily 
9 round trips daily 
I round trip daily 

except Sunday 
I trip daily April 

to November 

3 round trips daily 
T\%ice daily 
Daily in summer 


I round trip daily 
in summer sea- 

I round trip daily 

4 round trips daily 

3 round trips daily 

1 round trip daily 

2 round tripe daily 
I round trip daily 
I round trip dally 

4 round trips daily 
1 round trip daily 

1 round trip daily 

2 round trips in 
in summer; I in 

I round trip daily 

3 round trips 

1 round trip daily 

2 round trips daily 

2 round trips daily 

3 round trips daily 
3 roiind trips daily 
2 round trips daily 
2 round trips daily 
2 round trips daily 

1 round trip daily 
6 round trips daily 

50-lb. packages so as to come under 
the parcel post requirements. 

Despite the fact that there is little 
immediate prospect for extensive 
road improvement, considerable in- 
creases in the motor carrier busi- 
ness may be expected because of the 
comparative economy in time and 
cost of this method of transporta- 
tion. Rail routes to many points in 
eastern Oregon are indirect, requir- 
ing layovers at junctions, while the 

motor route is direct and requires 
much less time. 

Passenger accommodations, how- 
ever, are not up to the standards 
adopted in the western part of the 
state. Often passengers are content 
simply to find comfortable places on 
mail or parcel post bags loaded into 
the body of trucks which have can- 
vas covers. Having become accus- 
tomed to accommodations of this 
sort there is no general protest or 

January, 1923 




demand for more comfortable equip- 

Features of the regulatoiy law in 
Oregon are ( 1 ) the regulation of all 
"for-hire" carriers, the same as 
those operating on schedules over 
fixed routes, and (2) the granting of 
permits regardless of duplicated 

The inclusion of the "for-hire" 
class of vehicles was made because 
Oregon has a large number of car- 
riers that give this "on call" service, 
and it is believed that the operator 
of such vehicles is likely to need reg- 
ulation even more than the carrier 
well established on a scheduled route 
who has standardized equipment and 
operates regularly. Jloreover, the 
public can be more readily deceived, 
overcharged, or subjected to injury 
risks by carriers that offer "for- 
hire" ser\'ice. Hence the act was 
made to include all classes of car- 
riers that handle passengers. If an 
automobile owner undertakes to 
haul passengers for hire for only a 
few weeks each season he must ful- 
fill insurance, bonds, permits, and 
all other reciuirements for the period 
of time during which he continues 
such "for-hire" service. 

The policy in the matter of dupli- 
cating service is based on the theon,' 
of giving every man an equal chance 
and expecting the best service to en- 
dure; in other words, giving the 
public the opportunity to profit by 
competitive operation. On this 
point there is a difference of opinion 
in Oregon and many of the stage 
operators, particularly those owni- 
ing the more important holdings, 
went their permits protected. Their 
argument is that under the present 
plan the operator with the most 
m'>ney for equipment is likely to get 
th? business, although the trade may 
have been developed at some expense 
by an operator with adequate but not 
quite such luxurious cars. The in- 
fluence of the operators will doubtless 
be felt at the next session of the 
Legislature, and it is possible that 
this feature of the act may be 

Passenger carriers under the Ore- 
gon law are classified in three divi- 
sions as follows: Class 1, which is 
known as "bus or stage line service," 
includes all passenger cars operat- 
ing for compensation between fixed 
termini whether on schedule or not. 
A good faith bond of $1,000 must be 
deposited by operators of this class 
for the faithful carr>-ing out of per- 

mits granted. If the operator has a 
L'. S. mail contract, the amount of 
the bond is reduced to $250. Class 
2 includes "anywhere for-hire pas- 
senger service" but excepts opera- 
tions confined exclusively within 
city limits or within a radius of 5 
miles from such limits. The good 
faith bond for this class is $250. 
Class 3, rated as "local taxicab or 
for-hire service," includes operations 
mainly within municipal limits with 
occasional trips to points outside but 
within a radius of 5 miles there- 
from. For this class of service a 
good faith bond of only $100 is re- 
quired. All three classes are re- 
quired to carry liability or property 
damage insurance, or an indemnity 
bond in lieu thereof. 

The requirement is for a "good 
and sufficient bond." The amount in 
each case is determined by the com- 
mission in accordance with local con- 
ditions as to amount and kind of 
traffic and what protection the pub- 
lic is entitled to from -juch a carrier. 

Bonds and insurance carried by 
competitive lines, if any, are also 
taken into account. Thu.t it becomeit 
a matter of the commission's opinion 
a.s to what reiiuirements shall govern 
in each case. Thus far there has 
been ver>' little dispute over this 
point. In order to enable the com- 
mission to form its opinion on thi.s 
point accurately the applicant is re- 
quired to submit with his applica- 
tion all data that would be useful to 
the commission in properly classify- 
ing and analyzing the situation in 
this regard. 

The express business in Oregon — 
that is, as an adjunct to the limou- 
sine type passenger stages which are 
oi)erated in western Oregon, has not 
yet developed to any considerable 
degree. Most companies limit ex- 
press packages, as well as baggage, 
to 100 lb. per piece. 

Union stage depots are now in 
operation at Portland, Salem, Eu- 
gene, Con'allis, Medford, Roseburg, 
Grants Pass, and Ashland. 

Oregon Line Operated l>y 

One of twelve vehicles, of three-comimrlmcnl type, operating between 
Portland and Albany, Oregon 

THE Portland - Salem - Albany 
stage line is run under a sys- 
tem of limited co-partnership, the cor- 
poration consisting of a number of 
individuals, each of whom owns and 
drives his own bus. The line now 
has twelve buses, of the White, 
Pierce-Arrow, and Locomobile makes. 
On the average each bus covers 200 
miles per day. At present fourteen 
trips are made on weekdays and 
fifteen on Sundays. 

The carry a blanket policy 
of liability and property damage in- 
surance. The amount is $15,000 on 
the eighteen-passenger buses, and 

$20,000 on the larger vehicles. In 
addition each bus carries a $1,000 
good faith bond to guarantee per- 
formance of schedule. They are 
subjected to fines if they do not 
carry out their schedules promptly. 

Time-table service is provided, in 
accordance with a schedule filed with 
the Public Service Commi.ssion of 
Oregon. Reserve buses are kept at 
each end of the line for emergency. 

Each bus is inspected monthly by 
the State Public Service Commission. 
At this time the wiring, wheels, 
springs, brakes, inside and outside 
lights, are examined. 



Published by McGraw-Hill Company, Jric. 


THE purpose of Bus Transportation is to help develop 
bus transportation wherever and whenever it contrib- 
utes to the public welfare. We believe that only through 
a sense of public service, through responsible manage- 
ment, through the proper co-ordination of bus and rail, 
through adherence to sound principles of business, engi- 
neering and ethics bus transportation can develop into a 
stable and enduring industry. 

New York, January, 1923 


Who's Who at the Wheel 

HIS is an anniversary issue of Bus Tkans- 
PORTATION. One year ago this month the 

paper was born, so that the present number 

signalizes the first birthday of a young but sturdy 
and rapidly growing infant. 

It should be of interest to our readers to know 
the men now occupying positions at the editorial 
"wheel." The staff consists of: 

Neiv York: Carl W. Stocks, editor; R. E. Plimp- 
ton, Harry L. Brown and Henry H. Norris, associate 
editors; George J. MacMurray, assistant editor; 
Henry W. Blake and Harold V. Bozell-, consulting 
editors, and A. H. Merrill, editorial assistant. 

Chicago: Donald F. Hine, associate Western 

San Frwmisco: N. A. Bowers, Pacific Coast 

Washinyton: Paul Wooton, Washington repre- 

London, England: Alexander McCallum, British 
news representative. 

These men are at your service in their respec- 
tive localities. Do not hesitate to call upon them 
or write them or inform them of anything that 
will be helpful or interesting to the indu.stry. Their 
purpose is to make Bus Transportation the clear- 
ing house of the industry, and to carry out the 
objects of the paper as expressed by the statement 
at the head of the column. 

[ EniTORIAT. 1 

Y ear-Round Service from the Bus 

The commission found that railroad service had 
been uncertain in the past for the same reason, 
and its position is upheld, it would seem, by a court 
case that came up at about the same time. In this 
case a Colorado railroad appealed for permission to 
abandon its steam service during the blizzard sea- 
son of the winter. 

There are snowstorms so severe that buses have 
been forced to suspend operation, it is true, but 
with the coming of improved highways all over the 
country the bus is able to give service that will com- 
pare favorably with any afforded by other trans- 
portation agencies. This does not hold true of any 
particular section or class of service, either. Last 
winter, when the city of Washington experienced 
its worst snowstorm in twenty years, motor buses 
furnished about the only means of local trans- 
portation, operating when the steam and electric 
lines were wholly paralyzed. 

Thus the ancient stock argument has been dis- 
pelled by the actual "year-round" performance of 
the motor bus. 


Review and Forecast 

OR years the argument was advanced by 
opponents of automotive transportation that 
1 bus service was inferior to steam and elec- 
tric railway service during the winter season be- of the inability of the bus to cope with 
snow-filled highways. 

A recent decision of the Colorado Public Util- 
ities Commission completely refutes this time- 
worn argument. The commission granted W. E. 
Carver authority to establish a bus line over the 
protest of the Denver & Salt Lake Railroad, which 
contended that buses were not able to surmount 
the obstacle of snow blockades. 



FTER one year of publishing existence Bus 
Transportation takes this opportunity to 
stand back and look around, so to speak. This 
Annual Review and Forecast Number represents an 
earnest attempt to describe the important things 
done in the bus industry during the past year, to 
appraise their effect on the future, and at the same 
time to venture certain predictions as to what is 
ahead of bus operators and others in the industry. 
All this in addition to the regular "balanced ration" 
of news and articles served up in every issue. 

Enthusiasm, high hopes, almost unbounded opti- 
mism characterize the review articles. Nineteen- 
twenty-three, it is predicted, will break all records 
in its bus activity. Improved equipment at lower 
prices is looked for as a result of production in 
larger cjuantities. 

The bus has practically developed a new branch 
of automotive manufacturing, according to Corne- 
lius T. Myers, who emphasizes the value of knowl- 
edge of design, manufacture and repair in the 
selection of rolling stock and other equipment. 
Trolley buses have doubled their number during the 
past year, and J. C. Thirlwall believes that the 
number will be materially increased this year. 

Comfort for those who fear the legislative bogey 
is given by the Director of Public Works, State of 
Washington, who thinks that new bus legislation to 
be passed in 1923 will be of a moderate character, 
similar to that already in force in states which have 
adopted regulatory measures. 

There is space here to mention only a few of the 
review articles which appear in this issue, but all of 
them deserve careful study. In many of these arti- 
cles will be found running the thought that bus men 
want better transportation knowledge, and that as 
this knowledge is secured and put to work the prob- 
lems that appear so serious today will gradually 
fade away. Opeiators can then devote their atten- 
tion to giving adequate service with equipment 

suited to the needs of their parlit-ular IraveliiiK 

The volume of the 1923 bus business will depend, 
of course, to a certain extent on the general busi- 
ness conditions throughout the ccjuntiy. It is 
agreed that these are favorable, so that there is 
every reason for bus operators to plan for the future 
along sound lines. 

In 1923, as during the past year. Bus Transpor- 
tation will work to develop the bus industry for the 
liest good of the i)ublic. Its etTorts will be centered 
particularly on matters connected with the business 
i)f transportation. At the same time, subjects relat- 
ing to their vehicles, garage facilities, terminal and 
waiting room equipment, will also receive attention, 
in so far as they interest bus operators. With this 
program in view. Bus Transportation extends to 
all its readers the greetings of the New Year, and 
promises the utmost co-operation in the solution of 
their working problems. 


Mixing Buying wilh Brains 


HE income of bus operato'-s is usually a 
fairly fixed quantity. To make, and to con- 
tinue to make, a fair profit means therefore 
I hat the figures on the other side of the ledger 
must be watched with never-ceasing vigilance. In 
buying equipment particularly the progressive 
operator will take advantage of every opportunity 
for saving. 

Effective buying depends to a large extent upon 
the accurate knowledge of operating results. This 
is available, with the growth and better organiza- 
tion of bus systems, through accurate records of 
performance. ^Many operators have reached the 
point where the performance of vehicles, parts and 
accessories can be definitely measured and the real 
or effective value of one make compared with that 
of another. 

Hit-or-miss methods of buying are still too com- 
mon, however. Purchases are scattered when con- 
centration on a single source or dealer would effect 
economies. Equipment poorly adapted to the work 
lequired is bought for the lack of broad knowledge 
of the possibilities. Improved devices possessing 
definite cost-cutting value are ignored because of 
the sort of inertia which is content with things 
as they are and refuses to experiment with new 
and better equipment available. 

This is not true of all operators, of Many 
of them are buying in quantities, by long-term con- 
tract, by specification of reputable products, or by 
concentrating on supplies or equipment for which 
the performance, in terms of life or cost per mile, 
can be guaranteed. Buying becomes more scientific 
also when experience of experts outside the bus or- 
ganization is applied to the selection of equipment 
best adapted to the operating conditions. 

Buying must be mixed with brains, and this holds 
good equally for the large items of rolling stock and 
for the supplies and parts that require frequent 
replacement and renewal. Scientific purchasing is 
essential when every penny must be "microscoped" 
before it is spent. 



--, fotheEditor 

Thr rt-adtrrs forurn. 

Taxes and Franchises 

To The Editor: 

\V. V. Hill in his letter captioned "The Tax I«BUe 
in t'alifornia," that appears in Bus Transportation 
for November, says among other thing.s: "There is 
one point, however, that might interest Mr. Travis 
and that is, that the franchises of electric raih* •• - 
are considered as 'operative property' by the 
and are taxed as .such." 

From this Mr. Hill draws comparative 
taxation conclusions between the franchises of the 
rail carriers and of the motor carriers which 
Mr. Hill insists "Mr. Travis should add ... to hiii 
'operative property' in drawing a comparison he- 
tween the two classes of utilities for taxation pur- 

We must confess Mr. Hill's point .seems both ob- 
scure and one of those bridges it is unneceasar>' to 
cross until we come to it. 

California taxation problems do not admit of intel- 
ligent discussion in limited space, but the n 
carriers, as taxed in California today, own no d- : 
"operative property" of any kind. Recognized as a 
public utility and taxed for state purposes, they 
would then own "operative property" and such a 
comparison might Ite made. 

Its value would even then be doubtful for two 

1. Because the motor carriers own no franchi.^e.s 
exclusive or otherwise. The motor carriers oper- 
ate under legal authority obtained from the Rail- 
road Commission. Their "certificates to operate," 
however, are neither exclusive nor franchises in the 
sense in which Mr. Hill uses the noun. 

2. While the law is as Mr. Hill states it, the valu. 
of the rail carriers is a lumped value of all they 
own and the tax upon them a percentage of their 
gross receipts of a distant, almost negligible, rela- 
tionship to the value of their "operative property." 

The controller's statement for 1921 shows th. 
total value of railroad (including electric railways' 
"as assessed by the State Board of Equalization" 
to have been $243,412,000. 

The secretary of the board wrote on Sept. 2:? 
last, in explanation of this asse.ssment: 

"The figures shown for railroads a.sses.sed by thi.'^ 
board in statement No. 16 (the controller's state- 
ment) does not cover an.vthing except those rail- 
roads operating in more than one county, and onl\ 
the road itself and the rolling stock of these com- 

Other railroads are carried on the operative roll- 
of county assessors, but, as Mr. Lack states: "There 
are no other taxes attached to these operative value.'^. 
as the gross receipts tax paid to the state is in lieu 
of all other." Motor Carriers' Association, 

W. B. Tkat>8, President. 

3.T 1 




Vol.2, No.l 



Developments in equipnjent for 
vehicles, earages, tenninals — 
all the improvements manu- 
factured for the industry. 

Air System Used for Brake 

THE Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company, Wilmerding, Pa., has 
developed a sy.stem whereby the 
brakes of buses and other motor 
vehicles are set by the force of com- 
pressed air. The equipment com- 
plete weighs from 50 to 125 lb., the 
amount depending upon the type and 
size of vehicle and the apparatus 
used. The usual foot and hand 
brakes are retained, so that they can 
be applied at any time, in addition 
to the air brakes. Advantages 
claimed for air brakes are quicker 
stops with less muscular effort, ease 
and flexibility of operation, and ab- 
solute equalization of the brakes. 

The air-brake equipment is worked 
in the following manner: What is 
referred to as "compressed air" is 
piped from the top of the engine 
cylinder to a reservoir attached 
underneath the bus body. The air 
used is really a mixture of gasoline 
vapor and air, in a partly fired con- 
dition. It is said, however, that 
there is no danger of explosion since 
the mixture is cooled before it 
reaches the reservoir. From the 
storage reservoir it passes through a 
control valve, which may be operated 
either through the ordinary brake 
pedal, or by a handle under the steer- 
ing wheel. This control valve per- 
mits pas.sage of the air back to the 
brake chambers, which convert, the 
mechanical energy of the "com- 
pressed air" into mechanical force to 
apply the brakes. 

The connection from the brake 
chambers to the rear-wheel brakes 
is made in such a way that the exist- 
ing hand or foot brakes can be used 
at any time. First the air-brake 
push rods are adjusted so that they 
will operate through their full work- 
ing stroke, and then the hand or 
foot brake rods are arranged to 
correspond. The circuit is broken, 
so to speak, between the manual and 
air systems, by a link or replacement 
cable. This is inserted between the 
point of application of the air-brake 

chambers (shown in the illustration 
attached to the cross member of the 
chassis frame) and the hand-brake 
lever or the foot-brake pedal. Thus 
the application of the brakes by the 

Bill' chassis with air brakes. Con- 
trol valve attached to steering 
post, and brake chambers to 
frame channels. 

air does not cause movement of 
either the pedal or lever of the man- 
ual system. 

The more important parts of the 
system are the accumulator, control 

valve, quick application and release 
valve, and the brake chambers. One 
or two accumulators are used, de- 
pending upon the size of the vehicle. 
They are screwed into the engine 
cylinders, in place of existing pet- 
cocks. On the power stroke when 
the pressure in the engine cylinder 
rises, the gaseous mixture is dis- 
charged through the accumulator to 
the reservoir, but the ball-check 
valve prevents any back flow from 
the reservoir to the engine. If the 
pressure drops because of the ap- 
plication of the brakes, then the 
reservoir is immediately filled up 
again until its pressure balances the 
explosive pressure in the engine 

As an additional safeguard against 
loss of pressure in the reservoir, a 
non-return check valve is placed in 
the pipe leading to the accumulator. 
The reservoir, which is made of 
sheet steel, is tested at 300-lb. pres- 
sure. It is enameled inside and out 
to prevent corrosion and oxidation. 

If required, a safety valve may be 
placed on the reservoir. 

The control valve really serves two 
purposes, the application and release 
of the brakes, and to control, or re- 
duce if need be, the pressure which 
can be applied to the brake rods. The 
pressure in the reservoir may in 
some cases rise to 200 lb. when an 
engine is working hard, but at no 
time can the pressure in the brake 
chambers exceed 40 to 60 lb., regard- 
less of the reservoir pressure. 

The control valve shown in the 
illustration is operated by turning 
the handle. To this valve are con- 
nected three pipes; one is the intake 
or supply pipe from the air reser- 
voir, the second leads to the brake 
chambers, and the third is an ex- 



Arranffement of Westinghouse air-brake equipment for motor vehicles. From 
left to right, intake, brake and exhaust pipes lead doum from control j'olve 





haust to the air. By turning the 
handle of the control valve, air can 
be led at reduced pressure to the air 
chamber, or when it is desired to 
release the brakes, directly to the 
atmosphere. The control is arranged 
so that a finely graduated braking 
pressure can be applied, although at 
high speed a heavy initial application 
is recommended, this to be graduated 
off as the speed is reduced, so that 
at the end of the stop but little 
pressure remains in the brake 

The brake chambers consist of two 
dished plates, between which is a 
diaphragm made of two layers of 
live oilproof rubber, molded with an 
inserted layer of fabric. One side of 
the diaphragm is connected to the 
brake pipe; on the other side is a 

air is admitted to the brake pipe by 
the control valve, however, the dia- 
phragm is deflected inward ; the e.x- 
haust valve is then closed, the inlet 
valve opened, and air flows from the 
reservoir directly to the brake cham- 
bers. Thus in case of an emergency, 
the high-pressure air in the reservoir 
is applied in the brake chambers, 
without passing through the pres- 
sure-reducing in the control valve. 

Lijilit-Diitv Ht-ar \\\v 

THE Flint Motor Axle Company, 
f^lint, Mich., has brought out a 
new axle designed for bus require- 
ments, where maximum load and 
speed are essential without overheat- 
ing the engine. As shown in the 
illustration, the axle is built up of a 

Flint spiral-bevel rear axle, of full floating construction 

plate with a push rod connected to 
the brake rocker shaft or rigging. 
These chambers are supplied in 3, 4 
and 51-in. sizes. One 4-in. or two 
3-in. chambers are sufficient for light 
vehicles and for front-wheel applica- 
tion. Two 4-in. or one 5J-in. are 
adequate for heavy passenger cars 
or light trucks, while two 5i-in. 
chambers, it is said, provide adequate 
braking for the heaviest trucks. 

On buses and other heavy motor 
vehicles, an extra valve, called a 
quick application and release valve, 
is used. The control valve then 
serves as a pilot valve to actuate the 
release valve. The release valve com- 
prises an oilproof rubber diaphragm 
having an exhaust valve attached to 
it. The chamber on one side of the 
diaphragm is connected to the brake 
pipe while the other, which contains 
the exhaust-valve chamber, is con- 
nected to the brake chambers. Also 
there is an inlet valve connecting 
with the reservoir and the intake 
pipe. Normally this diaphragm is in 
such a position that the exhaust port 
is open a slight amount so that the 
brake chambers are open through th-' 
exhaust valve to the atmosphere. If 

one-piece malleable-iron gear case, 
with 3-in. tubes pressed into each 
side. The wheel gage is 56 in., and 
2i or 21-in. springs can be mounted 
on centers from 36 in. to 39* in. 
apart. A sufficient factor of safety 
is provided to carry 4,000 lb. on the 
spring pads. The axle weighs 325 
lb. without the wheels. 

The construction is of the full 
floating type with two bearings in 
each wheel. These are standard size 
and can be furnished in the taper 
roll, ball, or straight roll designs. 
With straight roll bearings, thrust 
rings are also supplied. 

The final drive is through a single 
set of spiral-bevel gears. Reductions 
from 4.9 to 1 to 5.5 to 1 can be 
installed. The main drive pinion is 
mounted between two ball bearings. 
This straddle type of mounting, it is 
said, will stand universal-joint whip- 
ping strain, as well as engine torque 
and gear pressures. 

The differential, which is of the 
four-pinion type with spiral bevel 
gears, is mounted on two bearings 
of the same size and type as those 
used for the wheels. Gear adjust- 
ment is provided at the sides and 

on the pillion, to insure proper tooth 
contact and quiet gears. 

Both main shafts uf the axle are 
of heat-treated alloy steel, IJ in. in 
diameter. Both are of the liame 
length with a six-spline fitting on 
each end, so that they are inter- 

Two sets of brakes are mounted on 
the rear wheels, on a drum 14 in. in 
diameter and 2] in. wide. Both the 
emergency brake 'internal) and the 
sen'ice brake i external) are fitted 
with Thermoid brake lining 2J in. 
wide. The service brake haj< three 
adjustments to insure wrapping with 
the least amount of power. 

Siii«rl«-PI:itr riiitcli for 
Hi'avy-Duly NV ork 

THE accompanying illustration 
shows the type F.IX clutch de- 
veloped by the Borg & Beck Com- 
pany, Chicago, 111., for heavy-duty 
bus service. This clutch is of the 
dry-plate construction, pressure being 
applied by a coiled alloy steel spring, 
which forces three levers against the 
inclined surface of the pressure 

The friction or driven plate is 
mounted on the clutch shaft by a 
splined fitting. This has ten splines 
2^ in. long and the clutch shaft is U 
in. in diameter. Both shaft and 
splines are lubricated by holes drilled 
through the splines to the shaft 
center hole. 

Of the two radial thrust bearings 
shown in the illustration, the one on 

Cut open x'iew of single-plate 
clutch for li-in. flywheel. 

the inner end of the release sleeve is 
intended to permit free running of 
the retractor collar and the of 
the clutch brake, while the bearing 
on the outer end takes the throwout 




Vol.2, No.l 

The friction facings, which are 
free to float in the flywheel, are made 
of asbestos reinforced with copper 
wire, and are of an endless spirally- 
woven type. The maximum area of 
friction surface and consequently 
long life are obtained, it is said, by 
using a low unit pressure on these 
facings. The type FJX clutch, which 
fits into a 14-in. flywheel bore, has a 
torque capacity of more than 410 
Ib.ft. It is thus powerful enough 
to be applied on double-deck buses, if 
required. Either unit power plant 
or amidship construction can be 

The manufacturer recommends 
that the clutch be inspected at regu- 
lar intervals and adjustments made 
before slipping starts. This is easily 
done by unloosening the two bolts 
which project through the cover 
plate. The adjustment ring carried 
by these bolts can then be turned in 
a clockwise direction. This changes 
the relation of the thrust shoes to the 
thrust ring so that the distance in 
which the wedge action takes place 
is shortened and thus the grip on 
the friction surfaces increased. 

1 F 

These wheels are of the "double 
curve" construction with a straight 
valve stem on the outside. The de- 
sign may be adapted, however, so that 
an ofi'set valve can be used. The 
32 X 6 wheels weigh 26 lb. each, or 
104 lb. for the set. It is said that 
a pressure of 56,000 lb. is required 
before they distort enough for frac- 
ture. The larger sizes are much 

The material used is first-grade 
No. 12 aluminum alloy and virgin 
aluminum, subjected to special treat- 
ment after casting. According to the 
maker, this type of wheel weighs less 

Aluminum Wheel for 
Bus Service 

>HE wheel shown in the accom- 
panying drawing, which was de- 
veloped for high-grade passenger 
cars, is now being supplied for bus 
service. The makers, the Whitcomb 
Wheel Company, Kenosha, Wis., re- 
cently supplied the 32 x 6 wheels for 
the new Kissel coach, mentioned on 
page 498 of the September issue. 

is no rumbling or drumming sound 
of any kind even on rough roads. 

These wheels are built to take 
standard wood wheel hubs and stand- 
ard demountable rims, so that they 
can be supplied for any kind of tire 



Six-Cylinder Engine for 
Single-Deck Service 

7'^ilE Midwest Engine Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind., announces a 
six-cylinder engine which is recom- 
mended for bus service where high 
speed and smooth operation are es- 

At left, Midrvest Model 610 six-cylinder engine, 70-hp. capacity at 3,000 r.p.m. 
At right, front end of same engine, showing bracket for fan shaft 

than other metal wheels, and also less 
than wood wheels, except the largest 
size of giant pneumatic tires. Other 
advantages of the aluminum wheel 
given are its beautiful finish, which 
requires no painting; ease of clean- 
ing, and freedom from noise. There 

Double-curve wheel made of aluminum for 20-in. rim 

sential. This engine, designated the 
Model 610, is particularly suited to 
intercity service on buses built along 
sedan lines. 

With a 33-in. bore and a 5-in. 
stroke, the total cylinder volume is 
268.4 The engine develops 70 
hp. at 3,000 r.p.m., the torque being 
given as 155 Ib.ft. at 400 r.p.m., 170 
Ib.ft. at 800 r.p.m., and crossing the 
150 Ib.ft. line at 1,900 r.p.m. 

The two views given indicate 
the general construction. Overhead 
valves are located in a detachable 
head. Push rods are carried inside 
the cylinder block, and the entire 
valve mechanism is lubricated by oil 
mist and vapor forced up from the 
crankcase. Rocker arms are of the 
"rocker" type, carried against flat- 
headed adjusting screws. The sur- 
face on these arms is curved so that 
they actually rock like a rocking 
chair, a centering point in each being 
used to hold them in alignment. 

A special feature is the connecting- 
rod design, which is intended to 
eliminate as far as possible the effect 
of vibration. This is secured by 
making the H section on a taper, 
so that it becomes wider gradually 

January, 1923 




as it nears the crankpin end. Then 
the sides of the H section weave in 
and out, with a thick section on one 
side oppasite to a thin section on the 
other, so that vibrations may be 
broken. Up ajid prevented from con- 
centrating at any one point. 

Coolijig is by pump circulation, 
the system having a capacity of 25 
gal. per minute at 1,500 r.p.m. of the 
engine. The c(x)ling water is di- 
rected by internal deflectors first to 
the spark plutrs and then to the 
valves. The circulation, it is said. 

Efficient .- 1 cccssories 

Cover for S|»riii«: 

BASED on the theory that a cer- 
tain amount of lubrication is 
necessary to the functioning of semi- 
elliptic springs, and also that they 
should be protected from dirt and 
water, is the cover made by the 
Anderson Spring Lubricator Com- 

under pressure, but they also keep 
out dirt and water, and to a great 
extent decrease spring breakage. 

Aiiderxon spring lubrictitor iiiKtalled on sciiii-elliptic spring 

is controlled so that the greatest 
volume of water flows from the rear 
cylinder to the front through the 
head. This system is claimed to per- 
mit a higher cylinder compression 
than is possible with other types. 

Lubrication is by a constant de- 
livery system so that the pressure to 
all bearings is regulated in propor- 
tion to the load, instead of to the 
speed. This is accomplished by a 
regulating valve in the oil supply 
line and connected to the intake 
manifold above the throttle valve. 
The vacuum above the engine piston 
works against the control valve, this 
action being resisted by a coil spring 
mounted in the valve to act as a 
safety device on the pressure line. 
As the engine throttle is opened the 
vacuum in the manifold becomes less 
until finally the spring in the regu- 
lating valve is strong enough to close 
the oil valve. When this happens 
the free outlet to the oil system is 
cut off and the pressure raised on 
the entire oil supply line. Thus when 
the vacuum above the piston is low 
(full load on engine), the oil supply 
and pressure are greatest, no matter 
at what speed the engine may be 
operating at the time the load is 
applied. When the engine is idling, 
however, and the vacuum above the 
piston is high, then the oil pressure 
and supply are greatly reduced. 

The camshaft is driven by a silent 
chain, with automatic adjustment. 
On the crankcase back of the water 
pump the generator-base pad is 
mounted so that the drive can be 
taken off the pump shaft. 

pany. Inc., Boston, Mass. This can 
be supplied either in artificial or in 
real leather. After being packed 
with a grease that will not cake or 
harden, the two parts of the cover 
are laced up under the spring. At 
the lower end is a sheet metal clip. 
This is slipped over the spring near 
the U-bolt. At the top is a buckle 
that clamps on the spring close to 
the shackle and thus keeps the cover 
fully extended and smooth. 

Before attaching, the covers are 
thickly coated inside with grease. 
According to the manufacturer, no 
further attention is necessary and 
all the work of oiling or greasing 
the spring is done away with for at 
least two years, when the covers 
should be taken off and repacked. 
The covers act not only to keep the 
grease in, and to lubricate it more 
effectivelv than when oil is forced in 

Tlirolllc Italanrr I >^^^\ in 
Fiif»inr (fO\rrnor 

THE device made by the Handy 
Governor Corporation, Uetroit, 
Mich., provides, it in said, a balanced 
condition of the throttle at the gov- 
erned speed, of the engine 
load. The two viewn show the essen- 
tial features of the governor. A 
throttle control valve also acts as a 
plate on which the inlet gases im- 
pinge to set the governor meihanism 
at work. On the shaft of this valve 
or plate is mounted a throttle control 
lever which carries a cam roller. 
Resting on this roller is a control 
cam, which is spring-connected to a 
speed-adjusting leveT by which the 
rate of speed can t>e varied. All 
levers and cams are in a chamber 
made integral with the rectangular 
inlet passage, which provides a dust- 
proof housing for the moving parts. 

V'ariation in the engine speed is 
secured by adjusting the small screw 
shown in the left-hand view. If re- 
quired, this can be sealed so that the 
governor speed cannot be changed 
without breaking the seal. A half- 
turn of this screw changes the 
engine speed about 75 to 85 r.p.m. 

The operation of the governor is 
as follows: If the engine tries to run 
faster, the valve closes ; if slower, the 
spring opens the valve wider. The 
valve, therefore, moves instantane- 
ously to permit the proper quantity 
of gas to enter the engine so the speed 
is maintained regardless of load. 

Handy governor for controlling engine upccd 

,\— Throttle control valve shaft. 

I! — Throttle control lever. 

C — Control cam. 

D — Control cam roller. 

E — S; ng lever. 

F — Si ng screw, 

a —;... . ...:rol valve. 

H — Rcctantular orlflce. 




Vol.2, No.1 

Bodies and Equipment 

Bus Body for Hotel Service 

THE bus body shown in the accom- 
panying illustration, which is the 
No. 200 design of the Paterson Vehi- 
cle Company, Paterson, N. J., was 
built for the Florida East Coast Hotel 

Inside the equipment includes slide 
windows, two Nichols-Lintern ven- 
tilators mounted in the roof, three 
dome lamps, and push buttons for 
electric signaling. 

The finish of the ceiling and sides 
is walnut with nickel mountings. 

Dudy for Florldu hotel sercice, of twelve-passenger capacity, 
entrance at rear only 

Company, one of the Flagler system 
hotels. It will be used to carry pas- 
sengers between hotels in St. Augus- 
tine, Fla., and the St. Augustine 
Golf Links. Seating capacity is pro- 
vided for twelve passengers. The 
chassis shown here is a General 
Motors Model K-16, fitted with pneu- 
matic tires. 

A feature of the body is the single 
entrance at the rear. This is pro- 
vided with a wide door, and with 
one permanent step and also a supple- 
mentary step which can be dropped 
down for use when passengers alight 
directly into the street. For curb 
service the supplementary step is not 

There are two longitudinal seats, 
20 in. wide. These are 10 ft. long 
and are fitted with 8-in. woven wire 
spring cushions and spring lazy 
backs. Upholstering is black imita- 
tion leather. 

At the front to the right of the 
driver is a compartment for light 
baggage. The space is left open 
under the seats for golf bags, and a 
baggage rail will be mounted on the 
outside at the rear of the roof. 

The main dimensions are as fol- 
lows: LenEtth over all 14 ft.; width 
at belt rail, 6 ft. 5 in.; headroom, 
6 ft. 2 in. 

Outside the body is painted in Val- 
entine's elephant gray, striped with 
black and gold. 

Spot Light Controlled 
from Inside Body 

I^HE Model F AutoReelite is a 
spotlight so designed that it can 
be controlled from inside the bus 
body, so it is unnecessary to lower a 
window to operate the light. As 
shown in the illustration the device 
is mounted on a corner post; the 
handle inside is used to direct the 




Model F AutoReelite — has 12 ft. 
of cord stoived inside. 

rays in any direction. Another fea- 
ture is the self-contained reel, which 
permits the light to be taken to any 
part of the vehicle. The maker of 
the light is the Appleton Electric 
Company, Chicago, 111. 

Three Compartment Body 
of Charabanc Type 

'^r^HE body shown in the illustra- 
A tion, as made by Hugh Lyons & 
Company, Lansing, Mich., is de- 
signed to carry seventeen passengers 
and a driver. It will be noticed that 
there are three doors on the right- 
hand side, each leading into a sep- 
arate compartment. The first two 
have full-width seats, while the door 
at the rear admits passengers to a 
compartment with the seats ar- 
ranged on three sides of a square. 
All of these are bolted to side posts 
through angle irons. This construc- 
tion, it is said, braces the body se- 
curely ; it also permits the use of a 
light top and thus lowers the center 
of gravity. 

Framing is of hard maple covered 
with f.; in. hardwood and then with 
wadding, on which is mounted 20- 
gage auto body sheet steel. Doors 
are of the full molded type. Windows 
of the frameless type slide in felt 

Lyons scvcnteen-passenger char-a-ba7>c-type body on Keo chassis 

January, 1923 




channels. They are raised and low- 
ered with straps and lace holders. 
The floor is covered with linoleum. 
Upholstering is of black imitation 

One Noble heater is mounted on 
the floor and connected to the ex- 
haust. There are four ventilators, 
two at the front and two at the rear, 
of the lower type. Lighting is by 
three dome fixtures, one in the rear 
and one on each side. The interior 

is mahogany with the lower 
part lined with imitation leather 
over a i«-in. hard board. The 
painting of the outside is either bat- 
tleship gray trimmed in black, or 
light Brewster green trimmed in 

General dimensions of the body : 
Outside length, 13 ft Gi in.; width, 
G ft. i in.; height inside 4 ft. 11 in. 

The weight of the body complete is 

1,500 lb. 

Garage Time Savers 

Quivk-^'ork Device Add«'<! 
to Garage Press 

THE Hi-Speed pi-ess made by 
the Weaver Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Springfield, 111., now includes 
a rack and pinion, developed to fa- 
cilitate lowering and raising of the 

The quick-work attachment is con- 
trolled by a lever, shown in the par- 
tial view, which when thrown over 
to the right, rapidly lowers the hand 
wheel and screw. The lever handle 
is attached to a pinion, which meshes 
into a sleeve over the press screw. 
A tension spring counterbalances the 
weight of the hand wheel and as 
a result, it is said by the manufac- 
turer, facilitates the operation of the 
lever handle. 
When pressures of more than 2,000 

Rack and pinion attachment for 
Weaver press. 

lb. are required, the screw is 
brought down into contact with the 
work by the use of the hand wheel, 
and then the ratchet lever (shown in 
use in the full view) is thrown into 
engagement. This ratchet arm has 
two adjustments so that the com- 

Ratchet lever in use on Hi-Speed 

bination of the two levers permit 
handling work requiring pressures of 
from 1 to 60,000 lb., without moving 
the work after it has been placed 
in position. 

The regular high-speed press is 
made in two sizes, 32 and 42 in. be- 
tween uprights. Included with the 
press is a face plate, two pressure 
blocks, two vise blocks and two sec- 
tions of 6-in. channel steel. 

Gear-Type Jack of Ten 

Tons Capacity 

THE Mosher heavy-duty jack, 
manufactured by the H. G. Paro 
Company, Chicago, III., is supplied 
for such work as changing pneumatic 
tires on heavy motor vehicles. The 
maker states that it is to oper- 
ate, and is built so that the load can- 
not come down suddenly and injure 
the operator. 

The driving mechanism consists of 
a worm gear and pinion gear made 
from one piece of steel. In the cen- 
ter of the jack is a socket where 
the handle can be carried for imme- 
diate use. This opening also can be 

t fl 


Muahcr hen vy -duty jack «Aoum 
at maximum height. 

used to insert pegs mounted in 
blocks, to increase the height of the 

The top rest of the jack ha« an 
adjustment from 13 to 23 in., and 
this can be extended by additional 
fittings when it is desired to raise 
bus bodies. The side re^t ha^ an 
adjustment of from 7 to 17 in. in 
height. The jack complete weighs 
only 58 lb. 

Portable Drill with (iriiul- 
inj; Attaclinient 

THE Black & Decker .Manufactur- 
ing Company, Towson Heights, 
Baltimore, .Md., has recently reduced 
the price of its i-in. portable electric 

This drill, according to the maker, 
finds many uses in body and chassis 
work, and weighs 5 lb. complete. 

Black & Decker drill, showing 
trigger switch inside handle. 

The i-in. capacity is for steel, but 
in hard wood it will drill 3-in. holes. 
For grinding work the hexagonal 
frame of the drill can be mounted 
in a special fixture. This fixture, or 
stand, and an emery wheel arc .sup- 
plied as an extra. 




Vol.2, No.l 



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Vol.2, No.l 

What tKeAssociations 

are doin^ 

A ♦-^. •j 


News and happ<'nings 
of the associations. 
Proceedings of interest 
to the bus transporta- 
tion indnsti'v. 

Double-Deck Buses' 

Requirements of Bus Design and Equipment for City, Urban and Interurban 

Service Explained — Some of the Considerations Which Led to the 

Adoption of the Bus for Auxiliary and Special Service 

By J. F. Collins 

Chief Engineer Mitten-Traylor Company, Inc. 

TRACKLESS transportation is not 
new. Centuries before steam rail- 
roads and trolley cars were known 
people traveled over the highways in 
horse-drawn vehicles. The present 
stages of California, though motor- 
propelled nowadays, take their name 
from the horse-drawn stages of pioneer 

Bus transportation may be divided, 
generally, into three classes: city, inter- 
urban and country. The types of vehi- 
cle suitable for these services vary 
quite as much as the operating condi- 
tions themselves. 

The country bus operating through 
sparsely settled sections over rough, un- 
improved country roads requires a 
chassis with high road clearance and 
usually a light-weight body that is 
limited in seating capacity and lacks 
riding comfort. 

The interurban bus has been given 
much more thought. Safety is obtained 
by a low center of gravity consistent 
with the necessary road clearance, 
which on improved highways may be 
as little as 7 in. Special attention also 
is given to the comfort of riders, for 
the longer the trip the more com- 
fortable must be the seats. Attention 
is also paid to suspension. Rugged 
springs, efficient as load carriers, but 
lacking in resilience have given way to 
more flexible springs. 

Far greater attention has been given 
to the design of city buses than either 
the country or interurban type, for as 
soon as the automobile proved itself as 
a passenger carrying vehicle the bus 
operators of London, Paris, New York 
and Philadelphia turned to it as a 
means of meeting the urgent demands 
of their rapidly growing traffic. City 
buses are operated either as (1) a sup- 
plementary service to the trolley system 
on lines where the light traffic "is insuf- 
ficient to support the fixed charges, on 
avenues or boulevards where tracks or 
wires would be objectionable to the 
public, or in owl service where bus op- 
eration permits the shutting down of 
power plants; or (2) a de luxe service 
at a higher rate of fare, bridging the 

PM^^l'i''u'i' g' P.'^"^'" presented before the 
Philadelphia Section, A.I. E.E., Nov. 13, 1922. 

gap between the trolley and the taxi, 
which may be operated without compe- 
tition to existing trolley lines because 
of its higher fare. It will attract pas- 
sengers who will not ride the crowded 
street cars but who will ride on the 
bus when assured a seat. Double deck- 
ers are used principally in this latter 
service and their loads are limited to 
their seating capacity. 

In city service special attention must 
be paid to acceleration, low floor level 
and easy access, to facilitate boarding 
and leaving of passengers; adequate 
braking facilities on account of the 
density of traffic, and passenger com- 

In selling transportation, the appeal 
to the passenger and the consideration 
of competition is just as important as 
in selling any other merchandise. Buses 
therefore must be comfortable, well 
lighted, free from noxious odors of the 
exhaust or the irritating fumes of raw 

A study of the double-decker for city 
service discloses many interesting fea- 

Starting at the ground we find either 
solid or cushion tires, chosen to obtain 
the lowest possible floor level. While 
cushion tires are more resilient and 
easier riding, solids save fuel for it 
takes power to manipulate or "flow" 
the softer rubber compounds. So in 
selecting a tire an attempt is made to 
obtain a mean between easy riding and 
fuel economy. Next, consideration is 
given to the ti-ead where noiseless anti- 
skid qualities are sought. Continuous 
treads are satisfactory as regards 
quietness if the tread is arranged for 
maximum adhesion both rolling and 

Wheels of not more than 34-in. diam- 
eter are used to obtain low floor 
levels. This is about the maximum 
diameter which can be housed under 
a seat. 

The axles are cranked, bringing the 
spring pads considerably below the 
wheel spindle centers. At the rear 
axle power is transmitted from the 
drive-shaft within the housing by a bull 
pinion at its end to an internal gear 
attached to the wheel. The center dif- 
ferential is compactly housed, to obtain 

maximum ground clearance under it, 
and minimum floor height over it. 
Bearing adjustments would be difficult 
to make on account of the heavy wheel 
and tire, were it not for the fact that 
the wheel is attached to a hub in a 
manner similar to a disk or wire wheel. 
Bearings are taken up and then tested 
by rotating the comparatively light hub 
rather than the entire wheel. With this 
arrangement tires or wheels can be 
changed without disturbing bearing 
adjustments or losing the wheel lubri- 

The suspension of a double deck bus 
presents several problems. The maxi- 
mum passenger load will vary from 
7,500 lb. for fifty persons to 9,000 lb. 
for sixty persons. Buses must ride 
w-ell, whether loaded or light. At the 
same time, however, spring deflection 
is limited, for the unloaded step height 
at the rear platform must not be un- 
comfortably high when the bus is light. 
This is usually provided for with com- 
pound or differential springs. 

Stability is vital with a double decker 
because of its high center of gravity. 
Securing stability without sacrificing 
riding qualities presents a problem in 
itself. In one of the largest double 
deckers remarkable riding qualities are 
obtained by mounting a helical spring 
at the rear of, and in series with, the 
flat spring. Stability is obtained by 
means of an equalizer so arranged that 
in event of an excessive load on one 
side of the spring, the one on the other 
side is immediately brought into play. 
This, of course, deflects both springs, 
and deflects them equally so that as the 
body drops its equilibrium is main- 

Frame channels are kept low. On 
one bus they are only 18 in. above the 
ground. Low frame heights mean easy 
access, low center of gravity and con- 
sequent stability. With an 18-in. frame 
height the bulk of the chassis weight 
is below the wheel center. Practically 
all that weight is useful in steadying 
the body weight above the wheel cen- 
ter, much the same as a weighted keel 
serves on a racing yacht. 

The size of bus engines is increasing. 
The tendency to maximum fuel econ- 
omy is giving way to more power for 
quicker starting. Fuel saving is over- 
shadowed by the far greater saving in 
labor and other expense accomplished 
by faster schedules. The six-cylinder 
engine is being looked upon with favor 
because of its even torque and freedom 
from annoying vibration. 

Bus radiators assume large sizes be- 
cause of the large power requirements 
of the vehicle. While it is possible to 
install six cylinders in place of four, 
without changing the cross-sectional 
area of the hood, the radiator area in- 
creases in direct proportion with the 
added power so we see the radiators of 
large buses rising up in front of the 
hood. Clutches must transmit the full 
power of the engine and yet have mini- 
mum mass so that gear changes may 
be made quietly without clashing. 

Brakes are provided on both the rear 
wheels and on the propeller shaft. Brake 

January, 1923 




controls are cushioned by compression f 
springs at their ends so that the oper- 
ator never pulls against a positive stop, 
either in pushing the foot brake pedal 
or pulling the hand lever. This re- 
duces fatigue, and makes it possible U< 
engage the next notch with the hand 
lever. Adjustments are made as sim- 
ple as possible, usually by wing nuts 
accessible from the side of the bus. 

In the transmission, special attention 
is paid to quiet gears. The ordinary 
truck type of transmission, with its 
roughly machined gears, was found to 
cause excessive and annoying noises. 
The transmission has at least four 
speeds forward and one reverse. The 
four speeds are essential to uniform 
acceleration. The need for additional 
steps of gear change is reduced where 
the six-cylinder engine is used. 

The drive-shaft line consists of 
separate units. Since each unit has 
its own bearings the several sections 
are adequately supported, eliminating 
the whip that would ordinarily follow 
with such a long wheelbase construc- 

In the low type construction, the 
vehicles are so close to the ground that 
a man cannot work under them with 
any comfort. All unitfi are arranged 
to be taken down into a pit rather than 
lifted up through the floor. This elim- 
inates the necessity of trapdoors in the 
bus floor, which are always undesir- 
able because of the danger of slipping 
out of place and tripping the passen- 

The modern double-deck bus carries 
the entrance at the right-hand side of 
the rear platform. The conductor 
stands in a semi-circular pocket formed 
by the winding stairway which starts 
at the left-hand side and rises to the 
right-hand side of the upper deck. This 
arrangement provides for pay-as-you- 
enter fare collection. A periscope is 
provided so that he may see at all 
times the number of seats occupied on 
the upper deck. 

The lighting, wiring and signal cir- 
cuits are carried within the advertising 
rack, all wiring being done on a bench 
before the advertising rack is secured 
into place. The wires are then con- 
nected to the proper switches. This 
facilitates not only the original wiring 
of the vehicle, but also the clearing of 
short-circuits or grounds. 

The conventional automatic ventila- 
tor used on trolley cars and single-deck 
buses cannot be installed on double- 
deck buses, on account of the floor of 
the upper deck. Vent'lation is secured 
by the installation of louver panels 
above the windows, or by means of a 
small tilting sash. This is hinged at the 
bottom so that cold air entering is car- 
ried up past the tilted sash, which drops 
against the advertising rack, then over 
the advertising rack into the aisle. This 
ingenious arrangement prevents 
from the street settling on the adver- 
tising cards, which are thereby kept 
clean, and also saves the passengers 
seated at the windows the annoyance 
of cold air blowing directly on them. 
Standard bus heating consists of two 

.Motor Bus OrKiinizations 

.\.\T10.N'AU ilOTOR TK.\..SSruKT 
AS.~!ciiM.\Tll>.\ : r'r.-siililit I'nHlrk 
llia|i-y, .H''cr<,-tary iiiiil I'.' I*,-'-- 
liiiit A: Wutcrbury I •■. 

Inc.. 3li .North .Miiln v, 

''oiin.; iiiunuK**!' uii'l H. 

liurrUt. Fl«k Bulldlni,', ;iu Wc»i i-irty- 
siviiitli Strwt. N.-w Vork. N. Y. 

Tlo.S: IT.-»Uli-nt. \V. E. Travln, presl- 
.li-m ('a!!fornln TriiniiH Comimliy, San 
I'r iiin Isf.i. t'allf. : secTetary. Jamm <! 
IMiliif. 1290 BiiHh Street San Kran- 
.Is, ,,. i-,illf, 

.(..SNKCTUM'T MOTOll .sT-VfiK 
.VS.'^tii'l.VTIO.S': Pr<-«l«liiil l':itrlik 
iliuliy. 81-iretary aiil .n..iii.\ i;:i. !■.;■■- 
port & Wattrbury i '"• 

liK., 36 North .Main ^ ■ 

I'lprn. : scciclary, 1.,;.. 

irca.surcr Congrrens Taxi Company. 
I>anbury. I'onn. 

r-i.oau)A nus ASSon.xTioN: 

I'r.sMint (pro torn). .V. I> Mart*' 11 
pnsMinl and Rineral nianaBfr W'hiti- 
luis Lin**, Tampa. Fla. 

(lent. U. A. Harrison. Ua'nbriili;-. Ga. ; 
.sicrctary. W. M. Riley. Doatiir. Ga. 

A . S.'JdC I. VTIOX: Pre.'ilil''nt. H. E .lalinK. 
t,-iii.ral manager Jahns' Bu-i Lines. La 
rortc. Ind. : trejuiurcr. \V. E. Rent- 
.srhlir. mnnaser Indiana Motor Bus 
iVimpany. Plymouth, Ind. 

dent. E. Foster .Morcton, pre.-<ident 
.Moreton Trucking Company. Third and 
Howard Streets, Detroit, Mleh. ; s.iie- 
tary, H. H. Hardy, L-in.slnB, Mich. 

ATION : Pre.sident. Rodney S. L)lm- 
mick, pre.sident Touring Car Bus Com- 
pan.v. -Minneapolis. Alinn. ; secretary. 
Earl P. Jackson. St. Paul, Minn. 

CIATION; Presid. nt, George F. Sey- 
mour. .Ir.. Newark. N. J. Secretary, 
George L. Cowan, 2(1 Clinton Street, 
Newark, N, J. 

Charles Gallagher. 66 Bartholemy .\ve- 
nue. Ji-rsey City, N. J. 

YORK STATE : President. Alnn V. 
Parker treasurer Frontier .Vuto Trans- 
port Company. Niagara Falls. N. Y. : 
secretary and treasurer, Jnm^a J. 
Dadd, president Rochester Bus Lines 
Advertising Corporation. 120 Vermont 
..\ venue, Rochester. N. T. 

President. R. E. McCullom. Columbus. 
Ohio ; secretary. C. J. Randall. Colum- 
bus. Ohio. 

TION ■ President, Frank Marlz, 
urer White Transit) Company. Ply- 
mouth. Pa. : treasurer. W. J. Emerick. 
president Emerick Bus Lines, Belle- 
fonte. Pa. 

T\TION' .\SSOCIATION: President. 
.\. C. Homan. president A. C. Homan 
.1 Co.. Menasha, Wi-J 

pressed metal shrouded radiators in- 
stalled at the front end of the bus. This 
location has been found best, since it 
heats the air coming in at the front 
of the vehicle before it reaches the 

Reforms Advocated in Scllintr 
of Tires 

AT A meeting of the Greater New- 
York Tire Dealers' Association, held 
on Dec. 13 in New York City, George 
J. Burger, president of the newly- 
formed National Tire Dealers' Associa- 
tion, delivered a straight-from-the- 
shoulder message regarding dealer and 
manufacturer relations. The dealer, he 

Ksid, is the cheapest means by which 
the manufacturers can sell their tires. 
The dealer should stick to one ur two 
makes, preferably those with limited 
distribution where the competition is 
less severe. He should under-estimate 
rather than over-estimate allowances 
for guarantee and service. Mr. Burgvr 
advocated the sale of tires at list 
prices. Department stores never give 
discounts, and there is no reason 
why tire dealers should have a half 
dozen discounts for a half doz*n dif- 
ferent peop'e. To the manufacturers 
he suggested that they should give 
dealers encouragement and counst-l. 
If a price raise was required and right, 
they should go ahead ami not be afraid. 
They should avoid overloading the 
dealer with goods which he cannot sell 
in a reasonable time. 

While no definite action was taken 
at the meeting, there was considerable 
discussion of practices intro<luced by 
car dealers and by car manufacturers, 
the former by selling shoes at a price 
below that at which the tire dealer 
could se'l, mainly as service to the 
owner, and the latter in providing 
extra shoes as an inducement to buy 
their cars. 

N.M.T.A. Helps Form State 

SINCE the organization meetine of 
the National Motor Tran : 
Association as outlined in the 1 
issue of Bus TransportatIo.n, .Mar;- 
ager E. B. Burritt reports that he has 
been instrumental in the formation of 
a Pennsylvania state bus association. 
He has also actively prosecuted a 
niemhership campaign, .so that a num- 
ber of bus companies have been taken 
into membership in the national as>M>- 
ciation. It is now proposed t. 
new form of membership for 
associations, which will pay li 
upon the number of their me: 

On Dec. 18. Mr. Burritt met with .sev- 
eral of the motor bus operators of Penn- 
sylvania at Harrisburg to formulate 
plans for a state organization. The 
following oflicers were named: Presi- 
dent, Frank Martz, treasurer the 
White Transit Company, Plymouth, Pa.: 
Treasurer, W. J. Emerick, pre.sident 
The Emerick Bus line. Bellefonte. Pa. 
.\t another meeting held Jan. 4 at the 
Penn-IIarris Hotel in Harrisburg for 
the purpose of more fully perfecting 
the organization, plans were mapped 
out for the coming year. Details of 
this meeting will be given in a forth- 
coming issue. 

At Wilmington. Del., on Dec. 21, Mr. 
Burritt met with .several of the bus 
operators of that section and discu.ssed 
the formation of an organization for 
Delaware. C. S. White of the Delaware 
Rapid Transit organization was an 
active figure at this meeting. A plan 
was outlined to broaden the local Wil- 
mington association so as to take in 
members from all over the state. Active 
steps will be taken in the near future 
to perfect the state organization. 




Vol.2, No.l 

National Association with State Repre- 
sentation Favored in California 

Members of California Motor Carriers' Association Favor Supporting N. M. T. A., 

but Do So with Hope of Remolding Policy— Board of Directors Takes 

Favorable Action on Committee Report Concerning 

the Subject 

RA.THER than propose and under- 
take the formation of a new na- 
tional association, the California Motor 
Carriers' Association, at its annual 
meeting on Dec. 13, decided to support 

which will more properly fit the national 
needs and offer to the industry a national 
organization on a more substantial and en- 
during basis, and finally that 

handle the traffic. The street cars now 
handle 12.5,000 passengers a day, the 
peak load being in the morning and 
evening, when fully 100,000 ride the 
cars. It would take over 500 buses to 
handle that transportation and they 
could not do it as speedily as the street 
cars, especially as enough street space 
to permit so many buses is not available 
in any city. 

Where a headway of not less than 
fifteen minutes is required, the bus is 

„. The president of the California Motor valuable as an auxiliary to the street 

Carriers' Association should be instructed , wberp a frreater freauencv of 

through his membership on the board of car, DUt wnere a gredter iiequeiicy vx. 

directors of the National Motor Transport service is necessary the street car can 

and work with the recently organized Association, "to" lay these matters before "" ■■" ■";",:,:"■ .„ "" pcnnnmipallv and 

that association and before all state asso- 00 the woik more economically ana 

The Place of the Bus Told 
at Akron 

profitably. The street car makes a 
more economical use of space than the 
motor bus. 

Speaking of the average street 
car fares in the United States, he 

THE motor bus may have a fixed stated that in 1917 it was 4.85 cents 

place in the transportation system and that most cities had a 5-cent fare or 

today in large American cities, but gave six rides for 25 cents. The maxi- 

motor buses will never entirely sup- mum car fare has since risen to 10 

plant street railway systems, according cents while the average fare increased 

to Albert S. Richey, consulting engi- to 7.25 cents eighteen months ago. 

National Motor Transport Association, 
but in doing so made a forceful recom- 
mendation that the plan of representa- 
tion in that organization be changed to 
one more consistent with the best inter- 
ests of the industry. The report of the 
committee, which was later adopted by 
the board of directors, is as follows: 

After careful consideration of the plan of 
organization proposed by the National 
^Nlotor Transport Association, and in ac- 
cordance with the sentiment of members ex- 
pressed at the annual meeting of the Call- . ... ,i,,j. 
fornia Motor Carriers' Association in San neer, Worcester, Mass., m an address Since that time it has receded to about 
Francisco Dec. 13. 1922, your committee jjgfoj-e the Kiwanis Club of Akron, on 7 cents. Akron is one of the few large 

1. 'That the election of W. B. Travis. Oct. 27. The future success of opera- cities with a 5-cent fare and no extra 
^^nf !SVe?iienTfhe mot°or cI'^rFers 0?°™; tions of street railway system in cities charge for transfers. 

State of California on the board of directors of over 50,000 population depends upon Closing his remarks he pointed out 

aon*s*houkrbrheani-lT a'^proved'"' ^^^°"''' their being given a virtual monopoly that the motor bus would give its max- 

2. A study of the by-laws adopted at the of the transportation business. imum service in auxiliary work in 
T7arp'o^'rL^oc1at"fnl>ows1?s'pi'^,l To?- Referring to Akron, he said that if building up transportation service in 
ganization to be of a sort that we believe f^e tracks were taken up, buses would new territories until street car lines 
:rm.™be"7;!l.'^n^ w?u''rmrtL'neids''thS fall down miserably, as they could not could be established. 

should be filled by a national organization 

for the following reasons : ♦ 

(a) A membership made up of individual 
operators from the various states, if such 
a membership could be secured, would tend 
10 demoralize the state organizations be- 
cause the large majority of carriers are 
not In a financial position to support two 
.«uch organizations. 

(b) It would seem to us that the state 
organizations are the present vital necessi- 
ties and should be the media through which 
the national orga.nization operates. This 
is a principle which we believe has been 
the most successful where relationship be- 
tween state and national organizations is 

(c) The state organizations must per- 
force be the militant bodies in all state 

Automotive Production Discussed 
at Detroit 

S. A. E. Takes Up Gear Making and Selection of Machine Tools — Visits to 

Important Plants Feature the Meeting — Closer Contact of Production 

Men, Engineers and Service Men Urged 

THE first production meeting of the culties. Faulty gear manufacture, he 

Society of Automotive Engineers, said, is costing automobile makers at 

matters, while ther'nationar oi-ganizatron held on Oct. 26 and 27 in Detroit, least $11,000 a day at the present time. 

ftate''o.BTn1zationi?%"mew1i1fTs''''would^" brought out manufacturing men from The selection of machine tools was 

holding company to Its subsidiaries. As an many sections of the country. At the the subject of a paper presented by 

example of. the proposed r.lation.ship. cita_- ^^^ sessions papers were presented A. J. Baker of the Willys-Overland 

by production executives from the Pack- Company. The automotive industry, he 
ard, Studebaker, Ford, Franklin, Willys- said, has no system of training work- 
Overland and General Motors organiza- men and consequently machinery must 
tions. Visits were made to the Ford often be used by the greenest of help. 
River Rouge plant, and to Packard, Consequently there should be greater 
Cadillac and Dodge factories. simplification and use of standard ma- 
Of greatest interest to bus operators chine tools to a greater extent; these 
was undoubtedly the discussion of gear can always be kept in service by slight 
manufacture. How to eliminate, or changes in the tools and fixtures. At 
rather reduce, for a complete cure is present, time is often the deciding 
perhaps too much to be hoped for, the factor in the selection of tools; special 
hum, sing, knock, rattle, howl, from equipment is put in to save time only, 

present-day gears! The best method, when as a matter of fact the cost 

aSo?i"alons wm;ou''t%'?"atYnB'' imdue%fard': >t was said, was to attack the biggest should be the first and final test in buy- 

tion is m.ade of the American Telephone & 
Telegraph Company, a non-operative com- 
pany, in its relations to the various sub- 
sidiary operating companies, such as the 
Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company. 

.\mong the important services to be 
rendered by a national association for 
which there is immediate need are the de- 
velopment and presentation of uniform laws 
and active support of the state organiza- 
tions in their endeavors to secure the enact- 
ment of such laws, the collection of national 
data relative to operations .and conditions 
of service, regul.atlons, taxes, and maiiy 
other subjects on which so young an indus- 
try as that of motor transportaticm requires 
information and aid. 

A national organization that would per- 
form such service would be invaluable, 
would warrant the support of all state asso 

ship on the small Individual operators. 
Provision should be made of course for rep- 
resentation In the council of such a national 
association from states where state organ- 
izations do not at present exist pending the 
formation of such state organizations. 
In conclusion we respectfully submit : 
1. That a national organization Is a ne- 
cessity and 

noise, and then work on the others, ing new equipment. 

Close fitting has become a fetish, an- At a dinner held on Oct. 26, Pierre 

other speaker held, and has led to an S. DuPont, president General Motors 

almost complete lack of consideration Company, and A. B. C. Hardy, president 

of the oil film which must be carried Old Motor Works, emphasized the need 

between the gear teeth. K. L. Herr- for closer contact between the produc- 

(2) That not being wholly satisfied with mann of the Studebaker Corporation tion men engaged in manufacturing, 

the program proposed bv the National 1. j i_ ■ ,. ,. ti, ■ j • ■ ii 11 

Motor Transport Association, we should Showed, by a screen reproduction of the engineers designing the vehicles, 

noyertlicless endeavor to support and work actual gears, how the errors in cutting, and the service men who must keep 

with that organization with the purpose of , ., , 1 i, • , , . ,.,i^ ^u • i- j? i i- 

remolding its plan and policy Into a form tooth form, tooth spacing lead to diffi- them in satisfactory operation. 






Liilliliiiiif. Loading; ami Hiiihliii^ 

Michican Conventiuii l)i?.iu>si-> \ital rroblenis AITectini; 
Motor Vehicle Usv uf Rural HiKhwayH 

AT A JOINT SESSION of the North- 
Cuntral division of the National 
Hitrhway Traffic Association anil the 
Michigan State Good Roads Association, 
hold on Nov. 21 in Grand Rapids, Mich., 
l>apers were presented discussing the 
important problems now. confronting 
motor vehicle operators. Regulations 
covering speeds, weights and dimen- 
sions of heavy motor vehicles were ex- 
plained by George H. Pride, president 
Heavy Haulage Company, New York. 
The regulation of overloading was 
treated by David C. Fenner of the In- 
ternational Motor Company, New York. 
David Beecroft, vice-president of the 
National Highway Traftic Association, 
presented a paper on lights for highway 
vehicles. The equitable distribution of 
maintenance and construction costs of 
highways was dealt with by Roy D. 
Chapin, president Hudson Motor Car 
Company, Detroit. A paper, abstracted 
below, on the economic value of high- 
way transport franchises, was presented 
by Arthur H. Blanchard, professor of 
highway engineering and highway 
transport at the University of Michigan. 

Regulation of Overloading 

The overloading of motor trucks, said 
Mr. Fenner, is due in part to the im- 
proper basis of rating, and to the classi- 
fying of the chassis in terms of the 
manufacturer's rated load capacity. 
The user soon learns that this rating 
really does not mean anything. He 
purchases a chassis, attaches the body, 
which may or may not fit either the 
chassis or the commodities to be car- 
ried, and then loads this truck to suit 
himself. To overcome this vehicles are 
equipped with a manufacturer's cau- 
tion plate properly stamped with the 
actual weight of the chassis, body and 
load capacity. It is now proposed to 
go a step further and indicate on this 
plate the maximum allowable gross 
load for the front a.xle, the maximum 
allowable gross load for the rear axle, 
the maximum allowable speed, and the 
distance in which the vehicle loaded to 
capacity can be stopped with each set 
of brakes operated independently and 
with the vehicle running at maximum 
speed on hard, dry, level roadway. 

Investigations conducted in some of 
our states show that the light and 
medium capacity vehicles are over- 
loaded to a greater extent and in 
greater numbers than the heavy capac- 
ity vehicle. This indicates the import- 
ance of restricting loads per inch width 
of tire per wheel and per axle. We 
must recognize the four classes of tire 
— pneumatic, cushion, solid rubber and 
metal — for regulating speeds and de- 
termining license fees according to 
wheel load. We must restrict the mini- 
mum thickness of solid and cushion 
tires when measured between the tire 
flange and a flat metal surface on which 

the wheel stands. We must also take 
into account the condition of tires. 

Mr. Fenner closed with an upiK-al to 
the operators to stamp out completely 
the practice of overloading. The motor 
vehicle industry, he said, stands solidly 
behind the rigid enforcement of exist- 
ing state laws. It condemns overload- 
ing and overspeeding unreservedly and 
will co-operate actively in every move- 
ment to regulate loads and speeds of 
motor trucks on the highways. 

Lights for Highway Vehiclk 

The lighting of vehicles is only one 
factor in making the highways safe, ac- 
cording to Mr. Beecroft. Other essen- 
tial ones are road lighting systems, day 
and night road signals, and highway 
equipment in general. 

The experience of motor vehicle law 
enforcement authorities in different 
states indicates that motor cars are too 
often over-lighted and motor trucks 
generally under-lighted. We rarely 
meet with the motor truck with daz- 
zling headlight, but too frequently we 
meet the inefficient pair of oil lights on 
the truck, lights that are not adequate 
and are in reality useless except as 
signal lights. 

When a 15-ft. highway is built, we 
have not finished the job. It should 
be made ready for use, not merely in 
daylight hours, but during as many 
hours of the night as the needs of the 
time demand. Mr. Beecroft believes 
that the rural highways require traffic 
control, surface marking, night signals, 
just as much as the city streets. He ad- 
vocates a steady green light for high- 
way signal purposes, with height, loca- 
tion and color standardized. 

The use of two lights on the rear (a 
practice often followed with buses) is 
confusing and merely doubles the num- 

ber the drivers in following vehicles 
have to watch. A single tail light 
should be placed on the extreme left 
rear of the body where it can play a 
dual role of xhowing a rod light to the 
rear and a white light ahead, thus in- 
dicating to the approaching vehicle the 
extreme width of the body. 

The alphabet of color is red for dan- 
ger or stop. White stands for forward 
illumination and signals. These are 
enough for the vehicle. Let the uni- 
versal alphabet of green Ijc for caution, 
and its use confined tu the role uf high- 
way signals. 


Highway Costs 

The subject of highway finance, Mr. 

< hapin believes, is fundam- ' ' "■ > 
business matter. We are n' 
merely with the building of r^ 
are dealing instead with the 1 
of transportation which, as . 
of fact, is just as much of a : 
turing process as is the building 01 ine 
motor vehicle itself. 

In solving the highway fii ' 

the country, no detailed formi. 
used. We can proceed, hi' 
adopt certain definite princip 
Mr. Chapin expressed as follow.i; 

1. Highway systems should be laid 
out by state highway departments, with 
1 definite view adi-quately to meet the 
social and economic needs of the com- 

2. The needed revenue for construc- 
tion should be secured from long-term 
bond issues ba.sed upon general taxa- 
tion, while current operating expen.tes 
.<houl(l be secured from the user and 
should be adequate to maintain the 
highway once constructed. 

3. Centralized administrative control 
is essential to a proper develops 

of systems as well as to the ■ 
lation of their use, and broad P' 
should be granted the state depart n ■ 
in charge, to insure an economic flow 
of traffic. 

Highway Traii.«*|)orl Fraiu liises* 

By Arthur H. Blancharo 

President Xatlonal Highway Trafllc As.-'tK-latlon and Profiiuior of 
Highway Engineering, Unlverfilty of Michigan 

THE legal right of the state to con- 
trol the operations of common car- 
riers is generally admitted, except in 
the case of interstate common carriers. 
At the present time, at least twenty- 
two states provide in their statutes for 
some degree of state control over motor 
vehicle common carriers. 

Are highway transport franchises an 
economic and public necessity? To 
those familiar with the development of 
the commercial transportation of com- 
modities and passengers by motor 
vehicles during the past fifteen years in 
the United States and the longer his- 

•.\bstract of paper presented at Joint 
iri'-eting National Highway Trafflc .\s>oeia- 
tlon (North rentrni Dlvl.sion ) and Mli-liicnn 
State Good Road.s Association, held on Nov. 
■il at Grand Rapids. Mich. 

tory of highway transport in Great 
Britain, the answer is unreservedly in 
the affirmative. 

Failures of highway transport cntpr- 
prises are occurring every d;i ' 

lack of knowledge of the fui: 
of the economics, .science and art «f 
highway transport. It is reported that 
90 per cent of all highway trans- 
port comRanies doing with 
New York City as a center fail within 
three years after entering this field. 
While 50 per cent may fail due to cut- 
throat competition by fly-by-niirht mm- 
panies, it is conservatively ! 

that at least 50 per cent fail : ••' 

lack of knowledge of the A. B. Cs of 
efficient highway transport business 
methods, cost accounting, management. 




.J;in. 6-13 

Jin. 8-13 

Jan. 9-12 
Jan. 13-22 

Jan. 13-20 

Jan. 15 

Jan. 15-19 

Jan. 20-27 

Jan. 22 
Jan. 23 

Jan. 28-Feb. 


Chicago, III. 

Jan. 29-30 

Chicago, 111. 

Jan. 29-Feb. 


Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Jan. 29-31 

Chicago, III. 

Jan. 31 

Chicago, 111. 

Jan. 15-16 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Jan. 9-10 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Meetings, Conventions and Exhibits 

New York. N. Y. National Autonmbile Show auspices of the National Automob.le 
New ore, Chamber of Commerce, Grand Central Pa'f.f,, ,^ Builders 

New York, N. Y. Auto Body Builders' Show, Mgt. Automobile Body Builders. 
New York City. , , ^^ ^• 

Society of Automotive Engineers^innual Meeting. 

Oakland Automobile Show, R. W. Martland, 47 Paoihc iilclg., 

Ph*iladdphia^'Automobile Show. C. C. Bulkeley, Broad and 

Callowhill St., Philadelphia, Pa. t- i 

Automobile Trade Assn. of Kansas, Phil. E. Zimmerman, Topeka. 

Tteteenth American Good Roads Congress and Fourteenth 
National Good Roads Show. . , ^i i j * * 

Cleveland Automobile Show, auspices of the Clevelaiid Auto- 
mobile Manufacturers' and Dealers' Assn., New Public Audi- 
torium; Herbert Buckman, Manager. , n„^ 

/Jizona Good Roads Assn., H. -SVelch, care Chamber of Com- 

^nTuaf/u'tomlbilf Show, auspices Automobile Dealet^' As.,m, 
Overland Carage; A. H. Geesey and H. Schroeder Manage.^. 

Chicago Automobile Show, S. A. Miles, care J5A C.C. Forty- 
sixth Street and Madison Ave.. New ^ork, N. Y. 

National Automotive Dealers' Assn.. C. A. Vane, 320 N. Grand 

4u1omobiie'^lhow!''auspices of the Washtenaw County Auto 

Dealers' .\ssn., Jos. Thompson, Secretary. 
Annual Meeting Automotive Electric Service Assn., Congress 

M^eTing and Dinner Society Automotive Engineers, Congress 
Georgia' Motor Bus and Transportation Assn., Piedmond Hotel: 

W. M. Riley, Secretary. 
Ohio Motor Bus A.S3n. 

New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Calif. 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

Topeka. Kan. 

Chicago, 111. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Douglas. Ariz. 
York, Pa. 

and the operation and maintenance of 

As an integral part of the essential 
transportation system of America, it is 
absolutely necessary that high'way 
transport be placed upon a sound busi- 
ness basis in order that responsible 
operators may be protected and that 
this branch of common carrier service 
may be conducted in such a manner as 
■will guarantee to the public constant, 
efficient, economic service. 

From the standpoint of public safety, 
the state must insist that our motor 
vehicle common carriers transporting 
passengers provide a maximum degree 
of safety to the traveling public and 
eliminate reckless driving by inexperi- 
enced chauffeurs and the utilization of 
wholly inadequate motor vehicle equip- 
ment which may be characterized in 
some cases as a piece of junk carrying 
a packing box in which persons are 
jammed, the resulting contrivance be- 
ing called a motor bus. 

Based on an analysis of all state 
statutes covering the control of motor 
vehicle operation, the powers given to 
state public service controlling bodies 
may be classified according to the fol- 
lowing :t 

1. Grant, refuse to grant, amend or 
revoke certificates of public convenience 
and necessity. 

2. Prescribe routes. 

3. Fix schedules. 

4. Determine character of service 
and promote the comfort and safety of 
traveling public. 

5. Establish fares and rates. 

6. Require reports and uniform meth- 
ods of accounting. 

7. Examine accounts and records. 

8. Supervise fiscal affairs such as in- 
corporation, capitalization of stock, etc. 

9. Compel additions to, extensions of 
or betterments in, physical equipment. 

If the powers enumerated are given 
to a state controlling body, what should 
be the qualifications of the members of 

tReport by Motor Vehicle Conference 
Committee, March 1, 1922. 

such a body? It is evident that a 
grave responsibility to the public and 
to highway transport business will rest 
upon them. They should be men pos- 
sessing vision, judicial minds, and a 
broad knowledge of transportation, and 
should be unprejudiced pertaining to 
the relative development of railway, 
waterway and highway transport. D.f- 
ferent fields of public and business 
affairs should be represented. An effi- 
cient controlling body might be made 
up of the Attorney General of the .state 
as an ex-offieio member; a highway 
transport man of high standing and 
possessing a broad knowledge of the de- 
velopment of all phases of transporta- 
tion of commodities and passengers by 
motor vehicles; an experienced highway 
engineer, who understands the funda- 
mentals of highway transport and who 
thoroughly comprehends the relation- 
ship existing between the economic 
operation of highway transport and 
such highway factors as grades, align- 
ments, widths, drainage, foundations, 
the character and maintenance of road- 
way surfaces, and the methods of con- 
trolling and directing the operation of 
traffic on highways; a business man 
who has dealt with big commercial 
problems; and a banker who is familiar 
with the practice of bonding common 
carriers and other enterprises in con- 
nection with the operation of which the 
public must be protected. To this 
group of five might be added a steam 
railroad man and an electric railway 
man provided that they possess a broad 
vision relative to the development of 
transportation in America. 

In conclusion, it may be said that, in 
the opinion of the writer, the highway 
transport operator of sound financial 
standing, who is endeavoring to render 
to the public an efficient, economical and 
safe transportation service, will wel- 
come the passage of state laws relative 
to highway transport franchises pro- 
vided that they are based and admin- 
istered on the principles which have 
been herein outlined. 

Vol.2, No.l 

Body Builders' Convention 

IN CONJUNCTION with the second 
National Automobile Body Builders' 
Show, which is to be held in New York. 
Jan. 8 to 13, the annual convention of 
the Automobile Body Builders' Asso- 
ciation will be held Thursday, Jan. 11, 
in the Assembly Room of the Twelfth 
Regiment Armory, Sixty-second Street, 
west of Broadway, New York City. It 
is anticipated that a large number of 
members from all over the country will 
be present at the convention, which 
will serve as a clearing house of ideas 
for the industry. 

Among the speakers will be Alfred 
Reeves, general manager of the Na- 
tional Automobile Chamber of Com- 
merce, who will discuss the general 
possibilities for the industry in 1923. 
John C. Howell, industrial statistician 
of the Brookmire Economic Service, 
will address the meeting on "Present 
Financial and Business Conditions." 
Mr. Howell, who has made a life study 
of economics and the factors controlling 
market conditions, will give a forecast 
of the future of the automobile indus- 
try for the next six months. "Stand- 
ardization" is the topic of an address 
to be delivered by L. C. Hill, assistant 
general manager Society of Automotive 
Engineers, who is well fitted to dis- 
cuss the automotive standardization 

Road Builders to Meet in Chicago 
This Month 

THE thirteenth American Good Roads 
Congress and the Fourteenth Na- 
tional Good Roads Show will be held 
under the auspices of the American 
Road Builders' Association in Chicago, 
111., Jan. 15 to 19. The meetings will 
be held in the Congress Hotel. The 
show will be in the Coliseum and ad- 
joining buildings, as in previous years. 
Among the speakers at the Congress 
is Thomas H. MacDonald, Chief United 
States Bureau of Public Roads who will 
talk on "Continued Highway Expendi- 
tures Required to Meet Traffic Demands 
of the Future," which is scheduled for 
Tuesday, Jan. 16, the opening session. 
The Tuesday afternoon session will be 
devoted to the general topic "Design." 
Speaking upon "What Test Road Re- 
sults Have Taught Us," Clifford Older, 
State Highway Engineer of Illinois, will 
discuss the Bates test road; Lloyd 
Aldrich, consulting engineer, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., will tell about the Pitts- 
burgh test results, and the Arlington 
tests will be discussed by A. T. Gold- 
beck of the United States Bureau of 
Public Roads. 

At the Thursday session, which will 
be devoted to a study of general traffic, 
a topic of absorbing interest to bus 
men, "Changes Needed in Motor Ve- 
hicle Legislation and License Fees," 
will be discussed in papers by J. N. 
Mackall, Commissioner of Roads, Balti- 
more, Md.; Leon C. Herrick, Director of 
Highways, Columbus, Ohio, and Harry 
Meixell, Jr., National Automobile Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 




News of the Road 

l"i..m »Imi.-hi tlw buii I una. .11 
tiiouiihl loBflluT llii- mipurlaiii 
ivintri. hi-ri- prr»i-nt«il to show Hi- 
inoVi'fn«-nlt< of Ihi* iluy. 


491 Applications in Year 

Figures I*rt'par«l t>y the Automobile Stanf Department of the Californi 

Kailr(>;id t'ommission Indicate the Uapiil l)e\elopnunl in the 

IJus Field — Review of ImpurLant Decisions 

THE extent of the growth of the 
auto as a public carrier in Califor- 
nia is strikingly illustrated by figures 
prepared by the automobile stage de- 
partment of the Railroad Commission 
for inclusion in the report of that body 
for the year, July 1, 1921. to June 30, 
1922. During that period there were 
491 formal applications filed with the 
Railroad Commission for certificates of 
public convenience and necessity or for 
permission to transfer existing fran- 
chises. During the same period there 
were twenty formal complaints filed, 
the majority of which allege either 
illegal operation on the part of oper- 
ators not holding certificates or illegal 
operation on the part of holders of exist- 
ing operative rights heretofore granted 
to them. 

During the year 427 public hearings 
were held by the commission on mat- 
ters affecting stage lines and 568 
decisions rendered. Of the decisions 
rendered several were of extreme impor- 
tance in that they laid down a policy 
to which the commission was committed 
in handling future cases of a similar 
nature. Chief of these is decision No. 
9,065 in case No. 1,442, A. B. Watson 
vs. O. R. Fuller. This was a complaint 
brought to restrict operation of defend- 
ant as regards rendering service to 
certain intermediate points over a 
through route which defendant at the 
time operated. This operative right was 
acquired through operation prior to the 
effective date of Chapter 213, Statutes 
of 1917, and the commission held that 
defendant did not have the right to 
accept or transport passengers between 
two intermediate points when it was 
shown that the original tariff filed by 
said defendant did not provide a rate 
for such local service nor had the de- 
fendant at the time attempted to render 
service between the two local inter- 
mediate points named. The commis- 
sion further held that an automobile 
stage company could not render, at its 
own discretion, a local service under 
an operative right authorizing a through 
service, unless such stage company had 
first secured a certificate from the com- 
mission authorizing it to so engage. 

Under decision No. 9,892 in appli- 
cations Nos. 8,274-5,361, the commis- 
sion held that an automobile stage line 
which had secured two connecting cer- 
tificates could not at its own discretion 
operate a through service over two or 
more of such connecting certificates 

unless it had first secured a new cer- 
tificate from the commission authoriz- 
ing the through ser\'ice proposed. 

During the latter part of the year 
1921 a formal complaint was filed with 
the Railroad Commission by the Motor 
Carriers' Association, being case No. 
1,638. This complaint named a num- 
ber of individuals and companies which 
it was alleged were operating an auto- 
mobile passenger stage service between 
San Francisco and Los Angeles without 
having first secured a certificate of 
public convenience and necessity from 
the commission. At the hearing upon 
this matter a number of the defendants, 
while admitting that at the time they 
had transported passengers between 
San Francisco and Los Angeles for com- 
pensation, contended that they did not 
come within the provisions of the auto- 
mobile stage and truck transportation 
act, due to the fact that they were not 
engaged solely in that particular busi- 
ness and were what they termed rent 
car operators; that is, willing to go 
anywhere at any time an individual or 
party hired their car for a trip. The 
evidence, however, clearly showed that 
certain of said individuals advertised 
frequently in the daily papers both at 
San Francisco and Los Angeles, holding 
themselves out as willing to transport 
passengers between two terminals 
named for compensation and they actu- 
ally were, and did engage, regularly in 
such business, although at infrequent oc- 
casions trips were made to other points. 
The commission held such operation to 
be illegal and in violation of the pro- 
Visions of Chapter 213, Statutes of 1917, 
as amended, and under the commis- 
sion's findings a number of arrests 
were made and convictions secured 
which eventually put a stop to this 
method of operation. 

In past years it had been the policy 
of the commission to grant by ex parte 
order practically all applications for 
permission to transfer existing opera- 
tive rights. During the last year, how- 
ever, the commission has adopted a new 
policy in this respect in that it re<iuires 
that evidence be submitted by appli- 
cants to the effect that the proposed 
purchaser is financially able to render 
as good if not better service than that 
heretofore rendered by the proposed 
seller. Several applications to transfer 
exsting operative rights have been de- 
nied when the evidence showed that the 
proposed purchaser was not in a finan- 

cial position tu continue to render an 
adequate ncrvicc, principally due to the 
fact that he was Kupplied with a very 
limited amount of capital, and under 
the terms of the agrwment of mile he 
waH not only required to pay a gub- 
stantial price fur the physical equip- 
ment proposed to be transferred, but 
also a substantial price for the opera- 
tive right, which wa.s granted originally 
without cost by the people of the State. 

On June 30, 1921, tarifTK and time 
schedules of 771 automobile stage and 
truck lines were on file with the com- 
mission. The automobile stage depart- 
ment of the commission was started on 
June 1, 1921, and during the year of 
its operation it has endeavored to weed 
out a number of dead tariffs heretofore 
carried in the files. The number at the 
present time has been reduced to 726. 

Due to the very nature of the auto- 
mobile stage business, it is a difficult 
matter to keep track of the numerous 
lines in operation in this State; all 
other of public utilities have 
their plants firmly anchored and can- 
not move in a night, while the majority 
of smaller stage operators, using but 
one passenger machine, may, if busi- 
ness is poor and shows no definite signs 
of improvement, pick up and drive off 
in search of some other method of live- 

Section 5 of the automobile stage and 
truck transportation act prohibits the 
sale, assignment, lease or transfer of 
an operative right without the written 
approval of the Railroad Commission, 
and in all certificates granted by the 
commission a clause is inserted to the 
effect that .service cannot be abandoned 
or discontinued without written author- 
ization. Nevertheless, the small opera- 
tor, if business is not good, appears to 
pay little, if any, attention to such pro- 
visions, and as it is practically impos- 
sible to trace such parties the commis- 
sion has been unable entirely to stop 
this practice of unauthorized abandon- 
ment of service. 

By the enactment of Chapter 213, 
Statutes of 1917, the Legislature of the 
State of California provided for the su- 
pervision and regulation by the Rail- 
road Commission of all automobile 
stage and truck lines engaged as com- 
mon carriers of persons or propcrtv 
over a regular route or between fixed 
terminals. This statutory- enactment 
was amended by Chapter 280, Statutes 
of 1919, to include not only common 
carriers but any one transporting per- 
sons or property for compensation 
over a regular route or between fixed 
terminals and not exclusively within 
the limits of an incorporated city or 


Extensive Plans for 
St. Louis Service 

Richard W. Meade to Take Charge of 
United States Bus Transit Corpora- 
tion—Service Will Start April 1. 
THE United States Bus Transit Cor- 
poration was incorporated Nov. 12, 
1922, under the laws of the State of 
Delaware with a capitalization of 
$3,000,000. This concern several months 
ago obtained a franchise from the St. 
Louis (Mo.) Board of Public Service to 
operate bus lines on leading thorough- 
fares, as related in the September issue 
of Bus Transportation, while the East 
St. Louis City Council recently granted 
it similar privileges. On the east side 
of the Mississippi the most important 
link is a cross-town line connection be- 
tween Lansdowne, Winstanley, Alta 
Sita and the Municipal Bridge. 

Orders were recently placed with the 
Fifth Avenue Coach Company, New 
York, for the delivery of 140 of the 
Fifth Avenue type coach by March 1. 
The coach is an exact duplicate of those 
in use on Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
The new buses will accommodate fifty- 
two passengers, having seats for 
twenty-two on the lower and for thirty 
on the upper deck. 

Augustus Barnes, who received the 
operating permit from the Board of 
Public Service, has been in St. Louis 
for several weeks taking care of pre- 
liminary steps for the opening of oper- 
ations, which is expected to take place 
about April 1. 

Richard W. Meade, New York City, 
for thirteen years general manager and 
president of the Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company and also for several years 
head of the Detroit Motor Bus Com- 
pany, has been selected to fill a similar 
position with the company. 

Three of the proposed routes over 
which the buses will operate were de- 
scribed in the September issue. 

A fourth line will start at Skinner 
Road and the Washington University. 
The route will be north to Waterman 
Avenue, east to Union Boulevard, south 
to Lindcll Boulevard, east to Locust 
Boulevard and thence east to Twelfth 
Boulevard, south to Chestnut Street, 
east to Seventh Street, north to Wash- 
ington Boulevard, east to Twelfth 
Boulevard, south to Locust Boulevard 
and then return over the same route to 
the point of beginning. 

In the evening special theater routes 
will be maintained for the convenience 
of patrons of downtown amusement 
places. This route will be from 7:15 
p.m. to 9:15 p.m. as follows: East from 
eastern city limits of University City on 
Delmar Boulevard to Newstead Avenue, 
south to Washington Boulevard, east 
to Twelfth Boulevard, to Locust Boule- 
vard, east to Sixth Street, south to 
Market Street, west to Seventh Street 
and north to Washington Avenue and 
thence to point of beginning along orig- 
inal route. 

Between 10 p.m. and midnight buses 
will operate from Third Street and 



Washington Boulevard, west to Sixth 
Street, south to Market Street, west to 
Seventh Street, north to Locust Street, 
west to Fourteenth Street, north to 
Washington Boulevard, west to Spring 
Avenue north to Delmar Boulevard and 
thence west to eastern city limits of 
University City. 

During the Municipal Opera season at 
the Municipal Theatre in Forest Park 
and other special occasions at that 
theatre buses will operate from Delmar 
Boulevard and DeBalivier Avenue south 
to Forest Park and thence to the 

The St. Louis permits require that 
transfer privileges must be extended 
from the Municipal Theatre and Grand 
Boulevard lines to any of the East and 
West lines and vice versa. A maximum 
fare of 10 cents may be charged. 

The ordinance further requires that 
a license of $25 for each car must be 
paid and in addition 3 per cent of the 
gross receipts must be paid to the city. 
The buses may not carry more than 
two passengers in excess of their capac- 
ity. The drivers must be in uniform 
and be numbered for purposes of identi- 

At pr%sent there is but one privately 
owned bus operating inside the limits 
of St. Louis. This is owned by John A. 
Hofi'man, and has a capacity of twelve 
passengers. He operates from the 
northern terminus of the Broadway car 
line in Baden northward along Broad- 
way and the Bellefontaine road to the 
Bellefontaine Industrial School. 

VoL2, No.l 

Commission Denies Permit to 
Washington Company 

The application of the United Trans- 
portation Company to establish a bus 
line from Fifteenth Street and Mary- 
land Avenue, N. E., to Twenty-first and 
B Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C, 
was denied on Dec. 28 by the Public 
Utilities Commission of the District of 

The commission held that if there 
was a demand for service on this route 
that service should be given in con- 
junction with the street railway service 
with transfer privileges between the 
street cars and buses. 

In Bus Transportation for Novem- 
ber there appears an account of the 
formation of the United Transporta- 
tion Company, with W. Elkins Reed as 
president. The application recently de- 
nied by the commission was the first 
one entered by the company. 

Railway to Operate Bus Line 
in Maiden 

The Boston (Mass.) Elevated Rail- 
way has just put into operation its 
second motor bus line. The new line 
is operated in Maiden, Mass., replacing 
the former Highland Avenue car line, 
on which service has been abandoned. 
The other line operated by this com- 
pany is in Allston. 

This Maiden line is being started in 
conformity with the announced policy 
of this company to replace non-paying 
railway lines with motor bus service, 
whenever the plans of the city author- 
ities require reconstruction of streets 
and tracks. 

This new route operates from Maiden 
Square through Pleasant Street, High- 
land Avenue, Medford Sti-eet, to the 
Fellsway, and returns via the same 
route. The round-trip distance is 3.2 
miles, and the scheduled running time 
is twenty minutes. The normal week- 
day schedule calls for a ten-minute 
motor bus headway from 6 a.m. to 
11:30 p.m. 

Equipment for this service consists 
of four new White Model 50 buses, with 
25-seat bodies, built by the Brown Body 
Company. Three buses will be used in 
regular service and one will be kept for 
emergency use. Fares will be the same 
as in the case of the Allston bus line 
of this company — 5 cents for a single 
local trip on the motor bus, or 10 cents 
for a through ride, including transfer. 

Pacific Railway to Operate Feeder 
Service in Los Angeles 

The Pacific Electric Land Company, 
a subsidiary of the Pacific Electric 
Railway Company, has been granted a 
certificate by the California State Rail- 
road Commission to establish bus serv- 
ice between Long Beach Avenue and 
20th Street, Los Angeles, and Baker 
and Heliotrope Avenues in the May- 
v/ood district. The December issue of 
Bus Transportation containued an 
outline of this project. 

Since the opening of the Los Angeles 
stockyards and the increasing indus- 
trial expansion of the Maywood section, 
tliere has been an imperative need for 
transportation service in this district. 
The new bus line connects with the 
Pacific Railway lines both in Los 
Angeles and Maywood and with the Los 
Angeles Railway at Twenty-Sixth 
Street and Santa Fe Avenue. Three 
applications to serve this district, other 
than that of the Pacific Electric Land 
Company, were denied by the commis- 

. # 

Port Jervis Railway Seeks 
Bus Franchise 

At its November meeting, the Port 
Jervis (N. Y.) Traction Company 
made application to the City Council 
for franchises to operate four buses 
of the Fifth Avenue type on the streets 
of Port Jervis in conjunction with the- 
company's railway service. The com- 
pany's plan is to replace trolley cars- 
on its lateral lines with buses. 

Secretary Orin C. Baker of the New- 
burgh Chamber of Commerce told the 
meeting of the advantages of bus 
transportation in the city of New- 
burgh, which is the pioneer bus center 
of the Hudson Valley. Mr. Baker's 
talk gave the bus a clean bill and came 
very near moving the Port Jervis Coun- 
cil to grant the franchises. On the ad- 
vice of the City Corporation Counsel, 
however, the matter was deferred until 
the next meeting, when it is expected '. 
definite action will be taken.. 

January, 1923 




Two More Bus Frtitions 

Intfrnatiiinal Kailway and I.txal l.ahor 
I'nion Applx at KufTalo — Kailway 
l>rin);> l>usf> rrcini Philadelphia fur 

THE Buffalo (N. Y.) City Council 
now has under consideration four 
petitions for permission to operate 
motor buses in that city. Two appli- 
cations were filed during December, one 
by the International Railway and the 
other by Stewart A. Haywood and John 
B. Kolby, representinp the Buffalo Cen- 
tral Labor Council and Local 393 of the 
Buffalo Motor Bus Drivers' Union re- 
spectively. The filing of two previous 
applications, by the Van Dyke Motor 
Bus Corporation and by John C. Mon- 
tana, proprietor of the Yellow Cab lines 
in Buffalo, was noted in the September 
issue of Bus TiiA.vspoKTATloN. The 
Council has declared that no definite ac- 
tion will be taken on the bus matter 
until after the inauguration of Alfred 
E. Smith as Governor. 

The International Railway propose to 
operate buses of the single-deck type 
on Delaware Avenue from the Terrace 
to the Kenmore-Buffalo city line and to 
use double deckers on Bailey Avenue. 
Two buses, one of each type, were re- 
cently driven from Philadelphia to 
Buffalo under the supervision of A. E. 
Hutt, who is in charge of the motor bus 
operations of the Mitten interests in 
Philadelphia. The trip one way was 
made in twenty-four hours and thirty- 
two minutes. The average gasoline con- 
sumption was 1 gal. per 6 miles. Many 
difficulties in the way of detours and 
bad roads were encountered during the 
trip. Often the buses plowed their 
way through fields when forced to 
leave the highway. 

The buses which the railway proposes 
to operate are equipped with Midwest 
four-cylinder 27-hp. motors. A stand- 
ard chassis of the Fifth Avenue type is 
used, but the double-deck bus will weigh 
300 lb. more than the standard Fifth 
Avenue bus, with a seating capacity of 
fifty-two passengers. Mayor Frank 
Schwab, members of the City Council 
snd other city officials rode over some 
of the proposed routes and expressed 
themselves as being favorably im- 
pressed with the demonstration. 

Claim Emergency Exists 

The petition of the Buffalo Central 
Labor Council and Local 393 of the 
Buffalo Motor Bus Drivers' Union is 
unlike the three others which have been 
filed with the municipal authorities. It 
is based on the allegation that an 
emergency exists in Buffalo for motor 
bus routes in view of the fact that a 
strike of platform employees has been 
in effect on the local lines of the Inter- 
national Railway since July 1, 1922. 
The petition recites that since the 
strike "a very large number, if not a 
majority, of the people of the city of 
Buffalo refuse to ride upon the cars of 
the International Railway, therefore an 
emergency has arisen and exists and 
will continue for an indefinite period in 
the future with reference to the trans- 

portation facililifs afforded in the city." 
.'Vs this paper goes to presH, dis- 
patches from Buffalo state that Mayor 
Schwab has declared that an emer- 
gency exists and in consequence haH 
authorized the operation of buses on all 
city streets until the street railway 
service of the International Railway is 
considered to be adequate. The Council 
has upheld the Mayor in this action 

although the city legal department ad- 
vised against the declaration. 

Thousands of passengers are l>eing 
carried daily by iiide|>endeiit buses op- 
erating on routes all over the city and 
in many cases paralleling the tracks of 
the International Railway. Terminals 
have b«-en established at downtown 
points, and it is reported that the 
bu.se8 are doing a flourishing buiUneas. 

](riti>li |{iis New.'^ Siiininari/cd 

Various New Regulations .Vdopted and Proponed — Through Ticket Service 
Discontinued — Co-ordination of TranHport .XgencieH Advocated 

THE Ix>ndon County Council has 
decided that the arrangement en- 
tered into in Februar>', 1921, with the 
London General Omnibus Company for 
.service to and from the inner London 
tramway termini and for through book- 
ings between buses and tramcars shall 
be discontinued. It was reported that 
only a comparatively small number of 
through tickets have been issued in 
spite of the reduced fares. 

Sir Henry Maybury, director general 
of roads. Ministry of Transport, as a 
v/itness before the Royal Commission 

'Booth's circus," traffic scheme used 
in England 

on London Government, stated that 
during the last two years the traffic 
situation in London had very much im- 
proved by the increased number of 
buses, tramcars, and trains in use. The 
improvement had caused him to modify 
his view in regard to the advisability of 
establishing a traffic board for London. 
He now favoretl the appointment of a 
London traffic committee of not more 
than fifteen members to advise and 
assist the Ministry of Transport or 
such other department as might take 
over the Ministry's duties. The traffic 
area dealt with should be that within 
a radius of twenty-five miles from 
Charing Cross. Sir Henry advocated 
co-ordination of all passenger transport 
agencies, declaring that at present, 
competing services resulted in loss to 
all parties. 

An apparently small change in street 
traffic regulation but one capable of 
reducing delays has been brought into 
operation in Birmingham. Judging by 

observation a similar rule is tacitly ob 
f.erved in London, though one does not 
hear anything about it. The Birming- 
ham order provides that when a police- 
man stops traffic at a cross street the 
drivers of vehicles should divide them- 
selves into two streams. The stream 
nearest the footpath should consist of 
those wishing to turn to the left at the 
crossing, while the other stream should 
be of those wishing (■ ! straight 

ahead. The former • not wait 

for the release signal iiul may go on, 
turning to the left and joining the 
.stream of the cross traffic. In .\ 
where the rule of the road for 
is to keep to the right instea.i •■: \,, 
the left as in Britain, the arrangement 
would, of course, be that vehicles wish- 
ing to turn to the right at a crossing 
shoul4 place themselves nearest the 
sidewalk on the right hand of the 
street. Of course, there is no expedit- 
ing for those that wish to turn to the 
right (in Britain) or to the left (in 

Nothing can help the case much ap- 
parently except the adoption, where 
there are circus crossings of the old 
plan of "Booth's circus," shown in an 
accompanying sketch. In theory it is 
admirable, but the circus crossings in 
London ara not big enough for it. 
Under that scheme every vehicle on 
reaching a circus crossing would turn to 
the left and go around the circus until 
it reached the street along which it 
had to proceed. In that way there 
would be no hold-ups of traffic at all. 
Mr. Booth, a highly competent enginc*r, 
died a year or two ago without seeing 
his scheme adopted. 

The County Councils A •■ n of 

England have adopted i: pro- 

posals which will form im- i..i-is of 
evidence to be presented to the govern- 
ment's departmental committee which 
is considering the control of passenger 
vehicles. Briefly the proposals an*: 
County councils should control the lines 
of route and stopping places. The 
parliamentary and police committees 
are requested to consider where county 
councils shouM be empowered to deal 
with overcrowding and behavior of pas- 
sengers. The safety and accommoda- 
tion of pasengers would be most appro- 
priately provided for by a central 
authority. The county councils should 
be the licensing authorities, thus abol- 
ishing an unncce.ssary number of 
smaller bodies. It will be observed 



Vol.2, No.l 

from these claims that the county 
councils in England have very small 
powers compared with those of town 
councils. In rural areas the parish and 
similar units are still strong. 

Buses Win in Weehawken Dispute 

In a recent opinion rendered by Vice- 
Chancellor Backes, the bus lines which 
radiate from the West Shore ferry at 
Weehawken, N. J., have won a victory 
over the Public Service Railway. This 
opinion upholds the right of the town- 
ship of Weehawken to prevent the erec- 
tion of a fence by the railway, which 
would exclude the buses from collecting 
passengers at the ferry. The litigation 
involved a plaza 60 ft. wide and 120 
ft. long in front of the ferry. The 
Public Service has a right-of-way, 
granted in 189.5 by the West Shore 
Railroad, to run its cars on part of this 
area. The cars were formerly run 
down to the ferry, but about eight 
years ago a loop was built south of the 
plaza, where the cars were switched. 
In the meantime the buses have been 
using the space for parking. Recently 
when the Public Service resumed use. 
of the tracks there and sought to fence 
the tracks the tovraship tore down the 
fence. The opinion upholds the right of 
the township to regulate its traffic. 

Murrieta Line Established in 1916 

The article which appeared in the 
December issue of Bus Transportation 
on page 665 under the caption "War 
Declared Against Southern California 
'Wildcat' Lines" is declared by repre- 
sentatives of the Murrieta Mineral Hot 
Springs Auto Stage Line to be mis- 
leading and erroneous in that it con- 
veys the impression that the Murrieta 
Hot Springs Stage line is one of the 
'•wildcat lines" referred to in the 

It appear.s that the litigation insti- 
tuted by the Motor Transit Company 
against the Murrieta Mineral Hot 
Springs Auto Stage line is entirely 
separate from the action taken by the 
Motor Transit Company against the 
"wildcat" operators mentioned in the 
article. In this connection on behalf 
of the Murrieta line it is contended that 
it has the licenses and permission re- 
quired by law and is fully covered by 
insurance for the protection of pas- 

In order that the matter may be 
further clarified we are reprinting a 
portion of the article referred to which 
clearly explains the litigation in which 
the Murrieta line is involved as fol- 
lows: "In its complaint the Motor 
Transit Company alleges that the Mur- 
rieta line is not operating within its 
rights in transporting passengers from 
FuUerton and Anaheim to Los Angeles 
and in extending its line through 
Corona, Placentia and Yorba. 

"The owner of the Murrieta Stage 
Line claims the right to carry pas- 
sengers between Los Angeles and Mur- 
rieta Hot Springs by right of a priority 
grant in 1916." 

Tabular Presentation of Recent Bus Developments 




Frankfort Bus and Truck Line Co. . Frankfort, Ky 

Union Motor Stage Terminal Co... . Cleveland, Ohio 

Flouser Motor Bus Co North Liberty, Ind >.■.•■.•■••■.-■■ k * '/' ' "AL"- * * 

Buckeye Transportation Co Hamilton, Ohio Cincinnati to Dayton, Obio 

Clayton-Quincy Motor Bus Co . . Clayton, 111 

Indianapolis-Bloominffton Omnibus 

and Transfer Co Indianapolia, Ind 

Leonard Dickinson 

.1. R. Tedrick 

Lewis Kessler 

George Zellers 

N'incent De Lalla 

\V. E. Coleman 

M. L. Isham 

John Bieber 

International Railway Co 

Ernest E. Kniss 

Ralph Robinson 

L. A. Bristol 

Charles Gulden & Son 

Connecticut Motor Transport Co. 

William Miller 

E. J. Kleinsmith 

Erie County Bus lines 

C. P. KoelUker 

D. P. Rhoney 

L. A. Gillett 

East Peoria Motor Bus Co.. 

J. R. Engel 

John Twiffg 

Smith & Ramsay 

J. B. Enos 

Applications Filed 

Owego, N. Y 

■ Millville, N. J. 

82 Ravine Ave., Yonkers, N. Y.. 
Rio Vista, Cal 

Buffalo, N. Y. (two routes) . 

Jamestown, N. Y. . . 

Durham, Conn 

Ambler, Pa 

New London, Conn. 
Erie, Pa 

Owego to Binghamton, N. Y. 
Santa Fe Springs, Calif. 

Bridgeton to Millville, N. J. 

Westwood to Engelwood, N. J. 

Isleton to Rio Visto, Calif. 
Mariposa to Grass Valley, Calif. 
Delaware Ave. and Bailey Ave. 
Fort Seward to Zenia, Calif. 
Jamestown (south side) 
Middlftnwn to Durham, Conn. 
AtiiMt-r tn N'orristown, Pa. 
Middletdwn to Guilford, Conn. 
Erie to West Springfield, Pa. 
Santa Monica to Los Flores, 

Erie. Pa 

425 E. 24th St.. Paterson, N. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y 

J. Paterson. N. J; 

Permits Granted 

L. V. & F. Giambastiani 

Robert Albritton 

John Carney 

W. V. Butler 

Walter Yager 

Bassham & Brown 

F. B. Lester 

Lancaster Transportation Co. . 

H. W. Goer & Sons 

Conestosca Transportation Co.. 
Axel Falkenstrom 

Centralia, Wash.. 
Elizabeth. N. J.. 

Walkill, N. Y.. 

A. J. Maclntyre 

Warren W. Putnam 

Roswell Weinrich 

Tony Yavonne 

Gem City Motor Bus Co. 
A. B. Fletcher Motor Co. . 

G. E. Schrack Co 

Claude Walter 

Yellow Line Bus Co. 

186 Brighton Ave., 


Billings. Mont 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Selinsgrove, Pa. . . . 

Perth Amboy, 

Peoria. Ill 

Hannibal, Mo.. 
Tulsa, Okla.... 
Freeburfi, Pa. . . 
Oil City, Pa. . . , 

John P. Lund and H. Schon. 

Applications Denied 

Wilmington, Del 

Terre Haute- Linton Bus Co 

Peebles Corner Bus Co 

White Transportation Co 

Waller and Edmonson Motor Co. . . 

False River Line 

R. M. Barrow 

St. Joseph-Atchison Short Line Co. 

Charles H. Van Riper 

L. Dcrrenberger 

Dayton, Hamilton & Cincinnati 

Rapid Transit Co 

Cincinnati Motor Bus Transit Co. 

M. Wilson 

Northern Motor Bus Syndicate Co. 

C. F. Crews 

Sherwood Motor Co 

Mississippi Transportation Co 

Keller & Harding 

John Tibbett 

Bunkolman & Son 

Owen Pratt 

J. H. Barnard 

Appleton Transportation Co 

Lines Started 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Huntington, W. Va. 

Beaumont, Miss.. 
St. Joseph, Mo... 

Colusa to Grimes, Calif. 

Peoria. III. 
/ Uniontown, Pa., to Wheeling, 
\ W. Va. 

Susanville to Klamath Falls, Calif. 

Weaverville to Peanut, Calif. 

Inverness to Point Reyes, Calif. 
Tono to Centralia, Wash. 
Linden to Berlant Park, N. J. 
Cottonwood to Red Bluff. Calif. 
Sleadow Vallev to Quincy. Calif. 
French Gulch to Carville. Calif. 
Newburgh to Walkill. N. Y. 
Witmer to Ephrata, Pa. 
Thompsons to Sego, LHah 
Long Park to Lancaster, Pa. 

Metuchen to Plainfield, N. J. 

Aberdeen. S. D. 

Lockport, N. Y. 

Sunbury to Selinsgrove, Pa. 

Catskili to Leeds, N. Y. 

Quincy to Mt. Sterling. III. 

Hannibal to Quincy, III. 

Freeburg to Sunbury, Pa. 
Clarion to Oil City, Pa. 

Chester, Pa., to Wilmington, Del. 

Via Coalmont 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Huntington to Charleston, W. Va. 

Oakwood to Clarksville, Tenn. 

Port Allen to New Roads, La. 

Hattiesburg to Avery. Miss^ 

St. Joseph to Atchison, Kansas 

Kansas <^ity to Harrisonville, Mo. 

Orrville to Wooster, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio. . . . 

Newark, N. J 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cushing, Okla. . . 
Vicksburg, Miss, 

Colorado Motor Way, Inc Denver, Colo. , 

Ricliniond Rapid Transit Corp 

Boulevard Transit Co 

T. H. Dwight 

G. W. Lavno 

Red Star Bus Co 

Chicago & Jolic't Transportation Co 
jllinois Motor Bus Line Co 

Mississippi Transportation Co. 

Boulevard Transit Co 

White Transportation Co 

Cincinnati to Oakley, Ky. 
Cincinnati to Norwood, Ohio 
New Brunswick to Somerville. 
Minneapolis to St. Cloud. Minn. 
Willows to Groville. Calif. 
Cushing to Bristow. Okla. 
Vicksburg, to Jackson, Miss. 
Toledo to Findlay. Ohio 
Kingman to Cayuga, Ind. 
Green Bay to Manitowoc, Wis. 
Mechanicsburg to Springfield. 
Fayette to Columbus, La. 
Appleton to Kaukauna, Wis. 
Denver to Greeley 
Denver to Canon City 
Denver to Colorado Springs 

Proposed Lines 

Richmond. Va Richmond, Va. 

Omaha, Neb. Sioux City, to Lawton. Iowa 

Middlctown. N. Y Middletown, to Cnester, N. Y. 

Crawfordsville, Ind Decaturto Pana, 111. 

Marietta to Cambridge, Ohio 

Kingman, Ind , 

Seymour, Wis 

Mechanicsburg, Ohio 

Fayette, La. 

Appleton, W'is 

Lockport to Statevillr. 111. 
AVest Frankfort to Herrin, 
West Frankfort to Du Quoin, 
Jackson to McComh, Miss. 
Jackson to Canton. Miss. 
-, . VT u > Sioux City to Correct ionville, 

Omaha. Neb \ gj^^^ city to Moville. ' 


Vicksburg, Miss. 

J. A. Gray to Marcus J. Pete 

G. & W. Stage Co. to Motor Transit 

W. R. Miles to Crabb, Morgan & 

Chanacs In Ownership 

Omaha to Lincoln. Neb. 

Palm Springs to Whitewater, Calif. 

Los Angeles to Ciilmans, Hot 
Springs, Calif. 

Fresno to Del Ray. Calif. 

January, 1923 




Richiiioiid Curporation 
Grantet! Fraiu-liise 

Ordinance I'a.sscd l'rii\idin); for Two 
Iiu> Koutt's ill Ufsidontial Section — 
Kesull of Long Campaign. 

AS a result of thi' inilustrial de- 
velopment and consequent ini-rease 
in population of Richmond, Va., within 
the last few years the residential dis- 
tricts grew so rapidly that the trans- 
portation service could not keep pace 
with its expansion. Residents of the 
outlying districts were obliged in some 
instances to walk long distances to the 
nearest street railway line, in spite of 
the fact that the railway service was 
extended in an effort to meet the needs 
of the public. 

Ford touring cars and other small 
private automobiles attempted to fill the 

an arrangement was tinuUy made with 
the city for the passage of an ordinance 
granting a bus franchise to the highest 

The Richmond Rapid Transit Cor- 
poration was then formed and in- 
corporated under the laws of the State 
of Virginia, and for the sum of $1 was 
granted the franchise to operate upon 
the streets of Richmond. The provi- 
sions of the ordinance granting this 
permit include the payment of a 5 per 
cent gross receipt tax to the city by 
the corporation. The ordinance desig- 
nates the routes over which the buses 
will operate, as shown in the accom- 
panying map of the city. The fare is 
fixed at 8 cents or four tickets for 30 

The two routes of the Richmond 
Rapid Transit Corporation do not serve 
the territory already covcrc<l by the 

the Illinois Commerce Commission for 
authority to operate buses between 
Lockport, III., and the new penitentiary 
at Stateville. 

Proposed routes of the Richmond Rapid Transit Corporation 

breach, but the service afforded was un- 
certain and was not looked upon with 
favor by the general public. Finally 
these buses were barred from the resi- 
dential section and obliged to confine 
their operations almost wholly to the 
business section. This left a great area 
of the city virtually without transporta- 
tion facilities. 

The chief credit for solving this 
traffic problem belongs to Gilbert K. 
Pollock, a well-known attorney and life- 
long resident of Richmond. Early in 
1922 Mr. Pollock began to feel the pub- 
lic pulse in regard to the establishment 
of a properly equipped and unified bus 
transportation system. At first the 
scheme met with general apathy and 
with some active opposition. This 
undercurrent of feeling, which was due 
probably in a large measure to the 
unsuccessful jitney experience referred 
to, Mr. Pollock undertook to overcome 
by a strenuous publicity campaign. 
Full-page advertisements were inserted 
in the newspapers pointing out the ben- 
efits of bus transportation and appeal- 
ing for public support in securing a 
franchise from the City Council. Asso- 
ciated with Mr. Pollock in this move- 
ment were W. H. Warren and H. V. 

Owing to the fact that neither the 
state nor municipality had any statutes 
governing the operation of buses there 
were many legal obstacles to overcome. 
It was only after a long campaign that 

existing street railway lines, on which 
the fare is 6 cents. 

The ordinance also stipulates that the 
company must take out indemnity insur- 
ance to the extent of at least $10,000 
per vehicle or deposit bonds, the cash 
value of which shall not at any time be 
less than $50,000. The corporation is 
also required to file $10,000 in bonds 
insuring the establishment of the pro- 
posed service within ninety days. 

Orders have been placed for sixteen 
buses of twenty-five passenger capacity 
for Route 1, which is 6 miles in its 
round-trip length. For Route No. 2 ten 
seventeen-passenger buses have been 
purchased. This route is 7 miles long, 
including round trip. 

The officers of the corporation are: 
President, W. H. Warren ; vice-presi- 
dent, Gilbert K. Pollock; secretary, J. C. 
Moon; treasurer, O. J. Sands; general 
counsel, L. C. Williams. 

J. A. Baird of Hopewell, Va., for 
many years identified with electric rail- 
way transportation, is the general man- 
ager and Eugene H. Meyer is the con- 
sulting engineer of the company. 

Railway Creates Subsidiary Company 
to Run Huses. — The Chicago & Joliet 
Transportation Company, a subsidiary 
of the Chicago & Joliet Electric Rail- 
way, has been formed for the purpose 
of operating buses in connection with 
the railway service of the parent com- 
pany. Application has been made to 

Increa.s«d .Memphis Operatiunfi Demand for Terminal 

The eHtablishment of a bus terminal 
to be maintained by the city of Mum- 
phis, Tcnn., was proposed at a recent 
meeting of the City Commission. The 
sit« of the old Rock Island freight 
depot on Front Street is being con- 
sidered as a possible location. Com- 
missioner Allen, in a statement favor- 
ing a municipal terminal, said: "I 
know of nothing of greater benefit 
alike to the businesa interests of Mom- 
phis and the people of the surrounding 
territory than these bus lines. But if 
they are to be a success there should 
be some central point from which all 
of them could radiate." 

Bus operations in and around Mem- 
phis have largely increased during the 
past year due to concrete road develop- 
ment, particularly to the west and 
south. Service has been established 
from Memphis to many and 
.Mississippi cities. 

.Vnother Company .Vpplies for 
Philadelphia Franchise 

In addition to the propusal of the 
Philadelphia Rural Transit Company to 
operate buses, as announced in the De- 
cember issue of Bus Tka.sstortation, 
a similar proposition has been made to 
the city by the Keystone Transit Com- 

The original proposal made by the 
i:ew company provided for an 8-cent 
fare from City Hall to the Boulevard, 
exchanging northwardly on Broad 
Street and eastwardly on the Boule- 
vard, as well as cast and west on Dia- 
mond Street, for a o-cent extra charge. 
The original plan also contained an 
offer to pay the city 5 per cent of the 
gross earnings of the line, the sum to 
be in no case less than $10,000. These 
conditions were amended in a later and 
revised offer in which the Keystone 
company offered to pay a 3 per cent 
gross earnings tax with a guarantee of 
$7,500, and to retiuce the fare on the 
Boulevard to four tickets for 25 cents. 

Identified with the latest application 
are the following Philadelphians: Ed- 
win A. Lee, Burt Tyson, William Lloyd 
and H. M. Lee. The proposed routes 
do not in any case parallel existing 
street car lines. 

Both applications are in the hands 
of the Council and the whole matter is 
in abeyance awaiting action by the city. 
Proposals of the two companies will be 
coiftidered simultaneously, it is be- 
lieved. The Philadelphia Rural Tran- 
sit Company, identified with Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit interests, pro- 
poses to operate two routes in conjunc- 
tion with the lines of the railway. The 
P. R. T. proposed fare on the Boulevard 
route is 10 cents and on the German- 
town line 7 cents, with a .3 cent addi- 
tional charge for transfer. 




Vol.2, No.l 

Jai! Sentence for Originator of 
Coupon-Bus Plan 

Previous issues of Bus Transporta- 
tion have described the novel scheme of 
Charles Bright, the Brooklyn, N. Y., 
newspaper publisher, who operated 
buses in connection vdth his newspaper 
enterprise and granted transportation 
to all holders of coupons clipped from 
his newspaper. The ambitious plans of 
Mr. Bright met with a severe setback 
on Dec. 13 in Supreme Court in Brook- 
lyn when he was sentenced to sei've 
fifteen days in jail and pay a fine of 

The sentence was the result of the 
operation of buses by Mr. Bright after 
such operation had been enjoined by 
the Supreme Court, acting on the com- 
plaint of the Nassau Electric Railway, 
which claimed the bus line activities of 
Mr. Bright and other operators consti- 
tuted illegal and unfair competition. 

The proposed route of the bus line 
would be in competition with the rail- 
road only between Fraser and Krem- 
ling, and as snow blockades, land- 
slides and other impediments have been 
the cause of uncertain service by the 
railroad, bus transportation was de- 
cided by the commission to be a ne- 
cessity. It was brought out that Mr. 
Carver's buses moved the traffic last 
year when the railroad was blockaded 
by a tunnel cave-in. 

Washington Railways Win 
Bus Line Grant 

The Public Utilities Commission of 
the District of Columbia has granted 
the application of the Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company to operate 
buses between Connecticut and Wis- 
consin Avenues via Woodley Road, in 
conjunction with the Capital Traction 
Company. The project was outlined in 
considerable detail in the December 
issue of Bus Transportation. 

The fare on the new line will be 8 
cents or six tokens for 40 cents. 
Tokens will be accepted on all street 
railway lines. Transfers between the 
bus lines and connecting lines of the 
two railways will be issued at 2 cents 
each, provided that when a second 
transfer is required for a continuous 
ride it shall be issued without charge. 

Answering the argument of Conrad 
H. Syme, who appeared in opposition as 
the representative of the Washington 
Rapid Transit Company, the commis- 
sion stated that there was no doubt 
of the power of the commission to 
issue a bus line permit to a railway. 

Winter Bus Service Vindicated 
in Colorado 

The Colorado Public Utilities Com- 
mission has granted to W. E. Carver a 
certificate of convenience and necessity 
to operate a motor bus line between 
Denver and Steamboat Springs. In 
'granting the certificate the commis- 
sioners ordered that monthly reports 
be submitted to it showing the number 
of days the bus service was operated 
during the preceding month. The ap- 
plication was contested by the Denver 
& Salt Lake Railroad, which claimed 
that there was not enough traffic for 
both bus and rail lines; that the bus 
service could be maintained only dur- 
ing the best of weather, not at all dur- 
ing the heavy snow season, and that, 
inasmuch as the railroad must operate 
every day, Mr. Carver's operation 
would further reduce the railroad's 
small revenue. 

Pasadena Votes Down 
City Bus System 

At the special election held on Dec. 5 
at Pasadena, Calif., the proposition of 
bonding the city for $500,000 for the 
purpose of financing a municipal motor 
bus system was defeated by a decisive 
majority. (See page 664 of the De- 
cember issue of Bus Transportation 
for a detailed account of the situation.) 
The proposition failed by 800 votes to 
secure the necessary two-thirds ma- 
jority. The vote was Yes, 5,555; No, 

The result of the election automati- 
cally completes the contract made by 
the Pacific Electric Railway and the 
Pasadena motor bus ovmers, by which 
the railway, which operates the local 
street car lines, takes over and op- 
erates all the motor bus lines in the 
city, with the single exception of the 
buses of one North Wolson Avenue op- 
erator, who refused to sell out to the 

The president of the Chamber of 
Commerce asserts that the defeat of 
the municipal bus proposition is still a 
victory; that in an effort to bring about 
satisfactory transportation in Pasa- 
dena, the Chamber of Commerce will 
be ready to aid both the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway and the city directors. 

The Federated Improvement Associa- 
tion, in presenting a set of resolutions 
ta the Board of Directors commenting 
on the election, claims that the issue 
would have cari-ied had the fully 
registered vote been cast. The resolu- 
tion also urges that the Board of Di- 
rectors call another election for voting 
bonds for a municipal bus system at the 
earliest date allowed by law. 

D. W. Pontius, vice-president and 
general manager of the Pacific Electric 
Railway, in commenting on the results 
of the election, said in part: 

"As I have previously stated, the 
railway company stands ready to carry 
out its promises, which are to rehabili- 
tate the tracks, increase the service and 
establish auxiliary bus lines, so that 
the city of Pasadena will be adequately 
served with transportation, and I feel 
that beyond question the Board of Di- 
rectors will now give the railway com- 
pany an opportunity to do this, and, in 
the end, Pasadena as a whole will be 
satisfied with the Pacific Electric local 

The question as to whether the per- 
mits of the independent bus operators 
can be transferred to the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway has not been decided. 

.Tamestown Railway Gives 
Buses a Trial 

The Jamestown (N. Y.) Street Rail- 
way has been asked by the City Coun- 
cil to operate trial motor bus lines in 
various sections of the city as an ex- 
periment with a view to the future in- 
stallation of several feeder bus lines 
by the railway. This proposal came 
about through the application of Ralph 
H. Robinson, who sought permission 
from the Council to operate a bus line 
on the south side. The railway did not 
object to the route as originally 
planned and even offered to exchange 
transfers. When the routes of the pro- 
posed line were later amended so that 
the railway tracks were paralleled on 
various streets the railway protested. 

The Council held that a united bus 
and railway transpoi'tation system was 
preferable to several competitive units. 

Buses Now a Part of Toledo 
Railway System 

The Community Traction Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, has been authorized by 
the City Council to issue $30,000 of pre- 
ferred stock for the purchase of four 
motor buses, which will be placed in 
immediate service as an extension to 
the Oak Street railway line. 

If this extension to railway service 
proves satisfactory it is expected other 
bus extensions will be established. 

The new line will serve a community 
of railroad men and several I'ailroads 
plan to co-operate by taking off labor 
trains, which have in the past trans- 
ported their employees to and from 
work. The .service will be under the 
control of the City Council, which has 
planned for the erection of a $10,000 
garage for housing the buses in the 
rear of the Starr Avenue carhouse. 
Twenty-five passenger Garford buses 
will be used, according to Street Rail- 
way Commissioner Cann. 

Jersey Commission Decides in 
Favor of Established Lines 

What is regarded as an official outline 
of the policy to be pursued by the New 
Jersey Board of Public Utility Commis- 
sioners in respect to future applications 
for the establishment of new bus routes 
in competition with established lines, 
was handed down by the board in ap- 
proving the recent application of Boro 
Buses, Inc., to augment its service be- 
tween Red Bank and Sea Bright, N. J., 
by the addition of another motor bus. 

At the same time the Board denied 
another application which asked per- 
mission to establish a new line which 
could cover a portion of the route now 
served by the Boro Buses. In denying 
this application the opinion of the board 
was "that more efficient and economical 
service could be rendered by a unified 
system of operation and that to allow 
unnecessary competition on a route on 
which safe and adequate service is 
being given would result in poor sei-v- 
ice to the public." 

January, 1923 

% Financial 
^^ Section 

ConiiiK'iit oil (California 

State Commission Explaln.s Some of 
the DifTu-iillii's Kncounterfd in ()ht;iin- 
in^ Operalin^' Data 

DrRlNU the latter part of the year 
11»21 the Railroad Commission of 
California issued a classification account 
for automotive transportation com- 
panies, known as Class A; that is, such 
companies as showed a gross revenue 
of 120,000 or more during the calendar 

In its forthcoming report for the 
year ended June 30, 1922, the commis- 
sion explains that a considerable num- 
ber of these companies which show a 
reasonable profit on their annual state- 
ments do not actually earn anywhere 
near the amount shown, as in a number 
of instances the owner of the line drives 
a machine himself and makes no charge 
for his services. He fails to charge any 
amount whatsoever for depreciation or 
numerous other items chargeable to 
operating costs. Other companies 
which show a deficit in their reports 
charge to operating costs the purchase 
price of new equipment acquired dur- 
ing the year, which is not a proper 
operating charge, and which, if de- 
ducted, would show that in reality the 
line earned a profit instead of being 
operated at a loss. Of the larger com- 
panies reporting to the commission 
very few show even a reasonable re- 
turn upon the capital invested. 

The B & H Transportation Company, 
operating a bus street car service in 
the city of Long Beach, shows a net 
revenue of $7,563. This company has 
an investment in equipment amounting 
to $139,592, with additional investment 
in buildings, materials, supplies and 
land owned totaling in excess of $200,- 
000, from which it would appear that 
it is receiving only about 4 per cent 
return upon its investment. The Crown 
Stage Line, operating between Los 
Angeles and Santa Ana, shows a net 
revenue of $19,849, with about half the 
investment of the B & H Transporta- 
tion Company. 

The Motor Transit Company of Los 
Angeles, the largest passenger stage 
line in the state, reports a gross reve- 
nue of $1,568,133 and operating ex- 
penses of $1,618,893, or a deficit of 

The California Transit Company, the 
second largest passenger stage line, re- 
ports a gross revenue of $834,295 and 
operating expenses amounting to 
$827,726, or a net revenue of $6,568. 
The investment in this case is approxi- 
mately $700,000, which makes the re- 
turn less than 1 per cent. 

The Pickwick Stages, Northern Divi- 
sion, Inc., operating between Los 
Angeles, San Francisco and Portland, 
reports gross revenue of $338,847 and 



total operating expenses of $330,005, 
or a net revenue of $8,842 on an invest- 
ment of approximately $200,000, or a 
little in excess of 4 per cent. 

From the report.s submitted for the 
year ended Dec. 31, 1921, it would ap- 
pear that few, if any, of the automobile 
truck lines earned even a reasonable 
return upon the capital invested. The 
automobile passenger stage lines operat- 
ing to Yoseniite National Park, Mari- 
posa Big Trees and Lake Tahoe district 
all show substantial earnings, while the 
passenger stage lines operating in the 
oil field districts of Kern County show 
a considerable falling off in revenue for 
the year 1921 as compared with the 
year 1920. This was undoubtedly due 
to labor conditions in the oil fields dur- 
ing the year covered by the report. 

The commission explains that with- 
out a uniform classification it is ex- 
tremely difllcult to analyze the reports 
submitted by the great majority of 
stage linos, particularly the numerous 


small companies where the owner alM 
drives a machine, as no record whatso- 
ever is kept of the fares received nor 
of the amounts) expended for repairs, 
gas, oil, etc. Furthermore, each indi- 
vidual operator has a different method 
of computing depreciation, and a con- 
siderable num)H-r fail to charge any 
amount whatsoever to this item .\ 
number of stage operators 
engaged in other bumnes* int<! 
are unable to segregate the n-vi-nuc 
and expenses of their public utility 
busine.ts from the revi-tiue and exprnaea 
of their private intereHls. 

Cost of Bus Operation in Akron 

The acconi|)anyiii^' 'al '. 
cost of service as ren' 
in Akron on a 5-cent i 
of October and since opei 
on March 19 last. As ha> 
told in the columns of tl' 
service by the Northern ' ' 

Analysis of Cost of Operations in y\kron 

March 19 lu OcIoImt }I. 1922— . Moi.' 

Revenue poMionReni At 5c. . 
Free Iraiufer piuMengers. . . 

Tolal passonffcrs 

Hovcnuo bus mile*. . 
Otht-r bus niilcfl 

IV r IVr Per (Vnl 
Hun Hux of 

AclunI .Mill' Hour Tolal 

Total bus iiiilfs 

Ili'vcnuf bus houra scfapduk-d. . 

(iaIlonK of KiU4r>Iinc used 

.AvcraRi- cost per Kallon, centa. 

Grass A*<irnin(;« 

PiiAsf-iiKcr revenur* 

.'^pociiil bus revenue 

Operating revenue 

OjHT'iliiifi Erv^-nsts 
. Conduct inn transportation 

Superintendence (a) 

W'aKea of drivers (a) 

License fees (n) 

CaraKC and shop operatinK 

employees («) 

Cleaning and washing (tt) . . . 
Garage and shop rent (a).. . 
Garage and shop supplies and 
expenses (a) 




247. ''73 

4 88 41 3 
1 48 12 4 

76 9 
23 1 

6 36 53 7 

100 00 

94 91 


1185 '.". 

too. CO 

382.819 ' 
121,801 I i: 

6 32 




J57,572 24 50 
91 78 50 

196 I 738 
5 303 46.900 

S2 062 
10 II 

99 98 

27 05 


119.165 23 92 

91 78 50 

I l«5 
5 13 

I *92 
43 40O 

12 022 

10 II 

14 ti 
5 52 

100 00 

99 53 

S37.663 23.25 t2.065 100 00 119.256 22 80 12 0)0 ICO 00 

i492 0.198 $0,016 785 

16.598 6.690 0.594 26 442 

579 233 0.021 924 

i2l7 257 to 023 

5.564 6 590 586 

217 257 023 

I 062 

27 180 





» 222 



II. Power 

Fuel (*i) 

Lubricants in) 

Total power. 

III. Maintenance 

\*ehicle» — Cha.ssis (ai 

Body (<0 

Tires (a). 

Garage and shop equip, (a). . 

Buildings and structural (a). 

Tolal maintenance 

IV. Advertwing (a) 

V. General and miscellaneous 

.Salaries and expenses— general 

office (r) 

Salaries ami expeiuefl — general 

office clerks (6) 

Generiil office supplies and 

expi-n.''es tli) exiwiwe (c) 

.Misc. general expeane (b) 

Injuries and <laniages (fr) 

texphwion and liability) .... 
Insurance (tire, theft, bund, 

property, damage) (a) 

Fire insurance on garage and 

shop (a> 

Stationery and printing (6V . . 


Depreciation (</) 






$0 728 







20 898 
I 041 





I 753 






7 923 

32 6K 

5 140 


21 200 
1 305 

513.778 5.563 SO 494 21931 14.607 5 456 485 22 505 





3 175 10 282 

561 050 

1 400 125 
035 003 

12 550 

2 220 

5 540 



3 438 


to 307 


14. IM 

2 550 

3 015 


$12,831 5.171 to. 460 20 448 
$278 112 $0,010 448 

$3,909 4 634 t0.4l) 
t2S 033 to 003 
























1 352 


5 346 


1 369 







77 0)1 0.003 12) 

$6.5)0 2 6)1 $0 234 10 406 
$8,970 3 620 $0,322 14 294 

$2.1^. . •-- •■ .■■ 
t3.a)4 3 585 10 320 

19 094 

-> 6)6 


i 362 

5 6*0 


14 645 

Total operating expenses.. 
Net revenue for operation. 
Taxes (c)... 
Interest (rf). . 

t62,754 25.306 12 248 100.000 S2C.454 24.218 2 157 100.00 

$S.09I t.0.'>« tO.ISS 

538 0.217 0.019 
2.870 1.160 0.10) 

II.IM» to "7 

182 215 0I« 
971 1.150 102 

Net income #«.i9S .» i.^S to .ins If.' 

Note — Letters indicate method of prorating expenses beiveen railway and : 
charge; (6) proportion on l>asis of grtvw earning*: <<■) art>ilrar\- smoupi: I'f. 
property used. (Figurra in italics indicate defi^i' 






Vol.2, No.l 

& Light Company commenced March 19 
on the Maple-West Exchange Street 
Exchange Street route. On Aug. 7 two 
other lines were started, namely, the 
Arlington extension and the crosstown 
line. On Aug. 22 the North Howard 
Street extension was opened. In Oc- 
tober three more routes were put into 
service, namely, the South Maple 
Street Viaduct and Fairlawn routes on 
Oct. 5, 13 and 18 respectively. All told 
more than 10 miles of routes are now 
served exclusively by the bus. The fare 
on each route is 5 cents with free trans- 
fers to and from the trolley car routes. 

At present only one line is really 
paying, that is the Maple-West Ex- 
change Street route. This line reaches 
the downtown district, as do the Via- 
duct and South Maple Street routes, 
which also give evidence of soon be- 
coming paying lines. It is also 
probable that the North Howard Street 
route will in time become a paying 

The Crosstown line, the West Market 
Street extension and the Arlington ex- 
tension show losses, particularly the 
crosstown line, where the transfer busi- 
ness is exceptionally heavy. In fact, 
all the feeders fail to earn the cost of 

In October 504,620 passengers were 
carried by the buses, of which 121,801 
were transfer passengers. To do this 
84,547 miles were run in 9,482 hours. 
Gross earnings amounted to 24.06 cents 
per mile compared to 21.76 cents, ex- 
clusive of depreciation, for operating 
expenses. The item of depreciation 
amounted to 3.585 cents per mile. 

New Buckeye Company 
to Issue Stock 

The Buckeye Transportation Com- 
pany, Hamilton, Ohio, proposing to 
operate a bus line between Cincinnati 
and Dayton, has asked the State Public 
Utilities Commission for authority to 
purchase the assets of the unincor- 
porated company by the same name, 
now carrying on the business, and also 
made application to issue $20,000 in 
stock to take over the present equity 
of the owners. The new company 
assumes obligations of $57,908. The 
old company's assets were given as 


Bus Lines Important Factor in 
Wisconsin Railway System 

Among the railways of this country, 
which have supplemented their electric 
service with motor bus lines, the Mil- 
waukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & 
Light Company is accorded a place in 
the front rank. 

An idea of the extensive part played 
by the bus in the Milwaukee company's 
traffic system may be derived from the 
fact that during the first nine months 
of the present year, their buses trans- 
ported more than 1,100,000 passengers 
and operated a total of 910,554 miles. 

On Sept. 30, 1922, this company had 
in service a total of seventy buses, 
eleven of which operate within the city 

of Milwaukee; four are leased to the 
Wisconsin Gas & Electric Company for 
service in Kenosha, and the remainder 
are engaged in interurban traffic. 
During the past year, the interests of 
the principal competitors have been ab- 
sorbed and substantially all of the 
motor bus operations in the Milwaukee 
district are carried on by this company. 

The combined motor and electric sys- 
tems total 814 miles, of which 600 miles 
are traversed by the buses. 

The bus lines extend to Fond du Lac 
on the north, to Madison on the west 
and to Janesville, Beloit and Lake 
Geneva on the southwest. Co-ordinating 
with these motor lines is the elec- 
tric system extending to Sheboygan on 
the north, to Racine and Kenosha on 
the south, to Watertown on the west 
and East Troy and Burlington on the 



Fifth Avenue Company's 

$4,000,000 Offer 


The offer of the Fifth Avenue Bus 
Securities Corporation, New York City, 
to purchase for $4,000,000 the stock of 
the New York Transportation Com- 
pany, amounting to 103,574 shares, held 
as assets of the bankrupt Interborough 
Consolidated Corporation, has been 
accepted by J. R. Sheffield, trustee* in 
bankruptcy of the Interborough cor- 
poration. The original offer was $31.50 
per share or $3,262,581 and was raised 
to the accepted figure at the suggestion 
of Judge Mayer of the Federal District 
Court with the approval of 97 per cent 
of the bondholders. 

The Fifth Avenue Bus Securities Cor- 
poration is a successor to the Fifth 
Avenue Bus Corporation, the formation 
of which was discussed in some detail 
in the December issue. 

West Virginia Company Increases 
Capital Stock.— The White Transporta- 
tion Company, which has operated a 
bus line between Huntington and Mil- 
ton, W. Va., for the past four years, 
has increased its capital stock from 
$50,000 common stock to $100,000, of 
which $50,000 will be common stock and 
$50,000 8 per cent preferred. This 
increase will enable the company to 
make the necessary purchases of new 
equipment and extension of bus service 
from Huntington to Charleston as soon 
as the highway now under construction 
is completed. 

Detroit Company Pays Dividends 

The Detroit Motor Bus Company, 
Detroit, Mich., on Dec. 10 paid a 25 
per cent stock dividend to stockholders 
of record as of Nov. 28. The directors 
of the company have also declared the 
regular quarterly cash dividend of 2 
per cent and an extra cash dividend of 
1 per cent, payable on Jan. 15, 1923, to 
stockholders of record as of Dec. 30. 

Railway Centers Bus Interests in Sub- 
sidiary. — The Pacific Electric Railway 
plans to center all its bus service under 
the control of the Pacific Electric Land 
Company, a subsidiary corporation, and 
has applied to the California State Rail- 
road Commission for authority to trans- 
fer various lines to the land company. 

Pickwick Stages Offers $100,000 for 
Line. — The Pickwick Stages, Inc., which 
has recently acquired several California 
motor bus lines, will add to its system 
the Santa Ana-Los Angeles route if the 
State Railroad Commission approves 
the proposed sale of this line by the 
Crown Auto Stage Company to the 
Pickwick interests for $100,000. It is 
estimated that this line carries more 
than 400,000 passengers yearly. 

Motor Vehicle Tranportation 

By Henry C.'Spurr. Published by Public 
Utility Reports, Inc., Rochester, N. Y. 696 
pages, 6x9 in., indexed ; cloth. 

The law of motor vehicle common 
carriers, as it has been put into prac- 
tice by the state public service com- 
missions throughout the country, is 
expounded in this book. There are 
three chapters, the first taking up the 
contemporary development of the auto- 
mobile in connection with the existing 
theory of public supervision; the second 
is a classified review of the general 
rules, regulations and legislation gov- 
erning rates, operation and service; 
while the third chapter, which makes 
up nearly three-quarters of the whole 
book, consists of state commission rul- 
ings, policies and regulations as applied 
in actual controversies, all arranged 
alphabetically according to states. 

The law regulating the use of buses, 
trucks and other motor vehicles used 
as common carriers, is constantly being 
amplified by new statutes and by new 
decisions of the commissions. Many of 
the basic policies governing the regula- 
tion of these public utilities have 
already been settled, however, and these 
are given in great detail in the book. 

The third chapter is much the long- 
est, but the other two are packed with 
valuable information. It is unfortunate 
that a simpler method of cross-refer- 
ences from the second to the third 
chapter was not used. The review in 
the second chapter contains a large 
number of footnotes, referring to 
sources, but in order to use them it is 
necessary to consult a list at the back 
of the book and even then it may be 
necessary to refer to two or three places 
in the third chapter before one can find 
the case or decision wanted. This does 
not in the end interfere greatly with 
the value of the book, although it 
makes it harder to use. 

Anyone interested in a broad view of 
the method followed in regulating motor 
vehicle common carriers will do well to 
secure a copy of this book. It covers 
thoroughly the practice in the various 
states, and also throws side lights on 
what is being done in some of the 

January, 1923 

Bus. *^ 

Colorado Hus Lines Declared 

Subject to State 


The Public Utilities Commission of 
the state of Colorado in a recent 
decision dechired that bus lines, operat- 
ing on regular schedules in competition 
with railways, are public utilities, sub- 
ject to the rcKulation of the commis- 
sion, and they therefore must take out 
certificates of necessity and convenience 
before they may operate in the state. 

This iTjIe was laid down in the case 
brought by the Santa Fe and the 
Denver & Rio Grande Western Riiil- 
roads against the Inter-City Automo- 
bile Lines, Inc., operating between 
Denver and Colorado Springs, Pueblo 
and Canon City, in which the railroads 
charged that inasmuch as the bus line 
operates in competition with them, it 
should be subject to regulation by the 
Utilities Commission. 

To this complaint the Inter-City com- 
pany filed a demurrer, attacking the 
jurisdiction of the Utilities Commission 
on the grounds that the bus line is not 
a public utility and therefore not sub- 
ject to that body's regulation. 

In pleading their cases before the 
commission, attorneys for both sides 
confined their arguments to the public 
utilities law and overlooked a law 
passed in 1915, three days after the 
utilitie."! law, which expressly states 
that automobile lines operating in com- 
petition with railroads are public utili- 
ties and therefore subject to state 
regulation. As a matter of formality 
another hearing will be held by the 
commission, at which time the case 
will be heard on its merits as to 
whether the operations of the bus lines 
are in competition^ with the railroads 
or not. 

New York Commission Rules 
on Priority Rights 

The New York State Public Service 
Commission, in denying the application 
of Hibbard & Frost for a certificate of 
convenience and necessity to operate a 
bus line between Windsor and Bing- 
hamton, X. Y., held that the opera- 
tion of a line prior to the enactment of 
present laws does not give the owners 
any legal standing unless the provisions 
of the existing regulations were obeyed. 

The applicants based their right to 
operate upon the fact that they had 
acquired by purchase a line operated 
prior to the enactment of the law re- 
quiring local consents and state certi- 

M. E. Atkinson, operating a line 
paralleling the route of the applicants 
and holding a certificate of convenience 
and necessity, appeared in opposition 
to the application. The commission 
held that Mr. Atkinson's operations 
were legal and valid, and that traffic 



between the points designated in the 
application was not suflicient to war- 
rant the operation of more than one 
line. The opinion further stated that 
"Failure to comply with the law con- 
stituted unlawful operation. That the 
operation in its inception was lawful 
does not in itself vest any prescriptive 
rights in applicants." 


contending that the transfer of the 
permits was illegal on the ground that 
no permits could be transferred where 
the bus line ran parallel with trolley 

Revision of California .Motor 
Vehicle Laws Proposed 

On Dec. 20 Governor-Klect F. W. 
Richardson of California called a con- 
ference at San F'rancisco in anticipa- 
tion of the demand which it had been 
stated would be made for an amend- 
ment to the state's motor vehicle laws. 

As soon as the session had opened 
Mr. Richardson declared that its object 
was to draft amendments to the state 
vehicle act, which would assure ade- 
quate maintenance and reconstruction 
of the present roads of the state as 
needed. He declared the meeting was 
non-political. A gasoline tax of 1 cent 
per gallon and drastic revision of the 
state motor vehicle act in order to place 
a heavier tax on trucks and motor 
stage buses were approved at the con- 
ference by automobile men, highway 
experts and public officials. Other re- 
visions were: Registration fees based 
on car weight instead of horsepower; 
motor vehicle fees to be devoted solely 
to reconstruction and maintenance of 
roads; motor vehicles operated for hire 
to be placed under the jurisdiction of 
the railroad commission and taxed a 
percentage of their gross receipts; 
light passenger vehicles to pay no more 
than at present and possibly less; a re- 
duction in the gross weight limit of 
vehicles and loads from .30,000 to 22,000 
lb. on state highways, with no reference 
to county highways. 

The conference appointed an execu- 
tive committee to meet in Los Angeles 
on Dec. 27 and 28 to draft the ap- 
proved measures into proposed amend- 
ments to the vehicle act to be sub- 
mitted to a general conference to be 
held in Los Angeles on Jan. 2. 

The conference was attended by rep- 
resentatives of the California State 
Automobile Association, the Automo- 
bile Club of Southern California, the 
Farm Bureau Federation, the State 
Association of Peace Officers and the 
State As.-iociation of Supervisors, to- 
gether with others officials and promi- 
nent citizens. 

Jersey Operators .May 
Transfer r».rmils 

The New Jer.sey Public Utility 
Commission has handed down a decision 
permitting bus owners to sell or trans- 
fer their permits to others with the 
approval of the Boanl of Public Works, 
even if the buses run parallel to an 
electric railway. The decision was 
handed down in the case of two resi- 
dents of Paterson, who purchased fran- 
chises from former ownei-s. The Pub- 
lic Service Railway appealed the case. 

Akron (Jrdinam-i' Di^couraKes 
Pari Time Operators 

An ordinance regulating motor bus 
ilu-rations in Akron, Ohio, hai recently 
|a->i(l the City Council, which framed 
this measure to eliminate fly-by-night 
operators and at the same timo give 
regular bus men an improve*] field for 
ojx'rations while aliio prolevling the 

For insurance purposes, all motor 
vehicles operated for the public art- 
divided into three classes. CI«rs A 
vehicles include those carrying from 
one to ten passengers. The ordinatice 
provides that the bus owner iihall be 
liable up to ?5,000 damages for any one 
person injured in an accident for which 
the driver is responsible, while a total 
up to $11,000 shall be paid under the 
same condition.'; if two or more per»oiix 
are injured. 

Class B vehicles, carrying from 
eleven to twenty passengers, shall carry 
insurance up to $15,000, $5,000 of 
which is to be paid to any one p<'r.ion 
injured and a maximum total of $1.'>,000 
to all persons injured in case of lia- 

Class C vehicles shall carry a maxi- 
mum insurance of $20,000 with tho 
same provisions in case of injury as 
Class B. This class includes all 
vehicles carrying more than twenty 

The ordinance provides four ways by 
which bus owners may secure insur- 

The first method is through an in- 
demnity bond either by individuals or 
by an indemnity company. 

The second is through liability in- 
surance. The third through the pre- 
sentation of evidence that the owner i.s 
the holder of property the value of 
which is at least 150 per cent of the 
maximum insurance required on his 
type of vehicle, and the fourth, which 
is an innovation, is through participa- 
tion in an indemnity fund provided by 
bus operators. 

This fourth method is made possible 
through the payment of $.35 a quarter 
for all vehicles in Class A; $.'')0 a 
quarter for vehicles in Class B and $»>5 
a quarter for those in Class C. 

These funds are to be placed in the 
hands of a trustee, and will be paid 
out in ease of accident only after liti- 
gation or through private settlement. 

The trustee is to be appointed by the 
bus and jitney men's organization 
which already exists but which will 
probably be reorganized to function in 
accordance with the new legislation. 

According to the new regulation the 
director of safety is privileged to routa 
and sche<lule buses in accordance with 
the demands of traffic. 

The ordinance was written in co- 
operation with the bus and jitney men's 




Vol.2, No.l 

Personal % 



The Portland stage depot was opened 
on Dec. 15, 1921. The daily passenger 
turnover approximates 1,000 people 
over the fifteen lines operating from 
the terminal. 

Ralph W. Sanborn of 

Prominent Attorney Identified With 
Many Bus Organizations — Pioneer in 
the Industry — Active in Ohio Legis- 

RALPH W. SANBORN, a prominent 
- attorney of Cleveland, Ohio, is one 
of a group of men who are taking an 
exceptionally active interest in the es- 
tablishment and operation of bus trans- 
portation lines. He is a member of the 
law firm of Sanborn, Rich & McConnell. 
with offices in the Hippodrome Building. 
Some time ago he served as municipal 
judge in East Cleveland, one of the 
large suburbs of Cleveland. Mr. San- 

Ralph W. Sanborn 

born has always been, active in civic 
matters and has gained the confidence 
of the public through his work in vari- 
ous directions. 

Mr. Sanborn is secretary and treas- 
urer of the Cleveland-Akron Bus Com- 
pany, one of the first interurban bus 
transportation companies organized in 
Ohio. He is also secretary of the Union 
Motor Stage Terminal Company which 
is now engaged in the erection of a 
$200,000 union terminal building in 
Cleveland. In addition to holding these 
offices, he is a director in the Florida 
Motor Transportation Company, Miami, 
Fla., and the Red Bus Line, Asheville, 
N. C. 

As an attorney deeply interested in 
the bus transportation business he has 
naturally taken a prominent place in 
associations that have been organized 
by and for the benefit of those engaged 
in the business. He is president of the 
Northern Ohio Motor Stage Owners' 
Association and member of the board 
of governors and chairman of the pub- 

licity committee of the Ohio Motor Bus 
Association. Similar connections have 
been made by him with other organiza- 
tions devoted to the bus industry. 

Mr. Sanborn has had considerable ex- 
perience in legislative matters in con- 
nection with the bus business, as well 
as other lines, and this has led to 
prominent connection with organizations 
which are interested in commercial haul- 
ing. He is chairman of the legislative 
committee of the National Association 
of Commercial Haulers and chairman of 
the legislative committee and general 
counsel of the Ohio Association of 
Commercial Haulers. 

He is very sanguine in the belief 
that bus transportation has a great 
future. So far as it has been developed, 
the results have been such as to war- 
rant great faith in the possibilities that 
may be reached, and Mr. Sanborn's in- 
terests, now covering a wide territory, 
are gradually growing more and more 



Prominent Financier Heads 
Fifth Avenue Corporation 

Grayson M.-P. Murphy, president of 
the newly incorporated Fifth Avenue 
Bus Securities Corporation, the forma- 
tion of which was discussed in the De- 
cember issue of Bus Transportation, 
for more than a decade has been a 
prominent flgxire in New York financial 

Although Mr. Murphy's financial in- 
terests are extensive and varied, it is 
not alone in the realm of finance that 
he has achieved distinction. As com- 
missioner for Europe of the American 
Red Cross Society in France in 1917 
and later as a lieutenant-colonel in 
charge of operations of the general 
staff, 42nd Division, A. E. P., he estab- 
lished an international reputation as an 
administrator and military leader. 

Mr. Murphy was instrumental in the 
organization of the Fifth Avenue Bus 
Corporation in his capacity of chair- 
man of the protective committee of 
the Interborough-Metropolitan bond- 

Mr. Snead Becomes Manager 
of Oregon Terminal 

J. L. S. Snead, Portland, Ore., is the 
new manager of the Oregon Auto Stage 
Terminal Company, succeeding P. T. 
Randall, resigned. Mr. Snead has been 
an active figure in motor transporta- 
tion work in Oregon for several years. 
He is at present secretary of the 
terminal company, as well as president 
of the Irvington Garage & Auto Com- 
pany and owner of the Reliance-Mount 
Hood stages. 


S. Dimmick Minnesota 

Mr. Dimmick Joined Industry Two 
Years Ago — Today Leader in Minne- 
sota Bus Circles — Aims of Associa- 
tion Outlined. 

ONE of the leaders in the bus trans- 
portation field of the great North- 
west is Rodney S. Dimmick, president 
of the Minnesota Motor Bus Associa- 
tion. Mr. Dimmick is actively engaged 
in the industry as president of the 
Touring Car Bus Company and vice- 
president of the Jefferson Highway 
Transportation Company, both operat- 
ing out of Minneapolis, Minn. Only 
two years ago Mr. Dimmick completed 
a business residence of nineteen years 
in Alaska. His perception of the vast 
possibilities of motor bus trans- 
portation as a supplement to railroad 

R. S. Dimmick 

ti'avel was probably the result of liv- 
ing for nearly two decades in a country 
where travel has been so slow. 

Looking- over the field he decided that 
Rochester, Minn., was ripe for motor 
service from the Twin Cities. Although 
scores of people were going to the 
surgical and medical center of the 
Northwest, they had to take a round 
about railroad line, thereby losing much 
time. To remedy this Mr. Dimmick 
organized the Touring Car Bus Com- 
pany and put on two Packard cars. To 
these he has since added two. The run 
is ninety-six miles each way. This com- 
pany is now part of the Jefferson Com- 
pany, and Mr. Dimmick is interested in 
both. He has great faith in the motor 
bus future of the Northwest and is 
demonstrating it by line extension as 
fast as possible. 

Mr. Dimmick is president of a motor 
bus association which includes lines 
that cover the entire state, nine of which 
operate out of the Minneapolis Union 
Station and eight out of St. Paul's ter- 

January, 1923 




minal. He is not dismayed by the 
agitation which is charged to the rail- 
roads to have motor bus lines put on 
the 5 per cent gross earnings basis and 
to have them chartered like the rail- 
roads. However, Mr. Dimmick says the 
association is not out for any particular 
legislation and does not intend to be 
active at the St. Paul capitol this ses- 
sion of the Legislature, but wants only 
what is right. 

"The railroads argue that they are 
paying a gross earnings ta.\ and that 
we are not paying anything. As a mat- 
ter of fact they have a lot of land 
grants, which help them out. We are 
carrying farmers to their doors and 
picking them up there or any place 
along the road, and giving them more 
frequent service than the railroads," 
said .Mr. Dimmick. 

"It is argued the buses are tearing 
the roads to pieces and we are not 
paying any more to the state for per- 
mission to operate than are the owners 
of individual cars. We don't tear up 
the roads as much as the smaller cars. 
When we make a round trip to Roches- 
ter how many touring cars go over the 
road in the same length of time? The 
Minnesota highway commissioner has 
publicly stated that buses are quite 
necessary on many lines." 

Mr. Dimmick does not oppose the 
proposed state gasoline ta.x of a cent 
or two a gallon. It will provide addi- 
tional revenue and under the provisions 
of the ta.x everyone coming into the 
state will contribute to the maintenance 
of the roads. He does not believe there 
would be serious objection to the pro- 
posal. Such a charge would, of course, 
cost the bus men more money, but, he 

"We are perfectly willing to pay any- 
thing just, but we don't want to be put 
out of business." 

Owners' Association, and has much 
valuable data at his tinger tips regard- 
ing bus operations over the public 

The Michigan Highway Transporta- 
tion Association has taken a stand 
against regulation by the Public Util- 
ities Commission and has placed a reso- 
lution on record in favor of suflicient 
automobile ta.xes to provide necessary 
money for the highway depiirtiiu-nt's 
needs, but expressed doubt about the 
right of the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion to regulate transportation by 
trucks or buses. In lieu of such reg- 
ulation, it is advocated that the State 
require a bond from each motor bus or 
truck operating on the highways of the 
State. It is also advocated that a State 
law be passed requiring the owners of 
commercial vehicles to carry per.sonul 
liability and property damage insur- 

Mr. Moreton Re-elected 

E. Foster Moreton was re-elected 
recently to the presidency of the Michi- 
gan Highway Transpoitation Associa- 
tion for the third term. Mr. Moreton 
has held that office since the a.ssoci- 
ation was organized. He was born in 
Detroit, Mich., Jan. 26, 1876, and has 
been in the trucking business in that 
city all his life. He is president of the 
Moreton Trucking Company, having 
started with his father, and acquired 
sole interest in the business at his 
father's death. 

The company was established in 1871 
and since that time has been cartage 
agent for the Detroit & Cleveland Navi- 
gation Company. It also has been ap- 
pointed cartage agent for the Pere Mar- 
quette Railway and will be agent for the 
Pennsylvania Railway, with the opening 
of the new terminal of that system of 
steam lines, in Detroit. 

Mr. Moreton has always been active 
in association work, having been pres- 
ident of the Detroit Transportation 
Association, a local organization, since 
its formation. He is also first vice- 
president of the National Team & Truck 

Mr. Smith to Be .Manuuer 

C. Monroe Smith has l>een appuinte<l 
manager in charge of the advertising 
sales staff and business departments of 
Bus Tka.nsportation and Electric 

C. Monroe Smith 

Railway Jimrnal. He comes to his new 
position from that of business man- 
ager of the Commercial Car Journal, 
published by the Chilton Company in 
Philadelphia. Mr. Smith was gradu- 
ated from the Wharton School of Fi- 
nance and Commerce, University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1905. For si.x years 
he was with Manning, Maxwell & 
Moore, Inc , selling machine tools and 
brass goods to the passenger car and 
truck manufacturers. He joined the 
Chilton Company, later becoming the 
Eastern manager of that company's 
publications and recently being made 
business manager of the Cnnmurrial 
Car Journal. 

Mr. Howell Heads Civil Engineers 

F. D. Howell, vice-pre.sident of the 
Motor Carriers' Association, and assist- 
ant general manager Motor Transit 
Company, Los Angeles, Calif., on Dec. 
13 was elected president of the Los 
.Angeles section of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers. 

Gordon Lee Joins Motor Industry 

Gordon Lee has tendered his rejiig- 
nation as chief of the automotive 
division of the Bureau of Forei^i 
and Domestic Commerce in order to ac- 
cept the position of director of foreign 
.«ales for the Velluw Cab Manufactur- 
ing Company, Chicago, 111. Mr. Lee en- 
tered upon hi.s new dutiex on Jan. 1. 

Secretary of Commerce Hoover ex- 
pressed his regret over lotting Mr. L*e 
but stated that it was impoHiiible for 
him to retain men in the government 
service when private induKtrieit are 
willing to pay them many timed the 
salary he is able to offer. 

Mr. Lee came to the department more 
than a year ago for the Kpecific purpose 
of organizing the automotive divlnion, 
having been selected by f ■nl 

Automobile Chamber of ( to 

develop the foreign activitie.^ of iht au- 
tomotive industry'. Upon t'-ndering 
his resignation Mr. Lee • ut 

that the field of automotivi -af 

reached .such proportions thai it U 
rapidly becoming one of the country*! 
most important fields of endeavor. 

"I am taking up thi.s new work." he 
said, "because I firmly beli. -he 

greatest developments in t.v in 

the automotive industry will (.oiuc in 
the field of the movement of gfiod« and 
passengers by automotive • in 

the form of taxicabs, strei ■ .rid 

intercity types of freight ar. . r- 

carrying vehicles, and in m.. vn 

as allies of the railroadii and street 
railway companies. Automotive trans- 
portation is an international institution 
necessary to modern civilization. Just as 
the steamboat, the locomotive, and the 
telegraph were the vehicle, that 
brought about the world ui of 

the nineteenth century so . mo- 

tive transportation guide the iwttitieth 
century and speed up economic develop- 

"To the automotive indu«tr\' of 
America has fallen the le:, ,nd 

the direction of this world. ■. . of 

transportation, thus placing upon lu 
an obligation of education and service 
far exceeding the continental limiU of 
the United States." 

A. J. Ruttenber Dead 

A. J. Ruttenl>er. .si-cretary-lreasurer 
and general manager of the Jamestown- 
Fredonia Transit Company, died at his 
home in Jamestown, N. V., on Dec. 15 
after an illness of only four days. 
Early in 1922 .Mr. Ruttenber, in con- 
junction with two other well known 
Chautauqua County businc.xs men, 
F. P. .Almy and Wilson Price, 
established the Jamestown-Fredonia 
Transit Company, which operates be- 
tween Fredonia and Janientown. This 
company in a very few months gained 
an enviable reputation a.n one of the 
most progressive and succes.xful inter- 
urban lines in the State. No small 
credit for the success of the company, 
both as a public utility and as a busi- 
ness enterprise, is due to the untiring 
efforts of Mr. Ruttenber. 




Vol.2, No.l 

Business Information 

What is being 
bought and built. 
Latest news from 
the factories and 
the field. 



Market conditions 

affecting the bus 


Price changes in 



Tire Prices Advance 

Ten to Fifteen per Cent Increase An- 
nounced by Leading Companies — In- 
creased Production in 1923 Predicted. 

THE long expected general advance 
in tire prices was announced by all 
the larger Akron companies with two 
exceptions on Dec. 30. The price in- 
creases range from 10 to 15 per cent. 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 
and the Firestone Tire & Rubber Com- 
pany, which did not make announce- 
ments of price advances, stated that 
the absence of definite announcements 
by them was not to be interpreted as 
indicating that their prices would not 

Definite figures were not available in 
the larger sizes at the beginning of the 
year because the new lists had not been 
completed. The B. F. Goodrich list be- 
came effective on Jan. 1, but other com- 
panies stated their new prices would 
become effective as soon as printed lists 
were in the hands of their dealers. 

Increasing crude rubber and fabric 
prices made the increases mandatory, 
officials of the various companies stated 
in announcing the advances. The price 
of tires dropped more than 45 per cent 
from the peak during the past two and 
one-half years. 

Several of the companies outside of 
Akron advanced their prices during 
December. The Kelly-Springfield Com- 
pany announced a 10 per cent increase 
on Dec. 1. The Fisk Company followed 
a few days later with a 10 to 12 J per 
cent advance, but eliminated the dealers' 
price lists and established a larger 
margin for the dealer. The Howe Rub- 
ber Company made an increase of 10 
per cent on casings and 15 per cent on 
tubes early in December and the 
Bergougnan Rubber Corporation issued 
new price lists showing a 12J cent raise 
the latter part of November. The 
United States Tire Company fell into 
line Jan. 2 with a 10 to 12i per cent 

The Wall Street Journal under date 
of Dec. 22 outlined the views of H. S. 
Firestone, president of the Firestone 
Tire & Rubber Company, in regard to 
the outlook for 1923. According to this 
article, he stated that: 

"The automobile tire industry will go 
into new year with a surplus of 5,000,- 
000 tires. This surplus is not to be 
regarded as serious because the present 
is a sellers' rather than a buyers' mar- 
ket, the situation of a year ago hav- 
ing been completely reversed. Mr. 
Firestone looks to the original equip- 
ment demand from automobile manu- 
facturers as an outlet for any surplus 
now on hand. He estimates that the 

first quarter of 1923 will see at least 
500,000 automobiles manufactured. 
While these figures may seem high, 
other conservative authorities in Akron 
estimate that total production of auto- 
mobiles in 1923 will be about 3,000,000. 
Mr. Firestone estimates that approxi- 
mately 45,000,000 tires were manufac- 
tured "in 1922, 35,000,000 during the first 
ten months. Total consumption for the 
year will be around 40,000,000." 

Smaller Pneumatic and New Solid 
Tires on Market 

Anticipating the trend toward a 
wider use of the motor bus, the Fire- 
stone Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, 
Ohio, is now placing on the market 
truck-size pneumatics of smaller than 
usual diameter, also specially construc- 
ted solid tires. The new cords run in 
the following sizes: 30x5, 32x6, 34x7 
and 36x8. These smaller diameters 
allow a reduction in bus heights of 2 in. 

Tlie new solid tire development is the 
Firestone Maxi-Cushion, designed to 
meet the needs of bus operators who 
require a live, resilent solid tire rather 
than a pneumatic. 

Gasoline Prices — ^Jan. 1, 1923 

Cents Per Gal. 

Tank Service 

City Wagon Station 

Albany. N.Y.. 21 23 

Atlanta, Ga, 19 21 

Boston, Mass 22 24 

Chicago, 111 18 20 

Cincinnati, Ohio 19 21 

Detroit, Mich 19.4 21.4 

Fort Worth, Tex , 14 16 

Indianapolis, Ind. . 18 8 20,8 

Jacksonville, Fla I? 19 

Kansas Citv, Mo. . 17.5 19.5 

Louisville, Ky 19 21 

Memphis, Tenn . . 15.5 17.5 

Milwaukee, Wis... 18.6 20.6 

Mobile, Ala 16 18 

Newark, N.J 21,5 22.5 

New Haven, Conn 22 24 

New Orleans, La , 16 18 

NewYork, N. y 22 24 

Oklahoma City, Okla 16 19 

Omaha, Neb 21.25 23.5 

Philadelphia, Pa 21 24 a 

Pittsburgh, Pa 21 24 

Richmond, Va 21 23 

St. Louis, Mo 18.2 20.5 

St. Paul, Minn 21.5 23.5 

Salt Lake City, Utah 20.5 22.5 

San Francisco. Cal 19 22 

Seattle. 21 24 

Spokane, Wash 24.5 27.5 

Washington, D. C 21 23 

Rolling Stock 

PecrleBS Stage tines, Oakland, Calif., re- 
oonll.y purchased two Fagcol safety coaches. 

California Transit Company, Oakland. 
Calif,, has recently purchased two Fageol 
safety coaches. 

£aHterii MaHHacluiHettH Street Railway 
has arranged for the purchase of three 2J- 
ton Stewart chassis which will be equipped 
with Paterson bodies. 

Walter M. Aldrlcli, Norwich, N. Y.. liai 
added to his equipment a twenty-two pas- 
senger Fageol coach of the Intercity type. 

Pacific Electric Railway recently pur- 
chased five specially designed White buses 
for use in feeder service in southern Cali- 

The Washington Rapid Transit Company, 
Washington, D. C, recently purchased 
through Fred L. Martin, district manager 
of the Fageol Motors Company, a Fageol 
parlor car. 

De Brynn & Hesselgrave of the Belling- 
ham-Sumas line, Bellingham, Wash., re- 
cently put into service a specially con- 
structed eighteen-passenger bus, the cost 
of which is reported to have been $8,000. 

The Ohio Motor Bus Company, Columbus, 
Ohio, will soon install on the Broad Street 
Bryden Road line fourteen single-deck, 
thirty-passenger buses, built by the Ameri- 
can Motor Truck Company, Newark, N. J. 

Ben Davis Transit Company, which oper- 
ates between Indianapolis and Ben Davis, 
Ind., lost three buses in a recent fire which 
entirely destroyed the company's garage 
near Indianapolis. The garage will be re- 

The Northern Motor Bus Syndicate, 1311 
Harmon Place, Minneapolis, Minn., has re- 
cently purchased two Fageol Intercity 
safety coaches. They are operated over 
the Minneapolis-St. Cloud route, a distance 
of 68 miles. 

G. W. Bruce, College Park, Ga., recently 
purchased a slxteen-passenger bus from the 
Atlanta branch of the Republic Motor Truck 
Company. The body of the bus is the 
char-a-banc type and is mounted upon a 
Rapid Transit cliassis. 

The Tri-City Transportation Company, 
operating the Neenah-Menasha-Appleton, 
Wis., bus line, recently added to its equip- 
ment a twenty-passenger bus and is con- 
templating the purchase of another bus of 
tlie same capacity in the near future. 

Michigan United Railways has had con- 
structed a new bus mounted upon a spe- 
cially designed Reo Speed Wagon chassis. 
Tlie bus will be used to supplement the 
street car service in one of Lansing's out- 
lying districts. 

S. W. Kni^lit. Portland, Ore., operating 
the Dunthorpe-Rivera line, has added a 
specially constructed thirteen-passenger bus 
to his equipment. The body was designed 
and built by Hal De Waide of Portland 
and \r. mounted ur>on a Reo Speed Wagon 
chassis extended 70 in. 

Newburgh (X. Y.) Public Service Corpora- 
tion, a subsidiary of tlie Orange County 
Traction Company, has placed an order 
with the Fifth Avenue Coach Company, 
New York City, for seven double-deck 
buses. This type of coach has been in use 
on the Newburgh Company's lines for sev- 
eral months. 

Business Notes 

v. C. Bowman, chief engineer of the 
Standard Motor 'Truck Company. Detroit. 
i\lich., has been appointed vice-chairman of 
the Frames Division of the Society of Auto- 
motive Engineers. Mr. Bowman has been 
serving on the frames division during the 
past year. 

The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company 

announces the removal of the Toledo, Ohio, 
jobbing branch to larger quarters at Spiel- 
bush and Michigan Avenues in that city, 
and the establishment of warehouse dis- 
tributing points in Lima, Ohio, and Fort 
Wayne, Ind. 

The Paterson Vehicle Company, Pater- 
son, N. J„ has made plans for the con- 
struction, in the near futiu-e, of a 70 x 200- 
ft. two-story addition to its bus body plant. 
The present shop is inadequate to take care 
of the business already contracted for. 'The 
company has also recently built an exten- 
sion to its forge and bl.acksmith shop. 

Advertising Literature 

The General Tire News, house organ of 
the General Tire & Rubber Company, 
.\kron, Ohio, devoted the entire October 
number to a discu.ssion of bus tires, illus- 
trated with pictures of buses from all over 
the country, equipped \vith General tires. 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Compan.v, Detroit, 
Mich., has just issued Bulletin No. 1204 
concerning principally the new series Hyatt 
roller bearing. Fundamental data regard- 
ing sizes and load-carrying ability are pre- 
sented for both the new series and small 
roller series Supplemental bul- 
letins covering specific applications of Hyatt 
bearings to axles, transmissions, etc., will 
be compiled soon. 

Niw Yurk, Fcbruaiy, I'm 

Shop Operations (or Doii])l(^-D( ckc^rs 

New York City Line Runs <in Kive-C'ent Fare — C'(ist-('uttinj,' hink> Inrlude 
Trimmer for Solid Tires — TravelinK Shop Developed for Emer- 
gency Service — New ()ne->Ian Body on Trial 

KEEPING 5-ton trucks running 
in bus service is some job. If 
you don't believe so, try and 
do it, or better, ask the Concourse 
Bus Line, Inc., which seems to he 
petting away with the job in New 
York City. This is just what one of 
the editors of Bus Transportation 
has done, and the experiences set 
down here were Kiven to him for the 
benefit of ail good and true bus 

First let us take a look at the route 
and equipment, which represent, it 
is believed, the only 5-cent line in the 
world operating double-deck buses. 
At present a flat 5-cent fare is 
charged, from anywhere to anywhere 
on either of the two routes covered 
by the Concourse buses. So far as is 
known the claim for the world's 
championship is good. If there is 
another such line or bus system, here 
and now it is invited to stand up and 
make known the fact of its existence. 

Under the supervision of the City 
Department of Plant and Structures, 
the Concourse line ()i)erates twenty 
double-deckers, each of fifty-pas- 
senger capacity. Of these fourteen 
are Diamond-T's and six are Pack- 
ards. Standard .5-ton truck chassis 
are used, with minor modifications 
the company has made to meet the 
unusually severe service. The bodies 
are substantially built and one of 
them, which is described later in 
this article, has recently been re- 
modeled for one-man operation. 

Two routes are worked, totaling 10 
miles of streets, both for the greater 
part of their length along the Grand 
Concourse, a wide boulevard leading 
through a newly built-up district to 
Mosholu Parkway, near the northern 
boundary of the city. Downtown 
one route starts at Fifth Avenue and 
110th Street, the northeast corner 
of Central Pai-k. and the other, 
known as the Huh Rr.ute. at Third 

Diiiihh-dcck body an remodeled lor oiie-maii operntiini. Horn ctirrirn dnirr'n 
iDDioiniccmetitu, and perixcope gives n'cic of top deck 

Avenue and 149th Street, where 
trolley, elevated and subway lines 
from lower New York come together. 

The Concourse is lined with huge 
apartment houses, which in the 
summer months supply a daily busi- 
ness of about 40,000 passengers. 
Traflic is growing rapidly, and the 
possibilities for the future are shown 
by the fact that last year some two 
hundred millions of dollai-s were 
spent for new buildings along the 
Concourse. Operating conditions 
also are likely to improve since the 
use of the central part of the Con- 
course is to be permitted. This is 
asphalted, whereas the side lanes 
used previously were macadam. 

Most of the highway covered is 
.'traight and level, but life is made 
interesting for the bus operators, and 
also, and particularly, for the shop 

mechanics, by a few stretches where 
good-sized hills, sharp turns, and 
rough pavements are found, each one 
separately or all together. The main 
features of the heaviest city traffic, 
as pick-ups at every corner, frequent 
stops before the up-raised hand of 
the law, and a rush of business in 
good weather, are present in 
full degree. 

Home of the Concourse Buses 

When the line was first opened in 
.July, 1921, a building designed to 
service motor trucks was taken over 
and fitted up to serve as • place 
where the Concourse double-deckers 
could be fed, cleaned, sheltered, and 
if need be, doctored. The shelter is 
a one-story brick structure, 200x200 
ft. in size, and located directly on 
the route. It was necessar>- to lower 




Vol.2, No.2 

Concourse charging stand, capacity twenty 6-volt batteries. 
At left is shouni portable lamp and long cable. 

Blacksmith shop in corner of Concourse building, 
with forge, anvil and bench equipment 

the floor 3 ft. and at the same time 
the roof was mounted on 24-in. 
I-beams, running the full width of the 
building. With these as supports, 
only one row of columns is needed, 
leaving plenty of room to drive the 
buses. Gasoline is stored in five 
underground tanks, each of 1,000 gal 
capacity. Lubricant is kept in iron 
drums. Supplies of all kinds, and 
this includes repair parts, are stored 
only in moderate quantities, on ac- 
count of the quickness with which 
they can be secured. All the impor- 
tant units, as engines, transmission, 
rear ends, are stocked, however, for 
both types of chassis. 

Composition of Shop Force 

From fifteen to twenty men are 
employed in the shop, the larger 
number in the summer rush sea.son. 
These are divided about equally 
between day and night forces. The 
latter consists mostly of cleaners. 
The mechanics are paid from $35 to 
.$50 for a six-day week, and this pay 
covers also an extra half day each 
week when they are held in reserve. 
In addition to specialists on engine 
and chassis repairs, blacksmiths and 
body builders are included in the 
shop force. 

While no set program is followed 
for the overhaul of the buses, they 
are inspected carefully each day, and 
adjustments or replacements made 
whenever required. This practice is 
considered more effective than stated 
overhauls based upon mileage or time 
operated, since each bus does differ- 
ent work and should receive individ- 
ual treatment to keep it in condition. 
The Concourse records indicate that 
the buses do between 3 and 3.5 miles 

to the gallon of gasoline, not a bad 
lerformance considering all the con- 
ditions, and that no special fuel- 
.-aving devices are used. 

Drivers are forbidden to make 
changes or adjustments in any part 
of the bus mechanism. They are 
rarticularly warned against touching 
the carburetor, ignition or braking 
systems. In winter, however, they 
must carry pliers, so that water in 
the cooling system can be drained if 
the engine is stopped for any length 
of time. 

Emergency service on the road is 
provided by two vehicles, a 1-ton 
Ford truck and a 2-ton Rainier truck 
with slat-side body. The Ford body 
was made in the Concourse shops. 
From a distance this looks like an 
express-type body, with posts, top 
:nd curtains. Really it has a double 
floor, the upper one built across the 
top of the body sides. The space 
underneath contains drawers used 
for storage of small parts, while the 
tailgate, to which is attached a vise, 
can be used for a workbench. In the 
illustration the tailgate is shown 
opened, with iron rods supporting it 
at the I'ear end. 

Shop Tools and Equipment 

The type of work carried on in the 
Concourse shops is shown by the 
equipment in use. This includes a 
G. E. Tungar charging outfit with 
capacity for twenty 6-volt batteries, 
portable-type lamp clusters, engine 
stands, small electric drills and valve 
grinders, two portable cranes for 
lifting heavy units from the chassis, 
blacksmith's forge and anvil, and the 
usual benches and vises for hand 

According to the Concourse com- 
pany, the life of the solid tires used 
on its buses is practically doubled by- 
the use of a trimmer designed to 
pare off rear tires. This device, 
which is here illustrated, consists of 
a cutter mounted on a heavy wooden . 
stand, -with two- slides controlled by 
handwheels. One wheel moves the^ 
cutter the face of the tire, and 
the other controls the depth of rub- 
ber taken off.- By the use of this 
trimmer the tire is kept smooth until 
it is worn down to the limit, which 
.■^efms to be almost to the steel rim. 
The rear tires thus treated give well 
over 15,000 miles of service. 

Changes in Rolling. Stock 

As mentioned pi-eviously in this 
article, a number of changes in the 
original buses have been made as a 
result of the one and a half years of 
operating experience. Vacuum tanks 
and governors have been removed, 
steel wheels have replaced the 
cushion type -on the rear, and light- 
ing batteries are used instead of 

The vacuum tanks were removed 
and gravity feed installed, after the 
connections to manifolds had given 
continual trouble by plugging up and 
bi'eaking the joints. The cause 
seemed to be a dark crystalline sub- 
stance which was lodged in the con- 
nections. Chemical analysis showed 
that the fuel contained only the 
normal amount, or traces, of sulphur, 
but it was thought this might have 
been sufficient to make trouble, be- 
cause of the severe operating condi- 

A few cushion wheels are still 
used in fi'ont, but those on the rear 

February, 192:? 




No. 2 emeiyeiicj) ivii()OH. Side drawers slioirn open, 
and tailgate di)iiii to Kerre an ii'orlxlieiich 

DeiHce for trimniiiiy rough MpotH on nolid rear lire». 
Handirheelx mure ruttrr in tiro dirrrlioim 

have been replaced by steel wheels. 
With the old equipment trouble was 
experienced with wheel bearinps, 
after overheatinK had turned the 
grease to the consistency of a fluid. 
The cause, it is thouRht, was the 
closely spaced spokes on the cushion 
wheels, which interfered with air 
circulation, and thus forced the in- 
tense heat generated in the brake 
drums into the bearings. 

Brake linings are replaced ever\- 
3,000 or 3.500 miles, the stitched and 
lapped type being used. Tests are 
now being conducted to determine 
the life of brake drums with hard 
and with soft linings. Hard linings 
wear out the pressed steel drums 
rapidly; in fact, the drums become 
so filled with ridges as to interfere 
seriously with braking after only 
2,500 or 3,000 miles of service. 
Longer life from the drums might 
easily make up for the shorter life 
from the soft linings. The important 
thing, of course, is the combination 
of the two that will keep the brakes 
working right, and after this to keep 
down the operating costs. 

In body construction also the com- 
pany has taken steps to change 
equipment better to meet its peculiar 
conditions. A late development is 
the remodeling of the body on one 
bus for one-man service. This body 
was of the conventional double-deck 
type, with stairs at the rear leading 
to top deck and center door at the 
rear for lower deck. With the new 
construction the rear stairs have 
been removed, the rear center door 
turned into an emergency entrance, 
and a service door for both decks 
placed at the right of the driver, just 
as in one-man single-deck practice. 
The stairs are inside, between the 
driver's position and the left-hand 

side of the body. Aprons at the top 
of the stairway can be closed in bad 
weather, when only the lower deck 
is used. A view of the body accom- 
panies this article. 

Several ingenious devices have been 
worked out for the convenience of 
the driver. A periscope arrange- 
ment gives him a complete view of 
the top or upper deck, a sound trans- 
mitting device with a horn on the 
top deck carries his announcements 
nf streets to the passengers there, 

and a combination and bell 
signal is available for by all the 

Because of the single coin fare 
basis and the use of a fare box pas- 
sengers for the two decks, upper and 
lower, can be handled by the 
driver through the one entrance. 
The results since the first of the 
year of a trial of the new body are 
reported as .satisfactory, and un- 
doubtedly other bodies will be con- 

Evolution of tlie Bus in Britain 

TUF; history of the motor bus in 
Europe proves Great Britain to 
be the pioneer nation in the develop- 
ment and use on a large scale of the 
heavier type of motor vehicles for 
passenger transportation. 

From 1903 to 1906 Germany was 
the chief manufacturer of commer- 
cial motor cars in Europe, but Great 
Britain was the largest user. In 
1905, when the motor bus boom 
stai'ted in London, chassis were 
largely imported from Germany, 
France or wherever they could be 

The motor buses of those days were 
huge, unwieldy things weighing more 
than 11,000 lb. The streets and 
roads were unprepared for them: the 
foundations gave and the surfaces 
became like the English Channel on 
a choppy day; but the heavy, lum- 
bering cars still thundered along, 
shaking buildings to their founda- 
tions and developing all sorts of sub- 
sidiary noises in their own defective 
internal economy. None too efficient 
at the start, some cars, as they de- 
teriorated, became expensive to run; 
Fome required a gallon of gasoline 

for every 2i miles of operation, and 
a British gallon at that. It was 
scarcely surprising then that an out- 
cry arose against all sorts of heavj' 
motor traffic, though it was the bus 
that bore the brunt of this move- 
ment. All sorts of drastic regula- 
tions were promulgated and the out- 
look was dark. 

It was at this juncture that the 
type B thirty-four pas.senger omni- 
bus was designed. This new bus, 
although far smaller and lighter than 
the older vehicles, had equal carry- 
ing capacity and was far superior in 
both cost and manner of operating. 

The London General OmnitHis 
Company has been the principal 
user of these buses. The As.sociated 
Equipment Company. Ltd., has built 
to date a total of .3.314 of thene 
vehicles, of which the London com- 
pany has purchased 2,900. 

At present London operations use 
1.000 of the thirty-four sealers, 
1,010 of the forty-six sealers, and 
645 of the latest fifty-four seat pat- 
tern on the roads. vehicles on 
the whole are capable of accommodat- 
ing 115.290 pas.sengers at one time. 




Vol.2, No.2 


lins! nptration in Florida is growing rapidly. At present 69 routes schedule 575 trips over 2,966 miles of highvrnj. 
In a single day ths ISJf buses listed in the accompanying table travel nearly 50,000 miles 





Type of bus operating between Tampa and Lakeland 

Buses Thrive in Florida 

With New Highways Connectinjj the East and West Coasts Cross-State lius K(»ute> lieiome 
a Possibility and Render a Service that Is Not Available on Kails — The Second Longest 
Bus Line in the Country Runs Between Jacksonville and Miami — Nearl> Seventy 
Routes Are Now in Operation Over Approximately .5. 000 Miles (»f High- 
way with an Average Fare per Passenger-Mile of 4 Cents 

MOTOR BUS transportation is 
Ijoth new and old in Florida. 
Tampa had a jitney war some 
eight years ago and Miami is just 
finishing one. Until the past four 
years, however, the bus as a public 
passenger conveyor was usually a 
built-over touring car or truck and 
generally home-made. Prior to that 
time the state had depended solely 
on the steam railroads for passenger 
transportation out.side of the cities. 
But now Florida has awakened to the 
value of the motor bus as a means 
of passenger transportation not only 
for urban but for intercity, resort 
and country travel. At present there 
are sixty-nine routes, to be exact, 
operating over 2,966 miles of high- 
way at an average rate of fare of 4 
cents per mile of passenger haul. Ac- 
cording to the schedules collected, 
these buses, of which there are 184, 
make 575 round trips daily and travel 
roughly 50.000 miles. 

Fares are practically the same as 
charged by the railroads. There has 
been no visible attempt at joint rate- 
making. The bus men have met com- 
petition on an even score so far as 
rates are concerned and have gone 

the railways one better, so to speak 
in giving more frequent service. 

Approximately 50 per cent of the 
buses probably are migratory — that 
is, they are brought here for the 
winter and go north for the summer. 
On the east coast the migratory class 
will run as high as 75 per cent. Busi- 
ness on the west coast is a more 
stable quantity — generally because of 
the year around development of that 
section and also because of the fact 
that the buses there serve beach re- 
sorts that are popular with thou- 
sands of persons who do not go north 
or to the mountains. 

About 80 per cent of the buses now 
used were built for the business. Very 
few lines are maintained with tour- 
ing cars or home-made buses. The 
most popular type is that with four 
to eight five-passenger full cross 
seats arranged back of the driver. 
At the ends of each seat are doors 
half way up. If a shower comes 
along curtains are re.sorted to. It is 
a street car type of bus with aisles 
down the middle, and windows were 
imported for the winter of 1921- 
1022, but they were not popular. 

Many people still think of Florida 

as being 99 per cent everglade.s and 
some sort of a wild southern pio- 
neer state. The only part of such 
a thought that is true is that of 
being one of the pioneer states, per- 
haps, for it did not become a state 
until 1845, after being ceded by 
Spain in 1821. 

For the most part, the state wa.-* 
not developed until after the heyday 
of the street car. and so, except in 
the larger cities, buses have taken 
their place as a means of transporta- 
tion within the towns. As for in- 
terurban traflk, in which the great- 
er number of buses ply their trade, 
they are by far the most interesting 
and comfortable method of travel- 
ing. Florida from a train window 
is uninteresting, not to say disap- 
iwinting. From an automobile or bus 
it is enchanting. In a country where 
it is irksome ever to be indoors 
trains or even electric railways are 
avoided. Partly for this rea-son, 
partly l)ecause of the distances of 
undeveloped country, interurban rail- 
way lines are practically unknown. 

But here the motor bus has come 
into its own, its value enhanced by 
the delightfulness of Its use all 




The standard vehicle of the Dixie Bus Line that operates betiveen 
Lakeland, Bartow and Winter Haven 

the year round, by the marvelous 
smooth roads that make motor bus 
travel unusually comfortable, and by 
the fact that it is practically with- 
out competition for comparatively 
.short distance travel, and often for 
quite long distance travel, too. 

Bus transportation, however, is 
still in its infancy in Florida, and 
as time goes on there is real opti- 
mism on the part of the present ope)-- 
ators that because of the steady 
growth and popularity of Florida as 
a winter resort bus operation will 
gain popularity as well and become 
more and more stable as the advan- 

Map of Miami showing the local 
transportation routes for both 
trolleys and jitneys. 

tages of the state as a resort be- 
come known. 

The bus opei'ator in Florida did 
not have to seek a solution to the 
question that has arisen in so many 
other localities, namely, "Shall the 
bus supplement or supplant the ex- 
isting electric railway business?" as 
there are only five cities in the state 
where local trolley lines are in oper- 
ation. These are Jacksonville, Key 
West, Pensacola, St. Petersburg and 
Tampa. In addition to these city 
trolley systems, there are two small 
suburban lines, one out of Miami and 
the other out of St. Augustine, each 
of which, however, is less than 10 
miles in length. 

General statistics of the state 
.showing its population, the number 
of miles of railroad, both steam and 
electric, the miles of highway for 
the state as a whole and under the 
jurisdiction of the highway commis- 
sion, the number of buses operated, 
which are shown in the accompany- 
ing table, will prove of value in ob- 
taining a vision of the magnitude 
of operation of buses as compared to 
other transportation agencies within 
the state. 

A more rapid development of the 
bus transportation business in Flor- 
ida has been hampered somewhat by 
the fact that practically all of the 
connecting country highways, with 
the exception of the Dixie Highway, 
from Jacksonville to Miami, and the 
new Tiemiami Trail, which extends 
from Miami to Fort Myers, and which 
is as yet only partially completed, 
have in the main but 9-ft. wide hard 
centers. These hard centers have a 

Vol.2, No.2 

.sub-base of crushed coral and a top 
dressing of asphalt with shoulders 
and sides that are back filled with 
the natural sandy soil of the locality. 
It is because of this light construc- 
tion that the state has placed a 
weight limit of 16,000 lb. on any type 
of unit that is operated over these 
highways. The limit is for total 
weight, which includes the vehicle 
and its load. 

In a great many localities the nar- 
rowness of the roadway, which re- 
quires constant turning off the hard 
center, makes for uncomfortable pas- 
senger riding, especially when cou- 
pled with the light-weight buses 
that have to be employed. The same 
necessity of continual turning off 
is also highly destructive to the 
longevity of tires and makes tire 
co.sts a great deal higher than is 
found in other sections of the 

It was some eight years ago, or 
about 1915, that the individually 
owned touring car type of "jitney" 
first appeared in Tampa and Miami. 
At Tampa, the public failed to give 
support to the enterprise and the 
owners soon found that continued 
operation in competition with the 
electric street cars of that city was 
not profitable and discontinued their 

In Miami, however, where the for- 
mer street car service was confined 
to practically two streets, with no 
attempt under way for extensions to 
keep pace with the rapid expansion 
of the city, the story has had a dif- 
ferent aspect. Touring car jitney 
service has survived and flourished 
on streets not used by the trolleys, 
so that there are now close to eighty 
vehicles serving the outlying sec- 
tions of the city. Operation is, how- 
ever, forbidden on sti-eets having 
trolley car service. An appeal on 
this action is now pending in the 
Supreme Court, where it was carried 
by the jitney association. 

The city of Miami has, also, at- 
tempted to pass ordinances to regu- 
late the jitneys and to limit the num- 
ber in operation in that community. 
This effort has met with little suc- 
cess, due to lack of enabling legisla- 
lation by the state. The city has, how- 
ever, succeeded in compelling the 
touring car drivers' association to 
file a blanket bond covering liability 
to the public in case of an accident 
in any jitney. This bond is to the 
amount of $10,000 and is filed with 
the city. 

A glance at the map indicates sev- 
eral important bus centers— Orlando, 





Tampa and Jacksonville perhaps be- 
ing the largest. 

Riidiating from Orlando, a aeries 
of routes reach out to Daytona, into 
Lake County, southward to Lake- 
land, and with a branch to the Ridge 
country, from Haines City south. Be- 
cause of its central location, and the 
fact that there is a system of punl 
roads radiating in all directions, Or 
lando stands today as the principal 
motor bus transportation hub. Like- 
wise Tampa is about the next largest 
center, with line.-j operating from 
Tampa to Clearwater and St. Peters- 
burg, to Sutherland and Tarpon 
Springs, Dade City, Plant City and 
Lakeland, and southward to Braden- 
town and Sarasota. From Lakeland 
there are lines to Winter Haven. Bar- 
tow and Mulberry. 

On the lower east coast the great- 
est boom to bus transportation has 
been given by real estate operators 
who, in developing the country within 
30 miles of Miami, operate their own 
vehicles. From West Palm Beach 
buses operate into the interior. 

During the winter months most of 
the bus lines out of Tampa and Or- 
lando operate every two hours, and 
in some cases hourly. During the 
summer most of the ser\-ices are twice 
a day, except between Tampa and 
Lakeland, Tampa and Clearwater and 
St. Petersburg, Jacksonville and 
Pablo Beach. Orlando and Sanford, 
Deland and Daytona, and perhaps 
other points where the service is 
three or four times each day. 

It was not until 1918 that service 
utilizing large buses was first es- 
tablished. This was at Tampa, where 
A. D. Hartzell of that city formed 
the White Bus Line. 

He now operates a line from Tampa 
through Plant City to Lakeland, a 
distance of 32 miles. Buses leave 
each city every hour from 8 a.m. to 
5 p.m. The run takes an hour and 
forty-five minutes. He has another 
line from Tampa to Cleai-water and 
St. Petersburg, also run every hour 
on the hour, which covers the whole 
Pinellas peninsula and reaches the 
Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 50 miles 
more. This trip takes two hours 
and fortj'-five minutes. There is a 
daily mileage of 640 between Tampa 
and Lakeland, and about 1.700 miles 
total for all branches. The White Bus 
Line operates buses of the type shown 
in an accompanying picture. They 
are of two sizes, carrying eighteen or 
twenty-one people. They are leather- 
upholstered and exceedingly com- 
fortable. Four of them are operated 
on the regular schedule between 

0)16 of fhe migratory sigh 

t-seeing btiKfii that make daily trips betwren 
nviUe and St. Anguutinc 

Tampa and Lakeland, six between 
Tampa and St. Petersburg, and a re- 
serve supply of six is kept for emer- 
gencies and for sight-seeing trips. 
In Tampa the company has joined 
with the other bus lines in estab- 
lishing a Union Bus Depot in an 
advantageous spot. The railroad 
union depot is three-quarters of a 
mile from the bu.siness district, con- 
sequently the bus lines are popular 
for short trips to neighboring cities 
and towns. The depot equipment in- 
cludes seats, information bureau and 
magazine and cool drink stand. 

Daily schedules are maintained 
during the winter between Jackson- 
ville and Miami, a stretch of nearly 
400 miles that winds whimsically 
along the Atlantic Ocean or through 
tropical jungles or through acres of 
citrus groves. From Miami to Palm 
Beach the winter service is hourly 
and in summer twice daily. 

With the completion of a number 
of paved roads radiating from Jack- 
sonville that city will take on new 
"bus life." Heretofore the only di- 
rection a bus could operate out of 
Jacksonville with any comfort was 
south, and to Pablo Beach. 

Other large companies are the 
Orange Belt Line. Orlando, and Flor- 
ida Motor Transportation Company. 
Miami. These companies maintain 
at their respective headquarters well- 
equipped garages and repair shops 
and do all of their own repair work, 
overhauling and repainting. 

Central Florida in the vicinity of 
Lakeland is also one of the impor- 

tant bus centers of the state. There 
are now four bus lines out of this 
city, operating fourteen regular 
buses, covering L892 miles and car- 
rying an average of .500 pas.sengers 
a day. In winter, during the height 
of the tourist season, figures 
increase considerably, both for the 
number of buses and the numljer 
of passengers carried. These routes 
also cover all of the roads with bu.see. 
One reason that Lakeland is an im- 
portant center is that here connec- 
tions are made for Tampa on the 
.south and Daytona on the north. The 


Dnwr', Cily R«9W1 at Cal 
II J. So. 0»t» 

TIRES: <Km» i«n>t<4 u pm 

Rttbt rnf-r 
R «M R..r 

If lh*r* «ajr ■MckMirO tr«»U> ' If m l^t t 

6ir>*«*« Mart ««*• •«■ (>« f^fn *^ *^ •* *• 

Driver' A daily report card ahow* 
ing condition of tnu. 




Vol.2, No.2 

value of the bus service in this ter- 
ritory is demonstrated by the fact 
that Lakeland and Orlando are two 
of the fastest growing centers in 
substantial housing development of 
any in the interior sections of the 

The southern end of Florida, ex- 
cept on the east coast, is without any 
form of transportation service. Fur- 
ther, there is no direct through con- 
nection either by bus or raih'oad 

across the lower section of the state. 
The only cross-state transportation 
route, that is, from the east to the 
west coast, is from Fort Myers to 
West Palm Beach. In this case it 
is possible to go from Fort Myers 
to Moore Haven by bus, where a pas- 
senger boat connection via the drain- 
age canal and Lake Okeechobee can 
be made daily to West Palm Beach. 

The four cross-state roads — Tampa 
to Fort Pierce, Tampa to Melbourne, 

Fort Myers to West Palm Beach, and 
Fort Myers to Miami — only recently 
built — attracted new bus lines. The 
first two link the east and west coasts 
with the first direct road connec- 
tions. Hitherto one has had to go 
as far north as New Smyrna and 
Daytona to get from coast to coast 
by either bus or train. 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
recognizes the necessity of this cross- 
state service and has shown the bus 

Statistical Information Regard 

ing Motor Bus Routes in Florida as of Jan 

. 1, 1923 


















Averase No. of 

Round Trips 

per Day 

Normal Outside 




13 uses 









Avon Park to Haines City 





1 10 


















18 5 

5 1 



12 5 

2 5 





















12 • 

































$1 75 

2 30 
(i) . 15 
(a) -15 

4 50 

3 75 
8 00 
1 75 
1 10 

5 00 
3 00 
1 00 
1 50 


1 00 

2 10 


2 50 


3 00 
1 05 


1 50 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
1 25 

1 15 
, 15 








3 50 

2 25 

1 00 


2 00 
1 25 

I 00 
1 75 
1 50 
1 00 
1 20 
5 00 

1 00 

2 50 
1 00 



. 15 






. 10 















. 15 









1 00 




5 00 




1 00 






























3 71 

4 29 

5 00 
5 25 

7 90 
5 55 

3 13 
5 00 

4 17 

4 17 

2 71 

3 14 

2 92 


5 21 


4 17 

2 78 

4 17 

3 50 

2 55 

5 00 

3 24 

8 34 
3 51 
3 35 

6 66 

3 33 

4 28 

7 50 

5 56 












































































































































11 :00 




8 :00 

7 :00 

8 :00 
8 :00 








1 :00 

11 :00 
11 :00 
3 :.30 


22 min. 
15 min. 


9-10 hr. 


1 hr. 


45 min. 


30 min. 
45 min. 

12 hr. 

48 hr. 


15 min. 

12 min. 
45 min, 
21 hr. 
20 min. 
IJ hr. 


20 min. 





n hr. 

li hr. 
30 min. 

2} hr. 
30 min. 
20 min. 
45 min. 
20 min. 

3§ hr. 


3i hr. 

2i hr. 
65 min. 
1 5 min. 
55 min. 



li hr. 
30 min. 

1} hr. 

2! hr. 
45 min. 
75 min. 
60 min. 

2i hr. 

41 hr. 

U hr. 


1} hr. 
45 min. 


15 min. 
15 min. 

20 min. 


Daytona to Daytona Beach and Sea Breeze 

Daytona to Daytona Reach and Sea Breeze 

3 min. 
5 min. 


Daytona (o New Smvrna and Deland 

6 hr 


Daytona to West Palm Beach . . 



Fort Meade to Frost Proof 

8 hr 



Fort Pierce to Lake Okeechobee 

Freeport to De Funiiik Springs 



Green Cove Springs to Jacksonville 

8 hr 



Haines City to Wintei Haven 



Jacksonville to Fernandina 

16 hr 


Jacksonville to Take City 

Jacksonville to Miami . 

24 hr 


Jacksonville to St. Aujriifitine 

Jacksonville to St. Augustine (c) 

4 hr 



Jacksonville Ferry to FletcherlPark, So. Jackson- 


So. Jacksonville to Mandarin 

6 hr 


24 hr 


Tjakoland — Citv route 


2 hr 


Lakeland to Milberry, Boston, Fort Meade and 

5 hr 


Lake Wales to Lakeland 


Lake Worth to West Palm Beach (d) 



Madison, Fla., to Sparks, Ga 

Madison. Fla.. to Tilton.Ga 

24 hr. 
24 hr. 


Marianna, Fla., to Dothan, Ala 

24 hr 



Mayo to Alton and Live Oak . . . 

24 hr 


1) hr. 
1 hr 


Miami — Citv Route in West Side 


Miami to Allapattah. Hialeah and Sugar Plnnta- 

1 hr. 


Miami to Coconut Grove (e) 

Miami to Coconut Grove 

1 hr. 


2 hr. 


Miami to Lemon City and Little River 

Miami to West Palm Hoach 

Milton. Fla.. to Florala. Ala 

15 min. 

1 hr. 
24 hr. 
U hr. 



Orlando to Kustis and Lcesburg. . . 


1 hr. 


Orlando to Winter Park 

Orlando to Winter Garden and Oakland 

18 min 
2s min. 



6 hr. 


6 hi. 


Plant Citv to Brewsterand Fort Meade 

2 hr. 


St. Andrews to Panama City and Millville 

St. Augustine to Palatka 

2 hr 


St. I^etersburg to Tampa 

Sanford to Geneva .... 

5 hr 


5 hr. 


1 hr. 


Tarnpa to Itradontown and Sarasota. , , 

2 hi. 


Tampa to Orlandu 



Tampa to Lakeland 

1 hr. 


Tampa to T>ake Wah-s (0 

24 hr. 


2 hr. 


Tarpon Springs to Clearwater 



Weewahitchka to Marianna 

24 hr. 


West Palm Beiioh toClewiston 




West Palm Beach to Palm Beach (M 

West Palm Beach to Revicre (City Route) 

30 min. 
1 hr. 

(o1 Sells to tickets for $1.00. Fare He. per paascnger over toll bridge between Daytona and Daytona Beach. 

(6) Runs 24 hours a day during busy season. 

(cl Two sight-seeing CDmpiiniea each operate a trip daily over this route. 

id) Sella two ohwaes of tickets— for regular commuters 6 for $1.00— and a 5-ride ticket for $1 . 00. 

(e) Sells tickets 10 rides for $1 , 75. 

(/) Sight/^iceing trip. Runs from Dec. 1 5 to March I. Time en route 10 liours .^toi> Tiutdc en route for meals, the cost of which is included in ticket fare. 

(|7I Makes one trip on Tuesday and Thursdav onlv. 

(MSellsa lO-rile tieket f..i Si.OO. 





and boat schedules in its public rail- 
road time-tables. This of itself is 
interesting as the listing was entirely 
voluntary on the part of the railroad 
and not at the request or sujfKestion 
of the bus men or boat operators. 
So far as could be determined, this 
is the only instance in Florida where 
the bus has been recojriiized by the 
railroads as a necessary supplemental 
service to their own railroad opera- 

In only one section of the state has 
there been a definitely drawn ques- 
tion as to competition between the 
buses and the steam railroads. This 
was over the line from Marianna to 
Panama City. Prior to bus opera- 
tion the one-way raili'oad fare was 
$3.50, but with the advent of the 
bus the traffic of the railroad was 
cut into .so heavily that in its at- 
tempt to hold its losing business the 
railroad made the round-trip rate 50 
cents less than the former one-way 
fare, or $3. Even in spite of this 
drastic cut the bus line is carrying 
practically all of the traffic between 
these two points. 

Many Connecting Links 

The value of any Florida bus sy.-*- 
tem lies not only in the buses leav- 
ing any one town but in the connec- 
tions with other bus lines. Starting 
from Lakeland, one can go almost 
anywhere in south Florida on board 
the bus. 

At Wauchula the South Florida 
Bus Service connects with a bus for 
Avon Park and Sebring; at Bartow 
for Lake Wales and Winter Haven; 
at Mulberry for Plant City; at Win- 
ter Haven one may connect with a 
line that goes to Orlando, which is 
different from the direct line from 
Lakeland to Orlando. 

It is almost safe to say that where 
there is a good road in Florida there 
is a bus line also. This is also true 

To Da/fon:* cimi^^. 

tht tastCoait-^l 
■Dirtct bui lint} out ofiaie/aafi 
Connecting lints \(jiiij"''wj 


■ ft Meode 

Avon Pork. 
^^^ ^ WoLchul. 

'aJ'A / Sehnng 

^■^ ^ To Pun/a Oorda^k^a^,a 


of the city streets and of the inter- 
urban highways. Many cities such as 
Lakeland have no street cars. A one- 
man bus, holding sixteen passengers, 
c<ivers the city in half-hour runs, the 
south side on the hour, the north 
side on the half hour. The fare is 5 

Buses Have High License Fees 

The bus operators of the state feel 
that they are being unjustly treated 
when it comes to license fees. They 
believe that the state is attempting 

the privilege uf operating buses over 
their local streets. Very few towns 
had availed themselves of this privi- 
lege, for they realized what a benefit 
the bus was to the general welfare 
of the community. A further hin- 
drance to the development of many 
short runs between various {Kjints is 
the fact that the bridges in the state 
of Florida over navigable waterways 
are toll bridges, necessitating a pay- 
ment of toll not only for the bus, at 
the rate in some cases of 2"> to 30 
cents for the vehicle, but alwi a toll 


Through Ui* Cv«rKl«d»«, OralnaKe C«n«lt, l..ak« Ok««cholM« 
and th« Cal«os«halche« Rlv«r 

Coldthoro, N. C 

TabI* 129 

W«« Palm B>Jch (Diui ArT|j 

• i.ljil.-;' 'BojljAr 4 

r Moora Haven, Fla. " LridS., 

l(.'rM>l:i oM-nilght) EltivaJ 

Meara Ha»n, Fla. (But) AflM.UM!. 

r Citrus Ont^T " l,v 11 30« 

' C'bljitu (A.C.L. Croaloc).. - L> II OOW 

Labillc - Lv 10 ecu* 

I-il«lle ; . .(Bus) Ar 10 XUJI 

Fori Dvnaud . . . , ■ Ar S «J« 

[Fort Myaf», Fla. " L v 8 »'• 

r For t Myarm. FU.. 


C.T — C«DtrmJT*me. E.T. — Fjulcro Time. ■ liKlly. t IJ&ilx, nc«pt Ruo^ay I ^urwlftv-rjal> 
I Stops for meals a SIcfpera may br uccuple^l until 7 30 s m. b .HirriK-rt Of^-n jl •&•! 
htvpr 10.00 p.m. c Tut-sdavB. Thurvt»\s anil .'^aturOais d MoDila'. .. We.lD«*l»y* »n.] 
Frldsyn. e Dally ctr«[>t .Sunrlay and \^'e<lD«-s>1ay t Htops oo -Is'U.J lo rr «i\r tx dp- 
rhArge paatentffrs g Dally rxr-gpt Sunday anil 'ro'irwls-. 


A. .M. tlm..' shown In LIMII (i.-r typr iv M Ui 

Thv Atlantic Coast Line Railroad prints in its public tiim-tablts the schedule* 
of connecting bus lines for cross-state travel 

Lakeland in an important bus 

to hamper the development and fu- 
ture of the bus industry by imposing 
a vehicle tax that is larger than other 
states demand. Formerly the bus 
men paid only a general state license 
and their vehicles were classed as 
trucks. However, by a state act tak- 
ing effect in 1922, the buses now pay 
three sets of taxes — a 1 per cent per 
gallon gasoline tax, a registration fee 
of 75 cents per hundredweight on the 
manufacturer's tonnage rating of the 
vehicle and finally a seat tax on 
the carrying capacity. This .seat tax 
varies. Buses with from eight to 
sixteen passenger seats pay $7.50 per 
seat per annum, whereas in case of seating more than sixteen pas- 
sengers this seat tax rate is increased 
to $10 per .seat per annum. Tour- 
ing cars for hire or engaged in regu- 
lar service pay $5 i)er .seat. This 
same rate also applies to hotel buses 
that meet the trains. This tax rate 
explains perhaps more easily than 
anything else the reason for the small 
capacity buses. 

This state vehicle seat tax dis- 
placed the right the various munici- 
palities had under a special state law 
to a fee of $50 per year for 

charge for each pa.s.senger. In spite 
of bus taxes no protection is 
offered to the bus man by the state 
in return. No franchise or exclu- 
sive rights are granted covering 
operation, and all that is necessary to 
exercise the right to operate is the 
payment of the vehicle fees required 
by the state. 

This leads to the situation much 
decried by the established lines, 
which operate all the year round, in 
that during the winter or tourist 
season, when business is heav>', buses 
from the northern states emigrate to 

Table I — (Jent-ral Transpurlatimi 
Slali'.iir- for Kliirida 

I'opuIatloD . 


.Vrni in aquan- ml* • 

Ijiml . 





<*rli,.w w-ith iM-puInf 1. I. Hi 

SO.OOOl.. 100.000 


2S.0OOln SO.OOO 


S.OOOlu 2).000 



Ijintrnt rity — JacL*-.nvilli-. po|iu 



Milra nf hi«h»aj-« Milaidf 

of mwaaAd tDvna 


Milr« of bus rout''* 


Suinbrr of routr^ 


Numb*'r o( vrliirl'-- 


Op<-n . r cl'awl |.u-<-> 


yjt\uiiA\*^\ bus niilnt o<>rTa 
.M ilraar of flmnc rmillra> 




•■ AUJL 


MUrajiv of tlram nUlraada, Jan. 

. »U . 



Florida and compete on established 
runs with the regular bus men. 

In Jacksonville there are a num- 
ber of such buses which come down 
and engage in sightseeing business. 
This, however, is not a cause of gen- 
eral complaint as they do not run a 
regular schedule nor do they inter- 
fere with the regular scheduled runs 
from Jacksonville. 

The jitney operators in Miami for 
some time past have had an active 
organization which has attempted to 



conserve their interests. However, 
the regular bus lines have been with- 
out organization until November, 
1922, when A. D. Hartzell called a 
general meeting of the bus owners 
of Florida at Daytona, and a tem- 
porary organization was formed 
which plans to take steps to seek a 
revision in the laws of the state 
covering buses so as to secure per- 
manency and protection to the bus 
owners' investment and also a read- 
justment of the license fee. 

The Second Longest Bus Line 
Is in Florida 

Year-Round Operation Secured by Use of Buses in Asheville, N. C, 

During the Summer Months — Maintenance Handled in 

Own Shop by Force of Six Mechanics 

THE second longest bus line in 
the United States is at present 
found in the state of Florida. There 
is a prediction, however, that within 
a comparatively short time it will 
have grown to the longest intra- 
state line in the country. At present, 
however, the line from Los Angeles 
to San Francisco is the one bus line 
that exceeds in distance the line 
operated by the Florida Motor 
Transportation Company. This com- 
pany has its main offices in Miami, 
Fla., although it operates several 
bus lines out of Asheville, N. C. 

To get the proper background for 
a detailed story of the extent of 
of this transportation 
is well to go back to its 

company it 

Eight years ago two bus lines 
were started in Miami, the White 
Star Auto Line and the Clyde 
Passenger Express. The former 
ran from Miami to West Palm 
Beach, a distance of about 68 miles, 
and the latter from Miami to Home- 
stead, which cities are about 32 
miles apart. These two lines, both 
pioneers in Florida bus transporta- 
tion, operated for five years. 

Three years ago, or in 1919, a 
consolidation of the two lines was 
effected under the name of the Flor- 
ida Motor Transportation Company. 
New equipment was added by the 
purchase of several buses from the 
Cleveland-Akron (Ohio) Line. For 
two years the Florida Motor Trans- 
portation Company maintained the 
runs of the two original lines, that 
is, from Homestead on the south to 
West Palm Beach on the north. 

In 1921 the northern terminal was 

The interior of the bus indicates 
leather upholstered seats and 
ample aisle space, with center 
dome lights. 

changed from West Palm Beach to 
Jacksonville, which extension made 
the length of the through run 
nearly 400 miles. 

During the winter of 1921-1922, 
thirty-six buses were operated from 
Miami. This winter, 1922-1923, the 
l)lans called for operating forty-two 
buses, which number includes sev- 
eral buses of an entirely new type 
to Florida. Last summer ten buses 
were in service. 

It is interesting to stop right here 
and tell how the bus business has 

Vol.2, N 0.2 

been piade a year-round paying 
venture when the difference in the 
winter and summer traffic is so 
great. The same company operates 
three bus lines running out of Ashe- 
ville, N. C. Here the summer traffic 
is heavy and the winter traffic com- 
paratively light, which allows buses 
to be shifted from one place to the 
other. The light season in Florida 
is the heavy season in Asheville, 
and vice versa. 

The Florida Motor Transporta- 
tion Company has chosen the White 
Company's chassis as standard 
equipment. Open-type passenger 
Avery bodies which are electrically 
lighted and upholstered in leather 
are used exclusively. Some buses 
seat sixteen passengers, others 
twenty-two, while a few can accom- 
modate twenty-four passengers 

Buses are run on a regular 
schedule, and many compliments 
have been received on the way 
schedules are maintained. The 
buses are as dependable as trains 
except in case of unavoidable de- 
lays caused by unforeseen break- 
downs. These are few, however, 
for the company by careful main- 
tenance keeps its vehicles in 
excellent operating condition. Be- 
tween West Palm Beach and Miami 
an hourly schedule is maintained 
in each direction. Between Home- 
stead and Miami six trips each way 
are made daily, while but a single 
trip is made daily between Jackson- 
ville and Miami. On this trip, which 
covers a distance of 390 miles, an 
overnight stop-over is made in 
Cocoa, which is about half way. 

Amount of Traffic Handled 

In the winter season on the three 
routes mentioned the buses carry 
on an average of 50,000 passengers 
a month, while in the summer this 
drops off to about 12,000. The eco- 
nomic value of having an ownership 
in the three Asheville lines can be 
further realized from these figures. 
For the three Asheville lines the 
summer traffic runs about 30,000, 
while in the winter season only 

Routes and Fares Charged- 

-Florida Motor Transportation Company 











. Parrs . per Mile 

Ono-Way Houinl Trip {Cents'! 
$110 $2 00 3.43 

Miami to Fort I.iiudordale 

l''()rt LiiudcrdHle to Wost Palm Beach , . 

Wf^t Palm Bnach to Jackaonvillo 

.Miami to Jacksonville 

Miami to West Palm Beach 

1 . 00 2 00 3 15 

1,75 3 50 4 17 

12 00 22 00 3.75 

13.50 25 00 3.50 

2.75 5.00 4.05 

February, 1923 




Several vehicles of this type are i» regular service 

aljout 9,000 passengers are handled 
per month. 

The one-way rates of fare 
charged on the Florida lines aver- 
age less than 4 cents per mile and 
on the whole are about the same as 
railroad fares. The actual rates are 
shown in the accompanying table: 

The fares charged between Miami 
and Jacksonville do not include 
hotel charges and meals en route. 
This is done so that passengers can 
stop overnight at Cocoa or wherever 
they please. 

In the near future it is planned 
to extend bus service from Jackson- 
ville to Daytona, a distance of 110 
miles, and likewise from West Palm 
Beach to Daytona. This latter run 
will be nearly 200 miles long. 

In Miami the company has its 
own garage at 38 X.W. Second 
Street. It is 50 ft. wide and runs 
through to N.W. First Street and 
has a total depth of 300 ft. Here 

ail repair work is done by si.x 
mechanics who are on the job at 
all times. Everj-thing is done to 
keep the buses on the road instead 
of in the shop, for it is realized that 
a bus cannot make money unless it 
is in operation. Another advantage 
of carrying on all maintenance work 
in one shop is the lowering of 
operating costs. Florida operating 
costs average between 27 and 28 
cents per mile. On the si.vteen- 
passenger buses between 13 and 14 
miles operation is obtained from a 
gallon of gasoline, while the larger 
buses average from 9 to 10 miles 
per gallon. 

Passenger Depot Planned 

In another year it is the intention 
of the company to transform the 
present garage into a large motor 
bus depot and to move its oflice 
there. Traffic demands in Miami 
liv that time will be such that a 

Latei^t tiii" 

• n type brxlii nii White chassix 

change will be ubisolutely neces- 
.-iary, especially during the winter 
months. This can be realized from 
the fact that Miami haw grown 44<) 
per cent in the lant ten years and 
is keeping up thix rapid pacu today. 

Pa.ssenger traffic is about equally 
divided between long-haul and 
«hort-haul riderH. Thia in iihown 
by extensive records for the paiit 
three years. 

Ticket offict-s have been establisht-*! 
in Home.stead, Miami, F"ort Lauder- 
dale, Delray. West Palm Beach and 
Jacksonville. Others are to be added. 
In addition to the ticket offices 
maintained by the company, repre- 
sentatives of "Ask Mr. Foster" 
handle tickets. Losses through the 
theft of fare.s have been very small, 
but the officials believe it best not 
to put too much temptation in the 
way of the drivers. All drivers 
work on a straight salary, which 
varies from $25 to $3.') jn-r wi-ok, 
depending on the run on which they 

.Vow for just a word or two about 
the three lines running out of Ashe- 
ville, N. C. : One line extends from 
Asheville to Greenville, S. C, a 
distance of 62 miles over which 
four round trips are made daily. 
The one-way fare is $1.75 and the 
return-trip ticket rate is $3. The 
second run is between Asheville 
and Waynesville, a distance of 32 
miles. Four round trips a day are 
operated. The one-way fare is 
$1.25, with a reduction of 25 cent^ 
in the round-trip rate. The third 
run is from Asheville to Black 
Mountains, a distance of 18 miles. 
On this route an hourly schedule i.s 
maintained for twelve hours daily. 
The one-way fare is 75 cents and 
the round-trip fare is $1.25. On 
these three Asheville routes eight 
buses are operated during the 
winter months and twenty in the 
summer season. 

In the last analysis it is the cash 
that tells the .story. What does all 
this work, this planning, this system 
bring in? Last year the company 
did a gross business of $16.5,000 in 
Florida and about $75,000 in Ashe- 
ville. This winter everybody says 
there will be a bumper tourist crop 
in Florida, so people are more opti- 
mistic than ever. 

The officers of the Florida Motor 
Transportation Company are: J. N. 
Oliver, president and general man- 
ager; W. H. Andrews, vice-presi- 
dent; S. P. Rohineau. secretary; 
H. H. Moore, treasurer. 




Vol.2, No.2 

Operating Costs Are Given for Bus and Trolley Services — Also, an Account of Detailed 
Studies Made of Traffic Conditions on the Fifth Avenue and Chicago Motor Bus Systems 

Trolleys Favored for Surface Transport 

in Large Cities 

By John A . Beeler 

Consulting Engineer 

possibility of supplanting the 
present street car service in New 
York City with an equivalent bus 
service, the principal factors are the 
following: (1) Adequacy, (2) first 
cost, (3) cost of operation, (4) ef- 
fects on public. It is necessary to 
consider adequacy on an all-year 
basis. No one would think of oper- 
ating open street cars through the 
winter, and similarly the open-top 
double-deck type of bus employed on 
Fifth Avenue cannot be depended on 
for its full seating capacity in mass 
transportation throughout the year. 
Checks at Thirty-third, Forty-second 
and Fifty-seventh Streets of the 
number of passengers and seats of 
the Fifth Avenue buses in each di- 
rection between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. 
taken on Dec. 15, 1921, show only a 
small percentage of seats occupied. At 
Fifty-seventh Street, the maximum 
load point, during the evening rush 
hour when the city's transportation 
systems are taxed to the utmost, only 

•Abstract of report to New Tork Transit 
Commission made public the early part of 
January. 1923. 

65 per cent of the available seats on 
the outbound buses are occupied. 
The observations were taken on a 
fine clear day with an average tem- 
perature of 26 deg. F. 

To inclose the upper deck of this 
type of bus would render the vehicle 
topheavy and increase the liability 
to accident. It would also reduce the 
clearance beneath the elevated and 
other overhead obstructions. The 
single-deck type of bus, seating ap- 
proximately thirty passengers, seems 
best adapted to the general require- 
ments in New York City. 

The bus presents certain opportu- 
nities for obtaining greater mobility 
of service than the street car. It can 
load at the curb, and in blockades or 
breakdowns can run around the ob- 
struction. It can be short-lined 
readily at any desired point and en- 
tirely rerouted on short notice in 

In capacity, however, the bus is 
less elastic than the street car, a 
factor of great importance in han- 
dling rush-hour crowds. Operating 
over rails in a fixed path, the street 
car is not only capable of smoother 

operation but can with safety ana 
economy be built larger. The bus, 
weaving in and out of traffic and 
operating over pavements, the best 
of which have irregularities, is sub- 
ject to lurching and abrupt move- 
ments that should limit its capacity 
to one passenger per seat. -The 
average car can provide readily for 
as many as four standing passengers 
to each five seated during the maxi- 
mum load period, and there is flexi- 
bility in the application of such a 

When the rush-hour demands are 
greatly in excess of the base, as in 
all large cities, this difference of 
capacities puts a considerable handi- 
cap on the bus, and undoubtedly has 
much to do with the fact that no 
important city as yet is served solely 
by buses. Where they are used in 
conjunction with other transporta- 
tion means it is noticeable that the 
rush demands on the latter must 
take care of the passengers who can- 
not be accommodated by the buses. 

The surface lines in Manhattan 
now operate during the base 561 cars 
with an average seating capacity of 

Table I — Comparative Bus Operating Costs — Cents per Bus-Mile 

Number of buBes 



Gas and oil 

Conducting transportation. . , . 


Gen4^ral and misoellaneouB 

Injuries and damages 


Maintenance and supplies 

Road expense 


Total expense (operating) . . . 



Fixed charges 








— o 






















12.90 24.94 


2.10 4.14 





















oi h a 


'3; 66 


39.61 37.50 41.68 

Total cost per bus-mile 41. 

Xotcs: * Two-man operation. 

a Additional depreciation in adjustment accotmt. 
b Docs not include taxes. 


25.92 25.83 25.68 


- M 



'6! 57 





































M 35!? St. 

— -v.'V 






— ;-^ ' * 


7 8 9 10 U IZ 1 Z 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 II 1? 1 2 3 4 

A M, p;-'. 

6 7 

forty-two, and in the rush periods 
1,002 cars. To carry the same num- 
ber of passengers on the basis of 
service stated above would require 
786 buses in the base and 2.538 dur- 
ing rush hours. To allow for re- 
pairs, etc., 15 per cent should be 
added, bringing the total buses re- 
quired up to 2,919. The surface car 
traffic of all lines in New York City- 
is about two and one-half times that 
of the Manhattan lines. Applying 
this factor 7,297 buses would be re- 
quired to handle the traffic now car- 
ried on the surface lines in the city. 
Based on the above estimate the out- 
lay for the installation of a complete 
bus system, including garage and 
shop facilities, will be at the rate 
of |7,500 per bus, or a total of 

The car lines are already in use 
and the tracks are in the streets. 
They have a value which is being 
determined by the commission. To 
remove them and restore the paving 
of the .streets will millions of 
dollars. While it does not directly 
affect this estimate, the question re- 
mains as to who would bear the cost 
of such a change. Undoubtedly it 
will be borne by the public in one 
form or another. 

Looked at in a broad way, the cost 
of service includes the total expendi- 
ture, whether paid directly by the 
operating company or indirectly by 
the public. Although the bus sys- 
tem has the smaller installation cost, 
the major portion of the difference 
is that the railway must provide and 
maintain its roadbed, track and pav- 
ing. With buses the expense for 
these items is, as a rule, borne by 
the taxpayers; but it is none the 

Diayrainx shouiny tiajfic ha)i- 
dled on north and soiilkbound 
trips, Dec. 15, 1921, wheti the 
meather was fair and the arer- 
aye temperature 26 deg. F. 

less an important item in the cost 
of the service and for a true com- 
parison must be included. Another 
important factor in determining the 
cost of service is the relative life 
of plant and equipment. The bus has 
a life of one-third that of a street 
car, or even less. 

For the purpose of determining as 
accurately as may be the cost of bus 
operation the available .statistics 
from operation of buses in New York, 
London, Chicago, Detroit and other 
localities have been analyzed. They 
are presented on a bus-mile basis in 
Table I. In this comparison only 
the two-man type of operation will 
be considered, for where the one-man 
bus is applicable the one-man car 
can be used equally well. Table I 
shows that the total cost of service, 
averaged from the American com- 
panies operating two-man buses, is 
41.5 cents per bus-mile, exclusive of 
wear and tear on paving.* 

•In the Atlantic Uonthlj/tor Aii)rti5>t. 1921, 
ihls iti'm Is estimated by Phllli • ' • • ' 
about 10 cents per ton-mile. 

Table II — Composite OperatinK Iteport 

of Fifty-two .\miTiran City .Strcft 

Railways. Six Months Kndcd 

June .30. H"2I 

Operat inst rcvenur 

OperatinK expeiua. . . 


Interest anfl other revenue deflueiititu> . 

■ r Car-Mile 


46. S 

7 5 

Total coat . 

« 7 

111 New York the co.hI of «lreel cat- 
operation is exceptionally high. The 
adoption of modern and efficient 
methods of operation .should reduce 
this materially. An average of the 
cost of service, including taxes and 
interest, for street railways in the 
United States, as shown in Table II. 
is 45.7 cents per car-mile. 

The greater capacity of the street 
car makes each car-mile operated in 
base hour service equivalent to 1.4 
bus-miles, and each rush hour car- 
mile equivalent to 2. .53 bus-miles, 
making a weighted average of 1.81 
bus-mile.s to each car-mile over the 
day. One car-mile costing 45.7 cent.s 
is, therefore, the equivalent of 1.81 
bus-miles costing 75.1 cents. Hence 
the cost of bus .service, not including 
the indirect costs mentioned above, 
is approximately 65 per cent greater 
than the average cost of street rail- 
way service. 

Effects on the Public 

A seat per passenger at all time.s 
is an attractive feature of bus serv- 
ice except that it sometimes involves 
waiting. To secure efficient opera- 
tion it is necessary to fill all the 
seats during periods of heavy traffic. 
Consequently at such times there 
must be a surplus of passengers wait- 
ing, reservoir-like, along the route 
to do this. 

In other ways the relative merits 
of the bus and street-car .service de- 
pend largely on the territory ser\'ed. 
In spar.sely settled sections the 
smaller capacity of the bus is no dis- 
advantage and may even result in 
greater frequency of .service. In 
many localities, especially where car 
lines as yet do not exist, the bus mav 




Vol.2, No.2 

Table III— Vehicle Count at Fifth Avenue and 57th Street 
Data Taken Dec. 15, 1921 


, Other Vehicles . 












7:00 to 









7:15 to 









23 6 

7:30 to 









7:45 to 









25 2 

8:00 to 









25 6 

8:15 to 










8:30 to 










8:'«5 to 









17 8 

9:00 to 









16 7 

9:15 to 










9:30 to 









16 1 

9:45 to 









15 8 

10:00 to 10:15 








13 6 

10:15 to 









13 5 

10:30 to 









12 7 

10:45 to 









15 9 

1 1 :00 to 










11:15 to 









15 5 

11:30 to 









15 5 

11:45 to 









14 7 

12:00 to 12:15 








14 9 

12:15 to 12:30 








18 8 

12:30 to 










12:45 to 










1:00 to 









15 2 

1:15 to 









14 9 

1:30 to 









17 1 

1:45 to 









18 5 

2:00 to 









17 6 

2:15 to 









13 6 

2:30 to 









17 3 

2:45 to 









16 7 

3:0& to 









14 6 

3:15 to 









15 9 

3:30 to 









14 9 

3:45 to 









14. 1 

4:00 to 










4:15 to 









15 3 

4:3 (to 









14 2 

4:45 to 










5:00 to 










5:15 to 










5:30 to 










5:45 to 









14 1 

6:00 to 




















6:30 to 










6:45 to 














Table IV— Average Speed of Buses, Fifth Avenue, New York 

Period Number of 
of Observa- 

Section of Street Day tions 

( A. M. Rush 7 

Washington Square to 23rd St ■ Base 24 

[ P. M. Rush 9 

[ A. M. Rush 8 

23rd to 31st Sts -Base 26 

I P. M. Rush 9 

A. M. Rush 

3 1st to 42nd Sts \ Base 

I, P. M. Rush 
( A. M. Rush 

42nd to 57th Sts ' Base 

[ P. M. Rush 

57th St to 125th. St. and 7th Ave.. 

57th St. to 135th St. and Broadway. 

A. M. Rush 


P. M. Rush 

A. M. Rush 


P. M. Rush 





7. II 
3 50 
3 56 
5 39 

5 70 
7 70 

6 50 
9 23 

21 5 

22 2 

23 5 
29 8 


8 12 
5 80 


9 30 
9 87 

10 40 

Table V — Speeds of Fifth Avenue Buses on Different Routes 

Route of Day 

125th S t. a n d 7th A v e. t o ( A.M. ' 

Washington Square \ Base 1- 

\ P.M. 1 

181st St. and St. Nieholaa Ave. ( A.M. 1 

to 25th St. and Fifth Ave Base j- 

[ P.M. J 


168th St. and Broadway to ( A.M. 

Pennsylvania Station -1 Base 

[ P.M. J 

168th St. iind Bioadway to ( A.M. 1 

Washington Square { Base } 

I P.M. I 

72nd St. from 1st Ave. to ( .\.M. 1 

Central Park West { Base \ 

[ P.M. I 

157th St. and Broadway to ( A.M. 1 

Pennsylvania .Station \ Base \ 

I P.M. J 

193rd .St. and St, Nicholas Ave. ( .\.M. 1 
to 1 25th St. and 7th .\ve { Base 'r 

[p.m. J 

in Miles 

':■ 6 . 25 


Running Time 

in Minutes 

43 7 



8 50 

9 10 







M P.H. 


8 20 


9 78 

7 80 

8 84 
8 91 
8 65 


8 06 

7 30 


8 52 

8 02 
8 56 


10 77 


Grand Average _. 

Note: Each of the above speeds is the averajre of four trips observed. 


be much more economical on account 
of the smaller investment. 

In congested districts frequency of 
headway presents a different prob- 

lem. Concentration of passengers is 
here advantageous. For instance, in 
the heaviest half-hour of the after- 
noon eighty-eight buses on Fifth 

Table VI — Speed and Stops of Chicago Motor Bus Company's Buses 

Made Oct. 19 and 20, 1921. from Center of Link Bridge, South on Michigan Avenue. 

West to State Street. North on State Street, East on Washington Street, 

North on Michigan Avenue to Linls Bridge 


Time in 

Number of 

Time of Stops 



Via Time of Day 

in Miles 



in Seconds 

Speed MP. 11, 

... . 9:10A.M. 


15 50 
11 50 







1:35 P.M. 







1 473 

17 00 





5:24 P.M. 

1 473 

19 25 



4 59 




14 75 



7 41 







8.57permile 18.96 


Between Center of Link 

Bridge and North 


( Outside Loop) 


Time in 

Number of 

Time of Stops 

Average Speed 


To Time of Day 

in Miles 



in Seconds 


Link BridKC 

Devon Ave. 9:25 A.M. 


36 00 




Devon Ave. 

Link Bridge 10:25 A.M. 

8 45 

50 50 




Link Bridge 

Wilson Ave. 11:27 A.M. 

5 96 

25 50 



14 01 

Devon Avf. 

Link Bridge 12:51P.M. 

8 45 

43 50 



M ,60 

Link RridRe 

Edg It Hotel 1:53 PM 

6 90 

32 50 



11 65 

r)cvon Ave. 

Linkllri.lge 3:00 P.M. 

8 45 




11 78 

Link Bridge 

Edg B. Hotel 4:01 P.M. 

6 90 




12 16 

Edg.B. Hotel 

Link BridKo 4:49 P.M. 

6 90 

35 00 



11 82 

Link Biidgc 

■Devon Ave. 5:43 P.M. 


45 25 




Devon .\vc. 

Link Bridge 6:48 P.M. 


45 25 










2 54 per m 

le 8 45 

11 87 

Avenue passed Fifty-seventh Street 
northbound carrying 2,828 passen- 
gers. This was at the rate of nearly 
three buses per minute with an aver- 
age load of thirty-two passengers. 
With the same number of street cars 
6,688 passengers could have been car- 
ried. To accommodate this latter 
number of passengers on buses more 
than seven buses per minute would be 

Effect on Street Congestion 

At present the buses on Fifth 
Avenue represent 15 per cent of the 
total number of vehicles in the street. 
On account of their size and fre- 
quency of stops they are responsible 
for a great deal more than 15 per 
cent of the congestion, however. To 
increase the rate to seven buses per 
minute would, with the traffic inter- 
ferences at intersecting streets, cause 
an intolerable congestion. Indeed, it 
is highly questionable if they could 
receive and discharge their passen- 
gers and move through the streets. 

February, 1923 

Table Vll 

Srt:ra> AM> S-rors orCiiiOAUo Motmu His i'om- 

I'ANT'B Buses Betweb.v Nohtii Tehmi.vai.s 

AND Downtown Retuhn Stiikki.-. 

Made 0<'T. 19 and UU. I'.'Jl 




Time of 5tu|N» 
Avenme ruiiniug 8iK-f<l 
.Average number ol atup-t 
.Average lime per Btop. . . 

6.11 buB-liuuni 
86 66 

3.335 MC 
10.70 m.p h. 

3 . 28 jHT mile 
M 74 s.r 

In referring' to Fifth Avenue it 
is for the purpose of illustration only. 
Upon it operates America's largest 
bus line. The double-deck type of 
bus used there is admirably suited 
to the unusual traffic demands, which 
are largely shopi)ing, sight-seeing 
and fair weather riding. 

FiKTH Avenue Operation 

The following table is from an 
article in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal of July 24, 1920, written by 
George A. Green, general manager 
and engineer of the Fifth Avenue 
Coach Company. The data apply to 
that section of Fifth Avenue below 
Fifty-seventh Street. 

Period Per Hour 

Morning rush 193 

Mid-day 107 

Kvcning rush 184 

Sunday 144 



The above figures indicate that the 
number of buses operated in the base 
is increased 80 per cent to cover the 
rush-hour requirements. 

It is estimated herein that 786 
buses will be required in the mid-day 
and 2,538 in the rush hours. This 
means that the number in service 




Table \ 111— t oniparativf ltu« .^ 

Table IX — Comparati 

»e Street 

New York and Chicago 

Car Specdii 


.\K\V YOHK (Kifih Ave C-oaehCo ) 

III »''»ng»*n''<l -ii'Tn ' "li rifiti \\«- l«'wr«-n 


t 42 


4 74 


♦ 95 



( llicililiatt . 

* 95 


9 80 

Philadelphia (Burfaee Ijim-« 

10 M 


10 12 

.Avernge of all Uiiitricta 

« 37 


10 II 
10 It 

('IIIC.ACOlC'hirago.MuIui ll.i- < 

'.'. ' 1 1 f • 

10 21 

In Loop DiMtriet 

10 5« 

(>utj,itli-of L'Hin lluttitrt 
.\ver»Ke of ttII«lt-'r"-•- 

1 1 »7 
10 70 

1 in. ,,«.. 

10 52 
10 64 

In Upip Uistrirt 



i tutjitde of Ltxfp l>iatrirt 

~' l-'.ub 

1 1 


Table X— Results of Twi-Im- 

lliiur TraMic Count, 7 a.m. lo 7 

. Thursday, 

Dec. 1'.. 11I2I 

, Fifth .\\fnuf Coach ( ompanv 

Per C«it 

South Bound Trips 

Vo. of . S«-nf- PsMenge 



Point of Obser^'ation 

Buitm Total IVr ilu» Total I'rt Ku* 


Fiflh.Ave. at 57lh.St 


64.730 48 23.697 

17 6 

Fifth .Ave. at 42nd St. 


62.119 48 7 21.505 

16 9 


Fifth .Ave. at 33rtlSt 


61.757 48 7 13.140 

10 4 


North Br..,...l Trip. 

Fifth .Ave. at 33nl.'!t 

1.251 61,43) 48 9 15.581 

12 4 


Fifth .Ave at 42nd Si 


62.424 48 5 21.813 



Fifth Ave. at 57tnSt. 


f.5 20S 48 9 21.710 

It 3 


during the base will have to be in- 
creased 223 per cent if the buses are 
to accommodate the rush-hour 

Other Statistics 

In addition to the tables mentioned 
above, Mr. Beeler's report contained 
considerable other statistical infor- 

The curves illustrate graphically 
the number of passengers and seats 
on buses of the Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company passing Thirty-third, 
Forty - second and Fifty - seventh 
Streets in each direction between 
7 a.m. and 7 p.m. These observations 
were taken on Dec. 15, 1921, a clear 
day with an average temperature of 
26 deg. F. The large percentage of 
seats unoccupied all day and even in 
the peak of the rush hour denioii- 

.stiales the fact that unprotected 
seats on the upper deck do not fur- 
nish all year .service. 

Table I shows in tabulated form 
the cost of service for thirteen bus 
companies. Four of, including 
London and New York, operate the 
two-man type of bus. The remaining 
nine comi)anies operate the one-man 
type of bus. In all the ih 
itemized where possible with the in- 
formation available. With taxes, 
fixed charges, and depreciation, the 
cost of two-man bus .service is shown 
to be practically 41.5 cents per V)U.s- 
niile for the American companies. 

Table II shows the revenue and 
cost of service of the average Amer- 
ican city street railway. The figures 
given are the average of the actual 
revenue and cost for the si.x months 
period ended June 30, 1921, for com- 

Table XI — Cost of One-Man Motor-Bus Serv 
per Bus-Mile 

ice in Cents 

Table XII— Cost o 

One-.Man Street Car Service in Cents 
per Car-Mile 








7 3 




5 5 

3 8 

28 3 




3 54 
9 02 

4 06 

Maintenance: way and structure 1 . 46 
Maintenance: equipment .. 1.55 

Power 1 . 04 

Conducting Iransponalion . 6 35 
General and miscellaneous . . 1 . 92 

Total operating 12.52 

Taxes 2 
Depreciation 2.4 
Interest 4 9 

Total ooat of ser\'ici •21.62 

2 5 
6 5 


2 4 
4 9 


8 4 



•25 J 


2 5 

1 5 

2 5 
7 5 

17 S 

2 4 




1 7 

2 5 




. 2*.i 

1 94 

Maintenance: equipment 



5 62 
9 92 
4 06 

General and miscellaneous 


27 5 


1 9 

Total operatinK 


Depreciation. . 



1 87 



2 93 


Total cost of service 

2 5 
32 7 



I eenla 

A — J. C. Thlrlwall. railway enRinwi- General Electric Coinpany. 
in Klcctric Ititihrotf Journal. Oct. 1. 1921. 

H — K. V. Simmon, railway pnginfcr WostinRliouse Electric & 
ManufacturiiiK In Ehctric Raihcati Journal. Sept. 10. 
1921. with Interest, t.axos. and depreciation calculated on basis 
of costs and life of bu.s as given by Mr. Simmon. 

t" — Waller Jackson, consulting engineer, in Electric Raihcay 
Journal. .Aug. 27, 1921. 

n — C. W. .Stocks, now editor of Bus Transportatio.v, in Electric 
Rnihcaii Journal. Sept. 21. 1921. 

E — Actual average costs, midwestern property operating sixty- 
six cars, year 1921. H. L. Andrews, General Electric Company. In 
Electric Raiheaii Journal. Oct. 29. 1921. 

F — Cost estimate of holding company operating se%'er«l hundr**d 
cars. H. !>. Andrews. General Electric Company. In Etrclrtc Rail- 
way Journal, Oct 29, 1921. 

C; — Actual average results In 1920 of ten companies operating 
.iOO cars. H. Iv. Andnws. General Electric Company. In Electric 
Railicaii Journal. Oct. 29. 1921. 

H — K. F". Simmon, railway engineer AVestlnghouse Electric A 
.Manufacturing Company. In Klcrlric Rallu-au Journal, Sept. 10, 

I — J. <^. Thlrlwall. railway engineer General Electric Company. 
In Elcrtrir Railira)/ Journal. Orl. 1. 1921 

J — c. W. Storks, now editor of His Tbansi-obtation. In Electric 
Railwau Journal. Sept 24. 1921. 

•Taxes depri.-clatlon. and Intiresl estimated. 




Vol.2, No.2 

panics operating in fifty-two cities as 
reported to the American Electric 
Railway Association. 

Table III shows, in tabulated form, 
a count of vehicular traffic at Fifth 
Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street on 
Dec. 15, 1921, from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. 
From 7 to 25 per cent of the 
total vehicular traffic on Fifth 
Avenue is buses, the average for the 
full twelve-hour period being 15 per 
cent. The average speed of the Fifth 
Avenue buses in various sections 
along the route and for different 
periods of the day is shown in Table 
IV. To one familiar with the terri- 
tory, the speed attained in the dif- 
ferent sections is comparable with 
the congestion encountered. The 
speed between Washington Square 
and Twenty-third Street averaged 
between 7.5 and 8 m.p.h.; in the 
section between Thirty-first and 
Forty-second Streets it was less 
than 4.5 m.p.h.; between Forty-sec- 
ond and Fifty-seventh Streets, it 
varied from 6.9 m.p.h. in the morning 
rush to 4.9 m.p.h. in the evening 
rush. The speed north of Fifty- 
.seventh Street is greater than in 
any other section. This territory is 
very favorable for fast operation, 
there being long distances with few 
or no intersecting street crossings. 

Table V gives speeds of Fifth Ave- 
nue buses for various routes at dif- 
ferent periods of the day, the average 
for the system being 8.37 m.p.h. 
Each speed recorded is itself the 
average of values taken on four trips. 
There were several tables of 
speeds of buses operated by the 
Chicago Motor Bus Company. In 
the Chicago Loop District the aver- 
age over various periods of the day 
was 5.81 m.p.h. Outside the Loop 
District the average speed through- 
out the day was 11.87 m.p.h. In 
this section, however, the stops aver- 
age only 2.5 per mile, and much of 
the territory is through parks and 
boulevards where there are few inter- 
secting streets. Details pertaining 
to the different sections of the route 
are shown in Table VI, while a com- 
posite of this information is given 
in Table VII. In this connection it 
is interesting to note that the aver- 
age speed of all the Chicago surface 
cars, as shown in Table IX, is 10.64 
m.p.h. or practically the same as for 
the buses, while that of lines operat- 
ing in sections similar to the bus 
territory is very much higher. 

A comparison of the .speeds of the 
buses operated in New York and in 
Chicago is given in Table VIII. The 
general average of 8.37 in New York 


The analysis cf the proposi- 
tion to supplant street car 
service throughout the city cf 
New York t^ith buses may be 
summed up briefly as follows: 

Adequacy — Bus service to 
be adequate must provide 
each passenger with a seat at 
all times. The type of bus 
must be such that its full 
capacity will be suitable for 
all seasons and in all weather. 

First Cost — Appioximately 
7,300 buses, with shop and 
garage facilities, will be re- 
quired at an estimated cost of 

Cost cf Service — The cost of 
bus service will be approxi- 
mately 65 per cent greater 
than street railway services. 

Effects on the Pufe/ic— Bus 
service should result in more 
frequent headway where light 
travel exists, but will intro- 
duce intolerable congestion 
where traffic is heavy. A seat 
per passenger sounds desira- 
ble but waiting in line is not 

is comparable to 10.70 in Chicago. 
The difference in speed is 2.33 m.p.h., 
or 28 per cent faster in Chicago. 

Table IX compares the speed, be- 
tween terminals, attained by the 
surface street cars in twelve of the 
largest cities in the United States. 
All of these speeds apply only to 
cars operated in city service. In 
several cities where a company oper- 
ates both city and interurban service, 
the interurban cars have been omit- 
ted. With one exception Chicago 
heads the list, the average speed 
being 10.64 m.p.h. with stops averag- 
ing about six per mile. Exclusive of 
the Loop District, which in all prob- 
ability is the most congested surface 
car territory in America, the speed 
averages 11.63 m.p.h. The approxi- 
mate average speed in the other cities 
shown is about 10.2 p.m.h. 

An analysis of the curves showing 
the traffic handled by the Fifth 
Avenue bus service indicates that 
when the are loaded heaviest, 
which is between 8 : 15 and 9 : 15 a.m. 
at Fifty-seventh Street, only 52 per 
cent of the seats are filled. The all- 
day average shows the proportion of 
seats occupied to be 37 per cent at 
Fifty-seventh Street, 35 per cent at 
Forty-second Street, and 21 per cent 
at Thirty-third Street. The general 

average at these locations shows that 
31 per cent of the seats furnished 
are occupied, which means an average 
load at these points of fifteen pas- 
sengers per bus. In northbound 
traffic the average percentage of 
seats occupied between 7 a.m. and - 
7 p.m. was twenty-five at Thirty- 
third Street, thirty-five at Forty- 
second Street and thirty-three at 
Fifty-seventh Street. The general 
average of these locations is 31 per 
cent or the same as that southbound. 
Between 5:15 and 6:15 p.m., the 
hour of heaviest traffic northbound, 
176 buses carried 5,580 passengers at 
Fifty-seventh Street. This Is about 
the number that the subway carries 
in seven minutes on one track and 
at a much higher speed. Other tables 
give estimates of the cost of bus 
and one-man electric car operation 
as contributed to the Electric Rail- 
way Journal. The costs of one-man 
bus service, in Table XI, show the 
average to be 34.2 cents per bus- 
mile. The average of the first three 
columns, as given by Messrs. Thirl- 
wall, Simmon and Jackson, is 36.1 
cents. These figures allow for addi- 
tional service for rush periods. In 
the last column Mr. Stocks gives a 
figure of 28.7 cents, which he states 
does not include any provision for 
more service during heavy traffic. 

The average cost of one-man bus 
service as given in Table I (with 
charges for taxes, depreciation and 
fi.xed charges allowed, where not 
given, at the average rate of that 
for the other companies) is 27.1 
cents. Little or no additional rush- 
hour service is provided by any of 
these companies, it is understood. 

The foregoing indicates that the 
cost of one-man bus service, without 
provision for additional rush-hour 
service, would be about 28 cents, 
while, with allowance for additional 
service in the rush periods, it would 
be about 36 cents. However, taking 
34.2 as the average and comparing 
it with the figure of 41.5 for two- 
man bus service, it is seen that the 
cost of one-man bus service is 82 per 
cent of the cost of two-man service. 

The cost of one-man street car 
service as given in Table XII is 26.2 
cents per car-mile which is about 57 
per cent of the cost of two-man car 
service. Thus, it appears that the 
possibilities for more economical 
and efficient operation are greater 
with the one-man street car than 
with the bus. As has been pointed 
out in the report, wherever one-man 
bus operation is applicable, one-man 
car service is equally so. 

February, 1923 




Motor Bus Aclivities al liie National 
Aulonioljile Shows 

MeetiniLts and Exhibits Indicate that (ieneral Advances Have lU-en 
Made in Construct iim — Many Parts Designed for lUis Service — 
Railroad Kxecuti\e I'avors C o-ordination of Kail and Motor Transport 

A DVANCES in the construction 
Z\ of motor vehicles as a whole 
X JL and in those designed for buses 
in particular were everywhere in evi- 
dence during the national automobile 
shows held during the first month 
of the year in New York and Chi- 
cago. Another sign of the interest 
taken in motor transport was the 
address given by a Pennsylvania 
railroad executive before the Society 
of Automotive Engineers, and warn- 
ing them that co-ordination of the 
different forms of transport, road 
and rail, whether carrying freight 
or passengers in mass, was absolutely 
essential for the good of the public 
and of all the interests concerned. 

The show season, in addition to 
furnishing manufacturers with a 
chance to display their latest equip- 
ment, also offered an opportunity for 
meetings of various organizations, 
manufacturing and technical, and 
for the discussion of the more press- 
ing problems which the industry 
must face and solve. 

At meetings of the National Au- 
tomobile Chaml)er of Commerce, to 
which all the leading manufacturers 
of passenger cars and motor trucks 
belong, matters of interest to bus 
operators were also discussed. At 
a motor truck conference, the main 
subject was, how to get the money 
for them. A representative of a 
financing company made important 
recommendations as to installment 
.-^ales methods. 

A trade commissioner of the U. S. 
Department of Commerce told of e.x- 
tensive bus operation, mostly of small 
or light vehicles, in Japan. China and 
other parts of the Orient. 

The Motor and Accessory Manu- 
facturers Association, representing 
all the makers of parts for auto- 
motive vehicles, elected new officers 
at their annual business meeting. 

To one interested in bus trans- 
portation, it was remarkable to see 
the number of bus parts shown in 
strictly passenger car shows, but 
limited to passenger cars only as far 

as the exhibits of complete vehicles 
and bodies were concerned. 

The various shows at New York 
and Chicago brought out a number 
of exhibits of buses and bus parts, 
while in addition many manufac- 
turers, particularly of the lighter 
equipment, had quarters at the hotels 
where they could entertain their cus- 
tomers and show their wares. It will 
be impossible here to mention all the 
exhibits of equipment useful for bus 
service, but mention may be made 
of some of them. 

The Chicago shows at the end of 
.January brought out buses and parts 

is Shuler, and rear axle WiKconsin 
double reduction. Wheein are Budd 
steel disk, with 36x6 front and 36xG 
dual rear pneumatics. Sixty-four 
inch springs are mounted on the rear 
and Westinghouse air lirakes are 
fitted on the vehicle exhibited. Leece- 
Neville starting and lighting equip- 
ment is included. 

In the field of engines and acces- 
sories, the new bus engine offered by 
Waukesha stood out. This is a four- 
cylinder job with 4-in. bore and 
5-i-in. stroke. The cylinder head.s 
are of the Ricardo type, and give 
the effect of a semi-spherical top to 

Type of thirty-passenger bus shown by Americati Motor Truck Company 
at New York body show 

not exhibited at New York. Defiance 
and Passenger Lorry buses were ad- 
ditional exhibits, as were also Buda 
engines, Bethlehem wheels, Borg & 
Beck clutches, Fuller transmissions, 
Shuler front axles, Lavine steer- 
ing gears, Rome-Turney radiators, 
Teagle magnetos, Owen Dyneto gen- 

A composite frame features the 
Passenger Lorry design; this frame 
embraces in one structure, chassis, 
frame members and body framing. 

The Royal Coach, as the design of 
the Defiance Motor Truck Company 
is called, was exhibited with a Bender 
twenty-passenger de luxe body of the 
sedan type. The chassis, which has 
recently been developed, has a 200-in. 
wheelbase. The engine is a Con- 
tinental six-cylinder, the front axle 

the combustion space; this permits 
the use of a higher compre.ssion 
ratio, and therefore greater power 
and eflxiency, it is said, without 
knocking. The valves are of the 
L-head type, and aluminum pistons 
are used. Another feature of this 
engine was the use of "radiated" 
bearings on the connecting rod.s, 
these having grooves on the edge.** 
to carry away heat. Other engine 
exhibits included the Midwest with 
one six-cylinder and three four- 
cylinder designs, these including 
units for both single-deck and 
double-deck bus service. Continental 
showed seven engines, four four- 
cylinder and the rest six-cylinder 
types, for all t.v-pes of .service, pas- 
senger car up to the heaviest size 
of truck. Crankshafts, with counter- 




Vol.2, No.2: 

At top — Clark-cranked 
with 70-in. track. 

At left — Wheeler - Schebler 
Model S carburetor, ^vith air 
and fuel controls interconnected. 

At right — Ross steering gear, 
with variable gear reduction 
obtained by cam and lever 

balances forged integral, were shown 
for the first time by Wyman-Gordon. 

A new carburetor, known as 
Model S, was shown by Wheeler- 
Schebler. In this, the air valve and 
needle controlling the flow of gasoline 
are interconnected. Thus, when high 
power is needed, the area of the open- 
ing for air is increased, keeping the 
suction required at a minimum. On 
account of this type of construction 
the Model S carburetor, it is said, 
gives high power at high speed and 
dependable action at low speed as 
well. The Model S design is shown 
in the illustration. 

Complete lines of electrical equip- 
ment were shown by Scintilla, while 
Remy and Leece-Neville had starting 
and lighting equipment on exhibi- 
tion. Remy showed its new bus 
generator and control box. The gen- 
erator is a six-volt unit designed to 
carry 40 amp., with thermostatic reg- 
ulation. The control box includes 
resistance and relay units, fuses, and 
all .switches for ignition, outside 
lighting and interior lighting. It 
can be mounted on the dash or on 
the side of the body at the left of 
the driver. 

Bus axles were especially notice- 
able, both at the .shows and at hotels. 
The Clark-built Fifth Avenue Coach 
L-type axle received a great deal of 
attention. This is of the cranked 
internal-gear type. The center and 
cranks are a solid drop forging, and 
the wheel spindles are driven in to 
these cranks. The axle which is 
shown in the illustrations here, has 

an inclined drum in which is mounted 
the first (bevel) gear reduction. In 
addition Clark showed a 2i-ton bevel- 
gear single-reduction axle, said to 
be the largest of that type ever 
built. Timken-Detroit exhibited two 
sets of its wide gage bus axles — 
68 in. front gage and 72 and 74 in. 
rear gages respectively. Also it dis- 
played a front axle, with brakes, 
developed for taxicab service. L-M 
double reduction for chassis up to 
2i tons were shown, and also the 
same make of 5-ton axle with a 
triple-gear reduction. 

Among the important chassis com- 
ponents were the transmissions shown 
by Brown-Lipe. This company is 
supplying the horizontal type of 
transmission for low-level buses. 
For interurban bus service the 
fourth speed is geared up, with direct 
drive on third speed. For bus serv- 
ice, where quiet opei-ation is desired, 
the transmission gears on second 
and high speeds are ground and 

A three-speed transmission of the 
chain-drive type, as developed by the 
Fifth Avenue Coach Company, was 
exhibited by the Morse Chain Com- 
pany. This is substantially similar 
to a constant mesh gear transmis- 
sion, with chains used in place of 

A new line of steering gears was 
displayed by Ross Gear & Tool Com- 
pany. The four models are of the 
cam and lever type, as illustrated in 
the phantom view. The cam mechan- 
ism replaces the screw used previ- 

ously in Ross gears; it is mounted 
between ball bearings which take 
both thrust and radial load. When 
the steering wheel is turned, the cam 
turns in its bearing and moves up 
and down a diamond stud projection 
on the inner side of the lever. The 
lever then rotates the trunnion shaft,, 
which is pivoted in the sides of the 
housing. The total turning from f ul? 
lock of the wheels on one side to full 
lock on the other is made with from 
one and three-fourths to two and 
one-half turns of the steering wheel,, 
varying with the model. The prin- 
cipal feature of the new gear, how- 
ever, is the variable pitch on the 
cam. In the center the angle is very 
slight, whereas at the ends it is 
greatly increased. This gives a low 
reduction of the gear in mid-position, 
which is said practically to eliminate 
all road shocks when the vehicle is 
driven straight ahead. Rounding a 
corner a very slight turn of the wheel 
is required, and the ratio becomes 
constantly greater, the further the 
wheel is turned. The housing for 
the cam is assembled with shims, so 
that it is an easy matter to retain 
the right adjustment between the 
stud and the cam surface. Shim con- 
struction is also provided so as to 
permit adjustment of the ball 

Several 20-in. rim wheels, for 
"doughnut" tires, were shown. The 
Budd Wheel Company had one of these 
for a 32x6-in. tire, and also dis- 
played its 36x6 dual pneumatic disk 
wheel. A 32x6-in. wheel of the 

February, 1923 




laminated hardwood type was shown 
by the Hopkins Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Others were the Morand typi- 
of cushion wheel. Clark steel wheel 
in disk and spoke types, and Van 
wheels in metal (malleable) and 
aluminum spoke construction. 

Amonp accessories for rolling stock 
may be listed the Perfection ami 
Linendoll heaters, the new line ot 
Dietz Sentinel electric headlights and 
tail lights for heavy duty service. 
Folberth windshield cleaners driven 
with the help of the engine, and 
Berkshire windshield wipers, oper- 
ated by a small electric motor 
mounted above the windshield. The 
Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Company 
displayed Gruss springs in Transport 
Special and Heavy Duty types for 
bus work. 

Shop Tools a.nd Equipment 

All sorts of devices for intensive 
maintenance were shown at the 
Palace, and an overflow show was 
held at Madison Square Garden dur- 
ing New York Show week. At the 
Chicago show's, also, maintenance 
equipment was well represented. 

Lubricating devices included high- 
pressure guns, such as Bowen- 
Empress, Alemite, and the Warner 
Oil Gat. The last is put out by the 
Warner - Patterson Company and 
works with a trigger like a pistol. 
It is said to feed 600-W. oil at more 
than a ton pressure. 

Lamp stands or portable floor 
lights were shown by several com- 
panies. The Manley floor light is 
mounted on a stand with a bracket 
arranged so that the lamp arm can 
be set vertical or dropped down for 
use under the chassis. Battery 
charging outfits, some of them in- 
cluding electrical testing equipment, 
were exhibited by the General Elec- 
tric Company, Roth Brothers Com- 

W'liilfiild roach witli Fabrikoid imneh, nhoirii nl liody Kxiinmliiin in Sru- Yurk 

pany of Chicago, and by H. E. 
Witwer, Cleveland, Ohio. The G. 
E. Company displayed the Tungar 
charger, a current rectifier. For 
larger installations the Roth constant 
potential system was shown, consist- 
ing of an electric motor, direct con- 
nected to a dynamo, and with a 
charging bench for the batteries. 

Air compressors of the two-stage 
type with volume and pressure suffi- 
cient to service giant pneumatics 
were axhibited by Brunner, United 
States Air Compressor Company, 
American Pump & Tank Company, 
and the Utica Manufacturing Com- 

Presses and attachments, arbor 
and wheel, and portable hoists and 
jacks were shown by Manley, Ekern- 
Turk, Millers Falls Company, and 
the Midwest Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Minneapolis. The Auto Table 
Company, Inc., displayed a wheel 
table which includes a work bench 
and twelve trays for small parts. 
Also an auto trolley consisting of 
two cradles each with a pair of 
rollers to be mounted under the rear 

wheels, so that the engine can be 
driven and the wheels turned in 
making brake adjustment.s and in 
locating engine trouble. A runway 
or auto table built up on xtructural 
steel channels and standing about 
24 in. above the floor wa.s shown. 
This is recommended for all kinds 
of lubricating, repairing, crankcaM- 
draining, oiling, greasing of stand- 
ard gage cars, although it can be 
built for wide gages if required. 

At the Automobile Body Exposi- 
tion held in the Twelfth Regiment 
Armory three complete buses, each 
of a diff'erent type, were shown. included the American Motor 
Truck Company's thirty-pas.senger 
street-car type of bus, and its new 
seventeen - pa.ssenger six - cylinder 
Model F was used for demonstra- 
tion purposes. There was also a 
seventeen-passenger Whitfield Body 
with Fabrikoid, craftsman quality, 
panel covering on a I-jirrat)ee-I)eyo 
speed chassis, and a forty-pas.senger 
Maccar sightseeing char-a-banc, with 
a body designed and built by FitzGib- 
bon & Crisp. Inc. 

Frame of body dfucribed at S.A.E. eiiynaii imj .-irs.-.c 
Proposed to cut cost of closed passenger cars 

Siiii.i lj:tii, .' W/i .<... ..cttuijj lantdud to Iranvii.y. /' 
finished with buckram and neic type of fabric 




Vol.2, No.2 

All told there were sixty-eight ex- 
hibitors. Their exhibits were varied 
and included practically everything 
for bus and automobile bodies, from 
panel materials to the smallest 
fittings used in high-class custom- 
built bodies. 

Exhibits of panel materials in- 
cluded Haskelite, Plymetl, Vehisote, 
Agasote and Steelasote. Some of 
these were exhibited on completed 
bodies, or by means of photographs. 
Finishing materials included chem- 
icals for preparing metal panels for 
painting, such as Peroline and 
Deoxidine, paints and varnishes by 
Valentine, Sherwin-Williams, Murphy 
and Zapon. Two exhibits demon- 
strated that waterproof sandpaper 
could secure quicker and more fin- 
ished results than the method using 
pumice stone and oil. 

Among body accessories were the 
Petry, Bovey and Comfort exhaust 
heaters, as well as dome lights fitted 
with one or two lamps, with or 
without special globes. Hale & 
Kilburn exhibited bus seats and 
seat covers. Several types of D'Arcy 
springs were shown. There were 
other exhibits of hardware, door 
locks and hinges, body irons, service, 
rear door and step control apparatus, 
window anti-rattlers, window reg- 
ulators and curtain snaps. In the 
Eberhard Manufacturing Company's 
exhibit was a bus body built to dem- 
onstrate the application of Emco 
body irons. The Cleveland Hard- 
wai-e Company showed a new type 

mire Economic Service, Inc., dis- 
cussed business conditions for 1923 
and indicated that business condi- 
tions for the first half of 1923 would 
be at least good, but there is a 
tendency for the price of materials 
used in body building to increase. 
Addresses were also made by Alfred 
Reeves, general manager of National 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, 

and L. Clayton Hill, assistant general 
manager of the Society of Auto- 
motive Engineers. Mr. Reeves pre- 
sented statistics concerning the 
growth of the automobile industry 
in general. Mr. Hill spoke of the 
necessity for .standardization of 
hardware and glass sizes in auto- 
mobile body construction and de- 
scribed S.A.E. standards activities. 

Enffineers Meet at New York Show 

High-Compression Engines, Investigations to Improve Fuels and Closed Bod> 

Constructioii Discussed by Society of Automotive Engineers — 

Standards for Tail-Lamps and Lubricants Proposed 

THE Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers held a meeting Jan. 9-12 in 
New York. Details of construction 
were proposed for standardization, with 
a view to making well-settled practice 
available for the benefit of manufac- 
turer and user alike; obtaining greater 
fuel economy was discussed, from th? 
standpoint of the refiner and of the 
designer of engines; and the parallel 
problem of getting engines to operate 
better on present fuel was also re- 
viewed. Body engineering was taken up 
at two sessions, and great interest was 
evidenced in a proposed padded or soft 
type of body, so far developed only for 
closed car designs, but considered use- 
ful for the bus body. 

S.A.E. Standards 

Some sixteen reports relating to 
standardization were adopted. These 
include sizes of front-axle hubs on 
pleasure cars, thickness of stock for 
runningboard brackets, and rivet loca- 
tion for facings of multiple-disk 
clutches. The S..^.K. standards for 

Bus Transportation's booth at New York Body Exposition 

of door-operating mechanism. There 
were many displays of upholstery 
fabrics, decks coverings, curtain ma- 
terials, as well as full and imitation 

The Automobile Body Builders' 
Association held its annual meeting 
during the Body Builder.s' Exposi- 
tion. John C. Howell of the Brook- 

spark-plug shells were revised by 
the recommendation of four types 
(threaded, ball, slip, and post) of 
terminals. On the small plug now 
standardized the dimensions across the 
flat of the hexagonal head has been 
increased i'.t in. so as to give sufficient 
wall to stand up under wrench strain, 
especially in two-piece construction. 
In connection with automobile light- 

ing, several standards of interest to 
bus operators were proposed. Incan- 
descent lamps for automobile head- 
lamps should be of the gas-filled type 
and of 21 cp. The tail-lamp should be 
weather and dustproof and so con- 
structed as to withstand ordinary 
shock and vibration. The light from 
the ruby lamp must be visible for a 
distance of at least .500 ft. Lamps are 
not considered acceptable if found un- 
satisfactory for any of the following 
reasons: Unstable or bad mechanical 
construction; unduly dark or bright 
areas or excessive contrast in the il- 
lumination on the registration number 
plate; cut-off of illumination within IJ 
in. of the plate measured perpendicular 
to the plane of the plate at the edge 
farthest from the light source. 

The figures or letters as well as the 
colors of the background and of the 
figures should be standardized by the 
various states so as to permit the prac- 
tical application of the law that the 
plate must be legible at a distance of 
about 60 ft. The specifications provide 
for size and spacing of figures and let- 
ters and recommended a high contrast 
between colors of plate and figures. 

A specification for internal-combus- 
tion engine lubricating oil was adopted. 
This covers ten different grades of pe- 
troleum oil, but does not include com- 
pounded lubricating oils containing 
products other than those derived from 
petroleum. The list includes two light 
grades, two medium grades, two heavy 
grades, and four extra-heavy grades. 
For each grade a flash point, fire point, 
viscosity at 100 and 210 deg. F. are 
given. Other laboratory tests are 

Proceebings at Body Session 

Two meetings devoted to body engi- 
neering were held during the S.A.E. 
meeting. At the first L. Valentine Pul- 
sifer talked about the qualities re- 
quired for successful finishing varnish, 
and Frederick F. Murry about the need- 
less waste of hardwood lumber. At the 
second session two papers were pre- 
sented on methods of reducing the cost 
of inclosed bodies. While these re- 
ferred primarily to the pleasure-car 
body produced in large quantities, the 
use for bus bodies was discussed. 





Georne AU'icer, Moik-l Buily C'orpora- 
tion, Detroit, announced a new ty|>e of 
closed body. This consists of the con- 
ventional hardwood frame with gal- 
vanized wire nettins; tacked across it. 
Next is a coverinK of three-ply buck- 
ram and outside a new type of fabric 
known as Meritas, and developed by the 
Standard Textile Proilucts Company. 
It is said that this panel construction, 
which replaces metal panels weiKhintj 
about U lb. per siiuare foot, itself 
wei^'hs less than J lb. per square foot. 
The outside material, or Meritas, is 
black and shiny and resembles leather 
in appearance. It is claimed for this 
that (lust, trrease and mud will not mar 
the surface, and that it will not ex- 
pand or contract under variations in 
temperature. In case of damage it is 
an easy matter to substitute a new 
prelinished panel. 

Automobile Finishing Varnish 

The qualities required of a success- 
ful automobile finishing-varnish were 
described by L. Valentine Pulsifer, 
chief chemist Valentine & Company, 
New York. Mr. Pulsifer's paper dealt 
with the qualities required by the paint 
shop in applying the varnish, and also 
those needed in service on the vehicle. 
Extended directions were given for 
tests to check the required qualities. 

Before deciding just what service 
qualities are required, the causes of 
the final breakdown that comes 
eventually to all varnishes must be un- 
derstood. The most important of these 
is the chemical action of the sun's rays. 
This results in a slow breakdown of the 
vegetable compound in the dried film of 
varnish. It also promotes progressive 
oxidation or "rotting," and causes a 
gradual loss of elasticity. When this 
elasticity is reduced below that neces- 
sary to withstand expansion and con- 
traction of the surface underneath 
and of vibration due to operation of 
the vehicle, then small cracks appear 
and final breakdown is near at hand. 

To postpone final breakdown varnish 
should possess as great an initial elas- 
ticity, as high a resistance to the 
destructive chemical effect of moisture, 
and as thick a dried film as are per- 
mitted by the method of application and 
the time schedule. 

Progress in Fuel Research 

Reports were presented by repre- 
sentatives of the Bureau of Standards 
and the Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers on their study of automobile 
fuels. A general research program is 
being undertaken jointly by the auto- 
motive and petroleum industries to find 
an answer to the question, What grade 
of fuel will afford the maximum mile- 
age per barrel of crude oil consumed in 
its production? Tests have been made 
in Washington by the Bureau of 
Standards and by a number of dif- 
ferent automobile manufacturers under 
the supervision of the Society of Auto- 
motive Engineers with four grades of 
fuel, varying from a light gasoline 
with an end-point of about 400 deg. F. 

to a heavy fuel which does not finally 
distill off unt 1 about ')00 deg. F. The 
general result of the tests of these dif- 
ferent fuels indicates that the average 
passenger car gives about the same 
mileage with any of them in warm 
weather. It appeared that crankcasc 
oil dilution increa.sed with a decreasing 
volatility of the fuel. It has therefore 
been decided to carry on the tests dur- 
ing winter months. The Bureau of 
Standards will make engine tests in a 
special altitude laboratory developed at 
Washington for aircraft work. The 
road tests by the various manufac- 
turers will also be continued under win- 
ter conditions. It is hoped that in the 
end these research studies will develop 
accurate information so that it will be 
possible to draw up specifications for 
fuel to suit both the refiners and the 

In a paper presented by C. S. 
Kegerreis and G. A. Young of Purdue 
University Engineering Experiment 
Station improper carburetion was 
blamed for the great waste in the use 
of fuel. 

Formerly, satisfactory performance 
of motor vehicles was easily obtained 
by the use of volatile fuels; the cost of 
the fuel was low, so economy was of 
minor importance. Economy is now- 
growing to be considered as essential 
as power. Even with power alone con- 
cerned, too much trouble is experienced 
from carbon deposits, oil dilution, and 
cost of .service and replacement due to 
rich mixtures used. 

The of higher compressions in 
present engines will improve economy 
wonderfully, but just the same the loss 
due to improper mixture preparation 
must be eliminated. It is estimated 
that the loss of fuel in 1921 alone 
amounted to about 25 per cent of the 
gasoline consumed, this being wasted on 
account of improper carburetion and 
consequently poor combustion. 

The causes of the high fuel waste due 
directly to the carburetor are (a) im- 
proper mixture ratios, (b) poor ac- 
celeration, (c) omission of temperature 
control, and (d) high fluid frictional 
loss. From the standpoint of the mo- 
toring public, and from an economic 
viewpoint, carburetion in present-day 
equipment is far behind the other com- 
ponent parts of the engine. More effort 
is being extended each year on car- 
buretion development, and the day is at 
hand when the United States must 
utilize more than 7.5 per cent of its 
annual consumption of ga.soline. 

Papers at Detonation Section 

Representatives of the United States 
Bureau of Standards, Purdue Uni- 
versity Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion and the General Motors Research 
Corporation presented papers showing 
what is being done to prevent "knock" 
in automotive engines and to increase 
the economy of pre.sent fuels. 

P'rom the Bureau of Standards, 
Stephen M. Lee and Stanwood W. Spar- 
row discussed tests of fuel for high 
compression engines. Using gasoline, 

,nd mixtures of the two the 
wed an increase of power and 
a decrease in the fuel cun&umptiun with 
each increase in the compression ratio. 
Since the maximum power is obtained 
with about the same <|uantity of fuel 
in each, it follows that the increase 
in the power at the higher raliug ig not 
obtained at the cost of a rich mixture 
which is acting as an internal cooling 

Alcohol as an unti-dctonation agent 
appeared to be about twice a» effective 
as benzol, at the low cuiiipreKsiun ratio 
where the greater part of the fuel wa« 
gasoline. When ga.soline formed the 
smaller part of the fuel, however, there 
.seemed to be little difference between 
the effect in detonation of benzol and 
that of alcohol. 

Natiral Laws Control Knocking 

Thomas Midgley, Jr., and Robert 
.Janeway, of the General Motors Re- 
search Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, as- 
serted that certain incontrovertible and 
well-understood natural laws are re- 
sponsible for gaseous detonation. After 
summarizing the theory of detonation 
in explosion tubes and other laboratory 
apparatus, results were given of ex- 
perimental work on a one-cylinder 
Delco-Light plant using kerosene as 
fuel. These experiments were con- 
ducterl to show how the critical pres- 
sure at which detonation takes place 
may be determined for any griven 


* . 

Motor Transport and Our 

Hailroa<!^-A I'rohlrm in 


By Elisha Lee 

Vlce-Presldeni Penrwylvanla Railroad 

IN DISCUSSING the relationship of 
motor transport to the railroads, we 
necessarily have in mind the future pos- 
sibilities for the further development of 
motor vehicles in the field of trans- 
portation for hire. I, of course, share 
the realization of railroad officers, gen- 
erally, that this activity, although al- 
ready of important .scope, is still in a 
state of comparative infancy and is en- 
tering upon what should be a period of 
lusty and vigorous growth. Neverthe- 
less, the resulting problems, as relating 
to the railroads will not, except in 
secondary degree, be those of competi- 
tion, but will chiefly be those of co- 

For holding those views, I have a 
very simple reason. Such profits as 
the railroads are able to make at all 
come practically altogether from the transportation of freight and pas- 
sengers over at least considerable dis- 
tances — in other words, from what we 
may term the "wholesale" departments 
of transportation. This is just the 
form of service in which experience 
shows that trucks cannot consistently 

•Abatruct of addrt^ss given Jan. 11. 1S2J. 
before annual dinner Society of Automo- 
tive Enfrlnpcm. New York. 




■Vol.2, No.2 

earn real profits, ' On the other hand, 
those forms in which trucks can and 
do make money are almost invariably 
the strictly "retail" forms in the ren- 
dering of which railroad operation 
practically always involves losses, and 
sometimes very heavy ones. 

The demands of modern large-scale 
industry for a constantly increasing 
volume of mass transportation are 
irresistibly compelling the railroads to 
adapt their motive power, cars, struc- 
tures, terminals and operating methods 
more and more to the "wholesale" 
forms of service and, inevitably, less 
and less to the "retail" forms. That 
thought supplies the keynote for any 
sound consideration of the economic co- 
ordination of rail and motor transport. 

Wasted Competition 

The question of competition in reality 
seems seriously important from only 
one point of view, and that is to enlist 
the assistance of the leaders in the 
automotive industries in discouraging 
futile attempts at losing forms of com- 
petition. Such experiments are harm- 
ful in two ways. They reduce rail- 
road earnings while they last, and 
waste and dissipate the energies of 
truck operators which might be utilized 
in productive channels. 

I am satisfied that the railroads and 
their patrons urgently need the co- 
operative services of both motor trucks 
and motor passenger lines, and can 
therefore ill afford to see these forms 
of enterprise go to waste in fruitless 
and needless efforts at competition with 
transportation agencies which are al- 
ready functioning successfully. 

Outside the large cities, much in- 
terest in the co-ordination of rail and 
motor facilities centers upon the pos- 
sibilities of extending the use of motor 
trucks as lateral feeders to the rail- 
roads, thus placing the farm products 
of vast fertile, but sparsely settled, 
territories in better communication 
with railroad lines. We may as well 
face the fact that any very early reali- 
zation of such hope.s, upon any con- 
siderable scale, will necessitate a 
change in the policies now chiefly dic- 
tating the building of our hard sur- 
faced highways. 

There seem to be a positive mania to- 
day for building long-distance auto- 
mobile and motor truck roads, whereas 
the more urgent need is probably for 
shorter distance lateral highways, 
bringing the more remote villages and 
countryside into better communication 
with the larger towns and railroad 
centers. But just now no one seems 
to be much interested in a road project 
unless it is advertised to run from 
ocean to ocean or lakes to gulf, or to 
create some other new and striking long 
red line on the touring maps. That 
appeals to the imagination, but it is 
very doubtful whether it constitutes, in 
the majority of cases, the best expen- 
diture of the taxpayers' money. 

This same policy also has an impor- 
tant bearing upon the possibilities of 
extending motor bus service for pas- 

sengers into the territories not already 
served by railroads or by interurban 
electric lines. Our new highways, in- 
viting motor travel, are not being built 
in those directions for the most part. 
Instead, thousands of miles of concrete 
and other expensive roadways have 
been built, and are under construction, 
paralleling the lines of the trunk-line 
railroads. These highways are the 
great routes of the longer distance 
motor buses. Their coming does not 
assist in giving transportation service 
to people who previously had none. 

To make matters worse, in many 
cases, especially in the Central West, 
the rail lines had already been paral- 
leled, years ago, by interurban trol- 
leys, so that the advent of the concrete 
road, and its bus lines, often simply 
provides a third agency of transpor- 
tation where one would suffice. Thus, 
with a serious shortage of transpor- 
tation for the country as a whole, we 
are confronted with a remarkable ex- 
cess of facilities in certain instances. 

A very striking case which came to 
my notice, because it developed in Penn- 
sylvania Railroad territory, involves a 
town of about 40,000 inhabitants, lo- 
cated 31 miles from a Middle Western 
city of some 400,000 people. The size 
of the populations and the compara- 
tively long distance between the points 
make it evident that the volume of 
traffic could not be extremely heavy. 
Yet an investigation showed that, 
analyzing the service in one direction 
only, there are eighty-six regularly 
scheduled movements of passenger ve- 
hicles daily, including steam trains on 
two railroads, cars and trains on the 
electric lines, and a number of bus lines 
on the public highway. I don't suppose 
any of them are making, or possibly can 
make, money under such conditions. 
The railroads, if consulting their own 
interests only, would abandon their 
passenger trains at once between those 

Requirements for Rail Cars 

I have been requested to discuss the 
adaptability of motor-driven rail cars 
for passenger service on existing 
branch railroad lines of light traffic. 
The real answer to this lies in the hands 
of the automotive engineers themselves. 
The railroad with which I am asso- 
ciated is carefully studying every new 
design brought out, as are many of 
the other roads also. But thus far the 
type has not been produced which we 
can regard as fully and satisfactorily 
solving the problem. However, we are 
proceeding to give a practical tryout 
to a number of cars of the most prom- 
ising type yet produced and other lines 
;ire following a similar course. 

I can give briefly the specifications of 
what the successful gasoline rail car 
must, fi-om the railroad manager's 
viewpoint, be and do to meet with rea- 
sonable completeness the needs of light 
branch-line traffic. It must be capable 
cf carrying seventy to eighty or more 
passengers, with suitable baggage, mail 
and express space. It must he capable 

of a sustained speed on level track or 
ordinary grades of at least 40 m.p.h. 
It must be reversible and capable of 
operation from either end. It is need- 
less for me to say that the problem re- 
solves itself largely into the designing 
ot a motor of sufficient power — probably 
at least 100 hp. — with the necessary 
mechanical and electrical equipment 
that will allow control from either end 
and movement in either direction. That 
problem is in the hands of your pro- 
fession. I have no doubt that it will 
be solved. 

There is just one more subject upon 
which I would like to touch, and that 
is the question as to the limits of dis- 
tance within which the motor truck, 
in.stead of acting jointly with the rail- 
road, may be regarded as fitted to take 
over merchandise freight service in its 
entirety. In my opinion all freight 
service within the city and highly de- 
veloped suburban areas should be per- 
formed entirely by truck, except those 
special cases involving single pieces 
of such great weight as to necessitate 
the use of railroad equipment and road- 
bed. Otherwise, the railroads ought to 
be relieved altogether of intracity busi- 
ness, so that the tracks within the 
municipal areas may be reserved en- 
tirely for the purposes for which they 
were constructed, namely, the render- 
ing of the strictly terminal service re- 
quired in connection with the line hauls. 

Motor Vehicle Limits 

Similarly, with passenger traffic, 
where there is not enough to support 
both rail and bus lines, does it not seem 
proper to determine which form of 
service shall be continued within speci- 
fied zones and which shall withdraw? 
When the people permit the building 
of hard surface roads directly paral- 
leling the established rail lines, and 
then permit and encourage the opera- 
tion on these highways of bus lines, 
paying nothing for their roadway, and 
to such an extent that the revenues of 
accommodation passenger trains do not 
cover half the cost of operation, does 
it seem fair that the people of those 
communities ought to insist upon the 
continued running of the trains? Does 
it not seem fair to call upon them to 
decide which form of service they de- 
sire, and abandon the other, especially 
when the railroads were being subjected 
to constantly increased taxation to help 
build such highways? That is a situ- 
ation which railroads are facing in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, and it will 
invariably have the result of bringing 
about a movement for a general reduc- 
tion in passenger accommodation trains. 

The spirit in which all of our prob- 
lems of co-ordination ought to be ap- 
proached should be one of live and let 
live. For both the men in your occu- 
pation and mine, the primary purpose 
should be to guide the development of 
that relationship along sane and sen- 
sible lines, so that each form of trans- 
portation may be enabled to give to 
humanity the maximum service of 
which it is capable. 

February, 1923 




Autuinobilc ( loiiiiuutiitieti 
in 1923* 

By John C. Howell 

Bi'iukinin- Kcuiiuinic Svrvicf, Inc., 
Xf-w Yurk, N. V. 

I\ KSTIMATING the probable move- 
ments of particular commodities that 
are of automobile interest I have 
selected the iron and steel sroup, lum- 
ber, rubber, cotton, paints, varnishes 
and glass. All basic raw materials will 
move in the same general direction un- 
less there be some particular features 
in a given commodity that might tend 
to prevent this movement or to change 
its direction. In considering iron and 
steel, first, the principal point to stress 
is the low production of 11)21, low not 
only relatively but actually — relatively 
as against the previous ten-year aver- 
age and actually as against what may 
be called normal requirements. 

The total amount of pig iron pro- 
duced in 1921 was 16,.306,000 tons, which 
compares with 28,472,000 tons average 
1907-1914 inclusive. Production for 
1922 is about 27,000,000 tons. This is 
below the country's normal require- 
ments in view of the increase in popula- 
tion and the low production of 1921, 
which will have to be made up. Figur- 
ing on a .") per cent rate of normal 
growth, the country's requirements for 
next year in pig iron should range be- 
tween 32,000,000 and 35,000,000 tons. 
The per capita rate of production in 
1921 is given as 271 lb., which is the 
lowest since 1894. The average for 
the last twenty-eight years, 1894-1921 
inclusive, has amounted to 539 lb. 

The great consuming channels for 
iron and steel are, in order of import- 
ance, railroads and equipment, 17.13 per 
cent; building, 14.23 per cent; export, 
13.43 per cent; automotive industries, 
9.82 per cent; oil and gas works, 7.75 
per cent; machinery and tools, 4.46 per 
cent; agricultural, 3.59 per cent; food 
containers, 3.12 per cent, and all other, 
26.36 per cent. It is my judgment that 
during the coming year all of these 
channels of consumption will be actively 
in the market for iron and steel fully 
up to these percentages, with the pos- 
sible exception of exports, but the prob- 
able demands of the other groups will 
more than compensate for the falling 
off which may develop in exports. 
Prices as a consequence of increased 
demand will tend to higher levels. This 
despite the fact that present prices of 
pig iron and steel are considerably 
above the pre-war level and the low of 

Conditions in the Raw Materials 

While it is true that the principal 
source of demand for lumber is building, 
the general industrial situation is such 
as to indicate an increasing demand for 
lumber for many industrial uses during 
the spring. The principal channels of 
consumption for hardwoods are flooring 

•Abstract of address given Jan. 11. 1023, 
at annual meeting Auto Body Builders' As- 
•sopiation. New York. 

manufacturers, box manufacturers, fur- 
niture manufacturers, and sash, door 
and blind manfacturers. These four 
channels consume around 00 per cent of 
the total hardwoods produced. While the 
swing of demand for the next few weeks 
may be away from building, a prac- 
tical certainty exists that during the 
spring a revived demand of large pro- 
portions will be witnessed. The out- 
look would seem to be that with all 
channels of demand active, the prices 
of lumber, both hard and soft, because 
of more active demand, will tend to 
harden as the spring progresses. 

Ki iiBER Rallies Reiently 

Rubber is a notable example of how 
a commodity will follow an opposite 
trend to the general markets when 
overproduced, even in periods of rapidly 
rising prices. While practically every- 
thing else was rising during the war, 
rubber continuously and consistently de- 
clined. This was due wholly to factors 
within the industry which made it 
impossible to restrict production more 
nearly equal to demand, and large sur- 
plus stocks accumulate<l not only in 
primary markets but in the great con- 
suming countries. 

A reflection of the extreme depres- 
sion in raw rubber is indicated by the 
radical decline which took place in 
prices. Plantation rubber, smoked 
ribbed sheets, in 1912 averaged $1.21. 
Through the succeeding years prices fell 
steadily, reaching the low in September 
of last year at 14.25 cents. Para rub- 
ber in 1912 reached $2.04. This, how- 
ever, was due to a speculative boom 
rather than in strict accordance with 
fundamentals, and since that time a 
steady decline has taken place, termi- 
nating in July of last year at 16.5 cents. 
The recent rally in the rubber markets 
was due mainly to a partial valorization 
which brought about heavier buying 
from consuming interests and more 
speculation. In smoked ribbed sheets 
the price reached 28 cents and Para 
29 cents. The United States consumes 
about 75 per cent of the world's pro- 
duction of rubber, of which about 70 
per cent is consumed in tires and tubes, 
14 per cent in mechanical rubber goods, 
8 per cent in boots and shoes, and the 
balance in miscellaneous items. 

Cotton, due to its statistical strength, 
fits into the fundamental business 
situation. The world's supply for the 
current year cannot be more than 
25,000,000 to 26,000,000 bales. Under 
normal conditions, the world's consump- 
tion ran as high as 21,000,000 bales. 
While from present indications it does 
not seem that this amount of cotton 
will be consumed during the current 
year, it will closely approximate 20,000,- 
000 bales. This will leave next year 
a relatively small world carry-over. 
The outlook in cotton may be sum- 
marized under the following points, 
which make for the maintenance of a 
strong tone in cotton for the coming 
spring: The relatively low supply as 
against normal requirements; the high 
rate of domestic consumption as indica- 
tive of healthy and high demand; the 

heavy demand for cotton goodf; and 
the practical certainty that a very low 
carry-over of cotton will exist in the 
world on July ai, 1J>23. The carry-over 
of cotton from one year to the next 
may be called the ball,. , to 

steady the market. V, ,,vy 

it operates to narrow llucluuliuiia and 
generally exertji a bearish pressure. 
When the carry-over is light, the mar- 
ket i8 subjected U> wide fluctuatioru 
through speculative activity. 

During the coming six niontha it will 
likely be subji-cted In ,idi(, 

or HO long at least ax : ion 

continues or u new ana lurj,'Lr trup U 
gathered. The cumulative force of 
these factors in the cotton industry ia 
distinctly bullish, both on the raw mate- 
rial and the products. While in accord- 
ance with seasonal tendencieo there 
may be some reaction during January, 
the certainty of a better spring demand 
should carry prices well above the pres- 
ent level and perhaps above the r«ent 
high level. 

Paint Advances Moderate 

The paint and varnish industry had a 
record-breaking year in 1922 and starts 
1923 with a very bright outlook, due to 
a very active demand both for new «nd 
old building work. Prici-s held steady 
during the year and are now about 72 
per cent higher than the average of 
1914. Primary paint materials show 
about the same relations. The outlook 
for demand is good and the certainty 
of strength in turpentine may be offset 
to some extent by the statistical weak- 
ness in linseed oil. Consumption, how- 
ever, will be on a large scale both for 
paints and varnishes during early 1923 
but prices for finished products should 
show only moderate advances. 

The demand for glass has been so 
great during the past year that the 
capacity of the country has been ex- 
tended and consumption has kept pace 
pretty closely with production, espe- 
cially so during the last six to nine 
months. The extensive building pro- 
gram and the greater demand for fur- 
niture and more closed cars, the latter 
certain to increase during the spring, is 
very likely to strengthen the glass mar- 
kets during the early part of the cur- 
rent year. 

I consider leather for spring require- 
ments a good purchase. These mar- 
kets have had a notable rise recently 
but are still well below the general 
level of prices. All lines of leather 
consumption should be very active 
through the spring and the tendency of 
prices on leather is towards higher 

In the case of the automobile indus- 
try, the controlling fundamentals, the 
particular commodities, a growing gen- 
eral demand, advancing general prices, 
exceptionally healthy credit conditions, 
a large volume of purchasing power, a 
favorable buying public attitude and the 
God-given desire on the part of our 
people to live better, own more and 
enjoy life all combine to indicate ex- 
panding business for the first half of 




Five-Compartment Bus Serves 
Minneapolis Territory 

Mack limonsine-type bus on Minneapolis (Minn.) line. Little boxes along 
running board are auxiliary steps 

THE De Luxe Line, Inc., of which 
J. H. Maylone is president, is 
running two twenty-passenger buses 
from the Majestic Hotel, Minne- 
apolis, to St. Cloud, Minn., 70 miles 
to the northwest. It is planned to 
extend this service 70 miles to 
Brainerd, Minn., the next large town. 
A third bus somewhat improved in 
appearance over the present type will 
be put into service early in 1923. 

As the photograph shows, these 
buses are of the limousine type. The 
cost is $11,000 each. Access to the 
interior is through five side doors, 
into separate compartments, each 
carrying three passengers, except 

the one in the rear, which is used 
for smokers and carries nine pas- 
sengers. Baggage is carried in a 
wire mesh rack on the roof at the 

The chassis, which is a Mack hook- 
and-ladder design, has a wheelbase 
of 232 in., so that the body is 30 ft. 
long over all. Loaded, the total 
weight is 6 tons. The; fuel tank 
holds 29 gal. Wheels are of the 
wooden artillery type, with 36 x 6 
front and 40 x 8 rear pneumatic 
tires. Two extra tires, one at each 
side, are carried on a rack at the 

The limousine-type body was built 

T he DeLuxe Line. Inc. 

Operators Trip Report 
Bus No. Date 

Trip No. 




Tire Changed— Yes 


Name of Tire Taken off 

Number of Tire Taken off 

Name of Tire Put on 

Number of Tire Put on 

Note If lact Itavloft or ftrrlTlng and cauie 

The De-Luxc Line Accident Report 


Date of Accident 

Hour A.M.. 



Where Accident occurred 

Street City & Slate . 

Make ol Car Car No._ 

License No. 

Name of driver Address^ 

Date Signed 

Nam» and Addresses oi Occupants 

Orjrr.ftf Cauit of Accident Fully On -Batll of Thii 

Vol.2, No.2 

by Eckland Brothers Company, 
Minneapolis. Mohair velour is used 
for the four front compartments, all 
of which have seats extending across 
the body. The smoking compart- 
ment, which is finished in tan 
leather, has seats on three sides of 
a square. In each seat is an over- 
head electric light and push buttons 
to signal the driver. The floor is 
carpeted in gray. 

Entrance is gained by a running 
board extending the full length on 
the right-hand side and by auxiliary 
steps placed at each of the wide 
doors. The compartments have in- 
dividual ventilators which can be 
controlled by the passengers. In 
each one is a register for heating, 
this being directly connected with 
the jacket above the exhaust pipe. 
The plate-glass windows are oper- 
ated by a crank-type regulator. 

The present schedule provides for 
two round trips each day, or a daily 
mileage of 280. The buses start 
from each end at 8 o'clock in the 
morning and at 12 noon, 3 and 6 p.m. 
The trip is made in two and a half 
hours, the one-way fare being $2.25, 
with rates of 35 cents and up for the 
seven stops between St. Cloud and 

Two forms of schedules are issued 
by the company, both being printed 
in black and red ink. The large 
schedule, suitable for posting in 
hotels, waiting rooms, etc., is on 
9i X 11 cardboard sheets. Then 
there is a card of pocket size, 21 x 
5* in., which gives on one side 
schedule information and list of ticket 
agencies, and on the other an invita- 
tion to passengers to report any 
discourtesies. Two of the driver's 
forms are here reproduced. The 
operator's trip report, which meas- 
ures 3S X 7* in., is printed on the front 
of an envelope, in which can be in- 
closed small reports or other matter 
for the office. An example is the 
accident report, printed on Si x 5i 
cardboard. Only one side of this is 
reproduced ; the other has spaces for 
names and addresses of witnesses 
and for a description of the cause 
of anv accident. 

Forms for drivers' reports. At left, trip report printed on front of envelope. 

At right, accident report, on the back of which are spaces for 

names of wityiesse.'^ and cause of accident 

Bus Operation in Newark 

A recent survey of traffic condi- 
tions in Newark, N. J., brought out 
the fact that between 8 a.m. and 6 
p.m. a total of 4,200 buses passed 
the intersection of Broad and Mar- 
ket Streets, Newark's busiest corner. 

February, 1923 




Trend of Proposed Legislation 

Gasoline Tax Advocated in Many States — Tendency Toward Increased Taxation and More Extensive 

ReKuiation Evident — Reiomnu'ndations of Interest to lUis Industry in (iiivernor^" Me>s;i>;es 

and in I'ublic I tiiity Commission Reports — I'endinn LeKislation DiKe^led 

AT THE time this is written the 
i\ legislatures of forty - three 
X A. states are in session. In 
these sessions, with few if any ex- 
ceptions, there has been recommended 
and there is being drafted legislation 
affecting directly or indirectly the 
business of every bus operator. As 
an index to the general trend of 
this legislation, the accompanying 
.symposium has been made up from 
some of the recommendations con- 
tained in the messages of governors 
and from reports of utility bodies to 
the various legislatures in addition 
to legislation already introduced. 
Putting aside for the moment the 
character of the proposed legislation, 
one significant fact clearly stands 
out. Virtually every governor and 
many public utility commissions have 
taken official cognizance of the motor 
bus as a most important factor in 
the transportation scheme of the 


Motor vehicle taxation was touched 
upon in the majority of the recom- 
mendations embodied in governors' 
messages, from which the following 
extracts are quoted: 

Colorado. — The subject of licensing 
motor vehicles and fixing the amount 
of the fees is one that should engage 
the attention of the Legislature. Trans- 
portation by truck has grown to very 
large proportions and is bound to in- 
crease. Wear and tear on the roads by 
reason of such transportation is very 
great; I recommend, therefore, that 
a ta.x be imposed on trucks carrying 
freight which shall bear some relation 
to the extra cost of construction, upkeep 
and repair of our highway.s made neces- 
sary Dy the use of auto trucks. 
Colorado auto license on pleasure 
vehicles is the lowest of any state in 
the Union. I recommend that our 
license fees be increased to equal the 
average fee charged for like cars in 
other states. 

Idaho. — Highways have heretofore 
been built by all the taxpayers, but our 
roads should be maintained by those 
who use them, including tourists; and 
this can be accomplished by gasoline 

Illinois. — In my opinion, any legisla- 
tion revising the present scale of motor 
fees at this time should be directed 
not at the average passenger vehicle, 
but more equitably toward the heavy 
truck, inasmuch as a very substantial 
part of the cost of pavements is due to 

the necessity of providing pavements 
capable of supporting truck loadn. 

Indiana. — Another important thing 
to be taken up at this time is the plac- 
ing of a just and equitable tax on gaso- 
line used for motor driven conveyances. 
It is not fair for the construction and 
maintenance of our highways to be sup- 
ported by a general property tax when 
the benefit accrues largely to those who 
own and operate motor vehicles. 

.A tax on gasoline would distribute 
this expense in accordance with the 
mileage negotiated as determined by 
the amount of gasoline consumed. It 
would also enable us to secure some 
support for road maintenance from 
tourists and transient cars and trucks 
which now escape any payment for the 
road privileges afforded them. 

Indiana license fees on motor cars 
and trucks are among the lowest of 
any state in the Union. No owner of 
a car or truck should complain over a 
raise in license fee when they know 
that the money produced will go toward 
construction, repair or maintenance of 
the highways. I respectfully ask that 
the license fees on motor cars, trucks 
and buses be increased, and leave it 
to your discretion to say how much 
advance should be made. 

KaiiKas. — I recommend the enactment 
of a law that will make the valuation 
fixed or claimed by public utilities or 
others doing business in this state, for 
rate-making or profit-making purposes 
automatically the basis for assessment 
and taxation. 

Masnacluisetts. — As an equitable 
method of producing the increased 
funds neces.sary, I recommend a tax 
upon gasoline and other fuel used in 
propelling motor vehicles. . . . The 
amount of gasoline consumed bears a 
very direct proportion to the use and 
wear and tear upon the roads. . . . 
The Webster Commission recommended 
a tax of 2 cents per gallon upon gaso- 
line and other motor vehicle fuel 
brought into the state or manufactured 
herein to be collected by the tax com- 
missioner from the wholesale dis- 
tributors, who would pass it along to 
the motor vehicle owners. ... I 
would recommend that the common- 
wealth keep 50 per cent and return to 
the cities and towns 50 per cent of the 
tax so collected. . . . The additional 
mileage per gallon of gasoline to be ob- 
tained upon good roads might in large 
measure offset the burden of the addi- 
tional tax. 

Nebraska. — Public utilities and com- 
mon carriers should be taxed on their 
rate-making valuation. A sales tax is 
a tax on consumption and is another 
plan for transferring the taxes from 
the rich to the poor, and I strongly 
urge you to oppose a tax on gasoline 
or any other kind of a sales tax. 

Nevada. — I herewith recommend for 
your consideration : 

The enactment of a gasoline tax 

measure providing fur a tax of 2 cenu 
per gallon on all ganoline ■o!') in the 
state, the income from su .be 

placed in the state hiuhwu . i to 

be used for m.-i; ani ni-on- 

structlon of the ■ ... Such 

legislation as is ii ,.... . ;.. fix a higher 
license fee to trucks and transporta- 
tion lines using highwayn ;t^ ' rnmon 

New York. — It ha3 not lon- 

strated to my satisfaction that high- 
ways should be built from the proceedjt 
of bond issues. 

In any circumstances they are of so 
temporary a nature that the cost of 
building and maintaining them should 
be met from the current revenues of 
the state. 

North Dakota. — I would also urge 
upon you the adoption of laws 
and needed constitutional amendmenL.<! 
which will devote to this . . . trunk 
line system of good roads in our state 
the license money from motor vehicle* 
of every kind and the money realized 
by a tax on motor fuel. 

Oregon. — It is but just that a fair 
return in the way of compensation for 
the actual cost of supervising their 
affairs should be paid by the utilities 
in the state treasury, thus relieving the 
general taxpayers of what is otherwis*.- 
a large burden. Indeed, the time will 
come . . . when all public service 
corporations will be taxed upon their 
gross earnings, rather than upon their 
general property, as is done in Cali- 
fornia and other progressive states. 

I would also recommend that the old 
quarter mill road tax be retained for 
the road funds, that the tax on gasoline 
be increased and that any adjustments 
that may be made in the present auto- 
mobile laws do not reduce revenue. If 
any changes are made in the license law 
I recommend that the fees on high- 
priced cars be increased. 

South Dakota. — The sUte Uking 
over the maintenance of roads con- 
structed means an additional expendi- 
ture of money, and this additional rev- 
enue must be raised in some manner 
by the present Legislature. Your 
automobile tax at the present time, in- 
cluding the amounts derived from the 
gasoline tax, is only sufficient to take 
care of the regular federal aid pro- 
gram in this state. 

I, therefore, urge upon you the 
necessity of early action in complying 
with the provision of the federal law 
in reference to maintenance of high- 

Utah. — We have many millions in- 
vested in highway.i. These murt be 
maintained and protected. The only 
source of income is the present motor 
vehicle law. This, because of its re- 
strictions and exces.<i levies, has become 
exceedingly obnoxious. Yet the pro- 
ceeds in the future will be barely 
enough to pay the annual interest on 
sinking funds and road bonds. Only 




Vol.2, No.2 

one other means of meeting this di- 
lemma seems available. By scaling the 
schedules down and levying some form 
of gasoline tax it can be solved. 

Vet-mont. — The auto tax law should 
be thoroughly revised, and favorable 
consideration may well be given to the 
Connecticut law, which is based on pis- 
ton displacement and therefore seems 
much more closely to represent the 
power of the car in relation to its wear 
and tear on the roads. Weight is per- 
haps a more fair basis for taxation 
than our present methods. A scheme 
based substantially upon weight is 
worthy of consideration. ... In this 
connection I would also suggest for 
your consideration a 1-cent per gallon 
gasoline tax to be collected on the 
wholesale basis. 

Washington. — At a conference of 
governors of states west of the Rocky 
Mountains, called for the purpose of 
establishing uniformity of laws and 
regulations affecting the automobile 
traveling public, it was decided to 
recommend to the legislature of each 
state a tax of 2 cents per gallon on 
gasoline, the proceeds to be used exclu- 
sively for construction and maintenance 
of highways. I recommend such an in- 
crease in our gasoline tax. The present 
gasoline tax law is working very sat- 
isfactorily and there should be no 
amendment to the general policy, ex- 
cept to change the rate of tax to be 

I recommend that a gross earning tax 
be charged auto buses and auto trucks 
used as public utilities. 

Wisconsin. — I recommend that the 
present automobile license law be re- 
vised and that there be established a 
graduated license fee, based upon those 
elements that have a direct relation- 
ship of the use of the highway to the 
highway, namely, the weight and cylin- 
der displacements. 

The Mayors' Conference, an official 
organization composed of mayors of 
various cities of the state of New 
York, at a convention held at Albany 
on Jan. 5, made the foUovi'ing recom- 

We urge the Legislature to enact a 
law placing a tax on gasoline and to 
return three-fourths of the revenue 
therefrom to the localities, to be used 
exclusively for the construction and 
maintenance of highways, and for the 
regulation of traffic. 

From report of the Department of 
Public Utilities on Investigation of 
Transportation Facilities Within the 
Boston Metropolitan District to the 
Massachusetts Legislature : 

We think that as long as street rail- 
ways and steam railroads pay for sub- 
ways, tunnels, elevated structures, 
tracks, etc., other vehicles, especially 
automobiles, ought to pay a fair sum 
for the use which they make of the 

The following bills with reference 
to taxation have been introduced in 
the legislatures of these states: 

Massachusetts. — Senate Bill No. 27, 
introduced on Jan. 8 by Senator McCor- 
mack to accompany petition of M. A. 
O'Brien, Jr., provides that in addition 
to the taxes now provided for by law, 
every dealer now engaged or who may 

hereafter engage in the sale or distri- 
bution of gasoline, shall render not 
later than the fifteenth day of each 
calendar month a statement of the 
gasoline sold or distributed during the 
preceding month and pay a license tax 
of 1 cent per gallon on all gasoline so 
sold or distributed. This bill carries 
the provision that said license tax shall 
not be imposed on gasoline when sold 
for exportation from the state of 
Massachusetts to any other state or na- 
tion, or when sold to the government 
of the United States or its agencies. 

Missonri. — House Bill No. 93, intro- 
duced on Jan. 11 by Mr. McGregor, is an 
act "to provide a license tax on motor 
vehicle fuels, purchased for use in 
motor vehicles, operated or intended to 
be operated upon the public road and 
highways of the state of Missouri." 

New Jersey. — Senate Bill No. 20, in- 
troduced on Jan. 10 by Senator Le- 
Fever, is an act "providing for an ex- 
cise tax of 1 cent on gasoline at retail, 
proceeds to be divided equally between 
county road funds and municipalities or 

Senate Bill No. S-103, introduced on 
Jan. 15 by Senator Richards, "places a 
tax of 1 cent per gallon on gasoline." 
Referred to the committee on highways. 

New Hampshire. — House Bill No. 24. 
introduced on Jan. 11 by Representa- 
tive Smith, is an act "providing for an 
excise tax of 2 cents per gallon for the 
purpose of doing business in the sale of 
gasoline and other products used in the 
propelling of motor vehicles and motor 
boats." Referred to the committee on 
ways and means. 

West Virginia. — House Bill No. 4, 
introduced on Jan. 11 by Representa- 
tive Moore, is an act "raising addi- 
tional public revenues by annual li- 
cense tax upon the business of produc- 
ing coal, natural gas, petroleum or 
crude oil." Referred to the committee 
on taxation and finance. 

House Bill No. 14, introduced on Jan. 
11 by Representative McLaughlin, is an 
act "imposing a state tax on gasoline 
and all other liquids containing any 
derivative of petroleum or natural gas." 
RefeiTed to the committee on taxation 
and finance. 

Recommendations regarding motor 
vehicle regulation were contained in 
the messages of the governors of the 
following states : 

Connecticut. — I believe further legis- 
lation regulating not only tonnage of 
motor trucks, but also the dimensions 
of the tonneaus or bodies, is required 
in the interest of public safety as well 
as the proper maintenance of our trunk 
line highways. 

Illinois. — The construction of per- 
manent roads has encouraged a large 
number of persons and corporations to 
undertake the operation of motor bus 
and motor truck lines for the trans- 
portation of persons and property. The 
authority of the commission to deal 
with these companies is not adequate 
for the protection of the public. There- 
fore, it is recommended that the sec- 
tion of the Illinois commerce commis- 
sion act dealing with this particular 
question be carefully and fully revised. 

Kansas. — Thp development of com- 
mercial passenger and freight traffic on 
the public roads is of such growing im- 

portance that it will be necessary for 
you to consider matters relating to the 
control of the rate charged for traffic. 

Nevada. — The enactment of legisla- 
tion properly to regulate the over- 
loaded trucks and the narrow steel- 
tired wagons on our highways 
is recommended. 

Neiv York. — The present Public 
Service Commission should be abolished 
and power given to the Governor to 
appoint not more than three commis- 
sioners to regulate such utilities as will 
not be regulated by the cities, either 
because they operate outside the cor- 
porate limits of a city, or because the 
city may by proper resolution, request 
the state to do it. . . . The state can 
make no mistake by selecting the 
elected officials of the cities to deter- 
mine questions that have to do with 
welfare of the municipality, such as 
proper regulation of its public utili- 
ties. ... I further recommend that 
the Transit Commission in the city of 
New York be abolished and all its 
powers with regard to laying out of 
routes and supervision of construction 
be ti-ansferred to the Board of Esti- 
mate and Apportionment, to be exer- 
cised by this body through any agency 
it may select. ... In addition, by 
scattering all over the state the li- 
censing and control of motor vehicles, 
not only has the expense been increased 
but the prevention of accidents by cen- 
tral conti'ol has been entirely lost. 

Wisco7isin. — I recommend that our 
laws be strengthened so as to prohibit 
the use of our highways by trucks or 
motor vehicles that unreasonably de- 
stroy our highways and involve the 
possibility of bankruptcy of farm and 

In connection with the matter of 
regulation in New York the Public 
Service Commis.sion has had its say 
in its report to the Legislature for 
the year 1922. Sections 25 and 26 
of the transportation corporation 
law provide for the granting bj' 
this commission of certificates of 
public convenience and necessity for 
bus lines or routes wholly or partly 
within the cities or villages or towns 
which by resolution have placed 
themselves under the provisions 
of these sections. The commission 
holds that it has jurisdiction over 
the entire length of a route or line 
coming within the above provi- 
sions of law, even though in many 
instances some portion of such 
route . . . lies outside of a mu- 
nicipality, in which local consent is 
acquired by law. It recommends: 

The law on the subject of motor bus 
regulation should be stated in as care- 
ful detail as are the statutory provi- 
sions governing other carriers and 
utilities. . . . The attention of the 
Legislature is called to the subject in 
the belief that it is one which is con- 
stantly becoming of greater importance 
in many respects. The commission ven- 
tures the suggestion that the entire 
subject warrants careful study and in- 
vestigation with a view to the early 
enactment of a general and compre- 
hensive statute. 

February, 1923 




Standardization is undoubtedly neces- 
sary not only in the methods of opera- 
tion but also in the type of vehicle and 
the appurtenances thereon which di- 
rectly affi-ct the traveling public. 

Unless legislation is provided to in- 
sure effective supervision the service 
which the public will receive will be of 
a very poor character, and in fact to 
continue the operation of some of the 
lines is likely to end in serious acci- 

N. Y. As.sembly Print No. 174, 
introduced by Henry O. Kahan on 
Jan. 16, amending section 282-b of 
the hi^bway law, would place every 
person, firm, association or corpo- 
ration transporting pa.s.senger.>< and 
pergonal properly in any motor ve- 
hicle in cities of the first class, for 
hire in the course of bu.siness, in the 
.same category as taxicabs as requir- 
ing a bond or insurance policy in the 
amount of $2,500, insuring against 
injury to persons or property caused 
in tile operation or defective construc- 
tion of such motor vehicle. 

This bill contains a clause, mak- 
ing an e.xception of motor vehicles 
operated under a franchise by a cor- 
poration subject to the provisions of 
the public service commission law. 

From report of Massachusetts 
Public Utility Department: 

The creation of areas in congested 
districts from which motor vehicles 
should be excluded wholly or partially 
and the subjection of operators of mo- 
tor trucks for hire to the jurisdiction 
of this Department to the same extent 
and in the same manner as other well 
recognized common carriers are recom- 

Municipal ownership and control 
was considered in the messages of 
these state executives: 

Kansas. — I believe a much more sat- 
isfactory control could be had by re- 
turning to local municipalities full con- 
trol over their local utilities. 

New Ycyrk. — Public utilities have be- 
come so essential to the life of our 

great cities that the cities themselves 
should be permitted to purchase, build, 
own or operate them when a munici- 
pality determines this to be in its best 
interest. As far as transit is concerned 
cities should be free to adopt any sort 
of conveyance found suitable for their 
needs whether it be railroads or omni- 

From recommendations of Mayors' 
Conference — New York State: 

We urge the Legislature to give to cit- 
ies permission to determine issuance or 
non-issuance of consents or permits for 
the operation of bus lines in their limits. 
We ur^e the Legislature to repeal those 
provisions of the public service commis- 
sion law which now deprive localities of 
the right to enforce terms of existing 
franchises. We urge that the LeKisla- 
ture approve a concurrent resolutit)n 
proposing an amendment to the consti- 
tution, giving to municipalities the 
right to acijuire, construct, own. lease 
and operate within or without their 
corporate limits any public utilities the 
product or service of which is or is to 
be supplied to the municipality or its 

In addition the following legisla- 
tion has been introduced: 

N. Y. Senate Print No. 47, introduced 
on Jan. 9 by Mr. Lacey. adds new section 
20-c General City Law so as to permit 
any first or second class city to investi- 
gate public utilities operated wholly or 
in part within its boundaries, to hear 
complaints against service and to enact 
ordinances affecting such utilities, to 
establish bureaus of public utilities and 
to investigate books thereof. 

N. v. Senate Print No. 24. introduced 
on Jan. 8 by Mr. Lacey, amending Buf- 
falo charter, by permitting city to lease. 
I)urcha!!e, own. operate and maintain 
bus and motor vehicle lines and to li- 
cense operation of such lines by private 
persons or corporations. 

N. Y. Senate Print No. 32. introduced 
on Jan. 8 by Mr. Lacey. repeals .sections 
1 and 2 and adds new section 2.t Trans- 
portation Corporation Law, permitting 
cities to operate, lease, own and main- 
tain bus lines, stage routes or motor 
vehicle lines, or to consent to their op- 
eration without certificates of conven- 
ience and necessity from the Public 
Service Commission. 

The following extracts from re- 
ports of various jjublic utility com- 
missions are interesting in that they 
indicate the increasing prestige of 
the motor bus and the place which 
it holds in the nation'K transporta- 
tion system: 

Cuiiiiecticitt I'lihlie I'' 
minHioii. — -Jitni-ys legally 
now un<lcr strict supef. .-.■.: j w.« 
conmiission and are reiiderinif vi-ry de- 
pendable and reaHunably safe and sat- 
isfactory service. The Kafety of operm- 
tion and character of equtpmfrit have 
been and are showinK ma'' 
ment. and the holders of 
nearly all case.s .show ii ii' <• 

disposition to conform U> and 

regulations of the comniin-i..., 

Tiuiwit CommiHtion of Srv- Y nrtc, 
The commission ha« re. .r 

since it assumed ofTice, ' 
of the omnibus in ci'- • 
uahle one. and may * 
an increasingly i'"!. 
Recognition of ■ 
the first publisi 

of readjustment. A.-> a fei-tlcr for rapMl 
transit lines the flexibility of ihe buit 
may be utilized to a degree not pos- 
sible by surface railroa<l lines. How- 
ever this may be truf • > -• v . :' 
as the unit for loir, 
tion, under urban Ir.i 
omnibus has not yet 
in the opinion of tb. ■ 

not do so unless very K'»^al inipiuvi- 
ment. an improvement which cannot 
now be forecasted, is developed bith in 
construction and operation. The com- 
mission has kept an open mir ' ■ "" 
entire subject and has fre<|uei • 
its position that, properly <:.,...._ i 
and operated, the bus may perform a 
real function in helping solve the city 
traffic problem. 

Sew York Public Ser-'--- ''■■■■■m>«- 
yioii — The number of ai for 

the granting of original • < of 

public convenience and necessity for 
auto bus routes ... is rapidly increas- 
ing. There is a constant growth of 
these transportation agencies, and in 
many instances consolidations are tak- 
ing place all of which will tend in the 
very near future to make these lines a 
very imposing class of common carrierb. 

Some Examples of Michigan Cross-Country Operation 

11 1 It 




Reo used by Renne's Motor Transit oh Detroit- 
Ypsilanti route 

Cross country line, working thin Stoughton but from 
Jackson to Adrian, Mich. 



Published by McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 



THE purpose ofBus Transportation is to help develop 
bus transportation wherever and whenever it con- 
tributes to the public welfare. We believe that only 
through a sense of public service, through responsible 
management, through the proper co-ordination of bus 
and rail, through adherence to sound principles of 
business, engineering and ethics bus transportation can 
develop into a stable and enduring industry. 

New York, February, 1923 

Bridge Building and Buses 


N A REPORT presented not long ago to the 
National Highway Traffic Association, an 
organization of users, manufacturers and, 
in fact, every one interested in the development of 
the highways, reference was made to the danger 
resulting from the operation of heavy motor buses 
over light bridges. 

There is no doubt but that many bridges, espe- 
cially those on the county or town roads in the dif- 
ferent states, are not strong enough to carry modern 
motor vehicle traffic. It is to be questioned seriously, 
however, whether any great number of heavy buses 
is being operated over these bridges. 

In some cases the highways have grown away 
from the bridges and the value of modern road 
development has been decreased considerably 
because of bridges of small carrying capacity. These 
bridges are relics of the days when a capacity of 
4 tons was considered more than adequate. It is 
desirable that these bridges be reconstructed or 
rebuilt as soon as possible to carry the load for 
which the connecting highways are fitted. 

In all this discussion of light bridges, it must be 
remembered, however, that there is a constant and 
inevitable tendency to fit the bridge to the highway 
as regards width and capacity. Then the lighter 
bridges are usually found on the more lightly 
traveled and poorly developed highways. Both these 
facts are demonstrated in the report of a legislative 
committee, which in 1919 studied the condition of 
the bridges of New York State. The figures shov 
that about 70 per cent of the bridges on improved 
state or county highways are of 15-ton or more 
capacity. The rest of them vary, with many of 14, 
10, 8-ton capacity, all sufficient for the most heavily 
loaded single-deck bus. Another interesting fact 
shown in the report is that while about 30 per cent 
of the total mileage of rural highway in the state 
is improved, this mileage contains less than 11 per 
cent of the number of bridges on all highways. The 
reason for this is probably that the main highways 
have a tendency to follow the rivers and other water 
courses, while the local roads, which of course repre- 
sent the great mileage of unimproved highway, 
must necessarily cross rivers and brooks with more 


Some seventeen states, it is reported, have estab- 
lished 15 tons as the minimum carrying capacity in 
building bridges. This weight, of course, will take 
care of the most abnormal bus traffic, even assuming 
the operation of a double decker with fifty or more 
passengers. Such a vehicle would never be used, 
under present conditions at least, on the rural high- 
ways where the bridges under discussion would be 

As a matter of fact, this is another example of 
the tendency to judge the load-carrying capacity of 
the bus by its outside dimensions. People often 
fail to realize that the specific gravity or weight 
per unit of cubic volume of human beings is com- 
paratively small and that this weight can be carried 
in only a small part of the bus body. It is this 
fundamental that explains why the weight per inch 
of tire width, or the total weight of buses, is usually 
less than allowed by the laws of the states where 
they are used. 


What's Behind the Stock Dividend? 


HE EPIDEMIC of stock dividends which 
broke out so virulently during the closing 
months of the old year continues to excite 
public discussion. Opinions continue to differ widely 
as to their purpose and effect. In view of the lead- 
ing part played by the Standard Oil group in the 
distribution of such dividends, particular interest 
attaches to the vigorous defense of the policy ad- 
vanced by A. C. Bedford in his recent address before 
the American Petroleum Institute at St. Louis. 

Mr. Bedford flatly denies that stock dividends 
result in any tax evasion. Further, he makes a 
strong plea for the essential soundness of the process 
of building up a surplus from current earnings, 
plowing it back into the business and capitalizing it 
through the issuance of new shares to old stock- 
holders. The issuance of the stock dividend, he 
insists, means merely "changing a dollar into four 
quarters." It creates no new wealth. 

Economists and accountants generally will agree 
that the simple act of declaring a stock dividend 
creates no new wealth. They will also agree that the 
increase of the capital fund is essential to the prog- 
ress of business and the country generally. Finally, 
they will admit that the stock dividend does not offer 
a method of tax evasion in any legal sense. How- 
ever, having conceded all of these points, an honest, 
inquiring mind may still hunger for a deeper anal- 
ysis than Mr. Bedford has made. Is there nothing 
more than this to the stock dividend epidemic? Is 
there no rational explanation for the conviction so 
generally prevalent that the stock dividend is signifi- 
cant of some condition which needs correction? 

Mr. Bedford apparently accepts the orthodox defi- 
nitions of wealth and income, for he argues that the 
stock dividend is not income because it creates no 
"new wealth." One has income when his wealth- — his 
economic strength, in the sense of command over 
goods and services — has inci'eased. This is the 
general conception of income which underlies our 
Federal income tax law. With this definition in 
mind, let us raise a few queries which may serve to 
clarify the issues. 

Suppose you were to invest 25 cents in the Stand- 
ard Oil Company of New Jersey. Suppose the com- 
pany prospers and builds up a lar^e surplus, your 
share of which amounts to the value of 75 cents, so 
that your interest in the company is now worth a 
dollar. Suppose the company declares a stock divi- 
dend "changing the dollar into four quarters." Has 
anything of significance happened? Has your eco- 
nomic strength increased? Have you received any 

Clearly the stock dividend simply recognizes an 
e.\isting situation. It recognizes that the quarter 
has expanded into a dollar and makes the convenient 
"change." But the significant thing is that you are 
ahead to the e.\tent of 75 cents in value — not merely 
because of the stock dividend — but as the result of 
the whole process. At the beginning you had a 
quarter invested in productive enterprise. Now you 
have an investment worth, because of our assump- 
tion, a dollar. 

The real nub of the matter from the tax point of 
view is this: The process described in the above 
example is about the only way you can make 75 cents 
and reinvest it in productive enterprise without sub- 
jecting the three new quarters to the heavy surtaxes 
of the Federal income tax. The corporation pays the 
normal tax (slightly higher, it is true, than the indi- 
vidual normal rate) when it adds the new quarters 
to sui-plus, but you are asked to account for them 
only if and u'hen the corporation distributes them 
to you as a cash dividend or // and xohen you sell 
your stock at the enhanced value due to the surplus 
which has been built up. Thus, this "if and when" 
is of considerable importance. 

If you had invested your original quarter in an 
equally prosperous individual enterprise or partner- 
ship you would have been asked not only to pay the 
normal tax as the new quarters were earned and re- 
invested, but you would also have been compelled to 
pay the surtaxes on them when earned rather than 
"if and when" distributed or "if and when" the 
stock was sold at an advance. 

Clearly the corporate form of business organiza- 
tion has an advantage under the tax law because of 
this situation, and the stock dividends are advertis- 
ing this advantage in a striking manner. It 
is this advantage which is really the shining mark at 
which the "agitators" are aiming. Is it not an ad- 
vantage which must in some manner be equalized if 
the "sturdy qualities" of individual initiative and 
resourcefulness, which Mr. Bedford so properly 
praises, are to be given full play? 

How to accomplish this is, indeed, perhaps the 
most puzzling tax problem which the Federal govern- 
ment is facing. It cannot be solved by refusing to 
recognize its existence or by approaching it from the 
point of view of one industry, one form of business 
organization, or one economic class. The differen- 
tial in favor of the corporation may conceivably be 
removed by increasing the burden on the corpora- 
tions or by decreasing the burden on the other 
forms of business enterprise. The "agitators" sug- 
gest a new tax on the undistributed surplus of cor- 
porations as closely equivalent as possible to the 
present surtax burden on reinvested earnings of 
other forms of business enterprise — a suggestion 

which Mr. Bedford labels "a proposal of sabotage by 
legislation." The fear of such a tax is probably a 
contributing cause, although not the sole or perhap.s 
not the most important cause of the stock dividend 
epidemic. The alternative plan for eliminating the 
corporations' differential would be to reduce the 
present burden upon reinvested profits of partner- 
ships and individuals. But he who propose.s this 
must be prepared to convince the public that a dollar 
of wages should be more heavily taxed than the 
dollar of reinvested profit. This is the dilemma! 


Stages and Buses IVhat's in a Name? 


S OXK travels over the United Staten and 
Kimpares the varieties of practice in bus 
transportation in different sectionu, it in 
impossible to avoid the conclusion that the major- 
ity of the service along the Atlantic Seatioard is 
of the "bus" variety while that along the Pacific 
Coast is fundamentally of the "stage" variety. The 
Pacific Coast highway passenger salesman wants to 
know what is the matter with the rest of the 
United States, trying to call this business a "bu.t" 
business, and his Eastern brother answers back, 
"What is a stage — they became obsolete decade> 
ago?" Yet there is more to this than merely a 
matter of name. Each has something to learn from 
the other — there is work for buses to do in the 
West and for stages in the East. 

Fundamentally, a bus is a vehicle with a body, 
chassis and engine designed for frequent stops and 
frequent interchange of passengers in more or less 
congested areas. It is largely a city and suburban 
vehicle; though it is not infrequently used in the 
East in interurban business, where its limitations 
in such service are apparent or becoming apparent 
to the users. The bus usually has a single entrance 
and exit with cross-seats and center aisle. 

A stage, on the other hand, being primarily for 
interurban long-haul business, need provide for no 
frequent passenger interchange; it need have no 
"aisle" or other facilities for moving around much 
inside the vehicle. As developed in the West it 
resembles an elongated limousine, with low chassis, 
powerful engine, a full-length door for each 
seat — a high-speed, comfortable, grey-hound type 
of vehicle. But in the West the stage is sometimes 
applied to service which might more adequately and 
efficiently be performed by buses. 

Aside from these two principal types, other use- 
ful designs or modifications are also not only u.-^eful 
but necessary in special cases. The parlor car 
stage, the limousine coach and similar productions 
are almost self-explanatory. 

Bus Transportation has spoken before of the 
necessity of considering the service requirements in 
bus design. There is no better object lesson for an 
Easterner who has an interurban problem than to 
go West and see the stage service. More than that. 
a study of the stage in the W'esX will indicate i 
bilities of intercity stage lines of which the V. 
erner has never dreamed. And on the other hand, 
as the Westerner develops more business in con- 
gested areas he can learn a great deal from his 
"bus" brother in the East. 





Vol.2, Xo.2 

^ Section 

Developments in equipment for 
vtliicles, s-aragea terminals — 
all the imiirovempnts manu- 
factured for tlie industry. 

Sedan-Type Bus Carries 
16 Passengers 

I'^HE Stoughton Wagon Company, 
Stoughton, Wis., has announced 
a sedan-type bus, which is highly 
recommended for interurban work. 
It will seat si.xteen passengers com- 
fortably. The chassis is the .stand- 
ard speed-truck design except for 
a somewhat longer wheelbase and 
heavier tire and wheel equipment. 
On high a speed of 35 m.p.h. is easily 

The body shown in the photograph 
is 13 ft. long, 6 ft. wide and 5 ft. 
high; it has three doors on the right 
and one on the left-hand side. Three 
of the seats are full width, while 
the second one from the back is split 
to allow entrance for passengers to 
the rear seat. 

The body is hand-made through- 
out and so constructed, it is said, as 
to prevent spreading or squeaking. 
The frame is entirely of hard wood, 
with sheet steel panels put over a 
layer of wadding to prevent rum- 

The door openings are 30 in. wide 
and are of the full coach type with 
drop sash. The seats are 20 x 66, 
with 23-in. back, and have specially 
designed springs in both cushion and 

The trimmings include taxi-style 
door locks with heavy plungers and 

inside lever handles on the back of 
seats. Large-size bumpers are 
mounted on each door. There are 
grab handles on the back of the 

The interior is lighted by three 
dome fixtures, with one dome light on 
the top in front. Push buttons are 
fitted in each side post. The three- 
way windshield has a green glass 
visor. Regular equipment includes 
two floor heaters, full crown ventila- 
tors, and a stop light mounted at 
the rear. 

The chassis for the sedan bus has 
a 152-in. wheel base, with 571-in. 
gage front and 58-in. gage rear. The 
loading height at the forward en- 
trance is 30 in. The chassis weight 
is about 2,500 lb. 

The chassis details include a Mid- 
west engine, 3S x 5 in.. Zenith car- 
buretor, Remy battery ignition, 
Brown-Lipe multiple-disk clutch and 
three-speed transmission, Columbia 
front and rear axles, and Lavine 
steering gear. The rear axle is of the 
bevel gear type. 

Tires are Goodyear pneumatic, 34 
X 5 front and 36 x 6 rear. Complete 
electrical equipment is supplied, 
starting motor, generator with auto- 
matic cut-out, and three-cell battery 
of an adequate capacity. The Ale- 
mite system of lubrication is used, 
thermo syphon cooling, and vacuum 
fuel feed. 

Control for Fuel Tanks 

IN MOST designs little or no 
thought is given to what the fuel 
tank must do, aside from acting as a 
container for the fuel. As a result, 
trouble is often experienced on ac- 
count of leaks, splashing and plugged 

The Fifth Avenue Coach Company 
has sought to overcome the difficulty 
by the construction shown in the 
accompanying drawing. The main 
features of this are given as follows : 

1. Valve placed where it is easy to 
close when the bus reaches the 
garage. In case of fire or other 

F/7/er cap 

'Fuel lim 

Stoughton sixteen-pasHenyer sedan-l ypv bti-f. Compartment for baggage at rear. 
Three doors on right-hand side, and one on left for driver 

Control and cleaning arrange- 
ments in Fifth Avenue fuel 

emergency, the fuel supply can be 
shut off almost instantaneously. 

2. Large hand hole for the re- 
moval of any accumulation of foreign 

3. Fine-mesh strainer of large 
area, which effectually reduces de- 
lays due to choked lines. This mesh 
is sufficiently fine, it is said, to pre- 
vent the passage of water, unless 
present in very large quantities. 

4. Generous sediment and water 
trap, which eliminates the necessity 
of cleaning at frequent intervals. 

5. Tower at filling point, which re- 
duces to a negligible quantity the 
loss due to splash in gi'avity system. 

6. Tank with only one seam, thus 
reducing the possibility of leakage. 

This construction is a recent de- 
velopment for use on the Fifth Ave- 
nue types A and L coaches. 





Device Used to C.oiilrol 
Engiue Speed 

THE McCanna governor, which is 
put out by E. R. Klemm of 
Chicago, has the advantages, it is 
said, of being inexpensive, easy to 
attach, simple and sturdy in con- 
struction, and has no adjustments 
that can be tampered with. This 
device, it is claimed, decreases the 
consumption of fuel, and makes a 
better running and more economical 

The governor consists of an out- 
side frame, which can be coimected 

Cross - section showing working 
pnrts of .l/cCn»7!a governor. 

to the manifold of the engine; a 
plunger with twelve small holes 
around its edge, and a spring, wash- 
ers, nut, and cotter pin. The usual 
installation is made by removing the 
carburetor and attaching the gov- 
ernor between it and the intake mani- 
fold, thus dropping the carburetor 
by about 2 in. Fittings are supplied 
so that the governor can be attached 
in place of other types. 

After leaving the carburetor, the 
fuel mi.xture passes through the 
small holes in the plunger. This 
breaks the mixture up into fine 
streams, and makes necessary, it is 
said, a leaner setting of the car- 

Speed is varied by changing the 
washer above the base of the plunger. 
According to the manufacturer, each 
additional washer means an addi- 
tional mile per hour .speed; the oper- 
ator who adds two washers to the 
base of the plunger will increase the 
speed of his vehicle 2 m.p.h., or he 
can decrease the speed 1 m.p.h. for 
each washer removed. This is pos- 
sible because of the taper given the 
inside of the governor. Changing 
the number of washers changes the 
position of the plunger in this ta- 

pered portion, and thus the size of 
the opening through which the mix- 
ture is admitted to the cylinder. 
This, of course, at once varies the 
amount of mixture that can be ad- 



Dr I. live Riis for Iiiteriirhan 

THE Selden Truck Corporation, 
Rochester, N. Y., has brought 
out a de luxe bus of the limousine 
type intended for suburban, inter- 
urban and long-distance sightseeing 
service. The chassis is the Selden 
Unit 31, of 160-in. wheelbase, with 
a Brown body seating eighteen pas- 
sengers in addition to the driver. 
The body dimensions are as follows : 

l.i'MKtIi Ijiu'k of driver's seat .... 14 ft. 10 In. 

Ov.T-ull length 14 ft. 6 In. 

Wiilth inside at belt line 8 ft. 5 In. 

Width over all 6 ft. 11 In. 

I I.'iKht over all 8 ft. 8 In. 

Ui'iidroom. Inside 6 ft. 1 In. 

The exterior panels are 18 gage 
terne plate, and the roof is solid 
panel covered with heavj- white duck. 
The tire carrier is under the chassis 
frame at the rear. Curtains, heaters, 
six dome lights, and collapsible lug- 
gage carrier on the rear are provided 
as standard equipment. Other gen- 
eral specifications follow: 

Windshield, two - piect slanting 
type, both sections adjustable, with 
rain shield fitted of the aluminum- 
visor type. 

Windows and doors are equipped 
with mechanical lifts operated with 
crank. The three windows in the 
rear and two windows on the side are 

There are four doors on each side, 

those in front 24 in. wide and others 
28 in. wide, with American plate 
glass throughout ■■" ^vlr.l.Ai, .,nd 

Ventilators, two .s i. ii.i|.-i,iiit.-rn 
of bus type, mounted along centei 
iini- of bus ro<jf. 

Upholstering, Spanish Texileather 

Miiffiieto rf)nil)in<'(l N\itli 

THE magneto shown in the illus- 
tration is the Type "ZU 4." 
made by the Robert Boach Magneto 
Company, Inc., New York. It in de- 
signed to be driven at crank.shaft 
speed, and is carried on ball bear- 
ings. The distributor i» placiil on 

Magneto /«/ tnyimr, ujt (o 41-iii. bore 

the magneto itself, which is recom- 
mended for engines not exceeding 4 
or 4i-in. bore. If desired, impulse 
couplings can be furnished. The 
weight of the complete magneto is 
141 lb; Because of the completely 
inclosed construction the magneto is 
said to be entirely water and dust- 

Selden sedan-type bus — with Brown eightccti-ixigsetigrr bndu 




Vol.2, No.2 

The Springfield Fare Box 

THE fare box here illustrated is 
a new design of the locked type, 
made by the Springfield Change Mak- 
ing Register Company, Springfield. 
Mass., and embodies a number of im- 
provements. These features have 
been developed by men with sixteen 
years of experience in the operating 
and traffic departments of the 
Springfield Street Railway system, 
and have been worked out, it is said, 
to overcome defects in present boxes, 
now in use. 

The outside casing or body of the 
box is a single casing of aluminum 
alloy of 30,000 lb. per square inch 
tensile strength. This construction 
reduces the weight to the lowest 
amount consistent with strength, and 
eliminates all riveted or bolted joints. 

telltale ball so mounted that if the 
fare box is overturned the ball rises 
to the top of a vertical staflf. It is 
held there by a latch underneath the 
plate which cannot be released until 

Taken-dowii views of Spring- 
field fare box. 

Above the casing is a plate-glass 
receiving chamber constructed with- 
out corner members. The receiving 
hopper, also a casing of aluminum 
alloy, forms the top of the receiving 
chamber. This hopper has a large, 
free passage admitting tickets as 
well as money. It is so carefully 
baffled, however, that money cannot 
be drawn back through it by any 
mechanical means. 

The inspection plate is so well 
lighted that the ordinary lighting of 
the vehicle enables the driver to see 
the collections clearly at night. An 
accumulation of more than four 
ounces of coins will cause the plate 
automatically to discharge into the 
money drawer below if the conductor 
neglects to operate the discharge 
handle. If the box is overturned, 
the plate is closed, and therefore 
the passage to the money drawer. 

In the receiving chamber at one 
side of the inspection plate is a 

Showing push button for register 
of Springfield fare box. 

the box is I'eturned to the office and 
opened, when of course the over- 
turning of the box may be investi- 

The money drawer, a single-piece 
aluminum alloy casting carried in an 
opening at the lower part of the cas- 
ing, can be removed only by an au- 
thorized person who is provided with 
a key to the Yale lock. In addition, 
an automatic locking device retains 
the drawer in the casing independ- 
ently of the Yale lock mentioned 
above, until the inspection plate has 
been tripped and held down; this 
means that all coins on the plate are 
discharged into the drawer before it 
can be removed. The money drawer 
itself forms a portion of the front 
and bottom of the casing, so that 
when the money drawer is not in 
place the fare box cannot be used. 
Any money deposited would go onto 
the floor, and an inspector would see 
that the equipment was out of order. 

The money drawer is provided with 
a separate cover cast of aluminum 
alloy. Through a passage in this 
cover, money and tickets from the 
inspection plate are deposited in the 
money drawer. The passage is closed 
by a sliding shutter, which is held 
closed by an automatic lock, which 
can be released only when the cover 
is unlocked and removed from the 

The maker states that the con- 
struction provides for absolute safety 
of the contents of this fare box, 
because it is securely locked at all 
times. Theft is impossible by any 
means short of actual destruction, as 
there is no stage of the handling of 
the box when its contents are acces- 
sible to any one but the collector. 

In addition to the safety devices, 
a passenger register is provided. The 
push button shown beside the re- 
ceiving hopper is connected to a sig- 
nal bell and to a visible register 
inside the glass receiving chamber, 
by means of which the operator 
registers the number of entering 

The box complete is 21 in. high, 
6 in. wide, 9 in. from front to back, 
and weighs 22 lb. 

Biiilt-Up Frame in New 
Bus Chassis 

STRUCTURAL steel members with 
forgings to give the kick-up over 
the rear axle are one of the features 
of the bus chassis put out by the 
Menominee Motor Truck Company 
of Wisconsin, Clintonville, Wis. 
This chassis, known as the Model 
DB, weighs 5,100 lb. and is designed 
to take bodies of from twenty-five to 
thirty-passenger capacity. 

The construction is of the low- 
level, long wheelbase type. At the 
service door the chassis is 24 in. 
from ground to top of the frame. 
The Timken axle on the front has 

Menominee Model DB bus chassin for heavy-duty service _ 





68-in. gage, while the Wisconsin 
double reduction axle rear has 73-in. 

Equipment includes a Wisconsin 
4x6 four-cylinder engine, Strom- 
berg carburetor, Eisemann ignition, 
Detlaff multiple-disk clutch, Cotta 
four-speed gear set, Ross steering 
gear, and Tuthill springs. Goodyear 
pneumatic tires, lUxo single front, 
and 'Mxn dual rear, are fitted on In- 
destructible steel disk wheels. 

Plymoiitli Str«M' 
Ty|>«' Ho<ly 

THE twenty-one-passenger body 
shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration is fitted with cross seats, each 
32 in. wide, leaving 18 in. of center 
aisle. These seats are built up by 
the maker of the body, Plymouth 
Wagon Works, Plymouth, Ind., with 
leather upholstery, Heywood & Wake- 
field bases, and with D'Arcy coiled 

The body is heated by pipes in- 
closed in a perforated metal pro- 
tector. Control is by Petry valves. 
Lighting is by dome reflectors, fitted 
with 20-cp. bulbs. The interior 
finish is white on the ceiling and 
mahogany below the bottom of the 

For emergency service, a door is 
fitted on the left-hand side, back of 
the rear wheels. The front of this 
door is cut off diagonally at the bot- 
tom corner in order that it will 
conform to the line of the wheel 

The general dimensions of the 
body are as follows: Length, 15 ft. 
6 in.; width, top of seats, 6 ft. 6 in.; 
width, bottom of seats, 6 ft.; height, 
inside, 6 ft. 1 in. 

L'lii'ml iiutdel *i' rear axle far 10,00(1 lb. luad on Hpriny padu 

liilernul Gear .\vlf 

IN THE May issue of Bus Trans- 
portation, page 297, a heavy duty 
axle made by the Russel Motor Axle 
Company, Detroit, Mich., was de- 
scribed. The company now announces 
that the model referred to previously 
has been replaced by a much stronger 

The total weight of the axle 
has been increased only ,55 lb., but 
extra strength having gone into larv-'i r 
parts for the driving mechanism. 
The pitch diameter of the bevel drive 
gear has been increased, as have also 
the number of teeth and the w-idth 
of face. The drive-shafts have been 
made i in. larger in diameter, a 
larger differential is used, and its 
housing is now a drop forging in- 
stead of the casting applied on the 
former design. For bus service, the 
axle can be supplied in gages up t" 
70 in. 

In the illustration is shown tht- 
latest type, model 83 axle. 

Rui!^iii<2 aiitl l.«iHrriiig 

THE "Common Sense" window 
regulator, &a furnished by 
Ackerman-Hlaesser-F'ezzy, Inc., De- 
troit, Mich., is shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. It weighs only 
4 lb., but it is said will lift any siz« 
glass. The working principle of this 
regulator is such that equal pres- 
sure is exerted from both sides. It 

/ _ 

Plymouth twenty-one-seat body. Grab rail and light at left of entrance. 
Emergency door at rear on left-hand side 

fiegulator J"r i/ u/c iit)id<iun 
of sedan-type bodies 

is claimed, therefore, that a wide 
window is just a» easy to lift as a 
narrow one, so that the regulator is 
particularly useful on sedan-type 
buses with wide windows. The de- 
vice is counterbalanced so that it op- 
erates smoothly and easily up and 
down, and in addition the strong ten- 
sion under which it i- h-ld «frvps to 
prevent rattle. 




Vol.2, No.2 




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What theAssociations 
i>%<t»A aredoin^ 


News and happenings 
of the associations. 
Proceedings of interest 
to the bus transporta- 
tion industry. 

The Use of the Interurban Bus* 

By Installing a High-Grade "Coach" Service Between Youngstown and War- 
ren, the Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company Eliminated All Other 
Bus Competition and Built Up a New and Increasing Traffic 

By Garrett T. Seely 

Vice-President and General Manager, 
The Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company 

THE Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric 
Company has for many years 
operated a 15-mile suburban line be- 
tween Youngstown and Warren, follow- 
ing the main public thoroughfare along- 
side the Mahoning River. The line for 
its entire length is situated in the heart 
of the steel manufacturing district and 
extends through a large part of 
Youngstown, Girard, Niles and War- 
ren. Of the total length of 15 miles, 
11.4 miles is on city streets, divided as 
follows: In YoungstowTi, 3 miles; in 
Girard, 1.7 miles; in Niles, 3.7 miles, and 
in Warren, 3 miles. 

In the short distances between cities, 
the electric railway is on the side of 
the main highway but none of its length 
is on private right-of-way. 

Youngstown has a population of ap- 
proximately 140,000, Girard nearly 10,- 
000, Niles 13,000 and Warren 27,000. 
The electric railway line throughout its 
entire length, with the exception of a 
short distance in Warren and 3 miles 
in Youngstown, is single track. In 
addition to the disadvantage of having 
so large a part of its route in city 
streets, the electric railway line de- 
scribes a circuitous loop through the 
business district of Niles, this loop 
being 0.64 mile in length and requiring 
seven or eight minutes for the cars to 

A regular all-day headway of twenty 
minutes is maintained on the Youngs- 
town to Warren suburban line. On the 
same track, there is a shorter suburban 
service between YoungstowTi and Girard 
on a twenty-minute headway so that 
there is a ten-minute service to Girard. 
From the mid-town terminus of the 
line in Youngstown to the city limits 
of Youngstown, a route distance of 3 
miles, a frequent service is given by 
the Youngstown Municipal Railway 
with safety cars. As a result of the 
large proportion of the line in city 
streets, frequent through service and 
additional service to Girard and the 
city limits of Youngstown, the through 
service from Youngstown to Warren 
and from Warren to Youngstown is 

•Abstract of paper presented at annual 
moetlns of Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, Louisville, Ky., Jan. 18 and 19, 

slow, the service between the two cities 
being given by seven cars on a head- 
way of twenty minutes and making the 
trip in one hour and ten minutes. 

Why the Coach Service 
Was Inaugurated 

There has been a persistent demand 
for quicker service between these com- 
munities. The Erie Railroad parallels 
the electric railway and, on account of 
the frequent through service between 
Pittsburgh and Cleveland by way of 
these cities, is to a certain extent in 
competition with the Youngstown, Niles 
and Warren electric railway line. A 
great deal of the local travel in the 
valley avails itself of the steam rail- 
road facilities. The steam trains make 
the trip from Y'oungstown to Warren 
in thirty-five to forty minutes. 

In March, 1921, bus competition com- 
menced on this line and gradually in- 
creased. The original bus service con- 
sisted of a rebuilt Cadillac chassis with 
custom made body, seating fourteen 
people. On Aug. 1, 1922, the bus com- 
petition along this route consisted of 
three such Cadillac units, two large 
Mack buses of the street car type, one 
Garford bus of the street car type, 
and a large number of touring cars. 
The fare on the buses ranged from 25 
to 40 cents. That on the electric rail- 
way from Youngstown to Warren was 
30 cents with a 10-cent intermediate 
cash fare between towns. Zone tickets 
are sold for $1, three of which are 
acceptable for the through fare between 
Youngstown and Warren, thus making 
the one-way fare 22 cents with tickets. 

Careful investigation and checking of 
the competitive bus service indicated 
that the bus lines wore carrying pas- 
sengers that had not been carried by 
the electric cars, some of this additional 
traffic being from the steam railroad 
and some of it being traffic they had 
developed through the service they were 
giving. The buses made the trip from 
Youngstown to Warren in approxi- 
mately fifty minutes, twenty minutes 
less than the electric cars. This not only 
attracted traffic that would otherwise 
have gone upon the cars, but increased 
the riding habit between the communi- 

Vol.2, No.2 

ties. These buses were, however, more 
or less noisy and inconvenient; the 
schedules were poorly adhered to; the 
drivers were not uniformed or mark- 
edly courteous, and, in general, the 
bus service, given as it was by a large 
number of independent owners, lacked 
the necessary discipline and respon- 
sibility to attain the best results. How- 
ever, the traffic on the buses was in- 
creasing in volume due to the saving 
in time and due to the fact that some 
people apparently preferred the gas 
car service. 

To compete successfully with the 
buses and prevent further interference 
with electric railway patronage, it was 
apparent that the running time of the 
cars would have to be reduced. The 
cars in use were modern light-weight 
interurban cars with modern motors. 
They were constriicted with large fold- 
ing doors in front and in the center so 
that traffic interchange was as rapid 
as has been developed in street rail- 
way practice. The cars were geared to 
obtain a running speed of from 40 to 
45 m.p.h. City stops had been elimi- 
nated to such an extent that litigation 
was in progress with the different com- 
munities over the question of stops. 
It vs'as apparent that the only way to 
put on a faster electric limited service 
was to double track the line, and since 
so large a proportion of the line was in 
city streets, this would involve an ex- 
penditure of approximately a million 
dollars, and the limited service possible 
after such expenditure would be given 
subject to such disadvantages of fran- 
chise provisions as to stops as would 
slow up schedules and this at low rates 
of fare. Manifestly, such an expendi- 
ture was not possible. 

As limited service could be given 
with gasoline buses with very much 
less original expenditure, without re- 
strictions as to stops that would de- 
stroy efficiency, and with fares that 
could be fixed to pay the cost of serv- 
ices, it was determined to give this 
limited service. The study that had 
been made of the existing bus lines 
convinced the company that in in- 
augurating the gas car service vehicles 
should be secured which would be at- 
tractive and clean, which would be free 
from mechanical noises, which should 
run strictly according to definite sched- 
ules and in which the passenger would 
not have to scramble for a seat and in 
which all passengers could sit com- 
fortably. Decision to render this kind 
of service was made in January, 1922, 
but the service was not inaugurated 
until Aug. 1, 1922, because of the time 
spent in investigating to determine the 
correct type of vehicle and service. 
The White Model 50 bus chassis was 
adopted but with a modified straight 
beveJ gear, single-reduction rear axle 
with gear ratio of 4.25 to 1. This 
axle was adopted on account of the 
fact that the 15-mile trip was to be 
made over a good road with but few 
stops and vnthout heavy grades. Its 
adoption cut down the engine speed to 
the usual traveling speed of the vehicle. 





thus reducing wear and tear on the 
engine and body and reducing vibration. 
Through collaboration with the Bender 
Body Company of Cleveland, a limou- 
sine type of body was developed, seat- 
ing eighteen passengers on cross seats. 
The driver is separated from the pas- 
sengers by a glass bulkhead as in the 
ordinary type of passenger limousine, 
and all passengers have plenty of el- 
bow ami leg room. The seats are up- 
holstered in a special variety of 
embossed leather. The fittings of the 
limousine in the way of carpets, cur- 
tains and other accessories are of the 
highest type. The whole aim was to 
make the vehicle outside and inside so 
' attractive in appearance that it would 
draw attention on the streets and at 
the stations, and also give a passenger 
a sense of riding with the utmost degree 
of comfort. To distinguish the new 
vehicles from the often forlorn and 
decrepit-looking vehicles called buses, 
they are called coaches. While the 
coaches were being manufactured an 
intensive advertising campaign was 
carried on throughout the entire ter- 
ritory of this company, calling attention 
to the coach service that was being in- 

A half-hour headway was decided 
upon and five coaches ordered — four for 
regular service and one to serve as 
a spare. In the meantime, drivers were 
selected and trained, the original selec- 
tion of seven drivers being made from 
239 applicants. A chauffeur's uniform 
of gray whipcord was selected and a 
cap bearing the insignia "P-0." Each 
driver was provided with two suits so 
that the uniforms could always be 
kept neat. 

The Fare Fixed in Accordance with 
THE Quality of the Service 

The fare between the terminal cities 
was fixed at 45 cents, this being double 
the lowest ticket fare on the electric 
railway and higher than the fare of 
the competing independent buses. The 
service was inaugurated on Aug. 1 and 
from the standpoint of traffic has Deen 
successful from the start. By the first 
day of October the competitive buses 
had disappeared from the field and the 
service from Youngstown to Warren at 
the present time is being given ex- 
clusively by the electric cars and 
coaches. The receipts from the coach 
lines since the inauguration of the 
service have been as follows: August, 
$8,986; September, $9,283; October, 
$12,580; November, $11,320; and De- 
cember, $13,707. 

Immediately after service started, 
two additional coaches were purchased 
for this line. In October, three more 
coaches were purchased for similar 
service on another lino of the company, 
and two additional coaches purchased 
in November brought the fleet up to 

Inquiry from the bus operators pre- 
viously on this route indicated that 
their business during the cold months 
of the year was from 25 to 40 per 
cent less than during the warm sea- 

Meetings, Conventions and Exhibits 

Feb. 3-10 
Feb. )-IO 
Feb S-IO 

Feb. S-IO 
Feb. 5-10 
Feb S-IO 

l.\> S-li 
Feb 5-11 
Feb. 11-17 

Feb 15 

lib. 17-24 

Feb. 17-24 
Feb. 19-24 

Feb. 21-24 

1 Vb 26-.Mar. 
.Mnr S-IO 

Troy, N V 
Portland, Ore 

Worcwter, ^laaa 

London, Out. 
Winnipcs. .Man. 
WiunipeK, Man. 

Waterbury. Conn. 
Toledo, Onio 
Kalamaioo, Mich 


A ». F .M. Ilaucu- 

•^ «. H Ktaehll, 42* 

■^ ■ -r.,w. W. H. Ijvi, , 

Wr..-.r. .Mm.. 
.S'atiuiial .Motor (ihow of Weatern Ontario 
Western Canada Automotive and Hadio Kquipneot Ska* 
Autoinobde tjbow, It. C. Emmcii, 202 Sootl B(oek, WiBWpta 

Caiuula. ^^ 

Aul rn.hjl. Jihow, M. A. Doolittl*. 
Ai. ,w. 11. V. Burlow. 

A >w. O. H. Ucylan, 120 Imi Water tkrwt. Kal- 

Rocheater, N. Y. .\ut. 

Sou Franciaco, 

Hitrtford, Conn. 
Grand Uapida. 

Trenton. N. J. 

Omaha, Neb. 
Indianapolia, Ind. 

Richmond, \'a. 

Hi- Afai<>«iation of New York State, Quarterly mevtiac, 
I'owera Hotel, J. J. Dadd. 120 VemioDI litrert, Hixknttt 

Pacific Coaat Auto Hhow G A. Wahlcren. 

Automobile Show, A. Fifool. Hotel Bosd, Hartfncd. < i.t. 

A w. M. D El«in. Pantllnd Hotel 

A w. Frederick i'etry. Jr , W«i Mate and W dloa 

i^tun, N.J. 
.\»|. I, . ~ii,j». A. 11 Wauch, 2051 Kanium Ktm4 
Automobile A Acrrwwry Hhow, J. U. Ormac, 338 North Delaoan 

titreet, Iiid)ana(><lui. 
Virginiu .\utuniobite Dealera AM'jriatiuit. 

son. This is not true with the P-0 
coach service. Perhaps the business is 
increasing through its merit as trans- 
portation service sufficiently to over- 
come the natural seasonal changes. It 
is our belief that in the spring busi- 
ness will probably be greater than 
at present. Now the service is on 
a fifteen-minute headway from 12 a.m. 
until S a.m., on a half-hour basis in 
the mornings and on a twenty-minute 
basis in the late evening. On Satur- 
days, Sundays and holidays, the service 
is fifteen minutes throughout the greater 
part of the day. 

Ticket offices are maintained in both 
Youngstown and Warren, and ticket 
sales are limite<l to the seating ca- 
pacity of the coach. 

Tickets are on sale at all times in 
advance for any trip. At both ter- 
minals a seat chart is maintained for 
each trip during the day, and all 
tickets are stamped with the leaving 
time of the coach so that advance sales 
are conveniently made and insure a 
seat. Unused coach tickets are re- 
deemable at any time at any ticket 
office of the company. During Decem- 
ber, the ratio of receipts to possible 
receipts was 50 per cent, that is, if 
everj' seat on every trip had been paid 
for, the receipts would have been double 
the actual receipts secured. 

As to the effect of the coach line 
upon the electric railway line, the 
following figures are of interest: The 
receipts from the Youngstown-Warren 
electric railway line for December, 1922, 
were $30,632, which was an increase of 
$43 over December, 1921. This com- 
pany operates two other suburban lines 
of approximately the same length as 
the Youngstown-Warren line. On one 
of these, the receipts for December 
were $1,098 more than the year before, 
and on the other $1,150 more. The 
Youngstown-Warren line could, there- 
fore reasonably have expected from 
$1,000 to $3,000 in December. Evi- 
dently, then, the coach business created 
a new traffic, representing in excess 
of $10,000, or 33 per cent increase over 
existing traffic. A. limited street car 
service would hardly have produced such 
an increase. 

Our original installation of tire equip- 

ment comprised 36 x 6 pneumatic tire* 
carried on Budd Michclin diak wheels 
with dual wheel.s in the rear. None of 
the rumored disadvantages of dual 
wheels has developed in practice, the 
wear on the tires being very uniform. 
After five months of operation we can 
expect an average mileage of nearly 
20,000 per tire with 36 x 6 tires in our 
service. We have changed several 
coaches to 34 x 5 tires with good 
results. We have had few delays or 
interruptions to service on account of 
tire trouble, and only two or three 
cases of puncture on the front wheels. 
In case of a puncture or other trouble 
on one of the tires on the rear wheels, 
the vehicle, can run on the other tire 
to the terminal, where the wheel can 
be changed. 

Until severe cold weather set in 
we were getting about 8 miles per 
gallon of gasoline. In order to keep 
the vehicles comfortable during the 
cold season the engines are allowed to 
run continuously. This cuts down the 
mileage per gallon of gasoline, but we 
do not need to use wood alcohol or 
other anti-freeze solution in our 

New Association Formed 
in Indiana 

A FLAX to fight legislation detri- 
mental to motor bus owners has 
been prepared by a committee of the 
Newly organized Indiana Bus Owners' 
Association. Amendment.^ to any exces- 
sive tax measure have been prepared and 
are held in reserve pending introduc- 
tion of such measures in the General 
Assembly, now in session. Representa- 
tives of the association have been 
watching the legislative situation for a 

The motor bus owners favor a gaso- 
line tax, according to Stanley Pitch- 
ford, sccretarj'-treasurer of the or- 
ganization, and E. S. Cook, an owner of 
one of the larger lines. They stand 
united, however, against the flat-rate 
tax of li cents a ton-mile, which ha-i 
been proposed. The motor bus owners 
are willing to pay proportionately, but 
feel that it is unfair to them to impose 
such a tax. 




Vol.2, No.2 

The Engineer in Public Affairs 

Italian Ambassador Gaetani Believes Engineer Should Participate in International 
Aflfairs — Advocates Close Commercial Relations Between 
His Country and United States 

POLITICS needs a larger dose of logic 
and practical sense. Prince Gelasio 
Gaetani, new Italian Ambassador to the 
United States, so declared in an address 
at the annual dinner of the American 
Engineering Council of the Federated 
American Engineering Societies held at 
the Chevy Chase Club, Washington, on 
Jan. 11. These qualities of the engi- 
neer, he said, would bring great ad- 
vantages to public affairs. 

The Ambassador, himself an engineer 
and for thirteen years previous to the 
war a resident of the United States, 
said that his principal aim is to 
strengthen the bonds of friendship and 
esteem between this country and Italy. 
Recalling his engineering career in the 
West following his graduation from the 
Columbia University School of Mines in 
1903, Prince Gaetani said that he was 
returning not only as a diplomat but as 
an engineer and friend of America. 

In part the Ambassador's speech fol- 

We pride ourselves in saying: "Once 
an engineer, always an engineer." 
Whatever may be the course of life fol- 
lowed by one of us, it will always be 
marked by the indelible seal of the 
scientific, practical and logical training 
to which an engineer is subjected dur- 
ing the early years of life and we can 
say that in each and every occupation 
we have felt and thought and acted 
chiefly as engineers. 

Some have made the remark in criti- 
cism that engineers lack political intui- 
tion and ability; I would answer that a 
larger dose of logic and positiveness 
applied to politics would bring great 
advantages to public affairs. 

Whatever the case may be it is very 
agreeable that politics bears little weight 
in the relations between Italy and the 
United States. Between our two coun- 
tries there has never existed political 
rivalry or serious commercial competi- 
tion; our relations have been confined 
almost exclusively to contacts of labor, 
of engineering, of commerce, of science 
and of art. 

These conditions, the deep feeling of 
affection that I have for your country, 
and the desire of faithfully serving my 
country in such an important moment, 
have induced me to abandon suddenly 
my many occupations and to accept the 
mission entrusted to me. Much can be 
accomplished to the mutual advantage 
of our peoples, but a large share of the 
success will depend upon the co-opera- 
tion of the engineers. 

The characteristics of our two coun- 
tries are both distinct and complemen- 
tary; each has much to offer to the 
other, and many good qualities and 
noble aspirations are common to both. 

I do not hesitate to state that Italy 
and the United States are at present 
the most youthful nations of the world. 
Italy is the oldest one in history and 
three times has ruled the world; once 

politically, once spiritually and once in- 
tellectually. However, as a political 
and social unit Italy did not exist from 
the fall of the Roman Empire to the 
middle of the last century; as race and 
as nation it had an enforced rest of 
some fourteen centuries. With the 
forming of its national unity in 1870 
it awakened to a new life; born again 
as a new being to play its role in world's 
history, it is healthy, fertile and exu- 
berant of youthful energies. 

The best proof of this is given by 
the latest events which led to the estab- 
lishment of a new national government. 
The younger and healthiest part of the 
people, the bulk of the nation, openly 
rebelled against the old ways which 
were leading Italy into a critical con- 
dition; not only bolshevism and anarchy 
have been wiped off the map, but also 
demagogy and all low-grade politics 
aiming to the fostering of party and 
class interests. 

The other youngest nation in the 
world, I was saying, is the United 
States, the new great power of the his- 
tory to come; unlimited in its financial 
powers, unrivalled in its capacity of or- 
ganization and technical knowledge, 
wonderful in the possibilities of its vast 

The co-operation of these two young 
countries will lead to remarkable re- 
sults; both our peoples are laborious 
and have an inventive, engineering turn 
of mind. 

Italy's largest asset is the remark- 
able quality of its people's labor; sober, 
mtelligent, hardworking and plastic, the 
Italian peasant or workman will in an 
incredibly short time become efficient in 
whatever he is called upon to do. 

The electrical industry in our country 
has made rapid strides, and as to per- 
centage of utilized water power Italy 
ranks, I believe, foremost in the world. 
Electricity is our "white coal" and at 
the present day its use results in an 
economy of about two billion lire, other- 
wise necessarily spent on fuel import;^. 
The newly redeemed provinces in 
northern Italy are virgin ground for 
hydro-electric engineering, because Aus- 
tria for political reasons prevented the 
development of the power plants which 
could only have an outlet toward Italy. 
Another interesting plan which is 
gradually being carried through is to 
connect the northern power plants, fed 
by the summer streams of the Alps, 
with those of central Italy where water 
is plentiful in winter and rather poor 
in summer, by a network of high-tension 
lines and by standardization of voltage 
to obtain a better seasonal compensation 
than could be secured by the use of 
even very large reservoirs. 

But I must not lose myself in details! 
I shall only mention the new and won- 
derful deposits of magnetite near Cogne 
and the leucite deposits near Naples 
which some day will make of Italy one 

one of the greatest potassium salts pro- 
ducers of the world. 

Railroads are to be electrified and 
telegraphs and telephones are to be re- 
organized, then gradually handed over 
to private enterprises; experience has 
proved that state administration of in- 
dustrial concerns ends always in a finan- 
cial and technical failure. 

I should mention also the large works 
for reclaiming waste or marshy land 
by irrigation or drainage. There are 
148 enterprises of this kind in Italy for 
the reclamation of some 3,000,000 acres 
of land; of these thirty-five have been 
completed, covering an area of about 
820,000 acres. Personally I was en- 
gaged in this kind of work when I was , 
■lalled to sail for America, and felt sorry 
to leave, since the bettering of the 
Pontine Marshes, while very difficult 
and complicated, is a most interesting 

There are most remarkable possibili- 
ties for increasing the commercial and 
industrial exchange between Italy and 
the United States. Each of our coun- 
tries is especially fit for the production 
of certain kinds of products. You have 
the raw materials, you produce wheat 
cheaper than we can, you have the 
means and the capacity to build ma- 
chinery in series. We have arts and 
products of our own and skilled and 
intelligent workmen to turn out to bet- 
ter advantage any material in which 
labor accounts for a large percentage 
of the cost. 

For each item there exists a differ- 
ence in cost between Italy and America 
which causes merchandise to flow from 
one country to the other and creates 
a circulation of products; that is, com- 
mercial and economic intercourse. 
These diflTerences are a vital, indispen- 
sable requisite for prosperity. 

The only thing I want to realize now 
is that I am standing here in the midst 
of many good friends. For thirteen 
years I worked in your country, and 
your people have been kind and hospit- 
able to me beyond words. I will never 
forget this. 


Permanent Association Formed 
in Pennsylvania 

A MEETING of the Pennsylvania 
Motor Bus Owners Association, 
held in the Penn-Harris Hotel, Harris- 
burg, on Jan. 4, was attended by twenty- 
three operators representing directly 
and by authority thirty bus companies. 
The provisional organization formed 
on Dec. 18 through the efforts of E. B. 
Burritt, manager of the National Motor 
Transportation Association, was made 
a permanent one, with Frank Martz, 
Plymouth, president, and W. J. Emer- 
ick, Bellefonte, treasurer. 

The scale of dues was fixed at $25 per 
annum for each bus owned. It was 
decided that the association would em- 
ploy a permanent secretary with head- 
quarters in Harrisburg. The following 
committee was named to draft a con- 
stitution and by-laws and perfect organ- 
ization details: T. D. Boal, Boalsburg 
Bus Line, Boalsburg; D. J. Forney. 





Gettysburg & Harrisburg Transporta- 
tion Company, Gettysburg; and W. J. 
Enierick, Emerick's Bus Lines, Belle- 
fonte. Funds for immediate use were 
provided through an underwriting ar- 
rangement made by those present. 

At a later meeting held in the Penn- 
Harris, Harrisburg, on Jan. 25, thirty- 
three companies were represented, many 
of whom \rere not represented at the 
first meeting. In the absence of Pres- 
ident Martz, R. C. Miller acted as chair- 
man of the meeting. Mr. Burritt, of the 
National Motor Transport Association, 
was secretary. 

A report on membership showed that 
the pre.sent membership numbers fifty- 
two operators and seven manufacturers. 

The fee for manufacturers was fixed 
at $50. Among the matter discussed, 
insurance and finance played a prom- 
inent part. Several of the oil 
a number of the members . 
themselves in favor of joining the 
national association as a state associa- 
tion and consideration of th»' matter 
was postponed until the next meeting, 
when it is hoped that the finances of 
the association will permit its entrance 
into the national lx>dy. 

The following vice-preseidents were 
elected: R. C. Miller, Gettysburg & 
Harrisburg Transportation Company; 
P. H. Corcoran, Westchester Trans- 
portation Company; Charles Hanv, 

Urban Motor Bus 0|m ralicm ami ('osi* 

Bus Operation on a ."i-Cent I'aro with Intcrchanm-able I'rcc Transfers to Trol 
Cars Has Resulted in a Deficit— Neverlheless, I'opular Demand for Hus 
Service Must Be Met by Established Street Railways 

By A. C. BUNN 

Vice-President and Goneiiil Mnnagur 
Northern Ohio Traction & Liglit Company 

HAVING gone through nine months 
of bus operation in the city of 
Akron, the service being auxiliary to 
the city railway system of the Northern 
Ohio Traction & Light Company, I 
stand today in the wilderness of trans- 
portation problems and wonder whether 
this Star of Busism will yet lead us 
into the Valley of Despair, or onto the 
Road of Success. I am not yet ready 
to subscribe to the growing theory that 
buses are indispensable in a city's trans- 
portation system; and most assuredly 
I am not convinced of their economy. 
It will take more than our experience 
to prove the advisability of using buses 
as feeders; I am more ready to agree 
that they are successful as a temporary 
substitute for a needed railway line 
into a partly developed territory. 

I do not mean that we plan to curtail 
our bus operation; I do not say that we 
will not establish additional lines. In 
all human probability we shall continue 
our bus development. I am convinced 
the public demand for bus operation is 
not subsiding, and I am just as firmly 
convinced that their operation properly 
belongs to an established transportation 
company — the street railway — and not 
to irresponsible operators. I subscribe 
to the belief that if the public actually 
wants bus transportation, the public 
ought to have it, but the public should 
pay the cost, and that cost must em- 
brace full redemption of the investment. 

It is cost that I first desire to discuss, 
and in this connection I shall present 
some comparisons taken from our 
records. Please remember that our 
company, in the city of Akron, is still 
operating on a 5-cent fare with free 
transfers, and in the figures I submit 
the point that our car lines are losing 
money should not be forgotten. The 
bus fare is the same as the railway 

fare and the transfer privileges are 
also identical. Transfers are inter- 
changeable between car lines and bus 

Our company first entered the bus 
field on March 19, 1922, establishing 
a line from thf <|M\v"''.\vn ■;pcr r.n of 

tween bui> and car lines. In letss than 
thirty days the independent line ceased 
operation. This was due to the fact 
that we maintained u regular schedule 
over an eighteen-hour period daily, 
kept our buses neat and clean at all 
times, employed only the best drivers 
obtainable and iKsued transfers to and 
from cars and buses. Thi-- lino, fol- 
lowing the first month, I ' d a 
profit. It covers a distrii i i car 
lin' n would probably pay with 
a !■ '• rate of fare. 

The next lines to be e>- -.vas 

a "feeder" to our Arlii.^ ■ ; a 

cro.istown line extending across the 
southern section of the city and inter- 
secting four street railway lines, and 
one into the northern section. These 
three lines began operation early in 
August and do a heavy transfer busi- 
ness to and from car lines, 40 per rent 
of the passengers being transfer pas- 
sengers. All these lines have lost money 
from the beginning, show no indication 
of doing otherwise and so far as we 
have been able to determine have not 
increased the street railway revenue. 

Our next step was taken in October, 
when we bought out an independent 
operator who was uting five buses on 
a line extending from the downtown 
district out West Exchange and South 
Maple Street into a developed territory 
in the southwestern section of •'•• " 
In addition" we put in a line 
m-w 'i'y vjadiicf •<j>anriing the i . . .: . . 

One nf the While bun chassin with Kuhhmni ntrel hodji nprrntrd hy 
railway conifmny in Akron, Ohio 

•Abstract of paper read before Central 
Electric Railway Association. Louisville. 
Ky.. Jan. 18-19, 1923. 

Akron westward out what is known 
as Maple Street, to Exchange Street, 
where the bus line intersects a railway 
line at its terminal, the bus line contin- 
uing out Exchange Street to about the 
city limits. The territory is all thickly 
populated. At the time tfie was 
established an independent line was 
operating over the same route. We 
voluntarily issued free transfers be- 

Vallcy to the north from the downtown 
section and supplied service to the 
northeast section of the city. Wc also 
established a "feeder" to our West Mar- 
ket Street line reaching beyond the city 
limits into a sparsely settled section to 
the west. None of these lines has show** 
a profit, although we expect the viaduct 
line ultimately will produce a profit 
and hope the South Maple Street line 




Vol.2, No.2 

will do the same. These are only hopes, 
however, for figures give no such indi- 

In all, we operate twenty-four buses. 
All but five are Kuhlman closed bodies 
mounted on White model 50 chassis. 
The other five are on White chassis 
with special bodies not so satisfactory 
as our new ones. We are remodeling 
the old one to conform with the Kuhl- 
man bodies. The buses are pleasing 
the public and have given satisfaction. 
We believe the operating cost is below 
the average so far as we can determine 
from figures of other operation in Akron 
and vicinity, but I submit the following 
comparison for your careful consider- 
ation as showing the differences be- 
tween bus operating costs and car 
operating costs: 

Cars Buses 

Fare with transfer exchange, 

cents 5 5 

Average fare per passenger 

carried, cents 4.07 3.8 

Percentage transfer passen- 
gers to total 20 24 

Maintenance based on passen- 
gers carried, cents 0.41 1.12 

Depreciation (monthly), per 

cent 0.5 2.25 

Fuel (power vs. gasoline) cost 

per passenger, cents 0.4 1.14 

Per cent operation to gross.. 86. 82 98.89 

Gross earnings per car-mile. 

cents 33.12 24.53 

Speed per revenue mile per 

hour, miles 8.8 8.49 

Seating capacity 55 25 

Up to Dec. 1 the gross revenue from 
our bus lines totaled $78,252.74. During 
this time the maintenance alone has 
been $18,875.97— more than 24.13 per 
cent. And we believe we are conducting 
our maintenance department as econom- 
ically as possible and give the equip- 
ment the proper attention. This main- 
tenance expenditure was divided as 

Per Cent 
Amount of Gross 

Chassis $11,605.46 14.83 

Body 1,963.98 2.52 

Tires: 4,814.77 6.15 

Miscellaneous 491.76 0.63 

During the period referred to, that is 
from the establishment of the bus lines 
up to Dec. 1, we carried 1,560,845 rev- 
enue passengers and 476,139 transfer 
passengers, a total of 2,036,984 passen- 
gers. The bus-miles operated were 
337,021 and we used 66,969 gallons of 
gasoline at an average cost of a trifle 
more than 26 cents per gallon. We have 
charged off $12,445.08 for depreciation, 
$3,869.78 interest and $740.72 taxes. 
These figures are based on the value 
of the property used in the bus opera- 
tion. In the matter of insurance, super- 
intendence, wages, etc., the charges are 
direct. For injuries and damages a 
charge of 6 per cent of the gross has 
been set up. It is yet to be determined 
whether some of the charges are proper, 
but so far we cannot see that any of 
them are excessive. Based upon all 
charges the lines show a total loss of 
$12,928.49 on a gross of $78,252.74 for 
the period ending Dec. 1. 

So much for costs in dollars and 
cents. I now want to take up this ques- 
tion of maintenance, for that appears 
to be the burden of responsibility. The 

buses must be kept in first-class condi- 
tion. If not, the depreciation will soon 
become so great that the average life 
of a bus is cut in two. 

The maintenance of the buses was 
assigned to the shop department on the 
theory that many of the bus parts are 
the same as car parts, thus making it 
possible to reduce the amount of stock 
necessary to be kept, while car ma- 
chinery could be used to do bus work. 
Instead of hiring garage mechanics 
for bus inspection, trained car inspec- 
tors were used and a written inspection 
and oil schedule laid out similar to that 
used on electric cars. These men are 
far more reliable than the average me- 
chanic, having been trained to the high 
standard of electric car inspection. They 
check all parts for wear and keep the 
engines clean. 

The bus operators are uniformed 
drivers who have no tools and make no 
repairs, but submit written reports as 
to the condition of the bus at the end 
of the run. The name of the bus oper- 
ator is posted in the bus for the con- 
venience of the public and as a matter 
of record. 

A part of the inspection shop was 
used as a garage by cementing over the 
floor, thus saving the necessity of build- 
ing or renting a garage. 

The buses run on an average of 160 
miles per day, or nearly 5,000 miles per 
month, and, due to the frequent stops 
and hilly contour of Akron, it is nec- 
essary that they be operated in the 
lower gears a considerable part of the 
time. This is a very severe service and 
has developed, within a few months, 
troubles that do not regularly occur on 
ordinary freight trucks within two or 
three years. 

Because of our peculiar conditions, 
that is, the extremely heavy grades, it 
has been found advisable to equip the 
buses with three sets of brakes — two on 
the rear wheels and one on the drive 
shaft. The brake bands wear so rapidly 
that our repair men have become ex- 
perts and can change them almost as 
quickly on the bus as on a car. Extra 
brake bands are always kept relined and 
ready for instant' service. The brake 
drums soon score, but instead of buying 
new drums the old ones are built up 
by electric welding. These welded 
drums are harder than the original and, 
therefore, give longer life. The cost of 
repairing the drum is less than one- 
half the price of a new one. 

We have found it advisable to do all 
the gasoline filling from the inspection 
shop tanks and thereby prevent any 
delay to service. We are also enabled 
to secure a better check on the quantity 
and quality of gasoline used. For the 
reason that on some of the long runs 
(more than 230 miles daily) the origi- 
nal 35-gal. gasoline tanks would not 
suffice, it was necessary to install a 
17-gal. auxiliary tank. The buses, there- 
fore, leave the garage with 52 gal. of 
gasoline daily. In order to secure a 
uniform quality of gasoline, we put in 
apparatus for making the standard dis- 
tillation test of the American Society 
of Testing Materials, for under the 

modern methods of making gasoline, 
testing the gravity does not 
the quality. As the gasoline bill for 
the twenty-four buses runs approxi- 
mately $5,000 per month, this item of 
fuel has received much study from all 
angles. Low test gasoline from 58 to 
60 gravity with high end point was 
given a test for three months on three 
of the buses with different types of 
carburetors. Although this gasoline 
gave greater mileage per gallon, and 
showed a big saving for a month over 
a high test gas of 69 to 72 gravity, 
it was found advisable to use the high 
test. With the hill conditions, and fre- 
quent stops, the cars soon filled with 
carbon and did not have sufiicient power 
with low-test gas for climbing the hills. 
Tests have been made of different types 
of carburetors and the latest type has 
resulted in a saving of several hundred 
dollars per month in gasoline. 

In an effort to stop the breakage of 
springs, tests are being made of heavier 
and graduated springs with extra leaves 
that come into play with the extra load. 
No definite decision has been reached 
as to the best spring. Westinghouse air 
shock absorbers are also being tried, 
but definite conclusions have not as yet 
been made. 

The question of the use of tires has 
received very careful consideration — ten 
different makes of pneumatic tires be- 
ing tested. As yet, however, definite 
results have not been reached, little 
material difference having developed. 
Solid tires and cushion wheels were 
tested but did not give the high grade 
of riding that was obtained from the 
pneumatic tires, and it also developed 
that the mileage per gallon of gasoline 
is considerably greater with pneumatic 

All buses used in service are equipped 
with 36 X 6 tires, with dual wheels in 
the rear. There was fear that the air 
might become low in one of the dual 
tires, not be noticed, and run for some 
time, one of the tires thus carrying the 
entire load and breaking down the 
fabric. This situation is followed very 
carefully on the inspection schedule, 
tests being made every night and the air 
pressure being brought up to standard. 
Drivers are also instructed to get out 
of the car at the end of the run and 
carefully look over the rear tires, test- 
ing them as best they can. In this way 
flat tires are often located within a 
few miles. It was also feared that 
stones might get between the two tires. 
This has only occurred once, and in this 
instance both of the tires were de- 
stroyed. One of the frequent bills for 
tire repairs is due to side wall abrasions 
caused by striking the curbs. We like 
to get the buses as close to the curb as 
possible so passengers will have less 
trouble in boarding and alighting. 
Drivers, in attempting to get close to 
the curb, sometimes strike it because 
of the wide dual wheels. In order to 
take care of these abrasions, we have 
induced some of the tire concerns to 
build special tires with tread stock in 
the side walls, and in some inst-inces- 
heavy rubber beads have been put on. 





This has resulted in a considerable in- 
crease in the tire life. 

It was hoped, when the bus service 
was started, that by using (jood tires on 
the rear with their heavy non-skid 
markinRs, it would not be necessary to 
install chains on the dual wheels, but 
when the first snow storm was encoun- 
tered it was found that when a bus was 
stopped goinjj up heavy tirades —on an 
asphalt street -it could not be started 
without chains. It was only necessary 
under such conditions to install a single 
36 X 6 chain on the outer wheel. Never- 
theless the chain problem is a big item 
in bus maintenance and should receive 
very careful study. The life of a chain 
in bus service is exceptionally short. 
After they are used for a single day 
they require considerable repair. The 
use of chains is hard on the tires. Dur- 
ing two days they were kept on recently, 
fifteen tires were cut through and had 
to be scrapped. These were partly worn, 
but they would have been run for some 
time under normal conditions. 

How Snow Fighting Is Carried On 

When the snow gets about J in. deep, 
two automobile wreckers leave the in- 
spection shop and start to equip the 
twenty-four buses on the lines with 
chains. It takes two wreckers close 
to four hours to equip these buses, as 
it is necessary to go to the ends of the 
lines, jack up both sides of the bus and 
loosen the wheel bolts because there is 
no room between the dual tires to put 
in the chains without loosening the 
wheels. The wrecker trucks are 
equipped with the same 36 x 6 tires, 
mounted on Budd Michelin steel disk 
wheels, the same as the buses. Thus, 
the extras that they carry will take care 
of the buses. They are also equipped 
with blocks, jacks and wrecking ma- 
terial, so that they can be used for 
either bus work or car wrecking. While 
these wrecker trucks are out putting 
on chains, they keep in close touch, by 
telephone, with the car dispatcher and 
call up when leaving the end of each 
line so that they can be reached easily 
for either bus calls or car troubles. It 
is found that the buses require far more 
minor adjustments and attention than 
street cars; in fact, one of the wrecker 
trucks is out almost all of the time 
either changing tires, making minor 
adjustments or going to the supply 
houses to secure parts. Although the 
first engines have made over 40,000 
miles, it has not been necessary to 
change piston rings or rebore cylinders. 

Cleaning of the buses has been kept 
to a high standard. They have been 
scrubbed inside and outside every third 
day, while the rear ends, windows and 
the floors are cleaned every night. 
Nevertheless, due to their being so close 
to the ground, splash from passing ma- 
chines often keeps them spattered with 
mud in bad weather. 

The body frames are made of steel 
and covered with a veneer of wood and 
sheet steel material. Some anxiety was 
felt at first as to how this material 
would repair after being damaged, but, 
although the buses have been struck 

repeatedly by other vehicles, it has been 
found that this built-up material can be 
easily pushed back into place. The outer 
sheet is repaired by soldering on patches. 

Motor Hu.s OrKanizations 

.\.S.SUl'l.\TU).N'; l*r. 
lUr.ilfy. .sfurclary itnd 
port tc Wiitcrbury Pu 
Inc., 36 North Mulii 

tiiiry. Conn ; man iKti ■ 

R B. Burritt. FlBk Uui 
\Vi'«l FIfty-Bcvcntli Sirct-l, .' 
.V. V. 

TIO.V .ASSOCIATION: Pregldent. D. 
i\ O'.N'iil, Doiiclaji. Ariz.; secretary. 
K A. Joni«, 127 North Central Avenu<-, 
Phoonlx. Aril. 

TIO.V: PrfHident. \V. K Tr 
<li-nt California Trinnlt Cou., 
Francisco. Calif., secretary, Juiiiiti CJ. 
lilalno. 1290 Bush Street, San Fran- 
i-iseo. Calif. 

.V.S.St)CIATION: President. Patrick 
llcaky. si-cri'tary .-md counsel Brlli-" 
port & Waterburv Passt-nKor S-r'. < ■- 
Inc.. 36 North Sinin Street. %V,,i.i 
luiry, Conn.; secretary. Edwanl J. 
Glldea. treasurer Congress Taxi Com- 
pan.v. Panbury, Conn. 

President (pro teni), A. D. IlartZ'll. 
president and general nianaKer. White 
Bus Line. Tampa. Fla. 

.ASSOCIATION: President, H. E. 
ijahns. (teneral m inaRer Jahns' Bus 
T..lnes. La Porte. Ind. : tre.-isurer. W. 
E. Rent-schler, manager Indiana Motor 
Bus Company, Plymouth, Ind. 

Cl.VTION: secretary, Suinley Pitch- 
ford. Indianapolis. Ind. 

dent. B A. Harrison. Bainbrldce. G;i. : 
secretary. W. M. Riley. Decatur. Ga. 
or 25 West Peachtree Street, Atlanta. 

dent, H. A. Pomeroy. Cedar Falls, 

dent, E. Foster. Moreton, pre.sldent 
Moreton Trucking Compan.v. Third & 
Howard Streets. Detroit. Mich.; sec- 
retary. H. H. Hardy, Lanslnp, Mich. 

C'I.\TION: President. Rodney S. Dim- 
mick. president Touring Car Bus 
Company. 29 Seventh Street. North. 
Minneapolis. Minn.; secretary. Earl 
F .lackson, Endlcott Arcade, St. 
Paul. Minn. 

John Morning. 408 Warren Street, 
newark, N. J. : secretary, Harry 
litiess.r, 79 Madison Street, Guten 
here. N. J. 

CIATION: President, George F. Sey- 
mour, Jr., 20 Clinton S'reet, N<-w.ark, 
N. J. ; secretary. George L. Cowan. 20 
Clinton Street, Newark, N. J. 

NEW YORK STATE: President, Alan 
V", Parker. Niagara Falls. N. V.. 
.secretary and tre.isurer, James J. 
Dadd, T>resldent Rochester Bus Lines 
Advertising Corporation. 120 Vermont 
Avenue, Rochester, N. T. 

President R E. McCoUum, "'i' 
Motor Bus Company. Columbus. < r i 
s.K-retary, C. J. Randall. 419 Maj..i:;.. 
Building. Columbus. Ohio. 

Frank Martz. trea.surer White Ti ■ 
("ompanv. I'lymouth, Pa.: trea.'- . ■ 
AV. J. Emirlck. president Em-riiK 
Bus IJnes. Bellefonte. Pa. 

dent. .A. C. Ellington, Des M ' 
.Auto Company, S.'attle. Wash ; ^■ 
retary-manager. Erven H. Palm, r 
Terminal Building. Seattle. Wash. 

A. C. Homan. Mf-nasha. Wis. 

We have endeavored to keep our cost 
figures accurately. Just now we ur* 
segregating them so the ma nti r::i::ro 
cost on each bus can be d 

sepurat.Iv. .\ .i.uhlr- chi-i-V: ! 

"11 ' ' 
ami . : 

ug the lime buiics 
lays of all kinds ai 
lUmed in making 
and records will u 

in time to ren >? 

to the value <■: >• 

terial and apparatus. i, we 

trust, lift US from the ■•* and 

show us the right road, whether that 
road leads us into a Land of Buses, or 
whether it takes us back to the field of 
exclusive electric railway service. 

For the present we can only say that 
we know the buses cost more to oper- 
ate per passenger tairried; that they will 
not handle the crowds; that they are 
less reliable; that they really move no 
faster; that they are more flexible, and 
that in spite of the crowding, poor ven- 
tilation, and harder rid i:i.'. 'here is a 
popular clamor for th- ist b« 

met— and met by the »■ ' : street 


But of the future -oh, that wc could 
look with wisdom through the year* 
that lie in waiting! Who knows but the 
public demand of today may again 
swing to the modern electric car, carry- 
ing to the scrap pile the va.nt invest- 
ment now going into the passenger bu«. 
Already, along the ice-paved streets of 
our own city, there come murmurs from 
the people, who depend upon us for 
transportation, that the bus will only 
do in an emergency. We can only 
move with care lest we find a danger- 
ous place in this Bus Pathway that may 
enmesh us in a tangled transportation 
web of financial loss. Therefore, I re- 
peat, just as the public demands bus 
transportation, just so it should be fur- 
nished by us, but just so must the 
public pay the full cost, including amor- 
tization of the investment. 

California .Motor Carriers' .Asso- 
ciation Elects Officers for 1923 

Ar THE annual meeting in San 
Francisco on Dec. 13, 1922. the 
California Motor Carriers' .Association 
elected the following officers for the 
year 1923: President, W. E. Travis, 
president California Transit Company, 
San Francisco; first vice-pre-idont, 
Charles Wren. Pickwick Sta. i- 

ern Division. Los .\ngeles; ■• ■•• 

president, F. D. Howell, Motor Traii.tit 
Company. Los .\ngeles. Other members 
of the board of directors are: Burr P. 
McConnaha. Eureka -Crescent City SUge 
Line, Eureka; J. P. Walling, Valley 
Transit Company, Madera; E. J. Thomp. 
son. Anchor Stage Line. Fresno, and 
H. W. Regan. Peninsula Rapid Transit 
Company, Burlingame. H. W. Regan 
was elected treasurer and James G. 
Blaine sccretarj-. The office of the 
California Motor Carriers' Association 
is located at 1290 Bush Street, San 




Vol.2, No.2 

Ohio Bus Men Draft Legislative 

PLANS for obtaining fair legisla- 
tion for motor bus interests of Ohio 
were made at the convention of the 
Ohio Motor Bus Owners' Association 
held at the Chamber of Commerce In 
Cincinnati on Jan. 5. 

Although a bill regulating taxation 
of motor buses was drawn up to be pre- 
sented to the Ohio State Legislature, its 
provisions were not made public because 
several changes are to be made in the 
measure. A policy of co-operation with 
state and city authorities was adopted. 
It was made known that the association 
would favor a state tax on motor buses, 
but Vvould dempnd a voice in preparing 
the taxation bills. 

Traction interests throughout the 
state were charged by the members with 
framing taxation bills for the state 
Legislature and for many of the cities 
and towns. The so-called "model bill" 
regulating taxation of buses which will 
be presented to the Legislature in 
March was termed one of the traction 
accomplishments. Passage of this bill, 
association members declared, would 
spell ruin for the industry, as the pro- 
posed tax of IJ cent per ton-mile for 
solid-tire buses and 1 cent per ton-mile 
for pneumatic-tire buses provided for in 
the "model bill" would equal the net 
revenue of the bus. 

The association went on record as 
favoring a liberal state tax which may 
amount to as much as $1,000 a year per 
bus, according to the mileage or the 
number of cities it goes through. 

The convention was divided into two 
sessions and was attended by 100 bus 
owners from all parts of the state. In 
the afternoon the delegates were taken 
on an automobile tour of the city, after 
which they were the guests of the Cin- 
cinnati association at a dinner. The 
major part of the evening session was 
devoted to the subject of taxation and 
regulation as set down for the bus oper- 
ators. Each member present was called 
on to give his views on the subject and 
to relate his experience. Every speaker 
had tales of fights over taxation and 
against extermination. 

Sylvester Hickey, Cincinnati, who has 
represented Cincinnati bus interests, 
was chairman of the meeting. Speakers 
included W. C. Culkins of the Cincin- 
nati Chamber of Commerce; R. E. Mc- 
Collum of Columbus, president of the 
state association; J. B. Cox of Alliance, 
vice-president; E. N. Young, Toledo, 
treasurer, and C. J. Randall, Columbus, 

The support of the two Cincinnati 
automobile associations was pledged 
through communications from officials 
of each club. 

It was announced that James J. Fitz- 
patrick, formerly manager of the Cin- 
cinnati Motor Club and now a practicing 
attorney, would be the attorney for the 
Cincinnati branch of the association. 
He succeeds Sylvester Hickey, who has 
been appointed assistant prosecuting 
attorney of Hamilton County. 

The convention was arranged by the 

board of governors of the state asso- 
ciation, which consists of E. C. McAtee, 
Toledo; Judge R. W. Sanborn, Cleve- 
land; M. E. Blackburn, Martins Ferry; 
F. J. Mayo, Hamilton; C. Stoner, Xenia, 
and J. S. Carlisle, Columbus. 

The headquarters and office of the 
state secretary have been moved from 
562 East Mound Street to 419 Majestic 
Building, Columbus, Ohio. 

Georgia Association Holds Annual 
Meeting in Atlanta 

A MEETING of the Georgia. Motor 
Bus and Transportation Associa- 
tion was called to order at the Piedmont 
Hotel, Atlanta, Ga., on Jan. 15 and 
extended through Jan. 16, with B. A. 
Harrison of Bainbridge, the president, 
in the chair. 

Various matters of interest to the 
motor bus owners of the state were 
discussed and a progressive program 
along several lines was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. A resolution that the 
publishers of Watts Railroad Guide be 
furnished with a list of the operators 
of automobile bus lines in the state 
who are members of the association, 
and that their full schedules in detail 
will be obtained for publication in the 
Guide each month was adopted. Mr. 
Watts, the publisher, was present and 
made some valuable suggestions, among 
them that the schedules would be placed 
in a Motor Bus section of the Guide, 
showing time of arrival and departure 
at each station, giving railroad connec- 
tions and mileage of the bus route, all 
properly indexed and as complete in 
detail as the railroad schedules that 
are now published in the same Guide. 
This will enable the traveler to figure 
out his complete schedule before leav- 
ing home, and by using motor buses 
save much time in his itinerary. The 
association also plans to place a map 
of the state in this Guide, showing all 
bus routes, indicating in heavy dark 
lines the routes which are covered by 
members of the association, and in light 
lines show the bus lines which are oper- 
ated by those who are not members. 

Considerable discussion was given to 
the best method of securing new mem- 
bers for the association. There are 
about fifty operators of buses in the 
state now who are not members. Be- 
cause there ai'e many problems coming 
up constantly that can better be solved 
by a united body than individually, the 
present membership desii'es that all 
bus owners of the state share the ad- 
vantages and privileges of membership 
in the state association. 

It was decided that the secretary be 
instructed to send each member of the 
association the names of operators in 
his territory who are not now members, 
and in this manner every present mem- 
ber of the organization will take part 
in a concerted state-wide drive for addi- 
tional memberships by covering his own 

While no definite plans were made, 
the question of legislation was dis- 
cussed. The propaganda against motor 

buses from certain quarters is recog- 
nized, but it is felt that as the buses 
serve a useful purpose, save much time 
for many people, furnish an economical 
means of transportation and are helpful 
in all aspects, the association and its 
members could depend on receiving jus- 
tice at the hands of the lawmakers. 
The feeling was that while they must 
be on the alert in looking after the 
interests of its members, they would 
get a fair deal from the Legislature. 

No election of officers was held, so 
that the present officers continue to hold 
their respective places. These officers 
are: B. A. Harrison of Bainbridge, 
president; C. P. Vaughn of Gumming, 
vice-president; W. M. Riley, Decatur, 
secretary and treasurer. The meeting 
adjourned on the afternoon of Jan. 16, 
to meet again in Atlanta on May 15 
and 16, 1923. 

New Jersey Association Meets 

THE annual meeting of the New 
Jersey Bus Transportation Asso- 
ciation, held in Achtel-Stetters Hall, 
Newark, on Jan. 30, was attended by 
representatives of bus lines from sev- 
eral counties of the state. This asso- 
ciation was formed in June, 1922, and 
has a membership of about 300. 

The business session was preceded by 
a discussion in which legislative mat- 
ters and plans for increasing the mem- 
bership and efficiency of the organization 
were the chief topics. George L. Record, 
Jersey City attorney and general coun- 
sel for the organization, took a prom- 
inent part in the discussion. It was 
agreed that constant vigilance must be 
maintained in watching the legislative 
program at Trenton in order to safe- 
guard the interests of the bus industry. 
E. B. Burritt, manager of the 
National Motor Transport Association, 
outlined the aims and purposes of the 
national association, and told of the 
activities and procedure of other state 
organizations. The matter of employing 
a salaried secretary-manager was dis- 
cussed and laid over until a future meet- 

A resolution commending Governor 
Silzer for the stand he has taken toward 
the industry and expressing the utmost 
confidence in his administration was 
adopted. The meeting also adopted a 
resolution urging upon the members a 
greater regard for the safety of the 

Mr. Gallagher was tendered a re- 
nomination as president, but declined 
because of the pressure of other busi- 
ness. John Morning of the Market 
Street lines, Newark, was unanimously 
elected president and the following 
other officers were chosen: 

First vice-president, Charles J. Gal- 
lagher, Jersey City; second vice-pres- 
ident, John Yates, Newark; third vice- 
president. Michael P. Fofge, Lodi; 
fourth vice-president, Benjamin P. Huff, 
Paterson; secretary, Harry Buesser, 
Hillside Bus Lines, Gutenberg; treas- 
urer. Curt R. Wothke, West New York; 
general counsel, George L. Record- 
Jersey City. 

February, 1923 




News of the Road 

I'luin wheitvtT thw buH rurin. 
biuUK)»t toe* l»u r lh«f liiiiiurtuiil 
tvents. here pn^fntiMl to •lOW Ihe 
moveinentfl uf Khv duy. 

=i ■■ i; 

Bus to Supplaiil Trolli'N in -N*'ul)ur«ili 

Local Railway to Replace All Trolley C'nrs With Buses on Muy I — Factum 

Cau-sinK Chantte Are Outliiu-d by City MansiKer and 

RaiJMav Otiicial 

THE Orange County Traction Com- 
pany, NcwburKh, X. Y., in the fall 
of 1922 replace<l its crosstown railway 
lines with motor buses ami organized a 
subsidiary, the Newburjrh Public Service 
Corporation, to conduct its bus busi- 
ness. At that time it was stated that 
the railway was planning more exten- 
sive use of the bus in place of trolleys. 
In the November, 1922, issue of Bus 
Transportation the supplanting of 
the company's entire railway system by 
motor buses was forecasted. Recent 
developments in Newburgh bear out the 
accuracy of this prediction. 

The Newburgh Public Service Cor- 
poration has been granted a franchise 
by the Council to operate buses in place 
of electric cars over its 6-mile route 
from Newburgh to Orange Lake, which 
passes through one of Newburgh's sub- 
urban residential districts. A similar 
application has been made to the State 
Public Service Commission. 

But of far greater significance is the 
fact that the Orange County Traction 
Company is also preparing to turn its 
main city line over to the Public Serv- 
ice Corporation on May 1, 1923, which 
means that the city is now seeing the 
last of its trolley system. Since the 
first of the present year the company 
has been grradually getting rid of its 
trolley cars. 

One of the things that has brought 
about this decision on the part of the 
company is the fact that the crosstown 
bus lines carried a total of 106,000 
passengers during December of 1922, as 
against 47,000 carried by the trolley 
cars on the same lines in December of 
1921. In addition to the increased 
traffic, there has been a reduction of 
about 37 per cent in the cost of opera- 

In December, 1921 the crosstown rail- 
way lines were tied up for four days 
due to snow storms. During December 
of 1922, during which three times as 
much snow had fallen as in the previous 
year, not one bus was tied up more than 
five minutes. It was not necessary to 
put on crews of men to clear the streets 
so that they could get through. A snow 
plow, purchased for the purpose, pre- 
ceded the first bus in both directions. 
Unquestionably the large volume of 
snow that had fallen this winter has 
had a lot to do with showing up the ad- 
vantage of the bus as a public carrier. 
While Broadway has been lined with 
crowded, stalled trolley cars, the cross- 

town buses have continued to operate 
without trouble. 

Thf .Newburgh Public Service Cor- 
poration operates eight F'ifth Avenue 
Coach type "J" buses on its lateral 
lines. Conclusive evidence that the bus 
is to supersede the trolley in Newburgh 
is the fact that the company has placed 
an order for seven "J" type buses with 
the Fifth Avenue Coach Company, 
delivery to be made before May 1. 
(Through error ihese were reported as 

year. When a city with • population 

..f 35.000 in vi*itfd by thi^ of 

people in one year, the in, of 

the buK aH a conimerci . ' be 

better undenitoo<l. Su; of 

the HHialler linen brinK> ;■ tr 

of the riders each of the ■ •.<.•» 

does. This would make a total •■! ;!,i<JO,- 
000 people •■nterini: .N'ewburgh each 

"Visitom marvel at the number of 
stores and t) ■ ii New- 

burgh. The\ . can all 

be made to pay. Tiii;> ilun'l ivalize that 
thoy and the bu.s they came in on are 
two of the rea-sonn. Now that the 
Orange County Traction Company is 
going over to the bus system entirely. 

One of the Fifth Avenue ninyle-decl; busm ni S'ewburgh ncrric: 

double-deck buses on page 60 of the 
January, 1923, issue.) 

That Newburgh is a bus city. City 
Manager W. Johnston McKay proves in 
the following remarks made to a Bus 
Transportation representative: "Ac- 
cording to figures compiled and sub- 
mitted to the New York Public Serv- 
ice Commission by a bus line operating 
between Newburgh and Marlborough, 
when seeking permission to extend its 
franchise, a total of 165,000 passengers 
were brought into Newburgh from the 
northern direction. When one stops to 
realize that this is almost five times the 
population of Newburgh, the impor- 
tance of the bus as a commercial feeder 
to a city and its merchants can be bet- 
ter understood. 

"The Newburgh-.Marlborough line is 
the only line we have actual figures on, 
but it must not be forgotten that there 
are nine other lines carrying just as 
many riders into the city and forty lines 
which are carrying a smaller total. 
Thus it will be seen that the ten big 
lines bring a total of approximately 
1,650,000 persons into Newburgh each 

I think Newburgh is entitled to the 
credit of being the banner bus city in 
New York State, if not of many 

Fred Berry, superintendent of the 
Orange County Traction Company and 
the Newburgh Public Service Corpora- 
tion, says of the shift from trolley cars 
to buses: 

"The change had to come. There is 
no comparison between bu.ies and 
trolley cars. With the trolley sy-stem, 
when there happened to be a fire in 
any of the streets through which our 
tracks ran, it was a case of shutting 
down the system in that street, whereas 
now, if there is a fire in any of the 
streets our buses tra%-el and fire hose 
litters the street, the bus merely de- 
tours, taking the next street. Passen- 
gers are not compelled to sit chafing 
under forced delay, or get out and con- 
tinue their journey.t afoot. Of course 
the difference in cost and simplicity of 
operation is the big thing from the 
standpoint of the stockholder.*, and tha'. 
is all on the side of bus transportation. 
There arc thousands of people in New- 



Vol.2, No.2 

burgh riding in our buses who seldom 
or ever rode in our trolleys. This, we 
think is due to the fact that the buses 
are running more frequently than did 
the cars; there is little or no waiting 
now. When the snow isn't too deep the 
buses run to the street curbs taking on 
and letting off passengers. The ad- 
vantages of the bus over the trolley are 
too numerous to enumerate at this 

Springfield Railway Receives 
Bus Permit 

The Massachusetts Public Utilities 
Commission has granted the Springfield 
Street Railway a permit to operate 
motor buses within the territory served 
by that company. This privilege was 
sought owing to the demand for trans- 
portation service across the new Hamp- 
den County Memorial Bridge to con- 
nect with car lines in West Springfield, 
until such time as electric cars may be 
routed over the bridge. For that pur- 
pose the company has provided itself 
with two buses, a Selden, Model 52, 
seating thirty, and a White, Model 50, 
seating twenty-five passengers. 

At a meeting of the transportation 
committee of the City Council the sug- 
gestion was made that the railway pro- 
vide a complete service of electric cars 
and buses, displacing the present jit- 
neys, which run largeily in competition 
with the railway. President Wood of 
the street railway indicated a willing- 
ness to make such an arrangement, pro- 
vided he could be assured that such 
competition would be abolished. This 
■would open the way for a feeder serv- 
ice in co-ordination with the railway 

The independent i)us operators, of 
■whom there are thirty in the Spring- 
field district, voice opposition to this 
plan, but as yet have adopted no defi- 
nite measures for combating it. Their 
municipal licenses are granted for one 
year only, and will expire May 1. 

Toledo Extension Held Up 

The plans for the establishment of 
bus service as an adjunct to the Com- 
munity Traction Company's railway 
lines in Toledo, Ohio, have been blocked 
by objections raised in the City Council 
as to the manner in which the proposed 
extension would be financed. As stated 
in Bus Transportation for January, 
1923, the Council authorized the rail- 
way to issue $30,000 of preferred stock 
for the purchase of four buses and the 
construction of a garage. This meas- 
ure was later repealed. Several other 
plans were presented but at present the 
entire matter seems to be held in 

Street Railway Commissioner W. E. 
Cann recently was instructed to receive 
bids from private operators, who sub- 
mitted proposals ranging from $13.50 
to $26 a day, depending upon the value 
of the equipment. Mr. Cann estimates 
the cost of similar service if griven by 
the street railway under the original 
plan to be $17.38 a day. 

City-Wide Bus System Pro- 
posed for Los Angeles 

Two Million Dollar Corporation Be- 
hind Petition — William G. McAdoo 
and Eastern Financiers Interested in 

PERMISSION to establish a motor 
bus system in Los Angeles, Calif., 
similar to those operated in New York 
City, Chicago, Detroit and other large 
cities, was sought in a petition pre- 
sented to the City Council, Jan. 23, by 
Marco H. Hellman, president of the 
Merchants National Bank, and signed 
by William G. McAdoo, former secre- 
tary of the treasury, who represents 
Eastern business interests. 

The buses, of the double-deck type, 
would operate in the congested district 
and run to all parts of the city, oper- 
ating over thirteen routes and travers- 
ing 60 miles of streets. Mr. McAdoo is 
now a resident of Los Angeles and is 
counsel for the $2,000,000 California 
corporation to be organized to operate 
the bus lines. The application is also 
signed by E. F. Simms and former 
Congressman Joseph L. Rhinock, both 
of New York. Mr. Simms is vice-presi- 
dent of the Sinclair Gulf Oil Company. 
The director and manager of the com- 
pany is Richard W. Meade, for many 
years head of the Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company, New York, and also inter- 
ested in the installation of similar serv- 
ice in St. Louis, Mo. (See Bus Trans- 
portation for October, 1922, and Jan- 
uary, 1923.) 

The proposed fare is 10 cents, with a 
universal transfer system. The pro- 
posed buses would cover practically all 
territory reached by the present rail- 
way lines. 

The petition pointed out that the 
buses would run in competition with 
the lines of the Los Angeles railway, 
although the fare would be higher than 
that on the railway; and that every 
passenger would have a seat in the 
buses. Each bus would seat fifty 
people. The system would employ 125 
buses of the double-deck type. 

Drivers, conductors and supervisors 
will be neatly uniformed. The petition 
states that the proposed bus system 
involves an expenditure of several mil- 
lion dollars and that the promoters 
would be willing to spend the money if 
the city of Los Angeles would guar- 
antee it a fifteen-year franchise, allow- 
ing the city 3 per cent of the gross 
earnings in exchange for the franchise 
and the privilege of selling the bus sys- 
tem to the city after five years, pro- 
vided the city should decide to buy it. 
The corporation also states it does not 
propose to sell any stock, as it is well 
financed to carry out its operations and 
agrees to pay the city a license fee for 
each bus placed in operation. 

The corporation agrees to deposit 
with the city bonds to be fixed by the 
Council as evidence of good faith and 
the carrying out of its policies. 

There would be two lines to the east- 
ern part of the city, as it is pointed out 
in the petition that the congestion is 

not so dense on that side of the city as 
it is on the rapidly growing western 
side. Routes selected do not cor- 
respond in every case with the service 
already supplied by t'ne present street 
railway lines. 

A motor bus ordinance in effect in 
the city at present prohibits the opera- 
tion of buses in the congested district. 
While the motor buses could run just 
outside this zone, it was stated, a few 
of them would have to travel into the 
congested area in order to maintain a 
maximum efficiency. Terminals would 
be at the Plaza, with loops at intervals 
where buses wonld be turned around. 

It is brought out in the petition that 
when a bus is stalled the other buses 
simply run around the stalled onq, and 
no time is lost. It is also pointed oat 
that the buses could be easily diverted 
in case of tie-ups caused by fires, ac- 
cidents, etc. The application states 
that the double-deck bus is the only 
way for transient visitors to see the 
city. With the California climate pas- 
sengers could sit on the top deck nearly 
the year round. 

The City Council has referred the 
petition to the Board of Public Utilities 
for investigation and report. 

Deaths by Automobile Increase 
41.2 per Cent in Four Years 

The Department of Commerce an- 
nounced recently that the returns con»- 
piled by the Bureau of the Census show 
that during the year 1921 10,168 deaths 
resulting from accidents caused by 
automobiles and other motor vehicles, 
excluding motor-cycles, occurred within 
the death registration area of the 
United States (exclusive of Hawaii), 
which area contains 82 per cent of the 
total population. This number repre- 
sents a death rate of 11.5 per 100,000 
population, as against 10.4 in 1920, 9.4 
in 1919, 9.3 in 1918 and 9 in 1917. Be- 
tween 1917 and 1921, therefore, the 
death rate per 100,000 population from 
motor vehicle accidents and injuries in- 
creased about 28 per cent. In the 
t-wenty-seven states for which data for 
1917 are available the actual number of 
these deaths increased from 6,014 in 
1917 to 8,492 in 1921, or 41.2 per cent. 

Jersey Bus Line Allowed 
to Parallel Railway 

The New Jersey Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners has granted 
Samuel E. George the right to operate 
a bus line between Rahway and Car- 
teret, N. J., over a route paralleling 
the electric line of the Public Service 
Corporation, in spite of the railway's 
opposition. Prior to this decision Mr. 
George had been forced to make a long 
and uncomfortable detour in order to 
avoid paralleling the railway tracks. 

The commission's opinion holds that 
"it appears that these buses will afford 
convenient transportation ... as 
well as affording more frequent serv- 
ice in the city of Rahway than the 
half-hour service now afforded by the 
. . . railway." 

February, 1928 




Si. Louis System to \iv an 
Extensive One 

United Stall's Bus Transit Corporation 
F'lan.s Kml)race .Mcnlorn (Parages and 
Service Stations — Kutiirc ICoutes Con- 

THE United States Bus Transit Cor- 
poration, which about April 1 will 
begin the operation of motor bus lines 
in St. Louis Mo., and East St. Louis, 
111., as outlined in Bus Transportation 
for January, 1923, plans to spend up- 
ward of $300,000 immediately for the 
erection of (rarages. 

Present plans call for three major 
structures, with one or two auxiliary 
garages. One large garage will be 
located in the west end, somewhere 
along the east and west line. A second 
will be at the southern end of the 8-mile 
Grand Boulevard route. The third major 
garage will be in the downtown section 
to serve the St. Louis-East St. Louis 
line. There will be auxiliary garages at 
the north end of the Grand Boulevard 
route and probably in East St. Louis. 
According to Augustus Barnes, finan- 
cial representative of the company, 
the buildings will be the last word 
in garage construction. They will be 
one story in height and have a front- 
age of 200 ft. by a depth of 150 ft., or 
30,000 sq.ft. of floor area. The most 
modern machinery will be installed so 
that any repairs needed can be made 
immediately. There will be plenty of 
repair pits under the parking spaces 
for the buses, so that mechanics may 
work with the least inconvenience in 
making repairs. 

The structures will also contain club 
rooms for the employees, which will be 
equipped with billiard tables, bowling 
alleys and other devices to keep the 
chauffeurs and conductors amused while 
waiting to go on service. 

Along every route there will be a 
number of service stations, so that if a 
driver runs short of gas, oil or has a 
puncture or minor breakdown he can 
have this need met with a minimum of 
delay. A rigid system of inspection will 
be installed so that when a motor bus 
leaves the garage it will be in perfect 
condition for service. Chauffeurs, con- 
ductors and mechanics will be held to a 
strict accountability for failure to live 
up to these rules properly. 

Mr. Barnes told a representative of 
Bus Transportation that the initial 
installation in the St. Louis service will 
embrace 140 double-deck buses, while 
twenty will operate in the East St. 
Louis district. 

A feature of the St. Louis servjce 
will be the renting of motor buses to 
private parties. This service will be 
pushed to popularize the use of buses. 

It is said that eventually the St. 
Louis service will include upward of 
300 double-deck buses, and several ad- 
ditional lines will be installed as the 
demand grows. At present the com- 
pany officials are studying the possi- 
bility of extending the Grand Boulevard 
line northward along Twentieth Street 
to O'Fallon Park and southeastward 

along Kansas Street and Vermont Ave- 
nue to connect with the Bellefontaine 
Street car line near Roberts Street. 
These extensions would tap rather 
populous sections of the city that are at 
I)resent somewhat distant from street 
car service. 

Throe Killed in .Seattle 
Bus Accident 

On Dec. 30, a municipal auto bus, 
driven by Floyd Perry, and operating 
between the downtown district of Seat- 
tle, Wash., and Carleton Park, collided 
with a small car, driven by Henry Al- 
brecht, on the West Wheeler Street 
bridge, hurling the bus through the 
guard rails and killing three, including 
the driver. 

As a result of the accident, claims 
against the city totalling $42,000 have 
been filed. Charges of manslaughter 
brought against Albrecht were dis- 
missed. Evidence from the Coroner's 
office indicated that the bus was travel- 
ing at a speed of 30 ni.p.h. and the 
Albrecht car 20 m.p.h. 

As a result of an investigation by the 
Public Utilities Department heavier 
bulkheads have been built, heavy guard 
rails installed, and a new system of 
lighting the bridge installed at the point 
where the accident occurred. 

{'ros.stown IJu.s Service 
for Ea^t St. Luuis 

The Ea.-it St. Louis (III.) lUilway will 
establish crosslown motor bus service 
on March 15 along Twenty-fifth Street 
from Lansdowne to Minsouri Avenue, 
according to a recent announcement 
made by W. H. Sawyer, president of the 

This line will serve as a feeder to the 
Lan.sdowne, Jones, Park. State Street, 
Cleveland Avenue and Broadway car 
lines, and will be operated as part of 
the railway's service. The same rates 
of fare as charged on the street cars 
will prevail and transfers will be issued 
without extra charge. 

Three twenty-five passenger buses 
will form the initial equipment. Three 
White Model 50 chassis and one Kuhl- 
man body have already been purchased. 
In announcing the company's plans Mr. 
Sawyer stated that while the insUlla- 
tion of buses is in the nature of an ex- 
periment, in his opinion they would con- 
tinue in service for some time. It was 
found inexpedient for the railway to ex- 
tend its lines at this time, and the pro- 
posed crosstown bus service is regarded 
as a solution to a problem that has long 
confronted East St. Louis. The local 
Chamber of Commerce was active In 
furthering a movement for this service. 

British Bus News Summarized 

.Much New Legislation Is Proposed — Establishment of New Bus l.ineH Is Indtr 

Consideration — Safety First Competition Contest Is Being Condurtrd by 

London Safety First Council — Two Recent Publications Reviewed 

A PROPOSAL that the drivers of all 
motor vehicles pass tests before 
being licensed will come up in the com- 
ing session of Parliament, at which the 
Town Council of Stoke-on-Trent is pro- 
moting a bill carrying such provisions. 
At present anybody can get a license. 
It seems doubtful, however, whether the 
Stoke corporations bill will be passed, 
as the contention will no doubt be put 
forward that such a change should be 
made by general legislation affecting 
the whole country, and not by a private 
bill affecting only one town. 

Elaborate arrangements are being 
made for means of access both by rail 
and road to the British Empire Exhi- 
bition, which is to be held at Wembley, 
on the northwestern outskirts of Lon- 
don, next year. In regard to bus and 
motor car traffic various new roads are 
being made and existing roads widened. 
A sum of £135,000 is being spent on 
road construction, of which the Minis- 
try of Transport is providing half out 
of the national road fund, which de- 
rives its money from road motor 
vehicle taxation. A "transport park" 
will be provided, consisting of an open 
space of five acres, to accommodate 130 
motor coaches and buses and 350 
touring cars. 

The London Safety First Council 
proposes during 1923 to hold a freedom 
from accident competition, for which 
drivers of all classes of vehicles will be 
eligible. There will be 350 badges of 
merit for drivers whose records qualify 

them to receive these awards, and 
prizes of 10s. each will be awarded to 
100 out of the 350. The record as to 
freedom from accidents will be kept 
throughout the year. 

A municipal interurban bus service 
between a terminus of the Rotherham 
Corporation Tramways and a terminus 
of the Doncaster Corporation Tram- 
ways has been approved by the Minis- 
ter of Transport. The scheme was put 
forward by the Rotherham Corpora- 

A proposal by the Bradford Town 
Council to run railless trolley cars out- 
side the boundaries of the city has been 
considered by a conference of neigh- 
boring local authorities. It appeared 
that there was a consensus of opinion 
that there was not sufficient demand for 
the scheme. 

The Greenock Town Council is seek- 
ing authority to borrow £30,000 for the 
establishment of motor bus services and 
£10,000 for the purchase of land and 
the erection of the necessary buildingn. 

The watch committee of the Stoke- 
on-Trent Town Council is enforcing an 
order that must ha%-e seating ac- 
commodation for all passengers. 

With the opening of the new year 
came the first issue of a monthly 
journal called Roadt and Road C<m^ 
struction, dealing with road engineer- 
ing and development. Technical and 
practical articles occupy most of the 
space in the first issue. 

A book entitled "The MetropoliUn 




Vol.2, No.2 

Traffic Manual," by Carol Romer, M.A., 
has been officially issued under the 
auspices of the Metropolitan Police 
authorities. The London law as to 
street traffic, licensing of vehicles, etc., 
differs from that in the rest of the 
country, and besides often appears very 
complicated. While the book embraces 
all enactments relating to street traffic 
in London, it is so arranged as to be 
readily usable as a reference book. Lo- 
cal by-laws as to motor traffic are ade- 
quately explained, and even the laws 
relating to air navigation receive due 

The profit of the National Omnibus 
& Transport Company for the year 
ended Oct. 31 last, before providing for 
depreciation, was £20,170, making with 
the amount brought forward £39,782. 
Out of this, £18,000 is transferred to 
depreciation of rolling stock account, 
£1,926 to writing off good will, and the 
remainder is carried forward. The re- 
sults for the year were affected by 
exceptionally bad weather of last sum- 

The London General Omnibus Com- 
pany on Jan. 1 signed a check for 
£245,923 in payment for the renewal of 
licenses for its buses for the year 1923. 

The watch committee of the Scars- 
borough Council has proposed new 
rules, one of which is that when appli- 
cation is made for licenses, specifica- 
tions and drawings of the vehicles pro- 
posed to be licensed are to be submitted. 
A bus with entrance at the front must 
have an exit at the rear. There is to 
be a restriction on the licensing of 
double-deck buses. It is also proposed 
that buses must have pneumatic tires 
or others of such a resilient nature that 
vibration is reduced to a minimum. 
Buses must be operated only over 
routes approved by the Council. 

The term "jitney" is not used in 
Kngland. but protests are being raised 
on behalf of bus companies that carry 
on regular services all the year around 
against what are called pirate buses. 
These pirate buses cut in at intervals 
when the weather is good or when from 
any other cause extra traffic may be 
expected. There is still another form 
of the business which may prove ex- 
tremely valuable to the small operator 
but which will be anathema to the regu- 
lar bus company, .should competition 
arise. This takes the shape of a lorry 
which can in a few minutes be con- 
verted into a bus by putting a passen- 
ger carrying body onto it. If the goods 
haulage man finds business slack and if 
he sees a prospect of getting passengers, 
he quickly can convert his vehicle into 
a bus. To settle matters properly, it 
would appear that some general legis- 
lation is necessary. No uniform regula- 
tion for the whole country can be ex- 
pected from the multitudinous local 
authorities who control the licensing of 
motor vehicles. 

The London General Omnibus Com- 
pany recently conducted experiments 
in its shops to determine how far an 
omnibus may tip without overturning. 
In the accompanying cartoon, London 
Punch applied the idea to street service. 

From London Punch 
"No Cause for Alarm" 

Competition betweeji rival bus owners 
serving the Garw Valley in South 
Wales resulted in allegations that run- 
ning times were being disregarded. 
The Ogware and Garw Urban District 
Council, after a hearing on the case, 
appointed a committee to confer with 
those concerned, and to fix on a definite 
time schedule. If the time-table when 
prepared, is not adhered to, the Council 
proposes to suspend the licenses for the 
vehicles, and to call in an outside com- 
pany to provide a bus service. 

Fare War in Jersey 

The action of the Southern Boulevard 
bus men of Jersey City in announcing 
a fare increase from 5 to 10 cents effec- 
tive Feb. 1, precipitated a fight between 
the Boulevard Commission and the bus 
men which is still raging as this issue 
goes to press. 

About sixty buses are operated over 
this route from Journal Square, Jersey 
City, to Bayonne. The bus men are or- 
ganized under the name of the South 
Hudson Boulevard Bus Owners' Asso- 
ciation and the pooling system has been 
in use for some time. The present 
fare is 5 cents from Jersey City to the 
Bayonne line and 5 cents from the 
Bayonne border to the terminal at 
Bergen Point. The bus men proposed 
to charge a straight 10-cent fare for 
any part of the distance between ter- 
minals and posted placards in their 
buses announcing this increase. 

This move did not meet with the ap- 
jiroval of the Boulevard Commissioners, 
who on Jan. 28 served summons on the 
bus owners to show cause at a special 
meeting held on Jan. 31 why their oper- 
ating permits should not be revoked. 
At this meeting final notice -was served 
upon the bus men that unless they re- 
ceded from their present position before 
Feb. 2, they would be ruled off the 
boulevard. The bus owners then se- 
cured a writ of certiorari, taking the 
case to the Supreme Court for review 
and tying the hands of the commission 
for the present, at least. 

Plans for Newburgh-New York 
Line Under Way 

At a recent meetmg of the New- 
burgh (N. Y.) City Council, a franchise 
was granted the Hudson Transit Corpo- 
ration, controlled by Didsbury, Aber 
& Didsbury, Walden, to extend its bus 
service, now running south as far as 
West Point, to the village of Nyack. 
This is to be the start of a Newburgh- 
to-New York bus route. The route 
will be extended south to Weehawken, 
N. J., as soon as the corporation can 
increase its equipment. 

The route and rate of fares proposed 
are: From Newburgh to Cornwall, 20 
cents; Cornwall to West Point, 20 
cents; West Point to Highland Falls, 
10 cents; Highland Falls to Fort Mont- 
gomery, 15 cents; Fort Montgomery 
to Bear Mountain Park, 25 cents; Bear 
Mountain Park to lona Island, 15 cents; 
lona Island to Jones' Point, 15 cents; 
Jones' Point to Tompkins Cove, 15 
cents; Tompkins Cove to Stony Point, 
15 cents; Stony Point to West Haver- 
straw, 15 cents; West Haverstraw to 
Haverstraw, 10 cents; Haverstraw to 
Rockland Lake, 25 cents; Rockland Lake 
to Upper Nyack, 15 cents; Upper Nyack 
to Nyack, 10 cents. 

During the spring season two round 
trips daily will be made. The buses 
will leave Newburgh at 7 a.m. and 2 
p.m. and will leave Nyack at 10:45 a.m. 
and 5:15 p.m. 

The petition stated that the Hudson 
Transit Corporation is capitalized at 
$100,000; owns and operates fourteen 
modern buses, and has contracted for 
five additional buses of latest design 
and construction, for immediate de- 
livery. The company recently acquired 
a site in Mill Street in Newburgh on 
which a large bus terminal and repair 
shop will be erected. 

Sunday School Buses the Latest 

Motor buses and touring ears each 
Sunday bring 100 persons to Sunday 
school at the Madison Township Bap- 
tist Church in Lake County, 40 miles 
east of Cleveland. 

No other rural church in Ohio, so 
far as is known, is covering its parish 
systematically each Sunday with or- 
ganized bus routes. It is said, however, 
that the scheme is being used by some 
Iowa rural churches. 

The buses are owned by private in- 
dividuals, and the services of the ma- 
chines on Sunday are engaged by the 
church at the same rate the school 
board pays. The other cars are do- 
nated by their owners, one of whom is 
the Rev. R. R. Tinkham, paster of the 

The bus lines reach 4 miles from the 
church in all directions. They have ex- 
tended the area of the parish to cover an 
area 8 miles square. The bus service 
was commenced last January. Since 
then it is stated, the regular at- 
tendance at the Sunday services has in- 
creased from less than 100 to nearly 





Tabular Presentation of Recent Bus Developments 




.Scbipp Autu Bua LineC".. Kiugcttun, N. \ 

Motor Tranait Co Atxrdei-n. 8. D 

Layae Bus Co Decatur. Ill 

S«uide Traiuportation Co Atlantic City. N.J 

Columbia-FrankJin Bus Co Naahville, lenn 

Kast Fayette St. BusCA., Inc Baltimnrr. .Md 

Int«rr-C»ty Bu-i Tranifportation Co. North UtTKen, N J 

Red Line Bus Co Grecnwoou, .Miao 

Shawneetown-MarioD BuaCo Harrisbuic, lU 


Decatur to Pan*. III. 

E. Fayett* St., Balilmorr 

Charlea Potter 

Edmr C. Miller 

Whitehall Auto Bua Co 

John Fabia 

W. N. Birney 

Geneseo A Uock laland Motor Bus 


Ventura Tranaportation Co. 

CD. Gulick 

Chpsler Auto Bus Co 

Packard Stage Lines , 

Louis Hansen 

D. L. Gladfelter 

E. T. Bransfipld 

C. E. Grooms and H. Brooks. 

A. V. Casner 

Chester Yoder 

City Transportation Co 

Hudson Transit Corp 

Dctrnii .Motor Bua Co 

W. G. MoAdoo, as counsel 

AppUcadons FUed 

Ernest E. Knisa 

Chicago 4t Jolict Transp. Co.. 

E. J. Thompson 

G. E. Jacoba^ 

J. C. Atkinson 

Reo Motor Bus Line 

Midland Bus Co 

Barncv Huffhea 

F.4C. RUey 

D. W. Renfro 

R. R. Young 

Henry Crocker ... 
James H; Ransome. 
Claude L. Scott.... 

Miniintown to l.ewistowil, 

* ' Port Royal to Uurnham, 

Whiiehall. N. Y. 

TarT>lo«m to Mount Kisco, N. Y 

West .Springfield. Mass 

• ., Geneseo to Sheflield, 111. 

Ventura, Cal Ventura to Fwter Park.Cal. 

• -. IxM Angeles to Sunland, 

Chester, P» Cheater 

Los Angeles to Lancaster, 

•■ .■••• Ukiah to Potter Valley, 

East Berlm. Pa. I East Birlin to Hanover, 

\ Hanover to York. Pa. 

S95 .Monroe Are., Elisabeth, N. J. Rlisabetli 

Chaumont, N. Y Canton to Gouverneur, N. Y 

Lindenau, N. J New Brunswick to Lindenau, N J 

Belleville to Lewiatown. Pa 

Tacoma. Wash Tacoma lo Regents Park Wash. 

Walden, N. Y Newburgli to Nvaek. N. V 

Detroit, Mich Extension I^fayette Blvd. 

Los Angeles, Calif Los Angela , 

Permits Granted 

joiiet.iii.'. v. '.!!!'.!!!!!'!'.!!' 




Camden, N. J. . 

Collingcr & Miller 

Compton Transportation Co.. 

George W. Bush & .Sons Co. . . . 

Corinth. N. Y 

.Applications Denied 

Fort .Seward to Zenia. Cal. 
Lockport to State«\Tlle, 111. 
Kemmn to Fresno. Cal. 
Mountain Lakes to I)en\-ille, N. J. 
Camden to Audubon. N. J. 
Dan\-ille, III , to Crawfordavill.-. 

Divemon to Tsylorville, 111. 
Paterson to Midvsle, N. J. 
Psteraon to Midvale, N. J. 
Folsom to Sao Juan High School, 

Stockton lo Carlin. Cal. 
Manitowoc to Appleton, Wis, 
Big Pine to Deep Springs, Ciil. 
Amsterdam to Ballston Spa, N. Y. 

Jennings A Moore 

Leonard Dickinson 

Northern Valley Bus Line 

J. H. .\wwiller 

Weisberg & Gordon 

Vermilion County Motor Bus Co.. 

Bryant Bouslog 

R. C. A. Dickey 

Ritter Motor Bus Co 

Russell Transportation Co 

W. A. McConncI 

LInca Started 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Owego, N. Y 

Ashland, Ohio. 

Newcastle, Ind. . 

Bloomington, 111.. 
nion.N. Y 

James Hanlon, Jr 

G. J. Merritt 

W. Farrars 

Bergman & Shosie 

Arthur Scagel 

Four States Motor Bus laterurban 


Red Star Line 

\. L. Cornman 

John Lobeck 

Reo Motor Bus Co 

.Service Motor Co 

W. H. Mens 

Chicago, North Shore and Mil- 
waukee Ry 

Los Angeles to Big Bear Ijike, Cal. 

Huntingdon Park to Pasadena, 

Wilmington. Del., to Chester- 
town, Md. 

Clarksdale to Glcndora. Miar. 

Owego to Binghamton, N. Y. 

Nyack. N. Y. to Englewood, N. J. 

Ashland to Mansfield. O. 

Freehold to llightstown, N. J. 

Danville to Sidell, m. 

Newcastle to Connersvillc. Ind. 

Oakwood to Lima. Ohio 

Bloomington to Pontiac, 111. 


Springfield to South Charleston, 


Bobcales to Austin, Tex. 
Meridian, Miss. 
Duluth to Eveleih, Minn. 
Ayer to Groton, Mass. 

Texarkflna to New Boston. Tex. 

Texarkana to Shreveport, La. 

Davenport to De Witt, Iowa 

3403 Tliirty-Siith St., Elmfaurst, 

N. Y Flushing to N. Y. City 

DeKalb. to Geneva and St 

Charles. 111. 

DeKalb, DI DeKalb to Dixon, DL 

Kenton to Lima, Ohio 

Passaic, N. J 

San Marcos, Tex. 

Soooba, Miss 

427 W. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

Smith Bus Line Co 

Mark Mitschum 

Reliable Motor Bus Line 

John Veal 

Rapid Transit Bus Co 

William Allen 

Packard De Luxe Motor Bus Co 

George Karraidos 

Cincinnati, Toledo ft Columbus 
Transportation Co 

Bradfield ft James 

Glendale Motor Bus Co 

Leon Rymsha 

Stanley Cornell 

White Freight Co 

W. L. Richards 

William Cox 

Newberry County Bus Line.. 
East St. Louis Railway Co. . . 

Kenosha. Wis., to Waukegan, III. 

Lines Proposed 

Bata^-ia, III Aurora to Elgin and Aitrora to 

Bif Rock 

Detroit, Mich Lansmg, Mich. 

Clinton, Iowa Sheffield (o Kewnee, III. 

Rome to Calhoun. Ga. 

JeiaeyCity, N. J Eliiabeth to Plainfield. N. J. 

West New York, N. J Wechawken and Union Hill, N. J. 

Chicago to St. Louis 

Des Moines, Iowa Des Moines to Nevada, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio f Dayton to Columbus 

1 Dayton to Hamilton 

Greeley, Col Greeley 

Glendale to Los Angeles, Cal. 

Perth Amboy, N. J South River to Jamesburg. N. J. 

Canton. N. Y Waddington to Canton, N. Y. 

Peoria, III Peoria to Galeaburg. 111. 

Stoekbridge to Mason, Mich. 

Union Hill, N. J Wechawken snd Union HOI, N. J 

Newberry to Whilmire, S. C. 

E. St. Louis, m E. St. Louis 

N«'H l)('\<'l«>|iiii«-i)t- ill 
(lity of Sa«;inaw 

Council .Vpprusrn .SaKiiiaH .Mulor Om- 
nibuM Cumpany Franrhi»r — ('itifrn--' 
C'ommilU-f NNiirkinK Kor KmubmiA- 
xion uf Juint IIua and Trullr) (Jrdi- 

THE City Council of Saginaw. .Mi.l. 
has approved the grant of a 
year bun franchige to a newly-fur 
concern, the .Sajfinaw Motor Orn: 

Company, and has ordered the auii 

aion of thio franchiHc to the voters on 
March 7. The followini; men are inter- 
ested in the new corporation, which has 
a capitalization of $500,0iiii f ix 
Wade, Atlantic City, N. J.; .^ 
Kcrt, Walter Kutzlcb and (i. ... 
Bidwell, New York City. It i^ 

that the »yKtem will be under the ;; 

ugement of Mr. Wade and that Im- 
perial buses will be used if the fran- 
chise meets with the approval of the 
Saginaw electorate. 

This i.s one phase of the situation, 
which has been more or less compli- 
cated since the street railway sus- 
pended operations in the summer of 
1921. Previous issues of Bus Trans- 
PORTATIO.N have contained accounts of 
the developments leading up to the 
present situation. The litigation sur- 
rounding the street car-bus franchise, 
which was submitted to the voters on 
Nov. 7, is still before the courts. Re- 
cently a movement has been on f""' '■ 
resubmit this ordinance with moii ■: 
tions and the citizens' committee v. .m,.;. 
has sponsored this plan will continui- 
its activities along this line in spite 
of the Council's action. 

Rochester Buse.s Maintain Their 
Schedule During Bad .Storm 

During thi- night uf Dei-. J7 and the 
morning of Dec. 28, Rochester, .\. Y 
was visited by one of the worst storm - 
that city experienced in years. .Sleet fol- 
lowed by a foot of snow was accum- 
panied by a 25-mile wind that at ' 
reached the velocity of a 70-mile k' ' ■ 
Irregular ser\'ice was maintained by the 
railways during the morning of Dec. 28, 
but at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the 
street cars were virtually at a stand- 
still. At 9:30 p.m., with all the avail 
able men and apparatus at work, five 
lines were opened up. 

The following item regarding the per- 
formance of the East Avenue buses dur- 
ing the storm is taken from the 
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle of 
Dec. 29. 

"Regular service was maintained by 
the Avenue buses despite the 
storm. The buses were crowded u> 
capacity during the rush hours, but were 
able to keep on regular schedule. Many 
people residing in the city used the 
buses, but the regular patrons were not 
inconvenienced, the officials of the bus 
line claimed. There were drifts of 
snow along the rout* to Pittsford, but 
the powerful vehicles experienced no 
difficulty in going through them. At no 
time were the buses off schedule." 




Vol.2, No.2 

San Diego Railway Expanding 
Its Bus System 

The motor bus equipment of the San 
Diego Electric Railway has been in- 
creased to five buses by the recent ac- 
quisition of a new Pacific twenty-nine- 
passenger eight-wheeler, of the same 
type as already owned by the railway. 
The recently established National City- 
Chula Vista bus feeder line is said to 
be proving so successful that General 
Manager Claus Spreckels is already 
planning an additional bus feeder route 
to the railway. 

Municipal Bus Line for 
Frisco Waterfront 

A motor bus line along the San Fran- 
cisco waterfront, to be operated as a 
part of the Municipal Railway, a 
scheme which has been under considera- 
tion for some time, now seems to be 
assured. At a public discussion held on 
Jan. 3 the San Francisco Board of Su- 
pervisors announced that steps would 
be taken at once toward the establish- 
ment of this service. The proposed 
route, which is 3J miles long, will fol- 
low the Embarcadero past the Ferry 
Building to a northerly terminal at the 
foot of Hyde Street, which is also the 
terminal of the Goilden Gate ferry. The 
construction of electric railway tracks 
over this route was decided to be im- 
practicable because of the fifty railroad 
track crossings. 

The present plan calls for a ten-min- 
ute service during most of the day and 
a twenty-minute schedule up to mid- 
night for a B-cent fare. Six buses will 
probably be required. The exact type 
of bus has not yet been determined, 
although one-man twenty-five-passen- 
ger coaches are said to be favored. 
There have been no new developments 
in connection with the proposed double- 
deck line for this route, to which refer- 
ence was made in Bus Transportation 
for July, 1922, page 403. 

Need for transportation facilities 
along the waterfront has been recog- 
nized for years. At present there is 
almost a total lack of any sort of tran- 
sit agency, so the bus line will un- 
doubtedly be popular. 

connect with the existing electric 
lines, and insure satisfactory transfer 
service. The whole matter is now in 
abeyance pending future hearings to be 
held by the board. 

Commenting upon the general situa- 
tion in its relation to bus service, the 
report of Mr. Osborne said: 

All inadequate transportation service in 
certain sections o£ our city can be largely 
attributed to the phenomenal growth o£ the 
city. Competitive operation strictly in the 
same territory is disastrous, whether con- 
sidered from the standpoint of financial re- 
turns to the operating companies or from 
the standpoint of service rendered the 
public. Rail carriers serving a district 
should be required to render such transpor- 
tation as to meet the full demands of the 
public necessity and convenience before 
other service be inaugurated. 

The application of the Hollywood 
Motor Bus Company may be affected 
by the recent appointment to the Util- 
ities Board of E. F. Bogardus of that 
concern in that he will be prevented 
from passing upon an application in 
which he is interested. 

Many Applications to Serve 
Hollywood District 

The Board of Public Utilities, Los 
Angeles, Calif., has under consideration 
several applications and plans for the 
installation of bus service between 
Hollywood and the downtown district 
of Los Angeles. Chief Engineer Os- 
borne of the board, after a study of the 
traffic situation and of the several pro- 
posals, recently rendered a report in 
which he recommended that the appli- 
cations of S. C. Hamilton, W. F. Young 
and the Hollywood Motor Bus Com- 
pany to provide this service over 
various routes be denied. Instead of 
granting permits to independent lines, 
the report urged the establishment of 
feeder lines by the Pacific Electric and 
Los Angeles Railways, which would 

Railway's Franchise Provides 
for Bus Service 

One of the clauses of a recent agree- 
ment made between the city of Van- 
couver, B. C, and the British Colum- 
bia Railway provides that wherever 
the electric service proves inadequate, 
the railway must put motor buses into 
service. Two bus lines are under con- 
sideration at the present time, but no 
definite action will be taken along this 
line until the city has made a careful 
survey of traffic conditions. 

According to the agreement the 
present 6-cent fare is to remain in 
force for three years. 

North Shore Installs Another 
Feeder Line 

The Chicago, North Shore & Milwau- 
kee Railroad recently opened a feeder 
bus line over a 16-mile route from Wau- 
kegan. 111., to Kenosha, Wis. On Aug. 
12, the railway first instituted bus serv- 
ice as a supplement to its rail system, 
when the Lake Geneva-Kenosha line 
was put into operation (see Bus 
Transportation for September, page 
512). Several other feeder routes are 
under consideration by the company. 

The one-way fare over the Waukegan- 
Kenosha line is 45 cents and the run- 
ning time one way is fifty-six minutes. 
Three twenty-seven passenger buses are 
operated on an hourly schedule. 

Popular Demand for This 
Bus Line 

Ballston, N. Y., a village of 4,000, 
and Amsterdam, a city of 40,000, are 
connected by a 20-mile stretch of 
improved highway. At present the 
only means of public transportation 
between the two points is by a cir- 
cuitous 32-mile trolley route by way of 
Schenectady. This condition will soon 
be remedied, however. 

At a recent hearing before the Public 
Service Commission, C. L. Scott of 
Corinth, N. Y., was granted a certifi- 
cate of convenience and necessity for 
the operation of bus service between 
the two places. The petition aroused 
more than a little interest in view of 
the strenuous opposition to the pro- 
posed line on the part of two railways. 
On the other hand, supporting the peti- 
tion at the hearing, were delegations 
from Amsterdam's City Council, Ro- 
tary Club and Chamber of Commerce 
as well as many of the leading busi- 
ness men of the city. The bus service 
means to those who travel between 
Amsterdam and Ballston a saving of 
12 miles journey, one and one-half 
hours in time and a small amount of 

P. R. T. to Buy Trolley Buses.— The 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 
has decided to purchase fifteen trolley 
buses for use on its Oregon Avenue 
route in Philadelphia. 

Minnesota Buses Christened. — ■ Bus 
owners in the Minneapolis section have 
recently adopted the plan of giving 
their buses distinctive names, such as 
"Miss Minneapolis," "Miss Virginia," 
etc. It is reported that this innovation 
is proving to be popular with travelers. 
Bus Service Follows Abandonment of 
Railway. — Simultaneous with the be- 
ginning of the work of tearing up the 
rails of the Springfield & Washington 
Electric Railway between Springfield 
and South Charleston, Ohio, motor bus 
service was installed between the two 
points by W. A. McConnell, formerly 
ticket agent of the railway. 

Three-Year License Granted Glouces- 
ter Company. — In accordance with the 
provisions of an ordinance recently 
adopted by the Gloucester (Mass.) Coun- 
cil, the Gloucester Autobus Company 
has been granted licenses for seven 
buses for a three-year period. The only 
condition imposed upon the company 
was the stipulation that present routes 
be maintained. 

Rockford Bus Service Discontinued. 
— The Fay Motor Bus Company, Rock- 
ford, 111., which carried thousands of 
soldiers and their relatives and friends 
to and from Camp Grant during the 
World War, has been denied an exten- 
sion of its certificate of convenience 
and necessity, following an investiga- 
tion by the Illinois Commerce Commis- 
sion. After the war the Fay Motor Bus 
Company continued to operate buses to 
the factory districts, but its business 
has dwindled until the commission saw 
no reason for its existence being pro- 

Modern Ark to the Rescue. — The 
Pellon Motor Bus Company, Rushville, 
111., when its operations were inter- 
nipted by the floods along the Illinois 
River, demonstrated its enterprise by 
chartering a motor boat and thus made 
connection with the motor buses where 
the latter were halted by the high 
water. By this combination, travelers 
between Rushville and Beardstown 
were accommodated without delay. 
This joint service was kept up as long 
as the river was out of its banks. 





% Financial 
W Section 

Wonder Tour of America 
Company Incorporated 

The Womlei- Tciui- nf Anurica Com- 
pany, Clfvi'laiul, Ohio, has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $10,000, 
which will be materially increased 
later. The interests and officers of this 
company are identical with those of the 
Cleveland-Akron Bus Company, and the 
tourinK business initiated by the latter 
last year under the name of Wonder 
Tours will be taken over by the new 
organization. The scope of the tours 
is to be greatly extended, according to 

Laet summer the Cleveland-Akron 
Bus Company conducted tours at 
frequent intervals to New York and re- 
turn, takinn: in Washing:ton, Gettys- 
burg, Atlantic City and other points of 
interest. Trips to Florida were made 
in the fall in the same way. 

New Jersey Company Sold 
by Receiver 

George B. .Astley has been appointed 
permanent receiver for the Boonlon- 
Newark Bus Company, Inc., operating 
between Newark and Boonton, N. J., 
Mr. Astley was some time ago named 
custodial receiver upon the application 
of August Fraser, president of the com- 

The sale of the assets of the defunct 
bus company, by George B. Astley, as 
receiver to Frank T. Forbes, Paterson, 
N. J., has been confirmed by Vice- 
Chancellor Church. By the terms of 
the sale Mr. Forbes pays $1,000 and 
assumes a $17,000 mortgage, covering 
the four buses of the company, anil 
other liens and claims, making the 
entire cost of the line about $20,000. 

Bus Competition Curtails 
Train Service 

Because motor bus and interurban 
competition has seriously cut its 
passenger business in certain localities 
the Pennsylvania Systems, Southwest- 
ern Division, effective Jan. 14, elim- 
inated several trains operating between 
St. Louis, Indianapolis, Columbus, Cin- 
cinnati, Louisville, South Bend, Ind., and 
Peoria, 111. 

In the public announcement of the 
withdrawal of the trains by Benjamin 
McKenn, vice-president of the South- 
western Lines, motor bus competition, 
aided by the development of improved 
highways, is said to be one of the chief 
factors in forcing the curtailment of the 

Three California Lines 

Three extensive stage systems of 
California were recently consolidated 
into the Pickwick Corporation, which 
will serve as a holding company through 
which all three companies will be oper- 
ated as individual branches. The sys- 
tems consolidated are the Pickwick 
Stages, Northern Division, Inc., which 
operates about fifty cars over through 
routes connecting Portland and Los 
Angeles (1,185 miles); the Pickwick 
Stages, Inc., which operates about forty 
stages on runs between Los Angeles 
and San Diego, between San Diego and 
Imperial Valley and on branch lines in 
the Imperial Valley; and the Crown 
Stages which operates about thirty cars 
in Santa Ana and vicinity. 

The offices of the Pickwick Corpora- 
tion will be in the Union Stage Ter- 
minal at Los Angeles. The officers are 
Charles Wren, president; A. L. Hayes, 
vice-president; and Warren E. Libby, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Troy Company Changes Name. — The 

name of the Troy Auto Car Company, 

Troy, N. Y., was changed to the Fifth 

Avenue Bus Company, Inc., at a recent 

meeting of stockholders. 

Crown Stages Sells Route to Pickwick 
— A. B. Watson, owner of Crown Stages, 
has requested the California State Rail- 
road Commission to approve the sale of 
the Los Angeles — Santa Ana division to 
Pickwick Stages, Inc. 

Elizabeth Reports Greatly Increased 
Bus Traffic. According to a recent 
report made public by the Elizabeth 
(N. J.) Board of Works, an average of 
sixty-three buses operating on the 
several lines of the city carried during 
1922 a total of 14,946,672 passengers. 
In 1921 the total was 10,654,112 fares. 
The gross receipts for 1922 are re- 
ported as $747,333.60, against a toUl 
of $532,705.60 for the previous year. 

Fifth Avenue Bus Dividend Declared. 

— The directors of the Fifth Avenue 
Bus Securities Corporation have de- 
clared a dividend of 16 cents a share 
payable Feb. 15 to stockholders of 
record Feb. 1. Payment of the dividend 
is conditioned on receipt by the com- 
pany of a dividend of 50 cents a share 
recently declared on the stock of the 
New York Transportation Company. 

Bus Lines Must Obtain Permission 
to Quit. — The Tidewater Bus Company, 
operating between Washington and 
Leonardtown, Md., and Washington and 
Rock Point, Md., which notified the 
Maryland Public Service Commission 
that it intended to cease operation of its 
lines, will have to get authority to do 
so from the commission. Commission 
officials have indicated that an order 
would not be passed authorizing the 
company to discontinue the line until 
an investigation has been made. 

Motor Transit Units to Be Consoli- 
dated. — The Motor Transit Company, 
operating automobile passenger, bag- 
gage and express service in southern 
California, has apphed to the State Rail- 
road Commission for authority to join 
together all of its operating rights and 
to conduct the system as a unit. The 
company also requested the commission 

to define the nature and extent of iu 
\csted or operating priority right.'< 
secured by virtue of operation prior to 
May 1, 1917, and to grant certificalts 
for continued service if any of itji 
claimed right* should be held to U- 

Suuthwratern .New York Cumpeliliun 
I.eH^ened. The Red Star line, whuh 
has been ojwrating a big fleet of bu!!e> 
in Chautauqua County between Janu-A 
town, N. Y., and ituburban iKjintx ha^ 
been taken over by the Randolph 
Jamestown Bus Company. The Public 
Service Commission recently isnued an 
order permitting the Golden Star But 
Line of Jamestown Xu discontinue nerv- 
ice between Kennedy and East Randolph 
as the service rendered between thcite 
points by the Randolph-Jamestown com- 
pany was shown to be adequate and 
there seemed to be no necesiity for two 
competing routes. 

Colorado Company Faib. — A volun- 
Ury bankruptcy petition was filed in the 
United SUtcs District Court, District of 
Colorado, on Dec. 28 by the Inter-City 
Automobile Lines, Inc. The petition listj* 
liabilities amounting to $41,744 and 
assets of $30,000, the latter represented 
by five buses. The Inter-City Automo- 
bile Lines, Inc., commenced operation on 
June 18, 1922, between Denver and 
Colorado Springs, Pueblo and Canon 
City. The motor car equipment of the 
defunct company consisted of five 
Fageol twenty-passenger buses and five 
White sixteen-passenger buses. A new 
company, the Colorado Motor Way, Inc.. 
has taken over considerable of the Inter- 
City Company's equipment and is em- 
ploying many of its former drivers. 
Buses are being operated from Denver 
to Greeley, Colorado Springs and Canon 
City, and an additional line from Den- 
ver to Pueblo is under consideration. 

1923 Hand Book of Automobiles 

Issued by .National Automobile Chamber 
of Commerce, 368 Madlaon Ave., N. Y. 

Two hundred and twenty-nine model.n 
of motor cars are illustrated in the 
1923 Hand Book of Automobiles, which 
has just been issued by the National 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, 366 
.Madison Avenue, New York. The total 
number of car models and truck chassis 
listed is 834. 

The book is a ready guide to the 
general appearance, price group and 
specifications of the principal models 
of automobiles and motor trucks being 
produced this year by the leading 
manufacturers in th<? United St>te.» 
who are members of the N.A.C.C. In 
the commercial division 251 chassis 
types are listed, with various body 

This hand book of the automobile 
industr>' in America has become a 
general standard of reference. 




Vol.2, No.2 

Bus. 1^ 
Re gulation ?P 

Licensing Ordinances Held Invalid 
by Oregon Court 

Justice McCourt, of the Oregon Su- 
preme Court, recently handed down a 
written opinion in the case of E. W. 
Dent against Oregon City, a munic- 
ipality, stating that motor bus or stage 
lines operating as common carriers that 
have complied with all requirements 
imposed by the Public Service Commis- 
sion cannot be compelled by ordinance 
to pay license to any city through which 
they may pass. 

This decision reversed the decree of 
Judge J. U. Campbell of the Clackamas 
County Circuit court, and also declared 
illegal the ordinance passed by the 
Oregon City Council iregulating the 
operation of buses. 

Proposed Law Will Exempt All 
Buses in School Service 

An amendment to the revenue act 
has been proposed by United States 
Senator Ransdell of Louisiana, which 
would exempt from taxation all motor 
vehicles used exclusively in the trans- 
portation of children to and from 

As the act reads at present the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue declines 
to exempt from taxation the vehicles 
used in school service unless they are 
owned and operated by the school au- 
thorities. In almost every instance 
these vehicles are privately owned and 
the service is performed under contract 
with the school authorities. The ob- 
ject of this amendment is to free all 
such vehicles from taxation. 

The content'on of the Government in 
making provision for checking the busi- 
ness is that these cars break up the 
main highways, and their continued 
use, except under careful and restric- 
tive legislation, will mean that the 
money spent by the province on roads 
will have gone for naught. 

The city of Montreal recently amend- 
ed its charter so that a $50 yearly tax 
might be levied on all buses which enter 

the city. 


California Commission Ends Bus 

Operations Disguised as 

Taxi Service 

Several California operators who 
sought to legalize their operations over 
unauthorized routes by designating 
such operations as taxi service have 
been ordered by the State Railroad 
Commission to discontinue the trans- 
portation of passengers. 

The operators claimed exemption 
from the provisions of the automobile 
transportation act requiring all motor 
carriers to obtain state certificates, on 
the grounds that their operations con- 
stituted rent car or taxi service, which 
is not included in the act. The com- 
mission ruled that the character of 
service is determined by the facts of 
operation, and inasmuch as the evi- 
dence clearly showed that the opera- 
tions of the defendants came within 
the terms of the act, the designation of 
their transportation activities as taxi 
service was mere subterfuge. 

Government Regulation for 
(Juebec Buses 

Government control of motor bus 
traffic in the Province of Quebec, 
Canada, will be effective March 1 in 
accordance with legislation made dur- 
ing the last session of the Legislature. 
The Lieutenant-Governor in Council is 
given wide powers in the matter of 
regulating bus traffic and a great many 
restrictions have already been adopted 
and more are said to be in the making. 

The law, as amended last session, 
provides that the speed limit for a motor 
bus must not exceed 16 miles an 
hour, and, furthermore, that the gov- 
ernment may require each motor bus to 
be equipped with an automatic device 
which will prevent it going over the 
speed limit of Ifi miles. The Govern- 
ment may restrict the capacity and di- 
mensions of all buses, regulate their 
construction, and also enact provisions 
for the protection of the public and 
roads. All buses must have pneumatic 
tires. They must, of course, have the 
provincial licenses. 

New Regulations Announced 
in Washington State 

Hereafter motor stage operators in 
the state of Washington must post 
the name of the driver of each car in 
some conspicuous place in the stage, 
where passengers can see it, according 
to a recent ruling of the Department of 
Public Works. Operators are declared 
to have suffered lapses of memory when 
passengers complain of discourtesy on 
the part of a driver, and the department 
has frequently been unable to discipline 
drivers against whom charges have 
been made. In future, the department 
will require an identification of drivers 
when complaints are made, and an 
investigation will then determine the 
facts in the case. 

At the same time, the department 
warned stage companies that more care 
must be exercised to keep within the 
speed limits; that courtesy and care 
must be shown in passing vehicles, 
especially in the face of oncoming 
traffic, and the welfare of passengers 
must be painstakingly guarded. The 
department also ordered that stages 
must be heated on cold days, and that 
lights on the stage and inside the com- 
partments for travelers must be looked 

Finding that some of the companies 
are careless about using equipment on 
which licenses have not been obtained, 
a complete report on collections of fares 
and equipment used is required of op- 

Davenport Ordinance Virtually 
Eliminates Bus Operation 

Bus lines have been practically 
wiped off the streets of Davenport, 
Iowa, by an ordinance which went into 
effect Jan. 1, 1923. 

The bus lines have been doing a fair 
business since August, 1920, when they 
were licensed by the City Council and 
regulated by ordinance. They have 
been operating, however, only on lines 
without grades and their routes par- 
alleled street railway lines. They 
have been charging a 7-cent fare, while 
the street cars have been collecting an 
8-cent fare. The buses have also been 
licensed according to capacity by a 
considerable but not prohibitive fee. 

The new ordinance prohibits buses 
operating on streets where a car line 
is at present in operation except in 
cases where bus lines have a down- 
town terminus and are unable to reach 
it except by operating over these pro- 
hibited streets. The routes are to be 
established later by the City Council 
in case there are bus operators who 
wish to comply with the stringent regu- 

The bus operators are also required 
to file indemnity bonds, ranging from 
$5,000 to $10,000, according to seating 
capacity of vehicles. In addition to the 
bonds the city license is to be from $15 
to $35 a year, depending on the seating 
capacity of the bus. 

No bus may stop, take on or dis- 
charge passengers within any street 
intersections on streets on which car 
lines are operated except on the oppo- 
site corner to the one on which the 
street cars regularly stop. The bus 
lines will also be compelled to main- 
tain regular schedules according to the 
terms of the ordinance. 

At the present time the half dozen 
buses operating have been running dur- 
ing the rush hours and have been 
parked during that time of the day 
when traffic is very light. Most of the 
passengers who ride in buses have been 
voluntarily paying 10 cents a ride. 
This has made possible their continued 
operation, aided by such special events 
as the Mississippi Valley Fair and Ex- 
position, which runs for one. week each 
year during which time the bus 
operators are allowed to collect a 25- 
cent fare. The city of Des Moines 
adopted a similar ordinance over a year 
ago, which practically eliminated bus 
operations in that city. 

California Certificate Unnecessary 
for Interstate Lines 

The California State Railroad Com- 
mission, in dismissing the application 
of the Interstate Auto Tours Stage 
Company for a certificate authorizing 
the establishment of bus service be- 
tween points in California, Oregon and 
Washington, ruled that as the appli- 
cants did not intend to carry any pas- 
sengers solely between points in Cali- 
fornia no certificate of public conveni- 
ence and necessity was required unde' 
the law of the state of California. 




New Safety Regulation in Jersey. — 
The New Jersey Public Utility Boarii 
has ruled that because of the danKer 
involved, the practice of fillint; (jasoliiu- 
tanks on buses while the vehicles con- 
tain passengers must be discontinued. 

Accidents Cause liegulation of Speed 
and Schedule in Indiana City. — The 
owners of buses operating between 
Elkhart and South Bend, Ind., will be 
asked shortly by city oflficials of Misha- 
waka, Ind., to lengthen their running 
time. Under present schedules runninp 
time between Mishawaka and Elkhart 
is thirty minutes and between South 
Bend and Mishawaka twenty minutes. 
A large number of accidents in which 
buses have figured during the past frw 
months led the Mayor of Mishawaka 
recently to ask that the Board of 
Works recommend much slower 
schedules and see that speed limits ai'e 
strictly enforced. 

Operators Petition Springfield Com- 
mission for Change in Insurance Laws. 

— Intercity motor bus lines operating to 
and through Springfield, Ohio, have 
petitioned the City Commission to 
amend the motor bus ordinance to per- 
mit the bus operators to carry liability 
insurance in mutual insurance com- 
panies. Under the present terms of the 
ordinance, the insurance must be car- 
ried with a stock company operating 
under state license. The petition 
pointed out that this is unjust dis- 
crimination inasmuch as the mutual 
companies are recognized by the state 
insurance department and permitted to 
carry risks in the state. 

State Control Over Interstate Routes 
Upheld. — The Washington State De- 
partment of Public Works was upheld 
recently when Judge John M. Wilson 
in the Superior Court refused to grant 
an injunction which would prevent the 
department from interfering with the 
operation of the Seattle-Portland stage 
lines by A. D. Schmidt, and dissolved a 
temporarj- retraining order which the 
court had pre\nously issued. Following 
his arrest for operating a Seattle-Port- 
land stage without a certificate of 
public convenience from the depart- 
ment. Mr. Schmidt sought to enjoin 
further interference with his operation, 
on the ground that the department had 
no jurisdiction over an interstate line. 

No Jurisdiction Over Irregular Serv- 
ice, Says Illinois Commission. — In dis- 
missing the complaint of the Village of 
Elnnvood Park, 111., against George 
M. .Anderson, in which it was alleged 
that Mr. Anderson was operating a 
motor bus in violation of the public 
utility law, the Illinois Commerce Com- 
mission held that a motor bus operator 
starting invariably from a definite point 
and sometimes following the same route 
for a considerable distance but going to 
various destinations according to the 
wishes of the riders; making trips at 
irregular times and charging rates of 
fare entirely in the discretion of the 
driver, was held not to be operating a 
public utility business over which the 
commission had jurisdiction. 

Personal \t Notes 

lainuu.-i Son 

1!. I{. (tdfll. Jr.. Twice (iovvrnor nl .\e» 
York, as Hrad of Railway Deciden to 
Place RuM-s ()\,r All Exislini; Rail 

M.ANY historical^ssociations cling 
around the old town of Ncw- 
burgh-on-Hud.son, yet perhaps the 
proudest day in its history was Jan. 1, 
IS'Ol, for thousands of people gathered 
at Albany that day to witness the in- 
auguration as Governor of the Empire 

/;. /;. Odelt. Jr. 

State of a man born and bred in New- 
burgh and Orange County. 

Since that inauguration day nine 
other men have taken the Governor's 
oath at Albany, but Benjamin B. Odell, 
Jr., is still Newburgh's first citizen. 
Although the advance of the years has 
caused Mr. Odell to retire voluntarily 
from active politics, the former Gov- 
ernor, now more than sixty-nine years 
of age, retains a vigorous interest in 
the affairs of his community. 

Mr. Odell's business and commercial 
interests are many and varied. Chief 
among these is the Orange County 
Traction Company, of which he has 
been for years the president. This 
company controls the electric railway 
at Newburgh as well as the suburban 
line to Orange Lake, a very popular 
summer resort. In the fall of 1922 the 
company decided to replace the trolleys 
on its crosstown lines with buses and 
formed the Newburgh Public Service 
Corporation to conduct the motorized 
portion of the company's business. 

Benjamin B. Odell has a well de- 
served reputation for business sagacity. 
The bus installation was an experi- 
ment, which he and the other railwav 

' 'III'- ,.«i..i >s <tl^ fivii »,-, aii- 

nuuncementu from ." -at* 

the BuccetiH of the ejipfi :jn. i.i. .iiu;r a 
long ntudy of the local tranii|xirtatioD 
situation and careful c'^ - be- 

tween buH and trolley tru'' the 

railway now planii to -uinniu.-- the 
trolleys on all its linen with motor buseo. 
B n^.. ..,,'" manager and Fred 
Berry of both the New- 

burgh 1 uiuir .-.-r-. i.c Corporation and 
the Orange County Traction Company. 
It is expected that after the replace- 
ment of the rail line.s by motor equip- 
ment the Public Service Corporation 
will absorb the older company. 

.Mr. Keenan in New Field 
V. E. Keenan, for the past two years 
assistant research engineer of the Fifth 
-Avenue Coach Company, New York 
City, assumed charge of the service de- 
partment of the American Motor Truck 
Company, Newark, Ohio, on Feb. 1. 
Mr. Keenan came to the Fifth Avenue 
Company in March, 1920, when Col. 
George A. Green, then general man- 
ager, instituted the research depart- 
ment of the compan> The development 
of that department to it.« pre.sent high 
standard of efficiency is largely due to 
the work of Mr. Keenan, •■vhose duti.s 
comprised a thorough ana vsis of all 
mechanical devices that wou!d in any 
way tend to contribute to the economi- 
cal operation of bus equipment. While 
Mr. Keenan was at the head of the le- 
partment comprehensive studies wen- 
made on the subject of involuntar>' 
stops as well as important researches 
in the way of fuel, oil and metallurgical 

Financier and Former C'cmirress- 
man in Bus Indu.stry 

No better evidence of th.- growing 
prestige of bus tran- can be 

advanced than the im : jmber of 

men of national promiiicitce, who are 
becoming as.sociated with the indu«try. 
One of the foremost of these : 
L. Rhinock, former Member of < 
from Kentucky and for years prum- 
inent in public and financial affairs. 

Mr. Rhinock is at present a resident 
of New York City, where he has ex- 
tensive busine-ss interests. His name 
first became connected with the bug 
industry as one of the organizers of 
the United Bus Transit Corporation, 
which is making extensive plans for 
city-wide service in St. Louis, Mo. 
More recently he became as.iociated 
with E. F. Simms and William G. 
Mc.Adoo in the proposal for a large 
bus system in Los Angeles. 


O. D. Street McGraw-Hill 

Former Western Electric Official Takes 
Charge of Transportation and Elec- 
trical Units of Publishing House. 

OD. STREET, well known for the 
. past ten years as general manager 
of distribution of the Western Electric 
Company, has been elected vice-presi- 
dent of the McGraw-Hill Company, in 
executive charge of Bus Transporta- 
tion, Electrical World, Electrical Mer- 
chandising, Journal of Electricity and 
Western Industry, Indnstrial Engineer 
and Electric Railway Journal. Mr. 
Street brings to these publications a 
broad background of business training 
and a very extensive contact in the 
electrical industry. 

Mr. Street entered the organization 
of the Western Electric Company in 
1901 on his graduation from Williams 
and has a broad practical training. He 



ville, N. Y. He belongs to the Bankers', 
University and Williams Clubs and the 
Siwanoy and Pittsfleld Country Clubs. 

O. D. Street 

was in charge of telephone sales on the 
Pacific Coast, assistant to the president, 
Atlanta branch manager, general tele- 
phone sales manager and latterly gen- 
eral manager of distribution. During 
the war he rendered invaluable service 
in reorganizing the warehousing divi- 
sion of the Quartermaster's Corps and 
estal)lishing an orderly system of for- 
warding to Pershing's army where 
chaos had existed before. Under his 
administration the Western Electric sys- 
tem was expanded by the creation of 
twenty-two branch houses until Mr. 
Street was in executive charge of fifty 
jobbing houses distributing electrical 
supplies. This responsibility has en- 
tailed a personal contact with all sec- 
tions of the country and all branches of 
the industry gained in the sei-vice of 
central stations, telephone systems, in- 
dustrial plants and contractor-dealers, 
in co-operation with the manufacturers 
of practically all classes of electrical 
products. He has become a recognized 
authority on the broad problem of dis- 
tribution, now one of the most pressing 
issues before the industries of America. 
Mr. Street was born in Massachusetts 
in 1877. He is a resident of Bronx- 

Mr. Thorn with Manu- 

Transportation Expert With Special 
Experience in Car Design Goes Into 
New Field. 

WRAY T. THORN has become con- 
nected with the Garford Motor- 
Truck Company, Lima, Ohio. He was 
formerly assistant engineer of cars and 
equipment of the Board of Supervising 
Engineers, Chicago Traction. It was 
under the direction of this body that 
the rehabilitation of the traction lines 
in Chicago was carried out. With the 
practical completion of that work some 
time ago Mr. Thorn became restive. 
He saw the opportunity passing from 
him to do any considerable amount of 
additional creative work in Chicago 
along the line for which he had es- 
pecially qualified himself and decided 
that the field of the automobile of- 
fered the greatest possibilities for the 
future for him. 

Some people change from one line 
of work to another just for the sake of 
change. They assume that change in 
itself means progress. The engineer, 
however, trained to weigh and decide 
knows better than this, so that when he 
makes a decision to go from one kind of 
work to another he is pretty sure to 
have studied the matter in its remoter 
aspects. Mr. Thorn did just this 
thing. The auto as a means of trans- 
portation has engaged his attention for 
a long time, and in Bus TRANSPORTA- 
TION la&t March Mr. Thorn set down 
with facts and figures what he thought 
were the possibilities for a class of 
urban transportation service by auto 
between the cheap electric railway 
service and the expensive taxi service, 
operating on the basis of long non- 
stop runs, a seated load and rates 
double or triple those of the car fare. 
Few, if any, there are in the United 
States better qualified than Mr. Thorn 
to make such a study. Ever since his 
graduation from Purdue University in 
1903 Mr. Thorn has been engaged in 
transportation engineering. It has 
been cars and equipment with him 
almost from the first. From the draft- 
ing board he went out into the field as 
rolling stock inspector of the Chicago 
street railways, ascertaining and re- 
porting conditions. In all, Mr. Thorn 
served the Chicago board more than 
ten years. As engineer in charge 
of the division of cars and operation 
he had to do with the preparation 
of plans and specifications for cars and 
equipment costing $7,000,000. He also 
acted as general consultant in the de- 
sign of new passenger equipment, his 
most important work along these lines 
being for the Kansas City Railways. 

It is a broad experience that Mr. 
Thorn has had in his own field, and the 
best part of it is that all the while he 
has been looking beyond the confines of 

Vol.2, No.2 

that field, realizing that a new trans- 
portation agency has arisen that is to 
become a big factor in the future. In 
appointing Mr. Thorn to its staff the 
Garford Company not only pays him 
a personal compliment, but indirectly 
acknowledges the place of the trans- 
portation engineer as a factor in the 
future development of the bus. 

"Ask Dadd, He Knows" 

THE old advertising slogan holds 
good in the case of James J. Dadd, 
secretary of the Auto Bus Association 
of New York State, for Mr. Dadd knows 
the bus situation in the Empire State 
as probably no one else does. 

In addition to being secretary-treas- 
urer of the state association, Mr. Dadd, 
is president of the Rochester Bus Lines 
Adveitising Corporation with offices at 
120 Vermont Street, Rochester. Mr. 
Dadd was one of the first men identified 
with the industry, in New York to 

J. J. Dadd 

visualize the possibilities of bus trans- 
portation. He was one of the founders 
of the state association, which was or- 
ganized in December, 1921. To use Mr. 
Dadd's own words, "I conceived the idea 
that to cement the bus owners of the 
state together would tend to stabilize 
the business." 

Since the inception of the organiza- 
tion, Mr. Dadd with the president, Alan 
V. Parker of Niagara Falls, has given 
unsparingly of his time and energy to 
the advancement of the industry. 

Mr. Dadd has many live, virile ideas 
on the subject of automotive transpor- 
tation. At the next meeting of the 
state association, to be held in Rochester 
Feb. 15, he will outline a new plan for 
co-operative insurance. Both in his offi- 
cial and business capacities. Mr. Dadd 
has done much to further the cause of 
ti'ansporl by bus. 

John N. Flaherty has been appointed 
bus sujH'rvisor in charge of all buses 
operated by the Northern Ohio Light & 
Traction Company, Akron, Ohio. This 
is a promotion from the ranks of the 
drivers, as Mr. Flaherty for a longtime 
drove a bus on the West Exchange line. 





Business Information 

What Is tn'IriB 
btiuKht iinU IjulU. 
Latitit !!••»•« from 
the factories and 

th.- n.M. 

Market contUtionH 

ufCtrctUl^' ill- I'lM 

Price . 


gleaned from the following fiptircv com- 
piled by the Department of < 

Automobile Production by Halt Wan 

(Number "'( Maciiiiieoi 

Pi>i>iicns*r Cam Truck* 

T8».414 •>.f24 

1.0SM>7 li4.«i( 

l,IIT.«Ti ISl.tfl 

1922 Sets New Kecorcl for 
Gasoline Consumption 

Production of Crude Oil Increased — 
(lasoline Price l-owered Three Cents 
Since HfKinninc of 15122. 

WITH a record year in motor pro- 
duction, the consumption of gaso- 
line in the United States reached a 
new high mark in 1922. The total 
amount of gasoline consumed in 1922 
is estimated at 5,800,000,000 gal., in- 
cluding exports amounting to 000,000,- 
000 p:il. Total production and imports 
amounted to about 6,000,000,000 gal. 
The average tank wagon price of gaso- 
line in thirty representative cities on 
Jan. 1, 1922, was 22.8 cents. The aver- 
age price on Jan. 1, 1923, for the same 
cities was 19.4 cents. 

According to figures collected by the 
American Petroleum Institute, the im- 

Daily Average Production 

(Figures In barrels) 

1923 1922 

Jan. 20 Jan. 21 

Oklahoma 407,850 325.900 

Kansa.s 83.200 83.350 

North Texas 57,400 60.900 

Central Texas 127.700 214.250 

North Louisiana 72.000 94.450 

Arkansas 118.000 36.950 

Gulf Coast 123. -"0 107.4iiO 

Eastern 114.000 113.500 

Wyoming and Montana 103,050 54.500 

California 530.000 325.000 

•Total 1,736,900 1.418,200 

•Daily average production. 

ports of petroleum (crude and refined 
oils) at the principal United States 
ports for the week ended Jan. 20 
totaled 1,993,157 barrels, a daily aver- 
age of 284,737 barrels, compared with 
1,777,901 barrels, a daily average of 
253,985 barrels for the week ended 
Jan. 13. 

Receipts at Atlantic Coast ports 
were 1,037,839 barrels, a daily average 
of 148,263 barrels, against 1,346,901 
barrels, a daily average of 192,414 bar- 
rels, for the week ended Jan. 13. 

Receipts at Gulf Coast ports were 
955,318 barrels, a daily average of 
136,474 barrels, against 431,000 bar- 
rels, a daily average of 61.571 barrels, 
for the week ended Jan. 13. 

In the accompanying table are given 
estimates of daily average gross pro- 
duction of crude oil for the weeks 
ended Jan. 20, 1923, and Jan. 21, 1922. 

than in 1922. There will be plenty of 
opportunities to make money. I do 
not e.xpect any great boom, however, 
iillhough attempts at artificial stimu- 
lation may be made. The most opti- 
mistic feature of the present outlook 
is that the process of business read- 
"istment will be carried on and the 
foundation laid for a period of real 
prosperity. To the student who under- 
stands our present position in the busi- 
ness cycle, this is the most optimistic 
forecast for 1923 which possibly could 

be made!" 

• — 

Increase*! Motor I*r<nlue- 
tion Forecasted 

Tire Industry Experts Busy Year — 
Further .\dvance in Tire Prices Pre- 
dicted — Tire Production Increased. 

TH.\T the year 1923 will witness a 
considerable increase in the produc- 
tion of motor vehicles is the prediction 
heard on all sides. Although there 
was a slight seasonal decline in Decem- 
ber, this decrease in production was 
not nearly as marked as a year ago. 
According to the Bureau of the Cen- 
sus, the December, 1922, output of au- 
tomobiles amounted to 206,418 pas- 
senger cars and 20,138 trucks or nearly 
triple the December, 1921, production. 
It is significant of the improved con- 
ditions that many motor plants, which 
ordinarily closed down at least for a 
week in December for inventor^', de- 
cided that because of the many orders 
they have booked ahead, any break in 
their production at this time would be 

A good idea of the progressive ad- 
vance of automobile production may be 

Babson Sees Better Business 
Conditions Ahead 

Roger W. Babson, well-known au- 
thority on economic and financial mat- 
ters, gives the following as his forecast 
for 1923: 

"Business in 1923 should be better 

Gasoline Prices — Jan. 29, 1923 

Albany. N. Y.. 

Atlanta. Ga 

Boston, Maaa. . . . 
ChicflKO, ni. . . 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Detrnit, Mich., 
Fort Worth. Tei 
Indianap^ilia, Ind- 
Jackaon'.illc. Fla 
KanaaaCitv, Mo. 
Louia\'illc, Ky. - 
Memphu. Tcnn. 
Nlilwaukcc. Wi.-?. 

Mobile. Ala 

Newark. N.J 

New Haven. Conn. . . 

New Orleans. La 

New York. N. Y. ... 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha. Neb 

Philn'Iclphia. Pa 

PitliibiirKh. Pa 

Richmond. Va 

.St. Louis. Mo 

.St Paul. Minn 

.Salt Lake City. Utah. 
.San Franei-sco, Cal. . . 

Seattle. Wa«h 

Spokane, Waah 

w«ahin4fton, D. C 


Per Gal. 















19 4 

21 4 



18 8 

20 8 



17 5 

19 5 



16 S 

IS 5 

18 6 

20 6 



21 5 

22 5 









21 25 

25 5 







18 2 

20 i 

21 5 

23 5 

20 S 

22 5 





22 5 

25 5 



' l,>lf ..f 1121 

'Ilia tul.i 

Ject to r- 

[leBfl vehlclea. 

The fortunes of the motor industry 
are reflected in the production and 
sales of tires. It would therefore fol- 
low that the tire industry may look for- 
ward to a year marked by greatly in- 
creased prtKluction. Virtually all the 
rubber companies, which were not in- 
cluded among those which announced 
price advances on Jan. 1 or earlier, 
have since fallen in line. Apropos of 
the general outlook for the induntry, 
the Wall Street Journal recently pub- 
lished an article in which a further ad- 
vance in tire prices and the stabiliza- 
tion of the industrj- from a financial 
standpoint were forecasted. A portion 
of this article follows: 

"The rubber industrj-. particularly 
the tire manufacturing division, enters 
1923 with every indication that the 
year will witness the return of real 
earning power, absent since 1920. 
Liquidation of high cost inventories 
has been practically completed, work- 
ing forces were never more efficient, 
and more important still — the price 
trend of finished product has started 
upward. The 10 per cent general ad- 
vance in tire prices put into effect the 
beginning of the year is almost cerUin 
to be followed by a similar increase be- 
fore early summer." 

In the same issue appears the fol- 
lowing tabulation: 






45. .""" 


rteKlsi radon 


^*7(,>'lt, *..!«•>. bl7 

•.•\t l.eKliinlnp of year. tKsllmBtM 

Tire News from Akron 

THE tire industry is in the midst of 
production increases which will 
bring the output of factories in the 
Akron district to a point never exceeded 
in the entire history of the industrj-. 

Orders received during the past 
month have exceeded those received 
during any first month of any year and 
everj- company in the district is adding 
men rapidly as they can be obUined. 

A considerable labor shortage, which 
will handicap production of tires after 
the season opens in earnest, is now con- 
fidently forecast, together with a 
general increase in wages and salaries. 

This upward movement in labor cost, 
coupled with the upward movement al- 
ready completed in crude rubber and 
the tjnavoidable advance in the price of 
automobile tire fabric, brought about by 
a growing shortage of cotton suitable 
for tire production, will doubtless bring 




Vol.2, No.2 

oliniit •fiivfVior inprpn<iP<! in tirp nripes Tl'e JUssissippi Transportation Compaai 

about lurtner increases in tire priLes. ^pg^j^tj^g between Jackson and Vicksburg, 

before the end of the spring season. Miss., is considering the purciiase of addi- 

The la«;1- tirp tirice increase had to be t'onal equipment for proposed extensions 
tne last tire price inLiedbe udu uu uc ^^ ^^^^.^ ^.^^ ^.^ canton and IMcComb, Miss. 

divided to a great extent with the deal- 
ers. Consequently little additional 
revenue has come to the manufactur 

ers and for this reason a further ad- 
vance can be confidently predicted al- 
though the time at which this advance Waterto\\-n section 
will take place is problematical. coiumbus. Newark 

Hunard Vrooman, Watertown, N. If., 

recently purciiased a twenty-five passenger 
Wiiite bus for his Watertown-Sacketts 
Harbor line and another bus of the same 
type for the Watertown-Cape Vincent route. 
The sale was made by De Friend Motors, 
ag-ents for the White Company in the 

rrn T-L J.- • J i • • 1,, Railway lias put into use on Ridge Avenue, 
The rubber tire industry is seriously zeLnesviUe "■■"" 

Zanesvillie Streot 


Cornelius T. Myers, consulting automo- 
tive engineer, Rahway, N. J., announces 
that he has resigned as a member of the 
advisory council of the Federated Engineers 
Development Corporation of Jersey City, 
and that he now has no connection what- 
soever with that concern. 

F. W. Gargrett, formerly with the Trans- 
port Truck Company in the capacity of 
factory manager, has accepted a position 
with the Indiana Truck Corporation. Mar- 
ion, Ind., as assistant to the president. In 
this capacity Mr. Gargett will look after 
tlie branches and subsidiaries of the 

seventeen -passenger 

^^„^^,...^, - r „ - The Vig-Tor Axle Company, Cleveland, 

considering plans for the abolition of mounted on a Graham Brothers chassis and Ohio, has purchased tlie plant of the For- 

i, 1- i 11. i.. i 1. J Durchased through tlie Gorrel Motor Com- est City Machine & Forge Company at 

the policy of selling tires to bus and ^any t">""en uie ex ^^^^ Lakeside Avenue, N. E., in tliat city. 

automobile manufacturers at almost Newberry county Bus Line, inc.. New- Viggo^V. Torbensen, president of theVig 

cost prices berry, S. C, recently purchased a fourteen- 
A ' ,1 ii. T/- 11 cj _■ passenger bus, with a Conover body mount- 
Announcement by the Kelly-Spnng- ^f, up^„ ^ white chassis. According to 

field company that in the future tires Hal Kohn. president of the company, two 

sold to manufacturers must be at prices ^e^r'lJfce"'" "'"'"'' ''"""" "'*" ""*"■ "' ''"' '"'° 

very nearly equaling those of dealers is .south Bend Motor Bus company. South 

a forerunner of similar action by other Bend, iiui has placed an order with the 

,, ■ ■ i.. Overland-South Bend Company, Inc., for 

rubber companies in time. tour Indiana truck chassis. Model No. 25, 

That this policy will be inaugurated equipped with Indiana twenty-nve-passen- 

,1 . J. j: ii. J.- u 1. &er bus Ijodies. Delivery will be made 

this year seems out of the question but - - 

it is something which the rubber com- 
panies are working forward to. It is 
impossible to carry this out now be- 
cause factory capacity is e.xpanded far 
beyond replacement needs. 

Rolling Stock 

L. H. Blair, Clearspring, Md. announces 
tile purcliase of a new Fageol coach. 

Peerless Stages, operating from Oakland 
to San Jose, Calif., has added another 
Fageol intercity model safety coach to its 

Lot Leonard, proprietor De Luxe Stage. 
Eldorado, Kan., is in the market for a bus 
for his Wichita-Eldorado route. 

Shelton-Olympia (Wash.) Line, operated 
by Thompson & Dunbar, has added a six- 
teen-passenger White bus to its equipment. 
. Continental Coach Company, Camden, 
N". J., recently purchased two twenty-two 
passenger Inter-city model Fageol buses. 

Thomas Lowe, Fort Covington, N. X. 
plans the purchase of a motor-driven snow 
plow for use over the Malone-Fort Coving- 
ton route. 

Northwest Transportation Company, oper- 
ating from Olympia to Centralia, Wash., 
has placed a Fageol safety coach in opera- 

Washington Township School, Arcadia, 
Ohio, recently purchased two buses, Increas- 
ing the total bus equiiiment of the town- 
.ship to eight. 

Kenilworth Bus Line. .-Xshevllle. N. C. 

has purciiased two Mack buses for use on 
the Ashevillc-Weavervillc route, aLso two 
White.s for the Asheville-Charlotte service. 
Range Rapid Transit Company, operating 
between Duluth and Eveleth. Minn., an- 
nounces the purchase of a Fageol safety 

Greenlaw Brothers, operating between 
Bogaiusa, La., and McComb, Miss., recently 
added a twenty-passen^jer bus with Tour a 
Bus body to tlieir equipment. 

<irand Kaplds, (Mich.) Railway has 
placed an order with the Fifth Avenue 
Coacli Company. New York City, for six 
buses of the "J" type. 

•lamestown Street Railway, Jamestown, 
N. Y., recently placed in operation three 
new eighteen-pas.senger iiuses, mounted 
upon Grniiam Brother.s chassis. 

I>arrel Wa.v I>e Luxe Motor Bus Company, 
Okmulgee, oklii.. recently purchased a 
twenty-four passenger White bu.s of the 
Tulsa branch of the Wliite Company. 

Greenfleld-Indianupolls Line, Indian- 
apolis, Ind.. through Norman Harvey, man- 
ager, has announced the purchase of an 
eighteen-passenger Reo bus. 

Springlleld (Mass.) Street Railway has 
purciiased a lliirty-passenger Selden bus. 
Model 02. and a twenty-flvc-passenger 
White 50 bus for use between Springfield 
and West Springfield. 

The Sutherland Stages. San nlego. Calif.. 
announces tln' addllion rif another Kagenl 
safety coach lo llie Meet wliich this company 
operates to Tia .luana. Mexico. 

March 1. 

White Coach Transit Company, F. S. 
Sapri. proprietor, announces the purchase of 
two twenty-five-passenger Wliite buses. 
Tile sale was made through the White 
Truck Sales Company, Canton. Ohio, and 
the liuses will be used on the newly estab- 
lished Youngstown-Canton route. 

Pocahontas Transportation Company, 
Welch, W. Va. is in the market for five 
sixteen to eigliteen-pa.sstnger buses. This 
company requires buses witM short wheel- 
base, built low and as narrow as possible 
to conform to the requirements of moun- 
tain roads. Carroll R. Woods is president 
and manager of the coiicei n. 

Business ISotes 

Johnson Fare Box Company, Chicago, III.. 

has opened an Eastern sales office and 
service station at 366 Madison Avenue. 
New Yorlc City. 

Sanford Motor Truck Company, Syracuse, 
N. y., announces the appointment of B. A. 
Dauer as New England sales manager with 
headquarters at Boston. 

Tire & Rim Association of America, Inc., 
announces the new location of its Cleve- 
land (Ohio) offices as 1401-1402 Cleveland 
Discount Building, Superior Avenue and 
East Ninth Street. 

Francis W. Davis, formerly truck engi- 
neer for the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Com- 
pany, Buffalo, N. Y'.. has opened offices as 
a consulting engineer in tlie Metz Building, 
Waltham. Mass. 

Air Reduction Sales Company, whose 
executive offices were formerly maintained 
at 120 Broadway and 160 Fifth Avenue, 
have consolidated these offices at their new 
location, 342 Madison Avenue, New Yorii 

A. J. Sanderson, better know as "Jack." 
has resigned as general sales manager of 
tlM' Maccar Company, .Scranlon, Pa., to 
become vice-president of the Mueller En- 
gineering Company, manufacturer of auto- 
motive units, with offices in Scranton. 

American Chemical Paint Company, with 
main offices in Philadelphia, Pa., has com- 
menced manufacturing its products in the 
new Canadian factory at 425 Pierre Avenue. 
Windsor. Ont., from which the export and 
Canadian trade will be supplied. 

C. M. McCreery. intimately connected 
with the development of the bus tire of 
the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 
and the transport department of that con- 
cern, has gone to Europe to study bus and 
truck developments. 

Tor Company, has announced tliat opera- 
tions at the newly acquired plant will begin 
at once. . ' 

The Barr Rubber Products Company, 
Lorain, Ohio, heretofore a closed corpora- 
tion, will increase its capital stock from 
$25,000 to $100,000 and will move from 
Lorain to Sandusky, Ohio, where it will 
occupy the former plant of the Kroma 
Color Company on East Market Street. 
The president of the company is N. T. Barr. 
Horace L. Howell, formerly with the Na- 
tional Railway Appliance Company. New 
Y'ork, as manager of research and informa- 
tion in behalf of the London Underground 
Group and the London General Omnibus 
Company, is now sales manager and engi- 
neer with the Johnson Fare Bo.k Company, 

Ackerman-Blaesser-Fczzey, Inc., 1258 
Holden Avenue, Detroit, Mich., lias been 
organized to manufacture a mechanical 
window regulator. The company is headed 
by E. L. Ackerman. president. His asso- 
ciates are C. E. Blaesser, secretary-treas- 
urer, and Chet Fezzey, sales manager. 
.41ois Zwierzina has been appointed super- 
intendent in charge of manufacturing and 

The Ohmer Fare Register Conipany, Day- 
ton. Ohio, has acquired the fare register and 
fare box business of the Dayton Fare 
Recorder Company and the Recording and 
Computing Machines Company of the same 
city. Included with this transfer is the 
business of the Sterling-Meaker Register 
Company and the New Haven Register 
Company, which was previously acquired by 
the Dayton Fare Recorder Company. 

Motor Truck Industries, Inc., is the new 
name of the organization formerly known 
as the National Association Motor Truck 
Industries. The organization, membership 
and officers are tlie same as heretofore and 
the headquarters are still at 1156-57 Book 
Building. Detroit, Midi. 

Brown Body Corporation. Cleveland. Ohio. 
announces tlie opening of tiie new plant 
No. 2 at Forty-ninth Street and Superior 
Avenue. This is a much larger plant than 
the original No 2. which was recently 
destroyed liy fire, and the company expects 
with the new arrangement to double its 

Advertising Literature 

Schick-Wheeler Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis., has issued a bulletin describing tlie 
S&W "Limited" motor coach. This coach 
consists of a Packard twin-six rebuilt 
chassis, and a body of fifteen to eighteen 
passenger capacity. 

FitzJohn-Erwin Manufacturing Company, 
Muskegon, Mich., has issued for distribution 
among Reo dealers, a portfolio, containing 
illustrations and specifications of three 
models of standard Fitz-Er motor bodies 
for mounting on Reo speed wagon chassis. 

Continental Axle Company, Edgerton, 
Wis., has issued a reprint of C. B. Orr s 
article entitled "Small Diameter Pneumatic 
Tires " which appeared in the November 
issue of Bus Transportation. The re- 

General Motors Corporation has acquired print also contains details of the Continental 
all the outstanding stock of tlie Brown- coach front axle 

Ijipe-CIiaiiin Company, manufacturers of 
gears and differentials with plants at Syra- 
cuse. N. Y'. H. W. Chapin, general manager 
of the concern since its inception, becomes 
president, succeeding A. T. Brown. 

United Globe Rubber Company, operat- 
ing a large plant in Trenton, N. J., has 
been alisorbed by the United Globe Rub- 
ber Corporation, recently incorporated in 
iielaware. The new company has acquired 
all tlu- assets, patent rights, trade marks 
and business of the old company, which 
passes out of existence. 

The White Company, Cleveland, Ohio, has 

issued a twenty-four-page- booklet giving a 
wealth of information on the use of motor 
buses Profusely illustrated, the booklet 
shows a wide variety of designs suitiible 
for manv different fields of bus operation. 
According to information contained in the 
booklet, more than 3.200 White buses are 
now in service. Information is also given 
on the operation of buses in city service as 
traction line feeders, intercity lines, for de 
luxe tours, for schools and institutions, and 
for park ami siglitseeing. 



New York, March, 192J 

Zone Fare S\slein 

Used Suecessfullv on IJne ScM-vinir 

Roeln^ster's Firili AveiiiK' 

All aboard for Corbett's Glenn, Maplewood Inn Fark and other points en route to fitttford, N. Y. 

DO VV N TOWN in Rochester, 
N. Y., East Avenue is a high- 
class shopping and business 
street. Further out are several 
blocks devoted to Automobile Row, 
and then East Avenue continues on 
to the city limits as one of the best 
residential sections of the "Kodak" 
city. Beyond the city line East 
Avenue passes through the adjoin- 
ing suburb of Brighton, and to the 
town of Pittsford, a rapidly growing 
suburb of Rochester. 

All this by way of describing the 
route covered by the East Avenue 
Bus Company, Inc. Over the 7-mile 
stretch, from Main Street and East 
Avenue, Rochester, to the center of 
Pittsford, four thirty - passenger 
buses, with Selden chassis and 
Kuhlman steel bodies, have been op- 
erated since last June. In keeping 
with the character of the territory 
covered, these vehicles are of the de 
luxe type, well kept up and finished, 
and driven by drivers in uniform. 

During the summer the first bus 

Modern Buses Give Fre- 
quent Service to Outl\ in>; 
Suburbs — Business 
Houses and Hotels 
Help to Develop 
Bus Habit 

left Pittsford at 6 o'clock in the 
morning, and Rochester at 11:30 in 
the evening, but under a new 
schedule started on Sept. 20, this 
bus leaves at 6:45 a.m. and the last 
one from Rochester at 11:45 p.m. 
The schedule calls for hourly serv- 
ice during the greater part of the 
day, with buses on the half hour 
during morning and evening rush. 
Thus nineteen round trips are made 
on each weekday ; on Sunday the 
schedule is cut down slightly, and 
only thirteen round trips are made. 

There are only four zones, the first 
from the Rochester terminal to Cul- 
vpr Road. i>n thn r)iitskirts of the city. 

taking a 10-cent fare. Beyond that 
there are three 5-cent zone«. Culver 
Road to Clover Street, Clover Street 
to Maplewood, and Maplewood to 
Pittsford. The total one-trip fare, 
Rochester to Pittsford, is therefore 
25 cents. These fares are on the 
cash basis, of course. Two special 
forms of tickets are used, the first 
of the strip type, containing twenty 
tickets in 5-cent units, and .selling for 
90 cents. Then there is a monthly 
commutation ticket, good only for 
the trip between Pittsford and 
Rochester. This is good for fifty 
trips, and is sold for $7.50. The 25- 
cent rate is thus brought down to 15 
cents by the use of the commutation. 
Fare collection is on the pay-leave 
plan. Each passenger on entering is 
given a colored receipt, different 
colors being used for each zone. 
These are numbered, in addition to 
being of the different colors. When 
the passenger leaves he delivers up 
this receipt so that the driver knows 
iust how much fare should be col- 




Vol.2, No.3 

Interior of Rochester bus showing passenger accomm-odations 

lected. Separate boxes are provided 
on the left-hand side of the driver 
where the different receipts are de- 
posited. The drivers carry a change 
maker and a punch for the commu- 
tation ticket, but all cash is deposited 
in a Cleveland fare box. 

The route followed by the East 
Avenue buses is fortunately selected, 
in that it practically cuts across the 

center of a strip of territory 
not served by any transportation 
medium. On the edges of this strip 
are two interurban lines, so that the 
buses reach many people who would 
have a long walk through rather un- 
pleasant surroundings to reach the 
interurban cars. On the Rochester 
and Eastern Line of the New York 
State Railways a fifty-four-trip com- 

mutation ticket is sold for $4.40, but 
this is good only to the city line. 
To get downtown costs 7 cents more. 
The total fare is about 15 ooits then, 
practically the same as the bus com- 
mutation rate. The one-trip fare on 
the interurban is 21 cents, this in- 
cluding the city fare, as compared 
with 25 cents on the bus. 

Where the Tickets Are Sold 

The drivers sell no tickets, but 
both forms, strip and commutation, 
are handled through stores and other 
agents in Pittsford and in the down- 
town shopping section in Rochester. 
No commission is paid since the busi- 
ness people are anxious to have the 
bus line operated, and gladly help it 
along by the sale of tickets. In fact, 
the East Avenue Association, an or- 
ganization devoted to the building up 
of East Avenue as a shopping and 
business district, has stood by the 
bus both financially and morally. 

The two forms of tickets (strip 
and commutation) are reproduced 
here, as is also the report filled out 
each day by the driver. This report 
is printed on 100 lb. manila stock, 
one side for mileage and condition 
report and the other containing 
space for the daily consumption of 
gasoline and oil. The two large 


















TH(«i niPomt tHtLL •■ Tuonro into iuc orrict diilt 

East Ave bus Co. inc. 

Driver's report, typex of tich-efs and office record forms used hi/ Hast ArriiKc Bus Line, Rochester, N. Y. 

March, 1923 




forms show how the rect'ipts are 
recorded. The trip record, which is 
filled out in the office on the basis of 
the daily bus reports and the tickets 
turned in, is practically a record of 
all receipts, except commutation 
tickets. The daily earninjrs report 
form, which sums up the work done 
by all buses during the day, also con- 
tains spaces for recording the out- 
standing tickets or ticket liability, 
total passenger revenue, and char- 
tered car revenue. 

East Av-enue Eqi'IPMent 

Four buses are in service, the 
schedule requiring three as a maxi- 
mum so that one is always kept in 
reserve. These buses are mounted 
on Selden unit 52 chassis and carry 
twenty-nine passenger bodies built 
by the Kuhlman Company, Cleveland. 
The chassis is of the low-hung type, 
which brings down the floor to 
within SO in. of the ground. The 
frame is kicked up over the rear 
axle for this purpose. Three of the 
buses are fitted with Sewell cushion 
wheels. The front tires are 36 x 4 
single, and the rear 35 x 4 dual, 
both Goodrich semi-pneumatics. The 
fourth bus was fitted with .steel disk 
wheels and pneumatic tires, 3() x G 
front and 36 x 6 dual rear, but these 
have been replaced by Firestone 
solids. The pneumatics were tried 
on account of the bad road condi- 
tions outside the city which resulted 
in uncomfortable riding over the 
greater part of the route. It was 
found, however, that on the right- 
hand front wheels they wore out 
quickly because of the rough un- 
paved shoulders of the highway. 
The route covered by the buses is to 
be repaved, however, and it is 
thought that when the improvements 
are completed the cushion tire 
equipment will prove satisfactory. 

The chassis components include a 
Continental engine, 4i in. bore and 
5* in. stroke, giving 48 b.hp. at 1,400 
r.p.m. Ignition is by Eisemann 
magneto. The carburetor is Strom- 
berg, 1} in. size. The clutch is of 
the multiple-disk type and is fitted 
with a clutch brake. Transmission 
is mounted amidship and is of the 
four-speed type. Final drive is 
through underslung worm on the 
semi-floating type rear axle. 

Fuel is carried in a 35-gal. tank, 
mounted in a compartment at the left 
of the driver. The batter>- is placed 
under the driver's seat in a 21 x 12* 
x 12 in. space. Ample illumination is 
provided by a 2.5-amp. generator. 

(]Ios(mI S\sl<'ni 
<)(' liilercilv Fai*r ( i<>ll<M*ti<Mi 

Comparison of .Methods I sed by 
C'onnedicut and Ohio Lines — Forms 
of Punched Tickets .\re lllustralid 

MacDonaid ticket holder. Weighs ,' oz. with pad 

THE systems of fare collection 
used by the Connecticut Motor 
Transportation Company, New Lon- 
don, Conn., and the Cleveland- 
Youngstown Bus Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, offer an interesting 
contrast. The tickets for the two 
lines are shown here, and it will be 
noticed that while both are of about 
the same size, the arrangement is 
strikingly different. 

Both of them make use, however, 
of the closed system of fare collec- 
tion and of the system of cash 
receipts put out by the MacDonaid 
Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. In this .system the tickets are 
printed in pads of 100 to fit a holder 
containing pointers that mark the 
tickets when they are torn from the 

Fare collection on the Connecticut 
line, which operates over a new 
45-mile concrete highway between 
Hartford and New London, is about 
as follows: 

A few minutes before the time 
scheduled for the bus to leave the 
terminal, the driver starts at the 
rear and inquires the destination of 
each passenger. The driver then col- 
lects the amount of the fare, and 
sets the pointers of the ticket (^on 
which the date and hour have already 
been punched ) in four places as fol- 
lows: Station where passenger 
starts, station where he says he will 

leave, fare between the two pointx, 
and the item cash. As the final step 
the ticket is separated from the stub 
and given the passenger, the stub 
being retained by the operator. 

Pa.ssengers picked up at inter- 
mediate points along the line pay 
their fares and receive their tickets 
as they enter, and before the bu.s 

The Connecticut ticket, which is 
reproduced here, shows that on Nov. 
10 No. 0004 was issued by operator 
"B" of Car No. 8, between 5 and 8 
a.m., to a passenger picked up at 
Glastonbury, di.scharged at Salem, 
and that $1.25 cash was received. 

Throughout the trip the driver 
announces each station or zone, 
which on the Connecticut line takes 
a fare of 25 cents, with 25 cents for 
each lap-over. When the pas.senger 
leaves the bus, the ticket is collected 
by the driver. If a pai^senger pre- 
sents a ticket which indicates he has 
passed the destination punched, the 
driver knows that he has tried to 
"beat" his passage part way, and he 
is made to pay the balance of the 

At the end of each round trip all 
tickets and fares received are turned 
in. Stubs are turned in at the end 
of the day's operations and must 
check with the tickets issued and 
money received. 

To understand how the system 




Vol.2, No.3 


iN )>C.VSH 






1 I.2S 









coir HESTER 










if g:i 

* MAR^ 


3 MAY 

6 S£P. 

7 oct 


2^ 22 




Car No. 8 

^ar No. 6 

Ticket form used on Connecticut 
line, punched for month, day, 
hour, fare and terminal points. 

works, reference should be made to 
the holder which is illustrated here. 
This takes a ticket 5 in. long, al- 
though sizes taking 6 and 7-in. tick- 
ets are also available. The holder, 
which is made of German silver and 
heavy sheet aluminum, has two pur- 
poses: to hold the pad and to mark 
the individual tickets. Its interior, 
which is hollow, contains small posts 
which pass through holes punched 
along the inside edge of the ticket 
pad. On the outside are carried mov- 
able pointers which can be set at 
the place desired, along the ticket. 
The result is a permanent record on 

the ticket when it is torn off, and 
also on the stub portion in the holder. 

On the back of each holder is a 
numbering device or register which 
indicates the number of times the 
holder has been opened. When the 
driver receives the holder it is loaded 
with a pad of 100 tickets and a record 
made of the pad number and register 
reading. This reading must corre- 
spond to the reading made when the 
holder is returned for a new pad, 
as drivers are not permitted to open 
the holder, or for that matter to 
check up on the amount of money 
they owe the company. Instead they 
are required to return all cash in 
their possession over and above their 
"bank" or change. 

A still more simple form of ticket 
is that used on the Cleveland-Youngs- 
town bus line, a sample of which is 
illustrated. It will be noticed that 
only three settings are required to 
mark a ticket. As a rule, however, 
most of the work will be done with 
one pointer. For example, the 
pointers will probably be set at cash 
and Cleveland, and all the fares col- 
lected by setting the third pointer 
on the destination, which would also 
represent the fare amount. In the 
other ticket shown here, the amount 
of the fare is definitely indicated, 
but it is said that this is unneces- 
sary; it is a simple matter for pas- 
sengers to figure their own fare from 
the ticket, and a new driver can 
carry a schedule of rates so that he 
will neither overcharge nor under- 
charge the passenger. The Cleve- 
land form is said to be the fastest 
ticket ever put out, and is recom- 
mended for one-man bus lines. 

The use of this system results in 
valuable data. In addition to being 











« s 




° r< 











































CiCy Limits 


City Limits 










CeaiiK'i Lake 


Geauga Lake 


Aurora Sta. 


Aurora Sta. 


Mantua Cent. 


Mantua Cent. 


















Lake Millou " 







Lake Milloo 
















Ticket form nsed by Cleveland- 
Youngstown line. Fare and des- 
tination shown bji same pointer. 

a check on the driver, the system 
gives the number of passengers car- 
ried per day, per trip, per bus, the 
through traffic or that between cer- 
tain zones, the earnings for any one 
bus, and the cash collected per bus. 

Magnitude of Oregon Bus 

ACCORDING to a report prepared 
l\ by the Oregon Public Service 
Commission, automobile stage and 
truck lines in Oregon now cover 
more mileage than all the railroads 
combined. At present, practically 
every highway in the state is traveled 
by regularly scheduled passenger 
and freight lines, and it is now pos- 
sible to purchase a ticket in British 
Columbia for a through stage trip 
to the Mexican border. 

Fleet of White buses used on Hartford-New London Bus Line 

March, 1923 




How a Nortliw«*st«'rn Liiu- 
CoUectH Fares 

THE Ortonville Transportation 
Company, whose routes extend 
into three Northwestern states, has 
something different in the line of 
fare collection. Facsimiles of the 

K. E. Biliintf.s i.s the president of 
this concern, which operates a line in 
Ortonville as well as three lines 
radiatingr from that city to Sioux 
Fall.s, S. U. ; Milbank. S. D.. and Wah- 

tentiiuu of the Milbank route to 
VVaterlown is planned. The routes 
have been kept open thia winter only 
under heavy dilficultiea because of 
blockades exi>erienced afl a result 

peton, X. 1). In the spring an ex- of hea\T Bnowfalls. 

Round Trip Ticket 

o Ortonville- Milbank o 

Price $1.25 

Iiiipi*<»iii«; liihTiirhaii Service willi Dual 
Tires on Hiise.-^ ol 

>i tl 





The coupon form of ticket is 
used on the Ortonville-Milbank 
route for round triit rates, 

tickets in use over two of the lines 
of this company are shown on this 
page and illustrate the methods em- 
ployed. On the third route, the Or- 
tonville, Minn., -Milbank, S. D., line, 
an oblong pasteboard ticket of the 
railroad type is used. 

THE run of 125 miles from Los 
Angeles to Bakerstield over the 
•Motor Transit Company's system fol- 
lows the Ridge Route, which for 
50 miles winds and twists con- 
tinually around sharp curves on a 
10 per cent grade. This road, re- 
garded as one of the outstanding 
Western accomplishments in high- 
way construction, follows the back- 
bone of the Castaic mountains; it 
rises to a height of a mile above sea 
level, includes 1,100 turns within a 
distance of 29 miles and affords an 
ever-changing panorama with a wide 
variety of colorings. Stages making 

this run have until recently been 
(•(|uip|)ed with single tirea on each 
wheel. By substituting dual lirek 
on the rear the tire cost has been 
materially reduced and the safety 
and comfort of the .ser\icc ha« been 

With the single 36 x 6-in. tire- 
originally u.sed a ver>' decided sway- 
ing of the stage body waa caused by 
the reversal from one sharp curve 
into another. The substitution of 
dual 34 x 5-in. tires not only gave a 
lower center of gravity, but by 
lessening the height and increaaing 
the width of the flexible base on 



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i.oo' ^oo' ].»': 4.101 4jei s.001 moi >.« 

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GrMTYUI* IJ»i Jol 







joi 1J0I tioj uol >joi 4X0 

..IM .JOf 4.tS 
I.SO1 1.701 4.15 

CoUU ^ _ I«t! .75 


Lake SmAmi 




.«| .« 1 .« 

tjo) 2.901 im us 

numont . IJol 1.00 

Whtaton . uo! LM 

lA .nl 4oi U. 







Mi ».«0l U01 U5I J.BI ITol 1.11 

Tr*»ky = 





I.MI Ml 1 1MI LSO^ t.7« IJft! rJM ZM 

tmH •.wI ejoi' s-sel :x 

x»l i»! 

1-50) i.oo' t_Joi .n\ j»i i.»| i.ft 

2.001 1.501 Jol 1 .251 .SftI .701 1.1s 

ymta Rock . ^m| ^00 

I'j'rmont .T 00 2 M> 

B«<vcr CrMk 

rxJ 7.«! 6.1l>[ >.«l 4.mI UoI 1.00 


«.» 7.(01 7.001 O-mI 9.00! 4.O0I Ijsl 

2.251 1.751 .751 Jsl | .10| .«S 


V«l»«y SprlfiBl 


1.00I (.tol 7.»|' t.7s! Sm\ 4.wI 3.70I 2.7o' Z.x'l Ijol .701 .«l .Bl | .« 

•'. hapcion ... 

S.ouw Falla - 

«.«! uol 7.»i' s.»l 4.«| 4.1SI i.n, 2.ui ijsl i.ijI .«o{ jei .« 


Ortonvill* t« Slouv F 
OrlonvIM* 10 Pipeito 
Ononvllle to Uuvern 
Pipeilene to Siou« F 





RolM OWtni onf J « 

Ortonrillt to W«Ji(<" 

RainlUr rau> •ill 




. t. 




Regular ratei will tw chargad from and to all oiher atailsna. PaaMfla«n plciivd up an 
r\<ghm»f will b« chjrg«d from nearett itatlon to dvatmation. 

We will not be rtapontlble tn caa« of d«lay of fatlufe to make Ifain c«nna<ll»na, »wl wift 
noifl to tcneduie at ail nmei if poa*ibi«. 


/I fari^ card in the baaiti fur form of ticket used. The driver (junchcn the buardinij and alighting paiiitf. aiirf aUo the 

amount of fare paid. On thf reverse side, as shown at the bottom, the tickets are serially nHmbtrrd. and special 

through rates shown for continuous trips. At Left — Ticket used on OrtonviUeSiouj- Falls Line. At 

Right — Ticket used on Ortonville-Wahpeton Line 




Vol.2, No.3 

1 iipe of stage using dual tires on steel yeoy wheels 

which- the car swayed, the swaying 
effect so objectionable to some pas- 
sengers was practically eliminated. 
There is also a decided advantage in 
the resistance to skidding for which 
dual tires are noted. This is an 
economy as well as a safety feature, 
■because to this elimination of the 
tendency to slip sidewise is ascribed 
a much greater tire mileage than 
would otherwise be obtained on this 
route, which is paved with unsur- 
faced concrete. In a comparative 
test, the single 36 x 6-in. tires, list- 
ing at $82.75 each, gave 4,500 miles 
as against 9,500 miles for 34 x 5-in. 
tires listing at $53.50 each, a dif- 
ferential of 1.44 cents per bus-mile 
in favor of the dual tires. 

This test was made in warm 

weather and is believed to represent 

a somewhat lower mileage than the 

average for the year. Exact mileage 

records cannot be compiled because 

tires are not kept on stages on the 

Ridge Route until they are worn out. 

As soon as the treads are worn 

smooth the tires are transferred to 

stages operating on valley runs. 

This is done to insure the maximum 

of safety on the heavy grades and 

sharp curves of the Ridge Route. 

Previous discussion of tire mileages 

on mountain and valley routes of 

this company appeared in Bus 

Transportation for November, 

1922, page 595. 

The use of dual tires on these 
stages is made possible by the spe- 
cial extension wheels developed by 
the Motor Transit Company and 
described in Bus Transportation 
for March, 1922, page 172. The 
only change in the design of that 
wheel made to adapt it to stages 

that operate on the Ridge Route was 
to decrease by 1 in. the width of the 
spacer strip between the two rims. 
The narrower width, which is ample 
for the smaller sized tires, was de- 
sirable because it decreases the width 

of tread and to this extent decreases 
overrun on pavement shoulders. 

Although the advantages of dual 
tires for service on cars of the street 
car type, which this company uses in 
local service, has long been appreci- 
ated, it was not until the company 
had developed the steel wheel re- 
ferred to above that it was thought 
feasible to use dual tires in a service 
where the stage would operate so 
far from the repair base. Then, too, 
the stage used for long distance serv- 
ice is a development of the touring 
car, while the local service bus 
(street car type) is a development 
from the truck. Hence the logical 
process of evolution was for stages to 
operate with single tires in the rear, 
merely increasing the tire size as 
the car was lengthened to carry more 
passengers. The steel wheels for 
dual tires are not in danger of get- 
ting out of shape, and if the inside 
tire goes flat it can be changed in 
about ten minutes, as against an hour 
or more for old wooden wheel duals. 

Detroit Independent Operators Have 
Paying Organization Plan 

PRACTICALLY all the individual 
bus owners in the city of Detroit 
are organized into one association, 
the Red Star Motor Drivers' Asso- 
ciation. This was organized under 
Michigan laws about a year ago and 
is the sole survivor of a number of 
similar organizations. It regulates 
and supervises virtually all independ- 
ent motor passenger transportation 
in the city, excepting, of course, the 
Detroit Motor Bus Company. 

Members own their own cars and 
pay all maintenance costs. A 
monthly association fee of $12 is also 
levied. Funds collected in this way 
are devoted to the payment of $1,000 
public liability insurance, $1,000 
property damage insurance, miscel- 
laneous legal assistance and associa- 
tion maintenance. 

It is estimated that a driver carry- 
ing 100 passengers daily and cover- 
ing 100 miles earns a total of about 
$12 per day. His expenses are: 
Association fee, 43 cents; gasoline, 
$1.60; oils, 25 cents; depreciation 
and repairs, 65 cents; total expenses, 
$3.93; leaving a net profit of about 
$8 per day. 

The buses of the association, which 
are nearly all of the touring car type, 
are operated over four leading 
thoroughfares of the city. The fares 

are: Within the 4-mile circle, 10 
cents; outside the 4-mile limit, 15 
cents. Twenty cents is charged for 
service between the hours of 1 a.m. 
and 5 a.m. 

The approximate number of 
vehicles in operation in the city is 
given as 550 and the daily passenger 
total is said to average 35,000 people, 
increasing to from 45,000 to 50,000 
on Saturdays. 

A large majority of these buses 
operate between the City Hall and 
the Ford motor plant, where at the 
termination of each eight-hour shift, 
about 20,000 employees are released. 
About two hundred of the motor cars 
which meet these shifts aid greatly 
in supplementing the street railway 
service and reducing street conges- 
tion. Passengers save from ten to 
fifteen minutes by using the buses, 
which make the trip of 5i miles from 
City Hall to the Ford plant in twenty 
minutes while the street cars require 
thirty-five minutes. 

Since the inception of the business 
two years ago, the number of opera- 
tors has declined considerably. At 
one time 968 machines were in opera- 
tion. This decrease is attributed 
largely to legal efforts on the part 
of the city to eliminate this kind of 

March, 1923 




Iiidiviclual and Company Applications of 

the Motor Bns 

The Writer Sets Forth the t oiulitions Which Call for 
Motor Hus Operation Kither hy Independent Indi\ iduals 
or by the Old Kstablished Transport Orjjanizations 

By Walter Jackson 

Fare and Bus Consultant, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

«FTER hall" a dozen years of 
Za blind opposition, our steam 
1. JL and electric railways have 
come to realize that the motor truck 
and the motor bus really belong. 
Wise steam operators are no longer 
worried because the motor truck will 
take the short-haul le.-*s-than-carIoad 
lot shipments off their hands, while 
forward - looking electric railways 
are making motor bus operation an 
integral part of their business. So 
we have now come to that stage 
where we can discuss the matter of 
"rail or tire" dispassionately. This 
article will touch, however, only on 
the passenger aspect as related to 
city and country bus or coach. 

For Light Country Service Indi- 
vidual Operation Is Best 

The fact that a single vehicle cost- 
ing but a few hundred dollars is 
power station, distribution .system 
and rolling stock all in one, while the 
roadway is supplied by the state and 
the repair shops and fuel stations by 
concerns founded to serve owners of 
private cars makes the one-man pub- 
lic utility a perfectly natural develop- 
ment. Indeed, the one-bus operator 
of today is in the same delightful 
position as the journeyman of the 
Middle Ages: He and his tools for 
living travel together. Like the 
journeyman, also, if the picking is 
not good in one place he hies him- 
self to another. Of course, this 
nomadism cannot be permitted to one 
who seeks even the humblest trans- 
portation monopoly. That is why 
more and more state legislation in- 
sists upon dependability. 

Assuming that the operator does 
propose to give the regular service 
required by his permit, the que.stion 
arises: Will an individual or a com- 
pany give the public more value for 
its money? 

Generally speaking, individual op- 
eration will give the better value if 

the business is so small that the 
owner himself is a driver and direct 
supervisor of service, and if the 
number of buses operated are so few 
that the drivers are close friends of 
the owner and not restricted by labor 
legislation as to hours, accident in- 
surance and the like. The reason is 
simple: A transportation outfit of 
this kind is not troubled by eight, 
nine or ten-hour laws, so one or two 
shifts can serve in place of two or 
three. Wages per diem are also 
lower because no one expects the men 
to wear uniforms. So, too, inspec- 
tion and upkeep costs are less because 
the community does not e.xpect as 
high a standard of comfort and re- 
liability as it would demand from a 
corporation. Finally, the fact that 
the vehicles are run by the owner, his 
brother, his first cousin or his par- 
ticular chum leads to a degree of 
helpfulness toward the passenger 
that can hai-dly be duplicated by im- 
personal company operation. 

Since there are thousands of vil- 
lages and hamlets to hundreds of 
towns and cities, we may rest as- 
sured that there will always be an 
enormous field for the individualist 
in bus transportation. It behooves 
our legislators not to confuse this 
useful field of creative work with 
that of depredations into territory 
already served by rails. Such a dis- 
tinction is necessary to save the 
country operator from being asked 
to supply reports according to a 
standard accounting .system intended 
for large concerns; or from furnish- 
ing liability bonds commensurate 
with those demanded for running in 
crowded cities. 

Co-operation with Merchants 
and Railways 

Although operating alone, there is 
no reason why the individual opera- 
tor should not join hands with his 
fellows or with the local railways 

when opportunity arises. The great- 
est weakness of the individual opera- 
tor is that he is not likely to have 
reserve equipment of the same capac- 
ity, although one can always borrow 
a touring car or limousine. Where 
five or si.x operators are feeding into 
the same market or traffic center, 
they ought to find no trouble in work- 
ing out a plan for purchase of one 
or two buses. The capital cost 
could be shared among themselve? 
and the use of this spare equipment 
charged for at an agreed figure per 

It is not customary for merchants' 
associations in general to work co- 
operatively with many electric rail- 
ways nowadays. At the moment, 
however, they are as glad to have 
buses come in from the country 
towns as they were to see the trolley 
aforetime. So it has come about 
that quite a number of such bodies 
have gone to the e.xpense of building 
terminal stations and waiting rooms 
for busmen at practically nominal 
rentals. This is a great help to the 
bus operator, not only in .saving over- 
head expense but also in attracting 
traffic that he would not get other- 
wise. Those who have done much 
traveling on buses know how much 
easier it is to get started if one has 
a well-known bus station with infor- 
mation booth to go to than to l>e told 
that "the Hicksville bus is suppo.sed 
to come in at 3 o'clock or maybe 
4 o'clock at the corner of Smith 
Street and Main — or maybe Smith 
Street and Wilkins, I ain't sure." 

How long merchants will continue 
to subsidize bus operators is ques- 
tionable. It is one thing to do this 
before a rival town wakes up and 
another thing to continue it after 
everybody else is doing it. After all, 
the building of a terminal station is 
a strictly transportation affair. For 
this reason, the action of Stone & 
Webster, who control the electric 




Vol.2, No.S 

railways at Bellingham, Wash., is 
one that sets an example for perma- 
nent following'. Here, in the summer 
of 1922, the Puget Sound Power & 
Light Company built a station for 
the buses that center in Bellingham 
from various directions. Unlike the 
merchants or realtors, the company 
had no axe to grind as to location, 
and therefore could pick out a spot 
which would not be expensive or 
too far away from the logical busi- 
ness center. The significance of this 
policy is that an organization which 
had done great things itself with the 
bus in the very same state should 
recognize that in instances of this 
kind it is better to help the individ- 
ual operator than to attempt to sup- 
plant him. 

Where Company Operation 
Is Necessary 

The next step in motor bus trans- 
portation relates to communities con- 
nected by a trunk highway which are 
of sufficient size to call for more and 
better equipment than can be handled 
by the individual operator. Here, 
again. Stone & Webster furnish an 
example of leadership. Not so long 
ago the highway territory between 
Seattle and Everett and further 
north between Everett and Mount 
Vernon was served by a variety of 
vehicles in the hands of individual 
owners. These vehicles and attend- 
ant operating permits were acquired 
at a resonable purchase price be- 
cause competition and wear of equip- 
ment had made the business unprofit- 
able. Under the new ownership, 
fewer vehicles are giving far better 
service because they are run on a 
definite time card and not haphazard. 
The vehicles themselves — limousine 
motor coaches — are such an improve- 
ment in fitments and reliability over 
their predecessors that traffic has 
improved enormously. The drivers 
are now uniformed and the men are 
of such high grade that the rider 
involuntarily feels he is riding in a 
personal car with a private chauffeur. 
It is true that while the Seattle- 
Everett rights, at least, were orig- 
inally purchased to protect the inter- 
urban railway, the final result has 
shown the superiority of .scientific to 
haphazard means of transportation 
when there is sufficient business for 
company standards of service. 

In the Seattle-Everett the 
motor coach supplements interurban 
service over practically parallel 
routes through alternation in time, 
viz., the cars leave on the hour and 

the coaches on the half hour. In the 
case of the Citizens Traction Com- 
pany, operating between Oil City and 
Franklin, Pa., a bus route was in- 
augurated to provide a detour from 
a river route. In other instances, 
railways have started alternative 
routes because their cross-country 
trolleys become the roundabout 
routes after the construction of new 
paved highways. 

In these examples, the motor bus 
was not primarily installed to make 
money but to protect existing invest- 
ments. It is but fair that the rail- 
ways should have the first choice of 
making use of any advances in the 
art of transportation. If they have 
waited for a jitney operator to show 
them the way, it has been due often 
enough to a natural hesitation to add 
to an already excessive investment. 

It is not pleasant for investors in 
a small town railway to be told that 
all or part of it must be taken up and 
replaced by motor buses. Yet this 
is something that many such rail- 
ways are facing today. So far as the 
writer can judge, the chief reason 
for this lies in the immediate-service 
habit which the private automobile 
has created. The very communities 
which were raised on twenty and 
thirty-minute headways are precisely 
those with the highest percentage of 
private ownership automobiles. The 
auto owner, his family and his 
friends have become used to start- 
ing off at once and at higher than 
car speeds, as well. How can we ex- 
pect him to patronize the street rail- 
way with the single-track operation 
that makes a delay in one direction 
produce another in the opposite 

Partial or Complete Busing of 
Our Smaller Cities 

The one-man safety car has 
rescued many railways that could 
profitably go to a ten-minute, seven 
and one-half-minute and five-minute 
basis; but there are scores of roads 
or parts of roads where such head- 
ways are out of the question. 
Naturally, when one has to maintain 
the paving for a route with a twenty 
or thirty-minute headway, rail op- 
eration can no longer be considered. 
The revenue from two or three 
starved cars an hour cannot pay for 
wages, power, investment, overhead, 
track, in addition to the wear of 
paving by motor vehicles. The only 
answer short of total abandonment 
is the bus. Then, at any rate, the 
equivalent of a double-track line will 

be obtained as regards reliability of 
headways. A second advantage is 
that the routes can be altered at will 
until the most profitable or least 
losing is determined. A third ad- 
vantage is that short loops can be 
operated, as with two buses running 
always in opposite directions a pas- 
senger has the choice of waiting full 
headway interval or getting aboard 
sooner for the longer way around. 
Two examples of rails no longer in 
the right place may be mentioned : 
Case 1 is that of a town having 7 
or 8 miles of route in all. Of this, a 
2-mile route parallels the main line 
two blocks away. This 2-mile route 
nevei' did amount to much as it was 
too close to Main Street. At present 
the matter of track renewal and 
street repaving is up for settlement. 
This raises the question should the 
management wipe this rail route and 
investment off the books and in- 
stall a bus line several blocks away 
through a street that really needs 
service, or throw good money after 
bad by rebuilding the unprofitable 
trolley route? It takes a lot of 
courage to wipe out 25 to 30 per cent 
of a cherished investment — especially 
after valuation engineers have 
solemnly assured the owners that the 
replacement value of the track was 
double the original investment! But 
value and earning power are things 
apart in this instance. 

Case 2 may be named, inasmuch as 
action has already been taken. This 
is Everett, Wash., a city of 30,000. 
The original lines were laid out by a 
land development company long be- 
fore Stone & Webster took hold of 
this property. For some reason the 
town preferred to grow north and 
south instead of east and west, so 
much of the trackage was no longer 
in the logical place. Furthermore, 
as franchises were due to expire dur- 
ing the price peak, it was but natural 
for the railway to postpone extensive 
rehabilitation as long as possible. 
Hence, the opening of 1922 found a 
railway would have cost more for 
reconstruction than the original 
system. Bearing in mind the taxes 
on electric railways compared with 
similar charges on the same 
business in bus operations. Stone & 
Webster decided to start from the be- 
gining. The result is a combination 
motor bus and street car system in 
which the buses will probably carry 
the greater share of the traffic. Op- 
eration began late in 1922. 

No one can tell to what degree 
other small cities will or can follow 

March, 1923 




Everett's example. It must be re- 
membered that the lapse of the 
franchises, the worn-out condition of 
the roadway and the mal-placement 
of routes are all dominant factors. 
In this connection jt may be men- 
tioned that several small British 
municipal railways have considered 
complete changeover to motor buses, 
but their engineers have advised 
them that this would not pay inas- 
much as the track was in fair shape, 
and the routes correctly placed (so 
far as the writer knows). The main 
objection raised by them, however, 
was that the bus system would have 
to operate sufficiently cheaper to 
carry all trolley investment and 
amortization charge plus its own new 
investment. In other words, it is 
one thing to supplant a trolley 
system by ruthless destruction of in- 
vestment values, and another thing 
to guard those values. 

Motor Bus Rapid Transit for 

Cities Between 100,000 

AND 1,000,000 

It is good to turn to motor bus 
possibilities that offer a big field 
without hurting legitimate under- 
takings. This is the operation of 
motor bus express services in cities 
of rapid transit distances but not of 
rapid transit population. British 
practice affords us a broad hint in 
its operation of suburban motor 
buses at fares so graduated that 
there are practically no pick-ups and 
therefore few stops on the city part 
of the run. An enormous amount of 
private automobile operation could 
be eliminated if the suburbanite was 
offered a luxurious coach — not a 
lumbering bus — in which he could 
speed to town with his particular 
coterie as in a club car. To be sure, 
such service cannot be given at 
street car fares, but it is one way 
out for communities between 100,000 
and 1,000,000 population to help solve 
their traffic problem. Thirty minutes 
is a.-; much as most people are willing 
to spend en route to and from their 
job. The rapid transit coach de luxe 
will make this possible. It should be 
a part of the local street railway 
system, for one kind of 
service would always be poaching 
upon the field of the other. 

Many Bus Opportunities in the 
Big Cities in General 

Lastly we come to our larger 
cities, by which is meant any and all 
over 100,000 population. Studies in- 
dicate that each of them has .some 

possibility for motor bus operation. 
This does not imply that the appli- 
cations would pay for themselves in- 
dividually, but it does imply that 
they would be a gain to the local 
transport system considered as an 
entity. Not every track route pays 
by itself. It has to be considered in 
its relation to the main trunks. So, 
too, with the bus possibilities. Some 
of them possess only the merit of 
cutting down losses from little-used 
trackways. Others offer the ad- 
vantages accruing from opening new 
districts, of keeping out wildcat com- 
petition and of cutting down conges- 
tion on main lines (through paral- 
lels) so that the heaviest traffic can 

once more be moved at a protilable 
schedule speed. 

It is true that the minor applica- 
tions in cities might throw off u 
profit to individual operators where 
they bring a loss to company opera- 
tors, but unlike the country cases 
first considered the company as pur- 
veyor of the mass transportation in 
a given area must take the lean with 
the fat, both as a matter of fairness 
and self-protection. It would be just 
as wrong to permit individual opera- 
tors to come into a communal area as 
it would be to fail to protect the 
country operator against the com- 
petition of later comers in his terri- 

New Hriti.'^h Gasoline- Electric Rii* 

Frost Smith foi'ii-eight-seat gasoline-elect rir biiK now running 
on the streets of London 

THERE are now being put on 
London streets a number of 
gasoline-electric buses which 
show differences, which are held to 
be substantial improvements, from 
existing designs. Whether the new 
buses will substantially compete with 
those of the London General Omni- 
bus Company remains to be seen, but 
meanwhile it is of interest to note 
some points of the chassis con- 

This machine has been designed by 
Percy Frost Smith, who was for- 
merly associated with Tilling-Stevens 

Motors, Ltd., Maidstone. (,0n page 
283, May issue, the Tilling-Stevens 
gasoline-electric bus was described.) 
The chassis is simple and strong, 
with a pressed-steel frame. The 
four-cylinder engine develops 40 hp. 
at 1.000 r.p.m. The crankshaft is of 
high-tension steel. Forced lubrica- 
tion is employed. A specially de- 
signed compound-wound dynamo is 
driven by the engine and is cooled 
by a fan. The dynamo drives a 
.series-wound motor whose yoke is 
bolted to the main members of the 
frame to form an additional brace. 




Vol.2, No.3 

A novel feature is the patent com- 
bination controller, the design of 
W. P. V. Powell and Mr. Frost 
Smith, which includes four elements 
—starting switch, speed regulator, 
electric brake, and positive magnetic 
stop. The positive means of prevent- 
ing the driver from moving from a 
forward to a reverse position or vice 
versa while current is flowing is a 
valuable feature, while the electric 
brake means easy and safe control. 
Speed is regulated by resistances in 
the dynamo and motor fields, these 
being cut in or out by a lever con- 
nected to a sleeve operating the 
necessary segments. By a continua- 
tion of its movement, the same lever 
brings into action the electric brake. 
By this brake the driver has control 
of his vehicle without recourse to 
the mechanical brake down to a speed 
of 2i m.p.h., regardless of the sever- 
ity of the grade. The usual mechan- 
ical brakes are also fitted. 

The bus is electrically lighted by 
current from a storage battery 
which is charged from the dynamo. 
An automatic cut-out and pole 
changer cut ofl" the charging current 
when the voltage of the dynamo falls 
below that of the battery, and also 
provide that the battery continue to 
be properly charged should the polar- 
ity of the generator be reversed. 

In this appa:ratus there are two 
solenoids, energized from the dy- 
hamo. The plungers of the solenoids 
are permanent magnets connected by 
a crosshead of non-magnetic mate- 
rial. The arms of the crosshead 
carry insulated contacts, which in 
operation make contact with either 
of a pair of brushes connected with 
the dynamo. In practice, the battery 
being disconnected, the generator is 
run up, the changing switches closed, 
and at a predetermined voltage the 
solenoids are energized. 

The solenoid plungers are at- 
tracted either up or down according 
to the polarity of the dynamo. Thus 
the insulated contacts are brought 
into contact with one or the other of 
the brushes. On finding the correct 
polarity of the dynamo in relation to 
the polarity of the battery, the latter 
is then connected to the circuit and 
charging commences. When the 
voltage of the dynamo falls below a 
predetermined value, a V-spring 
brings the contacts to a neutral posi- 
tion, thus breaking the circuit to the 
batterj'. Should the dynamo build 
up its voltage in the opposite direc- 
tion, contact is made with the oppo- 
site pair of brushes, and by means of 

Frost Smith gasoline-electric bus chassis 

cross-connections the battery receives 
its charge in the right direction. 

A three-point .spring-drive coup- 
ling connects the engine and dynamo. 
The load is automatically taken 
equally by the three driving springs. 
The propeller shaft from the motor 

connects with the rear axle, the case 
of which is a one-piece steel forging, 
heat-treated after machining. Sep- 
arate hard-steel sleeves form the 
main bearings, and the sleeves are 
easily renewable. Torque and radius 
rods are eliminated, the stresses 

A — Dynamo and motor-field and brake 

B — Motor-field resistance contact segment. 
(■ — Removable bar carrying contacts and 

motor and brake resistance units. 
D — Motor-field and brake resistance units. 
E — Main frame of aluminum. 
F — Magnetic locking sector plate. 
G — Removable bar carrying main and brake 

H — Reversing switch contact drum. 
I — Main contacts. 
J — Brake contact. 

K — Insulated switch spindle. 

L — Brake contact. 

M — Removable bar carrying main and brake 

N — Dynamo-field resistance units. 

O — Insulated sleeve carrying contact seg- 

P — Removable bar carrying contacts and 
dynamo resistance units. 

Q — Dynamo-field resistance contact seg- 

R — Brake locating trigger. 

S — Reversing switch lever. 

T — Indicator plate. 

Vieu's of Gasoline-Electric chassis. Above, at left — Combination controller. 
At right — Automatic cutout and pole c'^anger 





being taken through springs. The 
worm-case unit can easily be removed 
from the main axle case. A bevel- 
type (lifFerential gear is employed, 
and details are of robust design. 

An I-beam section axle and ball 
and socket joints are features of 
the front axle. Special attention 

has been given to the springing of 
the chassis. Front and rear road 
wheels are of the same diameter, and 
are made of cast steel. Twin types 
are as usual fitted to the rear wheels. 
The double-deck body is not unlike 
the latest type of the London General 
Omnibus Company. This vehicle is 

painted externally a rich blue color, 
and on the side panels is the legend, 
"Petrol— F.S.— Electric." It is thus 
quite a contrast in color to the 
L.G.O.C. buses, which are painted a 
brilliant red. The seating accommo- 
dation is for forty-eight — twenty-two 
inside and twenty-six on top. 

Many Operating Changes Are Being Macie 
in Chicago Bns Service 

Traffic on North Side Carefully Analyzed — South and West Side Opera- 
tions Cover 115 Miles of Routes and Will Keeiuire •>•")() liuses and Four 
Operatinjr (iarajjes — Two Subsidiaries, wilh the Same Officer i'ersonnel 
as Operating Company, Formed to Desijjn and Construct the liuses 

0.\E of the first steps taken by 
the new management of the 
Chicago Motor Coach Com- 
pany, after taking hold of operations, 
was a complete study of the traffic 
conditions existing on the lines run- 
ning north of Michigan Avenue. This 
study resulted first in the establish- 
ment of new turn-back points in the 
evening rush hours, and in the morn- 
ing rush in dead-heading buses from 
the Rosemont garage to predeter- 
mined points in order more fully and 
adequately to serve the bus riders by 
assuring them a seat on the first 
bus instead of having to wait their 
chance. This simple change in op- 
eration also enabled passengers to 
reach their destination within a 
minimum of time, since time lost 
waiting to board a bus has been 
greatly reduced. Then, too, as the 
public has found out that seats can 
be obtained promptly, upon arrival 
of the bus, new traffic has resulted, 
and it is not uncommon for pas- 
sengers to walk several blocks to 
travel by bus. 

On Jan. 4, 1923, an entire new 
schedule was put into effect. This 
schedule provides for rerouting 
changes in the downtown or Loop 
District to facilitate movement, 
thereby decreasing the delays due 
to other vehicular interference. 
Through service from the Loop to 
Devon Avenue was put on a ten- 
minute headway, but instead of 
passing through the Loop via Jack- 
son Boulevard, State and Washing- 
ton Streets as heretofore at all times, 
the buses are routed around the block 

bounded by Washington, State and 
Randolph Streets during the period 
from 7:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. 

This rerouting results in a saving 
of 103 miles per day and de- 
creases the number of buses required 
to fill the schedule by two. In- 
cidental to the new schedule, running 
time points were established for all 
bus operations and drivers are held 
to strict accountability to maintain 
their running time. The accompany- 
ing table built up from the allowed 
running time gives the schedule 
speed in miles per hour over differ- 
ent sections of the routes that go 
north on Michigan Avenue. 

Short-line service is operated 
every ten minutes all day from the 
Loop to Edgewater Beach, Clark 
Street and Wilson Avenue, except 
that the Clark Street and Wilson 
Avenue runs are combined after 7:30 
p.m. until midnight. On these three 
routes the trip through the Loop 
District is also shortened during 
the evening rush hours by turning 
off Michigan Avenue at Monroe 
Street, two blocks north of Jackson 
Boulevard. This operation not only 
results in a saving of four 
minutes in running time per trip but 
also of 58 miles per day. both 
of which redound to the benefit of 
the traveling public. The company 
realizes that undoubtedly some op- 
erators will criticise severely this 
method of rendering service, but it 
believes that when it becomes pos- 
sible to walk faster than to ride on 
the buses it is good operation to 
avoid such traffic congestion. 

In the morning during the peak 
hour additional service is run to the 
Loop on ten-minute headways from 
six other points. In the evening 
rush hours, in addition to the 
routes previously mentioned, other 
northbound service is run on a ten- 
minute headway from the Wrigley 
Building and from Lake Street to 
Devon, the northern terminus. 

Figures Show Incre.\se 

Figures on the comparative busi- 
ness for December, 1921. and Decem- 
ber, 1922. and for January. 1922. and 
January, 1923, follow: 

Di'CT'niber, Decrrobw, P«C»Dt 
„ . I 'J I 1122 locrrue 

Bu»-mil«-s 127,684 177.808 39 26 

Hound trips 7.508 10.811 43.99 

I'lussonirerecariifd. ... 492.025 731.899 48 70 
.'^f-ais offered 805.545 1.308.244 62.40 

January. Jonuarj-, Pft Cenl 

1922 1925 IncrrMc 

Bu»-mile« 122,284 192,855 57.71 

Round trips 7.162 12.455 73 90 

I'<nKrr> (•! 495.471 783 509 58 M 

."Jeat^ •■fTiTMi .. 77(1. 262 t.4l6.84< -i n 

Among other things, the neu 
agement has instituted a systematic 
checking of traffic at three or four 
points along the line so as to de- 
termine and keep posted on any 
variations in riding habits that 
might necessitate changes in sched- 
ules. It is only by such constant 
checking that the information so 
essential in building schedules can 
be obtained. With such facts 
known, buses can be put at the places 
when and where the people want to 

All of the efforts of the manage- 
ment have not been confined merely 
to revamping the schedules more 


nearly to meet the needs of the 
traveling public. Many changes have 
been instituted in the shops, includ- 
ing a systematic plan for the in- 
spection, cleaning and overhauling of 
buses, patterned very largely, as 
might be supposed from the previous 
experience of the present managers, 
on the Fifth Avenue Coach Com- 
pany's practice. 

New equipment includes tvv'enty 
new Type K double-deck coaches 
built in Chicago, ten Type L double- 
deckers and one Type J single-deck 
coach of Fifth Avenue design and 
construction. Forty of the front- 
wheel drive buses have also been 
thoroughly overhauled, renovated and 
repainted both inside and out. making 
them as attractive in appearance as 
the newer model buses. 

The inspection service in the shops 
calls for examination every night and 
a more thorough inspection every 
2,000 miles. This practice alone has 
resulted in the elimination of prac- 
tically all road delays due to failures 
of equipment, so that a passenger 
now feels assured on boarding a bus 
that he will reach his destination 
without unforeseen circumstances 

An analysis of the delay reports 
for the month of January, 1923, 
three months after the property 
changed hands, indicates that it is 
not uncommon practice to make a 
day's schedule without a failure in 
equipment of any kind. This of 
itself has done much to restore the 
confidence of the riding public. 

The Plan and Scope of the New 

The plan and scope of the present 
management divides itself into five 
natural divisions: 

The local operating company will 
be known as the Chicago Motor 
Coach Company and will cover about 
88 miles of route over what is 
unquestionably a most wonderful 
boulevard system. In addition it 
will cover about 30 miles of city 
streets, making a total route mileage 
of approximately 118 miles. On the 
south, operations will extend to 
South Chicago, approximately 5.15 
miles from the Loop; to the west, to 
the city limits at Austin Boulevard, 
or about 8 miles from the Loop. On 
the north side present operations will 
be extended to the city limits, at the 
beginning of Evanston, making the 
distance from the Loop approxi- 
mately 1 1 miles. It is anticipated 



that when all routes are in opera- 
tion and fully equipped nearly 650 
buses will be needed to fill the 
schedules. To complete this under- 
taking it is estimated that the final 
investment required, including al- 
lowances for garages and shop 
facilities that will of necessity have 
to be furnished to maintain and 
operate this large fleet of buses, 
will amount to 16,000,000. This op- 
eration will be by far the largest of 
its kind in this country, the excep- 
tion to the largest in the world being 
the London General Omnibus Com- 
pany in London. 

There will be two garages on the 
South Side of 40,000 and 50,000 
sq.ft. respectively. On the West 
Side but one garage of 70,000 sq.ft. 
area is planned. At these garages 
everything pertaining to repairs and 
general maintenance will be done, 
but all annual overhauling, repaint- 
ing, etc., is to be done at some cen- 
tral point. 

As has already been stated in the 
columns of Bus Transportation, the 
company now holds franchises and 
operating rights for its contemplated 
South Side operations. It is ex- 

Vol.2, No.3 

matter under advisement. With 
favorable action on the part of the 
commission the company anticipates 
that operation will be started by 
July 1 of this year in a small way 
over a part of the routes. 

All buses are to be built by a sub- 
sidiary of the Yellow Cab Manufac- 
turing Company to be known as the 
Yellow Coach Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Except for the financial re- 
lationship it will be in every respect 
a wholly independent organization 
and under a separate management. 
The manufacturing plant adjoins 
that of the parent company on West 
Dickens Avenue. Already 34 acres of 
land have been purchased and it is 
planned to lay out the plant in four 
separate units, each unit occupying 
100,000 sq.ft., the first of which is 
now under construction. The plant 
has been designed along the most 
modern lines, and through the instal- 
lation of a combination of crane and 
telferage system manual handling 
will be reduced to a minimum. The 
capacity of each of these four sep- 
arate units will at the start average 
at least five buses per day, so that 
when the plant is at its maximum 

Operating Schedule Information Com] 




6:30 A.M. to 9:30 A.M. 

6:30 P.M. to 1:00 A.M. 

9:30 A.M. to 2:00 PM. 

Time In 




Time In 









Devon to Balmoral 

Hahnoral f o .\rgyle 

-Vrgyle to Lawrence 

Lawrence to Wilson 

Wilson to Montrose 

Montrose to Irving Park. . 
Irving Park Boulevard to 


2 651 



1 962 

2 254 

2 514 

3 272 

3 738 
5 352 




13 4 
5 85 
5 20 
7 60 

14 00 

14 80 
12 50 

15 90 
14 80 

9 15 






II 27 

11 06 
9 77 
9 35 

9 75 
10 50 

10 70 

12 00 
12 14 

12 00 

11 90 








13 4 

5 20 
7 60 
7 60 

14 00 
14 80 

6 85 





II. t 

9 : 

9 - 

Pine Grove to Melrose 

Melrose to Diversey 

niversey to Chicago 

10 ; 

12. ( 


Kinzie to Michigan and 

II " 

Michigan and Washington 

1 1 


9 118 





All day average speed 1 1. 55 miles per hour. 

pected that service will be in- 
augurated on a part of the lines on 
April 1 and will continue to expand 
as rapidly as equipment can be se- 
cured and the necessary garages for 
operating purposes constructed. 

As for the West Side operations, 
the company reports it has secured 
the necessary franchises from the 
West Side Park Board and that the 
hearings before the Illinois Com- 
merce Commission to prove necessity 
and convenience have been com- 
pleted. The commission now has the 

working capacity at least twenty 
completed buses can be turned out 
daily. At present onl\- one unit is be- 
ing built. It is expected to have this 
completed the latter part of March 
so that during the month of April 
one bus per day can be turned out. 
During the month of May plans call 
for two a day, and for three a day in 
June, after which it is hoped to keep 
the plant working at full capacity. 

In order to insure a supply of en- 
gines for its buses the engine works 
of the Root & Vandervoort organiza- 


tion at Moline, III., were purchased. 
All the equipment, tooLs, patterns, 
etc., were included — in fact, every- 
thing except the manufacturing 
buildings. have heen leased 
for the present. A separate company 
has been organized to take over the 
engine works and it bears the same 
rtlation to the Yellow Cab Manu- 
facturing Company as the Yellow 
Coach Manufacturing Company. 
While it is financed by the parent 
company it will have an independent 
operating organization, which will be 
known as the Yellow Sleeve Valve 
Engine Works, and will have the sole 
manufiicturing rights of R & V 
motors both for buses and for pas- 
senger cars. This plant will have a 
maximum output of fifty engines per 
day. The engines, which will be con- 
structed for bus operation, will con- 
tain many improvements making for 
greater economy in maintenance 
and in the consumption of gasoline. 

The Yellow Coach Manufacturing 
Company also plans a consulting 
service for those who contemplate 
the installation of motor coach 
service. This service is to be at the 
disposal of those who purchase or 



type of equipment; but the company 
will be prepared to assist in a 
financial way. 

In territories not at present 
served, preliminary surveys for mo- 
tor coach installations will be con- 
ducted and attempts made to inter- 
est local capital for the of 
organizing local operating companies. 
Failing in this, an operating sub- 
sidiary company will be oiganized 
and financed to carry out the plans 
for motor bus service. 

Equipment Designs 

Already the manufacturing or- 
ganization has developed two designs 
of chassis on which a multiplicity of 
body designs can be mounted. All 
told, there are five types of bodies 
that can be mounted on one type of 
chassis. These bodies cover not only 
open-top double deckers but also in- 
closed for one or two-man operation. 
This same type of chassis is also to 
be used under a thirty - passen- 
ger single decker so that the excess 
weight of standees can be accommo- 
dated without fear of over-loading 
so far as weight is concerned. The 
second type of chassis is for a 

ared — Chicago Motor Coach Company 


2:00 P.M In 6:30 PM. 

6:30 A.M. to 12:00 .\'.. •.: 
6:30 P.M. to Close 1 12:00 Noon to 6:30 P.M. 

Time In 

Spoc<i In 


Time In 

Speed In 


Time In 

Speed In 


Time 1 Spec<l 






13 4 

5 85 

5 20 
7 60 
7 60 

14 00 
14 80 
12 50 
14 80 


2 48 





13 08 
M 27 

11 06 
9 77 

9 75 
10 50 

10 70 

12 00 
12 14 

11 70 


5 85 

5 20 
7 60 
7 60 

14 00 

14 80 
12 50 

15 90 
14 80 

6 85 






11 27 

9 77 
9 35 

9 75 

10 70 

12 00 
12 14 

11 70 








13 4 

5 85 
5 20 
7 60 

14 00 

14 80 
12 50 

15 90 
14 80 







13 08 
II 27 

11 06 
9 77 
9 35 

10 50 

10 70 

12 00 
12 14 

11 70 

1 1 nil 






1 1 III) 

who are contemplating purchasing 
motor bus equipment. 

In cities or localities now served 
by existing means of transportation, 
it is the purpose of the organization 
not to compete, but to co-operate in 
devising ways and means of install- 
ing motor coach service as a ."ervice 
supplemental to existing mepns of 
transportation. Where necessary 
and justified by local conditions, 
however, this co-operation will by no 
means end with only advice and coun- 
sel and the supplying of the proper 

.\I! day average speed 11.22 miln* per hour. 

smaller and lighter vehicle and will 
have a capacity of but eighteen pas- 

More details of each vehicle 
follow : 

1. A double-deck two-man bus ac- 
commodating sixty-nine passengers. 

2. A double-deck pay-as-you-cnter 
one-man bus accommodating fifty- 
eight passengers. 

3. A Pullman de luxe single-deck 
pay-as-you-enter one-man bus capable 
of seating thirty and accommodating 
twenty-five standees. 

4. An inclosed upper-deck bus of 
either one or two-man type. 

.'>. .\ high-speed enlarged limousine 


type of bu.s seating twenty-five passi-ii- 
gers and capable of a .«uslained .spt-i'il 
of 40 m.p.h. and a maximum speed of 
50 m.p.h. 

6. A light coach de luxe accommodat- 
ing a minimum of eighteen pa.ssengeri* 
for country clubs, hotels, schools, etc. 
In treating with labor in its manu- 
facturing activities the company ha« 
based its wages upon the output of 
honest co-operative and individual 
effort, so that those who produce will 
participate in two ways: 

First — In direct payment for in- 
dividual effort, which includes a lib- 
eral basic rate of pay for an honest 
day's work. This will be determined 
on a basis well within the produc- 
tive ability of the ordinary arti.san 
or workman. As an incentive to the 
ambitious, industrious workman, 
there will be a liberal reward for 
anything produced in excess of what 
might be considered a fair day's 
work. There will be incorporated in 
the plan also certain safeguards 
against the possibility of overwork 
and exhaustion by the more .selfish 
and greedy. 

Second — In sharing with the stock- 
holders in profits produced through 
co-operative effort in excess of an 
amount which will be predetermined 
and agreed upon as a fairly liberal 
return to the investors. 

Night Service Exteutled 

Division, Inc., has announced that 
another through stage between San 
Francisco and Los Angeles will be 
added to its schedule. The time of 
departure on the new run from both 
ends will be 12 o'clock midnight. 
This will make a total of five daily 
schedules in each direction without 
layover between the two cities, which 
are 455 miles apart via the highway. 
There are also two daily .schedules 
each way on which an overnight 
stopover is made en route. 

Under the new program the de- 
partures from each terminal on 
through runs will be a.s follow.s: 7 
a.m., 8 a.m., 2:45 p.m., 7 p.m. and 
11:59 p.m. Cars on the 7 a.m. run 
do not handle any local p)a.ssengers, 
but all other runs carry pa.ssengers 
between all points en route. The 
schedules as now arranged have been 
found to be such that the hours of 
passing through the various points 
closely check with the demand for 
transportation and a desirable uni- 
formity of loading is .secured. The 
business on the San Francisco-Los 
Angeles run is said to have practi- 
cally doubled the last year. 




Vol.2, No.3 

Two Bus Lines Aid Local Transportation 

The Youngstown Trolley Car Company Adopts Buses as a Medium of Transportation to Two Residential 

Districts — The Bus Routes. Which Reach the Center of the City, Are Operated Under the 

Same Conditions as the Trolley Lines — The Rates of Fare Are the Same and the 

Passengers Can Get Transfers from the Cars to the Buses and Vice Versa 

WHEN the history of motor 
transportation is written, it 
must be recorded that the 
Youngstown (Ohio) Municipal Rail- 
way was among the first of the rail- 
ways of the country to adopt the 
motor bus as an adjunct to its urban 
electric service. 

On Sept. 24, 1922, seven Republic 
motor buses of the street car type 
began operations on regular sched- 
ules over two routes in the" city of 
Youngstown. These lines serve 
rapidly developing residential sec- 
tions, the Lincoln Park and the Cran- 
dall Park districts. Direct transpor- 
tation from the business district to 
their homes is thus afforded resi-. 
dents of these sections that are dis- 
tant from street car lines. The 
Crandall park line also performs a 
valuable service to the city in that 
it serves the hundreds of students 
attending the new Rayen School. 
The Lincoln Park line buses have 
Federal and Champion Streets, in 
front of the Central Store, as their 
downtown terminal. On the out- 
bound trips they proceed east 
through Federal Street and Wilson 
Avenue to Rigby Street, where they 
depart from the street car line and 
go up Rigby to Jackson, to Shehy and 
thence to Lincoln Park. Libound 
they traverse Oak Street to Himrod, 
Himrod to Garland, thence into 
Rigby, Wilson and Federal Streets 
to the central terminal. 

The Crandall Park line has its cen- 
tral station in Wick Avenue at the 
same point as the Elm Street cars. 
The route for them has been so laid 
out that they barely touch the street 
car line at any point. They proceed 
north in Wick to Broadway and 
thence to Elm and on north to 
Benita, through Fifth, Crandall, 
Guadeloupe, Belmont, Foster (con- 
necting with the North Avenue car 
line terminal), Belmont, Crandall 
and back to the center of the city. 

A third route which would servo 
the Cochrane Park district on thr 
south side of the city is under con- 
sideration. An ordinance recently 

All aboard for Craiidall Park 

Looking forward — Note the fare 
box location and the overhead 
register for showing how many 
passengers ride on weekly passes. 
Hand rails on the roof are used 
instead of straps for they pro- 
vide better steadying powers. 







■*■•*• 1 

1 Q 










passed the Youngstown Council au- 
thorizing the purchase of eleven new 
buses, seven of which are to be used 
on the Cochrane Park line. 

At present the company operates 
seven buses. The bodies were con- 
structed by the Bender Company of 
Cleveland to the design of the 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Company, and 
are mounted on Republic chassis 
which have the Knight sleeve-valve 
engines. Pneumatic tires, 36 x 6, 
are used exclusively. The rear 
wheels have dual tires. 

The very best of workmanship and 
design was put into the construction 
of the bodies. All framework is of 
second-growth, air-dried ash or oak. 
Main sills are mortised and heavily 
braced, while the panels are of six- 
teen-gage aluminum. The windows 
are equipped with special anti- 
rattling devices and weather strips, 

March, 1923 




and a protecting wire guard runs 
along the side of the windows. 

The service door of the jack-knife 
type at tlie front and the low-step 
shod with safety tread give easy 
ingress and egress, a feature aided 
by special illumination at the en- 

All of the seats are transverse ex- 
cepting the front seat on the right 
hand side, which is longitudinal. 
This not only gives the greatest com- 
fort to the bus riders, but also gives 
ample space at the forward end of 
the car to facilitate loading and un- 
loading. All seats are of .standard 
type upholstered in brown leather. 
They are spaced to give ample room 
for comfort and for easy passage 
along the aisle. At each seat is a 
push button connected with a buzzer 
to the driver so that passengers can 
signal the approach to their .stops. 
Attractive Appearance and Pas- 
senger Comfort Are Features 
The interior and exterior decora- 
tions are in keeping with the gen- 
eral appearance of the buses. Light- 
ing is afforded by six dome electric 
lights in the roof. At the top in 
front are two green designation 
lights and in the rear at the top two 
red lights, these and the special 
lighting at the entrance being in 
addition to the lighis required by 
law. The same type of roller destina- 
tion signs as used on the street cars 
are installed on the buses. 

It might be said in passing that 
the Youngstown Municipal Railway 
is a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania- 
Ohio Electric Company, which 
also operates the Pennsylvania-Ohio 
Coach Lines mentioned in previous 

issues of Bus TRANSPORTATION. 

Needless to say the company has 
striven to attain on the urban routes 
the same high degree of comfort, 
safety and efficiency, combined with 
elegance of appearance, as developed 
in its interurban service. 

A yearly local license fee of $10 
per bus for owners is required by a 
city ordinance, which also calls for a 
$5 fee for each driver. According 
to a recent decision rendered by the 
Municipal Court, the i-ailway does 
not come within the terms of this 
measure as its buses are auxiliaiy 
and supplementary to the trolley 
service. This decision resulted from 
an action brought by an independent 
operator alleging violation by the 
railway of an overcrowding clause 
in the ordinance. These licenses are 
therefore no longer paid. The in- 

77 < relation of the local bus lines to trolley lines in the city of Yoiinf/stmrn 

ternal revenue tax is $20, and tht- 
Ohio State auto license is $36.45 per 

According to the provisions of an 
ordinance adopted Dec. 13, 1921, an 
indemnity insurance policy or bonds 
to the extent of $10,000 per bus 
must be filed with the city. 

The prevailing rates of fare on the 
buses are the same as on street cars. 
Weekly passes, good for unlimited 
rides, are issued for $1.25, coupon 
tickets are sold six for 50 cents, 
while the cash fare is 9 cents, with 
an additional charge of 1 cent for 
transfers from bus to car and vice 

The Lincoln Park route is 4.2 
miles in its round-trip length and 
a ten-minute headway is maintained 
from 5 a.m. to 12 -.40 a.m. The Cran- 
dall Park line is 6.7 miles in its 
round-trip length with a twelve- 
minute headway from 5:20 a.m. to 
12:40 a.m. 

Jitney competition with large 
touring cars is active on both lines. 

More than 135 touring cars are op- 
erated over four routes in the city. 

Fares are collected as the passen- 
ger leaves the bus. A locked fare- 
box is used for the cash and ticket 
fares. Weekly passes are registered 
on an overhead register. Transfers 
are collected but are not registered. 

During the week of Dec. 18, 1922, 
the sales of weekly by the rail- 
way company on cars and buses 
amounted to 10,096, which was de- 
clared to be a record. For the week 
of Jan. 29, 1923, pass .sales amounted 
to 10,065. The bus lines are credited 
with aiding materially in this in- 

The maintenance shop for the 
buses operated by the Youngstown 
Municipal Railway is located on East 
Commerce Street, almost in the heart 
of the city. Here a force of two 
mechanics and three helpers, one of 
whom is also a wa.sher, is main- 
tained. The schedule at the East 
Commerce Street garage is to wash, 
inspect, and clean two buses per day. 




Form BZSCI-SI S>^^£OM Y. P. Co 

The Youngstowti Municipal Railway Company 


Kun No. ..-Cif No, -...-. RcBUier No.- 


Operator .— _. — No. — ■— 

Car Received From ~ -" - 


-K«y No F«e Box No. 

MoionMMt — .-.-. ~— — — _ 

■ . Cub Box No.~ 

. Lioc- 

By Whom Relieved 

Cash Rciti.rer Openins 
Ticket ReKitler Openlne 

Time On Time OH -Hoon- Mllease- 

. ..doling ToMl - Total Cuh ... 

Ciosine — ToulTickctt 

Tr«na(crs luued 0|>cnins No. 

Transfers Issued CIosIdsNo. 1 








1 1 ! 

Form of dniiy report used by bus driver, slwu-inf/ traffic handled by trips, and 

total for his day's work. On the reverse side notation must be 

made of delays, trips lost, etc., and the reasons why 

This brings a bus in every 600 to 
800 miles. The tire pressure in each 
of the six buses is checked up 
nightly. The required pressure in 
the front tires is 100 lb. and in the 
dual rear tires 100 lb. on the outside 
tires and 95 lb. on the inside tires. 
The reason for the difference in pres- 
sure is on account of the crown in 
the roads, it being believed that more 
weight is carried on the outside tires 
than on the inside. 

At the garage the company has its 
ovm gasoline filling tanks and has 
a contract with the Texas Company 
for fuel. Bowser pumps located at 
the curb provide the means for fill- 
ing the tanks on the buses. 

The garage equipment consists of : 

One valve urinder, manufactured by 
the Franklin Machine & Tool Company, 
Sprinpfield, Mass. 

One arbor press, manufactured by 

the Manlev Manufacturing Company, 
York, Pa. " 

One electric drill, semi-portable 

One Alemite grease gun (motor 

One motor-driven air compressor, 
manufactured by the Union Engine & 
Manufacturing Company, Butler, Pa. 

One vacuum cleaner. 

Performance records of each bus 
are kept at the garage. Here the 
amount of gasoline and oil used daily 
by each bus is recorded in a special 
form, likewise a daily trouble re- 
port, showing the buses assigned to 
each route and if for any reason they 
have to be pulled in. The cause for 
the pull-in must also be entered 
under the heading "Nature of 
Trouble," and under the heading 
"Disposition by Transportation De- 
partment" is shown the number of 
the bus substituted. In the last 

Vol.2, No.5 

column the garage foreman, who, by 
the way, is under the direct super- 
vision of A. B. Creelman, indicates 
what the mechanical trouble was 
that caused the pull-in. The reports 
are kept in duplicate and one copy 
goes to the manager daily for his 

Records are also kept of the life of 
tires, showing the bus on which they 
are put, the dates on and off and the 
mileage run, which is taken from the 
conductors' daily report card of trips 
made on the various lines. 

The Crandall Park route is very 
hilly. For 200 ft. a 10 per cent 
grade has to be surmounted, for 
1,000 ft. a 4 per cent grade, and there 
is more than a half mile that will 
average a 3 per cent grade. The 



















Form used to keep record of gas 
and oil used, and the tire pres- 
sures in each tire. 

company's drivers on this line have 
been taught to brake with the hand 
brake, which is on the rear wheels, 
and to stop with the foot brake, 
which works on the propeller shaft, 
while the hand brake is still on. The 
push-away type of hand brake that 
stays put is used. 

.J. B. Stewart, Jr., is the general 
superintendent of operations. 

F^fn. SIMM 1 !J P * f C. 

'^"-^ '"2 DAILY TROUBLE REPORT Da,e ^ i« 

CAR No. 






^ ^__ . — — 

L>- r ! 

.— - . 

: : •■■■ 



The i^ame form of trouble report is w.serf for both buses and trolley cars. 

March, 1923 




Six Months of Operation Has Developed Substantial Tratlic — I'ower Is Purchased from 
Hydro Power Commission — Kner^y Consumption Is One Kilowatt-Hour per IJus-Mile 

Trolley Bu8 Opc^ratioii 
ill Toronto 

By W. Forsyth 

Superintendent Bus Operations Toronto (Ont.) Transportation Commission 

IX AN ARTICLE which appeared 
in the issue of Bus TR-WSPOR- 
TATION for March, 1922, three 
months previous to the iiiau>,'urati(iii 
of trolley-bus service in Toronto, de- 
tails were fc'iven of the bus which had 
been selected by the Toronto Trans- 
portation Commission for this serv- 
ice. Retruiar passenger service was 
inauKurated by the commission in 
June. Two of the four buses pur- 
chased maintain a normal traffic 
schedule on what is known as the 
Mount Pleasant route, having a 
round-trip length of approximately 
2h miles. One end of the line con- 
nects with the Toronto & Yorke 
Radial Railway at Yonge and Merton 
Streets, this system in turn connect- 
ing with the trolley system of the 
Toronto Transportation Commission 
on Yonge Street. 

The trolley bus route e.xtends east 
about 1^ miles on Merton Street at 
a right angle to Yonge Street, then 
turns north and parallel to the 
Toronto & Yorke Radial Railway for 
approximately ■; mile. The entire 
route is on macadam and brick road- 

On the route there are only two 
rather level sections, the remainder 
being a series of ascending and de- 
scending grades. On Merton Street 
near Mount Pleasant Road there are 
two short grades of from 4 to 5 per 
cent, and a longer grade on Mount 
Pleasant Road averaging 3 per cent. 

The section of Toronto served by 
the trolley bus is rather sparsely 
settled, consequently the heaviest 
traffic is during the morning and 
evening rush periods, each of which 
is of only about an hour's duration. 
On Saturday of the industrial 
concerns close at noon, making the 
peak of traffic at noon instead of in 
the evening. During these rush 
periods the bulk of the traffic is car- 
ried from the Toronto & Yorke 
Radial in the direction of the up- 
grade. Most of the passengers make 
the continuous trip from or to the 
end of the line at Eglinton Road and 

Fnitr of tlicxf trolley bimes are in operation in Toronto 

Mount Pleasant Road. There are, 
however, a number of cross streets 
at which stops are made. With the 
present arrangement for transfer 
service, through-section tickets are 
sold, thereby permitting the holder 
to transfer from the trolley bus to 
the Toronto & Yorke Radial and then 
to the commission railway system or 
vice versa. Such tickets are sold at 
four for 25 cents. The attractive 
service offered by the trackless 
trolley system has been largely re- 
sponsible for the enormous increase 
over the traffic handled by the gas- 
oline buses previous to the installa- 
tion of the present system. 

Throughout the week, except Sat- 
urday and Sunday, the buses make a 
total daily mileage of 334 miles. On 
Saturday and Sunday they average 
350 and 230 miles respectively. Dur- 
ing the rush-hour periods three buses 
are used on the route, but in normal 
service two buses maintain a head- 
way of about ten minutes, making 
three round-trip runs in an hour. 

For the overhead trolley wires, 
two pairs of wires are u.sed over 
the entire route. The contact wires 
are suspended from cross-span con- 

struction exclusively, standard line 
construction, hardware and fittings 
being used, with the exception of the 
crossings and frogs, for the overhead 
line work. Standard susi>ension and 
pull-ofTs were installed using cross- 
spans in the usual way. All of 
the cross - spans are sectionalized 
between contact wires by strain in- 
sulators. This requires five strain 
insulators in a cross-span for two 
pairs of contact wires, including the 
insulation at the poles. 

Wyes are installed in the overhead 
construction on both ends of the line. 
Spring-type frogs are used on both 
sides of the line, arranged to guide 
the trolley wheels in the predeter- 
mined direction \vithout attention. 
For crossovers at wyes, uninsulated 
crossings are used, four being re- 
quired. Each crossing is sectional- 
ized from one side of the line, but is 
at the potential of the other side with 
respect to the bus. A short section 
of dead line results, owing to the 
wires being of the same polarity. 
The buses coast over the dead 

Power for the trolley bus line is 
purchased from the Hydro Power 




Vol.2, No.3 

< ■ 



7 Windows 

Door operating Handle 
Emergency Bruke.^ \ 
Control Pedal ^., \ \ 



Seat 4 

\ 1 Platform 4 befow floor- 

U LocafionoffrolleybasesH'froinrear M ^ 

U —I Length iTf body 21-3 -; » . „ | 

^-Overhang 93"- ->]<- Whee/baseJS! ■M-24 -A 

u. Overall length including bumper 25-9 '^_ 

are located side by side slightly ahead 
of the center of the bus. 

A building not unlike an ordinary 
automobile garage has been erected 
to house the buses. All repair work 
is carried on in this structure. The 
buses have not been in service a 
sufficient length of time to accumu- 
late data on the maintenance of tires, 
brakes, etc., or comparative data on 
their operation against that of the 
gasoline bus or one-man cars. 

Plan showing general dimensions and seating arrangement of 
Toronto Transportation Commission trolley bus 

Commission, which also feeds the two 
railway systems. The bus line is 
fed from the T.T.C. substation lo- 
cated on Yonge Street near Merton 
Street. This requires a feeder of 
about 1* miles on Merton Street. 
The all-day average voltage at the 
driving motors is approximately 500. 
Observations show that approxi- 
mately 1 kw.-hr. per bus-mile is used 
at the bus, including lighting but 
not heating. 

Description of the Bus 

The accompanying sketch shows 
the general arrangement and ap- 
proximate dimensions of the bus. 
As was explained in detail in the 
earlier article, the body is built on a 
Packard Model E D truck chassis, 
which has a normal rating of from 
3i to 4i tons. The standard chassis 
has been slightly modified for trolley 
bus application, the trolley bus hav- 
ing a wheelbase of 192 in. The 
bodies, built by the Canadian Brill 
Company, are a framework of steel 
covered with Plymetl on the sides 
and roofed with Agasote. Spacious 
windows all around afford an ample 
supply of light during the day. 

The interior walls of the buses are 
finished in a cherry red color and 
the ceiling in a cream colored enamel. 
The accompanying plan of the bus 
shows the seating arrangement which 
accommodates twenty-nine persons 
comfortably. Standing passengers 
are not permitted on the Toronto 

The fare box is located on a 
stanchion constructed on the right- 
hand side of the operator's seat. This 
stanchion also prevents interference 
with the operator when passengers 
are entering or alighting from the 
bus. During normal service only the 
door at the front of the bus on the 
right-hand side is used. However, 

there is an emergency door at the 
rear left-hand side that can be oper- 
ated with a push button near the 
operator or by a passenger breaking 
the glass cover of a lock with spring 
contact placed directly above the 
door. The exterior of each bus is 
finished in the Toronto Transporta- 
tion Commission's standard colors, 
red trimmed with a cream enamel, 
and finished with gold striping and 

All wheels are equipped with solid 
tires, the front wheels having 34x5 
and 34x10' (dual 5) for the rear 
wheels. These tires can be worn to 
a diameter of about 30 in. before 
replacement is necessary. 

Practically all of the control equip- 
ment is housed under the hood of the 
bus. In this manner practically all 
equipment is placed in an out-of- 
the-way but still convenient place. 
The only parts inside the bus are 
those switches which the operator 
must have at his immediate com- 
mand. The complete motor and 
control equipment was built by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company and installed on the 
buses by the Canadian Brill Com- 

Two current collectors are used on 
each bus. The bases of the trolleys 

Swiss Government Uses Bus 
to Good Advantage 

TRANSITION from horse-drawn 
government stage to motor bus 
in Switzerland has attracted much 
attention. For more than a half cen- 
tury the Swiss government is re- 
ported to have operated the stages at 
a loss, including carrying of mail. 
However, it was compelled to continue 
operation to accommodate the tourist 
traffic in resort country and pay 
deficits from taxation. Several years- 
ago it turned to the motor bus and 
now, with more than 300 in opera- 
tion, the deficit has been converted 
into a surplus. Carrying of mail 
could be done free of charge. Ex- 
tension is now under contemplation, 
as well as switching from solid to 
pneumatic tires. 

A stanchion at the operator's 
right accommodates the fare box. 

Views of Govermnent on 

Highway Transport 


ANNOUNCEMENT that the fed- 
L eral government contemplates 
the regulation of traflJic on federal- 
aid roads has given rise to the fear 
in uninformed quarters that this 
may result in drastic and trouble- 
some conditions which will affect the 
use of highways. the opposite 
is the case. Federal officials are 
inclined toward more liberal regula- 
tions than are now being enforced in 
many states. It is believed that high- 
way transport is suffering from un- 
scientific regulation. 

Federal ofl^cials are keenly alive 
to the fact that the country is suf- 
fering severely from lack of trans- 
portation. Their entire inclination 
is to encourage the maximum use 
of highways. Before attempting to 
draft regulations, however, very care- 
ful studies are being made, largely 
with the idea of making regulations 
which are just as liberal as can be 

March, 1923 




Good Roads 
the Key to West Virginia Bus Operation 

I.iiirht Vehicles I'scd Pending (irowth of |{usinf>s and ImproM-d Highways 
— .Man> Lines Act as I'eeders to Sleani l{ailr(ia(l> — Hi>;h«a.\ ( on^triiilion 
and Motor N'ehicle He);ulation Centralized in Stale Koad Commission 

SPEAK of bus operation to many 
people in West Virginia, and 
they will tell you, particularly 
if the subject is brought up in the 
winter or spring months, "There 
ain't no such thing." As a matter of 
fact a survey made last month by 
an editor of Bus Transportation 
who visited most of the bus centers 
in the state shows that some seventy 
lines are supplying regular service 
over 892 miles of highway. A few 
of the lines, it is true, have to quit 
during the bad months of the year, 
but even they operate when the roads 
would be considered impassable by 
the ordinary motorist. Some of the 
lines, it was found, use horse-drawn 
vehicles when the going is impossible 
for their gasoline steeds, and on 
others, where Nature has furnished 
a liquid right-of-way, gasoline motor 
boats are pressed into service for 
part of the year. 

But the future is bright, for the 
state has appropriated $50,000,000 
with which to build highways, and 
while only a small part of this has 
been spent, already its influence is 
felt, and scores of applications are 
being made to the State Road Com- 
mission by operators willing to dis- 
count the future and to supply 
present needs on what will some day 
be improved highways. A consider- 
able mileage of good roads is now 
available, but this radiates as a rule 
from the. large cities and towns, and 
there are many dirt-road gaps yet to 
be filled between points that would 
justify bus operation on a fair-sized 
scale. The work is being carried on, 
however, as rapidly as appropriations 
are made available and can be ex- 

Where the Buses Run 

The maps and table accompanying 
this article ^ihow the present situa- 
tion in West Virginia. In the north. 
Wheeling, Morgantown and Clarks- 
burg are the main centers of bus ac- 
tivity. Bluefield on the southern 
border has a number of lines. In 

the western part, Huntington leads, 
with lines working up and down the 
Ohio River and inland or eastward 
along the road toward Charleston, 
the state capital. Here also there is 
considerable activity, and Charleston 
is practically the only place in the 
state where local bus service is given. 
Negotiations are under way, how- 
ever, for a local line in Wheeling, and 

mills and factories scattered all over 
the state, and and perhaps most 
important at present, to make rail- 
road connections. At all the impor- 
tant stations on the Baltimore & 
Ohio, Chesapeake & Ohio, Norfolk & 
Western, and other pas.senger-carry- 
ing railroads, the buses connect 
with the trains. The result is a 
large amount of operation between 

Types of buses openited over West Virginia mountai)is 
Khcnim in front of Huntington waiting room 

the route proposed for this is shown 
on one of the maps. 

Most of the cities are so small, 
both in area and population, that 
purely local service is not in de- 
mand. Of the million and a half 
population, about 7.5 per cent are 
classed by the census as living in 
towns of less than 2,500 people. The 
largest city. Wheeling, has 56.000 
people, and then come Huntington 
with .50,000 and Charleston with 
40,000 people. In all there are only 
ten cities of more than 10,000 popu- 

The business is like that in most 
other states. Passengers are car- 
1 ied to do business in the trading 
centers, to work in the mines and 

the hours of 1 and 5 in the morn- 
ing, when bus operators in other 
states are getting a well-earned rest, 
or at least are not making scheduled 

Light Equipment the Rule 

Touring cars are used exclusively 
on most of the West Virginia lines, 
although there are in service a con- 
siderable number of medium-duty 
buses, of from twelve to twenty pas- 
senger capacity. On many lines, 
however, because of the poor roads 
and light traffic, the five to seven pas- 
senger touring car is the most practi- 
cable equipment. As these conditions 
improve many operators plan to buy 
buses. These will probably be of the 


medium-duty type, with standard 53- 
in. gage, plenty of power and with 
good riding qualities. West Virginia 
roads are hilly, full of twists and 
turns, and in many cases narrow. 
The conventional body construction, 
with center aisle and standard 36-in. 
.seats on either side, is seldom used. 
Preferred is a modified form with a 
row of cross seats on one side and 
a single longitudinal seat on the 

Fare Collection Methods 

Most of the lines operate on the 
pay-leave system, with the driver's 
pocket serving as the farebox. Some 
of the larger operators use tickets. 
On the Ultimate line in Wheeling a 
strip ticket is sold by the drivers, 
which entitles the passenger to a 
5-cent ride for 3i cents. The trolley 



on the same route gets 8 cents cash 
fare, or 5 cents for a ticket sold in 
lots of ten. 

The rate per mile varies consider- 
ably, as is to be expected under the 
conditions. On some lines it is as 
high as 25 cents, but a large num- 
ber are found to charge around 10 
cents per mile. Where bus routes 
parallel the railroad the rates are 
about the same. There is little com- 
fetition between the buses and the 
city electric lines. The local bus 
routes in Charleston are laid out to 
serve parts of the city not reached by 
the trolleys. Operating costs in the 
.'■tate are high, but with better roads 

h> West Virginia the bus is an 
important feeder to the steam 
railroads. Notice also the inter- 
state operation. 

Vol.2, No.3 

operators are looking forward to the 
use of improved equipment which can 
be operated profitably at lower fares. 
One operator on a 55-mile route in 
the southern part of the state, now 
charging a $5 fare for touring-car 
service, is ready to reduce it to $4 
as soon as the present road, dirt for 
half the way, is improved. 

On the Highways 

In 1921 West Virginia passed a 
road law that created a commission 
in charge of highway matters, con- 
struction and maintenance. This 
commission also has charge of licens- 
ing of all motor vehicles, and of bus 
regulation. The total mileage of 
public roads in the state is given as 
.32,000, of which 4,675 miles are so- 
called inter-county roads, connecting 
county seats, commercial centers and 

Motor Bus Unas 
Trot fey Lines 
Sfcam Railroads 

Scale , Miles 
10 20 30 40 50 

1 !_/ . . I \ I 1 lJ 


March, 1923 




agricultural sections. After the pas- 
sage of the 1921 law, 3.400 miles of 
4,675 mentioned were designated as 
state routes and form the system 
now being improved by the Stati- 
Road Commission. This, of course, 
leaves many thousands of miles oi 
district roads, which are under the 
supervision of the various counties. 
Other highway and population statis- 
tics are given in an accompanying 

Of surfaced or paved highways the 
state has about 1,000 miles, accord- 
ing to the latest report available. 
The 1922 program contemplated the 
construction of 125 miles of hard 
surfaced road, that is, of water bound 
or bituminous macadam, or of as- 
phalt concrete. In the latest con- 
struction the roads are graded 24 
or 28 ft. wide, with a hard surface 
of 16 or 18 ft., respectively. Grades 
in general are kept down to 10 per 
cent, and the 8 per cent maximum 
iillowed for federal-aid highways is 
adhered to whenever possible. 

Motor Vehicle Legislation 

All the regulations relating to 
motor vehicles in West Virginia are 
incorporated in a Good Roads Law. 
passed by the Legislature in 1921. 
Under this the Good Roads Commis- 
sion collects all motor vehicle license 
fees, regulates highway traffic, and 
grants permits for the operation of 
motor vehicles, carrying passengers 
or freight, on fixed schedules between 
regular terminals. 

The license fee for vehicles oper- 
ated in bus service is 50 cents per 
horsepower (based on A. L. A. M. 
formula) and 50 cents per hun- 
dred pounds weight of vehicle and 
load. The load weight is the adult 
seating capacity multiplied by 125. 
(For private passenger cars the rate 
is 30 cents oh both horsepower 
and weight of vehicle and load.) In 
addition each driver, whether owner 
or hired operator, must pay a yearly 
chauffeur's fee of $3. 

Motor vehicles must not be used in 
bus service, according to the law, 
unless a permit is secured from the 
proper authority. For operation 
wholly within cities or incorporated 
towns the authority is the city or 
town council or corresponding body. 
In other cases the authority is the 
State Road Commission, which con- 
sequently grants most of the per- 
mits in West Virginia. The purpose 
of this part of the law, the commis- 
sion has indicated, is to insure re- 
liable and dependable service to the 


~^f-^a^^^t • _^l j_j 


Tico types of bodies used on White chassis by Huntinyton-Hiirricane Line 

public at reasonable rates. The 
commission has followed the policy 
of refusing permits where adequate 
service, by railroad or other means, 
is already available. Applicants for 
permits are required to present their 
case in a public hearing, a notice of 
which must appear at least twice in 
the local county newspapers. In 
considering applications the commis- 
sion requires evidence of good moral 
character and financial standing; the 
applicant must show conclusively: 

1. That a public necessity exists 
for the service. 

2. Whether the proposed route or 
any part of it is a part of or clo.sely 
parallels a public utility giving simi- 
lar service. 

3. Approximate number of passen- 
gers to be carried. 

4. Number of vehicles proposed to 
be operated, kind, make, capacity and 
physical condition. That they con- 
form with rules and regulation of 
the State Road Commission. 

5. Proposed schedule. 

6. Proposed rates and that they 
are rea.sonable and fair to the public 
and sufficient adequately to maintain 
continuous service. 

The law requires that an approved 
bond must be filed by applicants to 
whom permits are granted. This 
may he a personal or a surety bond ; 
the amount is $2,500 for one vehicle, 
and $500 for each additional vehicle 
up to a maximum of $5,000. The 
purpose of the bond is to secure 
faithful performance of the Good 
Roads Law and of the rules pre- 
scribed by the commission. It is not 

These fire local lines, using tourinf/ cars owned by iii(l!rid'inl^, nrr xpfmtrd 
in the West Virginia state cap ■ 




Vol.2, No.3 

supposed to provide indemnities in 
case of accident, for which the gen- 
eral law provides ample relief. 

Permits are usually granted for 
the calendar year, and renewed on 
Jan. 1 unless there is good cause for 
a refusal. At present the West Vir- 
ginia lines are operating on tempo- 
rary permits covering the first four 
months of 1923, these having been 
issued because of important changes 
proposed in the present law. 

There are now before the state 
legislature two bills relating to bus 

operation. The first ( Senate No. 208) 
leaves the amount of taxes and li- 
cense fees unchanged, but takes away 
from the Road Commission the work 
of collecting them. This work would 
be done by the clerks of the various 
county courts, as would also the 
granting of chauffeurs' licenses and 
of permits for the operation of bus 
lines. A new section is added requir- 
ing all vehicles, before passing rail- 
way grade crossings, to stop at a 
distance of not less than 10 nor more 
than 100 ft. 

The second bill (House No. 368) 
is sponsored by the commission, and 
would require permits for both bus 
and taxicab service wherever lo- 
cated; if operation is wholly within 
cities or incorporated towns the con- 
sent of the local authorities must 
first be obtained. Another condition 
is that the permit or certificate of 
convenience must be obtained from 
the governing body before the oper- 
ator can get his license or certificate 
of registration. 

Under the proposed law the com- 

Bu8 Routes and Schedules Operated in State of West Virginia as of March 1, 1923 














Average No. of 

Round Trips 

per Day 

Normal Outside 


























































































1 00 
1 00 
5 00 
5 00 


















1 50 







1 00 




1 00 


:l 50 
1 25 

1 00 

2 00 



1 50 


2 00 











. 15 










. 10 
































9 21 
5 00 

11 11 

9 11 
10 62 


2 78 

3 33 

4 55 
4 17 

4 17 
7 50 
9 38 

7 50 

8 33 
22 73 

8 33 
8 33 

3 00 

5 00 

5 00 

4 17 

5 00 

3 60 


25 00 


22 22 


6 25 
8 33 

14 29 
16 67 

12 50 
5 42 

4 00 
2 73 
2 08 























































































































6 :10 


IS hr. 


45 min. 

15 hr. 

2i hr. 

H hr. 
25 min. 

60 min, 




Beckley to Amigo (o) 



Be 1 kley to Fayetteville 



Beckley to Harper (6) ." . . 



», 4hr. 


BeckJey to Mount Hope 





Beckley to Thurmond (2 operators). 





Bluefield to Beckley (2 operators) 





Bluefield to Bristol (Tenn.) 





Charleston — Local routes 






Charleston to Bell 

1 :30 




(>') 12:00 







i hr. 

H hr, 
40 min. 
25 min, 
20 min. 
60 min. 
45 min. 
45 min, 


1! hr. 
20 min. 

IS hr. 

1! hr. 

45 min. 


40 min. 

1! hr. 
70 min. 
30 min. 
30 min. 
30 min 
30 min. 
20 min. 
45 min. 

30 min. 
60 min. 
40 min. 
45 min. 
60 min. 

Ii hr. 

30 min. 




Charleston to Sissonville (2 operators) 

Clarksburg to Mt. Clare 

60 min. 


30 min. 


3 hr. 


Clarksburg to West Milford (c) (2 operators) . 



Clendenin to Spencer 





Uavis to Thomas 

60 min. 


Gilbert to Wharnrliffe 



Glenville to Gilmer 


Hamlin to West Hamlin 

Hillsboro to Seebert via Mill Point 



Huntington to Barboursville (2 operators). . . . 
Huntington to Glenwood . .. 

60 min. 


Huntington trj Hurricane via Barboursville.. . , 
Huntington to Kenova 

30 min. 


Morgantown to Dellslow via Sabraton 

20 min. 


Morglntown to Star Citv 

60 min. 


Mt. Hope to Thurmond 



Farkersburg to Rockland (Ohio) via Belpre . . . 

60 min. 
2hr. ^ 


Uacine to Brushton 

llacine to Joe Creek (Seth P ) 



Racine to Marmet 



Ridgeway to Williamsport (Md.) via Martins- 




Ilonceverte to White Sulphur Springs via 















2 4 







11 :00 





1 :05 

1 :05 





45 min. 
20 min. 


10 min. 

60 min. 
85 min. 
1 i hr. 
25 min. 
25 min. 
45 min. 
45 min. 
20 min. 
65 min. 



15 min. 



Summersville to 

Terra Alta to Hopeniont 



Welch to Maybeury via Northf ork. 



Welch to Filbert 



Welch to War 



Wheeli ng to Cambridge (Ohio) 

60 min. 


Wheeling to Harri.sville (Ohio) 



Wheeling Id Martins Ferrv (Ohio) 

30 min. 


Wheeling to Hellaire (Ohio) 

30 min. 


Wheeling to Sherrard 



Wheelingto West Liberty 



\Vlieeling: East Knd Line (.'1 

Kccncy's Creek to Lookout via Winona 

15 min. 
Irreg ular 

* Information not availublc. t Approximately fifty touring cars, classed by the city as jitneys, furnish 8cr\*ice over routes specified. 

(a) Operates over a dirt-road which necessitates stopping during spring and winter. 

(6) Uses horse-(iraw[i vehicles in winter. 

(c) Openites over a dirt-nmd. Service only rendered when road permits. 

id) Makes two extra trips between \ . 00 and 5 . 00 a.m., at double fare, to connect with C. & O. and B. & O. trains at Kenova. 

(e) Application pending before State Road Commission. 

(/) Application pending — now before Wheeling City Council. 




mission would be given power to is- 
sue bus permits for periods up to 
ten years, when justified by the serv- 
ice proposed and the capital to be 
invested. A bond is required, of an 
amount deemed necessary by the 
commission to protect adequately the 
public interest, and this would also 
cover injury to person and property. 
If the financial responsibility of the 
applicant is less than $5,000 each ve- 
hicle must carry a liability insurance 
bond of $1,000 to guarantee perform- 
ance and cover damage claims. 

Taxicabs would pay a flat rate of 
$100 a year for the certificate of reg- 
istration and the corresponding reg- 
istration plates, and a levy on the 
Maryland seat-mile basis is specified 
for passenger - carrying vehicles 
working between fi.xed terminals. 
For vehicles weighing less than 3 000 
lb. the rate is one-twentieth of a cent 
per seat-mile per year; then up to 
7,000 lb. it is one-fifteenth of a cent; 
and for vehicles weighing more than 
7.000 lb. the fee would be one-sixth 
of a cent per seat-mile per year. The 
seat-miles are obtained by multiply- 
ing the number of passenger seats in 
the vehicle by the total number of 
miles to be traveled during the year. 

Under the present law the maxi- 
mum gross weight, including load, of 
vehicles allowed on the state high- 
ways is 22,000 lb., with a limit of 
600 lb. per inch of tire width. The 
proposed law would limit the gross 
weight to 10.500 lb. and the weight 
on any one wheel to 300 lb. per inch 
of tire width. Heavier vehicles re- 
quire a special permit and bond. 

As a means of enforcing the new 
law the commission is empowered to 
require the evidence of witnesses and 
the production of documentar\' evi- 
dence at its designated hearings, and 
failure to obey such summons can 
be made punishable for contempt of 
court. Special oflicers appointed by 
the commission are given the same 
authority as duly qualified constables 
to make arrests for violations of the 
Good Roads Law, and must execute 
a bond of not less than $2,000 for 
faithful performance of their duty. 

In closing this article mention 
should be made of the local ordi- 
nances relating to the bus. The state 
law gives cities or incorporated 
towns the authority to grant permits 
for operation within their borders. 
They also may regulate the type of 
equipment thus used, and also the 
parking of vehicles and progress of 
traffic. The tendency has been to 
follow the state laws and regula- 

West Virginia Transportation Facta 


.\r<-u. »<|uare rallea: 



l-lty |...,.„l .11..,. 



I-urBfst city, Wheeling, uopulatlon 
.Milv.H of hlRliwayH outHidt- townH 

and cItli'H 

MlliM of buH rOUtfM 

Nuiiihrp of IjuM ruutes 

XutnluT vi'hlcleH In bus service:.. 

Open or closvd buMi-g 

TourlnK cars 

r.ii.s mlK-8 per day, estimated.... 

.MIIeaRe electric railways 

.MileaiTL- of steam railrundM 











tions, with certain minor changes. 
The bond is required to cover claims 
for damages for injury to persons or 
property, rather than performance. 
In Clarksburg, where there are at 
present no local lines, the bond is 
$2,500 for each vehicle carrying pas- 
sengers for hire, and it covers viola- 
tion of the city traffic ordinance, as 
well as claims for damages. Charles- 
ton requires a bond of $2,500 for the 
first motor vehicle, and $500 for each 
additional one, with a maximum of 
.$5,000 from any one applicant. Seat- 
ing capacity fixes the amount in 
Wheeling, the bond being $2,500 for 
a five-passenger vehicle, and $500 for 

each additional seat, up to a maxi- 
mum of $5,000 for any one vehicle. 
The Wheeling bus ordinance pro- 
vides for an inspection of vehicles 
proposed to be used by a mechani- 
cian designated by the City Council, 
the expense of which must be borne 
by the applicant. Another Wheeling 
requirement, as expressed in the or- 
dinance, is that vehicles must operate 
over their regular routes for not less 
than twelve consecutive hours out of 
every twenty-four, with not more 
than two hours allowed for going to 
and from meals. 

So far no special fee is 
charged for city or intercity opera- 
tion by West Virginia cities. It is 
held that the state law does not per- 
mit charging for the privilege of 
operating. In Wheeling, however, by 
agreement with the various lines 
with terminals there, from $25 to 
$75 per bus per year is collected, the 
amount varying with the mileage 
covered by each vehicle. To get into 
Wheeling from Ohio, operators must 
pass two toll bridges, and the toll 
charges form a considerable item in 
their operating e.xpenses; one large 
bus line in 1922 paid .some $20,000. it 
is understood, for the use of bridges 
across the Ohio River. 

Makes Gallant Fight Against Snow 

During one of the worst winters in 
the history of northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania the Bradford-Smithport line has 
kept its lines open with but one in- 

As this line, which is operated by 
C. H. Latham, Inc., Bradford, Pa., 
foltotcs a route mainly through the 
mountains, difficult to keep open even 
during ordinary winters, the feat is 
even more remarkable. 

The manner I'li which this cnm)>any 
has fought the snow blockades is best 
shown by the accompanying Ultis- 
tration^ Two Duplex buses are coupled 
together and push a heavy snotrplow 
before them. This work has been un- 
dertaken by the bus company with 
practically no outside assistance and 
has cost the line a considerable sum to 
keep the route clear not alone for its 
own use but also for the other traffic. 



Published by McGraw-HiU Company, Inc. 



THE purpose of Bus Transportation is to help develop 
bus transportation wherever and whenever it con- 
tributes to the public welfare. We believe that only 
through a sense of public service, through responsible 
management, through the proper co-ordination of bus 
and rail, through adherence to sound principles of 
business, engineering and ethics bus transportation can 
develop into a stable and enduring industry. 

New York, March. 1923 

Study Your Fare Colledion Methods 

lEPEATEDLY Bus Transportation has been 

requested to help solve rhe problem of coUect- 
I ing fares on various motor bus routes. 

The bus operator today, whether running on an 
urban flat-fare line or on an intercity route that has 
a multiplicity of fares, has a collection problem con- 
fronting him that does not differ materially from 
that on many electric railway systems, even though 
all the work must be performed by one man — the 
bus driver. With the flat-fare system, however, the 
problem is not as acute as with the distance basis 
tariff. The only real solution so far worked out for 
the latter is the meter so largely used by the taxi- 
cabs throughout the country. This meter, which can 
be set in motion at the will of the taxi operator, as 
he picks up a passenger, registers the distance trav- 
eled directly in the rate of fare charged. 

If some similar system, equally simple in oper- 
ation, could be devised for the collection of intercity 
zone bus fares many of the difficulties in the problem 
would be immediately solved, but unfortunately there 
is no such device that can be used. Today, the work 
done mechanically by the taximeter must be per- 
formed by the bus driver, and it is here that the 
human equation enters with its likelihood of errors 
and lack of ability of the driver always to do the 
right thing. 

One of Ihe fundamentals for the collection of fares 
on any transportation system is that it be done as 
far as possible by mechanical means. This not only 
relieves the bus driver from excessive responsibility 
and the necessity of making elaborate reports for 
the purpose of determining the riding characteris- 
tics of the passengers carried, but most of all facili- 
tates operation. Really there are only two things 
that it should be necessary for the driver to do in 
addition to seeing that pas.sengers pay the correct 
fare for the distance traveled; namely, keep a 
record of the number of passengers carried and 
identify the boarding point and direction of travel of 
each passenger. There are a number of ways in 
which this can easily be done. The simplicity with 
which the end is accomplished, however, depends 
entirely on the nicety of accuracy with which the 
company desires to handle its affairs. 

In this issue of Bus Transportation are printed 

articles which deal with three different means of 
collecting distance fares, each of which has its own 
merits. Bus operators are urged to give the ques- 
tion of fare collection serious consideration in order 
to assure themselves that they are receiving their 
full share of the revenue collected on their buses. 


A Standardized Bus Accour}ting 
tern Needed 



N THE motor bus industry, especially among 
individuals and independent companies, there 
is a shameful lack of attention to accounting 
or bookkeeping. Few operators are able to tell accu- 
rately the amount of earnings from different sources 
or even in bulk for a given period, and are entirely 
unable to separate the major expenses of opera+ion 
item by item. 

In fact, many operators are cognizant only of the 
items "gasoline and oil" and "driver's wages." The 
industry is growing and growing fast, and it be- 
hooves the operators to know what it costs them in 
detail to conduct their operations. Unless the oper- 
ators get together and formulate an accounting plan 
applicable alike to large and small undertakings, 
they will find that the regulatory bodies will pre- 
scribe a system of accounting that will perhaps be 
more arduous to maintain than is necessary. A 
definite knowledge of operating ccrsts is the key to 
the whole study of operating economies. 

Products low in first cost are not always the cheap- 
est in transportation service, for the life of the 
product or material is the all-important factor. One 
of the first items essential to an intelligent compara- 
tive analysis of costs is the number of bus-miles run, 
both as a total and by individual vehicles. Tire 
records, for instance, must be kept on a mileage 
basis, likewise the records of gasoline and oil con- 
sumption. Some operators have given this question 
of accounting considerable attention and can furnish 
statistics of performances which have proved ex- 
tremely beneficial when ordering new types of equip- 
ment. All operators should, however, emulate the 
example thus set for them, adjusting the system 
which they follow to their individual needs. While 
it is true that expense is involved in the keeping 
of records, it is for the good of the operator and 
the industry that the application of uniform ac- 
counting methods is urged. 


What Organization Has Done for 
Bus Operation in Chicago 

IINCE last Octo' er, when .John A. Hertz, 
Charles McCulloeh and their associates took 

I over the interests of the Lake Shore Bus 

Company, including among other things the Chicago 
Motor Bus t'ompany, and put .John A. Ritchie at 
its head as president and George A. Green as vice- 
president, many changes in operating policies have 
taken place. Some of these are now becoming ap- 
parent to the layman, who daily uses this bus line to 
get to and from his place of business or who rides 
atop because of his desire to take the air. 

Strange as it may seem, the open-top double- 


decked bus seems to be more popular in Chicago 

in winter than in other American cities where this 

type of vehicle is operated. But why? is a natural 

inquiry. The only reason advanced that throw.s any 

j light on this phenomenon of operation is that Chi- 

[ cagoans are more accustomed to the open air and do 

I not feel the cold as do the people in other gities 

j where the open-top double deckers are operated; 

And how the people do ride the buBoa. With a 
40 per cent increase in service for last December 
over the previous year trattic handled increased 50 
per cent. Janua'y with its new schedules in full 
force, calling fur many new turn-back points both 
in the morning and evening rush hours, has ma- 
terially improved riding facilities and traffic for 
the month has shown a material increase over the 
previous year as well as a gain over the previous 

There is no doubt but that the new manage- 
ment, with its intensified enthusiasm to make 
Chicago bus opeiation the in the world, is 
fast making friends and is steadily building up 
new traffic, which will, when the year is over, show 
a verj- material gain in the number of pa.ssengers 
handled, not only in total but on a bus-mile or seat- 
mile basis as well. 

All this is said with full appreciation in mind of 
the work of the former management, for with little 
or no working capital it was able to build up the 
nucleus of what promises soon to be the greatest 
bus system in the country. 

1 EDlTOIil.\I. I 

Closer Co-operation Between National 

and Stale Associations an Aid 

to Bus Industry 

■> WAS anticipated, it has not taken .some of 
the mo:e progressive bus owners and offi- 

cials of incorporated bus companies long to 

see the value in associations. One needs only to 
glance at the list of organizations shown on 
page 146 of this i.ssue of Bus Transportation to 
see how the number of state bus associations is 

Only last month did the Aulo Bus A.ssociation of 
New York State affiliate with the National Motor 
Transport Association. The plan whereby the state 
association becomes actively associated with the 
national organization merits consideration by other 
state associations. First of all, membership in the 
state association is to carry membership in the 
national association as well. With the dues of the 
associations on the same basis the national associ- 
ation agrees to divide on an equal basis. This plan 
will provide funds for further enlarging the 
national organization through a more active mem- 
bership campaign. In the meantime, the plan 
provides a mouthpiece in the state on all legislative 
matters affecting the motor bus industry. With 
a half dozen .state bus organizations allied in a 
similar manner there might be a chance of securing 
some uniformity in regulatory and tax laws in the 
various states, instead of each successi%'e state at- 
tempting to find some new way in which to levy on 

the motor bus industry through general automobile 
ta.x laws. As it is now the automobile industry pays 
its fair share of taxes. Perhaps the taxes are not 
equitably divided according to the various types and 
kinds of automobiles, but that is a question that 
can be studied by all of the automobile and bus 
associations in joint conference. 

to theEditor 

Tl.' r' ;m1' r^< ruruin. 
1, .|u< I. ■! '.n !.■ 1 111.' 

i '..11, MM fits 

1,1 r-Ul.;' • . 

Three Years of Bus Operation 

Albright, W. Va., Feb. 1, 1923. 
To the Editor: 

We appreciate Bus Transportation. All our boys 
seem anxious to receive the new number. The in- 
formant, E. E. Watson, started this line in 191'J. 
making two round trips a day, using a Ford one- 
ton truck. In the fall of 1919 I bought a White 
;-ton chassis with a McKay body. This has been 
in almost daily .service since we bought it. Later we 
bought two Reo Speedwagons with the .same make 
of body. 

I well remember how hard it was in the year 1919 
to get a bus body for the White trucks, as there 
were only a few building bodies at that time. Per- 
ha])s there were more than we knew about for there 
was no way for the builder and the buyer to get in 
touch with each other. Bus TRANSPORTATION now 
solves this problem. 

We are watching with great interest the improve- 
ments being made by the different manufacturers, 
both in chassis and bodies, for some of these days 
we are going to be in the market for new equipment. 
And when we buy we want buses that won't jar the 
false teeth out of our patrons, so they must be easy 
riding and with i)lenty of power to pull these West 
V'irginia hills that you have all heard about if you 
haven't had the pleasure to see. 

When we first started we had to collect 8 per 
cent war tax on all fares over 42 cents. I looked 
everywhere I knew of for a device that would give 
us this information and the nearest to what we 
wanted was a small cash register. We bought two 
National cash registei-s that print all fares on a 
strip of paper which is turned in at the end of the 
day by the drivers. We are watching for some- 
thing to come out that we think is better. 

In 1921 I incorporated under the laws of the state, 
.selling half the stock to good people along the route, 
which has i)roved very satisfactory. One object I 
had in incorporating was to protect my.self and the 
other stockholders in case of an accident. However, 
in the three and one-half years we have been 
operating we haven't had a cent to pay. Unless the 
insurance companies reduce the rates on that kind of 
insurance we will take the ri.ik ourselves. 

E. E. Watson, President, 
Preston County Bus & Garage Company, Inc. 





Vol.2, No.3 

^ Section 

Developments in equipment for 
vtliicles, garaKess terminals — 
all the imnrovements manu- 
factured for the industry. 

Dual Wheel Has Single 
Air Valve 

THE wheel shown in the draw- 
ing is furnished especially for 
bus work by the Indestructible 
Wheel Company, Lebanon, Ind. It 
takes two 34 x 5-in. or two 36 x 6-in. 
tires, using standard rim bases and 
standard valve stems. The stems 
may be connected with a special 
valve, which allows the pressure in 
both tires to be equalized. Tires 
can then be inflated from the outside 
through one nozzle for the two tires. 
The inflating valve is made by 
A. Schrader's Son, Inc., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. With this valve arrangement 
should one tire blow out or become 
punctured, both tires would be de- 
flated. This would serve as a sig- 
nal to the driver that he was carry- 
ing the load on one tire. In case of 
such trouble the inflating valve is 

Bus Generator and 
Switch Box 

THE Reray Electric Company, 
Anderson, Ind., is making a line 
of equipment consisting of a heavy- 
duty generator and a switchbox to 
serve all the bus wiring. 

The generator, known as model 
971-A, is of the third-brush regulated 
type, equipped with Remy thermo- 

static control. The maximum output 
is 40 volts at 1,000 r.p.m. Cut in 
occurs at 400 r.p.m., and 20 amp. can 
be generated at 600 r.p.m. This out- 
put, of course, is too great to be used 
for charging any normal sized bat- 

detached and a new spare installed, 
or the other tire inflated from air 
bottle or pump, and the trip com- 
pleted. The equalizing valve is not 
essential, however, as the wheel can 
be used just as well without it. The 
dual wheel is made to fit standard 
axle hubs, so that special hub equip- 
ment is unnecessary. The company 
also makes disk wheels for single 
tires, to fit standard axle hubs. 

Remy smtch box, where practi- 
cally all bus wiring is concen- 
trated. Cover remolded to show 
fuse blocks and terminals. 

tery, so that when the lights inside 
the bus body are turned on, a re- 
sistance is automatically shunted out 
of the generator field circuit; thus 
the field strength is increased, with 
a consequent rise in the generator 

On account of the severe service 
encountered by buses the Remy com- 
pany recommends conductors of lib- 
eral size, both for charging capacity 
and for mechanical strength. Ter- 
minals should be extra heavy gage 
and connections carefully soldered. 
The main leads in the generator cir- 
cuit and to the lights should be 
No. 10 extra-flexible, rubber-covered, 

Indestructible steel disk ivheel for d-ual pneumatic tires, brake drum attached 

Model 971-A Remy generator 
designed for biis serznce and for 
nwuntitig on poiver take-off pad 
of transmissio7i. 

double-braided wire, while connec- 
tions to step, pilot and stop lights 
should be No. 14 flexible conductor, 
covered with rustproof flexible armor. 
Because of the unusual number of 
connections in bus work, there has 
been difficulty in securing suitable 
junction boxes, fuse panels and 
switches. All these are centralized 





in a single Remy unit designed for 
use with the Model 971- A generator. 
The model 480-A switch box con- 
sits of an aluminum box, 5x9x12, 
in size approximately, on the face ol" 
which are two panels. On the upper 
panel, which is hinged, are the re- 
verse current cut-outs, ammeter, and 
all switches of the electrical system, 
except the starting switch. Back of 
the lower panel, which is held in place 
by two thumb nuts, is a junction and 
fuse block with terminals for variou.-; 
connections. On the back of the 
panel are held a number of spare 
fuses. The use of this box, it is 
said, provides plainly marked ter- 
minals, individual fuses for each 
circuit, and a simple method of con- 
necting the circuits to the right 
terminals. It may be mounted on the 
side of the body or over the dash, as 

Fare Box for Motor Buses 

THE MODEL No. lOlA fare box, 
put out by the Ohmer Fare 
Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, is 
intended particularly for motor bus 
.service. This box is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. It 
weighs only 10 lb., the height is 

Liyht-neigitt fare box 

12A in. and width and length each 
6 in. The plate glass is \\ in. thick. 

Security against unauthorized In- 
terference is gained by a telltale of 
the gravity type which drops down 
and stays out of position if the box 
is turned upside down. The cash 
drawer is fitted with a Yale pin 
tumbler lock. 

The box can be furnished either 
with a hanger for 1-in. pipe, or with 
a bracket for attaching to a flat sur- 

Sttldn-ly/jf body scats sixteen pasxenyerK on Modtl-AH Uuyylex chaxHiM 

Cliantirlrrr Motor Coach 

RUGGLES Motor Truck Company, 
Saginaw, Mich., and London, 
Ont., Canada, announces a new motor 
coach called the Chanticleer, and 
playing on the name the makers use 
as a slogan, "Cock o' the Road." 
The Chanticleer seats sixteen pas- 
sengers, including the driver. There 
are three full-length seats and two 
short seats divided by an aisle. All 
passengers sit facing forward. Ac- 
cess to the coach is secured by three 
doors for passengers and a separate 
door for the driver. 

The seat cushions and backs are 
upholstered with imitation gray 
Spanish leather. The exterior above 
the body line, and the interior, in- 
cluding the roof, are trimmed in the 
same material as the seats. 

The body is mounted low and 
Stabilitors are used to insure road- 
ability. The Ruggles 20-AR chassis 
gives 34 hp., ample to handle the 
load. This chassis has a 138-in. 
wheelbase, and 178 in. of ten-leaf 

Built into the body is a compart- 
ment at the rear for bags and suit 

cases. This has a small electric light 
for night loading. Adju.stable side 
windows are frameless, and set in 
felt channel. The interior is kept 
comfr)rtable by a forced air exhaust 
heater. Standard equipment includes 
all lamps, spring covers, bumper, 
motometer and tire carrier. 

Round Front Corners 

Feature Twenty-five 

Passen«;er Body 

THE Hoover Body Company, 
York, Pa., has now in production 
a twenty-five-passenger body of the 
type shown in the photograph. This 
has the conventional cross seats, with 
longitudinal seats over the rear wheel 
housings. White ash and white oak 
framing is covered with plymetl, 
aluminum molding being used. The 
roof is aluminum, riveted to wood- 
metal carlines. The rounded corners 
on the front give unusual visibility 
to the driver. On the rear is placed 
a solid ash bumper faced with heavY 
steel; emergency door is also at the 
rear end. 

The fi-ont door, which is operated 
from the driver's seat, is 29 in. wide. 

oiniSH f BET \ 

Hoover twenty-five-passenger body mounted on White btis chassis 




Vol.2, No.3 

Inside the floor is covered with slats 
and the seats with rattan. The metal 
window sash is said to eliminate 
noise from vibration. All windows 
are fitted with street car type cur- 
tains. Equipment also includes heat- 
ers and buzzers, dome lights, ventila- 
tors, sign panels, and rear view 

Experimental Clutch for 
Paris Buses 

THE research department of the 
Unified Transportation System in 
Paris (le Societe des Transports de en 
Comun de la Region Parisienne) has 
developed a bus clutch of a new type. 
It has been in use on five new buses 
since last July and has given satisfac- 
tion. The principles of this clutch are 
.shown in the accompanying illustra- 

This new cone-type clutch has 
been tried out on the buses in 
Paris. Meaning of letters ex- 
plained in the article. 

tion. It was designed to be lighter 
and less costly than the multiple-disk 
clutch generally used, and to combine 
so far as possible the advantages of 
that type and the plate type of clutch. 
Referring to the cross-section, it 
will be noted that the clutch consists 
of an outtM- shell, V, carrying two re- 
newable contact rings of steel, C. 
One of these is fastened tight to the 
shell; the other is carried inside a 
ring, which slides axially in the shell. 
V, under the control of levers, L, the 
latter being actuated through a sleeve 
sliding on a shaft, A. under the ac- 
tion of a fork and system of outside 
levers. The shell as described is car- 
ried on the end of the shaft shown at 
the left in the illustration. 

The sliding cone is forced against 
the other by means of the springs 
R, which determine the maximum 
applicable force. The levers L, of 
course, oppose the action of the 
springs. Between the two cones, C, 
rotates the outer portion of a dished 
steel plate, P, shod with asbestos on 
both faces opposite the cones. The 
dished plate P is carried by a wheel 
firmly mounted near the end of the 
shaft A. Obviously when the cones 
are permitted by the levers L to be 
forced together by the springs R, 
they clamp firmly on the asbestos 
shod faces of the dished disk P, 
transmitting motion from one shaft 
to the other. On account of the in- 
clination of the cone surfaces, which 
has been worked out carefully, thf' 
force applied through the levers L 
is multiplied to the maximum exten*^ 
that is found to be economical, thus 
minimizing the axial force necessary 
to be applied. The end of the shaft 
A is carried in a ball bearing which 
forms an integral part of the shell V. 

Bus ill Jersey Service 

ONE of a group of buses now 
being delivered in northern New 
Jersey by the Motorbus Sales Cor- 
poration, Passaic, N. J., is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. A 
Fierce-Arrow bus chassis with 192- 
in. wheelbase is fitted with disk 
wheels, pneumatic tires, dual on rear, 
long springs, fle.xible outriggers on 
the frame to support the body, and 
with the sixteen-valve engine used 
on standard Pierce- Arrows. 

The body, which is built by the 
Paterson Body Company, is of the 
Pullman cai' type, 19:!. ft. long and 
7' ft. wide. Inside finish is mahog- 
any and the bus has three ventilators 
on the roof. The body will seat 
twenty-five passengers comfortably 

on cross seats, with two longitudinal 
seats over the wheel housing. The 
seats are covered with imitation 
leather. The equipment also includes 
dome lights, racks for advertising 
cards, and emergency door on the 
left-hand side at the rear. 

Chain-Type Transmission 
for Buses 

THE design of transmission used 
extensively by large bus oper- 
ators in London and New York is 
now being offered by the Morse 
Chain Company, Detroit, Mich. This 
transmission, which is shown in the 
photograph, is of the standard selec- 
tive type, with three speeds forward. 

Morse three-speed chain-type 
transmission, cover removed. 

The feature is the use of silent chains 
instead of the conventional gears. 
The forward drive is by chain en- 
tirely, and the reverse through chain 
and gears. 

In the standard construction the 
reverse speed has a ratio of 3.561 
to 1, while the forward speeds are 
as follows : first, 3.397 to 1 ; second, 
1.650 to 1 ; and third or direct, 1 to 1. 

The transmission is about 30 in. 
long, from end to end of the shaft ; 
bolt attaching centers are 13 ;x21 1 ; 
and over-all height is about 14 in. 

Pierce-.Arrow twenty-five-iKisxenfier bus fitted with Paterson Pnllnian-type body 


Four (!vliii<lrr Kiii;iiiet» 
ftir Mils Service 

'r^HK Waukesha Motor Company, 
X Waukesha, Wis., announces two 
new models tlesigned for heavy 
duty service. These are known as 
.Model "\." l-iii. l)()re bv 5A-in. 

Manifold sirfc «/ Wunkesha eii- 
pine, dixifiin'fl tm />".•< sfrrice. 

.■-Iroke, 2(i4 displacement and 
"YA," 3i'-in. bore by 51-in. stroke. 
232 displacement. They were 
shown for the first time at the New 
York and Chicago Automobile shows. 
Following' is a brief description cov- 
ering the general points of design. 
Cylinder block and upper half of 
crankcase and flywheel housing is of 
gray iron, cast integi-al. Split line 
between and oil pan is 2i 
in. below center line of crankshaft. 
Lower half of flywheel housing is 
also a gray iron casting, and con- 
tains an oil pan, of the center-sump 
type, which can be dropped without 
removing the housing. 

Fan drive and magneto installa- 
tion on Wiiiihexha engine 

The separate cylinder head is held 
in place by twenty-one l-in. studs. 
Lifting lugs on the sides make re- 
moval easy. The combustion chamber 
is a modified Ricardo type, for which 
maximum turbulence and higher 



etticiency at all speeds is claimed. 

Removable gray - iron cylinder 
sleeves are held at the bottom by a 
composition rubber gasket and at the 
top by a copiK'i' asljestos gasket. The 
pistons are aluminum alloy, with four 
piston rings above the piston boss. 
>nap rings at each end of the boss are 
used to hdld the piston pin. Connect- 
ing rods are forged out of S.A.E. No. 
1035 .steel and are Hi in. center to 
tenter. Bearings at the lower eml 
(if rod are 21 in. in diameter and 2 in. 
wiile, of luonze back and Fahrig- 
nieUd lining construction. These 
bearings have heat radiating flanges 
to carry off the heat from the bear- 
ings instead of through the bearing 
to the connecting rod. 

The crankshaft is a carbon steel 
forging, the center and rear bearings 
!>eing 2^ in. in diameter by 2 J in. in 
width, and the front bearing 21 in. 
in diameter by 2 in. in width. Thus 
the center and rear bushings are in- 
terchangeable, as are also the front 
main bearing and connecting-rod 
l)ushings. The camshaft, a steel forg- 
ing, runs in three bronze bearings. 

The full-pressure oiling system in- 
cludes a gear oil pump fastened to 
the outside of the crank case, and 
driven by spiral gears from the cam- 
shaft. Separate pipes carry the oil 
to the front, center and rear main 
hearings and a relief valve, adjust- 
able from the outside, regulates the 
pressure. Lubricating oil is strained 
twice, first through a large circular 
.screen in the oil pan and secondly 
through a screen on the pressure 
side of the pump. The oil filler, 
which is also the breather, is on the 
valve side, as is the blade, the oil 
pump, the pressure sti'ainer, the reg- 
ulation valve and the oil drain plug. 
Thus the maintenance operations in 
the lubrication system can be carried 
nut from the side and without getting 
under the engine. 

tooling is by thermosyphon, e.\tra 
large water passages being provided. 
Here again the removable cylinder 
sleeves make it po.ssible to clean 
thoroughly the jacket passages of 
core, sand and wires. The fan is 
driven by a 1,' in. flat belt from the 
pulley mounted on the magneto 

The intake and exhaust manifolds 
are cast integral, a small hot spot 
being incorporated in the design to 
assist in the vaporization of the 
heavier fuels. 

Three-point suspension is used, 
the front bearing being a 4 '-in. diam- 
eter trunnion turned on the gear 


cover; the two other points are arms 
on the crankcase. 

The .smarting motor, generator, car- 
buretor, oil indicator and oil drain 
are all on the right hand or curb 
side of the engine. Thus it is un- 
neces.sary to stand out in the street 
to make minor adjustments and till 
.ind drain the oil. 

Killrr for .Straiiiiiifj 

A FILTER made by the Standard 
Filter Company, Newark, N. J., 
and illustrated below, can be attached 
either to the vacuum tank or the 
carburetor. The filter includes a 
drain cock, shown connected at the 
right, through which any .sediment 
can be removed. The cock is also 

FILrCK xxttti 



Cross-section of Standard filter 

available to draw fuel for washing 
the hands, cleaning spark plugs, or 
priming the engines, and thus the 
sediment which collects is being con- 
stantly removed. 

Fuel enters at the left of the filter. 
passes upward through a screen and 
down through a central tube, the dirt 
collecting underneath the .screen, and 
is shaken loose and washed over the 
baftle wall into the .sediment cham- 

Filter attached to top of vacuum 

ber by the inflow of fuel. This fea- 
ture, it is said, makes the .screen con- 
tinuously self-cleaning. The .screen 
is made of non-corrosive monel metal 
woven into a fine triple mesh which 
gives the equivalent of a million holes 
in the 6 of mesh area. 




Vol.2, No.3 


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Vol.2, No.3 

What tKeAssociations 

are doin^ 

News and happenings 
of the associations.. 
Proceedings of interest, 
to the bus transporta- 
tion industry. 

Transportation Keyed to Production 

By Julius H. Barnes 

I'l-i'sirlent Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States 

IN THE RECORD of our railroads— 
always the chief channel of trans- 
portation — we find the following assur- 
ances of a great expansion: 

1. The 141,599,000,000 ton-miles of 
1900 had increased in 1920 to 413,675,- 

'000,000 ton-miles. 

2. Passenger-miles had increased 
from 16,039,000,000 to 47,366,000,000. 

3. The miles of track increased from 
258,784 to 405,1S31. 

Thus there i.s an increasing volume of 
•earning traffic per mile of road, and 
this, of itself, would mean a natural 
■economy in capital charges. On the 
other hand, railroads requiring labor 
and service must meet in their wage 
scales the constantly enlarging eai'n- 
ing power, and also the competition for 
labor set by industries. 

There is, of course, a constant effort 
'to offset this trend of higher labor 
charge. This effort has been effective, 
in the relation of the dead-load to earn- 
ing-load per car. Fifty years ago, and 
before specialized types of cars were 
generally developed and in use, the 
freight car of American railroads rep- 
resented roughly 65 per cent of dead- 

•Ab.stract of aclclre.s.'i given Jan. 18. 1923. 
in New York before .\merican Society of 
Civil Engineei-s- 

load and 35 per cent of earning-load. 
In 1922, a specialized type of car for 
ore and coal had reached a point of 20 
per cent of dead-load and 80 per cent 
of earning-load capacity. It is mani- 
fest that the limits of further economy 
in improving this relation must be 
small indeed. 

Again, any material expansion of 
our railroad service must require new 
and large additional capital invest- 
n:ents. Some single-track lines and 
double-track lines are probably ap- 
proaching the maximum load possib';e 
for the capacity of their present rails, 
and any substantial increase means at 
once new roadbeds and new rails. 

As to terminal facilities, the maxi- 
mum limit of service is even nearer to 
final exhaustion. James J. Hill said in 
1907 that it would require the invest- 
ment by American railroads of $1,100,- 
000,000 per year for five yeais to 
equip the railroad terminals of this 
country to meet adequately the traffic 
which was clearly in sight for those 
terminal facilifes. No such sum has 
been invested in terminal improve- 
ments, even in the fifteen years which 
have since intervened. 

The explanation of this lies largely 
in the supplementary service of the 

motor truck. In some quarters this 
form of transport is treated as an ac- 
tive competitor of railroad service, 
while by other eyes it is looked upon 
as a great supplement and feeder to 
railroad traffic. Against the 2,600,000,- 
000 actual tons lifted by all the rail- 
roads in 1921, we can place the estimate 
by the National Automobile Chamber of 
Commerce of the actual tons lifted that 
year by motor trucks at 1,400,000,0011 
tons, even though for shorter distances. 

To co-ordinate these two forms of 
transportation requires a determination 
of the question of fair competition be- 
tween a railroad, whose rates are regu- 
lated and controlled, and using a road- 
bed constructed by the investment of 
private capital, as against a shuttle of 
service like the motor truck, free of 
regulation and using a highway con- 
structed and maintained at the public 

The motor truck, which is engaged in 
competitive freight service, should at 
least make a contribution in return for 
the construction and maintenance of 
the highway on which it operates. It 
will require careful analysis, aided by 
the best engineering opinion, to work 
out a proper charge. 

On the other hand, the railroad rate 
structure in recent years has not been 
adequately reviewed. This structure 
has been blanketed up and blanketed 
down without attempt to approximate 
the varying degrees of an expanding 
labor charge into relative commodities. 

Motor transport has an especial ad- 
vantage in its flexibility and in ease of 
transfer of its surplus capacity from 
one route or one section to another, 
with the fluctuating needs of sectional 
industry. Moreover, it appeals to the 
American conception of reliance upon 
free competition, rather than govern- 
ment regTilation. 

And then we have the slowly develop- 
ing avenues of water transport, with 
their possibility of quick expansion of 
facilities, once the watei' channels are 

nationaij motor transport 

ASSOCIATION: President. Patrick 
Healey. secretary and counsel Bridge- 
port & Waterliury Passenger Service, 
Inc.. 36 North Main Street. Walerliury, 
Conn. : manager and secretary. E. B. 
Burritt. FIsk Building. 250 West Fifty- 
seventh Street, New Y'ork. N. Y. 

TION ASSOri.\TU)N: President. 1). 
G. O'Neil, Douglas. Ariz. ; secretary. F. 
A. Jones. 127 North Central Avenue, 
Phoenix. ,Vriz. 

President. \V. K Travis, president Cali- 
fornia Transit Company. San Francisco. 
Calif., .secretary. James C. Blaine. 12!i" 
Bush Street, San Pranciseo. Calif. 

SOCIATIO.N: I'resident. Patrick Healey, 
secretai-y and covuisei Bridgeport & 
W'aterluir.v Passenger Service, Inc. 3(i 
North Main Street. Waterbury, Conn. ; 
secretary, Kdwurd .1. Cildea. treasurer 
Congress Taxi Company, Danbury, 

FLORIDA: President. W. T. Callahan, 
Miami ; secretary-treasurer, P. IC. Mc- 
Mann, .16 N. W. 1st St., Miami, Fla. 


Motor Bus Organizations 

dent, B. A. Harrison, Bainbridge, Ga. ; 
secretary, W. M. Riley. Decatur, Ga. 

ASSOCIATION : President, H. E. Jahns. 
general manager Jahns' Bus Lines. La 
i'orte. Ind. ; treasurer. W. E. Rentschler, 
manager Indiana Motor Bus Company, 
Plymouth, Ind. 

ASSOCIATION: President, J. Edging- 
ton, Des Moines, Iowa : secretary, E. P. 
Cronk. Des Moines. Iowa. 

dent, E. Foster, Moreton. president 
Moreton Trucliing Conipanj'. Third and 
Howard .Streets. Detroit. Mich.; secre- 
tary. H. H Hardy, i^ansing, Mich. 

CI.VTION: I'residi'iU, Rodney S. Dim- 
mick, president Touring Car Bus Coni- 
liany. 29 Seventh Street. North Minne- 
aiioiis. Minn. ; secretary, 1'2arl F. ,hu'li- 
son. Kndientt .\rca<le, St. Paul, Minn. 

NEW jioRsKV nrs transporta- 
tion ASSOCIATION: President, John 
Morning, 408 Warren Street, Newark. 
N, J. ; secretarv. Harry Buesser. Tit 
Madison Street, GiUtenherg. N. J. 

CIATION: President, George F. Sey- 
mour, Jr., 20 Clinton Street, Newark, 

N. J.; secretary. George L, Cowan, 20 
Clinton Street, Newark, N. J. 

Y'ORK STATE: President. Stanley 
Chatterton. White Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, Lima. N. Y. : seci-etary and treas- 
urer, James J. Dadd. president Rochester 
Bus Lines Advertising Corporation. 120 
Vermont Avenue, Rochester. N. Y. 

President. R. 10. McColluni. Ohio Motor 
Bus Company. Columbus. Ohio: secre- 
tary, C, J. Randall. 419 Majestic Build- 
ing. Columbus. Ohio. 

Tlo.X OF OREGON: President. Max H. 
Clark, Portland, Ore.; secretary. J. L. 
S. Snead. I'ortland, Ore. 


OWNIORS' .\SS0C1.\T10N: President. 
Frank Martz. treasurer White Transit 
l^ompan.v, Plymouth. Pa, : treasurer, W. 
J. Kmerick, president Emerick Bus 
Lines. Bellefonte. I'a. 


dent, A. C. Ellington. Des Moines Auto 
Company. Seattle. Wash. : secretary- 
manager. Erven H. Palmer, Terminal 
Building. Seattle. Wash. 

TATION ASSOCI.'^TION: Presl(;ient A. 
C. Homan, Menasha, 'Wis. 




provided. The waterways of this coun- 
try, on its various routes, actually lifted 
in" 19iy about 250,000,000 tons. A 
proper development of our water chan- 
nels could greatly expand this lonnatre 

One is forced to a conclusion from a 
survey of these factors in transporta- 
tion that, in the future as in the past, 
this country must rely mainly on the 
adetiuate development of our railroads. 

Public regulation of transportation 
by railroads is justified in return for 
the use of the right of eminent domain 
for roadways, and on the broader 
ground of public interest, in 
the hands of their operators rests the 
power, by rate relation and rate dis- 
crimination, practically to make or un- 
make whole communities. In the past 
regu.ation which destroyed the current 
earning power of railroads, undermined 
with it the credit of such railroads also. 
Thus, by curtailment of both earning 
and credit, they were denied, wholly or 
partly, the abil.ty to expand their facil- 
ities with the expanding tonnage of the 
country and in anticipation of further 
growth. Enlightened self-interest re- 
quires a fair and even generous inter- 
pretation of regulation of these great 
arteries of commerce. 

Before large investments are made in 
terminal facilities and equipment in 
these railroads, there should be a com- 
prehensive survey of the future of 
transportation in all its various forms, 
and then intelligent preparation for ex- 
panding commerce of the country which 
will fall upon these avenues of trans- 
portation. This should be painstaking 
and guided by the widest vision. Only 
by such intelligent considerat'on will it 
be possible to key transportation to pro- 
duction in America. 

maintenance ccstK can be reduced. It 
will be pointed out that this system of 
upkeep is by no means an experiment. 
It is simply the application to the high- 
way of the section gang method which 
has been employed so many years on tne 
railroads. Instances will be cited where 

^reat economies have been made pos- 
sible by the installation of this system. 
Attention will be called to the fact that 
the policy of having each landowner dc 
a certain amount of maintenance work 
is not only unsatisfactory but is very 

HiRhway Association Opens 
Offices in Capital 

THE American Association of State 
Highway Officials has opened its 
general offices in Washington, I). C, in 
the Munsey Building. W. C. Markham 
is in charge, with the title of executive 
-■secretary. Miss Oudida Cox, a member 
of the office staff of W. S. Kellar, the 
Alabama state highway engineer, has 
been assigned to the Washington office 
to assist in the statistical and other 
work which will be undertaken by the 
new organization. 

The Washington office of the asso- 
ciation was established principally for 
the purpose of gathering helpful infor- 
mation for the use of all the state 
commissions, and to have a permanent 
point of contact with the federal gov- 

One of the early studies will cover 
the subject of highway maintenance. 
Facts and figures will be collected to 
call attention to the large saving which 
can be made by the institution of the 
patrol system. Just at this time when 
the public is showing some disposition 
to scrutinize highway expenditures more 
closely than ever before, it is regarded 
as desirable to point out ways whereby 

Far EasI U.siiijr Bii.s Service* 

By W. I. Irvine 

.\iiliiniotivf Trade rommlHHlonLr. 
r. S iJep't'tment of Commerce 

J.VI'A.N leads nut only in the present 
consumption of motor vehicles, but 
also in the possibilities for the future. 
China is a promising field, as its walls 
can be used for highways, and some of 
the wall material is now being used for 
road building. 

Theie are good roads in the Straits 
Settlement and Malay Peninsula. The 
automobile business there depends upon 
the condition of the tin and rubber mar- 
kets, since these commodities are the 
main businesses. 

In Japan the motor-driven vehicle is 
proving quicker than the leg-drawn 
two-wheel carriage, and also more eco- 
nomical in distances in excess of a mile. 
Hard surfaced highways, connecting the 
major cities in Japan, will probably be 
completed within two years. In Tokyo 
the new roads are sure to bring about 
suburban development, for the city is 
crowded. This will mean the introduc- 
tion of bus transportation, which makes 
its appearance now whenever conditions 
are favorable. 

Buses on Chinese City Wall 

The Celestial Empire progresses, as 
is shown by the fact that a motor road 
on top of the great Chinese wall, or 
built out of the material of the wall, 
is being seriously considered. The late 
city wall of Canton, which looks not 
unlike a section of the great wall, serves 
as a top surface for 28 miles of highway, 
over which motor buses and motor cars 
are now running. 

In China hundreds of miles of new 
proving quicker than the leg-drawn 
five years, under conditions far from 
peaceful. Despite his conservatism the 
Chinaman is a gambler, and prospects 
of profits cause him to take risks. Here 
is how it works out: A group of 
Chinese are attracted by the bus idea 
and plan a route between two settle- 
ments. There is no road there, so by 
paying komsha (graft) to the author- 
ities they secure the right to construct 
a highway, usually dirt, and are given 
an exclusive franchise to operate ve- 
hicles over it. A certain part of the 
revenue collected from fares goes to 
the authorities for protection. This then 
becomes a toll road and everyone using 
it has to pay for the ride. The rich as 
well as the poor of the neighborhood use 
the buses. The routes are well patron- 
ized, as the Orientals love to ride. It 

•Ab.«!tract of paper before Export Man- 
.-iger.s" Convention. National Automobile 
Cliambor of Commerce, held January 8 In 
X,-w Yorli City. 

is not an uncommon thing for a poor 
Chinaman to take a bus ride for a 
couple of hours, and then walk back 
home because he cannot afford the re- 
turn journey. 

Generally speaking, the buses in 
China are mounted on passenger car 
chassis and carry about a dozen people, 
although the light bus chassis is begin- 
ning to be favored. The trouble with 
the passenger car is that capacity 
limits are not regarded. The Chinaman 
is out to get all he can in the shortest 
possible time, and if the bus will move 
the load, then everything is all right. 
It is better business to get larger buses, 
and some of them are coming into use. 

The best equipped buses in China are 
operated in Hongkong. In Victoria, the 
main city of Hongkong, there are wide, 
well-paved streets. With the introduc- 
tion of good highways people are mov- 
ing out of the congested center. The 
place is too small to make railroad oper- 
ation profitable, so that the expansion 
depends almost entirely on motor ve- 
hicles. Already there is a first-class 
bus line operating from across the 

The only transportation in the city of 
Canton is provided by motor buses, and 
these are always crowded. The venture 
has not been a financial success, not 
because of bad management or bad 
equipment, but because of the heavy 
taxes which were imposed by the former 
administration of the district. 

Korea, now part of the Japanese 
Empire, is mountainous, and this makes 
railway building expensive, so there are 
not at present any plans for expansion. 
The main line traverses the country 
from north to south, and the govern- 
ment plans to build highways to con- 
nect with this. The motor bus has 
taken hold in Korea, so that the major- 
ity of 800 or so machines are used in 
bus service. The are touring cars 
with extra seats, usually carrying about 
ten people. As rapidly as roads are 
completed franchises to operate bus 
lines are granted. Too many of these 
have been granted and there has been 
ruinous competition. 

In the Straits Settlement and the 
Malay States the tin mines are a con- 
siderable distance from the nearest 
towns. They are not connected by 
railroads, so bus lines have sprung up 
all over the country. One can travel 
from one end of Malay to the other end 
in buses and hired cars which have 
regular runs. The buses are run from 




Vol.2, No.3 

the mines for the Chinese miner, who is 
off to town just as soon as he draws 
his pay check. 

Future S.A.E. Meetings 

THE first transportation meeting of 
the Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers will be held April 26-28 in Cleve- 
land, Ohio. The two days' session, to 
be concluded by a transportation dinner, 
will be devoted solely to the use of 
motor vehicles and their design for the 
business of transportation. During the 
meeting sessions will be held on opera- 
tion and maintenance of motor buses, 
motor trucks, taxicabs and motor rail 
cars. Visits vidll be made to represent- 
ative automotive factories in Cleveland 
and vicinity. 

The announcement has also been made 
that the summer meeting of the society 
will be held June 19-23 at Spring Lake, 
N. J., on the Atlantic Coast, instead of 
in the Middle West as has been the 
practice for a number of years. The 
next annual meeting will also represent 
an innovation, since it will be held in 
Detroit some time in January, 1924. 
For years the annual meeting has been 
held during Automobile Show Week 
early in January in New York, and the 
change has been made to avoid the 
numerous conflicts resulting. 

3. As a prerequisite to the operation 
of the motor vehicle common carrier, 
the owner thereof should be obliged: 

(a) To obtain a certificate of public 
convenience and necessity, with a pro- 
viso that lines in actual operation be- 
fore the law goes into effect shall be 
regarded as necessary to public con- 
venience and necessity, and therefore 
automatically granted a certificate. 

(b) To take out liability insurance 
adequate to indemnify injuries to per- 
sons or damage to property resulting 
from negligent operation. 

4. The state regulatory bodies having 
control over motor vehicle common car- 

Regulation of Motor Vehicle 
Common Carriers 

AT A MEETING of the New York 
. Electric Railway Association held 
on Jan. 25 in New York City, D. C. 
Fenner of the Motor Vehicle Conference 
Committee discussed the present con- 
dition of motor vehicle regulation, and 
gave the arguments for and against 
state control or regulation. 

After a thorough investigation of the 
subject, the Motor Vehicle Conference 
Committee, consisting of representa- 
tives of the American Automobile Asso- 
ciation, Motor and Accessory Manu- 
facturers' Association, National Auto- 
mobile Dealers' Association, National 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, and 
the Rubber Association of America, has 
concluded that, granted a state needs 
regulation of motor vehicles as com- 
mon carriers, the following fundamental 
principles should underlie laws on the 

1. Control over intrastate trans- 
portation of persons and property for 
hire, over regular routes or between 
fixed points, if adopted, should be ex- 
clusively in the hands of some agency 
of the state. No power whatever in 
the premises should be vested in the 
governing bodies of the municipalities 
of the state. 

2. Such state control over motor 
vehicle common carriers should be 
placed in existing commissions, such as 
public utility commissions, etc., of the 
various states. It should be provided, 
however, that at least one member of 
such a commission should be conversant 
with and in sympathy with motor trans- 

riers should be vested with the same 
powers they exercise in controlling 
other forms of utilities. 

5. Any special or extra fees levied on 
motor vehicle common carriers should 
be utilized exclusively for highway 
maintenance. Such special or extra 
fees should in no case be more than 
100 per cent greater than the normal 
registration fees for the vehicles of the 
class to which they belong. 

6. Legislation should be enacted en- 
abling steam railroads, trolleys and 
shipping companies to acquire, own and 
operate the motor vehicle in conjunc- 
tion with their regular line of business. 

Engine Behavior Under High Compression' 

By J. H. HoLLOWAY, H. A. Huebotter, 
AND G. A. Young 

Purdue University Engineering Experiment Station 

DETONATION, according to this 
paper, is ordinarily accompanied 
by one of two characteristic kinds of 
knock. Sharp metallic "ping" that is 
most commonly encountered in auto- 
motive engines appears to originate 
from too early ignition of the com- 
pressed charge. This knock, if due to 
excessive spark advance, is eliminated 
by proper timing of the ignition. If 
retarding the spark produces no dimi- 
nution of the knock, preignition is 
probably due to some overheated spot 
within the combustion chamber. 

A second kind of detonation occurs 
after ignition has started from the 
electric spark and is characterized by 
a dull, heavy thud. Such a knock is 
evident at times in both high and low 
compression engines. It is apparently 
an intermediate stage between auto- 
ignition and normal combustion. With 
high compression pressures, ignition 
that is timed to occur after the dead 
center may be followed by this heavy 
thud when the engine is thoroughly 
heated up. Automobile engines with 
the usual compression ratio show the 
same trait, when the spark is retarded 
after a period of preignition, owing to 
an early spark or to excessive carbon 
deposit. One form of detonation may 
merge into the other or may disappear 
entirely, depending upon the condition 
of normal engine operation. Sufficient 
spark lag will eliminate the heavy 
pounding, but at the expense of both 
power and economy. 

The kind of detonation that occurs 
after ignition, according to the paper, 
is due to the presence of high tempera- 
ture areas, which ignite the unburned 
gas before the spark has a chance to 
do so. 

In carrying out the tests to determine 
the maximum compression pressures 
that could be used without detonation 
under representative operating condi- 
tions, it was found that spark plugs 
with porcelain cores and small elec- 
trodes were the first sources of preig- 

•Abstract of paper given Jan. 10, 1923. 
at New Y"ork .-innual meeting, Society of 
Automotive Engineers. 

nition. Mica cores with heavy elec- 
trodes and water- jacketed shells were 
required to maintain practical working 
temperature of the plug. In redesign- 
ing the engine for further tests, mica 
plugs were incorporated in the cylinder 

Next the exhaust valves showed un- 
mistakable signs of overheating. In 
the two cylinders that detonated first 
the exhaust-valve seats were not com- 
pletely water jacketed, and could be 
cooled sufficiently to eliminate preigni- 
tion only with a water-outlet tempera- 
ture below 100 deg. F. This engine was 
not a good example of modem poppet- 
valve design. The trouble from over- 
heated valves was eliminated by chang- 
ing to a sleeve-valve type, with which 
further investigations were conducted. 

In an engine with suitable spark 
plugs and effective cooling of the 
water-jacketed walls of the combustion 
chamber, the temperature of the piston 
heads is the deciding factor in limiting 
compression pressure. This surface, 
being most distant from the origin of 
combustion, is in the best position to 
detonate the final portion of the charge 
ahead of the flame front. On account 
of their higher conductivity, aluminum 
pistons remain cooler than gray iron 
pistons, and hence reduce the tendency 
of the engine to detonate. The original 
gray iron pistons were therefore re- 
placed by aluminum pistons of practi- 
cally the same design. 

The breaker of the battery system, 
with which the engine was originally 
equipped, failed under the high primary 
voltage found necessary to assure re- 
liable ignition with high compression 
at full throttle. This difficulty was 
overcome by the substitution of a high- 
tension magneto. 

The salient features in the engine 
that permitted the carrying of high 
compression under all conditions of op- 
eration were: 

1. Effectively cooled spark plugs. 

2. Comparatively cool exhaust valves. 

3. Uniform circulation in the water 

March, 1923 

4. Carburetion system that gave 
good distribution with low mixture tem- 

5. Aluminum-alloy pistons. 

6. Ignition system capable of pro- 
ducins adequate spark under high com- 

P'rom these tests, which the authors 
state cover only a narrow range in the 
field of gasoline engine operation, it 
was concluded that increase in the com- 
pression ratio results in a marked im- 
provement in the thermal efficiency and 



in the general performance of the en- 
gine, at all loads, and in the maximum 
power at all speeds. Under laboratory 
conditions a compression pressure of 
120 lb. per square inch is feasible when 
the engine is designed with full re- 
gard for the elimination of factors that 
induce detonation. Under service con- 
ditions the same attention to these fac- 
tors will permit the use of much higher 
pressures than those common at 
present in the internal-combustion en- 
gine used for automotive service. 

Cooling Capacity of Radiators' 

By E. H. Lockwood 

AssUtant riofessor of Mechanical Engineering, 
Yale University, New Haven. Conn. 


R.\DI.A.TOR is used to cool the 
jacket water of engine cylinders. 
Its ability to dissipate heat depends not 
only on the extent and form of its cool- 
ing surface, but also on the velocity 
at which the air and the water flow 
past the surface. The air velocity in 
the case of automobiles and trucks is 
frequently low, and must be supple- 
mented by a fan which is driven by the 

The cooling capacity of a radiator 
can be increased by adding to its depth, 
without changing the frontal area. The 
increased depth will be accompanied by 
a proportionate increase of the cooling 
surface and the quantity of circulating 
water, but no change in the air flow. 
It follows that, although the capacity 
will increase with the depth, it will 
do 90 in a diminishing ratio, and will 
reach a limit where no further increase 
of the depth will be justified. 

A radiator contains tanks located 
on the top and at the bottom to receive 
and to distribute the water. A cellular 
portion, usually called the core, occu- 
pies the space between the top and the 
bottom tanks and ser\'es to cool the 
water. Numerous small passages allow 
the water to flow through the core, 
while provision is made for air to circu- 
late freely around the hot metal to re- 
move the heat. In addition to the parts 
mentioned, a protecting case usually is 
added to support the radiator and to 
give a pleasing appearance to the front 
of the vehicle. 

The core is made preferably of rec- 
tangular outline and of uniform depth 
or thickness. It is constructed in a 
variety of forms, but all have the same 
characteristic thin-walled water pas- 
sages, with free air circulating on their 
exterior. With regards to their heat- 
dissipating properties, cores may be di- 
vided into three classes: (a) fin-and- 
tube, (6) ribbon and (c) air-tube. 

In the first type the water passages 
are straight tubes leading from the 
top to the bottom tanks, with fins at- 
tached to give an increased surface for 
removing the heat. The tubes usually 
are cylindrical, but occasionally are 

drawn in oval or flat forms. Disk fins 
are made by soldering to the tube at 
close intervals round or square metal 
plates of about twice the diameter of 
the tube. This method of construction 
is varied by using, instead of fins, 
strips that are punched to receive a 

A ^^ 

SMp Rns Con*invoo6 Fin* 



SionsHcujoml Endtonj Bofflo 

Examples of three types of ra- 
diator cores in general use. 

•-Abstract of paper clven Jan. 12. 1923. 
before Society of Automotive Engineers, 
New York. 

row of tubes. A more common ar- 
rangement is called the continuous fin, 
since it consists of a larger plate 
punched to receive all the tubes of the 
core. Whatever the type may be, the 
fins are spaced about equal distances 
apart and are usually five or six per 
inch. The tubes are of i to S-in. di- 

In the ribbon-core type the water 
passages are formed between paral- 
lel plates, which are separated slightly 
by crimping the edges, or by using a 
spacing wire and then soldering them. 
The water ribbons are made the full 
depth of the core, and extend from the 
top to the bottom, where they are fast- 
ened to the water tanks. The ribbons 
have either straight or zigzag channels. 
They are separated at regular inter- 
vals by the attached ribs, or fins, which 
serve the double purpose of stiffening 
the core and increasing the amount of 
surface for dissipating the heat. The 
attached fins are laid out in regular 


lines and give to the front a cellular 
appearance of squares, diamonds or 
hexagons, according to the shape of the 

Two sides of each air passage as 
a rule are bounded by water ribbons 
and the others by fin surfaces. It 
is possible, however, to join the corners 
of zigzag ribbons together to form a 
Core without connecting the fins, and 
this construction is sometimes used. 
The water passages in the ribbons are 
from 0.05 to 0.06 in. wide. The air 
cells arc from 3/16 to i in. square. 

Air-tube cores arc made up of short 
tubes packed clo.sely together in hori- 
zontal rows, with their ends flared and 
soldered to form the front and back 
of the core. Air passes through the 
tubes, while the water fills the entire 
space around the tubes, and flows in 
any path from the top to the bottom. 
In appearance air-tube cores resemble 
ribbon cores and both belong to the 
cellular class. Air tubes have no fins, 
the surface being heated by direct con- 
tact with the hot water. In some cases 
baffles, or dents, are formed in the 
tubes to increase their effectiveness in 
cooling. This result is produced, not 
by an increase of the surface, but by a 
turbulence in the air flow that renders 
the same amount of surface more 
effective. Air-tube cores have been 
made with both round and square tubes, 
but neither type has been much used 
owing perhaps to the cost of manufac- 
ture. Diagrammatic drawings of all 
three types of cores are shown here. 
The examples under ribbon cores are 
so numerous that only a few common 
forms are illustrated. 

A study of the cooling capacities 
of typical radiator cores suggests sev- 
eral interesting conclusions, which may 
be stated as follows: 

1. Between ribbon and air-tube cores 
as classes, there is little to choose for 
the speeds used in automobiles. For 
low air velocity, ribbon cores are 
slightly better. For higher air velocity 
the results are about on a par. 

2. The baflles, or dents, used in air- 
tube cores add materially to the cool- 
ing, without increasing the surface or 

.3. The straight-walled ribbon core, 
having small square cells with 50 per 
cent of indirect surface, cools as well 
as other ribbon cores with 100 per 
cent direct surface. This result is 
partly due to the greater amount of 
surface pos-sessed by the small cell 
core, but it also indicates that the in- 
direct surface of this type of core is 
nearly equal to the direct surface in 
cooling ability. 

4. The fin-and-tube core has only 
about three-quarters of the cooling ca- 
pacity of the best forms of ribbon 
core of the same size. This is not sur- 
prising in view of the large amount 
of indirect surface contained in the 
fin-and-tube type. 

The cooling of the thermosyphon 
cores may be taken as about two-thirds 
of that for pump circulation, and the 
water circulation as about one-fifth as 




Vol.2, No.3 

fast These figures are based on an 
arbitrary temperature drop in the radi- 
ator, and may be revised to suit the 
existing data. It is likely that the tem- 
perature drop may be much less than 
that assumed, as an active circulation 
may be kept up by the steam bubbles 
in the pipe leaving the cylinders, even 
vifith the water at nearly a constant 

Indiana Bus Owners Fight 
Proposed Legislation 

THE Indiana Bus Owners' Associa- 
tion has joined forces with the 
Allied Motor Commerce, the Wholesale 
Grocers' Association and otner organi- 
zations in fighting the Moorhead bill, 
which would place all bus and truck 
lines under the control of the Public 
Service Commission. 

H. E. Jahns of Laporte, president of 
the Bus Owners' Association, appeared 
before a Senate committee in opposi- 
tion to this proposed law. He took the 
stand that regulation at this stage of 
the industry's development was pre- 
mature and that in any event such 
regulation, unless very wisely adminis- 
tered would tend to throttle the busi- 
ness by discouraging the entrance of 
new capital into the industry. 

One is protection of the e.staljli.sUeii stage 
lines, those rendering adequate service, from 
the inroads of fly-by-night or good-weather 
competition, and the other is a change in 
speed which will permit of 30 miles per 
hour, instead of the 25 miles as prescriljed 
by the laws of today. 

A guarantee of protection for the estab- 
lished stage line by giving it a prior right 
to operate until it is proved that its service 
is inadequate, or traffic demands greater 
transportation facilities, is really a guaran- 
tee of protection to the public. 


Because that which protects stage lines 
attracts new capital into the stage field, and 
new capital means more and better equip- 
ment — fleets of de luxe highway Pullmans — 
operating on schedules sufficient to meet 
every reasonable demand from an exacting 

Increasing the speed limit from 25 to 30 
miles per hour means faster service for you. 
Mr. Average Citizen. It will enable you 
to make stage journeys much more ciuickly, 
without in any sense increasing the risk. 
The public demands a faster paee than 25 

Oregon Association Active 
in Legislation 

THE Automotive Carriers' Associa- 
tion of Oregon is making itself 
known in that State. At present the 
association is engaged in promoting 
legislation that will give the Public 
Service Commission power to refuse 
the granting of permits to lines deemed 
by it unnecessary. According to present 
laws the commission is obliged to grant 
permits to all applicants who comply 
with the requirements. 

The Oregon association publishes at 
iiitervals a booklet entitled "Trackless 
Transit Truths." 

A few of the timely paragraphs con- 
tained in recent issues of this bulletin 

We believe that if the motor carriers are 
not allowed to develop their ultimate "econ- 
omies" the inevitable results will be — 

First — Development of the state will re- 
ceive a serious setback. 

Second — Real estate, where values depend 
directly on transportation, will depreciate. 

Third — The growth of minor cities and 
towns will be checked and in some cases 
brought to a full stop. 

Fourth — It will cost more to deliver farm 
Iiroducts to their markets and less will be 
received for them. 

Wherever the motor has been given a fair 
trial ,ind operated by responsible parties 
it has proved profitable to both patrons and 
owners. It has opened new avenues of 
travel, provided new accommodations for 
the public. Established bus lines are fol- 
lowing schedules as regularly as rail lines. 
.\s yet they are only in their infancy, but 
even now. in spite of the organized clamor 
against them and some acknowledged im- 
perfections, which will be overcome in time, 
they are winning their way. 

Progress is marching on. whether all of 
us like it or not. What is best for the 
public, must be. Th<; thing to do now is to 
initiate wise regulations <>i the new means 
of transportation for both passengers and 
freight, so that the cost of operation plus 
a reasonable profit will insure f.iir rates. 

Better stage service to tlie pultlic of 
Oregon will result from two things that the 
Oregon Automotive Carriers' Association 
will seek at the next Oregon Legislature. 

miles over the straightaways utilized by 
the average car owner at considerably over 
30 miles per hour — when the speed cops are 
not around. A 25-mile limit under such 
circumstances is an aggravation to the 
public and an invitation to the stage driver, 
urgently seconded by passengers, to break, 
the law. 

Why not let your legislative represent- 
atives know that you favor this thing in 
order that this modern form of transporta- 
tion, upon which the public has so firmly 
placed the stamp of approval by its ever- 
growing patronage, be given greater oppor- 
tunity to develop? 

The officers of the organization are; 
President, Max H. Clark, Portland; 
vice-presidents, J. W. Parker, Salem, 
and V. C. Gorst, North Bend; secretary, 
J. L. S. Snead, Portland; treasurer. 
R. W. Lenien, Portland; counsel, John 
F. Logan, Portland. 

Modern Steering Systems" 

By Herbert Chase 

.\utrimotive Industries, New York 

THE steering system has lagged be- 
hind in the general development of 
motor vehicles. Little attention has 
been given to safety, which should be 
the primary consideration. Important 
details such as the means for locking 
the yokes properly to the tie rod are 
overlooked too frequently. Lost mo- 
tion that results at this and other 
points frequently makes the vehicle un- 
safe. In some instances it has been 
necessary to braze the yokes and tie 
rods together before the joint would 
remain tight. Some manufacturers., it 
is said, refuse to accept parts in which 
the limits are held sufficiently close to 
insure good fits, simply because they 
cannot be assembled so rapidly as 
others with greater clearance. 

The primary causes of hard steering- 
are friction and faulty design, the lat- 
ter frequently resulting in the former. 
Insufficient lubrication is so common a 
fault, especially in the king pins and 
at drag-links and tie-rod joints, that 
these parts wear rapidly and often rust. 
This lubrication is usually a decidedly 
hit-and-miss factor aid is seldom given 
sufficient attention when it depends 
upon a hand operation. 

Failure to exclude dirt and moisture, 
especially at drag-link, tie-rod and 
knuckle joints, naturally results in ex- 
cessive friction and rapid wear. Pro- 
vision for adequate lubrication at all 
times, by means that tend to work dirt 
out of rather than into bearings, is a 
kind of antidote, partly good 
lubricant properly applied tends to pre- 
vent rust and foreign matter from ac- 
cumulating on the bearing surfaces, 
and partly because the construction 
that keeps the lubricant in place fre- 
quently is fully as effective in exclud- 
ing dirt. 

Ball-and-socket joints properly in- 
closed have advantages over the yoke- 
and-pin type in respect to the facility 
with which the lubricant can be kept on 
the surfaces, as well as in freedom 

•Abstract of paper given .Ian. 10, 1923, 
at annual meeting. Society of .\utomotive 
i'lncinecrs. New York. 

from rattle or binding, one of which 
defects is almost certain to occur with 
the conventional yoke and pin. (In the 
discussion of this paper, ball and socket 
joints were held to be objectionable be- 
cause the ball becomes flattened or oval, 
thus cramping the steering, and they 
are hard to lubricate and to keep out 
mud or water.) 

Ease of steering is affected by tire 
inflation, condition, character and 
width of tread, and by the type of tire. 
One authority states that the static 
resistance of turning offered by a tire 
varies inversely as the square root of 
the inflation pressure. Cord tires, be- 
cause of the lower inflat'on pressure 
employed and the consequent greater 
area of tread in contact with the 
ground, are said to steer harder than 
the same nominal size of fabric tire 
when properly inflated. But whether 
this is true when the vehicle is in op- 
eration is open to some question. Pneu- 
matic tires are sad to render steering 
harder than solid or cushion tires. 
Common Types of Gear 

When well proportioned and well 
lubricated the worm and wheel type of 
steering gear has excellent wearing 
qualities, even though the bearing area 
between the worm and wheel is rather 
small. If lubrication fails, considerable 
friction and rapid wear are apt to re- 
sult. A disadvantage of this type is 
that it is practically impossible to take 
up any lost motion caused by wear, 
although when the full wheel instead of 
a sector is employed, the wheel can be 
moved successively to four different po- 
sitions, 90 deg. apart, thus compensat- 
ing for wear in the wheel but not for 
wear in the worm. 

One of the most widely used types of 
steering gear is the screw and nut 
type, which is generally regarded as 
being very satisfactory when well 
made. Its chief advantage is good 
wearing qualities due to the large bear- 
ing surface between the screw and the 
nut, and its chief disadvantages are its 
lack of adjustability and rather high 
cost of manufacture when the nut is 

March, 1923 




well fitted to the worm. It can be said, 
however, that adjustment is seldom re- 
quired provided a^ain that lubrication 
is cared for properly. 

.Muskt'Kon .Vssocia(i(»n .\ctive 

MK.MBKKS of the Muskegon ( .Mich, i 
Interurban Bus Association are 
trying out a new plan of increasing the 
business in rural districts and further 
servin^: the public. 

Under the new plan all hishway cross- 
ings will be marked giving the schedule 
of the buses at that point. The high- 
way crossings will also be named by 
the bus owners and it is planned in the 
future to erect waiting rooms at the 
points, where there is a large amount 
of traflic. 

An effort will be made by local bus 
owners to increase the business in the 
rural districts and especially the short- 
haul traffic. The bus owners expect 
that by posting schedules they will be 
able to double the business within a 
short time. 

Recently, the local association opened 
a waiting room in the business district 
which has increased business and also 
added to the comfort of the passengers. 
The waiting room expense is more than 
paid for by the concessions which are 

The interurban bus lines operating 
out of Muskegon have had little diffi- 
culty in maintaining schedules during 
the winter despite the fact motor traffic 
has been curtailed gre:itly because of 
the icy condition of the highways. The 
county highway departments have co- 
operated in maintaining schedules, and 
not only have the buses operated with- 
out missing trips, but have maintained 
regular schedules. 

U. S. to Join International 
Road Body 

PASSAGE by the Senate of the reso- 
lution authorizing the Secretary of 
Agriculture to accept membership in 
the Permanent Association of Inter- 
national Road Congresses foreshadows 
favorable action in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The resolution allows the 
United States to maintain the maximum 
number of delegates in the Congress to 
which any country is entitled. It will 
permit the United States to be repre- 
sented by fifteen delegates. The cost 
of these memberships is mhe paid our 
of the 3 per cent of the total highway 
appropriation which is allowed the 
Bureau of Public Roads for the adminis- 
tration of the act. 

Since the final passage of the legis- 
lation now seems assured, plans already 
are being made to secure the meeting of 
the association in the United States in 
1924. The meeting this year is in 
Seville, Spain. In that connection it 
is pointed out that a meeting in the 
United States would insure a very 
large attendance because of the mag- 
nitude of the highway program in 
progress here and because of the great 
use being made of motor vehicles in 
this country. 

Meetings, (iuiiventioiiis uiui E\hibit8 

March i-10 — AniNtc-rclam, N. Y. Automobil*- Show. 

Mnrch 10-17 — lioston, Mae8. Annual Autoinubllu Show. 

March lU-17 — Wahhlngton, D. C. WaKhlnKtuii Auiomuhtic Show. K. JoB«, 1138 

t'onnectliut Av<-., Wu.ihlMKton, U. C 
.March 15 — lllnKliainton, N. V M<'<-tliii; Auto Huh AHuoeiailon of NVw York 

Siaii'. Iliilfl lii'iwii'tl. 
March 28-31— Ciroi-nvllle. S. C. Aulomubile Show. 
April 26-2S — eifveland, Ohio. Society of Automollvi- KnelnecrK, TranHportation 

.Iunels-23 — Spring I^ke, N. J. Society of Automotive Knelm-erti' Sumni' 

M.i tliif. 

I'"li>rida .\ssm-iati(in Drafts 

LcKi^^lalion and Increases 


nOWN in Florida, the .Motor Truck 
.\ssociation of Florida is making 
itself known by its activities in legis- 
lative matters. W. F. Ellithorpe of 
Miami, state organizer, recently con- 
ducted a successful membership cam- 
paign. Other leaders in this movement 
were T. F. Grace, A. D, Hartzell and 
.John Sherman of Tampa. 

This association was formed last 
.A.pril in Orlando, having for its objects 
protection against inimical legislation 
and support of constructive legislation, 
encouragement of road building and 
protection of existing highways, elimi- 
nation of unfair business methods in the 
hauling industry, and other objects of 
importance to truck owners. Bu^ 
owners have recently joined the truck 
owners. W. T. Callahan, Miami, is 
president, and D. E. McMann, Miami, 
secretary and treasurer. 

A bill is being drawn to be presented 
to the Legis'ature for the protection of 
bus and truck owners against extremely 
high license fees and high gasoline tax. 
Florida now has the highest license fees 
of any state in the Union for trucks, 
according to association officials. The 
fee for a 2-ton truck for hire, with solid 
tires, last year, was $234, and with 
pneumatic tires, $96, in Florida, while 
the average in other states was about 
$33, it is stated. 

pluii uf selling unlde eacii Mulidtty 
afternoon for an open hearing, where 
bus patrons may present complaints. 

(' imden County Bus .\ssocialion 
.\dopts Safety Rules 

AFTER adopting as its slogan "If it's 
not good for the public, it's not 
good for the bus business," the public 
safety committee of the Camden County 
Bus Association, Camden, N. J., recently 
promulgated a set of rules for busmen. 

Some of these rules, announced by 
Charles Aceto, chairman of the commit- 
tee, are: 

.\'o lius shall I pirated which has bail 


Racine and Hpeedlng will not be tolerated. 

Drivers must not smoke on the buses. 

No oni- but the driver is to occupy the 
driver's seat in the bus. 

Buses must not pass each other on the 

Drivers must keep their feet on the 
brakes in takinc on or discharBing pas- 
sengers. They must not proceed until all 
patrons are on and off safely. 

Full stops must be made when nearinc 
railroad crns.sinEs The eear shift must 
he placed in ntutral and the driver is 
requlrerl to look :ind listen. 

Passencers shimld not be allowed to 
stand outside the body line of a bus. The 
bus door .should always be cIo.sed. 

The safety committee has adopted the 

Road Huilders Name Officers 

The official nominations for officers 
and directors of the American Road 
Buililers' Association for the year 192.'!- 
1924, as submitted by the nominating 
committee elected at the meeting of the 
a-isociation held in Chicago, III., on Jan 
18, 1923, are: 

President, Frank Page, chairman 
State Highway Commission, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

Vice-Presidents: E. L. Powers, editor 
r;oorf Roads, New York, N. Y.; W. F 
Keller, state highway engineer, Mont- 
gomery, Ala.; S. F. Beatty, vice-presi- 
dent Austin Western Road Machinery 
Company, Chicago, 111.; Samuel Hill, 
honorary life president, Washingtoiv 
State Good Roads Association, Seattle, 

Treasurer, .lames II. MacDonald,. 
consulting road and paving expert. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Directors for one year: J. R. Draney,. 
sales manager United States Asphalt 
Refining Company, New York, N. Y.; 
W. A. Van Duzer, assistant mainte- 
nance eng'neer. State Highway Com- 
mission, Harrisburg, Pa.; Frank 
Sheets, superintendent of highways, de- 
partment of public works and build- 
ings, Springfield, III. 

Directors for two years: E. .1. Meh- 
ren editor Engiiueriuy XtirK-Rrrord 
New York, N. Y.; I. W. Patterson, 
chief engineer state board of public 
roads, Providence, R. I.; William R. 
Smith, president Lane Construction 
Corporation, Meriden, Conn.; H. K. 
Bishop, chief, division of construction. 
United States bureau of pubMc roads 
Washington, D. C; J. H. Cranford. 
president Cranford Paving Company, 
Washngton, D. C; C. M. Babcock. coin- 
missioner of highways, St. Paul, Minn.,- 
H. S. Carpenter, deputy minister of 
highways, Regina, Sask., Canada. 

Directors for three years: S. T. 
Henry, Allied Machinery Company of 
America, New York, N. Y.; R. Keith 
Compton, chairman, paving commisson. 
Baltimore, Md.; Fred A. Reimer, engi- 
neer the Asphalt Association, Newark. 
N. J.; Charles M. Upham. .state high- 
way engineer, Raieigh. N. C; H. G. 
Shirley, chairman state highway com- 
mission, Richmond, Va.; Will P. Blair, 
National Paving Brick Manufacturer*- 
Association, Cleveland, Ohio; Frank 
Terrace, president Washington State 
Good Roads Association, Orillia, Wash. 





New York State Bus Association Holds 
Annual Meeting 

ON FEB. 15 the second annual meet- 
ing of the members of the Auto Bus 
Association of New York State was 
held at the Powers Hotel in Rochester, 
N. Y. There was a fair attendance con- 
sidering the severity of the weather. In 
the absence of President Alan V. 
Parker, Niagara Falls, Secretary- 
Treasurer James J. Dadd presided. 

The report of the secretary showed 
that membership consisted at present of 
eleven bus companies, but that only 
seven had actually paid their dues and 
initiation fees in full. The treasurer's 
report showed a deficit of approxi- 
mately $10, which would be wiped out 
if all those who had signified their in- 
tention of joining had paid their dues. 

The association, through its secre- 
tary, is urging the passage of a bill by 
the State Legislature that will amend 
the present insurance law and allow the 
formation of a mutual insurance com- 
pany by any organization of twenty- 
five or more bus owners operating in 
the state for the purpose of carrying 
their own liability insurance. Discus- 
sion at the meeting brought out that on 
an average the intercity bus men be- 
longing to the association paid a 
premium of nearly $500 per bus per year 
for liability insurance alone. This rate, 
it was pointed out, was far in excess of 
the risk attendant in actual operation, 
for actual damages paid did not amount 
to more than $50 or $70 per year per 
bus. Presumably the reason for this is 
that nearly all the drivers are either 
bus owners themselves or else own 
stock in the bus corporations. 

The meeting also indorsed the bi'l 
now before the Legislature providing 
for the counties cleaning the highway."^ 
of snow. There was also informal dis- 
cussion relative to the bill making it 
mandatory for all buses to have their 
gasoline tanks outside of the bus body. 
There was some discussion as to what 
Governor Smith's proposals for changes 
in regulatory bodies might mean so far 
as the intercity bus lines were con- 
cerned. Carl W. Stocks, editor Bus 
Transportation, outlined the bill that 
has recently been introduced concerning 
transit affairs in New York City. He 
also pointed out that so far as intercity 
bus lines were concerned these motor 
carriers must be operated under somo 
form of supervision. Not that each 
city, tovvm or village through which 
each line is operated should attempt to 
enforce different regulations concern- 
ing operation, but that there should be 
.some central supervisory board that 
has the power to enforce regulations 
governing safe and efficient operation 
for the benefit of the bus patrons. 

Only by such governing regulation, he 
said, can the motor bus industry of the 
State be put on a sound basis and cut- 
throat competition between bus com- 
panies themselves, the traction lines 
and the steam railroads eliminated. It 
is not a question of the survival of the 

fittest, but a question of the elimination 
of duplication of service, which will in 
the end provide the community with 
adequate service at the lowest possible 

After a talk on the value of affiliat- 
ing with national bus associations by 
Manager E. B. Burritt of the National 
Motor Transport Association, New 
York, the association discussed the 
question of joining in this most import- 
ant work, and the following resolution 
authorizing Messrs. Burritt and Dadd to 
work in harmony with the idea of build- 
ing up membership in both associations 
was approved: 

Re-solved, That the con.stitution and by- 
laws of the Auto Bus Association of New 
York State be changed to provide for direct 
affiliation with the National Motor Trans- 
port .Association on the following basis: 

That members of the Auto Bus Associa- 
tion of New York State become members 
of the National Motor Transport Associa- 

That the annual dues for membership of 
bus operators be changed to one-tenth of 1 
per cent of the gross receipts of the preced- 
ing calendar year, with an initiation fee of 
$10 tor new "members. The initiation fee 
not to apply to present members of the Auto 
Bus Association of New York State. 

That members taken into the Auto Bus 
Association of New York in future become 
at the same time and without payment of 
further fee a member of the National Motor 
Transport Association. 

Resolved, further. That the dues paid 
after Jan. 1, 1923, in the Auto Bus Associa- 
tion of New York State be divided between 
the two associations on a basis of 50 per 
cent to each ; 

And, further. That the National Motor 
Transport Association agrees to pay to the 
Auto Bus Association of New York State 
."iO per cent of dues of its members now 
in New York State and in the future 50 
per cent of all dues and initiation fees of 
all members secured in New York State. 

The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: President, Stanley 
Chatterton, treasurer White Rapid 
Transit Company, Lima, N. Y.; first 
vice-president, Neil H. McGreevy, Alle- 
gheny Transportation Company, Hor- 
nell, N. Y.; second vice-president, F. D. 
Carpenter, Carpenter Bus Lines, Black 
River, N. Y.; third vice-president, Clyde 
Manning, Ithaca, Cortland Bus Line, 
Ithaca, N. Y.; fourth vice-president, 
W. M. Hicks, Elmira-Ithaca Transpor- 
tation Company, Elmira, N. Y.; fifth 
vice-president, F. J. Kroboth, Bingham - 
ton-Greene Bus Line, Greene, N. Y.: 
sixth vice-president, W. F. Aldrioh. 
Aldrich Bus Lines, Norwich, N. Y.; sec 
retary-treasurer, James J. Dadd, 120 
Vermont Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Membership Campaign Inaugurated 

On March 1 the first of a series of 
special meetings in an increased mem- 
bership campaign was held in Albany. 
Representatives of some twenty bus 
lines principally from Albany and the 
immediate surrounding cities attended 
an all day session at the Hampton 
Hotel. President Stanley Chatterton, 
Lima, N. Y. presided. Secretary James 
J. Dadd explained the reason for the 
meeting and said that the motor bus 
industry was practically the only busi- 
ness today that had no representative 
association. E. B. Burritt also talked 

on the work of the National Motor 
Transport Association. At the after- 
noon session a discussion on fare 
collection methods was led by C. W. 
Stocks, editor Bus Transportation. 
Secretary Dadd also talked on the 
advantages of mutual insurance. 

Another meeting is to be held March 
15 at the Bennett Hotel, Binghamton, 
N. Y., and all bus men of New York 
state, whether members or not, are 

Camden Association Guests 
at Dinner 

EIGHTY association members were 
recently entertained at a dinner at 
the Ridgeway Hotel, Camden, N. J., by 
the United Tires Stores Company of 
that place. Horace L. Brewer, the new 
president, said he would work with state 
and city authorities to elevate the bus 
business to the highest possible stand- 
ard. Thomas Rooney, of the Mutual 
Casualty Insurance Company, said it 
was his company's intention to place 
bus transportation in Camden as nearly 
as possibly on a 100 per cent safety 
basis. The company would not tolerate 
recklessness on the part of drivers, he 
said, and warning will be given to those 
found operating their buses contrary to 
state or city ordinances. He declared 
drivers would have to be discharged 
after a second offense, or policies would 
be discontinued. 

Associations Formed in Iowa 

OWNERS of Iowa motor bus ana 
truck lines have formed the Iowa 
Motor Transportation Association, with 
headquarters in Des Moines. Articles 
of incorporation for the association 
have been filed. 

The officers of the organization are: 
J. Edgington, president; E. P. Cronk, 
secretary, and G. C. Beale, treasurer. 

Another organization (Jomposed of 
owners of interurban bus lines is in the 
process of formation, for the purpose 
of protecting the interests of the bus 
men in the Legislature. C. A. Pomeroy, 
Cedar Falls, and Charles Lyon, Des 
Moines, attorney, are prominently iden- 
tified with this movement. 

Michigan Association Meets 
in Lansing 

AT A MEETING of the Michigan 
. Highway Transportation Associa- 
tion held at the Kerns Hotel, Lansing, 
Mich., Feb. 13, 150 members were 
present. A model regulatory bill 
drafted by the association was read 
and discussed, after which Attorney 
Caldwell presented a memorial to be 
sent to the legislators of the state. 
E. B. Burritt, manager of the Na- 
tional Motor Transport Association, ex- 
plained the plans of that organization. 
A resolution indorsing this work was 
adopted. A banquet was held in the 
evening. Addresses were delivered by 
Clarence E. Benient, general manager 
of the Novo Engine Company, and 
Secretary of State Deland. 




News of the Road 

rnim wlic-rrV'T tlio bus runa. in • 
brought tos'-thiT the Importum 
I'vents, here pri-jicnted to show Ih' 
movements of the day. 



-Milwaukee Kaihvay Ex- 
pands Its Bus System 

Kacine-Kenosha Line Taken Over — Mil- 
waukee-Racine Limited I'lanned — 
Company Now Has 600 Miles of Bus 

MOTOR bus service between Racine 
and Kenosha, Wis., has been 
taken over by the Wisconsin Motor 
Bus Lines, a subsidiary of the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany. .\ combination of local and 
limited motor bus service will be given. 
Two buses per hour will be operated 
with additional service on Saturday and 
Sunday afternoons. 

Racine, a city of approximately 
60,000, and Kenosha, one of about 
40,000, are connected by interurban lines 
of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company and the Chicago, North 
Shore & Milwaukee Railway and by the 
steam lines of the Northwestern. 

About two years ago a dye works 
concern in Kenosha started motor bus 
service between these two cities, using 
some Reo buses with locally made 
bodies. This service was operated by 
the Lake Shore Transportation Com- 
pany, which planned to extend its oper- 
ations into Illinois by running a line 
from Kenosha to Waukegan, 111., and 
for a time had operated buses between 
Racine and Burlington, Wis., a distance 
of about 35 miles. The permit for the 
Waukegan route was denied to it, how- 
ever, the Illinois Utilities Commission 
issuing one instead to the Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railway as 
being in a better position to furnish an 
adequate service. 

The Lake Shore Company decided to 
dispose of its equipment to the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany, which was also able to acquire 
the equipment of another competitor, 
the Red Bus Lines, thus giving it con- 
trol to a large extent of the intercity 
transportation facilities between Racine 
and Kenosha. The Chicago, North 
Shore & Milwaukee Railway has its 
terminals on the outskirts of both cities 
and is therefore somewhat at a dis- 
advantage in ti^'ing to serve the 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company decided that since there 
was a demand for bus service between 
the two cities, it would furnish it in 
co-ordination with interurban service. 
A schedule has been worked out which 
will give Racine and Kenosha one inter- 
urban train per hour and two motor bus 
trips, one of which will be a limited 
and will make no stops between the city 
limits of Racine and the city limits of 

Kenosha. The rate of fare on the 
limited will be 30 cents, the same as 
on the interurban. The rate of fare 
on the local bus will be 25 cents. This 
bus will serve not so much the people 
of Racine and Kenosha as the smaller 
intermediate communities, making stops 
anywhere along the route. 

The railway also plans to operate a 
limited de luxe motor bus service be- 
tween Milwaukee and Racine, parallel- 
ing its own line but making no stops 
between terminals. At the beginning 
four round trips per day will be made, 
fitting in with the company's Racine- 
Kenosha bus schedule. A somewhat 
higher rate of fare will be charged on 
the limited bus between Milwaukee and 
Racine than is charged on the inter- 
urban railway. The latter is really a 
suburban line since it serves numerous 
small communities along the 25-mile 

route and because of people constantly 
getting on and off is unable to make 
any great speed. The bus service will 
therefore supply the rapid transit facil- 
ities, while the interurban will tiike 
care of the more heavy local traffic. 
The rate of fare between Milwaukee 
and Racine will be 75 cents or at the 
rate of 3 cents per mile, and between 
Racine and Kenosha 30 cents. Inter- 
changeable mileage will be accepted at 
about 2J cents per mile. 

Another extension in the near future 
of its Milwaukee-Hartford motor bus 
service from Hartford through Hustis- 
ford and Juneau to Beaver Dam and 
Fox Lake has been announced by the 
company. This extension of an addi- 
tional 30 miles of route will add another 
link to the already extensive motor bus 
system, comprising approximately 600 
miles, covering southeast Wisconsin. 

Titanic Struggle Being Waged lor 
Los Angeles Franchise 

Three Propositions, Including Plan Hacked by Railways, Before Public 

Utility Board — Extensive Financial Interests Involved Cause 

Much Discussion of Projects 

LOS ANGELES, CALIF., is the battle 
J ground of a transportation struggle 
which approaches the colossal in its 
proportions, with a franchise for motor 
bus service at stake. Three applica- 
tions, each backed by strong financial 
interests, have been submitted to the 
Board of Public Utilities, which is now 
conducting a series of hearings and con- 

The proposal to establish a city-wide 
system of double-deck buses of the Fifth 
.\venue type as submitted by W. G. 
McAdoo, former Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in behalf of Eastern capitalists, 
was described in the February issue of 
Bus Transportation. A hearing upon 
this application, originally scheduled for 
Feb. 14, was postponed pending the ar- 
rival from the East of one of its chief 
promoters, Richard W. Meade. 

Early in February the Los Angeles 
Railway Corporation and the Pacific 
Electric Railway jointly entered the field 
by the formation of the Los Angeles 
Motor Bus Company and the presenta- 
tion of an application in the mme of 
the new concern. On Feb. 13 the utili- 
ties board considered the proposal, 
which would establish combination 
motor bus service on Western Avenue 
between Holly^vood Boulevard and Santa 
Barbara Avenue, with transfers be- 
tween the buses and the street cars of 
the two street railways. 

Officials of the railways present at 
the hearing explained their plan of ex- 
tending the railway lines and establish- 
ing motor bus feeders adequately to 
meet the needs of the growing city. 
D. W. Pontius, vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Pacific Electric 
Railway, told of the company's $3,800,- 
000 proposed Hollywood subway to give 
rapid transit between Los Angeles and 
Hollywood, the new cars recently placed 
in service on the Hollywood lines and 
the motor-bus connecting lines which 
the company is asking permission to 
establish as showing what the company 
is doing to improve its service. 

The Pacific Electric Railway and the 
Los Angeles Railway have recently 
placed an order with the White Com- 
pany for 81 Model 50 chassis. The 
bodies, of twenty-five-passenger capac- 
ity, will be constructed in the Pacific 
Electric Railway's car shops at Tor- 
rance, Calif. The investment cost of 
the new equipment is estimated to be 

Some of the new buses to be pur- 
chased, the railways announce, will be 
jointly operated by the two street rail- 
way companies and others individually, 
but all will be used to supplement their 
street car and interurban service. 

On Feb. 15 the board heard the ap- 
plication of C. D. Gulick of Glendale, who 




Vol.2, No.3 

has tiled an application for bus fran- 
chises on behalf of the Glendale Motor 
Bus Company and the Southern Pacific 
Motor Bus Company for permission to 
operate buses over fifteen routes cover- 
ing various sections of the city, as well 
as connecting Los Angeles and Glen- 
dale. Glendale, which is 8.15 miles 
from Los Angeles, is now served ex- 
clusively with interurban service by the 
Pacific Electric lines. The Gulick line, 
which is said to be backed by local 
business men, plans to serve every sec- 
tion of the city and in a great many 
instances the proposed route parallels 
the local railway lines and the routes 
proposed by the McAdoo corporation. 
The Southern Pacific Motor Bus Com- 
pany, in its application, states that it 
will charge .5 cents, while the McAdoo 
interests plan a 10-cent fare. 


Control Anticipated 

While these various interests are 
seeking franchises, there is considerable 
discussion among Councilmen as to the 
question of municipal ownership and 
operation of bus lines, claiming that it 
is bound to become an issue before the 
city government in the not far distant 
future. Further strength to the pro- 
posal for public ownership and control 
of transportation facilities may grow 
out of the hearings to be held before 
the Board of Public Utilities on the 
various bus applications, and a sweep- 
ing review is to be made of the trans- 
portation needs of every section. 

The board in deciding to handle the 
bus situation by a committee as a whole 
plans to obtain the public's view of the 
matter by holding a series of confer- 
ences with representatives of business, 
civic and improvement organizations 
throughout the entire city. 

Leading business men, however, have 
liiffeied upon these projects, some en- 
thusiastically indorsing the proposed 
plan as submitted by Mr. McAdoo, de- 
claring that public necessity and con- 
venience demand the establishment of 
the bus system. Opposing factions, one 
of which is the Los Angeles Develop- 
ment League, are opposed to the 
McAdoo project, on the grounds that 
it will mean a loss of millions of dollars 
in street railway improvements, and 
classify the bus plan as a "drive for Los 
.A.ngeles money on the part of Eastern 

The Board of Public Utilities has 
also received a plan submitted by a 
citizen which proposes to repeal the 
ordinance that prohibits the operation 
of buses into the congested district of 
the city and to establish a department 
of motor bus service, before which peti- 
tions for operation of bus lines would 
be filed. The city would make pro- 
visions in the bus franchises for the 
purchase of the bus lines after they 
have been placed in operation. 

It is authentically reported at the 
City Hall that at least two members of 
the Board of Public Utilities look favor- 
ably on the entry of the motor bus into 
Los Angeles but the matter must be 
finally settled by the City Council. 

To Use Bus in Short 
Haul Traffic 

Railway Granted Bus Permit by Com- 
mission — Would Operate Trolleys on 
Express Schedules, with Buses Han- 
dling Local Service. 

THE United Electric Railways has 
been granted authority by the 
Rhode Island Public Utilities Commis- 
sion to operate buses between Provi- 
dence's civic center and the corner of 
Barton Street and Broadway, in the 
direction of Olneyville. This proposal 
first received the approval of the local 

The railway will make all trolleys 
operating over Broadway express cars 
and leave the short-haul business to 
the buses. The proposed schedule calls 
for the operation of five buses during 
normal periods and ten buses during the 
peak hours. The distance to be covered 
by the bus route is 1.52 miles and fol- 
lows Broadway, a 50-ft. thoroughfare, 
from Exchange Place to Barton Street. 

The buses used will be of twenty-five 
passenger capacity. The method of 
fare collection will be pay-as-you-enter 
inbound and pay-as-you-leave outbound. 
Operators will use the Rooke automatic 
registers, which are capable of taking 
either the new metal fare tickets now in 
use, or a 5-cent piece accompanied by a 
cent paid into the hand of the operator. 
By the former method, there is a saving 
of 20 per cent over the latter procedure, 
the only requirement being the purchase 
of ten of these metal tickets for 50 
cents. The same transfer privilege as 
prevails on the trolley cars, the purchase 
of one for 2 cents, will be in effect with 
the bus operation. 

The United Railways now operates 
five bus routes, four of which are subur- 
ban and one is cross city in character. 
The present motorized equipment of the 
company is made up of seventeen buses, 
six Republics, six Macks and five 

Capital Traction Bus Line 

The Public Utilities Commission of 
the District of Columbia following a 
recent hearing denied the petition of 
the Sixteenth Street Highlands Citizens 
Association for an extension of the 
Washington Rapid Transit bus line from 
Sixteenth and Buchanan Streets north- 
ward on Sixteenth Street. Instead, the 
commission authorized the Capital 
Traction Company to operate buses 
over the following parallel route: From 
the terminus of its Fourteenth Street 
line, west on Kennedy Street to Six- 
teenth Street, north on Sixteenth Street 
to Montague Street, east on Montague 
Street to Fourteenth Street, south on 
Fourteenth Street to the terminal at 
Kennedy Street. 

The comment of the commission on 
the case follows: 

"The Capital Traction Company 
stated its willingness to operate motor 
buses through the section covered by 
the pending petition as an extension 

of its Fourteenth Street railway line, 
until the latter can be extended to the 
Walter Reed Hospital grounds. 

"The commission is of the opinion that 
the operation of this motor bus line, 
acting as a feeder for the Fourteenth 
Street railway line, with a 2-cent trans- 
fer privilege between th