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Full text of "Butterflies. Vol. I-II."

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 



EDITED BY LT.-COL. C. T. BINGHASI. 



BTJTTERFLIES.-Vol. II. 



LIEUT.-COLONEL C. T. BINGHAM. 



LONDON: 

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA AND SIMLA : 
THACKER, 8PINK, & CO. 



BURMA : 

MYLE8 STANDISH & CO., 



BOMBAY : 
THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 

R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHIf. 
11 CARLSTRASSJE. 

1907. 



KK V FI 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
HK11 MON COURT, PI.KET STREET. 




301 
F27 

P2I3 



PREFACE. 



THIS the second volume of the " Butterflies " in the Fauna 
of British India series gives an account of the families 
Papilionidae and Pieridae, and of five out of the seven sub- 
families of the Lycsenidse. Of the Papilionidae the bulk of 
the forms come under the genus Papilio, in the arrangement 
of which into groups I have followed the Honorable W. 
Rothschild's paper, "A Revision of the Papilios of the 
Eastern Hemisphere excluding Africa " (Novitates Zoolo- 
gies, vol. ii, 1895, pp. 165-463). 

For the Pieridse I have found the late Mr. de Niceville's 
MS. of his unfinished and unpublished volume of the 
'Butterflies of India' most useful. This MS., as already 
acknowledged in my Volume I, was kindly placed at my 
disposal by the authorities of the Indian Museum. With 
regard to the very large number of forms contained in the 
Lycsenidse, I have found it possible to divide them provision- 
ally into subfamilies on the structural characters of the 
imago or perfect insect. These subfamilies correspond to a 
certain extent with the divisions proposed by the late 
Mr. Doherty ('Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal/ 
vol. Iv, pt. 2, 1886, p. 110), which were founded on the 



529910 



IV PREFACE. 

structure of the eggs, and also to the groups as indicated in 
the key to the Genera of Lycaenidae in Mr. de Niceville's 
vol. iii of the ' Butterflies of India/ 

As in the previous volume I have to acknowledge with 
thanks the help I have received from correspondents aud 
friends. Mr. F. Moller, Darjiling, Major E. Stokes- 
Roberts, R.E., Capt. W. H. Evans, R.E., Mr. P. Mackinnon, 
Mussoorie, Mr. E. E. Green and Honorable F. M. Mackwood, 
Ceylon, Col. C. Swinhoe, late Indian Army, Col. Waller- 
Barrow, R.A.M.C., Lieut. C. C. Cunningham, 12th Kelat-i- 
Ghilzai Regt., and others, have been most kind in collecting 
or lending me specimens. 

I have also to express my thanks to the authorities of the 
British Museum for the free access granted me to the 
collections and library contained in the Natural History 
Museum. Without this, I need scarcely say, the present 
work could not have been accomplished. 

With regard to other works in this series, a volume on 
Phytophagous Beetles, a concluding volume on the Rhyn- 
chota, and short volumes on Land-shells and on Beetles 
belonging to the family Cicindelidae are in active preparation. 
Sanction also has been granted by the Secretary of State for 
India for a volume on the Orthoptera, and for a third and 
concluding volume of the Butterflies. 

C. T. BINGHAM. 

London, 

March 1907. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX, 



Ore 
Sul 

i. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


ler LEP1DOPTERA .... 
>order Papilionina 

n. 1. PAPILIONID.E 
Armandia, Blanchard. . . . 
1. lidderdali, Atkinson . . 
Leptocircus, Swainson . . 
1. curius, Fabr 
2. meges, Zinken-Sommer 
Teinopalpas, Hope 
1. imperialis, Hope .... 
2. imperatrix, de Niceville. 
Papilio, Linn. 


Page 

1 

1 

3 
3 

! 

9 
10 
14 
15 
16 
17 
19 
20 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
34 
36 
38 
39 
41 
43 
44 
47 
49 
50 


30. polynmestoroides, 
Moore .... 


52 
53 
54 

56 
57 
59 
59 
60 
61 
63 
64 
64 
66 
67 

68 
70 

71 

72 
75 

78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
82 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
22 
94 
95 
97 
100 
101 
104 
106 


31. p rote nor, Cramer .... 
32. rhetenor, Westwood . . 
33. bootea, Westwood 
34. janaka, Moore 
35. chaon, Westwood .... 
36. fuscus, Goeze .... 


37. noblei, de Niceville 
38. polytes, Linn 
39. pitmani, Elwes 8c de N. 
40. sakontala, Hewitson . . 
41. walkeri, Janxon .... 
42. castor, Westwood .... 
43. mabadeva, Moore .... 
44. dravidarum, Wood- 


1. helena, Linn 


2. aeacus, Felder 


3. minos, Cramer 
4. davsius, Gray .... 


45. agestor, Gray 
46. epycides, Hewitson . . 
47. slateri, Hewitson .... 


5. hector, Linn 
6. aristolochiae, Fabr. . . 
7. jophou, Gray 
8. doubledayi, Wallace . . 
9. rhodifer, Butler 
10. varuna, White 
1 1 . aidoneus, Doubleday . . 
12. zaleucus, Hewitson . . 
13. latreillei, Donovan. . . . 
14. adamsoni, Grose-Smith. 
15. polla, de Niceville 
16. philoxenus, Gray .... 
17. ravana, Moore 
18. nevilli, Wood-Mason . 
19. crassipes, Oberthiir . . 
20. alcinous, Klug 
2 1 . machaon, Linn 
22. xuthus, Linn 
23. demoleus, Linn 
"*4 helenus, Linn. . 


49. paradoxus, Zinken- 
Sommer 
50. caunus, Westwood 
51. elephenor, Doubleday . 
52. doddsi, Janet 
53. bianor, Cramer 
54. polyctor, Boisduoal . . 
55 paris, Linn. . . 


56. krishna, Moore 
57. arcturus, Westwood . . 
58. palinurus, Fabr 
50. buddha, Westwood . . 
60. crino, Fabr 
6 1 . evan, Doubleday .... 
62. gyas, Westwood .... 
63. glycerion, Gray 

65. antiphatea, Cramer . . 
66. agetes, Westivood .... 


25. iswara, White 
26. deraolion, Cramer 
27 niemnon, Linn 


'28. mayo, Atkinson 
29. polymnestor, Cramer. . 


68. aristeus, Cramer .... 
69. eurypylus, Linn 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



70. bathycles, Zinken- 

Sommer ............ 

71. agamemuun, Linn. . . 

72. cloantlms, Westwood . 

73. sarpedon, Linn ....... 

74. xenocles, Doubleday . . 

75. macareus, Godart .... 

76. megarus, Westwood . . 

5. Paruassius, Latr ....... 

1. jacquemonti, Boisduval 

2. epaphus, Oberthiir , . 

3. hardwickei, Gray ____ 

4. delphius, Erersm ..... 

5. charltonius, Gray .... 

6. inaperator, Oberthiir . . 

7. acco, Gray .......... 

8. simo, Gray .......... 

6. Hypermnestra, Mtnttries . 

1* helios, Nicker I ...... 



Page 

108 
108 
110 
111 

113 
114 
115 
116 
118 
120 

123 
126 
127 
128 
129 
131 
131 



Fam. 2. PIEKID^E .......... 134 

1. Leptosia, Hubner ...... 137 

1, xiphia, Fabr ......... 138 

2. Delia?, Hubner ........ 139 

1. eucharis, Drury .... 141 

2. liierta, Hubner ...... 142 

3. descombesi, Boisduval . 144 

4. aglaia, Linn ......... 145 

5. thysbe, Cramer ...... 146 

6. agostina, Hewitson . . 147 

7. belladonna, Fabr ..... 148 

3. Prioneris, Wallace ...... 150 

1. thestyli*, Doubleday . . 151 

2. clemanthe, Doubleday . 153 

3. sita, Feider ........ 154 

4. Anaphseis, Hubner .... 155 

1. nie&entina, Cramer . . 155 

5. Baltia, Moore .......... 158 

1. sliawi, Bates ........ 159 

2. butleri, Moore ...... 159 

6. Aporia, Hubner ........ 160 

1. soracte, Moore ...... 161 

2. balucha, Marshall. ... 162 

3. nabellica, Boisduval . . 163 

4. agathou, Gray ...... 163 

5. harrietse,<fc Nictcille. . 166 

7. Pieris, Schrank ........ 167 

1. rapse. Linn ........... 169 

2. brassicte, Linn ....... 170 

3. naganuin, Moore .... 171 

4. deota, de Kiueville .... 171 

5. canidia, Span-man . . 172 
0. napi, Linn ........... 173 

7. chumbien&is, de Nice- 

ville .............. 174 

S. krueperi, Standing?!' . . 1 75 



Page 

9. daplidice, Linn 175 

10. glauconome, Klug .... 176 

11. chloridice, Hubner . . 177 

12. callidice, Esper 178 

8. Synchloe, Hubner 179 

1. lucilla, Butler 180 

2. belia, Linn 180 

9. Huphina, Moore 181 

1. let, Doubleday 182 

2. nerissa, Fabr 183 

3. nadina, Lucas 188 

10. Ixias, Hubner 192 

1 . pyrene, Linn 193 

2. verna, Dnice 195 

3. marianne, Cramer. . . . 196 

4. nola, Swinhoe 197 

11. Appias, Hitimer 197 

1. libythea. Fabr 200 

2. nero, Fabr 202 

3. hippo, Cramer 203 

4. indra, Moore 205 

5. lalage, Doubleday 208 

6. paulina, Cramer .... 210 

7. galathea, Feider 211 

8. aibina, Boisducal .... 212 

9. leis, H iilmer 213 

10. wardi, Moore 214 

12. Lade, de Nicecille 216 

1. lalassis, Grose-Smith . . 216 

13. Saletara, Distant 217 

1. chryszea, Frxhstorfer . 217 

14. Catopsilia, Hubner 218 

1. crocale, Cramer 219 

2. pyrantbe, Linn 221 

3. Hovella, Fabr 223 

4. scylla, Linn 224 

15. Dercas, Doubleday 225 

1. verhuelli, Van der 

Hoeven 226 

2. lycorias, Doubleday . . 227 

16. Gonepteryx, Leach 228 

1. rhamni, Linn 229 

2. zaneka, Moore 230 

17. Colias, Fabr 232 

1. hyale, Linn 234 

2. ladakensis, Feider 236 

3. nastes, Boisduval 238 

4. alpberakii, Staudinyer . 239 

5. dubia, Elwes 239 

6. wiskotti, Staudinger . . 240 

7. eogenf, Feider ..... 241 

8. stoliczkana, Moore . . 242 

9. croceus, Fourcroy .... 243 
| 18. Terias, Swainson 244 

1 . venata, Moore 246 

2. libvthea. Fabr. . , . 247 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



3. lajta, Boisdui-al 


Page 
248 
24q 


Page 
2. Xeopithecops, Distant. . . 309 
1. zalmora, Butler 309 


5. hecabe, Linn 


2o() 
9,54 


3. Spalgis, Moore 310 
1. epius, Westwood . . 311 


7. sari, Horsfield 


U6 


4. Taraka, de Niceville 312 




257 


1 hamada Drue" 312 




*>59 


5. Megisba, Moore 313 


19. Colotis, Hiibner 
1 . amata, Fabr 
2. protractua. Sutler .... 
3. phisadia, Godart .... 
4. vestalis, Butler 
5. fausta, Olivier 
<?. eucharis, Fabr 
7. etrida, Boisduval .... 
8 danae Fabr 


259 
261 
2(53 
264 
265 
266 
268 
270 
271 


1. malava, Horsfield 313 
6. Cvaniris, Dalman 315 
T. vardhana, Moore 318 
2. akasa, Horsfield 318 
3. marginata, de Niceville. 319 
4. melsena, Doherty .... 320 
5. albocserulea, Moore . . 321 
6. transpecta, Moore 322 
7. puspa, Horsfield 323 


20. Hebomoia, Hiibner 
1. glaucipp3, Linn 
2. roepstorfi, Wood- 
Ma*on 
21. Pareronia, de Niceville . . 


273 
274 

276 
276 
277 


8. lilacea, Hampson .... 324 
9. albidisca, Moore .... 325 
10. placida, de Niceville . . 326 
11. cyanescens, de Niceville 326 
12. chennelli, de Niceville . 327 
13. rnusina, Snetten 328 


2 hippia Fabr 


278 


14. victoria, Sivinhoe .... 329 


3. piugasa, Moore 
4. ceylanica, Felder .... 

Farn. 3. LYCJEXIDJE 


280 
281 

?8-? 


15. limbata, Moore 329 
16. lanka, Moore 330 
17. dilecta, Moore 331 
18. jynteana, de Niceville .. 331 


Sabfam. 1. Gerydinte 

] . Gerydus, Boisduval .... 
1. symethus, Cramer. . . . 


287 

2^8 
290 


19. coelestina, Kollar .... 332 
20. huegeli, Moore 333 
7. Lycaeua, Fabr 334 
1*. astrarche, Bergstr. . . 337 
2. iris, Staudinger 337 


2. ancon, Doherty 
3. boisduvali, Moore .... 
4. longeana, de Niceville . 
5. croton, Doherty 
6. bi^fsii, Distant 


291 
292 
293 
294 
295 


3. young-husband!, Elwes. 338 
4. icarus, Rottenberg .... 339 
5. eros, Ochsenheimer . . . . 340 
6. stoliczkana, Felder 341 
7. loewii, Zeller . . 343 


7. irroratus, Druce 
2 Allotinus, Felder 


295 

296 


8. devanica, Moore 344 
9. sarta, Alpherdky 345 


1. drumila, Moore 
2. multistrigatus, de N. . . 
3. horsfieldi, Moore .... 
4. subviolaceus, Felder . . 
5. taras, Doherty 
6. panormis, Elwes 
7. nivalis, Druce 
3 Logc'inia, Distant 


297 
298 
299 
300 
300 
301 
301 
302 


10. christophi, Staudinaer. 346 
11. omphisa, Moore 347 
12. galathea, Blanchard . . 348 
13. orbitulus, Esper 349 
14. hylas, Wiener Verzeich. 351 
15. pheretes, Hiibner .... 352 
8. Neolycaena, de Niceville . 353 
1. sinensis, Alpheraky . . 354 


1. marmorata, Moore. . . . 
2. watsoniana, de Niceville 
3. ruassalia, Dokerty .... 

Subfam. 2. Lyc&ninte 


303 
303 
304 

305 


9. Zizera, Moore 355 
1 . maha, Kollar 355 
2. lysimon, Hiibner .... 357 
3. gaika, Trimen 359 
4. otis, Fabr 360 
10. Azanus, Moore . . . 361 


1. Pithecops, Horsfield . . . . 
] . hvlax, Fabr 


307 

30S 


1. ubaldus, Cramer 362 
2. uranus, Butler 363 


2. fule-ens. Dohertu . 


308 


3. iesous. Giterin . . . 303 



SYSTEMATIC JYDKX. 



11 


Chilades, 


Moore 


364 


2. pandava. Horsfield. 


Pagr 

... 412 


1. laius, Cramer 


365 


3. cnejus, Fabr 


. .. 415 




2. trochil 


us. Freuer . 


367 


20. Tarucus, Moore . . 


417 


12 


Orthomiella, de Niceville . 


368 


1. theophrastus, Fabr. 


.. 417 




1. pontis 


Elwes 


369 


2 yenosus Moore 


419 


13 


Niphanda 


Moore 


370 


3. plinius, Fabr 


... 420 




1. cymbif 


, de Niceville . . 


370 


21. Castalius, Hiibntr . . . 


. .. 421 


14 


Lycsenesthes, Moore . . . . 


372 


1. ananda, de Niceville 


.. 423 




1. emolus 


Godart 


373 


2. rosimon. Fabr. . . . 


... 424 


2. lycaenina, Felder .... 


375 


3. ethion, Doubleday 


* 


15. 


Talicada, Moore 


375 


Hewitson 


. . . 426 




1. nyseus. 


Guerin 


376 


4. roxus, Godart 


. .. 427 


16. 


Eveves H 


i/.hnt*}' 


377 


5. decidia Hewitson 


429 




1. argiades. Pallas 


378 


6. elna, Hewitson . . . 


'.'.'. 430 


2. potanini, Alpheraky . . 


379 


7. ruanluena, Felder . 


. . . 431 


3. kala, de Niceville .... 


380 


22. Polyommatus, Latr. . 


.. 432 


17. 


Nacaduba, 


Moore 


381 


1. bceticus, Linn. . . . 


...432 


1. macrophthalma, Felder 


382 






2. kerriana, Distant .... 


384 


Subfam. 3. Curetince 


.. 434 




3. pavana, 
4. bhutea. 


Uortjield 
de Niceeille . 


85 
386 


1. Curetis, Hubner 


.. 435 


5. dana, de Niceville .... 


386 


1 . thetis, Drury 


.. 437 


6. Lampsoni, de Niceville . 
7. atrata, Horsfield 


387 ! 
388 


2. bulis, Doubleday 
Hewitson 


.. 441 




8. plumbeonjicari, ]f r ood- 




Maso 


n 


380 


Subfam. 4. LiphyrmtB . . . 


448 




9. ardates 
10. noreia, 
1 1 . coelestis 


Moore 

7,V tflw 


391 
393 
393 


1. Liphyra, Westwood. . . 


451 


Jceiaei 

, de Niceville . . 


1. brassolis, Westwood 


.. 452 




12. hernius 
13. ancyra, 


Felder 
Felder 


394 
395 


Subfam. 5. Poritiince 


.. 457 


18. 




Hubner 


396 


1 Poritia, Moore . . 


457 




1 . bochus, 


Cramer 


398 


1. hewitsoni, Moore . . 


.. 460 


2. coruscans, Moore .... 


400 


2. erycinoides, Felder. . 


.. 461 




3. lacteata 


, de Niceville . . 


401 


3. sumatrae, Felder . . 


.. 462 


4. subdita, Moore 
5. pura, Moore 


402 
403 


4. pleurata, Heivitson. . 
5. phraatica, Hewitsori 


.. 464 
. . 465 




6. celeno, 


Cramer 


404 


6. harterti, Doherty . . 


. . 466 


7. elpis, Godart 


407 


7. phalia, Hewitson . . 


.. 467 




8. rogersi. 


liinqham .... 


408 


8. pediada, Hewitson . . 


.. 469 


0. kondulana, Felder. . . . 


409 


2. Zarona, de Niceville . . 


.. 470 


19. 


Catochryso 


ps,oisdural. . 


410 


1. jasoda, de Niceville 


. . 471 




1. strabo. 


Fabr. . . 


411 


2. zanella. de Niceville 


.. 471 



ERRATA. 

Page 19. Papilio hector. Reference to PI. XI, fig. 83 omitted. 
,, 25. Papilio varuna, race astorion. Ditto to fig. 84 omitted. 
62. Papilio polytes, aberration. Eeference should be to PI. XVI, fig. 104, 

not to %. 105. 
2|7. Saletara chrysaa. Keference should be to PL XVII, figs. 114 and 

115, riot to figs. 14 & 15. 
274. Hebomoia glaucippe, race australis. Reference to PI. XVIII, fig, 122 

should be transferred to after Hebomoia roepstorji on page 276. 



Order LEPIDOPTEHA. 

Suborder PAPILIONINA. 

Family PAPILIONID.E. 

Efjy. " Dome-shaped, smooth or obscurely facetted, not as high 
as wide, somewhat leathery, opaque.'' (Doherty.) 

Larva. Stout, smooth or with a series of fleshy tubercles on the 
dorsum : sometimes with a raised fleshy protuberance (the so-called 
hood or crest) on the fourth segment which is also generally 
thickeued above. The second segment has a transverse opening, out 
of which the larva can protrude at will an erect, forked, glandular 
fleshy organ that emits a strong, somewhat pleasant, but always 
penetrating odour. 

Pupa. Variable in form but superiorly most often curved back- 
wards, sometimes very strongly so ; angulate, with the head 
truncate or rounded, often bifid ; back of abdomen smooth or 
tuberculate. Attached by the tail, normally in a perpendicular 
position, and further secured by a silken girth round the middle. 

In Parnassius strangely enough the pupa is placed in a loose 
silken web between leaves. 

Imago. Wings extraordinarily variable in shape. Hind wing 
very frequently with a tail, which may be slender, or broad and 
spatulate, but is always an extension of the termen at vein 4. In 
one genus, Armandia, the termen of the hind wing is prolonged 
into tails at the apices of veins 2 and 3 as well as at vein 4. Pore 
wing (except in the aberrant genera Parnassius and Hypermnestra) 
with all 12 veins present and in addition a short internal vein, 
vein 1 a, that invariably terminates on the dorsal margin. There 
is also a short transverse vein present at base of wing between 
the median vein and vein 1 a in all genera except Leptocircus, 
Armandia, Parnassius, and Hypermnestra. Hind wing : vein 1 a 
absent; precostal vein and precostal cell both present; dorsal 
margin not excavated so as to receive the abdomen, but in the 
male frequently folded over and studded within the fold with 
specialized scales (androconia) or hairs that are often strongly 



2 :PAJ'ILIOKID.&. 

scented. Antennae comparatively short, with generally a distinct 
club ; " the distal joints mostly more expanded ventrally than 
dorsally, so that the club is curved dorsad " (Jordan). The scaling 
most extended in Leptorircus, but in Papilio confined to the basal 
joints. Body stout ; claspers at apex of abdomen in the male 
generally well-developed, absent in a few forms. Six walking 
legs ; the fore tibiae with a medial pad ; claws simple except in one 
form of Leptorircus, which has them bifid. 




A 



Fig. 1. a. Venation of anterior portion of fore wing Pariiassiits. 

b. Do. do. do. Papilio. 

c. Venation of anterior portion of hind wing Armandia 

(1) Precostal cell. 

d. Venation of anterior portion of hind \\me-Papilio 

(1) Precostal cell. 

c. Venation of anterior portion of fore wing Lcptocircus. 
f. Side view of head Tcinopalpus. 
y. Do. do. Papilio. 
h. Anal valves of group Ornithoptera. 
i. Do. do. typical Papilio. 



Key to the Genera of the Papilionidae. 

A. Fore wing: vein 8 present. 

. Hind -wing : precostal cell elongate, longer 

than broad ARMANDIA. p. 3. 

b. Hind wing: precostal cell short, much 

broader than long. 

a. Fore wing: vein 11 out of basal half 
of subcostal ; hind wing remarkably 
long, narrow, and posteriorly attenuate. LEPTOCIRCUS, p. 5. 
b'. Fore wing : vein 11 out of apical half of 
subcostal ; hind wing not remarkably 
long, often tailed but not posteriorly 
attenuate. 



ARMANJJTA. O 

a-. Head produced in front, palpi long, 
porrect ; seen from side beak- 
shaped TEINOPALPUS; p. 7. 

b-. Head not produced in front; palpi 
short, pressed close into face, not 

porrect PAPILIO, p. 10. 

B. Fore -wing : vein 8 absent. 

a. Club of antennae long, gradual, cylindrical. PARNASSIUS, p. 116. 

b. Club of antennte short, abrupt, flattened. . HYPERMNESTRA, 

[p. 131. 

Genus ARMANDIA. 

Armandia, Blanchard, Comptes Rendus, Ixxii, 1871, p. 809 ; Kirby, 
Allen's Nat. Hist., Butt, ii, 1896, p. 247 ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 
1901-1903, p. 124. 

Bhutanitis, Atkinson, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 570. 

Type, A. tJiaidina, Blanchard, from W. China. 

Range. Bhutan ; Assam ; Upper Burma ; W. China. 

(5 $ . Tore wing elongate ; costa nearly straight ; apex very 
broadly rounded ; termen oblique ; tornus obtusely rounded : 
dorsum straight; veins 1 to 12 present; cell longer than halt' 
length of wing, veins 6 and 7 closely approximate at origin, both 
from upper apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore absent ; 
middle long, concave, lower inwardly oblique; vein 9 from well 
beyond upper apex of cell, 10 and 1 1 free from apical half of sub- 
costal. Hind wing: costa arched, upper portion of termen scal- 
loped, in the Indian form the emarginations are deep and thus make 
short broad tails or a broad acute tooth at apices of veins 5 and (5 ; 
in both the typical and Indian forms there are long slender tails 
at apices of veins 2, 3, and 4, the tail at apex of vein 4 very long, 
that at apex of .vein 3 shorter and at apex of vein 4 shorter still ; 
tornal angle lobed and rounded, dorsum straight ; cell moderately 
long ; upper discocellular about half the length of the middle but 
much longer than the lower discocellular ; precostal cell longer than 
broad. Antennae short, about one-fourth the length of the fore 
wing ; club long and gradual, but well-marked ; head not produced 
in front ; palpi slender, porrect ; body moderately robust. 

Two forms are known, one of w r hich only has been so far 
recorded from within our limits. 

480. Armandia lidderdali, Atkinson (Bhutanitis), P. Z. S. 1873, 
p. 570, pi. 50, S ; Kirbi/, Syn. Cat. Di. Lep. Suppl. 1877, p. 808 ; 
Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 125, pi. 413, tigs. 1, 1 , d $ 

J $ . Upperside dull black. Fore wing with the following 
ochraceous-n bite slender markings : basal, subbasal, medial, aud 
preapical lines from costa across cell, the first three continued in a 
series of more or less diffuse curves to the dorsal margin, the pre- 
apical terminates on vein 3 ; beyond apex of cell a somewhat 
broken transA r erse line from costa to vein 3 followed by a complete 
discal transverse line, a short upper postdiscal somewhat ill-delined 

132 



4 PAPILIONIDjE. 

line that terminates on vein 4 and a subterminal complete line ; 
all the lines except those that cross the cell formed of a series of 
short curved lines in the interspaces. Hind wing with similar 
ochraceous-white lines more or less in continuation of those on the 
fore wing with the addition of a broad line along vein 1 and 
the median vein, these two lines do not reach much beyond the 
base of vein 4 ; a large lower discal patch, the inward half scarlet, 
the outer half velvety-black, followed by broad subterminal bright 
yellow lunules in interspaces 1 to 4 ; the tails edged very narrowly 
with ochraceous white ; the black on the outer half of the discal 
patch has in interspaces 1 and 2 very large ill-defined superposed 
white spots thickly shaded with brownish grey except along their 
inner margins. Underside similar, all the markings broader, base 
of cell in hind wing crossed by a short ochraceous-white bar, and 




Fig. l.Armandia liddcidali, $ . 

the edges of the precostal cell with narrow lines of the same 
colour. Antenna? black ; head, thorax, and abdomen dull black 
the thorax greenish grey laterally, the sides of the abdomen with 
cross-lines of ochreous white. 

JEtvp. rf $ 115-124 mm. (4-15-478"). 

Hob. Bhutan; Assam, the JSTaga Hills; Upper Burma the 
Chin Hills. 

Mr. Doherty found this beautiful insect in considerable numbers 
in the Naga Hills. Speaking of its habits and the localities in 
which it occurs, he says : " It generally keeps to the ridges, 
occasionally descending into the valley, once almost down to 5000 
feet. Afterwards I found it on the western side of Japoo at 7000- 



ARMAKDIA. LEPTOCIRCCS. 5 

8000 feet, and between the two places we got one or two every 
clay. At Mas, in Manipur, I have taken worn specimens at 7500- 
9000 feet. My Lepchas, who collected at Buxa in Bhutan, say 

there is no chance of another brood The butterfly drifts 

about among the tree tops, rarely descending to the ground ; the 
crimson of the hind wings is not so conspicuous as one might 
think, and if one loses sight of it for an instant, it is very hard to 
make out again, its transparent dark grey wings being hardly 
distinguishable among the shadows, and it is blown about by the 
wind more like a dead leaf than a living insect. Its flight is much 
like that of Hestia but less buoyant and circling, as might be 
expected from its angular wings; nevertheless its resemblance 
strikes one. Seen from above it must be much more conspicuous 
and is no doubt a protected insect; at the same time its weak flight 
may even add to its chance of escape as it certainly does with 
ffestia, for it is impossible to calculate the direction in which it is 
making. The whole body and wings give out a delicious odour, 
which remains for some days after death. In some positions and 
at some distance Ai-mandia looks like Daiiais tytia, Grray, which is 
very common in the same places. Armandia hovers about flowers 
like other Papilios. During rain it alights on a leaf and droops its 
fore wings over the hind ones, thus covering the bright colours." 

The late Capt. Watson, who recorded this insect from the Chin 
Hills in Burma, states that it is single-brooded. Mr. Doherry, 
however, in the Xaga Hills, took several specimens in good condition 
towards the end of September, so that apparently there is an 
autumn brood in some localities. 



Genus LEPTOCIRCUS. 

Leptocircus. Swaimon, Zool. lllust., Ins. ii, 1833, pi. 106; Dbldftt/., 
Westw. #' Hew. Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 22 ; Moore, Lep. L\d. 
v, 1901-1903, p. 132. 

Type, L. meyts, Zinken-Sommer, from Java. 

llanfje. Malayan Subregion ; Assam to Java. 
d 1 $ . Fore wing : costa slightly arched at base, then straight, 
the apex curved downwards ; termen straight ; torn us well-marked ; 
dorsum straight ; cell narrow, short, not half length of wing, its 
upper apex acute ; discocellulars, upper and middle oblique, sub- 
equal ; vein 8 out of 7 beyond upper apex of cell ; 10 and 11 free, 
10 from upper third, 11 from above middle of subcostal vein. 
Hind uing long, produced at vein 4 into a very long, very narrow 
tail ; cell remarkably short, about one-seventh of the dorsal margin ; 
shoulder of costal margin at base strongly angulate, the apex of 
the angle rounded. Antenna? long ; club broad, abrupt, spatulate ; 
palpi short, closely approximate to the head, as in most of the 
forms in the family. Male sex-mark present in one of the forms 
(absent in the other), as a tuft of long radiating hairs at the base of 
the dorsal margin. 



6 PAPILIOXIDJE. 

Key to the forms of Leptocircus. 

a. Fore wing: terminal black edging broad and 

broadened towards apex of wing ; transverse 

band white, discal rather than subbasal .... L. curius, p. G. 

b. Fore wing : terminal black edging narrow, not 

broadened towards apex of wing ; transverse 

band green, subbasal rather than discal L. meyes, p. 6. 

481. Leptocircus curius, Fabr. (Papilio) Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 9 ; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 85; id. Lep. Ind. v, 
1901-1903, p. 134, pi. 417, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 i, c? $ . 

3 Vpperside dull brownish black. Fore wing : a broad 
outwardly oblique white transverse band that crosses from a little 
beyond the basal third of the costal margin to the dorsum, its 
outer half hvaline, followed by a hyaline triangular area that does 
not reach the costa or the termen but is traversed by conspicuously 
black veins. Between the semihyaline transverse band and the 
hyaline area the black forms a more or less even band slightly 
narrower in the middle ; the black edging to the costa and termen 
broad, broadened towards the apex ; cilia black. Hind wing : the 
Transverse white band of the fore wing is continued straight across 
and ends in a point on the outer half of vein 3, but is not hyaline 
along its outer margin ; posterior half of the wing dull dark brown, 
irrorated towards the base of the long narrow tail at vein 4 with 
\\ hite scales ; cilia black, white below vein 5 and along outer side 
of basal half of tail, the latter tipped white. Underside similar, 
but the ground-colour opaque brownish black ; a broad outwardly 
ill-defined earthy-grey streak along the base of the wings produced 
slightly down the dorsal margin of hind and along the costa of the 
fore wing ; the oblique white band on the hind wing joined by a 
cross sinuous short white line from the dorsal margin to its apex ; 
below this latter a number of irregular white spots on the torual 
area. Antennae, head and thorax black, abdomen dark brownish 
black ; beneath, the palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish ; claws of the 
tarsi bifid. Male with sex-mark. 
Exp. d 1 ? 42-52 mm. (1 -68-2-0"). 

Hub. Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the Malay 
Peninsula, Siam, C. and W. China. 

482. Leptocircus meges (PI. XI, fig. 81), Zmken-Sommer (Papilio), 
Nov.Act.Acad. Nat. Cm: xv, 1831, p. 161, pi. 15, fig. 8: Moore, 
Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 85 : id. Lep. Ind. v. 1901- 
1903, p. 136, pi. 417, figs. 2, 2 a, 26, rf . 
Leptocircus virescens, Sutler, Cat. Fabr. Lep. B. M. 1869, p. 259. 

cf $ . Very closely resembles L. curius, but differs constantly 
as follows : Transverse band across fore wing placed further in 
towards the base ; this band on both fore and hind wing greenish, 
not white, and not as in curius with its outer margin hyaline on 
the fore wing; black terminal edging to fore wing narrower, of 
even width throughout. Male without sex-mark. 



LEPTOCIRCITS. TEINOPALPUS. / 

Exp. <5 ? 44-50 mm. (176-nearly 2"). 

Hab. Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending into the Malayan Sub- 
region as far as Java. 

In October 1892, on the Taungjah Pass over the Dawnat Eange 
in Tenasserim, the late Mr. de !N"iceville and I found a $ of this 
form ovipositing on the underside of the leaves of a creeper with 
compound leaves, each leaf consisting of three leaflets. This plant 
was subsequently identified by Dr. David Prain as Illigera burm- 
anica, King, family Combretacece. The eggs, of which we collected 
t\vo or three, were spherical, smooth, pale green, almost trans- 
parent, and of the usual papilionid form. 

Genus TEINOPALPUS. 

Teinopalpus, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xix, 1843, p. 131 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ind, v, 1901-1903, p. 127. 

Type, T. imperialis, Hope, from N.E. India. 

Eange. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; "Western Upper Burma ; 
Tenasserim ; C. China. 

c? $ . Fore wing broadly triangular ; costa arched ; apex acute, 
slightly produced and falcate in the J ; termen slightly concave in 
<S , straight in $ ; tornus rounded ; dorsum straight, about three- 
fourths the length of the costa ; cell rather short, not quite half 
length of wing ; upper discocellular very short, not half length of 
middle ; middle long, concave, about twice length of lower ; vein 9 
from apex of cell or from a little beyond ; 10 and 11 free. Hind 
wing, d 1 : costa arched ; termen scalloped or zigzag, broadly toothed 
at apices of all the veins except vein 4, at apex of this it is 
produced into a long slender non-spatulate tail ; dorsum slightly 
incurved, without an abdominal fold; $ differs from the <3 as 
follows : the termen produced at apices of veins 2, 3, and 5 into 
short tails, and at apices of veins 4 and 6 into long narrow non- 
spatulate tails ; cell short, upper discocellular much longer than 
middle. Antennae short, about one-third length of fore wing ; club 
short, broad, somewhat abrupt; head produced in front, tufted, 
palpi porrect ; viewed sideways the projecting front and palpi have 
somewhat the appearance of a bird's beak ; legs slender. 

Key to the forms of Teinopalpus. 



n. Upperside of hind wing : discal yellow fascia 

extended into apex of cell .............. T. imperialis, p. 8. 

b. Upperside of hind wing : discal yellow fascia 

not extended into apex of cell .......... T. imperatrir, p. 9. 

$$ 
a. Upperside of hind wing : upper discal patch 

grey or violet-grey .................... T. imperialis, p. 8. 

/>. Upperside of hind wing : upper discal patch 

diffuse dusky black ................... , T. imperatrix, p. 9. 



8 PAPIL1OXIDJE. 

483. Teinopalpus imperialis (PI. XI, fig. 80), HOIK, Trans. Linn. 

Soc. xix, 1843, p. 131, pi. 11, figs. 1, 2, <?; Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 

1901-1903, p. 128, pi. 414, figs. 1, 1 o-l c, <J 2 
Teinopalpus parryise, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xix, 1843, p. 131, 

pi. 11, figs. 3 &4, 2-- 
Teinopalpus imperialis, race himalaicus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. v, 1898, 

p. 002. 
Teinopalpus himalaicus, Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 130, 

pi. 415, figs. 1, 1 , rf 2 . 

d . Uppers ide black, densely irrorated with green scales. Fore 
wing : an outwardly oblique, slightly concave subbasal band and a 
narrow terminal edging jet-black due to the ground-colour there 
being devoid of the green scaling ; beyond the subbasal band the 
irroration of scales is a much brighter greeu, especially along the 
outer edge of the subbasal band itself ; but along obscure, broad, 
convergent discal and postdiscal transverse bands and along a sub- 
terminal much narrower band, the green scaling thins out and 
the black ground-colour of the wing shows through ; in some 
specimens, owing to the transparency of the wings, the rich 
ochraceous-brown colour of the underside gives the black on these 
bands a reddish tint. Hind wing : basal area margined outwardly 
by a narrow irregularly sinuous band devoid of greeu scaling, 
succeeded by an upper discal bright chrome-yellow patch that 
spreads from base of interspace 3 across the apex of the cell and 
bases of interspaces 4 and 5 to the costa ; this patch is bluntly 
angulated outwards in interspace 5, stained with orange anteriorly 
and bordered outwardly by black which is widest above : below the 
patch a white line extends to the dorsurn ; the postdiscal area is 
deep dark green, margined inwardly by diffuse dark grey- and 
followed outwardly by a subterminal series of lunular markings, 
the tornal and upper two or three of which are yellow, the rest 
bright green ; tail tipped with yellow. Underside : basal area of both 
fore and hind wing densely covered with green scales. Fore wing : 
terminal two-thirds rich ochraceous brown, the green of the basal 
area bordered by black : discal and postdiscal bands also black, 
widened and diffusely coalescent posteriorly ; an incomplete, very 
slender subterminal black line and broader black terminal edging, 
neither of which reaches to the apex. Hind wing much as on the 
upperside, but the yellow markings broader. Antennae dark red ; 
head, thorax and abdomen black, covered somewhat densely with 
green hairs and scales. $ much larger, differs also in coloration 
and markings as follows: Upperside, fore wing: the irroration 
of green scales on the terminal two-thirds restricted to a sub- 
terminal moderately broad band diffuse along its inner edge, and a 
medial somewhat ill-defined similar band that is bordered both on 
the inner and outer sides by diffuse dusky black ; this is succeeded 
by two broad diffuse transverse dark grey bands, the outer of the 
two edged on its outer side narrowly with black, followed by a 
subterminal green band and terminal velvety-black margin. Hind 
wing: the upper discal yellow patch so conspicuous in the J, 



TEINOPALPUS. 9 

replaced by a very much larger dark grey patch, below which com- 
paratively narrow markings of yellow extend up to the dorsum ; a 
postdiscal sinuous lunular narrow black band and a subterminal 
.series of green lunules as in the J, but the apical lunule dark grey, 
not yellow ; the tail-like extensions of the termen at the apices of 
veins 3 to 6 are black shaded with green, those at the apices of 
veins 4 and 6 tipped, the former with yellow the latter with greenish- 
white. Underside similar to the underside in the c? , but on both fore 
and hind wing the areas coloured with rich ochraceous and yellow 
are grey, with the exception of a well-marked moderately broad 
subterminal band on the fore wing which is of a dull ochraceous 
colour; on the hind wing the grey discal area extends right up to 
the apical lunule of the subterminal series. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the J . 

Exp. tf $ 90-127 mm. (3-55-5"). 

Hal). Sikhim, above 6000 ft. ; Bhutan ; the hills of Assam and 
of Western Upper Burma ; Central China. 

The larva of this magnificent butterfly, according to Mr. Knyvett, 
feeds on Daphne nipalensis, but so far as I know, no description of 
it has been published. 

I am quite unable to separate the Sikhim form of this insect, 
even as a race. The points of difference between it and the Assam 
form are extremely variable, and the most prominent of these, 
viz. the paler tint of the grey area on the upperside of the hind 
wing in the 5 , is perhaps the most variable of all the characters. 

An Assam specimen of the $ in the collection of the British 
Museum is far and away paler than any Sikhim specimen I have 
seen. 

Mr. Elwes says that in Sikhim this insect is only found in the 
forest region from about 6000 to 10,000 feet elevation, and that 
" it is most difficult to capture on account of its remarkably strong, 
rapid and dashing flight, and its habit of resting on high trees, 
from which it flies only during a few hours of the morning " 
(Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 421). 

The females are much scarcer than the males. I once saw a 
$ on the wing and rather low down, in a clearing on the hill 
above the Eungarun Porest bungalow near Darjiling. According 
to Col. Swinhoe, T. imperialis is common in the Khasia Hills in 
Assam. 



484. Teinopalpus imperatrix, de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xii, 
1899, p. 335, pi. BB, <$ $ Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, 
p. 131, pi. 416, figs. 1, 1 a, rf?. 

c? . " Differs from T. imperialis, Hope in the following 

particulars: Upperside: fore wing darker green, the black 

f round-colour showing through the green scales more prominently. 
lind wing with the rich chrome-yellow discal fascia with its inner 
edge not encroaching on the discoiclal cell instead of reaching well 
into it, that portion of the fascia in the second subcostal interspace 



10 PAPILIONIDjE. 

considerably longer ; all the tooth-like projections on the outer 
margin much longer, especially those at the terminations of the 
2nd subcostal and 1st median nervules. Underside : fore wing 
with the five black fasciae crossing the wing much broader, espe- 
cially the middle one. Hind w T ing with the discal yellow fascia 
broader. $ . Considerably larger than that sex of T. imperialis. 
Upperside : both wings much darker, all the black coloration more 
prominent. Hind wing has the pale violet black-irrorated discal 
area of T. imperialis almost entirely replaced by a black suffused 
area, the black line closing the cell entirely obliterated ; the 
chrome-yellow subanal area at least twice as broad, the outer discal 
lunulated black fascia consequently placed much nearer to the 
outer margin ; all the tails very much longer. Underside : both 
wings with much the same differences as on the npperside. 
" Exp. $ $ 4'4-5'7 inches. 

"Hah. Taungoo Hills, 4000 feet, Upper Tenasserim, Burma." 
The type specimens are now in Mr. Rothschild's collection. 



Genus PAPILIO. 

Papilio, pt., Linn. Syst, Nat. ed. x, i, 1758, p. 458. 
Papilio, Latr. Hist. Nat. Cmst. et Ins. iii, 1803, p. 387. 
Troides, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 88. 
Ornithoptera, Boisduval, Toy. Astr., Lep. 1832, p. 33. 

Type, f. priamus, Linn., from Amboina. 

Range. Both hemispheres. 

cJ $ . Wings vary extraordinarily in shape and in expanse. 
Fore wing : cell about half the length of the wing or more ; 
upper and middle discocellulars subequal or upper slightly longer 
than middle, lower discocellular bent sharply inwards at an angle 
so as to apparently form the apical portion of the median vein ; 
veins 7 and 8 stalked, the furcation at varying distance beyond 
apex of cell, but the fork generally long ; vein 9 from upper 
apex of cell ; 10 and 11 free, in one section vein 11 anastomosed 
with 12, both originate from beyond middle of subcostal vein. 
Hind wing : cell and discocellulars very variable in length, pre- 
costal spur simple. Antennae comparatively short ; club generally 
gradual but distinct ; eyes naked ; palpi short, pressed close into 
the face. 

Linna3us placed under Papilio a vast number of butterflies, now 
arranged in different families, dividing them merely into groups. 
Latreille first restricted the name to the "swallow-tails." "In 

this action he has been followed by all authors until now 

it has become the all but universal custom to apply it to an 
immense group." (Scitdder.) 

In this work I have with one or two alterations followed 
Kothschild's revision of the genus PapiUo (Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
pp. 167-463), and have accepted the groups and their sequence as 
arranged by him. I have, however, placed Troides, Hiibner = 



PAPILIO. 11 

OrnitJioptera, Boisduval, which Eothschild has as a distinct genus, 
under Papilio as an additional group. A division of the Indian 
" swallow-tails " into groups, founded on the structure of the 
larva and pupa, was also proposed by Messrs. Davidson & Aitken 
(Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 361), but their paper deals 
only with the very limited number of the forms found in the 
Bombay Presidency. 

There is no hard and fast rule as to the value of characters 
that may serve for generic distinction : it varies in each order of 
insects. The subdivision of the large and unwieldy genus Papilio 
will be a convenience. This has already been carried out by 
Mr. Moore in the ' Lepidoptera Indica ' and also by other writers, 
but, as I understand, Mr. Eothschild and Dr. Jordan are now 
engaged on a fresh revision of the genus founded on an exami- 
nation of the forms of these insects from all parts of the world, 
I prefer to await the result of their studies, and in the meantime 
have adopted Mr. Eothschild's tentative arrangement. 

Key to the Groups of Papilio. 

A. Fore wing : vein 11 not anastomosed with 
vein 12. 

a. Males without anal valves to abdomen . . HECTOR group, p. 18. 

b. Males with anal valves to abdomen. 

a'. Anal valves open on upperside COON group, p. 23. 

b'. Anal valves not open on upperside, 

normal. 

(C-. Wings large, of comparatively great 
expanse ; abdomen remarkably heavy 
and massive ; anal valves very large, 

prominent OBXITHOPTEKA group, 

IP. Wings generally of less expanse ; [p. 13. 

abdomen not particularly heavy or 
massive; anal valves of moderate 
size. 

3 . No conspicuous blue or green 
colouring or markings on upper- 
side of wings. 

a 4 . Hind wing : upper and middle 
discocellulars subequal, or 
upper shorter than middle. 
'. Both sexes : hind wings with- 
out tails Nox group, p. 25. 

b\ Both sexes : hind wings with 

tails LATKKILLEI group, 

b 1 . Hind wing : upper discocellular [p. 27 

longer than middle. 
a\ Fore wins: not acutely pointed 

at apex, not falcate. 
a 1 : Upperside of fore wing in 
(5 densely clothed with 
short hairs on its terminal 
half HELENUS group, p. 41. 



12 



PAPILIONJD.S. 



HHETENOR group, 

[p. 54. 



/A TJpperside of fore wing in 
J not densely clothed with 
hair on its terminal half. 
a'. Hind wing tailed in one 

sex only. 

rt 8 . Hind wing not tailed 
in cJ, always tailed 
in $> ; dorsal margin 
of wing on underside 
bordered with red . . 
If. Hind wing not tailed 
in <$ , sometimes tailed 
in ; a patch of red 
at base but no border 
of red along dorsal 

margin MEMNON group, p. 46. 

V. Hind wing tailed in both 



MACHAON group, p. 35. 



BOOTES gi'oup, p. 55. 



i s . Tail short, slender, not 

spatulate 

i s . Tail longer, broader, 

spatulate. 

9 . Underside : a patch 
of red at base of 

wings 

6 9 Underside: no patch 
of red at base of 

wings 

Hind wing without tail 

in both sexes. 

t s . Hind wing : upper dis- 

cocellular nearly as 

long as subcostal vein. 

. Fore wing elongate ; 

dorsal margin less 

than half length of 

costal 

b 9 . Fore wing shorter, 
broader; dorsal mar- 
gin at least two- 
thirds length of 
costal. 

a 10 . Fore wing: vein 8 
out of basal fourth 

of 7 

Z 10 . Fore wing : vein 8 
out of basal third 

of. 7 

! 8 . Hind wing: upper disco- 
cellular much shorter, 
not half length of sub- 
costal vein . 



NEPH ElA'S-l'OLYTES 

[group, p. 58. 



PROTENOR group, 

[p. 52. 

CLYTIA group, p. 73. 
CASTOII group, p. 65. 

AGESTOR group, p. 69. 



* Except in Papilio demolctis, Linn., neither sex of which has the hind wing 
tailed. 



PAPILIO. 13 

b~'. Fore wing acute and curved 

at apex, strongly falcate. . . . PAYENI group, p. 91. 
lr\ With conspicuous green or blue 
colouring and markings on upper- 
side. 

*. Hind wing without tail ELEPHEXOK group, 

b l . Hind wing Avith tail. " [p. 80. 

rt '. Fore wing in c? with or with- 
out woolly adnervular streaks 
on upperside. 

a 8 . Such streaks always present, 
one along middle of inter- 
space 1 BIANOB, group, p. 81. 

b''. Such streaks " not always 
present, when present none 
along middle of inter- 
space 1 PALINURUS group, 

b*. Fore wing in tf without any [p. 88. 

woolly streaks PAHIS group, p. 84. 

B. Fore wing : vein 11 anastomosed with vein 
12. 

a. Fore wing short and broad ; dorsal margin 

much more than half length of costal. 
a'. Hind wing with slender tails. 

(ft. Hind wing in tf without a cottony 
scent-organ on the inner side of 
abdominal fold. 

n 3 . Fore wing: upper 'discocellular 
very much longer than middle 

discocellular ; GLYCERIOX group, 

6 3 . Fore wing : upper discocellular [p. 93. 

very little longer than middle 

discocellular ANTIPHATES group, 

b-. Hind wing in 3 with a cottony [p. 96. 

scent-organ on the inner side of 
abdominal fold. 

a . Fore wing : white bands on an- 
terior portion without scales on 

upperside AGKTES group, p. 100. 

b 3 . Fore wing: white bands on an- 
terior portion with scales on 

upperside AuisTKUSgroup,p. 101. 

b'. Hind wing without tails MACAREUS group, 

b. Fore wing more elongate ; dorsal margin [p. 112. 

about half as long as costal EURYPYLUS- 

AGAMEMNON group, 
[p. 105. 

OnXITHOPTEKA GnOUP. 

J 5 . Fore wing : costa arched ; apex not acute, rounded ; 
termen oblique ; tornus well-marked but rounded ; dorsum 
straight ; cell more than half length of wing ; upper discocellular 
slightly oblique, shorter than middle in the Indian forms, middle 
concave; veins 10 and 11 free, 10 from upper third, 11 from 
middle of subcostal. Hind wiug not tailed in the Indian forms ; 



14 

costa short; termen strongly curved, round, scalloped; tornus promi- 
nent but rounded; dorsum straight; abdominal fold in rf moderately 
broad, lined within with a cottony scent- organ. Antennae elongate, 
club curved ; thorax and abdomen robust, the latter very massive ; 
$ anal valves very large and prominent. Pupa, unlike that of 
the other groups of the geniis, sustained by separate lateral 
threads attached to a tubercle on each side and not by a loop 
round the middle. 

Key to tlie forms of the Ornithoptera Group. 



a. Underside of hind wing : cell yellow, black only 

at extreme base. 

a'. Underside of hind wing : interspace 1 yellow, 
with a large oval and a smaller black spot in 
terminal third, or yellow with posterior half 
diagonally black. 
2 . Underside of hind wing black along costal , T> 7 , 

margin, extended into interspace 7 ...... K 1 JJE ^A 

V. Underside of hind wing black along costal ' cetbenis > P- 14 - 

margin, not extended into interspace 7 . . P. ceacris, p. 15. 
I'. Underside of hind wing : interspace 1 black, 

with a narrow yellow streak anteriorly .... P. minos, p. 10. 

b Underside of hind "wing : cell black ; apex only 

yellow, basal half at least black ............ P. darsius, p. 17. 



a. Underside of hind wing : interspace 7 black, no i p / / , 

yellow spot at its base .................... \ ' l / u ' , , 

b. Underside of hind wing : interspace 7 black, with ' rus ' P' J4< 

a small yellow spot at its base. 
a. Cell yellow, basal third only black ........ P. ceacus, p. 15. 

b'. Cell black, apex only yellow ............. P. darsius, p. 17. 

c. Underside of hind wing: interspace 7 black, with 

a large yellow spot at base or basal half yellow. P. minos, p. 16. 

485. Papilio helena, Linn. Si/st. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 461. 

Race cerberus (PI. XI, fig. 82). 

Papilio pompeus, Gray (nee Cramer), Cat. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. i, 

1852, p. 5; Moore (nee Cramer, Ornithoptera), Cat. Lep, Mus. 

E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 87, <$ $ ; Ehves (nee Cramer, Ornithoptera), 

Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 422. 
Papilio cerberus, Felder, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864, 

p. 291 ; Moore (Ornithoptera), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 145, 

pi. 490, figs. 1,1 a-lc, <J$. 
Ornithoptera heliaconoides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 592 ; W.-M. 

8f de N. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 237 ; Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901- 

1903, p. 147, pi. 491, figs. 1, 1 -l c, <$ $ . 
Troides helena cerberus, liothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 219, J $ . 

Race cerberus, Felder. S . Upperside : fore wing rich velvety 



. PAPILIO. 15 

black with adnervular pale streaks ou either side of the veins beyoiid 
the cell ; cilia short, black, alternated with pale buffy white in the 
middle of the interspaces. Hind wing : the abdominal fold, the 
apical half obliquely of interspace 1, the termen broadly, the base 
of the cell and the costal area up to and including the basal half 
of interspace 7 velvety black, the rest of the wing rich silky 
yellow ; the veins prominently but narrowly black ; the inner 
margin of the terminal black border produced inwards into promi- 
nent cone-shaped markings in the interspaces. All specimens 
have one or more postdiscal black spots in the interspaces, but 
never a complete series ; in interspace 2 and sometimes also in 
interspace 3 these spots coalesce with the cone-shaped projections 
of the terminal black border. Underneath the abdominal fold is 
a dense mass of buffy-white scented cottony pubescence. Underside 
similar, the adnervular pale streaks on the fore wing broader and 
more prominent. Hind wing : dorsal margin broadly black, with 
an edging of long soft black hairs ; interspace 1 with a large oval 
posldiscal and a terminal black spot ; interspace 2 with the post- 
discal black spot generally separate from the cone-shaped pro- 
jection of the black terminal border ; the apical and lateral margins 
of interspaces 2-6 pale yellow irrorated with black scales. 
Antennae, head and thorax black, the collar narrowly crimson ; 
abdomen yellow, shaded above with black ; beneath : the thorax 
with a large lateral patch of crimson, the anal segment promi- 
nently buff -coloured. $ . Upper and under sides similar to those 
in the J i but with the following differences : Fore wing : the 
adnervular pale streaks broader and more prominent. Hind wing : 
the black at base and along the costal margin broader, occupying 
fully one-third of the cell, the area above it and above vein 7, 
interrupted however, in interspace 7 near the apex of wing, by a 
transverse yellow mark which is sometimes subobsolete ; a post- 
discal series of large oval black spots, those in interspaces 2 and 3 
often joined on the upperside to the cone-shaped terminal black 
marks ; dorsal margin also more broadly black, destitute of the 
fringe of black hairs arid of course of the abdominal fold. Anteana?, 
head and thorax as in the c? : abdomen dark brownish black above. 

Exp. d 1 ? 150-180 mm. (5-95-7'15"). 

Hob. Sikhiru ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; the 
Audamans and the Malayan Subregion to Sumatra. 

Andaman specimens (Jieliaconoides, Moore) are often both rf 
and $ darker, with the adnervular pale streaks on the fore wing 
almost if not quite obsolete on the upperside. The insect, how- 
ever, has not been sufficiently differentiated to form even a distinct 



480. ' Papilio seacus, Felder (Ornithoptera), Wien. Ent. Monats. iv, 

1860, p. 225, $ ; Rothsch. (Troides) Nov. Zool. \\, 1895, p. 223 ; 

Moore (Ornithoptera), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 148, pi. 422, 

%s. ], lo, J $. 

Ornithoptera rhadamanthus, Bolsdui-al (nee rhadamantus, Lucas), 



16 PAPIL10NIBJE. 

Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 180, $ ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. 
C. i, 1857, p. 88 ; Dist. Rhop. Malay. 1885, pp. 326 & 327, 
fig. 106, $ , pi. 27 <i, tig. 5, rf ; W.-M. # de N., J. A. S. B. 1886, 
p. 373 ; Elwes # de N. J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 438; Watson, Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Sac, vi, 1891, p. 53. 

d" $ . Closely resembles P. cerberus. rf differs as follows : 
Upper side, fore wing : the pale adnervular streaks more prominent, 
in some specimens extended into the cell along the outer half of 
the subcostal and of the median nervures. Hind wing: the cone- 
shaped terminal black markings in interspaces 2, 3, and 4 more or 
less broadly bordered on the inner side by a dusky area that is 
irrorated with blackish scales ; the black on the costal margin 
narrower, not extended below vein 8. Underside similar to the 
upperside, but the dusky black borders to the cone-shaped marks 
in interspaces 2, 3, and 4 wanting. Antennae, head, thorax, 
abdomen and abdominal fold as in cerbenis, but the abdomen 
beneath with two rows of black spots. In the $ the differences 
from cerberus are Fore wing : the pale adnervular streaks very 
broad, very prominent and extended well into the cell. Hind 
wing : the basal third of the cell and of interspace 2 black, the 
middle portion of the latter yellow anteriorly, bufty-white poste- 
riorly ; the posterior half of the discal area between the postdiscal 
spots themselves and between them and the terminal cone-shaped 
markings more or less irrorated with blackish scales ; lastly, the 
black in interspace 7 interrupted by an inner triangular and an 
outer small yellow spot. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
as in cerberus, but the abdomen beneath with two lateral and two 
median rows of black spots. 

Exp. ? $ 119-188 mm. (4-71-7-4"). 

Ha?>. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the 
east through the Shan States to Siam and China, and on the south 
to the Malay Peninsula. 

487. Papilio minOS, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii, 1779, p. 4, pi. 195, fig. A ; 
Felder (Ornithoptera), Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864, 
pp. 291 & 334 ; Atiken (Ornithoptera), Jottr. Bomb. N. H. Soc. ii, 
1887, p. 35 ; Davidson fy Aitkcn (Ornithoptera), Join: Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 361 ; Rothsch. (Troides) Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895, p. 203; Moore (Ornithoptera), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, 
p. 142, pi. 410, figs. 1, 1 o, 1 b, larva & pupa, <5 $. 

c? $ Differs from P. cerberus as follows : <$ . Hindwing : the 
black along the dorsal and terminal margins both on upper and 
undersides much broader ; on the upperside entirely filling inter- 
space 1, on the underside with only a narrow streak of yellow at 
the angle between the median vein and vein 2 ; the cone-shaped 
black markings on the terminal margin shorter and broader ; on 
the costal margin the black is narrower than in cerberus, barely 
extended below vein 8 except at the base and apex of the wing 
where it broadens ; the abdomen is dull yellow above and below 
not shaded with black. $ . Hind wing : the black on the costal 



PAPILIO. 17 

margin as in cerberus, but there is always a large yellow spot at 
base of interspace 7 ; interspace 1 black, with a pale patch in the 
middle ; the black terminal border broader, the inwardly extended 
cone-shaped markings prominent, those in interspaces 2 and 3 with 
piie buff lateral edgings, extended inwards to the postdiscal spots. 
In both c? and the hind wing on the upperside is clothed with 
soft, silky, long brownish-black hairs from base along the dorsal 
area. 

Exp. cJ $ 140-180 mm. (S-53-7'15"). 

Hob. Southern India : Bombay to Travancore. 

Larva. Boughly cylindrical, tapers a little to each end, with two 
rows of fleshy processes somewhat curved forwards and a double 
row on each side that are much shorter. On the 2nd, 3rd and 
4th segments an additional long pair between the dorsal and lateral 
rows. Head smooth and black ; body of a uniform dark madder- 
brown, prettily lighted with a tinge of pink at the points of some 
of the fleshy processes ; dorsal process on the 8th segment and a 
lateral pair on the 7th pinkish- white, with a band of the same 
colour uniting them. 

Pupa. Suspended by the tail and a band that encircles it much 
nearer the head than is usual with Papilio pupa?. In form stout, 
flattened, dilated in the middle, with head and thorax thrown back. 
Head somewhat angular and tuberculated ; two of the abdominal 
segments each with a prominent dorsal pair of pointed tubercles. 
Colour usually light brown, with a strongly contrasting saddle of 
old gold. (After Davidson $ AitJcen.} Mr. T. A. Sealy (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. 1875, p. ix) states : " The pupa possesses the power of 
making a curious noise like ' pha-pha' !, and makes it very loudly 
when touched ; the noise is accompanied (perhaps produced) by a 
.short contraction of the abdominal segments. I thought at first 
it was merely produced by the rubbing of one ring of the pupa- 
case against the next, but the sound did not resemble a mere 
fractional sound, it was more like the sound of a rush of air 
through small holes ' pha-pha.' I tried to produce it with a 
dead chrysalis but failed : the pupa sometimes contracted on being 
touched without making the noise, and appeared unable to make 
the noise until some time was given to allow it to recover its 
vigour." Messrs. Davidson and Aitken have also noticed this power 
in the pupa, but they speak of it " as a husky squeaking noise, 
produced apparently by friction of the abdominal rings." 

488. Papilio darsius, Gray, Cat. Lep. Ins. . M. \, 1852, p. 5 ; Moore 
(Ornithoptera), Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 87, pi. 2, 
figs. 2, 2 a, $ , larva & pupa ; id. (idem) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, 
p. 155, pi. 55, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, tf , larva pupa ; Rothschild 
(Troides), Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 203; Moore (Ornithoptera), Lep. 
Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 140, pi. 418, figs. 1, larva & pupa, 1, 1 a, 
<S $ 
<5 $ . This form is the darkest of the four of this group found 

within our limits. 

VOL. II. 



18 PAPILIONID.E. 

wing: adnervular pale streaks not prominent on the upperside, 
more distinctly marked on the underside. Hind wing black, with 
a very broad diseal slightly curved silky-yellow band or patch that 
extends beyond the cell from interspaces 2 to 7, and is composed of 
elongate outwardly emarginate yellow markings that are divided 
only by the black veins. In most specimens the inner margin of 
this band crosses the apex of the cell, but in many the cell is 
entirely black. Abdomen with some black markings beneath and 
a lateral row of black spots. $ . Differs from cerberus $ in the 
much greater extent of the black on the hind wing. Interspace 1 
with a pale dusky-white patch in the middle ; interspace 7 with an 
inner and an outer yellow spot ; cell entirely black or nearly so, 
sometimes, but rarely, with the yellow extended into the apex. 

Exp. J $ 165-175 mm. (6-6-6-95"). 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Larva. " Cylindrical, dull purple-brown, with two dorsal rows 
and anterior and lateral rows of fleshy tubercles, those on the 
eighth segment and a streak from its base to lower end of seventh 
segment being pale pink ; between the tubercles are dark brown 
streaks. Feeds on Aristolochia." (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Pale purplish-ochreous, bent backwards anteriorly ; 
thorax conical, the top flattened and its sides angled ; wing-cases 
dilated and flattened laterally in the middle, their outer edge acute ; 
two middle segments of abdomen with a dorsal pair of conical 
prominences." (Moore.) 

HECTOR GROUP. 

c? $ . Fore wing elongate, broader in $ than in d 1 ; costa 
widely arched, apex produced, rounded ; termen oblique, straight, 
or in the c? slightly concave in the middle, in the $ convex ; 
dorsum straight, about half length of costa ; cell elongate, more 
than half length of wing ; discocellulars nearly erect, upper not 
much shorter than the middle ; veins 10 and 11 from the upper 
half of subcostal vein. Hind wing elongate, costa arched ; termen 
scalloped, produced into a tail at vein 4 ; tail not so long as in the 
Coon Group, nor so distinctly and widely spatulate afc the tip, 
in the typical form hector of even width to apex ; dorsum long, 
straight ; cell a little longer than half length of wing ; veins 4 and 5 
not approximate at base. Antennae about half length of fore 
wing ; club long, narrow, gradual ; anal segment in d" without 
valves. 



Key to the forms of the Hector Group. 

A. c? $ . Tail at apex of vein 4 in hind wing 

of even width, not spatulate at apex ____ 

B. c? $ Tail at apex of vein 4 in hind wing 

spatulate at apex. 
a Hind wing upperside : cell entirely black, 



rarely with a small spot of white at apex. 



PAPILiO. 19 

'. Uind wiug upperside : three or four 

well-defined elongate white spots al- 

ways present in the interspaces beyond 

apex of cell ...................... P. aristolochice, p. 20. 

b'. Hind wing; upperside : only one well- 

defined elongate white spot in inter- 

space 2 beyond apex of cell, others 

absent, or when present obscure, , _,? 

much suffused with black scales .... I P ' ******, race 
b. Hind wing upperside : apical half or more ' camorta, p. 21. 

of cell white. 
a'. Fore wing upperside : pale whitish 

streaks in apex of cell not extended to 

discocellulars .................... P. jophon, p. 22. 

b'. Fore wing upperside : pale whitish 

streaks in apex of cell extended well , 



up to discocellulars ................ , p. 22. 



489. Papilio hector, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 459 ; Moore, Cat. 
Lep. Mits. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 93, pi. 2, figs. 4, 4 a, 4 b, larva & 
pupa; id. (Menelaides) Lep. C'eyl. i, 1881, p. 152, pi. 58, fig. 2; 
Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 233 ; Moore (Tros), Lep. Ind. \, 
1901-1903, p. 173, pi. 435, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, larva & pupa, <J $ . 

c? . Upperside black. Fore wing with a broad white interrupted 
band from the subcostal nervure opposite the origin of veins 10 
and 11, extended obliquely to the tornus, and a second short pre- 
apical similar band ; both bands composed of detached irregularly 
indented broad streaks in the interspaces. Hind wing with a 
<liscal posteriorly strongly curved series of seven crimson spots 
followed by a subterminal series of crimson lunules. Cilia black 
alternated with white. Underside : fore wing dull brownish black, 
hind wing black ; markings as on the upperside, but the crimson 
spots and crescentic markings on the hind wing larger. Antennae, 
thorax and abdomen above at base, black ; head and rest of the 
abdomen bright crimson ; beneath : the palpi, the sides of the 
thorax and abdomen crimson. Similar, the discal series of 
spots and subterminal lunules much duller, pale crimson irrorated 
\\ith black scales ; in some specimens the anterior spots aud 
lunules almost white barely tinged with crimson ; abdomen above 
with the black colour extended further towards the apex. 

Exp. rf $ 88-120 mm. (3-49-4-T5"). 

Hab. Bengal : Calcutta, Chaudernagore, Orissa, Chittagong ; 
the southern half of peninsular India; Ceylon. 

" Larva. Cylindrical, tapering slightly towards each end ; rich 
dark purple-brown ; with a subdorsal and two lateral rows of 
crimson fleshy cylindrical tubercles, the lowest row shortest, and 
an additional lateral tubercle on the third and fourth segments, a 
transverse row of four pinkish-white spots on the seventh and 
eighth segments; head and legs blackish." (Moore.) 

" Pupa. Head truncate in front ; thorax dorsally conical and 



20 PAPILIONID^E. 

laterally rounded ; wing-cases posteriorly rounded and dilated ; 
abdominal segments with four subdorsal short foliaceous pro- 
tuberances ; colour pale violaceous-ochraceous." (Moore.) 

In the 'Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' 1880, p. 276,. 
Mr. R. iS. Eaton notes that in Bombay this butterfly roosted in 
great numbers together. 

On the Western Ghats between Vingorla and Belgaum, where 
this butterfly occurred in some numbers, 1 also noted the habit 
they have of roosting in company on twigs of some thorny shrub, 
but I never saw more than a score or so together. 



490. Papilio aristolochiae, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 443 ; EJwes S^ 
de Niceville, J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 435 ; Davidson fy Aitken, Journ. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 362 ; Eothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
p. 245; Moore (Menelaides), Lep. Ind. \, 1901-1903, p. 178 r 
pi. 441, figs. 1, 1 o-l d, & pi. 442, figs. 1, 1 cr-1 c, larva fc pupa, tf $ . 

Papilio diphilus, Esper, Am. Schmett. 1792, p. 156, pi. 40, fig. 2; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 94, pi. 2, figs. 5, 6 a, 
larva. 

Menelaides ceylonica, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 151, pi. 57, 
figs. 2, 2 a, 26, <$, larva & pupa. 

Race camorta. 

Papilio aristolocliiae, var. camorta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 592 ; 

W.-M. 8> de.N. J.A.S. B. 1881, p. 237. 
Menelaides camorta, Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 182. pi. 443, 

figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, cf $ . 
Papilio aiistolochia? camorta, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 250. 

cJ . Upperside velvety black. Fore wing with well-marked pale 
aduervular streaks on the discal area that do not reach the ter- 
minal margin, the latter broadly velvety black ; the streaks beyond 




Fig. 3. a. Hind wing: Papilio arutolocliice. 

b. Hind wiog : P. aristolochice, race camorta, Moore. 

c. Apex of abdomen : P. aristolochia, showing want of 

anal valves. 

end of cell extended inwards into its apex. Hind wing with elon- 
gate white discal markings in interspaces 2-5 beyond the cell. 



PAPILIO. 21 

In dry-weather specimens these markings are very short and do 
not nearly reach the bases of the interspaces; beyond these a 
curved series of subterminal lunular markings in interspaces 1 to 7 
dull crimson irrorated with black scales, the spot in interspace 1 
large, irregular, diffuse, margined interiorly with white. Under- 
side : ground-colour and markings similar, but the red subterminal 
spots on the hind wing much brighter, not irrorated with black 
scales, better defined, the anterior four subquadrate, the next two 
crescentic, sometimes quadrate also, the spot in interspace 1 
triangular and pointed. Antennae, thorax and abdomen above 
up to the preanal segment black; the head, sides of prothorax 
^ibove, and of the whole of the thorax and abdomen beneath 
vermilion-red ; anal segment vermilion-red. $ similar, differs 
from the c? only in the comparatively broader wings : this is 
most conspicuous in the fore wing. 

Exp. <$ $ 76-114 mm. (3-4-5"). 

Hob. N.W.India; Sikhim ; W. & S. India; Ceylon; Assam; 
Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending on the west to China and Siam, 
and southwards to Malacca, Java and the Philippines. 

Larva. "Adult 1^ inch long. Stout, cylindrical and tuber- 
culous. Gound-colour velvet-brown-black, dorsal line black ; four 

longitudinal rows of fleshy tubercles bright red seventh 

segment with a milk-white, jagged, lacerated band reaching right 
across the body and terminating at the third row of tubercles, the 
tubercles on that segment are white with the exception of the 
3rd and 4th rows ; head black ; segmental incisions dark purple- 
brown ; legs and abdomen beneath black ; stigmates (sic) black ; 
retractile tentacula orange. Feeds on Aristolochia indica. Habits 
slow." 

Pupa. " Darkish brown, stout and broad, swollen at the sides, 
with four pairs of very prominent tubercles on the back of the 
abdomen." (de la Chaumette as quoted by Moore.) 

In certain lights the wings of both S and 5 have a rich 
purple bloom on the upperside. Var. ceylonica, Moore, has a 
white spot at the apex of the cell on the hind wing. Males of 
this butterfly vary greatly in size ; quite tiny specimens, perfect 
miniatures of the normal form, are not uncommon throughout its 
range. 

Race camorta, Moore (fig. 3 6, hind wing), differs from the typical 
form as follows : " The white spots of the hind wing small, only that 
between the lower median veins (veins 2 and 3) is clearly marked 
on the upperside, the two others standing before and behind the 
upper median nervule (vein 4) are sometimes entirely absent from 
the upperside, or when present are much suffused with black ; 
below there is usually a spot within the apex of the cell." 
(RothtchOd.) 

Exp. d $ 96-118 mm. (3-8-4-65"). 

Hob. The Nicobars. Mr. Gilbert Kogers sent it to me from 
the Central group, but not from Great Nicobar. 



22 PAPILIONID.E. 

491. Papilio jophon, Gray, Cat. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. i, 18o2, p. 10 r 
pi. 4, fig. 4 $ ; Moore (Menelaides), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 152 r 
pi. 58, fig. 1 ? ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 234 ; Moor? 
(Menelaides), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 176, pi. 436, figs. 1, 1 a r 
Ib, larva, rf $. 

.Race pandiyanus. 

Papilio pandiyana, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 313 ; Ferguson, 

Journ. omb. N. H. Soc. vi, 1891, p. 446. 
Papilio pandiyanus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 234; Moore 

(Menelaides), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 177, pi. 437, figs. 1, 1 a, 

U c?$- 

c? . Upperside black. Fore wing with three or four broad white 
streaks in cell and a variable number of similar somewhat broader 
streaks that are bifid along their apical half in the interspaces 
beyond ; these streaks do not reach the terminal margin and 
become obsolete towards the costal margin of the wing. Hind 
wing : the apical half of the cell and short apicaliy truncate 
streaks in the interspaces beyond w T hite ; these streaks broad, 
divided only by the black veins, followed by a subterminal curved 
series of crimson lunules irrorated with black scales. Undersid.e 
similar, the markings more distinct and more sharply denned, the- 
discal white streaks and the subterminal series of crimson spots 
each seven in number. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
above up to the preanal segment black ; the head in front and 
beneath, the thorax at the sides and the apical half of the 
abdomen crimson, the last with one or two black lateral spots. 
$ similar ; fore wing broader, the white and crimson markings 
larger and more conspicuous. 

Exp. c? $ 118-128 mm. (4-64-5-2"). 

Hab. Ceylon. " Confined locally to the middle hill district '* 
(Manders). 

Larva. " Dark purple-black, with crimson-coloured pointed 
tubercles, two on 2nd segment, eight on each of 3rd and 6th, six 
on each of 8th to 10th, and four on 13th ; seventh segment with 
a pale cream-coloured transverse band (interrupted on the dorsal 
line), including four tubercles of the same colour, below which on 
each side is a single crimson tubercle ; on second segment is a 
band composed of four pale tubercular spots, from the centre of 
which can be protruded a pair of short blunt yellow tentacles. " 
(E. E. Green as quoted by Moore.} 



Race pandiyanus, Moore. " Though closely allied to 
Gray, this species is constantly (as far as we know) different in 
pattern. The white colour of the fore wings is much more ex- 
tended, especially in the apical region, but also more shaded with 
black scales; the internervular black streaks between the median 
nervules (veins 4-6) are much longer, the white linear markings- 
in the cell reach the discocellular veinlets. On the hind wing 



PAPILIO. 23 

the last discal white spot reaches mostly to the suhmeclian nervui'e 
(vein 1), the anterior one is very large in the cf , small or divided 
into two spots, or obliterated in the 5 " (Itothschild, t. o.) 

Exp. <$ $ 102-114 mm. (4-02-4-5"). 

Hab. S. India : JYilgiri Hills ; Travancore. 



COON GROUP. 

c? . "Wings very long and narrow. Fore wing : costa slightly 
arched, apex broadly rounded, termen S straight, slightly 
convex, in both sexes very oblique ; dorsuin very short, less than 
half as long as the costa ; cell long and narrow, considerably more 
than half length of wing ; upper discocellular very little shorter 
than the middle ; vein 10 from upper third, 11 from beyond the 
middle of subcostal. Hind wing with long spatulate tail ; costa 
straight, short ; termen very long, broadly scalloped ; veins 4 and 5 
approximate at base. Antennae slightly less than half length 
of fore wing ; club narrow, gradual. <5 abdominal fold narrow, 
abrupt at apex ; anal valves conspicuous, with a parting on the 
upperside. 

Key to the forms of the Coon Group. 

a. Hind wing upperside : spatulate portion of tail 
black. 



'. Hind wing upperside : more than half apical 
ortion of cell svhite 



P. doubkdayi, p. 23. 



b. Hind wing upperside : spatulate portion of tail ' ISIS} P' 

red P. rhodifer, p. 24. 

492. Papilio doubledayi, Wallace, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv, 1865, p. 42, 
note ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 253 ; Moore (Losaria), Lep. 
Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 184, pi. 438, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, rf $ . 

Race cachareusis. 

Papilio cacharensis, Butler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, 1885, p. 344 ; 
Moore (Losaria), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 185, pi. 439, figs. 1, 

Papilio doubledayi cacharensis, Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
p. 253. 

c? . Upperside dull black, paler on the fore than on the hind 
wing. Fore wing with very conspicuous pale streaks, two in each 
interspace that extend well into the cell, but do not reach the 
termeu, where the dull black ground-colour forms a broadish 
transverse band. Hind wing black, with in fresh specimens in 
certain lights a beautiful blue gloss ; a central large white area 
composed of a white patch in the apical two-thirds of the cell and 



24 PAPILIONID.E. 

more or less elongate spots of varying breadth at base of inter- 
spaces 1-7, all these very distinctly divided by the broadly black- 
bordered veins, the spot in interspace 4 more or less obsolescent ; 
lastly, a subterminal row of more or less crescentic white spots, 
the lower two shaded with crimson followed by a crimson tornal 
and a terminal similar but brighter spot at apex of vein 3, the 
spatulate tail black. Underside similar ; the ground-colour duller. 




Fig. 4. a. Hind wing: P. doubledayi. 

b. Hind wing: P. rhodifer. 

c. Anal valves of Coon group, opeu on upperside. 

Hind wing : a white discal spot often in interspace below vein 1, 
the lower two spots of the terminal series entirely crimson. 
Antennae, thorax and abdomen above up to the preanal segment 
black ; head, palpi, sides of the thorax and rest of the abdomen 
crimson, the abdomen with black lateral spots. 5 similar ; fore 
wing paler. Hind wing : the central white markings larger, the 
subterminal spot in interspace 2 white, coalescent with the crimson 
tornal spot. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the 3 . 

Exp. rf 2 118-134 mm. (4'65-5-25"). 

Hob. Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the Malay Peninsula. 

Race cacharensis, Butler. 3 $ smaller, with the ground-colour 
duller and the discal white spots on the hind wing conspicuously 
reduced in size. According to Rothschild the subterminal and 
terminal markings are also paler, often yellowish red. " Head, 
sides of breast and abdomen of a yellowish-red instead of 
vermilion-red " (Rothschild, t. c.). 

Exp. rf $ 102-112 mm. (4-02-4-41"). 

Hob. Kecorded so far only from Cachar. 

493. Papilio rhodifer, Sutler, Ent. Month. Mag. xiii, 1876, p. 57; 
Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 254 ; Moore (Losnria), Lep. Ind. 
v, 1901-1903, p. 186, pi. 440, figs. 1, 1 a, $ $ . 

<3 differs from P. doubledayi as follows : Ground-colour a rich 



PAPILIO. 25 

velvety-black, much darker than iu doubledayi ; on the fore wing 
the pale streaks extend only into the apex of the cell. On the 
hind wing the medial white markings are much shorter, the spots 
at base of interspaces 4 and 5 and generally the spot in inter- 
space 7 absent ; the subterminal and terminal vermilion spots 
are much larger, and the tail is vermilion on its apical spatulate 
portion. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in doubledayi, 
but the head entirely vermilion-red. 2 closely resembles the J , 
fore wing broader, red markings on hind wing more crimson than 
vermilion-red, often dull and irro rated slightly with black scales ; 
medial white markings more extensive, the white mark in inter- 
space 1 extends well below vein 1. 

Exp. cf 2 126-134 mm. (5-5-28"). 

Hab. The Andainans. 



Nox GROUP. 

d 1 2 . Fore wing elongate ; costa slightly arched, twice length of 
dorsum, apex rounded ; termen straight in c? , slightly convex in 

2 , dorsuin straight ; cell long, well over halt' length of wing, 
veins 10 and 11 close together from apical half of subcostal. 
Hind wing elongate ; costa short, slightly curved ; termen long, 
convex, broadly scalloped; dorsum with the abdominal fold in the c? 
closed, straight ; veins 4 and 5 closely approximate or from a point. 

c? sex-mark, abdominal fold very large in two out of the three 
Indian forms, cut square on its lower margin, its dorsal margin 
fringed with long hairs, beneath the fold a mass of specialized 
scent-scales ; anal valves short, convex. Antennae a little less 
than half length of fore wing ; club long, narrow, gradual in both 
sexes. 

Key to the forms of the Nox Group. 

<i. Hind wing upperside : uniform, without white 

subterminal markings. 

' c? <3 with abdominal fold on hind wing 
square at its lower margin. 2 2 with a 

broad crimson lateral band on abdomen. , j> , 

-71 I OQ i Qf! ) VQI until lace 

b'. rf rf with abdominal 'fold "on" hind wing ' astorion, p. 25. 
rounded, not square, at the tornal angle. 
5 2 with a broad white lateral band on 

abdomen. Exp. 144-162 mm P. aidoneus, p. 20. 

b. Hind wing upperside : with white subterminal 

markings , P. zaleucus, p. 27. 

494. Papilio varuna, White, Entomologist, i, (March) 1842, p. 280, 2. 
Race astorion. 

Papilio astorion, Westw. A. M. N. H. ix, 1842, p. 37 ; JElwes, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 422 ; Moore (Paugerana), Lep. Ind. v, 
1901-1903, p. 153, pi. 423, figs. ] , la, Ib, J $ . 

Papilio varuna astorion, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 260. 



26 

cJ . Upperside rich velvety blue-black. Fore wing : outwardly 
towards the terminal margin and the whole of the hind wing 
except the dorsal area have in certain lights a rich dark purple 
bloom, in others a very dark green ; dorsal area and the whole 
inner side of the sexual fold opaque brownish black ; outer half 
of fore wing with pale adnervular streaks more or less prominent. 
Underside similar ; fore wing with the adnervular pale streaks 
broader, more prominent, extended further inwards well up to 
the terminal margin. Hind wing : ground-colour more uniform 
blue-black than on the upperside. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen black ; the head in front, on the sides and beneath, 
the sides of the thorax and of the abdomen rich crimson ; 
beneath, the thorax and abdomen black, the latter with lateral 
black spots in addition on its crimson sides. $ . Upperside dull 
black. Fore wing with the pale greyish-green streaks very broad 
and prominent, especially in interspaces 1 and 2, the streaks 
extend also into the cell. Hind wing more uniform, with a dark 
dull blue, in some lights dark green, bloom. Underside similar, 
the streaks on the fore wing broader and paler ; hind wing as on 
the upperside, more uniform, duller, opaque. Antennae and thorax 
black, abdomen dull brownish black, head crimson ; beneath as in 
the c? , but the crimson less bright, especially on the sides of the 
abdomen and without the lateral spots on the latter. 

Exp. rf $ 88-136 mm. (3-5-5-38"). 

Hab. Sikhirn ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Upper Burma ; Tenasseriin. 

In Sikhim, according to Elwes and de Niccville, it occurs from 
quite low elevations in the Terai up to 7000 feet. Its almost 
uniform dark colour renders it inconspicuous in the jungle, and it 
is therefore difficult to account for its being further protected by 
a disagreeable smell and probably taste. Wood-Mason has 
recorded that the females have a strong and disgustingly rank 
musky odour. 

495. Papilio aidoneus, Doubleday, A. M. N. H. xvi, 1845, p. 178, rf; 
JBhces, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 423; Eothsck. Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895, p. 257; Moore (Pangerana), Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 154,. 
pi. 424, tigs. 1, la, d $ 

c? $ . Eesembles P. varuna race astorion, but differs as follows: 
Cell of fore wing proportionately not quite so long; abdominal 
fold to the hind wing in d not so broad, its lower margin not 
square, rounded ; the specialized scales within the fold \vhite r 
with an edging of pink. $ larger. Upperside : ground-colour 
olivaceous-brown, never black ; abdomen with a broad white, not 
crimson, lateral stripe. 

Exp. rf $ 112-162 mm. (4-4-6-33"). 

Hab. Sikhim (2000-3000 feet, fide Elwes) ; Bhutan ; Assam : 
the JVaga Hills ; Upper Burma : the Shan States. 



PAPILIO. 27 

496. Papilio zaleucus, Heu-itson, Exct. Butt, iii, 1865, Pap. pi. 7, figs. 
24,25, tf $; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 261 ; Moore (Pan- 
gerana), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 155, pi. 425, figs. 1, l-lc, 
rf$. 

c? . Upperside velvety black, with a deep bluish bloom on the 
hind wing. Fore wing uniform with generally pale internervular 
streaks on the terminal half. Hind wing with two or three large 
subterminal, outwardly emarginate, white spots in interspaces 
2 and 3 or 2, 3 and 4 ; inside the abdominal fold brown, with a 
purple gloss in some specimens, the specialized scent-scales or 
hairs greyish. Underside : fore wing similar, the pale interuervular 
streaks broader, more prominent, extended into the cell. Hind 
wing : similar to the upperside, the ground-colour purplish- 
opaque, with a small white spot sometimes in interspace 3. An- 
tenna?, head in front, thorax posteriorly and abdomen black ; the 
prothorax with the sides crimson, above clothed with a few black 
hairs ; beneath, the palpi, sides of the thorax and abdomen crimson. 
$ . Upperside : fore wing black, uniform, the iuternervular streaks 
very broad, greenish, giving a green appearance to the whole wing. 
Hind wiug : ground-colour rich indigo-green, a very broad white 
subterminal band composed of elongate spots in interspaces 1 to 5, 
the spot in interspace 1 nearly reaches the margin, only separated 
from it by a narrow black line, the spots in interspaces 2-5 out- 
wardly deeply emarginate. Underside : fore wing as on the 
upperside but with not so green a tint. Hind wing : ground-colour 
opaque black, the broad white subterminal band as on the upper- 
side, but generally with diffuse small black spots on the white in 
interspaces 3, 4 and 5 ; an additional much smaller white spot 
near apex of interspace 6. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
as in the male, but the palpi crimson ; the abdomen with lateral 
black spots and black transverse bars beneath on the crimson. 

Exp. d 1 $ 84-127 mm. (3-3-5"). 

Hab. Upper Burma : the Shftn States ; Tenasserim ; Siam. 



LATREILLSI GROUP. 

Fore wing elongate, costal margin arched, more than twice aa 
long as dorsal margin ; apex broadly rounded ; termen very 
oblique, dorsum straight ; cell elongate, broad, more than half the 
length of the wing ; upper discocellular only a little shorter than 
middle; veins 10 and 11 from apical half of subcostal arid along 
the greater part of their length very close to vein 12, vein 9 from 
upper apex of cell. Hind wing very long and narrow ; termen 
broadly scalloped, produced at vein 4 into a broad spatulate tail ; 
cell very narrow ; basal portion of subcostal between veins 7 and 8 
equal to middle discocellular nervule lying between veins 4 and 5. 
Antennae not half length of fore wing. Abdominal fold in <? not 
so broad as in the Nox Group, on its inner side with dense- 
cottony androconia. Anal valves in c? normal. 



28 PAPILIONIDJE. 

Key to tlie forms of the Latreillei Group. 

A. Hind wing upperside : a terminal or subter- 
minal red or pinkish-red spot on tail. 

a. Hind wing upperside : discal or subterminal 

markings present. 
'. Hind wing upperside : an elongate white 

spot near base of interspace 3. 
a~. Hind wing npperside : no white spot 

near base of interspace 5 P. latreillei, p. 28. 

li 2 . Hind wing upperside : a prominent 
quadrate white spot near base of 

interspace 5 P. polla, p. 30 

b'. Hind wing upperside : no white spot 

near base of interspace 3. 
a' 1 . Hind wing upperside : no red or white 

spot or marking in interspace 6. 
a . Hind wing upperside : a large quad- 
rate white spot in interspace 5 at 
base. 

l . Hind wing upperside : postdiscal 
lunule in interspace 4, some 
shade of red. 

\ Hind wing upperside : an elon- 
gate white spot at base of 

interspace 4 P. plriloxcnus, p. 31. 

V. I lind wing upperside : no white , -/> , ., 

spot at base of interspace 4 . . P ' P J l f s ; *- 
A'. Hind wing upperside: postdiscal ' polyeuctes, p. 31. 

lunule in interspace 4 alwavs , T , 7 -, 

white y \ P. phihxentu, var. 

l'\ Hind wing' 'upperside :' a 'narrow ' '^sarada, p. 31. 

transverse white spot in middle, . n 7 -, 

not at base of interspace 5 .' j P ' P^cen**, ^ace 

V. Hind wing upperside. : a lunular con- ' lama > ?' 32 

spicuous white spot in interspace 6 . P. ravctna, p. 33. 

b. Hind wing upperside : uniform, without 

discal or subtermiual markings P. crassipes, p. 34. 

B. Hind wing upperside : tail uniform, without 
subterminal or terminal spot or marking. 

a. Hind wing upperside: no discal white spots 

at bases of interspaces 3 and 4. 

a'. Hind wing upperside : a crimson subter- 
minal lunule in interspaces 2, 3 and 4, 
and a large quadrate white spot in 
interspaces 5 and 6 P. nevilli, p. 33. 

I'. Hind wing upperside : a pinkish- white 
subterminal lunule in interspaces 2 to 6, 
no^quadrate white spot in interspaces . p ^.^ ^ 

b. Hind wing uppers'ideVa'sekes'of'discai ' pembertoni, p. 34. 

white spots at bases of interspaces 1 to 5 . P. adamsoni, p. 29. 

497. Papilio latreillei, Donovan, Xat. Repos. ii, 1826, pi. 140; Elwes, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 425; llothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
p. 261 ; Moore (Byasa), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 165, pi. 430, 
figs. 1, lf<-lc, '$ $. 



Papilio minereus, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 32; Moore, Cat. Lep. 
Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 97. 

d" . Upperside dull brownish black. Fore wing with streaks 
in cell, the interuervular streaks and the veins velvety black. 
Hind wing : ground-colour more uniform to apex of cell, beyond 
this interspaces 2, 3 and 4 with broad elongate white spots, the 
spot in interspace 2 slightly tinged outwardly with crimson ; 
sometimes a white crimson-tinted spot also in interspace 1 ; a 
subterminal series of crimson lunules in interspaces 2 to 5, that in 

5 generally more or less white ; 
lastly, a crimson spot at apex of 
vein 3 and on apex of tail. 
Underside similar, ground-colour 
much paler ; markings of the 
hind wing as on the upperside, 
but slightly larger, the crimson 
spots brighter ; in many speci- 
mens a small discal adnervular 
spot in interspace 5, and a sub- 
terminal small white lunule in 
interspace 6 also present ; the 
crimson-tinted discal spot in 
interspace 1 always present. 
Antennae dark brownish black, 
head and front of the prothorax 
crimson, the rest of the body 
above black ; beneath, the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen crimson, 
the middle of the thorax and of 
the abdomen with black mark- 
ings. 5 . Similar, slightly paler; 




Fig. 5. . Papilio latreillei, f. 
o. Venation of anterior portion 
of hind wing. 



the white and crimson markings 
on the hind wing on both upper 
and undersides similar but larger; 
there is generally also a discal adnervular spot in interspace 5. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen a.s in the 3 . 
Exp. rf $ 120-130 mm. (473-5-13"). 
Hob. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Assam. 

This form apparently keeps to a higher elevation than its close 
ally, P. pliihxenus. Mr. Elwes says it is not uncommon between 
7000 and 9000 feet in Sikhim, and there is no record of its occur- 
rence at a lower elevation than 7000 feet. 



498. Papilio adamsoni, Grose-Smith, A. M. N. H. (5) xviii, 1880, 
p. 149, J; id. $ Kirby, Shop. Exot. i, 1888, Pap. p. 11, pi. 5, 
figs. 3 & 4 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 262 ; Moore (Byasa), 
Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 167, pi. 431, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, <J $ . 
Papilio (Byasa) minereoides, Elwes $ de N. J. A. S. B. 1887, 



p. 435, pi. 20, figs. 2, 2 



$. 



30 

c? $ . Closely resembles P. latreillei, but can be distinguished as 
follows : J . Upperside : ground-colour darker, not uniform, 
distinctly darker on the basal half of the fore wing. Hind wing : 
ground-colour on the basal side of the discal whice markings not 
paler than the ground-colour beyond these ; an additional white 
elongate spot, sometimes transversely divided into two, in inter- 
space 5 ; a subterminal series of only three lunules in interspaces 
2, 3 and 4 respectively, that in 4 white, no terminal crimson spot 
at vein 3 or on tail. Underside similar to the upperside, but the 
ground-colour paler and more opaque, the white markings more 
or less tinged with crimson and a well-defined subterminal white 
spot always present in interspace 6. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen much as in P. latreillei. $ . Similar to the tf , but the 
ground-colour paler, the white markings on the hind wing larger, 
the subterminal lunules more or less white. 

Exp. <$ $ 92-115 mm. (3-65-4-13"). 

Hab. Upper Burma : the Shan States ; Tenasserim. 

499. Papilio polla, de Niceville (Papilio-Byasa), J. A. S. B. 1897, 
p. 565, pi. 4, tig. 28 rf ; Moore (Byasa), Leo. Ind. v. 1901-1903, 
p. 166, pi. 429, fig. 2 rf. 

S . Very closely resembles P. latreillei rf , but [judging by a 
single specimen the fore wing is proportionately rather narrower, 
the termen more oblique, the torn us more rounded. The markings 
on the hind wing differ as follows : the discal white patch com- 
posed of four elongate spots in interspaces 2-4, that in interspace 
4 very broad, filling the interspace between the middle of veins 5 
and 6 ; subterminal series of lunules larger than in latreillei, and 
all vermilion-red, not crimson, both on the upper and undersides ; 
cilia between tornus and apex of vein 3, apex of tail and cilia at 
apex of vein 5 vermilion-red. On the underside, the spot of the 
discal patch in interspace 1 is vermilion-red, and the red lunule 
of the subterminal series in interspace 2 is produced to the ver- 
milion-red terminal edging below it. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in P. latreillei. 5 " Appears to differ only from 
the male on the upperside of the hind wing in the white patch, 
which is continued posteriorly to the abdominal margin or nearly 
so and does not extend into the end of the cell." (de Niceville, t. c.) 

Eccp. rf 131 mm. (5-15"). 

Hab. Upper Burma : Bernardmyo, 6000 feet, Northern Shan 
States, N. Chin Hills. 

This seems to be a very rare insect, at any rate within Britisli 
territory, only single specimens seem to have been taken so far. 
Of these, one, a 3 , now in the British Museum, I took at over 
5000 feet elevation, on the shoulder of the hillside on which were 
built the barracks for the troops at Bernardmyo, in the Ruby 
Mines district, Upper Burma. 



PAPILIO. 31 

.500. Papilio philoxenus, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 32 ; Moore, Cat. 

Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 96 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 

p. 264; Moore (Byasa), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 159, pi. 426, 

tigs. 1, la-la", larva & pupa, J 9 . 

Papilio polyeuctes, Doubledat/ in Gray's Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 74. 
Papilio dasarada, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 96 ; 

id. (Byasa) Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 161, pi. 427, tigs. 1, la, 16, 

Pfipilio philoxenus ab. polyeuctes, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 

p. 265. 
Papilio philoxenus ab. dasarada, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 266. 

Race larna. 

Papilio lauia, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. ii, 1876, p. 15, pi. 3, fig. 1 J. 
Papilio philoxenus lama, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 266. 

3 . Upperside velvety black. Fore wing with broad pale adner- 
vular streaks that do not extend to the terminal margin and only 
slightly into the cell. Hind wing : a very large white quadrate 
spot in interspace 5 and usually a white spot in the interspaces 
above or below or in both ; a series of postdiscal crimson or red 
lunules in interspaces 2, 3 and 4, followed by similarly coloured 
admarginal spots in interspaces 2 and 3 and at apex of tail, the 
lunule in interspace 2 nearly always, and that in interspace 3 very 
often, joined to the admarginal spots. Underside similar; ground- 
colour more opaque, dull, not velvety; the adnervular streaks on 
the fore wing very broad. Hind wing as on the upperside, but, 
an additional elongate crimson spot near base of interspace 3 and 
a broad irregular transverse crimson bar below it in interspaces 1 
and 2 ; the other markings somewhat larger than on the upperside, 
the white margins often tinged with red along their edges. 
Antennas black, head and thorax anteriorly crimson ; rest of 
thorax and abdomen black ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
crimson, the abdomen with a line of black spots along each side. 
$ similar ; ground-colour on both upper and undersides somewhat 
duller, not velvety ; markings on the upperside much duller 
crimson, often nearly white and much irro rated with black scales ; 
the white quadrate spot in interspace 5 generally larger than in 
the J , the white spots in the interspaces above and below it more 
frequently present. 

Enep. d 2 126-157 mm. (4-96-6-2"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikhim: Bhutan; Assam; 
Upper Burma; Tenasserim, extending to the Malay Peninsula. 

A very variable form both in size and in the colour and dis- 
position of the markings on the hind wing. 

Var. polyeuctes, Doubleday. The rf without any trace of a 
white spot above or below the large quadrate white patch in 
interspace 5, the postdiscal and terminal markings all crimson or 
vermilion-red. 

Var. dasarada, Moore, typically differs from typical philoxenus 
as follows : Larger, with broader tails to the hind wing. Upper- 
side : the adnervular pale streaks on the fore wing very broad and 



32 PAPILIONIDJE. 

prominent, extended well into the cell and nearly to the hase of 
the wing ; at the apex they extend outward to the terminal 
margin ; markings on the hind wing larger in proportion to the 
size of the insects; only the posterior markings more or less 
reddish-pink, the rest white, strongly irrorated with black scales. 
Underside : markings similar to those of the typical form, but only 
the spots in interspaces 1, 2 and 3 and on the tail in the hind wing 
reddish pink, the others white, some. slightly tinged along the 
outer edge with pink. This aberration is variable and unstable 
and grades into the typical form. The two fly together at the 
same season and in the same locality. 

Larva. " 2 inches long; pale purple-brown; head and legs 
shining black ; head small, corneous, sparsely covered with black 
hairs ; 2nd segment with two short tubercles on each side and a 
nuchal, transverse, flattened, corneous, tentacular sheath in front ; 
3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th segments each with eight short tubercles, 
four on each side, the subdorsal series longest ; 7th, 8th, 9th and 
10th segments each with six tubercles, and llth, 12th and 13th 
segments each with four shorter tubercles ; each tubercle is red at 
the apex and purple-black streaked at the base; intervening space 
between the tubercles with a transverse and a dorsal series of paler 
purple-black spots ; these latter markings all with pale borders ; 
7th and 8th segments each with a lateral, short, broad, oblique 
white band." (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Reddish-ochreous, broad laterally ; head broad and 
slightly cleft in front ; thorax convex above and beneath, angular 
at the sides ; wing-cases dilated laterally ; abdominal segments 
with lateral foliaceous appendages." (Moore.) 

" Occurs in Sikhim up to 8000 feet and is not uncommon in 
the clearings in April and May. It, especially the female, has a 
very strong disagreeable musky odour, which perseveres long after 
the insect is dead and dry." (de Niceville MS.) 

In Tenasserim I got P. philoxenus at elevations of 2000 to 
4000 feet on the Dawnat range. 

Race lama, Oberthiir. " Smaller than pliiloxenus, Gray ; the 
wings are shorter and proportionately broader ; the red hairs of 
the front of the head are rather densely intermingled with black 
ones ; the prothorax is less red ; the abdomen is black underneath, 
with the edges of the segments red ; the large white patch on the 
hind wings between the discoidal veins and the spot at the apex 

of the tail are liable to obliteration In the shape of the 

hind wings this subspecies is less variable than pldloxenus. The 
males have sometimes the paler ground-colour of the females." 
(Rothschild.) 

Exp. <$ $ 119-129 mm. (4-69-5-10"). 

Hub. A $ recorded from Kashmir (Rothschild). Originally 
described from Western China. 

I have followed Rothschild in treating this form as a race of 
pjtilozenus, but in the Leech collection now in the British Museum 



PAPILIO. 33 

there is a very long series of lama, many of which seem to me 
identical with specimens of philoxenus from Sikhim. The measure- 
ments given above are taken from the Leech collection specimens. 

501. Papilio ravana, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857. p. 96; 

Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 423 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895, p. 262 ; Moore (Byasa), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903. p. 163, 
pi. 428, figs. 1, l-lc, rf$. 

3 Upperside brownish black. Fore wing with velvety -black 
internervular streaks that are extended into the cell in many 
specimens ; veins black. Hind wing : a subterminal series of white 
markings more or less tinged with crimson, the markings in inter- 
spaces 2, 3 and 4 Junular, in 5 and 6 elongate rectangular, in 7 a 
minute spot, the white rectangular marking in interspace 5 con- 
spicuously larger than the others ; a spot on each side of vein 4 
on the tail crimson. Underside similar; ground-colour very much 
paler ; on the hind wing an additional pale crimson spot more 
towards the base of interspaces 1 and 2. Antennas, thorax and 
abdomen black ; head crimson ; beneath : the palpi, sides of the 
thorax, and abdomen crimson, the palpi with a mixture of black 
hairs, the abdomen at the base and on the sides spotted with 
black. $ similar; ground-colour brown, very much paler than 
in the <$ ; internervular, velvety-black streaks on fore wing very 
narrow. Hind wing : ground-colour of outer half beyond discal 
markings black ; markings similar to those in the d 1 , but larger 
and purer white on the upperside ; in addition a series of white 
discal spots near base of interspaces 1, 2, 3 and 4, that in inter- 
space 1 tinged with crimson ; on the underside the markings are 
similar, but both the discal and the subterminal posterior spots 
are more strongly tinged with crimson. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen much as in the d . 

Exp. d2 110-1 18 mm. (4-35-4-67"). 

Hob. N.W. Himalayas : recorded from Kashmir ; Kulu ; Mus- 
soorie ; Kumaon. 

502. Papilio nevilli, Wood-Mason, A. M. N. II. (5) ix, 1882, p. 105 ; 

liothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 203 ; Moore (Byasa), Lep. Ind. 
v, 1901-1903, p. 164, pi. 429, tig. 1 c?- 

Papilio chentsono-, Oberthilr, titudes (VEnt. xi, 1886, p. 13, pi. 1, 
fig. 1 d ; Leech, Butt. China, ii, 1893, p. 543. 

d" $ . Eesembles P. ravana, Moore, but is smaller, with the 
markings also proportionately smaller, d differs as follows : 
the subterminal series of lunules on the hind wing crimson or 
vermilion-red, never white or partly white as in ravana ; sexual 
abdominal fold within white, not blackish-brown ; the subterminal 
red lunule in interspace 3 very often wanting. $> resembles its 
own d 1 rather than the $ of P. ravana, but the white rectangular 
markings in interspaces 5 and 6 are whiter. From P. ravana $ 
it differs in the complete absence of the white discal spots in 



34 PAPILIOSID.E. 

interspaces 1, 2, 3, and 4. In both sexes the tail is black without 
any red spot. 

Exp. 3 80-84 mm. (3-18-3-32''). 

Hob. Within our limits recorded from Cachar; extends to 
W. China. 



503. Papilio crassipes, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. xvii, 1893, p. 2, pi. 4, 
tigs. 38, 38ffl ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 262 ; Moore (Byasa), 
Lep. Ind. \, 1901-1903, p. 171, pi. 434, tig. 2 rf. 

d . " Upperside : fore wing dark fuliginous black, with black 
veins, a longitudinal streak between the veins and streaks within 
the cell. Hind wing very narrow anteriorly and much prolonged 
posteriorly, exterior margin broadly scalloped, tail very broad and 
short ; abdominal margin with a very long folded lappet, which 
when opened displays a lengthened greyish- white woolly andro- 
conial patch ; colour dull greyish black, with two upper marginal 
and two subanal lunules, tip of the tail very obscure dusky red. 
Underside : fore wing paler. Hind wing dull black, with the two 
upper and lower marginal lunules, an irregular-shaped anal lunule, 
and the tail tip bright crimson. Thorax and abdomen above 
black ; front of head and thorax and abdomen beneath crimson ; 
abdomen beneath with black segmental bands ; hind tibia? very 
thick ; antenna? and legs black. 

" Exp. 3 4| inches." (Moore.} 

Hob. Recorded within our limits from the Southern Shan 
States, Upper Burma. 

Originally described from Tonkin. 

504. Papilio alcinous, Klug, Neue Schmett. Ins.-Samml. Berlin, 1836, 
pi. 1, d$. 

Race pembertoni. 

Byasa pembertoni, Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 170, pi. 434, 
tigs. 1, la, d ?'. 

d . Upperside fuliginous black. Fore wing with broad pale 
adnervular streaks extending from near the base to the terminal 
margin, present also in the cell. Hind wing, cell and interspaces 
to near the termen entirely pale, veins black ; a subterminal series 
of pink-white broad lunules in interspaces 2-6 ; tail immaculate. 
Underside similar, ground-colour paler, an additional subterminal 
pink-white lunule in interspace 1 that extends over the vein into 
interspace 2, and another very small one in interspace 7. An- 
tenna3, head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath : the palpi, sides 
oE the thorax, and the abdomen pinkish red, the palpi with an 
admixture of black hairs, the abdomen with transverse black 
edgings of hair to the segments. . " Upperside pale olivescent 
greyish-fuliginous. Pore wing with black veins and streaks. 
Hind wing with the submarginal pale flesh-coloured lunules slightly 
larger than in the d , and with their surrounding marginal borders 



PAP1LIO. 35 

dull dark black. Underside slightly paler than upperside. Hind 
wing with six submarginal pale flesh-coloured lunules and a simi- 
larly coloured broad anal lunule as in J , the surrounding marginal 
border duller black. Thorax and abdomen above fuliginous black ; 
collar, front of head, sides of thorax beneath, and abdomen beneath 
pale crimson, segmental bands on abdomen beneath black ; an- 
tennae arid legs black." (J\loore.) 

Evp, rf 102-108 mm. (4-03-4-28"). 

Hab. Bhutan. 



MACH AON GROUP. 

c? 2 Sexes alike in the shape of the wings and in the pattern 
of colours. Pore wing : costa very slightly ai-ched, curved near 
apex ; apex well marked, obtuse ; ternien straight, very slightly 
oblique ; tornus broadly rounded ; dorsum straight ; cell longer 
than half length of fore wing, upper and middle discocellulars 
subequal. Hind wing : costa very slightly arched, long ; termen 
curved, scalloped, with or without a short, generally slender tail 
at apex of vein 4 ; tornus lobed ; dorsum straight or slightly 
concave ; cell comparatively short, upper discocellular longer than 
middle. Antennae not quite half length of fore wing, club 
somewhat massive but gradual ; abdomen with the anal valves 
prominent. 

Key to the forms of the Machaon Group. 

a. Hind wing with tails. 

a'. Fore wing upperside: base of cell uniform dusky 
black without longitudinal streaks of creamy 
white. 
a 3 . Hind wing upperside : ochvaceous red,tornal 

spot not separated by a black line from blue , p mach race 

lunule above it < *,,.,. qp, 

-'. Hind wing upperside : oehraceous red, tornal ' s Pjru*, p. OU, 
spot separated by a black line from the , p mach race 

blue lunule above it { ., , . ' o ft 

b'. Fore wing upperside : base of cell not uniform ' st//ltmensts > P- db - 
dusky black, traversed longitudinally by four 
more or less broken slender creamy-white 
lines P. xuthus, p. 38. 

b. Hind wing without tails. 

a'. Hind wing upperside : creamy-yellow band 

that crosses wing comparatively narrow so as 

to leave at least a third of the cell at apex 

black P. demoleus, p. 39. 

b'. Hind wing upperside : creamy-yellow band 

that crosses wing comparatively broad so as 

to leave barely a fourth of the cell at apex /p demol race 

black I malayanus, p. 3D. 



36 



505. Papilio machaon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 462. 
llace sphyrus. 

Papilio sphyrus, Hiilner, Eur. Schmett. i, 1818-1827, pi. 155, 

figs. 775 & 776. 
Papilio maohaon, var. asiatica, Menetries, Enumer. Corp. Annn. 

Mus. Petr. i, 1855, p. 70. 
Papilio asiatica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 258 ; id. Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, 

p. 39, pi. 481, figs. 1, la-lc, larva & pupa, rf $, & pi. 482, 

fig". 1, c?. 
Papilio ladakensis, Moore, ,T. A. S. B. 1884, p. 46 ; id. Lep. Ind. vi, 

1903, p. 43, pi. 482, fig. 2 rf . 
Papilio machaon sphjrus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 275; de 

Nictville, Jour. JBomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 592. 

llace sikhiniensis. 
Papilio sikkhnensis, Moore, J.A.S. B. 1884, p. 47 ; id. Lep. Ind. 

vi, 1903, p. 44, pi. 482, figs. 3, 3 a, <$ $ . 
Papilio machaon sikldrnensis, Hothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 276. 

I have followed Kothschild in treating the form of machaon 
found in the N.W. Himalayas as a race, and identical with var. 
spliyms, Hiibuer = var. asiatica, Menetries, but as a matter of 

fact the variation in a 
wide-ranging insect like 
machaon is so great that 
the description below 
taken from Simla speci- 
mens might well stand 
for individuals procured 
in the fens of Cambridge 
or on the Continent. 

d 1 $ . Upperside : fore 
wing dull black irrorated 
on its basal third with 
yellow scales, which also 
form a transverse diffuse 
postdiscal baud and a 
diffuse prespical spot ; a 
broad band across the 
middle of the cell, another 
narrower similar band at 
its apex, a narrow streak 
at base of interspace 9, a 
quadrate spot near base 
of interspace 8, a trans- 
verse discal series of broad streaks that decrease in length 
towards the costa in interspaces 1 a to 7, and a transverse 
subtermiual series of crescentic spots, cream-yellow ; the streak 
in interspace 7 with a superposed irregular diamond-shaped 
black spot. Hind wing: the cell and broad streaks beyond, 
divided only by the black veins and a narrow black edging to the 
discccellulars, cream-yellow. These streaks are variable in length 




CL 

Fig. 6. a. Papilio machaon, race $p 

b. Tornal portion, hind wing of 
P. machaon, Linn., race sikhimensis, 
Moore. 



PAPILIO. 37 

and occupy fully three-fourths of the dorsal margin and of inter- 
space 1, they decrease suddenly and considerably in interspaces 2 
to 5 and lengthen again in the anterior interspaces. Terminal 
halt' of the wing black, with a superposed postdiscal transverse 
series of diffuse blue spots and a subterminal series of cream- 
coloured lunules. Inner margin of the black area irregularly 
zigzag, an ochraceous-red spot at the tornal angle below the blue 
postdiscal spot in interspace 1, the base and dorsal margin of 
wing shaded with black irrorated with yellow scales ; cilia of both 
fore and hind wing prominently yellow in the interspaces. The 
depth of the tint of the cream-coloured portions on both fore and 
hind wings is very variable as is the width of the black areas, 
especially on the hind wing, also the size of the blue postdiscal 
spots on the same wing. Underside pale cream-colour. Fore wing: 
two transverse short bands across cell, another beyond its apex 
where it borders the discocellulars, a prominent broad transverse 
discal band and a terminal broad line, black ; the bauds across the 
cell and beyond its apex more or less diffuse, the discal band 
with its middle very broadly cream-coloured from interspaces 2 to 7 
and thickly sprinkled with black scales. Hind wing : the veins 
and a terminal broad line black, the black on the upperside shows 
through as an irregular transverse sinuous bluish diseal band thickly 
sprinkled with black scales and is bordered interiorly and exteriorly 
by broken transverse black lines, the inner line margined on the 
outer side by a diffuse blue scaling and on the inner side in inter- 
spaces 3 and 4 by an ochraceous-red spot : torual spot and cilia of 
both fore and hind wings as on the upperside. Antenna) black ; 
head, thorax and abdomen cream-colour ; head, thorax and abdomen 
above with a black medial streak, narrow in the c? very broad in 
the $ ; abdomen beneath with narrow lateral ill-defined black lines. 

Rvp. 6 $ 80-110 mm. (3-14-4-33"). 

Hab. Within our limits the N.W. Himalayas from Chitral to 
Nepal ; extending to Central Asia, and North and West to South 
Europe and North Africa. 

Larva. " Newly born. Head large, shining, black and hirsute. 
Body spined, the spines longest on the thorax .... all the spines 
thickly branched and much swollen at the base. A dorsal white 
patch on the 7th and 8th segments (on which the spines are also 
white) ; the rest of the surface ochreous-green. . . . True legs 
shining black, the claspers dark coloured with light tips." (Harjord.) 
Adult: spineless; ground-colour very variable, from yellowish green 
to brilliant green with black transverse markings and lateral 
orange-yellow spots, the white patch on the 7th and 8th segments 
much reduced. Food-plants, Fennel (Fceniculum vulgare) and also 
the flowers not the leaves of Hemlock (Conium maculaium). 

Pupa. Varies in colour from ochraceous grey to pale green. 
Angular and tuberculated ; head bifid ; thorax humped with its 
posterior portion flattened. 

Race sikhimensis, Moore (fig. 6 6). This, the dark eastern 
form of mackcton, is very similar to race sphyrus and on its western 



38 PAPILIO Js ID JE. 

borders merges into that form. It can, however, be distinguished 
by its general dark tone of colouring on the upperside ; on the 
fore wing the discal series of cream-coloured streaks are much 
shorter and conspicuously separated from one another by the broad 
black edgings to the veins ; on the hind wing the dorsal margin 
is very broadly bordered with black which in interspace 1 all but 
merges into the black terminal area, the inner margin of this black 
area extends straight across the wing and is only slightly curved, 
not zigzag ; lastly the tornal ochraceous-red spot is always separated 
from the blue lunule above by a narrow interval of black. Under- 
side similar to that of spliyrus but darker. 

Exp. c? $ 68-78 mm. (2-68-3-1"). 

Hob. The Eastern Himalayas : Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the Chumbi 
Valley : Burma ; Northern and Southern Shan States ; extending 
to Western China and Tibet. 



506. Papilio XUthus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 1767, p. 751 ; fryer, Rhop. 
Nikon. 1886, p. 3, pi. 1, figs. 2, 2 a, 26; Moore in Anderson's 
Zool Res. Tunan Exp. ii, 1878, p. 923. 

Papilio xanthus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 278 ; Moore, Lep. 
Ind. yi, 1903, p. 45. 

c? $ . Upperside black with cream-coloured markings as 
follows : 1'ore wing : cell with four or five slender somewhat 
broken streaks from base that extend for two-thirds of its length, 
followed by a short transverse bar and another similar bar along 
the discocellulars ; a streak from base not extended beyond the 
disc in interspaces ] a and 1, the streak in the latter angulated 
downwards below origin of vein 2, its apical portion double; a 
discal series of elongate subtriangular spots that decrease in size 
towards the costa, in interspaces 2 to 7, the spots in 6 and 7 with 
an oval black medial spot generally dividing them in two ; a spot 
near base of interspace 8 followed by a diffuse small patch of 
similarly coloured scales ; finally a subterminal complete series of 
lunules. In the $ between the discal and subterminal series 
of cream-coloured markings there is a complete postdiscal series of 
transverse somewhat diffuse pale spots. Hind wing : a broad streak 
from base nearly filling the cell, a streak in interspace 1 extended 
for three-fourths of its length : shorter streaks in the interspaces 
beyond the cell ; that in interspace 7 interrupted by a large black 
spot (this spot in the $ paler) ; a postdiscal series of diffuse spots, 
cream-coloured (except the tornal spot which is blue) in the <f r 
blue in the $ , followed by a subterminal series of cream-coloured 
lunules, the lunule at the tornal angle centred with black in the J , in 
the $ also centred with black but with its upper half ochraceous ; 
the lunule in interspace 8 with its upper horn elongate, produced 
down the tail. Underside : fore wing similar, the cream-coloured 
markings broader, the postdiscal series of transverse spots present 
also in the c? ; in both sexes that and the subterminal series form 
continuous bands. Hind wing : the cream -coloured markings very 
broad on the basal half of the wing, separated only by the black 



PAPILIO. 39 

veins ; a discal irregular black band composed of large black spots 
between the veins, these spots are traversed on their inner halves 
by a line of diffuse blue and cream-coloured scaling, and in some of 
the interspaces margined inwardly and outwardly by a shading of 
ochraceous ; the subterminal series as on the upperside but much 
larger and formed of somewhat irregular quadrate spots. 

Exp. S $ 102-120 mm. (4-04-4 -75"). 

Hab. Within our limits, Upper Burma : Bhamo and Northern 
Shan States; extends through Western China to Corea and 
Japan. 

507. Papilio demoleus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 464; Rothsch. 
Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 279 ; Moore (Orpheides), Lep. Ind. v, 
1901-1903, p. 234, pi. 466, tigs. 1, 1 a-lc, larva & pupa, rf $ . 
Papilio erithonius, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii, 1782, p. 67, pi. 232, 
figs. A, B ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 105, pi. 3, 
fig. 6, 6 a, larva & pupa ; id. (Orpheides) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1857, p. 147, 
pi. 61, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, <j> , larva & pupa. 

Race malayanus. 

Papilio erithonius, loc. form malayanus, Wallace, Tram. Linn. Soc. 

xxv, 1865, p. 59. 

Papilio demoleus malayanus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 281. 
Orpheides malayanus, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxi, 1886, p. 50 ; 

id. Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 240. 

<$ $ . Upperside black. Fore wing : base below cell and basal 
half of latter so irrorated with yellow scales as to form more or 
less complete transverse dotted lines, two outwardly oblique yellow 
spots in cell and a curved spot at its upper apex ; a spot at base 
and another beyond it in interspace 8 ; a discal transverse series 
of cream-yellow spots irregular in arrangement and size extends 
from interspace 1 a to 8 ; the series 
interrupted in interspace 5 and the 
spot in interspace 7 double; this is 
followed by a sinuous postdiscal series 
of spots and an admarginal terminal 
series of smaller spots. In many 
specimens between the discal and post- 
discal series the black ground-colour 
is irrorated with yellowish scales. 
Hind wing : base and an edging that 
decreases in width along the dorsal 
margin irrorated with yellow scales ; 
followed by a broad medial yellow 
irregular band, a sinuous postdiscal 
series of outwardly emarginate yellow 
spots and a terminal series of smaller 
Fig. 7. Papilio demoleus. similarly coloured spots as on the fore 
wing. The inner margin of the medial 

band is curved inwards, the outer margin is very irregular and uneven ; 
in the cell the band does not reach the apex, but beyond the cell 




40 PAPILIONID^!. 

there are one or more cream-yellow spots, and the hlack ground- 
colour is irrorated with yellowish scales ; finally at the tornal angle 
there is an oval ochraceous-red spot emarginate on its inner side in 
the $ and in both sexes surmounted by a blue lunule ; while in 
interspace 7 between the medial band and the postdiscal spot there 
is a large ocellus-like spot of the black ground-colour more or less 
irrorated with blue scales. Underside : ground-colour similar, the 
cream-coloured markings paler and conspicuously larger. The 
'atter differ from those on the upperside as follows : Fore wing : 
basal half of cell and base of wing below it with cream-coloured 
streaks that coalesce at base ; irregular ochraceous spots in inter- 
spaces 5 to 8 and the discal series of spots complete not interrupted 
in interspace 5. Hind wing : the black at base of wing and along 
the dorsal margin centred largely with pale cream-colour ; the 
ocellus in interspace 7, the apex of the cell and the black ground- 
colour between the medial band and postdiscal markings in inter- 
spaces 2-6 centred with ochraceous, margined with blue. Antennae 
dark reddish brown, touched with ochraceous on the innerside 
towards the club; head, thorax and abdomen dusky black, the 
head and thorax anteriorly streaked with cream-yellow ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen cream-yellow with lateral longi- 
tudinal black lines on the last. 

Exp. c? $ 80-100 mm. (3-18-3-95"). 

Hob. Kashmir to Ceylon ; Assam to Upper Burma, up to a 
moderate elevation ; extending to Persia and eastwards to China 
and Formosa. 

Larva. After 1st moult tuberculate, brown with a milk-white 
V-shaped mark on the 6th-9th segments, and white lateral streaks 
anterior and posterior to the V-shaped markings. These make the 
larva look for all the world like the droppings of some bird, and it 
is evidently to some extent protected thereby, for while young the 
larva feeds and rests openly on the upperside of the leaf. Full- 
grown the larva is brilliant rich green, velvety and without 
tubercles, the sides and some of the segments dorsally marked 
with black, yellowish white, and rich brown ; head, legs and prolegs 
reddish brown. The food-plant varies, the "bael" (JZgle), " her" 
(Zizyphu8\ lime, orange and pumelo are the chief. 

Pupa. Green or yellowish-brown according to surroundings. 

Race malayanus, "Wallace. A slightly differentiated and not 
very constant race ; distinguishable by the width (measured in the 
cell) of the median cream-coloured band on the hind wing. In 
typical demoleus the apical third of the cell is black on the upper- 
side ; in the present race the cream-coloured median band is 
broader, and leaves less than a fourth of the cell at apex black. 

Exp. 3 $ as in the typical form. 

Hab. Lower Burma ; Tenasserim ; Malay Peninsula. Many 
specimens from Assam to Lower Burma are intermediate as 
regards the width of the median transverse band on the hind 
wing. 



PAPILIO. 4 1 



GEOTJP. 

c? $ . Fore wing broadly triangular ; costa widely arched ; apex 
moderately pointed but not acute ; termeii straight, very slightly 
concave; tornus broadly rounded ; dorsum slightly sinuous, nearly 
straight, cell long, well over half length of wing; outer Jialfofwiny 
on the upperside in male more or less densely hairy so as to conceal 
the scaling. Hind wing : costa arched, terraen scalloped, with at 
apex of vein 4 a broad spatulate tail ; cell comparatively short ; 
upper discocellular markedly longer than middle discocellular. 

Key to the forms of the Helenus group. 

A. Hind wing with an upper discal white or 

creamy-white patch ; no continuous white 
band across. 
. Hind wing upperside : upper discal white 

patch extends from interspaces 5 to 7. 
a'. Hind wing underside : without a series of 

discal blue lunules. 

a 2 . Fore wing underside : pale grey inter- 
nervular streaks anteriorly elongate that 
reach up to apex of cell ............ P. helenus, p. 41. 

b~. Fore wing underside : pale grey inter- 

nervular streaks anteriorly not elongate , , , 

nor extended to apex of cell ...... . . . J R Me *> , race .. 

//. Hind wing underside: with a series of ' 7 tlak * ha > P- 4J - 
discal blue lunules .................. \ R helenus > race . 

6. Hind wing upperside: upper discal white ' mooreanus, p. 43. 
patch extended from interspaces 4 to 7 .... P. isicara, p. 43. 

B. Hind wing with a greenish- or yellowish-white 

continuous band across. 

a. This band commencing from above middle of 

dorsal margin .......................... P. demotion, p. 44. 

b. This band commencing from middle of dorsal , T> 7 mn j: nn 

margin or from a little below it .......... { * ** p.%5. 

508. Papilio helenus, Linn. St/st. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 459 ; Moore, Cat. 

Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 101 ; Moore (Charus), Jour. Linn. 

Soc. xxi, 1889, p. 61; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 284 ; Moore, 

(Charus), Lep. 2nd, v, 1901-1903, p. 208, pi. 454, figs. 1 

1 -l c, <5 $ . 

Eace daksha. 
Papilio helenus, Moore (nee Linn.), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. l.C. i, 1857, 

pi. 3, figs. 2, 2 a, larva & pupa ; Davidson $ Aitken, Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 367. 
Papilio (Charus) daksha, Hampson, J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 363 ; Moore 

(Charus), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 210, pi. 455, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, 

larva & pupa, tf $ . 
Papilio helenus daksha, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 286. 

Race mooreanus. 

Charus heleuus, Moore (nee Linn.), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 149, pi. 58, 
fig. 3. 



42 



PAPILIONID.E. 



Papilio helenus mooreanus, RntJtsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 286. 
Charus mooreanus, Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 211. 



cJ ? . Upperside brownish black to rich velvety black. Fore 
wing : four slender lines in cell and outer internervular hairy streaks 
that vary in width brown, these latter give in many specimens 
a golden-brown appearance in certain lights to the terminal half 
of the wing. Hind wing : a more or less quadrate white spot in 
interspace 7, with two more elongate similar spots in the inter- 
spaces below that form a 
conspicuous upper discal 
white patch, the outer 
margin of which is zigzag; 
this is followed by a series 
of admarginal more or 
less imperfect claret-red 
rings in interspaces 1 to 5 
that enclose large intense 
black oval spots. The 
number of these rings is 
very variable, the tornal 
one is always present, the 
rest partially or com- 
pletely obsolescent. Cilia 
black alternated with 
white. Underside: duller, 
more opaque black. Fore 
wing similar to the upper- 
side but the cellular and 
internervular streaks formed of scales, not hairs, greyish white 
in colour and more clearly denned, the latter anteriorly do not 
reach the terminal margin but extend to the apex of the cell. 
Hind wing : markings similar to those on the upperside, but 
the upper spot of the discal white patch generally crescentic in 
shape, the whole patch generally smaller and the spots that 
compose it divided by the black veins ; the admarginal series of 
rings are dull red and only the tornal and the ring in inter- 
space 2 are more or less complete, the rest of the series is reduced 
to a curved subterminal line of lunules that extends from inter- 
spaces 3 to 7 ; in addition there is an inner broad red lunular spot 
in interspace 2 in continuation of the inner portion of the red 
ring at the tornal angle ; both the lunule and the inner portion 
of the tornal ring traversed by a line of white scales. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen black ; the abdomen beneath touched 
with grevish white along the sides. 
Exp. J $ 1 00-140 mm. (3'96-5'52"). 

Hab. The Himalayas at no great elevation from Mussoorie to 
Sikhim ; the hills of Assam, Burma and Tenasserim, extending 
to Siam, China and the Malay Peninsula. 

Race daksha, Harnpson. Similar to the typical form, from 




Fig. 8. a. Papilio helenus, Linn. 

b. Venation of anterior portion of 
hind wing. 



PAPILIO. 43 

which it can be distinguished as follows : <S $ . Underside of 
fore wing : the grey internervular streaks much shorter, formed 
into a broad transverse discal series which widens considerably 
towards the costa but posteriorly stops far short of the terminal 
margin. Hind wing : the upper discal white patch considerably 
larger than in P. helenus both on the upper and undersides ; the 
upper spot in interspace 7, which on the underside of the hind 
wing in P. helenus is generally crescent-shaped, in the present 
race is always much longer. Below the white patch there are 
also in some specimens two red crescent-shaped marks in addition 
to those that are found in P. helenus. 

Exp. 3 $ 118-140 mm. (4-26-5-52"). 

Hob. Southern India ; the IS'ilgiris ; Malabar ; Travancore. 

Messrs. Davidson and Aitken have published the following notes 
about the larva and pupa : " We got one larva of this on the 
Tirphal (Xanthoxylon rhetsa ?), a horribly thorny tree leafless in 
the dry season, the berries of which are used by the natives 
in currv. The fourth and fifth segments were even more tumid 
than in P. polymnestor, forming a broad and high hump, nearly 
flat on the top, and bounded before and behind by rugged ridges 
of a whitish or pale grey colour chequered with fine brown lines. 
The anterior ridge ended in a large black and white ocellus on 
each side, and the whole aspect of the creature from the front 
had a strikingly grim likeness to the head of some beast or 
reptile, with heavy brow and angry eyes. Jn other respects 
no separate description of this larva is necessary. The pupa was 
distinguishable from that of P. polymnestor, chiefly by the two 
projecting points on the head being somewhat curved upwards." 

Race mooreanus, Eothschild. " Grey streaks on the underside 
of the fore wings as in P. helenus dalcsha, Hamps. ; the Naples- 
yellow scales of the upperside of the fore wings form conspicuous 
internervular streaks in the outer region ; the white area of the 
hind wings smaller ( S ) beneath than above ; on the underside of 
the hind wings there is a complete series of seven subdiscal blue 
lunules of which the three anterior stand at the outer edge of the 
white discal marks, and of which the two posterior are situated 
within the anal and subanal rufous spots." 

Exp. <S 2 124-146 mm. (4-9-5-76"). 

Hab. Ceylon. 

509. Papilio iswara, White, Entom. i, 1842, p. 280; Moore, Cat. Lep. 
Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 101 ; Bothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 288 ; 
Moore (Charus), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 212, pi. 456, tigs. 1, 
!,<?$. 

c? $ . Very closely resembles P. helenus, but differs as follows : 
Upperside : the upper discal creamy-white spot on the hind wing is 
much larger and extends into interspace 4 ; in the $ and in some 
<3 specimens also there is some obscure, diffuse, white scaling 
below tbat again. Underside : fore wing differs from fore wing 



44 

of typical Jielenus in the shortness of the internervular grey streaks, 
which are somewhat as in the fore wing of the race daksJia. 
Hind wing : upper discal white patch smaller than on the upper- 
side and distinctly divided into four by the black veins that cross 
it ; incomplete broad orange-red admarginal rings that enclose 
large black spots at the tornal angle and at apex of interspace 2, 
the former connected with the discal white patch by a series of 
obscure bluish lunules; the subterminal series of orange-red 
lunules so conspicuous in typical lielenus entirely absent. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in lielenus. 

Exp. 3 2 127-145 mm. (5-5-72"). 

Hab. Malay Peninsula ; extending up into the southern islands 
of the Mergui Archipelago, and southwards to Sumatra and 
Borneo. 



510. Papilio demolion, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 1776, p. 140, pi. 89, 
figs. A, B ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 105, pi. 3, 
figs. 5, 5o, larva & pupa; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 282 ; 
Moore (Araminta), Lep. Ind. v. 1901-1903, p. 219, pi. 460, 
figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, larva & pupa, rf . 

Race liomedon. 

Papilio liomedon, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 575; Davidson $ Airten, 
Jour. Bomb. A. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 367, pi. D, figs. 1-3, larva & 
pupa ; Moore (Araminta), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 221, pi. 461, 
figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, larva & pupa, rf 5 

Papilio demolion liomedon, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 283. 

c? $ . Upperside brownish black. Fore and hind wings crossed 
by a broad prominent oblique pale greenish or yellowish-white 
band that commences just before the middle of the dorsal margin 
of the hind wing, crosses over on to the fore wing and is continued 
as a series of spots that diminish in size in the upper interspaces 
to the apex of that wing ; on the hind wing this is followed by 
a subterminal series of similarly-coloured lunules. Underside 
fuliginous black, the transverse band that crosses the wings as 
on the upperside. Pore wing : cell with a series of four slender 
longitudinal pale lines from base ; the veins also picked out with 
pale lines ; on the veins that run to the terminal margin these 
lines are conspicuous only at the apices ; there are besides short 
similar lines between the veins that extend to the terminal 
margin. Hind wing: the interspaces beyond the transverse 
medial greenish-white band marked with broad jet-black streaks 
up to the subterrmnal line of greenish-white lunules ; these 
streaks medially interrupted by a transverse line of blue scales 
and succeeded in interspaces 1 and 7 by preapical ochraceous- 
yellow spots ; terminal margin beyond the line of lunules black. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen fuliginous black ; beneath, 
the palpi and abdomen greenish white, the thorax dark grey. 

Kvp. d $ 95-112 mm. (3-76-4-42"). 



PAPILIO. 45 

Hal. Tenasserim ; extending to Siam ; the Malay Peninsula ; 
Sumatra; Java. 

Larva. " Similar to that of P. erithoniiis (i. e. Papilio demoleus). 
Anterior segments scutellated, furnished with two tentacular 
processes on the 2nd segment and two short fleshy processes on 
the 9th and anal segments." (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Curved abruptly backwards ; head bifid ; thorax with 
a lengthened curved acute thoracic process." (Moore.) 

Race liomedon, Moore. A slightly differentiated race distin- 
guishable chiefly by the pale greenish-yellow band that crosses 
the wings starting from the middle and not from just before the 
middle of the dorsal margin of the hind wing, also this band is 
composed entirely of separate spots on the fore wing. 

Exp. 6 $ 110-115 mm. (4-34-4-54"). 

Hab. Southern India. 

A very interesting account of the life-history of this insect is 
given by Messrs. Davidson and Aitken (I. c.). One of these 
gentlemen watched a female, P. liomedon, laying its eggs on a 
tender shoot of a small jungle tree or shrub (Acronycliia lauri- 
folia). There were " ten eggs, laid one on top of the other." 
Of the caterpillars which emerged five days after the eggs were 
laid, " five passed successfully through all dangers and became 
beautiful specimens, one female and four males. (This is one of 
the butterflies of which we rarely find females.) All through 
their lives these Iarva3 continued gregarious, dispersing occa- 
sionally to feed, but always returning to rest side by side on the 
upper surface of a leaf. The following dates may be interesting. 
Eggs laid 2nd August, hatched 7th August; skins cast (and eaten) 
12th August ; again 17th August ; again 20th to 22nd August. 
The most advanced cast its skin again on the 28th August, became 
a pupa on the 2nd of September, and emerged on the 15th of 
September. The others followed within two days. At first the 
larvae were of an oily yellow colour and bore many pairs of spiny 
points, but these disappeared with age and after the last moult 
there were only the short fleshy processes on the 2nd and last 
segment which characterise the group, and one additional curved 
pair on the ninth segment. 

" The colour after the last moult was a clear slaty-blue, 
changing eventually to a greenish tint, with light brown markings 
very much the same as those w 7 hich characterise the rest of the 
group. The pupa was more abruptly bent back from the middle 
of the thorax than that of P. eritJionius (i. e. P. demoleus) and 
adorned on the thorax with a sword-shaped horn, -fully three- 
eighths of an inch long, and always bent either to the right or 
the left. The colour was brown or green and j'ellow according 
to situation." 



46 



LV GROUP. 

c? . Tore wing : costa widely arched ; apex somewhat produced 
but broadly rounded ; termen slightly concave below apex, then 
oblique ; tornus rounded ; dorsum slightly sinuous ; cell more 
than half length of wing. Hind wing comparatively short and 
broad ; costa and termen united, formed into a bold continuous 
curve, the latter deeply sinuous : dorsum straight ; cell compara- 
tively short ; upper discocellular much longer than the middle 
discocellular. Antennas slender, not quite half length of fore 
wing ; club slight, gradual. 

. Occasionally in one form, always in the other forms, with a 
broad spatulate tail at apex of vein 4. 

Key to the forms of the Memnon group. 

3 c?. 
<i. Hind wing upperside : ground-colour 

throughout dark indigo-blue black. 
a! ' . Hind wing upperside : without any 
distinct continuous transverse medial 
blue baud, but with internervular 
streaks of blue scales, sometimes 
entirely absent, wing then uniform 
blue-black. 

a 2 . Such streaks absent or present, 
when present not heavily marked, 
not outwardly pointed, extended 

nearly to terminal margin P. memnon, race agenor, 

b 2 . Such streaks always present, heavily fp. 47. 

marked, pointed outwardly, and 

well short of terminal margin .... P. polymnestoroid.es, p. 52. 
b'. Hind wing upperside : with a prominent 
continuous transverse broad medial 

blue band P. mayo, p. 49. 

b. Hind wing upperside : ground-colour 
basal third black, remainder more or 
less pale blue. 

'. Hind wing upperside: outer portion 
entirely pale blue with black mark- 
ings P. polymnestor, p. 50. 

b'. Hind wing upperside : outer portion 
pale blue with a very strong yellow 

tint P. polymnestor, race 

\_parinda, p. 51. 

a. Hind wing tailed. 

a. Tail uniform black, without a red 

spot near apex P. memnon, race agenor 

V. Tail not uniform black, with a red (tailed form), p. 49. 

spot near apex P. mayo, p. 49. 



PAPILIO. 



47 



b. Hind wing not tailed. 

a'. Hind wing: with a large black-centred 

red tornal spot on upperside 

//. Hind wing : without a red tornal spot 

on upperside. 

a 2 . Hind wing upperside : with a medial 
series of outwardly pointed inter- 
nervular blue streaks as in male . . 
4 3 . Hind wing : upperside with ground- 
colour and markings as in respec- 
tive males . . 



P. memnon, race agenor 
(tailless forms), p. 48. 



P. polymnestoroides, p. 52. 

P. polymnestor, p. 50. 
P. polymnestor, race 

\_parinda, p. 51. 

oil. Papilio memnon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 460. 

Race agenor. 

Papilio agenor, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 460, ; Hilbner 
(Iliades), Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 89; Aurivillius, Kongl. So. Vet.- 
Akad. Handl. xix (5) 1882, p. 18 ; Moore (Iliades), Lep. 2nd. v, 
1901-1903, p. 194, pis. 446-449. 

Papilio androgeos, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 1776, p. 142, pi. 91, 
figs. A, B, c? ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 428. 

Papilio memnon agenor, Eothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 316, rf $ . 

Race agenor, Linn. An extremely variable polymorphic form, 
described originally from a tailless $ . The common form of 

the d 1 is the one figured as 
androgeos by Cramer. The 
tailed form of the $ seems 
to be more common than the 
tailless forms, but both tailed 
and tailless forms of the $ 
occur throughout its range. 

c? . First form. Upper- 
side : deep indigo-blue black ; 
fore wing with or without a 
short dark red streak at base 
of subcostal cell ; both fore 
and hind wings with more or 
less well-marked silvery-blue 
adnervular streaks that do 
not reach the terminal mar- 
gin ; these are most promi- 
nent on the hind wing where 
they extend into the apex 
of the cell ; on the fore 
wing they are confined to 
the outer half and become obsolescent towards the costa. 
Underside : fore wing ground-colour dull black ; the adnervular 
silvery-blue streaks as on the upperside but much broader, more 
prominent and extended well into the cell ; a broad dark red 
patch at base of the latter. Hind wing dull opaque black with 
broad velvety-blacker streaks in the interspaces, each broadened 




Fig. 9. Papilio memnon, race agenor, 
Linn., $. f. 



48 

towards the apex but not extended to the terminal margin ; in 
interspaces 1-4 the apical portion of these streaks is separate and 
forms a large oval spot ; base of wing and tornal area red, on the 
former traversed by the black veins, on the latter very variable 
in extent, more or less formed into rings round the subterminal 
black spots in interspaces 1 and 2, sometimes in 3 also ; finally a 
postdiscal shading of blue scales more or less lunular in each 
interspace. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen black; the 
abdomen brownish beneath. 

tf . Second form = ab. depelchini, Robbe. Upperside: the ad- 
nervular blue scaled streaks more or less obsolescent, sometimes 
completely obsolescent on the fore wing, or obsolescent on the 
fore and strongly marked on the hind wing. Underside: fore 
wing like that of the typical form ; hind wing with red markings 
at the tornal angle that extend to interspace 4 ; one or more 
postdiscal red lunules also in the anterior interspaces. I have 
seen specimens of this form from Sikhim, Assam and strange to 
say, from Great Nicobar also. 

(5 . Third form = ab. primigeniiis, fiothsch. " Upperside: hind 
wing in the anal region with a series of four (Khasia Hills 
spscimen, type), or two (Sikhim specimen), black spots wholly 
encircled with almost white scaling ; bluish-grey streaks much 
whiter than in the usual form of the rf . Underside : hind wing 
with an anal and three submargiual complete grey rings, the anal 
ring and a grey subdiscal lunule between the two lower median 
nervules (veins 2 and 3) tinged with red at their basal sides ; in 
the Khasia Hill specimen there is a second grey lunule before the 
middle median nervule (vein 3) and in each of the three anterior 
cellules stands, close to the white marginal fringe, a grey spot, 
which is partly joined to a submarginal indistinct lunule so as to 
form an incomplete submarginal grey ring ; the subdiscal series 
of blue spots is incomplete ; in the Sikhim specimen these spots 
are rather well-defined.''' (Rothschild, t. c.) 

$ . First form : tailless. Upperside: fore wing, the basal third 
of the cell vermilion-red touched outwardly with white, a speck 
of vermilion-red at base of interspace 2, the basal third of inter- 
spaces 1 and 2 velvety black, remainder of the wing grey with 
the veins and medial internervular streaks dusky black. Hind 
wing : basal half of wing indigo-blue black ; terminal half white, 
the white traversed by black veins, broadly bordered on each side 
by black ; terminal margin also somewhat broadly black; inter- 
spaces 1 to 7 with a series of large velvety-black oblong spots on 
the white, those in the interspaces 1 to 3 encircled by a diffuse 
shading of reddish or ochreous scales, those in the anterior 
interspaces confluent outwardly with the black terminal margin. 
In some specimens the white does not extend above interspace 5, 
the basal and anterior portions of the wing are black with a dusting 
of bluish scales. In others the black terminal margin is very 
narrow and the subterminal spots distinct from it up to inter- 
space 6. Underside very similar to the upperside, with similar 



PAPILIO. 49 

markings ; in a few specimens with an inner postdiscal row of 
dark diffuse spots on the white of the hind wing; the base of this 
wing red, the terminal margin with a grey edging traversed by 
the black veins. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen brownish 
black. 

$. Second form: tailless = ab. butlerianus, Eothsch. Upper- 
side : fore wing as in the typical form but paler, often with a 
whitish patch posteriorly. Hind wing indigo-green, streaks of 
bine scaling as in the $ ; interspace 1 whitish, outwardly merged 
into a reddish shading round a subterminal velvety-black spot. 
Underside : fore wing as in the typical $ but paler. Hind wing 
as in many of the males, bnt with a broad white streak nearly from 
base in interspace 1. 

$. Third form: tailed = ab. alcanor, Cramer. Upperside, 
fore w T ing : basal third of cell and a minute spot at base of inter- 
space 2 vermilion-red ; a velvety-black patch at bases of inter- 
spaces 1 and 2 ; rest of the wing brown or greyish-brown with 
black veins and internervular black streaks. Hind wing black, 
apical third to apical half of cell (ab. distantianus, Eothsch.) and 
broad streaks at bases of interspaces 1 to 6 white, the latter 
tinged outwardly with vermilion-red and very variable in length, 
sometimes entirely absent in one or more of the interspaces 
mentioned ; lastly a terminal series of vermilion-red admarginal 
spots that decrease in size from interspaces 1 to 7 ; the red in 
interspace 1 lengthened, occupying half the interspace but it 
is generally interrupted by a large subtermiual black spot ; cilia 
black alternated with white in the interspaces. Underside similar, 
ground-colour of fore wing paler ; base of hind wing red, terminal 
spots vermilion-red, markings paler, the anterior admargiual 
spots ochraceous to greyish-white. Antennae, head, thorax and a 
line on the abdomen above brownish black, a broad baud on the 
sides of the abdomen bright ochraceous ; beneath, the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen dusky black. 

Exp. J $ 120--16G mm. (4-T4-6-56"). 

Hab. India (excluding the North- West, Central India, and 
Ceylon) ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the Malay 
Peninsula ; China and Japan. 

Pound alike in the hills and the plains. In the Himalayas, 
Southern India, Assam, Burma, and Tenasserim up to 5000 ft. 
Both sexes are entirely inodorous. 

512. Papilio mayo, Atkinson, P. Z. S. 1873. p. 736, pi. 63, fig. 1 ; 
W.-M. S> de N. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 237, & 1881, p. 252 ; 
Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 322 ; Moore (Ileades), Lep. Lid. 
v, 1901-1903,. p. 201, pi. 450, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 6, rf $ . 
Papilio cliaricles, Hewitson, A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, 1874, p. 356 $ ; 
W.-M. $ de N. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 237. 

c? Upperside rich velvety black. Tore wing with a subter- 
minal series of greenish-yellow irrorated internervular streaks, 
sometimes more or less obsolescent. Hind wing : a very broad 

VOL. II. E 



50 PAPILIONID,E. 

discal band pale blue, composed of broad outwardly more or less 
emarginate streaks in interspaces 1 to 7 ; cilia : fore wing black, 
hind wing black alternated with white in the interspaces. Under- 
side opaque blue-black. Fore wing with a dark red streak at base 
and the subterminal internervular streaks as on the the upperside 
but grey and more prominent. Hind wing with 4 or 5 small 
patches of dark red at base, a complete dark red ocellus in inter- 
spaces 1 and 2, and indistinct subterminal very variable markings 
of red in the other interspaces, sometimes formed into half ocelli 
in interspaces 3 and 4 ; within this line of markings there is an 
incomplete discal lunular series of mixed red and blue scaling. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black. closely resembles 
the tailed form of the $ of P. memnon, race agenor, but on the 
disc of the fore wing the internervular broad pale streaks are 
nearly white, and on the hind wing the white streaks in the 
interspaces beyond and outside the cell shorter and strongly 
tinged with red along their edges, while the dark red is more 
extended, especially in the tornal area where it covers the terminal 
three-fourths of interspaces 1 and 2, interrupted in 1 by a 
comparatively round oval black spot and in 2 by a broad elongate 
black patch ; apical half of tail vermilion-red, whitish at apex. 

Exp. rf $ 132-152 mm. (5-22-6-3"). 

Hub. The Andarnans. 

513. Papilio polymnestor (PI. XII, fig. 85), Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 
1775, p. 83, pi. 53, tigs. A, B ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 
1857, p. 101, pi. 3, tigs. 1, 1 a, larva & pupa ; JJaoidson Sf Aitken, 
Jour. Bomb. N. U. Soc. v, 1890, p. 36; Rothsch. Nov. Zool, ii, 
1895, p. 329 ; Moore (Iliades), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 203, 
pi. 452, tigs. I, I a, I b, larva & pupa, tf $ . 

Eace parinda. 

Papilio parinda, Moore (Iliades), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1857, p. 148, pi. 60, 

tigs. 1, 1 a-\ b, <S $ , larva & pupa. 
Papilio polymnestor parinda, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 330. 

J . Upperside rich velvety black. Fore wing with a postdiscal 
band composed of internervular broad blue streaks gradually 
shortened and obsolescent anteriorly, not extended beyond inter- 
space 6. Hind wing : the terminal three-fourths beyond a line 
crossing the apical third of the cell pale blue, or greyish blue, 
with superposed powtdiscal, subtermiual and terminal series of 
black spots the postdiscal spots elongate, inwardly conical ; the 
subterminal oval, placed in the interspaces, the terminal irregular, 
placed along the apices of the veins and anteriorly coalescing 
more or less with the subterminal spots. Underside opaque black. 
Fore wing with an elongate spot of dark red at base of cell ; the 
postdiscal transverse series of streaks as on the upperside but 
grey tinged with ochraceous and extended right up to the costa; 
in some specimens similar but narrow streaks also in the cell. 
Hind wing with five irregular small patches of red at base, the 



PAPILIO. 51 

outer three-fourths of the wing grey touched with ochraceous, but 
generally narrower than the blue on the upperside ; the inner 
margin of the grey area crosses the wing beyond the cell ; the post- 
discal and subterininal black spots as on the upperside. In some 
specimens this grey area is greatly restricted, its inner margin 
crossing the wing well beyond the apex of the cell ; the subtermiual 
spots merged completely with the terminal spots and form a 
comparatively broad terminal black band. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen blackish brown. 2 very similar but the inte.r- 
nervular streaks on the fore wing paler, extended into the cell 
both on the upper and undersides. Hind wing : the pale blue 
area on the upperside and the corresponding grey area on the 
underside paler. In some specimens there is a diffuse short 
crimson streak at the base of the cell of the fore wing on the 
upperside. 

Rep. <S 2 131-156 mm. (5-48-6-14"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Lower Bengal ; Central and Southern India. 

Larva and pupa. "We noticed this butterfly at Matheran in 
the month of March laying its eggs on a lime tree in the garden. 
In Karwar we reared a great many in September and October on 
a common w ild orange (Atalantia, sp. ?). Another favourite food 
appears to be Garcinia xanihochymus. In form, colour and 
markings the larva is very similar to that of the last two 
(P. demoleus and P. polytes\ but the enlargement of the 4th and 
5th segments is much exaggerated, especially after the last moult. 
In the pupa the head-case and its two projecting points are more 
elongated." (Davidson &f Aitken.) 

Race parinda, Moore. I have, following Eothschild, regarded 
this form as a distinguishable race, but the males are very similar 
to the typical form, though the females can always be descrimi- 
nated. It might well stand as polymnestor with a dimorphic 2 iu 
Ceylon. 

cJ . Differs in the broader postdiscal blue band on the uppei'- 
side of the fore wing and the greater extent of the blue area on 
the hind wing. 2 has the same band on the fore wing and the 
blue area on the hind wing much paler and invariably tinged 
(sometimes very strongly so) with yellow. On the underside 
both the band on the fore wing and the outer area on the hind 
wing are generally ochraceous-yellow without a touch of blue ; 
the former much broader than in the typical form. 

Rvp. J 2 130-156 mm. (5-16-6-14"). 

Hab. Confined so far as is known to Ceylon. 

Larva. " Smooth, glossy green ; with a whitish lower lateral 
band from 6th to anal segment, a broad similar coloured band 
obliquely ascending the 8th and 9th and a similar band on the 
10th segment ; anterior shield edged with white, its posterior 
dorsal end bordered by a transverse blackish-marked crest, a 
similar crest also across the 4th segment ending on each side in 
a large ocollated spot. Feeds on Citrus decumana" (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Green or olive-brown." (Moore.} 



52 PAPILIONIDJ. 

514. Papilio polymnestoroides, Moore (Iliades), Leo. Ind. v, 1001- 
1903, p. 202, pi. 451, figs. 1, 2, rf $ . 

d 1 $ . Differs from P. polymnestor, Cramer, as follows : 
$ Upperside, fore wing : the adnervular streaks on outer portion 
of wing not so broad. Hind wing : basal portion to apex of cell 
black, beyond this a series of adnervular blue streaks that do not 
reach the outer margin, each pair coming to a point outwardly on 
the veins ; these are followed by a series of very obscure large 
subterminal spots of a shade darker than the ground-colour in 
interspaces 1 to 4. Cilia black, touched with white in the inter- 
spaces. Underside opaque black, a patch of dark red at base of 
wings. Fore wing as on the upperside but with the greyish-blue 
streaks broader. Hind wing with a discal and a subterminal 
series of large oval black spots, the former surrounded by a broad 
grey margin ; tornus narrowly i-ed. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in polymnestor. 5 . Upperside : fore wing with pale 
greyish adnervular streaks on outer half narrower than \n polym- 
nestor ; base of cell entirely filled with a broad red streak ; a very 
short streak above base of vein 1. Hind wing : ground-colour 
dull velvety brown, with discal, subterminal and terminal rows of 
black spots as in polymnestor, only more obscure ; the medial area 
with a series of broad blue outwardly pointed adnervular streaks 
as in the c?; the black spot at tornns bordered with grey. Under- 
side : differs chiefly from the underside of polymnestor in the grey 
internervular streaks on the outer portions of the fore wing that 
are longer and produced to the bases of the anterior interspaces 
inwardly and outwardly almost to the terminal margin ; on the 
hind wing the discal series of spots are closer to the subterminal 
series. 

Exp. S $ 127-148 mm. (5-5-86"). 

Hab. Recorded only from Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

I have provisionally followed Moore in keeping this form 
distinct from P. polymnestor, but it is probably only a rare aber- 
ration of that insect. 



PBOTENOR GBOUP. 

c? 5 alike. Fore wing somewhat elongate ; costa arched, apex 
produced but rounded ; termen oblique, slightly concave ; tornus 
rounded ; dorsuni straight, about half length of costa ; cell broad 
and long, more than half length of wing. Hind wing : costa and 
termen to apex of vein 2 form one long continuous curve, the 
termen broadly scalloped ; dorsum to tornal angle straight, below 
the latter the termen emarginate ; cell narrow, comparatively 
short ; subcostal vein and upper discocellular subequal. J with a 
white costal streak on the upperside of the hind wing. Antenna 
not half length of fore wing, slender; club elongate, gradual, 
slight. 

.Represented within our limits by the typical form only : two 



PAPILIO. 53 

others, P. demetriits, Cramer, and -P. macilentus, Janson, are recorded 
from Japan and China. 



515. Papilio protenor, Cramer, Pap. J5.rot. i, 1775, p. 77, pi. 49, 
figs. A, B ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 98 ; 
Rolhsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 331 ; Mackinnon fy de N. Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 592, pi. w,fig. 23 ; Moore (Sainia), 
Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 188, pi. 444, figs. 1, la-Id, larva, 



d" . Upperside velvety indigo-blue black, duller on the fore wing 
than on the hind wing. Fore wing with pale adnervular streaks 
broadened along the terminal margin and extended well into the 
cell. Hind wing : a broad pale yellowish-white subcostal streak ; 
interspaces 4 to 6 irrorated with bluish scales ; tornal angle 
marked with red. Underside : fore wing dull black ; adnervular 
streaks distinctly grey and much broader than on the upperside. 
Hind wing : ground-colour as on the upperside, a large irregularly- 
shaped patch at the tornal angle that extends into interspace 2, 
and subterrninallunules in interspaces, 2, 6, and 7 dull pinkish-red, 
cell irrorated more or less with a sprinkling of blue scales ; the 
tornal patch with a black, outwardly 
blue-edged, round medial spot, and inter- 
spaces 4 and 5 with subterminal irrora- 
tions of blue scales. Antennae black ; 
head, thorax and abdomen dark brownish 
black. $ similar. Upperside : ground- 
colour deep brownish black ; adnervular 
streaks on fore wing yellowish; irroration 
of blue scales on outer portions of hind 
wing more dense ; no white subcostal 
streak ; red patch at tornal angle large 
with an oval medial black spot ; another 
similar black spot subterminally in inter- 
space 2 posteriorly bordered by a crescent- 
shaped red mark. Underside similar to 
that in the male, differs in the adnervular 
streaks on the fore wing that are broader 
and paler ; on the hind wing the torual 
red patch is paler and larger, and is ex- 
tended broadly anteriorly and outwards 
towards the termen into interspace 2 : 
in the latter it coalesces with a broad subterminal black-centred 
red ocellus ; the irroration of blue scales in interspace 5 with a 
small subterminal red lunule below it. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the c? 

Exp. 6 ? 100-133 mm. (3-95-5-35"). 

Hob. The Himalayas, from Mussoorie to Sikhim in the low hot 
valleys, but ascending up to 5000 ft. ; the hills of Assam, Burma 
and Tenasserira, extending to W. China and Siam. 




Fig. 10. Hind wing of 
Papilio protenor. 



54 



PAPILIONIDJE. 



Larva. " Green, with a yellow collar and brown lichen-like 
markings. Feeds on Zanthoxylum alatum." (Mackinnon.) 

Pupa. " Some pupae are coloured like rough bark, others are 
uniformly green." (MacJcinnon.) 



RHETENOH G-BOUP. 

c? . Fore wing elongate, costa widely arched ; apex produced 
and somewhat pointed ; termen very oblique ; tornus broadly 
rounded ; dorsum straight, very short, not nearly .half length of 
costa ; cell elougate, more than half length of wing. Hind wing 
elongate, costa and termen form a continuous curve, the latter 
broadly scalloped, abruptly curved upwards from apex of vein 3 to 
tornal angle ; dorsum straight ; cell comparatively short ; upper 
discocellular much longer than middle. $ . Similar, but the posterior 
portion of the hind wing below vein 4 broadly produced so as to 
give the appearance of a short broad spatulate tail at apex of 
vein 4. Antennae slender, not half length of fore wing ; club 
gradual, elongate, but well-marked ; abdomen comparatively short 
and not massive. 

A single form known. 

516. Papilio rhetenor (PI. XII, fig. 86 ), Westiouod, Arcana Ent. 
i, 1842, p. 59, pi. 16, fi-?s. I, la, c? ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. 
E.I. C. i, 1857, p. 98 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 333 ; Sioinh. 
(Sania) Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, p. 812; Moore (Panosmiopsis), 
Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 191, pi. 445, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, tf $ . 

J . Upperside black with, in some lights, an obscure dark 
indigo-blue tint. Fore wing : a series of 
pale adnervular streaks not extended to the 
base or quite to the termen but that reach 
well into the apical half of the cell, and a 
short slender streak of red rarely absent at 
the extreme base of the subcostal nervure. 
In certain specimens also the apical half or 
interspace 1 a and of the posterior portion 
of interspace 1 are diffusely white. Hind 
wing uniform, towards the terminal or 
outer half sprinkled with bluish scales ; an 
irregular incomplete white ring at the tornal 
angle that encloses a black spot bordered 
above by red. Underside : fore wing similar, 
but with the pale adnervular streaks broader 
and much more prominent so that the wing 
has a general grey appearance ; a patch of 
dark red at base traversed by the black veins. 
Hind wing deep indigo-blue black ; a dark 
red patch at base as in the fore wing, but 
continued along the dorsum, nearly filling 
interspaces 1 and 2 ; superposed on the red in the former are two 




Fig. 11. Underside 

of hind wing of 
Papilio rketcnor, <$ . 



PAPILIO. 55 

black spots and some irregular white scaling, and in the latter 
three large black spots in succession from the base ; in some 
specimens the apical two spots coalesce anteriorly, in others there 
is also a red lunule near the apex of interspace 3 lastly, a 
diffuse spot of blue scaling near apices of interspaces 6 and 7. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, paler beneath. 
$ Upperside : ground-colour duller black. Fore wing : the 
udnervular streaks broader, paler, more prominent than in the J ; 
the short red streak at base of subcostal vein broader. Hind 
wing : a medial patch of white that consists of an elongate spot at 
base of interspace 4, and a short streak that fills the basal half of 
interspace 5, extended diffusely into the apex of the cell and 
above into interspace 6 ; beyond this white patch is a discal series 
of three small red crescentic marks in interspaces 2, 4, and 5, or 
2 and 4 only, followed by larger red lunules in interspaces 2 to 5, 
aimarginal^large red spots in 2 and 3, and a more or less large 
rectangular red spot centred with black at the tornal angle ; cilia 
touched with white in the middle of the interspaces. The lunular 
red markings are very variable in number and are admarginal in 
interspaces 4 to 6. Underside, fore wing : ground-colour dull 
olivaceous black with the veins and internervular streaks velvety 
black, a red patch at base of cell. Hind wing : ground-colour 
black; markings more or less similar to those on the upperside, but 
both the white and the red more extensive, the latter so disposed 
as to form a patch at base of wing and a broad dorsal border below 
the median vein and vein 3 ; in interspaces 1, 2, and 3 it is inter- 
rupted bv large black spots. Antenna? black ; head, thorax and 
abdomen dull dark ochraceous brown. 

E.vp. rf $ 127-141 mm. (5-1-5-52"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Nepal ; Bhutan ; the hills of Assam ; Upper and 
Lower Burma ; Tenasserim. 

In the Himalayas this insect is recorded from the'level of the 
Terai to 6000 ft. In Burma I took it on Mooleyit at 4000 to 
5000 ft., and Col. Adamson on the Taoo plateau at about 
4000 ft. 



BOOTES GROUP. 

J $ . Fore wing elongate ; costa straight for basal two-thirds, 
then widely arched to apex ; apex well-marked ; termen very 
oblique ; tornus broadly obtuse ; dorsum short, not half the length 
of the costa : cell elongate, more than half the length of the wing ; 
vein 8 from basal third of 7, 9 from upper apex of cell, 10 and 11 
from apical half of subcostal vein. Hind wing very long and 
narrow; costa short, arched; termen verydeeplv scalloped, produced 
at apex of vein 4 into a broad spatulate tail, curved upwards 
from apex of vein 2 ; tornus well-marked ; dorsum straight ; 
abdominal fold in $ slight ; cell comparatively short ; upper disco- 
cellular much longer than middle. 



56 PAPIL1OMD.E. 

Key to t7te forms of the Bootes Group. 

a. Hind wing underside : red patch at base not 

produced along dorsurn P. bootes, p. 56. 

b. Hind wing underside : red patch at base pro- 

duced along dorsum P.janaka, p. 57. 

517. Papilio oootes, Westicood, A. M. N. H. ix, 1842, p. 36 ; Eothsch. 
Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 335 ; Moore (Bvasa), Lep. Ind. v, 1901- 
1903, p. 168, pi. 432, figs. l,Ia,lb, rf"? . 

d 1 . Upperside velvety black. Fore wing with pale internervular 
streaks that do not reach the terminal margin and only obscurely 
extend into the cell. Hind wing with similar streaks in inter- 
spaces 5 and 6, but the ground-colour of the cell and of the 
lower and posterior portions of the wing uniform ; interspaces 3 
and 4 with elongate somewhat oval white spots at base, an 
admargiual red spot at tornus and at apex of interspace 2, and 
similar white spots intermixed with afew reddish scales as follows : 
one at apex of interspace 3, two near apex of tail, one on each 




CL 



Fig. 12. a. Hind wing : P. bootes, 

b. Hiudwing: P.janaka, <$ . 

side of vein 4, and a fourth at apex of interspace 4 ; the cilia 
black, touched with white in the middle of the interspaces ; over 
the red tornal spot is a minute crescentic mark of the same colour. 
Underside similar ; the pale aduervular streaks on the fore wing 
are more prominent and extend well into the cell ; two or three 
red spots at extreme base of costa. Hind wing : ground-colour as 
on the upperside, but in interspaces 6 and 7 silky black with a 
slight greenish lustre : markings as on the upperside, but the base 
of the wing dark red crossed by the black veins, the tornal red 
spot witk a much broader lunular mark above it, and similar 
lunules above the admarginal spots in interspaces 2 and 3, that 
in 3 sometimes confluent with the admarginal spot. Antennae, 



PAPILIO. 57 

thorax posteriorly and abdomen black ; head and thorax in front red : 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen red, the latter two with 
black markings. $ . Similar. Upperside : ground-colour brownish 
black ; fore wing with the internervular pale streaks broader and 
more prominent, a small spot of red at base of wing; hind wing 
with an additional oval white spot in the interspace below the 
white spots in interspaces 3 and 4, and postdiscal lunular markings 
in interspaces 1 to 4. Of these the lunules in 1 and 2 are red, 
in 3 white irrorated with a few red scales, and in 4 pure white. 
Underside similar to that in the c? , the red at base of wings more 
extended, the white discal spot in interspace 2 very small, irrorated 
with red scales ; the postdiscal, lunular and admargiual spots larger, 
with a white postdiscal lunule in interspace 4. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen similar to those of the d 1 , but the red of a 
paler tint. 

Evp. 6 2 118-133 mm. (4-28-5-25*). 

Hob. Eecorded only from Assam. 

A race, P. bootes niyricans, Bothsehild, is recorded from "Western 
China. It is easily recognized, as the white spots on the tail are 
always absent. 

518. Papilio janaka, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 97 : 
Ehues, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 426; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895, p. 336; Moore (Byasa), Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 169, 
pi. 433, fijrs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, J <? . 

Papilio sikkiinensis, Wood-Mason, A. M. N. H. (o) ix, 1882, 
p. 103, rf. 

c? $ . Closely resembles P. bootes, differs as follows : tf * 
Upperside : ground-colour a duller more greyish-black, the outer 
half of the hind wing darker ; the elongate discal white series of 
spots extended into interspace 2, sometimes also into interspace 5 ; 
beyond these the dark red markings are as in P. booties, but there 
is in addition a postdiscal series of red luuules, that at the torual 
angle coalesces with the admarginal spot. Underside -. similar to 
that of P. bootes, but with the additional white spots as on the 
upperside, these however in many specimens are much irrorated 
with red scales ; the red at the base of the wings more extended 
than in P. bootes and continued along the dorsal margin of the 
hind wing in a long streak. $ . Similar to the J , but the ground- 
colour oil the upperside paler, a spot of red at the base of the 
fore wing ; the postdiscal markings on the hind wing white, only 
tinged with red. Underside similar to the upperside ; the red at the 
base of the wings continued along the dorsal margin as in the rf 

Exp. <S $ 116-125 mm. (4-6-4-93"). 

Hab, The Himalayas from Mussoorie to Sikhim. 

" A rather rare species in Sikhim, where it is found from 3000 
to 5000 ft. elevation in May and June/' (Elwes.) 

I saw it frequently at Eungarun near Darjeeliug, 5000-6000 ft., 
in April 1900, but only managed to secure one on two specimens iu 
bad condition. 



58 PAPILIOXID^E. 



NEPHELUS-POLYTES GROUP. 

Some of the members of this group, cJiaon, prexaspes, and noblci, 
bear a superficial resemblance to some of the lielenus group, but 
they are all structurally different, as they lack the clothing of hair- 
like scales on the upperside of the fore wing so conspicuous in 
helenus, daJcsha, &c. Two rare forms, P. sakontala, Hewitson, and 
the still rarer P. walkeri, Janson, I have placed in this group with 
some doubt : the fore wing in both is more produced at apex than 
in P. polytes &c., and the shape of the club of the antennae is also 
different. 

6 $ . Fore wing broadly triangular, dorsum at least two-thirds 
length of costa. Hind wing elongate ; costa slightly arched ; 
termen scalloped, produced at apex of vein 4 into a broad spatuiate 
tail. Venation of both wings much as in the Helenus group. In 
the two aberrant forms mentioned above, the tail at apex of 
vein 4 of hind wing is shorter and less spatuiate. 

Key to the forms of the Nephelus-Potytes Group. 



A. Hind wing- upperside : discal markings white. 
rt. Hind wing upperside : discal markings con- 

fined to anterior portion of wing. 
rt'. Hind wing upperside: discal markings ex- 

tended from interspaces 3 or 4 to 7. 
2 . Hind wing underside : no postdiscal 
markings placed between discal and 
subterminal markings .............. P. chaon, p. 59. 

I' 2 . Hind wing underside : a more or less 
incomplete series of postdiscal diffuse 
blue lunules between discal and sub- 
terminal markings ................ P. fuscus. race pre- 

V . Hind wing upperside : discal markings ex- [.vaxpes, p. 59. 

tended from interspaces 5 to 7 only .... P. noblei, p. 60. 

b. Hind wing upperside: discal markings not 
confined to anterior portion of wing, but 
extended right across wing. 
a '. Hind wing upperside : discal band of nearly 
even width ; medial spots that compose 
it not conspicuously longer than the 
others ............ ". ................. P. polytes, p. 61. 

b'. Hind wing upperside : discal band conspi- 

cuously broadened in the middle ...... P. pitmani, p. 63. 

B. Hind wing upperside : discal markings bluish. 
. Hind wing upperside : no postdiscal markings 

beyond, some diffuse scattered bluish scales. P. siikontala, p. 04. 
b. Hind wing upperside : a conspicuous post- 
discal transverse series of oehraceous-white 
subquadrate spots ...................... P. walkeri, p. 64. 



519. Papilio chaon, Westtcood. Arcana Ent. ii, 1845, p. 97, pi. 72, 

figs. 1, 1 o, d; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 102; 
Rotlisch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 291: Moore (Sadengia), Lep. Ind. 
v, 1901-1903, p. 213, pi. 457, figs. 1, la-Id, rf $. 

c? $ . Superficially closely resembles P. Jielemts. The differences 
are, however, both of structure and of colour. c? Fore wing 
uppei'side : entirely without tbe thick coating of short hairs on the 
outer half. Upperside : black with a sprinkling of yellowish-brown 
scales on the fore wing, that form four longitudinal streaks on 
the cell and internervular streaks on the outer half. Hind wing : 
the upper discal white patch larger, formed of elongate broad 
streaks in interspaces 4 to 7 (not 5 to 7) : no tornal nor subterminal 
markings. Underside: ground-colour duller brownish black ; fore 
wing with the diffuse scaling so disposed as to form grey cellular 
and internervular streaks, the streaks in interspaces 1 a and 1 
generally white, not diffuse. Hind wing : basal area sprinkled with 
yellow scales that form three longitudinal slenderjines in the cell ; 
the upper white discal patch as on the upperside, but the elongate 
white markings that compose it well divided by tbe black veins ; 
below the discal white patch there is a small series of white spots in 
interspaces 1 to 3, the spot in 1 generally, in 2 very often, tinged 
with ochraceous yellow ; a subterminal complete series of ochra- 
ceous-yellow lunules followed by adrnarginal narrow white spots. 
Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen black; beneath: a line of 
white on the palpi, the thorax with some linear white markings. 
$ . Similar. Upperside : ground-colour browner ; fore wing : 
cellular and internervular streaks more prominent ; in many spe- 
cimens an obscure diffuse whitish subcostal shading just beyond 
apex of cell. Underside paler. Fore wing with the cellular and 
internervular streaks and subcostal postcellular whitish patch more 
prominent ; the posterior three internervular short streaks on 
the outer half of the wing white, not diffuse; in a few specimens 
there is a series of more or less conspicuous admarginal white 
spots, one in the middle of each interspace. Hind wing markings 
similar to those in the d" , but larger and more prominent. 
Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen as in the 3 , but the abdomen 
beneath with lateral white markings. 

Exp. 8 $ 124-134 mm. (4-80-5-30"). 

Hab. ]S"epal ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending 
to Siam and China. 

520. Papilio fllSCUS, Goese, Ent. Beytr. iii, 1, 1779, p. 87. 

Race prexaspes. 

Papilio prexaspes, Fetter, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 1864, p. 320; id. 
Reise Novara, Lep. i, 1865. p. 107. pi. 15, fig. d ; Wood-Mason fy 
de NicevMe, J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 254 : Moore (Sadengia), Lep. Ind. 
v, 1901-1903,- p. 215, pi. 458, figs. 1, 1 a-l c, rf 9 . 

Papilio fuscus prexaspes, RotJtsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 297. 

Race prexaspes, Felcler. Closely resembles P. chaon, from which 



60 PAPILIOXTD.E. 

it differs as follows : J . Smaller ; fore wing more produced, 
its terrnen concave, tf . Upperside : ground-colour a more brownish 
sooty-black. Hind wing with the upper discal white patch 
extended into interspace 4, most usually very slightly so, often 
represented only by a very small spot of white scaling, a white 
spot also above the torual angle. Underside, fore wing : the 
internervular brownish-yellow streaks limited to the apical area of 
the wing. Hind wing : the upper discal patch extended to the 
dorsurn in a series of three pure white not ochraceous-tinted spots, 
a more or less incomplete postdiscal series of lunules formed of 
diffuse blue scales, and the subterminal series of ochraceous luuules 
of a darker colour and smaller than in chaon ; the rest as in cliaon. 
5 . Upperside : ground-colour paler than in cliaon. Fore wing with 
an ill-defined broad pale discal band perceptibly widened and 
becoming whitish opposite apex of cell. Hind wing: the extension 
into interspace 4 of the upper discal white patch more pronounced 
than in the d 1 , the small white spot above the tornal angle followed 
in some specimens by a blue ill-defined lunule and an ochraceous 
spot. Underside, fore wing : the transverse discal band white and 
much more prominent than on the upperside. Hind wing : the 
postdiscal series of blue lunules generally complete and \\ell- 
mai-ked ; the rest as in the cT . 

Exp. d 1 $ 108-112 mm. (4-26-4-44"). 

Hah. Within our limits found in the Andamans. Occurs in 
the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. 

521. Papilio noblei, dc Niceville, J.A. S.S. 1888, p. 287, pi. 13, fig. 2 ; 
Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 189-5. p. 284 ; Moore (Sadeiigia), Lep. Lul. 
v, 1901-1903. p. 217, pi. 459, figs. 2, 2 a, rf; Fruhstorfer, Iris, 
1901, p. 268, $. 

c? . Upperside black. Fore wing with or without a quadrate 
white spot in the middle of interspaces 1 a and 1 ; when present 
the portion of vein 1 that divides the interspaces also white; 
four slender lines in the cell and the veins paler than the ground- 
colour. Hind wing : a dark ochraceous incomplete ring at the torual 
angle, with an enclosed deep black oval spot ; above this an upper 
discal cream-white patch that consists of a quadrate spot in inter- 
space 7, an elongate rectangular spot in interspace 6, and a trape- 
zoidal spot in interspace 5. In one specimen that I have examined 
the spot in interspace 6 extends slightly into the cell. Underside : 
fore wing similar to the upperside, ground-colour duller brownish 
black ; cellular lines greyish white and very prominent ; a small 
white discal spot iu interspace 2 followed by a terminal series of 
short white lines in the interspaces. Hind wing : basal third 
dull brownish black irrorated with greyish scales, the upper discal 
white patch as on the upperside but slightly larger, below it is a 
white elongate mark in interspace 1 and a subterminal complete 
series of broad ochraceous-orange lunules ; the lower discal area, 
the tail, and the ground-colour before and behind the upper sub- 
terminal lunules velvety black. Antennae, head, thorax and 



PAPILIO. 61 

abdomen black ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen marked 
with greyish white. 

Kep. 106 mm. (4-80"). 

Hob. Burma; Tonkin. 

A rare insect ; recorded from Taungoo and the Karen Hills in 
Lower Burma ; from Katha and the Ruby Mines district in Upper 
Burma. Fruhstorfer took it in Middle Tonkin. 



522. Papilio polytes, Linn. Si/st. Nat. ed. x,1758, p. 460, $ ; Davidson 

# Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 366, larva & pupa ; 

Hothsch. Nov. Zool. ii. 1895, p. 343, rf . 
Papilio pammon, Linn. Si/st. Nut. ed. x, 1758, p. 460, tf; Moore 

(Laertias), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 223, pis. 462, 463, & 464. 
Papilio romulus, Cramer, Pap. E.iot. i, 1776, p. 67, pi. 43, tig. A, ? ; 

Moore (Laertias), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1857, p. 150, pi. 59, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, 

8 
Papilio cyrus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii (1), 1793, p. 7. 

A polymorphic form. The <$ varies slightly, but is fairly 
constant throughout its range ; the $ generally with two forms, 
in Southern India and Ceylon with three, strikingly different in 
appearance. 

<3 $ . Upperside black. Pore wing : cell and apical area with 
not very prominent irrorated lines of pale yellowish scales, and 
admarginal white spots along the 
termen. Hind wing : a trans- 
verse discal series of elongate 
white spots in the interspaces 
from the dorsum to 7, these spots 
divided by the black veins and 
succeeded by diffuse ill-defined 
sparse blue scaling on the post- 
discal area ; an obscure spot of a 
deeper black than the ground- 
colour at the torual angle sur- 
mounted by a lunule of blue scales. 
Underside similar ; ground-colour 
of a duller more opaque black. 
Fore wing : the cellular and inter- 
nervular irrorated streaks more 
prominent. Hind wing: the 
discal series of white spots and 
blue scaling succeeded by a sub- 
terminal more or less incomplete 
series of dingy white lunules, and 
a row of small admarginal spots 
in the interspaces along the termen ; the tornal spot divided from 
the blue scaling by an ochraceous line. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen black ; head and thorax anteriorly on the upperside. 
and head, thorax and abdomen beneath spotted with white, the 
last with lateral white lines. The d 1 of the cyrus form differs as 




Fig. 13. Papttio polyte 



V---- 



62 



follows: Upperside: the white markings larger, more neatly 
defined, the tornal spot with an ocbraceous line above it. Under- 
side : the subterminal series of lunules are complete, well defined, 
and vary from white to deep ochraceous-red. Certain specimens 
from the Nicobars have a subterminal baud of white lunules on 
the upperside also. 

$ . Cyrus form. Similar to the rf , the subterminal series of 
lunules on the underside ochraceous. 

$ . Polytes form. Upperside fuliginous-black on fore, somewhat 
darker and velvety on the hind wing. Fore wing with the base, 
the internervular. streaks that extend into the cell, and terminal 
margin darker. Hind wing : apex of cell and elongate marks 
from base of interspaces 2, 3, 4, and 5 white ; lower half of 
interspace 1 dark red irrorated with blue scales and with a super- 
posed black tornal spot : the red extends into interspace 2, below 
the elongate white mark ; finally, a complete subterminal transverse 
curved series of red lunules, and admarginal paler red spots in the 
posterior interspaces. Underside similar ; a complete series of 
admarginal spots along the termen of the hind wing, the anterior 
spots white. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath, 
the abdomen with lateral rows of white specks. The specimen 
described above is typical, and agrees with Linnaeus' diagnosis, 
and also with the figures in Cramer's Pap. Exot. iii, pi. 265, 
figs. A, B, but this insect varies a good deal. Ordinarily the cell 
of the hind wing is uniform black to the apex, and the number of 
elongate white markings in the interspaces beyond varv from 2 to 6. 

J. Romulus form. Eesembles the ordinary polytes 5 form, but 
differs as follows : Fore wing crossed from the middle of the cell 
obliquely to the tornal angle by a broad white baud somewhat as 
in P. hector, the margins of the band ill-defined ; this is followed 
by an ill-defined white patch beyond the apex of the cell. Hind 
wing with all the discal as well as the subterminal and terminal 
markings red, including a round red spot at apex of cell. 

Exp. 6 $ 92-114 mm. (3-64-4-12"). 

Uab. Almost throughout our limits, including the Andamans 
and Nicobars ; extending to Siarn and the Malayan subregion to 
Sumatra. 

Larva and pupa. " The larva of this is not easy to distinguish 
from that of the last (P. demoleus}, though of course it grows to a 
larger size. The pupa also is similar, bnt can be recognized at 
once, being proportionally much broader. This species also feeds 
on various species of orange and lime. We have never got it on 
rue." (Davidson $ Aitken.) 

I have seen two remarkable aberrations of the d 1 of this form. 
One (PI. XVI, fig. 105), now in the Zoological Museum, Tring, 
differs from typical specimens as follows : Upperside, fore wing : 
the admarginal white spots along the termen much larger and 
extended into interspace 8. Hind wing : the transverse discal 
series of elongate white spots replaced by a series of velvety-black 
spots darker than the ground-colour of the wing, bordered on the 



PAPILIO. 63 

inner side narrowly, on the outer side much more broadly, by ill- 
defined diffuse blue scaling ; the black spot at the tornal angle in 
interspace 1 centred by an irregular deep ochraceous-red spot, 
above this is a quadrate white spot and in line with it in inter- 
space 2 a similar but narrower white spot ; there is a minute white 
discal spot also in interspace 5. Underside similar to the upperside, 
the ground-colour duller ; the markings on the fore wing similar, 
but the terminal white spots still larger. Hind wing : a discal series 
of extremely elongate streaks in the interspaces beyond the cell ; 
these streaks a.re rich ochraceous-red mixed with white, but turn to 
pure white without any red in the anterior interspaces ; the streaks 
in interspaces 1 to 5 interrupted along their inner halves by a row 
of spots of a shade darker than the ground-colour of the wing, 
which spots are outwardly bordered by diffuse blue scaling. 

Ea?j). d 98 mm. (3-88"). 

Hub. Procured at Coimbatore, S. India. 

The other aberrational specimen, also a J, from Southern India, 
closely resembles typical specimens but on the hind wing the 
white spots of the transverse discal series are wanting in inter- 
spaces 1, 2, 3 and 7. This gives the insect a superficial resem- 
blance both to P. chcton and P. castor. 



523, Papilio pitmani, Ehces $ de N. (Papilio-Laertias), J. A. S. B. 
1886, p. 434, pi. 20, fig. 1 d ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. i, 1894, p. 685 ; 
id. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 343 ; Moore (Sadengia), Lep. 2nd. \, 
1901-1903, p. 216, pi. 459, figs. 1, 1 a, rf. 

c? . Yery closely resembles P. polytes tf , from which it can, 
however, be distinguished as follows : Upperside of a more 
brownish-black than in polytes. Fore wing more thickly irrorated 
with yellowish scales ; an obscure yellowish-bi-own spot (not always 
present) in interspaces 1 a and 1 close to the tornal angle : 
the admarginal spots along the termen so conspicuous in polytes 
entirely absent ; cilia black, with a few touches of white on 
posterior half of wing. Hind wing : the postdiscal band of 
elongate white markings as in polytes, but the posterior one or two 
brownish yellow; the tornal ocellus generally obscure and ill- 
defined. Underside similar ; ground-colour a duller brownish 
black, the irroration of yellowish scales more prominent, formed 
into lines in the cell of the fore wing and internervular broad 
streaks on the anterior half of the same ; a transverse subterminal 
series of diffuse white spots on the fore wing that vary from a 
single spot in interspace 1 a to double spots in interspaces 1 to 4. 
Hind wing : the postdiscal band of white spots as on the upper- 
side, followed by a subterminal series of yellow lunules. Cilia 
black irregularly alternated with white. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen dull brownish black. $ unknown. 

Exp. ^ 90-94 mm. (3'58-3-69"). 

Hob. Recorded only from the hills of South Tenasserim below 
Tavoy and Siatn. 



64 PAPILIOMD^:. 

524. Papilio sakontala, Hewitson, Trans. Ent. Soc. (2) ii. 1852, p. 24, 
pi. 5, fig. 1 ; Doherty, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 250 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. 
ii, 1895, p. 343 ; Mackinnon $ de Niceville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. 
xi, 1898, p. 593; Moore (Laertias), Lep. Ind.v, 1901-1903, p. 232, 
pi. 465, figs. 1, 1 , d . 

c? . Upperside dull, somewhat brownish black. Fore wing very 
sparingly irrorated with yellowish scales, that form ill-defined 
cellular and interuervnlar streaks. Hind wing with a discal series 
of very diffuse greenish-white spots in interspaces 1 to 7 and an 
ill-defined tornal reddish lunule ; the spots in interspaces 5 and (> 
are the most diffuse, and beyond the whole series there is a 
postdiscal slight irroration of whitish scales. Underside : fore 
wing opaque dark brown, the internervular streaks broader, more 
prominent than on the upperside. Hind wing black ; the discal 
series of elongate spots dingy white, larger and more clearly 
defined than on the upperside, followed by a large tornal more or 
less vermilion-red spot with a black centre and a subtertninal series 
of similarly-coloured lunules ; the discal spot in interspace 2 
bordered outwardly by an outwardly-curved lunule. Cilia black 
alternated with white. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen 
black. cj> unknown. 

Exp. S 107 mm. (4-23"). 

Hob. Mussoorie ; Sikbini ; Assam ; Sylhet and the Xaga Hills. 

I have followed Rothschild in keeping this form distinct, but 
both c? and $ seem to me to be only occasional aberrations of 
P. polytes, or possibly, as suggested by de Xiceville, atavistic forms 
of that insect. 



525. Papilio walkeri (PI. XVI, fig. 105), Jamon, Cist. Ent. ii, 1879, 
p. 433, pi. 8, fig. 2 J ; Jtothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 338 : Moore 
(Laertias), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 233, pi. 465, fig. 2 rf . 

S . Upperside sooty-black. Fore wing : cell with four, inter- 
space 1 with three and each of the interspaces 2 to 8 with two 
short longitudinal lines or narrow bands of ochraceous scales, 
those in the interspaces postdiscal ; terminal margin with small 
white spots at the apices of the veins. Hind wing : a broad 
transverse discal band of blue scaling, somewhat diffuse at the 
edges, followed by a transverse postdiscal series of ochraceous- 
white quadrate spots, those in interspaces 5 and 6 more or less 
lunular, and a terminal series of similarly-coloured very slender 
lunules in the interspaces. Underside : ground-colour duller on the 
fore wing, more sooty-brown than black. Fore wing as on the 
upperside, but the lines or bands of the postdiscal series more 
elongate in the anterior interspaces. Hind wing : ground-colour 
slightly darker than in the fore wing, the blue transverse discal 
band replaced by short very broad streaks of inwardly ochraceous, 
outwardly blue scales in interspaces 1 to 4, and indications of 
similar streaks in the interspaces above, the ochraceous and blue 



PAPILIO. 65 

scaling in the streaks separated by a black spot ; the transverse 
postdiscal series of spots and the terminal series of narrow 
lunules as on the upperside but larger ; finally, an intervening 
transverse series of velvety-black spots between the discal and 
postdiscal markings. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen sooty- 
black, a few white specks on the thorax below. 

Exp. <$ 113mm. (4-06"). 

Hob. Southern India. 

This extremely rare form is only known through the type which 
is contained in the Zoological Museum, Tring. Through the 
courtesy of the Honourable Walter Rothschild and Dr. Jordan 
I have been able to describe and figure this. 

CASTOR GEOUP. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa widely but distinctly arched, apex 
obtuse ; termen straight, not concave or convex, slightly oblique ; 
tornus rounded ; dorsum straight, two-thirds or more the length of 
costa ; cell elongate, longer than half the length of the wing ; vein 8 
from basal third of vein 7. Hind wing : costa slightly arched, apex 
obtusely rounded, or costa and termen form one continuous bold 
curve ; termen scalloped ; dorsum somewhat elongate, straight ; 
abdominal fold in c? narrow ; cell moderately long ; subcostal 
vein and upper discocellular subequal. Antennae not quite half 
the length of the fore wing ; club slight, gradual, curved ; head, 
thorax and abdomen moderately long, not massive. 

Key to the forms of the Castor Group. 



a. Fore wing upperside without subterminal 

white markings. 
a'. Hind wing upperside with discal white 

markings. 

a 2 . Hind wing upperside : discal markings 
not complete, composed of broad white 
streaks in interspaces 4 to 7 ........ P. castor, p. 6(5. 

b-. Hind wing upperside : discal markings 
complete, composed of elongate broad 

white spots or streaks in interspaces 1 I P. castor, race mehala, 
to 7. ............................. | [p. 67. 

b'. Hind wing upperside without discal but 

with postdiscal white markings ........ P. mahadeva, p. 67. 

b. Fore wing upperside with a prominent subter- 

minal series of white markings .......... P. dravidarum, p. 68. 

$ $. 

a. Hind wing upperside : apex of cell with an ill- 

defined patch or streaks of white scales . . P. castor, p. 66. 

b. Hind wing upperside : cell uniform, without 

markings. 

'. White spots of subterminal series on fore ) P. castor, race mehala, 
wing gradually larger towards costa . . } [p. 67. 

VOL. ii. r 



66 



PAPILIONID^E. 



b'. White spots of subterminal series on 
fore wing not larger towards costa, all 
equal or subequal. 

a' 2 . These spots minute P. maJtadeva, p. 67. 

b 2 . These spots much larger P. dravidarum, p. 68. 

52G. Papilio castor,' Westwood, A. M. N. H. ix, 1842, p. 37, d ; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 93 ; Rothsch. Nov. 
Zool. ii, 1895, p. 357 ; Moore (Tamera), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 74, 
pi. 496, figs. 1, la-le, & pi. 497, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, <J $ . 

Race mehala. 

Papilio mehala, Grose-Smith, A.M.N.H. (5) xviii, 1886, p. 150, rf $ : 
id. 8f Kirby, Rhop.E.rot. i, 1888, Pap. pi. 2, figs. 1 & 2, rf $ ; Moore 
(Tamera), Lep. Ind, vi, 1903, p. 76, pi. 498, figs. 1, la-lc, <J $. 

Papilio castor mehala, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 358, $ 2 

d . Upperside black, more or less irro rated with yellowish-brown 
scales that form on the fore wing somewhat indistinct longitudinal 
cell-lines and internervular streaks. Hind wing : an upper discal 




Fig. 14. a. Papilio castor, tf . 

b. Venation of anterior portion of fore wing of P. castor. 

c. P. clytia. 

cream-coloured patch composed of an oval spot in interspace 4, a 
more elongate mark broadened outwardly in interspace 5, a similar 
elongate mark in interspace 6, and a much smaller broadly oval 
spot above it in 7 ; these markings not coalescent but distinctly 
divided by the black veins. Cilia of fore and hind wings black alter- 
nated with white. Underside duller, more opaque ; brownish- 
black apical area of fore and base of hind wing thinly sprinkled 



PAPILIO. 67 

with yellowish-brown scales. Fore wing : a small white spot on 
middle discocellular and a subterminal and terminal row of small 
white specks that do not extend to thecosta. Hind wing: markings 
similar to those on the upperside but smaller, more widely divided 
one from the other by the veins which are edged with black ; a 
subterminal more or less well-defined series of small white lunules 
and a terminal series of white specks. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen black ; beneath : a spot behind the eyes and spots and 
specks on the thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside a duller 
more opaque black than in the tf , but more densely irrorated with 
yellowish- or reddish-brown scales. Fore wing : markings as in the 
c? , with in addition postdiscal and terminal series of small white 
spots that generally do not extend to the costal margin. Hind 
wing : a discal series of diffuse broad whitish streaks in the inter- 
spaces that extend into the apex of the cell, followed by a complete 
transverve curved subterminal series of white lunules ; the ground- 
colour beyond each lunule devoid of the irroration of yellowish- 
brown scales ; this gives the appearance of a row of terminal 
black spots impressed on the wing. Cilia black alternated 
with white. Underside similar, the white markings larger and 
more prominent. Fore wing : diffuse whitish streaks in interspaces 
lr/, 1 and 2, and the subterminal and terminal series of \vhite spots 
complete. Hind wing with diffuse whitish streaks that extend 
up to the base of the wing. Antennae black ; head, thorax and 
abdomen dull brown spotted with white. 

Exp. J $ 88-126 mm. (3-50-5"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam ; Upper Burma, extending to Siam. 
Found at low elevations in Sikhim at from 1000 to 3000 feet. 

Race meliala, Grose-Smith. <3 . Upperside velvety dark brown ; 
a minute white spot on the middle discocellular and a series of 
terminal white specks in each interspace. Hind wing : a discal 
series of seven elongate, more or less inwardly conical, outwardly 
emarginate cream-coloured spots, followed by a subterminal series 
of lunular small white spots. Cilia black, alternated with white in 
the interspaces. Underside brownish-black, markings similar. 
Fore wing with the terminal series of white specks elongated 
inwards. Hind wing : the markings somewhat larger. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen brownish black ; head, thorax and 
abdomen speckled with white. $ . Similar to the c? , but on the 
upperside a subterminal series of white spots on the fore wing, 
sometimes with the anterior ones enlarged, sometimes with the 
series incomplete. Hind wing as in the <$ . 

Exp. <$ $ 110-120 mm. (4-34-473"). 

Hab. Lower Burma ; Tenasserim. 



527. Papilio mahadeva, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 840, pi. 51, fig.'f; 
.Eoihsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 359 ; Moore (Tamera), Lep. Ind. 
vi, 1903, p. 77, pi. 499, figs. 1, la-lc, rf $ . 

d" . Upperside black, sprinkled somewhat closely with reudish- 




68 PAPILIONIDjE. 

brown scales that give the whole ground-colour a rich brown 
tint. Fore wing uniform ; a line of ciliary white specks that do 
not reach the apex. Hind wing : 
a conspicuous postdiscal complete 
series of inwardly conical white 
spots, followed by a complete series 
of slender well-defined white 
lunules and a ciliary row of linear 
white specks ; between the latter 
two the ground-colour is devoid 
of the irroration of brown scales, 
this gives an appearance as of a ter- 
minal row of more or less distinct 
black spots impressed on the wing. 
Underside duller black, much more 
densely irrorated with reddish- 
brown scales. Fore wing : a small 
TO- ic T> -7- 7 j f quadrate white spot across the 

Fig. 15. Pandio ninluidd-a. <$ . ^ . . ,, ,. , r , 

middle discocellular and transverse 

series of subterminal and terminal white specks, the former series 
anteriorly more or less obsolete. Hind wing with the white 
markings as on the upperside, but in some specimens the postdiscal 
series of conical white spots has some of the anterior spots ill- 
defined or absent. $ similar to the d" , but the ground-colour on 
both upper and undersides paler with the markings on the whole 
slightly larger. In some specimens the outer half of the fore wing 
on the upperside is conspicuously paler than in any specimen of 
the rf. 

Exp. J $ 93-100 mm. (3-68-3-87"). 

Hub. Upper and Lower Burma ; Tenasserim, extending to 
Siam. 

528. Papilio dravidarum, Wood-Mason, J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 144, 
<5 $ , pi. 8, fig. Id"; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 359 ; 
Feryuson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, 1891, p. 446; Moore 
(Tamera), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 79, pi. 500, figs. 1, la-lc, <J $ . 
Papilio abrisa, Kirby, Proc. Roy. Dub. Soc. (2) xi, 1880, p. 338; 
Davidson, Bell $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x. 1897, 
p. 583. 

S . Upperside velvety black. Fore wing : outer half and four 
somewhat indistinct longitudinal lines in the cell irrorated with 
yellowish-brown scales ; a small white spot across the middle 
discocellular ; a subterminal series of inwardly conical white spots 
and a terminal series of white spots that decrease in size towards 
the costa, most often the spots do not extend beyond interspace 6 ; 
following each subterminal spot are spots of the black ground- 
colour formed by the absence of the irroration of yellowish-brown 
scales. Hind wing : posterior three-fourths irrorated with yellow- 
ish-brown scales ; a very prominent discal series of inwardly 



PAPILIO. 69 

conical, outwardly emarginate, elongate white spots followed by a 
subterminal series of white lunules with spots of the black ground- 
colour that succeed them as on the fore wing. Cilia black, largely 
alternated with white in the interspaces. Underside similar with 
similar markings, but the ground-colour a rich hair-brown, the 
markings larger ; the irroration of yellowish-brown scales confined 
to the apical area on the fore wing but spread all over the hind 
wing except on the white markings. Antenna3, head, thorax and 
abdomen dark brownish black, head and abdomen minutely speckled 
with white ; beneath, the white specklings larger and more 
numerous. $ closely resembles the 6 but the ground-colour is 
distinctly paler, the white markings larger, and the irroration of 
yellowish- brown scales more conspicuous. 

Exp. 6 $ n 6-124 mm. (4-18-4-88"). 

Hab. Southern India : Kanara ; Mysore ; the Mlgiris and Tra- 
vancore. 

Larva fy pupa. " A larva found feeding on Glycosmis pentapliylla, 
Correa, was taken for a dull specimen of P. polytes, Linn., and only 
when it became a chrysalis did we note that it was different. The 
chrysalis differs from that of P. erithonius, Cramer ( = P. demoleus, 
Linn.) chiefly in that it is more bent back in the thorax, and 
that the apex of the thorax is produced into a short blunt parallel 
apipedal process ; it is coloured like that of P. polytes, Linn." 
(Davidson, Bell $ AitTcen.) 



AGESTOR GROUP. 

c? 2 . Fore wiug elongate ; costa straight for two-thirds of its 
length from base, then curved to apex ; apex obtuse but well- 
marked; termen very oblique, from very slightly concave or sinuous 
to convex ; tornus broadly rounded ; dorsum straight, about two- 
thirds the length of the costa; cell long, well over half length 
of wing ; vein 8 out of basal fourth of 7. Hind wing : costa long, 
equal in length to the dorsum, slightly arched ; apex obtuse ; 
termen slightly arched and sinuous ; tornus rounded or angulate ; 
cell more or less rounded at apex : upper discocellular comparatively 
short, about half the length of the subcostal vein. Antennae very 
short, about one-third the length of the fore wing, club slight, 
gradual ; head, thorax and abdomen comparatively long, not massive. 

The forms in this and in the Clytia group are wonderfully like 
some of the protected Danaine forms. It is remarkable that the 
difference in the markings on the upperside of the hind wings 
in Euplcea dione, Westwood, and Papilio slateri, Hewitson, from 
Sikhim and Assam and their respective races, E. limboryi, Moore, 
and P. tavoyanus, Butler, should be identical; the subterminal 
series of elongate white spots on the upperside of the hind wing is 
barely indicated or wanting in the former two, but present and 
conspicuous in the latter two. 



70 PAPILIO^IB^B. 

Key to the forms of the Agestor Group. 

a. Fore wing upperside : ground-colour black with 

bluish-grey or white markings. 
a'. Hind wing: ground-colour chestnut -red, 

markings bluish-grey. 

a'-. Hind wing upperside : postdiscal series of 
bluish-grey spots not complete, not ex- 
tended as a rule below interspace 5 P. agestor, p. 70. 

fr. Hind wing upperside: postdiscal series of 

bluish-grey spots complete, extended from | P. atjestor, race 

interspaces 1 to 7 ] i/ovindra, p. 71. 

V. Hind wing : ground-colour black ; markings 

white or greyish-white P. ppycides, p. 71. 

b. Fore wing upperside : ground-colour black, mark- 

ings brilliant blue with a violet tint. 
'. Hind wing upperside : no subterminal series 

of short white streaks or such only faintly 

seen by transparency from underside P. slateri, p. 72. 

b'. Hind wing upperside : a prominent subterminal j P. slateri, race 

series of short white streaks always present'. ) tavoyanus, p. 73. 

529. Papilio agestor, Gray, Zool. Misc. i, 1832, p. 32 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. 
Mm. E. I. C. i, 18-57, p. 91 ; id. (Cadugoides) -P. Z. S. 1882, 
p. 260 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 360 ; Moore (Cadugoides), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 101, pi. 508, figs. 1, la-lc, J $. 

Race govindra. 

Papilio govindra, Moore, Ent. Month. Mag. 1864-Q5, p. 101 
(footnote), (S; id. (Cadugoides) P. Z. S. 1882, p. 261 ; id. (Cadu- 
goides), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 103, pi. 509, figs. 1, la-Id, larva & 
pupa, c? $ . 

Papilio agestor govindra, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 361 ; Mac- 
kinnon $ de Niceville, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 594, 
pi. 5, fig. 22, a-d, larva & pupa. 

c? $ . Upperside : fore wing 
black with the following blu- 
ish -grey markings : a very 
slender line along costal mar- 
gin, a broad streak from base 
in cell that does not reach the 
apex of the same, two spots on 
the black area at apex, a long 
streak in interspace la ; two 
elongate broad streaks in 
interspace 1 divided by a 
slender black ill-defined line ; 
broad rectangular streaks in 
interspaces 2, 3, 4 and 6 ; a 
Fig. 16. narrower inwardly obsoles- 

Papilio agestor, <$. cent streak in interspace 5, and 

elongate spots in interspaces 
$, 9, and 10; the streaks in interspaces 1 to 4 crossed transversely 




PAPILIO. 71 

near their apices by a Hue of the ground-colour; fiually a complete 
subterminal series of small whitish spots. Hiud wing rich chest- 
nut-red ; cell filled by a trifid bluish - grey streak, followed at 
the bases of interspaces 2 to 6 by elongate bluish-grey spots ; a 
narrow streak of the same colour from base in interspace 1 ; 
a postdiscal series of spots in interspaces 5, 6 and 7 and a more or 
less obsolescent snbterminal series of dots also bluish-grey ; the 
veins on the wing conspicuously paler than the ground-colour. 
Underside : fore wing similar to the upperside except that 
the ground-colour on the apical area is dull brown not black. 
Hind wing also as on the upperside, but the ground-colour 
on the disc of the wing of a darker deeper shade of chestnut; the 
postdiscal series of spots more or less obscurely complete from 
interspace 1 to 7 ; and the subterminal series of spots of the 
upperside formed into lunules. Antenna?, head, thorax and 
abdomen black, the head and thorax variegated with bluish-grey 
spots, the abdomen with lateral transverse bars. 

Exp. 3 2 94-102 mm. (3- 7-4-0-1"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Nepal ; Assam ; Burma; Tenasserim; extending 
to the Malay Peninsula. 

Race govindra, Moore. d* $ . Very closely resembles the 
typical form but can always be distinguished by the presence of a 
complete series of postdiscal bluish-grey spots on the upperside of 
the hind wing. It is generally also smaller in both sexes than 
typical af/estor, and on the upperside of the hind wing the ground- 
colour in the anterior interspaces is broadly centred along the 
middle with very dark brown, almost black. The $ frequently has 
the ground-colour of the hind wing a much brighter chestnut 
{almost ochraceous) than in any specimen of $ of agestor that I 
have seen. 

Exp. d $ 93-102 mm. (3'65-4"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon. 

" The 2 lays her eggs on the young leaves of Macldlus 
odoratissimus trees, Natural Order Laurince, about the end of 
April. The larva is at first of a reddish colour but very soon turns 
black and white, and lies on the upper surface of a leaf where it 
greatly and protectively resembles a bird's droppings." Adult 
larva : brown with two subdorsal and two lateral rows of fleshy- 
pointed tubercles, each with a spot of red at its base ; anterior, 
middle and posterior lateral patches of dull ochraceous, the latter 
two meeting on the dorsum ; the rest of the larva spotted with 
black and red. " Pupa dark brown with lines of dull ochraceous, 
roughened, with the anal end truncate." (Described from plate to 
Mackinnon & de Nice vi lie's paper.) 

-330. Papilio epycides, Hewitson, Exot. Butt, iii, 1864, pi. 6, fig. 
Ehves, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 432, rf $ ; Rothsch. AOL: 
ii, 1895, p. 361 ; Moore (Cadugoides), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, p. 104, 
pi. 510, tigs. 1, la-ltf )t j. 

J. Upperside dull black, with the following somewhat dingy 




72 PAPILIONIDJE. 

white markings that resemble in their disposition the markings 
in P. agestor. Fore wing : cell with two streaks from base that 
diverge outwardly and reach the apex, three shorter streaks 
between and above them at apex ; 
interspace 1 with an elongate streak 
that does not reach the termen; two- 
streaks in interspace 1 divided by a 
black line as in agestor ; a series of 
more or less rectangular broad streaks 
in interspaces 2 to 6 with elongate 
spots in 7 and 8 ; a very slender 
costal streak from base ; finally a 
series of subterrninal spots in inter- 
spaces 1 to 5 succeeded above in 
interspaces 6 and 7 by ill-defined 
subterminal streaks. Hind wing : 
cell white traversed longitudinally by 
Fig. 1". two short black lines, the upper one 

Papilio epyddes, rf. forked near apex ; a discal series of 

broad white streaks from the dorsal 

margin in the interspaces 1 to 7, the streaks in interspaces 2 to 6- 
short and more or less rectangular; transverse series of postdiscal 
and subterminal white spots beyond, the postdiscal spots in inter- 
spaces 6 and 7 coalescent with the discal streaks in those 
interspaces ; finally, a tornal prominent ochraceous-yellow spot. 
Underside similar, the ground-colour outwardly on the fore wing 
and over the whole of the hind wing more or less of a chestnut- 
tint ; markings similar to those on the upperside but broader and 
on the fore wing diffuse towards the apex ; on the hind wing the 
discal streak in interspace 7 is absent and there is an edging of 
white anteriorly in the yellow spot at the tornal angle. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen black ; the head and thorax spotted 
with white ; the abdomen with three rows of white spots along 
the sides. " has the markings larger than the c? and mostly 
of a much paler colour; the submarginal spots of the hind wing 
are specially enlarged. The fore wings have often some minute 
linear spots between the outer margin and the submarginal series 
of rounded markings in both sexes. The yellow anal spot is 
slightly variable in size." (Rothschild.) 
Exp. c? 2 80-84 mm. (3-14-3-3"). 
Hob. Sikhim ; Nepal ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Upper Burma. 

531. Papilio slateri, Hewitson, Exot. Butt, ii, 1859, pi. 4; Elwes, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 429, rf $; Rotlisch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
p. 362 ; Moore (Menamopsis). Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, p. 106, pi. 513, 
ngs.l,la-lrf,rf$. 

Race tavoyanus. 

Papilio tavoyanus, Butler, A. M. N. H. (5) x, Novr. 1882, p. 373 ; 
Moore (Menamopsis), Lep. Lid. vi, 1903, p. 107, pi. 514, figs. 1, 

Irt-lrf, cf. 



PAPILIO. 73 

Papilio claree, Marshall, J. A. S. B. Deer. 1882, p. 42, pi. 4, fig. 5. 
Papilio slateri tavoyanus, Rothsch. Nov. ZooL ii, 1895, p. 363. 

cf . Upperside : fore wing rich velvety black, slightly paler 
towards apex and along the terminal margin ; two or three some- 
what obscure spots or short streaks in apex of cell followed by an 
internervular series of slightly clavate, outwardly truncate, blue 
streaks that in certain lights have a violet tint ; outwardly the 
ends of these streaks form a curve at some distance from the 
terminal margin and inwardly they do not reach the bases of the 
interspaces. Hind wing : dark chocolate-brown, the subtermiaal 
series of short white streaks of the underside show though very 
faintly ; a comparatively large ochraceous tornal spot inwardly 
margined with black. Underside dull chocolate-brown. Fore wing : 
the cellular and internervular blue streaks of the upperside faintly 
represented by diffuse white patches of scales. Hind wing : a small 
white spot at extreme base of wing ; a subtermiual series of 
inwardly diffuse white streaks in the interspaces and an ochraceous 
tornal spot as on the upperside. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen black ; the thorax beneath sparsely speckled with white ; 
the abdomen with two lateral rows of small spots. 2 . Similar to 
the c?; the blue intercellular and internervular streaks on the 
upperside of the fore wing slightly more prominent. 

Exp. <j 96-114 mm. (3-80-4-5"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Assam : the Kbasia and Naga Hills. 

Race tavoyanus, Butler. <$ . Very similar to the typical form but 
sufficiently different to be considered a well-marked geographical 
race. Upperside, fore wing : the ground-colour of the terminal 
margin broadly rich chocolate-brown, the internervular blue streaks 
more irregular, not clavate nor with their outer ends truncate. 
Hind wing: a very prominent subterminal series of short white 
streaks ; the ochraceous tornal spot as in typical slateri. Under- 
side : ground-colour paler than in the typical form, the fore wing 
uniform with no faint patches of whitish scales. Hind wing as 
in slateri, but the subterminal series of white streaks longer 
than in that form, also longer than on the upperside. Antenna-, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in typical slateri. $ . So far as I 
know not yet discovered. 

Exp. <f 94-100 mm. (3-7-3-95") 

Hal. Burma : the hills of both Upper and Lower Burma ; 
Tenasserim, extending to Siam. 

CLYTIA GROUP. 

c? . Sexes alike. Hind wing not tailed. Tore wing broad, 
apex scarcely produced ; costa slightly arched ; termen straight, 
subequal with dorsum ; tornus broadly rounded ; cell longer than 
half the length of the wing ; vein 8 from basal fourth of 7, vein 9* 
from upper apex of cell, 10 and 1 1 free, from apical half of subcostal 
vein. Hind wing comparatively short and broad, pear-shaped 



74 PAPILIONID^E. 

costa slightly arched ; terinen strongly arched, slightly scalloped ; 
tornus well-marked ; clorsum straight ; abdominal fold in d very 
slight ; cell narrow, about half length of wing, upper discocellular 
obviously longer than middle and slightly longer than subcostal 
vein. Antennae short, not half the length of the fore wing ; 
club long, gradual ; abdomen elongate, nearly extended up to the 
torual angle of the hind wing. 

The forms in this group have nearly all a wonderful resemblance 
to forms of Euploea and Danais, and it requires a quick eye 
and some experience to discriminate between Euploea godarti and 
PapiUo clytia race panope, and between Danais limniace and the 
dissimilis form of P. clytia, especially when on the wing. 

Key to the forms of the Clytia Group. 

A. Fore wing upperside : not glossed with blue, 
or if blue-glossed, then wing uniform without 
other markings. 
a. Basal half or more of both fore and hiud wing 

uniform without white markings. 
a . Fore wing upperside : no blue gloss at base. 
a' 2 . Fore wing upperside with prominent 
subterminal and terminal, sometimes 
also a postdiscal, series of white spots. 
3 . These spots not elongate, not coales- 
cent towards apex and not formed 
into a prominent apical white patch. P. clytia, p. 75. 



towards apex and there form a pro- , , . 

minent white patch ..... . . . \ R <***> race _ 

b~. Fore wing upperside without or with ' panope. p. /. 

only mere or less obsolescent series of 
subtermiual and terminal white spots ; 
such spots when present always very , r> ^ 
small/. ...... .... .......... J .... P -'/^;"' mce .. 

V. Fore wing upperside with a more or less '. p tankeswara, P- 77. 
obvious blue gloss at base ............ \ P ' c ^ tw ' yar " 77 

b. Basal half of fore and hind wing not uniform, ' pupone, p. / 

with a streak in cell and in posterior inter- 
spaces. 

'. Hind wing upperside: discal series of 
white streaks broad and long ; underside : 
terminal series of ochraceous - vellow , n , ,. ,. , 
spots not remarkably large .......... P " ^ w '. dn . nor P h 

b'. Hind wing uppenide: discal series of 1 &**&** ' 
white streaks short and narrow ; under- 
side: terminal series of ochraceous-yellow . T) , ,. 
spots remarkably large ........ . ..... \l-f!/tia, race 

B. Fore wing upperside : richfy glossed with blue. ' favohmbatus^. ^. 
a. Hind wing : $ without, with, whitish 
streaks in cell and interspaces that extend 



. n , 

up to base of wing ...... .............. \ R P^f^ ce 

- ' tekarchm, p. ,8. 



b. Hind wing: J $ with white discal mark- 

ings, but none that extend up to base of . p caunug race 

W1U ' ............................. | ' danisepa, p. 79. 



PAPILIO. / i> 

532. Papilio clytia, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1/58, p. 479; Awiv. 
Konyl. Sv. Vet.-Ak. Handl. xix, 5, 1782, p. 96 ; Rothsch. Nov. 
Zool. ii, 1895, p. 364 ; de Niceville $ Mackinnon, Jour. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 594 ; Moore (Chilasa), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, 
p. 82, pi. 601, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, <$ $ . 

Papilio dissimilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 479; Doubleday, 
in Dblday., Westiv. Sf Hewitt. Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1846, p. 21 ; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 91 ; Davidson $ 
Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 368 ; Moore (Chilasa), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, [p. 89, pi. 506, figs. 1, 1 a-1 d, larva & pupa, 

d?. 

Papilio clytia, ab. dissimilis, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 365., 
Papilio papone, Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1872, p. 94, pi. iii, fig. 2cJ; 
Moore (Chilasa), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 88, pi. 505, figs. 1, 1 a, 

1 b, rf $ . 

Papilio clvtia, ab. papone, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 367. 
Papilio casyapa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 143; id. (Chilasa) Lep. 

Ind. vi, 1903, p. 84, pi. 502, figs. 1, 1 a-\ b, larva & pupa, <$ $. 
Papilio clytia, ab. casyapa, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 367. 
Papilio clytia, ab. commixttis, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 367. 
Chilasa commixta, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 89, pi. 505, figs. 2, 

2 a, S . 

Race laukeswara. 
Papilio lankeswara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 143 ; id. (Chilasa) 

Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 154, pi. 56, figs. 2, 2, 26, S $, larva & 

pupa ; id. (Chilasa) Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 86. 

Chilasa clytioides, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 154, pi. 56, fig. 1 S - 
Papilio clytia lankeswara & P. clytia laukeswara ab. clytioides, 

Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 368. 

Race panope. 

Papilio panope, Linn'. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 479. 

Papilio onpape, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 840 ; id. (Chilasa) Lep. 

Ind. vi, 1903, p. 86, pi. 503, figs. 1, 1 a-1 e, c? 2 . 
Papilio clytia panope, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 369. 
Papilio clytia, ab. janus, Fruhstorfer, Sitzuny. Berl. Ent. Ver. 1901, 

p. 22. 
Chilasa ja.nus, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 87, pi. 504, figs. 1, 

1 a-1 e, rf $ . 

Race flavolimbatus. 

Papilio dissimilis, var. flavolimbatus, Oberthilr, Etudes Ent. iv, 

1879, p. 101. 

Papilio clytia flavolimbatus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 370. 
Chilasa flavolimbata, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 93, pi. 507, 

figs. 1,1 a-1 b, rf$. 

c? $ . First form. Upperside velvety black or soft dark brown. 
Fore wing: a subterminal series of outwardly truncate oremarginate 
white spots ; the spot in interspace 4 shifted inwards out of line ; 
those in interspaces 6, 7 and 8 oblique to the costa, the lowest 
and the upper two spots elongate ; this is followed by a terminal 
series of smaller white spots, two in interspace 1, one above the 
other, and two in interspace 8 ; lastly, a single spot between the 
subterminal and terminal series. Hind wing : a discal series of 
inwardly conical and outwardly emarginate, triangular, elongate 



rr, 



PAPILIONID^. 




white spots in interspaces 1 to 5 ; a subtermiual series of four 
white lunules in interspaces 2 to 5, the series continued on in 
interspaces 6 and 7 as transversely oblong white spots ; a pro- 
minent tornal yellow spot broadly divided across the middle by 
a bar of the ground-colour. The cilia touched with white in the 
interspaces ; sometimes one or more of these specks on the cilia are 

broad and prominent and 
yellow in colour. Under- 
side . from soft pale brown 
to rich dark velvety-brown. 
Fore wing with the mark- 
ings as on the upperside. 
Hind wing : the markings 
also similar to those on 
the upperside, but the ter- 
minal margin beyond the 
subterminal series of white 
markings bears a row of 
comparatively large very 
conspicuous yellow spots, 
separated from the white 
lunules by a series of short 

a. Papilla dfcfi^J . ' f . transverse detached spots 

b. Apical portion of fore wing : P. clytia, of the ground-colour. An- 

race pavope. tenna?, head, thorax and 

abdomen black, the thorax 

anteriorly and beneath and the abdomen on the sides spotted with 
white. 

c? $ . Second form (dissimilis, Doubleday). Differs from the 
first form as follows: Upperside, fore wing : cell with four streaks 
coalescent at base and four spots beyond at apex, a long streak in 
interspace 1 a, two streaks with two spots beyond which are more 
or less coalescent with them in interspace 1, a broad streak with an 
outwardly emarginate spot beyond in interspace 2, similar spots, 
one at base and one beyond, in 3, a single similar spot in 4, 
elongate streaks in 5 and 6, and much smaller elongate spots in 
interspaces 8 and 9. All these streaks and spots cream-white 
with diffuse edges ; subterrninal and terminal markings as in the 
first form. Hind wing : markings similar to those in the first 
form with the following differences : discoidal cell entirely white, 
discal white streaks longer that reach quite up to the outer 
margin of the cell and are continued anteriorly to the costa by 
elongate streaks in interspaces 6 and 7, two spots in interspace 8 
and a slender streak along the costa ; the subterminal and terminal 
markings as in the first form. Underside similar to the upperside, 
the cream-white markings slightly larger, the terminal series of 
yellow spots on the hind wing as in the first form. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in the typical clytia form ; the head, 
thorax and abdomen with more prominent white spots. 

Exp. c? $ 108-121 mm. (4-26-4-76"). 



PAPILIO. 77 

Hab. The Himalayas from Kangra and Simla to Sikhim ; 
Assam ; Central and Southern India. 

The larva and pupa are stated by Mackinnon (t. c.) to resemble 
closely the larva and pupa of P. agestor. Messrs. Davidson and 
Aitken's description of them is as follows : 

Larva. " Not unlike the larva of the Ornithoptera group in form, 
having similar rows of fleshy processes, but it is by far the 
handsomest Papilio larva we know, being of a dark umber-brown 
colour with a bright red spot at the base of each process, a dorsal 
row of large irregular yellow patches and a partial lateral row 
ending in a diagonal band which connects the two." 

Pupa " is unique, exhibiting one of the most remarkable 
instances of protective resemblance we know. It exactly re- 
sembles a dead twig about an inch long and less than a quarter 
of an inch in diameter, broken off irregularly at one end. The 
last segment is so modified that the pupa is not attached by one 
point, but appears as if it had grown out of the branch to which 
it affixes itself." 

Found on Tetranthera apetala and Alseodaphne semicarpifolia. 

Yar. casyapa, Moore. " Fore wings, besides the marginal and 
submarginal markings, with a third discal series of one to five 
markings." (Rothschild.) 

A 7 ar. papone, Westwood. " Fore wings black, with an obvious 
bluish tint in certain lights ; the white spots absent from the 
fore wings or only faintly indicated." (Rothschild.) 

Var. commivtus, .Rothschild. "Fore wings black or bluish 
black, with a marginal, submarginal and a subdiscal series of most 
t'eebly-jmarked spots, and with two faint spots behind the cell and 
a streak along the inner margin Tdorsum] white ; the discal 
markings are often indicated by a few white scales, or are entirely 
absent. Hind wings with apical half of the cell, seven long discal 
streaks reaching the bases of the respective cellules [interspaces ?] 
(the first and the last reach the base of the wing) and a marginal 
and submarginal series of spots white as in ab. ditsimilif, L. 
This aberration and examples intermediate between it and clytia 
I received from the Khasia HiDs." (RotJischild.) 

Race lankeswara, Moore. " Differs from P. clytia in the 
umber-brown colour of the wings and in the small submarginal 
spots of the fore wings ; from P. clytia panope, Linn., it is 
distinguished chiefly by the longer discal sagittiform spots of the 
hind wings. This subspecies has been described from slightly 
aberrant specimens in which the submarginal spots of the fore 
wings are partly obliterated ; in most individuals the series of 
these spots is complete, and on such specimens Moore's clytioides 
is based." (Rothschild.) 

The dimorph or dissimilis form of this race is identical with 
that of P. clytia. 

Eacp. 6 ? 108-124 mm. (4-26-4-88"). 

Hab. Ceylon. 



78 PAPILIOKIDjE. 

Race panope, Linn. "The discal sagittate spots of the hind 
wings are shorter than in P. clytia, sometimes they have almost 
disappeared from the upperside. Most frequently the marginal 
and submarginal markings of the fore wings are more or less 
merged together, and form in the apex of the wing three large 
patches." (Rothschild.) 

The dimorph or dissimilis form of this race also resembles that 
of the typical form. 

Exp. <5 $ 105-118 ram. (4-24-4-66"). 

Hob. Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to Siam and the Malay 
Peninsula. 

\ 7 ar. janus, Fruhstorfer. The subterminal and terminal white 
markings on the fore wings only faintly indicated or replaced by 
small black spots centred sometimes with obscure white. The 
white sagittate subterminal markings on the hind wing are in 
most specimens small and obscured by an irroration of dark 
scales. 

Race flavolimbatus, Oberthiir. Closely resembles the dissimilis 
form of ctytia ; differs as follows : J distinctly larger, the 
white markings similar but proportionately larger, with the 
exception of the streaks in the discoidal cells of both fore and 
hind wings, which are narrower and less firmly defined ; on the 
hind wing there is a terminal row of ochraceous-yellow spots on 
the upper as well as on the underside, while those on the under- 
side are very much larger than in P. clytia, dimorph dissimilis. 

Exp. d 2 124-130 mm. (4-9-5-12"). 

Nab. The Andamans. 

The dark form clytia or any race of it is apparently unknown in 
the Andamans. 

533. Papilio paradoxus, Zinken-Sommer, Nov. Act. Ac. Nat. Cur. xv, 
1832, p. 162, pi. 15, figs. 9, 10. 

Race telearchus (PI. XII, fig. 87 $ ). 
Papilio telearchus, Hewifson, Trans. Ent. Soc. (2) ii, 1852, p. 22, 

pi. 6, fig. 3 cJ ; Ekces $ de Niceville (Papilio Euplceopsis), 

/. A. S. B. 1886, p. 433 ; de Niceville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. 

iv, 1889, p. 109, pi. A, fig. 5 ; Moore (Euplceopsis). Lep. Ind. vi, 

1903, p. 96, pi. 511, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, rf $ . 
Papilio paradoxus telearchus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 375. 

Race telearchus, Hewitson. <3 . Upperside. : fore wing dark 
brown richly shot with blue, a short oval streak or large spot and 
a postdiscal and subterminal complete series of spots bluish white ; 
both the series curve inwards on the wing anteriorly, the inner 
series of spots elongate. Hind wing rich hair-brown, with or 
without a subterminal series of white specks that increase in size 
anteriorly. Underside rich chocolate-brown. Fore wing : the 
cellular short streak faintly indicated, the postdiscal series of spots 
of the upperside not present, the subterminal series white, the 
spots much reduced in size. Hind wing : markings as on the 
upperside. Cilia dark brown alternated sparsely with white. 



PAPILIO. 79 

Antennae black ; head, thorax and abdomen velvety brown, the 
head and anterior portion of thorax and the thorax and 
abdomen beneath sparsely spotted with white. $ , Upperside, fore 
wing : basal half dull brown, apical half brown shot with brilliant 
blue ; markings as in the & , but larger and whiter, the spots in 
the postdiscal series more elongate. Hind wing brown, a series 
of comparatively broad whitish streaks in the cell and in all the 
interspaces, those in the latter end in a postdiscal series of whitish 
spots ; beyond these a prominent subterminal series of whitish 
spots. Cilia brown, white in the middle of the interspaces. 
Underside : pale dull brown markings much as on the upperside, 
but larger, more diffuse, with the addition on the fore wing of 
whitish streaks in the cell and in the interspaces posteriorly. 
Antennae black ; head, thorax and abdomen blackish brown, more 
fully spotted with white than in the rf . 

The second and rarer form of the $ closely resembles the c? , 
but is larger and paler, with the pale blue-glossed spots on the 
upperside of the fore wing elongate and more prominent and the 
ground-colour lighter than in the c? . 

Exp. d 1 $ 120-150 mm. (4-74-5-92"). 

Hab. Assam ; Burma : Tenasserim, extending to Siam. 

534. Papilio caimus, Westwood, Cab. Or. Ent. 1848, p. 20, pi. 9, 
figs. 2,2*, cf. 

Race danisepa. 

Papilio danisepa, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, 1885, p. 343 ; de 
Nictville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Sov. ix, 1895, p. 366, pi. Q, fig. 48 ; 
Moore (Euplceopsis), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 98, pi. 512, figs. 1, 

la-le, c??- 
Papilio caunus danisepa, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 377. 

Eace danisepa, Butler. <S . Upperside rich velvety brown 
shot with blue. Fore wing : apical third of cell, four short 
streaks beyond in interspaces 4, 5, 6 and 9 and a subterminal 
series of spots curved inwards opposite the apex, bluish white. 
Hind wing : the cell, a series of streaks from the bases of inter- 
spaces 1 to 7 and an incomplete subtermiual series of minute 
spots, white ; the streaks in interspaces 4 and 5 short, those in 
the interspaces above and below gradually longer. Underside 
brown, without the blue gloss ; markings as on the upperside, bub 
the subterminal markings on the hind wing complete. Antenn, 
head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath, the thorax and abdo- 
men with a few white spots. $ . Besembles the d , but the blue 
gloss on both fore and hind wing is more restricted, the ground- 
colour paler brown, somewhat of a rich golden-bronze, and the 
white markings are fuller and broader. 

Exp. c? $ 110-132 mm. (4-34-5-2"). 

Hab. The hills of Assam ; Arrakan ; Upper and Lower Burma ; 
Tenasserim, extending to Siam. 

I first came across this magnificent butterfly on the Tannjah 
Pass, 1000 feet, over the Dawnat Mountains in Tenasserim, and 



SO PAPILIONID.I:. 

until I had caught and examined it, mistook it for an extra- 
ordinarily large specimen of Euplcea rliadamanthus. It is appar- 
ently sometimes, notwithstanding its disguise, attacked and 
preyed on by the Pigmy Falcon (Microhierax casrulescens), as 
in the nest-hole of a pair of these birds I once found the fragment, 
of a fore wing of a butterfly which was identified by the late 
Mr. de Niceville as belonging to this form of P. caunus. 



ELEPHENOR GBOTJP. 

c? 5 . Shape of wings and neuration somewhat as in the 
Protenor group, but termen of hind wing more deeply scalloped 
and proportionately somewhat broader. Fore wing in <5 with 
secondary sexual characters on the upperside in the form of woolly 
adnervular stripes in the lower interspaces. 

Key to the forms of tJie Elephenor Group. 

a. Hind wing upperside : \vithout any subterminal 

series of lunules P. ekphenor, p. 80. 

b. Hind wing upperside : with a subterruinal series 

of purplish -blue lunules P. doddsi, p. 81. 

535. Papilio elephenor, Doubleday, A.M.N.H. xvi, 1845, p. 305; 
Woodc-Mason 8f de N. (Papilio Pangeranopsis), J. A. S. B. 1886, 
p. 374 ; Doherty, J. A. S. B. 1889, p. 130; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895, p. 378 ; Moore (Pangeranopsis), Lep. Ind. \i, 1903, p. 59, 
pi. 489, fig. 2 cJ . 

rf . Upperside : dull black. Fore wing with an irroration of 
brilliant green scales that form cellular and internervular streaks. 
Hind wing : anterior half to nearly the median vein and above 
vein 5 irrorated with brilliant blue scales that become gradually 
sparse towards and cease entirely along the costal margin ; 
posterior half irrorated with brilliant green scales ; tornus with a 
small claret-red patch touched above with a few violet scales and 
also with an admarginal dusky black spot. Cilia brown alternated 
with white. Underside black. Fore wing with very broad and 
prominent cellular and internervular pale streaks, the costal 
margin and the basal half of interspaces 1 a and 1 distinctly 
black. Hind wing : a series of claret-red subterminal lunules, 
two side by side in each interspace, all more or less irrorated 
inwardly with violet scales ; at the tornal angle these lunules form 
a conspicuous oblong patch that stretches a short way along the 
<lorsum and bears a subbasal and a subapical black spot. Antennae, 
the thorax and abdomen narrowly along the middle black ; head 
pinkish red ; abdomen on the sides buff-coloured. $ . " Agrees 
with the d 1 . The anal (tornal) red mark on the hind wings 
above is larger, rounded, marginal, and includes a small black spot, 
the outer margin (termen) of the hind wing is distinctly sinuate 
between the median veins (veins 2, 3, 4), and at the end of the 



PAPILIO. 81 

upper median nervule (vein 4) produced into a short but obvious 
tooth as at the extremity of the lower discoidal vein (vein 5)." 
{Rothschild.} 

Exp. J 128-138 mm. (5-04-5-42"). 

Hub. The hills of Upper Assam. 

536. Papilio doddsi (PI. XIII, fig. 88), Janet, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 
1896, p. 186 ; de Xiceville (Papilio Sarbaria), J. A. S. B. 1897, 
p. 566, pi. 4, fig. 30 c?; Moore (Pangeranopsis), Lep. Ind. vi, 
1903, p. 60, pi. 489, fig. 3 rf. 

c? . Differs from P. elephenor J as follows : Wings pro- 
portionately slightly broader ; termen of hind wing more deeply 
scalloped, more or less produced into broad teeth at the apices of 
the veins. Upperside (in the solitary specimen I have been able 
to examine) similar to the colouring in elephenor. Fore wing : 
anterior half velvety black without any irroration of green scales. 
Hind wing : the tornal ocellus as in elephenor but larger, a sub- 
terminal series of more or less purple-scaled lunules in interspaces 
1 to 7. Underside as in elephenor, but on the hind wing the 
tornal red patch more restricted, with a single large black ad- 
marginal spot, the subterminal series of double red lunules more 
irregularly formed. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
elephenor. 

Exp. S 120 mm. (4-75"). 

Hah. Tipper Burma : Southern Shan States ; Tonkin. 

BIANOR GBOUP. 

<$ $ . Fore wing broadly triangular ; costa widely arched ; apex 
produced but not acute, bluntly rounded ; termen slightly oblique, 
tornus rounded ; dorsum sinuous ; cell slightly more than half 
length of wing. Male with well-marked woolly scent-streaks on 
outer portions of veins 1 to 4, or on some of them (always present 
on vein 1); these streaks not extended to the termen. Hind wing 
broad : costa arched ; termen scalloped, produced at apex of vein 4 
into a broad spatulate tail ; tornal angle distinct ; dorsum straight ; 
abdominal fold moderate ; cell comparatively short and narrow ; 
subcostal vein and upper discocellular subequal. Antenna? not 
half length of fore wing, club gradual. Sexes alike, with con- 
spicuous green and blue coloration on the upperside ; an upper 
discal patch but no continuous broad green or blue band across 
hind wing. 

Key to the forms of the Bianor Group. 

a. Fore wing upperside : -with no trace of a sub- 

terminal glistening green band P. bianor, p. 82. 

b. Fore wing upperside : with a subterminal glis- 

tening green band, often more or less obsoles- 
cent anteriorly, but always indicated in the 
tornal region. 
VOL. ii. a 



82 

a'. Fore wing underside : without any prominent 
internervular greyish-white streaks except 

just near torn us P. polyctor, p. 82. 

V. Fore wing underside : with very prominent 
internervular greyish-white streaks, short 
near tornus, but gradually longer towards 

costal margin P. polyctor, race 

yanesa, p. 84. 

537. Papilio bianor, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii, 1777, p. 10, pi. 103, fig. C ; 

Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 110; Rothsch. Nov. 
Zool. ii, 1895, p. 378. 

Papilio gladiator, Fruhstorfer, Iris, xi, 1901, pp. 370, 371 ; id. 
Berl. ent. Zeit. 1902, p. 184; Moore (Sarbaria), Lep. 2nd. vi, 
1903, p. 58, pi. 489, fig. 1. 

c? $ . Upperside dull brownish black, much darker on the hind 
wing than on the fore wing. Tore wing irrorated somewhat 
sparsely with green scales, which in the cf tend to form green 
internervular streaks. Hind wing : basal three-fourths irrorated 
on the posterior half of the wing with green, on the anterior half 
with blue scales that leave a broad and uniform terminal and costal 
margin devoid of the irroration of blue or green scales ; a sub- 
terminal series of lunules often incomplete, the anterior ones of 
blue scales, the posterior ones claret-red traversed by short inner 
lines of blue ; the tornal lunule the widest. Cilia brown, in hind 
wing alternated with white. Underside : fore wing chocolate- 
brown ; the cell with a slight irroration of yellowish scales ; the 
outer half of the wing with broad pale internervular streaks that 
increase iu length from the tornal angle to the costa, but do not 
reach the terminal margin. Hind wing deep brownish black, the 
base, cell and the disc partially with thin irroration of pale yellow 
scales ; a conspicuous subterminal complete series of broad claret- 
red lunules traversed by short lines of violet-blue, and a series of 
terminal narrow transverse ochraceous spots in the interspaces. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen chocolate-brown ; the head, 
thorax and abdomen above thinly sprinkled with green scales. 
$ similar, but larger and altogether paler. 

Exp. 3 $ 124-150 mm. (4-98-6-9"). 

Hab. China, except in the extreme north and south, extending 
within our limits into Burma and Tenasserim. 

I have seen only two specimens of this form from Burma 
which, after careful comparison, I find can be exactly matched by 
specimens from China. It is a variable insect, however, and the 
points relied upon for separating it (under the name gladiator, 
Fruhst.), as a race of the Chinese bianor, are eminently variable. 

538. Papilio polyctor (PI. XIII, fig. 89, 3 ), Boisduval, Spec. Gen. 

Lep. i, 1836, p. 205 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. JE. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 109 ; Rothsch. 3 7 or. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 381 ; Mackinnon & de N. 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 594, pi. VV, figs. 24 -24 c, 
larva & pupa ; Moore (Sarbaria), Lep. InJ. vi, 1903, p. 51, pi. 485, 
figs. 1, la, Ib, larva & pupa, d $ , and pi. 480, figs. 1, la, U, 3 $ . 



83 



Race ganesa. 

Papilio ganesa, Doublcday, Grains Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 73 ; Moore, 

Cat. Lep. Mus. JE. I. C. i, 1857, p. 107 ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 

1888, p. 428; Moore (Sarbaria), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 56, 

pi. 487, figs. 1, 1 a, J 2 

Papilio polyctor ganesa, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 383. 
Papilio polvctor, subsp. triumphator, Fruhstorfer, Soc. Ent. 1902, 

p. 66. 
Sarbaria triumphator, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 57, pi. 488, 

fifr.l 6- 
Papilio polyctor, subsp. significans, Fruhstorfer, Soc. Ent. 1902, 

p. 66. 
Sarbaria sisrnificans, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 57, pi. 488, 

fig.2,<?. 

c? $ . The sexes are very nearly alike, and the difference 
slight between the dry-season and wet-season broods. Ujtperside 
dull black thickly irrorated with golden-green scales. Fore wing : 
a broad subterminal golden-green band that varies in length, but 
In all specimens is more or less diffuse and obsolescent towards 
the costal margin ; in specimens of the wet-season broods this 
band is slightly broader than in those of the dry-season, also 
broader in the $ than in the $ . Hind wing : the irroration of 
golden-green scales less dense, turning to blue on the anterior 
portions of the wing ; a broad bright blue upper discal patch that 
stops well short of the termen, and has its outer margin uneven, 
occupies the base of interspace 4 and the outer portions of inter- 
spaces 5, 6, and 7 ; below, this patch is continued in interspaces 
1 to 3 by much smaller diffuse quadrate spots of brilliant golden- 
green scales, that are prominent in wet-season forms, more obscure 
in the dry. The discal patch itself is variable in size ; in some speci- 
mens there is only a trace of it in interspace 4. Tornus with a 
conspicuous subterminal claret-red lunule, traversed inwardly by an 
obscure blue line and edged above the Innule, narrowly, by velvety 
black; indications generally of a similar lunule in interspace 2; 
finally a terminal series of large velvety-black markings that form 
on the tail broad borders to the green irroration down its middle. 
Cilia broadly edged with white in the interspaces. Underside 
chocolate-brown, somewhat thinly irrorated with yellowish scales, 
which are absent however, from a more or less triangular patch 
in the middle of the fore wing posteriorly, but coalesce and form 
an ill-defined very short subterminal band just above the tornal 
angle of that wing. Hind wing : a conspicuous subterminal 
series of claret-red lunules each traversed inwardly by a line 
of purplish blue, followed by velvety-black spots and broad 
white terminal lunules. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
brownish black ; the head, thorax and abdomen above, thinly 
irrorated with green scales. 

Exp. c? $ 98-124 mm. (3-86-4-90"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon ; Nepal. 

Larva. Dull green with some yellowish markings, thorax with a 

G 2 



84 

remarkable shield-like covering projecting a little over the head 
and marked with slender involute black lines ; 7th to the 12th 
segments with lateral obliquely placed pale yellowish lines. 

Pupa. Pale green with yellow and white markings. Head cleft, 
back strongly arched ; " sides flattened out with a hard sharp 
ridge running longitudinally round the whole insect." (Harford, 
as quoted by Moore.) 

Race ganesa, Doubleday. The Eastern race as a whole is 
larger and typically differs as follows : Upperside : ground- 
colour slightly darker, irroration of green scales not so dense. 
Fore wing : the subterininal bright golden-green transverse band 
very incomplete, often merely indicated from near the tornus to 
not further than interspace 3. Hind wing : the upper discal 
patch not continued to the dorsum, the red subterininal lunules 
on the posterior half of the wing more generally present. Under- 
side : ground-colour darker than in the Western race. Fore wing 
with very prominent internervular whitish streaks on the outer 
half, these streaks increase in length towards the costa but do 
not reach the terminal margin. Hind wing : the irroration of 
yellowish scales less dense and more restricted, the series of sub- 
terminal red and of terminal whitish lunules as in polyctor but 
variable, especially the latter series, in width and prominence. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in polyctor. 

Exp. c? $ 123-140 mm. (4-84-5-5"). 

Hab. Sikhim; Nepal; the hills of Assam, Burma and Tenas- 
serim. 

The Assam and Burmese specimens have been separated as 
subspecies or races by Fruhstorfer under the names triumpliator 
and significans ; the points relied upon for distinguishing them are, 
how r ever, eminently variable, such as the width or entire obsoles- 
cence of the subterminal green band on the upperside of the fore 
wing, the size of the upper discal patch and the presence or 
absence of red subterminal lunules on the upperside of the hind 
wing. These all vary greatly in Sikhim as well as in Assam and 
Burmese specimens. The presence of a somewhat obscure shining 
white spot on the upperside of the fore wing near the tornal 
angle in significans^ if constant, may possibly entitle it to racial 
separation. 

PARIS GEOUP. 

c? $ . In arrangement of pattern and in venation closely 
resembles the Bianor group, but the males are devoid of the 
cottony scent-streaks on the upperside of the fore wing. 

Key to tJie forms of tlie Paris Group. 

a. Fore wing underside : subterminal greyish- 
white band sharply defined, narrow, of 'even 
width throughout ." -P. krislna, p. 80. 



PAPILIO. 85 

b. Fore wing underside : subterniinal greyish-white 
band not sharply defined, broad and gradually 
widened anteriorly. 
'. Hind wing upperside : without a subterniinal 

series of claret-red limules. 
<r. Hind wing upperside : upper discal blue 
or green patch does not extend down to 

vein 3 . P. paris, p. 85. 

& 2 . Hind wing upperside : upper discal blue 
or green patch larger, extends down 

to vein Jj P. paris, race tami- 

V. Hind wing upperside : with a prominent \lana, p. 86. 

subterniinal series of claret-red lunules' .... P. arcturus, p. 87. 

539. Papilio paris (PI. XIII, fig. 90, rf ), Linn. Sy*t. Sat. ed. x, 1758, 
p. 459 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 107 ; Shoes, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 427 ; Manders, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, 
p. 535 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 384 ; Moore (Achillides), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 64, pi. 491, figs. 1, 1 -l c, d $ . 

Race tainilana. 

Papilio tamilana, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 313 ; Davidson, 
Bell fyAitken,Jou>: Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. x, 1897, p. 581 ; Moore 
(Achillides), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 65, pi. 492, figs. I, la, <$ $ . 

Papilio paris tamilana, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 385. 

d Upperside black, irrorated with dark green scales, which 
on the outer portion of the fore wing coalesce and form an incom- 
plete postdiscal narrow hand more erect than the subterminal 
similar band on the fore wing of P. polyctor. Hind wing : the 
irroration of dark green scales does not extend to the costal 
margin and is interrupted posteriorly by a broad postdiscal area, 
on both sides of which the green scales coalesce to form narrow 
diffuse hands ; a conspicuous upper discal shining blue patch 
occupies the base of interspace 4 and outer portions of inter- 
spaces 5 and 6 ; this patch is variable in size, and in many 
specimens extends narrowly below and above into interspaces 3 
and 7 respectively, its outer margin is uneven, its inner margin 
evenly arched ; a prominent claret-red largely black-centred 
ocellus at the tornal angle, its' inner margin with a transverse 
short violet-blue superposed line ; in many specimens an obscure 
claret-red subterminal lunule in interspace 7. Underside opaque 
black ; bases of both fore and hind wings, up to basal half of cell 
in fore and up to apex of cell in hind wing, with an irroration of 
yellowish scales ; also present more obscurely on the subterminal area 
in both wings. Tore wing with a very broad elongate triangular 
pale area that does not extend to the termen, formed of inter- 
nervular broad very pale ochraceous-white streaks, short near the 
tornus, gradually longer up to the costa. Hind wing : a prom- 
inent subterminal series of oc-hraceous-red lunules traversed by 
short violet-blue lines; in interspaces 1,2, and. sometimes in 3, 
these lunules are formed into more or less complete largely black- 



86 PAPlLIONJDvE. . 

centred ocelli by the addition of an adtnarginal portion of the red 
ring. Cilia conspicuously white in the interspaces. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen black, the latter three sprinkled with 
green scales above. $ . Similar, somewhat paler and duller. 
Upperside : fore wing with the green postdiscal band shorter and 
still more incomplete. Hind wing with the upper discal patch 
smaller, often green and not blue, the red subtermiual lunule in 
interspace 7 always present and more prominent than in the c? . 
Underside : similar to that in the J , but the tornal and subtornal 
markings generally formed into more or less complete ocelli. 

Exp. 6 $ 106-132 mm. (4-18-5-2"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Kuinaon to Sikhim, Nepal and 
Bhutan ; the hills of Assam, Burma and Tenasserim, extending to 
China, Siam and the Malay Peninsula. A common insect in 
Sikhim, where it is found from the Terai up to 5000 feet. It is 
rare in Burma and Tenasserim, where I have taken it in the 
Thaungyiu and Ataran Valleys from May to October, but it has 
been recorded from various places from Bbamo to Tavoy. 

Race tamilana. Moore. Very closely resembles the typical 
form, but on the upperside the upper discal patch on the hind 
wing is of a paler more metallic blue and very considerably larger, 
it extends from interspace 3 well into interspace 7, from the apex 
of the cell into interspaces 3, 4, and 5, and from the middle of 
interspace 6 much further towards the termen than iu paris. 
Underside similar to that of the typical form, but the transverse 
postdiscal pale band on the fore wing is conspicuously narrower 
and curved inwards towards the costa. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in paris. 

Exp. <* $ 116-134 mm. (4-58-5-28"). 

Hab. Southern India : Kanara, Nilgiris, Travancore. 

Mr. Bell " observed the female laying eggs on Erodia rox- 
buryhiana." 

540. Papilio krishna, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 108, 
pi. 2, fig. 6 3 ; Ehces, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 427 ; Ilothscli. 
Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 384; Moore (Achillides), Lep. Ind. vi, 
1903, p. 63 pi. 490, fig. 2 <?. 

c? $ . Eesembles P. paris generally, but differs in many points 
as follows : Upperside : ground-colour more of a brownish black, 
irrorated similarly to paris with green scales, but the scales 
smaller and more sparsely spread. Fore wing : the postdiscal 
transverse band well-defined, complete, formed of white scaling 
with only a thin sprinkling of green scales on its inner margin, 
generally erect or slightly curved, rarely slightly sinuous. Hind 
wing : upper discal patch metallic greenish blue, .smaller than in 
paris, but the portions of it in interspaces 6 and 7 more extended 
towards the termen, the metallic golden-green baud that joins the 
patch on its inner side to the dorsal margin more conspicuous 
than in paris; the tornal ocellus as in paris, but above it a sub- 



PAPIHO. 87 

terminal series of claret-red lunules in interspaces 2, 3, 4 and 5, 
followed by a series of ochraceous-red obscure terminal narrow 
lunules in the interspaces, the cilia on the outer margin of each 
conspicuously white. Underside : fore wing as in paris but an 
erect ochraceous-white postdiscal band as on the upperside 
limits ; the series of internervular pale streaks on the outer 
half of the wing. Hind wing : a well-defined discal ochraceous- 
white band formed of a series of somewhat lunular marks in the 
interspaces, these increase in width anteriorly ; a subterminal 
series of claret-red hmules traversed by violet scaling on the inner 
side as in paris, but much broader and more prominent ; finally a 
terminal series of ochraceous-yellow lunular marks in the inter- 
spaces ; the cilia that border each lunule white. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in P. paris. 

Exp. tf $ 108-121 mm. (4-24-4-75"). 

Hdb. Recorded from Sikhim and Bhutan only. 

In Sikhim. it is recorded by Mr. Elwes as common " in some 
seasons at certain places, and found from 3000 to 9000 feet 
elevation." I procured several specimens at Eungarun, near 
Darjiling, in May. It was difficult to catch, and only one or two 
of the specimens were. in good condition. 

541. Papilio arcturus, Westwood, A. M. N. H. ix, 1842, p. 37 ; Moore, 
Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 108 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 
1895. p. 383; Moore (Achillides), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 61, 
pi. 490, fig. Irf. 

3. Upperside brownish black, somewhat paler on the fore 
than on the hind wing. Fore wing irrorated with brilliant 
golden-green scales that on the posterior halt' of the wing form a 
broad, not well-defined subterminal band ; the veins and elongate 
streaks between them on the outer half of the wing velvety 
black. Hind wing : posterior three-fourths irrorated with 
brilliant golden-green scales as on the fore wing but towards the 
base anteriorly these turn to blue ; a conspicuous brilliant blue 
patch somewhat irregular in shape occupies the apex of the cell 
and the bases of interspaces 5 and 6, prolonged as a broad streak 
in the latter interspace up to the terminal margin ; below this a 
more or less triangular patch on the disc and above it the whole 
of the costal margin broadly are devoid of the irroration of green 
scales ; a subtermiual generally incomplete series of large claret-red 
lunules terminates at the tornal angle in a large conspicuous black- 
centred red ocellus ; "the latter is encircled above and anteriorly by a 
narrow band formed by a conflux of the green irrorated scales ; 
the lunules are bordered outwardly by spots of the ground-colour 
that are devoid of the green scales ; finally both the lunules and 
the tornal ocellus are tinged more or less with bluish-purple on 
their inner margins. Underside dull black, with a somewhat 
sparse irroration of yellowish-white scales confined on the fore 
wing to the base and apex, and on the hind wing to the posterior 



88 PAPILIONIDJE. 

two-thirds, not extended to the termen except along the tail. 
Fore wing : a broad ill-defined subterrainal pale transverse area, 
crossed by the black veins and internervular streaks, and elongated 
pale cellular streaks. Hind wing : a large somewhat quadrate 
terminal black-centred claret-red patch in interspaces 1 and 2, 
and a subterminal series of broad claret-red lunules that extends 
from interspaces 3 to 7, followed by ill-defined anteciliary red 
spots in each interspace. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white, 
alternated with black. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen 
brownish black ; the head, thorax and abdomen at base on the 
upperside sprinkled with golden-green scales. similar, the 
markings more prominent. Upperside : on the fore wing 
the subterminal golden-green band broader, on the hind wing 
the subterminal series of claret-red lunules more complete. 

Exp. <$ $ 119-126 mm. (4-70-4-98"). 

Hah. The Himalayas from Murree to Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; 
Burma ; Tenasserim. 

This lovely butterfly is rare in Tenasserim. Mr. Hauxwell and 
I procured it on the Taoo plateau at 4000 feet. 

PALINVEUS GROUP. 

<$ $ . Differs from the Bianor group, in that the males, except 
in one form (P. crt'no), are devoid of the cottony scent-streaks on 
the upperside of the fore wing. Even in the exceptional form 
these streaks are only sometimes present in the males ; when 
present such streak is invariably absent from interspace 1. Both 
fore and hind wings on the upperside crossed by bright bluish-green 
bands ; the band on the fore wing from the costa obliquely out- 
wards, that on the hind wing from the costa obliquely inwards. 

Key to the forms of tJie Palinurus Group. 

a. Hind wing upperside : tail without any green 

scaling on spatular portion 
'. Fore wing upperside : green band across wing 

comparatively narrow ; measured on dorsum 

less than one-third length of latter : expanse 

92-102 mm P. palinurus, p. 88. 

b'. Fore wing upperside : green band across wing 

comparatively broad, measured on dorsum 

considerably more than one-third length of 

latter : expanse 107-115 mm P. buddha, p. 89. 

b. Hind wing upperside : tail with a patch of green 

scales on spatular portion P. crino, p. 90. 

.542. Papilio palinurus (PL XIII, fig. 91), Fair. Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, 
p. 2; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 387; Moore (Harimala), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 19C3, p. 71, pi. 495, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, <J ?. 
Papilio brama, Gutr. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 43, pi. 1, figs. 3, 4 ; Gray, 
Cat. Lep. Ins. B.M. i, 1852, p. 18; Dist. Rhop. Malay. 1885, 
p. 338, pi. 32, fig. 4 j. 

<3 . Upperside black, closely irrorated with brilliant green scales. 



Fore wing with a slightly excurved, oblique, bright green cliscal 
band that extends from the middle of the costa to the dorsum a 
little before the tornal angle ; measured on the dorsum the width 
of this band is nearly equal to one-third of the length of the dorsal 
margin; anteriorly the band passes through the apical fourth 
of the cell and is narrowed slightly at the costa. Hind wing : 
costal margin broadly, termen including the tail more narrowly, 
devoid of the irroratiou of green scales ; a broad discal bar, 
elongate-oval in shape, extends from the dorsum a little above the 
tornus to the middle of interspace 6, its outer margin diffuse ; this 
is followed by a postcliscal area where the irroration of green scales 
is sparser than at the base, and a subterminal series of very broad 
lunules formed of scales of similarly metallic coloration ; finally a 
dark ochraceous-brown ocellus centred with black and surmounted 
by blue at the tornal angle, and a paler ochraceous-yellow lunule 
subapically in interspace 7. Underside velvety brownish-black; 
bases of both fore and hind wings somewhat thickly, the outer 
portions more thinly, sprinkled with pale yellow scales. Fore 
wing : apical half obliquely pale brownish white, darkening to 
dusky black at the apex and narrowly along the ternien ; the pale 
area very narrow at the tornal angle, gradually broadened up to 
the costa, traversed by the black veins. Hind wing : uniform ; 
an outer narrow pale band traversed by a subterminal series of 
ochraceous-brown lunules that are bordered on both inner and outer 
sides by velvety black, the black on the innerside crossed by 
diffuse short lines of bluish-white scales ; the lunule in interspace 7 
broadly and conspicuously bordered inwardly with white. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen velvety black, the head and thorax above 
overlaid with green. $ . Differs from c? in the discal transverse 
bands on the upperside of the fore and hind wings, which are 
conspicuously narrower, and on the hind wing by the brighter 
ochraceous colour of the tornal ocellus. 

Exp. rf $ 92-102 mm. (3-62-4"). 

Hob. Within our limits the hills of Burma and Tenasserim. 
Found also in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. 
Hare in Burma and Tenasserim. I took one specimen in the Ruby 
Mines district in Upper Burma at 5000 ft. elevation, and others 
in the Tunzalin and Haungtharaw Valleys in Tenasserim. 
Mr.Hauxwell records the following note : " This butterfly has the 
habit of bathing in shallow water in hill streams. It skims the 
surface of the water like a swallow and dips its body into the 
water, giving itself a shake as it comes out and then flies on again." 
(Jour. Bomb. K H. Soc. xii, 1899, p. 335.) 

543. Papilio buddha, Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1872, p. 86, pi. 3, 
fi. 1 J 1 ; Rotlisch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 389 ; Davidson 8? Aitken, 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 581, pi. 6, %s. 2, 2 a, larva 
& pupa ; Moore (Hariuiala), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 69, pi. 494, 
figs. I, 1 fl-1 c, cf , larva & pupa, c? $ . 

d $ . Eesembles P. palinurus but is larger and also differs as 



90 PAPILIONID^. 

follows: Upperside: irroration of green scales more restricted, 
the outer half of the fore wing except a triangular patch from apex 
of wing downwards, and the outer third of the hind wing except 
a subterminal series of ill -formed luuules, devoid of green scales; 
discal transverse bands on both fore and hind wings similar to those 
in P. palimtrus but very much broader ; the discal band of the fore 
wing measured on the dorsurn occupies considerably more than 
one-third of the dorsal length, while the discal band of the hind 
wing is as broad posteriorly as it is anteriorly (in P. palinurus it is 
much narrower posteriorly) ; the ochraceous tornal ocellus brighter, 
not surmounted with blue ; the subapical ochraceous lunule in inter- 
space 7 also brighter and much larger. Underside similar to the 
underside in P. palinurus, but on the hind wing the ochraceous 
lunules in the subterminal series proportionately narrower and 
much more conspicuously bordered on their innersides with silvery 
white. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in P. palinurus. 

Exp. 6 $ 107-155 mm. (4-2-4-5"). 

Hob. Southern India. 

Larva. Thoracic segments with a shield. G-reen, the shield 
laterally and posteriorly narrowly edged with white ; segments 5 to 
11 with a broad white line and above it a series of minute white 
spots one on each segment. 

Pupa. Much curved ventrally, head cleft, the processes long and 
upturned, back and sides keeled ; colour dark green ventrally, pale 
green dorsally. (After Davidson $ Aitlcen.) 

544. Papilio crino, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii (1) p. -5 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. 

E.I. C.i, 1857, p. 109; 'Eothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 389; 

Moore (Ilarimala), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 67, pi. 493, figs. 1, 

1 a-1 d, larva & pupa, <$ $ . 
Papilio criuo, var. montanus, Folder, Verli. zool.-bot. Ges. Wicn, xiv r 

1864, pp. 3-22, 370. 
Harimala inontanus, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 146, pi. 61, 

%1 $. 

c? $ . Besembles P. palinurus, but the d 1 generally has on the 
upperside of the outer half of the fore wing cottony or hairy 
scent-streaks similar to those in P. polyctor, only the streak in inter- 
space 1 is always wanting. Other differences are as follows : 
d 1 $ Upperside, fore wing : the discal transverse bluish-green band 
slightly sinuous, narrower, more curved and more distinctly 
decreasing in width towards the costal margin ; in the $ more 
sinuous than in the 3 . Hind wing : the transverse bluish-green 
band very variable in width but with its inner margin much 
straighter than in P. polyctor ; this band that in P. polyctor stops 
short of vein 7, is in the present form continued to the costal 
margin, it is however much and abruptly narrowed above vein 7 ; 
tornal ocellus claret-red with a large black centre inwardly edged 
with blue ; the bright ochraceous subapical lunule of P. polyctor 
replaced by a dull whitish spot ; the subterminal diffuse green 
lunules restricted to interspaces 2, 3, and 4 ; the spatular apex of 
the tail with a small patch of bluish-green scales. Underside dull 



PAPILIO. 01 

pale brown to blackish brown irrorated with scattered yellowish 
scales, which, however, on the fore wing are absent from a large 
triangular discal patch that lies betw-een the dorsuin, the median 
vein, vein 5 and a line of white lunules that crosses the wing in an 
outward curve from the upper third of the costa to just before the 
tornus ; these white lunules are outwardly diffuse and merge 
gradually into the brow 7 n ground-colour. Hind wing : the tornal 
ocellus much as on the upperside ; an obscure ill-defined highly 
arched postdiscal narrow whitish band from above the tornal 
ocellus to the costa, ends near apex of interspace 7 in a broad white 
lunule ; beyond this a double subterminal row of somewhat 
straight ochreous-white lunules in the interspaces, each lunule of 
the inner row bordered outwardly with blue, this bordering very 
faint in many specimens. Cilia of both fore and hind wings brown 
alternated with white. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen dark 
brownish black ; the head, thorax, and abdomen above with a 
sprinkling of glittering green scales. 

Exp. <j $ 100-116 mm. (3-98-4-6"). 

Hab. Lower Bengal; Central and Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Var. montanus, Felder, was founded on specimens devoid of the 
cottony scent-streaks on the upperside of the fore wing. 

Larva. " Somewhat lirnaciform ; anterior segments convexly 
scutellated ; furnished with a pair of short fleshy tubercles on 
anterior and two on anal segments." (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Curved backward anteriorly ; head broad in front ; 
green." (Moore.) 

PAYEXI GROUP. 

<$ 2 Fore wing more or less strongly falcate ; costa much 
arched, apex acute or subacute, produced ; termen concave ; tornus 
well marked, angular ; dorsum sinuous ; cell broad, upper disco- 
cellular about half the length of middle, middle concave ; veins 9, 
10 and 11 very close to each other, out of subcostal. Hind wing 
subtriangular ; costa slightly arched, apex rounded ; termen slightly 
convex to vein 4, prolonged into a long spatulate tail, slightly 
curved upwards at vein 4 ; tornus oblique, not well marked ; dorsum 
straight ; cell very long, more than two-thirds of length of wing 
to apex. Antenna? comparatively short, not half length of fore 
wing ; club well marked, oval. Anal valves in tf distinct. 

Key to the forms of the Payeni Group. 

a. Upperside ground-colour ochraceous yellow P. evan, p. 91. 

b. Upperside ground-colour brown P. gyas, p. 92. 

545. Papilio evan (PI. XIV, fig. 92), Doubkday, A. M. N. H, xvi, 

1845, pp. 235 & 304 ; Moore (Meandrusa), New Ind. Lep. Ins. 
1888, p. 284 ; id. (Meandrusa), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 47, pi. 483, 
figs. 1, la-le, cJ $ . 
Papilio payeni evan, Rotlisch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 401. 

c? . Upperside bright ochraceous, with a darker shade towards 



92 PAPILIONIDjE. 

the base o the wings. Fore wing : two or three spots obliquely 
across the cell, a larger spot at its upper apex, the costal margin 
from base (the collar broadened towards the apex), and the 
terminal margin very broadly, dark brown ; on the inner side of 
this broad brown terminal edging there is a transverse incomplete 
discal series of dark brown spots, followed bv an irregular trails- 
verse series of brown lunules, both these merge anteriorly and 
posteriorly into the brown on the terinen ; lastly superposed on 
the brown terminal edging is a more or less complete, transverse, 
subterminal series of lunules of the ochraceous ground-colour, 
reduced in some specimens to only two or three lunules above the 
tornus. Hind wing : terminal half or more dark brown, with an 
inner postdiscal and an outer subterminal series of more or less 
lunular spots of the ochraceous ground-colour; the postdiscal series 
consists of only four spots in interspaces 1 to 4, the subtermiual 
series is complete to interspace 7, the spots larger, that in inter- 
space 3 elongate, outwardly conical ; tail tipped with ochraceous. 
Underside : ground-colour a deeper richer ochraceous. Pore wing : 
cell and basal area with a number of irregular cinnamon-brown 
spots, followed on the terminal half by three transverse series of 
more or less irregular and incomplete lunular cinnamon-brown 
markings and a narrow brown terminal edging. Hind wing : 
basal area with a transverse series of three spots, a large spot at 
apex of cell, the bases of interspaces 1, 2 and 3, followed by three 
more or less complete but irregular series of lunular markings, 
cinnamon-brown ; superposed on the inner discal row of brown 
lunules is a transverse series of snow-white crescents, conspicuous 
only in interspaces 1 and 2, but barely indicated anteriorly. 
Antennae dark ochraceous brown ; head, thorax and abdomen 
ochraceous, the thorax posteriorly and basal half of the abdomen 
olivaceous ; beneath : head, thorax and abdomen brighter ochraceous. 
2 . Ground-colour paler, base and cell of fore wing on upperside 
shaded with bright very pale cinnamon ; markings similar both 
on the upper and under sides, but less clearly defined ; the costal 
margin of fore wing on the upperside ochraceous almost to apex, 
not brown ; the subterminal series of ochraceous lunules on the 
upperside of the hind wing very large, separated from one another 
only by the brown along the veins. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen similar, but paler. 

Exp. d $ 108-146 mm. (4-23-5-72" ). 

Hab. Sikhiin ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim. 

546. Papilio gyas, Westwood, Arcana Ent. i, 1841, p. 41, pi. 11, fig. 1. 
c?; Moore, Cat: 'Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 110; Rothsch. 
Nov. Zool. ii. 1895, p. 401 ; Moore (Dabasa), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, 
p. 49, pi. 484, figs. 1, la, Ib, d $ . 

<$ . Upperside opaque brown, the basal ai-ea and the terminal 
third of both fore and hind wings of a darker shade than the 
broad medial area, due to the dark markings of the underside that 
show through by transparency ; fore and hind wings with a sub- 



PAPILIO. 93 

terminal series of largish yellow lunules that curve upwards pos- 
teriorly on the hind wing and end in a diffuse transverse bluish- 
white mark across interspace 1. Underside, fore wing : basal third 
and a large spot on the discocellulars, that is widened anteriorlv, 
rich dark cinnamon-brown ; medial third lilacine, pale towards the 
dorsum, widened anteriorly and extended into the apex of the cell, 
and on the costa from the discocellulars to near the apex of the wing ; 
interspaces 2, 3 and 4 with paler lilacine lunules ; terminal third 
of the wing dull brown, with a postdiscal and a subtermiual trans- 
verse series of somewhat obscure olivaceous-yellow lunules. Hind 
wing : basal third rich dark cinnamon-brown in continuation of 
that colour on the fore wing ; remainder of the wing lilacine, with 
a large posterior discal patch of cinnamon-brown, margined 
inwardly by a diffuse broad irregular white band, and outwardly 
by a series of white lunules ; a subterminal somewhat obscure row 
of olivaceous-yellow markings ; the tail and terminal margin dark 
cinnamon-brown. Antennae dark brown, head, thorax and abdomen 
brown with an olivaceous tinge ; beneath ; similar, the abdomen 
more brightly olivaceous yellow. $ . Upperside : ground-colour 
similar to that in the tf ; markings differ as follows : a very broad 
discal ti-ansverse lilacine white band across both fore and hind 
wings that extends from vein 5 and from within the apex of cell 
of fore wing to the dorsal margin of the hind wing. Tore wing : 
a yellowish- white costal spot in upper third of cell, a larger spot 
beyond that turns to yellow at base of interspace 6, an anterior 
postdiscal transverse series of yellow more or less lunular spots, 
and a subterminal similar series of spots. Hind wing : the lilacine 
white colour of the discal band spreads to the base of the wing, 
but is thickly irrorated with brownish scales, as is also the outer 
margin posteriorly of the same band ; the rest of the wing dark 
brown, with the margins of the tornus and of the tail broadly bright 
cinnamon-brown ; lastly, superposed on the brown area is a sub- 
terminal series of large, yellow, well-defined more or less lunular 
spots. Underside similar to that of the c? , the ground-colour and 
markings on the outer two-thirds of both fore and hind wings 
paler. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d 1 

Exp. <3 $ 120-126 mm. (4-73-5-0"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserirn. 

GLYCEIUON GEOUP. 

<$ $ . Pore wing broadly triangular ; costa somewhat broadly 
arched ; apex obtuse ; term en straight ; tornus rounded ; dorsum 
straight, considerably more than half length of costa ; cell longer 
than half length of wing, upper discocellular more than twice as 
long as middle; vein 11 very short, anastomosed with vein 12 very 
soon after its origin. Hind wing broad ; costal and terminal 
margins subequal, the latter sinuous, with a delicate and very 
slender non-spatulate tail at apex of vein 4 ; the wing posterior to 
the tail produced inwardly, lobed and emarginate below the tornus ; 



S4 PAP1LIOXID.E. 

dorsum straight ; cell narrow, upper discocellular very much longer 
than the middle. Antennae short, not half length of fore wing ; 
club well marked, thick, but gradual ; head tufted in front, thorax 
and legs hairy. d" abdominal fold of hind wing narrow, without 
-any cottony scent-hairs within. 

547. Papilio glycerion, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 32; id. Lep. Ins. 
yep. 1840, p. 4, pi. 3, tig. 2 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i 
1857, p. 110; Heron, A. M. N. If. (7) iii, 1899, p. 119; Moore 
(Pazala), Lep. Ind. vi, 3903, p. 33, pi. 479, figs. 1, la, \b. 

Papilio paphus, de Niceville, J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 254, pi. 11, fig. 6, 
5; Ehces, Trans. Ertt. Soc. 1888, p. 432. 

Papilio inandarinus paphus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 408. 

cf $ . Upperside dead-white or very pale cream-colour. Fore 
wing: cell partially, and interspaces between the dusky black 
outer discal markings more or less semitransparent ; cell crossed 
by five black bauds, the basal two of which extend to the dorsal 
margin, the subapical to a little below the median vein ; a black 
band along the discocellulars, joined at costal margin and above 
lower apex of cell to the band traversing the cell near its apex ; 
a broad transverse postdiscal black band from near tornal angle to 
<;osta ; this band double above vein 5, forms three well-marked 
loops ; subterminal and terminal narrower transverse black bands, 
the former joined on to the postdiscal band near tornal angle ; 
lastly, the postdiscal band outwardly and the terminal band 
inwardly, broadly and diffusely bordered with dusky black. Hind 
wing : a narrow black line from base along the dorsum, a broader 
black line along vein 1, joined below the cell by a broad black band 
that crosses the latter subbasally, a black patch on the produced 
posterior portion of the wing, studded at the tornal angle with 
two conspicuous yellow spots, below which there is a triangular 
white dorsal mark ; the black patch with three somewhat obscure 
blue subterminal lunules ; the tail narrowly edged with white ; 
a narrow black medial line from costa that crosses near apex of 
cell and terminates on the median nervure; at the upper and 
lower ends of this are loops formed of slender black lines, in the 
5 well marked, in the cT seen only by transparency from the 
underside ; finally, discal, postdiscal and subterminal slender black 
transverse lines from the costa terminate in the black anal patch. 
Underside similar, with similar but much more heavily defined 
black markings, the upper or costal loop on the short medial 
transverse black line tinged with yellow ; the whole of the median 
vein and the discocellulars broadly defined in black. Antenna 
black ; head, thorax and abdomen black, with some white pubes- 
cence, the head anteriorly tufted with black ; head, thorax and 
abdomen beneath whitish yellow. 

Exp. 6 $ 77-90 mm. (3-3-52"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Nepal ; Upper Burma : N. Chin Hills ? 

It is, I think, probable that the one specimen procured in the 
Chin Hills by Capt. AVatson belonged to the Eastern race of the 
-closely allied P. kashmirensis, Botbsch., and not to P. glycerion. 



95 



548. Papilio kashmirensis, Rothschild. 

Papilio glycerion, S. Robson (nee Gray), Jour. Bomb. N, H. koc. ix 

1895, p." 497, larva & pupa. 
Papiiio elycerion cashmirensis, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. li. 1895, p. 407; 

MacKinnon $ de Niceville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 595, 

pi. W, figs. 25a-25c, larva & pupa. 
Papilio caschmirensis, Heron, A. M. N. H. (7) iii, 1899, p. 120 ; 

Moore (Pazala), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, p. 36, pi. 480. figs. 1, la-Id, 

larva & pupa, <5 $ 

llace sikhiniica. 

Papilio glvcerion, de Niceville (nee Gray], J. A. S. B. 1886, 
p. 254, pi. 11, fig- 5 ; Ehves (nee Gray), Tram. Ent. Soc. 1888, 

Papilio "caschmirensis, subsp. sikkimica, Heron, A. M. A T . H. (7) 
Pazala sikkima,"' Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 35, pi. 479, figs. 2, 



Closely resembles P. glycerion, bureau be distinguished as 
Hows : Upperside, fore 
extended to dorsum, but 



follows ' Upperside, fore wing: postdiscal transverse band not 
but terminated above vein 1 ; all the black 




transverse markings 
narrower. Hind wing : 
the black patch on 
the produced posterior 
portion of the wing 
proportionately of less 
extent ; the black band 
that crosses the cell 
subbasally and the 
lower portions only of 
the discal, postdiscal 
and subterminal black 
lines as in P. glycerion; 
the rest of the trans- 
verse black linear 
markings obsolete, 
seen only by trans- 
parency from the 
underside. Underside, fore wing : markings as on the upperside but 
more heavily defined. Hind wing ith an additional black trans- 
verse line beyond the medial line, connected with it by lines of 
black along the veins, that form a series of loops which are 
more or less tinted with pale yellow. Antennas, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in P. glycerion. 

Exp. d $ 66-71 mm. (2-6-2-8"). 
Hob. The Himalayas : Kashmir to Mussoorie. 
Larva. " When full-fed Ig-lj inches in length : 4th and 5th 
segments thickest ; from 5th segment to 13th the larva tapers. 

Colour green covered with minute black dots except on 

anal segment. Third segment bordered anteriorly by a narrow 
ochreous ridge, which surmounts the head when drawn in, and is 



Fig. 19. Hind wing undersides : 

A. Papilio glycerion. 

B. Papilio kaslt/nirensis. 



96 PAPILIONID/E. 

continued in unbroken spiracular lines to the tail. This ridge or 
hood is furnished with two short, blunt, black subdorsal spines. 
The 4th and 5th segments are furnished each with two subdorsal 
vermilion tubercles armed with a short black spine. Last segment 

bifurcate, the points yellow, tipped with black Legs, 

claspers and abdomen of a whitish green." {Mrs. S. Itobson.) 

Pupa. " One inch long ; brighter green than the larva, marked 
longitudinally with four ochreous-yellow curved bars." (Mrs. S. 
Robson.} 

Race sikhimica (PI. XIV, fig. 93, rf ), Heron. A very slightly- 
differentiated race. Can be distinguished by its generally larger 
size and more heavily defined black markings. On the upperside 
of the fore wing the fourth transverse black band from base crosses 
the cell and extends beyond the median vein, as in P. f/tycerion. 
In all specimens of Tcaslimirensis that I have seen the above band 
stops short at the median vein ; again, the postdiscal transverse 
black band extends in sikhimica to vein 1. The markings on the 
hind wings on both upper and under sides, except that they are 
broader, are as in P. kashmirensis. 

Exp. rf $ 62-7G mm. (2-46-2-95"). 

Bab. Sikhim ; Assam. 

According to Elwes this form in Sikhim inhabits a lower zone, 
2000 to 4000 feet, than does P. gJycerion, which extends up to 
7000 feet. 

ANTIPHATES GROUP. 

c? $ . Characters similar to those of the Glycerwn group, but 
in the fore wing the upper discocellular is only a little longer than 
the middle ; the apex of the wing is on the whole more produced ; 
the termen more oblique and slightly concave in the middle. 
" The light bands in the apical region with hair-like scales " 
(Rothschild). 

As in the Glycerion group the males have a narrow abdominal 
fold on the hind wings, but are devoid of any scent-organ within it. 

Key to the forms of the Antiphates Group. 

a. Fore wing upperside : postdiscal and terminal 

black bands that coalesce below vein 3 and 
extend to tornus. 

'. Hind wing upperside : bnsal three-fourths 
uniform white ; black markings of under- 
side show through by transparency P. antiphates, p. 97. 

V. Hind wing upperside: basal three-fourths 
not uniform white, a subbasal transverse 
black streak and some upper discal black ( r> , , . 
markings distinct P " S ""* 

b. Fore wing upperside: postdiscal and terminal ' <'P am 

black bauds that do not coalesce, but are , 
distinct and do not extend to tornus j 



97 



549. Papilio antiphates, Cramer, Pap. E.vot. i, 1775, p. 113, pi. 72, 

figs. A, B ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 410. 
Pathysa naira, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 22, pi. 475, figs. 1, 

Race epaminondas. 

Papilio epaminondas, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. iv, 1879, p. 62, pi. 4, 
fig. 1 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 414 ; Moore (Pathysa), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 23, pi. 475, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, <$ $ . 

Papilio laestrygonum, Wood-Mason, Proc. A. S.B. 1888, p. 102. 

Race alcibiades (PI. XIV, fig. 94). 
Papilio alcibiades, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 8 ; Moore (Pathysa) 

Lep. Lid. vi, 1903, p. 19, pi. 474, figs. 1, 1 a-l e, larva & pupa, 

c?$. 
Papilio antiphates, Moore (nee Cramer), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 

1857, p. 116, pi. 3, figs. 10, 10 a, larva pupa; id. (nee Cramer) 

Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p.l42, pi. 63, figs. 1, 1 a, tf; Davidson $ Aitken 

(nee Cramer), Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 579, pi. 6, 

figs. 1, 1 a, larva & pupa. 
Papilio nebulosus, Butler, A. M. N. H. (5) vii, 1881, p. 33, pi. 4, 

fig. 3. 

Papilio itamputi, Butler in Forbes, Nat. Wand. 1885, p. 276. 
Papilio antiphates continentalis ft P. antiphates ceylonicus, Eimer, 

Artbild. Schmett. 1889, pp. 137 & 149. 
Papilio antiphates alcibiades, Rothsch. Nor. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 411. 

<S $. Upperside white. .Fore wing: cell crossed by five short 
black bands, of which the basal extends to the dorsum, the sub- 
basal into interspace 1, the medial and preapical up to the median 

vein, and the apical or fifth along 
the discocellulars ; this last ex- 
tends broadly on both sides of the 
veinlets and terminates at the 
lower apex of the cell ; beyond 
these are broad postdiscal and 
terminal black transverse bands 
from costa to tornal angle ; the 
two bands coalesce below vein 4 
and terminate in a point at 
the tornus ; the white portions 
of the cell anteriorly overlaid 
with pale green ; short macular 
hyaline green bands between the 
black cellular apical band and 
the discal band and anteriorly 
between the latter and the ter- 
minal band. Hind wing : basal 
three-fourths uniform white, 
with black markings on the 
underside that show through by 
transparency ; terminal fourth 
Fig. ^.-Papilio antiphates. <jark grey traversed by a curved 
irregular subterminal series of 
black hmules that ends in a black tornal spot and a terminal black 

VOL. II. H 




band that follows the indentations of the wing ; the emargination 
below the black tornal spot edged with ochraceous; the tail 
blackish-grey, edged and tipped with white. Underside : fore wing 
similar with similar markings, but the green shading over the 
white portions in the basal half of the cell more decided ; the 
discal and terminal transverse black bands separate, not joined 
posteriorly, the former edged posteriorly on both sides by dark 
grey due to the black on the upperside that shows through by 
transparency. Hind wing : basal half green, outer half white ; a 
large black tornal spot ; a black line along the dorsum that curves 
above the tornal spot outwards to vein 2 ; a straight subbasal 
black band from costa across cell that terminates on vein 2, where 
it joins the dorsal black line ; a broader black band from costa 
across apex of cell extended into base of interspace 3 ; an irregular 
discal series of black markings curved inwards posteriorly towards 
the tornal spot ; a subterminal series of very small slender black 
lunules in pairs, the ground-colour on the inner side of these 
darkened to rich ochreous-yellow ; lastly, a series of short terminal 
black bars in the interspaces so arranged as to follow indentations 
of the termen ; tail dusky black edged with white. Antennae 
black ; head and thorax anteriorly with a broad black medial band, 
rest of thorax bluish ; abdomen white, marked beneath on each 
side by a black stripe. 

Exp. 90-104 mm. (3-55-4-1"). 

Hab. Within our limits recorded only from Travancore. 

This form was first described from China. 

Race epaminondas, Oberthiir. 
Differs from the typical form 
chiefly in the greater width of 
the black markings on the upper- 
side, especially of the basal and 
subbasal bands that cross the 
fore wing, both of which also ex- 
tend to the dorsum. On the hind 
wing the black markings of the 
underside on the basal and discal 
areas are not only seen bv trans- 
parency from below, but are 
actually represented, though only 
partially, by black scaling ; the 
width of the dark grey terminal 
portion is also greater, and it 
has a tendency to turn to dusky 
black anteriorly, so that the sub- 
terminal series of black lunules 
are obscured anteriorly and are 
difficult to make out. Underside : 
markings similar to those of the 
typical form, but broader ; fore 

Fig.2\.Papilioanfiphate!s, R with tbe dl ' scal transverse 
race ejMamioiidas. baud that reaches from costa to- 




PAPILIO. 99 

vein 1 ; hind wing : the black bands that cross the cell broader 
and proportionately closer together. 

Exp. <$ $ 94-100 mm. (3'7-3'94"). 

Hob. The Andamans. 

Race alcibiades, Fabr. This is the most widely spread race of 
antiphates, from which it differs as follows : 

<S $ Upperside : all the black markings shorter and narrower. 
Pore wing : the discal and terminal bands separate, the former 
rarely extended below vein 3, the latter in no specimen reaches the 
dorsal margin. Hind wing : the broad grey area on the terminal 
margin reduced to a small patch of grey at the apices of inter- 
spaces 2 to 4 ; the subterminal black markings rarely present 
anteriorly, generally confined to the limits of the grey patch. 
Underside : the extent of the black markings similarly reduced, 
otherwise as in the typical form. 

Exp. J $ 82-94 mm. (3-24-3'7"). 

Hub. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Central and Western India ; Ceylon ; 
Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to Siam, China, and tar 
into the Malayan Subregion. 

The width and length of the transverse black markings on the 
upperside of the fore wing, also the extent of the grey terminal 
area and the presence or absence of the black subterminal 
markings on the upperside of the hind wing, are all very variable. 

Var. nebulosus, Butler, is a melanistic variety recorded from 
Sikhim. 

Var. continentalis, Eimer, has the caudal area of the hind wing 
on the upperside suffused with black. 

Var. itamputi, Butler, has the postdiscal and terminal black 
bands on the upperside of the fore wing united posteriorly, but 
neither band extends up to the tornus. 

Var. ceylonicus, Eimer, has the basal two bands on the upper- 
side of the fore wing extended beyond the median nervure, the 
preapical cellular band not triangular and extended to the median 
nervure. 

The larva and pupa figured by Messrs. Davidson and Aitken 
(1. c.) were probably those of P. antipJiates, race alcibiades. 

Larva. " The most unusual feature of the larva is that in its 
early stages it is pure white marked only with thin transverse 
lines of black or dark green. At the last moult but one it becomes 
yellow with thicker lines, and after the last moult attains the 
colour shown in the figure, showing a distinct resemblance to the 
larva of P. nomius." (Davidson <Sf Aitken.) The figure represents 
a white caterpillar about 1| inch long, shaded with dusky green 
along the dorsum, the divisions of the segments marked with 
green and a prominent green lateral line. The head in the figure 
is apparently tucked in below, but the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments 
have a patch of dark green above. 

Papa. " Supported by an uncommonly long band, and from its 
green colour would seem to be normally found on the plant 
(Unona laivii) and not under stones." (Davidson $ Aitken.) 

IE 2 



100 



AGETES GHOUP. 




<5 $ . Characters like those of the Glycerion group, the out- 
line of the wings and venation 
//-I-/* 10 similar, but the males have the abdo- 
minal fold in the hind wing well 
developed, with a well-marked cot- 
tony scent-organ within. The light- 
coloured portions of the fore wing 
anteriorly subhyaline, with hair-like, 
not normal, scales. 

The typical form alone is found 
within our limits. In Borneo an 
allied form, P. strateotes, occurs along 
Fig. 22. Venation of fore wing : with a slightly differentiated race of 
Papilio agetes, Westw. the typical agef ^ 

550. Papilio agetes (PI. XIV, fig. 95), Westwood, Arc. Ent. ii, 1843, 
p. 23, pi. 55, figs. 1, 2 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 116; Ehoes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 433; Rothsch. NOD. Zool. 
ii, 1895, p. 417; Moore (Deoris), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 31, pi. 478, 
figs.2,2,26 ; tf$. 

S $ Upperside white. Pore wing : cell crossed by three 
comparatively broad, oblique black bands, the innermost produced 
across interspaces 1 and 1 a to the dorsal margin, the next to 
vein 1, sometimes a little beyond into interspace 1 a, the third to 
the median vein ; these are followed by a triangular costal black 
spot above the upper apex of the cell ; a postdiscal oblique band 
similar to the others that extends from the costa to just above the 
tornus, where it joins a broad black terminal edging that lies 
between the apex of the wing and the tornus ; the costal margin 
edged with a black thread which widens slightly beyond the post- 
discal band. The white ground-colour in the anterior half of the 
cell, beyond the apex of the latter to the postdiscal black band, 
and in the area between the postdiscal and terminal bands, is 
hyaline with a greenish-yellow tinge. Hind wing : a spot at the 
tornal angle, the anal lobe, tail and terminal margin black ; above 
the tornal spot is a short, comparatively broad, red band edged 
anteriorly by a fine black line that joins the spot to the black on 
the anal lobe ; superposed on the black of the terminal margin 
there are some obscure white scalings ; a triangular transverse 
subterminal white spot in interspace 3 and occasionally a sub- 
terminal short white line in interspace 4 ; also the anterior edge 
of the tail at base is touched with white. Seen by transparency 
from the underside are two convergent transverse black bands, the 
outer one of which is traversed by short transverse lines of red 
in interspaces 2, 6, 7 and 8. Underside similar ; hind wing with 
the addition of the two black bands mentioned above, which 
coalesce above the tornal area. Antennae, head, thorax and 



PAPILIO. 101 

abdomen black, the head marked with red, the thorax on the sides 
with greyish pubescence ; abdomen with lateral white stripes ; 
beneath, white. 

Exp. d $ 71-84 mm. (2-80-3-30"). 

Sab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending 
to the Malay Peninsula and Tonkin. 



ARISTEUS GKOUP. 

c? 2 . Characters similar to those of the Glycerion and AntipJiates 
groups ; neuration and shape of wings as in the latter, but the 
light-coloured bands in the apical region of the fore wing are 
normally scaled, and in the male the abdominal fold of the hind 
wing has a well-marked cottony scent-organ within. 

Key to the forms of the Aristeus Group. 

a. Fore wing upperside: anterior four spots of 

subterminal series rounded, posterior spots 
elongate but not linear. 
'. Hind wing underside : no black interior 

edging to precostal spur P. nomius, p. 101. 

b'. Hind wing underside : a conspicuous black , 7, 

interior edging to precostal spur P 'JSB 10S 

b. Foie wing upperside : all spots of subterminal ' ' oet> ^ 1U 

series linear. 

a'. Fore wing upperside : a short black trans- 
verse band along discocellulars, not coales- 
cent below apex of cell with postdiscal ,p a) .j steus race 

transverse band \ ' . ..+' _ T(\A 

,, T-, .-, i , ii i antio ates. p. 1U4. 

o . .tore wing upperside : snort black transverse ' 

band along discocellulars, coalescent below 

apex of cell with postdiscal transverse , p ar f s f euSt race 

band \ hermocrates, p. 104. 

551. Papilio nomius, Esper, Ami. Schmett. 1785-1798, pi. 52, fig. 3; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 115 ; id. (Pathysa) Lep. 
Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 142, pi. 62, fig. 2 ; Davidson $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb, 
N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 364, pi. E, figs. 1, 1 a, larva & pupa ; Moore 
(Pathysa), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 26, pi. 477, figs. 1, 1 -l e, larva 
& pupa, c? $ ; Kothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 421. 

Eace swinhoei. 

Papilio swinhoei, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 697. 

Papilio nomius swinhoei, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 422. 

Papilio nomius,/orm temp, pernomius, Fruhstorfer, Berl. ent. Zeit. 

xlvii, 1902, p. 202. 
Pathysa pernomius, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 29, pi. 478, tigs. 1, 

la, 16, d. 

tf $ . Upperside bluish-white. Fore wing : cell with five broad 
transverse black bauds, the basal and subbasal bands produced to 



102 



PAPILIONID^E. 




Fig. 23. 

A. Papilio nonius, f . 

B. Underside : anterior portion 

of hind wing. 



the dorsum, the medial band generally extended into interspace 2, 
the preapical ended on the median vein, and the fifth or apical 
from costa along the discocellulars extends on both sides of these 
and terminates at lower apex of cell ; beyond the fifth band is 
a short macular transverse bar of 
the ground-colour that terminates 
on vein 5, followed by a very broad 
black terminal band that occupies 
about one-third of the width of the 
wing and is traversed by a transverse 
subterminal series of rounded spots 
of the ground-colour. Hind wing : 
ground-colour along dorsum and 
above vein 7 whitish ; a streak 
along the dorsum, a subbasal and 
an inner discal transverse band from 
costa across cell, and a very broad 
terminal band, black ; the former 
two joined near the torn us by cross 
lunular black marks, the terminal 
band traversed by a series of 
slender lunules of the ground- 
colour ; a small black spot in inter- 
space 1 above tornus and another 

at base of interspace 4 ; the black at the apices of interspaces 2 to 
4 and the lunules of the ground-colour thereon suffused with 
grey ; tail black, edged and tipped with white. Underside white, 
the black markings very similar but of a bronze-brown with the 
following exceptions : Fore wing : extensions below the median 
vein of the basal, subbasal, and median transverse bands crossing 
the cell, and the inner portion below vein 4 of the terminal broad 
band, black : on the hind wing the inner discal band is broken, 
irregular and black, and is bordered by a series of red spots 
outwardly edged with black ; the subterminal series of lunules of 
the ground-colour are broadly edged on the outer side with black ; 
the grey patch in the caudal region is replaced by ochraceous grey. 
Antennae black ; head, thorax and abdomen creamy white, with a 
medial broad longitudinal stripe ; beneath, the abdomen with 
lateral black stripes. 

Exp. 3 5 68-95 mm. (2-68-3-7S"). 
Hob. Sikhim ; Central and Southern India ; Ceylon. 
1 have, following Rothschild, kept this form as distinct from 
P. aristeus, Cramer, but in my opinion, like anticrates, Doubleday, 
and hermocrates, Felder, it is merely a geographical race of aristeus. 
Larva. " Not so thick proportionally at the fourth segment as 
those of the last three (i. e. agamemnon, sarpedon, doson\ and is 
somewhat quadrangular. It has four pairs of spines which are 

small but sharp. The most usual colour is black, banded 

on the sides with narrow white stripes, except on the first three 



PAPILIO. 103 

or four segments and the last, on which there is more or less rusty 
red ; but the shade varies very much, and in some the ground- 
colour is green." (Davidson &f Aitken.) 

Pupa. " Has the usual horn which characterizes this group, and 
also two short processes on the head, and is of some shade of 
earthy-brown. It is attached by the tail and a close band in 
crevices or under stones or roots." (Davidson <$ Aitken.) 

Race swinhoei, Moore. Differs from typical nomius as follows : - 
c? $ . Upperside : all the black markings distinctly broader. Fore 
wing: the transverse band that crosses the cell before apex generally 
extends beyond the median vein ; hind wing : the terminal black 
band much broader, extended inwardly right up to and coalesced 
with the black lunules that connect the subbasal and discal 




\ 



Fig. '2-i. A. Papilio nomius, race swinhoei : underside. 

B. apical half, upperside of fore wing. 



transverse bauds ; the grey subcaudal patch absent or obsolescent. 
Underside : similar to that of nomius. On the fore wing the 
extension below the median vein of the transverse band that 
crosses the cell preapically, brown not black ; on the hind wing 
the precostal spur edged narrowly on the inner side by black ; the 
red macular discal band broader and the black edging to the 
subterminal series of lunules better defined. 

Exp. (J $ 74-86 mm. (2-92-3-38 11 ). 

Hob. Recorded from Sikhim ? ; Burma ; Tenasserim. 

Described originally from Hainan, and later by Fruhstorfer 
under the name pernomius from Siam. 



104 



PAP1LIONIDJE. 



552. Papilio aristeus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv, 1782, p. GO, pi. 318, 
figs. E, F. 

Race hermocrates. 

Papilio hermocrates, Felder, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wieti, xiv, 1864, p. 302 : 
id. Heine Nov., Lep. i, p. 57, pi. 12, figs. E, F ; Elwes $ de N. 
J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 437. 

Papilio aristeus hermocrates, Rothschild. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, 
p. 420. 

Race anticipates. 

Papilio anticipates, Doubleday, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1846, p. 371 ; 

Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 115; Elwes. Tram. 

Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 434; Moore (Pathysa), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, 

p. 24, pi. 470, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, J $ . 
Papilio aristeus anticrates, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 419. 

Race hermocrates, Felder. Very closely resembles P. nomius, 
from which it differs as follows : J $ . Upperside : the black 
markings very much broader, slightly broader even than in swinlioei, 
the eastern form of P. nomius. Pore wing : the transverse short 
black band that crosses the cell before the apex (i. e. 4th band) 
narrowed posteriorly and terminated as in nomius on the median 
vein ; the black terminal band very broad, covers more than the 
outer third of the wing, coalesces with the black band on the disco- 
cellulars, and encloses the short macular bar of ground-colour 
beyond the cell ; the subterminal band of spots of the ground- 
colour that traverse the black margin linear, not rounded. Hind 
wing similar to the hind wing in nomius race swinhoei, but the 
grey subcaudal patch as in typical nomius. Underside : similar to 
the underside in nomius, with the 
differences in the width of the 
markings as seen on the upperside, 
and in the shape of the subterminal 
line of spots on the fore wing; the 
precostal spur is as in nomius and 
not as in swinhoei. 

Exp. <$ $ 74-84 mm. (2-93- 
3-28"). 

Hob. Within our limits recorded 
from. Burma and Southern Tenas- 
serim. Described originally from 
the Philippines ; occurs throughout 
the Malayan Subregion. 

Race anticrates, Doubleday. 
3 $ . This race of aristeus more 
closely resembles nomius than does 
hermocrates. From nomius, however, 
Fig. 25. Papilio aristeus, it can be distinguished as follows :- 
race anticrates. Upperside : ground - colour whiter 

with the very faintest tinge of 
green in fresh specimens. Fore wing : subbasal transverse black 




PAPILIO. 105 

band somewhat attenuate posteriorly ; in the cell the preapical band 
subtriangular, sometimes not extended to the median vein ; the 
terminal series of spots of the ground-colour linear as in hermocrates, 
posteriorly these become lunular in shape. Hind wing : the 
discal black band obsolescent, only faintly defined near costa 
and at posterior end ; terminal black band and terminal lunules of 
the ground-colour as in nomius but narrow ; grey subcaudal patch 
as in nomius. Underside : similar to the underside in nomius with 
the following exceptions the black markings of the upperside 
entirely replaced by a bronze-brown : the discal series of red 
spots are edged with black, and the outer edgings to the sub- 
terminal series of white lunules are prominently and broadly 
black. 

Exp. rf 2 77-84 (3-03-3-28"). 

Nab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 



EURYPYLUS-AGAMEMXOX GBOUP. 

<3 $ . Venation similar to that of the Glycerion group. Fore 
wing : costa widely arched, apex produced, obtuse ; termen 
straight or at the most slightly concave and sinuous ; tornus 
rounded ; dorsum very short, not nearly one-half the length of 
the costa, thus the wing forms a high and narrow triangle if the 
dorsum is taken as the base. Hind wing : costa long, slightly 
arched ; termen slightly scalloped, generally, but not in all the 
forms, tailed at apex of vein 4 ; tail when present narrow, short, 
scarcely spatulate, usually with a very slight upward curve ; dorsum 
straight ; abdominal fold in the <S rather broad, with a well-marked 
elongate tuft of scent-hairs. Antennae about half length of fore 
wing, club well-marked. 



Key to the forms of the Eurypyl us- Agamemnon Group. 

A. Fore wing upperside : ground-colour black, 
cell with markings of green or bluish- 
green. 
a. Fore wing upperside : cell with these 

markings all single. 
a. Hind wing underside : with more or less 

conspicuous crimson spots. 
a 2 . Fore wing upperside : discal band of 
spots narrow; hind wing underside: 



. 

I 2 . Fore wing upperside : discal band of ' 
spots broad ; hind wing underside : 
crimson spots very prominent, well- I P. ewypylus, race 
denned ........................ | aaion, p. 107. 

b'. Hind wing underside : with conspicuous ) P. latJtycles, race 

ochreous-yellow spots .............. | chiron, p. 108. 



106 TAPILIONID.E. 

b. Fore wing upperside : cell with the medial 
markings double, formed into paired 
spots. 
a'. Hind wing underside : without crimson 

red spots in interspaces 2, 3 and 4 .... P.agamemnon,^. 110. 
b'. Hind wing underside : with more or less 



c. Fore wing upperside : cell with a long and oa, . 108. 

broad subhyaline bluish streak in its 
lower half and a large quadrate spot 
beyond at apex ...................... P. cloantlms, p. 110. 

B. Fore wing upperside : ground-colour black, 
cell without any markings. 

a. Upperside : medial bluish band on both fore 

and hind wing broad, anterior spots that 

compose it only slightly greenish ...... P. sarpedon, p. 111. 

b. Upperside ; medial bluish band on both fore 

and hind wing comparatively narrow, 
anterior spots that compose it on fore 
wing strongly tinged with green, in , D 
marled contrast to posterior two spots . . j R 

553. Papilio eurypylus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 464. 

Race Jason (PI. XIV, fig. 96). 

PPapilio jason, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 485. 

Papilio jason, Esper, Ausl. Schmett. 1796-1798, pi. 58, fig. 5; 

Moore (Zetides), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, p. 1, pi. 467, tigs. 1, 1 a-1 c, 

larva & pupa, 3 $ . 
Papilio telephus, Felder, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864, p. 305 ; 

Moore (Zetides), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 144, pi. 63, fig. 3. 
Papilio doson, Felder, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864. p. 305 ; 

Moore (Zetides), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 145, pi. 61, fig. 3; Davidson 

SfAitken, Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. \, 1890, p. 364, pi. E, figs. 2, 

2a, larva & pupa. 
Papilio eurypylus jason, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 432. 

Race axion. 

Papilio axion, Felder, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864, pp. 305 
& 350; Moore (Zetides), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1903, p. 4, pi. 468, figs. 1, 
1 a-1 c, larva & pupa, d $ . 

Papilio acheron, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, 1885, p. 120. 

Papilio eurypylus axion, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 433. 

Race jason, Linn. <$ $ . Upperside black. Fore wing : three 
slender, oblique, short pale green streaks in basal half of cell and 
two irregular small similarly-coloured spots near its apex ; a discal 
band composed of pale green spots that gradually diminish in size 
anteriorly, the spot in interspace 5 the smallest, the two in the inter- 
spaces above it slightly larger ; a spot at base of interspace 7 and 
a sinuous complete subterminal series of spots similarly coloured. 
Hind wing : a transverse band that extends as far as interspace 2 
posteriorly and is a continuation of the discal band on the fore wing; 



PAPILIO. 107 

the upper portion of this band white, the lower pale green ; this is 
followed by a sinuous subterminal series of small pale green spots 
as on the fore wing. Underside: brownish-fulvous black; markings 
similar, larger, their edges diffuse and all of a silvery white, slightly 
tinted with pale green. Hind wing in addition has a white basal 
streak that extends halfway down the dorsal margin ; another 
shorter white subbasal streak from costa to the subcostal vein 
coalescent with the white of the discal band in the cell, the streak 
of ground-colour that lies between this subbasal and the discal 
band jet-black, interrupted where it crosses vein 8 by a crimson 
spot ; finally, quadrate black spots near apex of cell and at bases 
of interspaces 1, 2 and 3, all outwardly margined with crimson. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen touched with white, the abdomen with dingy 
white lateral lines. <5 . Abdominal fold within grey, with a 
fringe of white hairs. 

Exp. c? ? 76-90 mm. (3-02-3-56"). 

Hab. Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Larva. " Very like that of P. agamemnon, but the second pair 
of spines is entirely wanting and the third pair, Avhich in ayamem- 
non is rather long, curved and sharp, is reduced in this species to 
mere knobs encircled with a black ring. The colour is generally 
black or smoky until the last moult and then dull green, inclining to 
rusty brown on the sides, but some of our specimens remained 
quite black to the end." {Davidson fy Aitken.) 

Papa. " The distinguishing mark of the pupa is again in the 
frontal horn, which is straight as in ayamemnon, but directed 
forward instead of being almost erect. Its colour is normally 
green, but varies with that of the object to which it is attached." 
{Davidson 6f Aitken.) 

liace axion, Felder. J $ Can be distinguished from P. eury- 
pylus race jason as follows: The markings that compose the 
discal band very much broader; all the spots and markings of pale 
green and white conspicuously larger, especially in the spring 
broods (acheron, Moore). Underside of hind wing: crimson spots 
mere conspicuous, a line of crimson along the posterior portion of 
the dorsal margin ; in most specimens the short subbasal narrow 
band of white that runs from the costa to the subcostal vein does 
not coalesce with the white of the discal baud where it crosses 
the cell. 

Exp. <$ $ 78-102 mm. (3-10-4"). 

Hab. The Himalayas under 5000 ft. from Kumaon to Sikhim 
and Bhutan ; Eastern Bengal ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; 
the Andamans ; extending southwards into the Malayan Subregton 
as far as Borneo and Java, and eastwards to Siam and China. 

Larva and pupa. Very similar to those of the race jason, but the 
former, as figured by Moore, has a red lateral spot on the 3rd 
segment. 



108 

554. Papilio Dathycles, Zinken-Sommer, Nov. Act. Ac. Nat. Cur. 

183.1, p. 157, pi. 14, figs. 6, 7, d . 

Race chiron. 
Papilio bathycles, Dblday., Westw. fy Hew. (nee Zmk.-Som.) Gen 

Di. Lep. i, 1846, p. 14 ; Moore (nee Zink.-Som.), Cat. Lep. Mus. 

E. I. C. \, 1857, p. 114 ; Manders (nee Zink.-Som.), Trans. Ent. 

Soc. 1890, p. 536. 
Papilio chiron, Wallace, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv, 1865, p. 66, note ; 

Moore (Zetides), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 6, pi. 469, figs. 1, 1 a, 

lc, c? $ . 
Papilio bathycles chiron, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 438. 

Race chiron, Wall. 3 $ . Closely resembles in colour and in 
the disposition of the markings P. eurypylus, races jason and axion, 
more especially the latter, but on the upperside the anterior mark- 
ings are all strongly tinged with yellow and the spots or patches 
that compose the discal band on both fore and hind wing are well- 
separated one from the other ; on the hind wing, moreover, the 
apical spot of the subterminal series is invariably white, not pale 
green like the other spots of the series, and is very often elongate 
and diffuse. Underside : fore wing very similar to that of aa-ion. 
Hind wing : with the following silvery white markings : a mode- 
rately broad basal band reaches from costa across the wing and along 
the dorsum to the tornal angle, broad elongate streaks in the cell 
and in interspaces 2 and 3, a small spot at base of interspace 4, 
an inwardly conical larger elongate spot at base of 6, a very large 
quadrate spot in 7, and an elongate spot like that in 6 in interspace 
8 but outwardly not inwardly conical, interior to the two latter 
spots are two broad lunular spots in interspaces 7 and 8 ; all the 
anteriorly basal markings are strongly tinged with silky yellow ; 
on the outer half of the wing there is a postdiscal series of 
orange-yellow and a subterminal complete series of silvery white 
spots, the upper two of which have further short narrow similarly- 
coloured streaks below them in the interspaces. Antenna?, head 
and thorax black, the thorax with dark greyish pubescence, abdomen 
brownish-black ; beneath and the abdomen laterally marked and 
streaked with white. 

Exp. $ $ 86-100 mm. (3-40-3-94"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma : the Shan States ; extending to 
Siam, Annam and W. China. 

555. Papilio agamemnon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 462; Moore, 

Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 114, pi. 3, figs 9, 9 , larva & 
pupa ; Moore (Zetides), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 145, pi. 63, fig?. 2, 
2 , J , larva ; Davidson fy Aitken, Joum. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 
1890, p. 363; Rothsch. Nov. Zool, ii, 1895, p. 447; Moore 
(Zetides), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 7, pi. 470, figs. 1, 1 a-l c, larva & 
pupa, c? $ . 

Itace decoratus. 
Papilio agamemnon decoratus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 452. 

c? . Upperside : black. Fore wing with the following green 
markings : a spot at the extreme base of the costal margin, a 



109 



transverse short bar near base of cell and seven spots beyond, two 
and two except the apical spot which is single ; two spots beyond 
apex of cell ; a spot at base of interspaces 1 a and 1, followed, by 
two oblique short macular bands; a discal series of spots decreasing 
in size towards the costa, and a postdiscal series of smaller spots 
that begins with two in interspace 1 ; the spots in interspace 7 in 
both series are out of line, placed outwards. Hind wing: three 
series of similarly-coloured markings that run transversely across 
the wing more or less parallel to the dorsal margin, the upper 
markings . (i. e. those in interspace 7) white; a short greenish 
stripe at the extreme base of the wing. Underside : fuliginous 
brown or brownish-black, more or less suffused with pink along the 
costal margin, on apical area and along the outer margin of the 
discal markings on the fore wing, 
broadly along the dorsal and 
terminal margins and at base of 
interspaces 6 and 7 on the hind 
wing ; markings similar to those 
on the upperside but less clearly 
denned arid somewhat more grey 
in tint. Hind wing black, in- 
wardly red-margined spots super- 
posed on the pink area in interspaces 
6 and 7. Cilia very narrow, pale 
pink. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen black, thorax above 
and the abdomen on the sides 
streaked with greenish grey ; 
beneath : ochreous grey touched 
on the thorax with pink. $ 
similar, but with a streak of 
greenish white along the dorsal 
margin on both upper and under sides. 
Exp. 3 $ 90-102 mm. (3-56-4-04"). 

Hob. More or less throughout our limits except in the desert 
tracts and regions of scanty rainfall ; extending to China and 
through the Malayan Subregion to the Philippines. 

The ground-colour of the underside is somewhat variable, this in 
some specimens is much paler than in others and varies also in the 
amount and the tint of pink suffusion. Burmese specimens gene- 
rally have indications of a more or less complete curved series of red 
spots on the underside of the hind wing in continuation of the red 
spots at base of interspaces 6 and 7 ; in this they approximate to 
the Andaman and Nicobar race. 

Larva. "Prom the head, which is moderately large, the body 
increases in thickness rapidly to the 4th or oth segment and then 
tapers gradually down to the tail. It has four pairs of spines. 
The colour is at first smoky-black, but at the last moult becomes 
a light clear green faintly marked with lines of a darker shade." 
(Davidson $" Aitken?) 

Pupa. " Normally of a pale watery green, the horns being 
broadly tipped with rusty brown which continues in an irregular 




Fig. 26. Pcqnlio agamemnon. 



110 PAPILIOKID.E. 

line along the outside edge of the \ving-cases." (Davidson $ 
Aitken.) 

Race decoratus, Eothschild. Very similar to the typical form, 
from which it can be distinguished as follows : cf $ . Upperside : 
green spots smaller, especially the cliscal series on the fore wing. 
Underside hind wing : " the red postcostal spot is relatively small 
but the red part has much increased against the black part ; 
besides the large red anal mark and the mark before the first disco- 
cellular veinlet, there is a large red spot in the lower median cellule 
[interspace 2], a smaller red spot in each of the three preceding 
cellules [interspaces 3, 4, 5] and a streak-like spot at the base of 
the lower median cellule." (RotliscJiild.) 

Exp. J $ 84-98 mm. (3-32-3-86"). 

Hab. Andamans ; Kicobars. 

556. Papilo cloanthus (PI. XIV, fig. 97), Westicood, Arcana Ent. i, 
1841, p. 42, pi. ] 1, fig. 2 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 112; Kothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 445; Kobson, Jouni. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. ix, 1895, p. 497, larva ; MacKinnon 8> de N. 
Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 595, pi. W, figs. 27 a-27c, 
larva & pupa ; Moore (Dalchina), Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, p. 16, 
pi. 473, figs. 1, 1 fl-lc, larva & pupa, <$ $ . 

<S $ . Upperside, fore wing : costal margin up to a line through 
the anterior half of the cell to the apex of the wing and the 
terminal margin broadly black ; the medial portion of the wing 
pale hyaline greenish-yellow interrupted anteriorly by the following 
irregular black bands that join the black on the costa to the black 
on the termen : a band across middle of cell and along vein 4, 
another at apex of cell and along vein 5, and two shorter and 
more oblique nearer the apex of the wing ; the hyaline spot 
left close to the apex much smaller than those below; lastly, 
a pale subterminal, somewhat obscure broad line. Hind wing : 
an even black band along the dorsum in continuation of the 
black on the costal margin of the fore wing, joined below to 
a very broad black band on the terminal margin ; the remaining 
triangular medial portion of the wing and a transverse subterminal 
series of large spots hyaline greenish-yellow ; the dorsal margin 
of the wing with long soft pale hairs and touches of grey scaling 
on the tornal area. Underside : similar, with on the hind wing a 
series of slender crimson markings at extreme base of wing along 
vein 1, broadened at the tornal angle and in interspaces 2 to 5; 
lastly, admarginal white slender lines at the tornal angle and in 
interspaces 2 and 3. Antennas, head, thorax and abdomen dark 
brownish black, the thorax with lateral dark grey pubescence ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen touched with dingy white, 
the abdomen with three lateral whitish stripes. d 1 . Abdominal 
fold within grey, studded with a brush of long white hairs as in 
sarpedon. 

Exp. 6 $ 79-102 mm. (3-12-4-04"). 

Hab. The Himalayas at no great elevations from Kashmir to 
Sikhim and Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma : 'the Shan States. 



PAPILIO. Ill 

Larva. " Widest at the 5th segment, from which it tapers 
gradually to the 13th segment. The ridge over the head is 
furnished with two tubercles, black in front, white posteriorly. 
The 5th segment has a yellow bar which projects on each side 
beyond the body and has the appearances of a yoke. The points 
of the yoke are black. Colour green. The 13th segment is of a 
pale transparent blue-green. A pale yellow subdorsal line and an 
almost white spiracular line are the only markings. Head of a 
greenish-yellow. Legs, claspers and abdomen of the same colour 
as the 13th segment. The 13th segment ends in two sharp points 
which join at the end, so that the division between them is visible 
only on a close examination." (Eobson.) 



557. Papilio sarpedon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 401 ; Moore, 
Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 113, pi. 3, fig. 8, larva ; 
liothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 440; Moore (Dalcliina) Lep. Ind. 
vi, 1903, p. 12, pi. 471, tigs. 1, 1 a-1 c, larva & pupa, rf $ . 

Eace teredon (PI. XV, fig. 98). 

Papilio teredon, Felder, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xiv, 1864, p. 305 
Moore (Dalchina), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 143, pi. 62, tigs. I, 
1 a-1 b, c? $ , larva & pupa; id. (Dalchina) Lep. Ind. vi, 1903, 
p. 14, pi. 472, figs. 1, la-1 c. larva & pupa, rf 9. 

Papilo sarpedon, Davidson < Aitken (nee Linn.), Journ. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 364. 

Papilio sarpedon teredon, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 442. 

c? $ Upperside opaque black. Fore and hind wings crossed 
from above the tornal area on the hind to near the apex of the 

fore wing by a semi-hyaline 
broad pale blue medial band 
which is broadest in the middle, 
more or less greenish and macu- 
lar anteriorly ; the portion of 
the band that crosses interspaces 
6, 7 and 8 on the hind wing 
white ; beyond the band on the 
hind wing there is a subterminal 
line of blue slender lunules. 
Underside similar, ground-colour 
dark brown. Hind wing: a short 
comparatively broad subbasal 
band from costa to subcostal 
vein, and the postdiscal area 
between the medial blue band 
and the subterminal lunules 
velvety black traversed by the 
pale veins and transversely, 
except in interspaces 6 and 7, 
sarpedon. by narrow crimson lines ; lastly, 

a crimson spot near the tornal 
angle with an admarginal yellowish-white spot below it. Antenna, 




112 PAPILIONIDJE. 

head, thorax and abdomen brown, the head and thorax suffused 
with greenish grey ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
touched with dingy white, the abdomen with two whitish lateral 
lines. c? . Abdominal fold within grey, furnished with a tuft of 
long, somewhat stiff white hairs. 

Exp. rf $ 81-95 mm. (3-20-3-76"). 

Hab. The Himalayas at comparatively low elevations ; South- 
western India ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenusserim ; extending to the 
Malayan Sub region, China and Japan. 

Larva. " Smooth, thickened from the second to the 5th segment 
and thence decreasing to the end; with two short subdorsal 
fleshy spines on the 4th segment, between which is a transverse 
pale yellow line, two shorter spines also on the 2nd and 3rd and 
two on the anal segment; colour green, with a longitudinal 
posterior lateral and lower pale yellowish line." (Moore.) 

Papa. " Conical, truncated in front ; thorax produced into a 
lengthened obtusely-pointed frontal process." (Moore.) 

Eace teredon, Felder. A slightly differentiated x-ace, distin- 
guishable in both sexes by the narrower medial band that crosses 
both fore and hind wing. Colour brighter, the contrast between 
the green of the upper and the blue of the lower portion of the 
medial band more vivid. Hind wing more produced posteriorly 
at apex of vein 3, where it forms an elongate tooth or short tail. 

Exp. rf $ 74-90 mm. (2-92-3-56"). 

Hab. Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Larva. " Very like that of ayamemnon but prettier, being of a 
soft dark green, inclining to emerald and passing into a pale bluish 
on the last segment and the underparts." (Davidson $ Aitken.) 

Papa. " Easily distinguished from that of agamemnon by one 
mark, viz. the horn is not straight but curves slightly backwards." 
{Davidson fy Aliken.) 

MACAREUS GROUP. 

$ 5 . The forms of this group bear a sufficiently close resem- 
blance to the bluish-white striped Danaids, that are protected by 
a disagreeable odour and taste, to be themselves to a certain extent 
protected from the attacks of insectivorous birds. The neuration of 
the fore wing is more or less like that in the Glycerion. Antipliates 
and other groups. Vein 31 anastomosed with vein 12, but the 
hind wing is not tailed in any member of this group, though the 
abdominal fold in the hind wing of the male is always present. 

Key to the forms of the Macareus Group. 

a. Hind wing underside : ground-colour along a 
broad terminal baud much darker than and 
contrasting with ground-colour on basal and 
discal areas of wing. 

a'. Upperside bluish grey ; stripes very broad, 
tilling cell and interspaces; tornal yellow 
spot on hind wing very large P. .renodes, p. 113. 



PAPILIO. 



113 



b'. Upperside bluiah grey, stripes narrow; 

tornal yellow spot on hind wing absent or , 
if present very small ........ . ......... P> m 

' 



. ......... ma reus , * 

b. Hind wing underside : ground-colour over ' Adieus, p. 114. 
entire wing of uniform tint .............. P. megarus, p. 115. 



558. Papilio xenocles, Doubleday in Gray's Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 74 ; 

Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 90 ; Rothschild, Nov. 

Zool. ii, p. 458 ; Moore (Paranticopsis), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 113, 

pi. 516, figs. 2, 2 a, rf $ . 
Papilio (Paranticopsis) phrontis, de Niceville, J. A. S. B. Ixvi, 1897, 

p. 568, rf $ ; Moore (Paranticopsis), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 112, 

pi. 516, figs. 1, 1 a, <$ $ . 
Papilio xenocles, form temp, neronus, Fruhstorfer. Soc. Ent. 1902, 

p. 74. 
Pararanticopsis neronus, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 114, pi. 517, 

figs. 1, la, J. 

(3" . Upperside : black. Fore wing with the following greenish or 
bluish-white streaks and spots : cell with three transverse, very 
oblique, broad streaks and two elongate spots near apex ; in the 
type as described the outer two of the three streaks coalescent ; 
broad streaks from base in interspaces la to 3 ; a series of four 
rounded spots beyond apex of cell in interspaces 4, 5, 6 and 8, 
followed by five short streaks that are outwardly truncate or 
emarginate, in interspaces 4 to 8 ; lastly, a complete subterminal 
series of comparatively large rounded spots. Hind wing with 
similar greenish- or bluish-white streaks and spots as follows : a 
broad curved streak in cell ; broad streaks from base in inter- 
spaces 1 to 7, these streaks vary in length but invariably leave 
a comparatively broad margin of the ground-colour beyond ; the 

streak in interspace 7 white, 
that in interspace 1, and in 
some specimens in interspace 
2 also, with a large yellow 
spot beyond the apex ; lastly, 
a subterminal series of spots 
some or all of which may 
be absent, but when present 
the posterior three always 
somewhat lunular. Under- 
side : fuliginous brown, paler 
towards the apical area of 
tore wing ; markings as on 
the upperside, but duller and 
less clearly denned. An- 
tennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen black ; two spots 
on the head, the thorax and 
abdomen laterally, white ; 
beneath : the thorax and ab- 
domen white, the latter with 
a medial and a lateral narrow 
stripe. $ . Similar to the rf with similar markings : those on the 

TOL. II. 




Fig. 28. Papilio xenocles. 



114 



PAPILIONID^. 



hind wing in the few females I have seen vary in width more 
than they do in the males ; the ground-colour also of the hind 
wing is generally of a chestnut-red, not black or fuliginous. 

Exp. c? 2 92-124 mm. (3-64-4-9"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the hills of Assam, Burma, and 
Tenasserim ; extending through the Shan States to Siam. 

The type was from Assam. De Niceville separated the Sikhim 
form under the name pJirontis, and Fruhstorfer the Eastern 
Burmese and Siara form as neronus ; but the distinguishing 
characters, viz., in phrontis, the shade of the ground-colour and 
size and extent of the bluish-white markings in the only, and 
in neronus, the absence of the subterminal series of spots on the 
hind wing, seem to me eminently variable in specimens from all 
parts of the insect's range. 

559. Papilio macareus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix, 1819, p. 76. 
Race indicus. 

Papilio macareus indicus, Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 457. 
Papilio (Paranticopsis) polynices, de Niceville, J. A. S. B. Ixvi, 

1897, p. 568. 
Paranticopsis polynices, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 109, pi. 515, 

figs. 1, : or, 3 $ . 
Paranticopsis indicus, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 110, pi. 515, 

figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, J $ . 

Race indicus, Eothsch. S Upperside : ground-colour and 
markings very similar to those of P. xenocles, but the former is 
of a more brownish-fuliginous tint and the latter are all very 
much narrower ; also there are distinctly two well-divided streaks 
in interspace 1 of the fore wing ; on the hind wing there 
is never any tornal yellow spot, 
while the bluish-white streak in the 
cell is very often divided. Under- 
side : similar to the upperside both 
in ground-colour and markings, only 
the latter are much broader than on 
the upperside. It differs from the 
underside of P. xenocles by the ab- 
sence in most specimens of the 
yellow tornal spot on the hind wing ; 
also the terminal brown margin on the 
same wing is proportionately much 
broader and much darker. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen coloured 
as in P. xenocles. $ . Dimorphic or 
trimorphic. First form similar to 
c? , with similar but proportionately 
broader markings (typical polijnices). 
Second form similar to rf with 
similar markings, but on the fore wing the inner portion of the 




Fig. 29. Papilio macareus, 
race indicus. 



115 



cell-streaks and the upper of the two spots at apex of cell, also 
the upper and lower of the four spots beyond the cell, obsolete 
or very faintly indicated; on the hiud wing the streaks are very 
much narrower and there is a very small ochraceous-yellow tornal 
spot. Third form (indicus $ , Eothschild) : " Pore wings devoid 
of all markings except the submarginal ones ; the hind wings pro- 
vided with all the markings of the c? , though these markings are 
shorter and less well-defined than in that sex." (Rothschild.) 

Exp. <s $ 83-101 mm. (3-26-4"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending through 
the Shan States to Siam. 

Polynices, de Niceville, was separated from P. macareus indicus, 
Eothschild, on one sex ( $ ) only. The females of P. macareus race 
indicus seem to be exceedingly rare, and it seems to me probable 
that polynices, de Niceville, will prove to be the normal form of 
the $ , while the other two described above will turn out to be 
aberrations. 

560. Papilio megarus, Westwood, Arc. Ent. ii, 1845, p. 98, pi. 72, fig. 2 ; 
Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 90 ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1888, p. 430 ; Rothsch. Nov. Zool. ii, 1895, p. 460 ; Moore 
(Paranticopsis), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 114, pi. 517, figs. 2, 
2 a, <?$. 

c? . Upperside: black with the following white streaks and spots 
Fore wing : cell with a small spot at base followed by three 
obliquely transverse streaks in middle, none extended to either the 
subcostal or median veins, and 
two spots near apex ; single slender 
narrow streaks in interspaces 1 a 
and 2, and two streaks in inter- 
space 1 ; above these a spot at 
base followed by a streak in each 
of the interspaces 3, 4, 6 and 8, 
an outer spot only in interspace 5, 
and a basal spot in interspace 7 ; 
finally, a complete series of small 
subterminal spots. Hind wing : a 
streak in cell with a spot above its 
outer apex ; a streak followed by a 
spot in each of the interspaces 1, 
6 and 7 ; three elongate spots in 
interspaces 2 and 3 and two in 
interspaces 4 and 5 ; finally, a series 
of four slender subterminal lunules 
in interspaces 2 to 5. Underside 

similar, with similar but slightly broader markings. 5 . Similar, 
ground-colour duller, more fuliginous black ; markings similar, on 
the fore wing slightly broader, on the hind wing slightly narrower, 
than in the d 1 . 

Exp. <$ $ 58-88 mm. (2-28-3-5"). 

i2 




Fig. 30. Papilio megarus. 



116 



PAPILIONIDjE. 



Hob. Sikhina ; Bhutan ; the hills of Assam, Burma and 
Tenasserim ; extending through the Shan States to Siam. 

The markings are variable in size, and in the c? are in many 
specimens almost completely absent from, or barely indicated in, 
the cell of the fore wing. 



Genus PARNASSIUS. 

Parnassius, Lair. Hist. Nat. Crust, et Ins. xiv, 1805, p. 110. 
Doritis, pt., Fdbr. in Illiger's Mag. vi, 1807, p. 283. 
Tadumia, Kailasius, Koramius, Moore, Lcp. Ind. v, 1901-1903, 
pp. 116, 118, & 120. 

Type, P. apollo, Linn., European. 

Range. Europe, Asia, aud North America at high elevations. 

c? $ . Wings broad, sernidiaphanous ; character of markings 
very similar throughout the forms. Fore wing : costa very 
slightly arched, apex broadly rounded; termen very convex; 
dorsum straight ; cell generally about half length of wing or a 
little shorter ; upper discocellular short or obsolete, middle con- 
cave, more than twice length of lower, lower sloped obliquely 




Fig. 31. Anal pouches of fertilized females of Parnassius. 

a. P.jacquemonti. 

b. P. epaphus. 

c. P. hardwickei. 

inwards ; veins 6 and 7 from apex of cell or very close together 
at base, 8 wanting, 9 out of 7 closer to apex of cell than to apex 
of wing ; 10 from just before or from apex, or out of 7 from just 
beyond apex of cell, typically free, but in some forms anastomosed 
with 11 ; 11 from apical half, of subcostal vein. Hind wing : more 
or less irregularly pear-shaped ; costal and terminal margins in 
a continuous curve, apex therefore not well marked ; tornus pro- 
minent, obtusely angular ; dorsum concave or slightly excavate. 
Body very hairy; antennae short, robust, about a third of the 
length of the fore wing ; club stout, gradual ; palpi short, oblique, 
not adpressed as in Papilio, thickly fringed with hair anteriorly ; 
eyes smooth. The female after fertilization with an extended 
corneous anal pouch that varies in shape. 



PARNASSIUS. 117 

Key to the forms of Parnassius. 

A. Fore wing : vein 10 not anastomosed with 
vein 11. 

a. Hind wing upperside : spots of the sub- 

terminal series lunular. 
a'. <5 $ . Cilia of fore wing typically pure 
white ; anal pouch in fertilized 5 with 
a strong posterior carina .......... P. jacquemonti, p. 118. 

V. c? $ Cilia of fore wing white, always 
conspicuously alternated with black ; 
anal pouch in fertilized $ without 
carina. 
a 2 . d $ . Expanse over 60 mm ....... P. epaphus, p. 120. 

b 2 . c? 2 . Expanse under 55 mm ..... P. epaphus, race 

b. Hind wing upperside : spots of the sub- sikhunensis, p. 121. 

terminal series rounded. 
a'. Hind wing underside with a con- 
spicuous basal series of red or crimson 
spots ............................ P. hardv:ickei, p. 121. 

b'. Hind wing underside without a basal 

series of red spots. 

a 2 . Termen of hind wing with a more or 
less well-defined edging of dusky 
subhy aline black. 
a 9 . Hind wing upperside : series of 

subterminal spots complete. 
a*. Hind wing upperside: subter- 
minal spots not centred with 
blue no red or crimson sub- ( p rfrffc . 

upper*:' 'sub^ > "**""* P- 

minal spots centred with blue, 
subtornal red or crimson spots , D , , , . 
present, large and prominent . . * ***2 ? -, 9 . 
Hind wing upperside : series of ' ******* P- 125. 

subterminal spots not complete. 
a 4 . Fore wing upperside : discal 
transverse black band short, 
typically not extended below 
vein 5 ; in Indian specimens 
extended to vein 1, but always 



. . . 

A 4 . Fore wing upperside : discal ' hunza > P' 124 ' 

transverse band long, extended 
to dorsal margin, bent inwards 
below apex of cell, never joined . p j ol ^- lt> 
to postdiscal band ..... ..... \ P ' del P htus > race 

b\ Termen of hind wing without a sub- ' 'tenosemus, p. 125. 

hyaline black edging, white-scaled , n , , ,. 

4h t up * S *..... ...... { p - **"5^ p . 126 . 

B. Fore wing : vein 10 anastomosed with vein 

11 towards apex. 

a. Hind wing upperside : spots of subterminal 
series formed into large conspicuous 
pseudocelli. 



118 PAPILIONID.E. 

a'. Hind wing upperside : subterminal 

series of spots or pseudocelli complete . P. charltonius, p. 126. 
V. Hind wing upperside : subterminal 

series of spots or pseudocelli not com- ( P. imperator, race 
plete, posterior two only present . . . . ) augmtm, p. 127. 

b. Hind wing upperside : spots of subter- 
minal series lunular. 

'. Termen of hind -wing with a more or 
less well-defined edging of dnsky sub- 
hyaline black. 
a?. Cilia of both fore and hind wings 

conspicuously yellowish white .... P. acco, p. 128. 
b 2 . Cilia of fore wing conspicuously black, 

of hind wing white P. simo, p. 129. 

b'. Termen of hind wing without a sub- 
hyaline dusky black edging, white- ( P. simo, race 
scaled right up to margin j moelleri, p. 130. 



561. Parnassins jacquemonti (PI. XV, fig. 99), Boisduml, Spec. Gen. 
Lep. i, 1836, p. 400, tf only ; Blanch. Jacq. Voy. 2nd., Ins. 1844, 
p. 16, pi. 1, tig. 4 nee fig. 3 ; Oberthur, Etud. Ent. iv, 1879, p. 23, 
pi. 2, fig. 5 rf ; id. torn. cit. xiv, 1891, p. 10, pi. 2, fig. 11 rf ; 
Mackinnon $ de N. Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 596; 
Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 105, pi. 406, figs. 1, la-le, 

c?$. 

Parnassius actius, var. himalayensis, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 30. 
Parnassius jacquemontii, var. impunctata, Austant, Lc Naturaliste 

(2) xiii, 1899, p. 154. 
Parnassius chitralensis, Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 107, 

pi. 406, figs. 2, 2 , cf . 

S . Upperside : pale creamy white ; both wings irrorated with 
diffuse black scales ; body, base of the wings and the dorsum 
of hind wing clothed with long white hairs. Pore wing: the 
irroration of black scales most dense along the costal margin and 
at base of cell, more sparse on the disc ; the apical two thirds of 
the cell, a portion beyond the middle of interspace 1, and the 
bases of interspaces 4, 5, 8 and 9 markedly free of the diffuse 
black scales ; a transverse short bar across the middle of cell, 
another along the discocellulars, and a diffuse transverse series of 
postdiscal lunules, black ; three or four crimson spots encircled 
with black arranged as follows : one midway in interspace 1, two, 
sometimes three, beyond apex of cell in an oblique line from the 
costa ; the terminal margin broadly hyaline, with minute black 
specks at the apices of the veins ; cilia white. Hind wing : base 
and dorsal margin beneath the white hairs densely and broadly 
irrorated with black scales, the inner edge of this border irregular, 
rest of the wing with more diffuse black scaling ; five or six black- 
encircled crimson spots as follows: two, sometimes three, ob- 
liquely above the tornus, these or one of them occasionally white- 
centred ; one in the middle of interspaces 5 and 7 respectively, 
these are generally centred with white ; and one pure crimson spot 



PARNASSIUS. 119 

at the extreme base of the wing ; the postdiscal series of black 
lunules are as on the fore wing, but the lunules are not so well 
defined and generally separate from one another ; finally there is 
no distinct hyaline border to the wing, but the cream-white scaling 
extends to the termen ; termiual black specks to the veins and 
white cilia as on the fore wing. Underside : shining, with more or 
less of a glazed appearance; markings much as on the upperside, 
but indicated as much by those of the upperside which show 
through as by actual scaling ; in addition on the hind wing there 
is a subbasal transverse series of four dull crimson spots while the 
crimson spots beyond are all more or less white-centred. Antennae 
deep brownish black, rarely with a few white specks on the under- 
side ; head, thorax and abdomen beneath the covering of white 
hairs, black. $ . Similar, generally darker with the irroration of 
black scales more dense ; the crimson spots are often larger and 
more brilliant. Anal pouch after fertilization " ovally scoop- 
shaped in front, convex beneath," furnished with a sharp high 
cariua posteriorly. 

Exp. J $ 66-80 mm. (2-6-3-15"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from Chitral and Kashmir to Kumaon, at 
elevations from 11,000 to 13,000 feet. 

The above description is taken from as nearly typical specimens 
as I had access to, but P. jacquemonti is an exceedingly unstable 
form and varies in size, in shade of ground-colour, in the amount 
and distribution of the black scaling on the wings, and in the 
number and size of the red or crimson spots, which may or may not 
be centred with white. These differences are probably partially 
seasonal. P. cliitralensis, Moore, is perhaps the most distinct of 
the varieties, but the genitalia in the d 1 and the anal pouch in 
the fertilized $ are identical with the same organs in typical spe- 
cimens of P. jacquemonti (fig. 31 a, p. 116). P. chitralensis, Moore, 
differs from the typical form as follows: Larger, the ground-colour 
on the upperside much whiter, the amount of black diffuse scaling 
on the wings generally much less, the cilia of the wings more or 
less speckled with black. In many specimens the postdiscal 
blackish series of lunules on the upperside of the fore wing is 
very incomplete and does not extend clearly across the wing ; in 
most the antennte are distinctly ringed with white. 

Exp. c? $ 70-85 mm. (2'75-3'34"). 

Hah. Chitral ; Kashmir. 

Var. impunctata, Austant. " Compared with the typical figure 
of P. jacquemontii as given by Oberthiir (torn, cit.) this variety is 
larger in size, equal to delius (i. e. 70 mm.) ; of a very pure opaque 
white on which the spots and dusky black shadings on the disc of 
the front wings show up strongly. The maculae of the subterminal 
band are reduced in size and disjointed especially on the hind 
wing, where they have a tendency to become obsolete. The two 
costal spots and the internal spot are not centred with red, there 
are no carmine markings either at the base of the hind wing or on 



120 PAPILIONID^E. 

the anal spot. Antennae black ringed with grey ; cilia as in the 
typical form, grey without any well-marked intersections of black. 
Ocelli (on the wings) of a dark red widely encircled with black 
and without white centres." (Austant.) 

Hob. Sikhim Mountains. 

Unknown to me. 

5G2. Parnassius epaphus, Oberthiir. 

Parnassius jacquemontii, Boisdwal, Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 400, 

$ only; Blanch. Jacq. Voy. 2nd., Ins. 1844, p. 1C, pi. 1, fig. 3 

nee tig. 4 ; Gray (nee Boisduval), Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., Pap. 

1852, p. 75, pi. 1'2, tigs. 1 , 2, <J $ ; Elwes (nee Boisduval), P. Z. S. 

1886, p. 36, pi. 2, fig. 1, $ anal pouch. 
Parnassius epaphus, Oberthiir, Etud. Ent. iv, 1879, p. 23 ; Ehoes, 

P. Z.S. 1882, p. 399; Oberthiir, op. cit. xiv, 1891, p. 12, pi. 1, 

figs. 4, 5, cf $ ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 109, pi. 407, 

figs.2,2a, rf$. 
Parnassius epaphus, vat: cachemiriensis, Oberthiir, Etud. Ent. xiv, 

1891, p. 14, pi. 1, figs. 6, 7 <3 2 , 7 a $ anal pouch. 
Parnassius nirius, Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. 108, pi. 407, 

figs. 1,1 a, rf$. 

Race sikhimensis (PI. XV, fig. 100). 
Parnassius epaphus, var. sikkimensis, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 399, 

pi. 25, figs. 4, 5, rf ; Oberthiir, Etud. Ent. xiv, 1891, p. 13. 
Parnassius sikkimensis, Moore, Lep. 2nd. v, 1901-1903, p. Ill, 

pi. 407, figs. 4, 4 , rf$. 

Superficially this form closely resembles P. jucquemonti, but 
besides the structural differences of the anal pouch in the fertilized 
5 (fig. 31 6), in markings it differs as follows : 

S Upperside, fere wing : the crimson black-encircled spots 
reduced to a minute subcostal dot in the black mark beyond the 
cell ; the subhyaliue terminal margin much narrower, with dentate 
white spots in the interspaces along the actual margin ; cilia white, 
markedly alternated with black at the apices of the veins. Hind 
wing : the dusky black along the dorsal margin comparatively much 
broader, its inner border more irregular, deeply bi-emarginate, the 
crimson centre to the black mark above the tornal angle entirely 
absent. In no specimens that I have seen are the crimson spots 
centred with white. Underside : with the same glazed appearance as 
in jacquemonti ; markings as on the upperside, but on the fore wing 
the white dentate spots in the terminal row are larger, which give to 
the wing the appearance of having a subterminal as well as apost- 
discal transverse series of dusky-black lunules. On the hind wing 
the row of basal and the obliquely-placed pre-tornal spots are as 
in jacquemonti but of a duller shade, while as in that form all the 
crimson spots are broadly centred with white. Antenna? differ 
from those of jacquemonti as they are conspicuously ringed with 
white. $ differs from the d" iu the dusky black markings on 
the upperside that are broader, especially the postdiscal series on 
the fore wing : this generally forms a diffuse band and so often 
restricts the lunules of the white ground-colour beyond it, blending 



PABNASSIUS. 121 

as it does diffusely with the subhyaline terminal margin. Anal 
pouch of fertilized $ (fig. 31 b) differs conspicuously from that of 
jacquemonti $ in the complete absence of the posterior high keel 
or carina. 

Exp. rf $ 62-73 mm. (2-43-2-83*). 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas from 12,000 to 17,000 feet. 

Var. cacJiemiriensis, Oberthiir, is probably a seasonal variation 
from the typical form. On the upperside the ground-colour is 
whiter, the red markings more pink than crimson, and the black 
diffuse scaling much restricted in both sexes. 

Var. nirius, Moore. The type specimen of the $ is now in the 
British Museum as well as several other females that closely 
resemble it. I have, however, only seen a single d 1 , in which the 
markings are very similar to those in the r? figured by Dr. Moore. 
All forms of Parnassius are so variable that 1 do not think that 
nirius can be separated from epaphus, even as a race. It differs in 
both these cases from typical epaphus chiefly in the absence of the 
white dentate terminal markings and in the more continuous, 
transverse, postdiscal, diffuse, dusky-black band on the fore wing ; 
the latter is more of a connected band than a series of lunular 
markings. In the fertilized 5 the anal pouch is identical with 
that of epaphus. 

Race sikhimensis, Elwes, is very similar, but so far as the 
specimens I have seen, some fifty or sixty, is without exception 
smaller, though it differs slightly if at all in markings from 
the typical form. On the whole, perhaps, the wings are more 
copiously irrorated with black scales, the postdiscal dusky-black 
series of lunules on the upperside of the fore wing is more evenly 
curved, and the red spots on the hind wing are more brilliant ; in 
a few specimens the lower discal spot is minutely white-centred ; 
the cilia of the fore wing also are more prominently alternated 
with black ; while the antennae are less conspicuously ringed with 
white than in typical epaphus. Genitalia in the d and anal pouch 
in the fertilized $ identical with those of the typical form. 

Exp. rf 2 50-54 mm. (1-98-2- 13"). 

Nab. The Chumbi Valley, Sikhim, at and above 16,000 feet, 
extending to Tibet. 

563. Parnassius hardwickei (PI. XV, fig. 101), Gray, Zod. Misc. 

i, 1832, p. 32 : id. Lep. Ins. Nepal, 1846, pi. 4, figs. 1, 1 ; id. Cat. 

Lep. Brit. Mus., Pap. 1852, p. 76, pi. 12, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11 ; Ehves, 

P. Z. S. 1886, p. 38, pi. 2, fig. o 2 anal pouch ; Moore, Lep. Ind. 

v, 1901-1903, p. Ill, pi. 408, tigs. 1, la-la, rf $, pi. 409, 

figs. 1, 1 a-1 a, S 2 , > & Pi- 410, figs. 1, 1 a-1 a, rf $ . 
Parnassius jacquemontii, Kollar (nee Boisduval), Hiit/eCs Kaschmir, 

iv, 1844, p. 407, pi. 2, figs. 3, 4, <$ . 
Parnassius charino, Gray, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., Pap. 1852, p. 76, 

pi. 12, figs. 13, 15. 
Parnassius hardwickii, var. albicans, Fruhstorfer, Iris, xi, 1898, 

p. 147 ; id. (abr. afer) Stett. ent. Zeit. 1899, p. 354. 



122 PAPILIONID.E. 

d" Upperside: creamy-white. Fore wing: base and costal 
margin densely irrorated with black scales ; a broad short velvety 
black bar across middle of cell, another along the discocellulars 
and a third beyond apex of cell, this last with superposed spots of 
crimson where" the bar crosses the bases of interspaces 5 and 8 ; a 
crimson-centred black spot in middle of interspace 1 ; an irregularly 
curved prominent postdiscal series of dusky-black spots, so arranged 
as to leave a narrow edging of the creamy-white ground-colour 
beyond, which is traversed by the black veins ; the upper four spots 
of the postdiscal series fused to form a broad, continuous, but short, 
curved band ; the terminal margin broadly dusky black ; the cilia 
white. Both the dusky-black band and the postdiscal dusky-black 
markings subhyaline. Hind wing : base and dorsal margin broadly 
dusky black, the inner margin of the black coloration on the latter 
deeply but irregularly bi-emarginate ; a crimson-centred black 
spot near base of interspace 5, another just beyond the middle of 
interspace 7, followed by a very conspicuous curved postdiscal series 
of five dull blue ocelli ringed with black and centred with white, 
and a narrow diffuse dusky black terminal band ; cilia as in the 
fore wing. Underside : similar, with a glassy appearance. Fore 
wing : with the markings of the upperside visible by transparency ; 
the white scaling of the upperside replaced by scale-like hairs of 
the same colour ; the only scaled markings are the medial and apical 
transverse black bars in cell, three small crimson spots beyond and 
the black-encircled crimson spot in middle of interspace 1. Hind 
wing : the white scaling along the basal half of the costal margin 
nearly as on the upperside, the rest hair-like as on the underside of 
the fore wing ; a broad basal band of four crimson or vermilion-red 
spots followed by a discal irregular series of five similarly-coloured 
spots, the lower three formed into a short obliquely transverse band 
above the tornal angle ; all the crimson spots encircled more or less 
obsoletely by black rings, and the following prominently centred 
with white : the spot in interspaces 2 and 5 and the basal and medial 
spots in interspace 7. ? . Similar ; the dusky black irroration on 
the upperside of the fore wing more extensive and formed into a 
narrow irregular band below the cell, which runs between the 
crimson spots beyond the cell-apex and the crimson spot in inter- 
space 1 ; the crimson spots are larger, with an additional spot in 
interspace 6 of the fore wing and a pretornal spot on the hind wing. 
Underside: similar to that of the d but all the red spots much larger 
and with white scaling in the centre. Antennae nearly black, with 
only a few white specks, head with brownish-yellow pubescence ; 
rest of the thorax and abdomen covered densely with long white 
hairs which also clothe, more or less narrowly, the dorsal margin 
of the hind wing. 

Eacp. <S $ 60-66 mm. (2-3S-2-6"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from Kashmir and Kulu to Nepal and 
Sikhim, at from 7500 to 15,000 feet. 

Like all forms in the genus this is largely variable ; the black 
irroration and crimson markings are, in many specimens, much 



123 

reduced in extent and size ; in some also the crimson is replaced 
by pink. This may be partly seasonal or due to either a drier 
or a damper habitat. The form named charino by Gray is most 
probably a wet-season or autumn form. It differs from typical 
hardivickei as follows : c? $ Upperside : more or less completely 
and densely irrorated with dusky black, from which on the fore 
wing two bars that cross the cell, a short oblique bar beyond its 
apex, a postdiscal spot near the costa beyond the crimson spots, and 
a subtermiual series of spots stand out conspicuously white ; on the 
hind wing the interval between the basal and postmedial crimson 
spots in interspace 7 is also prominently white. Underside : 
markings as on the upperside chiefly seen through by transparency, 
the apex broadly and terminal margin of fore wing and the whole 
of the hind wing suffused conspicuously with greenish yellow. 

564. Parnassius delphius, JSversm. (Doritis) Sufi. Mosc. 1843, p. 541, 
pi. 7, figs. 1 #, 1 b, c$ . 

Race stoliczkanus. 

Parnassius stoliczkanus, Feldcr, Novara JRcise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 138, 
iii, 1867, pi. 69, figs. 2, 8, rf ; Ehves, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 40 ; Moore 
(Koramius), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 120, pi. 412, figs. 1, 1 a, 
1 b, d $ 

Parnassius dolphins, var. stoliczkanus, Gr.-Gr. Rom. Mem. iv, 1890, 
p. 148 et seq. 

Race hunza. 

Parnassius delphius, var. hunza, Gr.-Gr. Hoi: Soc. Ent. Ross, xxii, 
1888, p. 303 ; id. Rom. Mem. iv, 1890, p. 205, pi. 10, figs. 1 a, 
1ft, d?- 

Race stenosemus. 

Paruassius delphius, var. stenosemus, Honrath, Ent. Nachrtcht. xvi, 

1890, p. 127. 
Koramius stenosemus, Moore, Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 122, 

pi. 412, tigs. 3,3-3c, cf $. 

Race atkinsoni. 

Koramius atkinsoni, Moore, Lep. Ind.v, 1901-1903, p. 121, pi. 412, 

fig. 2 $. 

Race whitei. 
Parnassius delphius, race whitei, nov. st. 

Typical delphius has not been recorded from within our limits, 
but the varieties described below seem fairly constant in coloration, 
and may be ranked as races of one protean form. 

Race stoliczkanus, Felder. d . Upperside : dull white. Fore 
wing : base and costal margin irrorated with black scales ; cell 
with the usual medial and apical short black transverse bars, the 
former not. extended down to the median vein in typical specimens ; 



124 



discal and postdiscal dusky black sinuate bands, the former atten- 
uated below vein 6, stops short of the dbrsum, the latter extends 
right down to the dorsal margin ; beyond these bands the terminal 
margin is more or less shaded with dusky black which atthetornus 
coalesces with the postdiscal band. Hind wing : dorsal margin 
broadly dusky black, this colour narrowed towards the tornus ; a 
postdiscal black-encircled red spot in interspace 5 ; termen some- 
what broadly dusky black, with a subterminal series of darker spots 
in the interspaces and the dorsal margin fringed with long white 
hairs. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white. Underside : like 
the upperside, the ground-colour with the glassy appearance 
common to all forms in the genus ; markings similar, apparent 
however more by transparency from above than formed by actual 
scaling. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, the tufted 
hairs on the head in front fuscous ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen clothed with fuscous hairs. $ . Upperside : the ground- 
colour differs from that of the c? in its duller somewhat yellowish 
tint ; the markings are similar but on the hind wing the spots in 
the subterminal series are centred with blue, the postdiscal red spot 
is paler, often absent, while in some specimens there is asubtornal 
red spot. Underside : similar to that of the c? . In both sexes 
the basal red spots on the underside of the hind wing so general 
in the forms of this genus are usually, if not always, lacking. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d" . Anal pouch 
in the fertilized $ as in race hunza, fig. 32 a, b. 

Exp. rf $ 50-59 mm. (1-97-2-33"). 

Hah. N. VV. Himalayas ; Ladakh : the Bara Lacha Pass north of 
Lahaul at 18,000 feet; Runang and Hungruny Passes at 
16,000 feet. 

Race hunza, Gr.-Gr. This race closely resembles the preceding 
but is somewhat variable. d ? . Upperside : ground-colour 
duller, more sullied white. Fore wing : the discal band in typical 

specimens very much shorter, 
not extended below vein 5, 
but in all specimens that I 
have seen that have been 
taken within our limits, the 
discal band reaches vein 1, and 
where it crosses interspace 3 
is joined on to the postdiscal 
transverse band by a broad 
cross-bar, that extends right 
up to the base of that inter- 
space. Hind wing : the sub- 
terminal series of dark spots 




reduced to one or two near 
the toruus, the anterior spots 
(except the spot in interspace 
7) replaced by a curved band 
of somewhat luuular spots that extends unbroken between the 



Fig. 32. 

Paniassius delphius, race htmea, 
a, b. Anal pouch. 



PARNASSIUS. 125 

spot in interspace 3 and that in interspace 7. Underside : similar 
to the underside in race stoliczkanus, with no red spots at the 
base of the hind wing ; in a few specimens a discal and a sub- 
costal black-encircled red spot are present. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in stoliczkanus. Anal pouch in the fertilized 
$ as in fig. 32 a, b. 

Exp. <? $ 68-72 mm. (2-70-2-82''). 

Hab. Within our limits : Chitral, extending northwards into the 
Hindu Khush. 

Eace stenosemus, Honrath. <$ $ . Upperside : ground-colour 
as in stoliczkanus and hunza. The markings differ from those of 
stoliczkanus chiefly as follows : Upperside: the discal transverse 
band on the fore wing more strongly sinuate, in most specimens 
bent inwards beneath the apex of the cell ; both discal and post- 
discal bands comparatively broader, more heavily marked ; in no 
specimen that I have seen is there any broad diffuse band of dusky 
black scaling joining the two bands as in the Indian form of hunza. 
Hind wing : the red spot in interspace 5 placed more inwards, 
closer to the apex of the cell and more heavily encircled with black, 
sometimes the red is absent and the spot is entirely black ; beyond 
this there is a comparatively broad postdiscal dark band on which 
is superposed a nearly complete series of black spots, the posterior 
four of which are centred with blue ; this is followed by a very 
narrow band of the ground-colour, sometimes complete, more often 
indicated by white lunular more or less detached markings, and a 
narrow dusky-black terminal edging bounded by an anticiliary jet- 
black line. Underside : glassy, more or less like the upperside, the 
markings indicated more by transparency from above than by 
actual scaling. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen, and in 
the fertilized $ the anal pouch, as in the races stoliczkanus, 
hunza, &c. 

Exp. <5 ? 66-74 mm. (2-60-2-92"). 

Hab. Ladakh : Kutie Pass, 17,000 feet. 

Eace atkinsoni, Moore. $ . Similar to stenosemus, Honratb, 
but can at once be recognized by the very large and conspicuous 
tornal and discal red spots, which are encircled with black, on the 
upperside of the hind wing. The subterminal series of spots 
on the same wing is complete and all the spots are centred 
with blue. 

Exp. $ 60 mm. (2-37"). 

Hab. The Pir Pingal range, N. Kashmir. 

Male unknown. 

Eace whitei, nov. st. tf- Upperside: dusky greyish black. Pore 
wing : basal fourth white with a slight irroration of black scales ; 
a preapical broad transverse bar in cell, a short similar obliquely- 
placed bar beyond, that reaches from just below the costal margin 
to base of vein 4, and transverse discal and subterminal complete 
bands, white ; the latter two are crossed by the black veins, and 




126 PAPILIONID.J;. 

thereby have the appearance of two transverse series of spots ; the 
discal band anteriorly curved inwards, the subterrainal band feebly 
bisinuate ; the black scaling is very dense and sharply defined on 
the dark medial and discocellular areas in the cell, and therefore 
appears like black transverse bars ; terraen with a very slender jet- 
black anticiliary line. Hind wing : dorsal 
half clothed with recumbent long white 
hairs ; a discal prominent red spot in inter- 
space 5, and a similar spot in interspace 7, 
round each of which the black scaling of the 
ground-colour is very dense and forms a 
more or less conspicuous ring ; terminal 
third of the wing dull white with a sub- 
terminal black spot in interspace 2, another 
slightly larger similar spot that is centred 
with a minute spot of blue scales in inter- 
space 3, and above the latter a bisinuate 
Fig. 33. Parnassius dusky-black transverse sinuous streak that 
delphius, race whitei. extends to and broadens at the apex of 
the wing. Cilia of both fore and hind 

wings prominent and yellowish white in colonr. Underside with 
the usual glassy glazed appearance ; the markings similar, but 
seen chiefly by transparency from the upperside; only the red 
spots, an additional similar spot at base of interspace 7 on the 
hind wing, and a black spot on the discocellulars of the fore wing 
marked by actual scaling, not merely seen by transparency from 
above. Antennae black with a few scattered minute yellow specks : 
head, thorax and abdomen covered with long black hairs ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen yellowish white. 
Hub. Sikhim, 16,000 to 19,000 feet. 

This is one of the many races '? or varieties ? of P. delphius, 
Eversrnanu, and is closest to the race? or var. ? staudingeri, 
Bang-Haas. The type and only specimen was procured by Mr. 
Claude White and was sent to Mr. F. Moller of Darjiling for 
identification, Mr. Moller kindly forwarded it to me. 

This race of P. delphius, Eversmann, differs from its nearest ally 
P. delphius, race staudingeri, by the form of the markings on the 
fore wing, and notably by the white scaling on the hind wing, 
which is carried right up to the terminal margin from apex to 
tornus. In staudingeri and, in fact, in all the many races of 
P. delphius, the terminal edging to the hind wing is markedly 
dusky subhyaline black. 



565. Parnassius charltonius. Gray, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., Pap. 1852, 
p. 77, pi. 12, fig. 7 $ ; Moore, Sci. Res. Sec. York. Miss., Lep. 
1879, p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 3 c?5 Elwes, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 43, pi. 3, 
fig. 5 $ anal pouch; 'Moore (Kailasius), Lep. Ind. v, 1901-1903, 
p. 118, pi. 411, figs. 3, 3o, 3b, d 1 ? 

c? . Upperside : creamy-white. Fore wing irrorated with black 



PAKNASSIUS. 127 

scales at base, along costal margin narrowly and below the upper 
half of cell at base of interspaces 2 and 3 ; cell with the usual 
medial and apical short broad transverse black bars ; a short broad, 
similar, but obliquely placed bar beyond apex of cell from costa 
to vein 4, its lower portion below vein 5 narrower and bent 
inwards at an angle ; a postdiscal transverse black bar attenuated 
towards the dorsum and dislocated inwards below vein 5 ; fol- 
lowed by a broad, posteriorly narrowed, subhyaline terminal 
edging; cilia white. Hind wing: base and dorsal margin, for 
four-fifths of its length, broadly and densely irrorated with black 
scales; a short oblique pretornal dusky-black bar, rarely centred 
with pink or carmine; a very large pink to deep crimson ocellus, 
ringed with black and centred with white, in interspaces 4 and 5, 
crossing vein 5, and a much smaller black spot sometimes centred 
minutely with pink or crimson in middle of interspace 7 ; beyond 
this a postdiscal curved series of five velvety-black spots, each 
touched inwardly with silvery, superposed on a broad subhyaline 
dusky transverse band, which is broadest in the middle and is 
followed by a subterminal, somewhat narrow, dusky-black band, 
interrupted at the veins ; cilia white. Underside similar, with a 
glassy appearance and similar markings, seen chiefly, however, bv 
transparency from the upperside. Antenna?, head, thorax and 
abdomen black, antennae with some few minute white specks ; 
beneath : head and thorax anteriorly with olivaceous pubescence, 
thorax posteriorly and abdomen covered with long white hairs, 
which also clothe the dorsal margin of the hind wing. $ . Upper 
and under sides similar to those in the c? ; differs in the black 
markings which are broader, the red ocelli on the hind wing that 
are considerably larger, and in the obliquely placed pretornal 
short bar that is always centred with red. 

Exp. c? $ 74-96 mm. (2-91-378"). 

Hab. Ladakh, Chitral, extending into Tibet, at elevations from 
9,000 to 15,000 feet. 

The range of variation in diarltonius is more limited than in 
most of the forms belonging to Parnassius. The width and extent 
of the black markings and in a lesser degree the size of the red 
ocelli on the hind wing are the chief variable points. There seems 
to be little or no seasonal variation. 



566. Parnassius imperator, Oberthur, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1883, p. 79. 

Race augustus (PI. XV, fig. 102). 

Parnassius imperator augustus, Fruhstorfer, Soc. Ent. xviii, 1903, 
p. 113. 

Race augustus, Fruhstorfer. 6 $ . Upperside : creamy-white. 
Tore wing : costa and base closely irrorated with black scales ; the 
usual short transverse medial and apical black bars across the cell, 
followed bv irregularly sinuous, broad, transverse, dusky-black 



128 PAPILIONIDJ3. 

discal and postdiscal, complete bands that extend from the costa 
to the dorsum ; the discal band very broad, below the apex of cell 
bent inwards and almost completely filling the base of interspaces 
2 and 3 ; the terminal margin broadly dusky hyaline black. Hind 
wing : the dorsal margin up to the subcostal vein and downwards 
to a little above the tornus densely irrorated with black scales and 
with scattered long white hairs ; an upper basal black-encircled 
crimson spot ; another in the middle of interspace 7 and a third in 
interspace 5, the latter two centred with white ; beyond there is 
an irregular, sinuous, postdiscal dusky -black transverse band from 
costa to vein 4, posterior to which in interspaces 2 and 3 are two 
prominent round black stibtornal spots, broadly centred with blue; 
lastly, the terminal margin narrowly dusky black. Cilia of both 
fore and hind wings prominently yellowish white. Underside 
similar ; glassy markings similar, but mostly seen by transparency 
from above: faint indications of an additional crimson spot at 
base of cell and base of interspace 1. Antennae brownish black, 
obscurely annulated with brown ; head, thorax and abdomen 
black, the latter two studded with long white hairs. 

Exp. <$ $ 79-84 mm. (3-1-3-35"). 

Hah. Eastern Himalayas, on the boundary between Sikhim and 
Tibet, at altitudes between 15,000 and 16,000 feet. 

This smaller and darker fovm of P. imperator, Oberthiir, from 
Eastern Tibet, just enters into our limits. 

567. Parnassius acco, Gray, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., Pap. 1852, p. 76, 
pi. xii, figs, 5, 6, $ ; Bates, in Henderson 8f Hume's 'Lahore to 
Yarkand,' 1873, p. 305, fig. ; Ehces, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 35 ; Moore 
(Tadumia). Lap. Ind. v, 1901-1903, p. 116, pi. 411, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, 
<J$. 

c? $ Upperside: dull greyish white. Fore wing: costal margin 
and base with an irroration of black scales, the white scaling 
clearest and most dense in the cell, this last crossed by a medial 
and an apical short, broad, transverse jet-black band ; beyond 
apex of cell an irregularly sinuous dusky-black discal band that 
usually extends from costa to vein 3, but in some specimens right 
up to the dorsal margin, in most it bears an anterior crimson 
spot ; this is followed by less irregular and, in most specimens, 
slightly broader postdiscal and terminal similar transverse bands 
and a pre-ciliary slender continuous line on termen and dorsum. 
Hind wing : dorsal half of the wing dusky black, the outer or 
upper margin of this colour, irregularly indented ; a discal, a sub- 
costal and a basal black-encircled spot that varies in colour from 
crimson to pinkish yellow, followed by a subterminal series of 
black lunular spots and a narrow terminal band, crossed and inter- 
rupted by the white veining. Cilia of both wings conspicuously 
white. Underside with a glassy appearance. Fore \ving nearly 
as on the upperside, but the black markings, except the two 
bars across the cell, only seen through by transparency from the 



PAENASSIUS. 129 

upperside. Hind wing : ground-colour white, the discal, costal, 
and basal pink or crimson spots also apparent by transparency 
only from the upperside ; a discal double ill-defined series of black 
lunular markings, followed by a subterminal series of similar 
markings like those on the upperside, but of a duller black and 
less clearly defined. Antenna dull brownish black, with a more 
or less copious covering of scattered white scales ; abdomen black, 
clothed with somewhat sparse, long, fine white hairs. 

Exp. J $ 52-70 mm. (2-06-2-78"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from the Karakoram to Sikhim, at eleva- 
tions of over 16,000 feet ; Tibet. 

568. Parnassins simo, Gray, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mm., Pap. 1852, p. 76, 
pi. 12, figs. 3, 4, rf $ ; Elwes, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 35 ; Oberthiir, 
Etudes Ent. xiv, 1891, p. 14, pi. 1, figs. 8, 9. 

Race moelleri. 
Pamassius simo, race moelleri, nov. st. 

d . Upperside : dull white, the veins black. Fore wing at base 
and along the costal margin lighfcly irrorated with black scales ; 
a black medial transverse bar with even parallel sides across the 
cell, and a broader black bar on the discocellulars, this latter with 
a more or less outwardly curved exterior edge ; beyond this a 
bisinuate discal and an outwardly curved postdiscal transverse 
black band, both extended from the costa to vein 1 ; the discal 
band generally more or less obsolescent and ill-defined below veins 
3 or 4, but well marked between veins 1 and 2 ; the outer edge of 
the postdiscal band with a tendency to be very narrowly continued 
outwards along the veins ; terminal margin dusky subhyaline 
black, bounded by an anticiliary jet-black slender line : cilia dusky 
black. Hind wing : base and dorsum broadly and heavily shaded 
with black, sparsely covered with long recumbent white hairs that 
become fuscous along the extreme edge of the dorsum ; the black 
occupies the basal half of the cell and extends along the lower 
margin of its apical half to base of vein 4, from whence it narrows 
and is carried obliquely down to near the tornal angle ; beyond 
the cell there are two black-encircled red spots, one in interspace 5, 
the other in interspace 7; these are followed by a postdiscal, 
generally complete, curved series of black lunular marks and a 
narrow terminal dusky-black band, bounded by an anticiliary jet- 
black line as on the fore wing; cilia yellowish white. Underside : 
with the usual glassy appearance, the markings of the upper- 
side showing through by transparency ; the following, however, are 
marked more or less by actual scaling : the medial and apical 
black cellular bars on the fore wing ; the red black-encircled spots 
on the hind wing, with three additional red spots outwardly mar- 
gined with black at the base of the same wing, the posterior two 
of these basal red spots are large and somewhat pear-shaped. 



130 FAPILIONIDJE. 

Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black ; the head above fuscous ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen with dusky fuscous 
pubescence, mixed on the thorax and abdomen with long white 
hairs. $ . Similar, but in the specimen in the collection of the 
British Museum marked as the type, on the upperside of the hind 
wing the red in the discal spot in interspace 5 has disappeared, 
the same colour in the spot in interspace 7 is reduced to a minute 
speck, and on the underside the middle red spot of the basal three 
only is present, much reduced in size. Antennas, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the <3 . 

Exp. <$ $ 48-50 mm. (1-89-1-99"). 

Sab. Ladakh, 16,000 feet (Major Charlton} ; Tibet. 

This seems to be an extremely rare form. Mr. Elwes in 1886 
remarked (t. c.) : " Of this species almost nothing is known ; 
there exists in all museums to my knowledge but four specimens 
two in the British Museum, collected by Major Charlton in 
Ladak, and two others, of which one is in the Hewitson and 
one in M. Oberthur's collection." There are now in the British 
Museum the original types named, described and figured by Gray, 
the specimen from the Hewitson collection, and a fourth according 
to the information on the label from Tibet, taken in July 1896 at 
an elevation of 18,000 feet, and presented to the Museum by 
Mr. A. Pike. 

Race moelleri, nov. st. Closely resembles the typical form, 
from which, however, it is distinguished as follows : 

Upperside fore wing : the postdiscal 
transverse dusky-black band broader and 
situated closer to the termen than in 
typical simo between this band and the 
black terminal edging is a transverse 
band of the ground-colour, divided by 
the crossing of the veins into a prominent 
series of spots. Hind wing : no black edging 
to the termen, the Avhite scaling extended 
right up to the margin, bounded by the 
slender anticiliary black line. Underside : 
Fig. 34. similar ; the markings as in the typical 

Parnassius simo, form, w ith the exception chiefly of the red 
race moelleri. spots seen more by transparency from the 

upperside than indicated by actual scaling. 
Exp. c? $ as in the typical form. 
Hob. Sikhim, at elevations of 16,000 feet and over. 
Several specimens were taken by Mr. Claude White, and kindly 
sent to me by Mr. F. Moller of Darjiling, after whom 1 have 
named this well-marked race. 




HYPERMNESTHA. 131 



Genus HYPERMNESTRA. 

Ismene, Nickerl (nee Swainson), Stett. ent. Zeit. 1846, p. 207. 
Hypermnestra, Menetries, Cat. Mus. Petr., Lep. Pt. i, 185-5, p. 7. 

Type, H. Mios, Nick., from Turkestan. 

Range. Turkestan, Persia, Baluchistan. 

S $ Fore wing : costa almost straight for three-fourths of its 
length from base, the apical fourth arched ; apex blunt ; termen 
straight or very slightly convex; tornus broadly rounded; dorsum 
straight ; cell slightly longer than half length of costa ; vein 6 
and 7 closely approximate at base, upper discocellular therefore 
very short, barely indicated ; middle discocellular concave, long ; 
veins 4 and 5 also closely approximate, lower discocellular there- 
fore very short ; vein 8 absent ; vein 9 from apical half of 7, 
terminating below apex of wing; veins 10 and 11 free, 10 from 
just below upper apex of cell, 11 from upper third of subcostal; 
vein 12 terminates on costa well beyond upper apex of cell ; veins 
12, 11, and 10 run very close together towards their apical halves, 
but neither anastomose nor touch. Hind wing elongate, irregu- 
larly pear-shaped; costa slightly arched, the curve continued 
abruptly and strongly along the termen, tornal angle distinct ; 
dorsum widely emarginate ; cell somewhat longer than half the 
wing ; veins 4 and 5 more or less approximate, but not closely so, 
the discocellular between their bases erect ; precostal vein curved 
outwards. Antennae short, about one-third the length of costa of 
fore wing; club short, abrupt, spatulate ; head hairy in front, eyes 
smooth ; palpi suberect, with a thick fringe of hairs anteriorly ; 
thorax and abdomen moderately stout. 

This genus, or possibly only subgenus, is very close to Par- 
nassius, from which it differs in the venation of the fore wing. 
In Hypermnestra veins 6, 7, 10 and 11 in the fore wing are closely 
grouped together and emitted near the upper apex of cell, the 
discoidal cell itself is proportionately narrower and the middle 
discocellular is obliquely placed. The chief difference, however, 
between the two genera is in the shape of the club of the 
antennae. In Parnassius this is elongate, gradual and rounded ; 
in Hypermnestra short, abrupt and flattened. 

569. Hypermnestra helios, Xickerl (Ismene), Stett. ent. Zeit. 1846, 

p. 208 ; Menetries, Cat. Mus. Petr., Lep. i, 1855, p. 7. 
Doritis ismene, Herr.-Schiiff. Schmett. Eur. vi, 1851, p. 35. 
Hvpernmestra helios, var. maxima, Gr.-Grshim. Rom. Mem. iv, 

1890, p. 141. 
Parnassius balucha, Moore, A. M. N. H. (7) xviii, 1906, p. 47. 

c? . Upperside : white, with a slight cream-yellow tint. Fore 
wing : base densely, costal margin lightly, irrorated with black 
scales ; cell with a transverse black median and a black apical 

K2 



132 PAPILIONIDJE. 

spot, the latter extends from the costa along the discocellulars 
almost to the lower apex of cell ; beyond the cell an oblique, 
short black bar, widened posteriorly and with three superposed 
red spots, the middle spot minute, sometimes absent ; this is 
followed by an irregular subterminal black band, widened at the 
veins, widest near the costa, and gradually narrowed to a faint 
line posteriorly. In many specimens this band is not extended 
below vein 5, in others it reaches or almost reaches the tornal 
angle and is joined in its extension downwards to a prominent 
black transverse spot in interspace 3. Beyond this band the apex 




Fig. 35. Hyper, nnestra helios. 
fl. Venation of apex of fore wing. 
1>. Club of antenna; of Hypermnestra. 
c. Parnassius. 

is marked with a small diffuse black patch, and the apices of the 
veins with black spots that are extended inwards to the subter- 
minal band. Hind wing : base and dorsal margin broadly irrorated 
with black scales ; a black upper discal and a subcostal spot, both 
generally centred with red ; a subterminal series of slender black 
lunules, followed by a terminal row of transversely linear black 
spots ; the middle and postdiscal areas of the wing darkened bv 
the markings of the underside that show through by transparency. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings white alternated with black. 
Underside : ground-colour similar. Fore wing : markings as on 
the upperside, but the cellular spots, the spot in interspace 3 and 
the short bar beyond apex of cell larger, more intensely black, the 
red spots on tlie last also larger ; the subterminal and terminal 
markings paler, more diffuse. Hind wing with basal, median and 
subterminal broad transverse bands of irrorated black scales, all 
the bands with their margins uneven and zigzag; the outer margin 
of the basal band with four transversely placed red spots, and 
transverse red discal spots edged with black in interspaces 1, 2,. 
5 and 7 ; the termen margined with a fine, more or less inter- 
rupted, black line. In a few specimens the red spots are more or 
less obsolescent. Antennae pale yellowish white, the shafts 
obscurely ringed with black head, thorax and abdomen black, the 



HYPERMXESTBA.. 133 

Taead and the thorax anteriorly with long greyish-white hairs ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax, legs and basal portion of the abdomen 
similarly clothed. $ . Differs from the d 1 as follows : -Upperside : 
all the markings larger and more conspicuous ; an additional large 
black spot in the middle of interspace 1. Underside: similar 
to that of the J , but with the additional black spot as noted 
Above. 

Exp. <$ 52-66 mm. (2-02-2-60"). 

Hab. Baluchistan, within our limits, and northwards through 
Persia to Turkestan and the western shores of the Caspian Sea. 

The above descriptions are drawn that of the c? from a c? 
from Baluchistan, type of Moore's Parnassius balucha, which is 
now in the British Museum ; that of the $ from a specimen in 
my own collection from Southern Persia. Both belong to the 
larger form, var. maxima, Grr.-Gr., a series of which from Turkestan 
is in the British Museum. The difference between this variety and 
typical Jielios is chiefly one of size, though the markings in typical 
-helios are possibly duller and smaller, but these characteristics are 
very variable. 

In the British Museum collection also there is a single prepared 
specimen of a larva from the Christoph collection, labelled helios. 
This is 38 mm. in length, cylindrical, of a pale yellowish-white 
colour, with four longitudinal rows, two medial and one lateral on 
each side, of rather large yellow spots ; the head is a darker yellow, 
and each of the succeeding segments bears a transverse series of 
small black spots, the middle two round and sharply defined, the 
others irregular, some minute and mere dots, others slightly 
elongate ; each transverse row ends on either side with a spot 
-above the spiracles. 



134 PIEKlD.t. 



Family 

Egg. " Ampulliform, shaped like a soda \vater-bottle, twice as 
high as wide, forming a short neck or stalk close to the apex ; 
radiate, with strong anastomosing ribs." (l)oherty .) 

Larva. More or less cylindrical, depressed, very slight, tapered 
towards each end : pubescent, the hairs short and fairly dense, 
each from a minute tubercle ; occasionally the hairs are long and 
sparse ; prothoracic segments without protrudable tentacles, like 
those in the Papili<mida>. Colour generally green. Feeds chiefly 
on plants that belong to the natural orders Leguminosce and 
Capparidacece. 

Pupa. Angulated, the head pointed, sometimes produced into a 
long snout ; suspended perpendicularly and sustained by a single 
silken girth. 

Imago. Wings comparatively ample ; their terminal margins 
entire, very exceptionally angulated at the apices of one or more 
of the veins ; discoidal cells of both fore and hind wings closed ; in 
a few forms the discocellulars attenuated, but never absent. 
Among the Pieridce specialization in the veining of the wings 
seems to have been directed more to the fore than to the hind 
wing. In the former wing the median series of veins has been 
most affected. In the Indian genera of the Pieridce, vein 6 is very 
exceptionally emitted from the cell ; in most it has shifted up and 
is thrown off from the lower side of vein 7 beyond the apex of the 
cell ; thus the upper discocellular veinlet is absent. In one genus 
(Baltia) vein 5 even has been similarly moved forward and is 
emitted from* vein 7, so that in this genus there is only one disco- 
cellular veinlet. The radial system of veins has'also been modified. 
In only two of the Indian genera is vein 8 present. In the others 
it has been shifted up and crowded out at the apex of the wing. 
The point at which vein 9 is emitted from vein 7 is very variable, 
and in more than one genus it forms a minute fork with vein 7, 
very close to the apex of the wing, so that it is merely rudimentary, 
while in one or two other genera it has completely disappeared. 
The position of vein 10 is similarly variable, but in no Indian 
genus has it completely disappeared, a'nd only in two genera is it 
shifted up and emitted beyond the cell. 

Specialization in the veining of the hind wing is not so con- 
spicuous. In one or two genera the precostal vein or spur is absent, 
but in all there is one vein more than in the Papilionidff. This 
vein, 1 a, gives peculiar breadth to the dorsal margin of the wing, 
which is channelled to receive the abdomen. Antenna? elongate 
with a more or less ovate club, or short and thickened gradually 
to the apex. Legs: all six present and functional: tibiae of the 
fore legs without the pad so conspicuous in the Papilionidcc ; 



PIERID.E. 135 

claws of the tarsi bifid ; pulvilli and paronychia generally present. 
Coloration in the vast majority chiefly or partially white, whence 
the forms in the family have acquired the distinctive appellation 
of " the whites." 

A summarized account of the habits of the Indian Pieridce in 
the larval state has been given by Messrs. Davidson, Bell, and 
Aitken in the ' Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society,' 
vol. x, 1896, p. 569. I venture to quote it in full here : 

" All the larvae of this subfamily lie, when full-grown, on the 
upperside of the leaf, and when solitary (some of them are grega- 
rious) along the mid-rib, coating the leaf where they lie with a 
bed of silk. The eggs are generally laid singly on the upperside 
of the leaf or on young shoots ; exceptions to this are *Teracolus 
amata, J'abr., Appias liippoides, Moore, and Delias eucharis, Drury 
(this last is aberrant also, in that the eggs are laid on the under- 
side of the leaf where the larvae herd together), Behnois mesen- 
tina, Cramer, Terias silhetana, Wallace, which lay their eggs in 
clusters ; the larvae of these when young are gregarious, but 
generally when full-grown separate where the food is plentiful." 

Of the eggs these authors say : " The egg of the subfamily is 
spindle-shaped, standing on one end, and is also more or less 
strongly ridged longitudinally and striated finely transversely ; in 
colour it is generally pure white, turning to yellow or orange ; 
that of Nychitona (Leptosia) xiphia, Fabr., is blue and that of 
Haphina blotched with red." 

The remarkable habit in butterflies of this family of migrating 
in large numbers together, has attracted the attention of travellers 
and naturalists in all parts of the world. No satisfactory explana- 
tion of the reason for these migrations has yet been offered. It is 
a wonderful sight the clouds of butterflies, chiefly Pierids and by 
far the greater number of them belonging to the genera Appias 
and C'atopsilia, stream past for hours at a time, all going in one 
direction, and in all instances that I have witnessed flying against 
the Avind. One effect, of these migrations is wide dispersal and 
the consequent breaking-down of distinctions between local races, 
for any little peculiarity due to isolation and environment stands 
little chance of perpetuation, swamped as it is by the continual 
arrival of forms from other localities. A long series of Appias, 
for example, from widely-separated localities shows variation to a 
limited extent, and that unstable in itself and scarcely to be 
denned in words. 

Much attention has been paid to the phylogeny of the Pieridce, 
perhaps more than to that of any other group of the diurnal 
Lepidoptera. In butterflies, however, as in all living things, 
specialization has taken an irregularly-radiating rather than a 
linear course, so that any arrangement of genera in sequence can 



* In this work the names of the butterflies mentioned stand as Colotis 
amata, Fabr., Appias hippo, Cramer, Delias eucharis, Drury, Anaphceis mesen- 
tina, Cramer, Terias silhetana, Wallace, and Leptosia xiphia, Fabr. 



136 PIE11ID.E. 

never be a true indication of the actual line of descent. The 
following key to the genera of the Pieridce is therefore purely 
artificial. 

Key to tlie Genera of the Pieridae. 

A. Fore wing: vein 8 absent. 

a. Fore wing : vein 9 absent. 

'. Fore wing : vein 10 emitted from subcostal 

vein L,EPTosiA,p.l37. 

b'. Fore wing : vein 10 emitted from vein 7 DELIAS, p. 139. 

b. Fore wing : vein 9 present in tf and with one 

exception in 5 also. [p. 150. 

a'. Fore wing : costa serrated PRIONERIS, 

b'. Fore wing : costa not serrated. 

' 2 . Fore wing : vein 11 anastomosed with [p. 155. 

vein 12 ANAPHJEIS, 

b 2 . Fore wing : vein 11 not anastomosed with 

vein 12. 
3 . Fore wing : vein 5 emitted from vein 7, 

only one discocellular present BALTIA, p. 158. 

ft 3 . Fore wing : vein 5 emitted from cell. 
a*. Fore wing : vein 6 emitted from vein 7. 
a 5 . Fore wing : vein 10 emitted from 

subcostal vein. 

G . Hind wing : precostal vein pre- 
sent. 

n 7 . Hind wing : termen rounded, 
not angulated at apex of 
vein 4. 
s . Fore wing: vein 6 emitted ' 

from about middle of vein 7. APORIA, p. 160. 
^". Fore wing : vein 6 emitted 
from vein 7 closer to its base 
than to its apex, 
9 . Fore wing : vein 1 1 emitted 
from subcostal vein closer 
to its apex than to its base. 
rt 10 . Fore wing : vein 9 emit- 
ted from vein 7 very 
close to its apex, some- 
times absent PIERIS, p. 167. 

fe 10 . Fore wing : vein 9 emit- 
ted from vein 7 further 
from its apex and always 
present. 

a 11 , c? without specialized 
tufts of stiff haii-s on 
anal segment. 
12 . Fore wing: apex 

not falcate. 

a 13 . Fore wing: bases 
of veins 6 and 10 
equidistant from 
apex of cell. Hind 

wing: lower disco- [p. 181. 

cellular straight . HUPHINA, 



LEPTOSIA. 137 

b i3 . Fore wing : base 
of vein 6 closer to 
apex of cell than 
is base of vein 10. 
Hind wing: lower 
discocellular con- 
cave IXIAS, p. 192. 

b r ~. Fore wing : apex 

falcate LADE, p. 216. 

b l \ $ with specialized 

tufts of stiff hairs on 

anal segment. 

a 1 -. Fore wing : vein 9 

present in both sexes, 

emitted from apical 

fourth of vein 7 APPIAS, p. 197. 

b 1 ' 2 . Fore wing: vein 9 
present iii c? , absent 
in $ , emitted when 
present very close [p. 217. 

to apex of wing .... SALETABA, 
b n . Fore wing : vein 11 emitted 
from subcostal vein about 
equidistant from its base [p. 218. 

and apex CATOPSILIA, 

b~. Hind wing: termen not rounded, 
strongly angulated at apex of 

vein 4 DEBCAS, p. 225. 

b*. Hind wing : precostal vein absent. 
a 1 . Hind wing : termen more or less 

acutely angulated at apex of [p. 228. 

vein 4 GONEPTEBYX, 

b~. Hind wing : termen evenly 

rounded TEBIAS, p. 244. 

b 5 . Fore wing : vein 10 emitted from 

vein 7 COLIAS, p. 232. 

b 4 . Fore wing : vein 6 from upper apex of [p. 259. 

cell COLOTIS, 

c 4 . Fore wing : vein 6 from junction of [p. 273. 

upper and middle discocellulars .... HEBOMOIA, 
13. Fore wing : vein 8 present *. [p. 276. 

fl. Fore wing : vein 6 from upper apex of cell .... PABEBONIA, 

b. Fore wing : vein 6 from vein 7 SYNCHLOE, 

[p. 179. 

Genus LEPTOSIA. 

Leptosia, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 95 ; Distant, Rhop. 

Malay. 1885, p. 287 : Kirby in Allen's Nat. Libr. ii, 1896, p. 176 ; 

Moore, Lep. 2nd. vii, 1906, p. 19. 

Nychitona, Sutler, Cist. Ent. i, 1870, pp. 34, 41 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. 

\ 1881, p. 117. 

Type, L. xiphia, Fabr., from India. 
Range. Indo-Malayan Eegion ; China. 

* Absent in one of the two forms of SyncJdoe found within our limits. 



138 PIElilD-S. 

J $ . Fore wing : costa slightly arched, apex very broad and 
greatly rounded ; terraen convex ; tornus obtuse ; dorsum straight, 
only a little shorter than the costa ; cell long, more than half 
length of wing ; veins 5 and 7 closely approximate at base, vein 6 
from lower side of vein 7, upper and middle discocellulars there- 
fore both absent, lower discocellular strongly concave ; apical 
portion of median nervure between veins 3 and 4 bent upwards 
at an obtuse angle ; veins 8 and 9 both absent, vein 10 from just 
before apex of cell, vein 11 from middle of subcostal. Hind wing : 
costa very slightly arched ; termen strongly arched ; dorsum 
straight or slightly arched ; cell elongate, more than half length 
of wing ; lower discocellular long, concave ; vein 7 from apical 
third of subcostal ; vein 8 slightly curved at base, then straight. 
extended very close along the costal margin ; precostal vein or 
spur short, inclined inwards. Antennae slender, not quite half 
the length of the fore wing ; club long, gradual, slightly flat- 
tened ; palpi slender, third joint fusiform ; eyes naked ; body 
slender. 

Only a single form of this genus is known, a delicate creature 
of feeble flight that slowly flutters about the undergrowth and 
brushwood in the localities where it occurs. In India, according 
to the MS. notes left by the late Mr. de JS^iceville, it has acquired 
the trivial name of the " wandering snowflake." 

570. Leptosia xiphia, Fabr. (Papilio) SZKC. Ins. ii, 3781, p. 43 ; Moore 
(Nychitcma), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 118, pi. 46, figs. 6, 6 a ; Distant, 
Rhop. Malay. 1885, p. 288, pi. 20, tig. 8 ; Davidson, Bell, $ Aitken 
(Nychitona), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 5(59 ; Moore, Lep. 
Ind. vii, 1906, p. 20, pi. 559, figs. 1, la, 1 b, <$ $ . 
Leptosia nicobarica, Moore, Lep. Ind. vii, 1906, p. 22. 

d . Upperside : white ; base of wings very slightly powdered with 
minute black scales. Pore wing : costa speckled obscurely with 
black ; apex black, the inner margin 
of this inwardly angulate ; a very 
large somewhat pear-shaped post- 
discal spot also black. Hind wing 
white, uniform ; in most specimens 
an obscure, extremely slender, ter- 
minal black line. Underside : white ; 
costal margin and apex of fore wing 
broadly, and the whole surface of 
the hind wing irrorated with trans- 
verse, very slender, greenish strigte 
and minute dots ; these on the 
Fig. 36. Leptosia xiphia. hind wing have a tendency to form 

subbasal, medial and discal obliquely 

transverse obscure bands ; fore wing : the postdiscal black spot 
as on the upperside ; terminal margins of both fore and hind wings 
with minute black, short, transverse slender lines at the apices of 
the veins, that have a tendency to coalesce and form a terminal 




LKPTOSIA. DELIAS. 



139 



continuous line as on the upperside. Antennae dark brown spotted 
with white, head slightly brownish, thorax and abdomen white.- 
$ . Similar, the black markings on the upperside o the tore wing 
on the whole slightly broader, but not invariably so. 

Exp. cf $ 25-53 mm. (1 -00-2-10"). 

Hob. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Mussoorie to 
Sikhim ; Central, Western, and Southern India, but not in the 
desert-tracts ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma and Teuasserim ; extending 
to China and the Malayan Subregion. 

Larva. " Green, with a pale glaucous tinge about the bases of 
the legs and slightly hairy. Feeds on capers." 

Pupa. " Sometimes green, but oftener of a delicate pink shade* 
Both the larva and pupa are very like those of Terias hecabe, but 
more delicately formed." (Davidson, Bell $ Aiiken.) 

Mr. Moore has separated the Nicobar specimens under the 
name nicobarica, but in a long series from nearly all parts of its 
range I have found the characters relied upon for distinction 
eminently variable. 



Genus DELIAS. 

Delias, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 91; Moore, Lep. In<L 

vi, 1904, p. 163. 

Pieris, pt., Doubleday 8>- Heivitson, Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 44. 
Thyca, pt., Wallengren, K. Vet.-Ak. Fbrh. xv, 1858. p. 76. 
Piccarda, Grote, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxxix, 1900, p. 32 ; Moore? 

Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 175. 

Type, D. egialea, Cramer, from Java. 

Range. Indo- Malay an and Australian Eegions. 

<3 $ . Fore wing : costa 
nearly straight, very slightly 
arched ; apex very broadly 
rounded; termeu oblique; tor- 
nus obtusely rounded; dorsum 
straight, from slightly over 
the half to two-thirds the 
length of the costa ; cell 
about half length of wing ; 
upper discocellular absent,, 
middle oblique, shorter than 
the lower, lower slightly con- 
cave; vein 6 shifted up, given 
off 7 beyond apex of cell : 
veins 8 and 9 absent ; vein 
10 out of 7 considerably 
beyond apex of cell, vein 11 
from upper third of subcostal. 

T-,. t , . Hind wing cell : a regular 

Fig. 37. Delias euchans. , ,. , P i !< i 

I. Venation of fore wing. oval fHg^tlj over half length 

II. Ditto of hind wing. of wing ; vein 7 closer to 6- 




2 40 PIEKID.E. 

than to 8, vein 8 strongly curved. Antennae about half length 
of fore wing, slender, with a gradual but well marked club ; eyes 
naked ; palpi short, subporrect ; abdomen moderately long. 

Key to the forms of Delias.* 

A. Hind wing underside : with either hasal or ter- 
minal red markings. 

a. Hind wing underside : these red markings 

terminal. 
a. These red markings inwardly margined with 

black. 
2 . Hind wing upperside : with a transverse 

curvod postdiscal black band I), eucharis,^. 141. 

6 2 . Hind wing upperside: without any trans- j I), hierta, race 

Averse black band .' | metarete, p. 143. 

//. The red markings not margined inwardly 

with black. 

2 . Upperside : J , black margins to veins 
broad ; $ , interspaces on fore wing be- 
yond postdiscal oblique black band not 

tinged with yellow -D. hierta, p. 142. 

& 2 . Upperside : $ , black margins to veins 
narrow; $, interspaces on fore wing 
beyond postdiscal oblique black band \ D. hietia, race 
decidedly tinged with yellow | ethirc, p. 143. 

b. Hind wing underside : red markings basal. 

a'. Red markings restricted to whole of inter- 
space 8 D. dcseombesi, 

V . lied markings arranged so as to form a [p. 144. 

patch transversely across base of wing. 
a 2 . Hind wing upperside : basal area dusky, 
red markings seen through only by 

transparency from underside D. aylaia, p. 145. 

b 2 . Hind wing upperside ; basal area red . . 1). tliysbe, p. 146. 
K Hind wing underside : without basal or terminal 

red markings. 
. Hind wing underside : ground-colour uniform 

yellow. 

'. Fore wing upperside : $ , apex broadly 
shaded with black, with a clearly denned 
superposed transverse series of white spots ; 
$, entirely shaded with dusky black 
scales ; transverse series of white spots as 

in c? D- ayostina, p. 1 47. 

b'. Fore wing upperside : <$ , apical third to 
half shaded with black ; transverse series 
of superposed spots not clearly defined, 
blurred ; , less densely shaded with dusky 
black scales ; transverse series of white J D. agostina, race 
spots not well denned | ayoranis, p. 148. 



* D. thyiJ><?, race kandha, is not included in this key, as that form is unknown 
to me. 



DELIAS. 141 

b. Hind wing underside : ground-colour white to 

deep dusky brown. 
a'. Hind wing upperside : dorsal margin broadly 

greyish, its apical half yellow. 
a-. Upperside ground-colour dusky brownish [p. 148. 

black to deep black I), belladonna, 

b 2 . Upperside ground-colour white shaded ) D. belladonna, var. 

more or less with black scales | jftai-alba, p. 149. 

b'. Hind wing upperside : dorsal margin less 

broadly greyish, its apical half without any I D. belladonna, var. 
tinge of yellow | ithiela, p. 149. 

571. Delias eucharis (PI. XVII, fig. 109), Drury (Papilio), 111. Ex. 
Ent. ii, 1773, p. 16, pi. 10, figs. 5, 6 )C ?; Moore, Lep. Ceul. i, 1881, 
p. 140, pi. 54, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 6, $ $ , larva & pupa ; Davidson S ) ~ 
Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 358 ; id. t. c. 1896, 
p. 569 ; MacKinnon, Jour. Bomb. JV. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 586 ; 
Moore (Piccarda), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 175, pi. 534, figs. 1, 1 a- 
1 d, larva & pupa, <S $ . 

<S . Upperside : white. Fore wing : the veins broadly black, thi& 
colour broadened triangularly at the termination of the veins, 
costal margin narrowly black ; a broad black postdiscal transverse 
band from costa to dorsum sloped obliquely outwards from costa 
to vein 4, thence parallel to termen. Hind wing with the veins 
similar but for three-fourths of their length much more narrowly 
black ; a postdiscal transverse black band as on the fore wing but 
much narrower, curved and extended only between veins 2 and 6 ; 
beyond this the veins are more broadly black and this colour as 
on the fore wing broadens out triangularly at the termination of 
the veins ; the interspaces beyond the postdiscal black band pink, 
due to the vermilion coloration of the underside showing through. 
Underside : fore wing similar but the black edging to the veins 
much broader, the upper two interspaces beyond the postdiscal 
transverse band tinged with yellow. Hind wing : ground-colour 
bright yellow, the veins aud transverse postdiscal band as on the 
upperside but much more broadly black, the latter extended from 
the costa to vein 2 ; the interspaces between the veins beyond 
the postdiscal fascia with a series of broadly lanceolate or cone- 
shaped vermilion-red spots, each spot very narrowly edged with 
white ; the basal portion of interspace 6 white, in contrast to 
the bright yellow of the ground-colour. Antennae black ; head, 
thorax and abdomen white, the apical joint of the palpi black ; the 
head and thorax with a mixture of black hairs that gives these 
parts a grey-blue appearance. $ . Upper and under sides similar 
to those in the d , but the black edging to the veins and the post- 
discal transverse bands on both fore and hind wings very much 
broader. 

Exp. 3 $ 80-85 mm. (3-18-3-35"). 

Hab. The Himalayas up to 7000 feet ; the whole of continental 
India except the desert tracts ; Ceylon. 



142 PIEBID&. 

Larva. " Long, cylindrical and smooth with an oily gloss. Two 
subdorsal rows of long white bristles springing from minute white 
tubercles ; head, sides and back sparsely clothed with short white 
bristles: colour brown, head and feet black. It may be found from 
the beginning of August everywhere on the common ' mistletoe ' 
(Loranthus), from which it will drop and hang by a thread if the 
tree is shaken. We have never found it feeding on anything 
else. Unlike most butterflies this species lays as many as twenty 
or thirty eggs on one leaf, in parallel rows, with equal intervals, 
and the larvae continue in some measure gregarious to the last, so 
that a large number of pupae are often found, at a little, distance 
from each other, on a wall, or the trunk of a tree." 

Pupa'. " Closely attached by the tail and by a band generally 
to a vertical surface with the head upwards. It is moderately 
stout with a short snout, two small tubercles on the head, a sharp 
but not prominent dorsal ridge on the thorax, continued in a row 
of tubercles on the abdominal segments. Below these are two 
partial subdorsal rows. Colour bright yellow ; tubercles and a row 
of spots denning the wing-cases black. 

" Large numbers are destroyed by a dipterous parasite very like 
a common house-fly." (Davidson $ Aitlcen.) 



572. Delias hierta (PI. XVII, tig. 110), Hilbner (Pontia), Zutrage 
Exot. Schnwtt. i, 1818, p. 17, figs. 77, 78, tf; Druce, P. Z. 8. 1874, 
p. 108 ; Moore (Piccarda), Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 178, pi. 532, 
tigs. 2, 2 a-2c, 3 $ , & pi. 533, tigs. 1, l-lc, rf $ . 

Thyca devaca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 566 $ . 

Delias indica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 839. 

Race metarete. 

Delias metarete, Butler, Trans. Linn. Soc. 1879, p. 550 ; Moore 
(Piccarda), Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 181, pi. 533, figs. 2, 2a-2c, 
(?? 

Race ethire. 

Delias ethire, Doherty, J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 262, $ $ ; Moore 
(Piccarda), Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 180. 

cJ $ . Closely resembles D. eucharis but can be distinguished as 
follows : 6 . Upperside, fore wing : the black margins to the veins 
more diffuse ; the transverse postdiscal fascia diffuse, ill- defined, 
oblique, not parallel to termen in its lower portion but terminated 
at apex of vein 2 ; the apical portion of the wing beyond the 
fascia more or less so thickly shaded with black scales as to leave 
the white lanceolate spaces between the veins (so prominent in 
eucharis) ill-defined and obscure. Hind wing white, the black 
venation and terminal narrow black border as well as the sub- 
terminal vermilion-red spots between the veins on the underside 
show through by transparency. Underside : fore wing as in 
eucharis, but the black margins to the veins much broader and the 



DELIAS. 143 

postdiscal transverse fascia as on the upperside oblique but broader. 
Hind wing differs from that of eucharis in the much deeper 
chrome-yellow tint of the ground-colour, the postdiscal black 
curved fascia that in eucharis separates the yellow from the 
subtenninal vermilion-red spots entirely wanting, the red spots 
themselves pointed inwardly, not subcordate, they conspicuously 
increase in size posteriorly. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
similar to those of eucharis. $ differs from the 2 of eucharis on 
the upperside by the very much darker shading, especially on the 
fore wing, and by the postdiscal transverse band which is as in the 
d oblique but broader. Hind wing also more darkly shaded, the 
postdiscal transverse curved black baud entirely absent. Underside 
as in the $ but darker, the fore wing especially more thickly 
shaded with black scaling, the preapical interspaces tinged with 
yellow. Antennae, thorax and abdomen similar to those in eucharis. 

Exp. d $ 78-84 mm. (3-08-3-30"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikhim in the low 
hot valleys ; Bengal ; Calcutta (de Niceville) ; Assam ; Burma to 
Northern Teuasseriin ; extending to Siam. 

Specimens from the Himalayas and Assam are paler than Burmese 
specimens and have the yellow on the underside of the hind wing 
often restricted to the base and to the posterior half of the wing. 

Race metarete, Butler. Differs from typical Jiierta as follows : 
d . Upperside . ground-colour a much purer white ; apical half of 
fore wing in contrast with the white on basal half densely shaded 
with black scales. Underside : the colours clearer and purer, the 
chrome-yellow on the hind wing confined to the base and posterior 
half of the wing, the apical half of the cell and the anterior inter- 
spaces within the line of the vermiliou-red spots pure white ; the 
anterior two or three subterminal red spots margined interiorly 
with diffuse black scaling. $ differs less from the 2 of hierta, 
but on the underside of the hind wing the yellow colour is as 
restricted as it is in the d ; the subterrninal red spots are of a 
richer vermilion than in hierta, and the anterior two or three as 
in the d have an interior narrow margin of diffuse black scales. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in hierta, but the thorax 
and abdomen shaded slightly darker with a bluish-grey appearance. 

Exp. d $ 76-88 mm. (3-02-3-48"). 

Nab. Southern Tenasserim ; extending to Malacca and Sumatra. 

Race ethire, Doherfy. d $ . Differs from typical hierta as 
follows: d- Upperside: very pure white. Fore wing : the black 
margins to the veins very narrow, the oblique postdiscal band ill- 
defined, scarcely any irroratiou of black scales on the apical half of 
the wing. Hind wing pure white, the colours of the underside 
seen through by transparency as in hierta. Underside : differs 
from hierta principally in the brighter tint of the yellow on the 
hind wing, and in the more clearly defined, less diffuse black 
margins of the veins. 5 . Differs less from 2 hierta than does 



144 PIERIDJE. 

the c? from the corresponding sex of the same insect. Upperside : 
the interspaces beyond the postdiscal oblique band on fore wing 
and the cell and basal halves of the interspaces beyond the cell on 
the hind wing distinctly tinged with yellow. Underside : all the 
markings more neatly and clearly defined than in hierta, the inter- 
spaces beyond the oblique postdiscal band on the fore wing bright 
lemon-yellow. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes 
as in D. kierta. 

Exp. <$ $ 66-84 mm. (2-60-3-30"). 

Hah. Madras ; Orissa ; Lower Bengal. 

There is a single specimen in the British Museum labelled 
" Khasia Hills " ? 

573. Delias descombesi (PI. XVII, fig. Ill), Boisduval (Pieris), Spec. 
Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 465 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 839 ; Elwes, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 408 ; Moore, Lep. Ind. vi. 1905, p. 183, 
pi. 536, figs. 1, 10-lc, rf $ . 

c? . Upperside : opaque white. Fore wing : costa and terminal 
margin very narrowly black ; extreme base, apex broadly and 
termen submarginally more or less thickly irrorated with black 
scales, the width of this blackish border decreases posteriorly 
along the termen. Hind wing : termen narrowly black, the black 
markings of the underside show dusky bluish through transparency. 
Underside, fore wingr : black ; an obliquely placed short broad bar 
along the discocellulars and a subterminal series of outwardly 
pointed spots, of which the anterior three lengthen into streaks, 
white ; the anterior and posterior margins of the cell and broad 
streaks, that do not reach the terminal margin, on each side of 
veins 1 to 4, grey. Hind wing : rich chrome-yellow ; costa and 
termen broadly black ; interspaces "1 to 7 with outwardly pointed, 
broadly triangular, yellowish-white diffuse spots on the black ter- 
minal margin, the black on the inner side of these spots produced 
conically inwards ; the black in interspace 7 centred with an 
elongate, outwardly somewhat diffuse, oval vermilion streak. 
$ . Upperside : black. Fore wing : a broad oblique apical cell- 
bar and a curved subterminal series of somew 7 hat hastate spots, 
white. Hind wing : apical two-thirds of costa and the termen 
broadly black, the rest of the wing yellowish white sparsely 
irrorated with black scales ; the vermilion streak in interspace 8 on 
the underside shows through by transparency, and the broad 
terminal black border has a subterminal very obscurely marked 
series of whitish spots. Underside: fore wing as in the rf but 
the grey bordering restricted to very narrow streaks along the 
median vein and veins 2 to 4. Hind wing : differs from that of 
the J as follows : the rich chrome-yellow replaced by dull white 
touched with yellow along the dorsal margin and in the cell and 
lightly irrorated in cell and interspaces with black scales, the inner 
margin of the black terminal border produced in the interspaces 
into more elongate cones. In both sexes : antennae black, head, 
thorax and abdomen above greyish ; beneath : white. 



DELIAS. 145 

Exp. c? $ 83-90 mm. (3-28-3-53"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Bhutan; Assam; Burma: Tenasserim ; extending 
to Siain, Cochin-China and the Malay Peninsula. 

574. Delias aglaia, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, 1758, p. 465 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 169, pi. 531, tigs. 1, la-Id, d ? , 
larva & pupa. 

Delias pasithoe, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. xii, 1767, p. 755 
JShce*, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 407; Watson, Jour. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. iv, 1888, p. 25. 

c? . Upper side, : black. Fore wing with more or less distinct, 
somewhat diffuse, broad streaks from base, in the discoidal cell and 
interspaces 1 and 2, the streak in the last the most produced ; a 
white oval spot at lower apex of cell traversed by the lower 
discocellular, followed by a subterminal series of greyish-white 
hastate markings with their points turned inwards, the markings 
opposite the apex of the wing elongate and shifted a little inwards. 
Hind wing : a broad subbasal transverse greyish-white band merged 
posteriorly in a large bright yellow dorsal patch that tills the 
epical two-thirds, the extreme apex excepted. of interspaces 1, 
1, and of 2 ; a white transversely elongate spot along the middle 
discocellular, and beyond it a postdiscal curved series of greyish- 
white elongate hastate spots in interspaces 3 to 7. Underside : 
black. Fore wing : somewhat elongate greyish-white markings in 
interspaces 1, 2, 3 and in cell, formed into a conspicuous oblique 
broad bar across the middle of the wing ; a white spot at lower apex 
of cell and a postdiscal series of hastate spots as on the upperside. 
Hind wing : black, a rich dark crimson patch at base, a yellow 
dorsal patch as on the upperside but darker ; the apical two-thirds 
of the cell, three spots above it and one below at bases of inter- 
spaces 3, 6 and 7 respectively and a curved discal series of elongate 
spots beyond apex of cell, rich chrome-yellow ; of these latter 
spots the spot in interspace 5 is much the longest. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen above black, abdomen on the sides and 
below grey. . Upperside: brownish black. Fore wing: markings 
as in the J , but the cellular streak and the streaks in interspaces 
1 and 2 below the cell short and formed into a broken oblique 
broad greyish-white band across the wing. Hind wing : markings 
similar to those in the male, but the basal crimson patch of the 
underside seen through by transparency, the transverse broad 
subbasal band and dorsal patch both pale yellow and much broader 
than in the 6" , and the postdiscal curved series of hastate spots 
obscure and ill-defined. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as 
in the d" , the abdomen whitish grey below and on the sides. 

Exp. <$ $ 66-90 mm. (2-60-3-55"). 

Hab. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; to the 
south extending through the Malay Peninsula to Borneo ; to the 
east through the Shan States to Siam and S. China. 

Larva. Brownish red, each segment with a transverse row of 

VOL. II. L 



146 PIERIDJE. 

long bristles, the outer bristles black, the middle yellow. Length 
about 2 laches. Found iu March feeding on the young leaves 
of the linii/a (Nmtclea ro(undifolia). 

Papa. ^Verydark reddish brown or black, smooth, sinuate; head 
with three sharp points and a broad truncation in front ; segments 
of the abdomen and the front with small acute tubercular pro- 
jections. 

575. Delias thysbe (PI. XVIII, fig. 117), Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. 
ii\, 1782, p. 70, pi. 233, fig. C $ ; Moore, Lep. Lid. vi, 1904. 
p. 171, pi. 532, fijjs. 1, la-lc, <J $ . 

Thyca pyranius, Wallace, Tram. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. 347 : Elwes 
(Delias), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 407. 

Race kandha. 

Deliaskandha, Doherty, J. A. S. Beny. 1886, p. 262; Moore, Lep. 
Ind. vi, 1904, p. 173. 

c? $ . Eeseinbles D. aglaia in both sexes ; the differences,, 
however, are as follows : Upperside, fore wing : the white spot at 
apex of cell replaced by an upper and a lower grey scaled spot 
that crosses the discocellulars, which are black ; the postdiscal series 
of hastate spots converted into broad greyish diffuse streaks of 
which the streak in interspace 3 is shifted more inward than 
the others. In the rf the broad subbasal greyish streaks in inter- 
spaces 1 and 2 and in the cell are longer than in the $ . Hind 
wing black ; basal area to middle of cell deep vermilion, traversed 
by the black veins ; interspaces la. 1 and posterior medial portion 
of 2 powdered thickly with greyish-white scales in the J ; remainder 
of interspace 2 bright yellow ; interspaces 3 to 8 with broad 
diffuse grey streaks that do not reach the termen, the streaks in 
interspace 5 extend into apex of cell ; in $ similar, but inter- 
spaces 2 to 5 with still broader yellow streaks, of which those 
in interspaces 4 and 5 cross over the discocellulars into the apex 
of the cell. Underside : similar to the upperside, the grey markings 
paler, almost white ; hind wing in both sexes with the basal 
vermilion patch extended to the base of the dorsal margin : 
humeral angle at base of wing with an ochraceous spot ; apex of 
cell and broad streaks in interspaces 1 to 8 yellow fading to 
yellowish-white anteriorly : the veins narrowly black, which colour 
broadens triangularly at their apices and so forms anteriorly a 
more or less irregular terminal black margin. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in D. a<jlaia. 

Exp. d 1 $ 78-92 mm. (3-1-3-6"). 

Hab. Nepal ; Sikhira ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma : Tenasserim ; 
extending to Stain and the Malay Peninsula. 

Mace kandha, Doherty. "Allied to D. pyramws, Wall. (=]). 
thi/sbe) from Sikhitn. In kandha the ochreous anal area of the hind 
wing is replaced by pale cream ; the light discal areas on the hind 
wing below, which in pyramus are ochreous anally and whitish 



DELIAS. 147 

apically, are, in kandha, of an almost uniform bright yellow hue, 
inclining to lemon ; the ochre spofc at the base of the hind wing 
below is much larger and more distinct ; the apical grey streaks of 
the fore wing above are obscurely tinged with ochreous. All 
the pale marks are larger, and the black areas smaller and better 
defined. The female hardly differs from the male. 

" Exp. 98 mm. 

" Hob. Madras, Vizagapatam:' (pclierty .) 

Unknown to me. 

576. Delias agostina (PL XVII, fig. 112), Heioitson (Pieris), Exot. 
Butt, i, Pieridce, 1852, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, rf; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1888, p. 408; Moore (Piccarda), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1905, p. 181, 
pi. 535, figs. 1, 1 -l c, d $ . 

Race agoranis. 

Delias agoranis, Grose-Smith, A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 226 ; 
Moore (Piccarda), Li-p. Ind. vi, 1005, p. 182, pi. 535, figs. 2, 2 a, rf . 

c? . Upperside: white. Fore wing: costa narrowly, apex 
broadly shaded with black, the shading so arranged as to leave on 
the latter a conspicuous curved series of oval outwardly-pointed 
spots of the ground-colour, that increase in size from the spot in 
interspace 3 to the spot in interspace 6, the subcostal spot above 
small again ; the black shading on the apex is continued slightly 
inwards along the veins, while its width varies somewhat in 
different specimens. Hind wing uniform, unmarked, or with the 
merest trace of black scaling that forms spots along the terminal 
margin; the colour of the underside seen through by trans- 
parency gives a pink tinge to the basal and dorsal areas and a 
faint bluish tint to the terminal margin. Underside : fore wing 
white, the costa more broadly black than on the upperside, the 
whole of the veins bordered broadly with black ; a subapical curved 
broad bar from costa to vein 2, black. Hind wing bright canary- 
yellow, costa narrowly white ; terminal margin with an even 
moderately broad border, dusky black, and with a superposed 
series of irregular white lunular marks. 5 Upperside : fore wing 
entirely shaded with black, sometimes very dark, almost completely 
black (wet-season form ?), the curved preapical series of white 
spots as in the <3 . Hind wing : sometimes canary-yellow, some- 
times white with a pink tinge from the colour of the underside 
showing through ; terminal margin more or less broadly black, with 
a marginal series of white spots in the interspaces. Underside : as 
in the 3 , but the white spots on the terminal black border of the 
hind wing larger. Antennae in both sexes black ; head, thorax 
and abdomen white shaded with fuscous black. 

Exp. J $ 66-70 mm. (2-6-2-76"). 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; 
Tenasserim, extending to Siam. 

L2 



148 PIJSRIJJJE. 

Race agoranis. Grose-Smith. Differs from typical agottina as 
follows : $ . Upperside, fore wing : apical third to nearly apical 
half shaded with diffuse black scaling ; the curved series of spots 
of the white ground-colour so conspicuous in agostina present, but 
more or less blurred. Hind wing : terminal margin with very 
diffuse dusky-black spots at the apices of the veins. Underside, 
fore wing : the black edgings to the A'eins very diffuse. Hind wing 
a much paler yellow than in typical agostina ; the terminal dusky- 
black border as in the typical form but broader, the black scaling 
more diffuse. $ . Upperside : very similar to $ agostina, but the 
dusky-black colouring on both fore and hind wings less pronounced ; 
the cell and greater part basally of the interspaces with the white 
of the ground-colour more conspicuous. Underside : as in 
agostina, but the yellow on the hind wing paler, the dusky-black 
terminal border broader, inwardly not well-defined, the superposed 
white spots blurred with black scaling and diffusely spread inwards. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in typical agostina. 

Exp. <5 $ 78-81 mm. (3-08-3-19"). 

Hob. South Teuasserim. 

This form is the connecting-link between D. agostina, Hewitson, 
and D. singhapura, Wallace. 



577. Delias belladonna, Fab,-. (Papilio) Ent. Syst, in, 1793, p. 180; 

Donovan (Papilio), Xat. Rep. i, 1823, pi. 35 $ ; JSIires, P. Z. S. 

1882, p. 401; Mackimton |- de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 

1898, p. 685, pi. 5, tig. 19. 
Pieris horsfieldii, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 32 ; Moore (Delias), 

Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 160, pi. 529, tigs. 1, 1 a-l c & 2, 2 a, <$ $. 
Pieris sanaca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 103, pi. 44, tig. 4 (by error 

6 above fitf. on plate) ; id. (Delias) Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 163, 

pi. 528, tigs. 1, la-Ie,J %. 
Thyca ithiela, Butler, A. M. JV. H. (4) iv, 1869, p. 242 ; Moore 

(Delias), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 167, pi. 530, tigs. 1, 1 a-l c, rf $ . 
Thyca berinda, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 566, ? . 
Delias flavalba, Marshall, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 759. 

c? . Upperside : dusky brownish black to black. Fore wing with 
the following diffuse white markings : Cell with an oblique sub- 
apical bar, an angulated discal series of three upper spots inclined 
obliquely outwards and three lower spots inclined obliquely 
inwards ; in most specimens the oblique bar in the cell and the 
lower two of the discal series of spots are extended diffusely 
inwards ; finally, a subterminal series of large rounded spots white 
inwardly, irrorated with black scales outwardly. Hind wing : 
dorsal margin, including interspaces la, 1 and 2, basal half whitish, 
apical half more or less strongly tinged with pure canary-yellow ; 
a large oval yellow spot at base of interspaces 7 and 8 ; a broad, 
ill-defined diffuse whitish streak in cell ; a discal series of diffuse 
whitish spots that is angulated outwards at interspace 5, the 
posterior spots more or less tinged with yellow ; followed by a 



DELIAS. 149 

subterminal series of whitish spots as on the fore wing, only 
slightly tinged with yellow. Underside: ground-colour similar 
but more brownish, markings similar but more clearly and sharply 
defined ; the subterminal series of spots on both fore and hind wings 
more or less dentate ; the upper three spots of this series on the 
fore wing and generally all of the spots on the hind wing yellow ; 
on the hind wing the dorsal margin and the cell-streak are also 
yellow, while the discal series of spots are more often than not 
tinged with the same colour. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
black, the antennae annulated obscurely with white, the abdomen 
beneath white. $ . Similar, ground-colour always paler and duller: 
markings on the upperside less distinct, the subterminal series of 
spots on the fore wing as a rule farther from the margin than in 
the <3 . 

Exp. tf $ 70-98 mm. (2-78-3-85"). 

Hub. The Himalayas from Kulu to Sikhim ; Bhutan from 2000 
to 7000 feet ; Assam : the Khasia Hills ; the hills of Burma 
and Tenasserhn ; extending into Siam and China. 

Var. flavalba, Marshall, is a very pale variety of this form 
described originally from Kunavvur. Gradations between it and 
typical belladonna are formed by D. sanaca, Moore, Z). hearsay* , 
Butler, and D. clirysorrluea, Vollenhoven. Typical flavalba differs 
from belladonna as follows : Upperside : white, more or less irro- 
rated, especially on the outer half of the fore wing, with black 
scales. JFore wing : the veins all broadly but diffusely bordered 
with black on both sides ; in some specimens this black bordering 
to the outer vein coalesces to form a sort of ill-defined postdiscal 
transverse band, and in all specimens it is most prominent along 
the discocellulars. Hind wing : white, a subcostal yellow spot at 
base as in typical belladonna ; the veins along the dorsal margin 
at base, the median vein, and the discocellulars broadly bordered 
with black ; an ill-defined very faint subterminal series of black 
lunules ; the apices of interspaces 1 , 1 and 2 pale yellow. 
Underside : fore and hind wings similar to the upperside, but 
the hind wing with the following additional markings : a broad 
elongate spot or streak in cell, a basal subcostal spot, a discal very 
curved series of spots, and a subterminal series of spots, all pale 
yellow. 

Occasionally, both in the typical and in the pale forms, the sub- 
costal basal spot on the hind wings is orange-red. The pale forms 
seem to occur only in the N.W. Himalayas, but the typical form 
also occurs there, the two flying together with other specimens 
showing all gradations between them. 

Var. ithiela, Butler, is the very dark Eastern form with smaller 
markings and with the interspaces 1 , 1 and 2 of the hind wing 
entirely lacking the yellow on the apical half. 



150 



Genus PRIONERIS. 

Frioneris, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Sue. 1807, p. 383 ; flutler, Cist. Enf. 
i, 1870, p. 39, pi. 1, fig. 1, venation; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, 
p. 140 ; id. Lep. Incl vi, 1905, p. 1-86. 

Type, P. tJtesti/lis, Doubleday, from N.E. India. 

liange. Indo-Malavan liegion ; China. 

<3 $ . Fore wing : costa widely arched, strongly serrated in d 1 ; 
apex produced, subacute ; termen oblique, slightly concave in the 

middle towards tornus, which 
latter is rounded ; dorsum com- 
paratively short, only about two- 
thirds length of the costa ; cell 
slightly longer than half the 
length of the wing ; vein 6 out 
of lower side of 7 well beyond 
apex of cell, upper discocellular 
therefore absent ; middle dis- 
cocellular very oblique, lower 
slightly less oblique and shorter 
than middle ; vein 8 absent; 
vein 9 from within apical third 
of 7 ; veins 10 and 11 free, 
emitted and extended close 
together from just beyond 
middle of subcostal vein. Hind- 
wing more or less pyriform ; 
costa nearly straight from base 
to near apex, then strongly 
arched, the arch continued along 
the termen to the tornus ; tornus 
rounded, not well-marked ; dor- 



I. 



11- 




_ Fig. 38. 

Prioneris thestylis, venation, 
I. Fore wing. 
II. Hind wing. 



sum widely arched ; cell long, placed in the middle of the wing, 
the area above it to the costa very broad ; discocellulars very long, 
outwardly oblique, lower apex acute ; precostal spur or vein out- 
wardly curved. Antennae long, slender, slightly more than half 
length of fore wing; club long and very gradual; palpi sub- 
porrect, thickly fringed with long stiff hairs anteriorly, third joint 
short, slightly clavate, scaled ; head above with a tuft of long 
hairs ; eyes large, prominent, naked ; thorax and abdomen mode- 
rately stout. 

Key to the forms of Frioneris. 

a. Underside hind wing with no basal red patch. 
a f . Underside hind wing with no terminal 

series of red spots .................... P. thesti/lis, p. lol . 

V ' . Underside hind wing with a terminal series 

of red spots ...... . ................... P. sita, p. 154. 

b. Underside hind wing with a basal red patch. . P. clemanthe, p. 158. 



PEIOXER1S. 151 

578. Prioneris thestylis (PL XVII, fig. 113;, Doubleday (Pieris), 
in Grai/s Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 76 ; Doubleday, Westw. Sf Heicits. 
(Pieris) Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 44, pi. 6, fig. 2 rf; Wallace, 
Trans. Ent. Sac. 1867, p. 384 ; JBlwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, 
p. 410. 

Pieris seta, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 78. 

Prioneris watsoni, Hetcitson, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1868, p. 99; 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 839. 

Wet-season form. c? . Upperside : white. 1'ore wing : veins 
black, the white ground-colour between the veins darkened on the 
basal area by the markings of the underside that show through ; 
costa and apical third or more of the wing black, this colour extended 
into the cell at its apex and gradually decreasing in width to the 
tornus ; on the apical third the black is not uniform, but variegated 
with markings of the white ground-colour as follows : a series 
of streaks in interspaces 3 to 7 and 9, broadly interrupted in inter- 
spaces 3, 4, and 5 and form a discal and a subterminal series, 
continuous in interspaces 6, 7. and 9, and pointed at apex ; in inter- 
spaces 1 , l,and 2 the white ground-colour extends almost to the 
terminal margin, but is limited at their apices by the broadening 
of the black at the apices of the veins, sometimes in interspaces 1 
and 2 the white is also indistinctly interrupted by a diffuse trans- 
verse scaling of black. Hind wing : veins black on the outer two- 
thirds, with broad black terminations at their apices, these are so 
connected as to form a black terminal edging to the wing ; within 
this the ground-colour is darkened bv the markings of the underside 
that show through. Underside fore wing : black, variegated with 
the following white and yellow markings : interspaces 1 , 1, and 
2 whites limited by the black at the apices of the veins and occa- 
sionally subterminally by an indistinct diffuse transverse black 
bar as on the upperside ; cell with ill-defined, often largely inter- 
rupted white streaks in the lower half and two oval white spots 
before the apex in the upper half ; an anterior discal series of five 
spots, the posterior three white, the anterior two bright chrome- 
yellow ; the subcostal spot elongated into a streak is followed by a 
transverse subterminal series of spots, the anterior three or four 
bright chrome-yellow, the posterior two or three white, the upper 
two elongate. Hind wing : black, with the following bright chrome - 
yellow markings: interspaces 1 a and 1 with broad streaks, limited 
at base and more narrowly at apex ; a broad, somewhat irregular 
streak margined with white in cell, a strongly-curved discal series 
of large spots margined with white and decreasing in size anteriorly 
in interspaces 1 to 7, followed by a subterminal series of much 
smaller spots in interspaces 2 to 7, the upper two or three elongate ; 
finally an oval spot interior to the discal spot in interspace 7 and a 
large spot on the precostal area conspicuously traversed by the 
black precostal spur or vein. Antennae black ; head and thorax 
clothed with long bluish-grey pile ; abdomen blackish ; beneath : 
the palpi, head and thorax black, abdomen white. 



$ . Upperside : deep brownish black, with the following white 
markings in addition to a broad sullied white streak that is suffused 
with yellow at its apex and fills the basal three-fourths of 
interspaces 1 a and 1 on hind wing : Pore wing : a slender streak 
near base of cell, four spots at apex, the anterior three placed 
obliquely ; two slender somewhat curved streaks from near base 
of interspace 1, Avith a series of elongate ctiscal spots in the inter- 
spaces 2 to 6, followed by a subtenninal series of elongate spots or 
short narrow streaks in interspaces 1 to 7, the streak in interspace 1 
double ; finally, a pretornal short streak on the dorsum and a large 
subcostal spot produced outwards as an obscure slender streak in 
interspace 9. Hind wing: a streak in eel) with a discal series of 
spots beyond, followed by a subtenninal series of spots. Underside : 
black, this colour of a deeper tint on the hind wing; markings as 
on the upperside, but all the spots arid streaks larger, broader,, 
more clearly defined ; the anterior two or three subtenninal 
markings on the fore wing and all the markings including the 
broad stripes in interspaces 1, 1 a on the hind wing, rich chrome- 
yellow. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen black, thorax above 
clothed with long dusky greenish-grey hairs. 

Dry-season brood. J differs from the c? wet-season brood as 
follows: Upperside, fore wing: the black at apex and along the 
veins more restricted. Hind wing : uniform white flushed with 
yellow, the veins not edged with black towards their apices, terminal 
margin with a very slender black line. Underside : on both fore 
and hind wings the black much more restricted, on the fore wing 
it enters the cell only anteriorly and is confined to the apex and 
to a narrow edging along veins 3, 4 and 5 ; on the hind wing 
only an edging to the median vein posteriorly, bases of veins 1 a 
and 1, an edging to vein 7, the greater part of interspace 7 and 
dilated edgings at the terminal end of each vein, are black ; the 
rest is yellow, the veins on outer half of the wing narrowly white- 
bordered. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the wet- 
season form. 2 very similar to $ of wet-season brood ; differs 
as follows: Upperside hind wing: the white streak in cell 
broader, below the cell a large patch of chrome-yellow that occupies 
the dorsal and pretornal areas but does not extend above vein 3 - f 
the discal white spots in interspaces 4, 5 and much larger. 
Underside : as in the wet-season form, but the ground-colour of the 
fore and hind wings alike a dull sepia-black ; the markings 
similar to those in the wet-season form, but the yellow in inter- 
spaces 1 a, 1, 2 and 8 of the hind wing more extensive, in the 
latter three the interspaces are edged with white. Antennae, head^ 
thorax and abdomen as in the wet-season form. 

Eaep. d 1 $ 75-102 mm. (2-96-4-02"). 

Hab. Himalayas; Mussoorie; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam; Burma; 
Tenasserim ; the Shan States ; extending to Siam. Mr. Mackinnon 
informs me that General Buckley discovered it at Mussoorie. It 
probably extends all along the Himalayas from Sikhim to 
Mussoorie. 



PRIOXERIS. 153 



579. Prioneris clemanthe, Dovbleday (Pieris), A. M. N. H. 1846, 
p. 23 ; Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. 385, <5 5 Elices, Tram. 
Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 411 ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. vi, 1905, p. 191, 
pi. 537, figs. 1, 1 -!/, cf 5. 

c?. Upperside: Avhite. Fore wing: veins black, edged broadly 
with the same colour towards the terminal margin, the black con- 
tinuous along the actual margin, in the interspaces above vein 3 
it is densely irrorated with black scaless and leaves mere narrow 
streaks of the white ground-colour apparent ; costa black. Hind 
wing : the yellow ground-colour of the underside partially visible 
through transparency ; veins 7 and 8 black, the rest black only 
towards their apices ; finally, a black terminal slender line. Under- 
side : fore wing white, the veins broadly edged with black, this colour 
dilated broadly along the discocellulars, along the basal halves of 
veins 3 to 7, along the costa, the apex of the wing and at the ends 
of all the veins. Hind wing : yellow, precostal area vermilion-red r 
all the veins jet-black and prominent; a subterminal comparatively 
broad band from apex of vein 3 to apex of vein 7 white, narrowed 
posteriorly : beyond it a narrow terminal edging of black. An- 
tennae and head black, thorax clothed with long bluish-grey hairs, 
abdomen white ; beneath : the palpi and thorax dusky-black, 
abdomen white. $ . Upperside : as in the J , but on the fore wing 
the black edging to the veins greatly increased and the ground- 
colour limited further by a very dense irroration of black scales, 
which gives a dusky-grey appearance to so much of the white as 
is visible ; thus the wing looks all black, with a series of very 
diffusely-defined greyish streaks in the cell and interspaces beyond, 
which streaks, however, do not attain the extreme margin and are, 
moreover, more or less medially interrupted by the black and form 
an obscure discal and a subtermirial series. The whitest spots 
left are the elongate ones in the cell and in the anterior inter- 
spaces beyond and above it. Hind wing : the black terminal line 
in the c? replaced by a broad black terminal band traversed by a 
series of spots of the white ground-colour in the interspaces ; 
these, however, are thickly overlaid by an irroration of black 
scales. Underside : fore wing similar to the upperside, but the 
streaks and spots of the ground-colour left apparent are not so 
densely overlaid with black scales. Hind wing as in the c? , but 
the black edging to the veins very much broader ; the subterminal 
band black, with an anterior series of large yellow spots, and 
divided from the yellow over the basal and discal areas by a 
curved subterminal narrow black band ; the terminal spots, as in 
the d , do not reach below vein 2 ; in most specimens the one or 
two posterior spots are pale, inclining to buff orochraceous white. 
Antenna} black ; head, thorax and abdomen nearly black, much 
darker than in the c? - 

Exp. c? $ 82-90 mm. (3-24-3-5G"). 

Bab. Sikhim; Bhutan ; Assam; Burma; Tenasserim ; the Shan 
States ; extending to Siam. 



154 



oSO. Prioneris sita, Feller (Pieris), yovara Rciae, Lcp. ii, 1865, p. 161, 
pi. 25, fijr. 12 cf; Wallace, Trans. Ent. 6'oc. 1867, p. 385; Moore, 
Lep. Cei/l. i, 1881, p. 141, pi. 54, tig. 2 rf; Davidson, Bell, $ Aitken, 
Jour, liomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 570 ; de Xicecille, J. A. S. B. 
18UO, p. 250. 

c? . Uppermdti white, with a slight glaucous or greenish tint. 
Fore and hind wings : the postdiscal markings of the underside seen 
through faintly by transparency ; all the veins of the fore wing from 
base, and the veins of the hind wing on the outer third margined 
narrowly with black, that towards the terminal margin broadens, 
coalesces and forms a band on the extreme margin ; on the fore 
wing this is comparatively broad and the black markings more or 
less triangular ; at each vein on the hind wing the baud is reduced 
to mere black lines, slightly broader anteriorly than posteriorly. 
Underside: fore wing white, costa black, apex suffused with yellow, 
all the veins from base broadly bordered with black that does not 
expand towards their apices ; an ill- defined transverse, somewhat 
diffuse, postdiscal black band from veins 1 to 7. Hind wing: rich 
chrome-yellow up to a postdiscal black band, beyond which the 
ground-colour is white \\ith a series of large terminal vermilion- 
red rectangular or truncated cone-shaped spots ; veins from base 
bordered somewhat narrowly but conspicuously with black. An- 
tenme brownish black, head and thorax clothed with long bluish- 
grey hairs, abdomen glaucous white ; beneath : the palpi and thorax 
greyish white, abdomen white. . Very similar, the black 
edgings (o the veins on fore and hind wings on both upper and 
under sides broader ; on the upperside the veins of the hind wing 
as well as of the fore being black right up to the base. Upperside : 
fore and hind wings with a well-marked dusky-black postdiscal 
diffuse band ; cell of fore wing traversed by three slender longi- 
tudinal black lines. Underside : the yellow and vermilion tints 
brighter than in the J 

Exp. d 1 ? 86-90 mm. (3-40-3-55"). 

Nab. Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Larva. " Colour dull blue-green. Head and all the segments 
dotted with minute blue tubercles, those on the head and sides 
black-tipped ; dorsal surface pubescent ; a lateral fringe of soft 
white hairs below the spiracles. Feeds on Capparis." 

Papa. " Bright green. Sharply pointed at the head, with two 
strong lateral points and keeled on dorsal surface of thoracic 
segments ; an interrupted yellow dorsal line, and a short, curved 
crimson line on each side below thoracic segments bordering a 
small white irregular black-speckled spot." (K. E. Green, MS. note 
as quoted by Moore.) 



ANAPHJSIS. 155 



Genus ANAPHJEIS. 

Anaphteis, Hilbner, Verz. bek, Schmett. 1816, p. 93. 
Belenois, Moore (nee Hiibner), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 137. 

Type, A. creona, Cramer, from Africa. 

Range. Africa ; Southern Asia ; Australia. 

d 1 $ . 1'ore wing : costa very slightly arched, nearly straight ; 
apex slightly produced but more or less obtuse ; terrnen slightly 
convex ; tornus obtuse ; dorsum sinuous ; cell about half length of 
wing, vein G out of 7 about one-third from base of 7, upper disco- 
cellular therefore absent ; middle and lower cliscocellulars oblique ; 
vein 8 absent, 9 one-third from apex of 7, 10 free, 11 anastomosed 
with 12. Hind wing pear-shaped ; cell slightly longer than half 
length of wing; precostal spur curved obliquely outwards. Antennae 
about half length of wing ; club broad, slightly flattened ; palpi 
robust, subporrect, third joint short ; eyes naked ; legs slender, 
.scaled, without long hairs ; abdomen comparatively robust ; claspers 
in c? long, narrow. 

Key to the forms of Auaphaeis. 

A. $ . Upperside fore wing: apical area 

black with enclosed well-defined elongate 
white spots ; , these spots more or 
less obsolescent, tf $ . Underside hind 
wing: ground-colour more or less yellow 
or tinged with yellow , . . . A. mesentina, p. 155. 

B. J . Upperside fore wing : as in $ of 

typical form ; with apical area of 
fore wing entirely black, tf $ . Under- 
side hind wing: ground-colour a rich 

deep chrome-yellow A. mesentina, rare tapro- 

bana, p. 157. 



581, Anaphaeis mesentina, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. iii, 1782, 
pi. 270, figs. A, B ; Eollar (Pieris), in Hiicjel'sKaschmir,\\, 1844, 
p. 409 ; Moore (Pieris), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 72, 
pi. 12, figs. 9, 9, larva & pura; de N. $ Aitken (Belenois), 
J. A. S. B. 1896, p. 575 ; Macldnnon Sf de N. (Belenois), Jour, 
lioinb. N. H. Sac. xi, 1898, p. 590; Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, 
p. 158, pi. 527, figs. ] , 1 rt-1 h, larva & pupa, c? $ . 
Pieris lordaca, Walker, Entomologist, v, 1870, p. 48; Yerbury 

(Belenois), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vii, 1892, p. 216. 
Belenois aurigenea, Butler, P. Z. S. 1886. p. 374, . 

Race taprobana. 

Pieris taprobana, Moore, P. Z. S. 3872, p. 565 ; id. (Belenois) Lep. 
Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 137, pi. 53, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, <$ 2 ; id. (Anaphajis) 
Lep. Iml vi, 1904, p. 162, pi. 527, figs. 2, 2 -2 c, J $ , 



]56 



PIERID.E. 




Fig. 39. Anaph&i* 

mfstnthut, < . 



Wet-season form. tf . Upperside: white. Fore wiag : costa to 
base of vein 11 dusky black, thence con- 
tinued in a jet-black, gradually widened, 
curved, short streak along the discocelltilars to 
the lower apex of cell ; apical area diagonally 
with the tennen black, the former with six 
elongate outwardly pointed spots of the 
ground-colour enclosed one in each of the 
interspaces 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Hind wing : 
uniform, the black along the venation on the 
underside seen through by transparency ; 
termen between veins 2 and 6 somewhat 
broadly black, with a series of four round 
spots of the ground-colour in the interspaces ; 
below vein 2 and above vein 6 the termen is 
very narrowly black. Underside : fore wing 
white, markings similar, more clearly defined, 
the white spots within the black apical afea 
larger. Hind wing : yellowish white, all the 
reins very broadly bordered with black ; 
interspaces 1, 2, 6 and 7 with cross-bars of black, beyond which 
there is a subterminal, somewhat broad, transverse band of black 
between veins 2 and 6. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white 
alternated with black. The ground-colour on both upper and 
under sides variable, often cream-coloured above ; beneath : in some 
specimens, the base of cell and the elongate spots in apical area of 
fore wing, and the whole surface of the hind wing varies to rich 
chrome-yellow. 5 Similar ; the black markings on both upper 
and under sides broader, the white spots on black apical area of fore 
wing often subobsolete above. Antennae in both sexes black, 
sparsely sprinkled with white dots ; head, thorax and abdomen 
above and below white : thorax above often bluish grey. 

Dry-season form. tf $ . Similar to 3 $ of wet-season form 
but on the upperside the black markings are narrower, the white 
markings on the black apical area of fore wing broader and longer, 
and on the hind wing the narrow inner margining to the black ou 
the termen very narrow, somewhat obsolescent; therefore, the 
white subterminal spots have the appearance of opening inwards. 
Underside : ground-colour almost pure white ; on the hind wing 
slightly tinged with yellow. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen 
as in the wet-season form. 

&rp- <S $ 44-62 mm. (1-72-2-45"). 

Hah. Within our limits, the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikhim 
at elevations below 6000 feet, and through the plains to Southern 
India. In the Nilgiris observed up to 8000 feet (Hampton). It 
does not seem to occur in Assam or Burma, but I possess a 
specimen of the dry-season form taken by Mr. G. Kogers, Deputy 
Conservator of Forests, in April 1903," in the Ganges harbour, 
Great Xicobar Island. To the west it spreads through Persia and 
Arabia to East Africa. 



A>'APH,IS. 157 

A very variable insect. Messrs. Davidson, Bell and Aitken 
state that the larvae feed on capers, that they are "gregarious 
throughout their existence," and that "the eggs are laid in batches 
of from ten to forty." 

Larva. " When hatched a line long, olive colour, with a distinct 
glossy jet-black head. After first moult. One fourth inch long; 
grass-green ; dorsal line very distinct, dark green ; lateral line 
very broad, plum-coloured and mottled, dentated into the ground- 
colour, on the last two segments on its upperside ; a small white 
spot on either side of dorsal line on each segment; a yellow spot 
on each segment on the lateral line on either side ; abdomen 
glossy green ; ventral line distinct, rather interrupted, grass- 
green ; all the legs green, hairy ; head shiny black with a green 
triangular mark in front, covered with stiff whitish hairs ; stigmata 
dark-coloured ; sides greyish green, slightly wrinkled transversely ; 
the portion of ground-colour between lateral and dorsal line 
slightly powdered with yellow ; hair whitish grey ; anal segment 
black and hairy ; first segment rather swollen in front. After last 
moult. Length 1^ inch long; cylindrical, broader towards the 
head, slightly tomentose on back, hairy on the sides ; otherwise as 

after first moult Food- plant, the pea-leaved Caper 

( Camparis pyrifotia)." 

Pupa. " Five-eighths of an inch long, transparent, pale cream- 
colour. In front a longish tubercle directed forwards, with a 
black mark on each side, and a smaller one on either side of 
4th segment perfectly black ; a lateral line of pale plum-colour, on 
Avhich is a longitudinal line of yellow round dots, one on each 
segment, and a transverse row of dots on each segment ; dashed 
and marked with black, particularly on the abdomen. After the 
escape of the imago, the 5th and 6th segments of the pupa become 
blood-red." (Capt. H. L. Chaumette MS. notes as quoted by 
Moore.) 

Race taprobana, Moore. Differs from the typical form as 
follows : (^ . Upperside, fore wing : deep black on apical area, 
the enclosed white elongate spots more or less obsolete. Hind 
wing : the black terminal border much broader and of a deeper 
black, the enclosed white spots, except the spot in interspace 6, 
very much smaller, somewhat obsolescent, sometimes absent in 
interspace 4. Underside : similar to the upperside, the markings 
of a very intense black and broader, the enclosed spots in the 
apical area of fore wing, the white of the cell and the area 
along the upper half of the wing generally overlaid with rich 
chrome-yellow. Hind wing: ground-colour a deep rich chrome- 
yellow, the spots on it enclosed in the black along terminal margin 
subhastate, the spot in interspace 4 absent. $ . Similar to the tf 
ou both upper and under sides, but in all the specimens I have 
seen, on the upperside the spots of the white ground-colour 
that are enclosed in the black apical area of the fore wing and 
the spots on the black border along the terminal margin of the 



158 

hind wing are entirely absent. Antenna 1 , head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the typical form. 

Exp. tf $ 52-58 mm. (2-02-2-28"). 

Hab. Apparently confined to Ceylon in the low country. 



Genus BALTIA. 

Baltin, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 228 ; Kit-by, Entomologist, 
3894. p. 100; Dixey, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1894, pp. 249, 334; 
Kirby, Allen's Nat. Lihr., Butt, ii, 1896, p. 15G. 

Type, B. shaivi, Moore, from Ladakh. 

Range. N.W. Himalayas, Tibet. 

c? 2 . ITore wing : costa strongly arched at base, almost straight 
to apex, slightly emarginate in the middle, apex blunt; termen 
convex ; tornus obtusely angulate, dorsum straight ; cell more 
than half length of wing ; veins 5 and 6 both shifted up and 
given off from lower side of vein 7 beyond apex of cell, thus only 




IV 



Fig. 40.Saltia. 

I. Venation : front wing. 

IT. ,, hind wing. 

III. Hind wing: B. butlcri. 

IV. 7?. shawi. 



one discocellular is present ; veins 8 and 9 absent, 10 moved up 
and forms a short fork with 7 before apex of wing, 11 free. Hind 
wing oval with vein 8 very short, the precostal spur or nervure 
turned inwards. Antennae slender, about half length of fore 
wing ; club large, gradual ; head and thorax very hairy. 

Key to the forms of Baltia. 

. Underside hind wing : irrorated diffusely all 

over with black scales . shawi, p. 159. 

b. Underside hind wing : not diffusely irrorated with 

black, the veins evenly bordered on each side 

by broad lines of black scales B. Initleri, p. 159. 



BALTIA. 150 

582. Baltia shawl, Bates (Mesapia), Henderson $ Humes Lahore to 
Yarkund, 1873, p. 30o; Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 228, 
J J; ?VZ. 6W. Jtes. '2nd Yark. Miss., Lep. 1879, p. 3, pi. l r 
fig-. 5 rf ; ? W. Lep. lad. vi, 1904, p. 1-44, pi. 52:?, tigs. 2, 2 - 
2e, J$. 

d 1 . Upperside : dead white ; base of wings irrorated with black 
scales. Fore wing : costal margin very narrowly yellowish, costal 
and subcostal nervures irrorated with black scales, a discocellular 
elongate oblique black spot; a narrowly subtriangular short oblique 
preapical black bar, its apex downwards, and a series of inwardly 
triangular black spots on the termen, these narrow posteriorly and ' 
reach from the apex of wing to vein 1. Hind wing: uniform, the 
irroration of black scales more extended than on the fore wing. 
Underside : fore wing white ; costa and apex irrorated with black 
scales, the costa and termen margined with a line of pinkish 
yellow ; the black discocellular spot, the black preapical bar and 
terminal series of black spots much as on the upperside, but the 
last is ill-defined, somewhat diffuse at apex and does not descend 
below vein 3. Hind wing : white with a dull pinkish tinge all over ; 
the whole surface irrorated with black scales that form a broad 
elongate patch on posterior half of the wing and an obscure curved 
macular discal band beyond the cell; discocellulars defined with 
black. $ differs from the c? as follows : Upperside : somewhat 
thickly irrorated all over with black scales. Fore wing with the 
discocellular black spot and terminal series of inwardly-pointed 
triangular black spots as in the c? , but the latter more complete, 
extends from apex to tornus, the spots are larger and there is no 
preapical bar, but a complete, outwardly dentate, curved discal 
black band that crosses the wing from costa to dorsum. Hind 
whig : the irroration of black scales very dense in a broad patch 
posteriorly, and so arranged as to form a curved macular discal 
band. Underside : similar to that of the c? , but on the fore 
wing there is a complete terminal series of inwardly triangular 
black spots and a complete, outwardly dentate, curved discal black 
baud; while on the hind wing the irroration of black scales is 
more dense. In both sexes the antenna are white annulated with 
black, the club black ; head whitish ; thorax and abdomen fuscous 
black ; beneath : head and thorax fuscous black, abdomen promi- 
nently white. 

Escp. rf $ 34-50 mm. (T34-1-99"). 

Hah. Within our limits recorded from the Karakoram Moun- 
tains at an elevation of 18,000 feet ; found also beyond British 
territories in the Pamirs and Tibet. 

583. Baltia butleri, Moore (Synchloe), P. Z. S. 1882, p. 256, pi. 11, 
fi<rs. 6, 6 a, $ ; Eirby, Entomologist, 1894, p. 100 ; id. Allen's 
Nat. Lfbr., Butt, ii, 189(5, p. 156 ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, 
p. 145, pi. 522, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, rf $ . 

J $ . Closely resembles B. slimvi, from which it differs as 



160 PIERID.E. 

follows: <$ . Upperside: ground-colour similar. Fore wing : the 
black markings also more or less similar but altogether smaller 
and narrower, the terminal series of spots reduced to three or 
four. Hind wing: similar, but there are two conspicuous black 
spots on the discocellulars. Underside, fore wing : ground-colour 
white, veins dusky, costa narrowly and apex suffused with pinkish 
ochraceous ; the discocellular black spot as on the upperside ; 
veins, 4, 5, 6, and apical portion of 7 broadly bordered on each 
side with black scales that run parallel to but do not touch the 
veins. Hind wing : ground- colour pinkish ochraceous, the veins 
-conspicuously white ; all of them, except a small portion in the 
middle of the discocellulars, bordered, in the manner similar to 
the veins at the apex of the fore wing, with broad lines of black 
scales on each side. 5 . Upperside similar to the uppei'side of 
B. sliawi $ , but the wings are irrorated with black scales only at 
their bases; the black markings on the fore wing are altogether 
smaller and narrower, and the black curved, outwardly dentate, 
discal band becomes diffuse and ill-defined posteriorly. On the 
hind wing the discocellulars are prominently marked with an 
iipper and a lower black spot, and the discal macular band is more 
conspicuous than in B. sliawi $ . Underside precisely as in the <3 , 
except that on the fore wing the discal black band is seen through 
by transparency from the upperside. In both sexes the antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in B. shawi. 

Exp. 6 $ 42-54 mm. (1-68-2-12"). 

Hab. Within our limits recorded from Ladakh : the Digha Pass ; 
15,000 feet north of Leh in Kashmir ; the Kardong Pass in the 
Karakoram, 15,000 to 18,000 feet. 

A variety, var. potaxini, Alphe'raky, is recorded from the ^Xian- 
Shan, Koko-JVor, and Western China. It differs from the typical 
form on the upperside, in the <3 by the restriction and narrowness 
of the black markings, in the $ by the ground-colour which is 
tinged with greenish yellow. On the underside there seems to be 
scarcely anv difference. 



Genus APORIA. 

Aporia, Hiibner, Vcrz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 90 ; Kirby, Aliens Nat. 
Libr., Butt, ii, 1896, p. 139. 

Type, A. cratwgi, Linn., from Europe. 

lianfje. Europe ; ^Northern Asia ; Japan ; China ; the Himalayas 
from Chitral to Bhutan ; Assam ; the Khasia Hills. 

<5 . Fore wing typically elongate, the dorsum very nearly 
three-fourths the length of the costa ; costa very slightly 
arched ; apex blunt ; termen convex ; tornus rounded ; dorsum 
straight ; cell elongate, more than half length of wing ; disco- 
cellulars oblique ; vein 6 from end of basal third of 7, upper 
discocellular therefore absent, middle very little shorter than 



APOKIA. 161 

lower ; veia 8 lost, vein 9 out of 7 close to apex, 10 and 11 free, 
10 from just before upper apex of cell. Hind wing: comparatively 
long, narrow, subpyriform ; cell elongate, discocellulars outwardly 
oblique ; precostal vein simple, straight. Antennae about half 
length of fore wing, club flattened, gradual ; palpi slender, sub- 
porrect, hairy in front, third joint about half length of second. 



Key to the forms of Aporia. 

A. Upperside : ground-colour white, veins more 

or less black, but that colour never dilated 
where the veins cross disc of wings, no 
irroration of black scales except slightly at 
base of wings. 

a. Upperside : fore wing without qr rarely with 

an anterior postdiscal transverse black 
band. Of comparatively large size, expanse 
over 60 mm ........................... A, soracte, p. 161. 

b. Upperside : fore wing with an anterior post- 

discal transverse black band always pre- 
sent. Of comparatively small size, expanse 
well under 60 mm ..................... A. balucha, p. 162. 

B. Upperside : ground-colour white, generally 

thickly overlaid with an irroration of black 
scales" at least over the basal half or three- 
fourths of wings ........................ A. nabellica, p. 163. 

C. Upperside : ground-colour black or dark 

brownish-black, or if white then veins of 
both fore and hind wings broadly bordered 
with black, that colour dilated where veins 
cross disc of wings. 

a. Upperside : ground-colour black. 

a'. Upperside : markings on both fore and 

hind wings white, narrow ; white streak 

in interspace 1 of fore wing always more 

or less traversed by a longitudinal black 

line .............................. A. agathon, p. 163. 

b'. Upperside : markings OE both fore and hind 

wings white, broad ; white streak in 

interspace 1 of fore wing not divided 

or traversed longitudinally by a black \ A. agathon, var. ? 

line .............................. \ caphusa, p. 165. 

b. Upperside : ground - colour white, veins 

broadly bordered with black, that colour , A 

dilated where veins cross disc of wings .. \ A ' t*'. '"l66. 



584. Aporia soracte, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 83 ; 
id, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 256, pi. 11, fig. 5, larva ; Mackinnon $ de N. 
Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589. 

cT ? Upperside: milk-white, with all the veins, especially of the 

VOL. II. M 




162 PIEUID.E. 

fore wing, black, the black edging to the discocellulars and apical 
portion of the median vein of the fore 
wing broader; the apices of veins 3 to 7 
increasingly broadly black-marked. Hind 
wing uniform. Both fore and hind wings 
with a slender marginal black line along 
costa, termen and dorsum ; this is more 
or less interrupted in the middle of the 
dorsum of the fore wing; base with a 
slight irroration of black scales. Under- 
side : ground-colour white ; fore wing on 
costa narrowly and on apex, hind wing all 
over, suffused with pale yellow ; markings 
similar. Hind wing : the precostal area 
Fig. 41. Aporia soracte. chrome-yellow, the discocellulars some- 
what prominently defined with black ; 

interspace 2 divided longitudinally by a black line. Cilia of wings 
dusky brown. Antennae black ; head, thorax and abdomen white, 
generally strongly suffused with fuscous black ; beneath : head, 
thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. <5 $ 60-72 mm. (2-38-2-S4"). 
Hab. N.W. Himalayas : Kashmir to Kumaon. 
The markings on both upper and under sides are to some extent 
variable, but I have not seen a sufficient number of dated spe- 
cimens to make out whether the variation is seasonal or not. 
Thus many, both males and females, have on the upper and 
under sides of the fore wing a postdiscal, curved, diffuse, trans- 
verse black band between veins 2 and 3 continued anteriorly from 
veins 4 to 10 ; a few specimens have also on the hind wing, both 
on the upper and under sides, some diffuse black scaling on the 
disc that takes the form of outwardly acute sagittate marks in 
the interspaces. 

585. Aporia balucha, Marshall, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 760 ; Sicinhoe, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 342 ; Moore (Pieris), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 150. 

Metaporia sorex, Grose-Smith, A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 129; 

id. Sf Kirby, R/iop. Rcot. i, 1889, Pierina;, p. 7, pi. 2, figs. 8, 9. 
Pieris leechii, Moore, Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 150. 

c? 5 . Eesembles A. soracte, but is smaller, and may be distin- 
guished as follows : Upperside fore wing : the discocellular black 
spot broader, the dilatation of the black at the apices of the veins 
also much more marked ; in addition there is always a black 
postdiscal band that runs obliquely from costa at apex of vein 10 
to vein 5, thence transversely to vein 2, subinterrupted iu inter- 
space 3 and broadened in interspaces 2 and 4. Underside : differs 
from that, of soracte in the apex of the fore and the whole of the 
hind wing, which are suffused with a darker yellow, the black 
edging to the veins is broader on both fore and hind wings, and a 
postdiscal black band is always present on both wings ; on the 



APOKIA. 163 

fore wing this is similar to that on the upperside, but on the hind 
wing it takes the form of a strongly-curved, connected series of 
outwardly acutely-pointed, arrow-shaped marks in the interspaces. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in A. soracte. 

Exp. <$ $ 48-54 mm. (1-88-2-1"). 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas : Chitral ; Baluchistan ; Baltestan below 
the Skoro La at 12,000 feet. 

586. Aporia nabellica, Boisduval (Pieris), Spec. Gen. Up. i, 1836, 

p. 509 ; Butler (Metaporia), P. Z. S. 1872, p. 61 ; Mackinnon $ 
de Niceville, Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589 ; Moore 
(Pieris), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 151, pi. 524, tigs. 1 a, 1 b, tf $ . 

J $ . Upperside : white, with the veins more or less black, but 
the ground-colour in most of the specimens that I have seen so 
densely overlaid by black scales over nearly the whole surface of 
both fore and hind wings as to leave only a subterminal series of 
more or less rectangular spots of the white ground-colour apparent 
on each wing, those on the hind wing are the largest and are 
inwardly acutely emarginate. In addition, there is a large ill- 
defined black patch on the discocellulars of the fore wing and a 
small spot of the same colour generally on the discocellulars of the 
hind wing. Cilia of both wings black. In nearly all specimens 
the discoidal cells of the wings are greyish, and on the fore wing 
there are anterior discal, elongate, greyish spots beyond the apex 
of the discoidal cell. A few specimens, generally females, are 
much lighter in colour. In these the irroration of black scales 
is sparse 'and allows much of the white ground-colour to show 
through ; the discocellulars of the fore wing, however, are marked 
by a large black patch as in the darker individuals ; and both fore 
and hind wings bear postdiscal, irregular, transverse black bands ; 
that on the tore wing bisinuate, sometimes not extended below 
vein 2 ; that on the hind wing not reaching the dorsal margin, 
curved, and formed of somewhat ill-defined, irregular, conjoined, 
outwardly acute, arrow-shaped black spots. Underside: white, the 
veins on both wings very broadly black-edged ; apex of fore wing 
very slightly, the whole surface of the hind wing more strongly 
suffused with yellow; the fore wing sometimes clouded posteriorly 
with black scaling ; both fore and hind wings with postdiscal 
transverse black bands as on the upperside but broader; the base of 
the hind wing above vein 8 chrome-yellow. Antennae black, the 
club ochraceous at apex ; head and thorax clothed with fine dusky 
greyish-black hairs ; abdomen black above, beneath greyish white. 

Exp. c? $ 60-70 mm. (2-38-2-78"). 

Hab. W. Himalayas : Kashmir to 'Nairn Tal, 8,500 to 13,000 feet. 

587. Aporia agathon, Gray (Pieris), Zool. Misc. 1832, p. 33; Boisduval 

(Pierisl, Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 447; Butler (Metaporia), 
Cist. Ent. i, 1870, p. 61, pi. 3, fig. 10 ; Slices (Pieris Aporia), 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 415 ; Mackinnon 8? de Nicerille, Journ. 

M2 



164 

Bomb. Sat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 590 ; Moore (Metaporia), Lep. 
Ind. vi, 1904, p. 150, pi. 526, figs. 2, 2a-26, rf $. 
Pieris phryxe, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 446 ; Butler 
(Metaporia), P. Z. S. 1872, p. 01 ; Mackinnon 8f de Nicevilk 
(Aporia), juurn. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589 ; Moore 
(Metaporia), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 154, pi. 525, figs. 1, la, 

1 ft, c? $ 

Metaporia caphusa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 564, <y $ ; Mackinnon 
$ de Nicecille (Aporia), Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1898, 
p. 589, pi. v, figs. 20, 0, b, c, larva & pupa ; Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 
1904, p. 155, pi. 525, figs. 2, 2a-2c, larva & pupa, <J $ . 

Metaporia ariaca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 564, c? ; Mackinnon 8f 
de Niceville (Aporia), Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xi, 1898, 
p. 590; Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 156, pi. 526, figs. 1, 1 a, 

!*,<?$. 

Not until very careful breeding experiments have been carried 
out will it be possible to ascertain for certain whether under the 
above references I have included three * allied but distinct forms, 
or whether, as I am inclined to think and as I have treated them 
here, these represent but one extremely variable insect that to a 
certain extent, irrespective of seasonal influences or environment, 
ranges in colour from the very dark A. ayathon to the com- 
paratively pale-coloured A. phryxe. Had the habitat of these 
three more or less distinguishable varieties or forms been separate 
and restricted, they could have been treated as fairly well-marked 
races, but this is not the case, for Mr. Mackinnon, I understand, 
has taken all three flying together on the same day and on the 
same spot at Mussoorie. 1 think it quite probable that were the 
whole region over which agathon or its varieties occur thoroughly 
searched, one or two, if not more, specimens of each would 
be found. 

Typical form, A. agaihon, Gray. <$ $. Upperside: black; fore 
and hind wings with the following white or greenish-white streaks 
and spots in the discoidal cells and in the interspaces. Fore 
wing : a broad streak in cell, two more or less confluent streaks 
obscurely divided by a diffuse blackish line below it in inter- 
space 1, followed by an upper discal series of five short lines in 
interspaces 3, 4, 5 and 10, and a subterminal complete series of 
elongate narrow spots ; both the discal and snbterminal series are 
curved inwards anteriorly. In most specimens the streaks in 
interspace 1 and in cell are irro rated with black scales. Hind 
wing: a broad streak along the dorsum divided by vein la, two 
narrow long streaks in interspace 1, a much broader elongated 
oval streak in cell, with another elongate broad streak above it in 
interspace 7, a discal series of five narrow elongate spots beyond 



* Mr. Moore holds that there are four, not three, distinct "species"; but, 
even allowing the distinctness of A. agathon, A. caphusa., and A. phryxe, 
A. ariaca, Moore, is so very close to A. agathon. that in any large series it 
would be impossible, to separate the former from the latter. " 



APORIA. 165 

apex of cell,- foil owed by a complete subterminal series of more or 
less oval spots. Underside : ground-colour and markings similar, 
more clearly defined, and on the fore wing generally broader and 
whiter, except that the anterior one or two streaks or spots of the 
discal and subterminal series, like all the markings on the hind 
wing, are strongly suffused with bright yellow; in addition the 




Fig. 42. Aporia agathon. 

precostal area on the hind wing is bright chrome-yellow. An- 
tennae, head, thorax and abdomen black ; abdomen beneath white, 
the anterior legs with one or two white spots. 

Eivp. J $ 84-98 mm. (3-3-3-8G"). 

Hab. Assam ; Bhutan ; Sikhim ; Nepal ; recorded from Mus- 
soorie and Kumaon. 

I have not seen the type of A. ariaca, Moore, but, as described 
and figured in the ' Lepidoptera Indica,' I am unable to separate 
from it the browner specimens of A. agathon, which the figures 
given resemble more closely than they do the variety A. capliusa, 
with which Mr. Moore compares it. 

Yar. capliusa, Moore. cf $ . Differs from agatlion both on the 
upper and under sides in the much greater width and extension of 
the greenish-white markings in the discoidal cells and interspaces 
of the wings. On the upperside the streak in interspace 1 of the 
fore wing shows no sign of any black dividing-line, and it, as well 
as the short streaks of the discal series, show a tendency to 
coalesce with the subtermiual elongate spots. On the underside 
the spots near apex of fore wing and those on the hind wing are 
only faintly, not clearly, suffused with yellow ; the chrome-yellow 
spot at base of the latter as in agatJwn. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in agatJwn, the abdomen more dark brown than 
black. 

Exp. c? $ as in agatlion. 



166 PIERID^E. 

Hob. Sikhiin ; Kumaon ; Mussoorie to Simla and -the Kangra 
district. 

Larva. " The larva? of A. caphusa are gregarious, and to pupate 
burrow under the dry leaves at the foot of their food-plant, the 
pupae being also gregarious. The larvae spin a joint web, and lie 
together in communities of ten or more. They feed at night only. 
Colour when full-grown dirty brown, head black, each segment 
with a dorsal longitudinal dark brown stripe ; the larva is thinly 
covered with weak white hairs. Just before pupation the colour 
turns to a light green, with the head and stripes as before." 
(Mackinnon.) 

Pupa. " Very similar in shape to that of A. soracte, is greenish- 
yellow with black markings." (Mackinnon.} 

Food-plant of larva. " Berberis nepalensis, Spring." (de Nice- 
vllle.} 

Var. pJiryxe, Boisduval. This is the palest of the series of the 
varieties of ayathon. The intercellular and interspacial greenish- 
white streaks and spots, which, in var. caphma, are considerably 
longer and broader and, so far as the markings in the interspaces 
are concerned, show a tendency to coalesce, in pliryxe become 
very broad and white, so that the discal series of short streaks on 
both wings extend to and coalesce completely with the much 
broadened spots of the subterminal series. In fact, the insect 
may be described as white both on the upper and under sides, 
the veins broadly bordered with black, and with black terminal 
margins formed by the expansion and coalescence of the black at 
the apices of the veins ; discoidal cell of the fore wing with a 
large patch of black at the apex. The black along the veins of 
both fore and hind wing suddenly broadened on the discal area ; 
on the underside of the hind wing they almost form a connected 
discal, transverse black band ; the chrome-yellow spot on the 
precostal area as in agatlion. Antennae black, head and thorax 
dusky grey, abdomen white ; beneath : head and thorax blackish, 
abdomen white. 

Exp. J $ 78-90 mm. (3-08-3-56"). 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas : Mussoorie ; Simla ; Kashmir ; Kangra. 

588. Aporia harrietae, de Nicenlle (Metaporia), Journ. Bomb. N. H- 
Soc. vii, 1892, p. 341, pi. 1, figs. 3, 4, rf $ ; Moore (Pieris), Lap. 
2nd. vi, 1904, p. 152, pi. 524, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 *, rf $ . 

" c? . Upperside : both wings black. Fore wing with a thin white 
streak at the base of the costa ; a large creamy- white patch 
occupying the basal three -fourths of the discoidal cell, its outer 
end produced to a point ; a large patch occupying the basal two- 
thirds of the iuterno-median interspace (interspace 1), a discal 
series of five more or less oval spots curving evenly round the 
outer end of the cell, of which the anterior one is rather elongated 
and narrow, the three following are equal-sized elongated ovals, 



APOKIA. PIEEIS. 167 

the posterior one in the first median interspace (interspace 2) is 
the largest and occupies the base of the interspace ; the outer 
margin bears, one in each interspace at its middle, a series of 
somewhat diffused white spots. Hind wing has the veins on the 
basal half of the wing defined with white, broadly margined on 
both sides with black ; the discoidal cell almost entirely creamy- 
white ; there is a very narrow costal and a wide subcostal streak, 
then five spots one in each interspace beyond the cell, that in 
the second median interspace (interspace 3) the smallest ; two 
elongated streaks in the submediau interspace (interspace 1), the 
inner one almost reaching to the margin of the wing, the outer 
one reaching to about halfway between the base of the wing and 
the margin ; two basal white streaks occupying the whole of the 
interspaces divided by the internal nervure (vein 1 a) ; marginal 
diffused spots as in the fore wing, but each spot divided into two 
by the black internervular fold. Underside : differs from the 
upperside only in having on the outer margin from the costa to 
the second median nervule (vein 3) a decreasing series of dupli- 
cated white streaks, one pair in each interspace, a small white spot 
in the two following interspaces. Hind wing has at the extreme 
base of the wing within the precostal nervure the usual bright 
yellow patch characteristic of the genus ; all the creamy-white 
markings of the upperside are pale yellow ; the markings differ 
from those on the upperside by the presence of a pair of elongated 
wedge-shaped pale yellow streaks in each interspace, each streak 
has its apex pointed, its base (which is placed on the outer 
margin) broad. Cilia of both wings on both sides black. $ 
differs from the tf only in being somewhat paler throughout." 
(de Niceville, 31S.) 

Kvp. " c? 2-9 ; $ 3 inches." 

Hab. " Bhutan." (de Niceville.) 

Unknown to me. 



Genus PIERIS. 

Pieris, Schrank, Fauna Boica, 1801, pp. 152, 164; Latr. Hist. Nat. 

Crust, et Ins. xiv, 1805, p. 111. 
Mancipium, Hiibner, Tentamen, 1806, p. 1. 
Pontia, Fabr. Illig. May. yi, 1807, p. 283 ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, 

p. 136. 

Ganoris, Dalmann, Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxxvii, 1816, pp. 61, 86. 
ParapieriF, de Niceville, J. A. 8. B. 1897, p. 563. 

Type, P. rapce, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Northern Asia ; Himalayas, Northern India 
and China. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa arched, apex angular ; termen straight ; 
tornus broadly rounded ; dorsum straight or slightly sinuous, more 
than three-fourths the length of the costa ; cell elongate, more than 
half length of wing; discocellulars comparatively short, upper 



168 

absent, middle oblique, lower concave or even, slightly angulated 
inwards ; vein 6 from apex of basal third of: 7, 8 absent, 9 rudi- 
mentary, a minute branch almost disappearing near apex of wing, 
10 and 11 free, both from upper third of subcostal. Hind wiug : 
subtriangular, the costa very long, both apex and tornus evenly 
rounded, the termen short, gently arched ; cell more than half 
length of wing, acutely pointed at lower apex, lower discocellular 
the longest ; precostal vein curved outwards, short. Antennae 
about half length of fore wing or a little less, club well-formed but 
gradual ; palpi porrect, slender, third joint short. 

I have taken the genus Pieris in a wide sense as including forms 
placed by many authors under Mancipium, Pontia, etc. The forms 
separated off from Pieris, such as brassicce under Mancipium, 
daplidice, etc. under Pontia, show, so far as the movement of the 
veins in the fore wing are concerned, degrees of specialization. In 
the genus Pieris, as in the family Pieridce already noted above, 
the veins of the median and costal systems in the fore wing show 
a tendency to shift upwards and outwards towards the apex of the 
wing and so to disappear. The exact position of any such vein is, 
therefore, not always constant in the forms of any genus, nor 
often, indeed, in individuals belonging to the same form. 



Key to the forms of Pieris. 

A. Underside kind wing : markings not green. 
a. Upperside fore wing : no preapical tri- 
angular black patch on costa. 
a'. Underside: A'eius of wings not defined 

with black. 

a 2 . Upperside fore wing: apical black 
patch not extended along termen 

below vein 4 , P. rupee, p. 169. 

6 2 . Upperside fore wing : apical black 
patch extended along termen to 
below vein 3. 

a 3 . Upperside fore wing : inner margin 

of black apical area evenly curved. 

a 4 . Underside hind wing : irrorated 

with black scales P. brassicee, p. 170. 

b'\ Underside hind wing : not irro- 
rated with black scales, uniform 

ochraceous yellow P. nayanum, p. 171. 

b 3 . Upperside fore wing : inner margin 
of black apical area not evenly 
curved, sinuous or scalloped. 
*. Upperside liind wing : with a 
continuous terminal black band ; 
in 9 only traversed very nar- 
rowly by* the white veins .... P. deota, p. 171. 
b*. Upperside hind wing : without a 
continuous terminal black band, 
only a series of well-divided 
black spots often mere specks . P. canidia, p. 172. 



b' . Underside: veins of wings defined with 

black. 

a 2 . Underside hind wing : black edging 
defining veins narrow ; ground- 
colour of wing white P. melete, p. 173. 

b~. Underside hind wing : black edging- 
defining veins very broad ; ground- 
colour of wing yellow P. chutnbiensis, p. 174. 

b. Upperside fore wing: a preapical triangular , p k ri race devta 

black patch on costa < <- -^ 

B. Underside hind wing : markings green. 

a. Underside hind wing: veins coiicolorous 

with ground-colour of wing. 
'. Underside hind wing : the green 
markings are interrupted and leave a 
connected, irregular, more or less 
sinuous, transverse discal band of the 
white ground-colour apparent. 
rt 2 . Underside hind wing : green edgings 
to terminal portions of veins not 

straight, clavate P. daplidice, p. 175. 

b' 2 . Underside hind wing : green edgings 
to terminal portions of veins 

straight, not clavate P. chloridice, p. 177. 

b'. Underside hind wing : the green mark- 
ings are continuous and leave only 
lanceolate spots of the white ground- 
colour apparent, no discal band .... P. callidice, p. 178. 

b. Underside hind wing : veins not concolorous 

with ground-colour of wing, yellow. ... P. ylaitconome, p. 176. 

589. Pieris rapae, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 468 ; 
Butler (Ganoris), P. Z. S. 1881, p. 612; Moore (Danaus), Lep. 
Ind. vi, 1904, p.' 131, pi. 519, figs. 1, 1 a-l c, rf $ . 
Pontia raaum'i, Meyer, Stett. ent. Zeit. 1851, p. 151 ; Butler 
(Ganoris), P. Z. S. 1880, p. 411. 

<$ , Upperside : white ; base of both wings and costa of fore wing 
for a short distance sparsely irrorated with black scales. Fore 
wing sometimes narrowly, sometimes broadly black ; a round black 
spot in the middle of interspace 3. Hind wing uniform with only 
a very short, transverse, laterally compressed, and generally diffuse 
black spot in interspace 7 that crosses vein 7 to the costa. Under- 
side : ground-colour similar. Pore wing : upper half of cell and 
costal margin above it sparsely irrorated with black scales ; apex 
faintly shaded with ochraceous or cream colour ; a black spot in 
interspace 3 as on the upperside and another in line with it below 
in interspace 1. Hind wing : dorsal margin somewhat broadly 
white, remainder of wing cream-colour ; base and cell sparsely 
irrorated with black scales. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
black checkered with white scales and a little whitish pubescence 
on the head and thorax ; beneath : head, thorax and abdomen white. 
$ . Similar to the tf , but in fresh specimens on the upperside the 
white on the wings is tinged slightly with cream-colour, and the 
additional black spot in interspace 1 is always present on the upper 



170 



as well as on the under side. Underside : the ground-colour at apex 
of fore and over the whole of the hind wing more strongly suffused 
with yellow than in the <3 . 

Exp. rf $ 50-58 mm. (1-96-2-3"). 

Hob. Europe and Western Asia. Within our limits in the N.W. 
Himalayas ; Chitral ; Ladakh ; Kashmir, from 7000 to 12,000 ft. 

Larva. As found in Europe : yellow at first, changing in the 
adult to green, with a yellow dorsal stripe and lateral yellow 
spiracular spots, covered all over above with hlack dots that bear 
each a pale hair. 

Pupa. " Angulated ; variable in colour, chiefly grey or drab of 
different intensity and freckled with black ; some are dull greenish." 
(Twtt.) 

590. Pieris brassicae, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 467 ; 
Godart, Ettci/cl. Meth. ix, 1819, p. 158; Law/, Butt. Eur. 1884, 
p. 28, pi. 6', figs. 2 rf $ , pi. 15, figs. 2, larva & pupa ; Elwes, 
Tram. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 416 ; Moore (Danaus), Lev. Ind. vi, 
1904, p. 127, pi. 518, figs. 1, 1 a, rf $ . 

Pieris brassicas, var., Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, 1846, p. 6, pi. 6, 
figs. 1, 3. 

Mancipium nipalense, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 256 ; Sicinh. (Ganoris) 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 343. 

cT . Upperside : creamy white with a somewhat farinaceous 
appearance. Fore wing : an irroration of black scales at base 
and along costa for a short distance ; apex and termen above vein 
2 more or less broadly black, the inner margin of the black area 
with a regular even curve ; in one or two specimens a small 
longitudinally narrow black spot in interspace 3. Hind wing : 
uniform, irrorated with black scales at base, a large black sub- 
costal spot before the apex, and in a very few specimens indications 
of black scaling on the termen anteriorly. 
Underside, fore wing : white, slightly 
irrorated with black scales at base of cell 
and along costa, apex light ochraceous 
brown ; a large black spot in outer half of 
interspace 1, and another quadrate black 
spot at base of interspace 3. Hind wing : 
light ochraceous brown closely irrorated 
with minute black scales ; the subcostal 
black spot before the apex shows through 
from the upperside. Antennas black, 
white at apex ; head, thorax and abdomen 
black, with some white hairs ; beneath : 
whitish. $ . Upperside : similar to that of 
the tf but the irroration of black scales 
at the bases of the wings more extended ; 
the black area on apex and termen of fore 

Fig. 43. Pieris bramcte. wing broader, its inner margin less evenly 
curved ; a conspicuous large, black spot in 
outer half of interspace 1, and another near base of interspace 3. 




PIERIS. 171 

On the hind wing the subcostal black spot before apex much 
larger, more prominent. Underside: similar to that of the d 1 
but the apex of the fore wing and the whole surface of the hind 
wing light ochraceous yellow, not ochraceous brown; the black 
discal spots on fore wing much larger. Antenna?, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the c? 

Exp. <J $ 62-78 mm. (2-46-3-10"). 

Hob. Europe ; Northern and Central Asia ; the Himalayas from 
Chitral to Bhutan up to 10,000 feet ; descending in the North- 
west of India to as low as Umballa (fide Lang}, 



591. Pieris naganum, Moore (Mancipium), J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 45. d 1 ; 
id. (Danaus), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 130. 

cj . Upperside : white. Fore wing : cosla irrorated with black 
scales for about two-thirds of its length from base, thence the apex 
broadly, and the termen to vein 3 more narrowly, black, the inner 
margin of the black area curved ; discocellulars with a crescentic 
black mark ; a large elongate black spot in middle of interspace 3 
produced outM'ards and coalescing with the black on the termen. 
Hind wing: uniform. Underside: fore wing white, apex ochraceous 
yellow ; the black markings of the upperside show through by 
transparency. Hind wing : uniform ochraceous yellow. Antenna? 
black speckled with white ; head, thorax and abdomen above 
black, beneath white. 

Exp. 6 54 mm. (2-2"). 

Hub. Assam : the Naga Hills ; Upper Burma. 

This seems to be an extremely rare insect, only two specimens, 
so far as I know, have been recorded ; the type from the Naga 
Hills in the Indian Museum, and one taken in Upper Burma by 
Capt. Watson, now in the British Museum. 



592. Pieris deota, de Niceville (Mancipium), J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 82, 
pi. 9, fig. 10 c? ; Moore (Danaus), Len. Ind. vi, 1904. p. 129, 
r l. 518, tigs. 2, 2 a, rf 

Pieris roborowsldi, Alphemky, Rom, Mem. iii, 1 S 87, p. 404 ; id. I. c. 
v, 1889, p. 69, pi. 4, tigs. 3 a, b. 

^ $ . Closely resembles P. brassicce, from which it differs as 
follows : c? . Upperside, fore wing : the inner margin of the black 
area on apex and termen not smoothly curved but sinuate ; an 
elongate narrow black spot, sometimes faint and ill-defined but 
always traceable, in interspace 3. Hind wing : termen edged by a 
narrow continuous black band that extends from the black costal 
spot to the middle of interspace 3. Underside, fore wing : apex 
aud upper portion of termen ashy-brown (by reason of the black 
on the upperside that shows through by transparency), thickly 
irrorated with black scales ; besides the black spots in interspaces 
1 and 3 present as in P. brassicce, there is a third black spot from 
middle of interspace 5 to vein 7 that extends above the latter vein 



172 FIERI D^E. 

diffusely to the costa. Hind wing: as in P. brassicce but the ground- 
colour not so yellow ; the black terminal band of the upperside can 
be seen through faintly by transparency ; the black subcostal spot 
as in P. brassicce, with a second black spot in interspace 3. $ . 
Upperside: as in $ of P. brassica, but as in the rf of its own form, 
the inner margin of the black area at apex and on termen of fore 
wing not smoothly curved but sinuate. Hind wing : a black terminal 
band like that in the cT but broader and divided by the white veins 
into a series of inwardly diffuse subquadrate spots ; a small black 
spot in interspace 3, another in interspace 5, the latter joined to 
the subcostal black spot which is particularly large and prominent. 
Underside : as in the d" 

Exp. J 2 58-61 mm. (2-28-2-40"). 

Hal>. NYW. Himalayas: Ladakh, 2500 ft.; Tibet; the Pamirs, 
12,300 to 14,200 ft. * 

593. Pieris canidia, Sparrman (Papilio), Amcen. Acad. vii, 1768, 

p. 504 ; Kirbij, Syn. Cat. Di. Lep. 1871, p. 455 ; Ehoes, Tram. 

Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 415 ; Mackinnon $ de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. 

Soc. xi, 1898, p. 590, pi. 5, fig. 21, pupa ; Moore (Danaus), Lep. 

Ind. vi, 1904, p. 13-3, pi. 520, tigs. 1, 1 a-l h, <$ $. 
Pieris gliciria, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. ii, 1779, pi. 171, 

fijrs. E, F; Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 524 ; Kollar in 

HUgett Kaschmir, iv (2), 1844, p. 409. 
Pieris napi, Gray (nee Linn.), Lep. Ins. Nepal, 1846, p. 6, pi 6 

fig. 2 J . 

c? . Upperside : white to pale cream-colour. Fore wing : base and 
basal portion of costa, and base and upper margin of cell irrorated 
with black scales ; apex and terminal margin to about the middle, 
decreasing!}', black, on the latter the black extended for n very short 
distance triangularly along the veins ; a round black spot in inter- 
space 3. Hind wing : a subcostal black spot as in P. rapce, but 
generally larger and more conspicuous, and a series of four or five 
terminal black spots that vary in size at the apices of the veins. 
Underside : fore wing white ; cell and costa lightly irrorated with 
black scales; apex somewhat broadly tinged with ochraceous 
yellow; interspaces 1, 3 and 5 with conspicuous subquadrate black 
spots, the spot in interspace 1 sometimes extended into interspace 
1 a, that in 5 ill-defined. Hind wing : from pale, almost white, to 
dark ochraceous, thickly irrorated all over (with the exception of a 
longitudinal streak in the cell, and in the darker specimens similar 
longitudinal streaks in the interspaces) with black scales ; costa 
above vein 8 chrome-yellow. Antennae black with minute white 
specks ; the long hairs on head and thorax greenish-grey; abdomen 
black ; beneath : head, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : 
similar to that of the rf but the irroration of black scales more 
extended and prominent, the black on the apex and termen of the 
fore wing and the black spots on the termen of the hind wing broader, 
more extended inwards; on the fore wing there is an additional 
spot in interspace 1, and both this and the spot in interspace 3 in 



173 

many specimens are connected by a line of black scales along the 
veins to the outer black border ; also the spot in interspace 1 often 
extends across vein 1 into the interspace below. Underside : 
similar to that in the d 1 . 

Exp. cJ $ 42-60 mm. (1-66-2-36"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Chitral and Kashmir to Sikhim and 
Bhutan, from 2000 to 11,000 ft. elevation ; the hills of Southern 
India; Assam; Upper Burma: the Shan States; extending to 
China. 

Pupa. As represented in Mackinnon's figure is a light ochraceous 
brown with the wing-cases prominent, and with some tubercular 
darker brown spines midway on the abdominal side. 

594. Pieris napi, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, p. 468. 

Race melete. 

Pieris melete, Menetries, Cat. Mus. Petr., Lep. ii, 1857, p. 113, 
pi. 10, figs. 1, 2, d $; Butter (Synchloe), P. Z. S. 1872, p. 64; 
de Niceoille (Mancipium), Sikhim Gazetteer, 1894, p. 168; Watson, 
Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. x, 1897, p. 669 ; de N. $ Mackinnon, 
Jour. Bomb. N. II. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 590. 

Pieris ajaka, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 490, pi. 31, fig. 16 $ ; 
Doherty (Ganoris), J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 135"; Moore (Danaus), 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 132, pi. 519, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, 3, 3 a, 3 b, rf $ . 

Race melete, Menetr. Summer brood. tf . Upperside : white, 
veins black, conspicuous. Fore wing : base slightly irrorated with 
black scales ; costal margin very narrowly black ; apex black, that 
colour joined on to three black, inwardly triangular, continuous or 
coalescent spots at apices of veins 2, 3 
and 4 ; a round black spot in middle of 
interspace 3, and in many specimens 
traces of a similar spot in the outer half 
of interspace 1. Hind wing : with an 
obliquely placed subcostal spot before 
the apex. Underside : veins more or 
less widely margined with black ; apex 
of fore and the whole surface of the 
hind wing somewhat tinged with dull 
ochraceous, not so yellow as in the 
Fig. 44._ Pieris napi, typical P. napi. In many specimens 
race melete. there is an indication by black scaling 

of bars between veins 1 and 2 and 

3 and 4 respectively ; base of costa of hind wing bright yellow. 
Antennae dark dull brown, paler at their apices ; head, thorax and 
abdomen black with more or less of white hairs and scaling; 
beneath : whitish. $ . Resembles the c? in the character of the 
markings, but is altogether much darker on the upperside ; the 
irroratiou of black scales at the base of the fore wing spreads up 
to nearly the apex of the cell and of interspace 1 ; the black area 
at apex and on the termen of the same wing is much broader, the 




174 PlERID^E. 

black spots in interspaces 1 and 3 much larger; in the latter 
interspace, and in very dark specimens from high elevations in the 
former also, these spots coalesce with the black on the termen ; 
in all specimens the lower spot is continued in a broad streak 
along the dorsum to the base of the wing. Hind wing : as in the 
c? , but the black edging to the veins much broader ; in high 
elevation specimens there is also a good deal of dark shading at 
base and irroration of black scales on the disc. Underside : as in 
the J. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those 
of the rf , but slightly darker. 
Exp. 6 $ 50-71 mm. (2-2-8"). 

Hob. Within our limits : the N.W. Himalayas to Sikhim and 
-Bhutan up to 10,000 feet ; the Khasia Hills in Assam ; Chin 
Hills down to the Shan States in Upper Burma. Spread over 
Northern Asia and China to Japan. 

Var. ajaka, Moore, is typically the small pale north-west form 
which, however, grades into typical melete from Japan and Amur- 
land. P. melete itself scarcely forms a race distinct from the 
European P. napi. Mr. Leech says that the little yellow patch 
at the base of the hind wing on the underside will almost always 
separate P. melete from any of the forms of P. napi. I have, 
however, seen specimens of the small, lightly marked spring brood 
of melete var. ajaka from Gilgit in which this patch is entirely 
absent. 

595. Pieris chuinbiensis, de Niceville (Parapieris), J. A. S. B. 1897, 
p. 563, pi. 1, fig. 6; Moore (Parapieris), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, 
p. 148, pi. 522, figs. 1,1 a, cJ. 

Pieris dubernardi, Elves (nee Oberthilr), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, 
p. 415 ; de Niceville (Mancipium nee Oberthilr}, Sikhim Gazet- 
teer, 1894, p. 168. 

<$ . Upperside : white. Fore wing : veins black, costal and 
terminal margins narrowly, apex more broadly, black ; the inner 
margin of the black at apex forms an even curve ; a large round 
black spot in middle of interspace 3, the lower discocellular edged 
on either side with black and the base of the wing irrorated with 
black scales. Hind wing : with a dark greyish appearance due to 
the dark markings of the underside that show through by trans- 
parency ; veins black ; a black costal spot a little before the apex, 
and the base of the wing heavily irrorated with black scales. 
Underside : fore wing white, veins edged with black scaling, the 
round black spot in interspace 3 as on the upperside ; apex and 
terminal margin suffused with yellow that decreases posteriorly on 
the latter. Hind wing : yellow, all the veins very broadly edged 
with black that gives an appearance of streaks to the ground- 
colour; precostal area edged with deep cadmium-yellow. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen fuscous black. unknown. 

Exp. 6 54-58 mm. (2-12-2-28"). 

Hal. Chumbi Valley ; Sikhim. 




PIERIS. 175 

596. Pieris krueperi, Staudmyer, Wien. ent. Monats. iv, 1860, p. 19. 

Race devta. 

Mancipium devta, de Niceoille, J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 82, pi. 9, 
figs. 9, 9, c? 2; Moore (Danaus), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 130, 
pi. 518, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, rf $ . 

Race devta, de Niceville. J . Upperside : dead white. Tore 
wing : a narrow band of irrorated black scales along basal portion 
of costa ; a wedge-shaped short costal black spot before the apex ; 
apex black ; that colour continued along the anterior portion of 
the terinen as a series of inwardly-pointed triangular coalescent 
spots at apices of veins 4 and 5 ; lastly, a large black spot in 

the outer half of interspace 3. 
Hind wing : a black costal spot 
just before the apex, otherwise 
uniform white. Underside : 
ground-colour similar. Fore 
wing : black markings similar to 
those on the upperside, but the 
black at apex and on termen 
replaced anteriorly by a dull 
Fig. 45. Pieris kreuperi, faint wash of ochraceous or 

race devta. greenish yellow. Hind wing : 

basal two-thirds irrorated more 

or less thickly with black scales, with the exception of a short, very 
broad, inwardly oblique band of the ground-colour, that extends 
from the middle of the costa to within the upper portion of the 
discoidal cell ; the outer margin of the area irrorated with black 
scales is transverse from costa to interspace 5, thence curved 
outwards to vein 4 and obliquely to vein 1 a. Antenna? brown, 
paler at their apices ; head fuscous ; thorax and abdomen black ; 
beneath : whitish. 2 . Upperside : similar to that in the <5 , but the 
black markings on the fore wing broader, more conspicuous and 
extended lower along the termen than in the J ; on the hind wing 
the black costal spot larger, with in most specimens a well-marked 
spot also in interspace 3, and in many a series of detached terminal 
black spots at the apices of the veins. These markings are very 
prominent in some specimens from Quetta. Underside: as in 
the c? . Fore wing : the additional black spot in interspace 1 
small, the black spot in interspace 3 very large. Hind wing : 
the terminal series of black spots of the upperside diffuse, more 
or less continuous or coalescing and washed over with a greenish 
tint. Antennae, thorax and abdomen as in the tf . 
Exp. rf 2 44-54 mm. (1-72-2-14"). 
Hob. Ladakh; Baluchistan; Pishin. 

597. Pieris daplidice, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, 1758, 

p. 468; Fabr. (Pontia) IlKy. May. vi, 1807, p. 283; Godf. 
Encycl. Meth. ix, 1819, p. 128 ; Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 
i, 1857, p. 75 ; Sutler (Synchloe), P. Z. S. 1880, p. 410 ; 



176 PIERIDJ3. 

Swinhoe ('Synchloe), 7Va. Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 342; Moore 
(Pontia), Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 137, pi. 521, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b,<S ? . 

c? . Upperside: white. Fore wing : basal half of costa narrowly 
irrorated with black scales, a broad irregular quadrate black spot 
over the discocellulars ; apex and termen anteriorly, above vein 3 
broadly black, with a subterminal series of spots of the ground- 
colour^ prolonged as fine lines to the terminal margin. Hind wing : 
uniform, the markings on the underside showing faintly through ; 
a costal spot before the apex, and in some specimens, some obscure, 
anterior terminal markings indicated by irrorated black scaling. 
Underside : white. Fore wing : the form of the markings as on 
the upperside, but the base of the cell with an irroration of green 
scales, the black discocellular spot extended to the costa, often 
washed with green or with a green centre to the black ; the apical 
patch green not black, with the spots of the ground-colour on it 
ill-defined and obscure ; a black or greenish-black spot in the 
outer half of interspace 1. Hind wing : green ; costal margin at 
base yellow; dorsal margin white ; a spot in middle of cell, another 
above it in interspace 7, a curved irregular discal series of con- 
joined spots beyond the cell, of which the upper two spots are 
placed more inwards, and a terminal series of spots in inter- 
spaces 1 to 6, white ; the veins sometimes faintly yellow. Antennas 
dusky-black ; head, thorax and abdomen fuscous black ; beneath : 
head, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : differs as fol- 
l ows . Fore wing : a dusky-black streak extends from base along 
costa and terminates at the black spot on the discocellulars ; a 
transverse, somewhat quadrate black spot in the outer half of 
interspace 1, with sometimes a short ill-defined black streak below 
it; the black area on apex and anterior portion of termen broader, 
the white spots on it blurred and obscure. Hind wing : a large 
costal black spot before apex ; a broad, black, subterminal, inwardly 
diffuse, curved band in continuation of the same, and a terminal 
series of clavate black marks that start from the outer margin of 
the black subterminal band. Underside : markings much as in 
the c? but broader. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as 
in the c? . 

Exp. <3 $ 52-56 mm. (2-06-2-20"). 

Hob. Within our limits : the Western Himalayas ; Chitral ; 
Ladakh ; Kashmir ; Baluchistan. Spread throughout Europe, 
Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan. 



598. Pieris glanconome, Khig (Pontia), Symb. Phys. 1829, pi. 7, 
figs. 18, 19 ; Moore (Pontia), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904,' p. 139, pi. 521, 
figs. 2, 2 o, 2 6, <J $ . 

Pieris iranica, Bienert, Lep. Eryel. Reise Pers. 1870, p. 27 ; Sutler 
(Synchloe), P. Z. S. 1880, p 410, pi. 30, fig. 7, pupa; Swinhoe 
(Synchloe), Trans. Enl. Soc. 38H5, p. 343. 
Pieris vipasa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 565, $ . 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : the ground-colour and markings 



PIERIS. 177 

identical with those of P. daplidice. Hind wing : ground-colour 
similar to that of daplidice ; differs only as follows : A series of 
four small black terminal spots at the apices of veins 3 to 6, the 
anterior 3 joined on the inner side by black loops. Underside: 
similar to that of daplidice. Fore wing : differs in the green area 
at apex and on termen anteriorly, which is broadly traversed by 
short lines of white that extend to the terminal margin and are 
faintly lined with yellow. Hind wing : differs in the green 
coloration which is greatly restricted ; the basal area is dusky 
green with large pyriforrn spots of the white ground-colour in 
cell and interspace 7 ; beyond this there is only a subterminal 
series of green loops continued along the veins to the margin, 
this leaves a broad white curved discal band and a series of large 
white terminal spots in the interspaces ; the veins conspicuously 

lined with yellow. Antennae ashy brown; head, thorax and 

abdomen whitish. $ . Upper and under sides : similar to those of 

the c? , but the markings larger and more clearly denned. 
Exp. c? $ 40-50 mm. (1-58-1-96"). 
ffab. AVitbin our limits recorded only from the north-west of 

India, the Punjab and Baluchistan. Found also in Arabia; Persia; 

the Pamirs ; Egypt and N. Africa. 

Larva. Greenish yellow, with two longitudinal yellow bands and 

five transverse lines of minute black dots on each segment ; head 

yellowish green with black dots. 

Pupa. Brown ; head with a beak-like curved process ; thorax 

somewhat compressed, with a large tubercle on the ventral side 

and two smaller posterior tubercles on each side. 



599. Pieris chloridice, Htibner (Papilio), Eur. Schmett. i, 1803-1818, 
figs. 712, 713 ; Lang (Pieris), Butt. Eur. 1884, p. 34, pi. 8, 
%. 2 c? ; Sutler (Synchloe), P. Z. S. 1872, p. 02 ; Moore 
(Parapieris), Lep. Ind.\i, 1904, p. 142. 

c? . Upperside : white. Fore wing : discocellulars edged broadly 
with black on each side ; a short broad transverse preapical black 
bar from costa to vein 6 and another similar short bar further 
outwards from vein 6 to middle of interspace 4, followed by three 
outwardly-pointed, somewhat oval, black terminal spots just below 
the apex. Hind wing : uniform, unmarked. Underside : white. 
Fore wing : the markings as on the upperside, but those at apex 
green and with a few scattered superposed black scales on the upper 
preapical bar. Hind wing : basal area green, an oval white spot 
in middle of cell, a transverse white bar in middle of interspace 7, 
and the precostal area edged with white above ; beyond the cell is a 
highly sinuous, curved, discal, white band, followed by a complete 
series of longitudinally rectangular, white, terminal spots, the space 
between the discal band and the white spots green, this colour 
continued along the veins that separate the spots up to the 
termen. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen fuscous, the 
antennae with pale tips, the thorax with some white hairs ; 

VOL. II. X 



178 PIEUIDJE. 

beneath : head, thorax and abdomen whitish. ? differs as follows : 
Upperside, lore wing: the black edging to the discocellulars broader; 
a curved, postdiscal, irregular, macular, black band, the upper 
three and lowest spot that compose it large, the spot in inter- 
space 2 small, sometimes subobsolete, the middle two spots of 
the band coalescent outwardly with the series of terminal black 
spots, of which there are six (in the c? these vary from 3 to 5). 
Hind wing : an anterior, postdiscal, short, curved, macular, black 
band, often subobsolete, followed by a more or less complete 
terminal series of spots at the apices of the veins. Underside : 
as in the cT ; also the antennae, head, thorax and abdomen. 

Exp. cf ? 40-53 mm. (1-56-2-08"). 

Hab. Within our limits, the Himalayas : Chitral and Ladakh. 

600. Pieris callidice, Esper (Papilio), Schmett. i, 2, 1800, pi. 115, 
figs. 2, 3; Godart, Encycl. Meth. ix, 1819, p. 129; de Niceville 
(Parapieris), J. A. S. B. 1897, p. 563 ; Moore (Parapieris), Lep. 
Ind. vi, 1904, p. 140, pi. 521, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, rf $ . 
Pieris kalora, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 449, pi. 31, fig. 15 rf . 

d . Upperside : white. Fore wing : black at extreme bases of 
interspaces 1 a and 1 and of cell ; discocellulars marked with a 
quadrate black spot ; a discal curved series of inwardly" dentate 
spots, the spots in interspaces 1 and 2 generally reduced to a 
mere trace, often absent; an anterior terminal series of simila 
but more clearly defined spots at the apices of veins 3 to 7. 
Hind wing : uniform, the pattern of the underside visible through 
transparency ; base densely irrorated with black scales. Under- 
side, fore wing : white ; basal half of costal margin and quadrate 
spot on discocellulars dull black ; a discal curved series of four 
black spots in interspaces 1, 3, 5 and 6, followed by elongate 
streaks of green along veins 3 to 7 that extend to the termen. 
Hind wing: green, an elongate oval yellowish- white spot in cell, 
followed beyond by complete curved series of discal and terminal 
yellowish- white, inwardly lanceolate spots. Antennae black, spotted 
with white, head fuscous grey, thorax blackish grey, abdomen 
black with more or less sparse white scaling ; beneath : head, 
thorax and abdomen white. $. Upperside: similar to that of 
the d , the black scaling at the base of the wings more ex- 
tended, especially on the hind wing where it stretches broadlv 
down the dorsal half of the wing and occupies also the apex of 
the cell. Fore wing : the irroration of black scales along the 
basal half of the costal margin and the discocellular quadrate 
black spot as in the c? , the latter, however, broader ; the apex and 
terminal third of the wing above vein 2 dusky black, with a series 
of elongate white spots in the interspaces, the inner margin of the 
black area curved but veiy jagged ; lastly, a geminate transverse 
black spot in the outer half of interspace 1. Hind wing : a 
terminal series of large, inwardly acutely pointed, black spots with 
oval white centres and a large costal black spot before the apex. 



PIEE.IS. SYNCHLOE. 179 

Underside, fore wing: the ground-colour and markings much as in 
the cf , but the green on the apex and termen more extended, the 
white streaks that traverse it longer ; the black discal spots in 
interspaces 5 and 6 absent. Hind wing : similar to that of the d* , 
but the yellowish-white lanceolate spots narrower and smaller. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the J . In both sexes 
the antennae are not generically typical, the club abrupt, shorter 
and broader. 

Exp. rf $ 53-60 mm. (2-10-2-35"). 

Hab. Within our limits : N.W. Himalayas above 1 2,000 feet 
from Chitral to Mussoorie. Occurs also in the higher mountains 
of Europe ; in Asia from the Altai to the Himalayas ; and in 
China. 



Genus SYNCHLOE. 

Synchloe, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 94. 

Euchloe, Hiibner, t. c. p. 94. 

Anthocharis, pt, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 550. 

Type, S. belemia, Esper, from N. Africa. 

Range. Northern Europe, Asia and America ; North Africa ; 
India, in the "Western Himalayas and the lower hills of the 
Punjab. 

<$ $ . Fore wing : costa very slightly arched, nearly straight ; 
apex blunt ; termen oblique, short ; tornus obtuse ; dorsum long, 
straight, more than three-fourths the length 
of the costa ; cell about half length of wing ; 
upper discocellular very short, middle long, 
strongly concave, lower bent acutely inwards 
at origin of vein 5 ; veins 5 and 6 from the 
discocellulars ; all the veins present *. Hind 
wing: long; costa arched, bluntly augulate in 
the middle ; termen short, slightly convex ; 
tornus typically distinctly angulate, though 
the angle is not so clearly defined in the 
Indian forms ; dorsum straight from tornus 
(in the Indian forms convex), then strongly 
concave near base ; cell broad ; lower disco- 
cellular the longest, middle discocellular short ; 
precostal spur or vein curved inwards. Antennae short, less than 
half length of fore wing ; club abrupt, broad and flat ; palpi slender, 
third joint short ; head and palpi very hairy in front. 



* In S. daphalis, Moore, one of the two forms of this genus found within 
our limits, vein 8 in the fore wing is lost. But all evidence of coloration and 
habits &c. points to the fact that S. daphalis is merely a race of S. belli, Linn. 
(ansonia, Esper), the fore wing of which has all the veins present. 

N2 




180 PIEEID^. 

Key to the forms of Synchloe. 

a. Upperside fore and hind wings : c? rich lemon- 
yellow, 2 pale sulphur-yellow ; hind wing : 
underside irrorated with black scales 5. lucilla, p. 180. 

6. Upperside fore and hind wings : c? $ white ; 

hind wing : underside white, markings green <S'. belia, race daphalis, 

[p. 180. 

601 . Synchloe lucilla, Butler (Euchloe), P. Z. S. 1886, p. 376, pi. 35, 
fig. 4; Baker (Anthocharis), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, p. 525. 

c? . Upperside : lemon-yellow ; base of wings irrorated with 
black scales. Fore wing : discocellulars with a broad, short, 
transversely oblique bar that does not extend to the costal 
margin, apex from about the apical third of the costa in a curve 
(angulate in the middle) to the tornus, black, traversed obliquely 
by a more or less obscure maculate narrow band of the ground- 
colour ; cilia yellow alternated with black. Hind wing : uniform, 
immaculate. Underside : duller paler yellow. Fore wing : the 
black discocellular mark shorter, the apical black area of the 
upperside showing through by transparency and irrorated with 
minute black scales, often an obscure pink line along the costal 
and terminal margins ; the costa towards apex with a series of 
small white spots, each spot inwardly defined by a minute black 
dot. Hind wing : densely irrorated with black scales ; a small 
white discocellular spot and a series of white transverse spots 
along the costal margin as in the fore wing, but more distinct. 
Antennae yellowish brown, head fuscous, collar pinkish, thorax 
fuscous, abdomen black on the sides and yellow beneath. 
$ . Upperside : very pale sulphur-yellow. Fore wing : black, mark- 
ings as in the d but the discocellular bar broader and longer ; the 
preapical maculate band of the ground-colour in the black area 
more distinct. Hind wing : uniform, immaculate. Underside : 
ground-colour and markings as in the <5 Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen similar to those of the d . 

Exp. rf $ 33-42 mm. (1-30-1 -66"). 

Hab. The Punjab : Campbellpore ; Attock ; Khairabad. 

A very interesting and instructive paper, by Mr. G. T. Baker, 
on the distribution of the group of forms of the genus Synchloe 
(= Anthocharis) which includes lucilla is published in the Trans. 
Ent. Soc. for 1889, p. 523 et seq. 

002. Synchloe belia, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. xii, ed. 1767, p. 761. 
Race daphalis. 

Synchloe daphalis, Moore (Anthocharis), P. Z. S. 1865, p. 491, 

pi. 31, fig. 14 <J. 
Euchloe venosa, Butler, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 151, pi. 15, fig. 5 3 . 

Race daphalis, Moore. <$ . Upperside : white ; base of wings 
in-orated with black scales. Fore wing: basal half of costa 



SYXCHLOE. HUPHIITA. 



181 



spotted with black, a lunate black disco-cellular spot and an inner 
and an outer sinuous black, preapical, oblique 
band. Hind wing: uniform, immaculate, but 
the pattern of the underside shows through by 
transparency. Underside, fore wing : creamy 
white, costa spotted with minute black dots ; 
discocellular, lunate, black spot centred with 
white ; apex checkered with dark brown, the 
brown overlaid with greenish-yellow scales, the 
interspaces silvery. Hind wing : irregular, 
more or less transverse bands and lines of dark 
brown overlaid with greenish-yellow scales, the 
interspaces shining silvery white. Antennae 
white, head and thorax dark fuscous grey, 
abdomen white ; beneath : head, thorax and 
abdomen white. $ . Differs from the <5 only 
in the apex of the fore wing, which is more 
rounded. 

Exp. rf $ 34-46 mm. (1-34- 1-82"). 
Hab. Within our limits, the Western Himalayas : Chitral ; 

Kunawur, G-oorais Valley ; the Punjab : Attock bridge, Khairabad. 




Fig. 47. 
SyncUoe belia, 
race daphalis. 



Genus HUPHINA. 

Huphina, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 136; Watson, Jour. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 494. 

Type, If. coronis, Cramer=T. nerissa, Fabr., from India. 
Range. India, south of the lower ranges of the Himalayas ; 

Ceylon ; the Andamans ; Nicobars ; Assam ; Burma ; Siam ; 
Malayan Peninsula, and all the 
islands of the Malayan Subregion 
down to Australia and New Cale- 
donia. 

d $ . Fore wing : costa arched, 
more strongly so than in Appias, 
apex blunt ; termen straight ; tornus 
rounded ; dorsum straight, about three- 
fourths the length of the costa ; cell 
typically slightly longer (in some 
forms slightly shorter) than half length 
of fore wing ; vein 6 given off from 
lower side of 7 well beyond apex of 
cell, upper discocellular therefore 
absent ; middle discocellular concave, 
not much shorter than the lower ; 
lower slightly concave, oblique, more 
or less attenuated anteriorly ; ve n 8 

absent, 9 from base of apical fourth of 7, 10 and 11 free, from 




Fig. 48. Huphina, venation. 



182 PIEBID.E. 

upper half of subcostal. Hind wing : short and broad ; costa 
arched ; apex broadly rounded ; termen very slightly convex ; 
tornus strongly curved, obtuse ; dorsum slightly convex ; cell 
elongate ; discocellulars very oblique ; precostal spur or vein stout, 
simple, inclined obliquely outwards. Antennae slender, less than 
half length of fore wing, club very gradual ; palpi subporrect, 
basal joints fringed anteriorly with slender hairs, third joint 
stout, closely scaled, acute ; body moderately stout. 



Key to the forms of Huphina. 

A. <5 $ . Upperside hind wing : broadly 

orange at tornal angle H. lea, p. 182 

B. c?$. Upperside hind wing: not broadly 

orange at tornal angle, more or less 
concolorous with rest of wing. 

a. Underside hind wing : veins more or 

less broadly bordered or dilated with 
dusky black. 

a'. Underside hind wing: ground-colour 
of greater extent than the dilated 

veins H. nerissa, p. 183. 

&'. Underside hind wing : ground-colour 
of less extent than the dilated 
veins H. nerissa, race lichenosa, 

b. Underside hind wing : veins not [p. 187. 

bordered or dilated with dusky 
black. 

a'. Underside hind wing : a broad white 
streak or streak paler than ground- 
colour, occupies greater portion of 

cell . H. nadina (typical), p. 188. 

'. Underside hind wing : a large 
whitish spot or spot paler than 
ground-colour, occupies only apex 

of cell H. nadina, race andamana, 

c'. Underside hind wing : ground- [p. 190. 

colour uniform, no spot or streak 

of other colour in cell H. nadina, race remba, 

[p. 190. 

603. Huphina lea (PL XVII, fig. 110), Doubleday (Pieris), 
A. M. N. H. (2) xvii, 1846, p. 23 ; Moore (Pieris), Cat. Lep. 
M'us. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 77 ; Moore, Lep. 2nd. vi, 1904, p. 213, 
pi. 545, figs. 1, la, 16, rf$. 

d . Upperside : white. Fore wing : base, the costal, subcostal 
and median veins slightly irrorated with black scaling; apical 
half of costal margin increasingly to apex and thence decreasingly 
to tornus jet-black, the inner margin of the black diffuse and 
slightly produced along the veins. Hind wing: termen narrowly 
jet-b lack ; tornal area broadly bright orange, succeeded along the 



HUPHIXA. 183 

dorsal area below the cell by canary-yellow ; the inner margin of 
the black on the termen slightly bluish owing to the markings of 
the underside which show through. Underside, fore wing : white ; 
the basal third of costa and broad lines that border the subcostal 
and median nervures on their inner sides dusky black ; apex of 
wing beyond cell and above vein 4, and a band below vein 4 on 
posterior portion of termen, rich brownish black ; two elongate 
white spots just beyond the apex of the cell, and a yellowish 
elongate spot above them, followed by two bright yellow preapical 
spots; lastly, short, transverse, lunular, brown bars between 
veins 2 and 3 and 3 and 4, so extended along the veins as to 
coalesce with the black on the termen. Hind wing : canary- 
yellow ; terraen with a broad band of rich brownish black, super- 
posed on which are a yellow spot- near apex of interspace 7, 
and orange-coloured ill-defined subterminal lunules in interspaces 
2 and 3, that are continued below interspace 3 to the tornus and a 
little way up the dorsum in a broad band of orange. Antennse 
black ; head clothed with greenish, thorax with bluish-grey, longish 
hairs ; abdomen dusky greenish-white above, purer white below. 
$ . Similar, but both upper and under sides differ in the greater 
extent of black on apex and termen. On the upperside of the 
fore wing the subcostal and median veins are broadly bordered 
internally with dusky black, the black on the apex reaches the 
apex of the cell and encloses three elongate white spots just 
beyond the latter, while the black along the termen encloses a 
white subterminal spot in interspace 1 and another in interspace 4 ; 
in interspace 2 its inner margin is deeply indented. Hind wing : 
the canary-yellow above the orange tornal area of greater extent, 
suffusing the whole of the cell. Underside : differs from that of the 
J in the fore wing, by the presence of three, not two, preapical 
yellow spots, and the subterminal black bar continued across 
interspace 1 ; further, on the hind wing there are three subapical 
yellow spots. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? . 

Exp. rf $ 54-64 mm. (2-12-2-52"). 

Hab. Lower Burma as far north as Taungoo ; Tenasserim ; 
Siam ; the Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra ; Banka ; Borneo. 

604. Huphina nerissa, Fair. (Papilio) Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 471 ; Moore 
(Pieris), Cat. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 72; Doherty (Huphina), 
J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 135 ; Mackinnon $ de N. (Huphina) Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 590. 

Papilio phryne, Fair. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 473; Moore (Huphina), 
Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 136, pi. 53, tigs. 1, la, 16, J $, larva & 
pupa; Watson (Huphina), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, 
p. 494, pi. 1, fia-s. 7-12, c? 5 Dixey (Huphina), Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1894, pp. 257, 277 ; Davidson, Bell $ Aitken (Huphina), 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 574. 

Papilio amasene, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 1776, pi. 44, tig. A <$ . 

Papilio coronis, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 1776, pi. 44, figs. B, C, $ . 



184 PIERIDJE. 

Moore (Huphina), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 207, pi. 543, figs. 1, 

la-lh, 2,2a-2d, rf $. 
Papilio evagete et zeuxippe, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii, 1780, pi. 221, 

figs. F, G, & iv, 1782, pi. 362, figs. E, F, $ . 
Papilio cassida, Fair. Ent. Syst. Sitppl. 1798, p. 427; Swinhoe 

(Huphina), P. Z. S. 1885, p. 137. 
Pieris lira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 490, pi. 31, fig. 17 <?; Xothney 

(Huphina), Eni. Month. May. xix, 1882, p. 35. 
Pieris copia, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 340 ; Moore 

(Huphina), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 211, pi. 544, figs. 1, \a-h,($ . 
Appias dapha, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 838 ; JEhves $ de N. 

(Huphina) J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 432; Watson (Huphina), Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 495, pi. 1, figs. 1-6, 3 $. 
Huphina pallida, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 137. 

Race lichenosa. 

Pieris lichenosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 591 ; Watson (Huphina), 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 495 ; Moore (Huphina), Lep. 
Ind. vi, 1904, p. 212, pi. 544, figs. 2, 2 , 2 b, rf $ . 

Wet-season Irood. <3 . Upperside : white, a greyish-blue shade 
at base of wings and along the veins, due to the dark markings on 
the underside that show through. Fore wing : veins black ; 
apex and termen black, the inner margin of that colour extended 
in an irregular curve from middle of costa to base of terminal 
third of vein 4, thence continued obliquely outwards to the tornal 
angle ; interspaces 6 and 9 with short narrow greyish-white 





Fig. 49. . Huphina ncri&sa. l>. Apical half, upperside fore wing : var. dapha* 

streaks of the ground-colour that stretch into the black apical area 
but do not reach the margin ; a short black subterminal bar 
between veins 3 and 4 and another, less clearly defined, between 
veins 1 and 2. Hind wing : veins 4 to 7 with outwardly-dilated 
broad black edgings that coalesce sometimes and form an anterior, 
irregular, black, terminal margin to the wing. Underside, fore 
wing : white, the veins broadly mai-gined on both sides by dusky 
black ; costal margin broadly and apex suffused with yellow ; 
subterminal black bars between veins 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 as 
on the upperside but less clearly defined. Hind wing entirely 
suffused with yellow, the veins diffusely bordered with black ; a 



HTJPHIXA. 185 

more or less incomplete, subterrniual series of dusky spots in 
interspaces 1 to 6 ; more often than not the spot in 5 entirely 
absent ; a conspicuous chrome-yellow spot on the precostal area. 
Antennae black, obscurely speckled with white ; head and thorax 
bluish grey ; abdomen dusky black ; beneath : the palpi and 
abdomen white, the thorax yellow. . Similar to the c? but 
very much darker. Upperside : veins more broadly bordered 
with black ; in many specimens only the following portions of the 
white ground-colour are apparent : Fore wing : a broad streak in 
cell and beyond it a discal series of streaks in interspaces 1 to 6, 
9 and 10 ; the streaks in interspaces 1 and 3 very broadly inter- 
rupted by the transverse black bars ; that in 6 more or less 
obsolescent. Hind wing : a broad streak in cell, a discal series of 
streaks in interspaces 2 to 7, and a posterior more or less obsoles- 
cent subterminal series of greyish-white double spots. Underside : 
similar to that of the rf, only the veins much more broadly 
margined with diffuse black scaling. Antenna?, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the cf . 

Dry-season brood. J $ differ from the wet-season brood as 
follows : c? Upperside, fore wing : the apical and, terminal black 
areas much restricted ; veins concolorous ; black subterminal bars 
less clearly defined; the lower one often obsolete. Hind wing : 
the black markings on the termen represented by short triangular 
irrorations of black scales at the apices chiefly of the anterior 
veins. Underside : as in the wet-season specimens, but the yellow 
much paler and somewhat ochraceous in tint. $ . Differs less 
from the wet-season $ , but the black markings on both the upper 
and under side are narrower and less pronounced, and on the latter 
the yellow suffusion is paler and ochraceous in tint. 

Exp. rf $ 64-76 mm. (2-06-3-00"). 

Hob. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Bengal ; Assam ; Upper and 
Lower Burma ; Tenasserim. Found also in Siam and China. 

Var. phryne, Fabr. Can be distinguished from the typical form 
as follows : <$ $ . Invariably smaller. Wet-season brood. Upper- 
side fore wing : in addition to the subterminal black bars between 
veins 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 another black bar above vein 5, 
that joins on to the black on the apex and completely isolates the 
short, narrow, preapical streaks of the ground-colour, that in the 
typical form are merely continuations of the colour at the bases of 
the interspaces in which the streaks lie. Underside: the above 
noted black marking or bars very conspicuous, especially between 
veins 5 and 6. Hind wing : the subterminal transverse series of 
dusky spots in the interspaces replaced by a nearly continuous, 
prominent, dusky black band, interrupted only in interspace 5. 

Dry-season brood. c? $. Upperside, fore wing: the black ^on 
apex and termen much restricted, the lower subterminal black bar 
generally absent ; the veins white, concolorous with the ground- 
colour, so that the bar between veins 3 and 4 does not coalesce 
with the black on the termen. In the extreme dry-weather broods 



180 PIEBID.E. 

this bar becomes obsolete. Hind wing : uniform dead white, some- 
times the apices of one or two of the anterior veins with a little 
black scaling. Underside : the veins, except those that limit the 
cell of the fore wing, not bordered with black ; the suffusion of 
yellow along costal margin, on apex of fore wing, and over the 
whole surface of the hind wing pale yellow, with a tendency in 
the extreme dry-season specimens to get almost white ; on the 
fore wing the black transverse subterminal bars between veins 1 
and 2 and 3 and 4 are sometimes indicated by mere diffuse small 
patches of scales ; at other times they are absent. Antenna, 
head, thorax and abdomen in both seasonal broods much as in the 
typical form, but paler. 

Evp. <$ $ 44-56 mm. (1-73-2-23"). 

Hab. The N.W. Himalayas up to 4000 ft. ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; 
Bhutan ; Bengal ; Centi'al, Western and Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Larva. " Cylindrical, tapering at the anal end ; finely white- 
dotted, with a lower lateral white line. Feeds on Capparis" 
(Thwaites.) 

Pupa. " Greenish ; thorax and basal abdominal segment acutely 
angled." (de Niceville MS.) 

Var. daplia*, Moore, differs very little from the typical form, 
and the differences seem constant only in the wet-season brood. 
Specimens of the dry-season brood approximate much more closely 
to the typical form. 

Wet-season brood. J Upperside : almost as in nerissa $ , but 
in many specimens the greyish-white preapical streaks on fore 
wing iu continuation of the ground-colour of the wing are entirely 
absent, the apex wholly black ; the subterrainal black bar between 
veins 1 and 2 most often obsolete. Hind wing: as in nerissa. 
Underside : as in nerissa, but the suffusion of yellow confined to 
the basal half of the costal margin of the fore wing rarely extended 
to the apex, while on the hind wing it spreads only over the basal 
half of the wing. On the fore wing the subterminal black bar 
between veins 1 and 2 is absent or sometimes barely indicated 
by a little diffuse black scaling. Hind wing : a series of inter- 
nervular outer slender black streaks confined generally to the 
posterior portion of the wing. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the typical form. $ differs from the $ of nerissa 
on the upperside in the black margins to the veins on both fore 
and hind wings, which are much narrower and leave a very much 
greater extent of the white ground-colour apparent. On the 



* The Pieris copia of Wallace has been generally considered to represent the 
wet-season form, Appias dapha the dry-season form. The types of both are 
now in the British Museum. The former is labelled "Bengal," and is identical 
with specimens of true nerissa, from Sikhim; tbe latter "Moulmein," and, 
judging from its size and the colour of the underside of the hind wing, I think 
it is undoubtedly the tf (dry-season brood) of tbe variety of nerissa peculiar to 
Burma. 



HUPHINA. 187 

underside it can be recognized at once, as the suft'usion of yellow 
on both fore and hind wings is restricted just as it is in the d ; 
the apex of the fore wing, however, is also tinged with yellow. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d 1 . 

Dry-season brood. d $ Very similar to specimens of the dry- 
season brood of nerissa, but always smaller. So far as the 
markings go, both on the upper and under sides, it is so similar 
that size alone is the criterion. 

Exp. d $ 52-63 mm. (2-02-2-48"). 

Hab. Recorded, so far as I know, only from Burma. 

Race lichenosa, Moore. d . Upperside : white. Fore wing : 
basal half of costal margin tinged with greenish yellow and 
irro rated sparsely with black scales ; apical third of the wing 
obliquely from the costa to the tornal angle jet-black, the inner 
margin of this irregular and more or less sinuous ; an obscure 
whitish subterminal spot on the black area in interspace 3 ; vein 4 
and the lower discocellular sometimes slightly marked with black 
scales, the rest of the veins on the basal two-thirds of the wings 
more or less of the same tint as the ground-colour. Hind wing : 
terminal margin anteriorly black, the terminal portion of the 
anterior veins very finely black. Underside : white. Fore wing : 
the costal margin very broadly and the apex suffused with greenish 
yellow ; median vein on the inner side broadly bordered with 
dusky-black, continued along the basal half of vein 4 and then 
transversely downwards as a black band, diffuse below vein 3. 
Hind wing : so densely suffused with greenish yellow as to leave 
only obscure elongate spots of the ground-colour apparent in the 
anterior interspaces ; the whole surface of the wing more or less 
closely irrorated with black scales. Antennae black, speckled with 
white on their inner side ; head and thorax with long greenish 
hairs ; abdomen greenish white ; beneath : the palpi and abdomen 
white, the long hairs on the former tipped with black ; thorax 
greenish yellow. $ . Similar to the d both on the upper and 
under sides, but darker owing to the broad dusky-black border to the 
veins on both the upper and under sides. Antenna?, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the d 

Exp. d $ 60-70 mm. (2-35-2-78"). 

Hab. Andamans. 

Leaving lichenosa out as a fairly well marked and distinct insular 
race, very constant in its markings, H. nerissa and its varieties are 
most puzzling forms. I have examined the genitalia of typical 
males of nerissa, pliryne and dapha, and they seem to be identical. 
I am not certain, however, whether the test of identity in the 
shape and structure of the male genitalia is an entirely reliable 
one. Provisionally I have placed pliryne and daplia as varieties 01 
nerissa, till careful breeding experiments can determine whether 
the above three are mere varieties, one of the other, or distinc 
forms, for their distribution is peculiar. H. phryne, for instance 



188 

occurs with H. nerissa in Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, but else- 
where in its range it is the representative form where typical 
nerissa does not occur. Again as to dapha, though specimens of 
the dry-season brood are almost identical in markings with 
specimens of the dry-season brood of nerissa, the wet-season 
forms of daplia are peculiarly coloured and occur only in Burma, 
from whence wet- and dry-season forms of nerissa have also been 
recorded. 

605. Huphina nadina, Lucas (Pieris), Rev. et May. Zool. (2) iv, 
1852, p. 333 ; de Niceville (Huphina), Gazetteer of Sikhim, 1894, 
p. 168; Moore (Iluphina). Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 214, pi. 545, 
tigs. 2, 2 a-2 e, c? . 

Pieris nama, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 76, rf $ ; 
Watson (Huphina), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 495, 
pi. 2, figs. 6, 7; Swinhoe (Huphina), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, 
p. 309. 

Pieris amba, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 340, rf; 
Swinhoe (Huphina), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, p. 309. 

Appias amboides, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 46, rf. 

Race andamana. 

Huphina nama, var. andamana, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 398. 
Huphina andamana, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 217, pi. 546, 
figs. 1, la, 16,^?. 

"Race remba. 

Pieris remba, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 75, rf; 

id. (Huphina) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 137, pi. 53, figs. 2, 2 a, rf; 

Hampton (Iluphina), J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 363 ; Watson 

(Huphina), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 496; Davidson, 

Bell $ Aitken (Huphina), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 575 ; 

Moore (Huphina), Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 217, pi. 546, figs. 2, 2 a- 

2e, <J2. 

Huphina liquida, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) v, 1890, p. 361. 
Huphina cingala, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1904, p. 219, pi. 546, 

figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, <f . 

Wet-season brood. c? Upperside : white. Fore wing : basal 
half of costal margin suffused with greenish yellow and irrorated 
sparsely with black scales ; apex from the middle of the costa and 
termen black, the inner margin of the . black arched and acutely 
produced inwards along the veins, the black on the termen 
narrowed posteriorly and in interspaces 1 a and 1 reduced to a mere 
thread. Hind wing : terminal margin with a broad dark band, due to 
the markings of the underside that show through by transparency, 
the darkness accentuated by a slight irroration of black scales ; 
apices of some of the anterior veins black, in some specimens these 
are dilated and form a narrow anterior black border. Underside: 
white. Fore wing: costal margin and apex very broadly suffused 
with greenish yellow and irrorated more or less densely with black 



HUPHINA. 189 

scales, these latter form also diffuse subterminal patches on the 
white ground-colour in interspaces 3 and 4 ; a preapical oblique 
short band bright yellow, its margins ill-defined ; in interspaces 1 
to 3 the black terminal markings on the upperside show through as 
a greyish-blue shade. Hind wing : suffused with greenish-yellow 
that leaves only a broad streak in the cell (continued beyond in 
interspaces 4 and 5) of the white ground-colour apparent; the 
whole surface of the wing more or less densely irrorated with 
black scales, these have a tendency to form a broad lower obscure 
discal dark patch and a broad terminal margin, the space between 
these two bright yellow ; a spot of bright yellow also in inter- 
space 6. Antennae black ; the head and thorax anteriorly with 
long greenish hairs, thorax posteriorly with greyish-blue pile : 
abdomen black with short white hair-like scales ; beneath : the palpi 
with blackish hairs, the thorax yellow, abdomen white. $ . Upper- 
side, fore wing : dark brownish black ; an oval, elongate, broad 
streak in cell, continued beyond into the base of interspace 4, 
broad streaks outwardly ill-defined from bases of interspaces 2 
and 3, a large subterminal spot in interspace 1 and a pretornal 
short streak along the dorsal margin, white. The amount of white 
marking is variable in some specimens, nearly the whole of the cell 
and the greater portion of the basal area of interspace 1 are some- 
times also white. Hind wing : dark brownish black fading to dusky 
brownish white posteriorly ; cell, basal half of interspace 4 and an 
elongate, broad, outwardly pointed streak in interspace 5 white. 
Underside : similar to that of the J , but the white area on the 
fore wing more restricted and of a purplish tint, the dusky-black 
shading on the disc that borders the green on the apical area 
broader, and the greater portion of interspaces 1 a and 1 also 
shaded with dusky purplish-black. Hind wing : darker than in the 
cJ , the veins more pi'otninently bordered with black scaling, the 
posterior, discal, ill-defined, dark band or patch broader and more 
conspicuous. Antenna3, head, thorax and abdomen purplish 
brown, the thorax with some long greyish hairs ; beneath : the 
palpi and thorax greenish yellow, abdomen whitish. 

Dry-season brood. <5 Upperside : similar to the upperside in 
the wet-season brood, but the black on the apex and termen of the 
fore wing not nearly so broad, on the latter often not reaching 
vein 1 ; on the hind wing the black is reduced to a sparse 
powdering of black scales along the termen. Underside : similar 
to that of the wet-season brood but the greenish-yellow suffusion 
replaced entirely by ochraceous brown; on the hind wing the white 
markings of the wet-season form replaced by a paler ochraceous 
shade than on the rest of the wing; the veins all broadly bordered 
with irrorated black scaling ; the discal obscure transverse band 
more or less as in specimens of the wet-season brood, but often 
obsolescent. Antennae black, head and thorax anteriorly ochraceous 
brown, thorax medially and posteriorly with long bluish-grey pile, 
abdomen black with short white hair-like scaling ; beneath : the 



190 PIERIDJE. 

palpi ochraceous with some black hairs, thorax ochraceous brown, 
abdomen white. ? . Upper and under sides : very similar to those of 
the wet-season ? , but the blackish-brown colouring on the upper- 
side paler and duller in tint. Underside: differs in the yellowish- 
green suffusion on both fore and hind wings, which is replaced by 
ochraceous brown. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
the c?. 

Exp. 3 $ 58-74 mm. (2-28-2-92"). 

Hab. N.E. India : Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam : Silhet ; the Khasia 
Hills; Manipur : Upper and Lower Burma; the Shan States; 
Tenasserim. 

liace andamana, Swinhoe. A slightly differentiated but, 
because insular, very constant form. The <$ may be discriminated 
from the wet-season form of typical nadina as follows : on the 
upperside by the greater extent of the black on the apex and termen 
of the fore wing ; on the underside of the same wing, by the width 
and prominence of th& black inner border to the greenish-yellow 
area on the apex ; on the hind wing by the reduction of the 
white markings to a large yellowish-white spot on the discocellulars, 
also by the greater prominence of the broad dark discal band. 
These differences seem constant. The $ is a much lighter 
coloured insect on the upperside than the $ of typical nadina. In 
fact it closely resembles its own c? , but differs as follows : 
Upperside : base broadly of both fore and hind wings and the 
greater portion of the latter wing also, posteriorly dusky-grey and 
irrorated with black scales ; black on apex and termen of fore 
wing more extended ; it commences on the costa above and reaches 
the upper apex of the cell. On the hind wing the anterior veins 
are broadly black-margined towards their apices, where they form 
an irregular anterior black terminal band. Underside : precisely as 
in 'the rf 

Exp. d $ 64-73 mm. (2-52-2-88"). 

Hab. The Andamans. 

There seems to be no dry -season form corresponding to that in 
typical nadina, but certain specimens taken in March and April 
have the black on the upperside of the fore wing much restricted. 

liace remba, Moore. Wet-season brood. J $ . Eesembles the 
wet-season brood of typical nadina, from which it differs as 
follows: J . Upperside: ground-colour similar. Fore wing: outer 
half from the middle of the costa obliquely, to before the 
tornal angle, intense black, the base with a bluish shade. Hind 
wing : base, terminal margin broadly below vein 5 and costal margin 
above vein 6, irrorated with black scales ; termen anteriorly from 
apex to vein 4 decreasingly black. Underside : white, costal margin 
and apex broadly suffused with greenish yellow ; a large prominent 
bright yellow preapical spot, below which is a larger black irregular 
patch angulated at and touching the lower apex of the cell. Hind 



HTTPHIKA. 191 

wing : greenish yellow, the veins black ; a dense irroration of black 
scales across the middle of the wing, its interior margin sharply 
defined and extended from costa through the cell to vein 1 ; the 
lower discal and tornal areas less densely covered with the 
irrorated black scaling : a bright, greenish-yellow, irregular spot in 
middle of interspace 6. Antennaa dark brown, head and thorax 
anteriorly with greenish-yellow pile ; thorax medially and pos- 
teriorly with long bluish-grey hairs ; abdomen black ; beneath : 
palpi and thorax yellow, abdomen white. $ . Upperside : dark 
brownish black. Fore wing : base of cell and upper basal half of 
interspace 1 white densely irrorated with black scales ; the apical 
half of cell, base of interspace 3, basal two-thirds of interspace 2, 
a subterminal large round spot in interspace 1 and a pretornal 
short stripe on the dorsum, white. Hind wing: a more or less 
triangular, central area white, its lower margin abruptly transverse, 
its base and posterior half irrorated with black scales. Underside : 
much as in the c? , but on the fore wing the dusky purplish-black 
patch below the preapical yellow spot larger and more prominent. 
On the hind wing the dark irregular discal area also more prominent. 
Antenna3, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d 1 . 

Dry-season brood. d . Upperside : similar to that of the tf of 
the wet-season brood, but the black area on the fore wing much 
restricted so that it occupies little more than the apical third 
instead of the apical half of the wing. On the hind wing the 
anterior terminal black edging much narrower. Underside, fore 
wing : white ; costal margin and apex broadly dull ochraceous with 
a yellow tint, this colour on the apex margined on its inner side 
by an irregular dusky, blackish, subtriangular patch. Hind wing : 
dull ochraceous with a yellow tint as on the costa and apex of 
fore wing ; an irregular transverse dusky discal band, that does not 
reach the costa or the dorsum, somewhat sparsely irrorated with 
black scales. $ . Similar to the d but darker, the black markings 
on both fore and hind wings on the upperside similar but slightly 
broader ; on the underside all the markings paler and duller than 
in the c? . 

Exp. c? 52-62 mm. (2-05-2-44"). 

Hab. Southern India ; Ceylon. 

This is more or less a variable insect. Ceylon specimens 
differ in the relative width of the black markings and in the 
general paleness and dull tint of the greenish yellow on the under- 
side ; these Moore has separated off as cinc/ala. 

Larva and pupa are said to be " scarcely distinguishable from 
those of the last species [i. e. pliryne] and [the former?] feeds on 
the same plants." (Davidson, Bell fy Aitken.) 



192 



Genus IXIAS. 

Ixias, Hiibtier, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 95. 
Thestias, Boisduval, Spec. G6n. Up. i, 1836, p. 590. 

Type, I. pyrene, Linn., from India and China. 

Range. Indo-Malayan Eegion and China. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa regularly arched ; apex rounded or 

obtuse ; ternien straight ; tornus rounded ; dorsum very slightly 
sinuous ; cell comparatively broad, 
about half length of wing; upper 
discocellular absent, middle and lower 
concave, the former much shorter 
than the latter, vein 5 therefore 
closer to 7 than to 4 ; vein 6 from 
lower side of 7, beyond apex of cell ; 
vein 8 absent ; vein 9 from apical 
third of 7 ; veins 10 and 11 free, from 
apical half of subcostal vein, 10 
equidistant from apex of cell and 
base of vein 11. Hind wing: short 
and broad ; cell broad, upper disco- 
cellular shorter than middle, the 
lower the longest, slightly concave 

Fig. 50. Mas pyrcne, venation, in its upper half; termen more or 
less obtusely pointed at apex of 

vein 2. Antennae about half length of fore wing, club gradually 

spatulate, blunt at apex ; eyes naked ; legs slender, claws very small, 

strongly curved. 

" In this genus seasonal variation is shown on the upperside by 

the black markings being broader and more prominent, and on the 

underside in the ocelli and other markings tending to become 

obsolete in the rainy-season forms." ( Watson.) 




Key to the forms of Ixias. 



a. Upperside both -wings : ground-colour clear 

gamboge-yellow. 
a'. Uppevside fore wing : ground-colour not 

extended into base of interspace 3. 
a 2 . Upperside fore wing : preapical orange 
patch extended into and across apex of 
cell. 

3 . The extension of orange colour into apex 
of cell interrupted, present above and , j 

below ; a black discocellular spot \ '- . r 

b\ The extension of orange colour into cell ' ,W "'" 

not interrupted, passes across cell . . . . \ Py rene > va 
b*. Upperside fore wing : preapical orange patch ' CJJt #*i P- *- 

extended only into upper apex of cell \ Py rene > var - 

j ptrenassa, p. 194. 



IXIAS. 193 

b'. Upperside fore wing : ground-colour extended I /. pyrene, yar. 

into base of interspace 3 j cingalensis, p. 194. 

b. Upperside both wings : ground-colour pale 

yellowish white I. verna, p. 195. 

<. Upperside both wings : ground-colour pure 

white. 
'. Upperside fore wing: preapical orange patch 

extended into upper apex of cell /. marianne, p. 196. 

b'. Upperside fore wing : preapical orange patch 

not extended into cell I. nola, p. 197. 

606. Ixias pyrene (PL XVIII, figs. 118, 120 rf, 119 $ ), Linn. 

(Papilio) Mus. Ulr. 1764, p. 241 ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 

1888, p. 420; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, 

pp. 503-508. 

Papilio evippe, Drury, III. Ex. Ins. i, 1773, p. 11, pi. 5, fig. 2 J. 
Papilio rhexia et sesia, Fab): Sust. Ent. 1775, p. 476 ; # Gen. Ins. 

1777, p. 257. 
Thestias pirenassa, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 395, 

pi. 9, fig. 4 rf . 

Ixias latifasciata. Sutler, P. 7.. S. 1871, p. 252, pi. 19, fig. 3 rf. 
Ixias satadra, kausala et raoulmeinensis, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) 

xx, 1877, pp. 49 & 50, $ P. Z. S. 1878, p. 837. 
Ixias frequens, dharmsala?, et watti, Butler, P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 150, 

151, pi. 15, figs. 6 & 7, 8 & 9, & 1. 

Ixias cin<?alensis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881 , p. 126, pi. 50, figs. 2, 2 a. 
Ixias ihoda et colaba. Stein/we, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 142, pi. 9, figs. 3 & 

4, &6. 

Dry-season brood. rf Upperside : deep sulphur-yellow. Fore 
wing : base and basal half of costa thickly irrorated with black 
scales ; apical half of the wing black, with an enclosed, large, 
irregularly triangular, orange-coloured patch, the apex of which is 
more or less broadly rounded and blunt ; the orange colour extends 
into the apex of the cell but is interrupted there by a black disco- 
cellular spot that spreads diffusely inwards and joins the black 
oblique bar which forms the base of the orange patch ; veins that 
traverse this latter, black. Hind wing : uniform with a little black 
scaling at extreme base ; termen with a dusky-black somewhat 
narrow border (sometimes entirely absent) which decreases in 
width posteriorly. Underside : a darker yellow, sparsely irrorated 
with fusco-ferruginous short strigae and minute spots. Fore wing : 
base and posterior area broadly, with a whitish pale virescent tint ; 
the strigae and minute spots most numerous towards the apex and 
along the termen ; interspaces 4, 5, 6 and 8 with a curved) sub- 
apical series of small, rounded, dull ferruginous spots and a similar 
spot on the discocellulars. Hind wing also with a ferruginous spot 
on the discocellulars, followed by a postdiscal series of similar spots 
in interspaces 3 to 8, all or most of them centred with white ; the 
spots in interspaces 5, 6 and 8 the largest, those in 5 and 6 often 
coalescent. Antennae and thorax anteriorly dull ferruginous, 
thorax posteriorly and abdomen above fuscous black ; head, thorax 
and abdomen beneath yellow. $ . Upperside : white faintly 

VOL. II. O 



194 PIEBID.E. 

tinged with yellow. Fore wing : apical half black, with an enclosed, 
irregular, broad, oblique patch of the ground-colour that extends 
into the upper apex of the cell, on the inner side of this the black 
is reduced to a short oblique bar broadened at the lower apex of 
the cell, from whence it is continued as a somewhat slender diffuse 
oblique streak to the tornus, where it broadens again abruptly and 
meets the black on the termen ; the outer margin of the oblique 
white patch is irregularly crenulate, sometimes trisinuate ; the black 
colour on the apex often forms a right angle on vein 4 ; on the 
white patch posteriorly there is a black spot in interspace 2 and 
another in interspace 3. Hind wing: uniform, a few subobso- 
lete slender, fuscous, transverse strigse posteriorly ; the terminal 
margin sometimes with (more often without) a narrow dusky 
black edging, broadened anteriorly at the apices of the veins. 
Underside : similar to that in the c? , with similar markings, the 
ground-colour a dark dull ochraceous, the fusco-ferruginous strigae 
more numerous. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? . 
Wet-season brood. J $ . Upperside : differs in the broader, more 
pronounced, black terminal edging to the hind wing, which is often 
remarkably broad, and in the $ by the ground-colour which is 
pale yellow. Underside : the fusco-ferruginous strigae and spots 
often subobsolete, occasionally entirely absent in the rf . 

Exp. <5 $ 43-62 mm. (T70-2-45"). 

Sab. K early throughout our limits, but not in the desert parts ; 
extends to China and the Malayan Subregion. 

This insect was described originally from a dry-season J , 
probably from China. It is most variable in size, and in seasonal 
dimorphisms of colour. It is also subject more or less to 
local variation, according to the humidity or dryness of the 
climate in particular localities. Moreover, the characters peculiar 
to the dry- or wet-season form are most unstable. It is not 
uncommon to find specimens with the wet-season character of a 
broad, black border to the hind wing on the upperside, and on the 
underside with the prominent fusco-ferruginous transverse strigre 
and spots, associated with the dry-season form. Again in the J , 
the width of the orange patch on the fore wing is very variable. 
Broadly speaking however, and taking the males only, /. pyrene 
can be divided into two groups. 

(1) Pyrene group. Fore wing : with the orange patch on the 
upperside broad, extended right across the apex of the cell, but in 
typical pyrene interrupted there by a black discocellular spot. To 
this group belong evippe, Drury, rliexia, Fabr., sesia, Fabr., and 
latifasciata, Butler. 

(2) Pirenassa group. Fore wing : with the orange patch on 
the upperside narrower, extending only into the upper apex of 
the cell. To this group belong Jcausala, Moore, satadra, Moore, 
moulmeinensis, Moore, frequens, Butler, dharmsalce, Butler, luatti, 
Butler, cingalensis, Moore, jhoda, Swinhoe, and alana, Swinhoe. 
In the key to the forms I have diagnosed the differences in three 
of the principal varieties. 



IXIAS. 195 

607. Ixias verna, Druce, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 108, pi. 16, figs. 5, 6, 3 $ ; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 503-507 ; Butler, 
A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 142. 

Ixias latifasciala, Butler, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 252, pi. 19, fig. 3, <$ only. 
Ixias pallida et citrina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 837. 

Race andamana. 

Ixias andamana, Moore, P. Z.S. 1877, p. 590 ; Grose-Smith 8f Kirby, 

Rhop. Ex. i, 1888, Ixias, p. 1, pi. 1, figs. 1-3, <J 2 ; Watson, Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 503-507 ; JJutler, A. M. N. H. 

(7) i, 1898, p. 142. 
Ixias lena, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) v, 1890, p. 357 ; Watson, 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 507-524. 

Wet-season brood. c? . Upperside : white, apical half of fore and 
terminal margin of hind wing black. The white ground-colour 
suffused with very pale sulphur-yellow, this colour deepens to 
a pure sulphur along the margins of the areas occupied by the 
ground-colour. Tore wing : base shaded with blackish scales ; 
the black apical half with a large oblique orange patch that 
occupies the middle of interspace 2, basal two-thirds or more of 
interspaces 3 to 6, 10 and 11, and extends into the apex of cell 
where it is interrupted by a black spot on the discocellulars ; this 
in some specimens ( J. pallida, Moore) entirely tills the lower apex 
of the cell. Underside : sulphur-yellow, the fore wing posteriorly 
below the cell much paler; both wings with sparsely scattered 
fusco-ferruginous strigae and minute dots ; the spot on the disco- 
cellulars the most prominent. $ . Somewhat similar to the <$ . 
Upperside : the pale sulphur-yellow ground-colour much restricted; 
on the fore wing it extends only over the basal two-thirds of 
interspaces 1 a and 1, and the basal fourth of interspace 2; the 
orange patch much narrower and irregular, 'forms a short curved 
band beyond apex of cell that does not quite reach the costal 
margin ; a large elongate spot with a small black spot within the 
orange, towards its apex, in interspace 3 and an irregular hatchet- 
shaped spot below this in interspace 2. Hind wing: the black on the 
terminal margin spreads over fully one-third of the wing. Under- 
side : similar to that of the <$ , the fusco-ferruginous strigee more 
numerous, the discocellular spots much larger, an obscure discal 
series of transverse reddish spots on both wings ; on the fore 
wing a very large and prominent patch of reddish brown above 
the tornus. 

Dry-season brood (/. citrina, Moore). Differs from the wet- 
season form as follows : tf $ Upper side fore wing : the orange 
patch slightly wider ; hind wing : the black terminal margin 
narrower. Underside : both wings with more or less prominent 
transverse discal series of reddish-brown spots, centred with white, 
the fusco-ferruginous strigaa and minute spots more abundant. 
Antennae deep reddish brown, head and thorax anteriorly with a 
little reddish-brown pubescence ; abdomen above black, beneath : 
pale yellowish white. 

Exp. ^ $ 53-62 mm. (2-1-2-45"). 

o 2 



196 PIERIUJE. 

Hob. Assam; Cachar ; Burma; Tenasserim ; extending to Siam 
and into the north of the Malay Peninsula. 

Race andamana, Moore. <f $ . Closely resembles the typical 
form both in wet- and dry-season specimens, but is larger with 
brighter colours ; the orange patch on the fore wing distinctly a 
rich orange-red and proportionately narrower than in 1. verna. 
The dry-season form (/. lena, Swinhoe) has the ferruginous discal 
series of spots, and on the fore wing the reddish-brown tornal 
patch characteristic of dry-season specimens, very conspicuous 
and prominent. 

Exp. <$ 2 04-74 mm. (2-54-2-94"). 

Hab. The Andamans. 

608. Ixias marianne, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. iii, 1782, pi. 217, 
tigs. C-E; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1893, pp. 507, 
508, pi. 2, figs. 17-19 ; Butler, A. M N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 143. 

Ixias agniverna, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 177, p. 50. 

Ixias depalpura, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 153, pi. 24, tigs. 6, 7. 

Ixias meridionalis et cumballa, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 140, 
pi. 9, fig. 5, & p. 141, pi. 9, figs. 13 & 14. 

Wet-season brood. tf . Upperside : chalk-white ; apical half of 
fore and terminal margin of hind wing broadly black, the black 
on the latter broadest anteriorly. Fore wing: a broad rich 
orange patch obliquely across the black area extended to the upper 
apex of the cell, narrowed posteriorly and spread above the tornus 
into interspace 1 ; opposite the apex of the cell this orange patch 
is very broad and leaves only the apex of the wing and a compara- 
tively narrow band along the termen and costa black ; base of the 
wing irrorated with black scales. Underside : rich sulphur-yellow 
as in most of the forms of the genus, irrorated with fusco- 
ferruginous, short, transverse strigse and minute dots. Fore wing : 
the orange patch of the upperside plainly seen by transparency 
on the disc ; a broadly triangular area below the cell white ; 
discocellular spot large and prominent, centred with white. Both 
fore and hind wings with the discal transverse series of reddish- 
brown spots, in other forms characteristic of the dry-season 
broods, present and more or less conspicuous, the spots always 
centred with white ; on the fore wing the patch above the tornus 
prominent and in some specimens very large. Antenna? reddish 
brown, head and thorax anteriorly with reddish-brown hairs, thorax 
above with white hairs, abdomen black ; beneath : head, thorax and 
abdomen white. $ Upperside : similar. Fore wing : the orange 
patch on the black apical area narrower, posteriorly truncate, not 
extended below interspace 2 ; an outer transverse series of four 
black spots on the orange parch in interspaces 2 to 5. Underside : as 
in the d , the markings slightly larger. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen similar. 

Dry-season brood In both sexes this differs less from the wet- 



IXIAS. A.PPIAS. 197 

season form than it does in /. pyrene and /. verna. The charac- 
teristic dry-season markings on the underside are more pronounced, 
sometimes remarkably so. 

Exp. <$ $ 54-56 mm. (2- 15-2-61"). 

Hub. N. W. Himalayas as far east as Kumaon ; Punjab ; Bengal ; 
Central, Western and Southern India ; Ceylon. 

609. Ixias nola, Sicinhoe, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 399 ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 503-508 ; Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 
1898, p. 143. 

d" $ . Very closely resembles I. marianne in both sexes, but the 
few specimens I have seen are constant in coloration, and differ 
from marianne as follows : <5" . Upperside, fore wing : orange 
patch on black apical half narrow, not extended to the discoidal 
cell at all, the black that borders it on the inner side subobsolete 
below vein 4. Hind wing : the black terminal border is much 
restricted and occupies in some specimens only the anterior 
third of the terminal margin, in no specimen is there more 
than a mere indication of it on the posterior portion of the 
termen. Underside: similar to the underside of /. marianne. 
$ . Upperside, fore wing : the orange patch on black apical half 
still narrower ; the black that borders it on the inner side com- 
pletely interrupted between veins 3 and 4 ; the outer series of 
black spots on the orange so conspicuous in marianne reduced to 
one in interspace 3 and another in interspace 4. Hind wing : as in 
the <5 . Underside : similar to that in 1. 'marianne $ . AntennaB, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in that form. 

Exp. <f $ 50-55 mm. (1-95-2-20"). 

Hab. So far as recorded confined to Mahableshwar, one of the 
high peaks of the Western Ghats in the Satara district, at from 
3500 to 4500 feet. 

It is very doubtful if this is not a variety of /. marianne. A 
local observer is wanted who will devote his attention to the 
breeding of this form, and to that of I. marianne, which probably 
occurs with it. 

Genus APPIAS. 

Appias, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 91. 

Catophaga, Hiibner, torn. cit. p. 93. 

Hiposcritia, Geyer in Hiibner's Zutr. Exot. Schmett. iv, 1832, p. 16. 

Tachyris, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 361. 

Type, A. zelmira, Cramer, from India. 

Ranye. Indo-Malayan Kegion. 

c? 5 . Fore wing : costa widely arched ; apex acute, subacute,. 
slightly rounded or slightly falcate, always more rounded in 
the $ than in the d 1 ; termen straight ; tornus well-marked ; 
dorsum straight or slightly sinuous ; cell always a little longer 
than half the length of the wing ; vein 6 out of 7 beyond apex 



198 




Fig. 51. Appia* hippo, 
venation. 



of more or less stiff hairs below. 



PIEUID-E. 

of cell, upper discocellular therefore 
absent ; middle discocellular concave, 
in typical Applets equal to lower dis- 
cocellular, in other forms shorter ; the 
lower discocellular concave : vein 8 
absent, 9 out of 7, the fork closer or 
even much closer to apex of wing than 
to apex of cell; veins 10 and 11 free, 
10 always from before apex of cell. 
Hind wing more or less broadly pear- 
shaped ; veins 1 , 1 to 8 present. An- 
tenna* about half length of fore wing 
or a little longer ; club well-marked and 
flattened, but more or less gradual; 
palpi slender, third joint long; eyes 
naked ; abdomen in <5 with anal brushes 



Key to the forms of Appias. 

A. Upperside : light orange, darker orange, or crim- 

son ; veins more or less defined with black. ... A. nero, p. 202. 

B. Upperside : white, sometimes tinged with pale 

yellow, never orange or crimson'; veins in $ 
only, sometimes defined with black. 
a. Fore wing : veins 5 and 7 approximated at base ; 
middle discocellular more than half length of 
lower discocellular. 

a. Upperside fore wing : outer black margin or 
area not produced inwardly in interspace 3. 
fr. Both sexes : underside hind wing with a 
terminal black band ; J , underside fore 
wing : a prominent yellow or white sub- 
apical spot. 

3 . Underside hind wing: deep yellow, 
anterior veins defined with black in 
wet-season form, concolorous with 

wing in dry-season form 

b 3 . J , underside hind wing : pale yellow, 
veins concolorous with wings at all 

seasons 

r 3 . J , underside hind wing : deep yellow, 
anterior veins prominently edged with 
black scales in wet-season form, nar- 
rowly black in dry-season form, never 

concolorous with wings 

A 2 . Both sexes : underside hind wing with no 
terminal black band ; c? , underside fore 
wing : no subapical yellow or white spot. 
ft 3 , tf , underside : pure white in wet-season 
form, tinged with ochraceous in dry- 
season form. 

a 4 . J , underside hind wing: immacu- 
late at all seasons A . libythea, p. 200. 



\ A. hippo (typ.), 
j p. 203. 

\A. hippo, race 

p. 205. 



. A 



APPIAS. 199 

b l . cT , underside hind wing : veins more 

or less broadly black white only in ( A m h rftce 

extreme dry- season iorm ........ < /L om 

' ~^mtm, p. -UL 



V. rf, underside hind wing : yellow or 

ochraceous at all seasons. 
a *. (5 , upperside fore wing : outer black 
margin narrow, ill-defined, im- 
maculate at all seasons. 
<t 5 . 5 , underside fore wing : oblique 
curved black band on outer half 
broad, its outer margin more or 
less even ; <J , apex of fore wing 
blunt. 

a'''. (J, upper and under sides fore 
wing : without a postdiscal 
black spot in interspace 3; 
upperside white ............ A. paulina, p. 210. 

b e . (5, upper and under sides fore 
wing : a postdiscal black spot 
in interspace 3, sometimes faint 
and ill -denned, but always 
traceable ; upperside cream- 
colour .................... 

f/'. , underside fore wing : oblique 
curved black baud on outer half 
narrow, its outer margin uneven, 
zigzag ; d> , apex of fore wing 
sharply pointed .............. A. albina, p. 212. 

V. $ , upperside fore wing : outer black margin 

or area produced inwardly in interspaces*. 

a-, (f , underside fore win^ : oblique, curved, 

black band on outer half terminated on 

vein 2, sometimes reduced to a mere 

black spot in interspace 3 ............ A. leis, p. 213. 

b-. c? , underside fore wing : oblique, curved, 
black band on outer half extended to 
tornal angle or altogether absent ...... A . wardi, p. 214, 

Fore wing : veins o and 7 approximate at base, 
middle discocellular less than half length of 
lower discocellular. 
n'. $ , upperside fore wing : no isolated disco- 

cellular black spot. 
2 . J, upperside fore wing: no prominent 

discocellular black band. 
\ c?, underside fore wing: the diseal 
black band narrow ; hind wing not 
richly coloured in wet-season form . . A. indra, p. 205. 
I 3 . cJ > underside fore wing : diseal black 

band broad ; hind wing richly coloured , A , 

in wet-season form ..!.... . ........ \ A ' mdra > race om 

V. rf, upperside fore wing: a broad black ' >^> P- 207. 
band from before middle of costa that 
crosses discocellular nervules and joins t . , , 

outer black margin . \ A ' lal ^ c ' race , m 

) lagela, p. 209 

* Except in dry-season form of A. lets. 



200 

//. J , upperside fore wing : generally with an 
isolated discocellular black spot. $ . Wet- 
season form : upperside fore wing with a , * j a i aflp i t vn \ 
black discocellular band as in lagela j "* Ma 9 e ^^ 

610. Appias libythea, Fabr. (Papilio) Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 471 ; Moore, 
Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 134, pi. 52, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 $ ; Davidson $ 
Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 358 ; iid. torn. cit. x, 
1897, p. 573 ; Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 203, pi. 542, fig^. 2, 

Appias" ares, Swinhoe, 'P. Z. S. 1885, p. 138. 

Appias retexta, Surmhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) v, 1890, p. 360, rf $ . 

Race zelmira. 

Papilio zelmira, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv, 1782, pi. 320, figs. C, 1), $ . 

Appias zelmira, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 9l ; Watson, 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 497, pi. 2, figs. 1-5 ; Moore, 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 200, pi. 542, figs. 1, 1 a-f, <$ $ . 

Appias olferna, Sminhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) v, 1890, p. 358. 

Appias irvinii, Swinhoe, torn. cit. p. 359. 

Wet-season brood. rf . Upperside : pure white. Fore wing : 
costa, apex and termen anteriorly very narrowly shaded with 
dusky-black scales, the black colour produced very finely along 
the veins for a short distance ; the rest of the veins white. 
Underside : pure white, the black colour merely indicated along 
the costa and at apex. $ . Upperside : white. Fore wing : costa, 
the apex and termen very widely and the discoidal cell dusky 
black, the black in the cell produced in a broad streak to the 
black on the termen, so as to leave only a short oval oblique bar 
of the ground-colour beyond the cell ; the black on the terminal 
portion of the wing narrows posteriorly and has its inner margin 
irregular ; on the posterior inner portion of the wing also there 
is a somewhat diffuse dusky-black streak from base, narrowed out- 
wardly and not extended to the black on the terminal margin. 
Hind wing : terminal margin more or less broadly black ; a shading 
of dusky-black scales that forms a diffuse subcostal streak from 
base, and another more diffuse obscure streak across the disc 
that leaves between it and the dark terminal margin a series of, 
posteriorly, very ill-defined markings of the white ground-colour 
which decrease in size up to interspace 6. Underside : white with 
similar markings that are however, more diffuse. Fore wing : the 
black along the terminal margin interrupted by a series of streaks 
of the white ground-colour in the interspaces. Hind wing : the 
black scaling along the terminal margin very faint, the dusky 
shading on the basal and discal areas of the wing as on the upper- 
side, but more or less obsolescent ; a faint tinge of yellow on the 
humeral angle. Antennae in both sexes dusky black, obscurely 
spotted with white ; head, thorax and abdomen above bluish white ; 
beneath white. 

Dry-season brood. rf . Similar, but the narrow black markings 
on the fore wing still more restricted. $ also similar but the 



APPIAS. 201 

black markings of the upperside on the fore wing restricted to the 
upper half of the cell, and the markings on costa, the apex of 
the wing and the termen altogether much narrower than in the 
wet-season form. On the hind wing the markings are restricted 
to a narrow macular band along the termen, with mere indications 
of a dusky detached streak in the middle of the disc. Underside : 
white in both sexes ; apex of fore wing and the whole of the hind 
wing with an ochraceous tint. In the $ the black markings of 
the upperside show through by transparency. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the wet-season form. 

Exp. 3 $ 54-66 mm. (2-14-2-62"). 

Hob. The Punjab ; Mussoorie ; Delhi ; plains of Bengal ; 
Orissa ; Western and Southern India ; Ceylon. 

Larva. " Beared a good many in Bombay during April and 
May on Capparis horrida. The larva is long, green, somewhat 
depressed, and has the rough surface and general aspect of a 
Terias or a Catopsilia, but the anal extremity tapers a little, and 
is slightly, but distinctly, bifid." 

Pupa. " The pupa is of quite a different type from Terias or 
Catopsilia. It is closely attached to a leaf and the wing-cases do 
not form a keel, but there is an acute dorsal prominence just 
behind the head, and a transverse dorsal ridge in the middle 
connecting two angular lateral processes. The head ends in a 
short snout. The colour is variable and probably depends on 
situation." (Davidson f Aitken.) 

Race zelmira, Cramer. cf $ . Differs from the typical form as 
follows : Wet-season brood. c? Upperside, fore wing : base with 
an obscure bluish tint, costa more broadly black ; apex and terinen 
with a series of short, black streaks along the veins that are dilated 
at their inner apices, and thus form a more or less incomplete, 
transverse, postdiscal, excurved band that is not extended below 
vein 3. Hind wing with a terminal series of triangular spots at 
the apices of the veins. Underside : pure white. Fore wing : 
markings as on the upperside. Hind wing : all the veins except 
the basal portion of the median and of veins 5 and 6 conspicuously 
bordered with black ; this gives the appearance of a series of three 
transverse black lines that cross the wing, from the posterior one 
of which other black lines radiate to the termen ; humeral angle 
tinged with yellow. . Upperside : much as in libytliea, but the 
black markings broader, more clearly defined. Fore wing : an 
anterior, subterminal, transverse series of three or four elongate 
spots of the white ground-colour is conspicuously apparent on the 
black margin of the wing. Hind wing : the white ground-colour 
much restricted and appears merely as a comparatively large 
upper discal patch and four or five postdiscal spots. Underside : 
white ; the black markings of the upperside show well through by 
transparency, the areas covered by them are more or less densely 
irrorated on the hind wing with yellow scales, which are also less 
densely scattered over the apex of the fore wing. 

Dry-season brood. $ . Upperside : differs from the wet-season 



202 

form chiefly in the black streaks at apex and along the anterior 
portion of the termen on the fore wing, which do not extend so far 
inwards, although the streaks themselves are broader. Hind 
wing : the series of connected triangular black spots along the 
termen reduced to an incomplete series of terminal spots or alto- 
gether absent. Underside : white with an obscure yellowish tinge 
on the apex of the fore and the whole of the hind wing. Fore 
wing with an irroration of black scales along the basal half of the 
costa that spreads into the cell. Hind wing with a short diffuse 
cross-bar of like scales on the disc. $ . Upperside : as in the wet- 
season form, but the black markings are more restricted and allow 
more of the white ground-colour to appear. Underside : similar to 
the underside in the dry-season form of the J , but the irroration 
of black scales on the fore wing fills the cell, extends in a narrow 
streak in interspace 4, and meets an oblique postdiscal lunular 
band of like scales ; on the hind wing the discal cross-bar of black 
scaling broader. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen in both 
sexes and in both seasonal forms as in libythea. 

Exp. <$ 54-G8 mm. (2-14-2-69"). 

Hab. Sikhim, at low elevations ; the plains of Bengal ; Assam ; 
Burma; Teuasserim ; extending to Siam. 

Both races seem to meet in the plains of Bengal, but broadly 
speaking libyihea is the M-estern and southern form, zelmira the 
eastern form. 

611. Appias nero (PI. XVI, fig. 108), Fdbr. (Papilio) Ent. Syst. iii, 

1793, p. 153 ; Moore (Pieris). Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i. 1857, 

p. 70: Wallace (Tachyris), Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 378; 

Elwes (Tachyris), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 418 ; Butler, P. Z. S. 

1872, p. 46; Distant, Mhop. Malay. 1885, p. 311, pi. 24, figs. 9, 

10, c?$. 

Pieris thyria, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix, 1819, p. 147. 
Pieris figulina, Butler, A. M. N. H. (3) xx, 1867, p. 399, pi. 8, 

fig. 1 $ . 
Tachyris galba, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 378 ; 

Watson (^Catophaga), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 499. 
Appias nebo, Grose-Smith $ Kirby, Shop. Exot. ii, 1894. Appias, 

pi. 1, %s. 1,2, rf. 

c? . Upperside : from vermilion to deep crimson-red, the veins 
more or less black ; in certain specimens the veins towards their 
apices, especially on the fore wing, are diffusely shaded with black ; 
terminal margins of both fore and hind wings and fore wing 
at apex irrprated and shaded with black scales. Underside : fore 
wing on apical area and nearly the whole of the hind wing rich 
chrome-yellow, base and disc of fore wing orange ; costa and dorsal 
margin of fore, and dorsal margin broadly of hind wing yellow ; 
veins concolorous. Antenna black, speckled sparsely with white, 
orange at apex; head, thorax and abdomen black with dark 
greyish-green hairs. $. Upperside: ground-colour similar, the 
markings differ as follows : Fore wing : costa narrowly, apex and 
termen more broadly black ; a short, very oblique black band from 



APPIAS. 203 

the middle of the cost a outwards, ending subterminally in inter- 
space 4, enclosed between it and the black on the terminal margin 
is a transverse spot of the ground-colour ; a transverse subterminal 
black bar also in interspace 2. similarly encloses between it and 
the black on the terminal margin a spot of the ground-colour. 
Hind wing : terminal margin neatly bordered with black, which 
extends for a short distance inwards along each vein. Underside, 
fore wing : base and disc vermilion-red, apex dusky ochraceous, 
with a pale ill-defined short bar that limits it on the inner side ; an 
oblique black band from costa and a short transverse similar band 
in interspace 2 as on the upperside, but indicated more by trans- 
parency than by actual scaling. Hind wing : dull ochraceous, 
darkening to ochraceous red along the terminal margin ; an 
irregular transverse diffuse purplish band across the disc. An- 
tennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d . 

Exp. rf 70-80 mm. (2-76-3-18"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; Assam ; Manipur ; Upper Burma : the Shan 
States ; Tenasserim ; extending to Siam ; the Malay Peninsula ; 
Nias Island ; Sumatra ; Java ; Borneo to the Philippines. 



012. Appias hippo, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. iii, 1782, pi. 195, 

figs. A, B ; Moore (Pieris), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 71; 

Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 670. 
Appias vacans, Sutler, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1870, p. 490 ; id. Lep. Exot. 

1872, p. 90, pi. 34, figs. 5, 6. 
Appias hippoides, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 312; id. Lep. 

2nd. vi, 1905, p. 194, pi. 540, figs. l,la-lg, <5 $, & pi. 541, 

figs. 1, la-lc, rf 2. 
Appias hippoides, var. epicoena, Swinhoe, P. Z. 8. 1889, p. 398. 

Race andrea. 

Colias andrea, Ersch. in Kotzeb. Reise, iii, 1821, p. 215, pi. 10, 
figs. 23 a, 236; Wallace (Tachyris), Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, 
p. 366. 

Appias nicobarica, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 198. 

Race taprobana. 

Appias taprobana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 143 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. i, 

1881, p. 135, pi. 52, figs. 1, l-lc, S $, larva & pupa; id. 

Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 198. pi. 541, figs. 2, 2 a-2c, <$ $ . 
pias vacans, Moore (nee Sutler), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 135, pi. 52, 
gs. 2, 2 a, d. 
Appias latifasciata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 312, J $ ; id. 

Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 199, pi. 541, figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b. 
Appias aperta, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xviii, 1886, p. 188 ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. iii, 1887,' p. 532. 
Appias (Catophaga) hippoides, Davidson, Bell Aitken (nee Moore), 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 574. 

Wet-season brood. 6*. Upperside'. white; along the costal 
margin of the fore wing and the terminal margin of the hind wing 
somewhat broadly bluish, due to the black colour of the underside 



Appi 
fi 



204 

that shows plainly through ; costal margin of fore wing irrorated 
densely on basal half, more sparingly on apical half, with black 
scales ; terminal margins of both fore and hind wings edged with 
black, this colour produced triangularly inwards along the veins 
for a short distance ; veins of both wings white, subcostal vein 
and veins above vein 6 on fore wing black. Underside, fore wing : 
white ; extreme base of costa irrorated with black scales, some- 
times condensed into a broad edging along the costal margin, which 
is widened at the apex and continued along the terminal margin in 
a gradually narrowing border to the tornus, the terminal edging 
inwardly produced along the veins as on the upperside ; a yellow 
or white oval spot superposed on the black area at the apex in 
interspace 6. Hind wing : sulphur-yellow ; veins concolorous ; 
terminal margin with a black edging as on the upperside but 
much broader, though not so prominently produced inwards along 
the veins. Antennae black, sparingly spotted with minute white 
dots ; head, thorax and abdomen white with a bluish tinge. 

$ . Upperside : dusky blackish brown, variegated more or less with 
white on the fore wing, in short somewhat broad streaks in inter- 
spaces 1, 2, 4 and 5 ; these streaks very variable in width and 
length. Hind wing on the basal half and along the dorsum broadly 
white ; the extent of the white is very variable and very ill- 
defined, shading imperceptibly into the dusky brown. Underside : 
fore wing similar, the white streaks much broader and longer ; 
an additional dusky-white longitudinal streak along middle of the 
cell ; base of wing dusted with yellow scales ; apex with a large 
diffuse purplish patch. Hind wing: basal two-thirds pale sulphur- 
yellow; apical third dusky brownish black, the margins of the two 
colours fairly sharply defined, veins crossing the disc black. An- 
tennae as in the d 1 ; head, thorax and abdomen above with greenish 
pubescence ; beneath white. 

Dry-season brood. <$ $ . Similar to the wet-season form but 
smaller. In the <$ the black edging to the wings both on the 
upper and under sides is narrower, often very markedly so. In 
the $ the differences are more conspicuous in the extreme forms. 
Specimens captured in the height of the hot weather or in specially 
dry localities resemble the <5 of the wet-season form, except that 
the irroration of black scales along the costal margin in the latter 
is replaced by a broad continuous streak, widened at apex and 
continued in a similar manner as in the J , along the terminal 
margin to the tornus, the inward prolongations of the black colour 
along the veins more marked. On the underside the dry-season 

$ very closely resembles the wet-season <$ , the only 'marked 
difference is the absence of the elongate oval spot in interspace 
in the fore wing. This form is the Appias Jiippoides, var. epiccena, 
Swinhoe. Between it and the dark wet-season form of the 
many intermediate individual specimens can be found in almost 
every large collection. 

Exp. rf $ 54-82 mm. (2-14-3-24"). 



APPIAS. 205 

Hob. Sikhim ; Lower Bengal ; Orissa ; Assam ; Burma ; 
Tenasserim ; extending into Siam and China to the east, and 
southwards to the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

Race andrea, Erscholtz. A slightly differentiated form scarcely 
established, even as a local race, as yet. It is sufficiently charac- 
terized in the key to the forms (supra). 

Exp. c? ? 68-76 mm. (2-66-3"). 

Hab. Recorded within our limits from the Nicobars. Found in 
the Philippines. 

Race taprobana, Moore. Wet-season brood (latifasciata, Moore). 
cT . Closely resembles the wet-season form of typical hippo, but 
the colours are brighter ; the black terminal bordering to the 
wings on both upper and under sides broader, especially on the 
underside of the hind wing, the yellow also on this wing is of a 
deeper, more vivid tint. It can, moreover, be discriminated from 
hippo tf at once by the subcostal vein and veins 6, 7 and 8 where 
they cross the yellow ground-colour, which are not cnocolorous but 
conspicuously edged with black scales, these latter often form a 
broad streak along the basal half of vein 7. $ . Does not differ 
materially from the wet-season form of the $ of hippo. In the 
few specimens of the females of this race that I have had an 
opportunity of examining, the dusky purplish-brown on the ter- 
minal half of the hind wing on the underside has always been 
broader than in the females of typical hippo. 

Dry-season brood. <$ . Can be separated from the typical form 
as follows: Upperside fore wing : vein 6 more or less broadly 
edged or denned with black. Underside hind wing: terminal 
black border much broader ; subcostal vein and veins 7 and 8 
black, not concolorous with the yellow ground-colour. $ . Differs 
only from the $ of hippo by the greater width of the purplish 
black terminal margin of the hind wing on the underside. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes as in typical 
hippo. 

Exp. d 1 $ 64-76 mm. (2-5-3"). 

Hab. Southern India : Malabar; Travancorc ; Ceylon. 

Larva and pupa. " We have bred from May to December on 
capers. The eggs are laid in clusters. The larva and pupa are 
not very different from those of the last species (A. libythea, supra); 
the pupa may be distinguished from the last by the second segment 
being produced laterally into a tongue-like process which embraces 
the shoulder." (Davidson, Bell $ Aitken.) 

613. Appias indra, Moore (Pieris), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 74 ; Wood-Mason 8f de Niceville (Hyposcritia), J. A. S. B. 1886, 
p. 372; Elwes (Tachyris), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 419; Moore 
(Hyposcritia), Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 226, pi. 549, ficrs. 1, la-lh, tf $ . 
Hyposcritia shiva, Sicinhoe, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 138, pi. 9, figs. 1, 2; 
'Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 49. 



206 FIERIER. 

Race narendra. 



Appias narendra, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 48, rf ; id. Lej). 
Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 134, pi. 61, figs. 4, 4 a, 4 b, J $ ; id. (Hyposcritia) 
Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 228, pi. 550, figs. 1, 1 a-1 , rf $ . 



sott, fo-ood. c? . Upperside : white. Fore wing : base and 
basal half of costa thickly irrorated with black scales ; a minute 
black spot on the discocellulars ; the apical half of the costa, the 
apex and the termen above vein 2 broadly black ; the inner margin 
of the black colour broadly produced inwards in interspace 3 ; 
three obliquely-placed spots of the ground-colour on the apical 




Fig. 52. 

a. Underside fore wing : Appias indra. 

b. Underside fore wing : Appias indra, race narendra. 

c. Abdomen showing anal brush of hairs. 

area. Hind wing : uniform white with a minute black speck on 
the discocellulars. Underside, fore wing : white ; costa at base 
pea-green ; beyond with a broad black stripe that curves round 
and crosses the wing postdiscally to the terminal margin above 
vein 2 ; this black band produced prominently inwards in inter- 
space 3; apex of wing beyond the black band yellowish, obscurely 
dusted with black scales. Hind wing pale yellow, with verv 
obscure postdiscal patches of white ; the whole wing irrorated 
somewhat sparsely with minute black scales ; discocellular black 
spot more or less conspicuous. $ . Upperside : white. Fore wing : 
basal area up to nearly the apex of the cell densely irrorated with 
blackish scales ; remainder of the wing black except lower apex 
of cell, basal two-thirds of interspace 2, and basal third of inter- 
space 3, which are white ; apex of wing with two, not three as in tf , 
obliquely- placed white spots. Hind wing: dusky black, fading 
inwardly on basal half of wing to diffuse dusky grey ; two or more 
upper subterminal white spots. Underside : similar to that of the J . 
Fore wing : the yellowish-green colour at base more extended : 
the curved black band that crosses the wing very much broader 
and produced inwards along the dorsuni for a short distance : 
apical area greenish yellow, with an obscure series of pearly- white 
patches between it and the black band, a similar short streak on 
the tornus. Hind wing differs from that of the d in the deeper 
yellow of the ground-colour, which however, is similarly irrorated 
with black scales and bars ; a conspicuous subterminal series oi' 
pearly-white patches. An intermediate form of the $ is common, 
in which the black area on both fore and hind wings is much 
restricted ; on the hind wing it is reduced to a simple terminal 
edging that spreads diffusely inwards and obscurely encloses a 



APPIAS. 207 

subterminal series of white diamond-shaped spots. Antennae in 
both sexes black checkered with white spots ; head and thorax 
with bluish-grey hairs ; abdomen black with sparse white scaling ; 
beneath : head, thorax and abdomen white. 

Dry-season brood. c? Upperside : similar to specimens of the 
wet-season form, but the black colour on costa, apex and termen 
very much reduced in extent. Underside : the black curved 
band on fore wing very short, often diffuse and obscure ; apex 
of fore and entire hind wing light earthy brown, more or 
less densely irrorated with black scales, that on the hind wing 
run together in places and form ill-defined zigzag markings. 
. Upperside : similar to that of the 3 , the black on fore wing of 
somewhat greater extent ; termen of hind wing obscurely irrorated 
. with black scales. Underside : similar to that of the J ; the oblique 
black band on fore wing broader. Antenna in both sexes dark 
brown ; head with ochraceous-brovvn, thorax with bluish-grey hairs, 
abdomen blackish ; beneath : head, thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. c? 2 54-74 mm. (2-1-2-U2"). 

Hob. The Himalayas ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Lower Bengal ; 
Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the Malay Peninsula, 
Cochin China and China. 

Race narendra, Moore. A slightly differentiated and more or 
less local form, notwithstanding that a few specimens which I have 
seen from Assam, which should properly belong to A. indra, more 
closely resemble typical narendra from South India and Ceylon. 

Wet-season brood. d" Upperside : differs chiefly from that of rf 
indra in the hind wing, which is bordered narrowly with black 
along the termen. Underside : as in indra, but the yellow colour 
more vivid and the black bisinuate band that crosses the fore wing 
notably broader. $ . Differs from $ indra on the upperside in the 
restriction of the black colour, which has also its inner margin 
more clearly defined. No $ narendra that I have seen is ever so 
dark above as the extreme rain-season form of 5 indra. Underside : 
similar to the underside in indra $ , but more closely sprinkled 
with black scales on the hind wing. 

Dry-season brood. The difference between the seasonal forms is 
less marked than in A. indra. tf . Upperside : differs in the hind 
wing which is always margined along the termen, though often 
very narrowly, with black ; this colour also extends shortly in a 
few lines along the veins. Underside : as in A. indra, but the shade 
of brown on apex of fore wing and over the whole of the hind 
wing is darker, the irroration of black scales more dense, the black 
bisinuate band that crosses the wing broader. 5 . Upperside : 
differs from the wet-season form only in the width of the black on 
the terminal margin of the hind wing, which band is about half 
as wide as in rainy-season specimens. Underside : similar to the 
underside in $ of the wet-season form. 

Exp. c? $ 58-70 mm. (2-30-2-76"). 

Hab. Southern India; Ceylon; Assam. 



208 



614. Appias lalage, Doubleday (Pieris), Giai/s Zool. Misc. 1842, 

s n . 8 19 Mac- 




c , . , . , - , . 

Pieris durvasa, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 73. 
Catophaga pseudoklage, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 142. 
Hyposcritia argyridina, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, 1885, p. 340, rf . 

Race lagela. 

Catophaga lagela, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 838, pi. 52, fig. 4 $ ; 
Distant (Appias), Rhop. Malay. 1886, p. 467, pi. 41, fig. 11 $; 
Moore (Hyposcritia), Lep. Ind. vi, 1905, p. 225, pi. 548, figs. 2, 
2a-2c, rf$. 

Wet-season brood. tf . Upperside : white. Fore wing : base and 
basal half of costa thickly irrorated with black scales, the latter 
tinged with yellow ; a large black spot in lower apex of cell ; 
apical third of wiug black, the inner margin of this black area 
curved, with a broad projection of black inwards in interspace 3, 




a,. fc. 

Fig. 53. 

a. Upperside fore wing : Appias lalage. 

b. Upperside fore wing : Appias lalage, race lagela. 

beyond which outwardly is a large white spot ; this black area 
ends on the terminal margin at vein 2 ; three obliquelv-placed 
preapical spots white, the upper and lower very obscure. Hind 
wing : an irregular, somewhat macular bordering of black along 
the terminal margin which becomes diffuse inwardly and on the 
tornus ; cilia yellow. Underside, fore wing : white, the black spot 
in cell as on the upperside, base of costa yellowish green ; thence 
a narrow stripe along the costal margin that crosses the wing 
obliquely in a curve to vein 2 and is widened beyond the apex of 
the cell ; in interspace 3 this black band is interrupted by a large 
white spot, on the inner side of which is a projecting spot of black; 
apex yellow touched with lilacine in the middle. Hind wing : 
uniform ochraceous yellow, the veins brighter yellow. $ . Upper- 
side, fore wiug : dull opaque black ; an elongate oval, very broad 
streak from base that terminates midway in interspace 2 and is 
limited below by vein 1 but crosses the median vein into the cell 
above ; a short curved streak or band occupies the bases of inter- 
spaces 4, 5, 10 and 11 ; a series of three postdiscal spots in 



APPIAS. 209 

interspaces 1, 3 and 6, the uppermost spot yellow, with one obscure 
spot on the inner and another on the outer side of it, the three 
placed obliquely across apical area. Hind wing : basal two-thirds 
white tinged with yellow chiefly around the base ; outer third 
dusky black that broadens considerably posteriorly to the dorsal 
margin and anteriorly encloses in interspace 6, sometimes also in 
7, an irregular white spot. Underside, fore wing : extreme base and 
lower basal half of cell yellowish green, rest of cell black ; above 
the cell a narrow, yellowish, curved band along the subcostal vein 
that terminates just beyond the discocellulars in two white elon-> 
gate spots ; a black band along the costa that widens as it crosses 
the wing postdiscally and spreads downwards to the tornus and for 
a short distance inwards along the dorsum ; enclosed within the 
black band is a white spot on the tornal angle and another tri- 
angular one iu interspace 3 ; apex pearly white tinted with rich 
purple. Hind wing: uniform, pearly, purplish white. Antennas 
in both sexes black spotted sparsely with white ; head and thorax 
with tufted greenish-yellow hairs, abdomen fuscous ; beneath : 
head, thorax and abdomen yellowish white. 

Dry-season brood. $ . Uppersi'le: similar to the wet-season form 
but the black markings smaller and more restricted. Underside : 
with similarly restricted black markings ; the apex of the fore and 
the whole area of the hind wing with the ochraceous yellow of a 
duller tint than in the wet-season form. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen more or less similar to those of the wet-season form. 
$ . Upperside : very similar to that of the J of the wet-season form. 
Underside : the black markings resemble those on the underside of 
the d" of the wet-season form ; the upper half of cell of fore wing 
however, is yellowish green, the apex lilacine-brown irrorated with 
black scales. Hind wing : uniform lilacine-brown densely irrorated 
with black scales which have a tendency to form a broad transverse 
patch across the middle area of the wing. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen in both sexes much as in the wet-season form. 

Exp. c? $ 68-82 mm. (270-3-24"). 

Hab. The Himalayas: Mussoorie to Sikhim and Bhutan, from 
4000 to 10,000 feet ; the hill-ranges of Assam, Burma, and the 
Shan States ; rare in Lower Burma. It extends eastwards to 
China. 

Race lagela, Moore. d 1 . Upperside : resembles somewhat the 
upperside of the wet-season form of A. lalage $ , but differs as 
follows: Fore wing : upper portion of cell trorn base to apex 
blat-k, the black ill-defined and posteriorly diffuse but extended to 
the large discocellular black spot and thence in a broad stripe to 
the black on the terminal margin ; thus it encloses besides the 
subterminal white spots a curved, white, obliquely- placed streak 
bevond the cell. Hind wing : the black border on the terminal 
margin continuous, not macular but inwardly diffuse. Underside: 
only differs in the cell of the fore wing which is anteriony shaded 
with dusky black. $ . Similar to the wet-season $ of lalage but 

VOL. it. p 



210 PIEEIDJE. 

on the upperside the black area on apex and termen of fore wing 
is not continued inwards along the dorsal margin, and the connect- 
ing bar between the black in the cell and on the terinen is narrowed 
by a triangular ernargination of its lower border at base of inter- 
space 3 ; on the underside the black area on the termen does not 
extend to the tornus, and the black area in the cell is separated 
from that on the termen by the basal third of interspace 3, which 
is entirely white. Hind wing : both upper and under sides are 
precisely similar to those of Mage. Antenna, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in A. lalaye. 

Exp. <$ 2 65-74 mm. (2-56-2-9"). 

Hob. Arrakan ; Lower Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the 
Malay Peninsula. 

The five next-described forms have been, and I fear still remain, 
a standing puzzle to Indian Lepidopterists. Treating of a strictly 
limited fauna, I personally think it very likely that all five are 
mere varieties of one highly unstable form, not limited either to 
locality or to season. In this work I have kept them apart simply 
for convenience of description, for so far as I have studied the 
material at my disposal, the differences in the five forms are not 
only not of sufficient importance to constitute specific distinction, 
but when long series are compared they break down, sometimes in 
the male, sometimes in the female. 

With regard to this close similarity accompanied by variation I 
have in the remarks succeeding the diagnosis of the family stated 
what, in my opinion, is the chief causal factor and agent. 

615. Appias paulina, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. ii, 1779, pi. 110, 

tigs. E, F, $ ; Hiibner (Catophaga), Vcrz. bek. Schmett. 181(5, 

p. 93 ; Butler (Catophaga), A. M. N. H. (7) ii, 1898 (excl. syii. 

in pt.) ; Moore (Catophaga), Lep. 2nd. vii, 1905, p. 7, pi. 554, 

figs. 1, la-lff, d $. 
Catophaga lankapura, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 142, J $ ; id. Lep. 

Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 133, pi. 50, tigs. 4, 4 a, <J, & pi. 51, tigs. 1, 1 a, 

5 (wet-season). 
Catophaga galene, Moore (nee Felder), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 13:?, 

pi. 51, figs. 2, 2 a, d$. 

Wet-season brood. c? . Upperside : pure chalk- white. Fore 
wing: costa, apex and terminal margin more or less densely 
irrorated with black scales, this irroration narrowed on the termen 
posteriorly and not extended to the tornus. Hind wing: a 
much lighter dusting of black scales along dorsum, on tornus and 
along posterior portion of termen. Underside : fore wing white, 
apex broadly pale yellow. Hind wing : entirely pale yellow. $ . 
Upperside : fore wing white, irrorated at base and up to as far as 
two-thirds of the cell with blackish scales, which give that part a 
bluish-grey appearance ; costa broadly and apical half of the wing 
jet-black ; the inner margin of this black area is irregularly curved, 
extended inwards and forms a right angle on vein 3 ; thence it 



APPTAS. 211 

turns outwards and is again extended inwards in a rounded curve in 
interspace 1, finally it is sloped obliquely outwards and terminates 
on the dorsal margin jnst before apex of tornal angle; three, 
rarely four, yellowish spots placed in an outward curve preapically 
in the black area. Hind wing : pale yellow, the terminal margin 
broadly black, this colour extended triangularly up the veins for a 
short distance ; base and interspaces 1 and 2 irrorated with black 
scales. Underside, fore wing : as on the upperside but the irrora- 
tion of black scales at base and in cell replaced by pale yellow ; 
apex of wing from beyond middle of costa in a curve to apex of 
vein 3, thickly overlaid with rich chrome-yellow. Hind wing : rich 
chrome-yellow, base greenish ; a postdiscal, broad, dark, slightly 
curved band crosses from vein 2 to the costa near apex of wing. 
Antennae black speckled with minute white dots ; head in front 
and thorax with dusky greyish-green hairs ; abdomen blackish ; 
beneath : thorax yellow, abdomen white. 

Dry-season brood. c? . Upper and under sides : similar to those 
of wet-season specimens, but the irro ration of black scales much 
sparser on the upperside ; on the underside the apex of the fore 
wing and whole surface of the hind wing dullochraceous, not pale 
clear yellow. . Upperside : similar to that of the wet-season 
form, but the black area on the fore wing somewhat circumscribed. 
Hind wing: white, the black terminal border narrower and decreas- 
ing in width posteriorly. Underside : apex of fore wing and the 
whole surface of hind wing a beautiful nacreous bluish white. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the wet-season form. 

Exp. <5 $ 52-76 mm. (2-06-3"). 

Hob. Within our limits, Ceylon only; but I have seen specimens 
from the Malay Peninsula, Siam and Java. 

616. Appias galathea, Felder (Pieris), Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xii, 
1862, p. 485; Moore (Catophaga), Lep. Ind. vii, 1905, p. 6, 
pi. 553, figs. 1,1 a-ly, rf$. 

Catophaga paulina, var. galathea, Wood-Mason fy de N., J. A. S. B. 
1881, p. 237. 

Catophaga roepstorfi, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 44, tf. 

c? . Upperside : creamy-white. Fore wing : a very slight 
irroration of black scales at base, along the costal margin, at apex 
of wing and for a very short distance down the termen ; a round 
black postdiscal spot in interspace 3, conspicuous in some specimens 
(wet-season form ?), scarcely perceptible in others (dry-season 
form ?) ; cilia anteriorly dusky black, posteriorly white. Hind 
wing : uniform ; cilia yellowish posteriorly. Underside : fore wing 
white, basal half of cell sulphur- yellow ; costa narrowly and apex 
of wing ochraceous or butter-yellow ; the round black postdiscal 
spot in interspace 3 more clearly defined. Hind wing : uniform 
butter-yellow. Antenna3 brown speckled with white ; hairs on 
head and thorax anteriorly dusky greenish-yellow, on thorax 
posteriorly bluish, scaling of abdomen white; beneath : head and 
thorax very pale yellow, abdomen white. $ . In both seasonal 

p2 



212 PIBEIDJB. 

forms almost identical with A. paulina, but on the upperside the 
fore wing has always four or five (not two or three as in pauhna) 
preapical white spots, while on the underside the oblique curved 
black band that crosses the fore wing is slightly narrower and its 
outer margin more irregular. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
as in the d 1 

Exp. rf $ 60-68 mm. (2-36-2-7"). 

Hab. The Andamans and Nicobars. 

017. Appias albina, Boisduval (Pieris), % Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 480; 

Elives & de N., J. A. S. B. 1897, p. 710; Sutler (Catophaga), 

A. M. N. H. (7) ii, 1808, p. 397. 

Pieris rouxii, Sofsducal, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 481, rf. 
Pieris neumbo, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 539 ; Moore 

Catophaga), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 131, pi. 50, tigs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, 

T O 

Pieris galene, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 165 ; Moore 
(Catophaga), Lep. 2nd. vii, 1905, p. 9, pi. 555, figs. 1, 1 a-l i, 
f o 

Pieris darada, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 166 ; Moore 
(Catophaga), Lep. Ind. vii, 1905, p. 12, pi. 557, tigs. 1, 1 a-l i, 

+ o 

Catophaga swinhoei, Moore, Lep. Ind. vii, 1905, p. 11, pi. 556, 
figs. 1, 1 a-\j, larva & pupa, j $ 

Closely resemhles A. paulina, but in both seasonal forms the 
males can be differentiated by the more acutely pointed fore wing, 
and the females by the much narrower, oblique, curved black band 
on the underside of the fore wing. Further and more minute, 
but apparently constant differences are as follows : 

Wet-season brood. <$ . Upperside, fore wing : the irroration of 
black scales at apex and along termen anteriorly much more sparse 
and narrow generally than in paulina. Hind wing : the irroration 
of similar scales along dorsal margin and on tornus absent. 
Underside : apex of fore and the whole surface of the hind wing 
pale dull ochraceous, sometimes with a faint pinkish tint, but never 
pale yellow as in paulina. $ dimorphic ; differs as follows : 
1st Form. Upperslde -. the posterior tdrnal portion of the black 
area on fore wing not inwardly rounded, but straight and 
generally diffuse. Underside : very like the underside of the 
dry-season form of A. paulina $ , from which, however, it 
differs by the narrowness of the oblique curved black band, the 
outer margin of which is irregularly zigzag, never evenly curved 
as in paulina. 2nd Form. Markings as in the 1st form but the 
ground-colour on the upperside entirely pale yellow. Underside : 
apical half of cell and disc of fore wing up to the black band pale 
sulphur-yellow ; the oblique curved black band as in the 1st form ; 
interspace 1 whitish ; the rest of the fore wing and the entire 
surface of the hind wing rich chrome-yellow. tf $ . Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen much as in A. paulina, but the antennas 
a dusky black and more closely speckled with white ; the thorax 
beneath in J white, never yellow. 



APPIAS. 213 

Dry-season brood. c? $ . Upper and under sides : similar to the 
same in the wet-season specimens, but in the c? the dusting of 
black scales on the upperside has almost, in some specimens 
completely, disappeared, while on the underside the ochraceous 
colouring is much paler. $ . Both dimorphs differ but little from 
the dimorphs of the \vet-season form, only on the upperside the 
black on the apical half of the fore and on the terminal margin of 
the hind wing is more restricted, while on the underside the oblique 
curved black band that crosses the fore wing is distinctly narrower 
with a tendency to become diffuse. 

Exp. d $ 60-74 mm. (2-3S-2-94"). 

Hob. Sikhim up to 4000 feet ; Bengal ; Western and Southern 
India: Gruzerat; Poona; Kanara; Travancore ; Ceylon; the hills of 
Assam, Burma and Tenasserim. Found also in Malacca, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Java and the Philippines. 

Larva. " Light green with a yellow-white spiracular band from 
segments 2 & '6 to segment 12, where the band expands somewhat. 
Head round, shining, yellow .... covered with small conical 
setiferous black tubercles ; body rugose, with six transverse rows 
from above the spiracular region over the dorsum, of small, shining, 
setiferous, conical black tubercles to each segment ; segments 2, 
12 and 13 have only a few transverse ro\vs of such tubercles." 

Pupa. " Dirty whitish, with a pink shade on segments 4 to 14. 
The head-process from between the eyes is long, flattened at the 
sides, slightly curved, pointed at the extremity .... edges on 
ventral surface minutely serrated. The front margin of segment 2 
is produced into a small subdorsal tooth, and the dorsal line is 
rather strongly carinated ; thorax highly carinated on the dorsal 
line . . . . ; lateral teeth of segments 6, 7 and 8 are all of the same 
size and are pointed . . . . ; the head-production, the points on 
segment 2, the teeth on segments 6 and 7 (sometimes) and the 
extremity of the cremaster black." (After de Niceville.) 



618. Appias leis, Hiibner (Catophaga), Zutr. Exot. Schmett. 1832, 
tigs. 771, 772, 5 ; Distant, Ehop. Malay. 1885, p. 313, pi. 25, 
fig8.6,7,10,c?$. 

Oatophaga adamsoni, Moore, Lep. Ind. yii, 1905, p. 4, pi. 5ol, 
figs. 2,2 a-2e. 

Wet-season brood. tf . Upperside: white. Fore wing: base and 
costa broadly and somewhat thickly irrorated with black scales ; 
apex broadly black ; termen with a series of inwardly pointed black 
triangular spots at the apices of the veins, these spots confluent 
along the extreme margin ; between veins 3 and 6 a short post- 
discal black line that ends posteriorly in a large black spot in 
interspace 3, this line confluent along the veins with the black on 
termen, the two thus enclosing between them a vertical series of 
three prominent white spots. Hind wing : a terminal series of 
black spots at the apices of the veins, these spots elongate and 
prominent anteriorly, obsolescent and diffuse posteriorly. Under- 



214 PIERIJ1JE. 

side, fore wing : white, apex from above an oblique line that passes 
through base of vein 6, ochraceous ; a very diffuse black-irrorated, 
curved, oblique band from costa to termen borders the ochraceous 
apex ; in most specimens this is obsolete or only a trace of it is 
to be seen ; a prominent large quadrate black postdiscal spot in 
interspace 3 and a greenish-yellow tinge at base of wing. Hind 
wing : entirely ochraceous yellow. $ . Upperside : white. Fore 
wing : base* up to and a little beyond middle of cell thickly 
irrorated with black scales which gives these parts a dark grey 
appearance ; costa and a little more than the apical half of the 
wing jet-black ; the inner margin of the black irregular, formed 
into a square angular projection on vein 3, thence it extends out- 
wards along that vein, crosses transversely to vein 2, below which 
it projects inwards diffusely in interspace 1 and thence extends 
obliquely outwards to the dorsum ; finally there is an oblique pre- 
apical line of four white spots in pairs enclosed within the black 
area. Hind wing : the base and a broad band to the tornus 
thickly irrorated with black scales ; terminal third of the wing 
black, the inner margin of the black area curved and diffuse 
a slight yellowish-green tinge on dorsal margin and at base. 
Underside: similar to the upperside, but the cell except at its lower 
apical portion yellouish green ; apical area broadly nacreous blue, 
tinged at the extreme apex with greenish. Hind wing : nacreous 
blue, sometimes pink, the veins and the terminal margin narrowly 
and diffusely bordered by greenish yellow ; curved postdiscal and 
subterminal ill-defined and irregular broad bands purplish black. 
Antennae black speckled with white ; head and thorax in 3 with 
bluish-grey, in $ with grevish-green long hairs ; abdomen greyish 
black ; beneath : thorax yellow, abdomen white. Anal tufts in c? 
brown. 

Dry-season brood. $ . Upperside: similar to that of the wet- 
season specimens, but the black markings on fore wing much 
restricted and often diffuse ; the postdiscal, short, black band and 
the black spot in interspace 3 often only indicated by a few diffuse 
scales. On the hind wing the terminal series of spots is much 
less prominent. Underside : as in the wet-season form but of the 
black markings only the square blai-k spot in interspace 3 is left. 
$ . Upper and under sides : very similar to those of the wet- 
season J . Extreme dry-season specimens lose the postdiscal short 
black band on fore wing. Antennaa, head, thorax and abdomen in 
both sexes as in the tf of the wet-season form. 

Exp. rf $ 48-66 mm. (1-9-2-6"). 

Hob. Within our limits found in Burma and Tenasserirn. 
I have also seen specimens from Siam, the Malay Peninsula, 
Java down to Lombok. 



19. Appias wardl, Moore (Catophaga), J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 43, rf 2; 
Hampson (Catophaga), J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 362 ; Watson (Cato- 
phaga), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. via, 1894, p. 499 ; Davidson, 
Better Aitkcn (Appias Catophaga), Jour. Jlomb. N. H. Soc. x. 



APPIAS. 215 

1897, p. 574 ; Butler (Catophaga), A. M. N. H. (7) ii, 1898, 
p. 308; de N., J. A.. S. B. 1900, p. 256; Moore (Catophag-a), 
Lep. Ind. vii, 1905, p. 3, pi. 552, figs. 1, 1 a-1 i, 3 $ . 

Wet-season brood. S Upperside : white. Fore wing: base 
densely and broadly irrorated with black scales which gradually 
merge along the costa into the black apical area that occupies 
about one-third of the wing, the inner margin of this area irregular, 
passing in a curve from costa to vein 4, thence vertically to 
vein 3 outwards in interspace 2 and irregularlv to the dorsum ; 
a curved preapical series of four or five white spots superposed on 
the black area. Hind wing: slightly irrorated with black scales at 
base which leave a terminal series of large, somewhat diamond- 
shaped, black spots at the apices of veins 3 to 7. Underside, fore 
wing : white, apex butter-yellow, a somewhat narrow zigzag curved 
irregular black band from middle of costa to toruus. Hind wing : 
uniform butter-yellow. $ . Upperside : somewhat similar to that 
in the cJ, but differs in the much greater extent of the black area 
which occupies the outer apical half of the fore wing and on the 
hind wing forms a broad continuous terminal baud; the super- 
posed spots on black area of fore wing reduced to two and the 
irroration of black scales at the bases of the wings more dense ; 
on the hind wing this latter extends subdorsally to the black 
terminal margin. Underside, fore wing : white, basal half of cell 
suffused with sulphur-yellow; a very broad curved black band 
crosses the wing from costa to tornus, the inner margin of this 
irregular, the outer margin fairly even ; apex pearly bluish-white. 
Hind wing : uniform, pearly bluish-white. 

Dry-season brood. J . Upperside : similar to the wet-season form 
but on the fore wing the irroratiou of black scales at base and the 
black on apical area much restricted, the latter in most specimens 
has a more or less rubbed appearance ; the white preapical spots 
very ill-defined. Hind wing : entirely white, in some specimens 
with a faint yellowish tinge. Underside, fore wing : white, with a 
bluish tint broadly along the basal two-thirds of the costal margin ; 
apex butter-yellow ; in a few specimens the usual black curved 
band that crosses the wing is indicated by a few detached black 
scales but in most it is entirely absent. Hind wing: uniform butter- 
yellow. 5 . Upperside : similar to that in the wet-season form but 
the black area on both fore and hind wings much restricted just as 
it is in the J . Underside : also similar to that of the wet-season 
form but on the fore wing the curved black band is very much 
narrower, and the nacreous surface of the hind wing has more or 
less of a yellowish tinge. In both sexes and in both seasonal 
forms the antennae are black minutely speckled with white, the 
tufted hair on the head and thorax anteriorly greyish green, 
abdomen white ; beneath : head and thorax pale yellowish white, 
abdomen white. 

Exp. c? 2 65-76 mm. (2-55-3"). 

Hob. Southern India : Kanara and the Nilgiris. 



216 



Genus LADE. 

Lade, de Niccville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xii, 1898, p. 153 ; Moore, 
Lcp. Ind. vii, 1905, p. i. 

Type, L. lalassis, Grose-Smith. 

Range. Burma and Malay Peninsula. 

c? $ . Closely resembles the genus Appias, but in the fore wing 
the costa is more convex, the apex strongly curved downwards*, 
falcate. Venation very similar to, almost the same as in Appias. 
Antennae with the club proportionately longer and narrower. 
Abdomen <3 : the anal tufts of hair so conspicuous in Appias J 
entirely absent. 

So far as is known at present this genus is monotypic, and 
is found only in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. In general 
appearance L. lalassis, Grose-Smith, very closely resembles the 
dry-season forms of Appias lalftge, Doubleday^ which also has a 
more or less falcate fore wing and very similar markings. 



Lade lalassis, Grose-Smith (Appias), A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, 
p. 265; id. $ Kirby (Appias), Rhop. JE.rot. i. 1889, Pierince,y\. '2, 
figs. 1, 2, 3, rf $ ; Moore, Lep. Ind. vii, 1905, p. i, pi. 551, 
figs. 1, la-lc, cf. 

Pieris indroides, Honrath, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxiii, 1889, p. 403. 

. Upperside : very pale creamy-white. Fore wing : a minute 
black spot on the lower 
discocellular, apex of wing 
irrorated densely with black 
scales. Hind wing : uniform, 
with merely the trace of a 
minute black speck on the 
discocellulars. Underside : 
ground-colour similar ; apex 
of fore and whole surface of 
hind wing very faintly pink, 
irrorated more or less with 
black scales ; in addition the 
black spots on the discocel- 
lulars as on the upperside but 
larger and a large more or less 
conspicuous round black spot 
in middle of interspace 3 of 
the tore wing. Antennae dark brown, head with dusky-black, 
thorax with bluish-grey hairs, abdomen black with white scaling 
on the sides; beneath: the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 
$ unknown. 

Exp. c? 68-71 mm. (2-7-2-8"). 
Hob. Lower Burma ; Tenasserim ; Malay Peninsula. 
The above is a description of the dry-season form ; the difference 




Fig. 54. 

a. Lade lalassis. 

b. Apical abdominal segments. 



LADE. SALETABA. 217 

between the dry- and wet-season broods consists, in the latter, of 
a broadening of the black irroration at apex of fore wing on the 
upperside, and the nppearance on the upperside of the black 
spot in interspace 3 so conspicuous on the underside. 

Genus SALETABA. 
Saletara, Distant, Rhop. Malayana, 1885, p. 287. 

Type, S. nathalia, Felder, from the Philippines. 

Range. Malayan Subregiou, extending to the Nicobars. 

tS . Fore wing : costa very nearly straight ; apex acute ; termeii 
straight, slightly convex posteriorly, passing with an even curve 
into the rounded tornus ; dorsum straight ; cell long, more than 
half length of wing ; venation much as in Appias, but middle 
discocellular proportionately shorter, somewhat as in A. lalaye 
and allies ; vein 8 absent, vein 9 out of 7 very close to apex, much 
more so than in Ajyias. Hind wing : as in Appias, but the cell 
proportionately longer. $ . Tore and hind wings : as in 6 , but 
apex of fore wing more blunt, and vein 9 as well as vein 8 absent. 
Antennae, palpi, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes as in 
Appias. 

Within our limits only a single form has been recorded. 

621. Saletara chrysaea (PL XVII, figs. 14, 15, J $ ), fruhstorfer 
(S. panda subsp. chrysaea), Soc. Ent. 1903, p. 124; Moore, Lep. 
Ind. vii, 1905, p. 15, pi. 558, figs. 1, 1 a-1 c, <$ $ . 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : pale sulphur-yellow, darker yellow 
towards the tornus ; base irrorated with black scales ; costa 
narrowly, termen more broadly black, the black edging not 
extended to the tornal angle. Hind wing : rich chrome-yellow, 
fading to sulphur along the dorsum ; base slightly irrorated with 
black scales. Underside : rich cadmium-yellow, basal third of costa 
of fore and upper part of dorsal margin of hind wing slightly 
paler. Antennae black, speckled on the inner side with white ; 
palpi and head in front yellow, mixed with dusky-black hairs, head 
above greenish, thorax with bluish-grey hairs, abdomen yellowish 
white ; beneath : thorax yellowish, abdomen white, anal- tufts dark 
brown. $ . Upperside : rich cadmium-yellow. Fore wing : base 
very broadly to near apex of cell irrorated with black scales ; 
the costa, the apex very broadly and terminal fourth of wing jet- 
black. Hind wing: base and a broad band to tornus irrorated 
with black scales ; costa pale sulphur-yellow ; termen somewhat 
broadly black, the inner margin of the black area diffuse ; cilia 
anteriorly yellow, posteriorly black ; dorsum broadly white. Under- 
side, fore wing : basal two-thirds dull yellow, costa suffused 
basally with dusky black, dorsum whitish ; a postdiscal, evenly 
curved, black band crosses from vein 7 to tornus and is edged 
outwardly in the middle with white, beyond the latter edging the 
costa, apex and termen rich yellow. Hind wing: pinkish, some- 



218 PIERIDJE. 

what pearly white, edged along the costa and termen down to the 
tornal angle with yellow. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
as in the c? but darker ; the abdomen, of course, without anal 
tufts. 

Exp. d 60, ? 56 mm. (2-36-2-2"). 

Hab. Recorded only from the Nicobars. 



Genus CATOPSILIA. 

Catopsilia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 98; Kiity, Allen's 
Nat. Hist., Butt, ii, 1896, p. 225 ; Auririllius, Kongl. Svensk. 
Vet.-Akad. Har,dl. xxxi, 1898, p. 448. 

Callidryas, pt., Doubleday, Gen. Di. Lep. 1847, p. 66. 

Callidryas, Moore (nee Eoisduval), Cat. Lep. Mus. JS. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 55. 

Type, (?. crocale, Cramer, from India. 
lianye. Indo- and Austro-Malayan Eegions. 
c? $ . Pore wing elongate ; costa regularly and widely arched ; 
apex moderately acute ; termen short, slightly concave ; tornus 
obtuse ; dorsum long, about four-fifths the length of costa ; cell 
less than half length of wing ; vein 6 from a little beyond apex 
of basal third of 7, upper discoceilular therefore absent ; middle 
discocellular oblique, lower nearly 
vertical, attenuated in the middle ; 
vein 8 absent ; vein 9 from base 
of apical fourth of 7, termi- 
nated on costa just before apex 
of wing; vein 10 from a little 
before upper apex of cell ; vein 1 1 
widely separated from 10 at base. 
Hind wing very broad ; costa 
strongly arched ; apex not well 
marked ; termen very slightly 
arched ; tornus angular, well 
marked ; dorsum almost straight 
from base, slightly concave near 
apex ; cell short and broad, middle 
and lower discocellulars slightly 
oblique, the latter attenuate in 




Fig. 55. Catopattia. 

A. Venation fore wing. 

B. cJ sex-mark fore wing. 
V' n hind wing. 



its upper half ; vein 8 strongly 
angular near base ; precostal vein 
rudimentary. Antennae short and 
stout, not half length of fore 
wing; club long and gradual, 
truncate at apex ; palpi short, subporrect, stout, densely scaled, 
third joint short ; body and abdomen robust. Males with secon- 
dary sexual characters ; on the fore wing a tuft or fringe of long 
hairs that are directed forwards on the underside of the dorsal 
margin, near the base ; also on the upperside of the hind win" a 
small patch of specialized scales (androconia) just above the sub- 
costal vein. 



CATOPSILIA. 219 

Key to the forms of Catopsilia. 

A. Underside : at all seasons devoid of any irrora- 
tions of transverse reddish-brown strigse. 

a. Upperside : ground-colour fore and hind wings 

concolorous C. crocale, p. 219. 

b. Upperside : ground-colour fore wing white, 

hind wing rich cadmium-yellow C. scylla, p. 224. 

P>. Underside : at all seasons irrorated with trans- 
verse reddish-brown strigse. 
. Upperside fore wing : band on terminal margin 

black, not macular, narrowed posteriorly . . C. pyranthe, p. 221. 
b. Upperside fore wing: band on terminal margin 
reddish-brown, rarely black, always more 
or less macular, not narrowed posteriorly . . C.florella, p. 223. 

022. Catopsilia crocale, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exnt. i, 1775, pi. 55, 
figs. C, D, ; Hiibner, rerz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 98 ; Moore, 
Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 122, pi. 48, figs. 1, la, Ib, 3 $, larva & 
pupa ; Davidson 8f Aitken, Jmir. Bomb. N. H. Soc v, 1890, 
p. 360 ; Davidson, Sell $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 
1897, p. 570; Mackinnon $ de Nic.eville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. 
xi, 1898, p. 586; de Niceville % Kilhn, J. A. S. B. 1898, p. 271, 
pi. 1, figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b, larva pupa. 

Papilio pomona, Fabr. Si/st. JEnt. 1775, p. 479. 

Papilio catilla, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii, 1779, pi. 229, figs. 1), E, $ ; 
Butler (Catopsilia), Trans. Linn. Soc. (2) i, 1877, p. 551 ; Moore 
(Catopsilia), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 122, pi. 47, figs. 3, 3 a, <5 $ ; 
Distant (Catopsilia), Shop. Malay. 1885, p. 297, pi. 25. figs. 15, 
16, ^ $ ; Davidson $ Aitken (Catopsilia), Jour. Bomb. N. H. 
Soc. v, 1890, p. 361. 

Callidryas flava, Butler, A. M. N. H. (4) iv, 1869, p. 202 ; Staud- 
inyer (Catopsilia), Exot. Schmett. i, 1885, p. 39. 

C? . Upperside : chalky-white, sometimes with a more or less 
broad and clearly defined basal sulphur-yellow area on both fore 
and hind wings ; this sulphur-yellow colour is at times diffused 
over the whole surface of the wings, though generally it becomes 
paler towards the terminal margins. Fore wing : the whole, or 
sometimes only the apical half, of the costa narrowly black, 
this colour widened out irregularly at the apex ; termen widely 
black at the apex, the colour narrowed posteriorly. This border 
in some specimens almost reaches the tornus, in others ter- 
minates above vein 4 ; occasionally ifc is continued posteriorly 
by a series of black dots at the apices of the veins. Hind 
wing : generally uniform, unmarked, some specimens bear minute 
black dots at the apices of the veins. Underside : ground- 
colour very variable, white with a slight to strong ochraceous 
tinge, greenish white or sulphur-yellow. Fore wing : typically 
without markings, in some specimens with a patch of sulphur- 
yellow on either side of base of median nervure ; in the very 
yellow examples the tornal area is often widely greenish white; 
in others (C. catilla, Cramer) it bears a spot variable in size on 
the discocellulars, this spot has a pearly centre and an outer 



reddish line. Again, many specimens have an irregular angulated 
narrow discal reddish line (the colour varies in intensity) that 
runs from the costa obliquely outwards to vein 7, and then 
obliquely inwards to vein 2. though this line is often absent in 
specimens that bear the discocellular spot; apex and termen 
sometimes very narrowly reddish. Hind wing : typically uniform, 
without markings ; in var. catilla there is a single small spot at the 
end of the cell similar to that on the fore wing, sometimes this 
spot is much larger with a narrow outer reddish ring, sometimes 
it is accompanied by a similar spot at base of interspace 5 ; when 
two spots are present they m;iy be entirely separate, or theii' 
outer rings may coalesce; again, some specimens have a highly 
irregular discal reddish line (often reduced to a series of minute 
spots) that extends from the costa to vein 1 ; finally, the majority 
of specimens ha\e a series of minute red terminal dots at the 
apices of the veins. $. Uppersi.de: ground-colour varies as in 
the c?, but sometimes it is chalky white at the bases of the 
wings, with the terminal margins more or less broadly sulphur- 
yellow. Fore wing : alw ays with a round, occasionally quadrate, 
black discocellular spot variable in size; in some specimens the 
costa is black only towards the apex of the wing, in others broadly 
black throughout and opposite the apex of cell so widened out as 
to touch the discocellular spot. In lightly-marked specimens in 
addition to the discocellular spot, there is only an irregular 
terminal black band dentate inwardly and widest at the apex of 
the wing; in others there is in addition a more or less diffuse 
highly-curved nmcular postdiscal band that extends from the costa 
obliquely outwards down to vein 7, where it often touches the 
terminal black band, and thence is continued downward and 
slightly inclined inwards to interspace 1, getting gradually paler 
and fiii nter posteriorly. Hind wing : a series of terminal inter- 
spacial black spots that vary in size, and in the dark forms coalesce 
into a terminal black band. Underside : varies from white with 
a light yellowish sometimes ochraceous tinge to deep chrome- 
yellow; markings as in the d" , but still more variable; in var. 
catilla the spot at the apex of the cell in both fore and hind wings 
is enlarged into a large reddish blotch, the similar spot on the 
hind wing is sometimes so enlarged as to occupy the apex of the 
cell, the basal two-thirds of interspaces 4, 5 and G, and the 
middle third of interspace 7 ; in some specimens it is continued 
posteriorly in a series of obscure lunules to interspace 1 a. 
Antennae red, obscurely dotted with black, palpi and head above 
red, thorax clothed with long yellow, sometimes greenish hairs, 
abdomen pale yellow; beneath: palpi and thorax pale to dark 
yellow, abdorcen white. 

Exp. rf $ 46-87 mm. (1-8-3-4"). 

Hub. Nearly throughout our limits, except in the desert tract* ; 
extending to Siam, China, and the Malayan Subregion to Australi;i. 

Larva. Mr. Bell describes the larva of C. catilla C. crocale 
thus:" The head is round, green, the clypeus edged with brown, 



CATOPSILIA. 221 

covered with small shiny black tubercles which do uot hide 

the colour of the head : the anal flap is rounded, but looks square 
at the extremity, and is covered with rows of small black tubercles 
.... of which only the row along the spiracular line is con- 
spicuous. The spiracles are oval, shiny and white. The colour 
is green with a spiracular white band touched with bright yellow 
on segments 2-5, and these segments, especially 3 and 4, 
are distinctly Hanged on the spiracular line as in the larva of 
Hebomoia australis, Butler, though not to so great an extent. 
Length 51 mm." 

Papa. " The pupa is the same as that of C. crocale * at first 
sight, but the dorsal line of the thorax is absolutely parallel to the 
longitudinal axis of the pupa for two-thirds of its length, conse- 
quently the hinder part just before the margin is perpendicular to 
this part, i. e. is raised suddenly but very slightly above the front 
margin of segment 4, and the front end of this parallel dorsal 
line is at an angle, and a sharpish angle, with the front slope of 
the thorax .... the cremaster is distinctly bifid at the extremity, 
and has some shiny, very stout, black, suspensory hooks dorsally as 
well as at the extremity. There is a dorsal rugose black tip to 
the snout terminating the head, which snout is cylindrical in its 
apical half; there is no black line round the eye as in C. crocale, 
and there is a dark green-blue dorsal line which is yellow on the 
thorax as well as the supra-spiracular yellow line. Length 
34mm. ; length of snout 3 mm. ; breadth at segment 7 is 9 mm. ; 
height at apex of curve of wings (segment 6) 10 min., height at 
the apex of the thorax 8 mm." (Bdl.) 

623. Catopsilia pyranthe, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, 
p. 469; Donovan (Papilio), Ins. China, 1798, pi. 32, fig. 1 J ; 
Moore (Callidryas), Cat. Lap. Mus. E. L C. i, 1857, p. 56, pi. 1, 
figs. 8, 8 , larva & pupa ; Kirby, Tram. Ent. Soc. 1872, p. 113 ; 
Moore, Lep. Cei/l. i, 1881, p. 124, pi. 47, tigs. 2, 2 a, <J ; 
Davidson # Aiiken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 360 ; 
Mackinnon 8f de Niceville, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, 
p. 586. 

Papilio chryseis, Drury, III.- Ex. Ent. \, 1773, pi. 12, figs. 3, 4, 3 ; 
Sutler (Catopsilia), Trans. Linn. Soc. (2) i, 1877, pp. 551, 557 ; 
Mo<,re (Catopsilia), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 125, pi. 48, figs. 3, 3 a, 
c? $ ; Distant (Catopsilia), Rhop. Malay. 1885, p. 300, pi. 25, 
tigs. 1, 2, $ rf, & pi. 26, tig. 20 $ var. 

Papilio gnoma, Fabr. Syst. Ent. App. 1775, p. 828 ; Sutler (Cato- 
psilia), P. Z. S. 1877, p. 814; Moore (Catopsilia), Lep. Ceyl. 
i, 1881, p. 123, pi. 48, figs. 2, 2 a, $, larva & pupa. 

c? . Upperside: chalky-white, slightly tinted in some specimens 
with green. Fore wing: with or without a discocellular black spot, 
that varies in size ; costa and termen sometimes without a black 
margin ; occasionally the costa has its apical third narrowly black, 
broadened slightly at the apex with black spots between the 

* Mr. Bell treats C. catilla and C. crocale as distinct forms. 



222 

anterior veins; or again, the costa may be narrowly black, the 
apex very broadly so, and this colour continued down the termen 
but narrowed posteriorly. Hind wing: sometimes immaculate, but 
generally with narrow terminal black spots at the apices of the 
veins, these often reduced to mere dots, or again so broadened 
as to coalesce into a narrow terminal black margin. Underside : 
ground-colour similar, suffused on the anterior half of the fore and 
over the whole surface of the hind wing with a greenish tint 
tliat varies to an ochraceous yellow, and, except in the very palest 
specimens, is evenly irrorated over the greenish or ochraceous-tinted 
areas with transverse, short, reddish-brown strigae ; both fore and 
hind wings with generally an obscure discocellular reddish-brown 
spot or indication thereof. $ . Upperside : as in the J , but some- 
times with a suffusion of pale greenish yellow on the terminal third 
or fourth only of both fore and hind wings, rarely of that tint 
throughout. Fore wing: always with a discocellular black spot 
that varies very much in size ; costa sometimes narrowly black 
with the basal half pinkish, in other specimens narrowly black 
throughout, the black broadened at the apex and continued along 
the anterior half of the termen in a series of inwardly-pointed black 
spots ; or again, the costa may be more broadly black, that colour 
widened considerably at the apex and continued broadly down the 
termen to vein 3, then suddenly narrowed to a slender line at the 
tornus ; in most specimens there is an anterior postdiscal short black 
macular band ; in the dark forms this coalesces \vith the black on 
apex and termen. Hind wing: sometimes immaculate, sometimes 
with a series of terminal spots at the apices of the veins, some- 
times with a narrow dusky-black terminal band broadest near the 
apex, narrowed posteriorly to a slender line at the tornus. In the 
very dark specimens there is in addition an ill-defined, short, 
anterior postdiscal macular black band. Underside : as in the tf , 
with similar variations, but in addition in most specimens the 
discocellular spots are well-defined with an outer red ring that 
encircles a silvery spot ; on the hind wing one or two similar 
spots on each side of the discocellulars ; generally also both wings 
are crossed by a transverse postdiscal line of minute red spots, 
which on the fore wing is confined to the anterior portion, on the 
hind wing is nearly complete. In both sexes: antennas reddish, 
head and thorax anteriorly brown, thorax clothed posteriorly 
with long white hairs, abdomen white ; beneath: the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen white. 

Exp. rf $ 52-66 mm. (2-08-2-70"). 

Hob. Throughout India ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserira ; not 
ascending the Himalayas to above 7000 ft. It extends to China 
on the east, and as far as Australia southwards. 

Larva. " Long, somewhat depressed, rough, green, with a white 
lateral line and above it a black line more or less conspicuous, 
formed by minute black shining tubercles. In short, this larva is 
very like a big specimen of the last (Terias hecabe)." 



CATOPS1LIA. 



223 



Pupa. "Much stouter (i.e. than that of T.hecabe), and the 
keel formed by the wing-cases much less pronounced. The normal 
colour is pale green with a yellow lateral line. We have never 
found it on any plant except Cassia occidentalis. It habitually 
rests on the upperside along the midrib, like almost all Pierine 
larvae." (Davidson <$f Aitlcen.) 



G24. Catopsilia florella, Fabr. (Papilio) Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 479 ; 
Donovan's (Papilio) Nat. Rep. iii, 1825, pi. 90 ; Doubleday 
(Callidryas), Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 07; Butler (Callidryas), 
Cat. Fabr. Lep. Brit. Mus. 1869, p. 223 ; Aurivillius, Ent. Tijds. 
ii, 1881, p. 41 ; Sutler, A. M. N. H. (6) vii, 1891, p. 48. 

$ . Closely resembles some $ specimens of C. pyranthe that 
have the black markings on the fore wing reduced and narrow. 
The $ however, shows a greater difference. 

The late Mr. de Niceville considered the two forms identical, 
but whether this is so or not can only be tested by careful 
breeding-experiments. After examining a long series of speci- 
mens from Africa, India, and the Malayan Subregion, none of 

which can be referred to 
either C. crocale or C. 
scylla, the only two other 
forms that occur within 
our limits, I find I am 
able to separate them, into 
two groups : the speci- 
mens in one group agree 
absolutely with the 
type of C. florella in the 
Banksian Collection in 
the British Museum; the 
others differ. The two, 
if there are two distinct 
forms, cannot be consi- 
dered geographical races, 
as in many localities their range is conterminous, nor are they 
seasonal varieties one of the other, for they have been repeatedly 
taken together on the same day at the same spot. Of course 
it is quite possible that C. florella is a dimorph of C. pyranthe, 
but clear evidence of this is lacking. The chief points of 
difference between the two forms are given in parallel columns 
below : 




Fig. 56. 

a. Catopsilia Jtorella. 

b. ,, pyranthe, fore wing. 



C.florella. 

" $ Upperside : ground-colour 
white, in $ often tinged out- 
wardly with pale primrose-yellow. 



C. pyranthe. 

$ . Upperside : ground-colour 
white tinged with greenish, some- 
times in $ tinged outwardly 
with greenish yellow. 



224 



C.JloreUa (cont.). G. pyranthe (cont.). 



<J . Upperside : markings on fore <5 . Uppcrside : markings on fore 
wing brownish red, rarely dusky wing always black ; on termen 
black ; on termen always more not macular but formed into a 
or less macular, the spots some- continuous black band always 
times connected slenderly along sensibly narrowed posteriorly, 
the extreme margin, the markings Iliud wing with no terminal line, 
not narrowed posteriorly. Hind or if present black, sometimes 
wing generally with a very slen- macular, generally ill-defined and 
der terminal yellowish-pink line. diffuse. 

$ . Upperside : markings as in tf , $ . Upperside : markings always 
the terminal macular band on much broader than in the J 5 
fore wing not broader. terminal black band sometimes 

rery broad down to vein 3, then 
suddenly contracted and narrowed 
to tornal angle. 

These differences as enumerated are slight, but they are con- 
stant, and give to the two insects a facies markedly different one 
from the other. 

Exp. <S $ 52-74 mm. (2-06-2-92"). 

Hab, Within our limits recorded from the N.W. Himalayas ; 
Dliarmsala; Karachi; the Punjab; Sikhim ; Bengal; Nilgiris ; 
Western India; Mysore; Assam; Burma; Ceylon. Occurs to 
the west through a great part of Africa to Sierra Leone in the 
west, to Nyassaland in the east ; Aden ; Socotra ; Persia and 
Afghanistan. Further east it is found in Siam and China. 

Larva. " Ground-colour pea-green, a black interrupted but very 
distinct lateral stripe, and below it a broader stripe of an orange- 
yellow colour ; the larva is rough but not hairy, the whole of the 
back and head covered with minute black spots ; length when full 
grown about 1-5 inches." (Nurse.) 

Pupa. " Pattern and colouring very like that of the larva, but 
the green apparently more uniform and (except on the wing-cases) 
inclining to glaucous ; yellow lateral stripe paler; acute cephalic 
projection tipped with reddish brown ; attached to various bushes, 
grasses, &c." (Trimen.) 

25. Catopsilia SCylla, Linn. (Papilio) Cent. Ins. 1763, p. 20 ; Cramer 
(Papilio), Pap. Exot. i, 1775, pi. 12, figs. C, D, <$ ; Boisduval 



Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1885, p. 298, pi. 24, figs. 1, 2-d 1 ; de N. 
$ Martin, J. A. S. B. 1895, p. 493. 
Callidryas gorgophone, Doubleday, Westiv. & Sew. Gen. Di. Len. 

i,1847,p 68, pi. 9,%. 2rf. " 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : white, a narrow black line on costa 
that commences just beyond the base, widens at apex to a broad 
margin, and is continued down the termen to the tornal angle as 
an inwardly dentate black band of nearly even widrh throughout. 
Hind wing : rich cadmium-yellow, slightly paler towards the base, 



CATOPSILIA. DERCAS. 225 

generally with a series of terminal black spots in the interspaces 
Underside: rich cadmium- or chrome-yellow. Pore wing: a 
posterior area below cell and vein 2 pure white, the yellow 
however extends down to the tornal angle in a curve ; both fore 
and hind wings with small discocellular pinkish spots that are 
ringed with circles of darker brownish-pink scales, and crossed by 
a series of lunular diffuse discal markings of similar brownish- 
pink scales. Antennae and head above reddish brown; thorax 
clothed with fuscous-grey hairs, abdomen yellow ; beneath : palpi, 
thorax and abdomen yellow. $ . Similar. Upperside, fore wing: 
ground-colour dull creamy-white, the black on apical portion of 
costa, on the apex itself and along the termen much broader; a discal 
series of ill-defined diffuse black spots curved strongly inwards 
anteriorly and a small discocellular diffuse black ring. Hind 
wing : as in the J , the yellow of a duller shade that turns to pale 
pinkish white towards basal area above the cell ; a discal series, 
sometimes obsolescent, of dull brownish-black lunular markings ; 
the spots in the terminal series much larger and duller in 
colour than in the J Underside : as in the <$ , but all the black 
markings of the upperside replaced in rich pinkish-red tints. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d . 

Exp. tf $ 58-72 mm. (2-26-2-86'"). 

Hab. Within our limits, the extreme south of Tenasseritn; 
extends through the Malayan Subregion to Australia ; recorded 
from China. 

Larva. " Dark velvety green, with a yellowish-white lateral 
streak and some very minute black spots anterior to the streak, 
the whole surface delicately ringed or indented like a leech." 
(Martin.) 

Pupa. " Has a pointed head like that of C. crocale, but is 
shorter and more convex than the slender pupa of that species." 
(Martin.) 



Genus DERCAS. 

Dercas, Doubleday, Gen. Di. Lep. 1847, p. 70 ; Sutler, Cist. Ent. 
i, 1870, p. 45, pi. 2, fig. 1 ; de Nicevitte, A. M. N. H. (7) ii, 

1898, p. 478. 

Type, D. verhuetti, Van der Hoeven, from China. 

Range. India ; Burma ; China ; Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra ; 
Borneo. 

cJ 5 . Fore wing : costa strongly arched, apex shortly produced 
into an acute point, much more so in the $ than in the d ; termen 
below apex concave, dentate at apices of veins 4, 5 and 6 ; tornus 
forms a blunt right angle ; termen very short, about half length 
of eosta ; dorsum long, slightly sinuate ; cell short and broad, not 
half length of costa ; both middle and lower discocellulars concave, 
upper absent, middle about half length of lower ; veins far apart, 
vein 6 from basal third of 7, vein 8 absent, vein 9 from base of 

VOL. II. Q 



226 



PIERIDJE. 



apical third of 7, vein 10 from apex of cell, vein 11 free, from base 
of apical third of subcostal. Hind wing : very broad, veins well 
apart ; costa arched ; termen angulated and shortly tailed at 
apex of vein 4, sloped obliquely outwards to that vein, thence 
obliquely inwards to tornus and again at an angle to the middle 
of the dorsal margin ; cell very short and broad ; upper disco- 
cellular very short, middle slightly longer, lower very much longer, 
concave and sloped outwards 'to lower apex of cell ; precostal spur 
curved inwards. Antennae very short, less than one-third length 
of costa of fore wing ; club elongate, very gradual, roundly truncate 
at apex ; palpi short, third joint remarkably so ; eyes large and 
prominent. 

Key to the forms of Dercas. 

a. Termen of hind wing angulated and with a well- 

marked conspicuous tooth or short tail at apex 

of vein 4 .............................. & verhuelli, p. 226. 

b. Termeu of hind wing slightly angulated at 

apex of Tein 4, but never produced into a 
tooth or short tail. 
a'. A conspicuous dark sienna-brown spot in 

interspace 3 of fore wing ................ D. lycorias, p. 227. 

b'. No sienna-brown spct in interspace 3 of ( D i ycoria ^^^ 
fore g ............................ 1 decipiens, p. 228. 



626. Dercas verhuelli, Van der Hoeven (Colias), Tijdsch. voor Nat. 
Ges. v, 1839, p. 341, pi. 8, figs. 3, 4,$ ; Doubleday (Gonepteryx), 
Gen. Di. Lap. i, 1847, p. 71, pi. 8, tig. 3 <$ ; Moore, P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 760 ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 414. 
Rhodocera lycorias, Doubleday in Gray's Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 77, 
2 (nee <?). 

d 1 . Upperside : rich gamboge-yellow. 
Fore wing : discocellulars bordered on 
each side broadly with orange : apex 
with a square patch of dark sienria- 
brown which is narrowed posteriorly 
and continued to apex of vein 1 ; the 
inner margin of this sienna-brown 
area angulated in interspace 5, and 
narrowly edged along its whole length 
with orange ; a narrow band of orange 
that starts from the angle in inter- 
space 5 and is inclined slightly inwards, 
crosses the disc of the wing to vein 1. 
Hind wing : uniform, only slightly paler 
along the costal and dorsal marg'ins ; u 
minute sienna-brown dot at the apices 
of all the veins and indications of an 
orange band in continuation of the one 
on the fore wing crosses the disc, this 
is very faint and is merely seen by transparency from the 




Fig. 57. Dercas verhuelli. 



DERCAS. 227 

underside. Underside : a paler duller yellow. Fore wing : markings 
much as on the upperside but the edging to the discocellulars, the 
oblique band across the disc, the square patch at apex and border to 
the termen are blood- red, but on the term en this colour has a washed- 
out appearance ; in addition there are three red spots on the costa 
and a more or less triangular streak of silvery scales that crosses 
the apical patch obliquely. Hind wing : the veins at base of cell, 
a looped line around the discocellulars, a faint transverse bar near 
the apex of interspace 7, and the oblique band that crosses the 
disc reddish, this last extends from vein 1 to vein 7 and is sharply 
angulated or bent ut vein 2. Antennae brown, head and palpi 
above pink, thorax and abdomen above and beneath pale yellow. 
2 . Similar, with more or less similar markings on both upper and 
under sides, but the ground-colour is a pale sulphur-yellow, and on 
the upperside of the fore wing the markings on the discocellulars 
and the oblique band that crosses the disc are only indicated by 
transparency from the underside, while the dark sienna-brown on 
the termen stops short at vein 3, with a spot of the same colour 
in the interspace below. 

Exp. d 1 $ 70-82 mm. (2-76-3-22"). 

Hab. Sikhim up to 4000 feet ; Manipur ; the hills of Assam, 
Burma and Tenasserim ; extending to Siam and China. 



627. Dercas lycorias, Doubleday (Rhodocera), Grays Zool. Misc. 

1842, p. 77, rf (nee $). 
Gonepteryx wallichii, Doubleday, Proc. Ent. Soc. (1) v, 1849. 

p. xlvii; Sutler (Rhodocera), P. Z. S. 1866, p. 452; Elves 

(Dercas), P. Z. S. 1882, p. 402 ; id. (Dercas), Trans. Ent. Soc. 

1888, p. 415. 
Gonepteryx urania, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 458, pi. 26, fig. 5 ? ; 

Swinhoe (Dercas), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, p. 308. 

Dimorph decipiens. 

Dercas decipiens, de Nicevilk, A. M. N. H. (7) ii, 1898, p. 483. 
Dercas brindaba, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (7) iii, 1899, p. 107. 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : sulphur-yellow, darker and a richer 
yellow on the outer half especially towards the apex ; a small 
square patch on apex trisinuate internally, the middle sinus deep, 
the others much slighter, dark sienna-brown ; a similarly coloured 
large round spot in interspace 3 and much smaller spots or dots 
at apices of veins 1 to 3 and 10 to 12. Hind wing: pale yellow, 
paler along the dorsal and costal margins ; veins 1 to 7 with 
minute dark sienna-brown dots at their apices. Underside : paler 
duller yellow, sprinkled with ferruginous dots ; the discocellulars 
on both fore and hind wings marked with a geminate ferruginous 
spot bipupilled with silver ; a short, oblique, silvery streak on costa 
just before the apex on fore wing, from which a ferruginous narrow 
baud inclined obliquely inwards crosses the disc, passing through 

Q2 



228 PIEBIDJE. 

a comparatively large, similarly coloured round spot iu interspace 
3 ; a similar band crosses the hind wing, not extended either to 
the costa or to the tornus ; lastly, minute dark spots as on the 
upperside at the termination of the veins on the hind wing. 
Antenna dark reddish brown, palpi in front and head pinkish, 
thorax dark bluish grey, abdomen pale yellow ; beneath : thorax and 
abdomen pale yellow. $ . Similar to the rf but the ground-colour 
much paler ; the ferruginous spot in interspace 3 of the fore wing 
larger, especially on the underside. 

Exp. 6 $ 58-64 mm. (2-3-2-5"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; the hills of Assam. 

Dimorph decipiens, de Nice ville. The 3 only appears to be 
known, I have seen no $ . The d 1 differs from the typical form 
in the absence of the spot in interspace 3 of the fore' wing, both 
on the upper and under sides. 

Exp. As in the typical form. 

Hab. The hills of Assam. 

Genus GONEPTERYX. 

Gonepteryx, Leach, Edinburgh Encycl. ix, 1815, p. 128. 

Type, G. rhamni, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; N. Africa ; Asia north of the Himalayas, in- 
cluding Upper Burma, China, and Japan ; in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, Jamaica, Florida, Venezuela and Brazil, but not in the 
United States or Canada. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa curved at base, then widely but very 
slightly emarginate in the middle 
or straight ; apex strongly arched 
and falcate ; termen concave below 
apex, then convex ; tornus broadly 
rounded ; dorsuin bisinuate ; cell 
more than half length of wing ; 
vein 6 out of 7 from well bevond 
apex of cell, upper discocellular 
absent, middle discocellular very 
short, not one-quarter the length 
. of the lower, lower deeply concave ; 
vein 5 shifted up, more or less 
approximate to base of 7 ; vein 8 
absent ; 9 from middle of 7 ; 10 and 

3 2 1 11 free, rather wide apnrt, termi- 

Fig. 58. Gonepteryx, venation. nated on costa. Hind wing: broadly 
oval ; termen at apices of veins 7, 

2 and 4 slightly, at apex of vein 3 more prominently dentate ; sub- 
costal vein and vein 7 swollen, prominent ; median vein, veins 1, 2, 

3 and 4 towards base and lower discocellular Jess conspicuously 
swollen and prominent ; cell more than half length of wing, upper 




GONEPTERYX. 229 

discocellular slightly longer than middle, lower longest of all, 
concave. In cell of fore wing three, in that of hind wing two, of 
the lost longitudinal veins conspicuously indicated. Antennae 
short, about one-third the length of the fore wing ; club compressed, 
gradual but well marked ; palpi densely clothed with scales and 
short hairs, third joint short, blunt ; eyes prominent ; head tufted 
above in a peak. 



Key to the forms of Gonepteryx. 

a. Hind wing : posterior two-thirds of termen 

arched, only minutely toothed at the apices of 
the veins. 

'. Upperside fore and hind wings : cT uni- 
form deep cadmium-yellow. $ white, 
barely tinged with cream-colour G. rhamni, p. 229. 

I' '. Uppersideforeandhind wings: tf , basal area 
chrome-yellow fading to white, tinged 
with pale sulphur-yellow on the outer 
halves or three-fourths. $ pale cream- | G. rhamni, race 
colour } chitralensis, p. 230. 

b. Hind wing : posterior two-thirds of termen 

prominently dentate at the apices of the 
veins. 
a', c? . Upperside : fore wing chrome-yellow, 

hind wing cream-colour. $, fore and 

hind wings white, uniformly tinged with 

pale sulphur-yellow ; costa of fore wing 

slightly emarginate G. zaneka, p. 230. 

b'. d* . Upperside : fore and hind wings alike 

pale chrome-yellow, slightly paler on 

outer halves of wings. $ , fore and hind 

wings white uniformly tinged with 

sulphur-yellow ; costa of fore wing I G. zaneka, race 

straight | zanekoides, p. 231 . 



028. Gonepteryx rhamni, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, 
p. 470 ; Boisduval (Rhodocera), Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 602, 
pi. 6, fig. 7 <5 ; Ehces (Rhodocera), P. Z. S. 1881, p. 878 ; 
Lang, Butt. Eur. 1884, p. 65, pi. 14, figs. 4 <J $, pi. 16, figs. 4, 
larva & pupa; Doherty, J. A. IS. B. 1886, p. 136 ; Mackinnon 
de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589. 

Rhodocera farinosa, Zeller, Isis, 1837, p. 5. 

Gonepteryx nepalensis, Doubleday, Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 71 ; 
Moore", Cat. Lep. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 59. 

Gonepteryx himalavensis, Manders, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890 
p. 534. 

Race chitralensis. 
Colias chitralensis, Moore, Lep, Ind. vii, 1905, p. 27. 

<? Upperside : pale, clear cadmium-yellow. Fore and hind wings : 
the apices of the veins and in the fore wing the cilia from vein 4 



230 PIERIDJE. 

to apex reddish brown ; a deep orange spot on the discocellulars 
of both wings, that on the hind much larger than the spot on the 
fore wing. Underside : very pale yello\v with a more or less hoary 
or floury appearance ; the base and disc of the fore wing below a 
line that would pass longitudinally through the cell sulphur-yellow ; 
discocellular spots on both fore and hind wings dull ferruginous. 
Antennae, palpi and head above reddish brown ; thorax with dull 
yellowish-grey hairs, abdomen above black, on the sides yellow ; 
beneath: the palpi, thorax and abdomen yellowish white. $ . Upper- 
side : pale creamy-white, the reddish-brown spots at the apices 
of the veins, the cilia of the fore wing, and the discocellular spots 
as in the rf . Underside : white, with a greenish-yellow wash over 
the anterior third from base to apex of fore and over the whole 
surface of the hind wing ; the spots on the discocellulars of duller 
reddish brown than on the upperside. Antennae, palpi, head and 
thorax as in the c? ; abdomen black above, white on the sides. 

Exp. J 64-70 mm. (2-53-2-76"). 

Hob. Within our limits : the whole line of the Himalayas, from 
Chitral in the extreme north-west to as far east as Darjiling (fide 
^Moore <$f de Niceville) ; Upper Burma : the Shan States. 

Race chitralensis, Moore. tf $ . Very closely resembles the 
typical form G. rhamni, from which it differs structurally in the 
median vein of the hind wing which is not so prominent, especially 
on the underside, and in colour as follows : c? . Upperside, fore 
wing : chrome-yellow at base, much lighter in shade than the rich 
cadmium-yellow of G. rhamni, fading on apical half to white 
faintly tinged with sulphur ; hind wing : basal third chrome- 
yellow fading outwardly to white, more faintly tinged than on 
the fore wing with pale sulphur. Underside fore wing : posterior 
two-thirds white ; anterior third, apical area broadly, and whole 
surface of hind wing pale salmon-buff with a curious minutely 
granular appearance. $ . Upperside : as in rhamni $ , but of a 
more creamy- white. Underside : also as in rhamni but of rather 
a salmon-buff tint with a granular appearance. 

Exp. <S 2 52-66 mm. (2-08-2-6"). 

Hab. Recorded so far only from Chitral. 

29. Gonepteryx zaneka (PI. XVIII, fig. 123), Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 493, pi. 31, fig. 18 ; Dolierty, J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 136 ; Sutler, 
A. M. N. H. (6) i, 1888, p. 199 ; Mackinnon $ de N. Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589. 

Race zanekoides. 

Gonepteryx zanekoides, de N., J. A. S. B. 1897, p. 564, pi. 1, 
figs. 2,7, rf $ . 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : sulphur-yellow, minute spots of reddish 
brown at the apices of the veins as in rhamni, but restricted to the an- 
terior veins ; the cilia pale yellow alternated anteriorly with reddish 



GONEPTERYX. 231 

brown. Hind wing : cream-coloured, the posterior veins with 
minute spots of reddish brown at their apices ; ferruginous disco- 
cellular spots on both fore and hind wings as in rhamni but much 
duller in tint and very much smaller. Underside : darker cream- 
colour with a slightly greenish tint ; posterior two-thirds of the 
fore wing paler, almost white, anterior third of the fore wing from 
base through middle of cell to the termen below the apex, and the 
whole surface of the hind wing with a delicately roughened 
appearance. $ . Upperside : fore and hind wings cream-coloured 
with a slightly yellowish tint. Underside : greenish white. 
The rest both on upper and under sides as in the d 1 . In both 
sexes on the underside there are some minute black dots, post- 
discal series of them anteriorly on the fore wing and across the 
whole of the hind wing indicate the positions of the lost veins in 
the interspaces. Antennae, palpi, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
rhamni, but the long hairs on the thorax above, silky greenish 
white ; beneath : thorax and abdomen paler than in rhamni. 

Exp. rf 2 58-62 mm. (2-28-2-46"). 

JJab. The Himalayas from Chitral to Kumaon at elevations of 
6000 to 10,000 feet. 

Besides the differences in size and colouring this form and its 
local race can always be distinguished from G. rhamni by the 
conspicuously scalloped termen of the hind wing; the triangular 
projection or tooth at apex of vein 3 is also very prominent. 

Race zanekoides, de Niceville. "Very near to 0. zaneka, 
Moore, from the "Western Himalayas, rf . Differs from the same 
sex of that species in having the fore winy markedly broader, the 
costal margin not constricted at half its length but straight, the 
apex not so produced. Hind wing : distinctly broader than in 
G. zaneka, almost of the same shade of brimstone as the fore wing, 
the outer slightly paler than the basal half of the wing, in G. zaneka 
it is of a pale cream-colour and of a uniform shade throughout. 
$ . Fore wing : agrees in shape with that of the d 1 , consequently 
differs from the same sex of G. zaneka in being broader with a 
straight instead of an excavated costa, and the apex less produced. 
Hind iving : also broader than in G. zaneka. Otherwise similar to 
G. zaneka. The highly dentate wing in both sexes will distinguish 
G. zaneka and G. zanekoides from G. aspasia, Menetries." (de 
Niceville.) 

Exp. tf $ 41 mm. (2-1"). 

Hob. Eecorded so far only from the Southern Chin Hills, 
Upper Burma. 




Genus COLIAS. 

Colias*, Fabr. Illig. Mag. vi, 1807, p. 284; Doubleday, Gen. Di. 
Lep. 1847, p. 72 ; Ehves, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1880, p. 133 ; Lang, 
Butt. Eur. 1884, p. 47. 

Type, C. liyale, Linn., European. 

Range. Europe, except the most northern regions; Asia, 
Northern and Central India, the Himalayas and some of the 
southern ranges ; Northern Africa and the Nearctic Region. 

<3 $ . Fore wing : costa arched at base, then almost straight 
to apex ; apex obtuse ; terinen slightly convex ; tornus obtusely 
angulate ; dorsum straight, about three-fourths the length of the 
costa ; cell about half length of wing ; vein 6 out of 7 from just 
before the middle, upper discocellular therefore absent ; middle 
discocellular short, upright ; lower concave, 
biangulate, the middle portion slender, nearly 
obsolete ; vein 8 absent ; vein 9 from apical 
third of 7 ; vein 10 from apex of basal third 
of 7 well beyond apex of cell ; vein 11 free, 
from beyond middle of subcostal. Hind wing : 
broadly oval; cell more than half length of 
wing; middle and lower discocellulars oblique, 
the latter much the longer and irregularly 
concave, slender in the middle. Antennse 
Fig. 59. not half length of fore wing, stout ; club 

Colias, venation. gradual but well marked, obtuse at apex ; 
head clothed with longish hairs in front ; 
palpi stout, porrect, third joint short ; eyes large and prominent : 
body moderately stout ; legs with the tarsi long and spiny ; claws 
little curved, bind, without paronychia or pulvilli. 

Key to the forms of Colias. 

A. Without special sex-marks. 

a. Upperside fore wing : terminal black bor- 
der traversed by a transverse series of 
spots, generally of the ground-colour 
of wing. 

a'. This series of spots incomplete ; spot in 
interspace 3 absent, or rarely, repre- 
sented by a mere trace. 
2 . Upperside : ground-colour lemon- 

yellow. 

a 3 . Expanse over 50 mm. ; irroration 
of black scales at base of wings 
on upperside restricted C. liyale (typical), p. 234. 

* Fabricius, in his diagnosis of the genus, placed under it the forms 
ixtlatno, hyale, glaucippc, rfiamm and cleopatra. Latreille in 1809 chose to 
consider rhamm as type of Colias, passing over pal<eno and hyalc. In this 
he has been followed by Scudder and quite recently by Moore. As this seems 
to me to unnecessarily upset a familiar name long applied to a certain group 
of insects, I have not followed Latreille and Scudder. 



COLZAS. 233 

6*. Expanse well under 50 mm ; irro- 
ration of black scales at base of 
wings on upperside more exten- . c ;/ ^ rftce 

T , sive . , : ' ' ' | nilqiriensis, p. 23.>. 

b 2 . Upperside : ground - colour rich c h / yar 

chrome-yellow ' * 7j ' ^ p . 33.-,. 

6. Iransverse series ot spots complete; ' 

spot in interspace 3 invariably present. 
a 2 . Upperside : ground - colour bright 

sulphur-yellow. 

3 . Hind wing upperside : black 
shading on base and disc light 
not dense, apparently mostly on 
posterior halt' of wing ; underside 
fore and hind wings : terminal 
portions of veins prominently 
yellow with narrow margins clear 
of green shadinsr, this gives an 
appearance of a subterminal trans^ 
verse series of sublanceolate 

yellow spots C. ladakensis, p. 230. 

b*. Hind wing upperside : black 
shading on base and disc com- 
paratively heavy and dense, 
extended right up to costal mar- 
gin ; underside fore and hind 
wings : without a prominent trans- 
verse subterminal series of sub- , c j adaken , is race 

lanceolate yellow spots . ^ .^^ 

b~. Upperside : ground - colour pale ' 
greenish yellow or pale sulphur- 
yellow. Expanse over 50 mm. 
a 3 .* Underside fore wing : a discal 
transverse series of inwardly 
pointed hastate black spots 
always present ; hind wing : the 
irroration of black scaling on 
basal four-fifths outwardly ter- 
minated by diffuse black spots \ C . nates, nee leeclii, 

in the interspaces \ r 9 .,o 

ft 3 . Underside fore wing: without a ' 
complete series of discal spots, 
only one or two round black spots 
in interspaces 1 and 2 ; hind 
wing: the irroration of black 
scaling on basal four-fifths not 
terminated outwardly by black 

spots ". C. (tlpherakli, p. 239. 

c 2 . Upperside: ground-colour dull orange- 
yellow. Expanse under 50 mm. . . C. dubia, p. 239. 
b. Upperside fore wing : terminal black 
border not traversed by a series of 
spots, immaculate. 

'. This black border very broad, not 
narrowed posteriorly, as broad at 
dorsuni as on costa C. wiskotti, p. 240. 



234 PIEIUP.Z. 

b '. This black border less broad, distinctly 

narrowed posteriorly. 
a\ Upperside: ground-colour lemon- , Q ;/ , f 

yellow ] r 235 

b' 2 . Upperside : ground - colour rich ' 

orange- vermilion C. eogene, p. 241. 

c 2 . Upperside : ground-colour orange- 
yellow C. stoliczkana, p. 242. 

B. With special sex-mark of a patch of modi- 
fied scales at base of interspace 7 on j C . w-occtw, race /feW*, 
upperside of hind wing j f p_ 243. 

630. Colia shyale, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, 1758, p. 469 ; 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 650 ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. 

Soc. 1880, p. 137; Lane/, Butt. Eur. 1884, p. 53, pi. 12, 

tigs. 3, c? ? ; Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 23. 
Papilio erate, Esper, Ausl. Schmett. i, pt. 2, 1806 ?, pi. 119, fig. 3 ; 

Lang (Colias), Suit. Eur. 1884, p. 54, pi. 12, fig. 4; Elwes 

(Colias), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, pp. 20 & 23. 
Colias neriene, Fischer, var. chrysodona, Boisduval, Gen. 2nd. Meth, 

1840, p. 7. 
Colias helichta, Lederer, Verli. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, ii, 1853, p. 33 ; 

Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 343. 
Colias sareptensis, Staudyr. Cat. Lep. Eur. 1871, p. 5. 
Colias lativitta, Moore, P. X. S. 1882, p. 255. 

Race nilgiriensis (PI. XVIII, fig. 121). 
Colias nilagiriensis, Felder, Wien. ent. Monats. iii, 1859, p. 395. 

<S . Upperside : lemon-yellow ; costa of fore wing, base of both 
fore and hind wings and the posterior half of the latter, irrorated 
with black scales ; on the hind wing the black scaling does not 
extend to the tornal angle. Fore wing : a small oval discocellular 
black spot ; the apex and termen broadly black, broadest on the 
apex, gradually decreased in width towards the tornal angle, to 
which in a few specimens it does not quite extend ; this black 
border traversed (sometimes immaculate, eastern dimorph erate) 
by a transverse series of five or six spots of the yellow ground- 
colour. Hind wing : discocellular spot double and of a deep 
orange-yellow ; terminal margin black, the black forms a con- 
tinuous band (dimorph erate) or is more or less irregular and 
often interrupted or broken into terminal spots : it extends 
from vein 2 to apex of wing. Underside : lemon-yellow, the base 
and costa of the fore and the basal half or more of the hind wing 
very lightly irrorated or sprinkled with black scales. Fore wing : 
discocellular spot as on the upperside, and a postdiscal transverse 
series of black spots that decrease in size, curve inwards, and 
become reddish in colour anteriorly. Hind wing : discocellular 
double spot silvery, each spot with a slender red inner and outer 
ring, in some specimens each spot has only the inner ring, and 
the two together are encircled by an outer slender ring ; a post- 
discal curved, somewhat obscure series of red spots, of which the 



COLIA.S. 235 

subcostal spot is large and prominent. Both fore and hind wings 
with the cilia and a line on the margins salmon-pink ; this line on 
the fore wing does not reach the tornal angle, on the hind wing 
it is not extended to the basal half of the dorsum. Antennae, 
head and thorax in front more or less salmon-pink, rest of thorax 
and the abdomen yellow, strongly overlaid with greenish black ; 
beneath : pale yellow, legs pinkish. $ . Very similar to the c? in 
markings, but the ground-colour on both upper and under sides 
may be either a paler yellow or white ; in both yellow and white 
forms however, the spots of the ground-colour that traverse the 
black on the terminal margin of the fore wing are generally 
larger and sometimes more numerous than in the cT Anteuna3, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? . 

Exp. <$ $ 50-66 mm. (1-99-2-62"). 

Hab. Within our limits : Baluchistan ; the Himalayas from 
Chitral, Kashmir and Kulu to Bhutan. It extends throughout 
the Palaearctic Region except the extreme northern portions. 
It is not found in the Canaries. 

Larva. In Europe : " Cylindrical, dark green sprinkled over 
with black dots ; there is a narrow yellow and white lateral stripe. 
Feeds on Leguminosce, principally Trifolium" (Lang.) 

Pupa. " Green, with a brownish- yellow lateral stripe." (Lang.} 

Var. erate, Esper, seems to be, as noted above, so far as the 
males are concerned a dimorph of hyale. As to the females, 
in any large series it seems impossible to separate them from 
those of hyale. 

Var. clirysodona, Boisduval, has been considered by some 
authorities as a hybrid between C. hyale and C. croceus, Fourcr. 
= edusa. Fabr. It differs from hyale, dimorph erate, chiefly in 
the ground-colour of the wings, which on the upperside are a 
rich chrome-yellow, not lemon-yellow. 

C. helichta, Lederer, is a synonym of chrysodona. 

Var. sarcptensis, Staudgr., was diagnosed as follows : " Al. 
ant. marg. post, lato nigro ; c? satur. flavus." The width of the 
black terminal band on the fore wing is very variable in hyale, 
as is also the depth of the yellow tint in the ground-colour. 

C. lativitta, Moore, is a synonym of the dimorph of hyale, 
C. erate. The type is in the British Museum, and a close com- 
parison shows that it can be matched by many specimens from 
{$. Russia, where erate first begins to make its appearance. 

Race nilgiriensis, Felder. Closely resembles typical hyale, but 
as it is isolated in the hills of Southern India it has acquired a 
distinguishable general appearance. d" Upperside : ground-colour 
a deeper, brighter yellow ; irroration of black scales at base of fore 
wing much more extensive and on the hind wing spread right up 
to the black on terminal margin ; terminal black border to both 
fore and hind wings proportionately broader ; on the fore wing 
traversed as in the typical form by a transverse series of yellow 
spots. Underside : ground-colour a brighter yellow than in hyale, 



236 PJEBID.E. 

but somewhat densely overlaid along the costal margin, on 
apical area of fore wing and over the whole surface of the hind 
wing, with a dusting of black scales that gives the underside of 
the wings a decidedly green tinge. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in hi/ale, but the latter two somewhat darker on the 
upperside. $ . Upperside: ground-colour apparently always white, 
but so very densely overlaid on the basal third of the fore and 
over the whole surface of the hind wing with irrorations of black 
scales, that the insect has a very distinctive appearance when 
compared with the white dimorphic $ of liyale black borders to 
both wings as in hyale, but traversed on the fore wing by only 
two white spots and on both wings proportionately broader. 
Underside : fore wing white, apex broadly greenish yellow ; disco- 
cellular and postdiscal spots as in hyale. Hind wing : greenish 
yellow, spots and markings much as in hyale. Both sexes always 
run strikingly smaller than they do in the tvpical form. 

Exp. $ $'44-48 mm. (1 74-1-88"). 

Hab. Southern India : the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills and Travan- 
core, at 5000 feet. 



63] . Colias ladafcensis, Felder, Novara Eeise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 197, 
pi. 27, figs. 8, 9, rf; Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 254; MacKinnon $ 
de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 589. 
Colias shipkee. Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 492, pi. 31, fig. 13. 

Race berylla. 

Colias berylla, Faweett, P. Z. S. 1904, p. 139, pi. 9, fig. 8 $; 

JElwes, P. Z. S. 1906, p. 480, pi. 36, fig, 13 rf . 
Colias nina, Faiccett, P. Z. S. 1904, p. 140, pi. 9, fig. 9 $ . 

c? . Upperside : bright sulphur-yellow. Fore wing : extreme 
base irrorated with a small patch of black scales ; a black disco- 
cellular spot ; the terminal fourth of wing evenly black from costa 
to dorsum, the inner margin of the black area curved and not 
sharply defined, the middle of the area traversed by a series of 
large, somewhat oval, yellow spots, beyond which right to the 
terminal margin the veins are slenderly but conspicuously yellow. 
Hind wing : base and a broad posterior area down to the disc 
irrorated with black scales, with a sparse clothing at the base of 
long yellow hairs; an orange-yellow discocellular spot, sometimes 
wanting ; terminal margin towards the apex with broad blac-k 
border and superposed yellow spots, somewhat as in the fore wing 
but not at all clearly defined ; both the black border and the 
superposed yellow spots on it fade out posteriorly and are merged 
in the ground-colour, which extends to the tornal angle and to the 
margin above it. Underside : ground-colour similar but somewhat 
paler. Fore and hind wings shaded with green as follows : Fore 
wing on the costa, the apex and more or less along the terminal 
margin ; hind wing over the whole surface, but most densely 
over the basal four-fifths. On both fore and hind wings the 



COLIA3, 237 

terminal portions of the veins are prominently yellow with the 
green shading above and below each vein slightly cleared, this 
gives to the wings an appearance of markings resembling a trans- 
verse subterminal sublanceolate series of bright yellow spots. 
Fore wing : a black discocellular spot and some postdiscal trans- 
verse black markings that decrease in size and become obsolete 
anteriorly. Hind wing : a large yellow-centred reddish disco- 
cellular spot joined to a conspicuous yellow streak in the cell ; 
a slender line along the costal margin of both fore and hind wings 
and the cilia pink. Antenna) and head salmon-pink ; thorax and 
abdomen greenish yellow ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen 
whitish yellow slightly shaded with dusky black. $ . Very- 
similar, but the ground-colour is somewhat richer on the upperside ; 
the black border to the fore wing broader and only the posterior 
veins across it are terminally yellow ; on the hind wing the 
shading of dusky-black scales is more dense. Underside : almost 
as in the d . 

Exp. 3 ? 50-56 mm. (1-88-2-24"). 

Hah. Within our limits : Ladakh and Kashmir, crossing over 
from Tibet and- Chinese Tartary. 

Hace berylla, Fawcett. <$ . Upperside : rich bright sulphur- 
yellow, very pure in tint and very different from the ground- 
colour of G. liyale; also much richer and brighter than in 
C. ladakensis. Fore wing : base posteriorly and for a very short 
way along the dorsum black ; costal margin slightly irrorated 
with black scales ; an oval discocellular jet-black spot ; beyond 
the cell the terminal third of the wing black, in most specimens 
somewhat diffuse outwardly, the inner margin of the black area 
irregular, sinuate, and between the veins slightly and diffusely 
produced inwards ; medially this black border to the wings is 
crossed transversely by a series of more or less elongate spots of 
the ground-colour in interspaces 1 to 6 and 9 and 10; from each of 
these spots a very fine slender line is carried nearly to the terminal 
margin ; the spots are well denned, with the exception of those 
in interspaces 1 and 3, which in some specimens are slightly 
irrorated with black scales and thus have a tendency to become 
obscure. Hind wing : dorsum broadly paler, the basal and 
medial area of the wing right to the costal margin shaded with 
dusky greenish-black, overlaid near the base by long pale recum- 
bent yellow hairs ; this dusky-black area broken by a conspicuous 
large discocellular spot of the ground-colour, centred with deeper 
yellow, and a subapical elongate jet-black irregular patch; terminal 
margin very broadly beyond the dusky-black area, of the shade of 
the ground-colour, with a very obscure subtermiual broad band 
of irrorated black scales that at the apex of the wing coalesce and 
form a narrow, short, curved band. Cilia yellow ; of the fore 
wing anteriorly and of the hind wing posteriorly pink. Underside : 
yellow with a rich green tint, especially on the areas that on the 
upperside are black. Fore wing: discocellular spot and three 



238 PIEEIDJJ. 

posterior postdiscal spots in a transverse row that decrease in size 
towards the costal edge of the wing, jet-black. Hind wing: 
discocellular spot much smaller than on the upperside and silvery 
white, the yellow ground-colour prominent on a broad band along 
the termeri. Antennae bright reddish pink ; head, thorax and 
abdomen black, the head with tufted pinkish hairs anteriorly, the 
thorax and abdomen shaded with longish dusky hairs ; beneath : 
palpi, thorax and abdomen greenish yellow. . Similar with 
similar markings. Upperside, fore wing : ground-colour from base 
to terminal black area rich orange-yellow ; anteriorly and at base 
this colour overlaid by dusky- black scattered scales that extend 
broadly along the costal margin above the cell. Hind wing : as in 
the male, but the basal and medial areas much darker, almost jet- 
black ; the broad terminal yellow band much shaded with dusky- 
black scales. On the upperside it has altogether a much darker 
appearance than the male. Underside : as in the d 1 but somewhat 
paler. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of 
the rf. 

Exp. 6 2 57-61 mm. (2-24-2-49"). 

Nab. Native Sikhirn : Tungu Valley, 14,000-15,000 feet ; Tibet 
frontier : Khamba Jong ; Gyautse, above 16,000 feet. 



632. Colias nastes, Boisduval, Icones Hist. Lcp. pi. 8, figs. 4, 5. 

Race leechi. 

Colias nastes, -car. leechii, Elwes, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, 
p. 466, c?$. 

Race leechi, Elwes. d 1 9 Upperside : black markings similar to 
those of G. ladakensis, Felder, but the ground-colour quite different, 
of a pale greenish-yellow in the d 1 and still duller in the $ , almost 
a dead sullied white. In no specimen d 1 or $ that I have seen is 
there a discocellular spot on the hind wing. Underside : dull green- 
ish white ; veins in both fore and hind wings white. Pore wing : 
a conspicuous discocellular spot as on the upperside and a transverse 
postdiscal, generally complete series of black spots ; the costa, apex 
and the terminal margin more or less irrorated with black scales. 
Hind wing : basal four-fifths densely overlaid with irrorated black- 
scaling; along its outer margin this generally ends in a black spot in 
each interspace ; the area covered by the black scales thus acquires 
a rich dark green tint ; a pale streak near apex of cell terminates 
in a black discocellular spot ; the outer terminal fifth covered 
lightly with yellowish scales, crossing which the terminations of 
the greenish-white veins stand out conspicuously. Antenna and 
head pale pinkish-brown; thorax and abdomen above, the palpi. 
thorax and abdomen beneath, dusky greenish-white. 

Exp. d $ 50-54 mm. (1-98-2-12"). 

Hob. Chonging Valley and Kardong Pass, Ladakh, at from 
15,000 to 17,000 feet. 



COLIAS. 239 

633. Colias alpherakii, Stawlinger, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxvi, 1882, 

p. 104 ; Gr.-Gi: Rom. Mem. iv, 1890, p. 337, pi. 3, figs. 2 a, 2b, 
2c,d$- 

<S . Upperside : pale sulphur-yellow. Fore wing : the base and 
the veins lightly irrorated with black scales ; an oval black spot 
on the discocellulars ; the terminal third of the wing black with 
the inner border of the black area irregular and diffuse ; a 
transverse subterrainal series, that anteriorly is curved backwards, 
of somewhat rectangular spots of the ground-colour superposed 
down the middle. Hind wing : the base and central portion irro- 
rated with black scales ; a pale discocellular ill-defined spot, and 
some anterior terminal black markings that vary considerably in 
extent and are not alike in any two specimens. Cilia of both fore 
and hind wings -prominent and of the same tint as the ground- 
colour of the wings. Underside : ground-colour similar, both fore 
and hind wings with extensive irroration of black scales which 
varies considerably in amount ; in some specimens it is very 
dense and gives a blackish tint to the ground-colour, especially on 
the hind wing. Fore wing : the discocellular spot as on the 
upperside but much larger; some variable lower discal black 
markings generally confined to interspaces 1 and 2. Hind wing : 
uniform, a prominently white round discocellular spot; the terminal 
margin broadly paler with the irroration of black scales decreasing 
greatly in density. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen con- 
colorous with the ground-tint ; the club of the antennae more or 
less brownish, sometimes pink. 2 Upperside : ground-colour 
white, very faintly suffused with yellow ; the markings similar to 
those of the d Underside : differs from that of the c? as 
follows : Fore wing : ground-colour white, the apex suffused with 
yellow and the irroration of black scales chiefly confined to that 
area. Hind wing : also white but suffused all over with yellow 
and with the dusting of black scales, except along the terminal 
margin, very dense as in some males. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the male, but the club of the antennae in most 
specimens that I have seen more generally pink. 

Exp. c? 2 49-66 mm. (1-94-2-60"). 

Hob. Recorded within our limits from Chitral only. 

634. Colias dubia, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1906, p. 481, pi. 36, figs. 8, 9, rf 2 . 

d" . Upperside : orange. Fore wing : base and costa narrowly, 
apex and ternien broadly black ; veins and discocellular spot 
black ; very slender, somewhat obscure, subterminal pale yellow- 
streaks cross the black border in each interspace ; these start 
from a transverse series of yellow spots that traverse the inner 
side of the same border. Hind wing : posterior half dusky 
greenish, shaded by an irroration of black scales that extends down- 
wards towards the disc under a clothing of long greenish-yellow 
hairs ; a subterminal yellow and a terminal black band, the latter 
commencing above on the costa and both crossed by the slender 



240 PIERIDJE. 

pale yellow terminations to the veins which are very conspicuous ; 
the terminal black band narrows posteriorly and becomes obsolete 
below vein 2. Cilia of both fore arid hind wings salmon-pink. 
Underside, fore wing : orange-yellow, costal and terminal margins 
broadly green ; a slenderly white-centred discocellular spot and 
a transversely postdiscal series of spots, black ; veins black, their 
terminations crossing the green area yellow ; costa and termen 
with a slender pink line. Hind wing : basal four-fifths rich dark 
green, outer fifth paler brighter green ; discocellular spot silvery 
white, edged, broadly on the outer side, with pinkish red ; a curved, 
transverse, postdiscal series of black spots ; the veins from base to 
termen dark green ; costa, termen and dorsum with a slender 
pink line. Antennae and head in front pink, club of antennae 
brown, thorax and abdomen dusky black ; beneath : the abdomen 
with slender transverse white lines. . Up per aide : similar to that 
of the d , but the fore wing with the black shading at the base 
extended along the dorsum, almost joining the terminal black 
border which is very much broader and is somewhat obscurely, 
transversely traversed by a subterminal series of yellow, irregular 
spots ; discocellular spot and veins black. Hind wing : dusky black, 
a large discocellular spot bright orange and a subterminal trans- 
verse baud of yellow spots ; dorsal margin dark dusky green. 
Underside: much as in the tf but the green colour duller and 
greyer, and the transverse subtermiual series of spots not so 
complete or clearly defined. 

Exp. d $ 40-45 mm. (1-58-178"). 

Hub. Native Sikhini ; Tibet : Khamba Jong and Lanak Valley, 
15,000 to 16,000 feet. 

635. Colias wiskotti, Standinger, Berl. ent. Zcits. xxvi, 1882, p. 166, 
pi. 2, tigs. 9, 10, d $ ; Gr.-Gr. Rom. M6m. iv, 1890, p. 347. 

c? Vpperside : basal half of both fore and hind wings greenish 
yellow, of the fore wing very often orange, dusted somewhat 
sparingly on the fore wing, more closely on the hind wins:, with 
black scales ; terminal half opaque black, with the anterior veins 
on the fore wing and the posterior veins on the hind wing 
.slenderly but conspicuously yellow. In many specimens all the 
veins are bright yellow where they traverse the black area. Fore 
wing : the inner margin of the black on the terminal half of the 
wing irregular, more or less sinuate ; an oval blaik or dark 
ferruginous-red discocellular spot. Hind wing : the black area 
ou the terminal half almost crescentic in shape, not extended to 
the tornal area below vein 1 ; duscocellular spot pale orange, large, 
round and prominent. Cilia pale yellow. Underside : pale sulphur- 
yellow. Fore wing: paler posteriorly; a comparatively large, 
prominent, blackish-brown, posterior discal spot nearly always 
present ; in some specimens this spot forms the lower one of a 
discal transverse, always incomplete series of ill-defined similar 
spots ; a blackish-brown spot on the discocellulars as on the 
upperside, only smaller. Hind wing : ground-colour uniform ; a 



COLIAS. 241 

discocellular spot smaller than on the upperside and paler than the 
ground-colour. Cilia of both fore and hind wings very pale vellow, 
almost white. $ . Differs from the <$ as follows: Upperside, fore 
wing: ground-colour generally orange, sometimes yellow or even 
mealy-white ; terminal black area much narrower, transversely 
crossed by a series (often incomplete) of diffuse ill-defined spots of 
the ground-colour, that is indistinctly produced narrowly along 
the veins towards the termen. Hind wing : the black on the 
terminal area very irregular, exceptionally, covering only the 
epical portion of the wing, often more or less extended towards 
the tornal area but always broken and interrupted by yellow 
diffuse spots which in some specimens coalesce and greatly though 
very irregularly restrict the black area ; discocellular spot orange 
as in the c? . Underside : as in the J ? but the basal half of the 
fore wing in most specimens orange. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings rose-pink, that colour continued very narrowly along the 
costal edges of both fore and hind wings and also along the dorsal 
margin of the latter. In both sexes the antennae are rose-pink, 
the head, thorax and abdomen either concolorous with the ground- 
colour on the basal halves of the wings, or a little paler. 

Exp. d" 2 66-72 mm. (2-60-2-88"). 

Hob. Within our limits recorded only from Chitral, taken below 
the Shandur Pass at about 11,000 feet elevation. 

636. Colias eogene, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 196, pi. .'57, 
fig. 7 d" 5 Erschoff, Lep. Turkest. 1874, p. 6 ; Lang, Rhop. Eur. 
1884, p. 366; Groum-Grshimailo, Rom. Mem., Lep. iv, 1890, 
p. 329, pi. 5, figs. 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, <$ $ . 

c? . Upperside : rich orange-vermilion. Fore wing : base, an 
elongate discocellular spot and a very broad band occupying 
nearly the terminal third of the wing dull opaque black, the last 
widest at apex, its inner margin curved, irregularly waved and 
produced narrowly along the dorsum for a short distance. Hind 
wing : base and a broad area parallel to the dorsum dusky black, 
clothed with long soft pale hairs ; dorsal margin itself narrowly 
yellowish ; a broad, dull, opaque, black band widest in the middle 
on the termen, its inner margin irregularly sinuate. Cilia of 
both fore and hind wings salmon-pink. Underside : fore wing 
orange-yellow ; the veins from base, the costa somewhat narrowly 
and the termen more broadly suffused with green ; along the 
termen this colour forms broad expansions at the apices of the 
veins but is diffuse inwardly ; discocellular spot pink centred 
with white ; an obscure, postdiscal, transverse series of black spots, 
only the posterior two or three prominent ; a narrow edging to 
the costa and the cilia pink. Hind wing : entirely suffused with 
green ; a spot at base of cell, a large double discocelluiar spot, a 
narrow edging to the costa and the cilia, pink ; the veins more 
or less conspicuously greyish green ; a somewhat obsolescent 
transverse postdiscal series of dark spots. Antennae and longish 
liairs on the head above pink, club of antennas brownish ; thorax 
VOL. n. B 



242 PIEBIDJE. 

and abdomen dusky black ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen 
pale green. No sex-mark on either fore or hind wing. $ . Upper- 
side, fore wing : ground-colour and markings similar to those in 
the <5 but the dusky blacs area at base broader and the terminal 
black band traversed medially by a transverse complete series of 
whitish spots tinged with pale vermilion, the series curved 
inwards opposite the apex and extended quite up to the costa ; 
costa near apex and cilia very broadly orange-vermilion. Hind 
wing : dusky black ; base clothed sparsely with long pale hairs ; 
dorsum broadly yellowish ; discocellular spot and an incomplete 
obscure subterminal series of small spots orange-vermilion ; cilia 
dark pink. Underside : very similar to that of the d 1 , the colours 
all somewhat brighter. 

Exp. <? $ 50-56 mm. (1-98-2-2"). 

Hub. N.W. Himalayas : Kashmir, Ladak, Chitral ; Sikhim : 
Teesta Valley above 9000 feet; extending into Central Asia through 
Tibet. 

Like many forms of this genus the female is dimorphic ; 
specimens with the ground-colour on the upperside dull white 
are in the British Museum from the Skoro-la in Baltistan. These 
differ from typical eogene <$ as follows: Upperside, tore wing: 
white to pale pinkish white, basal third thickly irrorated with 
blackish scales ; terminal black band as in typical specimens, the 
spots medially traversing it white with a tendency to become 
obsolescent ; in one specimen, only one or two spots are left. 
Hind wing : dusky black, the discocellular double spot fleshy pink, 
the subterminal transverse row of spots more or less obsolete. 
The pink line on the costa of the fore and the cilia of both fore 
and hind wings as in typical specimens. Underside : like that of 
ordinary specimens, but the green tints on both fore and hind 
wings paler and somewhat greyish ; the fore wing, except at apex 
and broadly on anterior portion of term en, greenish white to pale 
dull pink. There are also aberrations of the $ from the Chonging 
Valley in Ladak, with the colour and markings on the upperside 
almost as in typical specimens, but on the underside the green 
tints along the costa on apex and on termen of fore wing and 
over the whole surface of the hind wing are replaced by grey. 

637. Colias stoliczkana, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 229 ; id. 
Sci. Res. York. Miss. 1879, p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 1 ; Elwes, Jour. 
omb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, pp. 465, 466. 
Colias eogene, var. stoliczkana, Alpheraky, Rom. Mem., Lep. v, 1889. 

p. 74, pi. 4, figs. 4 , 4 b, 4 c, rf ? . 

? Colias eogene mirauda, Fruhst. Iris, xvi, 1903, p. 48, pi. 1, 
figs. 3, 4, rf $ . 

cJ. Closely resembles in ground-colour and markings <$ of 
C.Jieldi, but differs markedly in size, being always smaller. Upper- 
side : black at base of both fore and hind wings, and an irroration 
of black scales on posterior half of hind wing broader, darker and 
more conspicuous than in C.fiddi. Underside: the green colour 



COLIAS. 243 

along the costa and termen of the fore and suffusing the whole 
surface of the hind wing much darker and richer in tint than in 
fieldi. Antennae brownish pink ; head, thorax and abdomen dusky 
black ; beneath : palpi dusky grey, thorax and abdomen greenish. 
The sex-mark of modified scales at the base of interspace 7 
on the upperside of the hind wing so conspicuous in fieldi entirely 
absent. $ . Upperside : ground-colour sometimes orange-yellow, 
sometimes white. Fore wing : a discocellular spot and a band 
occupying nearly the terminal third of the wing black, the latter 
traversed by a transverse series of more or less equal elongate 
spots. In the specimens that have the ground-colour orange, 
these spots and a broad band along the costal margin are bright 
yellow ; in the others the spots are white and there is no band 
of colour other than the ground-colour along the costa. Hind 
wing: more or less diffusely irrorated with black scales, those on the 
apex and terminal margin anteriorly coalesce and form an ill- 
defined broad black band, which however in all specimens fades 
out posteriorly, never extending to the tornus ; this ill-defined 
band more or less traversed by a subterminal transverse curved 
series of elongate spots of the ground-colour; dorsum broadlv 
pale greenish-yellow or white ; discocellular spot large and bright 
orange. In some specimens the irroration of black scales on the 
posterior two-thirds of the wing gets so sparse towards the 
termen as to give that portion the appearance of being terminally 
bright yellow or white. Underside : as in the d 1 , but the green- 
coloured areas more greyish green ; some specimens with merely 
a faint trace of that colour ; all the veins paler and terminally 
conspicuously whitish yellow. 

Exp. d $ '46-56 mm. (1-8-2-2"). 

Hab. Described originally from specimens taken by the Second 
Tarkand Mission north of Changla in Ladak, at 17,000 feet ; 
N.W. Himalayas : Kashmir, Khardong Pass ; Sikhim above 
15,000 feet. 

638. Colias croceus, Fourcroy (Papilio), Ent. Paris, ii, 1785, p. 250. 
Papilio edusa, Fain-. Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 23. 

Race fieldi (Plate XV, fig. 103). 

Colias fieldi, Men. Cat. Mus. Petr., Lep. i, 1855, p. 79, pi. 1, fig. 5; 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 273 ; Ehves, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1880, 
p. 136 ; id. 1. c. 1884, pp. 5 & 7. 

Race fieldi, Men. tf . Upperside i deep cadmium orange-yellow. 
Fore wing : a patch of greenish-black scales at extreme base, a pear- 
shaped black spot on the discocellulars and a broad terminal black 
border ; the last occupies about a fourth of the wing and has its 
inner margin curved slightly and irregularly crenulate, broader at 
apex and the tornus than in the middle ; the end portions of veins 
6, 7, 9 and 10 subterminally pale and conspicuous on the black of 
the apex. Hind wing : a thin covering of long soft hairs at base, 
beneath which is a dusting of black scales that is continued 

R2 



244 PIERIDJE. 

outwards along the posterior half of the wing ; dorsum broadly 
pale yellow; terminal border broadly black, broadest in the middle, 
its inner margin crenulate ; discocellular spot large, consisting of 
a small patch on which the ground-colour is paler and brighter 
and that encloses two somewhat obscure dusky rings, the upper 
one minute. Cilia of both fore and hind wings broadly salmon- 
pink. Underside : light orange-yellow, the costal margin narrowly, 
terminal fourth of the fore wing and the whole surface of the 
hind wing overlaid with pale dull green ; the costa, termen and 
dorsum, with the cilia of both fore and hind wings, salmon-pink. 
Fore wing : discocellular spot as on the upperside but centred 
with silvery white ; a postdiscal transverse Aeries of black spots, 
obsolescent and curved inwards anteriorly, conspicuous and 
increasing in size posteriorly. Hind wing : a discocellular double 
spot conspicuous silvery and circled by a diffuse salmon-pink 
ring, followed by a very obscure, almost obsolete, transverse, post- 
discal series of pinkish spots. Antennae, head and thorax 
anteriorly salmon-pink, club of antennae darkening to brown ; 
thorax and abdomen dusky greenish black ; beneath : palpi, thorax 
and abdomen yellow. Sex-mark, a patch of thickly set light 
yellow scales at base of interspace 7 on the upperside of the hind 
wing. $ . Differs from the d as follows : Upperside: the irroration 
of black scales at the base of the wings more extensive, especially 
on the hind wing ; the black on the subterminal margins broader, 
its inner edge on both fore and hind wings more irregular and 
somewhat diffuse ; on the fore wing the black is transversely 
traversed by a series of bright yellow spots, the anterior four 
small, obliquely placed, the posterior one large; on the hind wing 
the discocellular patch is without the central dark rings con- 
spicuous in the c? , and there is an obscure postdiscal curved 
transverse series of yellow spots bordering the black on the 
terminal margin. Underside : precisely similar to that of the <3 . 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen on the upperside iis in the 
3 ; beneath : the palpi and thorax more or less salmon-pink. 

Exp. <$ $ 50-64 mm. (1 -98-2-5"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Chitral to Sikhim and Bhutan, from 
2500 to 14,000 feet; extending to Assam, Upper Burma and 
China. 

Genus TERIAS.* 

Terias, Swainson, Zool. III. i, 1820-21, pi. 22 ; Dblday. Gen. Di. Lep. 
i, 1847, p. 76; Wallace, Tram. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 320 ; 
Sutler, Cist. Ent. i, 1870, pp. 35-44. 

Type, T. hecale, Linn., from China. 

Range. Ethiopian and Indo-Malayan Eegions. 

d ? . Fore wing : costa arched ; apex generally more or less 

* Eurema, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schuiett. 1816, p. 96, has priority over 
Terias, but I haye thought it better to keep to the better-known generic name. 



TERIAS. 245- 

rouuded, in a few forms acutely pointed but not produced ; termen 
straight ; tornus rounded ; dorsum bisinuate, very long, about 
seven-tenths the length of the costa ; cell not quite half length of 
wing ; vein 6 from end of basal fourth of 7, upper discocellular 
therefore absent ; middle discocellular concave, short, half length 
of lower ; lo\ver discocellular long, concave ; vein 8 absent, vein 9 
from end of basal half of 7 ; veins 10 and 11 free, from apical half 
of subcostal, the former given off just before upper apex of cell. 
Hind wing : broad, broadly oval or slightly pear-shaped ; costa 
arched, apex and termen continuous and strongly curved ; tornus 
obtusely angular, the angle distinct ; dorsum broadly arched ; cell 
short and broad at apex ; the discocellulars more or less transverse, 
not oblique, the lower the longest, concave ; vein 7 given off from 
subcostal close to upper apex of cell, vein 8 long, strongly curved 
at base ; precostal vein rudimentary. $ with or without sex- 
marks ; in one group on the upperside of the fore wing, in another 
on the underside of the fore and upperside of the hind wing, in, 
two groups entirely absent. 

Key to the forms of Terias. 

A . Fore wing underside : no markings in basal 

half of discoidal cell. 

a. r? without secondary sexual characters, c? 
and fore wing : underside without any 
markings, speekless. Hind wing : upper- 
side without auy black terminal edging . . T. harina, p. 249. 
l>. <$ without secondary sexual characters. < 
and $ fore wing : underside with two 

minute black dots on discocellulars T. Ubythea, p. 247.. 

c. c? with secondary sexual characters on both 

fore and hind wings, tf and 2 f re wing : 

underside with a short, black, very slender 

undivided line on discocellulars. 

a'. Fore wing : acuminate at apex, terminal 

black band on upperside not extended 

to tornus T-. la-ta, p. 248. 

b' '. Fore wing : not acuminate at apex, ter- 
minal black band on upperside extended 
to tornus T. venata, p. 246. 

B. Fore wing underside : small black markings 

in basal half of discoidal cell, or if these 
are absent then terminal black area on upper- 
side of fore wing dilated into a square spot 
on tornus. tf with secondary sexual charac- 
ters on fore wing only. 

a. Fore wing underside: two small reddish- 

brown markings or spots in basal half of 

discoidal cell T. hccabc, p. 250. 

b. Fore wing underside ; one small black or 

reddish-brown marking in basal half of 
discoidal cell. 

a'. Fore wing upperside : inner edge of black 
terminal area anjnilated on veins 4 and 7 ; 



246 

outer edge of excavated portion of 

black area between veins 2 and 4 more 

or less vertical T. aiidersoni, p. 254. 

b'. Fore wing upperside: inner edge of black 

terminal area angulated on vein 4 only, 

not angulated on vein 7 ; outer edge of 

excavated portion of black area dis- 
tinctly oblique T. sari, p. 255. 

c. Fore wing underside : three small reddish- 
brown markings or spots in basal half of 
discoidal cell. 
'. Fore wing : comparatively short and broad, 

dorsal margin less than four-fifths length 

of costal margin ; inner edge of black 

terminal area on upperside very irregular, 

angulated on either vein 7 or vein 4 . . T. silhetana, p. 257. 
b'. Fore wing: comparatively long andnarrow, 

dorsal margin seven-eighths length of 

costal margin ; inner edge of black 

terminal area on upperside regular, 

dentate on each vein, but not angulated. T. moorci, p. 259. 

339. Terias venata, Moore, Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 65, pi. 2 , 

fig. 2; Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 320; JJutler, 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 535: Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 414 : 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 515 ; Butler, A. M. 
N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 64. 

Terias sanataua, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 211. 

Terias rama, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 566 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, 
p. 121, pi. 40, figs. 5, 6 a. 

Terias pallitaua, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 48. 

Terias cingala, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 48; id. Lep. 
Ceyl. i, 1891, p. 120, pi. 46, figs. 4, 4 a, <3 $ . 

Wet-season brood. J . Upperside: gamboge-yellow. Fore wing: 
apical third black, this colour extended along the costa in a 
gradually narrowing line to the base ; the inner margin of the 
black area irregular, oblique and sinuate from middle of costa to 
vein 4, thence continued outwards along that vein for a short 
distance and vertically downwards to vein 2, thence obliquely 
outwards to the tornal angle ; the portion of the area between 
veins 2 and 4 of even width, slightly produced angularly inwards 
at veins 2 and 3 ; basal two-thirds of the wing irrorated with 
black scales, most dense at extreme base ; a single linear black 
speck on the discocellulars. Hind wing : terminal margin with an 
even black band and a dusting of black scales from base to tornal 
angle, parallel with but not extended to the dorsum, nor spreading 
on to the disc ; a small patch of salmon-coloured scales at base of 
interspace 7. Cilia of both fore and hind wings pale yellow. 
Underside: ground-colour similar but somewhat duller ; both fore 
and hind wings evenly but hparingly dusted with black scales, which 
do riot extend to the cell, disc, or dorsal margin of the fore wing; 
the last paler yellow with a patch of salmon-coloured scales below 
the median vein in interspace 2 ; a linear speck on the disco- 



TERIAS. 247 

cellulars of the fore wing and a minute dot in interspace 7 of the 
hind wing black ; the disc of the hind wing transversely crossed 
by two parallel, very obscure, short blackish lunular bands; all 
the veins of both fore and hind wings with minute black dots at 
their apices. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dusky black ; 
beneath : the antennae with a line of white dots ; the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen whitish. $ . Similar, except of course the special 
sex-marks. Upperside : the dusting of black scales more dense ; 
the black area on the fore wing and the black terminal band on 
the hind wing broader ; the former however, narrowed generally 
abruptly beloiv the middle of interspace 1 and continued thence to 
the tornal angle as a mere black line, the latter very broad ante- 
riorly and attenuated rapidly towards the tornus. Underside : as 
in the J . Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen coloured similarly 
to those of the c? . 

Dry-season brood. Ground-colour in both sexes clearer, brighter 
and more free of the irroration of black scales. Upperside : the 
terminal black baud on hind wing narrower, of even width in the 
c? , obsolescent posteriorly in the $ . Underside : similar but paler 
than in the wet-season specimens. 

Exp. cf $ 36-42 mm. (1-42-1-67"). 

Hal. Himalayas from Simla to Darjiliug; Punjab; Ganjam ; 
AV^estern India : Kutch ; Bombay ; Poona ; Southern India : 
Xilgiri and Anaimalai Hills ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma. Nowhere 
plentiful. 

G40. Terias libythea, Fdbr. (Papilio) Eat. Syst. Suppl. 1798, p. 427; 

Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 515 ; Davidson, 

Hell $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 571 ; Butler, 

A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 58 ; Mackinnon $ de Nicemlle, Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 588. 
Terias drona, Horsfield, Cat. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. 1829, p. 137, pi. 1, 

fig. 13 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 120, pi. 46, figs. 3, 3 a, <J $ . 
Terias semia, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1805, p. 212; Distant, 

Rhop. Malay. 1885, p. 307, pi. 25, fig. 14 $>, & pi. 26, fig. 13 rf; 

Manders, Tram. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 533. 
Terias rubella, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 323; 

Elves, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 413. 

This form does not seem subject to seasonal dimorphism or 
polymorphism in so great a degree as some of the others belonging 
to the genus Terias. 

<5 . Upperside : gamboge-yellow. Fore wing : the apical 
third black ; the inner margin of the black area more or less 
regularly concave, extends from the apex of the basal third of the 
costa and curves round to a point on the dorsum just before the 
tornal angle ; base of wing irrorated with black scales. Hind 
wing : a black terminal band that is broader anteriorly ; basal 
area dusted with black scales. In specimens of the wet-season 
broods the black-marked areas on both fore and hind wings are 
broader than in dry-season specimens. Sometimes in the latter 



248 

the terminal band is broken into a series of linear spots posteriorly. 
Underside: ground-colour similar. Tore wing: costa narrowly edged! 
witb pink ; two well-marked discocellular and some obscure pre- 
apical black specks. Hind wing : a small spot at base followed by 
three transversely-placed spots and an elongated delicate loop-like 
liscocellular spot, black ; above and below the discocellular spot 
are small black-scaled diffuse spots and beyond the cell on the 
disc, transverse short diffuse similar bands of black scales placed 
en echelon. The apices of the veins in both fore and hind wings 
with black spots ; cilia salmon-pink. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen dusky black, the thorax with some yellow hairs ; beneath r 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen whitish yellow. $ . Similar, but 
the terminal band on the upperside proportionately broader both 
in the wet- and dry-season broods. 

&rp. rf 2 32-44 ram. (1-26-1-72"). 

Hab. The Himalayas from Kangra and Simla to Bhutan ; 
Punjab ; Bengal ; Ganjam ; Western India : Poona ; Southern 
India : the Nilgiris and Anaimalai Hills ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma ; 
Tenasserim ; the Nicobars ? 

I have only seen a single specimen said to be from the Nicobars. 

Many specimens of var. senna, Felder, are superficially very 
different in appearance. They are much larger, very heavily 
marked on the upperside, the black of a deep intense tint, and 
the terminal band on the hind wing very broad, well-defined and 
conspicuous. 

64]. Terias laeta, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 674 ; Watson, 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 514 ; Butler, A. M. N. H. 

(7) i, 1898, p. 65 ; Mackinnon fy de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 

1898, p. 588. 
Terias jaegeri, Menetries, Cat. Mus. Petrop., Lep. i, 1855, p. 84, pi. 2, 

fig. 1. 
Terias vagans, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 357. 

d 2 . Fore wing : much more pointed at apex than in T. venata, 
terinen sharply cut and straight. Seasonal dimorphism in this 
form shows more definitely in the markings of the under than in 
those of the upperside. " The form differs from T. venata as 
follows : 

c? $ Upperside : a richer brighter yellow. Fore wing : basal 
half of costal margin broadly irrorated with black scales ; apical 
black area as in T. venata, but stopping abruptly at vein 2 ; the 
tornus, except for a very fine black anticiliary line, yellow. Hind 
wing : almost uniform, the terminal black band generally con- 
spicuous in venata reduced to a black subapical patch and poste- 
riorly to a series of black spots in the wet-season specimens that 
are entirely absent in specimens taken in the dry season. 

Underside. Wet-season brood. Fore wing : dorsal margin 
broadly pale, whitish yellow above; the base, discocellular cell- 
area and disc of the wing rich yellow ; costa narrowly edged with 



TETIIAS. 24i> 

pink ; costal margin and apex broadly rusty brownish ; a single 
black speck at apex of cell. Hind wing : buff-yellow, overlaid with 
a more or less dense irroration of rusty brownish-red scales ; a 
minute dot at base of interspace 7 with a minute ring beyond ; 
a series of 4 dark spots transversely cross the wing at middle of 
cell followed by a transverse dark bar from apex of wing to 
vein 1. This bar is interrupted in interspace 2, and is succeeded 
by a much shorter similar bar across interspaces 2 and 3. Cilia 
of fore and bind wings pink. Intermediate form as in the wet- 
season form, but the rusty brownish-red tint replaced by a pale 
fleshy buff, often with a mealy appearance. 

Dry-season brood. Ground-colour of both fore and hind wings 
pale yellow. Fore wing : apex very broadly and the basal half of 
the costal margin above the costal nervure irrorated with fleshy- 
pink and brownish scales. Hind wing : its whole surface 
densely shaded with similarly-coloured scales ; longitudinally the 
wing is crossed bv two somewhat diffuse, straight, ferruginous- 
bro\vn bars, the upper one the longer ; above these bars are a few 
brown somewhat obscure specks and dots on the upper basal half 
of the wing. Antennae mealy-yellow, with scattered dusky scales ; 
head with pinkish pubescence ; thorax and abdomen black, with 
scattered yellow hairs and scales ; beneath : palpi, thorax and 
abdomen pale yellowish white. 

Exp. c? $ 36-48 mm. (1-40-1 -88"). 

Hab.' Himalayas from the borders of Afghanistan to Bhutan; 
the Punjab ; Western India : Ahmednagar, Karachi, Poona, 
Bombay ; Southern India : the INilgiri and Anaimalai Hills ; 
Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim. 



642. Terias harina, Horsfeld, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 1829, p. 137 ; 
Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1885, p. 307, pi. 25, fig. 13 c? ; Ehces, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 414 ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. 
viii, 1894, p. 509 ; Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 59. 

d 5 . Upperside : clear pale primrose-yellow, very beautiful and 
pure in tint. Fore wing : apex black, the width of this black 
varying from 2 mm. in a dry-season J to 6 mm. in a wet-season 
5 . In the former it is very shortly and narrowly continued along 
the termen, in the latter it decreases in width posteriorly, but is 
continued down to the tornal angle. Hind wing : uniform con- 
colorous throughout. Cilia of both fore and hind wings yellow. 
Underside : a paler yellow 7 , uniform and concolorous throughout. 
Antenna? black, annulated with w ? hite ; head and thorax dusky 
greenish ; abdomen yellow 7 ; beneath : the palpi dusky black, thorax 
and abdomen yellow. 

Exp. c? $ 44-54 mm. (1-73-2-12"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; Andamans ; ex- 
tending into the Malayan Subregion. 

Varieties occur with the ground-colour entirely white on the 
upperside. 



250 PJEUID.I:. 

<543. Terias hecabe (PI. XVI, fig. 106), Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. 

ed. x. 1758, p. 470 ; Edwards (Papilio), Glean. Nat. Hist, i, 

1758, pi. 253 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 118, pi. 45, figs. 1, 

la-lc, $ <$ & larva ; Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1883, p. 304, pi. 26, 

tigs. 11, 15 (nee fig. 19) ; Davidson $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. 

Soc. v, 1890, p. 359: Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, 

pp. 508-514, pi. 2, fig. 12 ; Davidson, Sell Sf Aitken, Jour. Bomb. 

N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 570, pi. 6, figs. 5, 5 a, larva & pupa ; Sutler, 

A. M. N. H.(1)\, 1898, p. 69. 
Terias suava, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 670 ; Butler, t. c. 

1898, p. 69. 
Terias hecabeoides, Menet. Cat. Mus. Petr., Lep. i, 1855, p. 85, 

pi. 2, fig. 2 ; Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510; Butler, t. c. 1898, p. 70. 
Terias nicobarensis, Felder, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xii, 1862, 

p. 480 ; Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias fimbriata, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 323 ; 

Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias simulata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 119, pi. 45, figs. 2, 2 a, 

2 b ; Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Butler, t. c. 1898, p. 70. 
Terias excavata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 252 ; Watson, t. c. 1894, 

p. 510 ; Butler, t. c. 1898, p. 70. 
Terias purreea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 252 ; Watson, t. c. 1894, 

p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 70. 
Terias irregularis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 253, pi. 12, fig. 3 ; 

Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias apicalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 253, pi. 12, fig. 2 ; Watson, 

t. c. 1894, p. oil ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias aspbodelus, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 151, pi. 24,. tig. 13; 

Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias asphodelus, var. narcissus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 151 : 

Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias curiosus, Swin/i. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 508, pi. 47, tig. 3; Watson, 

t. c. 1894, p. 510 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 73. 
Terias swinhoei. Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 216; 

Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias simplex. Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 217, pi. 5, 

fig. 2; Watson, t. c. 1894, p. 510: Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 71. 
Terias contuberualis, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 46 ; 

Watson, loc. cit. x, 1896, p. 281 ; Sutler, t. c. 1898, p. 70. 
Terias patruelis, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 46, 

pi. 4, fig. 5 J; Watson, loc. cit. x, 1896, p, 281 ; Sutler, t. c. 

1898, p, 70. 
Terias f'raterna, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 46, pi. 4, 

fig. 6 J; Watson, loc. cit. x, 1896, p. 282: Butler, t. c. 1898, 

p. 70. 
Terias merguiana, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 47, 

pi. 4, fig. 7 rf ; Watson, loc. cit. x, 1896, p. 282 ; Sutler, t. c. 

1898, p. 70. 
Terias kana, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 48, pi. 4, 

fig. 9 J; Watson, loc. cit. x, 1896, p. 283; Sutler, t. c. 1898, 

p. 73. 

Wet- season brood. <5 . Upperside : yellow, variable in tint from 
sulphur to rich lemon-yellow according to locality with a light or 
heavy rainfall. Fore wing: apex and termen deep black, this 
colour continued narrowly along the costal margin to base of wing, 
near which it often becomes diffuse ; the inner margin of the black 




TEBIAS. 251 

urea from costa to vein 4 very oblique and irregular, between veins 
2 and 4 excavate on the inner side, this excavation outwardly 

rounded between the veins 
and inwardly toothed on 
vein 3; below vein 2 the 
black area is suddenly di- 
lated into a square spot 
which occupies the whole 
of the tornal angle; the 
inner margin of this di- 
Fig. 60. Terias kecabe. latation is variable, in 

a. Typical form. the typical form slightly 

b. Underside fore wing, dry-season brood. concave. Hind wing : 

terminal margin with a 

narrow black band which is attenuated anteriorly and posteriorly ; 
dorsal margin broadly paler than the ground-colour. Underside : 
yellow, generally a slightly paler shade than that of the upperside, 
with the following reddish-brown markings : Fore wing: two small 
spots or specks in basal half of cell and a reniforin spot or ring on 
the discocellulars. Hind wing : a slightly curved subbasal series 
of three small spots, an irregular slender ring or spot on the 
discocellulars, followed by a highly irregular, curved, transverse, 
discal series of spots or specks, some or all of which are often 
obsolescent. On both fore and hind wings the veins that attain the 
costal and terminal margins end in minute reddish-brown specks. 
Antennae greyish yellow, the club black ; head, thorax and abdo- 
men yellow, shaded with fuscous scales ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen yellowish white. The sex-mark seen from above 
appears as a thickening of the basal half of the median vein oil 
the fore wing. $ . Very similar, the sex-mark of course absent ; 
the black areas on both fore and hind wings slightly broader, with 
the inner edge of the black terminal band on the hind wing often 
diffuse. Underside : ground-colour and markings as in the 6" . 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similarly coloured. 

Dry-season brood. <3 $. Upperside: ground-colour and markings 
much as in wet-season specimens, the emargination on the inner 
side of the black area and the tornal dilatation on the fore wing 
similar. On the hind wing, in the great majority of individuals, 
the black terminal band is also similar, in a few it is narrower and 
diffuse inwardly in both sexes. Underside : ground-colour similar 
to that in wet-season specimens, but in very many with a greater 
or less irroration of black scales over the yellow parts of the wing ; 
the reddish-brown markings on both fore and hind wings are also 
similar, but the spots are larger, more clearly defined, darker, and 
therefore far more conspicuous. In addition, on the fore wing 
there is a preapical, very prominent, transverse, elongate spot or 
short bar of reddish brown extended downwards from the costa. 
This spot is irregular in shape and of variable width, but does not 
seem ever to spread outwards to the actual edge of the termen. 
In a few specimens there is also a small reddish-brown spot in 



252 PIERID.I:. 

interspace 1 near the tornus. Antennae, head, thorax and abdo- 
men, and in the d 1 the sex-mark, as in wet-season specimens. 

Exp. <S $ 40-55 mm. (1-58-2-18"). 

Hab. Throughout our limits, spread eastwards to Siam and 
China, south far into the Malayan Subregion, and to the west into 
parts of the Ethiopian Eegion. 

Larva. "Long, green, rough, cylindrical, or slightly depressed, 
with a large head." 

Pupa. " Suspended by the tail and by a moderately long band ; 
the abdominal segments are round, but the thorax is much com- 
pressed, the wing-cases uniting to form a deep sharp keel. The 
head-case terminates in a short pointed snout. Ordinarily the 
pupa is solitary and green, but about the end of last September 
a boy brought us a dry twig with fourteen pupso on it, so close 
together that they almost touched each other, and quite black *. 
We are inclined to think that the withering of their food had 
caused these fourteen larva?, which would ordinarily haye suspended 
themselves singly among the leaves on which they were feeding, 
to migrate in a body in search of a place where they might safely 
pass the pupa state. Many Pierine and other larvae seek each 
other's company at that time. Having selected a dead branch of 
some neighbouring bush, they acquired the colour of their sur- 
roundings, as nearly all Pierine and Papilionine pupso do to a 
greater or less extent. A curious circumstance in this case was 
that all the butterflies, which emerged from those fourteen pupae, 
had a large rust-coloured patch on the underside of the apex of 
the fore wing. Terias hecabe was very common at that time, but 
ive met feiv with this mark well developed. The favourite food of 
this species is Sesbania aculeata, a monsoon annual, already men- 
tioned as the food of Tarucus plinius. It also feeds readily on 
Cassia tora." (Davidson fy Aitken.) 

The figures of larva and pupa, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. x, 
1897, pi. 6, figs. 5, 5 , represent both as green, with a conspicuous 
white lateral stripe on each side. 

I have quoted in full the above very interesting note by Messrs. 
Davidson and Ait ken, and I have put the concluding portion of 
the last sentence but two into italics, as I wish to draw attention 
to what I consider is an important point. In the very large series 
of Terias belonging to the hecabe gixmp which I have had occasion 
to examine with great care, I find that so far as the dry-season 
broods are concerned, T. hecabe and all the forms \\hich are here 
treated as varieties of that insect can be readily separated from 
T. silhetana and all its varieties by the shape of the preapical or 
apical reddish-brown patch present on the underside of the fore 
wing. In no specimen of T. hecabe or variety of that form that 
I have seen does this mark spread to the edge of the terminal 



* These pupae were afterwards discovered to be those of T. silJictana, 
Wallace, vide Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 571. 




TEHIAS. 253 

margin, but is always linear and extended preapically downwards 
from the costa. In T. silhetana and its varieties, on the contrary, 
it is always large, well developed, and extends, though often some- 
what diffusely, to the very edge of the termen below the apex, as 
in the dry-season specimens of T. sari=T. sodalis and T. ander- 
soni, Moore, which latter two forms, however, differ in the 
markings of the upperside of the fore wing. 

Like all wide-ranging forms T. hecabe varies enormously, and 
consequently has received a host of names. The descriptions above 
of the imago are taken from specimens picked to match the figure 
given in Edwards's ' Gleanings of Natural History,' which, accord- 
ing to Professor Aurivillius (' Eecensio critica Lepidopterorum 
Musei Ludovicse Ulricse,' 1882, p. 60), represents the typical form 
of " Papilio hecabe," Linne. 

Taking the varieties seriatim we have 
T. suava, Boisduval, T. hecabeoides, Me'netries, 
T. nicobariensis, Felcler, and T. kana, Moore 
(fig. 61), all of which differ so slightly from 
typical hecabe as to require no separate 
description. The difference is chiefly one of 
the width or heaviness of the black markings 

on the uppersides of the fore and hind 

Fig. 61. Tcrias wings. The dry-season forms of these are 
hecabe, var. kana. T. simulata, Moore, and T. contiibernalis, 

Moore. 

Var. merguiana, Moore (fig. 62 a, p. 254), is a wet-season form 
which differs from hecabe, chiefly in the inner margin of the dilated 
posterior tornal portion of the black area on the upperside of the 
fore wing. This in hecabe is slightly excavate or vertical, in mer- 
fjuiana sloped obliquely outwards. The dry-season form of this is 
T. excavata, Moore, from which T. fraterna, Moore, is practically 
inseparable. 

Var. purreea, Moore = var. patruells, Moore (fig. 62 c) and var. 
swinhoei, Butler (fig. 62 d), were all described from dry-season 
specimens, and show a diminishing width of black area on the 
apex and termen on the upperside of the fore wing and an 
increasing irregularity in the outline of the inner margin of the 
same, till in T. fimbriata, Wallace=2'. narcissus, Butler, and T. 
irreqularis, Moore = T. asphodelus, Butler (fig. 626), the inner side 
of the black area becomes more evenly curved, though the actual 
outline is still somewhat sinuous and often irregularly dentate. 
The varieties with the least amount of black on the upperside of 
the fore wing are T. simplex, Butler (fig. 62 e) and T. apicalis, 
Moore (fig. 62/). 

It must be remembered, however, that from the many variations 
of T. hecabe at all seasons, certain specimens can be picked out and 
be said to represent the wet-season forms of the insects I have 
here ranked as mere varieties. Such selection is in my opinion 
entirely arbitrary and negatived by the results of breeding, so 
far as reliable experiments iu this latter have been undertaken. 



254 



\Vith regard to the form (andersoni) next described I have 
provisionally kept it separate, but with great doubt. The late 




Fig. 62. Fore wings of varieties of Terias hecabe. 
a. Terias hecabe, var. merguiana. 
l>. Terias hecabe, var. asphodelus. 

c. Terias hecabe, var. patruelis. 

d. Terias hecabe, var. swinhoei. 

e. Terias hecabe, var. simplex. 

f. Terias hecabe, var. apicalis. 

Capt. Watson (vide Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1896, p. 282) and 
the late Mr. de Niceville (vide Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, 
p. 588), both careful Lepidopterists and not given to unnecessary 
subdivision of forms, emphatically stated that T. andersoni, Moore, 
was distinct from any form of T. hecabe, Linn. 

644. Terias andersoni, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 47, 
pi. 4, fig. 8 rf ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1896, p. 282 ; 
Butler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 70 ; Mackinnon # de N. Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. xi, 1898, p. 588. 

cJ $ . Upperside : yellow, of a peculiarly pure tint of sulphur, 
somewhat darker in wet-season 
specimens, but the different sea- 
sonal forms seem to vary little in 
the shade of the ground-colour or 
in the shnpe and character of the 
markings on the upperside. These 
latter are similar to those in Terias 
hecabe, var. merguiana, Moore, but 
the black terminal area on the 
fore wing is intensely black and 
has its inner margin anteriorly 
sharply angulated on vein 7, just 
beyond the upper apex of the 
discoidal cell, whence the edge of the black area is carried 




6. 



Fig. 63. Terias andersoni, 
typical. 



TEKIAS. 



255 



vertically upwards and joins the narrow black edging on the costal 
margin, and strongly concavely downwards to its angulation on 
vein 4 ; posteriorly the square dilated portion of the black area is 
sloped obliquely outwards on its inner side. Hind wing : termen 
narrowly edged with black, which is slightly broader anteriorly. 
In specimens procured in the height of the dry weather this edging 
is much narrower. Underside : ground-colour slightly paler tha.it 
on the upperside. Fore Aving : in specimens of the wet-season 
brood, with a single, very sleuder, short transverse sinuous line 
in the middle of the cell, a reniform loop of slender lines on the 
discocellulars and a small spot at the apices of all the veins that 
end along the costa and termen, jet-black. In specimens inter- 
mediate between the wet-season and extreme dry-season forms,, 
and which most nearly resemble the type-specimen, there are, in 
addition, close to the apex of the wing, two short sinuate transverse 
black lines, often broken into small spots, placed subapically at 
right angles with the costal margin. In extreme dry-season speci- 
mens these sinuous short vertical lines are replaced by a very large 
conspicuous inky -black square patch that covers the entire apex 
of the wing. Hind wing : markings similar to those in T. hecabe. 
Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen somewhat darker than in 
T. hecabe. In the c? the sex-mark similar to that in T. Jiecabe. 

Exp. 6 $ 48-53 mm. (1-88-2-07"). 

Hub. Tenasserim ; S. Andamans. 

This form has been recorded also from Mussoorie and Sikhim, 
but I am very doubtful whether the specimens were correctly 
identified. 

645. Terias sari, Horsfield,Cat. Lep. Mus. E. l.C. 1829, p. 136 ; Moore, 
Cat. Lep. Mus. E. /. C. i, 1857, p. 64 ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. 
Soc. viii, 1894, p. 514; Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 73. 

Terias sodalis, Moore, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, 1886, p. 45. 

Terias curiosus, Sioinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 508, pi. 47, fig. 3. 

The type-specimen belongs to the dry-season brood and can be 
briefly described as follows : <$ . Upperside : pale sulphur-yellow. 




Fig. 64. Teriaa si/ri. 
a. Typical dry-season brood. 
?>. Typical wet-season brood. 

Tore wing : the black area on the terminal half very similar to 
that of a heavily marked broad-bordered T. hecabe, but the 



256 PIERID.I;. 

excavated portion on the inner edge between veins 2 and 4 
differently shaped (compare figs. 60 & 64 a). Hind wing: a 
broad terminal black band, attenuated anteriorly and posteriorly, 
diffuse along ita inner edge, the terminal portions of the veins 
that end on the termen also black, that colour carried along the 
veins for a perceptible distance inwards from the inner edge of 
the band. Underside : ground-colour similar. Eore wing : discoidal 
cell with a slender, transverse, very short sinuous line in the middle 
and a reniform loop composed of a fine line on the discocellulars, 
reddish brown; apex with a large, very conspicuous, square reddish- 
brown patch that posteriorly is produced triangularly downwards 
and occupies the entire apex ; lastly, a diffuse, irregular, similarly- 
coloured spot subtornally on the dorsal margin. Hind wing : 
the markings as in T. hecabe, but reddish, very faint and ill-defined. 
Antennas, head, thorax and abdomen as in T. hecabe. $ . Similar 
to the c? , but the terminal black band on the upperside of the 
hind wing very diffuse. 

Wet-season brood. <5 $ . Upperside : ground-colour of a deeper 
shade of yellow. Fore wing : markings similar to those of 
specimens of the dry-season brood, but the excavated portion on 
the inner edge of the black area squarer and consequently very 
closely approximating to that in T. hecabe (compare tigs. 60 & 
64 6). Hind wing : as in the dry-season form, but the terminal 
band much narrower, not diffuse along its inner edge, but dentated 
at the veins. Underside : no trace of the conspicuous square 
brown patch at the apex of the fore wing, otherwise the markings 
as in the dry-season specimens, only darker and more clearly 
defined ; all the veins in both fore and hind wings that attain the 
costal margin in the fore and the terminal in both wings, end each 
in a small but conspicuous black dot. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen, and in the d 1 the sex-mark, as in T. hecabe. 

Exp. <? $ 40-48 mm. (1-60-1-&8"). 

Hab. Ceylon ; Southern India : Nilgiri Hills ; Burma ; Tenas- 
serim ; extending far into the Malayan Subregion. 

This form is quite possibly one of the many varieties of Terias 
hecabe, but typically the shape of the black terminal markings on 
the upperside of the fore wing and the large square reddish-brown 
patch that occupies the whole of the apex on its underside are 
very distinctive. In the prominence and shape of this latter 
marking and in the single slender, transverse, short line in the 
middle of the cell on the underside of the same wing, T. sari 
approximates very closely to T. andersoni, Moore, but in the 
latter form the apical patch is inky-black, not reddish-brown. 

T. curiosus, Swinhoe, is an aberration of T. sari, in which the 
black area on the upperaide of the fore wing is very broad and of 
more or less even width posteriorly ; the inner edge of the black 
is very irregular, sinuous and produced dentately inward at more 
than one point, so that the excavated portion between veins 2 
and 4 is, so to speak, merged in the highly irregular line of the 
inner edge. 



257 



646. Terias silhetana. Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 324; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 509 j Davidson. 
Sell 4- Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 571, pi. (>, 
tigs. 0, 6 a, larva & pupa ; Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, 
p. 71. 

Terias citrina, rotundalis et uniformis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, 
p. 1 19, pi. 45, figs. 4, 4 , $ ; p. 120, pi. 46, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, rf $ ; 



Terias vallivolaus, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xi, 1883, p. 420. 
Terias heliophila, Butler, 1. c. xvi, 1885, p. 338, pi. 8, tig. 2. 
Terias templetoni, Butler, 1. c. xvii, 1886, p. 218. 

The tvpe is a specimen of the dry-season brood and can be 
described briefly as follows : 3 . Upperside : rich citron-yellow. 
Fore wing : markings very similar to those in T. hecabe var. 
patruelis, Moore (compare figs. 62 c & 65 ). Hind wing : ground- 
colour uniform ; a very narrow 
black terminal line. In the 
type this is continuous, in other 
specimens broken and inter- 
rupted and in some large 
specimens intermediate between 
the dry and wet-season forms, 
variable in width but distinctly 




Fig. 65. Terias silhetana. 

a. Typical upperside. 

b. Pore wing underside. 



broader than in the type. 
Underside : ground-colour very 
slightly paler; markings much 
as in dry-season specimens of 
T. Jiecabe, but in the fore wing there is alivays an additional 
minute reddish-brown dot at the extreme base of the cell, and in 
all typical specimens the apical reddish-brown patch is much 
larger and spreads diffusely outwards to the termen. 

Wet-season brood. tf $ . Upperside : citron-yellow. Fore wiug : 
markings very similar to those of T. Jiecabe var. meryuiana, Moore, 
but the black area broader, especially the dilated, posterior, tornal 
portion which, though squarer, has its inner edge slightly sloped 
outwards as in merguiana (compare figs. 62 a & 66 a). The width 
of the black area is, however, very variable, as are also the size and 
shape of the dilated posterior portion that occupies the tornal 
angle. Hind wiug : a black band along the terminal margin ; 
this band very variable in width and generally attenuated anteriorly 
and posteriorly. Underside : ground-colour similar ; markings very 
light, similar to those in the wet-season specimens of T. hecabe, 
but, always with an additional reddish-brown dot at the extreme 
base of the discoidal cell of the fore wing. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen, and in the c? the sex-mark, as in T. hecabe. 
Exp. <5 $ 41-53 mm. (1-63-2-10"). 

Hub. Sikhim ; Central and Southern India ; Assam : Burma ; 
Teuasserim ; the Anclamans ; extending into the Malayan Sub- 
region. 

This is almost as puzzling and variable a form as T. hecabe. 
Dry-season specimens can be discriminated from the corresponding 




258 PIEBID^E. 

specimens of T. hecabe, not only by the additional spot in the 
discoidal cell on the underside of the fore wing, but by the 
much larger, outwardly diffuse, reddish-brown apical patch on 
the same wing ; but tie most careful and repeated examinations 
of long series have shown me that Capt. Watson was right 
in stating that the only constant difference between wet-season 
specimens of T. hecabe and T. silhetana is the presence in the 

latter of the additional spot 
in the discoidal cell of the fore 
wing, as noted in the key. 
With regard to the varieties 
as I deem them of this form, 
fig. 66 represents the upper- 
sides (a) of var. heliophila, 
Butler, and (6) of var. unifor- 
mis, Moore. 

Larva. " In describing the 

Fig. 68.-2WM silhetana, varieties. j, arva f T ' hecabe ' L^n in our 

a. T. silhetana, var. heliophila. former paper, we said that we 

b. T. silhetana, var. uniformis. had got fourteen black pupffi 

all on one dry twig, and so 

close to each other that they almost touched. We did not 
distinguish the butterflies which emerged from T. hecabe ; indeed 
until the publication of Captain E. Y. Watson's very valuable 
paper on the synonyms of some species of Indian Pierince in 
vol. viii. of this Journal, p. 489 (1894), we made no attempt to 
sort our specimens under the multitude of names with which 
Messrs. Butler, Moore and Swinhoe have enriched the genus. 
We have since discovered, however, that these black pupae are 
not to be found on the ordinary food-plants of T. hecabe, but on 
Wagatea spicata, and that they result from a gregarious larva with 
a black head. This leaves no doubt that they belong to a distinct 
species, and, having compared the butterflies which emerged from 
a large number of both kinds, we find that those produced from 
the black-headed larva and the black pupa bear the three dark 
streaks and spots in the cell, in addition to the renif orm spot on the 
discocellular nervules on the underside of the fore wing, by which 
Captain Watson separates T. silhetana from T. hecabe. We have 
figured the larva and pupa on plate vi, fig. 6, larva ; 6 a, pupa" 
(Davidson, Bell &f Aitken.) 

The figures iu the plate represent a slender cylindrical green 
larva with a conspicuous black head and a yellow ill-defined lateral 
stripe, and a pupa in shape exactly like that of T. hecabe but 
entirely brownish black in colour. 

The form next described Captain Watson considered the wet- 
season form of silhetana, but though like silhetana it has three 
spots or markings in the discoidal cell on the underside of the 
fore wing, the shape of the wings and the general facies of 
the insect seem distinct ; besides, so far as I know, it has only 
been taken in the Nicobors. I have, therefore, provisionally kept 
it separate. 




TEEIAS. COLOTIS. 259 

<547. Terias moorei, Butler, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 216, pi. 5, 
fig. 1 ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 509 ; 
Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 72. 

c? . Upperside : rich deep sulphur-yellow. Fore wing : elongate 
and narrower than in T. silhetana ; apex and termen with a 
narrow, black, inwardly dentate band that broadens slightly on the 
apex and is continued as a slender line along 
the costal margin to the base of the wing, 
close to which it becomes somewhat diffuse 
and dusky. Hind wing: nearly uniform 
throughout, the terminal margin with indica- 
tions of a slender black anticiliary line, which 
in most specimens is reduced to a series of 
minute black dots at the ends of the veins. 
Underside: ground-colour similar; markings 
very similar to those in the wet-season 
specimens of T. silhetana. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in T. silhetana. 
5 . Ground - colour and markings on 

both upper and under sides as in the tf, with the exception 
of the black band on the upperside of the fore wing, which in 
some specimens is slightly broader. Antennas, head, thorax and 
abdomen, and in the <5 the sex-mark, as in the c? of T. silhetana. 
Exp. 3 $ 47-50 mm. (1-84-2-00"). 
Hob. The Nicobars. 

I am unacquainted with the dry phase of this form, if there 
be such. 

Genus COLOTIS. 

Aphrodite, Hubner (nee Linn., Vermes), Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, 

p. 95. 
Colotis, Hilbner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 97 ; Kirby, in Aliens 

Nat. Hist., Lep. ii, 1896, p. 198. 
Teracolus, Swainson, Zool. III. (2) iii, 1823, text to pi. cxv; Butler, 

Cist. Ent. i, 1870, pp. 36 & 47, pi. 2, fig. 6, venation ; Watson, 

Jour. Bomb. N. U. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 517. 
Idmais, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 584. 
Callosuine, Doubleday, Gen. Di. Lep. i, 1847, p. 57. 

Type, 0. amata, Fabr., from Africa and India. 

Range. Ethiopian and Indo-Malayan Regions. 

c? . Fore wing : costa very slightly arched ; apex obtuse, 
rounded, slightly convex ; tornus obtuse but well-marked ; dorsum 
slightly or moderately convex or sinuate, about three-fourths the 
length of costa ; cell about half length of wing ; discocellulars : 
upper absent, middle and lower moderately to strongly concave ; 
vein 6 from upper apex of cell or from a little beyond ; vein 8 
absent ; 9 from a little beyond the middle of 7; 10 and 11 free, 
emitted moderately close together from apical half of subcostal vein, 
or the space between them at base equal to the space between base 
of vein 10 and the upper apex of the cell. Hind wing : costa 

s2 




260 PI BRIDGE. 

arched, apex rounded, termen slightly arched, tornus obtuse but 
well-marked, dorsum slightly convex ; cell not half length of 
wing ; lower discocellular oblique, concave ; veins 5 and 6 approxi- 
mate at base, vein 7 emitted from apical half of subcostal ; pre- 
costal vein inclined outwards. Antennae 
short, not half the length of the fore wing, 
club well-marked, spatulate ; head tufted 
anteriorly ; palpi porrect, third joint slender, 
acute at apex ; eyes naked : body moderately 
robust. The males of certain of the forms 
in this genus bear patches of specialized 
scales or androconia, which occur either on 
the upperside of the hind wing as in the 
typical form, or as in fausta and its nearest 
Fig. 68. allies on the underside of the fore and upper- 

Colotis, venation. side of the hind wing. 

The forms arranged under this genus, with 

the exception, perhaps, of those that belong to the " hecabe " 
group of the genus Terias, are of all Pieridce the most variable. 
Sensitive, as a large majority of the Lepidoptera are when in the 
pupal state, to slight changes of temperature, moisture, and 
dryness, the pupae of the above-mentioned genera seem pre- 
eminently so. A slight difference in the rainfall from one week 
to another, probably even from day to day, in localities where 
they are found, seems to affect the shade of the ground-colour, 
the width and prominence or otherwise of the markings on their 
wings. In the absence, therefore, of careful breeding-experiments, 
and even of any long series of carefully localized and dated 
specimens, any conclusions as to the specific distinctness of the 
forms must necessarily be more or less tentative. No two 
authorities agree as to the number of distinct forms of Colotis 
that occur, even in a limited fauna such as is dealt with in the 
present series of handbooks. After a long and careful examination 
of the tolerably large mass of material contained in the collec- 
tion of the British Museum, supplemented by those in a few large 
private collections, I have, I find, independently arrived at much 
the same conclusions as those set forth in the MSS. left by the 
late Mr. de Nideville. I have not, however, adopted his division 
of Colotis into subgenera, as the structural differences between 
certain of the forms do not seem to me sufficient to warrant such 
subdivision. 

Key to the forms of Colotis. 

A. Upperside: ground-colour on fore and hind 

wings salmon-pink. $ dimorphic. 
a. Upperside : ground-colour salmon-pink ; in 
$ sometimes white. Terminal black band 
on hind wing narrow with a more or less 
obsolescent series of spots of .he same tint 
as the ground-colour of the wing, so 
arranged as to break up the inner edge of 
the band C. amata, p. 261. 



COLOTIS. 261 

ft. Upperside : ground-colour always salinon- 
pink in both sexes. Terminal black band 
on hind wing broad, immaculate C. protractus, p. 263. 

B. Upperside : ground-colour on fore wing salmon- 

pink ; on hind wing white. In sometimes 
both wings entirely white. Terminal black 
band on hind wing broad C. phisadia, p. 264. 

C. Upperside : ground-colour on fore and hind 

wings orange-pink. dimorphic. 

a. Upperside fore wing : four or five spots 

of the ground-colour enclosed in terminal 

black border C. fausta, p. 266. 

b. Upperside fore wing : never more than 

three spots of the ground-colour enclosed 

in terminal black border C. fausta, race 

1). Upperside : ground-colour on fore and hind tripuncta, p. 268. 

wings white in both sexes. 
a. Upperside fore wing : no orange or carmine 
markings ; hind wing : a broad black im- 
maculate terminal band C. vestalis, p. 265. 

It. Upperside fore wing : orange or carmine 
apical patch ; hind wing : only a series of 
black terminal spots. 
a '. Upperside fore wing : apical patch 

orange. 
'-. This patch anteriorly not bordered 

with black on inner side C. eucharis, p. 268. 

(j-. This patch bordered with black along 

the whole of its inner side. 
a 3 . Black border narrow ; orange patch 

comparatively large C. ctrida, p. 270. 

//. Black border broad ; orange patch 

comparatively narrow <?. etrida, race 

//. Upperside fore wing: apical patch car- limbata, p. 271. 

mine C. danae, p. 271. 



<548. Colotis amata, Fabr. (Papilio) Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 476 ; Sutler 
(Teracolus), P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 138 ; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526 ; Kirby in Allen's Nat. 
Hist., Lep. ii, 1896, p. 198. 

Papilio Calais, Cramer, Pap. Exot.. i, 1775, p. 84, pi. 53, figs. C, D, 
$ form (1), & iv, 1781, pi. 351, furs. A,B, J, C, D, $ form (2) ; 
Moore (Idmais), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 67 ; Yerbury 
(Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vii, 1892, p. 214 ; Watson 
(Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526. 

Papilio cypraea, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 22 ; Butler (Teracolus), 
P. Z. S. 1876, p. 138 ; Davidson $ Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. 
Soc. v, 1890, p. 359; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. 
Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526. 

Pontia dynamene, Kluy, Symb. Phys. 1829, pi. 6, figs. 17, 18, rf; 
Butler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 138 ; Watson (Teracolus), 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526. 

Teracolus modestus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 137 ; Moore (Idmais), 
Lep. Ceyl i, 1881, p. 131, pi. 49, figs. 2 rf, 2 a $ form (2) 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. X, H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526. 



262 

Teracolus carnifex, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 138, pi. 7, figs. 8, 9, J; 

Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 519, 526. 
Teracolus kennedii, Sicinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 440 ; Watson, Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. 1894, pp. 519, 526. 

c? . Upperside : salmon-pink. Fore wing : costa black, thickly 
overlaid with greyish or pinkish scales ; a black spot at apex of 
cell, which may be large and quadrate or smaller and lunate ; 
termen broadly black, with an enclosed double transverse series of 
spots of the ground-colour the inner series consists of a large 
spot in interspace 1, two very small spots in interspaces 2 and 3, 
one in.each, and four larger anterior spots placed in a curve ; the 
spots in the outer series are variable in number, but generally 
there is one in each interspace, these are more or less linear in 
shape. Hind wing: a band on costal margin extended to just 
within the upper margin of the cell, covered with dense black 
specialized scales ; this black band joined on to a broad similarly- 
coloured terminal band of ordinary scales, that becomes more or 
less diffuse and powdery posteriorly, and encloses a double series 
of small spots of the ground-colour the inner series often obso- 
lescent, in some specimens entirely absent; dorsum heavily irrorated 
with fuscous scales, the irroration extended on to the disc, 
which has therefore generally a greyish appearance. Underside : 
greenish yellow ; an anticiliary fine black line on both fore and 
hind wings ; the black markings of the upperside show through 
by transparency. Tore wing : a black spot, variable in size and 
intensity, in some specimens absent altogether, at apex of cell ; 
a subterminal quadrate black spot in interspace 1 and another 
(sometimes faintly marked or absent) further outwards in inter- 
space 2 ; disc faintly, dorsal margin broadly very pale salmon-pink. 
Hind wing: the whole surface sparsely irrorated with minute 
black scales ; a small black discocellular spot. Cilia of both fore 
and hind wings pale salmon-pink. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen black, the antennae speckled with white, the head and 
thorax covered with greenish-fuscous hairs ; beneath : the palpi 
green, thorax and abdomen white. 

$ . Form 1. Upperside : ground-colour paler than in the d , in 
some specimens quite ochraceous outwardly ; all the markings 
similar, but duller in tint. The hind wing, of course, without the 
black costal band of specialized scales, the ground-colour extended 
up to the costal margin. Underside similar to that of the tf , 
but the ground-colour very much paler and more ochraceous than 
green. In some specimens, in addition to the black spots in inter- 
spaces 1 and 2 on fore wing, there is an anterior postdiscal fuscous 
curved band. Hind wing : discocellular spot larger than in the 3 
and annular; a curved discal series of reddish spots from costa to 
dorsum. 

$ . Form 2. Similar to $ form 1, but the ground-colour pale 
primrose-yellow to pure white. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen in both forms much as in the 3 . 
Exp. J $ 40-50 mm. (1-56-2-00"). 



Hah. Within our limits, continental and peninsular India, but 
not Bengal ; Ceylon. Outside our limits this form is found in 
Aden and probably throughout Arabia, in Madagascar and Tropical 
Africa. 

Larva. " Very like that of Terias, cylindrical or slightly 
depressed with a rough surface due to minute tubercles, from 
each of which grows a very small bristle. The colour is a uniform 
grass-green, with a blue dorsal line more or less distinct, and a 
yellowish lateral line dividing the colour of the back from the 
paler green of the underparts." (Davidson fy AitTcen.) 

Pupa. " Compressed ; wing-cases produced into a keel like that 
of Terias. It is suspended in the same manner by the tail and a 
moderately long band. The colour is usually some shade of dingy 
whitish brown or dirty green." (Davidson fy Aiiken.) 

649. Colotis protractus, Sutler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 137; 
Watson (Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1874, pp. 520, 
526. 

^ . Upperside : rich salmon-pink. Fore wing : base bluish 
grey ; a band along the costal margin black and joined on to a 
very broad similarly-coloured band on termen that occupies the 
outer fourth of the wing ; inner margin of terminal band 
irregular, extended slightly and squarely inwards in interspaces 
1 a, 1 and 3 ; a prominent oval black discocellular spot extended 
downwards from the black on the costal margin ; apex with 
elongate bluish-grey spots in interspaces 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 super- 
posed on the black terminal band. Hind wing : dorsum white, 
terminal half of wing jet-black ; a somewhat diffuse subdorsal 
band of bluish-grey scales from base to the black on terminal 
margin. Underside : a beautiful light greenish yellow ; disc 
of wings tinged with salmon-pink, conspicuous in the fore, more 
obscure on the hind wing. Fore wing : a prominent black 
discocellular spot, and a subterminal series of three more or 
less quadrate black spots that decrease in size anteriorly in inter- 
spaces 1, 2 and 3, the spot in interspace 1 extended into 
interspace 1 a and lengthened posteriorly outward to the terminal 
margin. Hind wing : uniform. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings pale salmon-pink. Antennae brownish black, ringed or 
spotted with white ; head, thorax and abdomen black, the thorax 
anteriorly with whitish hairs . at the sides ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen pale yellow. Sex-mark : a small glandular 
patch of scales near the base of interspace 1 on the under- 
side of the fore wing, sometimes visible on the upperside. 
$ . Upperside : ground-colour similar ; the markings similar, but 
the black along the costa and termen of fore wing and on terminal 
half of hind wing dark silky brown ; on the fore wing edged 
interiorly along the costa and along the termen from vein 2 
upwards with jet-black ; discocellular black spot on fore wing 
much larger than in the c? . Undei-side,-iore wing : base and cell 



264 MERIDjE. 

anteriorly greenish yellow, disc saltinon-pink ; apex and termen 
broadly dull ochraceous pink ; discocellular and posterior subter- 
niinal spots much as in the c? Hind wing : uniform ochraceous 
pink. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d, but 
somewhat duller in colour. 

Eap. <S 2 38-50 mm. (1-50-2-00"). 

Hob. Baluchistan ; the Punjab ; Cutch. 

650. Colotis phisadia, Godart (Pieris), Enc. MM. ix, 1819, p. 132 ; 

Boisdunal (Idmais), Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 587; Butler 

(Teracolus;, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 136; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 520 ; Butler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 

1896, p. 245, pi. 10, fig. 13, pupa. 
Pontia arno, King, Symb. Phys. 1829, pi. 7, figs. 1-4, rf $> ; Butter 

(Teracolus), A. M. N. H. (4) xviii, 1876, p. 487; Manders 

(Teracolus), Ent. Month. Mag. xxvi, 1890, p. 16. 
Idniais philamene, Mabille, Comptes JRend. Soc. Ent. Bdg. xxiii, 

1880, p. cvi. 

cJ . Upperside, fore wing: pale salmon-pink, this colour paler 
outwardly ; base heavily irrorated with bluish-grey scales that 
extend outwards and are merged with a black patch that occupies 
the apex of the cell and spreads along the discocellulars ; terminal 
third of wing black with enclosed spots of the ground-colour in inter- 
spaces 3, 4, 5 and 9, the spot in 4 sometimes absent, the inner 
edge of the black area emargiuate at interspaces 2 and 4 ; the 
outer margin with a series of minute terminal specks of ground- 
colour in the interspaces. Hind wing : white, base heavily irro- 
rated with bluish-grey scales that are extended downwards in a 
diffuse band parallel to the dorsum ; terminal half of wing jet- 
black. Underside: precisely like the underside of C. protractus 3 . 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in C. protractus. . Very 
variable, but resembles the 3 in .markings. On the upperside 
however, the terminal areas on both fore and hind wings that are 
black in the 3 are silky-brown on the fore wing, the inner sinuate 
margin of the same posteriorly black ; on the hind wing the 
terminal brown area encloses an irregular sinuate black band that 
does not extend either t'o the costa or the dorsum. The ground- 
colour of the fore wing in some specimens is faintly pink fading to 
white outwardly ; on the hind wing the ground-colour is white, as 
in the <$ . In other specimens the ground-colour on both fore and 
hind wings is entirely white or pinkish orange. Underside : as in 
the c? , but the apical area of the fore and the whole surface of 
the hind wing tinged more or less with ochracecus. In many 
individuals (probably of the dry-season broods) this ochraceous 
tint is very marked. Fore wing : with posterior black spots as 
in the 3 . Hind wing : an irregular discal sinuate macular brown 
band that is often obsolescent. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen much as in the rf . 

Exp, c? $ 38-46 mm. (1-50-1-80"). 



COLOTIS. 265 

Nab. The only records of the occurrence of this form within 
our limits are : a c? specimen in the Indian Museum labelled 
" Surat ; " Dr. Manders got a single specimen at Multan in the 
Punjab ; and Mabille gives it, but on what authority I do not know, 
from " Northern India." 

Larva. " Larva feeding on Salvadora persica. The following is 
a description of it : Pea-green when young, two black spots on 
the back of the head, a white mark almost the shape of an ace of 
diamonds, but rather longer, on the second segment ; when older, 
the black spots on the head disappear and the white mark gets 
clearer and is outlined with black. There are two similar marks 
just beyond the centre of the back, the front one being the 
smaller, and another similar mark on the eleventh segment." 
(Nurse.) 

Pupa. As figured is stout, pale brown, more or less mottled 
with darker brown, in shape mainly cylindrical, with the wing-cases 
moderately developed ; the head ends in a very sharp point. 

051. Colotis vestalis, Butler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 135, pi. 7, 
fig. 10 d"; Yerbunj (Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vii, 
1892, p. 216 ; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 
1894, pp. 520, 526; Butler (Teracolus), A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 
1897, p. 390. 

Teracolus puellaris, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 136 ; Watson, Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 521 ; Butler, A. M. N. H. (6) 
xx, p. 389. 

Teracolus ochreipennis, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 136; Watson, 
Jour. Bomb. N. U. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 521, 526 ; Butler, A. M. 
N. H. (6) xx, 1897, p. 389. 

Teracolus intermissus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 152, pi. 24, fig. 4J; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 520, 526. 

Tecacolus rorus, peelus et dubius, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 438, 
pi. 39, fig. 8 c? , p. 439, pi. 39, fig. 9 tf, & pp. 439, 509 ; Watson, 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 520, 521, & 526. 

Wet-season brood. ^ Upperside : white ; fore and hind wings 
with broad terminal black bands. Fore wing : base, costal 
margin broadly and discoidal cell 
except at its lower apical area 
heavily irrorated Avith dusky-grey 
scales ; a short streak at upper 
apex of cell joined to a large spot 
on the discocellulars, black ; su- 
perposed on the black terminal 
area are two smallpreapical spots 
and a much larger subterminal 
spot in interspace 3, all of the 
Fig. 69. Colotis vcsfalis. white ground - colour ; minute 

white terminal specks also, often 

more or less obsolescent, in the interspaces. Hind wing more 
uniform, very slightly irrorated with grey scales at base, the black 




26G PIERIDJE. 

terminal band immaculate. Underside : greenish yellow sparsely 
sprinkled with black scales, the yellow very pale on the disc of the 
fore wing, fading to white along its dorsal margin ; discocellular 
spot and three subterminal posterior spots, that are placed in a 
curve, black ; the lowest spot of the three sometimes extended to 
the dorsal margin (var. pw<?ZZaris). Hind wing : uniform, with a 
very small annular spot on the ',discocellulars. Cilia white. An- 
tennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, the antennae speckled and 
tipped with white, the thorax clothed with long bluish-grey hairs ; 
beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : very 
similar to that of the 3 , the terminal bands broader and brownish 
rather than black. Underside : base and cellular area on fore 
wing white suffused with greenish yellow ; costa and apex of fore 
and the whole surface of the hind wing pale ochraceous ; the fore 
wing with the black spots as in the d , the hind wing in a few 
specimens with an anterior, discal, somewhat obscure, macular, 
incomplete band. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
the J. 

Dry-season brood. tf $ . Similar to the J 2 f wet-season 
brood, but on the upperside the black markings are duller in tint 
and narrower, while on the underside in both sexes the costal and 
apical areas on the fore and the whole surface of the hind wing 
vary from pale ochraceous to dark reddish ochraceous. 

Rap. <$ $ 40-50 mm. (1-58-2-00"). 

Hob. Within our limits recorded from Baluchistan ; the Punjab ; 
Western India ; Cufch; Rajputana; Scinde ; Central Provinces. 
Found also in the provinces round the Persian Gulf. 

Var. peelus, Swinhoe, has the ground-colour on the upperside 
pale canary-yellow. 



652. Colotis fausta, Olivier (Papilio), Vay. VEmp. Oth., Atlas, 1801- 
pi. 33, figs. 4 A, 4 B, $ ; Moore (Idmais), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 
1857, p. 68 ; Bntler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 134 ; Watson 
(Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 517, 525 ; 
Butler (Teracolus), A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 1897, p. 498. 

Idmais faustina, Felder, Novara Eeise, Lep. ii, 1 865, p. 190 ; Butler 
(Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 134; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 517, 525. 

Idmais fulvia, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1867, p. 392. pi. 9, 
tig. 5 d $ ; Butler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 135 ; Watson 
(Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 518, 525. 

Teracolus rosaceus, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 134, pi. 7, fig. 6rf; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 518. 

Teracolus oriens, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 134, pi. 7, fig. 7 $ ; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 518, 525. 

Teracolus Solaris, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 135 ; Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 
1884, p. 437, pi. 39, fig. 5 $ ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. 
viii, 1894, pp. 518, 525. 

Teracolus palliseri, Butler, A. M. N. H. (6) i, 1888, p. 418; Watson 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 518, 525. 



COLOXIS. 267 

Race tripuncta. 

Idmais tripuncta, Sutler, P. Z. 8. 1868, p. 221, pi. 17. fig. 9 rf; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 130, pi. 49, fi<js. 3, 3 a, $ $; Watson 
(Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 518, 525 ; 
Staler (Teracolus), A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 1897, p. 500. 

Idmais surya, Moore, J. A. S. . 1884, p. 45. 

c? . Upperside : pale salmon-buff, paler in specimens from 
desert areas, darker in those procured in regions where there is a 
regular though not heavy rainfall. Fore wing : base and costal 
margin irrorated in varying degree with dusky scales ; an oval 
annular discocellular spot that varies in size ; a black, festooned, 
postdiscal fascia that extends from costa to vein 4, beyond which 
the veins are margined with black ; this colour broadened sub- 
terminally into a second transverse fascia, that is followed by a 
very fine black line on the extreme terminal margin. In specimens 
from desert regions the transverse fasciae and the black edging to 
the veins are narrow, but in moister areas the two transverse 
fasciae unite posteriorly and with the slender black terminal line 
give an appearance as of a double series of spots of the ground- 
colour enclosed between them. Hind wing : more uniform, the 
veins with terminal black spots ; costa broadly pale, fading to 
white. Underside : pale yellowish white, in many specimens from 
moist localities suffused with a beautiful rosy flush ; the markings 
in such specimens prominent, in those from dry localities inore or 
less obsolescent. Fore wing: discocellular spot as on the upper- 
side, but complete, and not an oval ring ; in some specimens a 
postdiscal, dark ochraceous brown, narrow, curved baud from 
costa to middle of interspace 2. Hind wing : a small discocellular 
spot in the form of an oval light brown ring always much smaller 
than the similar spot on the fore wing ; a postdiscal, curved, more 
or less sinuate band similar to and in continuation of the band on 
the fore wing from the costa to vein 1. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen dusky black, the club of the antennae on the under- 
side, the hairs that cover the head and thorax and the scaling of 
the abdomen salmon-buff ; beneath : much paler, fading to white in 
specimens from dry localities. Sex-mark : a small patch of brown 
specialized scales on the underside of the fore wing above vein 1, 
closer to the base than to the termen. On the upperside this is 
more or less prominent as a small raised spot. 

$ . Dimorphic. Form 1 : ground-colour and markings as in the 
c? ; the costa of the hind wing on the upperside concolorous with the 
rest of the wing ; the sex-mark of course absent. Form 2. Upper- 
side : ground-colour white, often more or less irregularly suffused on 
parts of the wing with salmon-buff ; markings similar to those in 
the d , but very much broader. Fore wing : base and costal area 
heavily irrorated with greyish-blue scales. Hind wing : the 
terminal spots at apices of the veins large and quadrate, often 
united into a continuous band which then encloses an anticiliary 



268 

series of spots of the ground-colour. In a few specimens there 
are traces of a postdiscal macular black band, in a very few this 
band is almost complete and very prominent. Underside: ground- 
colour white; markings as in the d 1 , but broader, darker and 
more prominent. 

Exp. cJ $ 46-58 mm. (1-82-2-27"). 

Hah. Within our limits, Baluchistan ; Sind ; the Punjab ; Kaj- 
putana and Bombay. Found also in Asia Minor, Arabia, Persia 
and Afghanistan. 

Race tripuncta, Butler. tf $ Very closely resembles the 
typical from, but this the southern form or race can be distinguished 
as follows : c? Upjperside : ground-colour a much deeper tint 
of salmon-buff, almost orange-yellow. Pore wing : costa heavily 
irrorated with black scales ; discocellular spot larger, not annular ; 
postdiscal black fascia at all seasons united to the subterminal 
fascia and black anticiliary line so that the whole apex and termen 
of the wing are black, broadly at the costa and gradually narrowed 
towards the tornal angle. This black area encloses never more 
than three preapical moderately large spots and a complete series 
of minute anticiliary specks of the ground-colour. Hind wing : 
as \nfausta, but the terminal black spots very large. Underside: 
ground-colour of a richer yellower tint than in the typical form ; 
markings similar, those on the fore wing dusky black, on the 
hind wing rose-pink. Antennae, head, thorax, abdomen and sex- 
mark as in (J of the typical form. $ . Upperside : closely re- 
sembles the $ form 2 of fausta, but all the markings are darker 
and conspicuously broader, while the number of the preapical 
spots of the ground-colour enclosed within the black area on the 
fore wing is never more than three, the same as in the tf . 
Underside, fore wing : white sometimes faintly suffused with yellow ; 
apical and terminal areas anteriorly light to dark ochraceous 
yellow ; discocellular spot very large ; transverse, postdiscal, 
macular dark reddish-brown band very broad. Hind wing : pale 
ochraceous yellow, sparsely powdered with black scales ; trans- 
verse postdiscal macular band reddish brown and broad as in the 
fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in $ form 2 
of fausta. 

Exp. J $ 52-58 mm. (2-05-2-27"). 

flab. Western and Southern India : Bombay, Poona, the Nil- 
giris up to 6000 feet, the Anaimalai Hills ; Eastern India : Orissa 
in Bengal, Gaujam ; Ceylon. 

653. Colotis eucharis, Fabr. (Papilio) Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 472 ; Moore 
(Callosume), Cat. Lep. Mus. JE. I. C. i, 1857, p. 08 ; Butkr 
(Teracolus), P. Z. 8. 1876, p. 164 ; Moore (Calloaume), Lcp.Ceyl. 
i, 1881, p. 128, pi. 4.9, fig. 4 <$ ; Watson (Teracolus). Jour. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526 ; Butler (Teracolus), A. M. 
N. H. (6) xx, 1897, p. 455. 



COLOTIS. 269 

Pieris titea, Godt. Encycl. Mct/i. ix, 1819, p. 124 ; Watson (Tera- 
colus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526. 

Teracolus pseudevanthe, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 164, pi. 7, 
fig. 16, ^ $ ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, 
pp. 522, 526. 

Teracolus pallet, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 49; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 523. 

& Upperside : pure white. Fore wing : base and costa for a 
short distance generally sparsely irrorated with black scales ; 
a broad apical orange-yellow patch, with its inner edge straight 
and margined with gamboge-yellow; this patch is sometimes 
immaculate, but generally bears a black diffuse spot on its lower 
inner edge which may or may not extend to the termen below the 
orange ; costa, apex and termen, the latter nearly up to the tornus, 
edged and festooned beyond the orange area with black. Hind 
wing : with black spots at the apices of the veins that vary in size 
and end on the termen, also a diffuse preapical black spot on the 
costa. Underside : pure white in most specimens, suffused, except 
on the disc of the fore wing, with pinkish yellow, and at base 
of the same wing with pure sulphur-yellow ; apical orange patch 
and black terminal markings on the upperside of the fore wing 
show through by transparency, the former crossed by a sinuous 
fuscous fascia that ends in a black diffuse spot. Hind wing : shaded 
with ochraceous at base and with a fuscous preapical spot on costa, 
also a few scattered transverse fuscous striae and small spots. 
Many specimens have the preapical spot continued as an obscure 
fuscous fascia across the wing aud bear a series of large terminal 
fuscous spots that correspond to the black spots on the upperside. 
Both fore and hind wings with black discocellular dots. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen black ; antennae speckled with white on 
the sides, head and thorax clothed with short greyish-brown hairs ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Ground- 
colour similar ; the markings differ from those oi: the c? as 
follows: Upperside, fore wing: base and costa more heavily 
irrorated with greyish-black scales ; discocellular spot larger ; 
apical area black, with three enclosed elongate orange spots ; 
inner margin of black area irregularly sinuate and diffuse, ex- 
tended shortly inwards in interspace 3 ; a transverse black spot 
across middle of interspace 1. Hind wing : base irrorated more 
sparsely than in the fore wing with greyish-black scales ; preapical 
spot on costa and terminal spots much larger ; in a few specimens 
thei'e is an obscure transverse posterior discal fascia. Underside : 
markings similar to but very much broader, more heavily marked, 
and more prominent than those in the <5 ; the tranverse fuscous 
strife and dots more numerous. Antennae, head, thorax and abdo- 
men as in the c? . 

Ea-p. <S $ 36-50 mm. (1-42-2-00"). 

Hob. Central and Southern India from Jabalpur and Bombay 
to Travancore ; Ceylon. 



270 PIERIDjE. 

654. Colotis etrida, Boisduval (Antkocharis), Sp. Gen. Up. i, 1836, 
p 576; Moore (Callosume), Cat. Lep. Mm. E. I. C. i, 1857, 
p. 69 ; Sutler (Teracolus), P. Z. S. 1876, p. 160 ; de Niceville 
(Teracolus), J. A. S. B. 1890, p. 252 ; Davidson 8f Aitken (Tera- 
colus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. v, 1890, p. 359; Watson (Tera- 
colus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526 ; Butler 
(Teracolus), A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 1897, p. 456. 

Teracolus pernotatus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 159, pi. 7, fig. 1, rf $ ; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526. 

Teracolus farrinus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 159, pi. 7, fig. 2, $ ; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526. 

Teracolus purus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 160, pi. 7, figs. 14, 15, 
J $ ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526. 

Teracolus casimirus, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 161, pi. 7, fig. 5 rf; 
Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, p. 523. 

Race limbata. 

Teracolus limbatus, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 161 ; Moore (Callo- 
sume), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 129, pi. 49, fig. 5 rf; Watson, Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522, 526 ; Sutler, A. M. N. H. 
(6) xx, 1897, p. 456. 

J . Upperside : white, sparsely irrorated at base of fore and hind 
wings with black scales. Fore wing : a small black spot on the 
discocellulars ; apex broadly black, with an enclosed oval, curved, 
rich orange patch placed obliquely and traversed by the veins, 
which there are black ; inner edge of black area diffuse. Hind 
wing : uniform, except for a preapical short diffuse black streak 
from the costa, sometimes absent, and a series of terminal black 
spots that in specimens from moist localities are very large. 
Underside : white ; cell and apex of fore wing suffused with 
sulphur-yellow, the orange patch of the upperside shows through 
by transparency, its inner edge margined anteriorly by a very 
obscure oblique fuscous fascia. Hind wing : the preapical short 
transverse black streak on the upperside obscurely indicated. 
$ . Very similar to the d 1 . Can be distinguished as follows : 
Upperside, fore wing : orange patch enclosed within the black 
apical area, narrower ; a small black spot in middle of interspace 1 
and another in interspace 3. Hind wing : the terminal spots 
slightly larger. Underside : apex of fore and whole surface of 
hind wing suffused lightly, or in specimens from very dry localities 
heavily, with ochraceous. Fore wing : spots in interspaces 1 and 
3 as on the upperside. Hind wing : a curved, almost complete, 
discal series of fuscous spots ; otherwise as in the J . In both 
sexes the antennae vary from white to pale brownish ; head, thorax 
and abdomen black, the head and thorax with short greyish-brown 
hairs ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 

Eocp. c? $ 30-44 mm. (1-20-1-75"). 

Hab. Baluchistan; Kashmir; the outer ranges of the Hima- 
layas ; throughout peninsular India except Bengal. 

Larva. " Much resembles that of a moth caterpillar, being very 
narrow, the anal segment much prolonged ; colour uniform green, 



COLOT1S. 271 

with a narrow line along each side just above the roots of the legs, 
sometimes broader, sometimes yellow, sometimes pinkish -white. 
It has the curious habit of resting with the anal segment not 
attached to a twig." {Davidson MS. Extract from de Niceville's 
MS. of the Pierin, Butt, of Ind.) 

Pupa. " Compressed, the snout much prolonged and turned 
upwards. At first it is greenish, but afterwards becomes a greyish 
white, beautifully marbled with brown." {Idem.} 

Race liinbata, Butler. This is a barely separable local race that 
can generally however, be distinguished as follows ; <$ $ . Upper- 
side : black ; apical area on fore wing darker, broader, occupying 
about a third of the wing ; the orange patch enclosed within 
it proportionately narrower, so that the black on its inner margin 
has the appearance of being broader proportionately than it is 
in the typical form. Very often this inner edge is bordered 
by a suffusion of sulphur-yellow, while in some specimens it is 
extended inwards in interspace 3. Hind wing : the terminal black 
spots are united and form a continuous band. Coming from a 
moist region, the underside is very like that of specimens of typical 
etrida procured in similar localities. 

Exp. c? $ 40-48 mm. (1-58-1-90"). 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Many specimens of etrida from the Anaimalais and Southern 
India resemble this race limbata very closely. 

655. Colotis danae (PI. XVI, fig. 107), Fab): (Papilio) Syst. Ent- 

1775, p. 476 ; Donovan (Papilio), Ins. Ind. 1800, pi. 26, fig. 2 J ; 

Moore (Callosuiiie), Cat. Lep. Mtts. E. I. C. i, 1857, p. 69 ; id. 

(Callosume) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 129; Butler (Teracolus), 

P. Z. S. 1876, p. 157 ; Watson (Teracolus), Jour. Bomb. N. H. 

Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 521, 526 ; Butler (Teracolus), A. M. N. H. 

(6) xx, 1897, p. 498. 
Teracolus dulcis, dims et sfinguinalis, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 157, 

pi. 7, fig. 13, c? $ ; p. 157, pi. 7, fig. 11, $ ; & p. 158 ; Watson, 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 521, 526. 
Callosume sanguinalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 129. 
Teracolus immaculatus, subroseus et taplini, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884 

p. 443 ; p. 443, pi. 40, figs. 6, 7, d 1 $ ; & p- 444, pi. 40, figs. 8, 9 
c? $ ; Watson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 521, 526 

pp. 521, 526, & 522, 526. 

Callosume alberta, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) v, 1890, p. 356 
Watson (Teracolus), Join-. Bomb. N. H. Soc. viii, 1894, pp. 522 

526. 

c? 2 . Coloration very variable, especially in the $ . tf . Upper- 
side : white, base of wings generally irrorated, but to a varying 
extent, with black scales. This irroration in many specimens is 
entirely wanting. Fore wing: with or without a minute black spot 
on the discocellulars ; apex broadly carmine, edged internally and 
externally with black, this black border varies in width, but both 
inner and outer borders meet on the costa and on the termen, on 



272 PIEBIDJE. 

the latter they unite and sometimes extend as a black line to the 
tornus. Hind wing : uniform, except for a series of black terminal 
spots, which in some specimens are comparatively large and con- 
nected together by an anticiliary slender black line, in others 
minute, more or less obsolescent, unconnected dots. Underside: 
white. Fore wing : base of cell washed with sulphur-yellow ; 
spot on discocellulars as on the upperside ; apical carmine area of 
the upperside represented by an ochraceous-pink patch, not mar- 
gined with black, but similar in shape and position ; in some 
specimens this is more or less suffused with greyish scales ; in all, 
it is crossed near its inner edge by an obliquely-placed series of 
four or five spots that vary in colour from pale ferruginous to 
black. In some specimens there are two terminal diffuse black 
spots, one each at the ends of veins 2 and 3. Hind wing : the 
ground-colour generally lightly, often heavily, suffused with 
ochraceous pink, sometimes pure white ; a small spot ou the 
discocellulars pale ferruginous to black, sometimes annular and 
centred with carmine ; followed by a curved macular discal band 
that also varies in colour from pale ferruginous to black and has 
the posterior spots often obsolescent, or even completely absent ; 
a series of minute black dots at the apices of the veins that runs 
to the termen, and may or may not be connected by a slender 
black anticiliary line. Antennae pale brown, speckled with white ; 
head, thorax and abdomen black ; head and thorax anteriorly 
clothed with brown, sometimes greyish-black hairs ; beneath : 
palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 

$ . Upperside : white ; base of wings lightly, often heavily, irro- 
rated with greyish-black scales. In some specimens the irroration is 
very scanty, in others it occupies fully a third of the wings from 
base and extends as a broad band parallel to the dorsum on the hind 
wing. Fore wing : an apical carmine patch as in the male but 
smaller, sometimes reduced to a mere row of preapical pale rosy 
streaks, but always bordered externally, and generally internally 
also, by black of varying width. In some specimens the inner black 
border is very narrow, in others broad, and in a very feAv entirely 
absent. The outer border again in some specimens is inwardly 
festooned, and may be either broad or comparatively narrow. Disco- 
cellular spot as in the tf but larger, followed by an anterior, 
postdiscal, macular, curved, black band, the upper spots of which 
cross the carmine area, or when the carmine area is reduced to short 
streaks the band crosses the black internal edging to it, showing up 
in a darker tint than the edging itself; lastly, a black transverse, 
somewhat diffuse, spot in interspaces 1 and 2. Hind wing : with 
a dusky spot on the discocellulars, a black, macular, discal, curved, 
more or less incomplete band, and a terminal row of black spots that 
in some specimens are connected and form a continuous band. All 
these markings are generally diffuse. Underside, fore wing : white, 
suffused with sulphur-yellow at base of cell and with ochraceous 
(in some specimens ochraceous-grey, in others ocliraceous-red) on 
apical area ; spot on discocellulars, the postdiscal macular band 



COLOTIS. HEBOMOIA. 273 

and spots iu interspaces 1 and 2 as on the upperside, but more 
clearly defined, the spots that compose the postdiscal band some- 
times annular. Hind wing : white, suffused to a greater or less 
degree with ochraceous, sometimes pink; spot on discocellulars 
and discal macular band as on the upperside, but both the disco- 
cellular spot and the spots that compose the latter more clearly 
defined, annular and generally centred with carmine ; a terminal 
row of black specks which may or may not be connected by a very 
slender anticiliai-y line. 

Exp. <$ 5 40-52 mm. (1-57-2-04"). 

Hal. Within our limits : Baluchistan ; Western and Southern 
India ; Ceylon. 

Genus HEBOMOIA. 

Hebomoia, Hiibner, T'erz. bek. Schmett. 181(5, p. 95. 
Iphias, jBotsduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, p. 595. 

Type, H. r/laucippe, Linn., from India and China. 

Range. Indo-Malayan Eegion. In India proper confined to the 
North-eastern and Southern parts. 

c? . Fore wing : triangular ; costa arched ; apex more or less 
acute ; termen oblique, slightly sinuate ; tornus well marked, 
obtuse ; dorsum bisinuate ; cell slightly more than half length of 




Fig. 70. Hebomoia, venation, a. Precostal cell. 

wing ; upper discocellular minute, oblique, bases of veins 6 and 7 
therefore closely approximate, middle and lower discocellulars 
together concave ; vein 8 absent, vein 9 from upper fourth of 7, 
TOL. IT. T 



274 

10 arid 11 free. Hind wing : suboval, broad ; apex and tornal angle 
boldly rounded; precostal nervure simple, short, subobsolete, 
inclined outwards. Antennae about half length of fore wing, 
gradually thickened to apex, latter subtruncate; eyes naked, 
prominent ; palpi situated low down on the face, somewhat flat- 
tened, scaly, clothed with stiff hairs anteriorly and at apex, third 
joint short ; thorax and abdomen robust ; legs slender ; claspers 
in <? elongate. 

Key to tlie forms of Hebomoia. 

a. Hind wing : uniform white. 

a'. Upperside fore wing : apical orange patch 

bordered inwardly with black H. glaucippe, p. 274. 

b'. Upperside fore wing: apical orange patch . R ,; 

not bordered inwardly with black australis, p. 275. 

b. Hind wing : not uniform white, terminal halt 

suffused with pure sulphur-yellow H. roepstorji, p. 276. 

656. Hebomoia glaucippe, Linn. (Papilio) Syst. Nat. ed. x, 1758, 
p 469; Hilbner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 1816, p. 96; Butler, 
A.M.N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 290. 

Race australis (PL XVIII, fig. 122). 

Hebomoia australis, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (7) i, 1898, p. 290. 

Hebomoia glaucippe, Moore (nee Linn.}, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 127, 
pi. 49, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b, $ $ , larva <fe pupa ; Davidson. Bell $ 
Aitken (nee Linn.), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 572. 

Wet-season brood. J . Upperside: creamy white. Fore wing : 
the costa narrowly, the apex and terminal margin to middle of 
interspace 1, black ; an irregular, somewhat sinuous, black band 
extends obliquely from beyond the middle of the costa across the 
upper apex of the cell, and meets at interspace 1 the black on 
the terminal margin ; within the triangle thus formed is enclosed 
a rich orange-red patch that is traversed by the black veins and 
bears in interspaces 3 to 6 a postdiscal series of black inwardly- 
elongated spots. Hind wing : nearly uniform, touched with black 
on the terminal margin anteriorly and with a conspicuous post- 
disoal black spot in interspace 7 ; in some specimens one or 
two smaller spots in continuation of the series in the interspaces 
below. Underside: white; apical third of the fore wing and the 
whole of the bind wing mottled with more or less prominent 
brown strigae and spots ; costa of the fore wing and a fine line 
that runs from base of the hind wing through the cell, straight to 
the middle of the terminal margin, brown. Antennas dark brown ; 
head and thorax anteriorly with reddish-brown pile ; thorax above 
greyish blue, abdomen white with a bluish tinge ; beneath : head 
and thorax more or less brownish, abdomen white. . Similar 
to the tf . Upperside : ground-colour with a slight greenish tinge ; 
the orange patch on fore wing more restricted ; it consists of a 
aeries of broad streaks in interspaces 3 to 6 and 10, the outer 
apices of which are deeply incised by black and with a row of 



HEBOMOIA. 275 

hastate orange spots beyond in interspaces 2 to 6. Hind wing : 
similar to the hind wing in the c? , but with a postdiscal series of 
large triangular black spots and a terminal connected series 
of still larger triangular black spots at the apices of veins 2 to 7. 
Underside : similar to that in the tf , the brown transverse strigae 
and spots more numerous, the costa of the fore and the median 
line on the hind wing very prominently brown. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the <S 

Dry-season brood. d 1 2 Differ only from the c? $ of the 
wet-season brood in the slightly more falcate apex to fore wing, 
and in the purer white ground-colour on the upperside ; also the 
terminal margin of the hind wing in the d 1 has the black markings 
all but obsolete, while in the $ the postdiscal and terminal black 
markings on the same are smaller than in the wet-season form. 
Underside : the mottlings of brown strigaa and minute spots more 
numerous and dense. 

Exp. d 1 $ 94-100 mm. (3'71-4"). 

Hab. N.E. India; Nepal; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma and 
Tenasserim to the Malay Peninsula, and eastwards through the 
Shan States of Upper Burma to Siam and China. 

Race australis, Butler. tf $ . Differs only from the typical 
form in the following particulars : Inner black border to the 
orange patch on the upperside of the fore wing absent, this repre- 
sented by a few obsolete touches of black scaling. Hind wiug : 
white throughout, with only a half-obliterated subcostal black spot 
in interspace 7 in the d ; in the $ the postdiscal and terminal 
series of spots smaller. 

Exp. $ 5 as in typical form. 

Hab. Southern India from the Ghauts at Khandalla south- 
eastwards to Ceylon. 

The d 1 of this race as noted by de Niceville (J. A. S. B. Ixiv, 
1895, p. 505) can scarcely be separated from the d 1 of H. java- 
tiensis, Wallace, but the $ has the orange patch on the upperside 
of the fore wing as large as in typical H. glaucippe, whereas the $ 
of the Javan form has the same much restricted. 

Larva. " Subcylindrical, tapering towards each end, numerously 
covered with minute tubercles ; green." (Moore.) 

Pupa. " Much arched along the back ; head pointed." (Moore.) 

As figured in the ' Lepidoptera of Ceylon': 

Larva. Subcylindrical ; suddenly tapered at both ends ; covered 
with transverse rows of pointed tubercles. Colour dai'k green, 
with a lateral bluish line bordered iuferiorly with a series of 
minute red spots ; legs green, the prothoracic legs bordered with 
black that widens on the middle one of the three. 

Pupa. Spindle-shaped, head acutely pointed, dorsum much 
arched. Colour green, a patch of pale ochraceous on the wing-cases 
and a narrow lateral band of the same colour from head to tail, 
with a brown line superposed on it that extends to the abdominal 
segments ; abdominal segments and wing-case sparsely spotted 
with black. 

T2 



276 PIEHID.E. 

657. Hebomoia roepstorfi, Wood-Mason, J. A. 6'. B. xlix, 1880 r 
pp. 134, 150 & 235; Wood-Mason $ de N. loc. cit. 1, 1881, 
p. 251, pi. 14, tigs. 3-5 c? $ . 

Extremely like H. glautippe, race australis, from which it differs 
as follows : J $ Upperside : the white ground-colour partly 
suffused with bright sulphur-yellow, on the fore wing along the 
inner margin of the orange patch and over the tornal area, and on 
the hind wing spread over the outer half of the wing. On the 
fore wing also the orange patch is more extensive, spreading into 
the apex of the discoidal cell. In the $ the postdiscal series of 
black spots on the bind wing are smaller than in typical glaucippe, 
and except the posterior one are placed on the inner margin of 
large diffuse orange-tinted spots, superposed on the sulphur-yellow 
that suffuses the outer half of the wing. In a few specimens tf $> 
the inner black border to the orange patch on the fore wing is 
present, but is never so broad as in typical ylaucippe. Underside : 
similar to that in H. ylaucippe, as are also the antenn*, head, 
thorax and abdomen. 

Exp. <y $ 86-93 mm. (3-40-3-65"). 

Hob. South Andamans ; Barren Island. 

Genus PAKERONIA. 

Eionia, pt, Hiibner, Smnml. Exot. Schmett. 1816-183G; Daubledav, 
Gen. Di. Len. 1847, p. 64; Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv. 1867, 
p. 387. 

Valeria, Horsf. Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 1829, p. 139. (Inadmiss., 
name of species.) 

Nepheronia, pt., Butler, Cist. Ent. i, 1870, pp. 38, 53. 

1'areronia, de Niceville, MS. 

Type, P. Valeria, Cramer, 
from Java. 

Range. Indo-MalayanEegion. 
c? $ . Tore wing : costa 
strongly arched; apex blunt; 
termen slightly sinuate, concave 
in the middle; tornus rounded ; 
dorsum straight, about three- 
fourths length of costa; cell 
about half length of wing; 
vein 6 from upper apex of cell, 
upper discocellular therefore 
' absent, middle discocellular 
strongly bent inwards, almost 
angulate in the middle, lower 
very oblique ; vein 8 from upper 
half of 7, 9 from just before 
middle of 7, 10 and 11 free, 
from upper third of subcostal, 
long, over half length of wing; 




Fig. 71. Pareronia, venation. 
Hind wing subtriangular ; c 



p.viiEuoxiA. 277 

discocellulars subequal and very oblique ; precostal nervure or 
spur curved outwards. Antennae long, considerably longer than 
half length of fore wing; club gradual, long and slender; palpi 
very short, third joint particularly so, almost truncate at apex ; 
eyes large, prominent and naked ; thorax and abdomen particu- 
larly long. The males of the Indian forms, with the exception of 
P. avatar, have a band of specialized dull opaque-looking scales 
along the terminal black border of the hind wing on the 
upperside. 

Key to the forms of Pareronia. 

A. c? Upperside : very pale blue ; fore wing : veins 

not,or only very slightly defined with bluck. 
5 mononiorphic ; fore wing upperside : the 
subterminal series of spots in line P. ucatnr, p. '277. 

B. c? . Upperside : darker blue ; fore wing : veins 

distinctly defined or edged with black. $ . 
Fore wing- upperside : subterminal series of 
spots not "in line, spot in interspace 3 shifted 
inwards. 

(t. c? Upperside fore wing : terminal black 
border narrow, traversed by a more or less 
complete transverse subterminal series of 

bluish-white spots. dimorphic P. hippia, p. 278. 

/. c?. Upperside fore wing: terminal black 
border broad, not traversed by a transverse 
subterminal series of spots*. $ mono- 
morphic. 

a'. cJ. Upperside hind wing: terminal black 
border of even width throughout, not 

narrowed posteriorly P. ceylanica, p. 281. 

//. <3 . Upperside hind wing : terminal black 
border not of even width throughout, 
distinctly narrowed posteriorly P. pingasa, p. 280. 

058. Pareronia avatar, Moore (Erouia), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 
1857, p. 61, pi. 2o, fig. 1 rf; de N. (Erouia) J. A. 8. B. 1881, 
p. o9 ; Elwes (Eronia), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 419 ; de N. 
(Nepheronia) J. A. 8. B. 1882, p. 64. 

S . Upperside : very pale blue. Eore wing : costa above the 
cell, apex very broadly and terineii black; this colour occupies 
the apex above vein 6 (except a narrow short streak of the ground- 
colour at base of interspace 6) and extends down the termen to 
the tornus, decreasing in width posteriorly and prolonged a short 
distance inwards along each vein ; median vein lined with black. 
Hind wing: veins more or less lined with black; a narrow 
black border to the termen. Underside : pale silvery blue, the 
veins more or less brownish or black and conspicuous, the parts 



* Occasionally an individual occurs with a minute speck or two of this 
series present. 



278 PIEEID2E. 

that are black on the upperside a much darker silvery blue. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dusky brownish black ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen very pale blue. 
$ . Upperside : ground-colour of a paler blue than in the J and 
much overlaid with dusky black. Fore wing : base broadly and 
densely irrorated with black scales, two elongate black streaks in 
cell that do not reach its apex and all the veins broadly bordered 
with black ; this colour coalesces on the outer half of the wing 
and leaves only broad streaks at bases of interspaces 1 a to 6, with 
beyond them a transverse series of spots of the ground-colour 
visible. Hind wing : dorsal margin below vein 1 and costa above 
cell white, all the veins except the upper discocellular more or 
less broadly lined with black, which colour coalesces outwardly 
and forms a broad border to the termen ; two or three of the 
streaks of the ground-colour between the veins are succeeded by 
subterminal spots of the same tint. Underside : silvery white, 
the veins more prominently picked out with black than in the c? 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the tf but darker. 

Exp. c? 2 78-90 mm. (3-08-3-54"). 

Hab. Sikhim, from 1000 to 5000 ft. ; Bhutan ; Assam ; the 
Khasia and Naga Hills; the hills of Burma and Tenasserim. 

The Tenasserim avatar is a smaller and somewhat darker 
variety, confined, as far as known, to the Dawnat range and other 
southern ranges of hills in Tenasserim. It is barely separable from 
typical avatar, but all the specimens I have seen have in the J 
a slightly wider black margin on the upperside of the hiud wing, 
and the $ is on the whole slightly darker. The late Mr. de 
Niceville separated it in his MS. under the name " paravatar" 

Exp. 3 2 67-81 mm. (2-63-3-18"). 

Hab. Hills of Middle and Southern Tenasserim. 

The type form, P. Valeria, Cramer, so far as I know, is confined 
to Java. It has the ground-colour of the wings on the upperside 
of even a paler blue than in P. avatar, almost white, but with broad 
black terminal margins as in its two Indian representatives, cey- 
lanica and pinyasa, and like them bears no transverse subterminal 
series of spots on the fore wing. 



659. Pareronia hippia, Fabr. (Papilio) Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 55; 
Donovan, Ins. Ind. 1800, pi. 25, fig. 1 ; Elwes (Eronia), Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 419 ; Davidson, Bell $ Aitken (Nepheronia), 
Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 573. 

Eronia gsea, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 190 ; de N. 
(Nepheronia) J. A. S. B. 1885, p. 51. 

tf . Upperside : ground-colour a clear pale blue of a much 
deeper tint than in P. avatar, Moore ; all the veins defined with 
black. Eore wing : costa broadly, apex and terminal margin 
very broadly black, this black on the termen narrowed towards 
the tornus, and traversed by a transverse subterminal series of 



PARERONIA. 279 

bluish-white spots that are variable in number ; the spot in 
interspace 3 shifted inwards ; sometimes the posterior two spots 
of the series are all but joined on to the streaks of the ground- 
colour between the veins. Hind wing: dorsal and costal margins 
broadly whitish : terminal margin broadly black, especially at 
apex, the black area covered, except at the tornus, with specia- 
lized opaque-looking scales. Underside : paler blue, the terminal 
margins of the wings obscurely fuscous, traversed by a subter- 
iniual, very indistinct, transverse series of whitish lunulated spots. 
Fore wing: the veins more or less broadly bordered with 
black, this edging broadened towards the termen ; apex broadly, 
terminal margin decreasiugly to the tornus, suffused with a 
somewhat obscure pearly-white lustre. Hind wing: the sub- 
costal vein and veins 6, 7, and 8 broadly, the rest of the veins 
very narrowly edged with black ; a very fine black line in inter- 
space 1. Cilia of both fore and hind wings very narrow and 
white. Antennae black, head, thorax and abdomen fuscous, the 
thorax clothed with long bluish hairs ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen pale silvery bluish-white. $ . .First Form. Upper- 
side : black ; the markings bluish white. Fore wing : cell with 
two streaks, the anterior one from the extreme base, the posterior 
one from the end of the basal third, but extending beyond the 
anterior streak ; below and beyond the cell is a series of streaks 
in the interspaces ; the streaks very irregular in length, that in 
interspace 1 the longest, angulated anteriorly and divided longi- 
tudinally from near its base, the streak in interspace 3 short and 
broad forming an elongate spot, those in the anterior interspaces 
more or less obliquely placed ; beyond these streaks follows a 
subterminal transverse series of spots, of which the spot in inter- 
space 3 is shifted inwards and those opposite the apex curved 
backwards. Hind wing : costa and dorsum broadly white ; cell 
and the interspaces beyond with a series of streaks and sub- 
terminal spots, more or less as in the fore wing but more regular j 
the streak in cell and interspace 1 divided longitudinally, the 
subterminal series of spots evenly curved. Underside : similar to 
the upperside, but the ground-colour dull, dusky and diffuse, the 
markings broader but less clearly defined ; the apical area on 
the fore wing obscured by a powdering of whitish scales. An- 
tennae, head, thorax and abdomen much as in the d" but darker. 
Second Form. Very like the first, the markings both on the upper 
and under sides similar, but the ground-colour on the upperside 
of the hind wing at base of interspace 1 a, over the whole of 
interspace 1, area of cell and at base of interspace 2 suffused 
with bright yellow. On the underside the same areas are dull 
ochraceous. The extent of the bright yellow colour on the upper- 
side and of the dull ochraceous tint on the underside is variable, 
in some specimens more restricted, in others it spreads further 
towards the costa. 

Exp. cf $ 70-80 ram. (2-76-3-48"). 



280 PIERIUjE. 

Hob. Almost throughout Continental India, except the desert- 
tracts ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; extending to the Malay 
Peninsula. 

660. Pareronia pingasa (PI. XVIII, fig. 124), Moore (Eronia), 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 565 ; Butler (Nepheronia), P. Z. S. 1881, p. 612 ; 
Davidson fy Aitken (Nepheronia), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. y, 

1890, p. 357 ; Ferguson (Nepheronia), Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, 

1891, p. 445. 

Nepheronia coinpacta, Butler, Cist. Ent. \, 1874, p. 235. 

Eronia naraka, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 591. 

Eronia Valeria, var. naraka, Wood-Mason $ de N., J. A. S. J?.;i880, 

p. 237. 
Nepheronia fraterna, Davidson, Bdl <$ Aitken (nee Moore), Jour. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1897, p. 573. 

Kesembles P. Jiippia, Fabr., in colour and in the disposition of 
the markings, but differs as follows : <S . Upperside : ground- 
colour a deeper blue. Fore wing : the terminal black border 
much broader generally, entirely without the transverse sub- 
terminal series of bluish-white spots ; in a few specimens there 
are one or two of these spots present, but nothing like the series 
so conspicuous in hippia. Hind wing : the terminal black border 
very broad, narrowing slightly but distinctly towards the tornal 
angle. Proportionately this border is even broader than in the 
fore wing. Underside : as in hippia. $ . Closely resembles the $ 
of P. hippia, but on the upperside the outer black margins beyond 
the discal markings on both fore and hind wings are propor- 
tionately much broader, the transverse subterminal series of spots 
that crosses the wing is further from the terminal edge. On the 
underside the terminal black borders are broader and darker, the 
subterminal series of spots on apex of the fore and on the hind wing 
absent or so very thickly overlaid with the dusky brownish-black 
of the terminal margin as to be very indistinct and blurred. 
Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes much as in 
P. Jiippia. 

Exp. 3 $ 78-86 mm. (3-10-3-38"). 

Hub. Southern India : Kanara,Nilgiris, Mysore, Malabar, Cochin, 
Travancore ; South Andaman Islands. 

Larva. " Long, cylindrical or slightly depressed and tapering 
slightly from the head, which is large, to the tail which ends in 
two short strong spines clothed with bristles. The body is 
clothed with very minute hairs. Colour green, with a lateral row 
of conspicuous white spots from the 5th to the 12th segment 
and rows of smaller spots on the back. Food-plant, Capparis 
" 



Pupa. " Suspended by the tail and by a very long band ...... 

thoracic portion bent back almost at right angles to the abdo- 
minal ; head produced into a very long sharp snout ; wing-cases 
forming a keel nearly half an inch in depth, and so thin as to 
be almost transparent. Colour uniform pale watery green." 
(Davidson <Sf Aitken.) 



PAEEIUXNIA. 281 

<)61 . Pareronia ceylanica, Fddcr (Eronia), Novara Seise, Lep. ii, 1865, 
p. 191 ; Moore (Nepheronia), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 138. 

Nepheronia fraterna, Moore, Lep. Ceyl.. i, 1881, p. 139, pi. 54, 
tigs. 3, 3 a, rf $ ; Hampson, J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 363. 

Nepheronia spiculifera, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 139. 

Nearest to and very closely resembles P. pingasa, but the hind 
wing in all the specimens that I have seen is more rounded, thus 
causing the outer black border on the upperside of that wing in 
the c? to appear more of an even width throughout. On the fore 
wing the outer black border is not narrowed posteriorly as it is in 
P. pingasa, but is very broad and of even width from vein 5 to 
tornus, at the latter point it is always distinctly broader than it 
ever is in 2Mngas(i. d . Underside : costa, apical half of fore wing 
beyond a curved line from costa to tornal angle, and the whole 
surface of the hind wing nacreous blue with a lustre much richer 
than that in P. hippia or P. pingasa. In individuals of the 
smaller dry-season broods, this nacreous blue lustre extends right 
up to the termen on both fore and hind wings, through it the 
black markings of the upperside are obscurely visible by trans- 
parency, but there is no black diffuse heavy terminal shading on 
either wing. In specimens of the wet-season broods which also 
run distinctly larger, there is a subterminal transverse series of 
obscure white spots that is bordered both on the inner and outer 
sides by still more obscure dusky Junular markings. $ . Upper- 
side : markings very similar to those in P. pingasa $ , but the 
streaks between the veins slightly deeper bluish- white. Under- 
side : more or less as in the wet-season form of the d ; the 
terminal margins of both fore and hind wings never heavily shaded 
with dusky black. 

Exp. <S 62-76 mm. (2-44-3-00")i 

Half. Ceylon ; Southern India : Nilgiri district, Cochin, 
Travancore. 



LYC-KX ID-t:. 



Family 

Egg. "Hard, small, numerous, much wider than high, reticulate, 
with a whitish, calcareous? accretiou forming au asymmetrical 
network of tetragons." (Doherty.) 

Larva. In the majority of the genera onisciform, i. e., shaped 
like woodlice, but with great diversity of the tegumen : " some of 
them are smooth, many clothed with a short down, some with 
fascicles of short bristles or regularly disposed tubercles and a few 
hairy generally ; several are corrugated dorsally and others pro- 
minently humped in one or two places.'' (Trimen.} The forms 
in many of the genera are provided with lip-like openings on one 
of the posterior segments, from which on the application of certain 
stimuli exudes a sweetish liquid much appreciated by ants of various 
kinds, that diligently attend such larva) and protect and guard 
them against their hymenopterous parasitic enemies, going so far 
even as to drive and house them inside their nests. The larvae 
and pupae of Curetis and Lipliyra, genera which represent in my 
arrangement monotypic groups, are altogether abnormal. Full 
descriptions of these are given under the account of the forms 
belonging to those genera. 

Pupa. Anteriorly rounded and blunt; thorax more or less 
humped, body posterior to this constricted; abdomen beneath 
flattened ; colour mostly brown or reddish-brown, sometimes 
green. In many genera there is a covering of erect hairs which 
in a few becomes remarkably dense and long anteriorly. Generally 
the pupa is suspended by the cremasteral hooks and secured by a 
girth, but there are many exceptions to this, and in some genera 
the larva pupates subterraneously. 

Imago. Of small or moderate expanse ; shape of wings not so 
diversified as in the Papilionidce. Fore wing proportionately 
rather hroad and short, the apex and tornus both well-marked, 
rarely rounded. In the Indian forms vein 8 is absent in all but 
three genera, and in the females but not the males of three others. 
Hind wing more variable, but as a rule broadly oval ; in manv 
genera narrowed posteriorly or elongate, in others provided with 
one or more tails, which may be filamentous and comparatively 
short, or long and then generally of appreciable width. Vein 1 a 
present ; dorsal margin broad and more or less channeled to 
receive the abdomen ; precostal spur absent. Body in proportion 
to the expanse of wing stout and robust. Antennas not so 
variable in proportionate length as in the NympTialidce,\n the great 
majority of the forms stout and not remarkably long. Eyes naked 
in some genera, in others with a covering of short erect hairs. 
Legs six in number, all functional, used for walking, but the fore 
legs in the males " furnished with a "long exarticulate tarsus having 
several booklets at the tip, distinct from the ungues " ( Westwood). 

On the upperside the wings in this family are, as a rule, 
brillinntly coloured rich blues and purples of various shades and 
brown with blue markings are most common ; often these tints 



LYC^ENID^E. 283- 

have a splendid metallic lustre ; while greens and browns which in 
certain lights take on a metallic bronze or golden sheen are less 
common. The wings on the underside in a very large proportion 
of the genera are protectively coloured with dull shades and 
mottlings of purplish or reddish brown, ochraceous and dingy 
white, and as the vast majority of the forms in the Lyccmidce 
when at rest sit with their wings closed over their backs, their 
likeness to the dry and withered leaves and twigs in the under- 
growth and bushes which they affect is often startling. 

The vast number of forms contained in this family has made 
its partition, if possible, into groups more comprehensive than 
genera most desirable. Notwithstanding however, considerable 
diversity in colouring and in a lesser degree in the shape of the 
wings and the absence or presence of certain modifications of the 
termen of the hind wing which take the shape of small rounded 
projections or lobes or more or less attenuated prolongations, the 
so-called tails, the venation and structure of the Lyccenidce as a 
whole are very homogeneous, therefore the task of division into 
natural groups is by no means easy. 

Taking the more modern classifications we have the following : 

In 1884 Mr. "W. L. Distant, in his magnificent work ' Rhopa- 
locera Malayana,' proposed a division of the established genera 
into three groups or tribes founded primarily on the presence or 
absence of a tail or tails to the hind wings. " These ' tails,' 
however," as pertinently remarked by de Niceville *, " are some- 
times somewhat uncertain characters as genera occur in which 
obviously very closely related species differ inter se in the presence 
or absence of these delicate filamentous appendages ; in fact it 
would appear that the same species (e. g., Nacaduba ardates and 
Meyisba malaya) may have both tailed and tailless forms." 

In 1886 (' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' vol. Iv, 
p. 110) the late Mr. Doherty proposed to divide the Lyccenidce into 
six subfamilies on characters founded on the eggs, their shape and 
sculpture. To these divisions in a subsequent paper (/oc. cit. 
vol. Iviii, 1888, pp. 409, 410) he adds a seventh, but at the same 
time suggested the amalgamation of two of the subfamilies 
diagnosed in his earlier paper. It is obvious that a classification 
such as this, however scientifically accurate, is useless for all 
practical purposes both for workers in the field and in museums. 
To leave on one side the fact that no museum, so far as I know, 
possesses a collection of the eggs of butterflies, it is of common 
occurrence that the females of very many forms from which alone 
eggs might possibly be procured, are exceedingly scarce, while those of 
others, and that no inconsiderable number, are absolutely unknown. 

Mr. Scudder brought out his ' Butterflies of the Eastern United 
States and Canada' in 1889, but exhaustive and crammed with 
information as the work is, it deals with so very limited a fauna 
that it has not been found possible to successfully adapt the 
arrangement therein proposed to the much richer fauna repre- 
sented in British India. 



'Butterflies of India,' vol. iii, p. 13. 



284 IAXMX1D.T3. 

In the year succeeding the publication of Scudder's work the 
third volume of the 'Butterflies of India, Burma, and Ceylon,' by 
L. de Niceville appeared. I think very few of us who were then 
in India, glad and thankful as we were for the work, realized 
what a help it was or were properly grateful for it. In this work 
de Niceville has given a most exhaustive key to all the Indian 
genera of the Lyccenidce, but unfortunately he has only indicated 
by head lines the various groups that in his opinion were formed 
by certain genera, and gives no account of the characters that 
separated group from group. The key to the genera is naturally 
very long and is somewhat difficult to follow, but the groups are, 
in my opinion, to a Jarge extent natural, and I have, so far as it 
was possible, adapted them to the arrangement I propose below. 

The only important classification that has followed de Niceville's 
is that of Schatz and Rober (' Die Familien und G-attungen der 
Tagfalter,' 1892). In this work the Lyccenidce are divided into two 
subfamilies the Theclince-Lyccenidce and the Lepteninw. The 
former includes the whole of the Lyccenidce found in the Indo- 
Malayan, Eegion, and therefore, so far as the Indian fauna is 
concerned, no major divisions of the genera in the family are 
attempted by the learned authors. 

After a long and careful examination of the venation and 
structure in all the Indian genera of the Lyccenidce, I believe I 
have arrived at an arrangement that separates them into seven 
natural major groups or subfamilies, which are distinguishable one 
from the other by purely structural characters. This arrangement 
also accords to some extent with the divisions as proposed by 
Messrs. Doherty and de JViceville. The characters can be briefly 
tabulated as below. 

Key to the Subfamilies of the Lycaenida?. 

A. Legs abnormal ; either tibiae or tarsi peculiar or 

elongated Gerydince. 

B. Legs normal as described for the family. 

. Fore wing : veins 5 and 6 approximate at 

base, or out of 7 beyond apex of cell, 
a'. Fore wing : vein 11 anastomosed with 

vein 12 Poritiincv. 

V. Fore wing: vein 11 not anastomosed with 

vein 12 Arhopalince. 

/>. Fore wing : veins 5 and 6 not approximate 

at base. 

'. Fore wing : vein 7 terminating at or before 
apex of wing on costal margin. 

a-. Hind wing : without lobe Lyccenincp. 

lr. Hind wing : lobate or sublobate Theclino'. 

V. Fore wing: vein 7 terminating after apex 
^ of wing on terminal margin. 

a". Fore wing : vein 8 absent Curetince. 

6 2 . Fore wing : vein 8 present TAphyrinfp. 



LYC.ENID-E. 



285 




WU. 



Fig. 72. 



Subfani. Gerydiiue. 
,, Arhopalince. 



I a. Gerydus : fore wing venation 

Ib. fore leg 

II a. AiMypodm: fore wing venation, I 
lib. (5 J " 

III. Poritia : fore wing venation ,, 

IV a. Lyceena: fore wing venation 

IV b. hind (tailless section) . 

IV c. foreleg 

V. Lampides: hind wing (tailed section) 

VI a. Thecla : fore wing venation j 

VI b. hind wing sublobate L*1A 'n>*.li, 

VII a. Dcudorix : fore wing venation f ou 

VII b. hind wing lobate J 

VIII. Curetis'. fore wing venation Subfani. Ouretintc. 

IX. Liphyra'. fore wing venation ,, Lipliyrinx\ 



286 LYCJENI1XE. 

For the primary division it will be seen that I have chosen the 
form of the legs, organs that are functional and in one group, 
subfamily Gerydince, are peculiarly modified. For the subdivision 
of the very large number of the remaining genera, after separating 
the few that come under the Gerydince, the venation of the fore 
wing offers good characters. In all genera of butterflies there 
seems to be a more or less irregular, sometimes progressive, 
shifting of the veins of the fore wing upwards towards the costa 
and outwards towards the apex. In consequence of this movement 
certain veins become obsolete, and the first of these to disappear 
are the outer branches of the subcostal, i. e. veins 8 and 9. In the 
Indian genera of the Lyccenida?, the great majority of the forms 
have lost vein 8, in a few more genera vein 9 is also absent, and 
only (as has already been noted) in three genera are the full number 
of veins in the fore wing present in both sexes. Attempts to 
form natural major groups founded on the presence or absence of 
veins 8 and 9 in the fore wing failed. I turned, therefore, to the 
specialization and movement of the median system of veins in the 
same wing and found that though in most, if not all, the non- 
Gerydine forms, vein (5 had shifted upwards and was emitted close 
to the base of vein 7 at the upper apex of the discoidal cell, and 
that even in a few forms it had moved still further outwards and 
forked from vein 7 beyond the apex of the cell, still in a very 
large number vein 5 had retained its place and was emitted from 
the point of junction of the middle and lower discocellulars which 
were subequal in length ; while in a certain number of forms 
vein 5 had also moved upwards and originated close to the bases 
of veins 6 and 7. A critical examination of the two non-Gerydine 
groups thus formed showed that the division was a natural one, all 
those with veins 5 and 6 of the fore wing approximate can, by 
other characters and by a fades and style of colouring peculiarly 
their own, be separated from the members of the group in which 
vein 5 has retained its original place, and at base is not approximate 
to vein 6. The minor modifications of the venation in one group, 
and of the shape of the hind wing in the other, that redivide the 
two sections just mentioned each into two, have possibly less 
taxonomical value, but they have the advantage of not separating 
closely allied forms. In conclusion, I have been obliged to erect 
monotypic subdivisions for Curetis and Liphyra. The forms 
tinder these genera seem to me curiously isolated, not so much 
perhaps by the venation of the wings in the imago as by the 
remarkable abnormalities exhibited in their larval and pupal 
states. 

It is immaterial, I think, in what order the subfamilies are 
taken, but as a matter of convenience I have adopted, so 
far as is possible, the sequence and arrangement pursued by 
de Niccville. 



287 



Subfamily I. GERYDIN^. 



Egg. " Less than one-third high as wide, delicately and some- 
what obsolescently reticulate, so'.netimes carinate, flat above and 
below.'' (Dolierty.) 

Larva and Pupa. So far as I know no description of these has yet 
been published. 

Imago. Wings elongate, delicate and generally of a dull, sober 
coloration. Fore wing with eleven veins, vein 9 absent. Hind 
wing: all the veins present. Termen in both wings sometimes 
uneven and dentate. Antennae moderate, about half length of 
fore wing ; club gradual ; palpi rather long, with the third joint 
markedly so and slender. Body slender, abdomen proportionately 
rather long. Legs remarkablv abnormal ; the first joint of the 
tarsi elongate, in one genus flattened also ; another genus has the 
tibiae incrassate. The genitalia of the d 1 in the Grerydince, 
according to Doherty, are peculiar, distinguished by the " long thin 
plate-like prehensores resembling the valves of the Papiliouidae." 




Fig. 73. Allot hms harsfieldi, attending an Aphide. 

The habits of the members of this subfamily are alike. The 
females (at any rate of Gerydus and Allotinus, which I have closely 
observed in life) flutter about among low bushes and the under- 
growth at the edges of the forest. The males, on the contrary, 
sit erect on the upperside of the leaves at the extremity of some 
branch of a tree at no great height above the ground, and from 
these points of vantage make short, sharp, circling flights, 
returning to the same or neighbouring leaf and invariably sitting 
with their heads turned towards the open and not towards the 
tree. A remarkable habit in one member of this subfamily, viz. 
Allotinus horsfieldi *, has been communicated to me by Colonel H. 
3. W. Barrow, R.A.M.C. He writes : " I don't know whether you 

* Identified'from a drawing kindly sent to me by Colonel Barrow. 



288 lA'CJESIDJK. 

have observed the habits of a small plain butterfly which 1 caught 
in Maymyo. I watched it often in the jungle, sometimes for an 
hour at a time. It puzzled me at first to know why it took such 
an immense time to settle. It would keep within one yard of a 
spot and almost settle, twenty times perhaps, before it actually 
did. Its legs are immensely long, and I discovered why. It 
settles over a mass of Aphides and then tickles them with its 
proboscis, just as ants do with their antennae, and seems to feed 
on their exudations. I have not made the butterfly big enough 
nor the ant *, and its legs are not long enough. But it would 
settle calmly over largish ants and did not mind one or two 
actually standing up and examining its legs to see who was there. 
The ants did not attack it in any way." 

So far as I know this is the first recorded instance of butterflies 
being in attendance on Aphides as ants often are. 

The subfamily Gerydince contains three genera, the differences 
between w hich may be tabulated as below. 

Key to the Genera of the Gerydinae. 

A. Legs abnormally long ; tibiae of usual form. 
'. First joint of the tarsi elongate, compressed 

and flattened GERYDUS, p. 288. 

b'. First joint of the tarsi elongate, but not 

compressed, cylindrical ALLOTINUS, p. 290. 

Pi. Legs normal, short; tibiae outwardly incrassate. LOGANIA, p. 302. 

Genus GERYDUS. 

Gerydus, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lip. i, 1836, pi. 23, fig. 2 ; Distant, 
Rhop. Malm/. 1884, p. 205; de Nicevillc, Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 21. 

Miletus, pt., West-wood (nee Hubner) in Doubkday, Westwood $ 
Hewitson, Gen. Di. Lep. ii, 1852, p. 502. 

Type, G. symethus, Cramer, from the Malay Peninsula. 

Ranrje. The Indo-Malayan Eegion. 

<S $ . Fore wing : elongate, rather narrow ; costa widely arched ; 
apex acute, in c? at times slightly produced, in $ not produced ; 
termen convex, more so in the $ than in the J ; tornus in c? 
acute, slightly produced, in $ not so acute ; dorsum bisinuate. 
long, more than three-fourths the length of costa ; cell closed, 
but the discocellulars very slender and faintly marked ; vein 5 at 
base equidistant from veins 4 and 7 ; vein 6 from underside of 7 
beyond apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore absent; vein 8 
absent; vein 9 from middle of 7; vein 10 from subcostal, a little 
before apex of cell ; vein 11 from subcostal, at base closer to apex 
than to base of cell ; vein 12 terminates on costal margin opposite 
upper apex of cell. Hind wing : elongate, pear-shaped ; costa 
arched near base and apex, more or less straight in middle ; termen 
rounded, curved, in $ angulate at apex of vein 4 ; tornus rounded; 
dorsum nearly straight ; cell short, discocellulars more or less 
obsolescent ; vein G from 7 beyond apex of cell ; vein 8 long, 

* Col. Barrow refers to a sketch be sent me. 



GERYDUS. 28i 

strongly curved at base, thence bisinuate to termination at apex 
of wing. Antennae a little less than half length of fore wing, 
club slender, very gradual ; palpi slender, scaled, not fringed 
anteriorly, third joint long ; eyes naked ; thorax and abdomen 
elongate, <5 with a subanal tuft of stiff hairs ; legs abnormal, 
compressed, the first joint of the tarsi remarkably long, flattened 
and broad ; claws minute. Some forms of the genus have, in the 
males, a conspicuous sex-mark, that consists of a slight thickening 
of the basal portion of vein 4 on the upperside of the fore wing. 
Of the Indian forms the following have this sex-mark: 
G. symethus, G. ancon, G. boisduvali, G. longeana, G. biggsii, and 
G. irroratus. G. croton only is without it. 

Key to the forms of Gerydus. 

A. Upperside hind wing: a patch or broad 

streak beyond apex of cell white or whitish, 
conspicuously paler than ground-colour 
of wmg . G. symethus, p. 290. 

B. Upperside hind wing : ground-colour more 

uniform, no conspicuous white or pale 
patch or streak beyond apex of cell. 

a. Upperside fore wing : basal half white, 

suffused at base with dark or pale brown, 
with a longitudinal broad brown streak 
extended into the white area. 
'. The white area completely divided by 

the brown streak G. ancon, p. 291. 

V. The white area not completely divided 

by the brown streak G. lonyeana $ , p. 293. 

b. Upperside fore wing : basal half of some 

shade of brown, not white, 
o'. Upperside fore wing : with a more or 
less conspicuous discal oblique white 
fascia. 
a 2 . This fascia curved, interrupted and 

macular posteriorly. 
3 . Of comparatively large size, ex- 
panse over 40 mm G. croton, p. 294. 

i 3 . Smaller, expanse under 40 mm. 
<t l . c? $ Upperside fore wing : 
macular, discal white fascia 
narrow, lower spots composing 
it well separated ; basal area of 
wing not conspicuously paler 

than apical area G. boisduvali, p. 292. 

b 1 . c?. Upperside fore wing: ma- 
cular, discal white fascia broad, 
lower spots composing it not 
well separated; basal area of 
wing conspicuously paler than 

apical area G. lonyeana tf , p. 293. 

b 2 . Discal fascia not curved, not macular, 

straight, broadest in middle G. bit/gsti, p. 295. 

b'. Upperside fore wing : without a discal 
fascia, only a white spot beyond apex 

of cell G. irroratus, p. 295. 

VOL. II. U 



290 

<>62. Gerydus symethus, Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. ii, 1779, 
pi. 149, figs. B, C, ; Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i, 1836, pi. 23, figs. 
2 $ , 2 a, 2 b, tarsi of fore leg, <3 %\ de N. Butt, of Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 22. 

Symetha pandu, Horsf, Cut. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 1828, pi. 2, figs. 2, 
2 , c? ? , 2 6-2 ', structure of imago. 

c?. Upperside: dusky brownish-black. Fore wing : the ground- 
colour darker, almost pure black in fresh specimens, on the apical 
third of the wing; a short streak in the middle of interspace 1, a 
more outwardly produced similar streak in interspace 2, basal halves 
of interspaces 3 and 4, the lower apex of the discoidal cell and the 
extreme base of interspace 5, white, all forming a median con- 
spicuous irregular white patch on the wing, narrowly traversed 
by the veins which are greyish-brown. Hind wing : more uniform, 
slightly darker on its anterior half. Underside : light brown with 
an ochraceous tint. Fore wing : the median white patch as on 
the upperside but larger, its margins less clearly denned, continued 
posteriorly to the dorsal margin ; obscure catenulated, incomplete, 
transverse, white-margined narrow bands, two at base and two 
or three very short ones above the white median patch on the 
costal area ; from between the outer two of these latter a trans- 
verse, zigzag, very slender, somewhat obscure white line crosses 
the anterior portion of the wing to vein 4 ; lastly a pretornal 
quadrate brown spot near apex of interspace 1 a and an obscure 
subterminal transverse series of slightlv lunular small brown spots ; 
the ground-colour terminally paler and more ochraceous than on 
the inner portions of the wing. Hind wing: crossed by very 
obscure sinuous brown and white slender lines, that on the costal 
area form very short, obsolescent, catenulated narrow brown bands ; 
a subterminal series of brown slender lunules, sometimes obsolete. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen brown ; beneath : paler, the 
palpi and thorax more or less white. $ . Upperside. Fore wing : 
dark brown ; base shaded with greyish brown ; the white median 
patch as in the c?, but very much larger, its upper margin 
irregularly curved ; it is spread over the anterior two-thirds of 
the ceil, extends beyond it into the bases of interspaces 4, 5 and 6, 
and below the cell it occupies the basal four-fifths of interspaces 
1 and 2. Hind wing : costal margin broadly dark brownish ; 
wing posteriorly from below the subcostal vein and vein 6 a 
beautiful pale bluish-grey ; a broad whitish streak beyond the cell 
not reaching the termen. Underside, fore wing : the median 
white patch as on the upperside but larger, extending to the dorsal 
margin and base of cell ; base of wing, costal margin above the 
subcostal vein and conjoined upper discal obliquely-placed patch 
greyish brown ; apex of wing whitish, termen between veins 1 
and 6 broadly stained with rusty ; a conspicuous rusty pretornal 
spot ; some obscure white-margined spots at base of cell and along 
costa, and a trans verse subterminal series of black dots. Hind wing : 
pale ochraceous white, darkening to rusty brown towards the middle 
of the termen ; a subbasal, a median and a discal transverse 



GEBYDUS. 291 

incomplete macular brown band, each spot in the bands mai-gined on 
the inner and outer sides by slender black lines ; finally a subterminal 
transverse series of short slender black threads. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the cf . 

Easp. <$ $ 39-46 mm. (J -52-1-80*). 

Hob. Within our limits, Teuasserim. Recorded from Moulmein 
and the extreme south of Mergui. Occurs in Malacca ; Sumatra ; 
Java ; Amboina ; Sula ; Flores : New Guinea. 

A very variable insect, the tone of the ground-colour on the 
underside in some very dark, in others lighter and brighter ; the 
form of the markings does not vary, but in some specimens they 
are very distinctly defined. 

603. Gerydus ancon, Doherti/, J. A. & B. 1889, p. 438, pi. 23, fie. 8 ; 
de N. Butt, Ind. iii, 1890, p. 23. 

J. Upperside, fore wing: basal half or a little more, white, the 
outer half jet-black ; the white area encloses a broad, short, black 
central streak extended inwards to a dark greyish shading, super- 
posed on the white area at the base of the wing : outwardly the 
black streak extends slightly along vein 3 and touches the outer 
black area, the inner margin of which follows an oblique curve 
from the end of the basal third of the costa to vein 3, thence 
outwards for a short distance and sinuously downwards to the 
dorsal margin ; on this margin the black area covers about one- 
fourth of the length from the tornus to the base. Hind wing : 
greyish brown, darker towards the costal margin ; an obscure, 
broad, white medial streak beyond the apex of the cell not 
reaching the terminal margin. Underside, fore wing: base, costa, 
apex and terminal margin broadly earthy brown with a slight 
rusty tinge ; remainder of the wing white except a large earthy- 
brown somewhat diffuse patch below the cell at base of wing and 
a postdiscal oblique broad black band that extends from below the 
costa to vein 3 ; lastly a subterminal transverse line of minute 
black spots. Hind wing : ground-colour uniformly brown with a 
rusty tinge ; some obscure mottlings of darker brown on the basal 
area, a few scattered black subcostal spots and a short horizontal 
macular dark brown band that extends from vein 3 to just short 
of the dorsal margin. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen pale 
brown ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen ochraceous. 
$ . Upperside : similar to that of the c? , but the ground-colour on 
the hind wing very much darker and uniform ; on the fore wing 
the white area is similar to that in the c? , but is divided into two 
portions by a black patch which occupies the whole base of the wing 
aud extends in a broad black band along veins 2 and 3, coalescing 
with the external black area on the wing. Underside . similar to 
that of the <3 , but on the fore wing the ground-colour on the 
costa and terminal area darker brown with no rusty tint, but 
with a few obscure macular mottlings ; the patch at base of the 
wing is dark blackish brown and is extended along the vein and 
joins the oblique postdiscal short dark brown band. On the hind 



wing the ground-colour is paler brown without any rusty tint, 
but darkens posteriorly. Unlike the <f the wing is transversely 
crossed by broken catenulated bands of a darker brown than the 
ground-colour, these bands here and there margined on the inner 
side by very slender broken black lines and on the outer side by 
similar white lines. Antennje, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
the c? , but darker. 

Exp. rf $ 46 mm. (1'S"). 

Hob. So far recorded only from Tenasserim. 

The above description is drawn up from a single pair in the 
British Museum. It seems to be a rare form. 

664. Gerydus boisduvali, Moore (Miletus), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. i, 
1857 p 19 pi. 1 a, fur. 1 $; Ehoes (Miletus), Trans. Ent. Sac. 
Land. 1888, p. 374; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 24, pi. 26, 
fig. 155 $ . 

Miletus cliinensis, Felder, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xii, 1862, 
p. 488; id. Novara Reise, Lep. ii,"1865, p. 284, pi. 35, figs. 35, 36. 

cJ. Upperside: brown; apical half of fore wing very dark. 
Fore wing with a short, curved, discal white fascia, sometimes 
obsolescent and very variable in length. 
In some specimens it extends from just 
beyond the cell to vein 3, with or 
without an elongate white spot in con- 
tinuation of it in interspace 2 and 
another in interspace 1 ; in other indi- 
viduals it is longer and reaches vein 2, 
with or without a single elongate white 
Fi(r 74 spot in interspace 1. Hind wing : uni- 

a. GcrJus boisduvali. f r m, immaculate. Underside : slightly 
ft. Foreleg. shiny, silken brown, deepening to 

purplish brown towards the termen and 

on hind wing. Fore wing : a pale whitish, irregular, somewhat 
diffuse discal patch ; cell crossed by six very slender obscure sinuate 
white lines, that give the cell the appearance of being crossed by 
three short brown bands ; an irregular postdiscal sinuate transverse 
series of brown lunules of a shade slightly darker than the ground- 
colour, those on the anterior portion of the wing are very slender 
and thread-like, those posteriorly broad and formed into somewhat 
annular transverse spots, the lower spots cross the discal whitish 
area ; a subterminal series of black dots continued along the apical 
half of the costa. Hind wing: crossed by more or less obscure, 
catenulated, dark brown, interrupted bands that are margined on 
the inner and outer sides by short, thread-like, darker, sinuate 
lines ; a short, maculate, dark purple, transverse band from the 
middle of the dorsum to vein 4 ; and a subterminal series of minute 
black dots that is continued both subcostally and subdorsally to 
the base of the wing. $ . Similar to the c? , but the colour and 
markings both on the upper and under sides duller. On the 
upperside of the fore wing the white fascia is generally but not 




always broader. Ou the underside the purplish-brown gloss on 
the hind wing is restricted to a small area near the middle of the 
termen, the rest of the ground-colour of the wing is dull brown. 
The catenulated transverse bands on both fore and hind wings are 
however, more distinct. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
above and beneath in both sexes uniform dark brown. 

Exp. c? 2 34-38 mm. (1-36- 1-5"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Chittagong Hill-tracts ; Assam ; Upper and 
Lower Burma ; Teuasseriin ; extending to Java. 

605. Gerydus longeana, de Mceville, Join: Bomb. N. H. Soc. xii, 
1898, p. 141, pi. Z, figs. 15, 16, J ?. 

J . Upperside, fore wing : area inside of a discal white fascia pale 
brown ; discal fascia variable in breadth, curved, extended from 
within apex of cell obliquely outwards to the middle of inter- 
space 1, the veins traversing it brownish; rest of the wing uniform 
dark brown. Hind wing : very pale brown, darker along the 
costal margin. Underside : very pale brown, suffused with fer- 
ruginous in the middle of the terminal areas in both fore and 
hind wings. This rusty tint is very variable in different indi- 
viduals and in some specimens on opposite wings of the same 
individual. Markings generally very ill-defined and faint, but 
the annular transverse broken bands similar to those on the 
underside of the wings in G. boisducali medial white patch on 
fore wing large, extended to the dorsal margin. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen pale brown ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen slightly paler. $ . Some specimens exactly similar in 
ground-colour and markings to the <5 ; others have the basal two- 
thirds of the fore wing white, shaded with pale brown at the base 
and with a similarly -coloured longitudinal streak that is broadest 
in the middle, extended outwards from the base of the wing, but 
not attaining the dark brown apical area, the tint of which is as 
in the male. Hind wing : white, shaded with pale brown at 
base and with darker brown along the costal margin. Underside : 
much as in the d in both the dark and white forms. In the 
latter the ground-colour on both fore and hind wings is more 
ochraceous, and the annular markings and bands generally more 
distinctly defined. Head, thorax and abdomen paler than in the d . 
In the white form of the $ they are pale brownish white. 

Exp. d $ 36-41 mm. (1-43-1-62"). 

Nab. Upper Burma ; recorded so far only from the dry zone. 

In Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) xix, 1887, p. 266, Messrs. Distant 
and Pryer described Gerydus petronius from Northern Borneo, 
which the present form closely resembles, and with which it 
is possibly identical. Personally, I am very doubtful whether 
G. lonyeana is not merely a form of the common G. boisduvali, 
Moore, from a very drv locality. The figures in the Journal of 
the Bombay Natural History Society seem to me over-coloured. 
I have seen no specimen with the rich red tinge on the termen of 
the wings on the underside as shown in the plate. 



294 LYC&NID./E. 

066. Gerydus croton, Doherty, J. A. S. B. 1889, p. 4 
de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 25. 

S . Upperside : rich dark brown. Fore wing : a narrow very 
oblique discal macular streak white, extending from just beyond 
lower apex of cell to just above the tornal angle, the lower two of 
the spots that compose it small, widely separated and sometimes 
obsolescent. Hind wing : immaculate. Underside : paler brown, 
in some specimens darker, in others with a purplish gloss espe- 
cially on the hind wing. Fore wing : the discal band as on the 
upperside but broader, more distinctly defined, and varying from 
white to pale ochraceous ; the area below it and up to the base of 
the wing very dark brown ; some obscure annular markings along 
the costal and on the apical areas. Hind wing : crossed by a 
basal, subbasal, prediscal, discal and postdiscal annular bands, 
always obscure and more or less broken and interrupted, the 
edges of the bands darker than the ground-colour of the wing. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown ; beneath : the 
palpi, thorax and abdomen slightly paler brown. $ . Upperside : 
similar, the basal half of the fore and the whole surface of the 
hind wings much paler than the apical half of the fore wing ; 
the dark and light brown shades on this wing divided by an 
oblique white macular streak as in the <3 , only much broader, 
with its upper end extended through apex of cell almost to the 
costa, and the two spots at its lower end lai'ger, always clearly 
defined. Underside : pale ochraceous brown. Fore wing : the 
white streak on the upperside replaced by a large white medial 
patch extended to the middle of the dorsum, the outer edge 
irregularly festooned and its centre occupied by a very dark, 
broad, fuscous streak, that extends outwards from the base of the 
wing but does not attain the brown on the apical area; costa. 
and apical areas with the appearance of obscure dark-edged 
annular markings. Hind wing : crossed by similar annular 
markings that are always interrupted and broken. Both fore 
and hind wings with a subterminal line of minute black dots. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen coloured like those of the 
male, but generally paler. 

Exp. <5 2 43-50 mm. (1 -70-1-98"). 

Hob. So far recorded only from Tenasserim and Upper Burma. 

I am in doubt whether this is not a large form of G. boisduvali 
from well-fed larvae that pupate and come to maturity during the 
rainy season ; but in the .lour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xii, 1898, 
at p. 142, the late Mr. de Kiceville stated that the males of 
G. boisduvali had, and the males of G. o-oton had not, the sex- 
mark peculiar to Gerydus. This is so in the few specimens of 
the males of the two forms that I have had an opportunity of 
examining, arid may serve further to distinguish small males 
of croton from large males of boisduvcdi. 



GERYDUS. 295 

667. Gerydus biggsii, Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1884, p. 206, pi. 22, 

fig. 12 $ ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 24. 

d" . Upperside : dark brown. Fore wing : base up to a broad 
obliquely-placed white fascia that crosses the wing paler brown ; 
the fascia extends unbroken from the costa to just above the 
tornal angle and is broadest in the middle. Hind wing: uniform, 
immaculate. Underside: greyish brown. Fore wing: with a large, 
medial, anteriorly somewhat rounded, white patch, that extends to 
the dorsal margin ; base, cell and costal margin with some trans- 
verse annular markings more clearly denned than in G. boisduvali ; 
an anterior, postdiscal, transverse series of slender dark lunules 
and a subterminal series of black spots. Hind wing : ground- 
colour with a purplish gloss ; basal, subbasal, discal and postdiscai 
transverse annular curved bands more or less obscure and incom- 
plete, followed by a subterminal series of black dots. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen brown ; beneath : the palpi, head, 
thorax and abdomen slightly paler. 5 . Very closely resembles 
the cT both on the upper and under sides, but the oblique discal 
white fascia on the fore wing above is distinctly narrower, and on 
the underside the ground-colour is paler than in the tf ; the trans- 
verse annular markings on both fore and hiud wings much more 
clearly denned. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
the d. 

Exp. rf ? 38-41 mm. (1-52-1-62"). 

Hob. Lower Burma ; Tenasserim ; Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra. 

A very distinct form that does not seem to vary much. 

668. Gerydus irroratus, Druce (Miletus), P.Z.S. 1874, p. 106. 
Gerydus stygianus, Sutler, A. M. N. H. (5) xiii, 1884, p. 194. 
Gerydus irroratus, var. assamensis, Uoherty, J. A. S. B. 1891, 

p. 37, pi. 1, fig. 7. 

?c?. Upperside : fuliginous brown. Fore wing: a comparatively 
large, oval, pale or whitish spot surrounding the base of vein 4, but 
not entering the cell. Hind wing : uniForm, immaculate. Under- 
side : pale greyish-brown. Fore wing : ccsta, cell and basal area 
anteriorly with very obscure, transverse, annular markings ; the 
basal area posteriorly with a dusky diffuse patch, bordered ex- 
teriorly by a very ill-defined, pale, brownish-white cloud ; a post- 
discal, somewhat obscure, very slender lunular white line and some 
subterminal black dots. Hind wing : with transverse, annular, 
broad, brown, curved bands showing distinctly on the paler 
ground-colour ; a subterminal transverse series of black dots. 
Antenna?, bead, thorax and abdomen brown ; beneath : the palpi, 
head, thorax and abdomen paler. 

Exp. J 41 mm. (1-62"). 

Hob. Described originally from Siam. Procured by Mr. Doherty 
within our limits in Assam : Dhansiri Valley ; Naga Hills. Ter- 
nate ; Amboina. 

Notwithstanding that Siam and Ternate and Amboina are such 



296 LYOJENIDJE. 

widely-separated localities, I believe G. stygianus, Butler, = G. irro- 
ratus, Druce, = G. irroratus var. assamensis, Doherty. The type 
of stygianus is in the collection of the British Museum and agrees 
absolutely both with the too short description of irroratus by 
Druce, and with the figure of var. assamensis, Doherty, in the 
Jour. Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Genus ALLOTINUS. 

Allotinus, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 285 ; de Niceville, 

Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 27. 
Paragerydus, Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1884-1886, pp. 207 & 451 ; 

de Niceville, Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 25. 

Type, A. unicolor, Felder, from the Malayan Subregion. 

Hange. The Indo-Malayan Region. 

6 ?. Tore wing*: somewhat narrow and elongate ; costa widely 
arched ; apex acute in d , more rounded in the $ ; termeii 
straight or slightly convex ; tornus bluntly angulate ; dorsum 
straight ; cell about half length of wing ; vein 6 from basal third 
of 7 beyond apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore absent, 
middle and lower discocellulars subequal ; vein 8 absent, 9 out of 
7 not far from apex of wing, 10 from upper apex of cell, 11 from 
apical half of subcostal. Hind wing* : elongate, oval ; costa and 
dorsum long, very slightly arched ; termen regularly curved, 
minutely dentate ; apex and tornus not well-marked. Antennae 
long, longer than half length of fore wing, club gradual ; palpi 
erect, slender, third joint long, aciculate ; eyes naked ; body long 
and slender, especially in the <5 ; legs very long and slender, the 
first joint of the tarsi remarkably so, but not flattened as it is in 
Gerydus. <$ without secondary sex-marks. 

Key to the forms of Allotiuus. 

a. Fore wing: apex acutely and very narrowly 

produced ; termen conspicuously dentate, 
tornus acutely produced and curved 
downwards, dorsum Insinuate A. dnnnila, p. 297. 

b. Fore wing : acute in rf but not produced, 

generally blunt in $ ; termen not den- 
tate or very slightly dentate, tornus 
^ bluntly angulate, dorsum straight. 
a'. Fore wing upperside : with a curved 
more or less ill-defined white discal 

fascia A. multintn'ffatus, p. 298. 

b' . Fore wing upperside : with a more or less 
ill-defined elongate oval spot or broad, 
short, straight discal streak. 
n-. This spot or streak comparatively 
narrow and small, dull white or 
brownish white A. lorffMdi, p. 299. 

* A. drumila, Moore, a remarkable and very aberrant form, has the outline 
of the wings somewhat different. 



ALLOTIXUS. 297 

// 2 . This spot or streak very broad, tinged 

with blue A. subviolaceus, p. 300. 

<:' . Fore wing upperside : uniform brown 

without a discal streak. 
-. Fore wing underside : apex broadly 
suffused with brown, not con- 
colorous with rest of wing. Exp. 

over 30 mm A. tarn*, p. 300. 

b~. Fore wing underside: apex not suffused 
with brown, coucolorous with rest 
of wing. 

d'\ Fore and hind wings underside 
c? $ with a distinct anticiliary 
comparatively broad brown line. 
5 . Hind wing produced at apex 
of vein 4 into a well-marked 
triangular tooth. Exp. <$ $ 34- 

38 mm A. panormis, p. 301. 

It :! . Fore and hind wings underside : 
J $ without an anticiliary line. 
5 . Hind wing not produced at 
apex of vein 4. Exp. 23-28 mm. A. nivalls, p. 301. 

6G9. Allotinus drumila, Moore (Miletus), P. Z. S. 1865, p. 777, pi. 41 

fig. 12 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 28. 
Miletus insignis, Staudinger, Ex. Schmett. p. 269, pi. 94, $ non tf . 

c? Upperside : earthy brown. Fore wing : costa at base and a 
broad outward discal streak from beyond apex of cell curved 
downwards towards but not reaching 
the tornal angle, dull white, diffuse 
at the edges ; apex and termen 
broadly very dark blackish-brown. 
Hind wing : costal margin above the 
subcostal vein and in a line with it 
up to the termeri similarly very dark 
blackish-brown, the rest of the brown 
colour uniform without any white. 
F . ,., 6 Underside, fore wing : dull pale brown, 

a. Allotinus dntmila. costal margin and disc mottled with 

b. Fore leg. small catenulated spots of dark brown ; 

cell with three short transverse bars 

of dark brown, the middle bar extended below the cell but not 
reaching the dorsum ; a white curved discal band as on the 
upperside, but obscure, diffuse and ill-defined, merged with a 
pale area along the middle of the dorsum ; termen broadly mar- 
gined with dark rusty brown that has more or less of a mottled 
appearance. Hind wing : dull pale brown thickly mottled 
with catenulated spots and strigaj of dark rusty brown ; catenu- 
lated, somewhat broken, transverse irregular bands of the latter 
colour cross the base, middle and apex of the cell ; a similar 
short band is placed at right angles to the dorsal margin and 
curving slightly upwards terminates at vein 3. Antennae dark 




298 LYCJENID;E. 

brown ; head, thorax and abdomen rusty brown ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen narrowly whitish. $ . Upperside : 
white. Fore wing : apical, terminal and tornal areas black, the 
inner margin of the black commences just before the middle of 
the costa, and runs obliquely outward in a sinuous curve to base 
of the apical fourth of vein 2, thence it is produced for a short 
distance inwardly along that vein and terminates at the middle 
of the dorsal margin. Hind wing : a broad black stripe along 
the costal margin ; the termen somewhat narrowly pale yellowish- 
brown. Underside : white, the markings somewhat variable. 
Fore wing : costa, apex and termen with minute earthy-brown 
speckles, sparse along the costa, more dense on the termen ; on 
the latter they coalesce "and form a brown smudgy border that is 
bounded on the inner side by a curved, postdiscal, more or less 
clearly defined, narrow, yellowish-brown band ; cell crossed trans- 
versely by a basal, a medial and an apical short similar band; 
the medial band darkened in colour and continued almost to the 
dorsum, the apical band along the discocellulars. Hind wing : 
with minute brown speckles, more or less lightly and irregularly 
stained with rusty brown ; basal half with obscure, transverse, 
narrow, macular, earthy-brown bands that are well-defined only 
anteriorly, the basal one produced up to the dorsum ; a short 
dark-edged transverse band from the tornus to vein 4 running 
parallel to the costal margin, the lower edge of the band acutely 
and irregularly dentate ; the terminal and tornal areas below this 
band washed with earthy brown. Antenna?, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the rf but very much paler. 

Exp. <j 2 45-52 mm. (1-75-2-20"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the hills of Assam. 

G70. Allotinus multistrigatus, de Niceville, J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 253, 
pi. 11, figs. 11 & 2, rf $ ; Shoes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 373 ; 
ile N. Butt. Intl. Hi, 1890, p. 29, pi. 26, figs. 157, 158, rf $ . 

c? . Upperside : dark brown. Fore wing : a broad, medial, pale 
curved patch. Hind wing : immaculate. Underside : paler, duller 
brown ; markings on both fore and hind wings a darker brown, 
nearly all very slenderly encircled or edged with dull white. 
Fore wing : anterior half very closely, the lower disc more 
sparsely sprinkled with dark brown spots and specks that vary 
very much in size ; cell with a basal, a medial and an apical short 
transverse dark brown band ; a postdiscal similar but more irregular 
band made up of detached spots ; the dorsal margin broadly paler 
and nearly free of the dark brown specks and spots; finally 
a terminal obscure series of dnrk brown lunules. Hind wing*: 
minute dark brown specks and spots similar to those on the fore 
wing, three basal detached spots in transverse row ; a medial 
macular dark brown band that crosses the cell and is continued 
to the dorsum ; a large dark brown spot at apex of cell with a 
similar spot above that touches the costa, and another below it at 
base of interspace 3 ; a broad, curved, macular, discal dark brown 



ALLOTINUS. 299 

band, its uppermost spot well-detached, the others confluent ; lastly 
the termen shaded with dark brown. Antenna?, head, thorax and 
abdomen dark brown ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
paler. $ differs from the c? as follows: Upperside, fore wing : 
a conspicuous broad, very oblique medial band that consists ot : 
a large, white, somewhat irregularly-shaped spot beyond apex 
of cell and two spots placed obliquely outwards en echelon below 
it. Underside: the dark brown markings on the pale brown 
ground-colour similar in shape and character but far more clearly 
defined and prominent, the slender white edgings to the minute 
spots and specks very conspicuous. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the J 

Exp. <? $ 50-53 mm. (1-98-2-10"). 

Bab. TheJHimalayas from Kumaon to Bhutan at low elevations ; 
the hills of Assam ; the Chittagoug Hill-tracts. 

671. Allotinus horsfieldi, Moore (Miletus), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 
i, 1857, p. 19, pi. la, fig. 2 rf ; Distant (Paragerydus), Rhop. 
Malay. 1884, p. 207, pi. 20, tig. 7 $ ; de N. (Paragerydus) Butt. 
Ind. iii, 1890, p. 26, pi. 26, fig. 156 <$ . 

3 . Upperside : brown. Fore wing : an elongate oval pale patch 
beyond apex of cell. Hind wing : uniform, immaculate. Under- 
side : dull white. Both fore and hind wings with numerous short, 
slender, transverse strigaB and minute dots, brown. Fore wing : 
dorsal area near base below the cell but not further outwards more 
or less free of spots and strigse ; a narrow brown transverse spot 
across cell near the base, another across the middle, and a third at 
the apex of the same ; a postdiscal, sinuate, irregular, macular, 
transverse, broad brownish line followed by a subterminal series 
of similarly- coloured minute spots. Hind wing : two or three 
very broken similar transverse broad curved lines, sometimes 
clearly marked and the detached portions indicating a definite 
band, in other specimens very irregular and out of line with one 
another ; this is followed by a subterminal series of minute brown 
dots as on the fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen con- 
colorous with the wings ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
more or less speckled with whitish. $ . Similar, but in all speci- 
mens I have seen invariably smaller. Upperside : ground-colour 
of the same brown shade as in the d , the pale postcellular patch 
on fore wing replaced by a diffuse medial patch that spreads into 
the cell. Hind wing : as in the d 1 . Underside : also similar in 
ground-colour and markings to that of the d , but the markings 
broader, more clearly defined, and less macular. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the d 

Evp. d $ 28-48 mm. (M2-1-92"). 

Hob. Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra ; 
Java : Borneo. 

The markings on the underside are extremely variable, no two 
specimens being alike. Two females from Eangoon have the post- 
discal transverse macular markings on the underside very like the 
same markings in the forms of the genus Cyaniris. 



300 Ll'C^ENIDJE. 

672. Allotinus subviolaceus, FeUler, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1866 

p. 286, pi. 35, tigs. 27, 28. 

Allotinus alkamah, Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1886, p. 452, pi. 44 
fig. 3 d"; de N. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 30. 

c? . Upperside : brownish black. Fore wing : a medial area from 
base broadening outwards and extended to a little past the apex of 
cell, violaceous. This pale area varies very much in width and 
extent. In typical specimens from Java it is most restricted, but 
in those from the Malay Peninsula and Tenasserim (allcamah, 
Distant) it occupies a much larger extent of the wing. Hind 
wing : a broad medial longitudinal violaceous streak not extended 
to the termen. Underside: pale brownish white with darker 
specks, spots and transverse striae. These markings on both fore 
and hind wings tend to coalesce and form broken transverse bands, 
the detached portions of each band placed more or less en echelon 
one with the other. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen pale 
brown ; beneath : the palpi almost white, the thorax and abdomen 
paler than on the upperside. $ . Upperside : similar to that of 
the d 1 , but the violaceous area on both fore and hind wings of 
much greater extent. Underside : also similar to that of the c? 
but the ground-colour brighter with a tinge of yellow ; the 
markings more ochraceous than brown, more conspicuous and 
prominent. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? 
but paler. 

Exp. <$ $ 34-40 mm. (1-36-1-56 '). 

Hab. Within our limits found in Lower Burma and Tenasserim ; 
extending through the Malayan Subregion to Java. 



673. Allotinus taras, Doherty, J. A. S. B. 1889, p. 437, pi. 23, 
fig. 10 J; de N. (Paragerydus) Butt. Ind, iii, 1890, p. 27. 

<S . Upperside : similar to that in A.horsfieldi but uniform, with 
no pale elongate patch beyond apex of cell. Underside : dull 
white. Fore wing : the apex and termen anteriorly shaded with 
brown, the basal two-thirds with transverse brown spots and 
strigae, the former varying much in size, some only minute specks; 
the dorsal margin to some extent nearly free of these brown 
specks, spots and strigae. Hind wing: no brown shading, but 
similar transverse markings of brown specks, spots and strigaj; 
a very obscure and incomplete, subbasal, very narrow, transverse 
brown band, followed by a discal /igzag similar band much broken 
anteriorly. Antenna3, head, thorax and abdomen brown ; the 
palpi, thorax and abdomen speckled with white. $ . Similar in 
ground-colour and markings to the tf , but differs as follows : a 
pale diffuse patch on the upperside of the fore wing from base, but 
not extended above the posterior half of the cell above, or out- 
wards to the terminal margin. Underside : the broad immaculate 
margin to the dorsum of the fore wing broader and whiter than in 
the c? , and in all specimens that I have seen both fore and hind 



ALLOTINUS. 301 

wings with a well-defined subterminal series o dark brown spots. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the J . 

Exp. 6 $ 33-38 mm. (1-29-1-50"). 

Hob. Eecorded so far only from Tenasserim and the Chittagong 
Hill-tracts. 



074. Allotinus panormis, Ehves (Doherty MS.), P. Z. S. 1892, p. 619, 
pl. 43, figs. 8, 9, rf ? . 

cJ $ . Very close to A. nivalis, Druce. <S . Uppersi.de : uniform 
dark brown ; cilia of both fore and hind wings paler browu, shading 
outwardly into whitish brown. Underside : white, with nume- 
rous short transverse brown strigae and minute spots, which are 
absent, however, along the basal two-thirds of the dorsal margin ; 
terminal margin of both fore and hind wings with a narrow anti- 
ciliary brown line. Fore wing : cell with short basal, medial and 
apical, slightly sinuate, transverse brown bars, beyond which is a 
complete bisinuate discal series of lunules of the same colour, 
followed by a subterminal series of white, somewhat triangular, 
small spots, edged or centred with black. Hind wing : a trans- 
verse basal, curved, interrupted series of lunules, a broader lunule 
at apex of cell, and a discal transverse series of lunules, all 
similar in colour and shape to those on the fore wing : the sub- 
terminal line of white black-centred small spots also as in the fore 
wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen dull white tinged with brownish. 
$ . Similar, with similar markings, but, according to the figure on 
the plate accompanying Mr. Elwes' paper *, with the termen of 
the hind wing subdentate and acutely triangular, produced at apex 
of vein 4. 

. d 34, "$> 36" mm. (1 -33-1-5"). 

Recorded within our limits from the Karen Hills ; Burma ; 
Malay Peninsula ; Perak ; Diugding Island. 



Exp. 
Hob. 



675. Allotinus nivalis, Druce (Miletus), P. Z. S. 1873, p. 348; 
Distant (Paragerydus), Rhop. Malay. 1884, p. 207, pl. 22, 
fig. 11 ; de N. Butt.Ind. iii, 1890, p. 30, pl. 26, fig. 159 $ . 
Logania substrigosa, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 22. 

S Upperside : dark brown. Fore and hind wings uniform, 
immaculate. Underside : white. Fore and hind wings with 
minute specks and short, very slender, transverse striae, pale brown. 
In addition, the following similarly- coloured larger spots and 
transverse markings : Fore wing : cell crossed by three obscure 
transverse short narrow bands, the medial band sometimes pro- 
duced posteriorly, but in no specimen that I have seen extended 



* I have not had an opportunity of examining a $ . 



302 LYC.ENID.E. 

to the dorsal margin ; beyond apex of cell is another pale 
brown, twice-interrupted, discal similar transverse band, and 
beyond that a subterminal transverse line of dark spots. Hind 
wing : a conspicuous dark subcostal spot and some obscure short 
transverse detached brown bands ; a subterminal row of black 
spots as on the fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
brown, the antennae darker towards their apices ; beneath : the 
palpi, thorax and abdomen much paler. $ . Upperside : similar 
to that of the J , but in all specimens that I have seen darker, 
with the apex of the fore wing of a deeper brown tint. Under- 
side : also similar to that of the <$ , the markings more ochraceous 
than brown, the fore wing at apex and along termen more or less 
faintly suffused with brown. 

Exp. cf $ 23-28 mm. (O'90-l'lO"). 

Hab. Tenasserim : Thaungyin Valley ; Dawnat Range ; Ye 
Valley ; southwards to Mergui ; extending to Malacca and Borneo. 



Genus LOOANIA. 

Logania, Distant, Rliop. Malay. 1884, p. 208, woodcut, posterior leg 

of L. malayica ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, p. 31. 
Malais, Doherty, J. A. S. B. 1889, p. 436. 

Type, L. malayica, Distant, from Malacca. 

Range. Burma ; Tenasserim ; Malacca ; Sumatra ; Borneo. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa arched ; apex angulate but not pro- 
duced ; termen just below apex concave, then strongly convex to 
tornus, acutely but not broadly dentate; tornus more or less 
obtuse; dorsum straight, about seven-eighths the length of the 
costa ; cell about half length of wing ; vein 6 out of 7 from beyond 
apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore wanting, middle and 
lower straight, erect ; vein 8 absent, vein 9 out of 7 from apical 
third ; veins 10 and 11 free, from apical half of subcostal. Hind 
wing : elongate pear-shaped ; costa long and nearly straight ; termen 
strongly curved and acutely denticulate ; dorsum straight, a third 
shorter than the costa ; cell broad at apex, about half length of 
wing ; vein 7 from just before apex of cell ; vein 8 long, termi- 
nating at apex of wing. Antennae half length of fore wing, club 
gradual ; palpi hairy, long, third joint very slender : legs : tibiae 
incrassate ; first joint of tarsi cylindrical, elongate as in Allotinus. 

Key to the forms of Logania. 



<t. Upperside fore -wing: basal bluish-white 

area extended from costa to dorsum ; 

underside hind wing : with obscure trans- 

verse dark brown bands ................ L. marmorata, p. 303. 

-6. Upperside fore wing : basal bluish-white 

area more restricted, not extended quite to 

costa nor dorsum ; underside hind wing : 



only mottled with brown, with no trace of 

transverse bands L. watsoniana, p. 303. 

c. Upperside fore wing : without basal bluish- 
white area ; disc with a large dull whitish 
spot L. massalia, p. 304. 

076. Logania marmorata, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 22; id. Jour. 
Linn. Soc. xxi, 1886, p. 39, pi. 3, fig. 7 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 33, frontispiece fig. 128. 

6 . Upperside : brownish black. Fore wing : basal half violaceous, 
the outer margin of this colour extending in a curve from the 
middle of the costal margin to the dorsutn, about one-fourth of the 
length of the latter from the tornal angle. Hind wing : the basal 
and discal areas paler violaceous, this colour not extended above the 
middle of the cell anteriorly nor to the dorsal margin posteriorly, 
towards the termen it stops well short of the margin. Underside : 
white, heavily and somewhat irregularly mottled with dusky black. 
On the fore wing these mottlings are most dense subterminally, 
and form an obscure transverse band : on the hind wing they 
coalesce and form very obscure basal, medial, discal and sub- 
terminal bands, the three former distinct only near the costa, the 
subterminal band in the middle. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen pale brownish-white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen still paler, almost white. 

Exp. J 25 mm. (0-98"). 

Hal. Eecorded so far only from Tenasserim. 

The above description is drawn up from a single specimen now 
in the British Museum, procured by myself in the Haungtharaw 
Valley in Tenasserim. I have not seen a $ , and neither Moore 
nor de Niccville give the sex of the types, which were procured in 
Mergui and are now in the Indian Museum. 

G77. Logania watsoniana, de Nicevilk, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xii, 
1898, p. 143, pi. Z, figs. 17, 18, rf $ . 

<S . Upperside : white. Fore wing : apex and termen very broadly 
brownish black, the inner margin of the black area angulated 
outwards in the middle of interspace 3, the basal third of the wing 
suffused with very pale greyish-blue, the costal and dorsal margins 
up to the black area sullied with pale brownish. Hind wing : the 
costal area from base to termen in a line above the cell brownish 
black, the white on the posterior half of the wing more or less 
stained and sullied with brownish. Underside : white. Fore 
wing : costa and apex mottled with brownish, termen broadly 
brownish black, cell from base with a broad diffuse fuscous patch 
that extends below the median vein and outwards on to the disc. 
Hind wing : densely and more or less uniformly mottled with 
fuscous brownish-black. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
fuscous brown above and beneath. $ . Upperside : similar to that of 



304 LYCJF.NIDJ;. 

the cf , but differs as follows : Fore wing : base outwardly to beyond 
the cell strongly suffused with bluish grey, only the upper apex of 
the white area with the ground-colour distinctly showing through ; 
apex and termen more broadly and more densely black. Hind 
wing: entirely bluish grey, the costal margin broadly irrorated 
with dusky scales. Underside : as in the J , but the costa, apex 
and termen broadly in the fore wing, as well as the whole surface 
of the hind wing, mottled with brownish ; the scaling of this coloiTr 
forms irregular spots and patches especially on the hind wing, 
which has a blotched appearance compared \vith the same wing in 
the cf The basal fuscous cloud extends into the medial white 
area in the fore wing as in the d . Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen similar to those of the d" - 

Exp. 6 2 30-32 mm. (1-20-1-28"). 

Hob. Eecorded so far only from the Northern Shan States, 
Upper Burma. 

678. Logania massalia, DoJterfy, J. A. S. B. 1891, p. 37, pi. 1, fig. 8 $ ; 
Ehccs, P. Z. S. 1892, p. 620. 

c? . Upperside : dark brown. Fore wing : a medial dull whitish 
spot at base of interspace 3 extended upwards on to vein 4 
and below into interspace 2. Hind wing : uniform, immaculate. 
Underside : very pale dull brown, with darker brown mottlings 
and striae, that on the fore wing are absent on a broad streak from 
base outwards along the basal half of the dorsum, this area pale 
brown without markings ; a dark obscure spot at apex of cell and 
an incomplete similarly obscure dark transverse discal band. On 
the hind wing the mottlings coalesce and form three or four very ill- 
defined, obscure, transverse, somewhat broad bauds. The antennae 
in the only specimen of the J that I have seen were wanting; 
head, thorax and abdomen dark brown. Sex-mark : the base of 
vein 4 swollen and bare of scales. $ . " Above black, a round dull 
white discal area on the fore wing from just above the upper 
median (vein 4) almost to the submedian vein (vein 1). Below 
irregularly speckled and variegated ; fore wing with the costal 
and apical parts ochreous brown, the rest blackish. Hind wing 
also tinged with ochreous, a submarginal dark area, and obscure 
dark transverse bands. Hind wing not angled, the margin entire." 
(Doherty.) 

Exp. rf 30 mm. (1-2*). 

Hob. Assam : Margherita ; Shillong. 

The type, which is a $ and now in Mr. Elwes' collection, is in 
bad condition. I prefer, therefore, to quote Mr. Doherty's 
original description. The description of the <3 is taken from a 
specimen in my own collection. 



305 



Subfamily II. LYC^NIN^E. 

Egg. " Less than half as high as wide, concave above, widest 
above the middle ; reticulations coarse *and asymmetrical." 
(Doherty.) 

Larva. Of the slug-like shape peculiar to the family Lyccenidce ; 
tegumeu rough, finely wrinkled, minutely tuberculate, or hairy. 
Colour generally green, the back marked with darker colours, 
sometimes pink. The larvae of several forms are known to be 
carnivorous. 

Papa. Short and thick, as a rule finely hairy. 

Imago. Variable in size, but none very large. This subfamily 
contains some of the smallest butterflies in the world, the male 
of Zizera gaika is only 15| mm. ; that of Chilades trochilus 
still smaller. Colouring on the upperside generally blue or 
purple, many very beautifully metallic or shining. A few are 
dull-coloured, dark or pale brown. Venation of the wings and 
general structure very similar in all the forms, making it difficult 
of division into good and easily recognizable genera. The margins 
of the wings are invariably entire ; in no Indian form are they 
dentate, scolloped, or irregular ; the hind wings in a very large 
number are tailed close to the tornal angle ; this appendage is 
short and filamentous, never in this subfamily either long or of 
appreciable width ; lornal area of the hind wings never lobate, 
sublobate, or toothed, as in the Arhopalince and Thedince, from 
the former of which it is further distinguished by the difference in 
venation of the fore wing. 

The key to the genera, subjoined below, is more or less artificial, 
and is intended as a guide only in the difficult work of identifica- 
tion. The sequence of the genera (not in the key but in the 
succeeding text) is 7iearly as possible that followed by de Niceville 
in the ' Butterflies of India.' 

Key to the Genera of the Lycsenina3. 

A. Hind wing : without tails. 

a. Fore wing : vein 11 anastomosed with 

vein 12. 
a'. Hind wing: costa arched. 

a 2 . Underside fore and hind wings : with 
terminal markings, and on latter wing 
costal and dorsal markings also, but 

no discal markings PITHECOPS, p. 307. 

b' 2 . Underside fore and hind wings : with 
some discal markings always present. 

a 3 . Eyes smooth ZIZERA, p. 355. 

b 3 . Eyes hairy AZANCS p. 361. 

//. Hind wing : costa straight or slightly [p. 368. 

concave OKTHOMIEI.LA, 



306 



LYC^NID^E. 



b. Fore wing : vein 11 not anastomosed Avith 
vein 12. 

a'. Fore wing : veins 8 and 9 absent NEOLYCJENA, p. 353. 

V. Fore wing : vein 8 absent, vein 9 present. 
a 2 . Upperside: brown with never any blue 

or purple colouring. ( 

a 3 . Underside fore and hind wings : with 
terminal, and on latter wing with 
costal and dorsal markings also ; no 

discal markings NEOPITHECOPS, 

b 3 . Underside fore and hind wings: with [p. 309. 

discal markings. 
*. Antennas gradually thickened at 

apex, no distinct club. 

a 5 . Underside fore and hind wings : 

with numerous transverse 

brown strigae, not spots. Tibiae 

of fore legs not remarkably 

thick SPALGIS, p. 310. 

b s . Underside fore and hind wings : 

with numerous rounded dark 

spots, not strigae. Tibiae of 

fore legs remarkably thick. . . . 

b\ Antennae with a distinct spatulate 

club MEGISBA (tailless 

ft 2 . Upperside : with blue or purple form), p. 313. 

colouring. 

a 3 . Fore wing : veins 6 and 7 well sepa- 
rated at base. 

a 4 . Hind wing : veins 3 and 4 closely 
approximate at base, emitted from 

lower apex of cell CHILADES, p. 364. 

6*. Hind wing: veins 3 and 4 well 
separated at base, vein 3 emitted 
from before, 4 from lower apex 

of cell LYC^NA, p. 334. 

b*. Fore wing: veins 6 and 7 closely 

approximate at base, 
n*. Antennae comparatively short, 

about half length of fore wing. 

Underside markings slight and 

delicate CYANIRIS, p. 315. 

b*. Antennae compai'atively long, well 
over half length of fore wing. 
Underside markings coarse and 

large NIPHANDA, p. 370. 

B. Hind wing : with one or more short filamen- 
tous tails close to tornal angle *. 

. Hind wing : with three tails LYC^ENESTHES, 

b. Hind wing : with one tail. [p. 372. 

a'. Fore wing: veins 11 and 12 anastomosed 
but fine at base and apex. 

*. Eyes hairy NACADUBA, p. 381. 

b''. Eyes not hairy. 



a 3 . Fore wing ; veins 6 & 7 approximate 
at base ; upperside hind wing : with 
a large patch of orange posteriorly . TALICADA, p. 375. 



Except in the genus Xacaduba, in which a few tailless forms occur. 



PITHECOPS. 307 

b 3 . Fore wing: veins 6 and 7 well 

separated at base ; upperside hind 

wing : either concolorous or with 

markings of blue or black. 

a*. Hind wing: vein 3 from before, 

4 from lower apex of cell EVERES, p. 377. 

b 4 . Hind wing : veins 3 and 4 from a 

point or 4 out of 3 beyond lower |CASTA 42h 

Hp(?X OI Cell \m * A -| *> 

b'. Fore wing: veins 11 and 12 extended < 1ABU m >P- 4i '- 
close together, sometimes touching but 
not anastomosed. 

a 2 . Eyes not hairy MEGISBA (tailed 

6*. Eyes hairy, or if smooth then veins 11 form), p. 313. 

and 12 of fore wing not touching. 
3 . Fore wing: veins 6 and 7 closely 

approximate at base POLYOMMATUS, 

b 3 . Fore wing : veins and 7 well sepa- [p. 432. 

rated at base CATOCHRYSOPS, 

c'. Fore wing: veins 11 and 12 not anasto- [p. 410. 

mosed, but an oblique short bar between 
them near base LAMPIDES, p. 396. 

Genus PITHECOPS. 

Pithecops, Horsfield, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 1828, p. 66 ; de N. Butt. 
Ind. iii, 1890, p. 48. 

Type, P. liylax, Fabr., from Java. 

Range. Indo-Malayan Region. 

cf $ . Fore wing : elongate ; costa strongly arched ; apex 
rounded ; termen convex ; dorsum straight or very slightly 
sinuous; cell about half length of wing; upper discocellular t 
very oblique, almost longitudinal, thickened; middle and lower 
discocellulars slender, almost vertical, slightly concave, subequal ; 
vein 3 from well before lower apex of cell, vein 4 from lower apex 
of cell, vein 5 from cell at junction of middle and lower disco- 
cellulars ; vein 6 from upper apex of cell, its base well separated 
from base of vein 7 ; vein 8 absent ; vein 9 out of middle of 7, 
10 free, 11 anastomosed with vein 12 ; vein 12 ending on costa 
very nearly opposite or a little before apex of cell. Hind wing : 
elongate oval ; costa slightly arched, termen very strongly rounded 
and arched, apex and termen both rounded, dorsum straight. 
Antennae slightly longer than half length of fore wing, club 
comparatively broad and spatulate ; eyes naked ; palpi subporrect, 
second joint thickly clothed with adpressed scales, third joint 
aciculate. 

Two forms are known from within our limits. 



* Eyes hairy in one form. 

t I take the upper discocellular to be the veinlet between bases of veins 6 
and 7. In Pithecops, as in a very large number of the genera of the Lyc&nidts, 
the general movement of the veins upwards towards the costa lias caused this 
vein to fall into line with the subcostal, and to become to all appearance a 
portion of that vein. 

x2 



308 



Key to tlic forms o/ Pithecops. 



. Upperside : ground-colour in both sexes brown, 

with no blue gloss ....................... N P. hylax, p. 308. 

b. Upperside : ground-colour rf brown, disc of fore 

and hind wings shining blue ; ground-colour $ 

blackish ................................ P. fulgent, p. 308. 



Horsfold, Cat. 

' de N. Butt. 



679. Pithecops hylax, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 526 ; H 

Lep. Mus. E. I. C. 1828, p. 66, pi. 1, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b; 
Ind. iii, 1890, p. 49, pi. 26, fig. 161. 

d $ . Upperside : brown, in fresh specimens generally uniform, 
in some slightly paler along a posterior area from base outwards 
on the fore wing. This is more common in the $> than in the tf . 
Underside : milk-white. Fore wing : a few very obscure specks 
along the costa, and a postdiscal transverse series of four transversely 
elongate spots, or short broad lines, pale brown ; the spots of the 
latter arranged two subcostal and two posterior close to the tornal 
angle ; beyond these is a continuous transverse broad brown line 
that gets paler posteriorly, from costa to dorsum, followed by a 
subterminal series of similarly-coloured transverse spots, one in 
each interspace ; at the apex these are generally coalescent with 
the inner brown line ; lastly an anticiliary dark brown line. Cilia 
dark brown. Hind wing : a curved postdiscal series of transverse 
pale brown spots that terminate at the costa in a prominent large 
round black spot ; a continuous broad pale brown curved line 
followed by a subtermiual dark brown series of spots and an anti- 
ciliary line as on the fore wing. Cilia white. Antennaa, head, 
thorax and abdomen brown ; the antenna? spotted with white on 
the inner side ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. d 1 $ 11-13 mm. (0-46-0-53"). 

Hob. Sikhim ; the hills of Assam, Arracan, Burma and Teuas- 
serim ; extending well into the Malayan Subregiou. 

680. Pithecops fulgens, Doherty, J.A.S. B. 1889, p. 127, pi. 10, fig. 6 ; 

de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 50. 

cJ . Upperside : dark brown ; medial two-thirds from base to 
disc of both fore and hind wings glossed with brilliant shining 
blue. Underside : very similar to the underside of P. hylax, but 
on both fore and hind wings the transverse outer postdiscal line is 
ochraceous rather than pale brown ; on the hind wing the inner 
postdiscal series of transverse spots is wanting and the large 
round subcostal black spot placed further towards the apex of the 
wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen much as in P. Tiylax. 
$ . Upperside : blackish brown without any suffusion of blue. 
Underside : similar to that of the tf . Cilia of fore wing pale, of 
hind wing white. 

Exp. c? $ H-13 mm. (0-46-0-53"). 

Hob. Eecorded only from the hills of Assam. 



NEOPITHECOPS. 309 



Genus NEOPITHECOPS. 

Neopithecops, Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1884, p. 209 ; dc N. Butt. Ind. 

iii, 1890, p. 61. 

Pithecops, Moore (nee Horsfield), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 72. 
Parapithecops, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 20. 

Type, N. zalmora, Butler, from the Malay Peninsula. 

liange. India, Assam, Burma, Ceylon, the Andaman Islands, 
and Malay Peninsula. 

(5 5 . Fore wing : broader proportionately than in the genus 
Pitliecops ; costa arched but less rounded at apex ; termen convex, 
tornus well-marked, dorsum straight ; cell distinctly longer than 
half the length of the fore wing ; venation much as in Pitliecops, 
but all the veins wide apart and distinct, vein 11 not anastomosed 
with vein 12. Hind wing also not so narrow proportionately as 
in PitJiecops; cell considerably longer. Antennae more than half 
length of fore wing ; club well-marked, but long, concave, or 
excavate on the inner side ; eyes naked ; palpi as in Pitliecops, but 
the third joint stouter, longer proportionately and more blunt at 
apex. 

A single form is known from within our limits. 

G81 . Neopithecops zalmora, Butler ( Pithecops), Cat. Fabr. Lep. B. M. 

1869, p. 1(31 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 53. 
Pithecops hylax, Moore (nee Fabr.}, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 587. 
Pithecops dharma, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 72, pi. 34, fig. 4 J . 
Parapithecops gaura, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 20. 
Neopithecops horsfieldi, Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1884, p. 210, pi. 22, 
fig. 16 c?. 

Wet-season brood. c? 5- Upperside: dark purplish brown; in 
the 5 slightly paler on the disc of the fore wing. In most specimens, 
but not in all, the d 1 also has the disc of the fore wing similarly paler. 
Underside : white. Fore wing : apex dusky brown, apices of 
veins 10, 11 and 12 with a minute black dot ; no discal markings, 
but the discocellulars picked out with a short, very slender, obscure 
brown line ; a postdiscal, irregular, transverse series of slender 
brown lunules, followed by a transverse, very slender, sinuous 
brown line, the white ground-colour in the interspaces beyond 
centred by a subterminal series of transverse black spots. Hind 
wing : discocellulars with a short brown line similar to that on 
the fore wing, followed by a subdorsal small round black spot, 
and a subcostal much larger similar spot ; between these two 
spots is a curved, very irregular line of detached pale ashy-brown 
lunules ; the subterminal markings very similar to those on the 
fore wing. Cilia of fore wing dusky brown, of hind wing white. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown ; the antenna? 
on the inner side speckled with white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen white. 

Dry-season brood. <$ $ . Differs from specimens of the wet- 
season brood as follows : Upperside'. ground-colour not so dark 
generally. Fore wing : a large oval snow-white spot placed 



310 LYCjEKIDJE. 

obliquely on the disc. Hind wing: apex and disc irregularly 
white ; on the posterior half the ground-colour a shade darker 
than on the anterior half. Underside : ground-colour and markings 
similar to those of specimens of the wet-season brood, but the 
markings very much paler and fainter ; in specimens taken in the 
middle of the dry-season in exceptionally dry localities these mark- 
ings are altogether absent. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
on the upperside paler than in the wet-season brood. 

Exp. d $ 16-28 mm. (0-61-1-12*). 

Hob. India : Eastern Himalayas ; Bengal : Malda, Calcutta, 
Orissa ; Southern and South-western India, but not recorded from 
Bombay; Ceylon; Assam; Burma; Tenasserim; the Andamans ; 
extending to the Malay Peninsula. 

This form is subject to much seasonal variation. The type in 
the British Museum is a specimen intermediate between the wet- 
and the dry-season broods, in which the disc of the fore wing on 
the upperside is much paler, with a small spot of white in the 
middle. The Pithecops dharma of Moore has the same spot, larger, 
but no white on the upperside of the hind wing ; while 1\ gaura, 
Moore = the dry-season form. 

Genus SPALGIS. 

Lucia, pt., Westivood in Dblday., Westw. 8f Hewitsoris Gen. Di. Lep. 

ii, 1852, p. 501. 
Spalgis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 137; de N. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 54. 

Type, S. epius, Westw., from India. 

Range. The Indo-Malayan Eegion. 

d" $ . Fore wing : costa slightly arched ; apex well-marked, not 
rounded ; termen convex ; tornus bluntly angulate ; dorsum 
straight : cell about half length of wing ; vein 3 from before lower 
apex of cell; 5 from junction of middle and lower discocellulars, 
these latter subequal ; veins 6 and 7 closely approximate, from 
upper apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore absent ; vein 8 
absent ; vein 9 from apex of basal third of 7 ; 10 and 1 1 free, 
from apical third of subcostal. Hind wing: costa somewhat 
straight ; apex, termen and tornus roundly arched ; cell about half 
length of wing ; upper discocellular very oblique, middle and 
lower vertical ; veins 3 and 4 from lower apex of cell ; 5 from 
middle of cell : 7 from a little before upper apex of cell. Antennae 
about half length of fore wing, club long and gradual ; palpi 
subporrect, third joint short, about one-third the length of the 
second. Legs short, of the usual Lycaenid form. 

Key to tlie forms of Spalgis. 

a. J $ . Upperside : brown ; fore wing with a 

quadrate white spot beyond cell, small in J , 

larger and somewhat diffuse in $ S. epius, p. 311. 

b. S $ Upperside : dark brown ; fore wiug with- 

out a quadrate white spot beyond cell in <3 , [p. 311. 

typically a slight pale patch in $ S. cjnus, race nubilus, 



SPALGIS. 311 

682. Spalgis epius, Westwood (Lucia) in Dblday., Wesiw. $ Heiv. Gen. 
Di. Lep. ii, 1852, p. 502, pi. 76, fig. 5 $ ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, 
p. 137 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 71, pi. 34, figs. 1, 1 , 1 b, <$ $ , 
larva & pupa ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 55, pi. 26, fig. 136 rf . 

Race nubilus. 

Spalgis nubilus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 522 ; Distant $ Pryer, 
A.M.N. H. (o) xix, 1887. p. 266; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 56. 

^ . Upperside : dull brown, slightly darker towards the apex of 
the fore wing ; also a more or less quadrate whitish spot beyond 
the apex of the cell on the same wing ; in some specimens this 
spot is slightly diffuse. Underside : pale, silky, brownish- white ; 
fore and hind wings crossed by numerous, very slender, short, 
sinuous, transverse, dark brown strigse which are outwardly 
slenderly edged with brownish-white of a shade paler than that of 
the ground-colour ; both wings with an anticiliary dark brown line 
with on the inner side a similar edging. Fore wing, in addition, 
with an oval white spot beyond the cell. Cilia of both fore and 
hind wings of the same shade as the ground-colour of the wings. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen pale brown, club of antennae 
ochraceous at apex ; beneath : the palpi and thorax brownish -grey, 
abdomen pale brown. $ . Upperside : slightly paler brown. 
Fore wing : the ceil and apex darker ; a white spot similar to that 
in the <5 but larger, beyond the apex of the cell ; in most specimens 
extended diffusely outwards and downwards. Hind wing : 
similar to that of the c? . Underside : precisely as in the tf . 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen paler than in the <5 . 

Exp. S $ 22-28 mm. (0-86-O10"). 

Huh. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Malda ; Calcutta ; Southern India ; 
Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma. 

llace nubilus, Moore. A very slightly differentiated race distin- 
guishable as follows : d 1 $ Upperside : ground-colour much 
darker brown. Fore wing : apex of cell with a black spot, no 
white spot beyond in d 1 , a duller brown slightly diffuse area in $ , 
otherwise as in the typical form. Underside: ground-colour 
darker, with a purplish-grey silky lustre; markings as in the 
typical form. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to 
those of the typical form but darker. 

Exp. d $ 20-28 mm. (0'79-MO"). 

Nab. Ceylon ; the Andamans ; Nicobars. 

There are two almost typical specimens of this race of epius in 
the British Museum collection labelled Trincomali, Ceylon. The 
Nicobar specimens that I have seen are all slightlv paler both on 
the upper and under sides, and one or two of the females are 
barely separable from typical epius. 




312 



Genus TARAKA. 
Taraka, de Niceville (Doherty MS.}, Butt. Ind. iii, p. 57. 

Type, T. Jiamada, Druce, from Sikhim. 

Range. Sikhim eastwards through Assam to China and Japan, 
southwards through Burma and Tenasserim to Java. 

d" $ . Fore wing : in shape much as in Spalyis, but the termen 
not so convex ; cell proportionately shorter, not quite half length 
of wing ; discocellulars very slender but all present, upper very 
short, lower the longest, slightly concave ; vein 8 absent, vein 9 

from middle of 7; 10 and 11 

^ ree ' ft' om a pi ca l na tf f SUD " 
costa l; 12 short, ending on 
costa before apex of cell, 
Hind wing : costa bluntly 
subangulate near base, then 
straight to apex; apex roundly 
produced ; termen convex ; 
Fig. m-TomA* tomato. tfpnus rounded ; dorsum very 

a. Venation fore wing. slightly arched ; cell short, 

b. Antenna and palpus. not half length of wing ; 

vein 3 from a little before 

lower apex of cell; vein 7 from a little before upper apex of 
cell ; vein 8 long, strongly curved upwards at base, then straight 
nearly to apex of wing. Antenna slender, not nearly so stout as 
in Spalgis, club very gradual ; palpi subporrect, third joint sub- 
fusiform, about half the length of the second ; eyes naked ; body 
slender ; legs proportionately short, very stout ; the tibia? of the 
fore legs incrassate in the middle, clothed with soft, fluffy, long 
hair-like scales ; tarsi exarticulate in both sexes. 

683. Taraka hamada, Druce (Miletus), Cist. Ent. \, 1875, p. 361 ; 
Slices (Miletus), P. Z. S. 1881, p. 882 ; de N. (Miletus), J. A. S. B. 
1883, p. 76, pi. 1, fig. 16$; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 58, 
pi. 26, fig. 164 $ . 

c? 2 . Upperside: uniform very pale brown, somewhat paler in the 
2 , the black spots of the underside faintly apparent by transparency. 
Underside : white, with round black spots and markings as follows : 
Fore wing : a spot at base of wing followed in transverse order 
by two spots, again two spots, then an irregular row of five spots 
that crosses near the apex of cell, the lower two coalescent, beyond 
that another curved row of five spots, tw-o of which are in inter- 
space 3, then a complete curved series of outwardly-pointed and a 
terminal series of inwardly-pointed similar spots. The spots of the 
last series cross a well-marked but very slender anticiliary black 
line, and thus cause the white cilia to the wing to be alternated with 
black. Hind wing : similarly crossed by five rows, all of which 
are more or less curved outwards, of black spots, followed by a 



TABAKA. MEGISBA. 313 

slender uninterrupted anticiliary black line. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen brown, shafts of the antennae ringed with 
white, apex of club ochraceous : beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. 

Exp. rf $ 20-28 mm. (0-79-1-10"). 

Hub. Sikhim ; the hills of Assam, Burma and Tenasserim ; 
extending to the Malayan Subregion and to China and Japan. 

The description above is taken from Sikhim specimens, but as 
a ride both Sikhim and Burmese specimens have a very pale brown 
to a perfectly white patch in the middle of the fore wiug, and very 
often the hind wing also with much white on it. Japanese 
specimens are much darker and more uniform above. 

Genus MEGISBA. 

Megisba, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 71 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 

p. 60. 
Pathalia, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 21. 

Type, M. malaya, Horsfield, from India. 

Range. Indo-Malayan Region. 

3 $ . Fore wing : costa slightly arched, more so in the $ than 
in the 6 1 ; apex bluntly angulate in the <$ , somewhat rounded in 
the $ ; termen convex ; tornus rounded but well-marked ; dorsum 
slightly sinuous ; cell about halt' length of wing ; upper discocellular 
thickened, longitudinal, with an appearance of forming part of the 
subcostal vein ; vein Tending on costa well before apex of wing, vein 8 
absent, vein 9 from middle of 7 ; veins 10 and 11 free, the latter 
slightly bent upwards towards vein 12 but not touching the latter ; 
vein 12 short, ending on costa well before apex of cell. Hind wing : 
shape more or less as in Taraka ; cell proportionately shorter ; 
vein la very short, not half length of dorsum; veins 3 and 4 
approximate, from lower apex of cell ; vein 8 as in Taraka. Antennae 
long, comparatively stout, longer than half length of fore wing ; 
club well-marked, shorter and more abrupt than in either Spalyis 
or Taraka ; palpi subporrect, third joint subclavate, a little longer 
than the second joint, longer in the 5 than in the <S ; eyes naked ; 
body moderately slender ; legs normal. 

684. Megisba malaya, Horsfield (Lycama), Cat. Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. 1828, 
p. 70; Elwes, Trans. Ent. &oc."l888, p. 375, pi. 11, fig. 1 rf; de N. 
Suit. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 01, pi. 26, fig. 165. 

Megisba thwaitesi, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 71, pi. 34, figs. 3, 
3 a, 3 b, ^ 5 , larva & pupa. 

Megisba sikkima. Moore, J. A. S. E. 1884, p. 21. 

Pathalia albidisca, Moore, J. A. 8. B. 1884, p. 21. 

Megisba gunga, Sicinhoe, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 133, pi. 9, fig. 7. 

Wet-season brood. c? $ Upperside : from dull somewhat pale 
brown to dark brown, some specimens nearly uniform, others with 
a more or less distinct pale discal patch on the fore wing. Hind 
wing: uniform; a slender short filamentous tail at apex of vein 1, 



314 LYCJENIDJB. 

very often absent. Underside: white. Fore wing: with the 
following bro\vn markings : a spot in cell, a transverse short line 
on the discocellulars, a postdiscal curved series of transverse spots 
or very short bars that cross the wing from costa to dorsum and 
are in irregular echelon one with the other, followed by a slender 
transverse broken line, a subterminal series of broader transverse 
spots and an auticiliary slender line ; at apex of wing the markings 
are diffuse and form a very small browu-shaded patch, while 
further inwards along the costa veins 10, 11 and 12 terminate in 
a minute brown dot. Hind wing : three spots near base in trans- 
verse order, a large, conspicuous, rounded, subcostal and a smaller 
similar spot near the middle of the dorsum, black ; between the 
latter two and also along the discocellulars are some irregular 
much paler brown transverse spots on the disc, which are followed 
as on the fore wing by an outer postdiscal, very slender brown 
line, a subterminal series of brown or black spots, and a black 
anticiliary line. Cilia of fore and hind wings white, turning to 
dark brown at apex of fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen dark brown, the antennae ringed narrowly with white ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen snow- white, the third, 
slender acicular joint of the palpi conspicuously brown. 

Dry-season brood. <5 $ . Very similar to the wet-season brood, 
but the fore wing on the upperside bears a large, oval, obliquely- 
placed conical patch that extends from the middle of the dorsal 
margin to vein 4. In certain specimens * this white bar or 
patch is continued on to the hind wing. Underside: similar 
to that of the wet-season form but all the markings broader, 
coarser, more prominent. Fore wing : costa and apex in some 
specimens broadly shaded with diffuse fuscous brown ; the 
outer postdiscal brown line formed into a series of lunules that 
extend outwards slenderly along the veins and join the anticiliary 
brown line, thus enclosing in the interspaces a series of spots of 
the white ground colour, each of which is centred with a black 
or dark brown subtriangular spot. Hind wing: the terminal 
markings modified as on the fore wing ; the spot in interspace 3 
of the subterminal series larger and more prominent than the 
others, the large subcostal black spot often broken by an anterior 
and a posterior silvery spot superposed on it. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in specimens of the wet-season brood but 
slightly darker above. 

Exp. rf $ 23-33 mm. (0-9-1-3"). 

Hob. The Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikhim ; Peninsular 
India : Calcutta, Orissa, Ganjam, Poona, the Nilgiris, Travaucore ; 
Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; Andamans ; Nicobars ; 
extending far into the Malayan Subregion. 



* Pathalia. alhidisca (= M. malaya), Moore, type of Moore's genus Pathalia. 



CYANIBIS. 



315 




Fig. 77. 

c. Venation, genus Lyccena. 
It. Venation, genus Cyauiris. 



Genus CYANIRIS. 

Cyaniris, Dalman, Kongl. Vctensk. Acad. Handl. xxxvii, 1816, pp. 63, 
'94 ; Moore, Lep. Ceijl. i, 1881, p. 74 : Distant, Rhop. Malay. 1884, 
p. 210 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 92. 

Lycaenopsis, Felder, Nocara Reise, Lep. ii, 18G5, p. 257. 

Type, (7. aryiolus, Linn., from Europe. 
Range. Nearetic, Palaearctic, and Indo-Malayan Regions, 
c? $ . Fore wing : broad and short ; costa nearly straight, very 
slightly and broadly arched ; apex blunt ; termen slightly convex; 
tornus more or less rounded ; dorsum very slightly sinuate, nearly 
straight, about five-sixths the length of the costa ; cell about half 

the length of wing ; veins 6 
and 7 closely approximate at 
base, upper discocellular there- 
fore very short or absent, middle 
and lower discocellulars very 
slender, subequal, slightly 
oblique ; vein 3 from before 
lower apex of cell, 4 from apex, 
6 from upper apex of cell, 
8 absent, 9 emitted from basal 
half of 7, 10 and 11 free, 12 
bent towards 11, terminated on 
costa fully a third before apex 
of cell. Hind wing : irregularly and broadly oval ; costa, slightly 
but distinctly arched ; apex and termen in continuation strongly 
curved ; tornus somewhat angular ; dorsum slightly arched ; cell 
about half length of wing, middle discocellular shorter than lower ; 
veins 3 and 4 from lower apex of cell. Antenna? not half length 
of fore wing, club long and spatulate ; eyes naked ; palpi sub- 
porrect, clothed with short adpressed scales, third joint fusiform, 
bare ; body slender. Wings of thinner and more delicate appearance 
than in the closely allied genus Lyccena. 

Key to the forms of Cyauiris. 

A. <5 . Upperside : costal margin broadly edged 
with black, this colour extended into and 
along anterior half of cell. 

a. Expanse over 35 mm C. vardhana, p. 318. 

b. Expanse well under 35 mm. 

a', c? with more or less of white on upper- 
side of fore wing. 

a 2 . <3 $ . Underside : markings small, 
delicate, often obsolescent; that in 
interspace 4 of fore wing vertical, 
not placed obliquely to rest of post- 
discal series ." C. akasa, p. 318. 

b' 2 . c? $ . Underside : markings com- 
paratively large, coaise ; never ob- 
solescent; that in interspace 4 of 
fore wing placed very obliquely to 
rest of postdiscal series C. marginata, p. 319. 



316 

b'. c? without a trace of white on upperside 

of fore wing ...................... C. melccna, p. 320. 

B. c? Upperside : costal margin not or only 
narrowly edged with black ; this colour not 
extended into the cell. 

a. Expanse over 40 rnin ................. C. hueyeli, p. 333. 

b. Expanse well under 40 mm. 

a', c?. Upperside fore wing : apical fourth 

to apical third black. 
<r. c? Upperside fore wing : with more 

or less of a discal white patch. 
a 3 , d 1 . Upperside fore wing : terminal 
black edging reduced posteriorly 

to an anticiliary slender line .... C. alboccemlea, p. 321. 
b 3 . J . Upperside fore wing : terminal 
black edging distinctly broader 
posteriorly. 

a*. Underside: markings small, deli- 
cate and sometimes more or less 
obsolescent ................ C. trnnspecta, p. 322. 

" * Iarge - 



<J. Upperside fore mng : without , p. 324. 



any iscal white patch. 
a 3 . Underside : markings small, regu- 
larly placed : fore wing : spots in 
postdiscal transverse series more 
or less rounded ................ C. cliennelli, p. 327. 

b 3 . Underside : markings large, some- 

what irregularly placed ; fore wing : 

spots in postdiseal transverse 

series elongate. 

4 . Upperside : ground-colour pur- 

plish blue; underside bluish , & ( wet ,season 

., T ? vhlte :; ........ ;"; ....... / brood), p. 323. 

tr. upperside: ground-colour much ' 

paler lilac-blue ; underside dull 

chalky-white .............. C. lilacea, p. 324. 

b'. Upperside fore wing: with less than 

apical fourth black. 

a 2 . Underside : ground-colour uniform 
rather dark silky grey, with no trace 
of white or blue ................ C. victoria, p. 329. 

b~. Underside : ground-colour white or 

bluish-white. 
a j . J . Upperside fore wing : with a 

discal white patch. 
a 4 , d Upperside fore wing : discal 
white patch small, clearly de- 
fined and limited ............ C. albidisca, p. 325. 

b 4 . J . Upperside fore wing : discal 

white patch large, diffuse. 
'. d 1 U pperside fore wing : ter- 
minal black line or narrow 
band not dilated towards 
apex .................... C. dikcta, p. 331. 



CYANIRIS. 317 

5 . <5. Upperside fore wing ; ter- 
minal black line or band 
distinctly dilated towards ( Q ijynteana (dry . sea son 

lr\ J . Upperside' fore' wing':' without ' br d) > P ' 33L 

a discal white patch. 
4 . Underside: ground-colour bluish 
white ; base of hind wing 
with no irroration of bluish 
scales concolorous with rest of 
wing. 

a 5 , tf. Upperside fore wing : ter- 
minal black edging dilated 
towards apex. 

a. c? . Upperside : non-irides- 
cent purplish-blue. 
a 7 . Underside : markings 
coarse, irregularly placed; 
that in interspace 4 of 
postdiscal series on fore 
wing very oblique .... C, placida, p. 326. 
i 7 . Underside: markings deli- 
cate, regular, en echelon 
with one another. 
a 8 . Upperside hind wing : 

with a subtenninal ( C.jynteana (wet-season 
series of black spots. . \ brood), p. 331. 

b s . Upperside hind wing : 
without a subterminal 
series of black spots. . C. miisina, p. 328. 
//. r?- Upperside : brilliant 

deep iridescent blue .... C. cyanescens, p. 326. 
A 3 , c? . Upperside fore wing : ter- 
minal black edging not dilated 
towards apex. 

6 . Underside fore wing : post- 
discal series of dark spots 
obliquely placed, distinctly 
closer to terminal margin 
of wing posteriorly than 

anteriorly C. lanka, p. 330. 

i 6 . Underside fore wing : post- 
discal series of dark spots 
not obliquely placed as 
close to terminal margin 
of wing anteriorly as pos- 
teriorly. 
a 7 , c?. Upperside: blue with 

a brilliant silvery irides- I C. hiteyeli, race singa- 
cence in certain lights . . j Itnsis, p. 333. 

b~. c?. Upperside: non- 
iridescent purplish blue . C. linibata, p. 329. 
ft 4 . Underside : ground-colour snow- 
white with a pearly lustre; a 
conspicuous irroration of bluish 
scales at base of hind wing . . C. avlestina, p. 332. 



318 LYCJENIDJE. 

685. Cyaniris vardhana, Moore (Polyommatus), P. Z. S. 1874, 

p. 572, pi. 06, fig. 6cf; id. 1. c. 1882, p. 244; de N. Butt. Ind. 
iii, 1890, p. 95. 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : costa, apex and termen very broadly 
dusky black ; at apex this colour occupies more than a third of 
the wing in some specimens, and in most is carried narrowly along 
the dorsal margin to the base ; the remainder of the wing pale 
iridescent blue ; the discocellulars marked by a jet-black, very 
prominent, short, posteriorly acute bar. Hind wing : costal margin 
broadly shaded with dusky black, the rest of the wing pale 
iridescent blue, the posterior veins black, very prominent. Under- 
side : pearly-white, the bases of the wings slightly glossed with 
blue. Tore wing: a short broad line on the discocellulars, three 
upper discal spots placed obliquely beyond it, the anterior two 
mere minute dots and a postdiscal inwardly oblique series of 
three larger spots, all dark brown. Hind wing: uniform with 
a few minute dark brown spots, of which a basal spot in inter- 
space 7 and another further outwards in the same interspace are 
the most conspicuous. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white. 
Antennae, head and thorax dark brown, the antennae as usual 
ringed with white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white. $ . Very similar to the J , differs as follows : Upperside, 
fore wing : the disc white, very faintly irrorated with iridescent 
blue ; the discocellular bar broader. Hind wing : the dusky- 
black edging to the costa broader, the dorsuin broadly pale, the 
blue from base outwards to disc consequently more restricted ; a 
subterminal very ill-defined series of dusky spots followed by the 
usual anticiliary black line. Underside : ground-colour similar 
to that of the male, the markings similar but larger and more 
prominent. Antennae, head and thorax as in the d" . 

Exp. c? $ 40-42 ram. (1-58-1-66"). 

Hob. North- West Himalayas : Busahir to Naini Tal. 

686. Cyaniris akasa, Horsfield (Polyommatus), Cat. Lei). Mus. E. I. C. 

1828, p. 67, pi. l,figs. 1, la; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 75, 
pi. 34, fig. 5rf; deN. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 95. 

cJ . Upperside, fore wing : black ; a medial triangular area that 
extends from base outwards to the disc white, suffused at base 
and anteriorly with iridescent blue that 
spreads upwards on to the black of the 
costa ; along the dorsum the black ground- 
colour is much paler, in most specimens 
diffuse fuscous. Hind wing : white, basal 
third and costal margin broadly suffused 
Fi g- 78. tt'ith fuscous, the fuscous at base pos- 

Cyaniris akasa. teriorly overlaid with iridescent blue ; a 

subterminal series of fuscous-black dots 

and a distinct but very slender black anticiliary line. Underside : 
white very slightly tinged with bluish ; markings all fuscous 




CYAK1EIS. 319 

black, minute and very slender. Fore wing : a short discocellular 
line followed by an anteriorly, strongly curved, discal series of 
very short detached lines and a more or less obsolescent trans- 
verse series of subterminal dots. Hind wing : three subbasal 
dots in transverse order ; a short line on the discocellulars ; a 
spot below the middle of the costa with a smaller spot below it ; 
a posterior discal irregular sinuous series of five or six minute 
spots and a perfectly regular subterminal series of similar spots. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings white. Antennas, head, thorax 
and abdomen blackish, the antennae ringed with white ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen snow-white. $. Very similar. 
Upperside : the white area much more extended on both fore and 
hind wings. On the former it spreads well into the cell, on the 
latter three-fourths of the wing are white ; the dusky basal and 
costal areas much more restricted than in the 3 . The iridescent 
blue suffusion is in many specimens entirely absent, in a few very 
faintly indicated ; the subterminal series of black dots so distinct; 
in the 3 are generally faint and obsolescent. Underside : as in 
the c? but the markings less distinct. Antenna?, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the rf . 

Exp. rf $ 28-29 mm. (MO-1-14"). 

Hob. Southern India : Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Palni Hills ; 
Ceylon ; extending to Java. 

687. Cyaniris marginata, de N., J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 70, pi. 1, 
fig. 9 d ; Moore P. Z. 8. 1883, p. 523, pi. 48, fig. 6 rf : Doherty, 
J. A. S. B. 1886, p. 134 ; de N. Butt. Ind, in, 1890, p.' 96. 

Wet-season brood. d" . Upperside : black. Fore wing : a 
posterior, medial, somewhat triangular area rich iridescent blue ; 
the outer margin of this area passes from base through the middle 
of the cell to a little beyond the apex of the latter, then curves 
sharply round ana is continued obliquely to the dorsum at about 
two-thirds of the distance from base to tornus ; outwardly this 
area is pure white, the discocellulars marked with a slender black 
tooth. Hind wing : with a similar but more sharply triangular 
and somewhat dusky blue area limited by the broad black border 
on the costal margin that occupies fully the anterior third of the 
wing, is curved sharply round at the apex and forms a somewhat 
narrower border to the termen ; posteriorly the dorsum is still more 
narrowly duskv black ; superposed on the terminal black border 
is a curved series of small bluish lunules, each lunule outwardly 
margined by an intense black spot of a shade darker than the 
black along the termen. Underside : white with a faint bluish 
tint. Fore wing : with the following fuscous-black markings : a 
line on the discocellulars, a transverse outer discal series of spots or 
short bars one in each interspace, the spot in interspace 3 pointing 
obliquely outwards, that in interspace 4 still more oblique, forms 
an angle with the one above it, lastly the spot in interspace 6 
shifted well inwards ; a postdiscal slightly curved line of trans- 
verse lunules, succeeded by a subterminal series of spots and a 
very slender anticiliary line. Hind wing : a black spot close to 



320 IXCJESIDX. 

base on the dorsal margin succeeded by a transverse series of three 
conspicuous black spots, with a still more conspicuous rounded 
similar spot further outwards about the middle of the costa ; a 
line on the discocellulars, some irregularly placed spots on the 
disc and postdiscal, subterminal and anticiliary markings as on 
the fore wing. Cilia of both fore and hind wings bluish white. 
Antennae black, the shafts ringed with white, club tipped with 
ochraceous ; head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : brownish black. Fore 
and hind wings : the iridescent blue areas as in the <5 but very 
m uch more restricted : on the hind wing the subterminal curved series 
of bluish lunules barely indicated by similar markings of a shade 
paler than the ground-colour ; the deep black spots that margin 
the lunules on the outer side can only be seen in certain lights. 
Underside : as in the <S but the markings broader and coarser, all 
of a rich brown, not fuscous-black or deep black colour. 

Dry-season brood. <$ $ . Closely resemble the <3 $ of the wet- 
season brood, but on the upperside the pale areas on both fore 
and hind wings are of greater extent with more of while and less 
of the iridescent blue ; this bluish-white area is especially extended 
on the hind wing, encroaching upwards on the dark ground-colour. 
In some specimens of the males the black on the terminal margin 
on the hind wing is barely indicated near the apex, but there is 
a conspicuous subterminal series of black spots and a slender 
anticiliary black line. Underside : ground-colour and markings 
similar to those in the wet-season form, but as a rule very slender 
and trending to obsolescence. In some specimens the markings 
are often very irregular, some (generally the discal) markings on 
the fore wing are slender and prominent, while those on the hind 
wing are slender and subobsolescent. Antenna, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the wet-season form. 

Exp. 6 30-35 mm. (1'18-1'36"). 

Hob. Himalayas : Kumaon to Sikhiin at from 4000 to 10,000 
feet ; the hills of Upper Burma. 

<JS8. Cyaniris inelaena, Doherty, J. A. S. _B. 1889, p. 434, pi. 23, 
fig. 13 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 97. 

(J . Upperside : deep brown. Fore wing : with the basal half 
dark blue, dull in certain lights, rich, shining and iridescent in 
others ; this colour does not reach the costa, apex or termen where 
the ground-colour forms a broad border to the blue. Hind 
wing : uniform brown ; in certain lights iridescent blue over the 
basal third, but the blue does not reach either the costa or the 
dorsum. Underside ; dull greyish-white. Fore wing : with the 
following fuscous-brown markings : a short transverse line on the 
discocellulars ; a postdiscal transverse series of elongate spots or 
extremely short bars, the posterior three placed slightly en echelon, 
the one nearest the costa shifted well inwards; beyond this a 
transverse unbroken line, a subterminal series of small spots and 
an anticiliary dark line ; costal margin somewhat broadly shaded 



CYAXIEIS. 321 

with very pale brownish -grey. Hind wing: a minute spot on 
dorsuin near base of wing, a series of three subbasal spots placed 
obliquely across the wing and beyond them a much larger round 
subcostal spot in interspace 7, black ; a short dusky brown line 
on the discocellulars, a brown spot above it in base of interspace 6 ; 
a transverse posterior discal series of five spots also brown, the 
upper four in a slight curve, the lowest shifted outwards out.of line 
with the others ; lastly, terminal transverse markings much as on 
the fore wing, only the fuscous brown line on the inner side of 
the subterminal series of spots replaced by a series of connected 
slender lunules. Cilia of fore and hind wings grey. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, the antennae ringed with 
white ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen grevish white. 

5 unknown. 

Exp. cJ 32 mm. (1-26"). 

Hob. Within our limits recorded from Southern Tenasserim ; 
extending into the Malay Peninsula. 

089. Cyaniris albocserulea (PI. XIX, fig. 125), Moore (Polyom- 
'matus), P. Z. S. 1879, p. 139 ; de N., J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 71, pi. 1, 
fis. 4, 4 a, cJ $ ; id Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 98. 

c? . Upperside, fore wing : blackish brown, a central patch that 
occupies the lower apical portion of the cell and the basal halves 
of interspaces 2 and 3 white; lightly suffused with iridescent 
lilacine blue ; this colour is intensified and spreads upwards over 
the dark brown along the basal portion of the costa, inwards right 
up to the base of the wing, downwards over three-fourths of the 
dorsal area from base and outwards from the white patch towards 
the termen ; the ground-colour occupies the apex very broadly, 
and posteriorly forms a broad border to the termen. Hind wing : 
lilacine blue, base and costal margin broadly suffused with fuscous ; 
a large subapical patch diffusely white ; finally, an anticiliary line 
black. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white, turning to brown 
towards the apex of the fore wing. Underside : white, the terminal 
markings generally prominent in other forms, more or less 
obsolescent in both fore and hind wings in all specimens that I 
have seen. Fore wing : the slender short line on the discocellulars 
and the discal transverse series of short detached lines pale brown, 
the latter sinuous and anteriorly curved inwards. Hind wing : 
three subbasal spots in transverse order, a spot below the middle 
of the costa not larger or more prominent than the others, and 
an irregular discal series of elongate spots, pale brown. Antennas, 
head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, the antennae ringed with 
white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upper- 
side, fore wing: a beautiful lilacine blue with a white central 
patch that occupies the lower apical half of the cell and the basal 
three-fourths of interspaces 3, 4 and 5 ; apex of wing and upper 
portion of termen broadly black, the inner border of this colour 
curving from a preapical point on the costa to apex of vein 3, 

VOL. II. T 



322 

thence the black continued as a slender anticiliary line to the 
tornus. Hind wing : white shaded with pale lilacine blue at base 
and broadly along the costal and dorsal margins ; a slender anti- 
ciliary black line. Cilia as in the d 1 . Underside : similar to that 
of the J > all the markings slightei', more delicate, and on the hind 
wing more irregular. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in 
the c?. 

Exp. <J $ 33-35 mm. (1-30-1-38"). 

Hab. Himalayas : from Simla to Sikhim, from 2000 to 8000 feet. 



090. Cyaniris transpecta (PI. XIX, fig. 126), Moore (Polyommatus), 
P. Z. S. 1879, p. 139 ; de N., J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 70, pi. 1, figs. 
6, 6 a, d 1 $; id. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 99, pi. 20, figs. 170, 171, 

c?$. 

Cyaniris latimargo, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 523, pi. 48, fig. 9, <$ $ ; 
de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 100. 

<S . Upperside : white. Fore wing : costa narrowly, apex broadly 
and terminal border black, the inner margin of this colour curved 
opposite the apex but extended straight down the termen to the 
dorsal margin, the black border on the termen of even width 
below vein 4 ; 'the rest of the wing, except a very broad discal 
anteriorly-rounded area, shaded with lilacine blue. Hind wing : 
shaded with lilacine blue that fades to diffuse white on an anterior 
discal area corresponding to the white discal area on the fore wing ; 
a subterminal series of transverse small spots ' and a slender anti- 
ciliary line black. In some specimens (var. latimargo) there is a 
broad black band on the termen which coalesces with and spreads 
inwards beyond the line of subterminal black spots. Underside : 
white with a faint bluish tint ; markings slender and delicate. 
Fore wing : a slender short brown line on the discocellulars ; 
a postdiscal, very regular, transverse series of abbreviated, slender, 
short pale brown lines all en echelon with one another, followed 
by an obscure similarly-coloured lunular line and subterminal 
series of spots. Hind wing : the three transversely-placed sub- 
basal spots and the subcostal spot in interspace 7 black, the rest 
of the markings pale brown, the discal series of spots more regular 
than in most of the forms ; the terminal markings as on the fore 
wing. In var. latimargo the markings 
are much coarser and the terminal series 
on both fore and hind wings more clearly 
defined. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen black, the antennae annulated 
with white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 
-p. " _ g and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : siuii- 

Cyaniris transpecta, $. lar to that of the c? but the white area 
of much less extent on the fore wing, of 

greater extent on the hind wing, the suffusion of lilacine blue 
absent on both fore and hind wings ; the terminal markings on 
the hind wing broader and more clearly defined. Underside: 




CYAN IRIS. 323 

ground-colour and markings as in the tf . Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen dark brown, not black, but otherwise as in the c? . 

Exp. 3 $ 26-34 mm. (1-04-1-34"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam; Burma; Tenasserim ; the Nicobars. 

A variable insect ; some specimens, probably of wet-season 
broods, have much less white on the upperside on both fore and 
hind wings, while the terminal borderings are broad and black, 
the markings 011 the underside coarser, more regular and more 
clearly denned. 

091. Cyaniris puspa (PI. XIX, fig. 127), Horsfield (Polyommatus), 
Cut. Lep. E. I. C. 1828, p. 67 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 245 ; 
de N., J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 67, pi. 1, fig. 5, $; id. Butt. Ind. iii, 
1890, p. 100. 

Polyommatus laveiidularis, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 341; 
id. (Cyaniris) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 75, pi. 34, figs. 6, 6 a, 7, c? ? . 

Wet-season brood. rf . Upperside: violaceous blue, with bril- 
liant iridescent tints in certain lights. Fore wing : the costa, 
apex and term en bordered with black, this edging narrows from 
base to the middle of the costa, then broadens greatly at apex, where 
it occupies the apical fourth of the wing, and is again narrowed 
below vein 4, whence it is continued as an even band to the 
tornus ; on the disc beyond the apex of the cell the ground- 
colour is sensibly paler, and the dark markings of the cell are 
faintly visible by transparency from below. Hind wing : the 
costa very broadly, the termen much more narrowly black ; the 
black bordering on the latter consists of a series of rounded 
coalescent spots, which on the inner side are margined by faint 
dark lunules ; these are formed not by actual scaling but by the 
dark markings of the underside which show through more or less 
clearly. Underside : slightly bluish white ; the markings, some black, 
some dusky, but all large and distinct. Fore wing : a short bar 
on the discocellulars, an anteriorly inwardly curved, transverse, 
discal series of seven, more or less elongate spots, of which the 
spot in interspace 2 is vertical and sinuous, the next above it 
irregularly oval and obliquely placed, the next smaller and almost 
round, the fourth placed almost longitudinally, forms a short bar, 
and the apical three decrease in size to the costa ; beyond these is 
an inner subterminal, transverse, lunular line, an outer subterminal 
series of transverse spots and a very slender anticiliary line. Hind 
wing : two basal and three subbasal spots in vertical order ; a line 
on the discocellulars ; a spot above it at base of interspace 6 ; 
a much larger spot above that in interspace 7 ; a lower discal 
irregular transverse series of five spots, followed bv terminal 
markings similar to those on the fore wing, except that the spots 
in the subterminal row are rounded, not transverse. Cilia of both 
fore and hind wings white alternated with dusky black at the 
apices of the veins. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dusky 
black, the antennae ringed with white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 

Y2 



324 LYC'jENID.B. 

and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : white, the bases of the 
wings and in some specimens the hind wing posteriorly shot with 
iridescent blue. Fore \ving : costa, apex and termen broadly black : 
the discocellulars marked with a very short, fine black line that 
extends down from the black on the costal margin. Hind wing : 
costa and apex broadly black ; termen below vein 6 with a regular 
subterminal series of black spots in the interspaces, enclosed within 
an inner lunular and an outer straight slender anticiliary black 
line ; the veins, except vein 5 in the middle, slenderly black. Cilia 
of both fore and hind wings white. Underside : ground-colour and 
markings similar to those of the tf . Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the c? . 

Dry-season brood. J $ . Differs very slightly from the wet- 
season brood. In the c? there is a small patch of white on the 
upperside of the fore wing beyond the cell and on the upperside 
of the hind wing on the anterior portion of the disc ; the extent 
of this patch varies on the fore wing from a mere touch of white 
just beyond the cell to a large discal area of white which is diffuse 
with ill-defined margins. In the $ the blue iridescence at the 
base of the wings on the npperside is in some specunens consider- 
ably restricted, in others entirely absent. On the underside in 
both sexes the ground-colour is paler and in form and position 
the markings are much less prominent, though entirely like those 
of the wet-season brood. 

Kvp. J $ 32-35 mm. (1-28-1-36"). 

Hob. Peninsular India, except in the desert tracts ; Ceylon ; 
Assam ; Burma ; the Andamans ; extending into the Malayan 
Subregion as far as Java. 

"Var. lavendularis, Moore, has the costal and terminal margins 
of both fore and hind wings more narrowly bordered with black 
than in typical puspa, but seems otherwise indistinguishable. 

692. Cyaniris lilacea, Hampson, Proc. NiU/iri N. H. Soc. 1887, p. 14. 
Cyaniris puspa, vur. lilacea, Hampson, J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 356. 
Cyaniris crissa, de N., J. A. S. B. 1894, p. 31, pi. 2, fig. 12. 

<5 . Upperside : shining purplish-black. Fore wing : costa nar- 
rowly and evenly for three-fourths of its length from base, apex 
broadly and terminal margin decreasing! y jet-black ; cilia black. 
Hind wing : costa and apex broadly, termen narrowly, bordered 
with black ; a subterminal series of small round black spots that 
merge anteriorly into the black at apex ; cilia black, tipped with 
white. Underside : opaque chalk-white. Fore wing : the fol- 
lowing black markings : a broad short bar on the discocellulars ; 
a discal transverse series of prominent spots in interspaces 1 to 6 r 
the spot iii interspace 1 elongate, in 2 and 3 oval and placed 
obliquely on the wing, in 4 elongate and pointing obliquely out- 
wards, in 5 and 6 rounded, the spot in interspace 6 shifted a little 
inwards ; beyond these discal markings is a transverse series of 
slender black lunules, followed by a subterminal series of minute 



CTANIRIS. 325 

round black spots, one in each interspace and a very slender anti- 
ciliary black line ; cilia on the underside white. Hind wing : also 
with the following black markings: a minute spot at base, followed 
by two larger spots one above the other, a sinuous short line 
011 the discocellulars, and just beyond it a transverse somewhat 
curved series of four slightly quadrate spots, two subcostal and 
two posterior ; a discal series of four more spots, the lowest one 
curved, the next spot round, the next elongate and placed pointing 
obliquely outwards, lastly the apical spot of the series round ; 
terminal markings and cilia as on the fore wing. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen black, the antennae ringed with white and a 
white line along the inner and outer orbits of the eyes ; beneath : 
the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : brownish 
black. Fore \ving : from base for a little more than two-thirds of 
its length and from the posterior half of the discoidal cell to the 
dorsum white, beautifully glossed with purplish blue at the upper 
outer corner of the area indicated above, which is pure white. 
Hind wing : glossed with blue over a broad central area from base 
to a broad brownish-black terminal border, on the inner margin 
of which and partially coalescing with it is a transverse series of 
large round jet-black spots, inwardly narrowly and obscurely 
margined with bluish white ; this colour at the anterior spots 
carried as streaks inwards for a short distance. Underside : as in 
the c? . Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen also similar. 

Exp. d 1 $ 36-38 mm. (1-42-1-45"). 

Hob. Eecorded so far only from the Nilgiris. 

<>93. Cyaniris albidisca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 524, pi. 48, fig. 7 d 1 ; 
Sivmhoe, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 133 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 103. 

c? $ . Very closely allied to C. pmpa, from which it differs as 
follows : <S Upperside : dull indigo- blue, not so dark as puspa 
when looked at from above vertically and with much less refulgent 
iridescence in an oblique light; the white on both fore and hind wings 
much more clearly denned, never diffuse and apparently present at all 
seasons ; on the fore wing the white is limited to the basal portions 
of interspaces 2 and 3 and does not extend into the cell or above 
vein 4 ; on the hind wing it occupies the basal half of interspace 6 
and is strictly bounded by vein 7 above and vein 6 below. The 
terminal margins of both fore and hind wings with much narrower 
black edgings than in C. puspa. Underside : differs from that of 
puspa in the markings, which are smaller and much more delicate; 
on the fore wing the transverse postdiscal series of abbreviated 
line-like markings is bisinuate, placed further towards the terminal 
margin and has the component spots somewhat differently 
arranged ; on the hind wing also the spots on the disc posteriorly 
are more regular than in puspa. $ . Upperside : ground-colour 
and white on disc of wings almost as in puspa, but always both in 
fore and hind wings more limited, the black costal and terminal 
margins consequently broader. Underside: the markings as in 



326 

the d 1 , and therefore differ in a similar manner from those of 
C. puspa $ . Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes 
as in C. puspa. 

Exp. <? 2 34-39 mm. (1-34-1-52"). 

Hal. Appears to be strictly confined to the hills of Southern 
India at from 2000 to 6000 feet. 

694. Cyaniris placida, de A T ., J. A. 8. B. 1883. p. 68, pi. 1, fig. 8 <$ ; 

Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 523, pi. 48, fig. 5 J ; de N. Butt. Ind. 
iii, 1890, p. 103. 

<5 . Upperside : pale violet. Tore wing : a very slender line 
along the costa, the apex broadly and the termen decreasingly 
edged with black. In some specimens this edging is very narrow; 
in others much broader, occupying at the apex a sixth of the wing. 
Hind wing : with a similar narrow or broad edging to the termen; 
the costa edged more or less broadly with fuscous black. Under- 
side : dull sullied white ; the markings small, delicate and irregular, 
not unlike those on the underside d transpecta, but on the fore 
wing the series of postdiscal markings is straighter, the elongate 
spot or short line in interspace 4 less oblique. On the hind 
wing the discal markings form a strong curve or half loop beyond 
apex of cell, the subbasal three spots in vertical order, the sub- 
costal spot in interspace 7 and the spot in interspace 2 of the 
subterminal series are prominently black. The rest of the mark- 
ings are similar to those borne by all forms of Cyaniris. ? $ . 
Upperside : ground-colour paler violet than in the cf > turning to 
white on the disc of the fore and along the costal margin of the 
hind wing ; costa, apex and termen of fore wing and apex of hind 
wing broadly dusky black, this colour narrows posteriorly along 
the termen of the hind wing and at the tornal area is reduced to 
a mere anticiliary line. Underside : markings as in the c? . An- 
tennae, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes dusky black ; the 
antennae as usual ringed with white ; beneath : the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen dull sullied white. 

Exp. J $ 28-35 mm. (1-10-1 -36"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma; Tenasserirn; extending to the 
Malay Peninsula. 

I am not very certain that I have identified the $ correctly. 

695. Cyaniris cyanescens, de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 103, frontis- 

piece, fig. 129 c?. 

c? . Upperside : deep blue. Eore and hind wings : costa, apex 
and termen somewhat narrowly, but more evenly than in most of 
the forms in the genus, edged with black ; the edging to the costa 
of the hind wing broader, slightly diffuse ; the edgings to the 
termen on both wings narrowed posteriorly. Underside : white. 
Fore wing : a short transverse line on the discocellulars, a post- 
discal series of transverse elongate spots or short bars, followed 
by a transverse connected row of slender lunules and a subterminal 



CTANIKIS. 327 

transverse series of spots, fuscous brown ; of the postdiscal 
markings the anterior four are slender and form more or less of 
a curved line, the posterior two are coarser and are shifted 
inwards ; lastly, there is a dark anticiliary line with the cilia 
beyond whitish grey. Hind wing : a transverse, very obliquely- 
placed, subbasal series of three black spots and a similarly-coloured 
large, round, subcostal spot beyond the middle of interspace 7 ; 
a slender short discocellular line ; a series of posterior discal 
spots very irregularly placed and terminal markings similar in 
shape, position and colour to those in the fore wing. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, the antennae ringed with 
white; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish white. 
$ . Upperside : brown. Fore wing : a postero-medial area from 
base to disc white, brilliantly glossed with iridescent blue that 
can only be seen in certain lights ; the discocellulars marked by a 
short transverse brown line. Hind wing : with a medial patch 
similar to that on the fore wing, not extended however, to the 
dorsal margin. ; beyond it a subterminal series of prominent round 
black spots and an anticiliary slender black line. Underside : white. 
Fore wing : the discocellular short transverse line, the postdiscal 
and terminal markings much as in the <S , but the postdiscal 
transverse series of short bars placed further outwards towards 
the terminal margin. Hind wing : a spot on the dorsurn close to 
the base of the wing ; two (not three as in the <S ) subbasal spots, 
and a very conspicuous and large round subcostal spot towards 
the apex in interspace 7, black ; the postero-discal markings 
similar to those in the <$ but coarser and much more regular; 
the terminal markings as in the c?, the subterminal spot very 
large and prominent. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen a 
paler brown than in the tf ; the antennae ringed with white ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. <5 $ 30-34 mm. (1-20-1-35"). 

Hob. The Nicobars. 

Mr. de Niceville (I. c.) describes a variety or race as follows : 
" Local race prominent, nov. Female : Upperside fore wing : the 
blue area more extensive. Hind wing : the marginal spots much 
larger and blacker. Underside : all the markings larger and more 
prominent, especially the spot just beyond the middle of the costa 
and the marginal round spots which are inwardly denned by a 
distinct, narrow, lunulated fuscous line ; the discal spots arranged 
in a regular sinuous band. Expanse : $ 1-3 inches." 

696. Cyaniris chennelli, de N., J. A. S. JB. 1883, p. 72, pi. 1, fig. 10^ ; 
id. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 102. 

c? . Upperside : lavender-blue, varying a little in depth of tint. 
Fore wing : a very slender line along the costa and an even 
border to the termen from apex to tornus dusky black. Hind 
wing : costal and terminal margins with even dusky black borders, 
slightly broader on the costa than on the termen ; on the latter 



328 JAT.ENIDJE. 

the black border encloses a very indistinct series of round spots of 
the ground-colour, each spot centred with black, which are more 
prominent posteriorly than anteriorly. Underside: bluish white, 
in some specimens slightly yellowish white ; the markings small, 
delicate and very regular ; the postdiscal transverse series of 
abbreviated lines on the fore wing bieinuate and nearly as in 
C. lanka, but the series further from the termen and the short 
lines that compose it not quite end to end but a little en echelon 
one to the other ; the terminal markings on both fore and hind 
wings more or less obsolescent apparently at all seasons. 5 . Upper- 
side : ground-colour similar to that in the rf . Fore wing : costa, 
apex and termen very broadly dusky brownish-black; over the 
blue area the dark veins are somewhat prominent, on the termen 
the black border occupies in some specimens more than one-third 
of the wing and in all is very even. Hind wing : the dark veins 
as conspicuous as on the fore wing ; anterior third of wing dusky 
black, termen with a well-marked anticiliary line and a more or 
less distinct and complete subterminal series of spots. Underside : 
as in the d . Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen in both sexes 
dusky black, the antennae ringed with white ; beneath : palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. 3 5 31-33 mm. (1-22-1-30"). 

Hob. So far recorded only from Shillong in Assam and the 
Northern Chin Hills in Upper Burma. 

097. Cyaniris musina, Snellen, Tijd. v. Ent. xxxv, 1892, p. 145 ; 

de N. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. ix, 1895, p. 275, pi. O, fig. 19 3 . 
Cyaniris jynteana, var.. Distant (nee de Xiceville), Rhop. Malay, 
1886, p. "452, pi. 44, fig. 6 d" . 

c? . Upperside : pale lilacine grey. Fore wing : costa bordered 
by a slender line, termen by- a comparatively broad and even band 
of dusky black, the latter diffuse along its inner margin. Hind 
wing : costal margin diffusely dusky black, termen with a slender 
black anticiliary line ; dorsal margin narrowly pale. Underside : 
white with a slight tinge of blue. Fore wing : a short line on the 
discocellulars, a postdiscal transverse series of six abbreviated 
lines pointing obliquely outwards and en echelon one with the 
other, the uppermost shifted well 'inwards, followed by a sub- 
terminal series of transverse spots enclosed between an inner 
subterminal, lunular, transverse line and an outer anticiliary slender 
line, pale brown. Hind wing : a transverse subbasal series of 
three, sometimes four, minute spots and a spot beyond on the 
dorsum, with a larger subcostal spot near the apex of the wing, 
black ; a short slender line on the discocellulars and some irregular 
dots on the disc pale brown ; terminal markings as on the fore 
wing. Cilia of both fore and hind wings whitish. Antennae, bead, 
thorax and abdomen dark brown, the antennae ringed with white 
beneath: the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $. Upperside, 
fore wing: a broad border to the costal and terminal margins 



CTANIRIS. 329 

dusky black, the rest of the wing iridescent light blue ; on the 
costa the lower edge of the black traverses the middle of the cell, 
on the apex and termen it occupies the outer fourth of the wing. 
Hind wing : anterior third dusky black, the rest of the wing pale 
lilacine glossed with iridescent blue in certain lights ; a sub- 
terminal series of dusky black spots that more or less coalesces 
with an anticiliary dusky black line and is enclosed on the inner 
side by a slender similarly-coloured lunular line. The underside, 
antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? . 

Exp. 6 $ 28-31 mm. (1-12-1-22"). 

Hab. Described originally from Western Java. The late 
Capt. Watson procured a few specimens in the Taw district in 
Upper Burma ; six of these are now in the collection of the British 
Museum. I know of no other record of the occurrence of this 
form from within our limits. 

098. Cyaniris victoria, Swinlwe, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, p. 293. 

c? . Upperside : silvery grey-blue with a very slight iridescence 
in certain lights of brighter blue, the discal area of both fore and 
hind wings paler. Fore wing : apex and termen edged with black 
which is comparatively broad at apex, about a fifth of the wing, 
and suddenly decreases posteriorly, at the tornus forming merely 
an anticiliary line. Hind wing : with a slender anticiliary black 
line. Cilia of fore wing fuscous, of hind wing whiter. Underside : 
uniform rather dark grey ; the usual Cyaniris markings indicated 
only by a few scattered blackish dots. AntennaB, head, thorax 
and abdomen dark greyish brown ; the antennae ringed with white ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen paler. 5 . Upperside : 
similar, slightly more of the iridescent blue gloss about the bases 
of the wings ; the discal area of both fore and hind wings more 
broadly paler than in the rf , almost white ; the costa narrowly, 
the apex and termen very broadly of the fore wing, and the costa 
and apex of the hind wing blackish brown ; also on the hind wing 
there is a subterminal somewhat obsolescent series of dark brown 
spots. Underside : similar to that of the $ but the markings are 
more clearly defined, especially the postdiscal markings which 
are composed of abbreviated little brown detached lines placed in 
a well-marked curve. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as 
in the c? . 

Exp. J $ 29-33 mm. (1-14-1-32"). 

Hab. Recorded so far only from the Khasi Hills in Assam. 

699. Cyaniris limbata, Moore (Polyommatus), P. Z. S. 1879, p. 139; 
de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 109. 

c? . Upperside : uniform dark purplish-blue. Fore and hind 
wings : termen narrowly edged with black ; costal margin of hind 
wing more broadly fuscous black. Underside : white with a light 
greyish-blue tint ; markings for the most part pale brown, disposed 



330 LYCJENID.E. 

much as in C. puspa, smaller, more slender ; the transverse discal 
series of abbreviated lines or elongate spots on the fore wing more 
regular, the spots more evenly en echelon, the spot nearest the 
costa small and shifted well inwards. Hind wing : the black 
subcostal spot in the middle of interspace 7 subequal, not larger 
than the three subbasal spots ; the posterior discal series of spots 
bisinuous, none conspicuously larger than the others. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen fuscous black, the antenna ringed with 
white, the head and thorax clothed above with long bluish hairs ; 
beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish white. $ . 
Upperside, fore wing : bluish purple, paler outwardly, in certain 
lights with a resplendent iridescence ; costa and apex very broadly, 
termen somewhat more narrowly fuscous black. Hind wing : as 
in the fore wing iridescent bluish purple but uniform, not paler 
outwardly ; the costal and terminal margins broadly and evenly 
fuscous black, this border on the teruien with a series of super- 
posed bluelunules. Underside: ground-colour and markings as in 
the c? . Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of 
the <$ but the thorax and abdomen above not so dark. 

Exp. J $ 32-36 mm. (T25-1-40"). 

Hob. The hills of Bengal ; Southern India : the Nilgiri, Anai- 
malai and Palni Hills ; Ceylon ; the hills of Assam. 

700. Cyaniris lanka, Moore (Polyommatus), A. M. N. II. (4) xx, 

1877, p. 342 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. i", 1881, p. 76, pi. 35, figs. 2, 2a, <$ ; 
de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 109. 

d". Upperside; uniform purplish-blue; an extremely narrow- 
bordering of black to the termen of both the fore and hind wings 
present in a few specimens, absent in most ; also the hind wing 
is slightly shaded with dusky black along the costa. Underside : 
shining silvery white. Fore and hind wings with the usual Cyaniris 
markings but the postdiscal transverse series of abbreviated pale 
brown lines on the former almost in line one with the other, the 
whole series placed slightly obliquely on the wing and appreciably 
curved. On the hind wing the markings are small and regular, 
the lower discal series of spots bisiuuate. The transverse lunular 
line beyond the discal markings that is comparatively distinct in 
most forms, is in this barely indicated on both fore and hind wings. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dusky black ; beneath : the 
palpi, thorax and abdomen snow-white. 5 . Upperside : differs 
from the J in the ground-colour which is slightly paler and on 
the fore wing by the very broad costal and terminal blackish - 
brown border ; on the hind wing by the similar border to the 
costal margin, the slightly broader 'black anticiliary line and a 
posterior subterminal series of somewhat indistinct black spots. 
Underside, antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the c? . 

Exp. 6 $ 32-35 mm. (1-25-1-38"). 

Sal. Ceylon. 



CVANIBIS. 331 

701. Cyaniris dilecta (PI. XIX, fig. 128), Moore (Polyommatus), 
P. Z. S. 1879, p. 139 ; de N., J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 68, pi. 1, 
fig. 5 cf; id. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 107. 

(S . Upperside : pale lilac-blue. Fore and hind wings : a very 
slender black terminal line even in width from apex to tornus 
on each wing ; centre of the disc of the fore and upper discal 
area of the hind wing pale, in specimens of the dry-season broods 
turning to white. Underside : white with a very faint bluish tint 
in fresh specimens, markings very delicate and slender in shape 
and in the position usual in all the forms belonging to the genus ; 
the inner subterminal transverse lunular line on both fore and hind 
wings. Fore wing : the postdiscal series of markings very slightly 
oblique, slightly closer to the terminal margin posteriorly than 
anteriorly, the abbreviated lines or elongate spots composing it 
en echelon one to the other. Hind wing : the subbasal transverse 
series of three black spots and the subcostal spot in interspace 7 
not much larger nor very much more prominent than the others. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen brown, the antennae ringed 
with white as usual ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white. $ . Upperside : white, tinged with lilac at the bases of the 
wings. Fore wing : costa, apical third of wing and termen very 
broadly brown. Hind wing : the anterior third from a line that 
passes from base through the upper portion of the cell to the 
termen, brown ; a subterminal row of rather distinct brown spots 
enclosed between a series of obscure lilacine lunules and a black 
anticiliary line. Underside: ground-colour and markings as in 
the c? , but on the fore wing the transverse postdiscal series of 
markings placed comparatively more inwards. Antenna?, head, 
thorax and abdomen similar to those of the c? 

Exp. c? $ 30-34 mm. (1-18-1-34"). 

Hal. The Himalayas : Simla to Sikhim ; Assam ; Upper 
Burma ; Arracan. 

702. Cyaniris jynteana, de N., J.A.S. B. 1883, p. 69, pi. 1, figs. 7 tf> 
la 2 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 524, pi. 48, fig. 10 rf; de N. 
Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 104. 

Cyaniris sikkima, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 524. pi. 48, fig. 11 <$; 
'de N. Butt. Ltd. iii, 1890, p. 105. 

c? . Upperside : purplish -blue or lilac of a deeper shade than 
in C. dilecta. Fore wing : a much broader dusky black ter- 
minal margin that widens at apex and is somewhat diffuse along 
its inner edge. In specimens of the dry-season brood there is a 
diffuse but prominent discal white patch. Hind wing : costa dusky 
brownish ; termen with a comparatively narrow black border 
edged on the inner side by a more or less obscure subterminal 
series of black spots, each spot centred in a background which is 
slightly paler than the lilac ground-colour. Underside : pale greyish- 
white or bluish-white, with the usual pale brown markings which 
are small, delicate and regular. Antennas, head, thorax and 



332 LYC.TNlD.lt. 

abdomen blackish brown, antenna? ringed with white ; beneath : 
palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . " Upperside fore wing : 
all but the middle of the disc (which is white glossed with irides- 
cent blue) black ; a discocellular black spot. Hind wing : blackish ; 
white in the middle glossed with blue ; along the veins irrorated 
with black scales ; a submarginal series of pale lunules. Under- 
side : both wings marked exactly as in the male." (de JXiceville.) 

Exp. tf 32-34 mm. (1-26-1-32"). 

Hab. Sikhim ; hills of Assam ; also recorded from the Malay 
Peninsula. 

703. Cyaniris ccelestina, Kollar (Lycaena) in Hiiyefs Kaschmir, iv, 
'1848, p. 423 ; Moore. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 244 ; de JV. Suit. 1ml iii, 
1890, p. 106. 
Lycaena kollari, We&twood in Dblday., Westw. Sf Hew. Gen. Di. 

Lap. ii, 1852, p. 491 ; Sutler (Cyaniris). P. Z. S. 1886, p. 367. 
Polyommatus kasinira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 503, pi. 31, fig. 1 rf . 

d . Upperside : lilac-blue (darker on the fore than on the hind 
wing in most specimens), with in certain lights a slight bright 
iridescence chiefly apparent along the costal margin and A'eins of 
the fore wing. Fore wing : a very slender black line along the 
costal margin broadened at apex and continued slenderly down the 
terrnen to the tornus. Hind wing : ground-colour along the 
costal margin somewhat broadly paler ; termen with a very slender 
anticiliary jet-black line. Cilia: snow-white on the fore wing 
alternated very slenderly with black at the apices of the veins. 
Underside : pearly bluish-white. Fore wing : a discocellular, short, 
transverse, slender brownish streak, a similarly-coloured spot 
beyond it in interspace 6, followed by three or four duller brown 
spots in transverse order in interspaces 2 or 3 to 5 and a double 
transverse subterminal series of lunules. Hind wing : a broad 
diffuse transverse basal area continued for a short distance down 
the dorsum, tinted with bluish green ; the usual subbasal and 
discal spots very small ; the termen with a subterminal series of 
lunules and an outer row of spots. In very many specimens the 
markings of the underside on both fore and hind wings are 
more or less obsolescent, in some taken at Simla in April and May 
beyond a black speck here and there the markings are altogether 
absent. $ . Upperside : paler duskier lilac-blue than in the c? . 
Fore wing: costa and termen broadly bordered with dusky brownish- 
black ; a prominent, black, short transverse streak on the disco- 
cellulars, beyond it the lilac-blue ground-colour pale, almost white. 
Hind wing : the blue ground-colour much restricted, the costal 
and terminal margins broadly blackish-brown, the dorsal margin 
whitish ; the dark colour on the terminal margin traversed by a 
series of inwardly conical, brown-centred bluish spots and followed 
by a prominent anticiliary black line. Cilia as in the 3 . Under- 
side : very similar to that of the c? and similarly with the markings 
very often obsolescent. Antenna?, head, thorax and abdomen in 
both sexes dark brownish-black, the antennae ringed with white, the 



CYANIKIS. 333 

thorax in the tf with blue pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white. 

Exp. c? $ 33-36 mm. (1-30-1-40"). 

Hab. Western Himalayas : Kashmir, Murree, Simla, Mussoorie, 
Naini Tal. 

I am very doubtful whether the next described form, G. huegeli, 
Moore, is distinct from this ; a constant difference in size seems to 
be the chief distinction. Mr. de Niceville (I. c.) says " there is no 
difficulty whatever in recognizing C. coelestina. Both sexes are 
considerably smaller than G. Imer/eli and the males have the outer 
black border on the upperside of the fore wing broader and con- 
siderably dilated at the apex." I have not, however, found this 
latter character at all constant in C. coelestina, and in G. Jiueyeli 
the narrow black border to the fore wing is distinctly though very 
slightly also dilated towards the apex in all specimens that I have 



704. Cyaniris huegeli (PI. XIX, fig. 129), Moore. 

Lycsena argiolus, Kottar (nee Linnceus) in HiiyeVs Kaschmir, iv, 

1848, p. 423. 

Cyaniris huegelii, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 244 ; de N. Suit. Ind. 
iii, 1890, p. 107. 

Race singalensis. 

Lycsena singalensis, Felder, Verlt. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xviii. 18G8, 
"p. 282 ; Moore (Cyaniris), Lep. Ceijl, i, 1881, p. 76, pi. 35, figs. 1, 
l,c? ; de N. Suit. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 108. 

^ $. Very closely resembles C. coelestina. d . Upperside: 011 
the whole of a slightly more purple tint than coelestina ; black 
border to the termen of the fore wing generally slightly more even 
in width from apex to toruus ; anticiliary black line on the hind 
wing slightly broader and slightly diffuse on the inner side. 
Underside : ground-colour and markings similar to those of 
G. ccelestina and much more rarely obsolescent, the posterior two 
lunules of the inner subterminal series on the fore wing apparently 
always broad, large and diffuse. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings as in coelestina. $ . In ground-colour and markings on the 
upperside like a large edition of C. coelestina $ . On the underside 
ground-colour and markings as in its own c? and similarly with the 
markings seldom or never obsolescent. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in G. coelestina. 

Exp. 3 $ 42-45 mm. (1-68-1 78"). 

Hab. Concurrent with that of C. coelestina, Kollar. 

Race singalensis, Eelder. d 1 . Upperside : purplish blue with in 
certain lights a refulgent silvery iridescence, most conspicuous along 
the costa of the fore wing. Eore and hind wings : a very narrow 
black edging to the terminal margins narrower on the hind wing 
than on the fore wing, not dilated towards the apex of the latter. 
Cilia conspicuously white. Underside : silvery white with a slight 
tinge of blue ; both fore and hind wings with the usual Cyaniri* 



334 

markings. Pore wing : the postdiscal series of abbreviated lines 
or elongate spots pale brown, very regular, placed almost end to 
end, the series slightly curved and not closer to the termen 
posteriorly than anteriorly. Hind wing : the markings pale brow n, 
regular but small, the subbasal transverse series of three spots and 
the subcostal spot in interspace 7 black, the latter not larger than 
the others. Both fore and hind wings : with the spots of the 
subtermiual series very small, mere black dots ; the inner subter- 
minal series of markings lunular and generally somewhat blurred, 
the posterior lunules on the fore wing distinctly broadened as in 
the typical form but not so prominently ; finally, the anticiliary 
black line very slender and clearly denned. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen blackish, the antenna? ringed with white, the thorax 
clothed with purplish-blue pubescence ; beneath : palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. $ . Upperside, fore wing : costa and termen very 
broadly blackish brown ; the remainder of the wing pui'plish blue, 
paling almost to white towards the anterior, outer portion. Hind 
wing : costa broadly, termen and dorsurn more narrowly blackish 
brown, the rest of the wing pale purplish blue, the colour getting 
still paler on the anterior and outer portion as on the fore wing ; 
the blackish-brown edging on the terminal margin reduced 
posteriorly to an anticiliary black line within which there is a 
transverse series of subterminal black spots enclosed further 
inwards by an obscure series of dark luuules. Underside : ground- 
colour and markings as in the J . Antenna, head, thorax and 
abdomen similar but darker. 

Exp. <j ? 34-38 mm. (1-36-1-50"). 

Hob. Southern India ; Ceylon. 



Genus LYOENA. 

Lycaena, sectn. iii, pt., Fabr. Illig. Mag. vi, 1807, p. 286 ; Herrich- 
Schuffer, Syst. Bearl. Schmett. Eur. i, 1843, p. iii ; de N. Butt. 
Ind. iii, 1890, p. 66. 

Type, L. meleager, Hubner, from Europe. 

Range. Palaearctic, Nearctic, Indo-Malayan. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa slightly arched ; apex acute or blunt, 
never rounded ; termen convex ; dorsum straight ; cell little more 
than half length of wing; vein 6 from apex of cell, vein 7 shifted 
further back towards base of wing, their bases comparatively well 
separated, vein 5 equidistant at base from bases of 4 and G ; upper 
discocellular in line with subcostal, middle and lower discocellulars 
subequal ; vein 8 absent, 9 out of 7, 10 and 11 from apical half of 
subcostal, 12 at apex bent slightly towards 11. Hind wing : 
pear-shaped ; costa and dorsum subequal, the former slightly 
arched towards apex, the latter straight ; termen strongly arched ; 
cell slightly shorter than half length of wing ; veins 3 and 4 dis- 
tinctly separated at base, the former from a little before, the 
latter from lower apex of cell ; vein 7 from apical half of subcostal ; 
vein 8 strongly arched at base, then straight" to apex running very 



LYC.5NA. 335 

close to costal margin. Antennae about half length of fore wing ; 
club well-marked, oval, pointed at tip; palpi subporrect, scaled, 
with short stiff hairs in front, third joint moderately long ; eyes 
naked or hairy ; legs slender. J . Pore legs : tibiae and tarsi 
tapered, the latter long, exarticulate, spined beneath. $ . Fore 
legs normal, with minute claws. 

Key to the forms of Lycama. 

A. Eyes not hairy. 

a. Brown without any blue colouring on 

upperside. 
'. Underside hind wing : ground-colour 

brown or brownish grey. 
a 2 . Upperside fore and hind wings : 
well-marked subterminal series 
of black spots, bordered out- 
wardly by a series of orange- 
red lunules L. astrarche, p. 337. 

b~. Upperside fore and hind wings: 
uniform, no subterminal series 

of orange-red lunules L. iris, p. 337. 

b' . Underside hind Aving : ground-colour 

pale metallic green L. younyhusbandi, p. 338. 

b. "With more or less of blue colouring on 

upperside in c? . 
'. Underside hind wing : ground-colour 

grey or brownish grey. 
2 . Underside hind wing ; subterminal 
series of spots present and 
speckled with metallic green 
scales i L - chrtst pl"> race 

b\ Underside hind wing': 'subterminal ( samudra, p. 346. 

series of spots present or absent ; 
when present not speckled with 
metallic scales. 
3 . Upperside fore wing : without 

a trace of discal spots. 
a 4 . Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings: white conspicuously 

spotted with black L. hi/las, p. 351. 

b 4 . Cilia of both fore and hind 

wings: white or grey, not 

spotted with black'or at any 

rate not conspicuously so. 

a''. Underside hind wing : discal 

spots black, each encircled 

with white L. loewii,?. 343. 

b'. Underside hind wing : discal 

spots entirely white. 
a 6 . Upperside: ground-colour 

purplish blue ; fore . T , 
wing rounded at apex. . \ L ' P^etes , race 
4. Upperside: ground-colour < lefiana, p. 352. 

deep metallic blue : 

fore wing acute at , T 1 

a j L. plieretes, race 

' ' | asiatica, p. 353. 



336 LYC.ENID.*:. 

b\ Upper.side fore wing : with a 

transverse discal series of spots 

paler than ground-colour, 

sometimes obsolescent but 

always plainly indicated. 

a 4 . Upperside fore wing : blue 

colour extended from base 

to at least the discal spots. 

''. Underside hind wing: with- 

out a terminal " double 



' L ' 
Underside hind wing: with ' -i (lloka ' P- m 



a terminal " double series 
of coalesced white lu- 



L 



ft*. Upperside fore' ' wing :' ' blue * J alokfl > var " leela > P- 35(X 
colour restricted to im- , T , ., , 



metallic green. 
-. Upperside fore and hind wings ; 

blue colouring very regular, 

extended almost to terminal 

margins .................... L. galathea, p. 348. 

b'-. Upperside fore and hind wings : 

blue colouring spread somewhat 

irregularly, restricted to basal 

two-thirds of wings .......... L. omphisa, p. 347. 

B. Eyes hairy. 

a. Upperside fore wing : blue colouring 

irregular, restricted to basal two-thirds 

of wing ........................ L. deranica, p. 344. 

b. Upperside fore wing : blue colouring 

spread more evenly and regularly 
over at least three-fourths of wing 
from base. 
a'. Underside hind wing : ground-colour 

between discal and subterminal 

markings with irregular patches of 

white. 



a". Underside : ground-colour dark 
grey, spots and markings large 
and distinct ................ L. sarta, p. 345. 

b-. Underside ; ground-colour paler 
grey, in some specimens nearly 
white ; terminal markings more 
or less obsolescent ; often a 
white streak in cell extended to 
white patch between discal and 
subterminal markings ........ L. stoliczkana, p. 341. 

'. Underside hind wing: ground-colour 
between discal and subterminal 
markings uniform, with no white 
patches. 

a-. Upperside : pale bright purple . . L. icarus, p. 339. 
b*. Upperside : shining, glossy, electric , T 

hi..,, J> I L. eros, race balucha, 

............... \ p. 340. 



LYC.ENA. 337 

705. Lycsena astrarche *, Bergstr. (Papilio) Nomencl. iii, 1779, pi. 49, 

figs. 7, 8 : Stand. (Lycsena) Cat. Lep. i, 1901, p. 83. 
Polyommatus nazira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi. 31, fig. 4. 
Lycsena medon, de N. (cipud Hufnayel), Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 69. 

3 $ Upperside : brown with a silky sheen in certain lights. 
Fore wing : a black spot on the discocellulars. Hind wing : an 
anticiliary black line. Fore and hind wings : a subterminal, 
transverse, slightly curved series of black spots, inwardly bordered 
by a transverse series of orange-red lunules ; cilia white, spotted 
inwardly at the terminations of the veins with black. Underside : 
ground-colour a warm dark grey. Fore wing : a spot on the 
discocellulars, a transverse, discal, bisinuate series of seven spots, 
a transverse, subterminaJ, slightly curved series of six spots and 
an anticiliary line, black ; the discocellular spot and the discal 
spots encircled with white, the subterminal spots inwardly bordered 
by larger orange-red spots, which in turn are inwardly margined 
narrowly with black, the anterior ones with specks of white again 
on their inner sides ; outwardly the spots of the subterminal series 
are conspicuously bordered with white ; cilia grey. Hind wing : 
a transverse, subbasal series of four spots, followed by a spot in 
middle of interspace 7, another at the base of interspace 6, a speck 
on the discocellulars, and an outwardly oblique, somewhat sinuate 
posterior, discal series of five spots, black, all enclosed with white 
which colour forms a comparatively large postdiscal patch ; beyond 
is a strongly curved series of nine orange-red larger spots succeeded 
by a subterminal similarly curved series of seven black spots on a 
white ground, and an anticiliary black line ; the tornal three of 
the orange-red series of spots are coalescent ; cilia white, dusky 
grey at the terminations of the veins. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen brown, the shafts of the antennae ringed with white ; 
beneath : the club of the antennee, the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white, the palpi with some stiff black hairs. 

Exp. <5 $ 26-29 mm. (1-04-M1"). 

Hub. The Palaearctic Region (except the Polar area). Within 
our limits, the Himalayas : Chitral, Kashmir, Simla to Kumaon ; 
Baluchistan. 



706. Lycsena iris, Staudinrjer, Stett. ent. Zeit. 1886, p. 207; G>:-Grshim. 
Rom. Mem., Lep. iv, 1890, p. 378, pi. 7, fig. 8. 

cT $ . Upperside : uniform rich silky brown. Fore and hind 
wings : short, black, transverse streaks or elongate spots on the disco- 
cellulars ; in some specimens, in addition, there are one or two 



* The specific names alexis var. 1, Scopoli, and medon, Hufnagel (nee Esper), 
have priority over astrarche, Bergstrasser, but the former name has been, and is 
still by many authors, applied to our common English " blue," while Hufnagel's 
description of his "medon" is quite insufficient. 

YOL. II. Z 




338 LYC-ENID/E. 

subterminal, obscure, small black spots near the tornal angle. Cilia 

prominently white. Under - 
side : brownish grey, Fore 
wing: the following white- 
encircled jet-black spots : 
a large oval spot on the 
, discocellulars; a transverse, 

- g() bisinuate, discal series of 

a. Lycana iris. ' six 8 P ts > the lower tw ar ' 

ft. Zgfcana frfo, var. Underside fore wing. ranged in a slightly oblique 

line directly beneath the 

discocellular spot, the next spot above further outwards towards the 
termeu, the remaining three still further outwards, in transverse 
slightly oblique line to the costa, the posterior spot of the whole series 
slightly elongate and curved; beyond these are an inner and an outer 
transverse somewhat maculated line and an anticiliary unbroken 
line darker than the ground-colour, the innermost of the three 
lines bordered inwardly with whitish. Hind wing : a subbasal, 
transverse line of four well-separated spots, a short streak or 
elongate transverse spot on the discocellulars and a bisinuate, 
transverse, discal series of six spots jet-black, each spot with a 
slender ring of white ; the posterior but one spot of the subbasal 
line is minute, and the posterior spot of the discal series slightly 
elongate and curved. The terminal markings consist of a trans- 
verse, curved, subterminal series of brown spots darker than the 
ground-colour, bordered inwardly by a series of lunules and 
outwardly by an anticiliary prominent line of the same tint, the 
lines of lunules edged inwardly and somewhat obscurely with 
white ; the posterior two spots of the subterminal series jet-black, 
set in an ochraceous-yellow background and speckled with metallic 
blue. Antennae black, the shafts ringed with white ; head, thorax 
and abdomen brown ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white. 

Exp. c? $ 29-30 mm. (1-13- L-18"). 

Hub. Within our limits recorded from Chitral. Described 
originally from Central Asia. 

707. Lycaena younghusbandi, Elwe*, P. Z. S. 1906, p. 484, pi. 30, 
fig. 10 rf. 

S . Upperside : dark satiny brown with a slightly plumbeous 
tint in certain lights,/ more apparent towards the bases of the 
wings than over the outer portions. Fore and hind wings : nearly 
uniform, with only slender black anticiliary lines and the disco- 
cellulars of the fore wing marked by a transverse short black 
streak ; edge of the costa of fore wing and cilia of both wings 
snow-white. Underside, fore wing : grey ; a lunular short black 
line on the discocellulars and a transverse discal series of six 
black spots, each encircled with white, followed by a subterminal, 
very obscure, transverse row of slender dusky spots, of which the 



LYCJENA. 339 

anterior spots are barely indicated, the posterior three or four 
obsolescent but traceable. Hind wing : pale metallic green ; a 
broad terminal edging grey ; the ground-colour bounded outwardly 
by an obscure series of dusky spots that are suffused with metallic 
green. Antennas, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, shafts 
of the antennas ringed with white ; beneath : palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. 

Exp. <$ 34 mm. (1-34"). 

Hub. Tibet: Gyantze ; Sikhim : Chumbi Valley, Phari. 

This form, collected by Capt. Walton, I.M.S., during the late 
Tibet Expedition, is very close to, even if it can be considered at all 
distinct from L. felicis, Oberthiir, which was also abundant at 
Gyantze. I have been quite unable to identify and separate the 
2 from the females of felicis. The chief points of difference 
in the d 1 are " the dark leaden grey instead of greyish-brown 
colour above" and the obsolescence of the terminal markings. 

708. Lycaena icarus, Rottenbury (Papilio), Naturf. vi, 1775, p. 21. 
Lycaena icarus, var. persica, Bienert, Lep. Ergebn. 1870, p. 29. 
Pblyommatus yarkundensis, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 229; 

id. Sci. Res. Second Ytirk. Miss., Lep. 1879, p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 8 ; 

de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 75. 
Polyommatus kashgarensis, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 230; 

id. Sci. Res. Second Yark. Miss., Lep. 1879, p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 7 ; 

de, N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 75. 
Lycsena persica, Butler, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 407 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 

1890, p. 74. 
Lywena fugitiva, Butler, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 606 ; de N. Butt. Ind 

iii, 1890, p. 74. 

c? $ . Eyes hairy, c? . Upper side : purplish blue, with a rich 
satiny lustre in certain lights. JFore and hind wings : purer darker- 
blue at base, with anticiliary, black, slender lines on both wings. 
In some specimens this line on the hind wing is bordered by a 
row of black spots in the interspaces, some of which latter become 
obsolescent posteriorly. Cilia white. Underside : pale opaque 
grey ; bases of both fore and hind wings and the dorsal margin 
of the latter wing broadly and diffusely irrorated with greenish- 
blue scales. Fore wing : a spot in middle of cell, a spot below it 
in interspace 2, a transverse spot on the discocellulars and a trans- 
verse bisinuate discal series of rounded spots black, each encircled 
narrowly with white ; beyond these a transverse slightly curved 
series of dusky lunules and a slender dark anticiliary line, the 
portions of the ground-colour enclosed between them at the apices 
of the interspaces slightly paler, each interspace v,ith a dusky 
black spot. Hind wing : a subbasal transverse series of four spots, 
a strongly curved transverse discal series of seven smaller spots, a 
transverse postdiscal series of eight slender lunules and a sub- 
terminal series of seven spots, black ; the subbasal and discal spots 
narrowly encircled with white, the postdiscal series of lunules 
outwardly bordered with pale reddish brown ; finally, a dusky 

z2 



340 

short line on the discocellulars and an anticiliary very slender pale 
brown line. Antennae dark brownish-black, the shafts conspicuously 
ringed with white, head, thorax and abdomen with tufted pale 
bluish pubescence ; beneath : palpi white, with a fringe of stiff 
black hairs, thorax with bluish hairs paler than on the uppersicle, 
abdomen white. $ . Upperside : very dark brown ; both fore and 
hind wings overlaid from base outwards with a dense irroration 
of blue scales. The extent of this irroration is very variable, in 
some it is confined to the basal area of the wings, in others it 
spreads diffusely outwards over about the basal two-thirds of the 
fore wing and up to the disc on the hind wing. Fore wing: the 
terminal margin evenly dark brown, of a shade darker than the 
ground-colour, almost black in some specimens ; within this is a 
subterminal transverse series of conspicuous orange-red spots, the 
spots become obsolete towards the apex, in a few specimens only 
the posterior spots are distinct. Hind wing : a subterminal series 
of black spots inwardly margined with orange-red, and an anti- 
ciliary slender black line generally indistinct. Underside : ground- 
colour and markings more or less as in the 3 , but the ground- 
colour is a darker more brownish grey, the spots large and more 
prominently encircled with white ; in many specimens the white 
encircling the discocellular black spot and the discal black spots in 
interspaces 3 and 4 on the hind wing are diffusely spread outwards 
in a manner similar to the same markings on the hind wing of 
L. stoliczkana. Cilia white. Antennae as in the <$ , head, thorax 
and abdomen with darker but similar pubescence ; beneath : palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white, the latter two in a few specimens very 
pale bluish. 

Exp. <$ $ 32-36 mm. (T28-1-42"). 

Bab. The Palaearctic Region (except the Polar area). Within 
our limits, the Himalayas : Chitral, Ladakh ; Baluchistan. 

The above description is from specimens taken at Quetta and 
in the Chitral Valley. I am quite unable to separate them or 
the specimens so labelled of persica, yarkundensit, kasJigarensis 
and fugitiva in the British Museum from English and European 
specimens of the " Common blue." L. fugitiva, Butler, so far as the 
type-specimen is concerned, seems to be the most distinct ; the 
ground-colour on the upperside is paler, more purple, but other 
specimens of the same variety grade into typical icarus. 

709. Lycaena eros, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i, 1808, p. 42. 

Hace balucha. 

Lycaana balucha, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884. p. 24 : Swinhoe, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 340. 

Race balucha. Moore. J . Upperside : shining opalescent 
purplish blue. Fore wing : costa margined with a very slender 
white line, edged below the apical two-thirds still more narrowly 
with black ; termen edged with a broader black line, that inwardly 



LTC.EXA. 341 

is slightly diffuse and is also produced inwards, as is the narrow 
black edging on the apical portion of the costa, for a very short 
distance along the veins. Hind ving : costal margin slightly and 
diffusely fuscous ; apex and teruien narrowly edged with black, 
which is produced along the veins as on tho fore wing ; this black 
edging is broadest anteriorly and dwindles to a very slender 
anticiliary line posteriorly, which is continued upwards from the 
tornal angle for a short distance along the dorsum, above it the 
dorsal margin is whitish. Underside: shining silvery grey. Fore 
wing: with the following small black spots, each encircled with 
silvery white : a spot in basal half of cell, a spot below it in inter- 
space 1, a transverse spot on the discocellulars and a transverse 
discal sinuate series of seven spots, the anterior four placed in a 
curve, the posterior two spots often geminate ; beyond these 
are a transverse postdiscal series of dusky black lunules, each 
edged outwardly with very pale ochraceous, another similar series 
of transverse dusky spots and an anticiliary slender fuscous black 
line. Hind wing : a small patch of blue scaling at base, a trans- 
verse well separated subbasal series of four small black spots and a 
discal, anteriorly strongly curved series of eight similarly-coloured 
spots all encircled slenderly with silvery white ; terminal markings 
as on the fore wing, but very slender and black, the postdiscal row 
of lunules and the subterminal row of black spots strongly curved, 
the outward edging to the lunules brighter and more pronounced. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings white. Antennae black, the 
shafts as usual ringed with white ; head, thorax and abdomen with 
blue pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. 
5 . Upperside : brown ; base of fore and hind wings with a 
little blue sealing that is continued obscurely along the dorsum, 
and anticiliary slender black lines on both wings. Fore wing : a 
posterior transverse subterminal series of three or four bright 
ochraceous spots. Hind wing: similar ochraceous lunular spots 
edging a posterior row of jet-black spots that become obsolescent 
anteriorly. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white, broad and 
prominent. Underside : ground-colour dark brownish-grey, the 
markings similar but the terminal markings on both fore and hind 
wings fainter, not so well-defined. Antenna? as in the d" ; head, 
thorax and abdomen brown, the thorax in some specimens clothed 
with a few bluish hairs ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
as in the tf . 

Exp. c? $ 28-32 mm. (1-10-1 -26"). 

Hab. Baluchistan. 

710. Lycaena stoliczkana (PL XIX, fig. 130), Felder, Novara Reise, 
Lep. ii, 1865, p. 283, pi. 35, figs. 10, 11, rf ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 
1890, p. 73. 

Polyommatus ariana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi. 31, fig. 2 rf; 
id. Sci. Res. Second Yarkand Mission, Lep. 1879, p. 6 ; de N. 
Butt. Ind.iii, 1890, p. 72. 

Lycama sutleja, Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 246; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 
1890, p. 73. 



342 LYCM3TIDJE. 

c? 2 ' Eyes liairy. J Upperside : purplish blue, with in certain 
lights a much brighter but paler silvery blue gloss than in 
L. icarus. Fore and hind wings : terminal margins from very 
narrow to a width of about one-fifth of the wings dark brown ; 
discocellulars especially of the fore wing in some specimens with 
a transverse dark brown spot or short line. Cilia snow-white. 
Underside : grey, bases of the wings with a dense patch of bluish 
scales. Fore wing : sometimes with a black spot in the cell and 
another below it in interspace 1, very often these spots absent; a 
transverse black spot slenderly encircled with white on the disco- 
cellulars, and a transverse somewhat sinuate discal series of six 
similarly-coloured rounded spots beyond ; these are followed by a 
transverse subterrninal series of dusky spots, sometimes slenderly 
sometimes broadly encircled with white, and an anticiliary slender 
black or dusky line. In some specimens a second inner postdiscal 
row of dusky spots follows the discal markings. These terminal 
markings vary much in intensity. In many specimens probably 
from dry arid localities the terminal markings are very faint and 
ill-defined, the ground-colour towards the terminal margin changing 
to white, very faintly if at all tinged with grey. Hind wing : a 
subbasal transverse series of four and a discal strongly curved, 
almost medially angulate, series of seven black dots widely encircled 
with white ; discocellular spot white, sometimes transversely 
traversed by a short black line ; a broad, somewhat diffuse and 
ill-defined white streak beyond the middle of the discal series, 
extended in some specimens to the terminal margin. In a few 
individuals the discocellular white spot and the above-mentioned 
streak are joined by slender prolongations from the former. 
Terminal markings, which are often very ill-defined, consist of a 
transverse, curved, postdiscal series of slender black lunules with 
or without broad ochraceous outer edgings to each lunule (some- 
times these ochraceous edgings are very dark and well-defined 
var. sutleja), and a subterminal series of small dusky spots on a 
white background followed by an anticiliary slender black line. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings prominently white. Antennae 
black, the shafts ringed with white as usual ; head, thorax and 
abdomen with purplish-blue pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : very variable ; 
ground-colour pale to dark brown ; in some specimens almost 
uniform without terminal markings on either fore or hind wing, 
only with the bases of the wings darker and more or less irrorated 
with blue scales ; other specimens however, bear on both fore 
and hind wings a subterminal more or less incomplete row of 
ochraceous-red, inwardly conical spots, the number of which vary 
greatly in var. sutleja, Moore, the fore wing has five of these spots, 
the hind wing six, the posterior two of which are geminate. In 
most specimens however, there is an anticiliary dark or black 
well-marked line on both fore and hind wings. Underside : as in 
the c?,but the ground-colour much darker, more often a brown of 
a tint paler than on its upper side, than greyish-brown ; markings 



LYOffilTA. 343 

similar to those of the c? but better defined, both fore and hind 
wings with a postdiscal transverse series of slender black lunules 
always edged outwardly with ochraceous. this edging faint in 
some specimens, i-ieh ochraceous red in others. Antennae as in 
the <$ ; head, thorax and abdomen dark brown; beneath: the 
palpi, thorax and abdomen dusky white. 

Eacp. rf ? 31-42 mm. (1-2-1-66"). 

Hab. The Himalayas : from Chitral and Kashmir to the Chumbi 
Valley in Native Sikhim. 

From the measurements given above it will be seen that 
this form varies as much in its size as in the character of its 
markings. 



711. Lycsena loewii, Zeller, Isis, 1847, p. 9; Lany, Butt, Eur. 1884, 

p. 141 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 79, pi. 26, fig. 167 <$ . 
Lycsena chamanica, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1884, p. 23; de N. Butt. 
Ind. iii, 1890, p. 79. 

cJ . Upperside : a beautiful purplish-blue changing in certain 
lights to deep blue ; veins of both fore and hind wings jet-black, 
outwardly very conspicuous. Fore wing : costa very slenderly, 
termen from apex to tornus much more broadly and evenly black. 
Hind wing: costa broadly, ternieu a little more narrowly and 
dorsum broadly dusky black ; posteriorly the blue ground-colour 
between the conspicuous black veins terminates in each interspace 
in an intense black spot that contrasts strongly with the duller 
black on the terminal margin ; outwardly these black spots are 
separated from an anticiliary intense black line by a slender 
edging of bluish-white scales. Cilia of both fore and hind wings 
white with their basal halves dusky black. Underside : brownish 
grey. Fore wing: a prominent, discocellular, transverse, white- 
encircled black spot ; a transverse discal row of six comparatively 
large black spots edged very slenderly on the inner side, very 
broadly on the outer side with snow-white, the anterior five spots 
of the row placed in a slight curve, the upper four round, the 
lower spot larger, oval and obliquely placed; the lowest posterior 
spot of the row also large, elongate, sometimes composed of two 
geminate spots placed vertically under and out of line of the 
curve formed by the anterior five ; these are followed by a broad 
transverse postdiscal blackish-brown band, a terminal catenulated 
transverse white band, each link of which is centred with a dusky 
black spot and an anticiliary, very prominent, somewhat lunular 
black line. Hind wing a transverse subbasal series of four black 
spots, a transverse discocellular spot and a discal series of six 
similar spots, the anterior five of which are placed in a semicircular 
curve, vertically below which the posterior spot, which is some- 
times double and geminate, is posited out of line of the curve 
formed by the anterior five. All these spots encircled with white, 
which on the outer side of the discal series of spots entirely 
replaces the ground-colour, up to the terminal margin. On the 



344 

white area are superposed a transverse, postdiscal, highly curved 
series of connected black lunules, a subterminal series of small 
black spots, one in each interspace, and an anticiliary slender black 
line ; the posterior two spots of the subterminal row are inwardly 
edged with bright ochraceous and sprinkled with metallic blue 
scales. Antennae black, the club touched with white apically and 
the shaft ringed with the same colour ; head, thorax and abdomen 
black with a little blue pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, thorax, 
abdomen white. 5 . Upperside : brown or fuscous brown. In 
Baluchistan specimens ; fore wing : with postdiscal inner and outer 
transverse series of whitish spots, the inner series much more 
clearly defined ; a faint black spot on the discocellulars and an 
anticiliary dark line. Hind wing: a similar incomplete series of 
white spots followed by a row of obscure black spots that are 
outwardly edged very slenderly but conspicuously with white, and 
have the subtornal two spots crowned inwardly with ochraceous 
red ; an anticiliary dark line as on the fore wing. In Chitral 
specimens : on the fore wing the postdiscal series of spots is absent 
or only faintly indicated ; occasionally there is an obscure trans- 
verse series of two or three dull black spots crowned inwardly 
with ochraceous red. Hind wing : more or less as in Baluchistan 
specimens, but the postdiscal series of white spots absent or barely 
indicated, the other markings not so clearly defined. Underside : 
in specimens both from Baluchistan and Chitral, as in the rf, 
the ground-colour more brownish, the markings large and clearly 
defined. 

Exp. rf $ 30-38 mm. (1-18-1-50"). 

Hab. Asia Minor; Persia; Chitral; Baluchistan. 

Var. chamanica, Moore. The d is slightly paler blue on the 
upperside, on the underside the markings though small are 
precisely as in L. loeivii. 



712. Lycaena devanica, Moore (Polyommatus), P. Z. S. 1874, p. 573, 
pl. 66, fig. 4 rf ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 71. 

o . Upperside : dusky brown with more or less of a dense 
irroration of blue scales that spreads from the bases of the wings 
outwards towards the termen. The amount of this blue scaling 
is irregular and variable ; on the fore wing it never extends up to 
the apex or terminal margin ; on the hind wing never further 
than the disc. Fore wing : a short transverse line or elongate 
spot on the discocellulars and a slender black anticiliary line. 
Hind wing : without markings ; in a few specimens traces of one 
or two subterminal dusky spots near the tornal angle ; a slender 
black anticiliary line as on the fore wing. Cilia of both fore and 
hind wings white. Underside : greyish brown ; bases of both 
fore and hind wings irrorated with blue scales. Fore wing : with 
the following black, white-encircled spots : a transverse spot on 
the discocellulars, a curved series of five, sometimes six, discal spots 
and a subterminal transverse complete series of smaller spots, the 



345 

spots in the latter series dusky black, paler than those of the 
discal series ; bordering the white edging to the subterrninal series 
of spots on the inner side, is another obscure transverse row of 
dusky spots that are not encircled with white ; lastly, a prominent 
anticiliary black line. Hind wing : a subbasal transverse series of 
four spots, an outwardly angulated discal series of eight spots, 
the posterior two geminate, followed by a strongly curved post- 
discal series of slender lunules, a subterminal series of smaller 
spots and an anticiliary slender line, black, each spot is encircled 
with white ; discocellulars marked by a large, irregular, white spot, 
that in some specimens is transversely traversed by a short slender 
black line ; the outer white edging to the middle spots of the 
discal series is produced irregularly outwards and forms a small 
patch, and the postdiscal series of lunules is bordered on the 
outer side by pale cchraceous red. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings white, alternated with fuscous brown at the apices of the 
veins. Antenna black, the shafts ringed with white, head and 
thorax with bluish-grey pubescence, abdomen dusky black ; 
beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen white. . Upperside : 
uniform dark brown with in certain lights a satiny lustre. Fore 
wing : the discocellular transverse black spot obscure, seen more 
by transparency from the underside than marked by actual scaling. 
Fore and hind wings : cilia prominent, snow-white. Underside : 
similar to the underside in the d 1 , the ground-colour a shade darker. 
Antennae, palpi, thorax and abdomen beneath as in the c? ; on the 
upperside, the head, thorax and abdomen black, clothed more or 
less with brownish pubescence. 

Exp. <$ 2 34-38 mm. (1-35-1-50"). 

Hob. Kashmir ; Ladakh. 

The next form, L. sarta, Alph., is very closely allied to devanica 
and is probably only a race of that insect. I have kept it separate 
because in Indian specimens the differs completely from the $ 
of devanica. In Central Asia, however, the $ of L. surta is 
uniform brown on the upperside, like that of L. devanica. 

713. Lycaena sarta, Alpheraky.Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross, xvi, 1881, p. 387, 
pi. 14, fig. 8. 

(5 . Upperside : dark brown, overlaid on both fore and hind 
wings from the base outwards with bluish purple, this colour 
variable in extent but not reaching to the terminal margins in any 
specimens, and only up to or a little beyond the discs of the wings 
in very many. In all specimens the immediate base of the wings 
is suffused more or less prominently with pale blue, which is 
continued for a short distance down the dorsal margin of the hind 
wing. Fore and hind wings : an anticiliary dark line and the hind 
wing in many specimens with a subterminal series of dark spots ; 
cilia white. Underside : brownish grey. Fore wing : a discocellular 
and a transverse discal series of black spots, each spot encircled with 
white ; the latter markings somewhat variable, in some specimens 



346 LYCJENIDJE. 

the discal series consists of five spots arranged in an outward 
curve, in others of six arranged in a transverse bisinuate line ; in 
nearly all specimens that I have seen the edging of white on the 
outer side is spread diffusely outwards ; beyond these there are 
in some specimens a subterminal inner and an outer maculated 
narrow transverse band, each band edged on the outer side 
narrowly and somewhat obscurely with white followed by an 
anticiliary slender black line ; in other specimens the outer dark 
maculated band becomes a prominent, catenulated, terminal white 
band, each link centred with a dark spot. Hind wing: a transverse 
subbasal series of four and a discal series of eight black spots, 
each spot encircled with white ; the discal series angulated out- 
wardly on vein 5, its posterior two spots geminate, the outer 
white edging spread more or less diffusely outwards, generally only 
in the middle of the series; the discocellular spot is in most 
specimens large and pure white, in a few it is transversely 
traversed by a slender, very short, black line ; the terminal 
markings consist of a curved subterminal series of dark spots 
edged outwardly with white, inwardly with ochraceous, between 
which latter and the discal markings is a curved transverse series 
of dark lunules ; lastly, an anticiliary slender black line as on the 
fore wing. Antennae black, the shafts ringed with white ; head, 
thorax and abdomen dark brown clothed with a little purplish- 
blue pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white, 
the palpi with a fringe of stiff black hairs mixed with the white. 
$ . Upperside : costa broadly, terraen decreasingly from apex to 
tornus dark brown ; rest of the wing dark shining yellow, suffused 
for about two thirds from base with light brown that leaves a trans- 
verse broad postdiscal band of the yellow ground-colour prominently 
apparent, the inner margin of the broad, dark brown, terminal 
edging van dyked. Hind wing : dark brown ; a subterminal series 
of yellow, inwardly pointed, large, cone-shaped coalescent spots ; 
the bases of the spots rest on an auticiliary brown line and bear each 
a dark brown spot that is very near to and in some specimens 
anteriorly touches the anticiliary line, the posterior two brown 
spots geminate. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white alternated 
with fuscous. Underside: precisely similar to that of the 3 . 
Antennae as in the J ; head, thorax and abdomen above dark brown 
without any blue pubescence ; beneath : as in the <S . 

Exp. rf $ 34-37 mm. (1-35-1-46"). 

Hab. Within our limits, Chitral. Described originally from 
Asiatic Eussia. 

714. Lycaena christophi, Staudinger, Stett. ent. Zeit. 1874, p. 87. 
Race samudra. 

Polyommatus samudra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 574, pi. 67, fig-Stf; 
de N. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 78. 

Race samudra, Moore. $ . Upperside: pale lavender-blue. 
Fore and hind wings: termen somewhat broadly and diffusely 



LYCJETfA. 347 

fuscous black ; costal margin and apex of hind wing more broadly 
so ; in fresh specimens the bluish scaling on the hind wing 
posteriorly is carried nearly to the terminal margin, this gives the 
wing an appearance of a posterior terminal series of three or four 
large fuscous black spots, one in each interspace ; cilia white. 
Underside : pale grey. Fore wing with the usual transverse disco- 
cellular and discal series of six white-encircled black spots, no spot 
in the cell or in interspace 1 ; the discal row of spots regular (not 
sinuate), slightly curved, very obliquely placed, sloping posteriorly 
inwards, the four posterior spots in the series large and posited 
en echelon ; these are followed by a double subterminal series of 
dusky lunules and a slender anticiliary black line ; the series of 
lunules become in many specimens obsolescent anteriorly. Hind 
wing: the markings much as in the $ of L. balucha, but the discal 
series of spots is placed further inwards, the spots of the subterminal 
row are speckled with minute metallic green scales, and the ochra- 
ceous edging to the transverse series of black lunules is wanting. 
5 . Uppcrside : brown, the bases of the wings irrorated with 
bluish-grey scales, the irroration extended irregularly along the 
dorsal margin of the hind wing. Cilia of fore and hind wings con- 
spicuously white. Underside: ground-colour as in the d" ; markings 
slightly larger, more clearly denned. Fore wing : the transverse 
discal series of spots bisinuate, the posterior three spots of the 
series distinctly larger than the others, the middle spot of these 
three shifted inwards ; the terminal markings consist of a trans- 
verse postdiscal series of black lunules edged outwardly with 
bright ochraceous, followed by a transverse series of black spots 
and an anticiliary black line, all very clearly defined. Hind wing: 
markings very similar to those of the d 1 , but the discal series 
of spots is closer to the base of the wing and the postdiscal 
transverse row of black lunules is prominently edged outwardly 
with ochraceous. In both sexes the antennae are black, the shafts 
ringed as usual with white ; the head, thorax and abdomen are 
dark brown or black with a more or less dense clothing of 
purplish-blue hairs and scales ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. 

Exp. c? $ 30-33 mm. (1-18-1-30"). 

Hab. Within our limits, Baltistan : Grol, Skardo ; Baluchistan: 
Quetta. 

Lyccena bracteata, Butler, described from Kandahar seems to me 
inseparable from this form. 

715. Lycaena omphisa (PI. XIX, fig. 131), Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, 

p. 573, pi. 06 fig. 2 tf ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 84. 
Lycaena metallica, pt,, Felder, Novara Eeise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 283, 
pi. 35, fi<?. 9 (me figs. 7 & 8). 

c? . Upperside . dark brown. Fore and hind wings : overlaid 
from base outwards for some distance with purplish blue, clear 
dark blue or shining metallic green. The extent of this colour 
very variable ; in some specimens, on the fore wing it spreads 



348 

irregularly outwards chiefly along the costa and on the hind wing 
in the middle to the disc; in others, it covers the basal three- 
fourths of the wings, leaving a well-defined broad terminal margin 
of the ground-colour on the fore wing, and ou the hind wing, 
broad costal, terminal and dorsal margins ; cilia conspicuously 
white. Underside, fore wing : clear, slightly brownish grey, paler 
along the costal and terminal margins ; a transverse, slightly 
lunular discocellular spot and a transverse series of six small 
discal spots black, all with slender white edgings, the discal series 
placed in a slight curve, the posterior three spots en echelon ; no 
terminal markings except an anticiliary dark line. Hind wing : 
metallic green ; in many specimens faint traces of one or two 
subbasal spots, entirely absent in others ; a discocellular spot and 
a curved, transverse, discal series of from three to five spots, white ; 
terminal markings, with the exception of a slender anticiliary 
dark line, absent, as on the fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen brownish black, the shafts of the antennae ringed 
with white, the head, thorax and abdomen with some bluish 
pubescence ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white, the 
palpi fringed anteriorly with stiff black hairs. $ . Upperside : 
uniform brown. .Fore and hind wings : with slender, black, anti- 
ciliary lines and conspicuous snow-white cilia. Many specimens 
have some slight irroration of blue scales at the bases of the wings. 
Underside : similar to that of the c? , the black spots on the fore 
and the white spots on the hind wing generally larger, and on the 
latter wing more clearly defined. 

Exp. d $ 26-33 mm. (1-1-30"). 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas : Chitral, Lahoul, Ladakh. 

716. Lycaena galathea, Biancham in Jacq. Voy. Ind. iv, 1844, p. 21, 
pi. 1, figs. 5, 0, cf ; Moore (Polyommatus)^ P. Z. S. 1874, p. 271 ; 
id. Sci. Res. Second Yarkand Mission, Lep. 1879, p. 6. 

Lycsena inetallica, Felder, Novara Reise, Lep. ii, 1865, p. 283, 
pi. 3, figs. 7, 8 (nee fig. 9). 

Polyommatus nycula, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1865, p. 503, pi. 31, fig. 3 rf. 

c? Upperside : dark violet, with in certain lights a beautiful 
shining blue gloss. Fore and hind wings : veins black ; terminal 
margins and costal margin of the hind wing narrowly black. In 
some specimens this edging is on the terminal margins reduced to 
a slender but well-marked anticiliary line. Underside, fore wing : 
slightly brownish grey, paler towards the apex and along the 
termen ; a short, transverse, lunular, dusky black line on the 
discocellulars, followed by a transverse, curved, discal series of 
six similarly coloured spots, prominently encircled with sullied 
white. In most specimens these discal spots are followed by a 
posterior postdiecal row of large subquadrate diffuse markings of 
dusky brown. Hind wing: pale metallic green, of a tint some- 
what paler than in L. omphisa, Moore; a discocellular spot fol- 
lowed by a medially, outwardly angulated discal series of seven 
spots, white ; in many specimens one or more of these spots absent. 



LTC.ENA . 349 

Cilia of both fore aud hind wings basally fuscous, outwardly white. 
Antenna) black, the shafts ringed with white ; head, thorax and 
abdomen dark brown, in fresh specimens clothed with purplish- 
blue pubescence ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen whitish. 
$> . Upperside : brown. Pore and hind wings : subterminal trans- 
verse series of large, somewhat quadrate ochraceous-red spots, 
011 the fore wing generally four posited in interspaces 1 a, 1, 2 
and 3 ; on the hind wing seven, the series complete ; on both fore 
and hind wings the posterior two spots of the series are geminate. 
Underside : much as in the c? , but the ground-colour of both fore 
and hind wings darker. In many specimens the apex and upper 
portion of the termen of the fore wing are suffused prominently 
with pale metallic green, and the posterior, postdiscal. large dusky 
brown markings practically absent. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings and the antenna? as in the d 1 ; head, thorax and abdomen 
above brown ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white, as 
in the d" 

Exp. 6 $ 35-40 mm. (1-38-1-58"). 

Hob. N.W. Himalayas : Chitral, Pangi, Kashmir, Kulu, hills 
north of Simla. 

I have followed de Niceville in treating L. nycula, Moore, as a 
variety of L. galathea, but with considerable doubt. Specimens of 
L. nycula. Moore, in the British Museum, so named by Dr. Butler, 
differ from typical galaihea as follows : 3 . Upperside : ground- 
colour of a more bluish purple. Underside : posterior portion of 
the disc of the fore wing darker grey, almost fuscous ; apex in all 
the specimens suffused with metallic green. Hind wing : ground- 
colour a much darker metallic green than in any specimen of 
galathea that I have seen, almost, in some specimens quite, as rich 
a metallic green as in L. omphisa, Moore. $ . Underside : ground- 
colour darker metallic green than in the <$ and much darker than 
in the $ of L. galathea, the metallic green in certain lights suf- 
fused with blue. 

Exp. <3 $ as in L. galathea. 

Hab. Described originally from Kuuawar. 

717. Lycsena orbitulus, Esper (Papilio), Schmett. i (? 1800), pi. 112, 
fig. 4. 

Race jaloka. 

Polyommatus jaloka, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 573, pi. 66, fig. 3 rf ; 

de N. (Lycaj'na) Suit. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 86. 
Polyommatus ellisi, Marshall, J. A. S. B. 1882, p. 41, pi. 4, fig. 4 <J; 

de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 87. 

Lycama ? leela, de N., J.A.8. S. 1883, p. 66, pi. 1, figs. 3, 3 a, 6 $ ; 
'id. (Lyctena) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 87. 

A variable form ; some specimens are scarcely separable from 
L. orbitulus, Esper, of which it is undoubtedly a geographical race. 

Race jaloka, Moore. <3 . Upperside : brown suffused with 
metallic blue or green to a varying extent from the bases of the 
wings outwards. Typically the blue or green occupies about the 
basal three-fourths of the wings, and leaves on the fore wing a 



350 LYCJENID.E. 

broad edging to the costa and still broader edging to the termen 
of the ground-colour ; on the hind wing it occupies a medial area 
from the base to the disc, and leaves a broad brown edging to the 
costa, termen and dorsum. Fore and hind wings: discocellular 
spots black encircled by pale edgings, followed on both wings by 
transverse discal series of pale bluish-white spots and anticiliary 
slender black lines. In some these spots are very prominent, in 
others barely indicated. Underside : brownish, turning to greyish 
white on the termen. Fore wing : a more or less obscure pale- 
bordered discocellular spot, followed by a transverse, slightly curved 
discal series of six black spots encircled with white. Hind wing: 
the brown basal area irrorated inwardly with metallic blue scales 
and sharply demarcated from the greyish-white terminal area 
which occupies about half the wing ; discocellular spot large and 
prominently white, as is an angulated transverse discal series of 
large spots ; these latter spots in many specimens somewhat obscure 
on the greyish-white ground-colour of the terminal half of the 
wing. Cilia of both fore and hind wings conspicuously white. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen brown ; the shafts of the 
antennae obscurely ringed with white, the thorax and abdomen with 
a little bluish pubescence in fresh specimens ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white. $. Upperside: brown, without any 
blue or green irroration. Fore and hind wings: markings much 
as in the d 1 , the discal spots always somewhat more prominent. 
Underside: as in the c? ; the discal spots generally more prominent 
and followed in some specimens by two or three posterior, large, 
diffuse brown markings. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen 
similar to those of the tf , but the latter two without any blue 
pubescence ; beneath : as in the d . 

Exp. 28-30 mm. (1-10-1-18"). 

Hob. N.W. Himalayas : Kashmir, Pangi, Ladakh. 

Var. ellisi, Marshall, differs from typical jaloka as follows : 
J $ . Upperside : in the J the suffusion of metallic bluish-green 
scales restricted to the immediate base of the fore wing, extended 
slightly more outwards on the hind wing, but never so far towards 
the termen as in jaloka ; in both sexes the discal series of spots on 
both fore and hind wings very large and clearly defined, the dis- 
cocellular spot prominently white, very rarely centred with dark 
brown. Underside : creamy-white, slightly brownish on the discal 
areas of both fore and hind wings, while 
the discal spots on both wings are entirely 
white, with no trace of dark centres, as on 
the fore wing pf the typical race. Other- 
wise as in jaloka. 

Var. leela, de Niceville, differs from 
Fig. 81. typical jaloka as follows : The irroration OL 

Lycaina orbiiulus, metallic bluish-green scales on the upperside 

race>/oA-a, var. ellisi. of the wings extended outwards from the 

base almost but not quite so far as in jaloka ; 

the spots of the transverse discal series on both fore and hind 




LYCJEXA. 351 

wings as in jaloika, but each obscurely centred with blackish in 
most specimens. Underside : greyish white, discs of wings brown, 
bases irrorated somewhat densely with metallic green scales, paler 
than in the typical race. Fore wing : with a very indistinct 
irregular subterminal series of dark spots in addition to the disco- 
cellular and discal spots, which are similar to those in JaloJca. 
Hind wing : according to de Niceville has, in addition to the 
discocellular and discal markings, " a marginal double series of 
coalescing white lunules." I have not, however, seen any specimen 
so marked. 



718. Lycaena hylas, Wiener Verzeichniss (Papilio), 1776, p. 185 ; Kirby, 

Cat. Di. Lep. 187 J, p. 360 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 84. 
Papilio hylus, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 75 ; Butler (Scolitan- 

tides), Cat. Fabr. Lepidopt. Brit. Mus. 1869, p. 167. 
Papilio baton, Berystr. Nomencl. ii, 1779, p. 18, & iii, pi. 60, figs. 

6-8; Ehves (Lycaena), P. Z. 8. 1881, p. 889; Lang (Lycaena), 

Butt. Eur. 1884, p. 109, pi. 24, fig. 2. 

Folyommatus vicrama, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 505, pi. 31, fig. 6 5 . 
Scolitantides cashmirensis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 272. 

c? . Upperside : greyish blue. Fore and hind wings : with or 
without a black discocellular transverse lunule. Fore wing : 
terminal margin narrowly and evenly dusky brown or pale greyish 
blue, with obscure white lunules and an anticiliary black line 
(casJimirensis, Moore). Hind wing : terminal margin as in the c? 
or (var. cashmirensis) with a subterminal series of obscure white 
spots that are centred prominently with black, and an anticiliary 
black line as on the fore wing. Cilia of fore and hind wings 
snow-white conspicuously spotted with black at the ends of the 
veins, these latter black or concolorous with the ground-colour. 
Underside : slightly bluish or greyish cream-colour, with the bases 
of the wings irrorated with bluish scales and the following black 
spots and markings : Fore wing : a spot in cell ; a transverse 
luuular spot on the discocellulars ; a transverse, very strongly bi- 
sinuate discal series of seven, sometimes eight, spots ; a transverse 
postdiscal series that anteriorly curves slightly inwards of six 
spots, followed by a very indistinct, maculated, transverse, very 
narrow band and a clearly denned slender anticiliary line. Hind 
wing : a curved subbasal transverse series of four spots ; a disco- 
cellular luuule, a spot above it near costa, and two spots in a 
straight line below it ; a transverse discal curve of four spots 
beyond apex of cell ; a strongly curved, transverse, postdiscal series 
of eight lunules, one in each interspace, those in interspaces 1 to 5 
edged outwardly with ochraceous and followed by a subterminal 
series of black spots ; lastly, a slender anticiliary black line as on 
the fore wing. Cilia as on the upperside. In some specimens 
the black discal spots on both fore and hind wings are encircled 
tolerably distinctly with white. Antenna? brown, the shafts ringed 
with white, head and thorax anteriorly snow-white, the thorax 



352 LYC;ENIDJE. 

and abdomeu above greyish blue ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. $ . Upperside : purplish brown, with more or less 
of an irroration of bluish-grey scales at the bases of the wings ; 
the markings somewhat as in the J , but in var. cashmirensis 
the white subterminal lunules on the fore and the black sub- 
terminal spots on the hind wing are, in all specimens that I have 
seen, very obscure. The underside, antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the d . 

Exp. rf 2 28-31 mm. (MO-1-24"). 

Hub. N.W. Himalayas : Kashmir, Kunawar ; Baltistan ; Baluch- 
istan ; westwards and northwards to Afghanistan, Central Asia, 
Eussia, Southern and Central Europe. Within our limits it 
occurs at elevations of from 6000 to 14,000 feet. 



719. Lycsena pheretes, Hiibner (Papilio), Eur. Schmett. i, 1805, 
p. 45. 

Race lehana (PL XIX, figs. 132, 133, rf $ ). 

Polyommatus lehanus, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5) i, 1878, p. 230; 
id. Sci. Res. Second York. Miss., Lep. 1879, p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 6 rf ; 
de N. (Lyctena) EiAt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 81. 

Race asiatica (PI. XIX, fig. 134). 

Lycaena pheretes, Hiibner, var. asiatica, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1882, 
"p. 402 ; id. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, p. 382 ; de N. JSutt. Ind. iii, 
1890, p. 81. 

Race lehana, Moore. d 1 $ . Eyes smooth. J . Upper side : 
purplish blue, dark blue at the bases, of the wings. Pore and 
hind wings with somewhat obscure, slender, black, anticiliary lines, 
followed by very full, snow-white cilia. Underside : grey, pale 
plumbeous brown on the discs of the wings, the bases of both fore 
and hind wings irrorated with bluish-green scales. Fore wing : a 
narrow transverse black luuule on the discocellulars and a trans- 
verse curved discal series of five white spots, each spot centred 
with black. Hind wing : a streak in the cell, a spot above it near 
the costa and a discal series of five spots, of which the posterior 
four are in a very oblique line directed outwards, and the upper 
or fifth is much larger, placed much further inwards above the 
apex of the cell. In the type and a few others the discal spots 
are seven or eight in number, and smaller than in the majority of 
specimens I have seen. Antennae dark brown, the shafts as usual 
ringed with white ; head, thorax and abdomen clothed with bluish 
hairs ; beneath : the palpi fringed with black hairs, thorax and 
abdomeu white. $ . Similar to the c? , but on the upperside the 
ground-colour is rich brown, the bases of the wings only blue. 
Underside : ground-colour and markings as in the c? Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of the <S , but the 
latter three brown, not clothed with bluish hairs. 



LYOIJENA. NEOLYCJEXA itod 

Exp. c? $ 28-30 mm. (MO-M8"). 

Hob. AVestern Himalayas : Ladakh, Kashmir, at from 8000 to 
12,000 feet. 

Race asiatica, Ehves. tf Eyes smooth. Fore wing much 
more pointed at apex, termeu straighter, wing altogether pro- 
portionately shorter than in pheretes, race leliana. Other differ- 
ences are as follows : <5 . Upperside : a rich metallic dark blue, 
quite different from the purplish blue of the parent form or of 
race lehana. Underside : ground-colour and markings similar to 
those of leJutna, but on the fore wing the discal spots are generally 
entirely absent or reduced to one or two, while the hind wing is 
irrorated with metallic greenish- blue scales for two-thirds of its 
length from base. Otherwise similar. $ . Upperside : much as 
in race leliana, but the underside with the obsolescence of the 
markings on the fore wing and the irroration of metallic greenish- 
blue scales on the hind wing as in its own d . 

Exp. J $ 25-27 mm. (0-98-1-04"). 

Hob. Sikhim : the Chumbi Valley, at from 12,000 to 15,000 feet. 



Genus NEOLYCJENA. 
Neolycama, de Niceville, Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 64. 

Type, N. sinensis, Alpheraky, from "Western China. 
Range. Western China, Turkestan, Baluchistan. 
d 1 $ . Fore wing : costa very slightly arched ; apex more or less 
rounded, not acute ; termen slightly convex ; tornus blunt ; dorsum 
sinuate, slightly convex in the middle ; cell 
short, less than half length of wing; all 
the veins distinct, wide apart from one 
another ; vein 3 from well before lower apex 
of cell, vein 4 from apex; vein 5 at base 
midway between bases of 4 and 6 ; 6 and 7 
from upper apex of cell, veins 8 and 9 
absent, 10 and 11 from apical half of sub- 
costal, vein 12 terminates on costa nearly 
opposite upper apex of cell, running nearly 
parallel with vein 11 in its apical half. 
Hind wing : ample, costa arched ; apex 
rounded but well marked ; termen convex ; 
tornus rounded ; dorsum slightly arched; cell very short; the veins 
as in the fore wing, well separated ; vein 3 from well before, 4 from 
lower apex of cell ; middle discocellular slightly shorter than lower : 
vein 7 from apical half of subcostal ; vein 8 strongly curved in its 
basal half, terminates at apex of wing : precostal area broad. 

A single form comes just within our limits in Northern 
Baluchistan. 




354 LYC.ENIDJE. 

720. Neolycaena sinensis, Alpheraty (Lycaena), Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. 
xvi, 1881, p. 383, pi. 14, fig. 7 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 65, 
pi. 26, fig. 166. 

" Male and female. Upperside : both wings fuscous brown ; cilia 
interrupted with white. Underside : both wings greyish brown 
with a very slender marginal line. Fore wing : with an interrupted 
exterior series of markings composed of irregular white short 
streaks. Hind wing : with the disc irregularly marked with white 
lunules and short streaks and with a series of submarginal dots, 
interiorly margined with white. 

" Male and female. Upperside : both wings blackish brown ; cilia 
of the same colour, but spotted with white at the ends of the 
veins, this only very narrowly so on the fore and more broadly 
on the hind wing ; the cilia is similar on the underside. Under- 
side : both wings of a greyish-brown tint, very much lighter (than 
above). An extremely fine bordering line runs along the exterior 
margin of both wings, sometimes very indistinct in the fore wing. 
Fore wing : traversed at nearly three millimetres from the outer 
margin by an interrupted series of white, irregular, small streaks 
(lunules), with one whitish lunule placed above the first nervure 
and placed more towards the interior of the wing. This last 
(lunule) disappears entirely in some specimens. A small streak, 
or rather a small whitish dot, is found generally in the discoidal 
cell. Hind wing : faintly dusted with white scales near its first 
half (the base of the wing). The disc is sprinkled with more or 
less large lunules, concave towards the base, and generally shaded 
with blackish interiorly, and also with some white streaks not far 
from the base ; but the whole is so irregular and so different in 
each individual specimen that a figure alone could give a sufficiently 
exact idea of it. All along the exterior margin of both wings 
there is a submargiual series of black dots, which are round and 
bordered with white on their interior side. These dots are very 
distinct on the hind wing, but on the fore wing they are more or 
less obliterated, and sometimes they completely disappear. 

" The species appears to be thoroughly isolated in the genus 
Lyccena and must take its place in the small group formed 
by some very heterogeneous species : L. rhymnus, Eversmann, 
L. tengstrcemi, Erschoff, and L. anthracias, Cristoph." (AlpJieraky, 
as translated by de Niceville.) 

Exp. 3 " 1*2 inches." 

Hob. "Western China : Kuldja ; Baluchistan. 

As noted by de Niceville, the only record of the occurrence of 
this form within our limits is a single specimen taken at Guuduk 
in Baluchistan by the late Capt. Watson. 



ZIZERA. 355 



Genus ZIZERA. 

Zizera, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. \, 1881, p. 78; de N Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, 
p. 110. 

Type, Z. akus, " Wiener Verzeichniss." European. 

Range. Europe ; Northern and Southern Africa ; Asia. 

c? $ . Pore wing : costa widely arched ; apex well-marked but 
blunt ; termen convex, short ; tornus obtusely angulate ; dorsum 
slightly sinuate, comparatively long, about three-fourths the 
length of the costa ; cell a little less than half length of wing ; 
upper cliscocellular in line with and forming part of subcostal 
vein, middle and lower discocellulars subequal, obsolescent ; vein 3 
from well before, 4 from lower apex of cell, vein 6 from upper 
apex of cell, well separated from 7 at base, vein 8 absent, 9 and 
10 from apical half of subcostal, vein 11 anastomosed with vein 12. 
Hind wing : oval, veins 3 and 4 from lower apex of cell. Antennae 
slightly less than half length of fore wing, club elongate, concave 
on the underside; palpi subporrect, thickly fringed anteriorly 
with stiff hairs, third joint long, about three-fourths length of 
second joint ; eyes naked ; body and legs robust. 

This genus is allied to Lyccena, and the forms arranged under it 
very closely resemble the forms of Lyccena, but vein 11 of the fore 
wing is always anastomosed with vein 12. 

Key to the forms of Zizera. 

A. Underside fore wing : a black spot in middle 

of cell. 

. Exp. 3 $ 26-29 mm. Upperside : <$ light 
blue, silvery in certain lights ; $ brownish 
black, sometimes purplish at bases of wings. Z. maha, p. 355. 

b. Exp. (j 1 $ 22-24 mm. Upperside : rf violet- 
blue ; 5 P a l e satiny brown Z. tysimon, p. 357 

B. Underside fore wing : no black spot in middle 

of cell. 
. Underside hind wing : spot of discal series 

in interspace 6 in same straight line as 

spots in interspaces 5 and 7 Z. yat'ka, p. 359. 

b. Underside hind wing : spot of discal series 

in interspace 6 vertically below spot in 

interspace 7, never in line with spots in 

interspaces 5 and 7 Z. otis, p. 360. 

721. Zizera maha (PI. XIX, figs. 136, 137), Kvllar (Lycama) in 

HuyersKaschmir, iv, 1848, p. 422 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 245 ; 

de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 112, pi. 26, fig. 172 ; Butler, P. Z. S. 

1900, p. 106. 
Polyonimatus chandala, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi. 31, fig. 5 J ; 

de N. (Zizera) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 114. 
Lyctena dilute, Fetter, Noiara Reise, ii, 1865, p. 280, pi. 35, figs. 12, 

13, (J; de N. (Zizera) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 114. 



356 LYC^NIDi. 

Lycrcna squnlida, Butler, Tram. Ent. Soc. 1879, p. 4; de N. 

'(Zixera) Butt. Ind. Hi, 1890, p. 115. 
Zizera ossa, Swinhoe, P. X. S. 1885, p. 132, pi. 9, figs. 11, 12,c? $ . 

Wet-season brood. tf. Upperside : silvery light blue with a 
satiny sheen in certain lights. Fore wing : the apical half of 
the costa narrow ly and the terminal margin for varying widths 
fuscous black, bounded outwardly on the latter by an obscure 
anticiliary black line. Hind wing : the costa broadly, the termen 
somewhat more narrowly fuscous black as in the fore wing, with 
the width of this dark edging similarly variable ; in addition there 
is a very diffuse and ill-defined subterminal series of spots darker 
than the fuscous margin. Underside : brownish grey. Fore wing : 
a spot in cell, a transverse lunule on the cliscocellulars, and a trans- 
verse anteriorly inwardly curved series of eight discal spots, black ; 
the transverse lunule and each spot encircled with a narrow white 
edging ; the posterior two spots of the discal series geminate. 
Beyond these are a postdiscal and a subterminal series of short 
transverse dusky black spots followed by an anticiliary black 
line ; the ground-colour between the discal and postdiscal series 
and between the latter and the subterminal series of spots 
posteriorly paler than on the rest of the wing. Hind wing : a 
transverse, subbasal. slightly sinuate line of four spots, a short, 
slender, lunular line on the discocellulars, and a very strongly 
curved discal series of eight small spots, hlack ; the lunule and each 
spot encircled with a narrow edging of white ; the posterior two 
spots of the discal series geminate as on the fore wing ; beyond 
these as on the fore wing there is a double line of dusky 
spots, only more lunular, with between them and between the 
discal and postdiscal series the ground-colour in the same way 
followed by slightly paler; an anticiliary fine black line. Cilia 
of both fore and hind wings whitey brown, darker anteriorly 
on the fore wing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark 
brown, shafts of the antennae ringed with white; in fresh specimens 
the thorax and abdomen with a little light blue pubescence ; 
beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen white. . Upperside : 
brownish black ; the basal halves of the wings slightly suffused 
with light blue, anticiliary black lines on both fore and hind 
wings, and on the latter wing an obscure subterminal series of 
spots as in the rf . Underside : similar, only the ground-colour 
darker, the markings larger and more clearly defined. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in the J , but with no blue pubes- 
cence on the thorax and abdomen on the upperside. 

Dry-season brood. c? . Upperside : pale bluish-grey with, in 
some specimens, a pinkish undertone. Fore wing: as in the wet- 
season brood, but the black terminal edging much reduced in 
width in seme specimens to a transverse, somewhat diffuse, very 
narrow band that borders the anticiliary black line on the inner 
side, in others to a much broader similar band that coalesces with 
the anticiliary black line and occupies about the outer sixth of the 



ZI/ERA. 357 

wing. This edging along the termen is sometimes even, sometimes 
it widens from a slender anticiliary at and above the tornus to a 
broad black patch at the apex of the wing. Hind wing : the ter- 
minal black edging much narrower proportionately than in wet- 
season specimens, most often reduced to a slender black anticiliary 
line with a series of black spots on the inner side, bordering and 
sometimes coalescing with the line. Underside : as in the wet- 
season brood but the ground-colour paler, in some specimens in uch 
paler, the markings on both fore and hind wings similar, with 
frequently the terminal markings obsolescent, sometimes entirely 
absent or only indicated anteriorly on each wing. Cilia whitish. 
Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen as in the wet-season speci- 
mens. 2 Similar to the of the wet-season brood, but more 
like the d" , with the light silveiy-blue suffusion very irregular, 
but generally extended much further outwards from the base. 
In a 5 from Poona, now, before me, the fore wing on the upper- 
side has the basal half silvery blue, the outer half black ; on the 
hind wing, however, the blue colour extends almost to the termen 
which is only narrowly edged with diffuse dusky black. Under- 
side: as in the 3 , the ground-colour slightly darker. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of the <S . 

Exp. <$ $ 28-32 mm. (MO-1-23"). 

Hob. Throughout peninsular India from the outer ranges of the 
Himalayas to Travancore ; Assam ; Upper and Lower Burma. 
Mr. de Niceville does not record it from Burma, but I got it at 
Pegu and also in the Ruby Mines district in Upper Burma. 



722. Zizera lysimon, Hiibner (Papilio), Eur. Schmett. i, 1798, pi. 10.% 
tigs. 534, 636 ; Lang (Lycfena), Butt. Eur. 1884, p. Ill, pi. 24, 
fiff. 3 (J $ ; Tnmen (Lyesena), South African Butt, li, 1887, p. 45 ; 
de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 116, pi. 26, fig. 173 $ ; Davidson, 
Bell Sf Aitken, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1896, p. 373. 

Polyommatus karsandra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 505, pi. 31, 
tig. 7 $ ; id (Zizera) Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 78, pi. 35, figs. 6, 6 rf ; 
de N. (Zizera) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 117. 

Zizera niora, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 506, pi. 47, fig. 2 ; de N. 
Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 118. 

<S . Upperside : brown with a more or less dense suffusion of 
violet. In some specimens the violet colour is more clearly appa- 
rent in certain lights than in others and extends further outwards, 
but to lesser degree in wet-season specimens than in those taken 
in the dry weather or in exceptionally dry tracts of country. 
Fore wing : terminal margin broadly dark brown. Hind wing : 
costal and terminal margins broadly dark brown. In a few 
specimens a subterminal series of round black spots is more or 
less clearly apparent on the hind wing. Underside : grey. Fore 
wing: a spot in middle of cell, a short, transverse, lunular 
line on the discocellulars, and a transverse, anteriorly strongly 
curved, discal series of eight spots jet-black, the discocellular lunule 



358 

and the spots each encircled with white ; the posterior two spots 
of the discal series geminate, the three spots above these e n echelon 
placed obliquely ; beyond these are an inner and an outer transverse 
subternrinal series of elongate dusky spots or short lines and an 
anticiliary black line. Hind wing : a transverse, curved, subbasal 
line of four well-separated spots, an abbreviated line on the disco- 
cellulars and a transverse highly curved discal series of eight spots, 
black, followed by an inner series of dusky luuules, an outer sub- 
terminal series of round dusky spots and an anticiliary slender 
black line. Cilia of both fore and hind wings grey, paler outwardly. 
Antennae black, shafts ringed with white ; head, thorax and 
abdomen brownish ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen sullied 
white. $ . Upperside : brown with, in a few specimens, the bases 
of both wings with traces of a violet irroration. In the majority of 
specimens, however, only the dorsal or posterior half of the hind 
wing is flushed with violet. Pore wing : the discocellulars with a 
transverse dusky short line. Tore and hind wings otherwise 
immaculate, with anticiliary dusky lines. Underside : ground- 
colour darker, in some pale brown ; markings on both fore and 
hind wings as in the c? Antennas, head, thorax and abdomen 
similar to those of the 6 , but on the underside the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen, in some specimens, purer white. 
Exp. c? $ 18-24 mm. (0-69-0-96"). 

Bab. Southern Europe ; Africa ; Central and Western Asia. 
Within our limits, peninsular India south of the outer Himalayan 
Kauge; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma; Tenasserim; Kicobars ; extending 
through the Malayan Subregioii to Australia. It has been recorded 
also from Madagascar and the Mauritius. 

There seems to be some seasonal variation in this form, but it 
is not so obvious as in Z. maha. Specimens taken in the wet 
season have in the <$ broader terminal brown margins to the 
wings, and in the $ a greater extent of violet suffusion on the 
upperside. On the underside the ground-colour is of a deeper 
shade in both sexes than in dry-season specimens. 

Larva. " The larva, which feeds on a small vetch (Zornia 
diphylla), is of the usual form but narrow, and is not attended by 
ants ; it is covered with minute light coloured hairs. Colour grass- 
green, with a lighter marginal line." (Davidson, Bell $ Aitken.) 

Pupa. " Of the usual form, narrow, gi-een with a slightly darker 
line dorsally and with brown edges to the wing-covers." (Davidson, 
Sell $ Aitken.) 

Var. Icarsandra, Moore, is a pale form of lysimon, and was 
described originally from a $ specimen. Zizera mora, Swinhoe, 
is an aberration in which the discal spots are lengthened into 
streaks. Mr. de Niceville remarks, such aberrations are of frequent 
occurrence among the Lyccenidcv. 



ZIZEEA. 359 

723. Zizera gaika, Trimen (Lycama), Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i, 1862, 

p. 403; de N. Butt. Ind. lii, 1890, p. 118. 

Lycaena pygmea, Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. xix, 1876, p. 163, pi. 7, 
fig. 3 ; Moore (Zizera), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 79, pi. 25, figs. 5, 
o, rf. 

c? . Upperside : dull violet-blue, which changes to a brighter 
tint of violet in certain lights. Fore wing : the costa very narrowly, 
the termen much more broadly dull brown ; this edging to the 
termen in most specimens decreases in width from apex to tornus, 
and is outwardly followed by an anticiliary darker brown line. 
Cilia brownish anteriorly, posteriorly brownish at the base with the 
apical portions white. Hind wing : the ground-colour brighter 
than on the fore wing, the costal and terminal margins much more 
narrowly edged with brown, which edging is merged in the anti- 
ciliary dark brown line. Cilia : brown along their basal halves, 
white apically. Underside : grey. Fore wing : a dusky brown 
lunular line on the discocellulars ; two subcostal spots above the 
cell, one on either side of the discocellular lunule ; a very strongly 
curved discal series of five spots, of which the posterior three are 
somewhat lunular in shape and placed obliquely en echelon, the 
next above these hook-shaped, the anterior spot round ; both the 
subcostal spots and the spots of the discal series are black, each 
narrowly encircled with white ; beyond these are inner and outer 
subterminal dusky lines, which anteriorly are continuous, pos- 
teriorly somewhat broken and macular, followed by a very con- 
spicuous jet-black auticiliary slender line. Cilia greyish white, 
traversed by a medial transverse blackish-brown line. Hind wing: 
with the following small white-encircled black spots : a subbasal 
transverse series of three, followed by a highly curved series of 
eight spots, that curve across the disc of the wing to the costa 
and along the latter towards the base ; discocellulars with a dusky 
short lunular line as on the fore wing; terminal markings and 
cilia similar, but the outer and broader subterminal line more 
broken and macular than on the fore wing. Antenna} black, the 
shafts ringed with white; head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, 
with a little violet pubescence on the head and thorax ; beneath : 
palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish white. $ . Upperside : glossy 
brown, without any violet tint whatever; the anticiliary darker 
brown lines on both fore and hind wings well marked. Underside : 
very similar to that of the d 1 , the ground-colour a shade darker, 
the markings slightly larger and more prominent. Antennae, head, 
thorax and abdomen as in the d 1 , but the latter three without a 
trace of violet or blue on the upperside. 

Exp. jj 5 20-23 mm. (0'8-0'95"). 

Hob. Within our limits spread through Peninsular India ; 
Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; the Andamans ; extending 
in the Ethiopian Eegion to Aden, and South Africa, and in the 
Malayan Subregion. to Sumatra and Java. 



360 

724. Zizera Otis, Fair. (Papilio) Mant. Iiis. ii, 1787, p. 73 : Butler, 
A. M. N. H. (5) xviii, 1886, p. 186; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 119, pi. 26, fig. 175 rf. 

Polyomniatus sarigra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 772, pi. 41, fig. 8 J ; 
de N. (Zizera) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 120. 

Lycjena indica, Murray, Trans. Ent. Sbc.l874, p. 525, pi. 10, figs. 2, 
3, d ?; 3foor (Zizera) Ze^. O///. i, 1881, p. 79, pi. 35, figs. 7, 
7a, rf; <& N. (Zizera) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 121. 

c? . Upperside : pale violet-blue, with a silvery sheen in certain 
lights. Fore wing : a broad brown edging along the termen, 
which covers in some specimens quite the outer fourth of the wing, 
while in others is much narrower. In all specimens it is broadest 
at apex and is bounded by an anticiliary darker line, beyond which 




a. Zizera gaika, underside. 
/>. Zizera otis, underside. 

the cilia are brownish at base and white outwardly. Hind wing : 
anterior or costal third to half and apex brown ; a slender black 
anticiliary line, beyond which the cilia are as in the fore wing. 
Underside : brownish grey. Fore wing : a short, transverse, dusky 
lunule on the discocellulars and a transverse, anteriorly curved, 
discal series of seven minute black spots, all the spots more or less 
rounded, the posterior two geminate, the discoceliular lunule and 
each discal spot conspicuously encircled with white ; the terminal 
markings beyond the above consist of an inner and an outer 
transverse subterminal series of dusky spots, each spot edged on 
the inner side very obscurely with dusky white, the inner line of 
spots lunular, the outer with the spots more or less rounded. 
Cilia dusky. Hind wing : a transverse, curved, subbasal series of 
four spots and an irregular transverse discal series of nine small 
spots black, each spot encircled narrowly with white. Of the 
discal spots the posterior four are placed in an outwardly oblique, 
slightly curved line, the middle two spots geminate : the three 
spots above these are placed in an oblique transverse Hue further 
outwards ; lastly, the anterior two spots are posited one over the 
other and shifted well inwards, just above the apex of the cell ; 
discoceliular lunule and terminal markings as on the fore wing, 
but the inner subterminal lunular line in the latter broader and 
more prominent. Cilia dusky. Antennae black, shafts ringed with 
white ; head, thorax and abdomen brown, with a little blue scaling : 
beneath : white. $ . Upperside : brown, with a more or less 
distinct suffusion of violet-blue at the bases of the wings, on 
the hind wing continued obscurely along the dorsum ; both fore 



/I/ERA. AZAXL'S. 361 

and hind wings with slender anticiliary lines, darker than the 
ground-colour. Underside : ground-colour slightly darker than 
in the c? , markings precisely similar. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the J , but the thorax and abdomen above without 
any blue scaling. 

Eaup. c? 2 22-27 mm. (0-78-1-08"). 

Hub. Punjab ; Kumaon ; Sikhim ; Bengal ; Orissa ; Central, 
Western and Southern India ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma ; Tenas- 
serim ; extending to the Malayan Subregion as far as Java, and 
into China. 

Z. sangra, Moore, and Z. decreta, Butler, are slight varieties 
that differ so little from the typical form as to make it impossible 
to discriminate one from the other in any large series of specimens 
from different localities. Z. indicn, Murray, is more easily separ- 
able by the great size of the discal black spots on the underside 
of the fore wing, but specimens intermediate between typical otis 
and typical indica are by no means uncommon throughout the 
range of the form. 

Genus AZANUS. 

Azanus, Moore, Lep. Cvyl i, 1881, p. 79 ; de X. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 122. 

Type, A. ubaldus, Cramer, from Ceylon. 

Range. Arabia, India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa very slightly arched ; apex subacute ; 
termen convex ; tornus obtuse ; dorsum straight ; cell about half 
length of wing ; upper discocellular in line with subcostal nervure, 
middle and lower subequal and nearly vertical ; vein 3 from well 
before, vein 4 from lower apex of cell, vein 6 from upper apex of 
cell, vein 7 from a little before ; vein 8 absent, 9 out of 7, 10 free, 
11 anastomosed with 12. Hind wing : costa arched; apex broadly 
rounded ; termen convex ; tornus well marked, angular ; dorsum 
sinuate, strongly convex in the middle, concave just before tornal 
angle ; cell short, less than half length of wing, all the veins well 
separate from one another ; vein 3 from before lower apex of cell. 
Antennae a little longer than half length of fore wing, club large 
and abrupt; palpi more or less porrect, second joint densely 
clothed with long hairs anteriorly, third short, blunt at apex ; eyes 
hairy ; body moderately robust. <$ . In two of the forms on the 
upperside of the fore w ? ing, specialized hair-like scales on the disc 
extend upwards into the cell and beyond it into bases of interspaces 
4 and 5. 

Three forms are recorded from within our limits, of which one 
seems to me doubtfully distinct from the typical form. In the 
absence of evidence from the larva and pupa (unknown of any of 
the forms), and even of a good series of dated specimens, I have 
followed de Niceville and kept A. uranus, Butler, distinct from 
A. ubaldus, Cramer. I think, however, that the former will 
probably prove to be the dry-season brood of the latter. 



362 



Key to the forms of Azanus. 



A. Underside fore wing, rf $ : a black spot in middle 

of cell .................................. A. jesous, p. 363. 

13. Underside fore wing, c? $ : no black spot in 

middle of cell. 

a. Underside : greyish brown ; hind wing : a 

conspicuous, transverse, subbasal series of 

four black spots ........................ A. ubuldus, p. 302. 

b. Underside : greyish white ; hind wing : with- 

out, or with only a slight trace of subbasal 

series of black spots ...................... A. uranus, p. 363. 



725. Azanus ubaldus (PI. XIX, fig. 138), Cramer (Papilio), Pap. 
Exot. iv, 1782, p. 209, pi. 390, figs. L, M, d ; Moore, P. Z. ~S. 
1882, p. 245 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 123. 
Lycama zena, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 505, pi. 31, fig. 9 $ : Butler 
(Azanus), P. Z. S. 1884, p. 483. 

^ . Upperside : brownish purple, dark blue at base of wings. 
Tore wing : costa very narrowly along its apical half, terinen 
evenly and a little more broadly from apex to tornus, edged with 
brown ; the area on the disc, in the cell and beyond it is covered 
with hair-like specialized scales and is distinctly darker. Hind 
wing : similar, the brown edging to the costa much broader ; 
posteriorly in the tornal area there is a dark spot in interspace 1 
and another more clearly -defined similar spot in interspace 2, 
both spots merged more or less into the terminal brown edging. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings white, with their basal halves 
evenly dark brown. Underside: greyish brown. Eorewing: two 
short white lines, one each side of the discocellulars ; a minute 
black subcostal dot above apex of cell, another similar dot a little 
beyond it; two parallel, obliquely-placed, transverse, upper discal 
white lines, followed by an inner and an outer obliquely-placed, 
irregular, broken, subterminal line also white, the inner one some- 
what Junular, and an anticiliary dark line ; the posterior third 
from base of the wing uniform, somewhat paler than the rest. 
Hind wing: the following black white-encircled spots conspicuous: 
4 subbasal spots in transverse order, a subcostal spot in middle of 
interspace 7, two minute geminate spots at the tornal angle, and 
a larger one in interspace 2 ; two transverse short white lines on 
either side of the discocellulars as on the fore wing ; a transverse, 
curved, catenulated, discal baud of white markings, followed by a 
postdiscal and subterminal series of white lunules and an anti- 
ciliary dark line edged inwardly with white. Antennae dark 
brown, the shafts ringed with white; apex of club also white; head, 
thorax and abdomen dark brown, the thorax in fresh specimens 
with a little purplish-blue pubescence ; beneath : palpi, thorax and 
abdomen white. $ . Upperside : rich silky brown. Fore and 
hind wings : suffused with purplish blue at base, and with anti- 
ciliary black lines. Hind wing : with two black spots at tornal 



AZANUS. 363 

area as in the J . Underside : as in the <$ , but the markings 
more regular, more evenly and neatly denned, and the white 
transverse lines on the fore wing carried to the dorsal margin. 
Cilia, antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of the 
cf, the thorax however, devoid of any bluish pubescence on the 
upperside. 

Exp. <$ $ 21-24 mm. (0-84-0-96"). 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Baluchistan ; the Punjab ; Oudh ; 
Bengal ; Orissa ; Central, Western and Southern India ; Ceylon ; 
Upper Burma : Tilin Taw ( Watson). 



726. Azanus uranus, Sutler, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 3t>6, pi. 35, fig. 1 rf ; 
de N. Butt. Incl. iii, 1890, p. 124. 

d 1 ? . Closely resembles A. ubaldus, Cramer. The J 1 on the 
upperside has the ground-colour much paler and the terminal 
edging on both fore and hind wings much narrower, reduced, in 
fact, to a conspicuous dark brown anticiliary line, while the two 
dark spots at the tornal area of the hind wing are more or less 
obsolescent. In the $ on the upperside the ground-colour is also 
much paler than in the $ of ubaldus, but the suffusion of purplish 
blue at the base of the wings in the solitary $ specimen that 
I have seen is spread slightly further outwards than it is in the 
5 of ubaldus. Underside J $ : ground-colour greyish white ; 
character and disposition of the markings much as in ubaldus, but 
faint and not clearly defined, often many of them scarcely trace- 
able ; the transverse subbasal row of black spots on the hind wing 
either completely absent or barely visible. The black subcostal 
spot in interspace 7, though smaller than in ubaldus, seems to be 
always present, while the tornal black spots seem, to be particu- 
larly large and prominent in both sexes. 

Exp. J $ 25-28 mm. (1-00-1-10"). 

Hab. Baluchistan ; the Punjab : Karachi ; Oudh ; Kumaon ; 
Sikhim ; Bengal ; Central and Southern India. 



727. Azanus jesous, Guerin (Polyommatus) in Lef. Voy. Abyss, vi, 
(1847), p. 383, pi. 11, figs. 3, 4; Trimen (Lycaena), South Afr. 
Butt, ii, 1887, p. 72. 

Lyceena gamra, Lederer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v, 1855, p. 189, 
pi. 1, fig. 3 rf; de N. (Azanus) Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 125. 

Azanus crameri, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. \, 1881, p. 80, pi. 36, fig. 1. 

c? . Upperside : a paler and much brighter purple than in 
A. ubaldus, the dark blue tint at the base of the wings more 
pronounced. Pore wing : without the clothing of specialized 
hair-like scales so conspicuous in ubaldus. Hind wing : with the 
dark tornal spots very obscure. Pore and hind wings : with only 
slender dark anticiliary lines, but no regular brown edging. 
Underside : dull pale grey. Pore wing : costal margin brown, a 
black white-encircled spot in cell, a dark chestnut-brown streak 



364 LYC.EX1DJE. 

between vein 12 and subcostal vein ; similarly-coloured but some- 
\vhat paler transverse bars cross the upper discal area of the wing 
as follows : one on the discocellulars and three beyond, each bar 
edged internally and externally with white ; below this two 
elongate brownish white-edged spots placed en echelon, and 
beyond a slender, unbroken, transverse, postdiscal brown line ; 
a transverse subterminal series of black spots, each surrounded 
with white, and a slender anticiliary dark line. In most speci- 
mens there is also a dusky spot below the cell near the base of the 
wing. Hind wing : an outwardly oblique short streak from base 
of cell, a spot below it, a transverse subbasal series of four spots 
and a complete series of subterminal spots in interspaces 1, 2, 4, 
5, 6 and 7, jet-black, each spot surrounded with white ; the sub- 
terminal spot in interspace 3, a terminal small spot in interspace 7, 
an outwardly-oblique discal line of six elongate spots, the anterior 
spot shifted inwards out of line, and a transverse line beyond 
apex of cell, dark brown, each of these markings margined with 
white ; on the terminal area there is an inner subterminal lunulated 
dark line on the inner side of the series of black spots and an 
anticiliary similar slender line. Cilia white, basal halves brown ; 
on the fore wing interrupted also with brown at the apices of the 
veins. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown ; shafts of 
the antennae white-ringed, thorax with a little bluish pubescence ; 
beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . Upperside : silky 
brown, bluish at the base of the wings. Fore wing : a large dark 
brown discocellular transverse spot and a small quadrate white 
patch beyond. Hind wing : some two or three obscure dark sub- 
terminal spots towards the tornus. In some specimens the series 
complete from apex to tornus, more obscure anteriorly than poste- 
riorly. Fore and hind wings : both with slender dark anticiliary 
lines. Underside : ground-colour slightly paler, but the markings 
very similar to those in the tf ; the transverse brown bars beyond 
apex of cell on the fore wing longer, almost extended to the dorsal 
margin. Cilia, antennae, thorax and abdomen much as in the c? . 

Exp. cj 5 24-26 mm. (Q-93-1'02"). 

Hub. Africa ; Arabia ; and within our limits : Baluchistan ; the 
Punjab eastwards through Oudh to the Central Provinces ; 
Central, Western and Southern India; Ceylon; Upper Burma: 
Myingan ( Watson). 

Genus CHILADES. 

Chilades, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881. p. 76 ; de N. Butt. Ltd. iii, 
1890, p. 88. 

Type, C. laius, Cramer, from Ceylon and India. 

Kanf/e. " South Africa, North and South Tropical Africa, extra- 
tropical North Africa, South-east Europe, Asia Minor, Persia 
and Aden, almost throughout India and Ceylon, but not in the Malay 
Peninsula as far as is known, reappearing, however, in Java, Samba, 
Sambawa and Australia" (de Nicevitte). Occurs also in China. 



CHILADES. 365 

Very closely allied to Lycmia, from which the two forms that 
are placed under it are kept separate, more for convenience and 
because of the character of the wing-markings on the underside 
and the peculiar range of the forms, than for the slight structural 
difference which is noted below. 

<$ $ . Venation of the wings and structure of the antennae, 
palpi and legs as in Lyccena, with the exception that in the hind 
wing veins 3 and 4 are emitted typically from the lower apex of 
the cell, and not vein 3 from a little before, 4 from the apex of the 
cell as in Li/ccena. 

Key to the forms of Chilades. 

a. Upperside : tf purplish blue ; $ brown, with 

more or less of blue suffusion at base of wings. 
Underside hind wing: <$ without an ochreous 
patch at tornal area, or ocelli sprinkled with 
metallic-green scales C. lams, p. 060. 

b. Upperside : J brown, not suffused with blue. 

Underside hind wing : rf with a more or 
less well-marked ochraceous patch at tornal 
area, and three black ocelli sprinkled outwardly 
with metallic-green scales C. frochilus, p. 367. 



728. Chilades laius (PL XIX, fig. 135), Cramer (Papilio), Pap. Exot. 

iv, 1780, p. 62, pi. 319, tigs. D, E ; Moore (Polyommatus), Cat. 

Lep. Mus. E. 1. C. i, 1857, p. 21, pi. 12, figs. 1, 1 a, larva & pupa; 

de N. Butt. 2nd. iii, 1890, p. 89, pi. 26, tigs. 168, 169, J . 
Chilades varunana, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 77, pi. 35, fig. 3<3 . 
Polyommatus kandura, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 772, pi. 41, fig. 7 $ ; 

Swinhoe (Zizera), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 341. 

Wet-season brood. rf . Upperside : bluish purple. Fore wing : 
base and basal half of costa flushed with pale blue ; costa and 
termen edged by a slender dark brownish-black even line, beyond 
which along the termen the cilia are brown at base, white 
outwardly. Hind wing: costa somewhat broadly dusky black; 
a slender black conspicuous anticiliary line, beyond which the 
cilia are white traversed medially by a brown line ; dorsum 
broadly pale brown, two subterminal pale-bordered black spots in 
interspace 1, and one similar spot in interspace 2, often ob- 
solescent and barely indicated. Underside : grey. Fore wing : 
a transverse broad lunule on the discocellulars and a transverse 
discal series of six spots dark brown, the lunule and each of the 
discal spots edged with white ; the posterior four spots of 
the discal series elongate and each obliquely placed, the anterior 
two round and curved inwards ; a subterminal series of trans- 
verse elongate spots with an inner series of lunules dusky brown, 
both series edged inwardly and outwardly with white ; finally, 
an anticiliary slender black line. Cilia white, medially traversed 
by a dark brown line. Hind wing : the following jet-black spots 
slenderly encircled with white : a transverse subbasal series of 



366 LYCJSNIDJE. 

four and a subcostal spot somewhat larger than the others in the 
middle of interspace 7; below the latter a catenulated line of 
slenderly white-edged dusky-brown spots, including the lunular 
spot on the discocellulars, crosses the wing, and beyond these 
opposite the apex of the cell are three similar discal spots, the 
middle one elongate ; the terminal markings consist of an inner 
continuous subterminal series of dusky lunules, bordered inwardly 
and outwardly with white, an outer subterminal series of in- 
wardly conical dusky-brown spots, and a slender anticiliary black 
line. The posterior two spots of the outer line of subterminal 
markings are also black. Cilia white. Antennae black, the shafts 
obscurely ringed with white ; head, thorax and abdomen brown, 
the head, thorax and base of the abdomen with a little blue 
scaling ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen white. $ . 
Upperside : dark brown. Fore and hind wings from their bases 
outwards to a varying extent shot with bright iridescent blue, 
this colour not extended on either wing to the costa, termen or 
dorsum. Hind wing : in addition a curved postdiscal series of 
whitish lunules very often obsolescent, in some specimens entirely 
wanting ; followed by a subterminal series of black, narrowly 
white-encircled spots that are often obscure and in some speci- 
mens do not reach the apex. Anticiliary black lines and cilia 
as in the c? . Underside : precisely similar to that of the cf . 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the d . 

Dry-season brood. tf $ . Closely resemble specimens of the 
wet-season brood, but can always be distinguished by the some- 
what paler ground-colour of the upperside, while on the underside 
both sexes bear a large nebulous brown patch on the hind wing 
posteriorly. Sometimes the ground-colour on the underside is 
much paler, almost white, especially in the $ . 

Exp. 3 $ 28-32 mm. (MO-1-26"). 

Hob. Baluchistan ; N.W. Himalayas, not ascending above 
6000 or 7000 feet; N.W. Provinces eastwards to Bengal and 
Assam, southwards through Central, Western and Southern India 
to Ceylon : Burma ; Tenasserim ; Southern China. 

This form is very constant and unmistakable in the markings 
of the underside. It seems to be also fairly constant in size, but 
some six or seven specimens sent to me by Major Stokes-Eoberts, 
B.E., from the Nilgiris, are extraordinarily small (Exp. J $ 
18-20 mm.), though in ground-colour and markings, both on the 
upper and under sides, <$ and $ are precisely similar to the 
corresponding sexes of the larger and typical form. 

Larva. " Pale green at all stages, of the shade of the young leaves 
of the lime and pummeloe bushes on which it feeds. When full- 
grown it is about seven-sixteenths of an inch in length, onisciform 
as usual ; the head black, smooth and shining, with a somewhat 
dark green dorsal line down the body, the whole surface but very 
slightly shagreened and covered with extremely fine and short 
downy hairs. The constriction between the segments slight. 
There are traces of two pale subdorsal lines, and there is a pale 



CHILADES. 367 

lateral line below the spiracles. The usual extensile organ on the 
twelfth segment short. This larva has no distinctive markings 
by which it can be easily recognized ; it is altogether a very 
plainly coloured and marked insect. I have found it common in 
Calcutta during the rains, the ant which attends it betraying its 
presence. The latter has been identified by Dr. A. Forel as 
Camponotus rubripes, Drury (sylvaticus, Fabr.), subspecies com- 
pressus*, Fabr." (de Niceville.) 

Papa. " Green ; of the usual Lycsenid shape, with a dorsal and 
lateral series of somewhat obscure conjoined brownish spots on 
the upperside. Attached to the underside of the leaves of its 
food-plant in the usual manner." (de Niceville.) 

729. Chilades trochilus, Freyer (Lycaena), Neuere Beitrage Schmett. 

v, 1844, p. 98, pi. 440, tig. 1 ; Lang (Lycaena), Butt. Eur. 1884, 

p. 103, pi. 22, fig. 7 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 91. 
Lycsena putli, Kollar, HiiyeVs Kaschmir, iv, 1848, p. 422 ; Moore 

(Chilades), Lep. Ceyl. i, 1881, p. 77, pi. 85, figs. 4, 4 a. 
Lycaeua parva, Murray, Trans. Ent. Sue. 1874, p. 526, pi. 10, fig. 1. 
Lycfena gnoma, Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. xix, 1876, p. 159, pi. 7, 

fig. 1. 

S . Upperside : brown, somewhat variable in tint. Specimens 
from dry localities are much paler than those taken in areas with 
a comparatively heavy rainfall. Fore wing : uniform, with a very 
ill-defined anticiliary dark line in some specimens. Hind wing : 
a subterminal series of round black spots crowned with pale 
ochraceous, the posterior four spots generally well defined and 
outwardly edged with white, the anterior spots obsolescent and 
without the interior edging of yellow or the outer edging of 
white ; a well-marked, slender anticiliary black line. Cilia white, 
basal halves brown. Underside : pale silky brown. Fore wing : 
with the following white markings : a short line on the inner 
and outer sides of the discocellulars ; a transverse, slightly curved, 
discal series of small, more or less incomplete rings ; a transverse 
postdiscal series of disconnected slender lunules ; a subterminal 
series of similar but more regular lunuies and a terminal broken 
line, followed by a dark unbroken anticiliary line ; the ground- 
colour between the two short discocellular lines, that enclosed 
within each ring of the discal markings, and between the sub- 
terminal lunules and the terminal line slightly darker than on 
the rest of the wing. Hind wing : two short white lines on the 
discocellulars ; the discal, postdiscal and terminal markings as on 
the fore wing, except that enclosed between the subterminal 
series of white lunules and the terminal white line is a complete 
series of dark spots, the posterior three or four jet-black sprinkled 
outwardly with metallic-green scales and encircled with pale 
ochraceous. In addition there are a transverse subbasal series of 



* Camponotus compressits, Fabr., vide Faun. Brit. Ind., Hymen optera, ii, 
1903, p. 351. 



four white-encircled black spots and a similar subcostal spot in 
middle of interspace 7. Antennae, head, thorax arid abdomen 
brown, the shaft of the antennae speckled with white ; beneath : 
palpi, thorax and abdomen white. . Upper and undersides : 
ground-colour and markings as in the d 1 , but the latter larger and 
more clearly denned ; 011 the hind wing the yellow crowning the 
black spots on the tornal area on the upperside and surrounding 
the same 011 the underside, wider and more prominent. Antennae, 
head, thorax and abdomen as in the tf . 

Exp. rf $ 17-25 mm. (0-68-0-97"). 

Hal. Pound throughout our limits, but not at any great 
elevation ; occurs also in South-eastern Europe ; in Africa, 
Arabia and Central Asia ; extends through the Malayan Subregion 
to Australia. 

Var. putli, Kollar, is the small Indian form which however, in 
ground-colour and markings is identical with trochilus. 

Larva. " When full-grown a little over a quarter of an inch in 
length, onisciform as usual ; the head very small, black and 
shining, entirely hidden when at rest, being covered by the 
second segment ; the colour of the body grass-green, with a dark 
green dorsal line from the third to the twelfth segment; two 
subdorsal series of short parallel streaks, each pair being divided 
from the next by the segmental constriction, these streaks paler 
than the ground-colour ; an almost pure white lateral line below 
the spiracles, which is the most conspicuous of all the markings ; 
the segmental constrictions rather deep ; the whole surface of the 
body shagreened, being covered with very small whitish tubercles, 
from which spring very fine short colourless hairs. The usual 
extensile organ on the twelfth segment. Dr. George King, 
Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Sibpur, near 
Calcutta, has identified its food-plant as Hdiotropium striyosum, 
"Willd. Professor A. Forel identifies the ant as Pheidole quadri- 
spinosa, Jerdon." (de Niceville.} 

Pupa. " About three-sixteenths of an inch in length, pale 
green, of the usual Lycaenid shape, densely covered everywhere, 
except on the wing-cases, with somewhat long white hairs.'' 
(de Niceville?) 

Genus ORTHOMIELLA. 

Orthomiella, de Niceville, Butt. Ind. iii, 1800, p. 1 25. 

Type, 0. pontis, Elwes, from Sikhim. 

Range. Sikhim ; China. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa widely arched ; apex subacute, well- 
marked but not produced ; termen convex ; tornus angulated : 
dorsum straight, about three-fourths the length of the costa ; cell 
ample, a little longer than half the length of the wing ; vein 7 
from a little before apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore in 
line with subcostal ; middle and lower dtscocellulars subequal, 



OBTHOMIELLA. 369 

faintly marked ; vein 3 from before lower apex of cell, 4 from 
lower apex, 5 from junction of middle and lower discocellulars, 
6 from upper apex of cell, 8 absent, 9 from apical half of 7, 
10 free, 11 anastomosed with 12 for a short distance, then ex- 
tended free to costa, 12 terminates on costa well before apex 
of cell. Hind wing : costa slightly concave, apex obtusely an- 
gulate; termen anteriorly slightly concave, posteriorly strongly 
convex ; tornus blunt, almost rounded ; dorsum long, slightly 
arched ; cell about half length of wing, middle and lower disco- 
cellulars oblique and convex ; vein 3 from a little before lower 
apex of cell ; vein 8 strongly arched at base, then straight to 
apex, running very close to the costal margin. Antennae about 
half length of fore wing; club stout, abrupt, spatulate ; palpi 
subporrect, somewhat lax, furnished with a bristly fringe of hairs 
anteriorly, third joint short, acicular ; eyes hairy ; body moderately 
stout. 

A single form is found within our limits in Sikhim and in 
Upper Burma. 

730. Orthomiella pontis (PL XIX, fig. 139), Elwes (Chilcades?), 
P. Z. 8. 1887, p. 446 ; id. (Chilodes ?) Trans. Ent. Soc. 1888, 
p. 384, pi. 8, fig. 5 <S ; de N. Suit. Incl iii, 1890, p. 126, pi. 26, 
fig. 177 d . 

d 1 . Upperside : deep purplish brown, the purple suffusion 
visible in some lights, not in others. Fore and hind wings : 
uniform, with dark brown, somewhat broad anticiliary lines. 
Cilia brown alternated with white. Underside : paler, somewhat 
silky brown. Fore wing : base thickly irrorated with black scales ; 
cell transversely crossed in the middle and along the discocellulars 
by brown bars of a darker shade than the ground-colour of the 
wing; a transverse, somewhat irregular, catenulated, discal, 
similarly coloured band followed by a slightly paler, transverse, 
narrow, lunular, subterminal broad line, beyond which the ground- 
colour is earthy-brown, with a superposed terminal series of 
lunate spots in the interspaces. The cellular and discal markings 
are faintly edged with white, the terminal markings are generally 
very obscure. Hind wing : base, posterior half of cell and bases 
of interspaces 1 a, 1, 2 and 3 densely irrorated with black scales 
with irregular small patches of paler scales superposed thereon ; 
a transverse, catenulated, subbasal dark brown band, a similar 
shorter band from costa across the discocellulars aud a similar very 
irregular discal band from costa, all merged posteriorly into the 
irroration of black scales, followed as on the fore wing by an 
obscure, transverse, lunular, subterminal brown line, and a terminal 
row of ill-defined, similarly coloured, lunate spots. Antennae 
dark brown, the shafts speckled with white ; head, thorax and 
abdomen deep purplish brown ; beneath : palpi, thorax and 
abdomen fuscous black. $ . Upmrside : dark brown. Fore 
wing: basal two-thirds brilliant purplish blue, much brighter 
than the purple sheen in the d 1 . Hind wing : a medial area from 

VOL. II. 2 B 



370 

base extended outwards for about two-tbirds the length of the 
wing, purplish blue as on the fore wing. This colour not ex- 
tended anteriorly to the costa or posteriorly to the dorsum. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings as in the c? . Underside -. 
ground-colour and markings similar to those of the <S , but the 
latter somewhat more clearly and neatly denned ; on the hind 
wing the irroration of black scales at base and on the posterior 
half of the wing less extensive. Antennae, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the cf . 

Exp. <5 $ 30-32 mm. (1-18-1-26"). 

Hob. So far recorded only from ISikhiin, 6000 feet, and the 
North Chin Hills, Tipper Burma. 

Genus NIPHANDA. 

Niphanda, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 572 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, 
p. 131. 

Type, N. tessellata, Moore, from. Penang. 

Range. Indo-Malayan Eegion. 

c? $ . Fore wing : costa very nearly straight, slightly arched 
towards the apex ; apex blunt but not rounded ; termen convex ; 
tornus obtuse, dorsum straight ; cell not quite half length of wing ; 
middle and lower discocellulars vertical, slender; vein 3 from 
before lower apex of cell, vein 7 from a little before upper apex 
of cell, vein 8 absent, 9 from middle of 7, 10 and 11 free ; vein 12 
bent a little downwards towards 11, terminates on costa opposite 
apex of cell. Hind wing : costa widely and regularly arched, the 
arch continued evenly to apex and termen which form a strong 
curve to tornus; tornus obtusely angulated; dorsum concave above 
tornus, then convex to base : cell remarkably short, not half length 
of wing : veins 3 and 4 from lower apex of cell ; vein 8 arched at 
base, ending on costa before apex of wing. Antennae long, over 
half length of fore wing, club long, gradual ; palpi subporrect, 
densely clothed with short scales, not fringed with long hairs or 
bristles, third joint naked, comparatively long; eyes hairy. 

731. Niphanda cymbia, de NiceviUe, J. A. S. E. 1883, p. 76, pi. 9, 
fijrs. 8, 8 a, J $ ; id. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 132, frontispiece, 
figs. 130,131, d 1 2- 
Niphanda plinioides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 524, pi. 48, fig. 8 ? . 

Race marcia (PI. XX, fig. 146 <? ). 

Lycsena (Niphanda) marcia, Fmccett, P. Z. S. 1904, p. 139, pi. 9, 
fig. 7. 

<5 . Upperside : violet with a brilliant effulgence in fresh speci- 
mens. Fore wing : costa and termen narrowly edged with dark 
brown, a dark brown transverse short streak also on the disco- 
cellulars. Hind wing : costa, termen and discocellulars marked 
as in the fore wing, but the dark brown edging slightly broader, 
on the termen it is produced obscurely inwards in the posterior 



NIPHA.NDA. 371 

interspaces ; dorsum somewhat broadly dusky brown. Underside : 
dull whitish. Pore wing : basal half of costa shaded with brown ; 
a streak from base between vein 12 and the subcostal vein, an 
inwardly oblique, very broad, lunular subbasal spot, a spot on the 
discocellulars, a transverse discal band, a transverse subterminal 
series of inwardly conical spots and a slender anticiliary line, dark 
brown ; the transverse discal band is maculate and broken, its 
anterior portion to vein 3 outwardly oblique, its posterior portion 
below vein 3 shifted well inwards and nearly vertical ; the costa 
above vein 12, a postdiscal transverse irregular cloud verv broad 
anteriorly, narrow and faint posteriorly, and a transverse inner sub- 
terminal lunular line, pale brown. Hind wing: the humeral edge 
of the precostal area, two or three basal spots, a transverse subbasal 
line of four spots, a transverse spot on the discocellulars, with above 
it in vertical order two coalescent spots, a transverse curved macular 
discal baud, an inner, subterminal, lunular, continuous broad band, 
a subterminal series of spots and an anticiliary line, brown ; the 
basal and subbasal markings, the anterior of the two spots above 
the discocellular spot, and the posterior four subterminal spots 
very dark brown, almost black. The discal band has on either side 
of it posterior shorter rnacuiar bands, that give it an irregular and 
ill-defined appearance, while the two spots nearest the costa of the 
inner markings are very large and prominent. Cilia of both fore 
and hind wings brown. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen 
brown, the thorax slightly purplish in fresh specimens, the shafts 
of the antenna ringed with white; beneath: palpi, thorax and 
abdomen dingy brownish-white. $ . Upperside : brown. Fore 
wing : the costal and terminal margins, and the area below the 
basal half of the cell of a darker brown than the ground-colour ; 
an irregular transverse posterior discal series of dark brown spots, 
between which and the dark basal area on the inner side and 
between it and the broad dark terminal band on the outer side the 
ground-colour is replaced by dingy white. Hind wing : a post- 
discal series of white spots, and a subterminal series of inwardly 
conical very dark brown spots, the posterior spots of which are 
edged narrowly both on the inner and outer sides with white. Both 
fore and hind wings with slender black anticiliary lines. Under- 
side : ground-colour a purer white than in the d ; markings 
similar but all narrower and more clearly defined. Antenna?, 
head, thorax and abdomen brown, of a paler shade than in the J , 
the thorax not purplish ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white. 

Exp. 6 $ 35-39 mm. (1-37-1-52"). 

Hob. Sikhim. 

A variable form, especially the females. A specimen of the 
latter in the collection of the British Museum has on the upper- 
side the bases of both fore and hind wings suffused with dull blue, 
the white area on the fore wing of a purer shade and more 
extensive ; the hind wing has the whole of the disc between the 
basal suffusion of blue and the terminal markings white. On the 

2i3 2 



372 LYCJENID.E. 

underside both sexes vary very much in the size and clearness of 
definition of the markings, and the variety just mentioned has 
these (especially the terminal markings) partially obsolescent. 

Race marcia, Fawcett. A very slightly differentiated form. 
Differs from typical cymbia as follows : j . Upperside : similar, 
the purple ground-colour in the only two specimens that I have 
had an opportunity of examining slightly brighter. Underside, 
fore wing : ground-colour slightly greyish or bluish-white ; the 
basal dark brown streak shorter, the lunular dark brown mark 
beyond it replaced by an irregular upper and lower spot distinctly 
divided by the median vein ; the discal and postdiscal markings 
similar but narrow, edged with white and distinctly paler. Hind 
wing : the anterior half of the cell and up to the costa above it, 
the base of the wing and the disc shaded with greyish brown ; the 
brown spots and maculated bands paler, except the large spot 
nearest the costa of the transverse subbasal row of spots, and 
the two spots (which are of equal size) above the discocellular 
spot ; terminal markings all paler and fainter than in the typical 
form. 5 . Yerv similar to the variety of cymbia described briefly 
above, but on the upperside the blue suffusion at the base of the 
wings is replaced by pale brown and on the hind wing the area of 
white on the disc is less extensive. Underside : very similar to the 
underside of the typical form, the markings all slightly smaller, 
paler and less prominent. 

Exp. S 2 28-35 mm. (MO-1-37"). 

Hab. Recorded so far only from Burma : Taungoo, Mergui, the 
Shan States. 

Genus LYO2ENESTHES. 

Lycsenesthes, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 773 ; id. Lep. Ceyl i, 1881, 
p. 87 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 127. 

Type, L. emolus, Godart, from India. 

Range. Indo- and Austro- Malayan Eegions. 

d $ . Fore wing : costa very slightly arched ; apex subacute ; 
termen convex ; torrms almost a right angle ; dorsum straight ; 
cell long, more than half the length of the wing ; vein 7 from 
before upper apex of cell, upper discocellular therefore in line with 
subcostal vein, middle and lower discocellulars vertical, subequal ; 
veins 1 and 2 very wide apart at base ; veins 2 and 3 given off 
from apical fourth of median vein, vein 4 from lower apex of 
cell, 6 from upper apex of cell, 8 absent, 9 from apical half of 7, 
10 and 11 free, 12 terminates on costa before apex of cell ; veins 
1 and 12 and median and subcostal veins thickened towards base. 
Hind wing : broad ; costa widely arched ; apex and tornus well 
marked ; termen convex ; short projections (scarcely tails) at 
apices of veins 1 to 3 ; dorsum only slightly convex ; cell about 
half length of wing ; middle and lower discocellulars concave and 
sloping obliquely outwards ; veins 1 o, 1, median and subcostal 



LYC^ENESTHES. 373 

veins and vein 8 all distinctly thickened towards base ; veins 3 
and 4 closely approximate from lower apex of cell ; vein 8 strongly 
arched at basal third and extended parallel and very close to the 
costal margin up to apex of wing. Antennae comparatively long, 
longer than half length of fore wing ; club long, gradual, acute at 
apex ; palpi porrect, anteriorly fringed with stiff hairs, third joint 
long, naked ; eyes hairy ; body robust. 

Key to the forms of Lycamesthes. 

a. Underside hind wing : no distinct dark brown or 

black white-encircled spot touching vein 7 near 

base L. etnolus, p. 373. 

b. Underside hind wing : a very distinct dark brown 

or black white-encircled spot touching vein 7 

near base L. tyc&nina, p. 375. 

732. Lycsenesthes emolus, Godart (Polyommatus), Encycl. Meth. ix, 
1823, p. 056 ; de N. Butt. Ind. iii, 1890, p. 128 ; Davidson, 'ell # 
Aitken. Jour. JSomb. N. H. Soc. x, 1896, p. 374. 
Lycaenesthes bengalensis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 773, pi. 41 f 
fig.9rf. 

c? . Upperside : dull purple ; bases of the wings suffused with 
blue : both fore and hind wings with well-marked jet-black 
anticiliary lines, that on the fore wing expand slightly at the 
apex. Hind wing : the costal margin above vein 7 and the dorsal 
margin below vein 1 a fuscous brown ; irregular, transverse, sub- 
terminal black spots in interspaces 1 to 3, those in interspaces 
1 and 2 much larger than that in int