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Full text of "The butterflies of the British Isles"

OF THE 

BRITISH ISLES 




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UNIQUE AND POPULAR WORKS FOR ALL 
NATURE LOVERS. 

" - Uniform with this Volume. 

Wayside and Woodland 
Blossoms 

A Pocket Guide to British Wild Flowers 
for the Country Rambler. 

{First and Second Series.) 
With Clear Descriptions of 760 Species. 

BY 

EDWARD STEP, F.L.S. 

And Coloured Figures of 257 Species by 
MABEL E. STEP. 

Wayside and Woodland 
Trees 

A Pocket Guide to the British Sylva. 

BY 

EDWARD STEP, F.L.S. 

With 127 Plates from Original Photographs by 

HENRY IRVING, 

And 57 Illustrations of the Leaves, Flowers and Fruit by 

MABEL E. STEP. 

AT ALL BOOKSELLERS. 
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London : 15, Bedford Street, Strand. 
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THE WAYSIDE 
AND WOODLAND 
M M SERIES 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE 
BRITISH ISLES 




PI. I 




Swallow-tail Butterfly. 

Male and female, with caterpillars and chrysalids. 



[^THE BUTTERFLIES 

OF THE 

BRITISH ISLES 



BY 

RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 

EDITOR OF 
U THE ENTOMOLOGIST," ETC. 



WITH 

ACCURATELY COLOURED FIGURES 

OF EVERY SPECIES AND MANY VARIETIES 

ALSO DRAWINGS OF EGG, CATERPILLAR 

CHRYSALIS, AND FOOD-PLANT 



LONDON 

FREDERICK WARNE & CO. 

AND NEW YORK 
1906 

{All rig J Us reserved) 



PREFACE. 



Few things add more enjoyment to a country ramble than a 
knowledge of the many and varied forms belonging to the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms that present themselves to the 
notice of the observing wayfarer on every side. 

Almost every one admires the wild flowers that Nature 
produces so lavishly, and in such charming variety of form and 
colour ; but, in addition to their own proper florescence, the plants 
of woodland, meadow, moor, or down have other " blossoms " 
that arise from them, although they are not of them. These 
are the beautiful winged creatures called butterflies, which as 
crawling caterpillars obtain their nourishment from plant 
leafage, and in the perfect state help the bees to rifle the 
flowers of their sweets, and at the same time assist in the work 
of fertilization. 

It is the story of these aerial flowers that we wish to tell, and 
hope that in the telling we may win from the reader a loving 
interest in some of the most attractively interesting of Nature's 
children. 

There are many people, no doubt, who take an intelligent 
interest in the various forms of animal life, and yet do not care 
to collect specimens because, as in the case of butterflies for 
instance, the necessity arises for killing their captives. Such 
lovers of Nature are quite satisfied to know the names of the 
species, and to learn something of their life-histories and habits. 



VI PREFACE. 

Still, however, there are others, and possibly a larger number, 
who will desire to capture a few specimens of each kind of 
butterfly for closer examination and study. It is believed that 
this little volume will be found useful to both sections of 
naturalists alike. 

The author in preparing the book has been largely guided by 
a recollection of the kind of information he sought when he 
himself was a beginner, now some forty odd years ago. 

In conclusion, he desires to tender his most sincere thanks to 
the undermentioned gentlemen, who so kindly furnished him 
with eggs, caterpillars, and chrysalids ; or favoured him with 
the loan of some of their choicest varieties of butterflies for 
figuring ; without their valued assistance many of the illustra- 
tions could not have been prepared : — Rev. Gilbert Raynor, 
Major Robertson, Messrs. F. Noad Clark, T. Dewhurst, C. H. 
Forsythe, F. W. Frohawk, A. H. Hamm, A. Harrison, H. Main, 
A. M. Montgomery, E. D. Morgan, G. B. Oliver, J. Ovenden, 
G. Randell, A. L. Ray ward, E. J. Salisbury, A. H. Shepherd, 
F. A. Small, L. D. Symington, A. E. Tonge, B. Weddell, 
F. G. Whittle, and H. Wood. 

Varieties — Messrs. R. Adkin, J. A. Clark, F. W. Frohawk, 
and E. Sabine. 

With kind permission of the Ray Society, figures of the 
following larvae and pupae have been reproduced from Buckler's 
" Larvae of British Butterflies " : — P. daft Mice, C. eausa, M. 
athalia, P. c-album, S. scmcle, A- hyperanthus, 0. tyfthon, 
C. fiamfthihis, C. rt/bi, C. argiolus, A. thaumas, A. actccou. 
Larva only — L. sinaftis, A. selene, A. aurinia, and T. pruni. 

Figures of A. cratcegi, A. liueola, and C. palcemon have been 
made from preserved skins. 

For coloured plates, I, 30, 42, 48, 58, 66, 98, 100, 112, 116, 118, 
and the accurately drawn black-and-white figures, including 
enlargements, the author is greatly indebted to Mr. Horace 
Knight. 






INTRODUCTORY. 



Butterflies belong to the great Order of insects called 
Lepidoptera (Greek lepis, a scale, and pteron, a wing), that is, 
insects whose wings are covered with minute structures termed 
scales. Moths (Heterocera) also belong to the same order, 
and the first point to deal with is how may butterflies be 
distinguished from moths ? In a broad kind of way they may 
be recognized by their horns (antennce), which are slender as 
regards the shaft, but are gradually or abruptly clubbed at the 
extremity. For this reason they were designated Rhopalocera, 
or "club horned," the Heterocera being supposed to have 
horns of various kinds other than clubbed. As a matter of 
fact this method of separating moths and butterflies does not 
hold good in dealing with the Lepidoptera of the world, and 
it is from a study of these, as a whole, that systematists have 
arrived at the conclusion that there is no actual line of division 
between moths and butterflies. In modern classification, then, 
butterflies are reduced from the rank of a sub-order, which 
they formerly held, and are now dovetailed into the various 
newer systems of arrangement between certain families of moths. 

As regards British butterflies, however, it will be found that 
these may be known, as such, by their clubbed horns. Only the 
Burnets among British moths have horns in any way similar, 
and these are thickened gradually towards the extremity rather 

B 



Vlil INTRODUCTORY. 

than clubbed. Day-flying moths, especially the bright-coloured 
ones, might be mistaken for butterflies by the uninitiated, but 
in all these the horns will be found not at all butterfly-like. 

Although varieties of the species will be referred to in the 
descriptive portion of the book, a few general remarks on 
variation in butterflies may here be made. All kinds are liable 
to vary in tint or in the markings, sometimes in both. Such 
variation, in the more or less constant species especially, is 
perhaps only trivial and therefore hardly attracts attention. In 
a good many kinds variation is often of a very pronounced 
character, and is then almost certain to obtain notice. Except 
in a few instances, where the aberration is of an unusual kind, 
it is possible to obtain all the intermediate stages, or gradations, 
between the ordinary form of a species and its most extreme 
variety. A series of such connecting links in the variation of a 
species is of greater interest, and higher educational value, than 
one in which the extremes alone have a place. 

In those kinds of butterflies that attain the perfect state twice 
in the year, the individuals composing the first flight are some- 
what different in marking from those of the second flight. Such 
. species as the large and small whites exhibit this kind of varia- 
tion, which is termed seasonal dimorphism. The males of 
some species, as for example the Common Blue and the Orange- 
tip, differ from the females in colour ; this is known as sexual 
dimorphism. The Silver- Washed Fritillary, which has two 
forms of the female, one brown like the male, the other green 
or greenish in colour, is a good example of dimorphism con- 
fined to one sex. Gynandrous specimens, sometimes called 
" Hermaphrodites," are those which exhibit both male and 
female coloration, or other wing characters ; when one side 
is entirely male and the other side entirely female, the 
gynandromorphism would be described as complete. 

The ornamentation on the under side of a butterfly differs 
from that of the upper side, and is found to assimilate or 



INTRODUCTORY. IX 

harmonize in a remarkable manner with the usual resting-place. 
It is therefore of service to the insect when settled with wings 
erect over the back, in the manner of all butterflies, except 
some few kinds of Skippers. 

The number of known species of butterflies throughout the 
world has been put at about thirteen thousand, and it has 
been suggested by Dr. Sharp that there may be nearly twice 
as many still awaiting discovery. Dr. Staudinger in his 
"Catalog " gives a list of over seven hundred kinds of butterflies 
as occurring in the whole of the Palasarctic Region. This 
zoological region embraces Europe, including the British 
Islands, Africa north of the Atlas range of mountains, and 
temperate Asia, including Japan. The entire number of species 
that can by any means be regarded as British does not exceed 
sixty-eight. Even this limited total comprises sundry migratory 
butterflies, such as the Clouded Yellows, the Painted Lady, the 
Red Admiral, the Camberwell Beauty, and the Milkweed 
Butterfly ; and also the still less frequent, or perhaps more 
accidental visitors, the Long-tailed Blue and the Bath White. 
Again, the Large Copper is now extinct in England, and the 
Mazarine Blue does not seem to have been observed in any of 
its old haunts in the country for over forty years. The Black- 
veined White is also scarce and exceedingly local. 

The majority of the remaining fifty-seven butterflies may 
be considered natives, and of these about half are so widely 
distributed that the young collector should, if fairly energetic, 
secure nearly all of them during his first campaign. The other 
species will have to be looked for in their special localities, but 
a few kinds are so strictly attached to particular spots, that a 
good deal of patience will have to be exercised before a chance 
may occur of obtaining them. 

A few remarks may here be made in reference to the names 
and arrangement adopted in the present volume. 

As will be adverted to in the descriptive section, the English 



X INTRODUCTORY. 

names of our butterflies have not always been quite the same 
as those now in general use. There has, however, been far 
less stability in scientific nomenclature, and very many changes 
in both generic and specific names have been made during the 
past twenty years, more especially perhaps within the last 
decade. 

Genera are now founded by some specialists on characters 
which formerly served to distinguish one species from another, 
whilst other authorities merge several genera in one upon 
certain details of structure that are common to them all. 

Patient research into the entomological antiquities has re- 
vealed much important material, some of which may furnish a 
new interpretation of the Linnean classification of Lepidoptera. 

The discovery of the earliest Latin specific name bestowed 
upon an insect, is a labour which entails a large expenditure 
of time and requires fine judgment. Great credit is therefore 
due to those who undertake such investigations, the result of 
which may tend to the establishment of a fixed nomenclature 
in the, probably not remote, future, although it sadly hampers 
and perplexes students in the meanwhile. 

All things considered then, it has been deemed advisable 
not to make many changes in specific names, and to retain the 
old genera as far as possible. The arrangement of families, 
genera, etc., will be found to accord with that most generally 
accepted both in England and on the continent. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE 
BRITISH ISLES. 

PART I. 

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY. 

As is the case with all other Lepidoptera, butterflies pass 
through three very distinct stages before they attain the perfect 
form. These stages are : — i. The egg (ovum, plural ova), 
2. The caterpillar {larva, iarvoz). 3. The chrysalis {pupa, 
pupce). The perfect insect is called the imago (plural imagines). 

The Egg. 

Butterfly eggs are of various forms, and whilst in some kinds 
the egg-shell (chorion) is elaborately ribbed or fluted, others 
are simply pitted or covered with a kind of network or reticula- 
tion ; others, again, are almost or quite smooth. If the top of an 
egg, such as that of the Purple Emperor (Plate 28), is examined 
under a good lens a depression will be noted, and in this will 
be seen a neat and starlike kind of ornamentation. In the 
middle of this " rosette " are, present in all eggs, minute aper- 
tures known as micropyles (little doors), and it is through these 
that the spermatozoa of the male finds entry to the interior of 
the egg and fertilization is effected. The changes that occur in 
the egg after it is laid are of a very complex nature, and readers 



2 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

who may desire information on this subject are referred to 
Sharp's " Insects," Part L, in the " Cambridge Natural History," 
where also will be found much interesting and instructive matter 
connected with the caterpillar and chrysalis, to which stages 
only brief reference can here be made. 



The Caterpillar. 

The second stage is that of the caterpillar, and in some 
species, such as the Red Admiral, this is of very short duration, 
a few weeks only, whilst in others, as for example the Small 
Blue, it usually lasts for many months. There is considerable 
diversity both in the shape and, where it is present, in the hairy 
or spiny clothing {armature) of caterpillars. All, however, are 
alike in one respect, that is the body is divided into thirteen 
more or less well-defined rings (segments), which together with 
the head make up fourteen divisions. In referring to these 
body-rings, the first three nearest the head, each of which is 
furnished with a pair of true legs {thoracic legs), are called the 
thoracic segments, as they correspond to the thorax of the 
perfect butterfly. The remaining ten rings are the abdominal 
segments ; the last two are not always easily separable one from 
the other, and so for all practical purposes they may be con- 
sidered only nine in number. These nine rings, then, correspond 
to the abdomen of the future butterfly. The third to sixth of 
this series have each a pair of false legs {prolegs), and there is 
also a pair on the last ring ; the latter are the anal claspers. 

The warts {tubercles) are the bases of hairs and spines, and 
are to be seen in most butterfly caterpillars, but they generally 
require a lens to bring them clearly into view. These warts are 
usually arranged in two rows on the back {dorsal series) and 
three rows on each side {lateral series). 

All the various parts referred to, or to be presently mentioned, 
may be seen in Fig. i, which also shows a peculiarity that is 



THE CATERPILLAR. 



•found in very young caterpillars of the Orange-tip, and in 
some others of the " Whites " (Pzeridce). The odd thing about 
this baby caterpillar is that the fine hair arising from each wart 
is forked at the tip (Fig. I, a\ and holds thereon a minute globule 
of fluid. When the caterpillars become about half grown these 
special hairs are lost in a general clothing of fine hair. Fig. i, b, 
represents a magnified single ring of the caterpillar, and this 
shows a spiracle and the folds of the skin {subsegments). The 
manner in which such folding occurs is to be observed in the 
higher study of larval morphology. 

On each ring, except the second (including now the three 
thoracic with the 
nine abdominal," 
and so making 
twelve rings), the 
third, and the 
last, there is an 
oval or roundish 
mark which indi- 
cates the position 
of the breathing 
hole {spiracle). 
Through these 
minute openings 
air enters to the 
breathing tubes (trachea), which are spread throughout the 
interior of the caterpillar in a seemingly complicated kind of 
network of main branches and finer twigs ; air is thus conveyed 
to every part of the body. In the event of one or two air-holes 
becoming in any way obstructed, the caterpillar would possibly 
be none the worse ; but if all the openings were closed up 
effectually, it would almost certainly die. Total immersion in 
water, even for some hours, is not always fatal. 

Turning again to the " feet " of the caterpillar, it will be seen 




Fig. i. 
Young caterpillar of Orange-tip highly magnified. 
{After Sharp.) 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



T 




CL b 

Fig. 2. 
(a) True and (b) false legs. 



from the figure that the true legs {a) differ from the false legs (b) 
in structure. The former are horny, jointed, and have terminal 

claws ; the latter are fleshy, 
with sliding joints, and the foot 
is furnished with a series of 
minute hooks which enable the 
caterpillar to obtain a secure 
hold when feeding, etc. The 
false legs are also the chief 
means of locomotion, as the 
true legs are of little service for this purpose. The true legs, 
however, appear to be of use when the caterpillar is feeding, as 
the leaf is held between them so as to keep it steady whilst 
the jaws are doing their work. 

In the accompanying figure of the head of a caterpillar the 
mouth parts are clearly shown. The biting jaws {mandibles) 
are slightly apart, above them is 
seen the upper lip {labrum\ and 
below them is the under lip {labium 
or lingua). The maxillce are very 
tiny affairs, but they should be 
noted because in the butterfly they 
become the basal portions of the 
two tubes which, when united to- 
gether, form the sucking organs 
(proboscis). The eyes, or ocelli as 
they are termed, are minute, and 
are said to be of slight use to the 
caterpillar as organs of sight, so 
that it probably has to depend on its little feelers {antenna) for 
guidance to the right plants for its nourishment. Attention 
should also be given to the spinneret, as it is by means of this 
that the silken threads, etc., for its various requirements are 
provided ; the substance itself being secreted in glands placed 




St f 

Fig. 3. 
a, labrum ; b, mandible ; c, 
antenna ; d, ocelli ; e, max- 
illa ; /, labium ; g, spin- 
neret ; h y labial palp. 



THE CATERPILLAR. 5 

in the body of the caterpillar. The palpi are organs of touch, 
and seem to be of use to the caterpillar when moving about. 

Immediately after hatching, many caterpillars eat the egg- 
shell for their first meal ; they then settle down to the business 
of feeding and growing. It should be remembered that it is 
entirely on growth made whilst in the caterpillar stage that the 
size of a butterfly depends. In the course of a day or two the 
necessity arises for fasting, as moulting, an important event, is 
about to take place. Having spun a slender carpet of silk on a 
leaf or twig, the caterpillar secures itself thereto, and then 
awaits the moment when all is ready for the transformation to 
commence. After a series of twistings from side to side and 
other contortions, the skin yields along the back near the head, 
the head is drawn away from its old covering and thrust 
through the slit in the back, the old skin then peels downwards 
whilst the caterpillar draws itself upwards until it is free. The 
new skin, together with any hairs or spines with which it may be 
clothed, is at first very soft. In the course of a short time all is 
perfected, and the caterpillar is ready to enter upon its second 
stage of growth. At the end of the second stage the skin- 
changing operation is again performed, and the whole business 
is repeated two or more times afterwards. Finally, however, 
when the caterpillar has shed its skin for the last time, the 
chrysalis is revealed, but with the future wings seemingly free. 
These, together with the other organs, are soon fixed down to 
the body by the shell, which results from a varnish-like ooze 
which covers all the parts and then hardens. 

Generally speaking, newly hatched caterpillars, though of 
different kinds, are in certain respects somewhat alike, but the 
special characters of each begin to appear, as a rule, after the 
first change of skin {ecdysis), and these go on developing with 
each successive stage (stadium) until the caterpillar is full 
grown. The form assumed in each stage is termed the znstar, 
therefore a caterpillar just from the egg would be referred to as 



6 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

in the first instar ; between the first and second changes of skin, 
as in the second instar, and so on to the chrysalis, which in the 
case of a caterpillar that moulted, or changed its skin, four 
times before attaining full growth, would be the sixth instar, 
and the butterfly would then be the seventh instar. In practice, 
however, it is usually the stages of the caterpillar alone that are 
indicated in this way. 

The Chrysalis. 

The term chrysalis more especially applies to such of them 
as are spotted or splashed with metallic colour, as, for example, 
the chrysalids of some of the Fritillaries. The scientific term 
for the chrysalis is pupa, which in the Latin tongue means " a 
doll or puppet." 

In passing to the chrysalis stage the caterpillars have some- 
times to make rather more preparations 
than in previous skin-changing provisions. 
Those of the Swallow-tail, Whites, 
Orange-tip, and similar kinds have to pro- 
vide a silken girdle for the waist as well as 
a pad for the tail. Chrysalids that hang 
suspended, head downwards, such as the 
Vanessids, Fritillaries, etc., are attached by 
the cremaster — a hooked arrangement on 
the tail (Fig. 5) — to a pad of silk ; others, 
such as the Blues and the Coppers, appear 
Fig. 4. to be held in position on a leaf, or some 

Caterpillar of Small other object, by means of a fine girdle of 
White, about to g -j k or somet i me s a few silken threads 
change to chrysa- ' ,.,, -,11 i 

li s# spread net-like above and below them — 

rudiments of a cocoon in fact. Chrysalids 
of the Skippers are enclosed in a more or less complete cocoon 
placed within a chamber, formed of a leaf or leaves of the 
food-plant, drawn together by silken cables. Some of these 





THE BUTTERFLY. 7 

chrysalids are furnished with hooks on the tail as well as with 
a girdle for suspension ; but others have hooks only. 

As almost all the chrysalids here considered are figured in the 
illustrations, it will be unnecessary to refer in detail to their 
great diversity in form, but a few general remarks on the 
structure of a chrysalis may be made. 

If the upper {dorsal) surface of a chrysalis is examined, the 
thorax and the body divisions will easily be made out, while, 
by looking at the sides and the under 
{ventral) surface, the various organs, 
such as the wings, legs, antennae, etc., 
will be found neatly laid along each 
side of the " tongue," or proboscis, 
which latter extends down the centre. 
All these are separately encased, but Fig. 5. 

by reason of the shell mentioned in the Enlarged view of cre- 
remarks on the caterpillar, they appear master, and a hook 
to be welded together. When, how- ^AfterS^rf^' 
ever, the butterfly is ready to emerge, 

the shell of the chrysalis is split along the thorax and at the 
lower edge of the wing-cases, and the insect is then able to 
release itself from the pupal trappings. This breaking open of 
the chrysalis shell is termed dehiscence {dehisco, " to split 
open "), and the manner in which it is effected varies in different 
species. The emergence of a butterfly from the chrysalis is 
always an interesting operation to observe, and every one 
should make a point of watching the process, so that he may 
obtain practical knowledge of how the thing is done. A photo- 
graph of it will be found in the description of the Wall Butterfly. 

The Butterfly. 

Having safely cleared itself free of the chrysalis shell, the 
butterfly makes its way to some suitable twig, spray, or other 
object, from which it can hang, sometimes in an inverted position, 



5 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

whilst a very important function takes place. This is the 
distention and drying of the wings, which at first are very weak 
and somewhat baggy affairs, although the colour and markings 
appear upon them in miniature. All other parts of the butterfly 
seem fully formed, but the helpless condition of the wings alone 
prevent it as yet from floating off into the air. In a remarkably 
short time, after the insect has settled to the business, the fluids 
from the body commence to flow and circulate through the 
wings, and these are seen gradually expanding and filling out 
until they attain their proper size. Occasionally there is some 
obstruction to the equal distribution of the fluids, and when this 
occurs a greater or lesser amount of distortion, or cockle, in 
the wing affected is the result. When the inflation is com- 
pleted the wings are kept straight out for a time ; they are then 
motionless, but all their surfaces are well apart. The wings 
being now fully developed, the further flow of fluid appears to 
be arrested. It has been stated by some authorities that this 
fluid is fibrin held in solution, and that when the work of ex- 
pansion has been accomplished, the watery medium evaporates, 
leaving the fibrin to harden, and so fasten together the upper 
and lower membranes of the wing and to fix the veins, or 
nerves, in their proper position. Mayer, a specialist on these 
matters, referring to the expansion of the wings, remarks that 
the blood [the fluid previously mentioned] forced into the freshly 
emerged wing would cause it to become a balloon-shaped bag 
if it were not for fibres that hold the upper and lower walls 
closely together. The fibres referred to, he states, are derived 
from those hypodermic cells which do not contribute to the 
formation of scales, but are stretched out from one wall of the 
wing to the other. 

It may be well now to briefly consider some of the structural 
details of the perfect butterfly, so a beginning will be made with 
the head (Fig. 6). When looking at the head of a butterfly, 
the first thing to attract the attention is the very large size 



THE BUTTERFLY. 



of the compound eye (a\ which seems to take up the largest 
share of the whole affair. Although so bulky and so complex 
in the matter of divisions, or facets, as they are termed (the 
facets are not shown in figure), the power of sight is not really 
very keen. A butterfly can see things in a general way readily 
enough, but it seems unable to clearly distinguish one object 
from another. When engaged in egg-laying, the female butter- 
fly rarely fails to place her eggs on a leaf or spray of the plant 
that the future caterpillar will feed upon, and it has been 
suggested that in making this unerring selection the insect is 
guided more by the sense of smell than by that of sight. 

The horns (c) (antennce), or feelers, as they are sometimes 
called, which adorn the head, are now considered to be organs 
of smell. These are composed of a number 
of rings or segments, which vary in the 
different kinds of butterfly, as also does 
the shape of the terminal rings forming 
what is known as the club. In Fig. 7, e 
(Purple Emperor) and /(Marbled White) 
represent the gradually thickened club ; 
jn g (Brimstone) and h (Dark-green Fritil- 
lary) the clubs are more or less abruptly 
formed. Our Skippers have well- developed 
clubs ; these may be hooked at the tip as 
in i (Large Skipper), or blunt at the tip as 
in j (Chequered Skipper) ; at the base of 
the Skipper's antenna, that is at the point 
where it is inserted in the head, there is a 
tuft of rather long hairs. 

Of the various mouth parts it will only 
be necessary to refer to the suction-tube, 
Fig. 6, d (proboscis), often called the "tongue," which is 
perhaps the most important, at least to the butterfly itself, as 
this organ is, in a way, as useful to it in the perfect state 




Fig. 6. 

Head of Butterfly. 

a, compound eye ; b, 
palp ; c, antenna ; 
d, proboscis. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE RRITISH ISLES. 



as were the very differently constructed strong biting jaws 
(inandibles) of its caterpillar existence. These latter in the 
butterfly are only microscopically represented, and the suction- 
tube of the perfect insect is an extension of the maxillae, which 
in the caterpillar are not conspicuous. When not engaged in 
probing the nectaries of flowers for the sweets they contain, 
the suction-tube is neatly coiled up between the palpi (Fig. 6, U). 
Its great flexibility is due to the many rings of which it is com- 
posed. Although seemingly entire, it is really made up of two 
tubes, each being grooved on its inner side, and forming, when 



ST 





J 



Fig. 7. 
Antennae of Butterflies. 



the edges are brought together, an additional central canal, 
through which the sweets from the flowers and other liquids are 
drawn up into a bulb-like receptacle in the head, whence it passes 
into the stomach. When it is remembered that the passage of 
sweet, and no doubt sticky, fluid through the central tube would 
most probably result in its walls becoming clogged, there is 
reason to suppose that the method of construction permits of 
the canal being cleansed from time to time. 

The important divisions of the body are the thorax and the 
abdomen. The former is made up of three segments (named 
the pro-, meso-, and meta-thorax), each of which, as in the 
caterpillar state, is furnished with a pair of legs ; the second and 



THE BUTTERFLY. 



II 



third, which are closely united, each bear a pair of wings also. 
The legs, which in the butterfly are adapted for walking at a 
leisurely pace, are made up of four main parts ; these are (a) the 
basal joint (coxa, coxce), {b) the thigh (femur, femora), (c) the 
shank {tibia, tibics), and {d) the foot {tarsus, tarsi). The small 
joint uniting the coxa with the femur is the trochanter (/r.). 
The foot usually has five joints, the last of which is provided 
with claws (e). The abdomen really 
consists of ten rings or segments accord- 
ing to some specialists. Examined from 
above, the female butterfly appears to 
have only seven rings and the male 
butterfly eight. This discrepancy arises 
from the fact that in the former sex two 
rings and in the latter one ring are 
withdrawn into the body, and so are 
tucked away out of sight. The organs 
of reproduction are placed in the ter- 
minal ring. The breathing arrange- 
ments are pretty much as in the cater- 
pillar, but the external openings are not 
so apparent owing to the dense clothing 
of the body. 

The beauty of a butterfly's wings is 
intimately connected with the form and colour of the scales 
with which they are covered, as with a kind of mosaic ; but be- 
fore the scales and their method of attachment, etc., are referred 
to, something should be said about the wings themselves. The 
various shapes of these organs of flight will be seen on turning 
to the plates, where will be found accurate portraits of every 
species that will be dealt with in the descriptive section later on. 

A butterfly's wing consists of an upper and a lower mem- 
brane, with a framework of hollow tubes, acting as ribs, between 
the two layers. Fig. 9, A, shows a fore and a hind wing of the 




e 

Fig. 8. 
Leg of Butterfly. 



12 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



Swallow-tail butterfly. The point of attachment with the thorax 
is the base of the wing, and the edge farthest from the base is 
the outer margin (tertnen) ; the upper edge, or front margin, is 
the costa ; and the lower edge is the inner margin (dorsum). The 
point where the upper margin meets the outer margin on the 
fore wing is the apex, but on the hind wing it is called the outer 
angle ; the angle formed by the junction of outer and inner 
margins is the inner angle of the fore wing, but the anal angle of 




tad 



l/ouriaL angle. 

Fig. 9. 
Butterflies' "Wings. 

the hind wing. The term tornus is sometimes used for this 
angle on either wing. Dividing the wings transversely into 
three portions, we have three areas, termed respectively basal, 
central or discal, and outer. These are terms used in descrip- 
tions of butterflies, and it will be useful to remember them. 

The ribs of a butterfly's wings are by some authors described 
as veins, whilst others style the main ones nervures, and the 
branches nervules. Fig. 9, B, represents the venation, or 
neuration of the Black-veined White, and the numeral system 



THE BUTTERFLY. 1 3 

of indicating the veins has been adopted, as it is the most 
simple. In another method of referring to the venation, and 
one that has been much in use, vein 12 of the fore wing 
would be styled the costal nervure, or vein ; veins 11, 10, 9 
(absent in figure), 8, and 7 would be the subcostal nervules 

1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ; 6 would become the upper radial, and 5 the 
lower radial ; 2, 3, and 4 would be the median nervules 1, 2, and 
3 ; vein 1 would be the submedian nervure, or vein. On the 
hind wing, vein la would be the internal vein ; 1 the submedian ; 

2, 3, and 4 the median nervules ; 5 the lower and 6 the upper 
radials ; 7 the subcostal, and 8 the costal nervures. Just near 
the base of the hind wing will be noted a short recurved vein 
(p.c.) ; this is the precostal vein, and so named because it comes 
before the costal. It is always absent in some species. Com- 
paring the venation of A and B, it will be seen that in A the 
fore wing has 12 veins 

and the hind wing 8 veins, 

whilst in B there are only 

1 1 veins on the fore wing, 

but the hind wing has one 

vein more than that of 

A. In the Black- veined 

White, vein 9 is absent 

on the fore wing, and on ,, ,, 1( .,, r 

the hind wing there is one 

internal vein. 

Dust-like as they appear 
to the naked eye, the 
scales from a butterfly's 
wing seen under the mi- Arrangement of Scales, 

croscope are found to be (After Holland.) 

exceedingly interesting 

structures and very varied in shape. Dr. Sharp describes them 
as " delicate chitinous bags." Chitin, it may be mentioned, is 

c 




14 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the horny substance of which the chrysalis shell is formed, and 
this was adverted to when discussing the chrysalis stage as a 
varnish-like ooze. As seen on the wings, the scales are flat- 
tened and the upper and under sides are then almost, or quite, 
brought together. They are attached in lines on the membrane 
or covering of the wing by short stalks which fit into sockets in 
the membrane. The arrangement of the scales, which has often 
been stated to resemble that of the slates on a roof, is shown in 
Fig. 10. 

Colour is chiefly due to pigment contained in the scale or 
adhering to the interior of its upper side. Pigments, according 
to Mayer, are derived, by various chemical processes, from the 
blood while the butterfly is still in the chrysalis. Some scales 
have minute parallel lines (strics) on their upper sides, and rays 
of light falling on these are turned aside or broken up, and so 
produce changes in the colouring of a wing, according to the 
angle from which it is looked at. 

The males of many kinds of butterfly have special scales, 
which are known as androconia, or plumules. It is believed 
that these are scent organs. Whatever their particular use may 
be to the possessor, these androconia enable the entomologist 
to distinguish male specimens from females with great certainty. 
In the Fritillaries they are placed on one or more of the median 
nervules (veins 2, 3, and 4) of the fore wing. In the Meadow 
Brown and its kindred they form brands on the disc of the fore 
wing. In the Skippers they are placed in a fold of the costa in 
some species, and in other species they are clustered together, 
into more or less bar-like marks, about the middle of the fore 
wings. Some of these various shaped " plumules " are shown 
in the illustrations. 

In the foregoing sketch of the life cycle of a butterfly, the 
object has been to condense as much necessary information as 
possible into a limited space. Many matters of importance to 
the student have not been touched on, but it was considered 



THE BUTTERFLY. 



'5 



si 

r. - 
I..',: 



Fig. 11. 
Butterfly Plumules. 

r. Tufted Plumule (Satyrs) ; 

b. Bristle Plumule (Grizzled 

Skipper) ; 

c. Hair Plumule (Dingy 

Skipper) ; 

d. Jointed Plumule (Silver- 

studded Skipper) ; 

e. Bladder Plumule (Com- 

mon Blue) ; 

f. Dotted Plumule (White- 

letter Hair-streak). 
(After Aiirivillius. ) 





i6 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



that, as these were more especially connected with a higher 
scientific phase of the subject than would here be found helpful, 
they might be omitted. 



Collecting. 

Naturally the first matter for consideration, when the forma- 
tion of a collection of butterflies has been decided upon, is how 
to set about it. Well, there are two methods of effecting our 
purpose. The specimens may be purchased from a dealer in 
such things, or we may acquire an outfit comprising net, boxes, 
and pins, and go in search of the insects ourselves. Apart 
from its healthful and entertaining possibilities, the latter method 
has very much to recommend it. In the first place, those who 
are at all observant — and no true lover of Nature can be sus- 
pected of being otherwise — will become acquainted with the 
objects under natural conditions, and so be 
enabled to appreciate them more highly than 
could be the case if they were obtained in 
any other way. The chief purpose in making 
a collection of Natural History specimens 
should be study of some kind rather than 
mere accumulation. 

The net may be a simple cane ring one of 
home construction, or the more elaborate, 

but not necessarily more efficient, 

fabrication of steel-jointed ring with 
grenadine bag and telescopic handle. A good 
serviceable butterfly-net may be fitted up as 
follows. Procure a light flexible cane, about 
3 feet or so in length. Next, a Y-shaped 
holder (Fig. 12) for the two ends of the cane 
will have to be made, and either tin or brass may be used 
for the purpose. The latter is the better metal, and the 



Nets. 




COLLECTING. 



17 



parts should be brazed and not soldered together. (If difficulty 
is experienced in the manufacture of this article, it may be 
obtained from any dealer in entomological requisites for a 
few pence.) The bag may be made of leno, tarletan, or fine 
mosquito-netting ; the latter is the most serviceable, and should 
be used wherever it can be ob- 
tained. The size of the bag at 
the top, where it has a wide band 
to take the cane, should not exceed, 
the circumference of the cane ring- 
when fitted in the two arms of the 
Y-piece ; the depth should be just 
a little less than the length of one's 
arm, and the bottom should be 
rounded off so that no corners are 
available for the butterflies to get 
into and damage their wings. An 
opening about 3 inches in length 
is left in the seam of the bag just 
under the Y-piece, so that the 
cane may be removed and rolled 
up when the net is put out of 
action. The ring band should be 
covered with some stouter material 
to prevent it from fraying, thin 
leather is sometimes used for this 
purpose ; the slit in the seam also requires protecting on 
each side, and strengthening at the lower end by a crosspiece. 
An ordinary walking-stick, with the ferrule end thrust into the 
longer tube of the Y, will serve as a handle to the complete net. 
The dealers adverted to above generally stock a variety of 
nets ready fitted for use. Among these is a very useful pattern 
known as the kite or balloon net (Fig. 13). This is made in 
two sizes, and as the writer has used this kind of net for at least 




Fig. 13. 
Kite or Balloon Net. 



1 8 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

twenty years, he is able to speak well of its merits. It does not 
need a stick for ordinary work, and the long end of the socket 
should be about 9 inches in length. 

The " ring " being made of four separate rods, in addition to 
the Y-piece, some care will have to be taken when a balloon 
net is unshipped. It will be found a good plan to leave the 
two short curved canes in the hem or band of the bag, remove 
the two straight arms from the Y-piece and the band, place 
these on top of the bag when folded, and then roll all up 
together. A canvas or linen pouch or pocket, -opening at one 
end, may be made to contain the whole affair. 

The umbrella-net, when in its case, looks very like the 
familiar "gamp." Its chief merit is that it is quickly put up 
for use, and its principal defect is that the stick, which crosses 
the mouth of the bag, frequently damages the quarry. 

Another implement of the chase known as the " Ortner " net 
is used pretty extensively on the Continent. English entomo- 
logists who have used it speak of it most favourably. Its great 
advantage over other nets is found in the simple and rapid 
method of its adjustment for use. 

In connection with nets it may be well to advise the wielder 
to remember that carrying a threaded needle is a useful 
practice. Tears and rents are apt to occur, and it is well to 
have the means of repair handy. 

Some collectors seem to be expert at killing butterflies by 
pressing the sides of the thorax together. The method is not, 
~. ir however, as satisfactory as one could wish, and so no 

more need be said about it. For the happy despatch 
of insects, the cyanide bottle is frequently used. All that has 
to be done is to clap the open bottle over the captive while 
still in the net, then draw the gauze or what-not over the 
mouth of the bottle until the bung can be inserted, and the 
whole affair withdrawn from the net. 

Cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison, and no inexperienced 



COLLECTING. 19 

person should attempt to charge a cyanide bottle himself. In 
fact, chemists are not permitted to supply the poison to 
unknown customers. Under certain conditions, however, a 
chemist might consent to make up a killing bottle, and the 
following instructions may help him in doing this. A fairly 
strong, clear glass bottle, holding about 4 to 6 ounces ; the 
mouth must be pretty wide, and closed with a well-fitting bung 
that has been dipped in melted wax ; if the bung is of fine 
grained cork, the wax will not be needed. At the bottom of 
the bottle place a thick layer of the cyanide, and over this 
pour plaster of Paris which has been mixed with water and con- 
verted into a cream-like paste : one-third of the depth of the 
bottle to be occupied by the poison and plaster, but only a thin 
layer of the latter should cover the former. 

Dealers who supply cyanide bottles (uncharged) also have 
in stock a brass bottle for chloroform, which some people 
prefer as a killing agent because it does not change the 
colour of insects as cyanide is occasionally apt to do. In using 
this, the insect should be boxed, then a drop of the chloroform 
may be allowed to run from the bottle over the perforated lid 
or bottom of the box, and a finger put over the hole or holes for 
a short time. 

The majority of butterflies, if transferred to pill boxes from 
the net, settle down quietly. In this way they may be taken to 
one's home and there placed, boxes and all, into the ammonia 
jar, a simple but very effective contrivance. To start one of 
these lethal chambers, procure a good sized pickle jar, one of 
the brown earthenware kind, holding about 2 gallons. At the 
bottom put in several layers of stout blotting-paper, and have 
ready a covering for the mouth of the jar. This covering may 
be of skin, waterproof-apron material, or even thick brown paper. 
Before turning the boxes into the jar, lift up the blotting-paper, 
drop in about half a teaspoonful of strong liquid ammonia ('886) 
and replace blotting-paper. Directly the boxes are in the jar, 



20 ?HE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

put on cover and tie it down securely. If brown paper is used, 
a piece of pasteboard should be put over it and a weight on top 
of that. Suffocation takes place directly the gas reaches the 
insect, but it often happens that one or more of the boxes 
exclude the gas longer than others. At the end of half an hour 
all may be removed, but the insects will not hurt in any way if 
left in all night. 

The best kind of boxes for field work are those known as 
" glass bottomed," as in these the captives can be examined and, 
if not wanted, may be set free. It is always better to retain 
only those specimens that we know are really useful, rather 
than to incur the necessity of throwing away insects after we 
have deprived them of life. 

If butterflies are pinned on the spot, a collecting box will be 
required, and the most useful and convenient is one of an oval 
shape. This should be made of zinc, and lined with 
cork that is held in place by zinc clips. The cork 
should be kept damp when in use, and the water used for 
damping should have a few drops of carbolic acid mixed with it 
so as to prevent the formation of mould. Insects may remain 
in such a box for several days without injury. This box will 
also be useful for relaxing specimens that have been badly 
set, or have been simply pinned during the busy season. 

In the matter of pins, it is not altogether easy to make 
suggestions. There are, perhaps, only two makers in this 
country of entomological pins, and each of these supplies a large 
number of sizes. The selection of suitable pins will largely 
depend on the method of setting adopted. Black pins are, 
however, the best for butterflies, and are now used almost 
exclusively. 

In pinning a specimen care should be taken that the pin 
passes in a direct line through the centre of the thorax. Insects 
that are properly pinned set better, and have a neat appear- 
ance when arranged in the collection. For regulating the 



COLLECTING. 



21 



height of specimens on the pin, a handy graduated stage has 
been devised by Dr. Scarancke (see Fig. 14). Each of the 
little rests are hollowed to receive the body of the insect, so 
suppose we wish a quarter of an inch of the pin to show below 
the body of a specimen, the pin is pushed through a perforation 
in the centre of the rest groove marked "^ ? ' until the point 
touches the wooden base, and we have the required length. 

Beginners would, perhaps, find three sizes of pins quite 
sufficient for almost every purpose— say, Nos. 10, 8, and 5 of one 
maker ; or Nos. 9, 17, and 5 of the other. In each case the 
first size pin would be suitable for small butterflies, the second 




Fig. 14. 
Pinning* Stage. 

size for all other butterflies except quite the largest, for which 
No. 5 would remain. English pins are sold by the ounce. 

Setting, as it is called, that is, spreading out and fixing the 
wings so that all their parts are displayed, arranging the 
horns, etc., is perhaps the most tedious work that the 
collector will be called upon to perform. The various 
methods will be referred to, and he must then decide as to which 
he will adopt. Each style may possibly be found to have its 
difficulties at first ; but time and patience will overcome these, 
therefore he must be prepared for a good deal of troublesome 
practice before he quite gets " the hang of the thing," and can 



Setting, 




22 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

set out his specimens without removing a greater or lesser 
number of the scales. 

First, as to the flat and high setting as practised by almost 
every lepidopterist abroad and by some in our own country. 
Boards of the pattern, shown in the illustration, will be required ; 
also some tracing cloth, and a pair of entomological forceps, 

bead-headed pins, etc. In 
these boards, it will be noticed, 
the sides tilt outwards ; this is 
to allow for drooping of the 
wings, which generally occurs 
Fig. 15. after insects are removed from 

Board for Flat-setting. the "sets." In this case the 

wings would settle dead flat, 
which is considered to be the acme of perfection in this style of 
setting. Carlsbad or other foreign pins would be used for this 
kind of work. They are of a uniform length, about one inch 
and a half, but vary in thickness, and are usually sold by the 
100 or 1000. 

Manipulation of the specimen on these boards is as follows. 
Having carefully pinned it, leaving the greater length of pin 
below the insect, guide the pin carefully through the narrow 
opening {a Fig. 15) and the cork (Fig. 16) below to a suitable 
depth, so that the body of the insect rests in the groove and 
the wings lie easily on the board. Then take two strips of 
tracing cloth, glazed side downwards, and pin them on at the 
end of each side of the setting-board (Fig. 17). The strip should 
be just wide enough to cover all but the basal part of the wings. 
Now pass the strips over the wings, press one side lightly with 
the fingers of the left hand while the wings are moved into 
position with the setting needle (a fine needle with eye end 
fixed into the stick of a small penholder will do for this) from 
the uncovered base, a pin being inserted below the fore wing 
while the hind wing is brought into position, but when this has 



COLLECTING. 




Fig. 16. 

Longitudinal Section 
of Setting-board. 



tracing cloth 
Fig. 17. 
Setting-board in use. 



24 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 




Fig. 18. 
" Saddle " Setting-board. 



been done and another pin inserted to keep it in place, as 
shown in the diagram, the first pin may be removed ; repeat 
the same operation on the other side. Other pins will be 
required to keep the horns, etc., in place. In dealing with the 
next specimen the strips will have to be turned back while it is 
fixed into position, then proceed as before. An imaginary line 
following the inner margin of the fore wings and passing through 
the pin on the thorax is an excellent guide to uniformity in 

setting. The groove 
will prevent the pin 
leaning to either 
side, but care should 
be taken that it does 
not incline either for- 
wards or backwards. 
The strip of tracing 
cloth may be used 
more than once, but the roughness of the pin holes should be 
removed by drawing the strip across the back of a knife. 

The setting-boards most frequently used in this country have 
sloping sides^ and are known as saddles (Fig. 18). Where 
tracing cloth is used, the modus operandi is exactly 
similar to that just described, but small pins will do 
for pinning down the strips, as the saddles are made 
of cork, or cork carpet, instead of wood. 

The following me- 
thod of setting butter- 
flies on the English 
kind of " board " or 
saddle is frequently 
adopted. Select a suit- 
able saddle, that is 
one that has the groove wide enough to take the body, and 
rather wider than the wings when expanded. A setting bristle 




Fig. 19. 
Setting-bristle. 



COLLECTING. 



25 



will then be required. This is made, as shown in Fig. 19, 
by fixing a fairly long and stout bristle, or a very fine needle, 
or a thin length of quill, in a cube of cork : the cork cube has 
a stoutish and sharp- 
pointed pin pushed 
through it as indi- 
cated. Having placed 
the first insect on the 
saddle with its body 
comfortably resting 
in the groove and 
the wings flush with 
the surface, the set- 
ting bristle is then 
brought into action. 
The point of the pin 
is rested on the saddle 
directly in the rear 
of the hind wing, and 
the top of the bristle 
touching the saddle 
in advance of the 
front wing. Tilt the 
pin slightly forward 
until the bristle 
presses lightly on the 
central area of the 
wings, then with the 
setting needle push 
the wings into the 

required position, and at the same time drive pin of bristle 
into the saddle. After the wings have been secured by means 
of braces (triangular pieces of thin card or stout paper, 
with a pin through the base of the triangle), proceed in the 




Fig, 20. 
Brace and Band Modes of setting-. 



26 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

same way with the other side. Finally, fix a brace to the tip and 
angle of each fore wing to keep them from turning up in drying, 
and a pin or two maybe required for the horns if these are not in 
a good position. Instead of using braces, a strip of transparent 
paper may be pinned over the wings beyond the bristle, but in 
this case the bristle must be pressed across the wings at a point 
nearer their base than in the previous method (see lower figure 
in Fig. 20). In lieu of a setting bristle a length of sewing 
cotton may be used. . Tie a double knot at one end, and through 
this pass the point of a pin in such a way that the cotton lies 
flush on the saddle when in use. Insert the pin firmly in the 
saddle a little in advance of the fore wing, then draw the cotton 
downwards across the wings and hold it taut, with the fore 
finger of the left hand placed on it just in rear of the hind wing. 
Whilst so held the wings can be got into pose with the setting 
needle, and braces may then be applied as previously directed. 

Fig. 21 shows a specimen set by a method that is in vogue 
in the north. Blocks of soft pine, grooved and bevelled as 
in the cork saddle, are easily made. Down the centre of the 
groove there is a saw cut for the point of the pin to enter, and 
nicks are cut along the bottom edge at each end. One end of 
a length of cotton is knotted and fixed in a nick, then a turn is 
taken over the wings on one side ; these are placed in position 
and secured by other turns of the cotton. The other side is 
then treated in the same manner, and the end of the cotton 
fastened off in one of the nicks. This is a quick and, in skilled 
hands, a very neat method. 

As specimens after being set will have to remain on the setting 
boards or saddles for at least a fortnight, it will be necessary to 
protect them not only from dust, but from possible attack by 
ants, cockroaches, mice, etc. This is best ensured by placing 
the sets into a receptacle called a setting or drying house. 
Dealers supply these, but the young collector may have a 
knowledge of carpentry and could make one for himself. The 



COLLECTING. 



27 



height and depth of such a construction would depend upon the 
number and the width of the boards or saddles that would be 
put therein. The width would be that of the length of the 
boards, which is usually 14 inches. About a quarter of an 
inch of cork is cut off each end of the saddles, and grooves are 
cut in the sides of the house for these to run in. The back and 
the door should have a square of fine perforated zinc inserted 
in them for ventilation. As an example of holding capacity it 
may be well to note that a house with a height of 12 inches, 
and a depth of 6 inches, 
inside measurement, 
would take eighteen 2- 
inch boards if the 
grooves were cut at 2 
inches apart, or twenty- 
four boards of same 
width if It? inch only 
were allowed between 
the grooves. 

In taking insects off 
the sets, the braces or 
strips should be re- 
moved from the wings, 
and the pins from the 
horns, with care, as a 
good deal of damage can be done in the performance of this 
operation, simple as it seems to be. A little twist of a brace 
and away goes a patch of scales, a side slip of a pin and off 
comes a horn. 

Pending the arrival of that twelve or twenty drawer cabinet, 
the beginner will probably be content to arrange his specimens 
in boxes. A handy sized box is one measuring 14 inches by 10 
when closed, and it should have a cell for naphthaline. 

Before putting the specimens away into boxes or drawers 





1 ! 

1 


I'll 




4Z4S* 




IfliFato^^l 


^xij 


M 




B 


Is 




^^^Unliri 




















^^8 










^§I^P 




I j4|Pl 




HI 


d 





Fig. 21. 
Cotton Method of setting. 



28 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

they should be labelled with the date of capture, the locality, 
the name of the captor, and any other detail of interest in 
connection with it. All these particulars may be written on 
small squares of paper and put on the pins under the specimens. 

Cabinets or boxes containing insects should always stand 
where they are free from damp, otherwise mould may make its 
appearance on the specimens. Mouldy insects may be cleaned, 
but they never look nice afterwards ; so it will be well to bear 
in mind that prevention is better than cure. Where drawers 
and boxes are not properly attended to in the matter of 
naphthaline, mites are apt to enter and cause injury to the 
specimens. If these pests should effect a lodgment, a little 
benzine poured on the bottom of box or drawer will quickly 
kill them. The benzine, if pure, will not make the least stain, 
and of course the drawer or* box must be closed directly the 
benzine is put in. Do this only in the daytime. 

Rearing butterflies from the egg is much practised, and is a 
very excellent way. One not only obtains specimens in fine 
condition, but gains knowledge of the early stages at the same 
time. The eggs of most of the Whites, the Orange-tip, the 
Brimstone, and some others are not difficult to obtain, but 
searching the food-plants for the eggs of many of the butterflies 
is tiresome work, and not altogether remunerative. Females may 
be watched when engaged in egg-laying, and having marked 
the spot, step in when she has left and rob the " nest." The 
best plan is to capture a few females and enclose them in 
roomy, wide-mouthed bottles, or a gauze cage, putting in with 
them a sprig or two of the food-plant placed in a holder 
containing water. The mouth of the bottle should be covered 
with gauze or leno, and a bit of moistened sugar put on the 
top outside. Either bottle or cage must be stood in the sun- 
shine, but it must be remembered that the butterflies require 
plenty of air as well as sunshine, and that they can have too 
much of the latter. 



PART II. 
DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES. 

The Swallow-tail (Pafiilio machaon). 

The Swallow-tail butterfly is the only British member of the 
extensive and universally distributed sub-family Papilioninae, 
which includes some of the largest as well as the most handsome 
kinds of butterfly. Our species has yellow wings ornamented 
with black, blue, and red, and is an exceedingly attractive 
insect. The black markings are chiefly a large patch at the 
base of the fore wings, this is powdered with yellow scales ; a 
band, also powdered with yellow, runs along the outer or hind 
portion of all the wings. There are also three black spots on 
the front or costal margin, and the veins are black. The bands 
vary in width, and that on the hind wings is usually clouded 
more or less with blue. At the lower angle of the hind wings 
there is a somewhat round patch of red, and occasionally there 
are splashes of red on the yellow crescents beyond the band. 
The male and female are shown on Plate 2. 

The eggs are laid on leaflets of the milk parsley {Peucedanum 
palustre), which in the fenny home of the butterfly is perhaps 
the chief food-plant of the caterpillar. This is one of the few 
eggs of British butterflies that I have not seen. Buckler says 
that it is globular in shape, of good size, greenish yellow in 
colour when first laid, quickly turning to green, and afterwards 
becoming purplish. 

D 



30 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The caterpillar when full grown, as figured on Plate i, is 
bright green with an orange-spotted black band on each ring 
of the body, and blackish tinged with bluish between the 
rings. The head is yellow striped with black. When it first 
leaves the egg-shell, which it eats, the caterpillar is black 
with a noticeable white patch about the middle of the body. 
After the third change of skin it assumes the green colour, and 
at the same time a remarkable V _sna P e d fleshy structure of 
a pinkish or orange colour is developed. This is the 
os?naterzum, and is said to emit a strong smell, which has 
been compared to that of a decaying pine-apple. The organ, 
which is extended in the figure of the full-grown caterpillar, 
is not always in evidence, but when the caterpillar is annoyed 
the forked arrangement makes its appearance from a fold in 
the forepart of the ring nearest the head. Other food-plants 
besides milk parsley are angelica {Angelica sylvestris), fennel 
{Famicidum vulgare), wild carrot (Daucus carotd), etc. From 
eggs laid in May or June caterpillars hatch in from ten to 
twelve days, and these attain the chrysalis state in about six 
or seven weeks. If the season is a favourable one, that is fine 
and warm, some of the butterflies should appear in August, 
the others remaining in the chrysalids until May or June 
of the following year ; a few may even pass a second winter 
in the chrysalis. Caterpillars from eggs laid by the August 
females may be found in September, nearly or quite full grown, 
and chrysalids from October onwards throughout the winter. 
They are most frequently seen on the stems of reeds, but they 
may also be found on stems or sprays of the food-plants, as 
v/ell as on bits of stick, etc. It would, however, be practically 
useless to search for the late chrysalids as the reeds are usually 
cut down in October, when the fenmen keep a sharp look-out 
for them, and few are likely to escape detection in any place 
that would be accessible to the entomologist. 

On Plate i three forms of the chrysalis are shown. The 





PL 2. 



Swallow-tail Butterfly. 

i viale ; 2 female. 



Z? 3 o. 




[|f/F 




pi %. D v- 

Black-veined White Butterfly. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE SWALLOW-TAIL. 31 

figures are drawn from specimens collected in Wicken Fen in 
October, 1905. Occasionally a much darker, nearly black, 
form is found. 

This butterfly was known to Petiver and other early 
eighteenth-century entomologists as the Royal William. There 
is every reason to believe that at one time it was far more widely 
distributed in England than it now is. Stephens, writing in 
1827, states that it was formerly abundant at Westerham, and 
gives several other localities, some very near to London. 

During the last twenty-five years or so, the butterfly has been 
seen on the wing, from time to time, in various parts of the 
Southern and Midland counties. Caterpillars have also been 
found at large in Kent. Possibly attempts may have been 
made to establish the species in certain parts of England, and 
the presence of odd specimens in strange places may thus be 
accounted for. Or such butterflies may have escaped from 
some one who had reared them. 

On the Continent the butterfly is common in woods as well as 
in meadows, and even on mountains up to an elevation of 5000 
feet. It occurs also, but less commonly, at much higher alti- 
tudes. It therefore seems strange that in England it should be 
confined to the low-lying fens of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. 
Such is the case, however, and a journey to one or other of its 
localities will have to be made by those who wish to see this 
beautiful creature in its English home. 

It may be added that the geographical range of the butterfly 
extends eastwards through Asia as far as Japan. A form, 
known as the Alaskan Swallow-tail, is found in Alaska. 

The following ten species belong to the Pierinae, another 
sub-family of Papilionidse. 



32 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



The Black- veined White (Aporia cratcegi). 

The Black- veined White (Plate 4) may be at once recog- 
nized by its roundish white wings and their conspicuous veins, 
which latter are black in the male butterfly, and in the female 
brownish on the main ones (nervures) and black on the branches 
(nervules). As the scales on the wings are denser in the male 
than in the female, the former always appears to be the whiter 
insect. On the outer margin of the fore wings there are more 
or less triangular patches of dusky scales, and these in occasional 
specimens are so large that their edges almost or quite meet, 
and so form an irregular, dusky border to the fore wings. These 
patches are also present on the hind wings, but are not so well 
defined. Sometimes the patches are absent from all the wings. 
The fringes of the wings are so short that they appear to be 
wanting altogether. The early stages are figured on Plate 3. 

The egg is upright and ribbed from about the middle to the 
curiously ornamented top, which appears to be furnished with 
a sort of coronet. The colour is at first honey-yellow, then 
darker yellow, and just before the caterpillar hatches, greyish. 
The eggs are laid in a cluster on the upper side of a leaf of 
sloe, hawthorn, or plum, etc., in the month of July. 

The caterpillar when full grown is tawny brown with paler 
hairs arising from white warts ; the stripes along the sides and 
back are black. The under parts are greyish. The head, 
legs, and spiracles are blackish. Caterpillars hatch from the 
egg in August, and then live together in a common habitation 
which is formed of silk and whitish in colour. They come 
out in the morning and again in the evening to feed, but a few 
leaves are generally enclosed in their tenement. In October 
they seem to retire for the winter and reappear in the spring. 
During May they become full grown and then enter the 



-J* 



w^ 






^r- 



/v. 4 . 




Black-veined White Butterfly. 

1, 2 male; 3, 4 female. 



D32. 









> 



>- ~ 




/>/. .5. D 33. 

Large White Butterfly. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalids. 



THE BLACK-VEINED WHITE. 33 

chrysalis state. The butterflies are on the wing at the end 
of June and in July. 

The chrysalis is creamy white, sometimes tinged with greenish, 
and dotted with black. 

This butterfly was mentioned as English by Merret in i667 ? 
and by Ray in 17 10. Albin in 173 J, who wrote of it as the 
White Butterfly with black veins, figures the caterpillar and the 
chrysalis, and states that caterpillars found by him in April 
turned to chrysalids early in May and to butterflies in June. 
Moses Harris in 1775 gave a more extended account of the 
butterfly's life-history, and what he then wrote seems to tally 
almost exactly with what is known of its habits to-day. This 
species has seemingly always been somewhat uncertain in its 
appearance in England. Authors from Ha worth (1803) to 
Stephens (1827) mention Chelsea, Coombe Wood in Surrey, 
and Muswell Hill in Middlesex, among other localities for the 
butterfly. It has also been recorded at one time or another, 
between 1844 and 1872, from many of the Midland and Southern 
counties. In 1867 it was found in large numbers, about mid- 
summer, in hay fields in Monmouthshire. The latest informa- 
tion concerning the appearance of the species in South Wales 
relates to the year 1893, when several caterpillars and four 
butterflies were noted on May 22 in the Newport district. 
At one time it was not uncommon in the New Forest, but no 
captures of the butterfly in Hampshire have been recorded 
during the last quarter of a century. At the present time it is 
probably most regularly obtained in a Kentish locality, pre- 
sumably in the Isle of Thanet, which is only known to a few 
collectors. It may be mentioned that some thirty years ago 
caterpillars of the Black- veined White could be obtained from 
a Canterbury dealer at a few shillings per gross. 

The species is widely distributed, and often abundant, on the 
Continent, and its range extends through Western and Northern 
Asia to Yesso, Northern Japan. 



34 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The Large White (Herts brassicce). 

This butterfly is probably almost as familiar to those who 
dwell in towns as it must be to those who live in the country. 
It is perhaps unnecessary to describe it in any detail, and it 
may therefore suffice to say that it is white with rather broad 
black tips to the fore wings ; there are some black scales 
along the front margin of these wings, and on the basal area 
of all the wings. The male has a black spot on the front 
margin of the hind wings, and the female has, in addition, two 
roundish black spots on the fore wings, with a black dash from 
the lower one along the inner margin. 

As there is a rather important difference between the speci- 
mens of the spring (vernal) and the summer (festival) broods, 
figures of a male and a female of each brood, and showing 
the upper and under sides, are given. Those on Plate 6 
represent the spring form, which was at one time considered 
to be a distinct species, and named chariclea by Stephens. 
Plate 9 shows the summer form. The chief point of differ- 
ence is to be noted in the tips of the fore wings, which in the 
spring butterflies are usually, but not invariably, greyish ; in 
the summer butterflies the tips are black, as a rule, but not 
in every case. 

Occasionally the black on tip of the fore wing in the female 
is increased in width, and from it streaks project . inwards 
towards the upper discal spot. In some examples of the male 
there is a more or less distinct blackish spot on the disc of 
the fore wings. Very rarely the ground colour is creamy or 
sulphur tinted. 

The greenish tinge about the veins, sometimes seen in these 
butterflies, is due to some accidental cause, probably injury to 
the veins. 

The egg is yellowish in colour, somewhat skittle-shaped, 
and very prettily ribbed and reticulated. On Plate 5 there 



yjp* 




^| 



• 



\\ 





PI. 6. 



Large White Butterfly (Spring Brood) 

i. 2 male; q, 4 female. 



^34- 




O 0>\: 



PL 7. 



Small White Butterfly 

Resting: 



^35- 



THE LARGE WHITE. 35 

are two figures of the egg from enlarged drawings by Herr Max 
Gillmer, to whom I am greatly indebted for the loan of them. 
In the figure on the right, the dark spot at the shoulder of the 
egg represents the head of the young caterpillar, and in that 
on the left is seen the caterpillar about to come out of the egg. 
The head is already out, and the jaws have left their mark 
on the egg-shell. Most caterpillars of the Whites, as well as 
those of other butterflies, devour their egg-shells. 

The eggs are laid in batches of from six to over one hundred 
in each batch. They are placed on end, and on either side of 
a leaf, chiefly cabbage. Herr Gillmer writes that he watched 
a female depositing her eggs on a leaf of white cabbage in the 
hot sunshine, and found that she laid twenty-seven in about 
nine minutes. A previous observer had timed a female, and 
noted that she produced eggs at the rate of about four in the 
minute. Caterpillars hatch from the egg in about seven days 
in the summer. The caterpillar (Plate 5) when full grown is 
green tinged with blue or grey above, and greenish beneath. 
There are numerous short whitish hairs arising from little 
warts on the back and sides ; the lines are yellow. The 
caterpillars feed in July, and sometimes again in September 
and October, on all plants of the cabbage tribe, and also on 
tropaeolum and mignonette. A number of these caterpillars 
may often be seen crowded together on a cabbage leaf, and 
they sometimes abound to such an extent that much loss is 
sustained by growers of this most useful vegetable. A pecu- 
liarity of these caterpillars is that even when not numerous, 
their presence is indicated by an evil smell that proceeds from 
them. The unpleasantness of the odour is greatly intensified 
if the caterpillars are trodden upon. 

The chrysalis (Plate 5) is of a grey colour, more or less 
spotted with black and streaked with yellow. It is often to 
be seen fixed horizontally under the copings of walls, the 
tcp bar of a fence, or a window-sill ; but it sometimes affects 



36 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the upright position when fastened in the angle formed by two 
pales. A position that affords some measure of protection from 
weather is generally selected. 

Although this butterfly is almost annually to be seen, in 
greater or lesser numbers, throughout the country, it is occa- 
sionally scarce, either generally or in some parts of the British 
Islands. For example, during the past year (1905) it was 
abnormally plentiful in Ireland, but at the same time com- 
paratively rare in England. It is a migratory species, and no 
doubt its abundance in any year in these islands is dependent 
on the arrival of a large number of immigrants. Possibly in 
some years none of the migrant butterflies reach our shores, 
and that it is largely to this failure the rarity of the species 
in such years is to be attributed. Caterpillars resulting from 
alien butterflies may absolutely swarm in the autumn of one 
year, but the eccentricities of an English winter may be too 
much for the vitality of such of them as escape their enemies, 
Apanteles glo7neratns, and other so-called " ichneumons," and 
reach the chrysalis state. So, with immigration on the one 
hand and destructive agencies on the other, it may be under- 
stood how it comes about that the Large White is sometimes 
abundant and sometimes scarce. 

This species seems to range over the whole of the British 
Islands, with the exception, perhaps, of the Shetlands. Abroad, 
it has been found in all parts of the Palaearctic Region, except 
the extreme north, and Eastern Asia. 

The Small White (Pieris rapce). 

The Small White butterfly (Plate 1 1) is, perhaps, more often in 
evidence then its larger kinsman just referred to. It also is a 
migrant, and although it never seems to be absent from these 
islands, in its proper season, its great increase in numbers in 
some years is almost certainly due to the arrival of immigrants. 



THE SMALL WHITE. 37 

The spring form of this butterfly, named metra by Stephens, 
who, together with others, considered it a good species, has 
the tips of the fore wings only slightly clouded with black ; 
and the black spots near the centre of the wings are always 
more or less faint in the male. Sometimes the central spot 
and also the blackish clouding of the tip are entirely 
absent. The summer brood, on the other hand, has fairly 
blackish tips and distinct black spots — one in the male 
and three in the female, the lower one lying on the inner 
margin. Occasionally examples of this flight bear a strong 
resemblance to the Green- veined White, the next species. The 
wings are sometimes, chiefly in Ireland, of a creamy colour, 
more especially in the female, or, more rarely, of a yellowish 
tint. In North America, where this species was accidentally 
or intentionally introduced some years ago, bright yellow forms 
are not uncommon in some localities, and the variety is there 
known as novanglice. 

In certain favourable years a partial third brood has occurred, 
but such specimens are often small in size. 

The egg (Plate 8) is at first pale greenish, but later on 
it turns yellowish, and this tint it retains until just before the 
caterpillar hatches out. 

The caterpillar when full-grown has a brownish head 
and a green body ; the latter is sprinkled with black and 
clothed with short blackish hairs emitted from pale warts. 
There is a yellowish line on the back, and a line formed of 
yellow spots on the side. It feeds on most plants of the 
cabbage tribe, and in flower gardens on mignonette and nastur- 
tiums. It is often attacked by parasites, and especially by the 
Apanteles, referred to as destructive to caterpillars of the Large 
White. 

The chrysalis may be of various tints, ranging from pale 
brown, through grey to greenish ; the markings are black, 
but these are sometimes only faint. It is to be found in 



38 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

similar situations to those chosen by the caterpillar of the last 
species, but often under the lower rail of a fence or board ot 
a wooden building. Where caterpillars have been feeding in 
a garden, they often enter greenhouses, among other places, 
to pupate ; and where these structures are heated during the 
winter, the butterflies sometimes emerge quite early in the year. 
Distributed throughout the British Islands, except the Hebrides 
and Shetlands. It is common over the whole of Europe, and 
extends through Asia to China and Japan. In America, where it 
was introduced into the United States some forty-five years ago, 
it has now spread northwards into Canada, and also southwards. 

The Green- veined White (Pieris napi). 

This butterfly is not often seen away from its favourite 
haunts in the country ; these are woods, especially the sunny 
sides, leafy lanes, and even marsh land. As in the case of 
the two Whites previously noticed, there are always two 
broods in the year. The first flight of the butterflies is in May 
and June, occasionally as early as April in a forward season. 
These specimens have the veins tinged with grey and rather 
distinct, but are not so strongly marked with black as those 
belonging to the second flight, which occurs in late July and 
throughout August. This seasonal variation, as it is called, is 
also most clearly exhibited on the under side. In the May and 
June butterfly (Plate 13, left side) the veins below are greenish- 
grey, and those of the hind wings are broadly bordered also 
with this colour. In the bulk of the July and August specimens 
(Plate 13, right side) only the nervures are shaded with 
greenish-grey, and the nervules are only faintly, or not at all, 
marked with this colour. 

Now and then a specimen of the first brood may assume the 
characters properly belonging to the specimens of the second 
brood ; and, on the other hand, a butterfly of the second brood 






PL 8. D 38. 

Small White Butterfly. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalids. 



f* 



X 



J? 







* 



\\ 



V 




/'/. 9 . 



Large White Butterfly (Summer Brood), 
i, 2 male; 3, 4 female. 



&30- 



THE GREEN-VEINED WHITE 39 

may closely resemble one of the first brood. As a rule, how- 
ever, the seasonal differences referred to are fairly constant. 
By rearing this species from the egg it has been ascertained 
that part (sometimes the smaller) of a brood from eggs laid in 
June attains the butterfly stage the same year, and the other 
part remains in the chrysalis until the following spring, the 
butterflies in each set being of the form proper to the time of 
emergence. 

The strongly-marked specimens (Plate 14) are from Ireland, 
and are of the first or spring brood. The seasonal variation 
in this species is not so well defined in Ireland as in England. 

A form of variation in the female, and most frequent perhaps 
in Irish specimens, is a tendency of the spots on the upper side 
of the fore wings to spread and run together, and so form an 
interrupted band. 

Specimens with a distinct creamy tint on the wings are some- 
times met with, but such varieties, as well as yellow ones (var. 
/lava, Kane), are probably more often obtained in Ireland and 
Scotland than in England. Occasionally male specimens of the 
second brood have two black spots on the disc of the wing. 
Some forms of this butterfly have been named, and these will 
now be referred to. 

SabelliccB (Petiver), Stephens, has been considered as a species 
distinct from P. napi, L. Stephens ("Brit. Entom. Haust.," I. 
PL iii., Figs. 3, 4) figured a male and a female as sabellicce, 
which he states differs from napi in having shorter and more 
rounded yellowish-white wings. No locality or date is given 
in the text (p. 21) for the specimens figured ; but referring to 
another example which he took at Highgate on June 4, he says 
that it agrees with his Fig. 2. Probably, however, it was his 
second figure that he intended, the Fig. 4 of the plate, which is a 
female. This is rather more heavily marked with dusky scales 
than is usual in specimens of the first brood, at least in England, 
although it agrees in this respect with some Irish June examples. 



40 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Fig. 3 represents a male which certainly seems to be referable 
to the spring form. Most authors give sabelliccE as belonging 
to the summer flight, but this does not seem to be correct. 

Var. naftcecB is a large form of the summer brood, occurring 
commonly on the Continent, in which the veins on the under 
side of the hind wings are only faintly shaded with greenish- 
grey. Occasionally specimens are taken in this country in 
August, which both from their size and faint markings on the 
under side seem to be referable to this form. 

Var. bryonice is an Alpine form of the female, and in colour 
is dingy yellow or ochreous, with the veins broadly suffused 
with blackish grey, sometimes so broadly as to hide the greater 
part of the ground colour. This form does not occur in any 
part of the British Islands, but some specimens from Ireland 
and from the north of Scotland somewhat approach it. 

All the early stages are shown on Plate 10. 

The egg is of a pale straw colour when first laid, but it soon 
turns to greenish, and as the caterpillar within matures, the 
shell of the egg becomes paler. The ribs seem to be fourteen 
in number. 

The eggs are laid singly on hedge garlic {Sisymbrium 
alliaria) and other kinds of plants belonging to the Cruciferae. 
The egg in the illustration was laid on a seed-pod of hedge 
garlic, but the caterpillar that hatched from it was reared on 
leaves of garden " nasturtium " and wallflower. 

The caterpillar when full grown is green above, with black 
warts, from which arise whitish and blackish hairs. There is 
a darker line along the back, and a yellow line low down on 
the sides. Underneath the colour is whitish-grey. The 
spiracular line is dusky, but not conspicuous, and the spiracles 
are blackish surrounded with yellow. It has been stated that 
caterpillars fed upon hedge garlic and horseradish produce light 
butterflies, and that those reared on mignonette and watercress 
produce dark butterflies. Barrett mentions having reared a 




PL 10. 



Green-veined White Butterfly. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



D 40. 



* %, 



• V 








at ^ 



i • 



#** 



« 



/ 



* «*i 






C5 ^ 

£ $ 



r. 











THE BATH WHITE. 41 

brood of the caterpillars upon a bunch of watercress placed in 
water and stood in a sunny window, but he does not refer to 
anything peculiar about the butterflies resulting therefrom. 
t He states, however, that from eggs laid in June the earliest 
butterfly appeared within a month, and the remainder by the 
middle of August, only one remaining in the chrysalis until 
the following June. 

Caterpillars may be found in June and July and in August 
and September. 

The chrysalis is green in colour, and the raised parts are 
yellowish and brown. This is the most frequent form, but it 
varies through yellowish to buff or greyish, and is sometimes 
without markings. 

Generally distributed throughout the British Islands, but its 
range northwards does not seem to extend beyond Ross. 

In Europe it is generally common, and extends through 
Western and Central Asia to Siberia, and, according to Leech, 
is found in North Japan. In Amurland and Corea it is repre- 
sented by the form orientis, Oberth. It occurs in North- West 
Africa, the Canary Isles, and the Azores. In America it is 
found in the Northern States and in California. 

The Bath White (Pieris daplidice). 

, The Bath White (Plate 14) is such a rare visitor to this 
country, that any one who captures a specimen may congratulate 
himself on the event. During the whole of the last century not 
more than sixty specimens seem to have been recorded as taken 
in England, and ten of these were captured between 1895 and 
the present time. Nearly all of these were netted on the south 
or south-eastern coast, and in the months of July or August, but 
chiefly the latter. The occurrence of specimens in May or Tune 
appears to be quite exceptional. 

Although it might be passed over for a Green-veined White, 



42 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

or other common butterfly, when seen on the wing, it is very 
different from any of our other species when seen at close 
quarters. In the greenish mottling of the under side of the hind 
wings, the male has some likeness to the female Orange-tip, but 
on the Bath White the green is heavier and less broken up. 
On the upper side of the fore wings the black markings comprise 
a spot, sometimes divided, at the end of the cell, and a patch on 
the tips of the wings ; the latter enclose spots of the ground 
colour. The markings of the under side show through blackish 
on the upper side of the hind wings. The female differs from 
the male in having a black spot between veins i and 2 of the 
fore wings, and the markings of the hind wings are blacker, 
especially on the outer area. 

The egg is stated by Buckler to be of a bright pinkish-red 
colour, agreeing in this respect, as well as in size, with the 
anthers of the flowers of mignonette, upon which plant it is laid 
in an upright position. The shape is compared to that of an 
acorn without the cup, and it has twelve or fourteen rather 
prominent ribs. 

The full-grown caterpillar is bluish-grey, dotted with glossy 
black warts, from each of which there is a short blackish hair. 
The lines along the back and sides are yellow, or white spotted 
with yellow. Head yellowish, dotted with black, and hairy. 
August and September. It feeds on garden as well as wild 
mignonette {Reseda), 

The chrysalis is at first similar in colour to the caterpillar, 
but it afterwards becomes whitish. It has numerous black clots, 
and is marked with yellow along the sides and on the back of 
the thorax. 

The above descriptions are abridged from Buckler's more 
detailed account of the life-history of this species. Of the 
caterpillars resulting from thirty-three eggs, only two attained 
the chrysalis state, in September. One of these turned black 
and died in November, and from the other a butterfly emerged 




:-> 



PL 12. 



Bath White Butterfly. 

Caterpillar and chrysalis (after Stickler). 



D 42. 




Mm.-- 



/ 




h 





■r 




fL 



_ 










PL 13. . D 43 " 

Green-veined White Butterfly. 
1, 2 male (spring), 5, 6, «fo. {summer); 3, $ female (sp'iiig), 7, 3 afc. (summer). 



THE ORANGE-TIP. 43 

in the following June. The figures of caterpillar and chrysalis 
on Plate 12 are from Buckler's " Larvae." 

It has been suggested that specimens taken in July and 
August are the offspring of immigrants that arrive here in May, 
but there is no conclusive evidence of this. It has, however, 
been proved that our climate is not suitable for the permanent 
establishment of the species here. 

The earliest writers on English insects called this butterfly 
" Vernon's Half Mourner," or " The Greenish Half Mourner." 
It was first mentioned by Petiver, some two hundred years ago, 
and about that time only two British specimens were known. 
One of these was taken in Cambridgeshire, and one at Hamp- 
stead. According to Lewin, who wrote about it in 1795, the 
name " Bath White " was given to the butterfly " from a piece 
of needlework executed at Bath by a young lady, from a specimen 
of this insect, said to have been taken near that place." In 
1796 Donovan only knew of the Bath specimen ; and in 1803 
Haworth mentions a faded specimen taken in June at Gamlingay 
in Cambridgeshire. 

The species is more or less common in many parts of Europe, 
but it seems to be most at home and abundant in the south. 
Its range extends to North Africa, Madeira, the Canary Isles, 
and the temperate parts of Asia, including Northern China and 
Corea. 

The Orange-tip (Euchloe cardamines). 

This butterfly (Plate 17), as its name suggests, has a large 
patch of orange colour on the outer third of its white, or creamy 
white, fore wings, and the extreme tip is blackish ; at least, this 
is so in the male. The female is without the orange patch, and 
this is replaced by a smaller one of blackish-grey. The lower 
portion of this patch is broken up by the ground colour, and by 
white spots on the outer margin and around the tips of the 



44 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

wings. The hind wings, in both sexes, appear to be dappled 
with greyish-green, and this is caused by the green marking on 
the under surface of the wings showing through. Some speci- 
mens, chiefly from Ireland, have all the wings in the male, and 
the hind wings in the female, distinctly tinged with yellow. The 
discal black spot varies in size and in shape ; often it is roundish, 
and sometimes it is crescent-like. It is always larger in the 
female than in the male, and may be entirely absent in the latter 
sex ; but this probably occurs very rarely. Usually the orange 
patch of the male extends very near to the inner angle of the 
wing, but sometimes it is continued through to this point. It 
ranges in colour from deep to pale orange, and occasionally to 
almost yellow. Small specimens, some not more than one inch 
and a quarter in expanse, occur from time to time. In these 
dwarfs the orange patch does not reach beyond the black discal 
spot, which in normal specimens it usually does. This small 
form has been considered a distinct species, and the name 
hesperidis has been proposed for it. Female specimens with 
splashes or streaks of the male colour on the upper or the under 
sides have been noted not infrequently ; and more rarely 
specimens with one side entirely male and the other entirely 
female have been taken. 

The egg (Plate 15), when freshly laid, is whitish, faintly 
tinged with greenish ; it soon changes to yellow, and, later on, 
turns orange and then dark violet. When the latter colour 
appears, the little caterpillar may be expected to hatch out very 
shortly. The eggs are placed upright on the foot-stalks of the 
flowers, and may be readily found in June by searching the 
blossom-clusters of hedge-mustard or cuckoo-flower. 

The caterpillar, when mature, is dull bluish-green, with 
raised dots and warts ; from the former arise whitish hairs, 
and from the latter longer blackish hairs. There is a white 
line, or stripe, along the sides, and the underparts of the body 
are greener than the back. Both in colour and marking the 



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Orange-tip Butterfly. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



£45. 



THE ORANGE-TIP. 45 

caterpillar agrees so closely with the seed-pods of its food- 
plant that its detection is not always easy. A peculiarity in 
very young caterpillars of this species, and also those of some 
of the "Whites," is, that the hairs are forked at the tips, and 
bear globules of moisture thereon (see figure and remarks on 

P-3). 

The caterpillars feed in June and July on lady's smock or 
cuckoo-flower {Cardamine ftratensis), charlock (Brassica sina- 
ftistrum), hedge-mustard {Sisymbrium officinale), garlic mustard 
(S. alliarid), rock-cress {Arabis\ horseradish (Cochlearia armo- 
racia), dame's violet {Hesperis matronalis), watercress {Nas- 
turtium officinale), etc. 

The chrysalis, as will be se:n from the figure (Plate 15), is 
curiously elongated, and tapers towards each end ; the outline 
of the back is curved, and the wing-cases bulge out into an 
angle about the middle of the under side. The colour is pale 
grey or whitey-brown, sometimes with a strong rosy tinge ; the 
back is speckled with brownish, and has an olive-grey dorsal 
line, and the veins of the wings are well defined. This stage 
lasts, as a rule, from August of one year until May of the follow- 
ing year. When the chrysalis is first formed, it is green, with 
the wing-cases brighter, and this colour is sometimes retained. 
It has been stated that the chrysalids assume the colour of their 
immediate surroundings, and this may be so ; but all that I 
have had under observation were of the colours described above, 
although some were fastened to green stem, others to muslin, 
and others, again, to glass. 

Towards the end of May and in June is the usual time for 
this butterfly to be on the wing. It has, however, been noticed 
as early as about the middle of April, and as late as the middle 
of July, and rarely in August and September. The specimens, 
seen in the last-mentioned months, may have represented a 
second brood, and, if so, a very unusual event. Possibly, how- 
ever, they may have been specimens whose emergence had for 

E 



46 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

some reason not understood, been retarded. There is at least one 
record of the insect remaining in the chrysalis for two winters. 

Although generally distributed throughout England, Wales, 
and Ireland, and occurring in Scotland as far north as the Cale- 
donian Canal, it seems to be more common in some districts 
than in others. Abroad, its range extends over Europe, and 
through Asia as far east as Amurland and China. 



The Wood White (Leticophasia sinapis). 

The graceful little butterfly figured on Plate 19 is creamy 
white, with a rather square black or blackish spot on the tip of 
the fore wings of the male. In the female the spot is reduced to 
some blackish scales on and between the veins. Occasionally 
there is a second brood in the year, and the specimens of this 
flight have smaller and rounder black spots in the males, and 
almost none at all in the females. Specimens of the female sex 
entirely devoid of black marking are referable to var. erysimi 
(see fourth figure in second row, Plate 16). Series of each brood 
are shown on Plate 16, which is reproduced from a photograph 
by Mr. Hamm. The lower specimen in each series has been 
reversed to show the seasonal variation of the under side. The 
row of specimens on the left are of the first brood, and the second 
and last examples in this series show the characters of var. 
lathyri — black tips to the fore wings, and dusky band-like 
shades on the hind wings ; the under sides of the hind wings dull 
greenish — to which form a good many of our spring specimens 
belong. The specimens of the second generation are referable 
to var. diniensis. The species is sometimes referred to Leptosia, 
Hub. 

The egg, which is figured on Plate 18, is yellowish-white in 
colour ; it is ribbed, and rather glassy in appearance. The 
caterpillars have been known to hatch out about a week after 
the eggs were laid. 




PL 16. 



Wood White Butterfly. 



£46. 



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Orange-tip Butterfly. 

i, 5 7/z^.V, 2 <&. (Irish); 3, 6 female; 4 <&- (Irish). 



£17. 



THE WOOD WHITE. /\J 

The caterpillar when full grown is, according to Hellins, 
"a beautiful green, the front segments minutely dotted with 
black ; dorsal line darker green, edged with yellowish- 
green ; spiracular line distinct, of a fine clear yellow, edged 
above with darker green ; spiracles indistinguishable." The 
chrysalis in shape is something like that of the last species, 
but the back is not curved, and the ends are less tapered. 
The colour is a " lovely delicate green ; the abdomen rather 
yellowish ; just in the spiracular region there runs all round 
the body a stout pink rib, enclosing the greenish spiracles ; 
from this a strong pink line branches off, bordering the outer 
edge of the wing-case, and the nervures of the wings themselves 
are delicately outlined in pink" (Hellins). Sometimes the 
chrysalids are green without marking. 

Mr. A. M. Montgomery, who on one occasion had four 
batches of eggs, and the subsequent caterpillars, under observa- 
tion, states that the caterpillars hatched about June 2 from 
eggs laid about May 22. Pupation took place about July 3, 
and, except from one batch that remained for the winter in the 
chrysalids, the butterflies emerged between July 16 and 22. 
The food-plant in this case was bird's-foot trefoil {Lotus cornicu- 
latus). The yellow pea (Lathyrus praie7tsis) is a favourite 
pabulum, but the caterpillar will also eat a vetch (Vicia 
craccd), and probably many other plants belonging to the order 
Leguminosas. Caterpillars from the July 'butterflies would feed 
in August and September. 

This fragile-looking little species is somewhat local, but 
is not altogether uncommon in some of its particular haunts. 
As its English name implies, the butterfly is fond of the woods, 
or, perhaps, is rather more partial to their shady rides and 
margins. On dull or wet days, it settles on the under side of 
a leaf. The first brood is on the wing in May, and the second 
— when this occurs, which is not every year — in July and 
August. In Ireland, where it is abundant in the south and 



48 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

west, there seems to be only one flight, and this is in June. It 
may be well to remember that this butterfly does not like the 
pill-box, and will not settle down quietly therein. 

Possibly the Wood White had a much more general distribu- 
tion in England at one time than it now seems to have. It was 
not uncommon in parts of Sussex some years ago, but there 
appears to be no record of its occurrence there now. It is cer- 
tainly much scarcer in the New Forest than it used to be. 
However, it is still to be found, no doubt, in many parts of 
England and Wales, but chiefly perhaps in the counties of 
Berkshire, Devonshire, Cornwall, Worcestershire, Hereford- 
shire, Lancashire, and Cumberland. Also in the south and 
west of Ireland. It occurs throughout Europe, Western and 
Central Asia, and its range extends eastwards through Siberia, 
Amurland, China, and Corea to Japan. 

The Pale Clouded Yellow (Co lias hyak). 

This usually scarce butterfly (Plate 21) is of a primrose- 
yellow colour in the male, and, as a rule, almost white in the 
female ; sometimes the latter sex is of the yellow male colour. 
The outer margin of the fore wings is broadly black in both 
sexes, but there are some more or less united spots of the 
ground colour in the black towards the tips of the wings, and 
below vein 3 the black is usually confined to the outer margin. 
There is a black spot near the middle of the wing, and some 
blackish dusting quite near the base of the wing. The hind 
wings have a pale orange central spot, sometimes two spots, 
and the blackish border on the outer margin is generally narrow, 
and often interrupted or broken up into spots. The fringes 
of all the wings are pinkish, as also are the antennae. The egg 
is pearly yellowish-white when first laid ; a few days later the 
top becomes transparent, white, and glassy, shading down- 
wards, into yellow, and then clear rosy orange ; the base is 




V 



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PL 1 8. ^ 4 8. 

Wood White Butterfly. 

is^gs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar (after Buckler) and chrysalis. 



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Wood White Butterfly. 

1, 4, 6 male; 3 dk. (var.); 2, 5, 7 female. 



^49. 



THE PALE CLOUDED YELLOW. 49 

pale, but less transparent than the top. It has a number of 
transverse ribs, ranging from nineteen to twenty-two. Before 
the caterpillar hatches out, the egg changes to a purplish leaden 
colour. 

The caterpillar in October, before hibernation, is about a 
quarter of an inch long, and deep clover-green in colour ; it has 
a number of pale, shining warts along the back, from each of 
which there is a moderately long black bristle, and there is 
a pale yellowish-white stripe above the black spiracles. The 
head is pale ochreous green, with warts and bristles as on the 
body. It rests upon a pad of silk spun on the centre of a 
leaflet. When full grown the colour is clear light green, but 
has a darkish velvety appearance, due to the entire surface 
being densely sprinkled with black warts, the bristles from the 
warts on the back are black, and those on the lower surface are 
white, the line above the spiracles, which are white outlined with 
black, is made up of lemon-yellow, orange-vermilion, and 
orange with an upper border of white. The head, claspers, and 
legs are green. It feeds in June, and again in August, on clover, 
trefoil, etc. The figure on Plate 20 is after Hiibner. 

The chrysalis is very similar to that of the Clouded Yellow, 
the chief differences are that the head-beak of the present 
species is straight instead of being slightly upturned, and the 
tip of the wing-case extends further down the body. 
- The above particulars of the early stages of the Pale Clouded 
Yellow are adapted from Mr. Frohawk's account of the life- 
history of the species {Entomologist, 1892 and 1893). 

From eggs laid in September by a captured female, Mr. 
Williams reared two butterflies in November of the same year. 
Other caterpillars from the same batch of eggs hibernated and 
recommenced feeding in the spring, but failed to attain the 
chrysalis state. Young caterpillars from eggs obtained in 
August were successfully hibernated by Mr. Carpenter, and 
many of these produced butterflies in the following May. 



50 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

In rearing this species from eggs laid in the autumn, a fairly 
dry treatment appears to be the best. Protect the young cater- 
pillars from frost, and do not water the plants during the winter. 
When they become active again, about February, transfer them 
to other growing plants, which should be kept ready for the 
change. Do not water the plants much, or wet the foliage 
at all, and keep a sharp look-out for earwigs. 

It seems pretty clear that this species passes the winter as a 
caterpillar, and from the evidence available it appears equally 
certain that the caterpillars would not survive an ordinary 
winter in this country. Possibly, however, in very mild winters, 
or in certain warm nooks on the south coast, some may be able 
to exist until the spring, and then complete their growth and 
reach the butterfly state. In such native-born butterflies the 
ancestral migratory habit may be lost, owing to climate, and 
they would not, therefore, wander far from the spot where they 
emerged from the chrysalis, but found a colony, which probably 
would be cleared off sooner or later by the severity of an English 
winter. 

The Pale Clouded Yellow was not mentioned as an English 
butterfly until Lewin wrote about it in 1795. He states that he 
only met with it " in the Isle of Sheppey and on a hilly pasture- 
field near Ospringe in Kent." He seems to have noted it in 
different years at both places. Stephens, in 1827, referred to 
it as a rare British species, and from that date until 1867 it 
seems to have been common only in 183$, 1842, 1857, and 1858- 
In 1868 it was abundant in the southern and eastern counties, 
and was observed as far north as Lancashire and Yorkshire, 
also in Ireland. It was common on the south coast in 1872, 
and rather more so in 1875, when it spread into Essex and 
Suffolk, and also inland. Until 1875 the butterflies seem only 
to have been noticed in the autumnal months, but in that year 
specimens had been seen in May and June. In 1876 the 
species was pretty plentiful, but after that date it did not again 







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PL 20. 



Pale Clouded Yellow Caterpillar. 

(After Hiibner.) 



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PL 21. 



Pale Clouded Yellow. 

1 5 2 male; 3, 4 female. 



£51 



THE CLOUDED YELLOW. 5 1 

occur in numbers until 1892, when it was recorded from most 
of the southern and eastern counties. In 1893 one or two 
specimens were reported as seen in April or May, but less than 
a dozen were recorded as captured during the autumn of that 
year. Not much was seen of the butterfly again until 1899, 
when a score or so were recorded from Kent. Two or three 
specimens were seen on the south coast in June, 1900, and the 
species was plentiful in the autumn of that year in many parts 
of the country. Single specimens were seen in June, 1901, and 
in the autumn the butterfly was again fairly common in several 
southern counties, and abundant in parts of Essex. In 1902 
a male was taken near Dartford in March, and one example in 
May in a locality where two specimens had been captured on 
October 20 of the previous year ; six males and one female 
were obtained between June 27 and July 12 at Sheerness. 
The summer of 1902 was a cold one, and, with the exception of 
four specimens at Folkestone in August, the species was not 
again seen during that year or the following one ; but in 1904 
a good many specimens were secured at Chatham in September, 
and one or two at Margate in August. 

When it occurs in this country the butterfly should be looked 
for in clover and lucerne fields. 

Common throughout the Palasarctic Region. It is probably 
a species of Eastern origin, but with a tendency to spread 
westward. 



The Clouded Yellow (Co lias edtisa). 

In its typical colouring — orange with broad black borders — 
this butterfly (Plate 22) will be recognized the first time it 
is seen. Both sexes have a black spot about the centre of the 
fore wings, and a deep orange spot near the middle of the hind 
wings — the latter is subject to variation in size and shape. The 



52 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

female usually has the black borders spotted with yellow, but 
in some examples these spots are almost (Plate 24, Fig. 1) 
or quite absent. Another form of the female, known as var. 
helice (Plate 24, Fig. 2), has the orange colour replaced by 
yellowish-white, and in some years is not altogether uncommon. 
Between this yellowish-white at one end of the colour range 
and the typical orange at the other, specimens showing all the 
intermediate shades have been obtained, chiefly by rearing the 
butterflies from eggs laid by a female helice. One of these 
intergrades will be seen on Plate 24, Fig. 3. The males vary, 
especially bred ones, from " deep rich orange to the palest 
chrome yellow ; the marginal bands also vary in width ; in 
many examples the yellow nervules run through the borders of 
all the wings. A large proportion of the males have the hind 
wings shot with a beautiful amethystine blue" (Frohawk). 

The egg (Plate 23) is oval, tapering towards each end, very 
pale yellowish in colour at first, but afterwards becoming darker 
yellow, and then pink. The eggs are laid, as shown in the figure, 
on the upper side of a leaf of clover or lucerne, sometimes 
singly, but often in small batches. 

The caterpillar when full grown is deep green with minute 
black dots, from which fine hairs arise, and a pink-marked 
yellow, or whitish, spiracular line. The head is also green, 
rather downy, and small in size. When first hatched the 
caterpillar is brownish, but soon changes to greenish. It feeds 
on clover (Trifotium), trefoil (Lotus), melilot (Melilotus\ etc., 
in June and again in September or October. 

The chrysalis is yellowish-green above, somewhat paler 
below ; the wing-cases are rather deeper in tint than the 
thorax and back, and have a central black speck and a row 
of slender marks at the edges. The body is marked with a 
splash of reddish and tiny black dots on the under side. The 
beak-like projection from the head is dark green above and 
yellow beneath. 



THE CLOUDED YELLOW. 53 

The figures of the caterpillar and the chrysalis are taken from 
Buckler's " Larvae of British Butterflies," and the descriptions 
of these stages by the same author have been followed. 

The Clouded Yellow has a great fancy for clover or lucerne 
fields, and should be looked for in such places in August and 
September. It is not very difficult to rear from the egg, so that 
if a female is captured in August (the spring ones should not 
be taken), it would be a good plan to try to induce her to lay 
some eggs. The best method to succeed in this is to pot up 
a growing plant of clover, and over this place a glass cylinder 
with a muslin cover. (See further directions in the Introduction, 
page 28.) 

This butterfly, which was known, to the earliest English authors 
as the " Saffron " or " Spotted Saffron," has always, no doubt, 
been erratic and uncertain in its appearance in this country, 
sometimes becoming increasingly abundant for three, four, or 
even five years in succession, and then scarce or entirely absent 
for similar periods. The most recent years of plenty, or w T hen 
it was fairly common, were 1877, " tne great Edusa year," 1892, 
1893, 1894, 1895, r ^99? 1900? and 1902. In some of these years 
the Pale Clouded Yellow was also common. 

In some of the warmer countries that this butterfly inhabits 
it has certainly three, and possibly four, broods in the year. It 
is therefore conceivable that at times its increase in numbers 
may become very great in some particular area. At such times 
swarms of the surplus butterfly population set out to seek fresh 
fields and pastures new. Some portion of these flights reach 
our country from time to time, and this probably always occurs 
in the spring of the year. The weather conditions being favour- 
able, the offspring of the visitors put in a welcome appearance 
in the autumn, and not only gladden the heart of the entomo- 
logist, but add a charm to the countryside which every one can 
appreciate. 

The butterfly has probably occurred, at some time or other, 



54 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

in almost every county in England and Wales, Ireland and 
Scotland, extending even to the Orkney Islands (1877). 

Its home appears to be in North Africa and South Europe, 
whence it spreads over the greater part of Europe and Western 
Asia. 

Note. — According to Kirby, this butterfly should be called 
Eurymus hyale, Linn., and the Pale Clouded Yellow be known 
as Eurymus kirby 7, Lewis. 

The Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni). 

This butterfly (Plate 26) has the tips of the fore wings sharply 
pointed, and there is a rather acute angle about the middle of 
the outer margin of the hind wings. The colour of the male is 
bright sulphur yellow, with a central orange spot on each wing, 
that on the hind wings usually the largest ; there is also a rusty 
dot at the outer end of the upper veins and along the front 
margin of the fore wings towards the tip. The female is green- 
ish yellow, and is marked similarly to the male. In both sexes 
the horns {antenncE) are reddish, and the long silky hair on the 
thorax is a noticeable character. It is probably this insect to 
which the name "butter-coloured fly," contracted into butterfly, 
was first given ; anyway, it is the only species to which the 
name applies so well. 

The egg. If the under sides of the leaves of buckthorn 
{Rhamnus catharticus) or of the berry-bearing alder (R.fran- 
guld) are examined in May or June, the eggs of this butterfly 
may be found thereon. They are often placed on a rib of the 
leaf, but sometimes they are laid as shown in the illustration 
(Plate 25). At first the colour is pale greenish and rather 
glossy, but it soon changes to yellowish, and later on, when the 
caterpillar has formed inside, to a dull purplish-grey. 

The caterpillar when full grown is green, merging into 
bluish-green on the sides, thickly powdered with shining black 





* 5 



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V X. 



/Y. 22. 



Clouded Yellow. 

:, 3 male; 2, 4 female. 



^54. 




: 4 







PI- 23- 



Clouded Yellow. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



£55- 



THE BRIMSTONE. 55 

specks. There is a pale line on each side below the spiracles. 
It feeds in June and July on both kinds of buckthorn, and will 
generally be found resting along the main rib of a leaf. 

The chrysalis is bluish-green in colour and of a curious 
shape. The sharp yellowish and brown beak-like projection 
in front and raised brownish bases of the wing-covers, to- 
gether with the humped thorax, somewhat resemble a bird's 
head when seen from the front. . Then, again, the enlarged 
wing-cases, which are rather greener than the other parts, in 
conjunction with the general outline, give a very good imitation 
of a curled leaf. 

The butterfly is very constant as regards colour and marking, 
but occasionally the fore wings may be more or less suffused 
with orange, and in this respect assumes the coloration of the 
South European species known as G. cleopatra. The attempt 
has been made to establish the last-named butterfly in Ireland, 
but the experiment seems to have been only partially successful. 
Sometimes female specimens are found to have splashes of the 
male colour on their wings. Occasionally their colour is inter- 
mediate between their own proper tint and that of the male, 
and more rarely the wings on one side may be yellow, as in the 
male, while those on the other side are greenish, as in the female. 
Such specimens are termed gynandrous examples, and some- 
times hermaphrodites. The latter, however, is not correct. 

An unusual variation of the butterfly is shown on Plate 27. 
This has large oval pale brownish-orange marks on the under 
side of the wings. It was taken in the New Forest. 

The Brimstone butterfly enjoys a longer existence in the 
perfect state than any of the other British species, with the 
exception, perhaps, of the Tortoiseshells and their allies. It 
leaves the chrysalis at the end of July or beginning of August, 
and is usually quite common during the latter month. After 
this it takes up its winter quarters, from which, however, it 
may be tempted to come out whenever the day is sufficiently 



56 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

warm and sunny for it to indulge in a few hours' flight. The 
fine condition of some of the specimens that are seen in May or 
June has suggested the possibility of such specimens having 
remained in the chrysalis during the winter, but it is not at all 
probable that they do so. It may be seen any sunny day from 
March, or even February, to June in almost every English and 
Welsh county where its food-plant grows, and locally in Ireland. 
The best time to take specimens is in the autumn, when they 
are often to be seen in numbers flying along the rides in or on 
the outskirts of woods, and also in clover fields. 

Distributed over the whole of temperate Europe, and extending 
through Asia to the far east and to North Africa. 

The thirty butterflies now to be considered belong to the 
Nymphalidae, which has a larger membership than any other 
family of butterflies. It is divided into several sub-families, 
but only four of these concern us ; these are Apaturinse (i 
species), Nymphalinas (17 species), Danainae (1 species), and 
Satyrinae(u species). The next butterfly is our only repre- 
sentative of Apaturinse. 

The Purple Emperor (Apatura iris). 

On account of its large size and the beautiful purple sheen 
over its brownish-black velvety wings, this butterfly (Plate 
29) is always counted a prize by the collector. It is, how- 
ever, only the male that dons the purple, and he only when 
seen from the proper angle. The female is without the purple 
reflection and her wings are browner, but the white spots on the 
fore wings and the white bands on the hind wings are rather 
wider than those of the male. Above the anal angle of the hind 
wings, in both sexes, there is a black spot, ringed with tawny 
and sometimes centred with white, and a tawny mark on 
veins 1 and 2. As will be seen on turning to the figures on 



* p. 
a P« 





* 3 




t*3 






y- 



Pl % 25. ^57- 

Brimstone Butterfly. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE PURPLE EMPEROR. 57 

Plate 31, the under side of this butterfly is exceedingly pretty. 
On the same plate there is a figure of the rare variety known 
as iole (for the loan of which I am indebted to Mr. Sabine), in 
which most of the white spots are absent or obscured. Inter- 
mediates between this extreme form and the type also occur, 
but all such aberrations are uncommon. 

The egg (Plate 28) may be looked for in August on the 
upper surface of a leaf of the sallow (Salix caftrea). According 
to Buckler, it is pale olive green in colour, and cylindrical in 
shape ; the height from base to top being about equal to the 
width through from side to side. It has about fourteen ribs. 

The caterpillar in October, just before hibernation, is dingy 
green roughened with numerous whitish warts from which 
arise short bristles, some of the latter appearing to be tinged 
with reddish, and those along the sides longer than those on 
the upper part of the body ; the straight lines along the 
back and the oblique ones on the sides are yellowish. The. 
head and the two horn-like projections, reminding one of the 
horns of a slug, are reddish-grey and covered with warts and 
bristles. The anal points (tails), which lie close together, are 
tipped with reddish. It should be mentioned here that on 
emerging from the egg the young caterpillar is without horns ; 
these are not developed until the first skin is thrown off, which 
event happens from eight to twelve days after hatching. 

The full-grown caterpillar is green, merging into yellowish 
towards the anal points (tails) ; the oblique stripes on the 
sides are yellowish, edged with reddish. The individual 
depicted on the plate took up a position for change to the 
chrysalis on June 6. It spun a mat of silk to the under side 
of a sallow leaf, and the next day it was found suspended 
by the claspers, which were grasping the silken mat. On 
the fourth day the chrysalis was fully developed, and from 
this a male butterfly emerged on June 24, an unusually early 
date. 



58 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The chrysalis is whitish, more or less tinged with green, but 
having the oblique lines on the sides whitish ; the veins of the 
wings also show up whitish. 

The caterpillar was well known to entomologists in this 
country as far back as 1758, when, in May, four were obtained 
from sallow at Brentwood in Essex. It usually occurs on 
sallow, but an instance is recorded of it refusing to eat this 
plant ; it would probably have starved if willow, upon which it 
fed up, had not been substituted. A full-grown caterpillar was 
on one occasion found at Raindene in Sussex on poplar, which 
is a well-known food of the species on the Continent. Now and 
then a full-grown caterpillar has been met with in October, and 
Buckler reared two in the autumn from the egg almost to the 
chrysalis stage, but they died before the change was effected. 

As befits his rank, the Emperor has lofty habits, and after 
quitting the clump of sallow bushes, among which its trans- 
formations from egg to the perfect insect were effected, it 
resorts to the oak trees, around which it flies in July, and, 
when not so engaged, rests on a leaf of the higher branches. 
To capture the butterfly, when seen at such times, is not 
altogether an easy matter, as for the purpose the net must 
be affixed to the end of a pole about 14 or 15 feet in length. 
The insect's rather depraved taste for the juices of animal 
matter, in a somewhat advanced stage of decay, is a fact well 
known to the professional collector and others who have taken 
advantage of it to the monarch's destruction. This method of 
attracting a butterfly for the purpose of capture is, however, not 
exactly to be commended. It surely is a greater pleasure to 
show one's friends a single specimen that has been captured by 
dexterity with the net, than to exhibit fifty that were secured 
by a device which is not only unsavoury, but unsportsmanlike. 
The female, however, is not to be allured ; she must be sought 
among the sallows, and when seen is not easy to net, as she 
skims away over the tops of the bushes and is difficult to follow. 




I 



/ 



Fl. 26. 



Brimstone Butterfly,, 

i, 3 male; 2, 4 female. 



£■58. 




Brimstone Butterfly. Underside (aberration). 




FL 27. 



Common Blue. At rest. 



THE WHITE ADMIRAL 59 

Although most certainly not so common or so generally 
distributed as in former times, the butterfly still occurs in 
the larger oak woods in most of the midland, western, and 
southern counties of England, but is, perhaps, most frequent 
in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire. In Wales it is found 
in Monmouthshire. It has not been recorded from Scotland, 
and only doubtfully from Ireland. 

In Central Europe it is often abundant, and its range extends 
eastward into Amurland, Central and Western China. 

Now follow seventeen butterflies of the sub -family Nympha- 
linae. 

, fr^ ij«J^ The White Admiral (Limenitis sibylla). 

lit 



The " White Admirable Butterfly," as it was called by some 
of the older English entomologists, needs only to be seen 
to be at once recognized (Plate 33). The white markings on 
its blackish wings are somewhat similar to those of the Purple 
Emperor. As in that butterfly, so, too, in this, the most beautiful 
ornamentation is found on the under side. The shape of the 
wing is, however, very different in the two butterflies, and there 
is no probability of confusing one with the other. A somewhat 
uncommon form is shown on Plate 31 (also kindly loaned by 
Mr. Sabine) ; this is var. nigrina. Intermediates also occur, 
but these, too, are also rather rare. The eggs, which I have 
not seen, are stated to hatch in about fourteen days, and are 
laid in July. They have been described as pale green in 
colour, and of the shape of an orange, but flatter at the base 
and top. 

The caterpillar (Plate 30) when full grown is dark green 
on the back and lighter on the sides, roughened with yellow 
dots, and with a yellow-marked white line above the feet. The 
bristly spines are reddish with pinkish tips, and those on the 
second, third, fifth, tenth, and eleventh rings are longer than 



60 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the others. The first ring seems to be without spines, but the 
brownish head is set with short ones, two on the crown being 
rather longer and blacker than the others, and are inclined 
backwards. 

In the autumn, when still quite tiny, it constructs a winter 
retreat (hibernaculum) (Plate 30) by fastening a growing leaf of 
sallow to a twig with silken threads, and then, using more silk, it 
draws the edges of the leaf together, and so forms a secure 
chamber wherein it can rest until the following spring, when it 
quits the domicile and sets to work on the tender foliage around 
it. At this time the caterpillar is brownish in colour. The 
chrysalis is of the remarkable shape shown on the plate. It is 
brownish, with purplish or olive tinge ; behind the rounded hump 
there is a patch of bright green, and above the wing-cases a 
beautiful golden sheen. There are also other metallic spots and 
dots on various parts. Altogether, it is one of the prettiest of 
British butterfly chrysalids. 

I am tempted here to quote Buckler's excellent description 
of the pupation of this species, as it will serve to show the 
remarkable method by which caterpillars are able to perform a 
seemingly impossible feat ; that is, to get absolutely free of the 
old skin whilst hanging head downwards from the silken pad 
or button to which they attach themselves by the anal claspers 
when preparing to pupate. 

"When full fed the larva becomes rapidly paler, and then 
suspends itself by the anal prolegs to a stem of the honey- 
suckle or other surface, and hangs with its body downwards in 
a sinuous curve, with its head bent a little upwards, facing the 
abdomen ; it then remains motionless for three days, becoming 
whitish on the abdomen, and remaining very pale green on the 
thoracic segments. In the course of the third day the creature 
seems to wake up, unbends its head, swings itself to and fro a 
few times, then stretches itself downwards in a long attenuated 
line, which causes a rupture of the skin close to the head ; 








Purple Emperor. 

Egg enlarged ; young aiidjhdl-grown caterpillars; chrysah 



Ebo t 





PL 29. 



F. 61. 



Purple Emperor. 

1 male ; 2 female. 



THE WHITE ADMIRAL. 6l 

the skin then is seen slowly to ascend, exposing the bare and soft 
shining parts below, from which a flat and forked pair of horns 
grow out perceptibly as one beholds this wonderful process ; 
the skin continues to glide slowly upwards, and as the soft 
parts become exposed, they are seen to swell out laterally, and 
to assume the very singular projections so characteristic of this 
chrysalis, the skin of the old head gliding up the belly marks 
the progress of the disclosure, as the colour of the old and 
new surfaces is at this time alike, the new being, however, 
rather more shining and transparent. Occasionally during 
the bulging out of the soft parts, a kind of convulsive heave 
or two occurs, but otherwise it remains still until the creature 
is uncovered as far as the ninth or tenth segment ; it then 
curves its anal extremity by a sudden twist laterally, and in a 
moment dexterously withdraws the tip of the anal segment 
from the larval prolegs by an opening on the back of the skin 
at that part. At this critical moment one has time to see that 
the naked shining point is furnished with black hooks, and to 
apprehend a fall ; but in another moment the pupa has forcibly 
pressed the curved tip with its hooks against the stem close 
to the previous attachment of the anal prolegs, and now it is 
strongly and . firmly fixed. The creature now seems endowed 
with wonderful power and vigour ; it swings boldly to and fro, 
and undulates itself as if to gain longer swings, when presently 
the old skin that remains is seen to burst away and fall off, 
the chrysalis gradually becoming quiescent, the entire meta- 
morphosis, from the first waking to the last movement, occupy- 
ing nearly seven minutes. In sixteen days the perfect insect 
emerged." 

Linnaeus in 1767 wrote of the sexes of this butterfly as 
sibylla, or rather sibilla, and Camilla, but, as Kirby points out, 
three years earlier the same author had given the butterfly the 
name Camilla. It is probable, therefore, that the latter name 
will have to be adopted for our butterfly. Certain it is that 

F 



62 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the older British authors — Donovan, Haworth, Stephens, etc.. 
knew our species as cai?tzlla. The species known on the Con- 
tinent as Camilla, and which, owing to the confusion of names 
has been supposed to be British, will have to be called drusilla, 
according to Kirby. 

This species seems to be pretty much restricted to the 
southern and eastern counties of England. In the New Forest, 
Hampshire, it is often exceedingly abundant in July. So long 
ago as 1695 the butterfly was known to occur in Essex, and 
the species is found in some woods in that county at the present 
time. It has, however, quite disappeared from several wood- 
land localities in Kent and Sussex, where it formerly occurred. 
It has been recorded from Shropshire and also from Worcester- 
shire, but both these counties appear to be beyond the normal 
range of the species. 

Almost all writers on our butterflies, from Haworth down- 
wards, have commented on the graceful flight of the White 
Admiral as it skims aloft and alow through the woodland 
glades. This elegance of motion is still retained even when the 
wings become sadly torn and frayed, probably by contact with 
twigs and thorns. 

Widely distributed throughout Central Europe. It is also 
found in Amurland, Corea, and Japan. 

The Comma (Polygonia c-album). 

The peculiar shape of the wings of this butterfly (Plate 35^ 
might cause it to be mistaken for a very tattered example of 
one of the Tortoiseshells. The irregular contour of the outer 
edges of the wings is, however, quite natural, and is subject to 
some variation in its jaggedness. Their colour is deep tawny 
or fulvous, with brownish borders on their outer margin. On 
the fore wings there are three black spots on the front or costal 
area, and below the first, which is often divided, there is a 





PL 30. 



F62. 



White Admiral. 

Young caterpillar with hibernaculum (h) ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 




/v. 31, 



1, 2 Purple Emperor ; 3 var. z '^ 
4, 5 White Admiral, var nigrina. 



THE COMMA. 63 

roundish black spot (sometimes double) just above the inner 
margin ; two, sometimes three, other spots lie between this 
and the third costal spot. On the hind wings there are three 
black spots on the basal half, and a series of pale fulvous spots 
before the brownish border ; these are inwardly edged with 
brownish, and sometimes this edging is united with the marginal 
border. Similar spots are, in some specimens, present in a 
like position on the fore wings also. On the under side the wings 
are of various shades of brown, sometimes variegated with 
whitish, or yellowish, and greenish, the latter often conspicuous ; 
other specimens are paler on the outer half than on the basal 
half, and, except occasionally having a series of greenish or 
dusky spots on the outer area, are without marking. These 
differences occur in both sexes. The white comma or c mark, 
placed about the middle of the under side of the hind wings, is 
rather stronger in the variegated specimens ; but it varies, gene- 
rally, in shape as well as in size. 

Var. hutchinsoni, Robson, which has been renamed pallida 
and lulescens, differs from the typical form in having the ground 
colour much lighter and brighter on the upper side and ochreous 
on the under side. It is shown on Plate 35. The outline 
of the wings of this form, which occurs in June and July, is said 
to be less jagged, and this may be so as a rule, but it certainly 
is not always the case. Possibly this is "The Pale Comma" 
of Petiver. 

There are two broods of this species in the year, but the first 
or summer flight of butterflies seems to depend upon a favourable 
season, as also does the second or autumnal brood, at least as 
regards the number of butterflies representing it. The late 
butterflies hibernate and reappear in April, or even March, of 
the following year. It has been stated that all the specimens 
appearing in the spring are of the form with plain under sides. 

From eggs laid between April 27 and May 6, Miss E. 
Hutchinson, writing in 1887, says caterpillars hatched between 



64 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

May 5 and u. They were "fed on currant and nettle 
mixed, and were full grown from June 17th till the 23rd. The 
first butterfly emerged on June 26, and the last on July 3, 
and all were very fine and of the pale summer variety. Two 
of the insects paired on June 30, and the female commenced 
laying on July 1, and continued doing so till the 10th, when 
there were 120 ova. Unfortunately, a very cold spell of weather 
began on July 12, and more than half the eggs perished. 
The butterflies resulting from the remainder appeared during 
August, from the 17th to the 27th, but they would not pair, pro- 
bably because, although they had emerged at an early date, 
they properly belonged to the autumnal flight. 

In 1894 Mr. Frohawk reared 200 of these butterflies from 275 
eggs laid by a female between April 17 and June 1 of that 
year. The caterpillars were supplied with nettle only. The 
first butterfly emerged on June 30, and the last on August 2. Of 
the whole number forty-one were of the light fulvous form, 
var. hutchinsoni, and all the others of the dark or typical form. 
With few exceptions, the light-coloured butterflies were the 
first to emerge, and the major portion of these during early 
July, and before any examples of the dark form had come out. 

The egg is at first green in colour with ribs whiter, but 
changes before the caterpillar hatches out to yellowish. In 
confinement the female butterflies deposit their eggs singly or 
in chains of three or four ; probably the latter is the usual 
method of laying the eggs under natural conditions. 

The caterpillar when full grown is black, netted with 
greyish ; the spines on the second to fifth rings inclusive are 
yellowish, and those on the back of the other rings are white ; 
the back from ring 6 to ring 10 inclusive is broadly white, 
marked with black, and the upper surface of the other rings 
is more or less yellowish. The head is black, marked with 
ochreous ; the crown is lobed, and on each lobe is a short club- 
like knob. 




PL 32. 



Comma Butterfly. 

f enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



F64. 




PI' 33. 



White Admiral. 

1 j 3 male ; 2, At female. 



THE LARGE TORTOISESHELL. 65 

The chrysalis is brownish tinged with pink ; the wing-cases 
and the rings of the body are edged with blackish ; there is 
a greyish line along the back of the body and a brownish 
stripe along the spiracles ; at the point where the body joins 
the thorax there are some silvery or golden spots. The figures 
of caterpillar and chrysalis on Plate 32 are after Buckler. 

This butterfly seems to have disappeared from many localities 
in England where it formerly flourished. About seventy or 
eighty years ago, for example, it was plentiful in Epping Forest, 
in Herts, and in Dorset. During the last half-century or so it 
has been common in certain parts of many of the counties from 
Somerset to Durham and Cumberland, but seems to have 
occurred only sparingly or singly in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, 
Kent, Sussex, Hants, Wilts, and Devon. It still occurs now 
and then in the Dover district, the most recent record being of 
one taken in October, 1894 ; and it was reported from North 
Staffordshire in 1893. Probably it is now almost entirely con- 
fined to favoured districts embraced within the area represented 
by the counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Mon- 
mouthshire, whence it may occasionally stray into the adjoining 
counties, or even further afield. 

This butterfly is often associated with hop gardens, but it is 
by no means restricted to such places. The usual food-plants 
of the caterpillars are hop (Humulus lupuhis), nettle (Urtica 
dioica), and currant {Ribes), but it is reported to eat gooseberry 
(R. grossularia) and elm (Ulmus). 

Abroad it has a very wide distribution in Europe, and extends 
through Asia to Japan. 

The Large Tortoiseshell {Vanessa polychloros). 

Apart from its larger size, and somewhat different outline, 
this butterfly may be known from the Small Tortoiseshell by 
its duller colour, which is brownish-orange ; on the fore wing 



66 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

there are, as a rule, no blue crescents in the hind marginal 
border, but there is an extra black spot placed between veins i 
and 2 ; on the hind wings a black spot on the front area 
represents the black basal area seen on the Small Tortoise- 
shell ; and this is an important point of difference, although the 
two species are not likely to be confused when both are well 
known. The blue spots referred to as not usually present on 
the fore wings are stated to occur in specimens emerging from 
chrysalids that have been kept in a rather cold temperature for 
a certain length of time. 

An aberration known as testudo has the black spots of the 
fore wings united, and forming blotches on the front and inner 
areas ; the ground colour of the fore wings is lighter, and the hind 
wings are blacker. This form occurs at large on the Continent, 
but it is rare ; it has also been produced in the course of 
temperature experiments. 

The only eggs of this butterfly that I have been able to obtain 
are the batch figured on Plate 34. These were purplish with 
whitish ribs, but no caterpillars hatched from them. Hellins, 
who squeezed a few eggs from a freshly killed female, states 
that the colour apparently is a dull green. The ribs vary from 
seven to nine in number. 

The caterpillar in the adult stage is black, with a speckled 
dark ochreous band traversed by a black central line on the 
back ; the sides are dappled with ochreous grey ; the under 
parts are brown dappled with darker, and merging into the 
black. The spines are dark ochreous tipped with black, and 
the head is shiny black and bristly. (The figure is after Buckler.) 

These caterpillars live in large companies, often at the top of 
a high elm tree, from which they may be dislodged by a well- 
aimed stick, if this happens to be heavy enough to jar the 
branch when it reaches the mark. Besides elm trees {Ulmus), 
they also may be found on willow and sallow (Sa/ix), aspen 
and poplar (Popidus), white-beam (Pyrus aria), and various 




Fl. 34- 



Large Tortoiseshell. 

-Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



F66. 



m^r--' 










E - 
o 3 



en 



THE LARGE TORTOISESHELL. 67 

fruit trees, especially cherry. Occasionally they have been found 
on nettle, but the butterflies from these were small in size. 
June is the best month for them. 

The chrysalis (Plate 34) is greyish, tinged with pink or 
reddish, sprinkled with greenish, and shaded with brown and 
black ; the back of the body nearest the thorax is adorned with 
golden spots. I once obtained a number of these chrysalids 
in July at Mill Hill ; they were found suspended by the tail 
from the edges of boards that formed a rickety old cart-shed 
standing at one end of a field and beneath an elm tree. 

Although this butterfly is often common in the caterpillar 
state, the perfect insect, which emerges in July and August, is 
more frequently seen in the spring after hibernation than 
before that event. It probably establishes itself in suitable 
quarters, in old trees, faggot stacks, barns, etc., for its long 
rest during the winter, at an early period after emerging from 
the chrysalis. 

No doubt large numbers are destroyed by their great enemies, 
the parasitic flies, chiefly perhaps the Hymenopterous Aftanteles. 
An observer states that from fifty chrysalids only one butterfly 
resulted, all the others were found to be filled with parasites. 
In another case of one hundred caterpillars, some collected 
when quite small, only one was not " ichneumoned." 

These butterflies, in common with most other Vanessids, do 
not pair until the spring, but Barrett cites an instance of cater- 
pillars, from eggs laid by a female in early September, being 
reared until about \ inch in length, when they apparently laid 
up for hibernation. 

Lanes margined with trees, especially elms, or the verges of 
woods, are the most likely places in which to find the butterfly. 
At one time and another it has been observed in nearly every 
county of England and Wales, and also in some parts of 
Scotland, but not in Ireland. It appears to be more or less 
common in all counties around London, extending to Somerset 



68 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

in the west ; to Cambs, Norfolk, and Suffolk in the east ; and 
to Northampton and Warwick in the Midlands. 

Abroad it is found throughout the greater part of Europe, 
Asia Minor, and eastward to the Himalayas. 

The Small Tortoiseshell (Vanessa tirticce). 

This butterfly is one of the most ubiquitous as well as prettiest 
that we have in this country. Its reddish-orange colour, 
marked with yellow patches, black spots, and blue crescents, 
gives it a charming appearance as it sits on a flower, or even 




Fig. 22. 

on the ground, with wings fully expanded to the sunlight. When 
the wings are closed up, however, the butterfly seems to dis- 
appear, as the under side of the wings is quite sombre in 
colour. The only bright spot on the under side is the yellowish 
central area of the fore wing, and when the wings are held erect 
over the insect's back this is not seen, but only the tips of these 
wings, which are of the same dull colour as the hind wings. 

The ground colour is subject to modification as regards the 
shade of red in the orange, and this may be intense or reduced 
to just a mere tinge. Specimens have been taken on the wing 
in which the colour was some shade of buff, and the same kind 
of colour change will sometimes result from an over-long 



THE SMALL TORTOISESHELL. 69 

exposure to the action of ammonia. The black markings vary 
in size, and sometimes those on the costal area are more or less 
connected or even confluent (Fig. 22) ; a greater or lesser 
amount of blackish suffusion on the hind wings (Fig. 23) 
generally accompanies confluence of the costal spots on 
fore wings. The two black spots between veins 2 and 4 
occasionally enlarge and unite, or, on the other hand, they 
decrease in size to vanishing point. Some specimens have 
black scales between the second costal spot and the black 
spot on the inner margin, and the space between these two 
spots may be entirely covered with black and so form a 




central transverse band (var. polarts). A modification of this 
form is shown on Plate 38, lower figure. The yellow patch 
between the second and third costal black spots is some- 
times continued right across the wings to the yellow spot on 
the inner margin, and in this respect resembles an Indian form 
of the species named ladakensis. Dwarf specimens result, in 
most cases, when the caterpillars have fed on hop (Humulus) ; 
at least, this is so in confinement. 

The egg is at first green, but after a time becomes tinted 
with yellow and the ribs stand out clear and transparent. The 
eggs are laid in a cluster on the under side of a terminal leaf 
of a nettle plant in May and again in July. 



70 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The adult caterpillar is yellowish, closely covered with black 
speckling and short hairs ; there is a black line down the centre 
of the back, and this is bordered on each side by the clear 
ground colour. The spiracles are black ringed with yellow, and 
there is a yellowish line above them. The yellowish spines 
have black tips. Head black, hairy, and speckled with yellow. 
Individuals of another company were almost entirely black, the 
spines alone being tinged with yellow. These caterpillars are 
gregarious from the time they hatch from the egg until about 
the last stage. 

The chrysalis is most often of some shade of grey and some- 
times tinged with pinkish. The points on the upper parts of 
the body are in some examples metallic at the base, and 
occasionally the metallic lustre spreads over the thorax and 
other parts as well. 

There are two broods in the year, one in June, the other in 
August and September. The latter brood, or at least some of 
the butterflies, hibernate and reappear in the earliest sunny 
days of spring. They have been seen on the wing as early as 
January and February (1896), and as late as December. 

The geographical range of this species extends through 
Europe and Asia to Japan. 

The Peacock (Vanessa io). 

Unlike the last species referred to, this handsome butterfly 
is more frequently seen in the autumn than after , hiberna- 
tion. It is not likely to be mistaken for any other kind, 
for on its brownish-red velvety wings it bears its own particular 
badge, the " peacock eyes." The marks on the hind wings are 
more like the " eyes " on the tail feathers of the peacock than 
are those on the fore wings, and the brownish-red on these 
wings is confined to a large patch below the eye-mark, the 
remainder being blackish,. powdered with yellow scales on the 




PI. 36. 



Large Tortoiseshell. 

1, 3 male ; 2, 4 female. 



F70. 




PL 37. 



Small Tortoiseshell. 

Eggs enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



Fir. 



THE PEACOCK. 7 1 

basal area. Some specimens have a blue spot below the " eye " 
on the hind wings, and the name cyanosticta has been proposed 
for this form by Raynor. The under side is blackish, with a 
steely sheen, and crossed by irregular black lines ; the fore 
wing are tinged with brown on the inner area, and the central 
dot and a series of dots beyond are ochreous ; the hind wings 
have an ochreous central dot. 

In a state of nature the butterfly seems little given to variation. 
In rearing from the caterpillar, however, some curious aberra- 
tions occasionally crop up. In my early days of collecting I 
raised a number of specimens from caterpillars selected from 
a large brood ; every one of these butterflies was of a dull 
brownish colour and had a greasy semi-transparent appearance. 
I regret to add that I set them all at liberty as they did not 
come up to my, then, standard of what a Peacock butterfly 
should be. Now and then specimens are bred from collected 
caterpillars, in which the eye spots are represented by a broad 
white cloud-like suffusion on the fore wings, and by a pale 
roundish patch on the hind wings ; in conjunction with this 
the black costal spots of the fore wings are all more or less 
united (see Plate 41). This extreme variety is known in 
the vernacular as the " Blind Peacock," and as ab. belisaria 
in science ; between it and the typical form there are all kinds of 
intermediate modifications, and one of these is also shown on the 
plate referred to. It may be interesting to remark that similar 
varieties have been produced by subjecting the chrysalids at 
a particular period to a very low temperature. Readers who 
may wish to know more about " Temperature Experiments " 
are referred to a pamphlet on the subject by Dr. Max Standfuss. 

The egg, an enlarged figure of which will be found on 
Plate 39, is olive green in colour, and has eight ribs, which 
start just above the base and turn over the top. The eggs 
are laid in April or May in batches on the upper part of nettle 
plants and under the young leaves. 



72 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The mature caterpillar is velvety black with white dots, 
and the divisions between the rings of the body are well 
marked. The spines are black and rather glossy, and besides 
this clothing, the body is also provided with short hair which 
gives the velvety appearance. The head and a plate on 
the next ring, also the legs, are shining black ; the prolegs are 
blackish, tipped with yellowish. When quite young they are 
greenish-grey, and although hairy are without spines. The 
caterpillars usually feed in companies in June and July on the 
common stinging nettle. They have also been found on hop. 
Once or twice I have reared caterpillars of this butterfly, and 
also those of the Small Tortoiseshell and the Red Admiral, on 
hop, but the result has been disappointing, as the specimens 
produced were always small in size. The individuals for these 
experiments were obtained from nettle, and were generally 
about half grown at the time they were put on the hop diet. 

The chrysalis is figured on Plate 39. Its colour may be 
pale greenish, greyish, pale brown, or brownish-grey, but is 
usually stippled with blackish, especially the antennas and the 
outline of the wing-cases. Some of the points on the thorax 
and the ring, or rings, next to it have a metallic lustre. Two 
chrysalids among those resulting from my hop-fed caterpillars 
were more or less suffused with the metallic sheen. It does not 
seem to be very clearly known where the caterpillars retire to 
for pupation. Those that I have found have been under a 
tent-like arrangement of the lower nettle leaves. In confine- 
ment, however, I have noted that in a roomy cage they all go 
to one end of it and suspend themselves from the roof ; in a 
large flower-pot they crowd together in much the same way. 

The butterfly is on the wing in August and September, and 
frequents all and every kind of ground where flowering plants, 
especially the taller kinds, are available ; clover fields are 
attractive, and so also are orchards. It passes the winter in 
some hollow tree trunk, wood stack, or possibly buildings of 








~K 3 & 



Small Tortoiseshell. 

x 3 i female ; 3, 5 male; 4 var. 



FJ2. 




, 




PL 39- 



Peacock Butterfly. 

r enla rged ; ca terpilla r and ch rysa lis. 



^73- 



THE CAMBERWELL BEAUTY. 73 

some kind, and in the spring it again comes forth. March and 
April are the usual months for its reappearance, but in 1900 it 
was seen flying over the snow on February 17. The time last 
mentioned is probably an unusual one, but it is interesting to 
note that a very similar observation was made by Harris, who in 
1778 wrote in his remarks on this butterfly, " I have seen them 
flying in February, when the snow has been on the ground." j 

Usually the Peacock butterfly assumes the perfect state but 
once in the year. There is, however, a record of half-grown 
caterpillars being found in September, and that these produced 
butterflies in due course. 

Although not always abundant, the butterfly is to be, or has 
been, found in almost every part of the kingdom, excepting 
perhaps north of the Caledonian Canal in Scotland. Around 
Bishop Auckland and in other parts of the county of Durham, 
and also in Northumberland, it was common some forty years 
ago, but it seems to be hardly ever seen there now. The same 
applies to other northern localities where it was once plentiful. 
Its distribution includes the whole of Europe, Asia Minor, 
Siberia, Amurland, Corea, and Japan. 

The Camberwell Beauty {Vanessa antiopa). 

This is a large and handsome insect ; its chocolate-brown 
wings are bordered with ochreous speckled with black scales. 
The border is variable in width, and this is occasionally so 
wide that it partly or completely hides the blue spots, which in 
the ordinary form are placed on a dark band just before the 
ochreous border. Such specimens are known as var. hygicea or 
var. lintneri (Plate 41) ; but in the former form the yellow spots 
on the front edge of the fore wing are absent, and in the latter 
variety these spots are sometimes united and form a blotch. One 
authority states that the proportion of these extreme variations 
in nature is about 1 in 500. The same form may be produced 



74 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

by subjecting summer chrysalids to a temperature of about 
no° Fahr. during three to five consecutive days, the chrysalids 
being placed in this heat four times a day, and for a period of 
one hour each time. Dr. Max Standfuss, who has made many 
experiments with this and other butterflies, states that the 
result of such treatment as that adverted to, and as regards this 
species, has been the production of as many as seven of the 
varieties among forty specimens. It would seem probable, then, 
that the varieties occurring in the open are from chrysalids 
that received a greater amount of heat than those that produce 
the ordinary butterfly. 

It has been stated that the borders are ochreous, but this 
only applies to the specimens seen in the summer or early 
autumn. The butterflies hibernate, and when they leave their 
winter retreats in the spring, the colour of the border is con- 
siderably paler and often even white. For some time it was 
considered that white borders were a peculiarity of the British 
Camberwell Beauty and stamped it a genuine native. Probably 
there are some who may still hold this opinion. An example 
of each form is represented on Plate 43, the upper one was 
taken in the spring, and the other in the autumn. Both belong 
to Mr. J. A. Clark, to whom I am indebted for their loan. 

The egg is at first deep ochreous yellow, changing through 
olive brown to red brown, and a day or two before the larva 
hatches out becoming leaden grey. The ribs, which are eight 
or nine in number, are most prominent below the top, and dis- 
appear before the base is reached. The eggs are laid on twigs or 
stems in small batches of 30 or 40 up to large ones of 150 to 250. 

The caterpillar has been described by Mr. Frohawk, who 
gives a full account of the life-history of this species in the 
Entomologist for 1902 and 1903. The following is an abridge- 
ment of his description. 

The head is bilobed, having a deep notch on the crown, and 
of a dull black colour, covered with black warts, each emitting 





PL 40. 



Peacock Butterfly. 

1, 3 male ; 2, ^fe7nale. 



FJ^ 




It- $k M 

'■MS? ■:■■ ->l"- "':■■:: :-:'.''-- : 




M- 




'iiilimisam : 
ilililllir^^ 



wgimMSfm 
lillllip; * :i 





PI. 4 i. ^75- 

1, 3 Peacock vars. ; 2 Camberwell Beauty var. 



THE CAMBERWELL BEAUTY. 75 

a white hair. The ground colour of the body is deep velvety 
black, and densely sprinkled with pearl-white warts, each emit- 
ting a fine white hair, some being of considerable length, and 
the majority slightly curved. Down the centre of the back is a 
series of rich deep rust-red shield-like markings, which com- 
mences on the third segment and terminates on the eleventh 
segment. In the centre of the anal segment is a shining black 
dorsal disc, much resembling the head ; the legs are black and 
shining, and the four pairs of prolegs are rust colour, with a 
polished band above the feet, and the anal pair are black with 
pale reddish feet. 

The caterpillars feed on sallow, willow, birch, and elm. They 
cover the leaves of their food-plant with a silken web and live 
thereon in companies, and do not separate until about to 
prepare for the chrysalis state. 

The chrysalis. The dorsal half of the head and wing points 
are black, and the ventral half orange. Some of the points on 
the body are tipped with orange. The whole surface is finely 
and irregularly furrowed and granulated. The ground colour is 
pale buff, covered with fine fuscous reticulations. The entire 
surface is clothed with a whitish-powdery substance, giving a 
pale lilac or pinkish bloom to the chrysalis, which, however, 
is easily rubbed off, the chrysalis then assuming a brownish 
hue. Our figure of the chrysalis is after Holland. 

Mr. Frohawk, who had female butterflies living under obser- 
vation for about three months, states that eggs were laid in 
April, May, and June. Caterpillars from the first batch of 192 
eggs hatched early in May, nineteen days after they were laid. 
These were full grown by June 20, and entered the chrysalis 
state soon after. The butterflies from these commencecTto 
emerge about the middle of July. 

He says : " Both sallow and willow are equally suitable food 
for the larvae, and birch is readily eaten, even when willow has 
formed the sole food until the last stage ; they will feed on elm. 



76 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Nettle was not appreciated, and not touched by them during the 
last two or three stages." 

This butterfly appears to have first attracted the attention 
of the earlier British entomologists about the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Stephens, writing in 1827, remarks that 
"about sixty years since it appeared in such prodigious numbers, 
throughout the kingdom, that the entomologists of that day 
gave it the appellation of the Grand Surprise." Harris figured 
the butterfly under the name mentioned by Stephens, and it 
has also been referred to by others as the " Willow Beauty " 
and the "White Petticoat." Newman called it the "White- 
bordered ;" and from this, as well as from his description of the 
butterfly, it would seem that he had not seen any specimen, 
caught in Britain, with ochreous borders. Such specimens have 
most certainly been captured in these islands, and occasionally 
in some numbers, as, for example, in the autumns of 1872 and 
1880. In the former year the butterflies were seen or taken in 
a great many parts of the kingdom. The single specimens 
that are taken now and then in the spring have hibernated, 
and possibly they may have just come over from the Continent. 
It is, however, equally possible that they may have arrived in 
the country the previous autumn and passed the winter here. 
After the invasion in the autumn of 1872, specimens were 
observed in January, March, and April, 1873, at places widely 
apart. In 1881 single specimens were taken in April in Surrey, 
Kent, and Brecknockshire ; and in Essex and at Hampstead 
in August. One or two specimens were taken in the summer 
or autumn of the years 1884 to 1887 inclusive. In 1888 two 
were captured in Essex in May ; and in August, three in Kent, 
one each Surrey, Hants, and Isle of Wight ; and one in Kent 
in September. In 1889 a specimen was taken in Surrey in 
April, one in Kent, and one in Cambs in May ; a few also in 
the autumn of that year. In 1891 a specimen was seen at 
Balham in September. In 1893 one was taken in Epping 




PL 42. 



Camberwell Beauty. 

Egg enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



P76. 




PI. 43 ■ 



Camberwell Beauty. 



G 77 . 



THE CAMBERWELL BEAUTY. JJ 

Forest in April, and one in South Devon in August. Single 
specimens were noted in Oxfordshire, Lincolnshire, Berwick, 
and the Isle of Skye, in September, 1896, and one at Epsom 
in December of that year. In 1897 one was recorded from 
Yorks (August), and one from Norfolk (September) ; and in 
May, 1898, one was taken at Norwich. One or two were 
observed in August or September, 1898 and 1899 ; and in 1900 
there seems to have been an invasion, on a small scale, of this 
butterfly in August into some of the eastern and southern 
counties of England. It extended westward to Somersetshire, 
and northward to Roxburghshire. A few were taken in various 
southern localities, including south-east and north London, in 
August and September of 1901. A specimen occurred in the 
Isle of Wight in September, 1903, and one in September, 
1904 ; and in the latter year one was captured in August at 
Raynes Park in Surrey. In 1905 one butterfly was taken at 
Harrow, Middlesex, on July 27 ; one at Norwich on August 26 3 
and one in Suffolk on September 29. 

A full record of this fine butterfly in the British Islands would 
occupy too much space, but the details given above will show 
something of its erratic occurrence since 1880. It visits Ireland 
occasionally, but there are no recent reports of its having been 
seen there. 

Kane, in his Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland, 
mentions a specimen taken in Co. Kerry, July 21, 1865 j one 
from near Belfast [in 1875 ?] ; an d a third example seen by a 
friend " many years ago " near Trillick, Co. Tyrone. The 
latter was " settled on the roadside, but not captured, it being 
Sunday. 5 ' 

Distributed throughout the temperate parts of the Northern 
Hemisphere, it is common in the Scandinavian Peninsula, 
whence probably our specimens came ; also in Germany. In 
some parts of the Continent it is, however, almost as uncertain 
in its occurrence as in England. 



**JL ' Jl 78 il/ THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The Painted Lady (Pyrantels cardui). 

The usual colour of this butterfly is tawny -orange, but in some 
specimens, especially fresh ones, there is a tinge of pink, or a 
rosy flush ; the markings are black, and there are some white 
spots towards the tips of the fore wings. The black markings 
on the hind wings are subject to variation in size, and some- 
times they run one into the other. Occasionally this union of 
the spots is accompanied by blackish suffusion spreading more 
or less over the entire surface of the wings, so that they appear 
blackish with tawny-orange patches or clouds. A somewhat 




Fig. 24. 



peculiar variety of the species, kindly lent by Mr. J. A. Clark, 
is shown on Plate 49. Specimens of this form, or some modi- 
fication of it, have been obtained in England, but very rarely. 
Similar examples have also been found in other parts of the 
globe. Fig. 24 represents another interesting aberration of this 
butterfly. 

The egg is at first green, and gradually becomes darker. It 
is strongly ribbed from the base to the top, where the ribs 
become finer and turn over towards the central hollow, at the 




PL 44. 



Painted Lady. 

Caterpillar ; chrysalis and jbroieciion-rveb. 





; 





-a s 




THE PAINTED LADY. 79 

bottom of which is the micropyle. The fine cross-ribs form 
slight bosses at their junction with the upright ribs. The eggs 
are laid on the leaves of the thistle, but usually only one on a leaf. 

The caterpillar is rather stout for its length. It has a 
dark greyish head, which is covered with short bristles. The 
ground colour of the body varies from greyish-green and 
ochreous-grey to blackish, and in the darker colour is generally 
freckled with paler, sometimes yellowish. There is a black line 
along the back, often edged with yellowish, and sometimes 
much broken up ; the lines on the sides are yellowish, but 
not always distinct ; the line below the yellow-ringed black 
spiracles, however, is generally broad and yellowish in colour. 
Although thistles {Car dims) appear to be the plants most 
frequently eaten by these caterpillars, they have sometimes 
been found feeding upon mallow (Malva), burdock {Arctium), 
viper's bugloss {Echium), and even nettle {Urtica). They 
commence life by fixing up the edges of a leaf so as to form 
a sort of pocket in which to conceal themselves, but as they eat 
away the fleshy part of the leaf their retreat is easily detected. 
The hiding-place, or dining-room, of a full-grown caterpillar'is 
shown on the plate ; changs to the chrysalis is often effected in 
a somewhat similar structure. 

The chrysalis is grey, ochreous-grey, or greenish ; shaded 
or striped with brownish. The raised points are burnished, and 
according to the way light falls on them appear golden or 
silvery. This metallic effect is also seen on other parts of the 
chrysalis, but chiefly on the back. 

This butterfly is a notorious migrant. Its proper home is 
probably in Northern Africa, and there it, at times, becomes so 
exceedingly numerous that emigration is possibly a necessity 
in the interests of future generations of the species. Whatever 
the cause of their leaving may be, there is no doubt about the 
fact that the butterflies do quit the land of their birth in great 
swarms. Almost any part of the world may become the 



So THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

dumping-ground of this surplus stock. Our own islands are 

frequently favoured in this way, and it is most likely that if 

this were not so, this pretty butterfly would not be so common 

throughout Great Britain as it is in some years. The natural 

habit of the species is to go on reproducing its kind throughout 

the year, and those individuals that arrive here most certainly 

endeavour to do this in their new home. Unfortunately our 

climate is not, as a rule, a suitable one for those caterpillars 

which hatch from the egg late in the season, and although 

some may complete their growth, and even attain the perfect 

state, the butterfly, so far as is known, does not hibernate as 

do the Tortoiseshells and the Peacock. It may therefore be 

& % assumed that the specimens seen in May or June of any year 

\^* are not native born, but early immigrants, and that it is from 

f i tt*A s uch aliens that the caterpillars and butterflies observed later , 

fjL f in the year are descende d^ 

\ t^ A curious habit of the Painted Lady, and also of the Red 

*g Admiral, is that of continuing on the wing long after other 

^u kinds of butterfly have retired to their resting-places for the 

fa night. Both have been seen flying about at dusk, and have 

been recorded as attracted by light on more than one occasion. 

It has been noted that these butterflies, in early summer, 

usually occur singly, and seem to become attached to some 

short stretch of ground, over which they career to and fro with 

almost mechanical regularity. They may be struck at with the 

net again and again, but do not desert their beat. Even if 

caught and released again they appear to be undismayed, and 

resume their interrupted patrol either at once or very shortly 

afterwards. The later butterflies also are not afraid of the net, 

and will repeatedly return to some favourite perch after being 

struck at and missed. 

Although the butterfly has been observed, sometimes in 
abundance, in every part of the British Islands, even to the 
Shetlands, its occurrence in any given locality is always 

6- j jo /j*. 




PL 46. 



Red Admiral. 

Eggs enlarged ; young and adult caterpillars ; chrysalis. 



GSo. 





PL 47. 



Red Admiral. 

t, 2 male; 3, 4 female. 



G Si. 



THE RED ADMIRAL. 8 1 

uncertain. In some years it may be fairly common in the early 
part of the year and very scarce later on. 

A North American species, Pyrantels vlrglnlensls {hunter 'a) , 
has been once or twice, since 1828, reported as captured in 
England, but its occurrence in this country can only be 
regarded as accidental. 



The Red Admiral {Pyrantels atalanta). 

The vivid contrast of black and scarlet in this butterfly 
will certainly arrest the attention of even the least observant. 
But Nature, ever excellent in her colour schemes, has toned 
down the glare of the scarlet bands by the addition of some 
splashes and dots of white above them on the fore wings, and 
some dots of black on those of the hind wings. Then, by way 
of a finish, there is a delicate tracing of blue along the outer 
margin of the fore wings, and a touch of the same colour at 
the angle of the hind wings, the scalloped margins of all the 
wings being white relieved by black points. On the under 
side the combination of colour on the fore wings is much the 
same as above, but there is also some blue tracing on the 
central area, and the tips harmonize with the hind wings, which 
are mottled with various shades of brown, traversed by wavy 
black lines, and have a more or less square pale spot on their 
front edges. 

The ordinary variation in this butterfly consists of slight 
differences in the tone of the red markings, which ranges from 
the normal scarlet in one direction to almost crimson, and in 
the other to orange-yellow. The bands on the fore wings may 
be broken up into two, or sometimes three, distinct parts ; and 
a specimen with the bands of hind wings marked with yellow 
has been noted. There is often a white dot in the bands of the 
fore wings, and this occurs in both sexes. 



82 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

A somewhat rare variety is represented on Plate 49. It 
was reared from one of three caterpillars casually picked up at 
Erith, and is now in Mr. Sabine's collection. Somewhat similar 
specimens have been figured elsewhere. One of these was bred 
from a caterpillar found at Ashton in 1867, and another was 
captured in Jersey in 1893. All these varieties seem to be 
modifications of the form named klemensiewiczi by Schille, and 
which was figured by Esper as a variety of atalanta in 1777. 
This form has also resulted from temperature experiments on 
the chrysalis, of the kind previously adverted to. 

The egg when first laid is green in colour, but as the cater- 
pillar matures within the colour changes to greenish-black, with 
the ten ribs showing up more or less transparent. The egg is 
laid in an upright position on nettle leaves and young shoots, 
but not in batches like those of the Tortoiseshell, etc. 

The caterpillar varies in colour. Some are blackish freckled 
with white, with two yellow stripes, sometimes broken up, on the 
sides ; and the rows of branched spines yellow, except those 
nearest the head, which are black or tipped with black. Others 
are greyish, or grey marked with yellowish-green. Others, 
again, are dark brownish, with the spines on the back pale, 
and those on the sides black ; or all the spines may be shining 
black (Hellins). 

The chrysalis is greyish, prettily ornamented with gold along 
the centre of the back and on the thorax and head. The pro- 
jections are also tinged with metallic gloss. It is generally 
suspended under a canopy of nettle leaves. 

The caterpillars do not live in companies like those of the 
Peacock and Tortoiseshells, but each individual constructs for 
itself a kind of tent (see Plate 48) by spinning together the 
leaves of its food-plant, the common stinging-nettle. Although 
the caterpillar is well concealed in such hiding-places when 
newly made, it " gives itself away " when it has partly consumed 
its home. It has been found on pellitory (Par is tar ia officinalis), 



litifc 



illllll 



..>.■:■. %^ ; 



Jilpt 

'ftlllll 



"WW >Sf 

• 'I 




/Y. 48. 



Red Admiral. 

Caterpillars shelter-tent, and chrysalis. 



GS2. 




PL 49. 



1, 2 Red Admiral var. 
3, 4 Painted Lady var. 



G S3. 



THE RED ADMIRAL. 83 

and also on hop {Hamulus) ; but I have found that caterpillars 
fed on hop alone always produce small butterflies. 

The caterpillars, which in a state of Nature are often badly 
" ichneumoned," have been noted in England as early as the end 
of June and as late as October. In the South of Europe they 
have been seen in February. 

The butterflies seen in spring and early summer, up to, say, 
the beginning of July, are supposed to have wintered in this 
country, but there is no positive evidence, that I can find, that 
the butterfly does hibernate here. It is, however, most probable 
that they are arrivals from abroad. The species is found 
throughout Europe and North Africa, Northern Asia, and North 
America, and it may be suspected of migration, although there 
is, perhaps, not such conclusive evidence on this point as in the 
case of its cousin, the Painted Lady. 

Anyway, unless we admit immigration, it seems difficult to 
understand why this butterfly should suddenly become common 
in some British localities from which it has been almost or quite 
absent for several years. Again, we rarely hear of butterflies 
moving about at night, but the Red Admiral, as well as the 
Painted Lady, are known to do this. If it does hibernate in 
this country it is very late in taking up winter quarters, as it 
is seen on the wing at the end of October, and sometimes even 
in November ; it has also been known to emerge from the 
chrysalis in the latter month. It does not appear in the spring 
with other hibernating species, and is rarely seen before the 
end of May, but June seems to be about the normal time. 

In the autumn it is fond of making excursions into the flower 
garden and the orchard, where it takes toll from flower and fruit, 
an over-ripe pear or plum being its special weakness. The 
blossoms of ivy, hop, thistle, teazle, etc., are attractive, but a 
tree-stem that has been bored by the caterpillar of the goat 
moth will be visited by nearly every Red Admiral in the district. 
One observer mentions that he once saw quite thirty of these 



84 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

butterflies gathered around one wounded birch tree on 
Wimbledon Common. There was not room for all to imbibe 
at the same time, but those unable to satisfy their desire at the 
moment were content to sit around and await a favourable 
opportunity of joining in the feast. The seductive fluid obtained 
from such trees is evidently more potent than the nectar from 
flowers, as under its influence the insect is so listless that it may 
be taken up between the finger and thumb. 

Its range extends throughout the British Islands, and seems 
to be very similar to that of the Painted Lady. 

The Silver- washed Fritillary (Argynnis p aphid). 

The wings of this fine butterfly are fulvous, with the veins 
and spots black ; the spots on the hind wings are band-like, 
and the central spots on the fore wings are sometimes con- 
nected. The female is paler than the male, and is without 
the heavy black scales (androco7tia) on veins I, 2, and 3 ; the 
basal third of the fore wing, and a larger area of the hind wing, 
tinged with greenish. The form of the female with all the 
wings greenish is the var. valesina (Plate 52), and between 
this and the type there are various intergrades, one of which 
is shown on the plate. Specimens with white spots on the 
fore wings, and chiefly in the males, are sometimes not un- 
common in the New Forest, as, for instance, in the year 1893, 
when quite a large number were secured. Very much more 
rarely white spots occur on all the wings (Plate 57, Fig. 1). In 
a very remarkable male specimen, taken in the New Forest in 
1 88 1, the central area of all four wings is black, and the veins 
beyond are broadly edged with the same colour. A curious 
female aberration has the central black spots much reduced or 
absent, whilst those on the outer margin are united, and form 
elongate blotches between the veins, the upper one being wedge- 
shaped. Aberrations of the valesina form, similar to that figured 



THE SILVER-WASHED FRITILLARY. 8$ 

on Plate 57, Fig. 2, and Fig. 25 on next page, are not often 
met with ; the ground colour is greenish, but much suffused 
and clouded with black. Now and then gynandrous specimens 
are obtained, the one side normal male and the other side typical 
female, or var. valesina. 

The egg when newly laid, in July, is whitish tinged with 
green, ribbed, and cross-furrowed, the alternate ribs not 
extending to the top. As the caterpillar matures, the egg- 
shell appears blackish and the ribs hoary. 

The caterpillar when full grown is velvety black with two 
bright yellow lines along the back ; the spines are of a 
reddish-ochreous colour with the extreme tips and branches 
black. There are only two on the first ring, and these are 
inclined forward over the head. The chrysalis is of a pale 
ochreous colour, streaked and mottled with brownish ; the 
hollow part of the back has a brilliant golden sheen, and the 
points on the rest of the body are gold tipped. Suspended by 
the anal hooks to a silken pad spun on a twig, rock, or other 
object in the vicinity of its feeding-place, it is capable of much 
activity in the way of wriggling when touched, and displays the 
beauty of its metallic adornment to the greatest advantage when 
so engaged. 

The caterpillar hatches in August, and after eating its egg- 
shell and nibbling a leaf or two of dog-violet ( Viola canina), 
goes into winter quarters whilst in its second skin, and con- 
sequently very small ; the spines, which are such an imposing 
feature of the adult caterpillar, have not yet appeared. In April, 
after feeding again, it moults the second time, and the spines 
are then disclosed. 

Sometimes caterpillars continue to feed in the autumn 
instead of hibernating. This, at least, has happened to Mr. 
Frohawk on two occasions, notably in 1893, when he had 
several individuals of a brood, from eggs laid by a female of 
the valesina form, that departed from the usual custom of their 



86 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

kind by feeding and growing until they eventually passed 
through all the stages and emerged perfect butterflies in Sep- 
tember and October of that year. Something similar occurred 
in a brood that he was rearing in the autumn of 1895, but on 
this occasion only one caterpillar continued to feed beyond the 
normal time. 

The English name by which we now know this, the largest 
of the six British Argynnids, seems to have been given to it by 
Moses Harris in 1778. Sixty years or so before that date it 







y 



%£? 



Fig. 25. 
Aberration of var. valesina. 



was called the ''Greater Silver-streaked Fritillary." Fortu- 
nately, in this case, as in others where the vulgar tongue is 
entomologically concerned, the law of priority does not apply, 
so that the name Silver-washed, which so well expresses the 
under-side ornamentation, may be retained. 

The butterfly is probably to be found in most of the Southern 
English and Welsh counties, especially where there are ex- 
tensive woods. In North Devon, however, it occurs in places 
where there is not much in the way of woodland. It is abundant 



o 








f 
n 



¥ 




PL 51. 



Silver-washed Fritillary. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



GS7. 



THE HIGH BROWN FRITILLARY. 8/ 

in the New Forest, and also in some parts of Ireland. Although 
it has been observed as far north as the Clyde, it is scarce in 
North England and Scotland. The valesina form is to be 
seen, in July and August, in the New Forest every year, and 
sometimes in numbers. This variety has been reported from 
Kent, Sussex, Devon, and Dorset ; also from "near Reading" 
and " the border of Hertfordshire." 

Abroad, the typical form is distributed through Europe and 
Asia to China, Corea, and Japan. The valesina variety is un- 
common in Northern Europe, but in some parts of China it 
seems to be the dominant form. / 

*#. 

The High Brown Fritillary (Argynnis adippe). ; 

Bright fulvous with black spots and veins. The female is not 
so bright in tint as the male, and is without the thick patch of j. 
scales on veins 2 and 3. The series of black spots parallel \ 
with the outer margin of the fore wing are normally six in 
number, but the third is usually small and sometimes absent, 
whilst the fourth and fifth are often much larger than others of 
the series. In the corresponding row on the hind wing the 
first and third spots are sometimes wanting. On the under side 
the silvery spots are generally as seen in Plate 54, but they 
are subject to modification, and not infrequently are absent 
from the tips of the fore wings, and sometimes from the outer 
margin of the hind wings also. A very rare aberration has the 
central area of the fore wings black on the upper and under 
sides : the hind wings are black above with fulvous lunules on the 
outer margin, and the silvery spots on the under side are reduced 
to five, and these are confined to the basal area. In another 
remarkable form the hind wings above are similar to the last- 
mentioned variety, but on the under side the silvery spots on the 
basal half are united and form a large patch, which is divided 
by the nervures, and there are no silvery spots on the outer 



88 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

margin. The variety shown on Plate 57 has the under side 
of the hind wings buff in colour, the markings on the outer 
margin are reddish-brown with a few silvery scales towards the 
anal angle, and the basal silvery spots are confluent, agreeing 
in the latter character with the preceding variety, and also with 
var. charlotta of the next species. In var. deodoxa the spots 
on the under side are yellowish instead of silvery, but the red 
spots on the outer area are sometimes silver centred ; this 
form is only rarely found in Britain. Possibly some of the 
reputed British examples of A. niobe may have been referable 
to deodoxa, but what appears to be more certain is that the 
actual occurrence of niobe in England is exceedingly doubtful. 

The egg when newly laid is yellowish-green ; it afterwards 
turns pink, and then rosy red ; during the winter it changes 
to greyish- or bluish -green. As a rule, the eggs are laid 
at the end of July, and the caterpillars do not hatch until 
the following March or early in April. In 1893, however, 
Mr. Frohawk had a few caterpillars hatch out between the 
middle of August and September 20, from a number of eggs 
laid at the end of June. One of these, fed up, pupated on 
October 13, and the butterfly emerged on November 21. The 
majority of the eggs remained over to the following spring. 
According to an observation made by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, 
the caterpillar is fully formed soon after the egg is laid, but 
remains within the shell all the winter. 

The caterpillar, which feeds upon dog-violet, and also the 
sweet violet, is figured on Plate 53. The head is pinkish- 
brown, covered with short greyish bristles. Body black, in- 
crusted with ochreous grey on the sides, and on the back marked 
with ochreous grey on the hinder half of each ring ; dorsal line 
white. The branched spines are pinkish-brown. 

The chrysalis is deep brown, freckled with paler ; points 
along the back of the body brilliant greenish-golden, as also 
are the four points on the thorax. The wing-cases are rather 




■ &'. 52. 



Greenish Silver-washed Fritillary. 

Var. valesina,feviale. 



G%%. 






PI* 53- 



High Brown Fritillary. 

Eggs enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



6-89. 



THE DARK GREEN FRITILLARY. 89 

paler. The foregoing brief description was taken on July 10, 
and the butterfly emerged five days afterwards. 

Barrett says, " Apparently found in most of the larger woods 
of the southern counties, from Kent, Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk 
on the east, to Devonshire, Glamorganshire, and Merionethshire 
on the west ; also in similar situations through the north- 
western counties and the more sheltered woods of the Midlands 
to Herefordshire, Shropshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire. 
Found in several localities in Yorkshire, in the favoured Grange 
and Silverdale districts of Lancashire, and near Lake Winder- 
mere in Westmoreland, its extreme northern boundary being 
reached in Cumberland." 

It is widely distributed over Europe, and its range extends 
into Asia Minor and Amurland. In China and Japan it is 
represented by various forms, the commonest of which is var. 
locuples. 

The Dark Green Fritillary (Argynnis aglaia). 

This butterfly is bright fulvous in the male, paler in the 
female ; the latter sex is blackish towards the base, and has 
paler spots on the outer margin. The black marking is 
pretty much as in the previous species, but the male has the 
black scales {androconid) on veins 1 and 2, and these are less 
conspicuous. The basal two-thirds of the hind wings is 
greenish on the under side. The silvery spots are arranged in 
fairly regular series, and there are no silvery centred red spots 
between the two outer series. The blackish crescents on the 
outer margin of the fore wings are edged with silver, but this 
is chiefly towards the tips of the wings. 

There is some variation in the tone of the ground colour, 
lighter or darker than normal in both sexes ; the female seems 
to be the most variable in this respect, and sometimes, especially 
in the north, examples of this sex are much suffused with 



go THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES» 

blackish or greenish-black. Occasionally the colour is quite 
pale, as shown in the middle figure on Plate 61, and some- 
times it is clouded with greyish. The black spots are apt to 
run together, and so form bands and blotches. An example of 
this kind of aberration is shown on the plate. 

Var. char lotto, differs very little from the type on the upper 
side, but on the under side of the hind wings the basal silvery 
spots are united, as shown in the upper reverse side figure on the 
plate. This variety was known to the entomologist of Haworth's 
time as the " Queen of England Fritillary," and there is a figure 
of it in Sowerby's " British Miscellany," which was published in 
1806. 

The egg is yellowish when first laid, and a day or two after- 
wards violet-brown rings appear above the base and the apical 
half. It is ribbed and finely cross-ribbed, and some of the ribs 
are continued to the truncate and slightly depressed top. 

When full grown the caterpillar is shining purplish-grey, 
thickly mixed with velvety black ; the grey is most in evidence 
between the rings and along the lower part of the sides. There 
is a yellow stripe along the middle of the back, and this has a 
central black line of irregular width ; along the lower part of 
the sides there is a row of reddish spots, and these are con- 
nected by a fine yellowish line. The black spines are branched, 
and, except on the first three rings, which have only two rows, 
arranged in three rows on each side of the yellow stripe. The 
head is glossy black, and, like the body, hairy. {Adapted from 
Buckler?) 

It feeds in May and June on dog-violet, and has been reared 
on garden pansy. The chrysalis has the head, thorax, and 
wing-cases black, very glossy, and marked with pale brownish ; 
the body is pale brownish, and the points black. Suspended in 
a tent-like arrangement of leaves. 

Moorlands, downs, sea-cliffs, and flowery slopes are the kind 
of situations most to the fancy of this agile butterfly. It is on 



:&- 



sr 











Ci 









PI 55- 



Dark Green Fritillary. 

Egg s i natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



£91. 



THE QUEEN OF SPAIN FRITILLARY. 91 

the wing in July and August, and is much more easily seen 
than caught. However, it is rather fond of perching on the 
taller kinds of thistles, and is then not difficult to capture, if 
quietly approached. It is common locally in most of the 
English and Welsh counties. In Ireland it seems to be chiefly 
attached to the coast, and is plentiful in some of its localities. 
In Scotland it occurs in many suitable districts, but Skye is the 
only one of the isles from which it has been reported. Its dis- 
tribution extends through Europe and Asia to Amurland, China, 
and Japan. 

The Queen of Spain Fritillary (Argynnis lathonia). 

In shape and in general appearance this butterfly is not 
unlike a small example of the Silver-washed Fritillary ; the 
large silvery, or sometimes pearly, blotches on the under side of 
the hind wings at once reveal its higher British rank. When 
flying it has a curious resemblance to the Wall, and sometimes 
it has been taken when the captor supposed that he was netting 
a specimen of that plebeian butterfly. The black markings on 
the upper side vary somewhat in size, and occasionally those on 
the front area, or those on the inner area of the fore wings, are 
more or less confluent ; very rarely the wings are suffused with 
a steely-blue or bronze colour. The specimens occurring in 
this country do not, however, exhibit so much variation as has 
been observed in this butterfly abroad. 

I have not seen any of the early stages. The figures of the 
caterpillar and the chrysalis (Plate 58) are after Hiibner, 
and the following descriptions of the egg and other stages are 
adapted from the detailed life-history of the species by Mr. 
Frohawk, published in the Entomologist for 1903 : — 

" The egg is one-fortieth of an inch high, of a rather straight- 
sided conical form, widest at the base, where it is smooth and 
rounded off at the edge. There are about forty longitudinal 



92 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

keels, irregularly formed and of different lengths, some not 
reaching halfway up the side, and others running the entire 
length from base to crown, where they terminate abruptly, and 
form a series of triangular peaks round the summit surrounding 
the granulated micropyle ; the spaces between the keels are 
finely ribbed transversely. When first laid it is of a very pale 
lemon-yellow colour, inclining to ochreous, appearing almost 
white in certain lights ; the colour gradually deepens, becoming 
yellower with a greenish tinge. On the fifth day the crown of 
the egg assumes a dull grey, finally changing to a lilac-grey." 

The female butterfly, when placed in the sunshine, laid about 
a hundred eggs during the day — August 7. These were mostly 
placed singly on the leaves or other parts of a plant of heart's- 
ease {Viola tricolor), but some were laid on the gauze cover of 
the cage. All the caterpillars hatched out on August 14. 

The caterpillar when full grown is velvety black, densely 
sprinkled with tiny white dots, each bearing a black bristle ; 
there are six rows of spines, which are of various shades of 
brown with yellowish bases and shining black bristles ; along 
the back there are two white streaks on the fore part of each 
ring, and white warts emitting black bristles on the hind part. 
The head is amber-coloured above, but black below, and is 
covered with bristles like the body. 

The chrysalis has the head, thorax, and wing-cases shining 
olive-brown ; the body chequered and speckled with olive- 
brown, ochreous, black, and white. The spiracles are black and 
conspicuous, and the points on the body are amber-coloured. 
The thorax and first two body rings have brilliant burnished 
silver-gilt ornamentation. 

The butterflies commenced to emerge on September 25, 
and between that date and the 28th ten came out. Although 
he succeeded in rearing almost all the caterpillars to the 
chrysalis, no less than eighty died in this stage, and he states 
that " there is no doubt that the late autumn English climate is 









PL 56. 



1, 2, 3 Pearl -bordered Fritillary vars. 
4, 5 Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary vars. 
6, 7 Heath Fritillary vars. 



692, 



-gllyop- 






J07 




« 57- 



i, 2 Silver-washed Fritillary vars. 
3 High Brown Fritillary var. 



^93- 



THE QUEEN OF SPAIN FRTTILLARY. 93 

quite unsuited for the existence of this species," as well as for 
others that come to us from abroad. 

Moses Harris, in 1775, g ave this butterfly the name "Queen- of 
Spain ;" it had been known to English entomologists from 1710 
until then as the " Lesser Silver-spotted Fritillary." Gamlingay 
in Cambridgeshire seems to have been the only British locality 
in which it had been observed until 1795, when Lewin mentions 
a specimen taken in a Borough (London) garden in August. All 
the Cambridge specimens had been captured in the month of 
May. Stephens, writing in 1828 (" 111. Brit. Ent. Haust," i. 37), 
says — 

"Previously to the year 18 18, few cabinets possessed even a 
single specimen ; and from the very few known instances of its 
capture (six only, according to Mr. Haworth), there is reason to 
believe that some of the specimens at that time [1803] placed 
in collections were foreign ; but in the above remarkable year 
for the appearance of certain papilionaceous insects, this species 
occurred simultaneously in several, and very distant, parts, 
having been taken in August by Mr. Haworth at Halvergate, 
in Norfolk ; by Mr. Vigors in Battersea-fields ; by myself 
at Dover, and, during that and the following month, near 
Colchester ; Birchwood, Kent ; and Hertford in plenty by 
others. At the latter place I saw several specimens, but was 
not fortunate enough to secure any," 

The butterfly has been taken, chiefly odd specimens, in many 
of the eastern and southern counties, from Norfolk to Dover, 
and almost always in the autumn. It has also occurred at 
Scarborough (1868), and at least once in Ireland (1864). 

The neighbourhood of Dover seems to have always been the 
most favoured locality, and no less than twenty-five specimens 
were captured there in 1882. Several examples were also 
obtained at Dover in 1883, and a single specimen in other parts 
of Kent in 1884 and 1885. The most recent records are — 
Brighton, one example in 1892 ; Clifton, one in July, 1898 ; 

H 



94 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Christchurch, one in August, 1899 ; Poole, one in 1901. There 
does not seem to be any authentic record of the caterpillar 
having been observed in Kent or any other British locality in 
which the butterfly has been noted. This may possibly be due 
to its love of concealment. 

There are two flights of the butterfly in the year, one in the 
spring and the other in the autumn. 

Females from the Continent may arrive on our east or south 
coasts in May, and deposit eggs from which the autumn butter- 
flies are developed. Some of these might wander farther inland, 
but eggs would almost certainly be laid on the spot. The fate 
of the caterpillars from autumnal eggs would depend on the 
winter ; if mild they, or at least some of them, might manage to 
get through and attain the butterfly state about May, but 
their doing so is rather doubtful. 

The species is widely distributed and often common on the 
Continent, and its range extends to Persia, Northern Asia, and 
North Africa. In Eastern Asia it is represented by var. isaea. 

/i. \^j> The Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Argynnis euphrosyne). 

I Some authors consider the smaller Fritillaries to be generically 
£lV^ separable from the larger kinds, and place this and the next 
TJJ&r species in the genus Brenthis, whilst the Queen of Spain is 
i\»** r referred to the genus Issoi r ia^ Hiibner. Here, however, they are 
1 m retame d in Argynnis. 

In colour and in the marking of the upper side the Pearl- 
w-j bordered is very like the High Brown, but, as will be seen 
\% from the figures, it is much smaller in size, and the ornamenta- 
tion on the under side is different. There is one silvery spot 
at the base of the hind wings, a larger one about the middle 
of the wings, and a row of spots on the outer margin. The 
female is rather larger than the male, and darker at the bases of 
the wings. 



\ 




• 



PL 58. 



Queen of Spain Fritillary. 

Caterpillar and chrysalis. 



^94. 



THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY. 95 

Variation on the upper side consists of more or less black 
suffusion on the basal or general area of the wings, and an in- 
crease in the size of the black spots, resulting in the formation of 
bands or patches ; or the black spots may be much reduced in 
size, and some of them entirely absent. Some of the more 
striking kinds of aberration, both above and below, are repre- 
sented on Plate 56, Figs. 1-3, and Plate 65, Figs. 1-4. The usual 
colour is sometimes replaced by buff, and this may be yellowish 
or whitish in tint ; occasionally white spots appear on the 
wings. The life-history of this butterfly is depicted on Plate 60. 

The egg, which is laid in May or June, is whitish-green at 
first, and afterwards turns brownish. It is distinctly ribbed, 
and the top is somewhat rounded and hollowed in the centre. 

The full-grown caterpillar is black, and the numerous minute 
hairs with which it is clothed give it a velvety appearance. 
There is a greyish-edged black line down the middle of the 
back, and the spines on each side of this are whitish or yellowish, 
with the tips and the branches black ; all the other spines are 
black. A greyish stripe runs along the lower part of the sides, 
and this is traversed from the fourth to the last ring by a 
blackish line. Head black, shining, downy, and slightly notched 
on the crown. The natural food-plant is dog-violet ( Viola 
canina), but the caterpillar will also eat garden pansy, and has 
been known to nibble a leaf of primrose. It retires for hiberna- 
tion when quite small, and recommences to feed in March. 

The chrysalis is brownish, with the raised parts of the thorax 
and head greyish ; the body is paler brown, and the points 
thereon are blackish. 

This butterfly seems to be fairly common in woods through- 
out England and Wales, and it is often abundant in some of the 
more extensive woodlands, especially in the southern counties. 
It used to be plentiful in Northumberland and Durham, but has 
become scarcer in those counties, and in some others in the 
north of England. It occurs in Scotland, and is not uncommon 



96 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

in Sutherlandshire, but Kane does not include it in his Irish 
catalogue. 

Clearings in woods are generally the best places in which to 
find this pretty little Fritillary ; but it also seems to have a fond- 
ness for the margins of brooks and rills, where these run through 
or by the sides of woods. Usually it is on the wing in May or 
June, but sometimes, in early seasons, it puts in an appearance at 
the end of April. To entomologists of a bygone age it was known 
as the " April Fritillary," but this name would hardly be a suit- 
able one for it in the present day. Very rarely a few specimens 
have been taken in August ; and there is at least one record of 
caterpillars that had ceased feeding in July, in the usual way, and 
were apparently settled down for hibernation, suddenly arousing 
from their slumbers, and completing their growth in August. 

Abroad, the species is distributed throughout Europe, except 
the extreme south, and extends into Armenia, Northern Asia 
Minor, the Altai, and Amurland. It is stated to be double- 
brooded on the Continent. 

The Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Argynnis sekne). 

This butterfly differs from the last one referred to in 
having a rather deeper colour on the upper side, and heavier 
black markings on the outer margin of the hind wings. 
The female is slightly more orange in tint, and has a series of 
pale spots on the outer margin of each wing. On the under side 
the red markings are browner in tint, and there are more silvery 
spots on the hind wings. Variation in colour and marking is 
similar to that mentioned under the Pearl-bordered. On 
Plate 66 a white spotted female and a specimen with the 
hind wings clouded with, black are represented. These are 
rather uncommon aberrations. The life-history of this species 
is figured on Plate 62. 

The egg is at first greenish, then yellowish, and afterwards 




PL 60. ^9 6 - 

Pearl-bordered Fritillary. 

Egg; natural size and enlarged ; partly grown caterpillar ; chrvsalis. 




PL 61. 



Dark Green Fritillary vars. 

i. 2, 4, 5 male; 3 female. 



H 97. 



THE SMALL PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY. 97 

greyish, and then becoming blackish towards the hollowed top. 
The ribs seem to be eighteen or twenty in number ; laid in 
June or July on plants of dog-violet. On emerging from the 
egg the young caterpillar devours most of the shell. It is 
then of a pale olive colour with brownish warts, from each of 
which there is a pale and rather long jointed bristle ; the head 
is black. The full-grown caterpillar is smoky pink and velvety- 
looking. There is a brownish line along the middle of the 
back. The spines are " ochreous in colour, tinged with pink, 
and beset with fine pointed black bristles." The upper ones 
are rather stouter than the others, and the pair on the first 
ring, the only spines on this ring, are rather more than twice 
the length of the others, and are directed forward over the 
head, thus giving the appearance of a pair of horns ; the second 
and third rings have each four spines, which are rather finer 
than those on the rest of the body, which are arranged in six 
rows. A pale pinkish stripe runs along the lower part of the 
body ; just above the feet. Head black and notched on the 
crown (Buckler). The chrysalis is brown on the thorax and 
the body ; the wing-cases are more ochreous and marked with 
black near the edge. There is a black V-mark on the thorax, 
with a silvery spot on each side, one silvery spot on each side 
of the head, and other metallic spots on the body near the 
thorax (Buckler). 

On the Continent there are two broods of the butterfly, and 
specimens are occasionally seen in August in this country ; one 
of these late examples, taken by Mr. Barker in 1881, is shown 
on the plate (Fig. 6). Sometimes one or two caterpillars of 
a brood in confinement will feed up and attain the perfect state 
in August instead of settling down with their companions for 
hibernation. 

The butterfly in June and July frequents similar places to 
those favoured by the Pearl-bordered, and its distribution in 
Britain is somewhat similar, although it is a more local species. 



98 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

It seems, however, to be commoner in Scotland than the Pearl- 
bordered, and has been recorded at least once from Ireland. 
Its range abroad extends farther east, as it is found in Corea. 



The Heath Fritillary (Melitea athalia). 

The ground colour of this butterfly, sometimes called the 
" Pearl-bordered Likeness " or " May Fritillary," is brownish- 
orange, and the markings are black or blackish ; the bases of 
the wings are clouded with blackish, and the fringes are white 
checkered with black. 

The ground colour varies in tint, and may be pale tawny or 
deep reddish. The black markings are subject to modification 
in two directions ; in one leading up to almost complete dis- 
appearance from the central area, and in the other they are 
much intensified and greatly obscure the ground colour. Some- 
times the whole of the wings, with the exception of a series of 
orange spots on the outer area, are blackish. This form is known 
as var. navarina. The left-hand figure at the bottom of 
Plate 68 shows an aberration approaching this form, whilst the 
right-hand figure comes close to var. corythalia. Specimens 
with all the wings thinly marked with black, as in the fore wing 
of the variety last referred to, w r ould be referable to var. obsoleta. 

According to Barrett, specimens from Essex have the ground 
colour on the under side of the hind wing much yellower than 
are the same parts in specimens from Sussex. I have not 
noticed this, but some Essex examples that I have seen were 
much darker and more heavily marked with black on the upper 
side, and especially on the hind wings, than any that I have 
seen from other parts of England, except, perhaps, a few indi- 
viduals from North Devonshire. These Essex specimens 
reminded me very much of M. dirty nna, a Continental species, 
with which, it appears, the Heath Fritillary was confounded by 
some of the old authors. 




PL 62. Hq%. 

Small Pearl -bordered Fritillary. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar {after Btickler), and chrysalis. 





3 / 




PL 63. 




Queen of Spain Fritillary. 

1, 2 male; 3, ^female. 



H 99. 



THE HEATH FRITILLARY. 99 

There is a good deal of variation on the under side, but chiefly 
of a minor character, and most often unconnected with variation 
on the upper side. The following are more important varieties. 

Var. tessellata, the Straw May Fritillary of Petiver, and figured 
by him in 1717 and by Stephens in 1827, has the under side of 
the hind wings entirely straw-coloured with black veins. There 
are three large squarish yellow spots on the basal area, outlined 
in black ; a yellow central band, margined and traversed by 
black lines. On the outer margin there is a series of yellow 
crescents, outlined in black. 

Var. eos of Haworth (the Dark Under-wing Fritillary) is the 
pyronia of Hiibner and Stephens, and a modification of var. 
coryt/ialza y H\ibn. On the under side the fore wings are fulvous, 
and have two black spots in the discal cell, and a black band, 
intersected by the veins, on the central area. On the hind wings 
the basal third is fulvous with eight black spots ; the central area 
is whitish intersected by the black veins. On the yellow-tinged 
whitish outer area there is a series of black-margined orange 
crescents ; a row of black lunules precedes a thin black line on 
the outer margin. 

The egg is upright, ribbed, and pale whitish-green in colour. 
As the caterpillar matures the shell becomes greyish. The eggs 
were laid in a cluster on a leaf of cow-wheat (Melampyrum 
pratense) as shown in the figure, but failed to hatch. 

The full-grown caterpillar is black on the back, becoming 
olive tinged on the sides and olive-brown underneath ; the 
divisions between the rings are olive. The whole of the upper 
surface, except a line along the middle of the back, is dotted 
with white, and there are eleven white-tipped orange *or 
yellowish spines on each ring, except the last two and the 
three nearest the head ; the first and the last each have four 
spines, the third has eight, and the second and the eleventh 
have each ten spines. The head is black marked with white, 
and is clothed with short, stiff, black hair or bristles (Buckler). 



IOO THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The chrysalis is pale whitish-ochreous, the markings on the 
wing-cases are black, and those on the other parts are orange 
and black. 

Cow- wheat appears to be the chief food of the caterpillar, but 
it will also eat, and has been found on, foxglove {Digitalis 
purpurea) and woodsage {Teucrium scorodonia). Plantain is 
also said to be a food-plant, but Buckler says that his cater- 
pillars would not eat this. The caterpillars are rather shy in 
their habits, and, except when the sun is shining brightly, 
require to be carefully looked for among their food-plant and 
the dead leaves, etc., around. They hatch from the egg in July, 
feed for a few weeks, and then hibernate in companies under a 
web. In April and May they become active again, feed up 
quickly, and appear as butterflies in June and early July. 

The species is, unfortunately, becoming scarcer in England 
than it used to be. It seems quite to have disappeared from 
some of the districts in which it was formerly common. No 
doubt in one or two of its old and well-known localities the 
butterflies, and perhaps the caterpillars also, have been too 
freely taken, and its natural enemies have probably completed 
the business. Clearings in woods or heathy borders of woods 
are the kind of places this species appear to prefer. Its head- 
quarters in any given locality seems to be changed from time to 
time, so that the exact spot where it will occur next year cannot 
be predicted from this year's observations. 

The butterfly seems to be unknown in Scotland, and has only 
been recorded from Killarney in Ireland. In England it is 
to be found in the counties of Essex, Kent, Surrey, and 
Devonshire. 

Its geographical distribution extends through Europe into 
Asia Minor, East Siberia, and Northern Amurland. In Corea 
and Japan it is represented by a larger form known as var. 
niphona. 



THE GLANVILUE FRITILLARY. IOI 

The GlanYille Fritillary (Melitcea cinxia). 

This butterfly is bright brownish-orange with black markings, 
as shown on Plate 71. The under side of the hind wings and 
the tips of the fore wings are very pale yellowish ; the former 
with two black-margined brownish-orange bands, and lines of 
black dots ; the tip of the fore wing is also dotted and marked 
with black. The female is slightly paler, and the markings are 
often blurred. 

There is variation in the black markings on the upper side. 
Sometimes these are enlarged, but more often they are much 
reduced, and the central one may be completely absent from all 
the wings. Connected with the suppression of the middle 
black line above there is usually aberration on the under side of 
the hind wings also, where the central area is clear of black 
dots, and the basal area is fulvous, edged and marked with 
black. Two very remarkable aberrations are represented on 
Plate 65, Figs. 7, 8. 

The eggs, which are yellowish-white, and sometimes tinged 
with green, are laid in a cluster on the under side of the tip of a 
leaf of the narrow-leafed plantain {Plantago lanceolata). The 
caterpillars hatch in July and August, and hibernate in com- 
panies under a web. The mature caterpillar is black with white 
dots, and black bristles arising from greenish warts. The red 
head, which is notched on the crown, and the red fore legs dis- 
tinguish this at once from the caterpillars of the Heath, or the 
Marsh Fritillary. It feeds in early spring on plantain, but 
seems to prefer Plantago maritima to P. lanceolata when both 
are present. 

The chrysalis is brownish in colour, and is ornamented with 

j .... . •t##*..& ■.,-... 

orange on the thorax, and with orange points and black marks 
on the body. It may be found in April and early May sus- 
pended from the lower parts of the stems of the plantain or 



102 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

other plants around. Newman states that he found " dozens of 
the chrysalids in company," but I have only occasionally met 
with them, and always singly. 

Quite early in the eighteenth century this butterfly had only 
been observed in England in Lincolnshire, where, according to 
Ray, it was common, and in a wood at Dulwich. Petiver, who 
mentioned the last-named locality, calls it the " Dullidge Fritil- 
lary." Wilkes in 1773 wrote of it as the " Plantain Fritillary," 
although he gives clover and grass, as well as plantain, as the 
food of the caterpillar. Moses Harris in the Aurelian (1779) 
calls the butterfly the " Glanville Fritillary, 5 ' and states that it 
was named after Lady Glanville, who was interested in butter- 
flies, and whose will was disputed on that ground. This fact 
will serve to show that entomology as a pursuit was not much 
in vogue at that time, and that those who collected butterflies, 
etc., were apt to be regarded by their friends as being — well, 
just a " wee bit daft." 

Both Wilkes and Harris, it may be remarked, seem to have 
been acquainted with the caterpillar of this species as well as 
with that of the Marsh Fritillary, and there seems little reason, 
therefore, to suspect that they confused the two species. The 
localities given by the earlier authors appear, however, to 
suggest that the butterfly they wrote about may have been the 
Marsh Fritillary ; but there is no direct evidence of this. 

Stephens in 1827 ("Illustrations of British Entomology," 
Haustellata, vol. i. p. 34) wrote — 

" This is a very local species, and is found in meadows by the 
sides of woods ; in Wilkes' time it was not uncommon in 
Tottenham wood ; recently the places where it has been chiefly 
observed have been near Ryde an d the Sandrock Hotel, Isle 
ofWight ; i n the latter place in plenty : also at Birchwood, and 
near Dartford and Dover, and in a wood near Bedford. I 
believe that it has been found in Yorkshire." 
t There is no doubt that between 1858 and 1863 the butterfly 







PL 64. 



II 102. 



Pearl-bordered Fritillary, 

1, 2, 3 male ; 4, 5, 6 female. 




i, 2, 3, 4 Pearl-bordered Fritillary vars. 
5, 6 Marsh Fritillary vars. 
7, 8 Glanville Fritillary vars. 



ff. 103. 



THE MARSH FRITILLARY. 103 

was more or less common on parts of the Kentish coast between 
Folkestone and Sandgate, but it seems to be equally certain 
that the species has long been absent from that part of England 
as well as from other localities that have been mentioned, except 
the Isle of Wight, where it is still to be found. It flies in May 
and June, and seems to have a preference for the rougher parts 
of the undercliff ; but I have seen butterflies and caterpillars too 
on the higher slopes of St. Boniface. Whenever the caterpillars 
are met with, it will be well to remember that only the full- 
grown ones should be taken, as the smaller ones do not thrive 
very well in confinement. A little self-denial in this matter will 
bring its own reward in the shape of fine specimens for the 
cabinet, and the pleasant reflection that the useless sacrifice of 
a number of caterpillars has been avoided. 

The butterfly is widely spread and generally common on the 
Continent, and in the Channel Islands it is plentiful in Alderney 
and Guernsey. Its range extends into Asia Minor, Central 
Asia, and Siberia. ,- 

The Marsh Fritillary (Melitcect aurinia). 

This species, of which several forms are represented on 
Plate 73, is subject to considerable variation in depth of 
colour, and also in size and intensity of the markings, in all 
localities. The varieties here referred to are more or less 
characteristic of the countries in which they occur. To mention 
all the forms, or even those to which varietal names have been 
given, would occupy more space than is available for the 
purpose. 

Reddish-orange or bright tawny, veins black, breaking up the 
yellow or yellowish transverse bands ; there are three or four 
transverse black lines, the first and second, counting from the 
base of the wing, not always distinct ; basal area more or 



IO.J. THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

less suffused with black. On the under side the fore wings are 
fulvous, with faint traces of the upper-side markings ; the hind 
wings are rather redder, especially on the outer half, and have 
yellowish markings, comprising some spots towards the base 
of the wings, a band beyond the middle, a series of black 
centred spots, and crescents on the outer margin. The above 
applies more particularly to the form of the butterfly occurring 
in England and Wales. 

The Irish form known as prceclara has the transverse band 
straw-coloured, the red colour is more vivid, and the black 
veins and cross-lines heavier ; the area nearest the base of the 
wings is often blacker. 

In a form occurring in Scotland, and known as var. scotica, 
the black is still more intense, and the straw-coloured markings 
are dull in colour. 

The egg is pale brownish and very glossy. It appears smooth 
towards the rounded base, but is ribbed from just before the 
middle to the top. The eggs are laid in batches on leaves of 
scabious, chiefly the Devil's bit (Scabiosa succisd). 

The full-grown caterpillar is black, with a number of tiny 
whitish dots, each bearing a short black hair ; short black spines 
are arranged in nine rows from ring four, the first ring is only 
hairy, the second and third have each two spines. The head 
is black, with a groove down the front and short hairs on the 
sides. The true legs are black, and the false legs and the 
under parts of the body are dull rust-coloured. The caterpillars 
hatch from the egg in June or July, and towards the end of 
August they construct silken webs, in which they establish 
themselves for hibernation. Early in March they recommence 
feeding, and under the influence of much sunshine feed up 
quickly. Besides wild scabious, they will eat honeysuckle and 
the garden kinds of Scabiosa. The chrysalis is pale buff, with 
orange points on the body ; the wing-cases are marked with 
black and orange. The chrysalids are suspended from a silken 










Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. 

r s 3, 4 meUe; 6 do. (second brood) ; 7 do. var.; 2, $ female. 



H 104. 




PL 67. H 105. 

Heath Fritillary. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged \ caterpillar (after Buckler), and chrysalis. 



THE MARSH FRITILLARY. 105 

web, which is attached to a leaf or drawn-together leaves. The 
early stages are figured on Plate 70. 

Kane {Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland), referring to 
this species, remarks : " This butterfly has been known to 
increase so prodigiously that whole fields and roads became 
blackened by the moving myriads of larvae. An instance of 
this was observed by the Rev. S. L. Brakey, near Ennis, Co. 
Clare, where he drove out to see a reported * shower of worms,' 
and found as above described, the larvae being so multitudinous 
in some fields that the black layer of insects seemed to roll in 
corrugations as the migrating hosts swarmed over each other 
in search of food. The imagines that resulted from the starved 
survivors were extremely small and faded in colour." 

These caterpillars are destroyed in great numbers by 
Hymenopterous parasites, chiefly Apanteles, and it is almost 
certain that a large percentage of those collected will prove to 
have been stung. 

The butterfly is on the wing in May and June, and seems to 
affect damp meadows, marshy ground on the sides of hills, and 
such kind of places. It does not necessarily occur wherever 
its food-plant is abundant, but scabious is always found to be 
present in the haunts of the butterfly ; so if we know that the 
insect occurs in a particular district we should probably get a 
clue to its exact whereabouts by noting the likely places in that 
district where the food-plant flourishes. 

Although it has seemingly disappeared from various English 
localities where it was formerly common, the butterfly may be 
found in many parts of the British Islands, but it is local and 
does not occur northwards much beyond the Caledonian Canal. 

Abroad it spreads over Europe to Northern Africa, and its 
range extends eastward through Asia to Amurland and Corea. 

The fine butterfly next in order is regarded as a member of 
the Danainae by most authors. Although its generic position 



I06 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

seems to be established, its proper place in the classification of 
butterflies is still unfixed ; and even the question of its trivial or 
specific name is not finally settled. According to Kirby, this 
butterfly is Anosia menippe, Hiibner, and not the true Papilio 
plexippus of Linnaeus, nor the P. archippus of Cramer. 
American authors, however, consider it to be the Linnean 
plexippus ■, and give menippe Hb. as a synonym. The species 
is here retained in Danainae, but Holland places it in Euploeinae 
and Skinner in the Family Lymnadidae. 

The Milkweed Butterfly {Anosia plexippus). 

The butterfly figured on Plate 120 is brownish-orange, with 
black veins and margins on all the wings. White spots are 
arranged in double rows on the black outer margin of each 
wing, and there are seven other rather larger white spots on the 
black apical patch of the fore wings. The male has a patch of 
black scales, covering the scent pouch, close to vein 2 on the 
hind wings. 

The egg is long, oval in shape, with over twenty low upright 
ridges and many cross-lines ; is of a pale green colour ; and is 
laid singly on the food-plant of the caterpillar (various kinds of 
milkweed, especially the commonest kind, Asclepias cor?iuti) y 
and usually upon the under surface of the upturned apical leaves 
near the middle. The egg state lasts only about four days 
(Scudder). The caterpillar has the head smooth and rounded, 
yellow, conspicuously banded with black. Body cylindrical, 
tapering a little in front, naked, but with two pairs of long and 
very slender black thread-like filaments, one pair, the longer, on 
the second thoracic, the other on the eighth abdominal segment. 
The body is white, with numerous slender black and yellow, and 
especially black, transverse stripes, repeated with considerable 
regularity on each of the segments, so that there are nowhere 
any broad patches of colour (Scudder). 










f^f 



4*iS 




PL 68. 




Heath Fritillary. 

i, 2, 3 male; 4, 5, 6 fc?nale. 



Hlo6. 



*;\ 




/ 




PL 69. 



If 107. 



Glanville Fritillary. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE MILKWEED BUTTERFLY. 107 

The chrysalis is stout and not elongated, largest in the middle 
of the abdomen ; where it is transversely ridged ; elsewhere it is 
smooth and rounded, w T ith no striking prominences, but with little 
conical projections at most of the elevated points, like those 
which half encircle the body at the abdominal ridge, all of a 
golden colour except the latter, which are situated in a tri- 
coloured band, black in front, nacreous in the middle, and gilt 
behind (Scudder). 

According to Dr. Holland, " the butterfly is considered to be 
polygoneutic, that is to say, many broods are produced annually ; 
and it is believed by writers, that with the advent of cold 
weather these butterflies migrate to the South [in America], 
the chrysalids and caterpillars which may be undeveloped at 
the time of the frosts are destroyed, and that when these 
insects reappear, as they do every summer in North America, 
they represent a wave of immigration coming northward from 
the warmer regions of the Gulf States. It is not believed that 
any of them hibernate in any stage of their existence. This 
insect sometimes appears in great swarms on the eastern and 
southern coasts of New Jersey in late autumn. The swarms 
pressing southward are arrested by the ocean." Within quite 
recent years it seems to have effected a settlement in Australia, 
" and has thence spread northward and westward, until in its 
migrations it has reached Java and Sumatra, and long ago 
took possession of the Philippines. Moving eastward on the 
lines of travel, it has established a more or less precarious foot- 
hold for itself in Southern England. . . . It is well established 
at the Cape Verde Islands, and in a short time we may expect 
to hear of it as having taken possession of the continent of 
Africa, in which the family of plants upon which the caterpillars 
feed is well represented." 

So far as is shown by the published records, the actual 
number of specimens of the Milkweed, or, as it is sometimes 
called, Monarch butterfly, seen or caught in England between 



IO<S THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

1876, in which year it was first observed in this country, and 
the present time, does not much exceed thirty, and about one- 
third of these were obtained in September, 1885. In 1876 
single specimens were captured at Neath, S. Wales ; Hayward's 
Heath and Keymer, Sussex; and Poole, Dorset. In 1896 
single specimens were reported as seen at Lymington, Hants, 
in May ; Newlands Corner, Surrey, in July ; and the Lizard, 
Cornwall, in September. The years in which the butterfly 
has been noticed in Britain are 1876, 1881, 1884, 1885, 1886, 
1887, 1890, and 1896. It was first observed on the Continent 
in 1877, when, according to Barrett, a specimen was taken in 
La Vendue, France. In 1886, when half a dozen were recorded 
from England, single specimens were obtained in Guernsey, and 
at Oporto and Gibraltar. " More recently," Barrett states, 
" Mr. H. W. Vivian found it, I believe not uncommonly, in the 
Canaries, and very kindly brought me a specimen." 

There seems to be no question that the species is migratory 
in its habits, but exactly how it reaches this country is not 
definitely known. Neither is it known whether the species, 
having arrived, is able to reproduce its kind here. From the 
fact of its recurrence in England for four years in succession, 
the possibility of its breeding in this country might be assumed. 
One objection to any such inference, however, is that it is a 
many-brooded species, but, with the exception of two records in 
1896, all British specimens were captured or seen in August, 
September, or October, and none seem to have been observed 
in the earlier months of those years in which the autumnal 
butterflies were obtained. 

The Milkweeds {Asclepias) are not indigenous plants, but, as 
pointed out by the late Mr. J. Jenner Weir, A.fturftitrescens and 
A. tuberosa are hardy in this country. He endeavoured to 
ascertain whether these plants, or either of them, were grown in 
any of the gardens in the Cornish locality where four fresh 
specimens were captured in September, 1885. I do not find 



\ 







\^ 




PL 70. ^10^ 

Marsh Fritillary. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar (after Buckler) and chrysalis. 









PL 71. 




Glanville Fritillary. 

1, 2, 4 male ; 3, 5, 6, -] foil ale. 



I 109. 



1, 2, 4 male; 3, 5, 6, 7 jonale. _^ 



THE MARBLED WHITE. IOQ 

that the desired information was furnished. Recently I have 
ascertained that A. cornuti, which grows to a height of four 
feet, is used as a border plant in some parts of England. It is 
commonly known as Swallow-wort, and is esteemed for its 
fragrant pale purple flowers. 

We now come to the Satyrinae, which, as regards the number 
of species belonging to it, is a very large sub-family. In Great 
Britain, however, there are but eleven species, and although 
some of these are rather local, none are really scarce, and most 
are common. 



The Marbled White (Melanargia galatea). 

Older English names for the butterfly figured on Plate 75 
are "Our Half-mourner" (Petiver, 1717), "The Marmoris " 
(Wilkes), and " The Marmoress " (Harris). The ground colour 
is white or creamy white, and the markings are black. On the 
under side the markings are similar in design to those on the 
upper side, but much fainter : the eye spots, which are not 
always in evidence above, are well defined below, and especially 
so on the hind wings. The female is generally whiter and 
larger than the male, and has the basal half of the costa, or 
front margin of the fore wing ochreous brown, and the markings 
on the under side of the hind wings are tinged with the same 
colour. 

Variation consists chiefly of increase or decrease in the size 
of the black markings. At least one specimen is known in 
which all the wings are uniform smoky black. This is in the 
collection of Mr. A. B. Farn, and was captured near Rochester, 
Kent, in 1871. Between this extreme and specimens with the 
black markings of typical proportions there are various modifi- 
cations ; but striking aberrations are rare in this country. Some- 
times there is entire or partial absence of black pigment. A 

I 



HO THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

remarkable example of this kind of aberration, taken on the 
cliffs between Dover and Walmer some years ago, is described 
as of a clear milky-white colour, and has not, either on the upper 
or under side of the wings, the smallest speck of black. The 
ground colour is sometimes decidedly yellow, and very occa- 
sionally brownish. 

The life-history of this butterfly is figured on Plate 74. 

The egg is whitish, opaque, with a dark speck on the apex ; base 
flattened and slightly hollowed ; finely reticulated, but without 
distinct striations or anything resembling ribs. The eggs are 
laid in July, and are not attached to anything. 

The caterpillar when full grown, is whity-brown in colour 
with brownish lines. The head is brown, tinged with pink, and 
the tail-like points on the last ring are pink. The head, as 
well as the body, is clothed with short hair. 

The chrysalis is also whity-brown with a pinkish tinge, 
browner speckling on the wing cases, and the body is marked 
down the back with yellow. 

Hellins says, u It hibernates when very small, becomes full 
fed in June, and changes to a pupa without suspending itself 
in any way, or making a cocoon ; I think it would hide itself, 
as my examples did ; I found they had got among the thick 
moss with which I had furnished the bottom of their cage, and 
apparently made little hollows for themselves by turning round."' 

Cock's-foot grass (Dactylis glomerata) and cat's-tail grass 
(Phleum ftratense) are given as food-plants, but the cater- 
pillars in confinement seem to eat any kind of grass that is 
supplied. 

The butterfly is found in most of the Midland counties and 
in nearly all of the Southern ones, but is especially common 
on the chalk downs of the South-west. It does not occur in 
Ireland or Scotland, and seems to be absent from the Northern 
counties of England except Yorkshire. In the last-named 
county it was supposed to be extinct, but during the past ten 







PL 72. 7 no. 

Milkweed Butterfly. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis (after Smith). 




PL 73- 



/in. 



Marsh Fritillary. 

i, 3, 5, 9, io 7?iale ; 2, 4, 6, 7, it female. 

1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 English; 8 Welsh; 3, 5, 10, 11 Irish. 



THE SMALL MOUNTAIN RINGLET. Ill 

years it has been observed at Sledmere, and near Scarborough 
and Helmsley. It is also reported to be not uncommon in three 
localities not far from York. 

The butterflies usually affect broken ground, rough fields, 
grassy slopes near woods, or even sunny banks on the edges 
of cornfields. Occasionally an odd specimen or two may be 
met with here and there, but as a rule they seem to keep pretty 
much together, so that when one comes upon a colony of these 
butterflies, the selection of a series on the spot is quite an easy 
matter, and can be effected without destroying a single specimen 
over and above the required number. 

Abroad, this species is abundant in Central and Southern 
Europe, and its range extends to Northern Asia Minor and 
Armenia. 

The Small Mountain Ringlet (Ercbia epiphron). 

The typical form of this butterfly, epiphron, Knock, has the 
tawny bands unbroken on the fore wings, and almost so on the 
hind wings ; the black dots on the hind wings of the female are 
often pupilled with white, and more rarely this is so in the' 
male also. It has been stated that specimens occur in Perth- 
shire which exhibit these characters. All the British examples 
of the Small Mountain Ringlet that I have seen are referable 
to the form known as cassiope, Fab. (Plate 77). The tawny, 
or orange, bands are rarely so entire on the fore wings as in 
epiphron, and are generally rather narrower ; and that on the 
hind wing is broken up into three or four rings. The black 
dots are usually smaller and without white pupils. The female 
is somewhat larger and the bands or rings paler. 

Variation in the markings is extensive. The bands on the 
fore wings become less and less complete, until they are reduced 
to a series of mere rings around the black dots. The black dots 
decrease in size and in number until they, together with the 



112 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

tawny marking, entirely disappear, and a plain blackish-brown 
insect only remains. This extreme form has been named 
obsoleta, Tutt. The earliest rings to vanish seem to be the 
third on the fore wings and the first on the hind wings. Similar 
modifications occur on the under side also, but there may be 
aberration on the upper side of a specimen, and not, or at least 
not in the same way, on the under side. 

The egg f when first laid, is yellow, changing afterwards to 
fawn colour with darker markings, especially towards the top. 
It is laid in July on blades of grass. The larva hatches in 
about sixteen days. 

The young caterpillar, before hibernation in October, is 
greenish, with darker green and yellow lines. Head brownish. 
Feeds in July and after hibernation on various grasses, among 
which Poa annua, Festuca ovina, Aira fircecox, and A. ccespitosa 
have been specified as eaten by caterpillars in confinement. A 
distinct preference, however, has been shown for mat grass 
{Nardus strictd), and it has been suggested that this may be 
the natural food. The full-grown caterpillar appears to be 
undescribed. 

The chrysalis is described by Buckler as being " little more 
than three eighths of an inch in length, rather thick in propor- 
tion, being less dumpy in form than hyperanthtis, but more so 
than blandina. The colour of the back of the thorax and wing 
cases is a light green, rather glaucous ; the abdomen a pale drab 
or dirty whitish ; a dark brown dorsal streak is conspicuous on 
the thorax, and there is the faintest possible indication of its 
being continued as a stripe along the abdomen. The eye-, 
trunk-, antenna-, and leg-cases are margined with dark brown, 
and the wing nervures are indicated by the same colours." 

As is indicated by its English name, this interesting little 
butterfly only frequents high ground, and is rarely found below 
about 1500 feet. All its English localities are in the lake 
district of Cumberland and Westmoreland. It seems to like 




PL 74. 



Marbled White. 

Eggs enlarged, caterpillar and chrysalis. 



J 112. 



THE SCOTCH ARGUS. 113 

boggy ground, and in such places on Gable Hill, Red Skrees, and 
at Langdale Pikes, among others, it is not uncommon. Previous 
to 1809 the species was unknown to occur in Britain, but in 
June of that year specimens were captured by Mr. T. Stothard 
on the mountains at Ambleside. Haworth, in 181 2, referred to 
these specimens as from Scotland, but the butterfly was not 
taken in that country until 1844, when it was discovered by 
Mr. R. Weaver in Perthshire. It is now known to occur, 
sometimes in abundance, on Ben Nevis and other adjacent 
hills, also in suitable spots and the proper elevation around 
Lochs Rannoch and Vennachar, as well as in the Tay district 
and Argyleshire. 

In Ireland it was taken by Mr. E. Birchall, in June, 1854, in 
a grassy hollow about halfway up the Westport side of Croagh 
Patrick. About five years ago Mr. W. F. de Vismes Kane 
met with the butterfly on Nephin, Mayo, and he mentioned a 
specimen believed to have been taken on the hilly slopes on the 
eastern shores of Lake Gill, Sligo. 

Abroad the species is found in mountainous parts of South 
Germany, Switzerland, France, North and Central Italy. 
The typical form, epiphron, is more especially obtained in 
the Hartz and Alsatian Mountains, Silesia, Hungary, and 
Bulgaria. 

The Scotch Argus (Erebia cethiops = blandina). 

The butterfly figured on Plate 77 is deep velvety brown, 
appearing almost black in very fresh male specimens. There 
is a broad fulvous band on the outer area, but not reaching 
either the costa or the inner margin ; it is contracted about the 
middle, the upper part encloses two white pupilled black spots, 
and the lower part has one such spot. The hind wings have a 
narrow fulvous band, usually enclosing three white pupilled 
black spots. The under side is more distinctly brown and not 



114 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

velvety, band of fore wings similar to above ; the hind wings 
have a greyish band beyond the middle, with three small white 
pupilled black spots on its outer edge ; the basal area is often 
greyish also. The female is generally less dark and velvety, 
the bands are rather wider, more orange in colour, and the 
white pupils of the spots are more conspicuous ; on the under 
side the alternate dark and pale bands are more striking, and 
sometimes the grey colour is replaced by ochreous, which seems 
to constitute the aberration named ochracea, Tutt. The spots 
on the fore wings, upper side, are often increased to four by 
the addition of a small one between those previously mentioned. 
More rarely there is an extra spot above the upper pair, and 
still less frequently, and in the female sex, an additional pair 
is found below the usual lower spot, thus making six in all. 
On the other hand, the only spots in evidence may be the 
pair in the upper part of the band. The spots on the hind 
wings range in number from two to five, but occasionally all 
are absent. The fulvous bands on the fore wings may be 
reduced to rings around the upper and lower spots respectively, 
and altogether wanting on the hind wings. Such an aberra- 
tion would be referable to obsoleta, Tutt, which is considered 
to be very rare. There are many other modifications, but these 
mentioned will serve to show the variable character of this local 
butterfly. 

The egg is ochreous white, or bone colour, finely freckled with 
pale brown or pinkish-brown ; it has a number of ribs, and is 
also reticulated. 

The caterpillar in its last skin is pale drab, the warts pale 
whitish-brown, emitting short tapering bristles ; dorsal stripe 
blackish-brown, enclosed by two paler drab lines ; subdorsal 
stripe paler drab, becoming narrow towards the anal point, 
edged above with a greenish -brown thread, and below with 
blackish or brownish dashes, that almost form a continuous 
line ; below this come two thin pale lines, above the lower of 




,<y. 



Small Mountain Ringlet. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; young caterpillar. 






PL 76. 7lI 4- 

Scotch Argus. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 





PL 77 . 



TTTt 



Small Mountain Ringlet. 

i, 4 male; ^female {English)', 2, = , 6, 7 male (Scotch). 

Scotch Argus. 
8, 11 male (Scotch) ; 9 d : (English); to, t?. female (Scotc 2 . 



THE SCOTCH ARGUS. 115 

which are the circular black spiracles ; the under parts and the 
legs are of a somewhat warmer tint of the ground colour of the 
back. It changed on June 22nd to a pupa, unattached, but 
placed in an upright position amongst the grass near the 
ground. 

The chrysalis has the body ochreous, with a darker stripe 
down the back, and other lines ;.the eye covers are black, and 
the thorax, antennas cases, and wing covers are dingy, dark 
purplish-brown. 

The above descriptions of caterpillar and chrysalis are 
adapted from Buckler, whose figures of these stages are also 
reproduced on the plate. 

Air a prozcox, A. ccespitosa, and Poa are the grasses that 
seem to be the food of the caterpillar. 

Mr. Haggart, of Galashiels, who had exceptional oppor- 
tunities for observing the habits of this butterfly in its natural 
home, gives a most interesting account of it in the Ento- 
mologist for November, 1895. He writes — 

" The haunt of this species is, almost without exception, the 
margin of a plantation or wood where the different species of 
Poa grow abundantly, and always situated in such a position as 
to receive the first rays of the rising sun. This last-mentioned 
fact is so plainly evident, that the least observant cannot fail to 
notice it. The insect is truly sun loving, and no collector need 
go in search of it with any thought of success if the day be dull. 

" It is most interesting to observe the extreme sensibility of 
the insect to shine and shade. A very good day to illustrate 
this is one when heavy clouds at intervals obscure the sun ; the 
moment it disappears so also does the butterfly, and no sooner 
does it shine forth again than, as if by magic, scores of the insect 
are on the wing. 

" The under side of the insect bears a marked resemblance to 
that of a dead leaf, and I have often watched the males being 
deceived by withered leaves lying among the moss. They 



Il6 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

would flutter down quite close to the leaf, immediately rise with 
a disappointed air and fly a little further, only to be deceived 
again and again. 

" The ova are deposited amongst the Poa grass, and hatch in 
September. Towards the end of October the larvae go down 
and hibernate throughout the winter and spring, coming up to 
feed again in May ; they are generally full-fed about the end of 
June ; and the insect appears in July or August. The larvae are 
nocturnal feeders, coming up to feed on the grass just about 
dusk. The method of procuring the larvae is by no means 
enviable, even to the most ardent entomologist, as in the 
uncertain light it necessitates crawling on one's hands and 
knees amongst the grass, and there is always the risk of 
grasping those little brown slugs in mistake, which resemble 
the larvae very much in shape and colour. No artificial light 
can be used, as the larvae immediately drop down amongst the 
grass if this is done. The only alternative, therefore, is to use 
one's eyes to the best advantage until the darkness makes that 
impossible. 

" They are not difficult to rear in confinement if the larvae are 
kept properly supplied with food." 

This butterfly, which as a British species was discovered in 
the Isle of Arran in 1804, only occurs in the north of England 
and in Scotland. Its localities in the latter country are Glen 
Tilt and other valleys in the Perthshire highlands, Strathglass 
in Inverness, Altyre woods at Forres ; Selkirk, Roxburgh, and 
various parts of Argyleshire ; around the Lowther Hills, Dum- 
frieshire ; also in Arran and the Isle of Skye. In most of the 
places it is plentiful. In England it occurs in the counties of 
Durham, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Lancashire, and York- 
shire. It is common in Castle Eden Dene, Durham ; at 
Grassington, in Yorkshire ; at Witherslack and Arnside, in 
Westmoreland ; and at Grange and Silverdale, in Lancashire. 
Abroad, it is distributed through Central and Southern 



THE GRAYLING. 117 

Europe, and its range extends into Northern Asia Minor, 
Kurdistan, and Armenia ; the Altai and South Siberia. 

It may be noted here that E. ligea was supposed to have 
been taken in Arran at the same time as E. blandina, that is 
in 1804. If this were so, it would seem that the captor must 
have exterminated the species, for, although the island has often 
been closely explored, no one has been able to detect the 
" Arran Brown " again. 



The Grayling {Satyrus semele). 

On the upper side, this butterfly (Plate jK) is brown, more 
or less suffused with black, and this is especially noticeable on 
the outer area of the wings in the male, where it obscures 
the ochreous or rust coloured bands, which in the female 
are almost free from the suffusion. The fore wings have two 
black spots, the upper one generally, and the lower often, 
pupilled with white. On the hind wings the bands are clear 
of blackish suffusion to a greater or lesser extent, and there is 
one black spot towards the anal angle which may be pupilled 
with white. Apart from its larger size and brighter bands, the 
female may be distinguished from the male by the absence of 
the blackish brand on the disc of the fore wings. On the under 
side, the fore wings are ochreous, tinged with orange on the 
basal half or two-thirds ; hind wings are greyish, with darker 
markings, and an irregular white or whitish band beyond the 
middle. 

Variation is largely confined to the under side of the hind 
wings, and these wings, as well as the costal edge and the tips 
of the fore wings, are coloured and marked, in various localities 
that the butterfly affects, so that the insects may be protected 
from their enemies when resting. 

On the upper side of the fore wings an additional spot is 



Il8 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

sometimes present below one or other of the usual ones. The 
bands of the wings are pale ochreous in some examples, and 
rust-coloured in others ; but it is not unusual for a specimen with 
ochreous bands on the fore wings to have rust-coloured bands 
on the hind wings, or ochreous bands with rust-coloured patches 
on the outer portion ; these patches are most frequently tri- 
angular in shape, and placed between the veins. Gynandrous 
specimens also occur, but very rarely. 

The egg is of a dull creamy tint, ribbed, and with a slight 
depression on the top. The eggs were laid early in August, on 
blades and stems of a kind of grass ; also on the leno covering, 
and the sides of the glass jar in which the female butterfly was 
enclosed. 

The caterpillar when full grown " is drab, delicately mottled, 
with longitudinal stripes broadest along the middle segments, 
viz. a dorsal stripe of olive-brown, very dark at the beginning 
of each segment, with a thin edging of brownish- white. Along 
the subdorsal region are three stripes, of which the first is 
composed of a double narrow line of yellowish-brown, the 
second wider of the mottled ground colour, edged with paler 
above and with white below ; the third of similar width is of a 
dark grey-brown, edged above with black. The spiracular stripe 
is broader and of nearly equal width, pale ochreous-brown, 
edged with brownish-white both above and below ; the spiracles 
are black. The head is brown, and the principal stripes of 
the body are delicately marked with darker brown " (Buckler). 

The chrysalis is described as " obtuse, rounded, tumid, and 
smooth, the abdominal rings scarcely visible, and wholly of a 
deep red mahogany colour." It was "in a hollow space a 
quarter of an inch below the surface, the particles of sand and 
earth very slightly cohering together, and close to the roots 
of the grass, yet free from them." The figures of caterpillar 
and chrysalis are drawn from those in Buckler's " Larvas of 
British Butterflies." 



y; 



go 





v. 




PL 79. /H9- 

Grayling Butterfly. 

Egg enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis (both after Buckler). 



THE GRAYLING. 119 

The caterpillars hatch in August, hibernate when quite small, 
and feed up in the spring and early summer. They live 
upon grasses, such as Triticum reft ens, Air a coesftitosa, and A. 
prcecox. 

The butterfly delights in sitting rather than flying about cliffs 
and sand-hills, heaths and downs, stony hill-sides, dry fields, and 
even open woodlands. It is fond of sunning itself on rocks, 
and by some of the old Aurelians it was called the " Rock 
Underwing," no doubt in reference to the pattern and colour of 
the under side. It was also known as the "Tunbridge Gray- 
ling " some two hundred years ago, when it was said to be 
" very rare about London." It has long since been ascertained 
to occur in almost every county in England and Wales, as far 
north as Sutherlandshire in Scotland, and is widely distributed 
in Ireland. 

On the chalk downs and cliffs the butterfly has the under 
side of its hind wings so admirably agreeing in colour and 
marking with the soil, etc., that although one may watch it 
settle a few yards ahead, it is not to be seen when one reaches 
the spot. Whilst we are intent on the search the insect starts 
up, flies a short distance, and there repeats the disappearing 
butterfly trick. The same remarks apply to those Graylings 
that affect peaty or sandy heaths, etc. When the butterfly 
alights on the ground— and it rarely gets on the wing unless 
disturbed — it immediately closes its wings, and then allows them 
to .fall more or less on one side, so that the whole of one hind 
wing is presented to view. It is said to have a fancy for the 
resinous sap that oozes from pine trees, and has also been 
observed to visit the trunks that have been "sugared." 

Abroad, it is found commonly throughout the temperate parts 
of Europe, North Africa, and Northern and Western Asia. 



120 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The Speckled Wood (Pararge egeria). 

Quite early in the eighteenth century Petiver met with the 
butterfly shown on Plate 80 at Enfield, so he figured it as the 
" Enfield Eye " in that curious old book entitled " Papiliorium 
Britannise I cones." Later on, Wilkes named the butterfly the 
" Wood Argus," thus indicating its favourite haunts, as well as 
a prominent character in its ornamentation. Harris changed 
the name to the " Speckled Wood Butterfly," which seems even 
more suitable. 

The general colour is blackish-brown, and the spots are 
yellowish. The fore wings have one white-pupilled black eye 
spot towards their tips, and the hind wings have three such 
eye spots on the outer area. The male has a long oblique patch 
of blackish scales on the middle of the fore wings, which is, 
perhaps, more easily detected if the insect is held up to the 
light. The female is usually slightly larger than the male, the 
wings rather rounder, and the yellowish spots, are, as a rule, 
distinctly larger. The typical or southern form of this butterfly 
has the spots of a tawny colour, but it does not occur in Britain. 
Our form, in all its modifications, belongs to egerides^ Staudinger. 
Occasionally, in the south of England, specimens are found in 
which the spots are tinged with fulvous ; others have almost 
white spots. The spots are sometimes much reduced in size in 
the male, or greatly enlarged in the female. 

The egg is pale greenish, finely reticulated ; as the caterpillar 
matures within, the shell becomes less glossy than at first, and 
the upper part is blackish. 

The caterpillar has a green head, which is larger than the 
first ring of the body (1st thoracic), covered with short fine 
whitish hairs, with which are mixed a few dark hairs. The 
body is rather brighter green, with darker lines, edged with 
yellowish, along the back and sides ; the skin is transversely 








■pi. 80. /I2 °- 

Speckled Wood. 

• Spring Brood: 1, 2 male; 3, 5 female. Stwimer brood: 4, 6 male; 7 female. 



X- 






) 




OJ 



Pc 81. 



7l2I. 



Speckled Wood. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE SPECKLED WOOD. 121 

wrinkled, the rings being subdivided, and the whole of the 
body is clothed with fine whitish hair and a few dark hairs 
arising from warts ; the anal points are whitish and also hairy. 
It feeds on various grasses, among which are Triticum reft ens 
and Dactylis glomerata. 

The chrysalis is pale green, tinged with yellowish or whitish ; 
the edges of the wing covers are brown, and there are whitish 
dots on the body. According to Hellins the colour varies, 
and green chrysalids may be covered all over with very fine 
smoky freckles. Barrett states that they are occasionally 
brownish with darker brown lines. Suspended by the 
cremaster from a silken pad. 

From eggs laid in early May butterflies were reared at the 
end of June ; and from eggs laid at the end of June butterflies 
resulted during middle August. Early July eggs produced 
perfect insects in early September, and from caterpillars fed 
up in October butterflies were obtained in November. These 
observations were not all made in the same year. 

Barrett writes, " In the south of Surrey in 1862, the first emer- 
gence took place in April in abundance, these specimens became 
worn and disappeared, and a second emergence took place at 
the end of May, a third at the end of July, and a fourth in Sep- 
tember ; the next year the first emergence was in the third week 
in March, and again four broods were observed, but this is not 
the case every year, three emergences being probably the rule." 

Mr. Joy has recorded that of caterpillars, resulting from a 
pairing induced in captivity, in August, eighty per cent, 
hibernated as pupae, twenty per cent, as half-fed caterpillars. 
Butterflies from the winter pupae emerged in May, but the 
caterpillars that had gone through the winter in that state did not 
produce butterflies until June. Possibly something of this sort 
occurs in the open, and we may suppose that the early and late 
spring butterflies are not separate broods, but early and late 
emergences of one brood. Butterflies seen on the wing in 



12 2 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

November may be a few individuals that, owing to favourable 
weather, have emerged from chrysalids which under ordinary 
conditions would have remained as such during the winter. 

Shady lanes, rides in woods, as well as the borders of the 
same, are its favourite haunts. It is not a sun-loving butterfly, 
but is generally found to frequent places where the sun's rays 
are more or less intercepted by a leafy screen. It seems to be 
more abundant in wet seasons than in dry ones. It is generally 
distributed throughout England and Wales, but more plentiful 
in southern and western counties than in the eastern and 
northern. In Ireland, Kane says, it is " everywhere abundant 
and double brooded. It is local in Scotland, and rare north 
of the Caledonian Canal. 

Abroad our form of the butterfly egerides is found commonly in 
Central and Northern Europe, except in the extreme north, and 
in Northern Asia Minor and Armenia. The typical form, egeria 
proper, occurs in South -Western Europe, North Africa, and 
Syria. 

The Wall Butterfly (Pararge megcera). 

The butterfly now under consideration is figured on Plate 82. 
It is bright fulvous in colour, with blackish-brown veins, 
margins, and transverse lines. There is one white pupilled 
black spot on the fore wings, and four of such spots on the outer 
area of the hind wings ; the fourth, which is generally blind, is 
placed at the end of the series near the anal angle. The male 
has a very conspicuous sexual brand on the central area. The 
under side of the fore wings is paler than above, but the mark- 
ings are similar, except that the brand is absent and the margins 
are greyer ; the hind wings on the under side are greyish marked 
with brown and traversed by dark lines ; there is a row of six 
eyed spots on the outer area ; that nearest the anal angle is 
double. The female has more ample wings, and as the brand 







PL 82. 



Wall Butterfly. 

I, 2, 5 male ; 3, 4, 6 female. 



I 122. 




PL 83. 



Wall Butterfly. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



1 123. 



THE WALL BUTTERFLY. 



123 



is absent on the fore wings in this sex, the central black trans- 
verse lines are more distinct. 

Variation is chiefly in the size of the eyed spots ; sometimes 
the apical one of the fore wings has a smaller one attached to its 
lower margin, or in the interspace (i.e. between the veins) above 
it or below it ; or both extra spots, which are usually without 
white pupils, may be present. Very rarely the apical spot may 




Fig. 26. 

The Wall Butterfly just emerged from, the Chrysalis, and 
with wing's distended. 

be almost absent on one fore wing, but well defined on the other. 
The central transverse lines on the fore wings of the female are 
sometimes broad, and very occasionally the space between the 
lines is blackish ; blackish-banded male specimens are also 



124 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

found in some localities, such as the slopes of Dartmoor, Devon, 
as mentioned by Barrett. 

The ground colour varies in tint, darker or lighter than 
normal, but specimens of a bright golden yellow-brown, straw 
colour, or whitish are known to occur, although such extreme 
aberrations are exceptional. 

The egg is pale green when first laid, and in shape it is almost 
spherical, but rather higher than broad ; it is finely ribbed and 
reticulated, but unless examined through a lens it appears to be 
quite smooth. 

The caterpillar when full grown is whitish-green, dotted with 
white. From the larger of these dots on the back arise greyish 
bristles ; the three lines on the back (dorsal and sub-dorsal) 
are whitish, edged with dark green ; the line on the sides 
(spiracular) is white, fringed with greyish hairs ; anal points 
green, hairy, extreme tips white. Head larger than the first 
ring (ist thoracic segment), green dotted with white and hairy, 
jaws marked with brownish. It feeds on grasses. 

The chrysalis is green, with yellow-tinted white markings on 
the edge of the wing covers and ridges ; the spots on the body 
are yellowish, or sometimes white. Occasionally the chrysalids 
are blackish, with white or yellow points on the body. 

There are certainly two broods of this butterfly in the season, 
and in favourable years there may be three broods. In an 
ordinary way the first flight is in May and June, and the second 
flight in July and August. The caterpillars feed on Poa annua, 
Dactylis glomerata, etc. Those hatched in autumn hibernate 
more or less completely, and become full grown in early or late 
spring according to the season. Sometimes, however, they 
seem to feed during the winter, and assume the chrysalis in 
March. Probably it is from such precocious caterpillars that 
the butterflies sometimes seen in April result. 

The Speckled Wood, it was noted, prefers shady places ; the 
present butterfly is more partial to sunshine and plenty of it. 










PL 84. 



Meadow Brown. 

1, 2, 3, 4 male ; 5, 6, 7 female. 



1 124. 






jf 


"V 




$ 









^ 



/ri2^. 



Meadow Brown. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillars and chrysalis. 



THE MEADOW BROWN. 1 25 

As its English name suggests, it is fond of basking on walls, 
but it does this also on dry hedge banks, sides of gravel pits, 
tree-trunks — in fact, wherever it can enjoy the full sunshine. It 
is not at all shy, and will be pretty sure to introduce itself to 
the notice of the collector as soon as he enters its domain. 
Although it now seems to be absent from certain districts in 
which it was once abundant, it may still be regarded as a 
generally common species in England and Wales, and even 
plentiful, in some years, in the southern, eastern, and western 
counties ; it appears to be more local in North England. In 
Scotland it seems fairly distributed, and not scarce in the 
south ; its range extends to Aberdeenshire. Kane states that 
it is everywhere abundant throughout Ireland. Abroad it is 
'common throughout Europe, except the extreme north, and 
extends into North Africa, Asia Minor, and Armenia. 

The Meadow Brown (Epinephele ianira). 

The female is the jurtina of Linnaeus, and as he described 
this sex before the male, under the impression that they were 
distinct species, the law of priority, we are told, must be 
observed and the earlier name be adopted. 

This fuscous-brown butterfly of the meadows is marked, 
especially in the female, with dull orange. The male, of which 
sex three specimens are shown (Plate 84, Figs. 1-3), has a 
broad black sexual brand on the central area of the fore wings, 
and a white pupilled black spot towards the tips of the wings ; 
this spot is usually encircled with orange, and there is often 
more or less of this orange colour below it (Fig. 2 typical). The 
under side of the fore wings is orange with the costa narrowly, 
and the outer margin broadly, greyish-brown to match with the 
colour of the under side of the hind wings. The female is with- 
out the black brand, and is more ornamented with orange, which 
generally forms a broad patch on the outer area of the fore 

K 



126 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

wings (Fig. 6), but it is sometimes continued inwards, so that 
almost the whole of the discal area — that is, nearly all but the 
margins, appears to be orange (Fig. 7) ; the hind wings have 
an indistinct paler band on the outer area, and this is sometimes 
suffused or clouded with orange. On the under side the pale 
band is more defined (Fig. 5). The apical spot of fore wings is 
sometimes double, and a tendency to this variation is shown 
in Fig. 6, but in the complete form there are two white dots 
(bi-pupillated). At the other extreme, and generally in the male, 
the apical spot is entirely absent (var. anomrnatd), or is greatly 
reduced in size, and is without the white pupil. Spots on the 
under side are as often absent as present. They may be from 
one to five in number, and either simply black dots or ringed 
with orange, as in Fig. 4. Occasionally the orange on the 
upper side of the female gives place to a pale straw or even 
whitish colour ; and on the under side to whitish-grey. 

Not infrequently a greater or lesser area of the wings is 
"bleached," and this seems to be due to absence of pigment 
in the scales on such parts. This bleaching may affect the 
whole or a portion of one wing only, or it may take the form 
of symmetrical blotches on each wing. All such abnormal 
specimens of this, and of other species similarly affected, are 
certainly of value to those who are interested in teratology, but 
they seem to be out of place in a collection of butterflies where 
the aim should be to show the true variation of species rather 
than " freaks," which are the result of accident or disease. 

The egg, laid on a blade of grass as shown (Plate 85), is 
upright and ribbed ; the top is flattened, with an impressed 
ring thereon. Colour, whitish-green inclining to brownish- 
yellow as it matures, and marked with purplish-brown. 

The caterpillar is bright green, clothed with short whitish 
hairs ; there is a darker line down the back, and a diffused 
white stripe on each side above the reddish spiracles ; the anal 
points are white. Head rather darker green, hairy. 




/ 




PL 



1 126. 



Gatekeeper. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



fek. \ . 3 








PL 87. 



K 1 27. 



Gatekeeper. 

i, 2, 6, 7 male; 3, 4> 5 female. 



THE GATEKEEPER. 127 

The chrysalis is pale green, marked with brownish on the 
wing-covers, the thorax is spotted with blackish, and the points 
on the body are brownish. Suspended, and with the old skin 
attached, as shown in the figure. 

From its wide distribution and general abundance, this may 
be said to be our commonest butterfly. It appears to be always 
on the wing, in dull weather as well as in sunshine, and, except 
for a short interval in early August, it is to be seen in hayfields, 
open places in woods, on grassy slopes, or borders of highways 
and byways from June to September. 

Although quite fresh specimens are fuscous-brown, the 
butterfly, after a short time on the wing, loses the dusky tinge 
and becomes brown. It is, therefore, always desirable to rear 
specimens for the cabinet from caterpillars. These feed on 
grasses of various kinds in May, are easily managed, and may 
be found in most hay meadows at night, when, of course, a 
lantern will be needed to throw a light on the business of 
collecting them. 

The not infrequent occurrence of fresh specimens in the 
autumn is strong presumptive evidence of at least an occasional 
second brood. Perhaps, as has been suggested by Mr. R. 
Adkin, "a late emergence of Epinephele ianira is the rule 
rather than the exception," especially in the warmer parts of 
the country. 

The butterfly is found throughout England and Wales, Ireland, 
and Scotland, including Isles of Lewis and Orkney. Abroad it 
occurs in all parts of Europe except the most northern, Asia 
Minor, Armenia, North Africa, and the Canary Isles. 



The Gatekeeper {Epinephele Hthonus). 

Other English names in use at the present time for this 
butterfly (Plate 87) are " Small Meadow Brown," " Hedge 



128 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Brown," and " Large Heath," but the latter is more often applied 
to another species which will be referred to later. Petiver 
called it the " Hedge Eye." 

The general colour is brownish-orange, and the margins are 

fuscous-brown ; there is a black spot towards the tips of the 

fore wings, and this, as a rule, encloses two white dots ; one or 

both of these dots sometimes absent in the male. The male 

differs from the female in its rather smaller size, and in having 

a fuscous band on the central area ; the latter is broadest 

towards the inner margin, and in this part are some patches of 

blackish androconial scales or plumules ; at the upper end of 

the band there is sometimes a fuscous cloud. Occasionally, one 

or more small black spots, some with white pupils, are present 

below the apical one. Four such spots are rare, but specimens 

with one or with two are not uncommon. There is usually a 

white-pupilled black spot towards the anal angle of the hind 

wing, but I have several males and females that are without this 

spot. Sometimes there are as many as four spots on the hind 

wings, but this is perhaps exceptional (Plate 113, Fig. 5). On 

the under side of the hind wings there are often two white dots, 

sometimes ringed with black, towards the costa, and two or • 

three other similar dots towards the anal angle ; but the 

number of dots may be reduced to two, one of which is near the 

costa, or be increased to six. Colour changes, similar to those 

in the last species, occur, and the orange colour, in both sexes, 

may be replaced by yellow (var. mincki, Seebold), or by white 

(var. albida, Russell, Plate 119, Figs. 6, 7). Such aberrations 

are very local and rare ; a few have been obtained on chalk hills 

in South Hampshire. 

In an extraordinary aberration, taken in Sussex in 1897, the 
whole of the dark brown colour of margins and band is 
replaced by pale pinkish-ochreous, but the normal brownish 
orange remains. Other somewhat similar specimens have been 
recorded. 



THE GATEKEEPER. 1 29 

The egg (Plate 86) is pale yellowish when first laid, becoming 
lighter and irregularly blotched with reddish-brown, the upper 
blotches forming a sort of band round the egg ; as the cater- 
pillar matures the shell assumes a darker tinge, inclining to 
slaty, and the markings are less distinct. 

The caterpillar, when full grown, is pale ochreous, clothed 
with short pale hair, and freckled with brownish ; the line down 
the back is darker, one on each side is paler, and that above the 
feet is yellowish. The head is rather darker than the body, 
marked with brownish, and bristly. 

According to Hellins, the newly hatched caterpillar is whitish- 
grey, with rusty yellow lines on the back. In October, after the 
first moult, it becomes green with a brownish head. In April 
the body is greenish-grey, and the head pale greenish-brown. 
At the end of April it moults for the last time, and is then pale 
ochreous generally, but some caterpillars are darker than this, 
and some paler with a greenish-grey tinge. 

The chrysalis is whitish-ochreous, with dark brown streaks on 
the wing-covers and some brownish spots and clouds on the 
back and sides. Suspended from stem or blade of grass ; the 
old skin remains attached. 

The caterpillars feed at night on grasses, such as Poa annua, 
Triticum repens, and Dactylis glomerata, from September to 
June. The butterfly is on the wing in July and August. 
Although these butterflies may be seen, sometimes in consider- 
able numbers, where the rides are grassy, in woods, they are 
perhaps more attached to hedgerows. Bramble flowers are 
their special attraction, but they are not indifferent to the 
blossoms of the wood sage (Teucrium scorodonia) or of 
marjoram {Origanum vulgar e). 

Pretty generally distributed throughout England, it is often 
exceedingly plentiful in the south and also in South Wales. In 
Scotland the butterfly seems to be common in Kircudbright- 
shire, but not common in other southern counties up to Argyle 



13° 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 






and Fife. Kane says that in Ireland it is almost confined to the 
southern counties. 

Abroad it is found throughout Europe, except the North- 
East, and its range extends into Northern Asia Minor. 



The Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperanthus). 



The sombre-looking butterfly, of which several figures will be 
found on Plate 89, has been known by its present English 
name since 1778, the year in which Moses Harris published 
" The Aurelian." The Latin specific name was written hyper- 
antus by Linnaeus, but Esper corrected this to hyperanthus. It 
has, however, been supposed that Linnaeus really intended to 
have written hyperanthes (a son of Darius), and this form of the 
name has been used, but Esper's emendation is here adopted. 

All the wings are sooty-brown, the male when quite fresh 
appearing almost black, and the sexual brand is then difficult 
to see ; there are one or more black spots with pale rings, and 
sometimes white pupils, on the fore wings, but these are always 

more prominent in the 
female than in the male ; 
in the latter sex they may 
be entirely absent. On 
the under side there are 
generally two, sometimes 
three, ocellated spots on 
the fore wings, and there 
are five such spots on 
the hind wings, the two 
nearest the costa being 
double, and not very in- 
frequently there is a smaller spot near or attached to the lower 
edge of the double one. In the matter of size of the spots on 
the under side there is a wide range of variation, and at one 




Fig. 27. 
Var. lanceolata. 




PL 88. ^130. 

Ringlet. 

■Egg) natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalids. 





PL 



Ringlet. 

, 3, 7 mate; 4, 5, 8 female ; 6 var. cceca, male. 



Kv\\. 



THE RINGLET. 131 

end of this is var. lanceolata, Shipp, and at the other var, 
obsoleta, Tutt, in which not a trace of any of the spots remains. 
Specimens with a varying number of white dots, with or without 
yellow rings, are usually referred to var. arete^ but Fig. 6 on 
the Plate represents a modification of this variety, known as 
cceca. 

Occasionally, on the under side, there are transverse lines on 
the outer half of all the wings, and the space between these 
lines is suffused with whitish. The specimen showing these lines 
faintly (Fig. 3 on the Plate) is from North Cumberland. 

The early stages are figured on Plate 88. 

The egg is yellowish-white at first, but soon turns to a pale 
brown. As will be seen on comparing the enlarged figure of 
this egg with those of the two previous species, it is quite 
different in shape, and is pitted rather than ribbed. The eggs 
are not attached to anything, but are allowed to fall down 
among the roots of the grass over which they are deposited. 

The caterpillar is described by Newman as pale wainscot 
brown in colour, with a darker line down the back, and the 
head has three broad, slightly darker but faint, stripes on each 
cheek. According to others it is ochreous or brownish-grey, 
with a dark brown line on the back, a pale one with darker 
edge on the sides, and a whitish stripe above the feet. 

The chrysalis is ochreous-brown sprinkled with reddish- 
brown, and marked with brown on the wing-covers. It lies low 
down among the tufts of grass. The figures of caterpillar and 
chrysalis are from Buckler's " Larvae of British Butterflies. 5 ' 

The caterpillars feed upon various grasses, including Poa 
annua and Dactylis glornerata, growing about damp places in 
woodland districts. They emerge from the egg in August, feed 
leisurely until October, when they appear to hibernate. In 
March they resume feeding, but do not attain full growth until 
June. The butterflies are on the wing in July and August, and 
frequent lanes and the outskirts of woods. They usually fly 



1 32 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

along the shady side, but they are not averse to the nectar of 
the bramble blossom, and I have seen them taking a sip here 
and there although they were fully exposed to sunshine all the 



time. 



ne. n « 

Wherever there are suitable haunts the butterfly may be 
found throughout the greater part of England and Wales It 
seems, however, to have disappeared from some distorts in 
Lancashire and Yorkshire where it was formerly common. It 
is fairly plentiful in most of the southern counties of Scotland, 
and its range extends north to Aberdeen. In Ireland it is 
abundant in the south and the west, and seems to occur m 
most suitable places ; also common in certain localities in 
Donegal and Antrim. Abroad it is distributed through Europe 
and Northern Asia eastward to Japan. 

The Large Heath (Ccenonympha typhon). 

The butterfly now to be considered is a most variable one, both 
as regards colour and marking. Several of the varieties have 
been named, and in the time of Haworth down to Stephens, 
and even much later, at least three of these were regarded as 
distinct species. In the present day, however, it is generally 
accepted that all the varieties are forms of one species, although 
two local races are recognized. 

The typical form is typhon, Rottemburg, and polydama (The 
Marsh Ringlet) of Haworth (Plate 90, Figs. 1, 2, 5, 7-")- ine 
colour ranges from darkish-brown to a pale tawny ; there is an 
ochreous ringed black spot towards the tips of the fore wings, 
sometimes another similar spot above the inner angle, and 
occasionally when both spots are present there is an ochreous 
spot between them ; the hind wings have from one to three of 
these spots, but a larger number than three 1S «>?*>"* 
The under side of the fore wings is either bright or dull fuhous, 
and the spots are pretty much as above, but with white pupils, 



THE LARGE HEATH. 1 33 

and there is a whitish band before them ; the under side of the 
hind wings is olive brown on the basal two-thirds, covered with 
pale hair, and the outer third is brownish merging into greyish 
on the outer margin ; an irregular white or whitish band limits 
the two areas ; there are six ochreous ringed black spots, with 
white pupils, but they are always rather small in size. The 
female is much paler than the male. 

This is the usual form in Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Yorkshire, and Ireland ; it also occurs in Lancashire, West- 
moreland, and the South of Scotland. 

Var. fthiloxenus, Esper. This is davus (Small Ringlet), 
Haworth, and rothliebii, Newman (Plate 90, Figs. 3, 4, 6). 

On the upper side the colour is dark brown in the male and 
rather paler in the female ; the spots are very distinct, ringed 
with fulvous ; those on the hind wings are generally three in 
number, and often five or six ; on the under side, the bands 
are whiter, and often broader, and the spots are very black, 
large, and conspicuous. 

This form is found on some of the mosses in Lancashire and 
Westmoreland, in Delamere Forest, Cheshire, and in North 
Shropshire ; but the most characteristic examples of the form 
are chiefly obtained in the first-named county, from which it 
was first made known, in 1795, as tne "Manchester Argus," 
or " Manchester Ringlet." 

Var. scotica, Staudinger (laidion, Staud., but not of Bork- 
hausen), PL 90, Figs. 1, 2, 4, 55, 3?, is the typhon of Haworth, 
as stated by Newman ; the latter author, however, figures it 
as davus, Fabricius, which is doubtful. 

The ground colour is pale tawny, sometimes suffused with 
brownish, greyish on the margin, and broadly so on the outer 
area of the hind wings ; the spots are often absent, and when 
present are rarely very distinct. The female is much paler than 
the male. The under side of the hind wings is somewhat similar 
to that of the typical form, but sometimes the whole area is a 



134 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

uniform greyish ; the spots are only rarely at all distinct, and 
then only one, or perhaps two, on a wing, and not infrequently 
they are entirely absent. This form occurs in Scotland, 
especially in Aberdeenshire and Sutherlandshire, also in the 
Isle of Arran, in the Orkney and Shetland Isles, and in the 
Outer Hebrides. Kane states that he has met with single 
specimens at " Killarney, Westmeath, Galway, and Sligo." 

In some localities, such as Carlisle, Rotherham, and others 
in Yorkshire, forms intermediate between the type and var. 
philoxenus are found ; modifications of the type form in the 
direction of var. scotica occur in Cumberland, Northumberland, 
and Co. Leitrim, in Ireland ; and forms approaching the type 
more nearly than var. scotica are met with in the Glasgow 
district, and at Pitcaple in Aberdeenshire. 

The egg is very pale greenish-yellow at first, but the green 
fades, brownish blotches appear, and some dark markings 
appear around the upper part a short while before the cater- 
pillar hatches out. It is finely scored almost from the base to 
the top, which is depressed, and has a raised boss in the centre, 
as in the egg of the Small Heath. 

From some eggs sent to me in July, caterpillars hatched in 
August. They fed on ordinary meadow grass, and in September 
were figured, when they were about half an inch in length. 
Head shallowly notched in front, green, roughened with whitish 
dots, eyes and jaws brownish. Body green, roughened with 
white dots, with darker line down the back, and paler, almost 
white lines along the sides, anal projections reddish (these were 
greenish when younger). 

The figure of the full-grown caterpillar is after Buckler, who 
describes it as " of a bright green, with dark bluish-green dorsal 
line, edged with pale lemon-yellow, the sub-dorsal and spiracular 
lines are of the same pale yellow, but the sub-dorsal is edged 
above with dark bluish-green, and between these two lines is 
an interrupted streak of a darker colour, posteriorly with a slight 




'7 S^ 



/ 



'• (&} 




PL 91. ^'35- 

Large Heath. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillars and chrysalis. 



THE LARGE HEATH. 135 

tinge of reddish or pink, and the caudal fork is tipped with 
pink." 

The chrysalis is bright green, with brown streaks on the 
edges and centre of the wing-covers, and at the tip of the tail, 
turning dark brown just before the butterfly emerges. (Figure 
and description after Buckler.) 

The eggs are laid in July on blades of grass, and the cater- 
pillars hatch out in that month and August. The food of the 
caterpillars is said to be the beaked-rush {Rhynchospora alba) ; 
those that I had from Witherslack eggs fed well upon ordinary 
grass until October, but they died during the winter. After 
hibernation they recommence feeding, and are full grown in 
May and June, when they pupate, and the butterflies appear at 
the end of June and in July. 

Barrett, writing of the butterfly in all its forms, says, " Its 
most southern known locality in England is Chartley Park, 
Derbyshire, and it is common in all ' mosses' of Lancashire 
and Cheshire— all moors about Grange, and in Chat Moss, 
Risley Moss, Rixton Moss, Simondswood, Lindon Moss, and 
Carrington Moss, as well as at Delamere Forest. In Yorkshire 
abundant in Thorne Waste, not scarce in Wensleydale, and 
found on Cottingham Moor, Hatfield Moors, and elsewhere. 
Northward it is found in all suitable mosses and moors in 
Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, but seems to have 
been exterminated in Northumberland." 

In Scotland it appears to be pretty generally distributed, and 
occurs up to an elevation of some 2000 feet. Kane states that 
in Ireland it is widely spread throughout, on the bogs and 
mountains. It is stated to have occurred in North Wales a 
long time ago, but there are no recent records from that 
country. Abroad it is found in Central and Northern Europe, 
extending to Lapland, and through Northern Asia to Amurland. 
In North America it is represented by two forms, which are not 
quite like any of those occurring elsewhere. 



136 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



The Small Heath (Ccenonympha pamphilns). 

To the ancient fathers the male of the butterfly on Plate 92 
was known as the " Selvedged Heath Eye," and the female was 
called the " Golden Heath Eye." Harris figured it as " The 
Small Heath," or " Gatekeeper ; " the latter name being now 
associated with another species, it may be allowed to drop out 
in the present connection. 

The wings are pale tawny, with a brownish or greyish-brown 
border, of variable width, on all the wings, and stronger in the 
male than the female ; there is a black spot towards the tip of 
the fore wing. The under side resembles that of the last species 
in some degree, but the eyed spots of the hind wings are not 
always prominent, often only white dots, and may be absent 
altogether (Fig. 9). 

Variation in this species is extensive, but not striking. The 
tint of the ground colour may be reddish or yellowish ; occa- 
sionally brownish or greyish-brown specimens of the male 
occur, and more rarely purplish-brown examples of the same 
sex have been found. Females, in all cases paler, and generally 
larger than the male, are sometimes whitish-ochreous in colour, 
and, very rarely, yellowish-white. The brown border is also 
a variable character, and may be very dark and broad (var. 
lyllus), or reduced to linear proportions. The apical spot on 
the fore wings may be of fair size and very black, very pale and 
indistinct (Figs. 8, 12), or entirely absent ; it does not seem to 
be pupilled with white (as it is on the under side), but sometimes 
there is a pale speck in the centre. On the under side of the 
hind wings there is variation in the width of the central whitish 
band-like patch, in some specimens with unusually dark ground 
colour this patch is very broad ; in other examples, of normal 
coloration, the band is complete, and extends to the inner 
margin. The white dots that normally do duty as ocelli are 



THE SMALL HEATH. 137 

not infrequently set in reddish-brown spots, and then become 
rather more noticable (Fig. 14). This form is var. ocellata, 
Tutt. 

The egg is green at first, afterwards becoming whitish or 
bone-colour ; later on a brownish irregular ring appears a 
little above the middle, and there are various brownish freckles. 
It is finely ribbed, and the top is depressed, forming a hollow 
with a central boss. Laid in a cluster of four on a blade of 
grass, but this may have been accidental. Others were de- 
posited singly on muslin and on fine grass, all in mid-June. 
The caterpillar is of a clear green colour, " with darker green 
dorsal stripe, and a spiracular stripe not so dark ; the anal 
points pink" (Hellins). 

The chrysalis is of " a delicate pale rather yellowish-green, 
with a faintly darker green dorsal stripe, the edge of the pro- 
jecting wing-covers on each side whitish, outlined with a streak 
of reddish-brown ; the abdomen freckled very delicately with 
paler green ; the tip of the anal point, with a short streak 
of brownish-red on each side ; the wing-cases faintly marked 
with darker green nervures " (Buckler). 

The figures of caterpillar and chrysalis on Plate 93 are from 
Buckler's " Larvse of British Butterflies." 

Some caterpillars, from eggs laid in May or June, become full- 
grown in four or five weeks, and appear as butterflies in August, 
but others do not complete their growth until the following 
spring. Just exactly what happens in the case of eggs from 
autumn females does not seem to be very definitely ascertained. 
It has, however, been stated that caterpillars hatching from 
eggs laid in August, attain the size of the slow-growing con- 
tingent from May eggs, and then hibernate. Probably, there- 
fore, it is these that produce the July butterflies, and if so, the 
succession of emergencies may be something in this way : 
May and June butterflies from May and June eggs (twelve 
months' cycle), July butterflies from August eggs (eleven months 



I38 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

cycle), August and September butterflies (partial second brood) 
from May and June eggs (four months' cycle). 

This interesting little butterfly is to be seen almost every- 
where, but it is perhaps most frequently to be found in grassy 
places in lanes, on heaths and downs, railway banks, in rough 
meadows, etc. It occurs on mountains even up to an elevation 
of 2000 feet. When flying in company with the blues and 
coppers, all frolicking together over some patch of long grass, 
the colour combination has an exceedingly pleasing effect. 
They rest by day, and sleep at night on grass or rushes. 

A common species throughout England and Wales, Ireland 
and Scotland, as far north as Nairn, also in the Outer Hebrides. 
Abroad its distribution extends over Europe to South-West 
Siberia, Central and North-East Asia, Asia Minor, and North 
Africa. 

We now arrive at the Hairstreaks, Coppers, and Blues. 
These belong to the Lycaenidae, a very large family of butterflies 
which is represented in all parts of the globe. There are 
eighteen species in Britain, but at least one of these is extinct 
and another is supposed to be so ; two are very rare, and the 
chances of meeting with either are probably about equal. 

The Brown Hairstreak (Zephyrus betulce). 

The butterfly is represented on Plate 94, Figs. 1-3. The male 
is blackish-brown with a faint greyish tinge, and there is a 
conspicuous black bar at the end of the discal cell of the fore 
wing, followed by a pale cloud ; there are two orange marks at 
the anal angle of the hind wings. The female is blackish-brown, 
and has the black bar at end of the cell, and an orange band 
beyond ; there are usually three orange marks on the hind 
wings at the anal angle, but sometimes there are only two. 
The under side of the male is ochreous, but that of the female 
is more orange ; the fore wings have the black bar edged on 



^ I / 

I / 




I 



/ 







PI 93- 



Small Heath. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



A' 139 



THE BROWN HAIRSTREAK. 1 39 

each side with white, and there is a white-edged, brownish 
triangular streak beyond, the outer margin is tinged with 
reddish ; on the hind wings there are two white irregular lines 
and the space between them is brownish, the outer margin is 
reddish, becoming broadly so towards the anal angle, where 
there is a black spot. Variation is not of a very striking 
character. The shade following the black bar at end of the 
discal cell on the fore wings in the male is sometimes yellowish 
tinged, not infrequently fairly large, and with two smaller spots 
below it. More rarely all three spots are distinctly ochreous- 
yellow (var. spinosce, Gerhard). A similar aberration, but with 
the marks white instead of yellow, has been named pallida, 
Tutt. The orange band in the female varies in width and in 
length ; occasionally it extends well below vein 2, and into the 
discal cell within the black bar. I have one specimen in which 
the band is broken up into three parts, and the upper one of 
these is but little wider than the same spot in var. spinosa?, the 
other two being almost exactly of the same size as in that 
variety. 

The life-history is figured on Plate 95 — the lower set of 
figures. 

The egg is described by Newman " as a depressed sphere 
and white," and he states, "it is attached to the, twigs of black- 
thorn (Prunus spinosa) in the autumn, often as late as the 
end of September or beginning of October ; it is not hatched 
until the spring." 

The caterpillar is bright pale green, and the lines on the back 
and sides are yellowish, as also are the oblique streaks on the 
sides and the border of the ridge above the feet. There are 
some bristles along the ridge on the back and also on that 
above the feet. It feeds on blackthorn in May and June, and 
will eat the foliage of almost any kind of plum. I have reared 
fine specimens from caterpillars which fed on greengage. 

The chrysalis is pale reddish-brown with a dark line down 



I4-0 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the middle of the back and some pale oblique streaks on each 
side ; the wing-cases are freckled with darker brown. Barrett, 
quoting Fenn, says, " Suspended by the tail and a silken girth 
to the stem of the food-plant close to the ground." Those that 
I have seen pupated on or under leaves, and so far as I could 
observe without any girth, and certainly not suspended. 

Nearly two hundred years ago the male of this butterfly was 
known as the Brown Hairstreak, whilst the female was called 
the Golden Hairstreak. The caterpillar seems to have been 
observed in quite early times. It has always been a local 
species, and although it appears to frequent hedgerows occasion- 
ally, its haunts generally are open grounds in the neighbourhood 
of woods, where blackthorn or sloe is plentiful. August and 
September are the months for the butterfly, but it does not 
seem to be very often observed on the wing, even in places 
where the caterpillars are known to occur. When seen it is 
generally high up on, or around, some oak tree. Occasionally, 
however, it visits the bramble blossoms, and at such times 
becomes a fairly easy prey. The caterpillar is obtained by 
beating sloe bushes. 

Barrett, who seems to have worked out its distribution in 
England and Wales pretty closely, remarks, " In the eastern 
counties it has been taken occasionally in Norfolk and Suffolk, 
more frequently in Essex, where, in Epping Forest, it has been 
fairly common ; also in Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and 
Northamptonshire, in some plenty. In very few localities in 
Kent, Sussex, Hants, and Dorset ; rarely in Gloucestershire, 
and possibly Somerset ; but found in many Devonshire 
localities, especially in the sheltered valleys around the Dart- 
moor range, and in the charmingly wooded districts about 
Axminster and Sidmouth ; becoming common towards Dart- 
mouth. It has also been found commonly near Marlborough, 
Wilts, and plentifully in some parts of North Wales ; apparently 
rare in South Wales, but certainly existing in some parts of the 











i * '111 






* 







/>/. 94. 



Brown Hairstreak. i, male; 2, 3 female. 
White-letter Hairstreak. 4, 6 male; 5, 7 female. 



K 140. 











/ 



z& 



White-letter Hairstreak. Egg enlarged ; caterpillar ami chrysalis. 




\\ 



"X 



A C 



■J.' 



Yf 



PL Q~. L r4I< 

D ' Brown Hairstreak. Egg enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE PURPLE HAIRSTREAK. 141 

wooded districts skirting Milford Haven. Also recorded from 
Worcestershire, and Cannock Chase in Staffordshire ; and 
northward in the favoured districts of Grange and Silverdale in 
North Lancashire, and Witherslack in Westmoreland." As 
Surrey is not quoted in the foregoing, it may be mentioned as 
one of the counties in which the species is found. In Ireland 
Kane says that it is "abundant in certain localities in Munster ; 
and in Co. Galway at Claring Bridge, and Oranmore ; Cork ; 
Killoghrum Wood, Enniscorthy ; Blarney, Killarney." 

It is distributed throughout Central and Northern Europe, 
except the Polar region, and its range extends through Northern 
Asia to Amurland, Ussuri, and China. . — "~ 

The Purple Hairstreak {Zephyrus quercus). o.Uj*aa^' u 

The butterfly (figured on Plate 96) has the sexes differently 2 Mpftfl. 
ornamented, as in the last species. The male is strongly tinged * *"""" 
with purplish-blue, the veins are blackish ; the outer margin of 
the fore wings are narrowly, and the costa and outer margin of 
the hind wings are broadly, bordered with black. The female 
is purplish-black, with two patches of bluish-purple in the discal 
cell and space below ; often there is a smaller patch of the same 
colour between them, the whole forming a large blotch 
interrupted by the blackish veins. Under side greyish with 
blackish shaded white lines ; two or three blackish clouds on 
the outer margin of fore wings above the inner angle ; these are 
sometimes edged with orange ; a black spot on anal angle of 
the hind wings, with an orange one above it, and a black- 
centred orange spot between veins 2 and 3. 

Variation in this species is exceptional. An aberration known 
as bella, Gerhard, has a yellowish mark at end of the cell on 
the upper side of the fore wings, and at least one such variety 
has been taken in England. Sometimes the blotch on the 
female is rather blue than purple ; a male specimen with blue 
streaks on the costa of the fore wings has been recorded, and 

L 



142 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Barrett mentions a gynandrous specimen in which the right side 
was that of the male. 

The egg is pale brown tinged with pink, and over this is a 
whitish network. The caterpillar is reddish-brown and downy ; 
a black line along the back has a whitish edge, and there are 
whitish oblique stripes, with blackish edge, on each side of the 
central line ; the segmental divisions are well marked, and the 
spiracles are blackish with pale rings. The head, which, when 
the caterpillar is resting, is hidden within the first body ring, is 
brownish and glossy, and there is a greyish shield-like mark on 
the second ring. The chrysalis is red-brown, with darker 
freckles ; the body is downy, and there are traces of oblique 
marks thereon. It does not appear to be fastened by the tail, 
but the cast larval skin remains attached ; there are a few 
strands of silk around and about the chrysalis, but these are 
very flimsy, although they hold it in position on the ground or 
under a leaf. 

The eggs are laid in July or August on twigs of oak, but 
the caterpillars, it is said, do not hatch out until the following 
spring. In May and early June the caterpillars are full grown, 
and may be obtained by beating or jarring the branches of oak 
trees in places where the butterfly is known to occur. They 
have also been found on sallow. 

This species frequents oak woods, or the borders thereof, in 
July and August, and is often more easy to see than to capture, 
as it has a tantalizing trick of flying around the upper branches 
of the trees. Occasionally it resorts to lower growing aspens, 
probably to feast on the honey dew, the secretions of Aphides, 
with which the leaves are often covered in hot summers. It 
seems to be pretty generally distributed in all parts of England 
and Wales, and in Scotland as far north as Ross. In Ireland it 
appears to be more local, and has only been recorded from the 
east and south. 

It is found in all parts of Europe, except the northern. 





fM 









■■?. ■■■ ■(; 



PL 





Purple Hairstreak. i male ; 2, 3 female. 

Black Hairstreak. 4, 6 male ; 5 female. 
Green Hairstreak. 7 male; 8, 9 female. 



142. 



J0 



1 







I 

// 

Black Hairstreak. Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 




U j 






X 



Purple Hairstreak. ££f enlarged; caterpillar a?id chrysalis. 




.-> 




/V. 97- z 143- 

Green Hairstreak. EggSj natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



THE BLACK HAIRSTREAK. 143 

The Black Hairstreak (Thecla pruni). 

This butterfly is figured on Plate 96. In colour it is dark 
brown or, when quite fresh, brownish-black ; there are some 
orange marks on the outer margin of the hind wings, and these 
are most distinct in the female, in which sex there are orange 
spots on the fore wings also. The male has a pale sexual mark 
at the end of the cell of the fore wings, but this is less distinct 
than in the following species. The under side is brown, with a 
bluish-white interrupted transverse line on each wing, that on 
the hind wings angled before reaching the inner margin. All 
the wings have an orange band on the outer margin, but on the 
fore wings of the male this is often indistinct ; there are some 
white-edged black spots before it, and, on the hind wings, 
beyond it also. 

The eggs are laid in July on the twigs of blackthorn, but the 
caterpillars do not hatch until the following spring. The egg 
figured on Plate 97 was reddish-brown and appeared rather 
shiny. The caterpillar is described as yellowish-green, with a 
darker green furrow and purplish ridges along the back ; the 
latter are edged with whitish and the divisions between the 
rings are yellowish. The head is pale brown. The chrysalis, 
which is attached by the tail and has a silken thread around it, 
is black, marked on the head and body with yellowish-white. 

The caterpillars feed on blackthorn (Primus spinosa) in a 
state of nature, but will eat the leaves of damson in confinement. 
They may be obtained in May, in their particular haunts, by 
beating sloe bushes with a beating tray, or an inverted open 
umbrella, held under to intercept the evicted caterpillars, etc. 

This butterfly was not known as British until 1828, when 
a number of specimens were captured at Monkswood in 
Huntingdonshire. These were sold by the captor as T. 
w-album, which was then called the Black Hairstreak. As 
soon as the mistake was detected, it was given out that the 



144 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

specimens had been taken in Yorkshire, but this was only a 
ruse, as T. pruni has never occurred in that county. It is 
confined, so far as Britain is concerned, to three or four of the 
midland counties. " Mr. Herbert Goss, who has found it at 
Barnwell Wold, and in other wooded districts of Northampton- 
shire, at intervals, for more than twenty years past, says that it 
is fond of sitting on the flowers of privet (Ligustrum), and of 
Viburnum lantana, in the woods, and sometimes is to be 
found in numbers. Its time of emergence is very variable, 
apparently regulated by the lateness of the spring — from 
June 17th to the first week in July. Reared specimens made 
their appearance from June 13th to 27th. He writes, ' It was 
the greatest possible pleasure to see them walking about the 
table while I was at breakfast. 5 In 1858 it was found commonly 
at Kettering, and in 1859 at Oundle, and has been recorded at 
Warboys Wood, Huntingdonshire, and in Buckinghamshire. 
One specimen was taken at Brandeston, Suffolk, by the Rev. 
Joseph Green ; and Mr. Allis found it commonly in the Overton 
Woods and about St. Ives. There is also a record in Mon- 
mouthshire, which may require confirmation. This butterfly 
does not appear to be losing ground in this country, its fondness 
for trees and lofty bushes rendering it difficult to capture" 
(Barrett). 

A writer in the Entomologist for 1874 mentions Linford 
Woods, in Bucks, as a locality where he had observed several 
specimens, mostly females, on flowers of privet. 

It is found throughout the greater part of Europe and also in 
Amurland and Corea. 

The White Letter Hairstreak (Theda w-album). 

The male of this butterfly (Plate 94) is blackish, with a small 
whitish sex mark at end of the discal cell of the fore wing ; there 
is a small orange spot at the anal angle of the hind wings. The 



THE WHITE LETTER HAIRSTREAK. 145 

female agrees in colour with the male, but the tails are longer, 
and there is no sex mark on the fore wings. The under side is 
brownish, with a white line on each wing, that on the hind 
wings forming a W before the inner margin ; the hind wings 
have a black-edged orange band on the outer margin which is 
finely tapered towards the costa. Captured specimens are 
usually browner than those that are reared from caterpillars. 

The species does not exhibit much tendency to variation. 
The white lines on the under side may be rather broad or very 
narrow, and that on the hind wings is sometimes so broken up 
towards the inner margin that the W character disappears ; 
when absence of the anal orange spots on the upper side is 
associated with the broken line, the form is known as butlerowi. 
I have several males without the W, and some of these have 
the orange spot above, whilst others are without it. Barrett 
refers to a specimen in which there is "on the under side 
an extension of white colour from the white line towards the 
margin, in the fore wings forming a broad wedge-shaped band, 
but in the hind wings occupying the whole space from the white 
line to the orange band." 

The egg has been described as whitish in colour, and in 
shape something like an orange with a depression on the top. 
The eggs are laid on twigs of elm in July, and, according to 
some writers, remain thereon throughout the winter. The 
caterpillar when full grown is yellowish-green and covered with 
short hairs ; the ridges on the back are yellowish, and there are 
oblique whitish streaks on each side of the darker dorsal line. 
The head is black. When about ready to assume the chrysalis 
state, the whole body becomes purplish-brown. The chrysalis 
is brownish, sometimes tinged with purple ; covered with tiny 
bristles except on the blackish wing cases, and there are two 
purplish lines on the back. It is attached by the tail, and has 
a strand or two of silk around it, generally on the under side of 
a leaf. 



I46 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

In a state of nature the caterpillar feeds on wych-elm ( Ulmu s 
montana), but it will eat the leaves of the common elm (Ulmus 
campestris). It is to be obtained in May and June by beating 
wych-elms in localities where the butterfly is known to 
occur. 

The butterfly is on the wing in July, and usually disports 
itself around the elm trees, but it is fond of bramble blossoms, 
and may often be netted when feasting on those flowers. It is 
a local species, but, as a rule, plentiful enough in its localities. 
It is rare in Hampshire and Dorsetshire, scarce in Sussex, and 
not found in many parts of Kent. Ripley, in Surrey, was a 
well-known locality for it in the early part of the last century, 
and the caterpillars were found there commonly quite recently. 
In Essex it is generally common near Maldon. And, according 
to Barrett, it is " plentiful in various parts of Suffolk ; very 
scarce in Norfolk ; found more or less plentifully in Herts, 
Hants., Cambs., and Northamptonshire ; very rare in Notting- 
hamshire ; but again to be found in North Lincolnshire ; and 
common in several localities near Doncaster, Barnsley, and 
elsewhere in Yorkshire. This appears to be its northern 
limit, and in this respect it contrasts curiously with Thecla 
betidce [The Brown Hairstreak], since it extends farther north 
in the east than that species ; yet in the west is recorded no 
farther than Cheshire and Shropshire, where I found it thirty- 
five years ago upon Benthall Edge. In Herefordshire it is 
recorded but rarely ; more commonly in Worcestershire ; also 
in Derbyshire and Needwood Forest, Staffordshire ; common 
around Burton-on-Trent and elsewhere in Leicestershire ; and 
in Oxfordshire, Bucks, and Berks. But its metropolis seems to 
be Wiltshire, where Mr. Perkins has found it around Marl- 
borough and Savernake in thousands, as well as in Gloucester- 
shire." It has also been obtained in Monmouthshire, but its 
extreme western limit seems to be Weston-super-Mare, Somer- 
setshire. Abroad it is widely distributed in Europe, except the 







PLcfi. 



Large Copper. 

i, 4, male; 2, 3, 5 female. 



L 146. 



- \1 



7 



V 









M 



4i/ 













PL 99- 



Large Copper. 

Caterpillar and chrysalis. 



L 147. 



THE GREEN HAIRSTREAK. 147 

extreme north and south-west ; its range extends into Asia 
Minor, and to Amurland and Japan. 

Thecla spini and T. z'licis, two species of Hairstreak butter- 
flies belonging to Central and Southern Europe, have been 
mentioned as occurring in Britain by some of the earlier 
authors. There is not, however, the slightest reason to suppose 
that either of them ever occurred naturally in this country. 



V^*haU*+4 The Green Hairstreak (Callophrys rubi). T'^/Zr** 

l/' & ^ ff€tr Both sexes of this butterfly (Plate 96) are brown with a faint **/$>/ 
ctaJis golden tinge above, and green on the under side. The male ^^^ 

has a dark, or, when the plumules are dislodged, pale sexual ^J//* 

mark, which is oval in shape, and placed at the upper corner of 4f # I 
the discal cell in the fore wings. Occasionally there are some a/*J* 
orange scales at the anal angle of the hind wings, and more ** ^+*i 
rarely, and in the female, at the extremities of veins two and ffUf 
three also. On the under side of some specimens, chiefly from 
Northern localities, there is a transverse series of white dots 
across all the wings ; more often these are confined to the hind 
wings, and sometimes they are almost or quite absent from all 
the wings. Now and then the under side of the hind wings is 
found to be brown in colour, and this change in colour has been 
ascribed to the action of moisture. The life-history is figured 
on Plate 97. 

The egg is greenish, reticulated with paler or with whitish- 
green ; the reticulation is somewhat rough on the side, but 
becomes finer towards and on the top, which has the centre 
hollowed. Laid on the petals of the common furze ( Ulex enro- 
ftcEus), and on leaves of rock-rose {Helianthenium chamcecistus). 
The caterpillar feeds in June and July. It is pale green, with 
a darker line along the back, and yellow oblique stripes on the 
sides. Among the plants that it has been found upon, or is 
known to eat, are dyer's green weed {Genista tinctorid), needle 



148 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

furze (G. anglicd), broom {Cytisus scoparius), dwarf furze (Ulex 
nanus), whortleberry {Vaccinium myrtillus)\ also the berries 
of buckthorn {Rhamnus), making holes through which the 
contents of the berry is extracted ; buds of bramble {Rubns), 
and of dogwood (Cornus sanguined), are also attacked in a 
similar way. 

The chrysalis is clothed with tiny hairs, and when freshly 
formed is green in colour, but becomes purplish-brown after 
a time. It appears to be unattached to anything. I think, 
however, that there are generally a few strands of silk around 
or about it, but these are so easily broken when the chrysalids 
are removed that they escape observation. May and June are 
the months for the butterfly, which occurs in various kinds of 
situations, such as the outskirts of woods, high hedgerows, hill 
slopes, and boggy heaths. I once saw it in abundance about 
the entrance from Lynton to the Valley of Rocks. Its resem- 
blance on the under side to the leaves on which it perches is 
as baffling to the collector as is the resting habit of the Gray- 
ling butterfly previously referred to. It seems to be pretty 
generally distributed throughout the kingdom, but is rather 
more local in Ireland than elsewhere, and it has not yet been 
recorded from the Orkney or Shetland Isles. Its range extends 
throughout the Palaearctic Region. 

The Large Copper (ChrysophaJitis dispar). 

The brilliant butterfly, figured on Plate 99, is of a coppery 
orange colour. In the male the fore wings have two black dots 
in the discal cell, the outer one linear, and the outer margin is 
narrowly blackish ; the hind wings have a linear black mark in 
the cell, and the outer margin is narrowly edged with blackish 
and dotted with black. The female is more conspicuously 
marked with black ; there are two, sometimes three, spots in 
the cell of the fore wings, and a transverse series of seven 



THE LARGE COPPER. 1 49 

or eight beyond ; the outer margin is broadly bordered with 
black, and there are generally two spots above the inner angle ; 
the hind wings have a black spot in the cell, and a series of 
black spots beyond, but the whole basal three-fourths of these 
wings is often deeply suffused with blackish ; the outer margin 
is bordered and spotted with black. The sexes are much alike 
on the under side, and have reddish-orange fore wings with 
bluish grey outer margins, and black spots as on the upper 
side of the female ; the hind wings are bluish-grey, pow T dered 
with bluish towards the base, and with whitish ringed black 
spots ; five of these spots are before the linear discal mark, and 
a series of nine or ten beyond ; an orange band on the outer 
margin has black dots on each edge. 

Except as regards the size and the shape of the spots, 
especially in the female, there appears to have been but little 
variation noted in this species in England. 

The two fine female specimens figured on the plate have a 
more or less distinct wedge-shaped black spot in the basal end 
of the discal cell of the fore wings. Dale mentions that he has 
an "almost entirely black" example of the female in his 
collection. 

The var. rutilus, which is the continental form of our butter- 
fly, is smaller in size, as a rule, the spots are not so large, and 
the orange band is always narrower on the under side of the 
hind wings. It has been averred that some of the British 
specimens are referable to this form. 

Newman, writing about 1870, gave the following life-history 
details : — " The egg is laid on the leaves of the great water- 
dock {Rumex hydro lap athuin) during the month of August, and 
the young caterpillars (never, to the best of my belief, observed) 
probably emerge during the following month, and hibernate 
very early at the base of the petioles. 

" The caterpillar is full fed in June, and then lies flat on the 
dock-leaf, rarely moving from place to place, and, when it does 



150 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

so, gliding with a slug-like motion, the legs and claspers being 
entirely concealed. The head is extremely small, and can be 
completely withdrawn into the second segment : the body has 
the dorsal surface convex, the ventral surface flat ; the divisions 
of the segments are distinctly marked, the posterior margin of 
each slightly overlapping the anterior margin of the next, and 
the entire caterpillar having very much the appearance of a 
Chiton j the sides are slightly dilated, the legs and claspers are 
seated in closely approximate pairs, nearly on a medio-ventral 
line. The colour is green, scarcely distinguishable from that 
of the dock-leaf; there is an obscure medio-dorsal stripe, 
slightly darker than the disk, and in all probability due to the 
presence of food in the alimentary canal. The chrysalis is 
obese, blunt at both extremities, attached by minute hooks at 
the caudal extremities, and also by a belt round the waist." 
Newman adds, " My acquaintance with the caterpillar and 
chrysalis was made very many years ago in Mr. Doubleday's 
garden at Epping, where the very plant of Rumex hydrolapa- 
thum, on which the caterpillars fed, is still in existence." 

The caterpillar was described by Stephens, in 1828, as some- 
what hairy, bright green, with innumerable white dots. The 
same author states that the chrysalis was " first green, then pale 
ash-coloured, with a dark dorsal line and two abbreviated 
white ones on each side, and, lastly, sometimes deep brown." 

The figure of the caterpillar on Plate 98 is after Westwood, 
and that of the chrysalis after Newman (" Grammar of Ento- 
mology "). 

Although he refers to it as " hippo thoe? the Large Copper 
seems to have been known to Lewin (1795), as ne states that 
specimens had been taken in Huntingdonshire. Haworth 
(1803) mentions its occurrence in the fens of Cambridgeshire, 
and Stephens, twenty-five years later, wrote : — " This splendid 
insect appears to be confined to the fenny counties of Cambridge 
and Huntingdon, with the neighbouring ones of Suffolk and 








.-■■ 



v> 



/ 






/v. ioo. 



Small Copper. Z I5 °- 

Egg, natural size and enlarged; caterpillars and chrysalids. 








'PL 101. Z 151. 

Small Copper. 

I, 2 Typical male ; 3 typical female ; 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 varieties : - - 



THE LARGE COPPER. 151 

Norfolk, unless the account of its capture in Wales by Hudson 
be admitted ; but this may probably be the following species 
\_hippothoe\ which may, moreover, eventually prove synonymous 
with Ly. dispar. In the first two localities it appears to occur 
in great profusion, as several hundred specimens have been 
captured within these last ten years by the London collectors, 
who have visited Whittlesea and Yaxley Meres, during the 
month of July, for the sole purpose of obtaining specimens of 
this insect." 

Dale states that " the latest capture, consisting of five speci- 
mens, appears to have been made in Holme Fen, by Mr. 
Stretton either in 1847 or 1848." 

There is evidence that floods, which were not uncommon 
in the home of the Large Copper, were not really injurious 
to the butterfly, and therefore the occasional submergence of 
its feeding grounds can hardly have been the cause, of its 
almost sudden destruction. It seems more probable that its 
disappearance was due to the draining of the fens, and at least 
it is significant that the two events were almost coincident. 

There are records of the butterfly having been taken in 
various odd localities since it was last seen in fenland, but the 
latest of those dates back to the year 1865. There seems to be 
no question that the butterfly is now extinct in England, and, 
lamentable to relate, the chief locality where we can hope to 
secure a specimen or two for our collection is in the neighbour- 
hood of Covent Garden, where the only requirement for the 
capture will be a well-lined purse. 

The continental form rutilus is found in Germany, France, 
Northern Italy, South-Eastern Europe (except Greece), 
Northern Asia Minor, Armenia, and the Altai. The Asian 
form auratus occurs in South-Eastern Siberia, Amurland, 
Corea, Northern China, and Amdo. 

Four other kinds of " Coppers " have been reported as 



152 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

occurring in England : these are Chrysophanus hippo thoe 
and C. virgattrece, both of which have even had English 
names bestowed upon them, to wit, the Purple-edged Copper 
and the Scarce Copper ; C. gordius, and C. circe (dorilis). 
These are only mentioned to afford an opportunity for saying 
that there does not appear to be the least reason for con- 
sidering either of them to be a British butterfly. Kirby, 
Barrett, and others, however, think it possible that the first 
two may have inhabited England in ancient times. 

The Small Copper (Chrysophanus phlceas). 

This little butterfly is very smart, in activity as well as 
appearance. In colour it is very similar to the last species, 
but both sexes are spotted with black on the fore wings, the 
outer series of six spots forming a very irregular row ; the hind 
wings are black, with a wavy orange-red band on the outer 
margin. 

There is considerable variation, and it is, therefore, deemed 
advisable to give a number of figures representing some of the 
more striking aberrations. The three figures at the top of 
Plate 10 1 depict the normal male and female ; the latter sex is 
Fig. 3. For the loan of the other specimens (Figs. 4-12) my 
thanks are due to Mr. E. Sabine, who has a very fine and 
extensive series of varieties of this butterfly. Other examples of 
aberration on the under side are shown on Plate 119. Blue 
s pots _ are sometimes found on the hind wings ; these are pla ced 
near the orange-red band, and occasionally they attain a go od 
size;. Specimens much suffused with blackish sometimes occur ; 
these are referable to var. eleus^ which is the usual summer 
form in some of the warmer countries abroad. A very rare 
form is that known as schmidtii (Fig. 7), in which the ground 
colour of the fore wings and the band on the hind wings are 
silvery white instead of orange or coppery-red. A modification 



THE SMALL COPPER. 1 53 

of this form which is hardly less rare has a creamy tint. Straw- 
coloured or pale golden specimens are rather more frequently 
met with. The colour of the hind wings in fresh specimens is 
sometimes steely-grey, but blackish is the more usual hue ; the 
band on the outer area, which as a rule agrees in colour with 
the fore wings, varies in width a good deal, and occasionally is 
more or less obscured by the blackish ground colour. The 
arrangement, size, and shape of the black spots, both above 
and below, are subject to much vagary, sometimes of a very 
striking kind, as, for example, when the spots of the outer series 
on the fore wings are united with the discal pair and form a large 
irregular blotch. A remarkable specimen taken some years 
ago in the Isle of Wight had a small patch of copper with a 
black spot in it on the under side. This gave one the idea of a 
clumsy attempt at patching, but as I happened to take that 
particular specimen, I know that it had not been tampered with. 
Gynandrous specimens of this butterfly sometimes occur, but 
these are very rare. 

The egg is of a yellowish- white colour at first, and afterwards 
becomes greyish ; the pattern on the shell, which resembles 
network, is always whiter. 

The caterpillar is green and similar in tint to the leaf of 
dock or sorrel upon which it feeds. It is clothed with short 
greyish hair which arises from white dots ; the dorsal line is 
brownish-olive, and the ring divisions, especially along the back, 
are well defined. Head very small, pale brownish, marked 
with blackish, drawn into the first ring of the body when 
resting. The legs and prolegs are tinged with pink, and some- 
times the body is marked with pink. 

The chrysalis is pale brown, sometimes tinged with greenish, 
and freckled with darker brown ; there is a dark line along the 
middle of the thorax and body, the wing cases are streaked with 
blackish, and the body is dotted with black. Attached by the 
tail and loose silken threads around the body to a leaf or stem. 



154 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

There seem to be three broods of this species in most years : 
the first is on the wing in May, sometimes in April ; the second 
in July or early August ; and the third in early October. It is 
not a difficult species to rear from the egg, and as varieties 
appear to be most frequent in the third brood, the eggs should 
be obtained from females of the second brood. Dock and sorrel 
(Rumex) are the food-plants of the caterpillar, and these are 
most useful in a growing condition. 

The butterfly frequents all kinds of open situations, and is 
fond of basking upon flowers, more particularly those of the 
Composite, from which vantage ground it dashes with great 
alertness at any other small butterfly that may happen to fly 
that way. Whether these seeming attacks are really due to 
pugnacity, as has been stated by some writers, or are merely of 
a sportive character, is not altogether clear. As, however, the 
meeting of the two butterflies usually results, when both are 
Small Coppers, in a series of aerial evolutions by the pair, it 
would seem that there is a good deal of playfulness in the 
business. After the gambol is over, one butterfly may dart off 
with the other in hot pursuit, and then both move so rapidly 
that their course is difficult to follow. If the butterfly inter- 
cepted happens to be a Blue or a Small Heath, the Copper 
returns to the flower from which it started, and prepares for 
another raid when the opportunity offers. It occurs throughout 
the United Kingdom, but in Scotland it does not extend north- 
wards beyond the Caledonian Canal. 

Abroad it is found throughout the Palaearctic Region, and 
is represented in North America by the form hypophlceas. 

The Long-tailed Blue (Lampides bcv tints). 

The male is purplish-blue suffused with fuscous, especially on 
all margins except the inner one ; there are two velvety black 
spots encircled with pale blue at the anal angle of the hind 



Short-tailed Blue. Eggs enlarged. 




PL 102. L j S4 

Long - tailed Blue. Caterpillar and chrysalis (after Milliere). ■ 0) . 





gi§\n 3 







s 



iff 



/v. 103. 



Long-tailed Blue. 

1 uia.e; 2, ^female. 






Short-tailed Blue. 
4, 6 male; 5, 7jfc ..:... 



Z 155. 



THE LONG-TAILED BLUE. 1 55 

wings, and a slender black tail, tipped with white, appears to be 
a continuation of vein 2. The under' side is grey-brown, with 
numerous white wavy lines and broader streaks ; there is a 
whitish band on each wing before the outer margin, and black 
spots as above, but these are ringed with metallic blue. 

I have not seen any of the early stages of this butterfly. The 
caterpillar, which feeds upon the green seeds in pods of the 
Leguminosae, including the garden pea and the lupine, is 
figured on Plate 102. It is described as being green or 
reddish-brown in colour, with a dark stripe on the back, double 
oblique lines on the sides, and a white line below the yellow 
spiracles ; head black. The chrysalis is of a red or yellowish 
colour, and dotted with brown. It has a silken girdle and is 
said to be attached to a stem, as shown in the figure, but pro- 
bably it is more often fixed up among the withered leaves of the 
food-plant. Two of the earliest known British specimens of 
this butterfly were taken by the late Mr. Neil McArthur on 
August 4th and 5th, 1859, on the Downs at Brighton ; the third 
example was captured by Captain de Latour at Christchurch, 
where it was flying about a plant of the everlasting pea in his 
garden on August 4th of the same year. Newman has noted 
that in that particular year the butterfly was very abundant in 
the Channel Islands and on the coast of France. No other 
specimen seems to have been observed in England until 1879, m 
which year one was taken at Freshwater in the Isle of Wight 
on August 23rd. In 1880 a specimen was captured in a garden 
near Bognor, Sussex, on September 12th. On October 2nd, 
1882, one was obtained at West Bournemouth. Three were 
netted in 1893, one of these in late August, and one in the third 
week of September, both in Sussex ; the third was taken in 
Kent (inland) in September. In 1899 a specimen was found at 
Winchester on September 1st, and one at Deal on the 16th 
of the same month ; each of these, curiously, was sitting on a 
window. On August 2nd, 1904, one example was taken in a 



156 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

garden near Truro, Cornwall. In addition to the above, single 
specimens have been reported as taken at Brighton, July, 1890, 
and at Heswell, Cheshire, in 1886 or 1887. 

It will thus be seen that the occurrence of this butterfly in 
England is exceedingly infrequent. The species is common in 
Africa and in Southern Europe ; thence it extends eastward 
through Asia to China and Japan, and southwards to Australia. 
It is also found in the Sandwich Islands. It is believed to be 
migratory in its habits, and it is supposed that the occasional 
specimens that arrive in this country come to us via the west 
coast of Europe. 

In its proper home there is a succession of broods of the 
butterfly, and if by chance a few females were to visit this 
country in the early summer, they most probably would lay 
eggs, and the caterpillars resulting from these would almost 
certainly be able to feed up and attain the perfect state here. 
So far there is no reason to suppose that the caterpillar has ever 
occurred in England. 

The Short-tailed or Bloxworth Blue (Cupido argiades). 

The interesting little butterfly represented on Plate 103 was 
not known to occur in Britain until 1885, when the Rev. O. 
Pickard Cambridge made the startling announcement that his 
sons had captured two specimens, a female on August 18th, 
and a male on August 20th of that year, the scene of capture 
being Bloxworth Heath, Dorset. Shortly after this fact was 
made public the Rev. J. S. St. John added a record of two 
males that he had discovered in a small collection of Lepidoptera 
made by Dr. Marsh, who stated that he had taken the specimens 
of C. argiades in 1874, close to a small quarry near Frome. 
In addition to these a specimen, also recorded by Mr. Cam- 
bridge, was taken "at Bournemouth in August, 1SS5 ; one is 
reported to have been captured at Blackpool, about i860; and 





I? ■ 



Brown Argus. 




PL IQ 4- Z 156. 

Silver-studded Blue. 

Egg Si natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalids. 







*fete^ 



• -* 




-v • 










*€ 



/>/. 105. j/i- : : 

Silver-studded Blue, i, 2, 3 ///«/*; j. ?, 6 .-; r.. 
Brown Argus. 30, 12 male; 7, B,g/ema?e; ir. 13, 14 ...:.. fi 
15 male, 16, 17 female (Scotland). 



THE SHORT-TAILED BLUE. 1 57 

one at Wrington, about twelve miles north of Bristol, in 1895 
or 1896. 

The following details of the early stages are obtained from 
Mr. Frohawk's life-history of the species published in the 
Entomologist for October, 1904. The egg (Plate 102, figured 
from a photomicrograph by Mr. Tonge) is of a pale greenish- 
blue, but varies both in the extent of the ground colour and in 
the structure of the reticulations, which are white, resembling 
frosted glass. 

The full-grown caterpillar (August 23rd) measures § inch in 
length. It is of the usual wood-louse shape, with only a very 
shallow furrow on the back, bordered on each side by a fringe 
of spinous bristles, which vary in length ; the whole surface is 
densely studded with shorter but similarly formed whitish or 
brownish bristles. The ground colour is pale green, with a 
darker green stripe along the centre of the back, and fainter 
green oblique stripes on the sides. The head is black and 
shining, and is hidden under the first ring when the caterpillar 
is not feeding or moving about. 

The caterpillars hatched on July 30th, from eggs that were 
laid in the South of France on July 24th, and were reared on 
bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), of which they ate the 
flowers, seeds, and leaves. 

The chrysalis, which is attached to the food-plant by a silk 
pad at the tail and a thread round the body, is pale green and 
very finely reticulated ; the wing-cases are rather whiter green, 
sprinkled with minute black specks, and the veins are white ; 
there is a blackish line along the centre of the back, but this 
is only well defined on the head and thorax. The whole 
surface, except the wings, is sprinkled with slightly curved and 
moderately long white hairs. 

The butterfly emerges in about ten to fourteen days, according 
to temperature. 

The male is violet-blue with the veins rather darker ; the 

M 



158 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

outer margin is narrowly bordered with blackish, and there 
are some black dots on the outer margin of the hind wings ; 
the fringes are white, and there is a slender tail on the hind wings. 
The female is brownish, tinged with violet towards the base ; 
the hind wings have black spots on the outer margin, and some 
of these are inwardly edged with orange ; the tails are slightly 
longer than those of the male. 

All the available information concerning the occurrence of 
this species in England has already been given. No doubt 
the localities from which specimens were recorded have been 
closely investigated during the past twenty years, but no further 
captures of this butterfly have been recorded. This seems to 
indicate that it is not really indigenous, but that its presence 
here may possibly have been due to accidental introduction. 

The spring form, ftolysperchon, is smaller than the specimens 
occurring in the summer, but so far that form has not been 
seen in England. 

The species is widely distributed over Central and Southern 
Europe, and its range extends through Northern Asia to 
Amurland, Corea, and Japan. It is also represented in 
Northern and Central America by var. comyntas, and has been 
recorded from Australia. 

The Silver-studded Blue (Lyccena argus = agon).. 

The male of this butterfly (Plate 105) is purplish-blue with 
a black border on the outer margins, and sometimes black 
dots on that of the hind wings. The female is sooty-brown, 
powdered to a greater or lesser extent with blue scales on the 
basal area ; there is generally a series of orange marks forming 
a more or less complete band on the outer margin of the 
hind wings, and sometimes on the fore wings also. The under 
side is bluish-grey in the male, and brownish-grey in the 
female ; the black spots are ringed with white, and on the 



THE SILVER-STUDDED BLUE. I 59 

fore wings there is one at the end of the cliscal cell and a series 
of seven beyond ; the hind wings have from three to five spots 
before the discal spot, and a curved series of seven beyond ; 
there is a black-edged orange band on all the wings, and 
beyond this on the hind wings there is a series of metallic blue 
centred spots ; hence the English name of the butterfly, given 
to it by Moses Harris, which is certainly more suitable than 
Petiver's " Lead Argus." 

In a general way the male is rather larger than the female, 
but this is not invariably the case. The colour of the male 
varies in shade, and very occasionally, perhaps, is of a lilac 
tint ; the border varies in width, and is sometimes reduced to 
a mere line. In the female the orange marks may be of a 
brownish or yellowish tint, and now and then there may be a 
series of wedge-shaped blue spots above these marks on the hind 
wings. On the under side there is a good deal of modification 
of the black spots as regards size and shape, and occasionally 
there is at least one extra spot on the fore wings placed between 
the discal spot and the base of the wing ; white markings some- 
times appear on the fore wings between the outer series of 
black spots and the orange band, and with this there is 
generally a white band in a similar position on the hind wings. 
Female specimens with splashes of the male colour on one or 
more of the wings have been obtained, and, more rarely, 
examples entirely male on one side and female on the other 
have been recorded. 

Frohawk states that the egg both in colour and texture, 
resembles white porcelain ; " all the depths produce a deep 
purplish-grey shade. The ova are deposited singly, and adhere 
firmly to the receptacle." 

Caterpillars hatched out from eggs, laid the previous summer, 
on April 1st to 3rd. They were reared on gorse {Ulex enropceus), 
pupated towards the end of June, and the first butterfly, a 
male, appeared on July 10th. 



l6o THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The caterpillar figured on Plate 104, when full grown, was 
reddish-brown, finely dotted with white, and from each dot a 
tiny hair arose ; the stripe on the back and line on the side 
were black edged with white, head black and shining. This 
caterpillar was found on the last day of May, crawling on the 
ground under heather at Oxshott. It was then about half- 
grown, and was reared on heather, pupated in due course, and 
produced a female butterfly on July nth. 

The chrysalis, of which two figures are given, had a pale 
brownish and rather shining head ; the body was brown with 
a darker line on the back ; the thorax and wing-cases dull 
yellowish-green, the former rather glossy. It was placed in an 
angle formed by a side and the floor of the cage, lying quite 
flat and secured by silken threads, which, owing to position, 
I was unable to examine. Some of the caterpillars that Mr. 
Frohawk reared were pale green with a dark purplish stripe on 
the back. Another food-plant is bird's-foot vetch (Ornithopus 
perpusillus). 

The butterfly is on the wing in July and August, and seems 
to be more often found on sandy heaths than elsewhere. It 
is especially common, in some years, in the heather-clad 
districts of Surrey and Hampshire, as well as other counties in 
England. In Norfolk and Suffolk it is said to be common, 
but scarce in Gloucestershire and Somersetshire. Its range 
extends through the greater part of England and Wales, and 
into Scotland as far as Perthshire. Specimens from the north- 
west coast of Wales are said to be larger than those from 
inland localities. 

As regards Ireland, there is only Birchall's record, "The 
Murrough of Wicklow, and near Rostrevor," in evidence of the 
butterfly occurring in that country at all. 

Abroad, it appears to range pretty well over the whole of 
Europe, and through Asia eastward to Siberia, Corea, and 
Japan. 



THE BROWN ARGUS. l6l 



The Brown Argus (Ly carta astrarche). 

Fore wings blackish or sooty-brown with a black discal spot, 
and a row of reddish-orange spots on the outer margin of all 
the wings ; the fringes are white, sometimes with blackish 
interruptions. The under side is greyish or greyish-brown, and 
the black spots are distinctly ringed with white. On the 
fore wing there are seven of these spots, one at the end of the 
cell, and the others in an irregular series beyond ; the last in 
this series is sometimes double, or it may be absent. On the 
hind wings the spots comprise a series of four preceding the 
white discal mark, and a series of seven beyond ; the second 
spot in this series is placed directly under the first, forming a 
colon-like mark, and this character will help to distinguish the 
Brown Argus from the blackish or brown females of the next 
species. 

The female has larger orange markings, and the outline of 
the fore wings is rather rounder on the outer margin, otherwise 
the sexes are very similar. 

The orange spots referred to in the male are sometimes 
absent towards the tips of the fore wings, and in this respect 
lead up to the form known as the Durham Argus (var. 
salmacis, Stephens), which is blackish above and ochreous- 
brown below ; the black spots on the under side are much 
smaller then in typical specimens, and some may be absent 
altogether. The male has a black discal spot, and the female 
a white one, on the upper side of the fore wings ; the hind wings 
have a red or orange band on both surfaces. Sometimes the 
male also has a white spot on the fore wings. Specimens with 
the orange spots on upper side almost entirely absent are 
referable to var. allous. 

Artaxerxes is the form occurring in Scotland, and is known 
as the " Scotch White Spot." Both sexes have a conspicuous 



162 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

white discal spot on the fore wings, and the spots on the under 
side are white, and rarely centred with black. In var. qiiadri- 
puncta, Tutt, all four wings have a white discal spot above. 
Occasionally an odd specimen with white discal spots is found 
in the south. 

Figures of the butterfly will be found on Plate 105, and of its 
life-history on Plate 104 ; the upper egg is that from a typical 
female, and the lower one was laid by a female artaxerxes. 

The egg, which is whitish, with a faint greyish tinge, is 
laid on the upper side of a young leaf of the rock-rose 
(Helianthemum chamcEcistits). The caterpillar has a black 
shining head ; the body is green with whitish hairs, a pinkish 
line along the back, a whitish one bordered with pinkish along 
the sides ; the green colour becomes dingy as the caterpillar 
matures. The chrysalis is obscure yellowish-green, the front 
of the thorax is edged with pinkish, and there are bands of the 
same colour on the back and sides of the body ; the thorax 
and the wing-cases are rather glossy. Held in position by a 
few silken threads between leaves of the food-plant. 

The ordinary form of the butterfly is on the wing in M ay 
and June, and again in August. It is widely distributed 
throughout the southern half of England, and also in Wales. 

Although chiefly associated with rock-rose, especially in 
chalky districts, it occurs too among stork's-bill (E? odium 
cicutariuni), upon which plant the caterpillar also feeds, in 
sandy places inland as well as on the coast. 

Caterpillars from the first flight of butterflies may be found 
in July, and those from the second flight hibernate and feed up 
in April. 

The butterfly has a marked liking for roosting on the flower- 
stems of long grasses, and quite a number may often be found 
resting together towards sundown, or on dull days, in sheltered 
hollows. Sometimes several specimens of this species and of 
the Common Blue may be found on the same perch. It is 



Q b £- O 







PL io5. 



Common Blue. 

i, 2, 7> io, 12 male; 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, u, 13 female. 



Ml62. 





// 




PL 107. J/ 163. 

Common Blue, 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillars and ehrysalids. 



THE COMMON BLUE. 163 

rather less frequently seen in the Midland counties, but it is 
more or less common in some parts of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, 
and Lancashire. 

The intermediate form, salmacis and its modifications, is 
found in the neighbourhood of Richmond, Yorks, and thence 
northward to the Scottish border. 

Var. artaxerxes occurs in Scotland from Roxburgh to 
Aberdeenshire on the east, and from Dumfries to the Clyde 
on the west. Kane records four specimens from Co. Galway, 
and these are all that are known of the species from Ireland. 
This form, together with the var. salmacis, are not found any- 
where outside the United Kingdom, and, it may be added, 
the latter appears to be getting scarce — at least, in some of its 
old haunts in Durham. 

The species is distributed throughout the Palasarctic Region, 
except the Polar parts. 



The Common Blue (Lyccena icariis). 

The male is blue, w r ith either a tinge of violet or mauve in its 
composition. Sometimes, though rarely, it assumes the brighter 
shade of the Adonis Blue. All the wings are very narrowly 
edged with black on the outer margins ; the veins are generally 1 , 
pale, shining blue, sometimes becoming blackish towards the 
outer margins, and occasionally continued into the fringes, but j 
not to their tips. The female is most often brown, with some 
blue scales on the basal area of all the wings ; there is a black 
discal spot on the fore wings, and a series of orange crescents 
before a row of black spots on the outer margin ; the hind 
wings have an outer marginal row of black spots, edged 
outwardly with white and inwardly with orange. 

On Plate 106, Fig. 1 represents a typical male, and Fig. 3 a 
typical female, whilst the normal under sides of the sexes are 



164 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

shown in Figs. 10 and 11. The size of this butterfly ranges from 
one inch and a half to three-quarters of an inch. The large 
specimens at the bottom of the plate are from Scotland. 

Scotch and Irish males often have some black spots on the 
outer margin of the hind wings, as in Fig. 2, but this is from 
Ventnor in the Isle of Wight. The female is sometimes of a 
uniform brown coloration, devoid of blue scales, and, with the 
exception of slight traces of orange on the outer margin of the 
hind wings, entirely without marking. On the other hand, this 
sex is sometimes almost as blue as the male in colour (var. 
I ca'rulai), but the discal spot, outer marginal borders, and 
orange markings arc present. Occasionally the orange spots 
give place to yellow ones. The discal spot on the fore wings 
may be encircled with bluish-white scales, and now and then 
this spot on all the wings is surrounded very distinctly with 
bluish-white. I have seen the latter form from Durham and 
Ireland only, but it probably occurs in other parts of the 
kingdom. 

Quite a number of gynandrous specimens of this species 
have been recorded, some of them being male on the right side 
and female on the left, in others the reverse was the case. 

On the under side the male is greyish and the female 
brownish, consequently the white rings around the black spots 
show up more distinctly in the latter sex. A not uncommon 
aberration is without spots between the discal spot and the base 
of the fore wing ; this is known as icartnus. Another form that 
occurs fairly often has the lower basal spot united with the last 
spot of the outer series, as in Fig. 9, this is ab. arcua, and a 
modification, with the junction bar-like instead of arched, has 
I been named melanotoxa. Very rarely the whole of the under | 
I side, ex cept the outer margins, is free of spots (Plate 119). A I 
specimen exhibiting aberration in this direction is shown on 
Plate 118, Fig. 6, whilst Figs. 1 and 3 show modifications of 
what is known as the streaked form. 

rtHilityt*, Ttkifttu g HA li+k * ^^^/^ ?/"«~ **f& 

&k <3\ tU o**c(u sUt Uu^c $;/</<** u4u(: iuK Unk+ujwc***^ 1 * **¥** 



^tl. 



THE COMMON BLUE. 165 

I am indebted to Mr. E. Sabine, of Erith, for the loan of all 
the fine aberrations of the Blues figured on Plate 118. 

On Plate 107 will be found figures of the early stages. 

The egg, which is usually laid on the upper side of a terminal 
leaf of bird's-foot trefoil {Lotus corniculatus) or on rest-harrow 
{Ononis spinosa), is whitish-green in colour, netted with glossy 
white. 

The caterpillar is green, covered with short brownish hairs, 
with which are mixed some longer ones ; it is wrinkled on the 
side, ridged on the back, and the line along the middle of the 
back is darker. Head black and glossy. 

The chrysalis is green, with the head, wing-cases, and some- 
times the hinder parts of the body, tinged with buff ; thorax 
brighter green, rather shiny ; a darker line down the centre of 
the body. 

The plants mentioned, and especially rest-harrow, are known 
to be the food of the caterpillar, but eggs have also been found, 
in Scotland, on red clover, plantain, burnet saxifrage, and 
yarrow. The caterpillars are to be found, after hibernation, in 
April, and a second brood in June and July. Those feeding on 
rest-harrow seem to prefer the blossom. 

This caterpillar is stated to form a cocoon, but the only 
approach to any such structure made by the seven individuals 
I had under observation was in the case of two caterpillars that 
pupated among leaves of Lotus, which were drawn together by 
the slenderest of threads. Four effected the change at the 
bottom of the cage and seemed to be quite free, one had 
climbed to the leno top of the cage and there spun a silken 
carpet under itself, which drew the leno together, and so formed 
a shallow cave in which the chrysalis rested. In every case the 
cast skin was attached to the tail, and so remained after the 
butterflies emerged. 

The butterfly is to be found almost everywhere in the country, 
and its distribution extends throughout the United Kingdom, 



l66 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

except, perhaps, the Shetland Isles. There appears to be only 
one flight in the north of Scotland and Ireland, and this occurs 
in June and July. In England there are two broods, and in 
some years probably three in the southern counties. It maybe 
| seen on the wing, in greater or lesser numbers, all through the 
season from May to September. 

Abroad, the range extends over the whole of Europe to 
North Africa, and through Western and Northern Asia to 
Amurland and China. 

The Common Blue, as well as the Chalk Hill and the Adonis 
Blues, are to be found, often commonly and sometimes in large 
numbers, in their favourite haunts. Each of them is subject to 
a considerable range of variation on the under side, and this 
seems to be of a similar character in all. Very striking 
aberrations are, perhaps, not often obtained, but still many 
modifications are to be found, and the possibility of a really 
good thing turning up, induces one to give attention to the 
business of overhauling these butterflies. A very good method 
of conducting this kind of work is to first ascertain the places 
where they chiefly congregate, and then to visit there on 
dull days or late in the afternoon, when the butterflies are 
asleep or, at all events, resting. They can then be easily 
examined as they sit on the long grass stems, etc. (Plate 27), 
but only the under sides can be viewed in this way. So to 
avoid passing over a good upper-side variety, it will be needful 
to take each specimen between the finger and thumb of the 
right hand, seizing the closed wings gently, but firmly, near 
their base, and then quickly secure the thorax from underneath 
with thumb and index finger of the left hand, when the upper 
as well as the under side becomes available for inspection. 
There is no reason whatever to damage the insects in any way, 
and those that are not required may be set free again none the 
worse for their short detention. Work against the wind, and to 
avoid a second interview, turn rejected specimens to the rear. 




PL 1 08. 



Chalkhill Blue. 

Egg enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



Ml66. 




PL 109. 



M 10;. 



Chalkhill Blue. 

i, 2, 8, 10 male: 3, 4 ; 5, 6, 7, 0, u, 12 female 



THE CHALK HILL BLUE. 167 



The Chalk Hill Blue (Lycccna corydon). 

Although this butterfly (Plate 109) is, in England, fairly 
constant in the matter of colour, and, as regards the male 
especially, differences in tint are noticeable when series from 
various localities are ranged side by side. Silvery-blue 
perhaps best expresses the general colour of the male on the 
upper surface, sometimes very pale, and sometimes faintly 
tinged with greenish. The blackish border on the outer margin 
of the fore wings varies in width and in intensity ; often there 
are indications of eyed spots on this margin, and occasionally 
these spots are quite distinct, although the whitish rings are not 
always clearly outlined. The black border on the outer margin 
of the hind wings is often narrow and external to a series of 
white-edged black spots, but sometimes it is broad and 
obscures the spots ; orange markings rarely appear on this 
margin, but such aberrations have been taken on the Dorset 
coast. The fringes are white chequered with blackish on the 
fore wings, but with seeming continuation of the veins through 
those of the hind wings. The female is sooty-brown above, 
with a black discal spot on the fore wings, and sometimes on 
the hind wings also, and these spots may be ringed with blue 
or bluish-white ; the outer marginal borders are hardly darker, 
and those on the fore wings are limited by a wavy pale line, 
which may be faintly or strongly marked with orange, but 
orange marking on these wings is rather the exception than 
the rule ; on the outer margin of the hind wings there are 
some black spots, edged outwardly with white and inwardly with 
orange. The fringes are white chequered with brown, and those 
of the fore wings are tinged with brown. There are generally 
some blue scales at the base of the fore wings and over a larger 
portion of the basal area of the hind wings, but occasionally the 
whole discal area of the hind wings (Fig. 7, Plate 117), or of all 



l68 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

the wings, var. syngrapha (Fig. 8, Plate 117), is of the male 
colour. The former is from Eastbourne and the latter from 
Wiltshire. They are rather uncommon varieties, but inter- 
mediate forms are more often met with in the same localties as 
well as in other parts of England where the species occurs. 

On the coast of Dorsetshire a very unusual form occurs. 
The border of the outer margin is white instead of the usual 
black or blackish ; the inner limit of this border is, on the fore 
wings, defined by a dusky shade, and the black nervules break 
up the border into six spots ; on the hind wings four or five of 
the white spots are centred with black dots. The female has a 
similar border, but on the hind wings it is inwardly edged with 
orange. It has been named var. fowleri, and I have seen one 
example of this form without black dots in the marginal white 
spots of the hind wings. On the under side variation is on 
somewhat similar lines to that adverted to in the last species. 
On Plate 109, Fig. 8 represents the typical under side of the 
male, and Fig. 7 that of the female. It will be noticed that the 
male is greyer than the female. Some of the ordinary aberra- 
tions are shown on the same plate, and some rarer ones will 
be found on Plate 118, and of these Fig. 12, if without the 
basal spot on the fore wings, would represent var. lucretia. 

For figures of the early stages see Plate 108 ; that of the 
caterpillar is after Buckler. The egg is flat on the top, with a 
slightly darker pit in the centre (the micropyle) ; the sides are 
rounded, netted, and studded, and the colour whitish-green. 
The above short description was taken from one of a few eggs 
of this butterfly sent me in August last by Mr. Ovenden, and 
the same egg has been figured. 

Mr. Frohawk has described the egg more fully in the 
Entomologist for 1900. With reference to the egg-laying of 
the butterfly he writes : " On August 13th, 1900, I watched 
several females in the act of depositing, on various stems of the 
usual stunted herbage to be found growing on chalk downs. 



THE CHALK HILL BLUE. 169 

They frequently crawled among the plants for a distance of 
about a couple of feet, occasionally curving the abdomen down- 
wards among the small plant-stems and grasses, and here and 
there depositing an egg. I therefore dug up portions of the 
turf, potted it, and placed a couple of females on each lot ; they 
deposited ova on the 14th and 15th, on the stems of various 
plants ; a few were laid upon the brown dead trefoil leaves, as 
well as on the living leaves ; but the site generally chosen is 
the intermingled stems of both plants and grasses. Another 
female, placed upon a similar pot of plants, deposited about 
fifty ova on September 10th, nearly all being placed upon the 
stems, and a few upon the under side of the leaves of rock-rose ; 
in all cases the eggs are deposited singly." 

The caterpillars do not hatch out until the following spring. 
According to Buckler and Hellins, the only difference between 
the caterpillar of this butterfly and that of the next species, 
Adorns, is that the latter " has its ground colour deeper green, 
with the hairs or bristles black, while Corydon has the ground 
colour of a lighter, brighter green (a green with more yellow in 
its composition), and the hairs light brown." 

The butterfly is common and often abundant in July and 
August, chiefly the latter month, on chalk downs in Oxfordshire, 
Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Kent, Surrey, and Sussex ; it is 
also found in the Newmarket district of Cambridgeshire and on 
one chalk hill in Norfolk, according to Barrett, who adds : " on 
the oolite as well as the chalk in Wilts, Dorset, Gloucestershire, 
and Somerset ; and on limestone at Grange and Silverdale in 
North Lancashire, in Lincolnshire, Westmoreland, and Cumber- 
land. It has also been taken in Essex, Hants, Cornwall, and 
in one locality in Glamorganshire. /Vvvvyvx^ cr^ £ 

Mr. Sydney Webb has stated that a dwarf form occurs pretty 
regularly in a valley about two miles east of Dover, but that it 
only appears to be found at odd times in other parts of England. 

Abroad, the species is found in Central Europe, also in the 
Pyrenees, Aragonia, and the Balkan Peninsula. 



I70 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

/^ / The Adonis Blue (Lyccena bellarQiis). 



{Lyccena bellargus). 

The butterfly on Plate no i s the Clifden Blue of Moses 
Harris (1775), so named because it was said to have been first 
observed at Clifden in Bucks. The male is of a beautiful bright 
blue colour, but as in the same sex of the previous two species, 
it is not quite constant in tint. In some specimens we find a 
distinct mauve shade, and in others, but more rarely, the blue 
colour is tinged with greenish (Plate 118, Fig. 11): the veins 
become distinctly black on the outer margins, and appear to run 
through the white fringes on all the wings. Often there are 
black dots on the outer margin of the hind wings. The female 
is dark brown, sometimes slaty-black, with orange spots or 
crescents on the outer margins ; these are often only faintly in 
evidence on the fore wings, and sometimes this is the case on 
the hind wings also ; there is a black discal spot on the fore 
wings, and the fringes of all the wings are white chequered with 
black. The bases of the wings are powdered with blue, but 
this is more noticeable on the hind wings. On the under side 
the fore wings of the male are greyish, and the hind wings 
greyish-brown ; all the wings of the female are brownish, with 
a faint grey tinge in some specimens ; the ornamentation is 
very similar to that of the Common Blue. The two figures on 
Plate no, showing specimens with the wings closed, represent 
typical male and female, and the other figures of under sides on 
this plate exhibit minor aberrations from typical lines ; examples 
of the more extreme variations will be found on Plate 118, 
where also are figured some uncommon aberrations in the colour 
of the male on the upper side. 

There is often a tendency in the female to assume the colour 
of the male, and this is usually seen on the hind wings, .but 
occasionally on the fore wings also. In the extreme form of this 
phase of variation, var. ceronus, the whole of the upper surface, 



THE ADONIS BLUE. 171 

with the exception of the orange-spotted borders, is almost as 
blue as that of the male. This is a parallel aberration to that 
of the Chalk Hill Blue known as syngrapha, but it seems to be 
somewhat rarer in this country. 

Figures of the early stages will be found on Plate 111. 

The egg is greenish-white, becoming rather greener in tint 
towards the top, which is depressed ; the netting is whitish and 
shining, and somewhat rougher on the sides than towards and 
on the top. 

Buckler describes the full-grown caterpillar as deep, full 
green in colour, covered with tiny black speckles, bearing little 
black bristles, which are longest on the dorsal humps and on the 
yellow-edged ridge above the spiracles ; on the top of each of 
the eight pairs of dorsal humps is a deep bright yellow longi- 
tudinal dash, somewhat wider behind than in front ; these 
dashes form in effect two yellow stripes interrupted by the 
deeply sunk segmental divisions ; the line along the back is 
darker than the ground colour, and the spiracles are black. 
The head is dark brown, and there are two yellow dots on the 
first ring of the body near the head. 

The chrysalis, when first formed, is greenish-brown with the 
wing-cases greenish, the whole afterwards becomes ochreous ; 
the thorax and wing-cases are rather glossy, and the body is 
slightly hairy. Buckler states that some of his caterpillars 
buried themselves about half an inch deep in the loose soil, and 
formed a weak sort of cocoon ; others, not having been supplied 
with soil that could be so easily penetrated, retired under the 
stems of their food-plants, and in angles formed by the 
branching stems spun a few weak threads to keep themselves 
in place. 

The food-plant is the horseshoe vetch (Hippocrepzs comosa). 
From eggs laid in August, the caterpillars appear to hatch 
towards the end of September, but do not feed up until the 
spring. Butterflies from these caterpillars are on the wing 



172 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

between the middle of May and the middle of June, thus 
occupying about nine months in passing through the various 
stages from egg to perfect insect. From^ggs laid in May and 
June the butterflies appear in August and September. Although 
it is found in similar kinds of situations to those affected by the 
last species, and sometimes on the same grounds, it is more 
local, and almost confined to the counties of Kent, Surrey, and 
Sussex. It is, however, rather common at Ventnor and in some 
other parts of the Isle of Wight, and is found near Winchester. 
Barrett states that it is abundant at Corfe Castle, Dorset, and 
gives as localities for the butterfly Wotton-under-Edge, and 
near Bristol, near Torquay, Sidmouth, and Seaton. Its range 
abroad extends through Central and Southern Europe, to 
Armenia, Northern Asia Minor, and Western Kurdistan. It is 
also found in North- West Africa, where the males are greenish- 
blue with conspicuous black spots on the outer margins of the 
hind wings; this is the var . punctifera. 

The Holly Blue (Cyaniris argiolus). 

About the beginning of the eighteenth century this butterfly 
(Plate 113) was known as the "Blue Speckt," but Harris, in 
1775, changed the name to the "Azure Blue." The male is a 
pretty lilac-tinged blue, with a narrow black edging on the outer 
margin of the fore wings, often only in evidence towards the 
tip, and a narrow black line on the outer margin of the hind 
wings. The white fringes of the fore wings are distinctly 
marked with black at the ends of the veins. The female is of 
the same shade of blue, or sometimes much paler (var. clara, 
Tutt), with a broad blackish border on the outer margin of the 
fore wings extending along the front margin to about the 
middle ; this border varies in width and seems to be wider in 
summer specimens than in those of the earlier flight ; the discal 
mark on the fore wings is black, but this is sometimes very 












Adonis Blue. 

V i 3 2, 4, 5, 9 male ; 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 female. x£ 




Mlj2. 







-~Jy ; 




PL in. 



Adonis Blue. 
Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillars and chrysalis* 



N\K 



THE HOLLY BLUE. 173 

faint ; there is a series of black dots on the outer margin of the 
wings. 

Although the colour of the upper side is somewhat like that 
of the Common Blue, it should not be confused with that 
species, as the under side is very different both as regards the 
colour, which is bluish-white, and the arrangement of the 
black spots. On the outer margins of the wings in some 
specimens there are more or less distinct traces of blackish 
crescents. 

There is no considerable variation in this species, but the 
spots on the under side are subject to slight modification in the 
matters of size and shape ; the borders also vary in width, and 
in the female the blue area is thus sometimes much restricted. 
A gynandrous specimen has been recorded, in which the right 
side is male. 

The egg (Plate 112) is described as whitish or bluish-green 
in colour. 

The full-grown caterpillar has a blackish head, the body is 
bright yellowish-green with paler lines ; eight rings from and 
including the second are crested with two ridges of humps, 
between which lies the sunk dorsal space ; the whole skin of 
the body is velvety, with its surface thickly covered with 
yellowish warty granules, each bearing a minute bristly white 
hair. Sometimes the humps and the middle of the back are 
marked with rose-pink. 

The chrysalis is pale brownish-bchreous with a thin blackish- 
brown line on the back of the brown freckled thorax ; the 
body is marked with rather blotchy arrow-head dashes, and 
some larger dark brown blotches ; the wing-cases are pale 
greyish freckled and outlined with brown, their surface is 
smooth and rather more glistening than the other parts, which 
are thickly studded with fine, short, brownish bristles. (Adapted 
from Buckler.) 

The following is a brief summary of a paper by Mr. R. Adkin 



174 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

(Proc. S. Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1896), in which he 
gives a most interesting account of the earlier stages of the 
second brood of this species. 

At the time when the butterflies of the second brood are on 
the wing, the flower-buds of the ivy (Hedera helix) are still 
young, and form compact heads. The butterfly, having selected 
one of these heads, settles upon its top, closes her wings over 
her back, and bending her abdomen down and round under- 
neath the buds, affixes an egg to the under side of one of the 
slender single bud-stalks. In about a week the eggs hatch. 
The young larva which in colour matches the buds very closely, 
rests on the bud-stalk Vith its anterior segments, which com - 
pletely cover its head, pressed closely against the bud, and looks 
so exactly like a slight swelling of the upper part of the stalk 
as to make detection a matter of great difficulty, even with the 
aid of a fairly powerful lens. The larva is very sluggish in its 
habits, seldom leaving the head of the buds on which it is 
hatched, so long as sufficient food remains for its nourishment, 
or occasionally when about to change its skin. It appears to 
feed only at night, and its manner of feeding, which is the same 
throughout its life, is to eat a round hole through the outer shell 
of a bud, and pressing its head forward through it to clear out 
the soft inside of the bud. In from four to six weeks it is full- 
fed ; it then quits the buds, and attaches itself by slender threads 
to a leaf, and in a few days becomes a pupa, in which state it 
passes the winter. 

Normally the eggs of the spring butterflies are laid on the 
under side of the calyces of flower-buds of holly {Ilex). The 
caterpillars feed on the flower-buds and also on the young 
green berries. They are full grown in about a month, change 
to chrysalids, and the butterflies emerge in July and August. 
Among other pabula that have been mentioned are the flowers 
of dogwood (Cornus sanguinea), berry-bearing alder {Rhamnus 
frangula), and spindle {Euonymus europaus). 




1 /I 








/>/. 112. 



Holly Blue. 

Eggs enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



NiJb 





A 




\ T 





I / V 




/V. II : 




Holly Blue. 
i, 2, 6 7««/(?; 3, 4 , i female (spring) ; 5 »ta/«; S. 9 female sn 



A 175. 



THE HOLLY BLUE. 175 

In confinement the caterpillars will eat young leaves of holly 
and probably of ivy also, but where flower-buds are available 
they prefer them and ignore the tender leaves. 

The Rev. Gilbert Raynor, on May 18, 1901, observed a 
female deposit an egg on an unopened flower-bud of rhododen- 
dron in his garden ; and he also mentions that he beat a number 
of the caterpillars of all sizes from holly during the first week 
of July in the same year. 

Mr. Dennis reported that on October 9, 1902, all stages of 
the species were to be found at Earl's Colne, Essex. 

Butterflies of the first flight are usually to be seen in April 
and May, and of the second, which is perhaps only partial and 
may not be represented at all, in July and August. Specimens 
have been observed as early as the last week of March, and, 
as adverted to above, as late as October. For a few years in 
succession the species may become increasingly numerous, and 
then suddenly become quite scarce for a year or two. Most 
probably this is the result of favourable or unfavourable weather 
conditions. 

The taller hollies, where these grow in gardens, open woody 
places, on hillsides, or even in hedgerows, are frequented by 
these butterflies in the spring ; and the ivy-clad walls, etc., are 
their haunts in the summer. 

The species is widely distributed, and often common, over 
the whole of the south of England and Wales. North of the 
Midlands, as well as in Ireland, it is more local, and occurs, I 
believe, only in the first brood. Possibly in the South of 
Ireland there may be a second brood. Barrett states that there 
is no reliable record for Scotland. 

Abroad, its range extends throughout Europe and Northern 
Asia, except the Polar Regions, to China and Japan. It also 
occurs in North Africa. 



/ ' Siefx j 

l7o THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



The Small Blue (Zizera minima). 

The butterfly on Plate 115 is sometimes referred to as the 
" Bedford Blue" and also as the " Little Blue." 

Both sexes are blackish, or sooty-brown ; the male is pow- 
dered, more or less, with silvery-blue scales. The under side 
is greyish-white with a tinge of blue at the base of each wing, 
but chiefly on the hind pair ; the spots are black encircled with 
white. As will be seen on turning to the plate, there is varia- 
tion in size. Fig. 5 represents a giant race occurring in some 
localities, and the particular specimen depicted was taken, with 
many others, on the coast near Lymington, Hants ; it seems to 
be referable to var. alsoides, Gerhard. Variation on the under 
side is usually in the direction of complete absence of spots, but 
Mr. Joy has recorded a specimen with the spots on the hind 
wings extended into streaks of considerable but varying length. 

Figures of the early stages will be found on Plate 114. 

The egg is pale greenish in colour, netted with whitish ; it is 
laid in June on the calyx of a flower-bud, generally low down, 
of the kidney-vetch (Anthyllts vidneraria). 

According to Buckler, caterpillars hatched on June 21 from 
eggs laid between the 16th and 18th of that month, and at 
once commenced to feed on the flowers of the kidney-vetch, 
and made their way to the seed, for which they evinced a 
marked preference. When full grown, the caterpillar is 
brownish, sometimes tinged with pink. The fine bristles are 
dark brown ; there is a darker line along the middle of the 
back, and a line of dark marks on each side. The head is 
black and shining. 

The chrysalis is described by Buckler as " dirty whitish-grey, 
approaching to drab, palest on the back of the abdomen, 
greyish on the head and thorax, both of which are marked with 
a black dorsal stripe, which is a little interrupted ; on either 











P/. 114. 7^176. 

Small Blue. 

Eggs* natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and chrysaiids> 






%* 







%€ 



W 



f ' 





w 



jv.TT 5 : ^ - Vl ~~- 

Small Blue, i male; 2. -^female; 4, 5- - - 8 
Mazarine Blue. 9. " *««&; IO - x -. 



THE MAZARINE BLUE. 177 

side is a subdorsal row of short slanting black dashes. The 
pale ground colour is sprinkled with some very minute black 
specks. The head, thorax, and abdomen are hairy with 
bristly whitish, hairs." Although the caterpillars feed up rather 
quickly and are full grown and apparently ready to assume the 
chrysalis state, they do not effect the change until the following 
May or June. 

The butterfly emerges in about three weeks, so it will be 
seen that this species continues the caterpillar existence for 
something over ten months. 

On the Continent there are two broods of the butterfly, and 
in England there appears to be a partial second flight in some 
years, as, for instance, in 1901, when captures in August were re- 
ported from Herts, Kent, Surrey, and Wilts. Its haunts are warm 
and sunny grassy hollows and slopes, and it is often common 
in such places on the chalk hills in the south) from the end of 
May to the end of June. According to Barrett it is scarce in 
the Eastern Counties ; widely distributed but local in the Mid- 
land and Western Counties, even to Devon, and in Wales, 
where chalk or limestone is found ; also in extremely restricted 
localities in Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumberland, and Durham, 
and in various places in Scotland, extending as far north as 
Aberdeen. In Ireland it is much more plentiful, especially on 
the limestone of the west and on the coast hills near Belfast, 
and even frequents the sandhills of the Dublin coast. 

It is widely spread over Europe, except the Polar parts, and, 
apparently, the south of Portugal and Spain ; its range extends 
eastward to Amurland, Mongolia, and China. 

The Mazarine Blue (Nomiades setniargus). 

The male is dull purplish-blue, narrowly bordered with black- 
ish on the outer margin ; the female is dark brown. On the 
underside both sexes are pale greyish-brown, with a bluish 



178 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES- 

tinge at the base ; there is a black discal spot and a series of 
black spots beyond, all ringed with white. 

The tgg is described as being white in colour and small, and 
round in shape. 

The caterpillar is of a dingy yellowish-green, with darker 
lines on the back and sides ; there are fine hairs on the body, 
and the head and spiracles are dark brown (Riihl). 

It feeds in July and August on the flowers and seeds of thrift 
(Anneria vulgaris), kidney-vetch (Anthyllis vuhieraria), and 
melilot {Melilotus officinalis). 

The chrysalis is rather oval in shape, pale olive-green in 
colour when first formed, in September, but olive-brown later ; 
it is attached by the tail to a stalk of the food-plant and has 
a silken girdle (Riihl). 

This butterfly (Plate 115) is the cymon of Lewin, who, writing 
in 1795, considered it very rare. In 1828 Stephens refers to it as 
scarce and local, " found in chalky districts in Norfolk, Cambridge, 
Yorkshire, and Dorsetshire ; also near Brockenhurst and Ames- 
bury, Hants ; and on Windlesham Heath, Surrey, towards the 
end of May and of July." Newman (1871) adds Warwickshire, 
Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Monmouthshire, Glamorgan- 
shire, Somersetshire, and Lincolnshire. Curtis gives Leicester- 
shire and Worcestershire. It seems to have been fairly common, 
and even plentiful in some years around Glanville's Wotton, 
Dorset, but has not been seen in that district since 1841 ; at 
Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester, it was not uncommon up to 
1858 ; as late as 1864 it occurred at Epworth, North Lincoln- 
shire. Probab ljrthejatest captures in Britain were the specimens 
taken in Glamorganshire in the years i874~77» _ Tutt mentions 
that the butterfly was taken near Cuxton in Kent, some thirty- 
five years ago, but it has not since been seen in that locality. 

Occurs in May and June and again in July and August 
over the greater part of Europe ; its range extends to Asia 
Minor, and eastward to Siberia, Mongolia, and Amurland. 



PI. 116. 



O 



•Ja\ 



\ 









i> 









m 



....... ^ 



Large Blue. 

.%£-, natural size, and enlarged; chrysalis. 



JVv/8. I 




>J> iV 







PL 117. 




,Vi79« 



Large Blue. 1, 5 naUe\ 2. 3, 4, 6 female. 
Chalkhill Blue vars. 7 female ; 8 ^. «wr. y v 



THE LARGE BLUE. 179 



The Large Blue (Nomiades arion). 

The butterfly on Plate 117, Figs. 1-6, is the largest "Blue" 
found in this country. All the wings on the upper side are deep 
blue, and their outer margins are bordered with blackish ; the 
discal spot, and a row of spots beyond, are black-; the hind 
wings have a row of black dots on the outer margin, and 
sometimes, and especially in the female, there is a series of black 
dots just beyond the central area ; the fringes are white. The 
under side is greyish tinged with blue towards the base of each 
wing, but covering nearly the whole of the basal third of the 
hind pair ; the spots are black ringed or edged with white ; on the 
fore wings there are two in the discal cell and a row of six 
beyond ; on the hind wings there are four or five before the 
discal spot, and a series of seven beyond ; all the wings have 
a double marginal series, and some black dots at the ends of 
the nervules. Sometimes the wings have a purplish tinge, and 
this is more usually so in Gloucestershire specimens. The 
chief variation is in the number and the size of the spots ; these 
are occasionally only faintly in evidence, but more rarely perhaps 
those beyond the discal spot on the fore wings are of large size 
and bar or wedge-like in shape ; the smaller cell-spot is often 
absent. A dwarf form is stated to occur at times in all localities . 

The complete life-history of this species has yet to be ascer- 
tained ; no one seems to be acquainted with the caterpillar 
after hibernation. Pretty much all that is known of the early 
stages has been worked out by Mr. Frohawk, who has published 
some very interesting accounts of his observations in the 
Entomologist for 1899 and 1903, and from these the following 
details have been obtained. 

The egg (Plate 116) is bluish-white in colour, and is laid 
singly among the buds of wild thyme {Thymus serpyllum). 

Caterpillars hatched on July 10 from eggs received the 



l8o THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

previous day ; they were placed upon thyme blossoms and soon 
commenced to feed, one being observed to eat its way into the 
base of the calyx so that the forepart of the caterpillar was 
hidden. In its colouring and downy covering the caterpillar so 
closely resembles the flower-buds of the thyme that it is very 
difficult to detect. After the third moult (July 26) the colour 
is a uniform, dull, ochreous-pink ; there are four rows of long 
curved hairs, each row composed of a single hair on each ring 
from the fourth to the ninth inclusive ; the first three rings have 
each a set of three subdorsal hairs, those on the first ring curving 
forwards ; the bases of the hairs resemble glass-like pedestals 
with fluted sides. The head is ochreous with dark brown mark- 
ings in front. The caterpillar at this stage develops an aversion 
to thyme or any other plant offered to it, and seems to be anxious 
to hide itself in the ground. 

The chrysalis, which is figured on Plate 116 (after Frohawk), 
is ochreous when first formed, but becomes darker gradually ; 
the wing-cases, however, remain of the original colour, but their 
hind margins darken. From a chrysalis found on July 12 the 
butterfly emerged on July 16. 

There is some evidence in favour of the supposition that 
this caterpillar is in some way dependent upon ants for nourish- 
ment after the third moult, if not before, but what the exact 
requirement may be is not known. Probably the circum- 
stances connected with the discovery of the chrysalis in 1905 
by Messrs. Frohawk & Rayward may afford a valuable clue to 
the direction in which their future investigation will have to be 
conducted. We may hope, therefore, that the mystery that has 
so long hung over the last stages of the caterpillar will be solved 
before very long. 

Lewin (1795) and Donovan (1796) both refer to this as a 
rare English butterfly. The former states that it is on the 
wing in July, and is found on high chalky lands in different 
parts of the kingdom, having been taken on the cliffs in the 



THE LARGE BLUE. 151 

neighbourhood of Dover, Marlborough Downs, the hills near 
Bath, and near Clifden in Bucks. 

Stephens, in 1828, wrote of it as "an insect of great rarity." 
He mentioned the localities given by the older authors, and 
added that it had been taken in the Mouse's Pasture, near 
Bedford, in rocky situations in North Wales, and had been 
plentiful near Winchester. 

Newman (1871) wrote, " Its 'metropolis, 5 if I may borrow an 
expression from the revered fathers of British entomology, is in 
South Devon ; it has occurred in some abundance in Somerset- 
shire, and on the Cotswold Hills in Gloucestershire ; from 
Gloucestershire we ascend to a Midland county, Northampton- 
shire, in which county (at Barnwell Wold) a considerable 
number have been taken." One specimen was reported from 
Charmouth in Dorsetshire, and the butterfly has also been 
recorded from Herefordshire, but these are matters of ancient 
history. At the present time the species is only to be found in 
limited numbers in the Cotswolds ; it seems to have become 
much rarer than formerly in its South Devon locality, i.e. Bolt- 
head, near Plymouth ; one never hears of it now from Clovelly, 
in North Devon, where, according to Dale, it was once reported 
to be abundant. In 1891 Messrs. Waterhouse obtained a fine 
series of specimens in West Cornwall, and since that time the 
district has been annually visited by an increasing number of 
entomologists. Judging from the "big bags" that are made 
each year it would seem that the butterfly has a very strong 
and widely distributed settlement in those parts. 

Abroad it is distributed throughout Europe, except the Polar 
and the south-western parts, and is also found in Armenia, 
Bithynia, and South Siberia. 

Our next species belongs to the Nemeobiinae, a sub-family 
of Lemoniidae = Erycinidae. Only one member of the family 
is known to occur in Europe ; this is Nemeoblus lucina. 



l82 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

As the fore legs of the male butterfly are aborted, and are 
therefore useless for walking, the species would seem to come 
near the Nymphalidae, in which the fore legs of the butterflies, 
in both sexes, are reduced. In its early stages, however, the 
species seems to be most nearly related to the Lycaenidae. 

';**»>%!■ The Duke of Burgundy Fritillary (Nemeobius lucina). 

**'"** jj^ This butterfly is figured on Plate 120. The male is black, 

tu w * tn tnree transverse tawny bands on the fore wings ; these 

vJ*^ 4 * are crossed by the black veins, and so form series of irregular 

V%!a*t s P ots - Those on the outer margin have black centres ; on the 

toll} k mc ^ wm 8 s there are three or four tawny spots on the disc, 

J*^^ and a series of black centred tawny spots on the outer area. 

rtk The female is similar to the male, but the tawny markings are 

o* a wider, so that the fore wings appear to be of this colour, with 

<"*fa a black patch at the base, two black irregular lines, and a 

J^Vt series of black spots on the outer margin. On the under side 

yi*. of the hind wings there are two transverse series of whitish 

9 V spots, and a series of black spots on the outer margin. The 

Jj^* wings of this sex are always broader than those of the male, 

and the apex of the fore wings is not so distinctly pointed. 

Variation is not usually of a very pronounced character, and 

in a general way it consists mainly in a greater or lesser amount 

of black in the male, and this more particularly on the hind 

wings, and an increase in the tawny colour in the female ; in 

the latter sex, outer marginal black spots are sometimes absent 

from all the wings. Barrett mentions two extreme aberrations. 

In one, a female, the usually dark spaces, bands, and veins are 

of an exceedingly pale brown, suffused with fulvous, so as to be 

comparatively indistinct ; another example, a male, has the 

basal area of the fore wings pale, and the first transverse dark 

band absent. 

The eggs of this species are to be found at the end of May 








// 









PL 118. Nil 

i, 3 Common Blue Vars., male; 6 do. female. 
2, 5, 8. ii Adonis Blue vars., male; 4, 7, do. female. 
9r 10 Chalkhill Blue vars., female; 12 do. male. 



*bv\ 



1 / f& 



^i l ; 



mmm 











<& 


/Mr*, "ill 




\» &/ <J1f •' 




■■r 11 




111-* 



8 ' t 9 




/>/. 119. 



.ViS; 



1, 2, 3 Small Copper vars. ; 4 Adonis Blue var. 
5 Common Blue var^; 6, 7, S Gatekeeper vars. 



THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY FRITILLARY. 183 

on the under sides of the leaves of the cowslip (Primula veris\ 
sometimes as many as ten on one leaf, but as a rule there will 
only be one or two on a plant. When laid, the egg is very 
glassy in appearance, but it gradually turns to .a pinkish-grey ; 
and when the caterpillar is ^formed inside, the snell becomes 
transparent, and its occupant can be clearly seen. It eats a 
considerable portion of the shell in making its exit therefrom, 
and afterwards consumes the remainder of the shell. When in 
its last skin the caterpillar is brown, covered with short 
whitish hair, among which are some longer dark brown or 
blackish hairs ; the lines on the back and sides are blackish, 
and there are black dots on the front part of each segment or 
ring. Head, honey brown, notched on the crown ; eyes and 
jaws, brownish. It feeds from June to August on cowslip, but 
will also eat primrose {Primula vulgaris), and hides among 
dead and withered leaves beneath the food-plant (Plate 121). 

The chrysalis is pale whity-brown, hairy above, with black 
dots ; head and the upper edge of the wing-cases streaked with 
black. 

Occasionally a few butterflies emerge in August, but they 
usually remain in the chrysalis until May or June. 

This is a woodland species, and prefers the sunny but 
sheltered nooks and glades, but also resorts to the broader 
rides and pathways. Flowers do not seem to have any strong 
attraction for it, but it may often be seen sitting on the foliage 
of a bush or sapling tree. It appears to be pretty widely dis- 
tributed, although to a certain extent local, throughout the 
southern half of England, but seems to have almost or quite 
disappeared from the counties of Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, and 
Essex. Dumfries is the only locality in Scotland from which 
it has been reported. 

Its distribution abroad is limited to Central Europe, Den- 
mark, Livonia, Southern Sweden, Central Spain North Italy, 
and the Balkans. 



1 84 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Now follow the Skippers (Hesperiidae), of which kind of 
butterfly we have eight species in England. Of these the first 
two belong to the Hesperiinae and the others to the Pamphilinae. 

IVtL^ The Grizzled Skipper (Hesperia malvte). ,S7 ??!J^ 

. The wings of the butterfly figured on Plate 122 are blackish, A<ik 
' ' ornamented with numerous white spots, which are more or less • 
square in shape, on the fore wings. The fringes are chequered 
black and white. 

The male differs from the female in having the front edge 
of the fore wings folded towards the base, and these wings 
have scattered greyish scales on the basal area ; the central 
series of spots on the hind wings are also more in evidence, 
and not infrequently unite and become band-like. Variation 
consists in modification of the markings, chiefly in a tendency 
of the spots to run together, culminating in var. taras, Bergstr., 
in which the white spots of the fore wings are confluent and 
form a large blotch. This variety was figured by Petiver in 
17 1 7, but was not named by Bergstrasser until 1780. Haworth 
described it as lavaterce, and Newman figured it under the same 
name. 

On a small plant of Alpine strawberry, sent by the Rev. 
Gilbert Raynor, were three eggs of this butterfly. These were 
pale green in colour, ribbed, and delicately netted with cross- 
lines. On June 26, three caterpillars were noticed on the upper 
side of the leaves, each on a separate leaf, and under cover of a 
few coarse silken threads. They were pale steely-grey, with black 
heads, and plates on the first and last segments of the body. 

As the supply of strawberry foliage was failing, the cater- 
pillars were given bramble on July 21, and the next day 
each was found enclosed in a sort of envelope formed of a 
bramble leaf. They were then seemingly in their last skin, 
whitish-green in colour, and covered with short whitish hair ; 



Sa 



^ 
s 



*> 




.!! 



^ 



■X: k - 



} 



PL 121. 



Duke of Burgundy Fritillary. 

Egg enlarged; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



-V1S5. 



THE GRIZZLED SKIPPER. 185 

a whitish edged dark olive-brown line along the back, and 
similar lines on the sides ; between the rings the colour was 
pale ochreous. The date of pupation was not noted, but on 
September 9, one of the spun-together bramble leaves was 
opened, and a chrysalis found within. This was pale brown, 
with dark brown or blackish marks along the back and sides ; 
the head and back were covered with dense pale reddish-brown 
bristles ; the wing, leg, and antennae cases were greenish, 
smooth, and shaded with brownish. Between the head and 
first ring of the body above there was a deep furrow, with 
a black-centred white spot on each side of it (Plate 123). 

Besides the plants adverted to above, the caterpillars will 
eat raspberry (Rubus idceus) and cinquefoil (Potentilla fra- 
gariastrum and P. reptans). 

The butterfly is pretty generally distributed in Great Britain, 
but does not seem to be common in Ireland, as Kane only men- 
tions two examples, from Killarney. It is found in May and June 
on chalk downs and other hillsides, especially in the hollows 
and sheltered nooks, also in and around woods, and in rough 
fields. On dull days and at night it may be found sitting, 
with the wings erect over the back, on various seed-heads, etc. 

The species is double brooded on the Continent, and occa- 
sionally a few butterflies will appear in August, but' such 
emergences depend on a combination of favourable circum- 
stances. In very forward seasons it has been seen on the wing 
during the last week in April. 

Its range extends over Europe and into Northern Asia. 

As Barrett refers to the capture in Norfolk (May or June, 
i860) of several specimens of the Central and South European 
species, H. alveus. Hub., it maybe well to mention it here, 
if only for the purpose of quoting his remarks thereon. After 
detailing the facts connected with the occurrence, he states, 
"It seems undesirable now to introduce the species to a place 



1 86 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 

in the British list, but rather to record the captures in question 
as specimens accidentally introduced with plants, or else the 
result of a very exceptional act of migration." 

|V y+ The Dingy Skipper {Thanaos tages). ^X*x 

The wings are fuscous, with darker fuscous transverse bands ^d 
on the middle third of the fore wings ; the space between these %o 5* 
is sometimes, and in both sexes, whitish ; there are some 
whitish spots on the outer band, usually towards the costa, but 
occasionally on the middle also, and a series of white points on 
the outer margin of all the wings. The hind wings have a 
whitish discal dot and a band beyond the middle, which is 
almost parallel with the outer margin. The male has a well- 
marked fold on the costa (Plate 122). 

The egg is whitish-green when freshly laid ; it afterwards 
changes in colour to orange. The caterpillar is yellowish- 
green with a darker line along the back and a paler line on 
each side ; the spiracles are red and edged with whitish. The 
head is pale brown, striped and marked with purplish-black. 
The body, together with the head, is covered with a short 
whitish pile. It feeds on bird's-foot trefoil {Lotus corniculatus) 
from June until August, when it hibernates. I have not seen 
the chrysalis, but it has been described as dark green with the 
body tinged with rosy red. 

The butterfly is on the wing in May and June ; in some 
seasons it has been seen as early as the end of April. Very 
occasionally, perhaps, there is a partial second flight in August. 
It has been reported as plentiful at Lyme Regis in August. 

I took one or two specimens about the middle of August, 
1903, in the New Forest district, and in the same month of 1905 
one of two caterpillars sent to me by Dr. Chapman pupated in 
August, and the butterfly emerged some time in the autumn, 
as I found it dead in the box early in October. Both the 












PL 122. ^ A'iSO. 

Grizzled Skipper, i, 2, 7 male; 4, 5, 8 female ; 3 zw. male ; 6 do. female. 

Dingy Skipper. 9, 10, 12 7/m/^; n, 13, 14 female-. 






.. 




Dingy Skipper. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged; caterpillar and its shelter. 






-i 



$> 



; ""<?J 



_Jm» 



m 



k 



? 
8§^ 



PL 123. .V1S7. 

Grizzled Skipper. 

Egg s > natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar and shelter ; chrysalis ' coccon. 



THE SMALL SKIPPER. 1 87 

caterpillars had spun together sprays of the food-plant as shown 
in the figure, Plate 123. One was removed for its portrait to be 
taken, and it was supposed that the other bundle contained a 
caterpillar also, and was not examined. 

The butterfly affects open places in, or the edges of, woods in 
chalky districts,also the slopes of chalk downs and other hillsides, 
as well as railway banks and even rough fields. It evidently 
delights in sunshine, and may often be seen basking on a stone 
or the bare earth. When at rest at night or on dull days it sits 
on a dead seed-head or grass glume, with the wings closed 
down over its back like a noctuid moth, and is then difficult to 
detect until the eye becomes accustomed to its appearance. It is 
widely distributed in Great Britain, but it is more at home on 
chalk and limestone than elsewhere. In such localities as the 
fens of Norfolk and Cambridge it is scarce, and seems to 
have a rather limited distribution in Ireland, in which country 
Galway is its headquarters, according to Kane. 

Abroad, it is found throughout Europe, and its range extends 
to Western Asia. 



The Small Skipper (Adopcza thatimas). 

All the wings are brownish-orange, with the veins darker and 
becoming black towards the outer margins, especially on the 
fore wings. The male has a black sexual mark (Plate 125). 

Except that the colour varies in the direction of a pale golden 
tint there is little in the way of aberration in this butterfly. At 
least one gynandrous specimen has been recorded. 

The following descriptions of the early stages (Plate 124), 
as well as the figures of the caterpillar and the chrysalis, are 
from Buckler's " Larvae of British Butterflies " : — 

The egg " is of a long oval figure, half as long again as wide, 
the shell glistening, devoid of ribs or reticulation ; at first white, 
then turning dull yellowish, and at last paler again, with the 



1 88 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

dark head of the caterpillar showing through. The young 
caterpillar eats part of the empty egg-shell." 

The full-grown caterpillar is of a delicate light green, the 
stripe along the back is rather bluish-green, with paler green 
central and side lines ; the spiracles are flesh-coloured, and 
below these there is a somewhat creamy-white stripe. The 
head is deeper green than the body, and roughened with 
minute points. It feeds in June on Holcus lanatus, Br achy - 
podium sylvaticurn, and probably other kinds of soft grasses, 
and its assimilation, both in colour and texture, with the blades 
of grass is remarkable. Before changing to the chrysalis it 
encloses itself within two or sometimes three leaves of the grass, 
joined together longitudinally by lacing or spinning with white 
silk, the edges more or less close to each other, and becomes 
completely hidden. 

The chrysalis is secured in the silken chamber, head upward, 
by an oblique cincture behind the thorax, and the anal tip 
fastened by a fan-like spread of fine hooks at the extremity 
fixed in the silk. The colour is similar to that of the caterpillar, 
and the lines are fairly in evidence. Caterpillars that spun up 
on June 18 to 23 produced butterflies on July 15 and 16. 

Hellins states that eggs were laid in a row in a folded blade 
of grass about July 29, and that the caterpillars hatched out 
on August 12. 

According to Hawes, the caterpillar of this species does not 
hatch from the egg until the following spring. 

Although it does not seem to be very plentiful in fenlands, 
this butterfly certainly has a partiality for damp places, whether 
in the rides, or on the sides of woods, on hill slopes, or waste 
ground. Wherever there is a fairly large growth of the taller 
soft grasses that the caterpillars feed upon, there the butterfly 
may be found in July nnd August throughout the greater part 
of England and Wales. Reported from the Edinburgh district 
in Scotland ; and in Ireland from Powerscourt and near Cork. 




Small Skipper, 

Caterpillar and chrysalis 




Essex Skipper. 

Eggs, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillar. 




PL 124. 



Luiworth Skipper. 

Eggs enlarged ; caterpillar and chrysalis. 



Nil 



V 5. J 




\\3 




S# 




W 



^T-jitf 







8 r 












/V. 125. 



1S9. 



Small Skipper, t, 3 »'^; ? - Af emaie - 
Essex Skipper. 5, 7 *»«/*,- 6. 8 female, 
Lulworth Skipper. 9, n w«/< ■; 10, k. . 



THE ESSEX SKIPPER. 1 89 

The Essex Skipper (Adopcza lineola). 

This butterfly is very like the Small Skipper, but may be 
separated from it, in both ssxes, by the black under sides of the 
knobs of the antennas. The black, sexual mark in the male is 
finer, shorter, and much less oblique (Plate 125), 

The egg (Plate 124) is pale greenish-yellow, oval in shape, 
flattened above and below ; the top is slightly depressed. The 
eggs are deposited in July or August, in dried grass seed-heads 
and inside the sheath of a leaf, and the caterpillars, according to 
Hawes, do not hatch until April. 

The caterpillar is green, with the incisions between the rings 
yellowish ; there is a darker green stripe on the back, and the 
lines on the sides are yellow. The head is pale brown and 
striped with darker brown. It feeds from April to June on 
coarse grasses, such as Triticum repens. When full grown " it 
spins together the stems of the grass low down, with a network 
of white silk for pupation " (Hawes). The chrysalis is described 
as being long, yellowish-green in colour, and retaining the dark 
dorsal stripe seen in the caterpillar. 

No doubt this butterfly has been with us all the time, but it 
appears to have escaped detection until the year 1888, when 
Mr. Hawes, in July of that year, met with it in Essex. He, 
however, did not then consider the three specimens that he 
had taken with A . thaumas anything more than queer varieties 
of that species, and it was not until January, 1890, that the fact 
of A. lineola being British was published. Since that time 
this Skipper has been found in a great many parts of Essex, 
but chiefly along the coast, and in such localities as Ben- 
fleet, Canvey, Dovercourt, Shoeburyness, Southend, etc. At 
Hadleigh it is often very abundant. Other localities are 
Sheerness, Cliffe, and Gravesend, in Kent. It has also been 
reported from near Sudbury, and from Harwich, and Chappel 

O 



190 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

in Suffolk ; from Ashton Wold in Northamptonshire. In 1898 
five specimens, identified by the Rev. Gilbert Raynor, were 
taken near Bedford. Barrett, who mentions Wicken Fen and 
Burwell among other localities, says that it has a "partiality for 
the embankments which protect the cultivated land from the 
inroad of the high tides which flood the salt marshes. Here 
it flits about, or sits on the coarse seaside grasses or on 
blossoms of thistle, or Lotas comiciilatits, indicating rather 
sluggish habits, yet flying swiftly when disturbed. Further 
inland it seems to frequent chalky hillsides and marshes." It 
is on the wing in July and August. 

The species is found in all parts of the Palaearctic Region 
except the most northern and the Canary Isles. 

The Lulworth Skipper {Adopcza aciaon). 

Compared with the other two species on Plate 125, the 
coloration of this butterfly is somewhat dingy ; it is, however, 
enlivened, especially in the female, by a short clash and a 
curved series of orange spots in the uppet half of the fore 
wings. The male has a black sexual mark which is very 
similar to that of the Small Skipper. There seems to be very 
little to note in variation, except that the orange markings 
referred to are subject to modification, and in the male may be 
altogether absent. An example taken at Swanage, in 1903, had 
the wings on the left side male, and those on the right side 
female. 

The egg, figured, from a photograph, on Plate 124, is whitish, 
faintly tinged with yellowish. 

The mature caterpillar is pale greyish, or yellowish, green, 
with the dorsal vessel darker, and edged with a slender pale 
yellow line on either side, and enclosing a pale longitudinal 
line along its middle. A narrow yellowish line runs above on 
the side and a broader one below. The two dorsal lines are 



THE LULWORTH SKIPPER. IQI 

prolonged as far as the middle of the head, and run to the 
end of the flat anal shield, which is narrowly" edged with pale 
yellow. The head is greenish with two yellowish lines. The 
two snow-white patches on the under side of the ninth and 
tenth rings of the body are conspicuous as in lineola^ sylvanus, 
and comma. This white substance is spread out at the tail end 
of the caterpillar of actceon, when it has formed its chrysalis 
case (Zeller). 

Buckler, referring to four caterpillars found on Br achy ft odium 
sylvaticum, June n, states that they completed their growth 
on a diet of Triticum repens. They ate out wedge-shaped 
portions from the sides of the grass blades, and when they had 
finished their repast, they crawled down to the middle of the 
blade, and there spun a coating of white silk from one side to 
the other, causing the two edges of the blade to draw together 
a little, and then in the silk-lined hollow they rested until 
hunger obliged them to ascend the blade again for another 
meal. About June 23 they had ceased to feed, and were begin- 
ning to fasten themselves within more closely constructed 
retreats, formed where two blades of grass obliquely crossed 
each other. The colour of the chrysalis is similar to that of 
the caterpillar, and the lines are faintly traceable. The butter- 
flies appeared July 14 to 18, emerging at night, and ready for 
flight in the morning. 

This insect received its English name in 1832, when it was 
first discovered in this country at Lul worth Cove, in Dorsetshire. 
It has since been found to occur at Durdle Cove, and the 
Burning Cliff, Weymouth, and the latter locality appears to be 
its most eastern limit. Its range extends westward along the 
coast of Dorsetshire and Devonshire to Sidmouth, Seaton, and 
Torquay ; and there are records of its having been observed 
in Cornwall. According to Mr. E. R. Bankes, as quoted by 
Barrett, this butterfly is not confined to the coast line in Dorset, 
but is to be found in two or three spots along the chalk range 



192 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

of the Purbeck Hills, at a distance of four or five miles from the 
sea. He also states that the species is only single brooded, 
that the best time for it is from the beginning of July to the 
middle of August, and that the food-plant of the caterpillar is 
Brachypodium pinnatum. 

The blossoms of rest-harrow {Ononis arvensis) are said to 
be the particular vanity of the butterfly, and it is seldom found 
visiting any other flower. Abroad the species is not especially 
attached to the sea-coast, but occurs inland throughout Central 
and Southern Europe, its range extending to Asia Minor and 
Syria, and also to North-West Africa. 

The Large Skipper (Augiades sylvanus). 

The male has the discal area of the fore wings bright fulvous, 
and the outer area broadly brown ; the sexual mark is black ; 
the hind wings are tinged with fulvous on the disc, and have 
brighter fulvous spots. The female is brown with a fulvous 
discal wedge on the fore wings, and an angulate series of fulvous 
spots beyond ; hind wings as in the male, but spots rather more 
defined. In some examples of this sex the spots on the fore 
wings are confluent, and the discal area is then fulvous as in 
the male (Plate 126). 

The egg is whitish or greenish-white, and is laid on a blade 
of grass. Hellins states that from eggs laid about July 1 the 
caterpillars hatched on July 13 ; they chose cocks-foot grass 
(Dactylis glomeratd) for food, and rested in the middle of a 
blade, fastening its edges across with five or six distinct little 
ropes of white silk. 

The young caterpillar figured on Plate 127 was on Septem- 
ber 11 about half an inch in length, and had been removed 
from the grass tube, also shown, to be figured ; the head was 
then pale brown, bordered and lined with purplish brown ; the 
body was darkish green, paler on the last ring, and with darker 



THE SILVER-SPOTTED SKIPPER. 193 

lines on the back and sides. After hibernation (the figure of 
this stage of the caterpillar is from Buckler), in May, the 
caterpillar is about one inch long, pale green in colour ; the 
skin is thickly covered with very short dark brown bristles, 
" the head dirty white with a dark brown stripe down the outer 
edge of each lobe, the neck whitish-green" (Hellins). 

The chrysalis was formed in the grass cocoon shown with it. 
The general colour was brown with the wing-cases darker, and 
a darker suffusion on the back. 

The egg-laying of this butterfly has been observed by Mr. 
Ullyett, who states that the female, having selected a suitable 
grass-stem, deposits eggs in a line in a sheath formed by the 
leaf round the stem. The caterpillars hibernate in tubes of 
grass, and feed up in the spring. 

This butterfly has been supposed to be double brooded, but 
there does not seem to be any direct evidence that this is so. 
It is on the wing in grassy places on the slopes of downs and 
other hillsides, also in rides, and on the margins of woods, 
from early June until well into July, and sometimes even later 
in the year. It is found in most of our English counties, and 
also in Scotland, south of the Forth. In Ireland it is not 
uncommon in a meadow in Lord Kenmare's demesne, Killarney, 
and has been recorded from the Morrough of Wicklow. 

Abroad its distribution extends through Europe and Northern 
Asia to China and Japan, and also to North Africa. 

The Silver-spotted Skipper {Augiades comma). 

This butterfly is very similar on the upper side to the Large 
Skipper, but the spots, especially those nearest the front edge 
of the fore wings, are yellower. On the under side the greenish 
tinge of the ground colour, and the silvery spots, make the 
identification quite easy. The black sex mark in the male is 
very similar to that of the last species (Plate 126). 



194 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

The males vary a little in the width of the marginal border, 
and in some females there is almost as much fulvous on the 
discal area of the wings as in the male ; in the darkest females 
the spots always appear paler than in fulvous specimens. On 
the under side the ground colour is sometimes olive-brown 
rather than green. 

The following account of the life-history of this butterfly is 
adapted from Mr. Frohawk's article on the subject published in 
the Entomologist for 1901 : — 

In August, whilst watching some of the butterflies on the 
wing over a patch of chalky ground covered with a short dense 
growth of various grasses, etc., he noted a female hovering 
close over the plants. Presently it settled on a tuft of hair grass 
(Aira cozspitosd), and after walking over and among it a little 
time, she curved her abdomen down, and deposited a single 
egg on one of the fine hair-like blades, or, rather, spines, and 
close by, within an inch, another egg was found. Afterwards 
some plants of this grass were potted up, and some females 
placed on them. These deposited a large number of eggs 
upon the grass-stems and blades. 

The egg when newly laid is pearl white with the slightest 
yellowish-green tinge, which very gradually turns deeper in 
colour, assuming a pale straw-yellow on the sixth day, and so 
it remains until January, when it becomes paler. 

The caterpillar hatches out at the end of March or early in 
April. It does not eat the empty egg-shell, but directly after 
leaving the egg it starts spinning the fine grass together into 
a somewhat dense cluster an inch or two above the ground. 
In this compact shelter the larva lives and feeds upon the grass 
surrounding it, remaining almost always completely hidden. 
Sometimes as many as three or four live together. When full 
grown and about one hundred days old, the caterpillar is of a 
dull olive-green colour, with a black collar on the first ring, and 
the entire surface densely sprinkled with minute shining black 






Vi-^ff- 











PL 126. 



10 





Large Skipper. 1, 3 male; 2, ^feinale. 
Silver-Spotted Skipper. 5, 7 male; 6, 8 female. 
Chequered Skipper. 9, 10 male; 11 Jemale. 



o 194. 



*•■ 



-;->. 



% 






V 





Large Skipper. 

Egg, natural size and enlarged ; caterpillars, chrysalis and cocoon. 



fi-t 



^ 




Silver-spotted Skipper. 

Egg, natural sice and enlarged; caterpillar. 



<^^ 





PL 127. 



Chequered Skipper. 

Egg enlarged and caterpillar. 



0195. 



THE CHEQUERED SKIPPER. 195 

warts, each emitting a tiny amber-coloured spine with a cleft 
knobbed apex. The head is blackish marked with ochreous 
lines. It still resides in a tube of grass spun closely together, 
and feeds on any other kind of grass that happens to be inter- 
woven with the Aira. Just before pupation the caterpillar often 
crawls restlessly about, but in some instances it does not leave 
its place of feeding, and spins a strong, coarse network cocoon 
among the grass close to the ground, weaving the gnawed loose 
pieces of grass with the fine stems and blades, and therein 
pupates during the latter part of July. 

The chrysalis is secured in the cocoon by hooks at the tail 
and by hooked bristles on the head ; the head and thorax are 
pale olive mottled with blackish ; the body olive, spotted with 
dark olive, and inclining to yellow on the ventral surface ; 
below each spiracle is a short longitudinal mark ; the spiracles 
are amber-brown. 

The butterfly is to be found in August on most of our 
chalk hills, but has not been recorded from either Scotland or 
Ireland. 

It is a very quick flyer and difficult to capture when on the 
wing, but it is fond of sitting on low-growing thistles, and is 
then sometimes easy to take. Abroad it occurs throughout 
Europe and Northern Asia to China and Japan. 



The Chequered Skipper (Carterocephahis palcemon). 

The well-defined yellow or orange spots on the blackish- 
brown ground colour distinguish this butterfly from all other 
British Skippers. 

The variation is only of a minor kind, and chiefly in the 
direction of an increase or a decrease in the number and the 
size of the spots. Occasionally those on the central area of 
the fore wings are much enlarged and more or less confluent ; 



196 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

and the spots on the outer margin of the hind wings are some- 
times very small or entirely absent. 

The following particulars of the early stages are abstracted 
from Mr. Frohawk's life-history of the species {Entomologist. 
1892) :— 

Living females received in June were placed on a growing 
plant of brome grass (Bromus asper\ and a few eggs were 
deposited, some upon the blades of grass, others upon the 
gauze-covered glass jar in which the plant was placed ; they 
were laid singly, firmly adhering to whatever laid upon. The 
first lot of eggs were deposited on June 14. The egg has a 
pearly appearance, being whitish or yellowish-white in colour. 
Ten days after the egg is deposited the young caterpillar 
emerges by eating away the crown. Soon after hatching out 
the young caterpillar makes a little tubular dwelling, drawing 
together the edges of the grass-blade by spinning about three 
or four stout cords of silk, which quickly contract, causing the 
edges to draw together, and sometimes to overlap, forming a 
compact short tube ; generally before spinning it nibbles off 
the extreme edge of the blade where the silk is afterwards 
attached. It feeds upon the blade both above and below its 
abode, devouring so much that frequently only the midrib of 
the blade remains, and the tube only just long enough to 
conceal it ; it then shifts its quarters, and prepares a new home. 

On October 3, when one hundred and one days old, the 
caterpillar was pale primrose-yellow, and the stripes of a 
slightly darker hue, the white lateral line showing clearly, and 
spiracles brownish ; the head pale buff with a faint lilac tinge, 
with a black patch above the mouth and brownish at the sides. 
In the previous stage the caterpillar was whitish-green with a 
rather dark green line along the middle of the back, this line 
bordered on each side by an almost white, very fine line, 
followed by alternate darker and lighter lines, the lightest 
being extremely fine ; " then a subdorsal darker green line, 



THE CHEQUERED SKIPPER. 197 

bordered laterally by a conspicuous whitish line, which is again 
bordered below by a paler and indistinct green line, and a very 
faint spiracular whitish stripe, on which the spiracles are 
placed ; they are white, outlined by a dark but indistinct ring ; 
the under surface is whitish-green." 

About the middle of October the hibernaculum was formed 
by spinning two blades of grass together at the edges, so 
making a tube, in which the caterpillar remained during the 
winter. On March 21 it left its retreat, but did not seem to 
feed, and generally remained quiet, lying along a grass-blade. 
On April 3 "it had drawn together with silk six blades of 
grass at the ends, forming a tent-like structure, and along the 
surface of one of the broadest a little carpet of silk was spun, 
upon which it rested with its head uppermost ; a silk cord also 
encircled its body round the fourth segment." It assumed the 
chrysalis state on April 8, and had then passed two hundred 
and eighty-nine days in the caterpillar condition. The chrysalis 
measures five-eighths of an inch in length, is fairly cylindrical, 
but tapering to the tail. "Dorsal view : the head is pointed in 
front in the form of a short conical beak ; the eyes are rather 
prominent ; the thorax is swollen in the middle, the widest 
part, and then gradually tapers towards the last segment, 
which is elongated and flattened. Lateral view : the beak is 
slightly upturned, the thorax convexed, and the segment next 
the thorax is rather swollen in the middle, so forming a rather 
decided depression at the base of the thorax, where the silken 
cord passes round ; the body gradually tapering to the last 
segment, which terminates in a long compressed curved process 
furnished with long hooks ; the wing-cases extend down two- 
thirds its length, and only very little, if at all, swollen ; the 
antennas and legs are but feebly modelled ; the tongue is well 
defined, it is dusky at the base, blending into black at the 
apex ; the colour is of a very pale primrose-yellow, shading 
into pearly grey, and semi-transparent on the head, wings, and 



'9 8 THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

flap ; a dark medio-dorsal line commences at the base of the 
beak, and passes down the entire length, gradually fading off 
in the anal extremity ; it is blackest on the head and first 
abdominal segment, and palest on the thorax, where it is light 
brown ; there are two rust-red subdorsal lines, which run 
parallel from the base of the antennae to the last segment ; 
another similar line, united along the inner margin of the wing, 
passes over two spiracles, and then runs parallel with the sub- 
dorsal lines. . . . The antennae and wings are faintly outlined 
with dusky brown. In general appearance and colouring the 
pupa closely resembles a piece of dead withered grass." 

A female butterfly emerged on May 20, the transformation 
from egg to perfect insect thus occupying about eleven months. 
This local butterfly is on the wing in June ; sometimes it is seen 
in the latter part of May, and, more rarely perhaps, in July. 

This species appears to have been first noticed as an in- 
habitant of Britain in 1798, in which year specimens were taken 
in Clapham Park Wood, Bedfordshire, by Dr. Abbott, who, 
four years later, also reported the butterfly from White Wood, 
Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire. In 1823 it was found to occur at 
Castor Hanglands, near Peterborough ; and in 1841 Doubleday 
met with it, in large numbers, in Monk's Wood, Huntingdon- 
shire. Among other localities from which it has been reported 
are Ropsley Wood, near Grantham, Notts, and Wychwood 
Forest, Oxfordshire. 

In its special localities, which, at the present time, are chiefly 
the larger woods in Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and 
Buckinghamshire, it frequents the flowers of ground ivy 
(Neftcta glechoma) and of the bugle (Ajitga reptans). 

Abroad it is locally common in various parts of Central 
Europe ; also occurs in Finland, Central and Northern Russia, 
Dalmatia, Piedmont, and in Labrador, and other parts of 
North America. 



A CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE BRITISH 
BUTTERFLIES 



Papilionidae. 


Vanessa polychloros 


PAPILIONIN^E 


Etcgonia polychloros 


Papilio machaon 


Vanessa urticas 


PIERIN^E 


Aglais urticce 


Aporia cratsegi 


Vanessa io 


Pieris brassiere 


,, antiopa 


,, rapre 


Euvanessa antiopa 


,, napi 


Pyrameis cardui 


,, daplidice 


, , atalanta 


Poniia daplidice 


Argynnis paphia 


Euchloe cardamines 


, , adippe 


Leucophasia sinapis 


, , aglaia 


Leptidia sinapis 


, , lathonia 


Colias hyale 


, , euphrosyne 


Enrymus kirbyi 


Brent his euphrosyne 


Colias edusa 


Argynnis selene 


Enrymus hyale 


jBrenthis selene 


Gonepteryx rhamni 


Melitsea athalia 


Colias rhamni 


„ cinxia 




, , aurinia 


Nymphalidae. 


DANAIN^E 


APATURIN^E 


Anosia plexippus 


Apatura iris 




NYMPHALIN/E 


SATYRIN.E 


Limenitis sibylla 


Melanargia galatea 


Limenitis Camilla 


Erebia epiphron 


Polygonia c-album 


Mel am pi as epiphron 


Grapta c-album 


Erebia oethiops 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF BRITISH BUTTERFLIES. 



Satyrus semele 
Hipparchia semele 

Pararge egeria 
,, megaera 
Satyrus megcera 

Epinephele ianira 
Epinephele jurtina 

Epinephele tithonus 

Aphantopus hyperanthus 
Hipparchia hyperanthus 
Enodia hyperanthus 

Coenonympha typhon 
Coenonympha tiphon 
Coenonympha pamphilus 

Lycaenidae. 

LYC/ENIN^i 

Zephyrus betulae 
Thee la betulce 
Zephyrus quercus 
Thecla quercus 
Thecla pruni 
,, w-album 
* Callophrys rubi 
Thecla rubi 
' — Chrysophanus dispar 
Polyommatus dispar 
Lycama dispar 
1 Chrysophanus phlaeas 
Polyommatus phlaas 
Lyccena phlceas 
-" Lampides boeticus 
Lyc<ena boeticus 
— • Cupido argiades 
Lyccena argiades 
Lycaena argus 
Lyccena cegon 
Plebeius argus 



* Lycaena astrarche 
Lyccena agestis 

* Lycama icarus 
Plebeius alexis 
Polyommatus icartis 

~ Lycaena corydon 

Polyommatus corydon 
Lycaena bellargus 
Lyccena adonis 
Polyommatus thetis 
© Cyaniris argiolus 
Zizera minima 
Lyccena minima 
mmm Nomiades semiargus 
Lyccena acis 

,, semiargus 
Nomiades arion 
Polyommatus arion 
Lyc<z?ia arion 

Lemoniidae. 
NEMEOBIIN/E 

Nemeobius lucina 

Hesperiidae. 

HESPERIIN.E 
Hesperia malvae 
Thanaos tages 
JVisoniades tages 
PAMPHILIX.E 

Adopaea thaumas 
,, lineola 
,, actaeon 
Augiades comma 

Erynnis comma 
Augiades sylvanus 
Carterocephalus palaemon 
Pamphila palcemon 



INDEX. 



* Species so marked in this Index are reputed British. 



ADONIS BLUE, 170. Plates no, 
in, 119 

Adopcea acta on , 190, Plates 124, 125 ; 

lineola, 189, Plates 124, 125 ; thau- 

mas, 187, Plates 124, 125 
Ammonia jar, 19 
Androconia, 14 
Angles of wings, 12. Fig. 9 
Anosia menippe, 106 ; plexippus, 106, 

/fofcr 72, 120 
Antennae, 4, 9 
Apatura iris, 56, Plates 28, 29, 31 ; 

var. iole, 57, Plate 31 
Aphantoptcs hyperanthus, 130, Plates 

88, 89 ; var. «r^, 131 ; var. cceca, 

131, /Y#te 89; var. lanceolata, 

131 ; var. obsoleta, 131 
Aporia cratcegi, 32. Plates 4, 5 
Argynnis adippe, 87, Plates 53, 54, 

57 ;* var. cleodoxa, 88 ; var. locuples, 

89 ; aglaia, 89, /fafer 55, 59, 61 ; 

var. charlotta, 90 ; euphrosyne, 94, 

Plates 56, 64, 65 ; lathonia, 91, 

Plates, 58, 63 ; niobe,* 88 ; paphia, 

84, /foter 50, 51, 52, 57; var. 

valesina, 84, Plates 52, 57 ; selene, 

96, /Yafor 56, 62, 66 
Armature, 2 
" Arran Brown," 117 
Augiades comma, 193, Plates 126, 127; 

sylvaniis, 192, Plates 126, 127 

BATH White, 41. /%nfej 12, 14 
Benzine, 28 



Black Hairstreak, 143. Plates 96, 97 
Black-veined White, 32. Plates 3, 4 
Bloxworth Blue, 156, Plates 102, 103 
Board for Flat-setting, 22. Figs. 15-17 
Brace and Band Modes of Setting, 

24. Fig. 20 
Brimstone, 54. Plates 25, 26 
Brown Argus, 161. Plates 104, 105 

,, Hairstreak, 138. Plates 94, 95 

CALLOPHRYS rubi, 147. /%*/*. 

96, 97 
Camberwell Beauty, 73. Plates 41, 

4 2 > 43 
Carterocephalus palczmon, 195. Plates 

126, 127 
Caterpillar stage, 2 
Chalk Hill Blue, 127. /Vto 108, 

109, 117 
Chequered Skipper, 195. Plates 126, 

127 
Chloroform Bottle, 19 
Chorion, 1 
Chrysalis, 6 
Chrysophanus dispar, 148, Plates 98, 

99 ; var. rutilus, 149 ; circe* 152 ; 

dor Ms? 152 ; gordius,* 152 ; hippo- 

thoe* 152 ; phlceas, 152, Plates 

100, IOI, 119; var. ^//j", 152; 

var. schmidtii, 152, i%z/£ 101 ; var. 

hypophlceus, 154; virgaurea* 152 
Classification, x 

Clouded Yellow, 5 1 . /Ytffcr 22, 23, 24 
Clubs of Antennae, 9. Fig. 7 



202 



INDEX. 



Ccenonympha pamphilus, 136, Plates 
92, 93 ; var. lyllus, 136 ; var. 
oeellata, i^J, Plate g2 ; typ/wn, 132, 
Plates 90, 91, 92 ; var. davus, 133 ; 
var. laidion, 133 ; var. philoxenus, 
r 33 > var - rothliebii, 133 ; var. 
scotiea, 133 

Colias edits a, 51, Plates 22, 23, 24; 
var. helice, 52, 7%7^ 24 ; /$;;#/<?, 48, 
7%zto 20, 21 

Collecting, 16 

Comma, the, 62. Plates 32, 35 

Common Blue, 163. Plates 106, 107, 
118, 119 

Compound Eye, 9 

Cremaster, 6. Fig. 5. 

Cupido arglades, 156, Plates 102, 103 ; 
var. corny nt as y 158 ; var. polysper- 
elion, 158 

Cyanide Bottle, 19 

Cyaniris argiolus ,172. Plates 112,113 

DARK Green Fritillary, 89. Plates 

55, 59, 61 
Dehiscence, 7 
Dimorphism, viii 

Dingy Skipper, 186. Plates 122, 123 
Drying House, 26 
Duke of Burgundy, 182. Plates 120, 121 

ECDYSIS, 5 

Egg-stage, I 

Emergence of a Butterfly, 7 

Epinephele ianira, 125, Plates 84, 85 ; 
jurtina, 125 ; tithonus, 127, Plates 
86, 87, 119 ; var. alb/da, 128, i%& 
119; var. mincki, 128 

Erebia cethiops, 113, Plates 76, 77; 
var. obsoleta, 114; var. ockraeea, 
114; blandina, 113; epiphron, 
in ; var. cassiope, m, Plates 76, 
77 ; var. obsoleta y 1 12 ; ligea* 1 17 

Essex Skipper, 189. Plates 124, 125 

Euchlo'e cardamines, 43, Plates 15, 17 ; 
var. hesperidiS) 44 

Eyes or Ocelli, 4 



FALSE legs of caterpillar, 4. Fig. 2A 
Feelers, 4, 9 
Feet, 3 

GATEKEEPER, 127. /Y^to 86, 

87, 119 
Glanville Fritillary, 101. Plates 6$, 

69, 71 

GONEPTERYX rhamni,^. Plates 

25-27 
Grayling, 117. /Yd to 78, 79 
Green Hairstreak, 147. Plates 96, 

97 
Green-veined White. 38. Plates 10, 

I3> H 

Grizzled Skipper, 184. Plates 122, 

123 
Gynandromorphism, viii 

HEAD of Butterfly, 8, Fig. 6 ; of 

Caterpillar, 4, Fig. 3 
Heath Fritillary, 98. Plates 67, 6S 
Hermaphrodite, viii 
Hesperia alveus,* 185 ; makuz, 1S4, 

Plates 122, 123 ; var. lavateru, 

184 ; var. taras, 184 
Heterocera, vii 
High Brown Fritillary. 87. Plates 

53, 54, 57 
Holly Blue, 172. Plates 112. 113 
Horns, 9 

INSTAR, 5 

KILLING, 18 
Kite net, 7. Fig. 13 

LABIUM, 4 

Labrum, 4 

Lampides ba't/a/s, 154. Plates 102. 
103 

Large Blue, 179. /Voter 116, 117 
,, Copper, 148. Plates 9S, 99 
,, Heath, 132. Plates 90. 01. 02 
,, Skipper, 192. Plates 126, 127 



INDEX. 



203 



Large Tortoise-shell, 65. Plates 34, 36 
,, White, 34. Plates 5, 6, 9 

Leucophasia sinapis, 46, Plates 16, 18, 
1 9 ; var. diniensis, 46 ; var. erysimi, 
46 ; var. lathyri, 46 

Limenitis sibylla, 59, Plates 30, 31, 
33 ; var. nigrina, 59, Plate 31 

Lingua, 4 

Long-tailed Blue, 154. Plates 102, 103 

Lul worth Skipper, 190. Plates 124, 
125 

Lyccena adonis, 170; <?£w/, 158; 
argils, 158, Plates, 104, 105 ; tfj- 
tj'arche, 161, Plates 104, 105 ; var. 
artaxerxes, 161 ; var. salmacis, 
1 6 1 ; var. quadripuncta, 162 ; &/- 
largus, 170, Plates no, in, 119; 
var. ceronuS) 170 ; corydon, 167, 
./%«fef 108, 109, 117, 118; var. 
fozvleri, 168 ; var. lucretia, 168 ; 
var. syngrapha, 168, ./%&& 118 ; 
uarus, 163, Plates 106, 107, 118, 
119 ; var. arcua, 164 ; var. ccerulea, 
164 ; var. icarinus, 164 ; var. #2£- 
lanotoxa, 164 

Mandibles, 4, 10 

Marbled White, 1 09. /%*&j 74, 75 
Margins of Wings, 12. Fig. 9 
Marsh Fritillary, 103. /Vtoj 65, 70, 

73 
Marsh Ringlet, 132 
Maxillae, 4, 10 

Mazarine Blue, 177. Plate 115 
Meadow Brown, 125. Plates 84, 85 
Melanargia galalea, 109. Plates 74, 

75 
Mehtcea athaha, 98 ; Plates 67, 68 ; 

var. eorythalia } 98 ; var. #?j-, 99 ; 

var. navarina, 98 ; var. niphon, 

100 ; var. obsoleta, 98 ; var. />j'r#- 

/zzVz, 99 ; var. tessellata, 99 ; 

aurinia, 103 ; Plates, 65, 70, 73 ; 

v&r.prceelara, 104 ; var. scotica, 1 04 ; 

cinxia, 101, Plates 65, 69, 71 
Micropyles, 1 



Milkweed Butterfly, 106. /Ytfter 72, 

120 
Monarch Butterfly, 107 
Mould and Mites, 28 
Moulting, 5 

NAPHTHALINE, 27, 28 
Nemeobius lucina, 182. Plates 120, 

121 
Nervures and Nervules, 13 
Nets, 16 
Nomenclature, x 
Nomiades arion, 179, Plates 116, 117 ; 

semiargus, 177, Plate 115 

OCELLI, 4 

Orange-tip, 43. Plates 15, 17 

PAINTED Lady, 78. Plates 44, 45, 

49 
Pale Clouded Yellow, 48. Plates 20, 

21 
Palpi, 5, 10 

Papilio machaon, 29. Plates 1, 2 
Pararge egeria, 120 ; var. egerides, 

120, Plates 80, 81 ; megcera, 122, 

Z%jr/^ 82, 83 
Peacock, 70. Plates '39, 40, 41 
Pearl -bordered Fritillary, 94. Plates 

60, 64, 65 
Pieris brassicce, 34, Plates 5, 6, 9 ; 

var. chariclea, 34, /Y0A? 6 ; ddpli- 

dice, 41, Plates 12, 14 ; //£//, 38 ; 

Plates 10, 13, 14 ; var. bryoniee, 40 ; 

var. jlava, 39 ; var. napcece, 40 ; 

var. orientis, 4 1 ; var. sabellicce, 39 ; 

var. rtf/^, 36, Plates 7, 8, 1 1 ; var. 

metra, 37 ; var. novanglicE, 37 
Pinning, 20; Pinning stage, 21, Fig. 14 
Pins, 21 
Plumules, 14 
Polygonia c-album, 62, Plates 32, 35 ; 

var. hutchinsoni, 63, /Ytf/^ 35 
Proboscis, 4, 9 
Prolegs, 2 
Purple Emperor, 56. Plates 28, 29, 31 



204 



INDEX. 



Purple Hairstreak, 141. Plates 96, 

97 

Pyrameis atalanta, 81, Plates 46-49 ; 
var. klemensiewiczi, 82 ; cardui, 78, 
Plates 44, 45, 49 ; hunter a? 81 ; 
virginiensis, * 8 1 

QUEEN of Spain, 91. TYafcf 58, 63 

REARING from the Egg, 28 
Red Admiral, 81. Plates 46-49 
Rhopalocera, vii 
Ringlet, 130. /Vto 88, 89 

SADDLES, 24. Fig. 18 

Satyrus semele, 117. Plates 78, 79 

Scales, 13. Fig. 10 

Scotch Argus, 113. Plates 76, 77 

Seasonable Dimorphism, viii 

Segments, 2 

Setting, Methods of, 22-24 

Sexual Dimorphism, viii 

Silver-studded Blue, 158. Plates 104, 

105 
Silver-washed Fritillary, 84. Plates 

5°. 5 1 
Small Blue, 176. Plates 114, 115 
,, Copper, 152. Plates 100, 101, 

119 
,, Heath, 136. Plates 92, 93 
,, Mountain Ringlet, in. Plates 

76, 77 
,, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, 96. 

Plates 56, 62, 66 
„ Skipper, 187. Plates 124, 125 
,, Tortoise-shell, 68. Plates 37, 38 
„ White, 36. Plates 7, 8, 11 
Speckled Wood, 120. Plates 80, 81 



Spinnerets, 4 
Spiracle, 3 
Stadium, 5 
Subsegments, 3 
Swallow-tail, 29. 



Plates 1, 2 



THANAOS tages, 186. Plates 122, 
123 

Thecla ilicis* spini* 147 ; pruni, 143, 
Plates 96, 97 ; w-albuw, 144, Plates 
94> 95 > var « butler owi, 145 

Thoracic legs, 2 

Tracheae, 3 

Tubercles, 2 

VANESSA a?itiopa, 73, P/afef 41, 
42, 43; var. hygicea, 73; var. 
lintneri, 73 ; 20, 70, Plates 39, 40, 
41 ; var. belts aria, 71, «/%*/* 41 ; 
var. eyanosticta, 71 ; polychloros, 
65, Plates 34, 36 ; var. testudo, 
66 ; urticce, 68, Plates 37, 38 ; var. 
ladakensis, 69 ; var. polaris, 69 

Venation, 12. Fig. 9 

WALL, The, 122. i%fc> 82, 83 
White Admiral, 59. Plates 30, 31, 33 
White-letter Hairstreak, 144. Plates 

94,95 
Wings, 11. Fig. 9 
Wood White, 46. Plates 16, 18, 19 

ZEPHYRUS betulcz, 138. /%*/« 94, 
95 ; var. pallida, 139 ; var. spinosce, 
139 ; quercus, 141, Plates 96, 97 ; 
var. &/Z0, 141 

Zizera minima, 176. Plates 114, 115 



THE END. 



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